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Sample records for aberrant motor behavior

  1. Task difficulty and aberrant behavior in severely handicapped students.

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, M; Gaylord-Ross, R

    1981-01-01

    The influence of task difficulty on aberrant behavior was investigated with three severely handicapped students. Noticeably higher rates of problem behavior occurred in demand compared to no-demand conditions. In addition, there were higher rates of problem behaviors on difficult versus easy tasks. Both these findings were validated with visual discrimination and perceptual motor tasks. An errorless learning procedure effectively minimized errors and aberrant behavior in visual discrimination tasks but not in perceptual motor tasks. It was conceptualized that aberrant behavior was maintained by negative reinforcement contingencies. Difficult tasks were aversive to the children, who emitted aberrant responses to escape or avoid such tasks. By contrast, conditions in which no demands were made, easy tasks, and, in visual discrimination learning, errorless tasks, were less aversive and resulted in little or no problem behavior. Implications for reducing maladaptive behaviors through curricular modifications are discussed and contrasted to more traditional consequence manipulation approaches. PMID:7328069

  2. Rooting Out Aberrant Behavior in Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokalis, Jerry, Jr.; Paquin, Dave

    1989-01-01

    Discusses aberrant, or disruptive, behavior in an industrial/business, classroom-based, instructor-led training setting. Three examples of aberrant behavior are described, typical case studies are provided for each, and preventive (long-term) and corrective (on-the-spot) strategies for dealing with the problems are discussed. (LRW)

  3. Using Brief Assessments to Evaluate Aberrant Behavior Maintained by Attention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; King, Lisa; Lally, Grainne; Dhomhnaill, Orla Nic

    2000-01-01

    Functional assessments were conducted for two Irish individuals with severe disabilities and aberrant behavior. A modified attention condition was introduced, which involved both parents interacting with a third person. Aberrant behavior occurred only in the modified attention condition. Successful treatment consisted of delivery of attention on a…

  4. Hyperactivation of B-type motor neurons results in aberrant synchrony of the C. elegans motor circuit

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Yingchuan B.; Po, Michelle D.; Mac, Patrick; Kawano, Taizo; Jorgensen, Erik M.; Zhen, Mei; Jin, Yishi

    2013-01-01

    Excitatory acetylcholine motor neurons drive C. elegans locomotion. Coordinating the activation states of the backward-driving A and forward-driving B class motor neurons is critical for generating sinusoidal and directional locomotion. Here, we show by in vivo calcium imaging that expression of a hyperactive, somatodendritic ionotropic acetylcholine receptor ACR-2(gf) in A and B class motor neurons induces aberrant synchronous activity in both ventral- and dorsal-innervating B and A class motor neurons. Expression of ACR-2(gf) in either ventral- or dorsal-innervating B neurons is sufficient for triggering the aberrant synchrony that results in arrhythmic convulsions. Silencing of AVB, the pre-motor interneurons that innervate B motor neurons suppresses ACR-2(gf)-dependent convulsion; activating AVB by channelrhodopsin induces the onset of convulsion. These results support that the activity state of B motor neurons plays an instructive role for the coordination of motor circuit. PMID:23516296

  5. Screening for aberrant behavior in the nuclear industry

    SciTech Connect

    Borofsky, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper attempts to promote a fuller understanding of how psychological assessment procedures can be used to reduce the threat from aberrant behavior in the nuclear industry. It begins with a discussion of the scientifically based methods that are used by psychologists in constructing, scoring, and interpreting these procedures. This discussion includes an emphasis on the concepts of validity and reliability and their central importance when one is choosing specific psychological screening tools. Criteria for selecting and using psychological assessment procedures when screening for aberrant behavior are also provided. Some commonly used assessment procedures that satisfy these criteria are discussed. A number a psychological assessment procedures specifically recommended for use in screening for aberrant behavior in the nuclear industry are described.

  6. Persistence of Early Emerging Aberrant Behavior in Children with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Vanessa A.; O'Reilly, Mark; Itchon, Jonathan; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the persistence of early emerging aberrant behavior in 13 preschool children with developmental disabilities. The severity of aberrant behavior was assessed every 6 months over a 3-year period. Teachers completed the assessments using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist [Aman, M. G., & Singh, N. N. (1986). "Aberrant Behavior…

  7. Aberrant cerebellar connectivity in motor and association networks in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Shinn, Ann K.; Baker, Justin T.; Lewandowski, Kathryn E.; Öngür, Dost; Cohen, Bruce M.

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating illness characterized by disturbances in multiple domains. The cerebellum is involved in both motor and non-motor functions, and the “cognitive dysmetria” and “dysmetria of thought” models propose that abnormalities of the cerebellum may contribute to schizophrenia signs and symptoms. The cerebellum and cerebral cortex are reciprocally connected via a modular, closed-loop network architecture, but few schizophrenia neuroimaging studies have taken into account the topographical and functional heterogeneity of the cerebellum. In this study, using a previously defined 17-network cerebral cortical parcellation system as the basis for our functional connectivity seeds, we systematically investigated connectivity abnormalities within the cerebellum of 44 schizophrenia patients and 28 healthy control participants. We found selective alterations in cerebro-cerebellar functional connectivity. Specifically, schizophrenia patients showed decreased cerebro-cerebellar functional connectivity in higher level association networks (ventral attention, salience, control, and default mode networks) relative to healthy control participants. Schizophrenia patients also showed increased cerebro-cerebellar connectivity in somatomotor and default mode networks, with the latter showing no overlap with the regions found to be hypoconnected within the same default mode network. Finally, we found evidence to suggest that somatomotor and default mode networks may be inappropriately linked in schizophrenia. The relationship of these dysconnectivities to schizophrenia symptoms, such as neurological soft signs and altered sense of agency, is discussed. We conclude that the cerebellum ought to be considered for analysis in all future studies of network abnormalities in SZ, and further suggest the cerebellum as a potential target for further elucidation, and possibly treatment, of the underlying mechanisms and network abnormalities producing symptoms of

  8. Convergent Validity of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist and Behavior Problems Inventory with People with Complex Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jennie; Powlitch, Stephanie; Furniss, Frederick

    2008-01-01

    The current study aimed to replicate and extend Rojahn et al. [Rojahn, J., Aman, M. G., Matson, J. L., & Mayville, E. (2003). "The aberrant behavior checklist and the behavior problems inventory: Convergent and divergent validity." "Research in Developmental Disabilities", 24, 391-404] by examining the convergent validity of the behavior problems…

  9. The Aberrant Behavior Checklist and the Behavior Problems Inventory: Convergent and Divergent Validity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojahn, Johannes; Aman, Michael G.; Matson, Johnny L.; Mayville, Erik

    2003-01-01

    A study compared the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) and the Behavior Problems Inventory (BPI) for assessing the maladaptive behavior of 226 adults, mostly with severe or profound mental retardation. Individuals with elevated BPI scores generally had higher ABC scores, however, the extent of covariation differed across subscales. (Contains…

  10. Longitudinal trajectories of aberrant behavior in fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hustyi, Kristin M; Hall, Scott S; Jo, Booil; Lightbody, Amy A; Reiss, Allan L

    2014-11-01

    The Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C; Aman et al., 1995) has been increasingly adopted as a primary tool for measuring behavioral change in clinical trials for individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS). To our knowledge, however, no study has documented the longitudinal trajectory of aberrant behaviors in individuals with FXS using the ABC-C. As part of a larger longitudinal study, we examined scores obtained on the ABC-C subscales for 124 children and adolescents (64 males, 60 females) with FXS who had two or more assessments (average interval between assessments was approximately 4 years). Concomitant changes in age-equivalent scores on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) were also examined. As expected for an X-linked genetic disorder, males with FXS obtained significantly higher scores on all subscales of the ABC-C and significantly lower age-equivalent scores on the VABS than females with FXS. In both males and females with FXS, scores on the Irritability/Agitation and Hyperactivity/Noncompliance subscales of the ABC-C decreased significantly with age, with little to no change occurring over time on the Lethargy/Social Withdrawal, Stereotypic Behavior, and Inappropriate Speech subscales. The decrease in scores on the Hyperactivity/Noncompliance domain was significantly greater for males than for females. In both males and females, age-equivalent scores on the VABS increased significantly over this developmental period. These results establish a basis upon which to evaluate long-term outcomes from intervention-based research. However, longitudinal direct observational studies are needed to establish whether the severity of problem behavior actually decreases over time in this population. PMID:25129200

  11. Aberrant Immune Responses in a Mouse with Behavioral Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Donghong; Miller, Veronica M.; Lawrence, David A.

    2011-01-01

    BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) mice have recently been reported to have behaviors that resemble those of autistic individuals, in that this strain has impairments in social interactions and a restricted repetitive and stereotyped pattern of behaviors. Since immune responses, including autoimmune responses, are known to affect behavior, and individuals with autism have aberrant immune activities, we evaluated the immune system of BTBR mice, and compared their immunity and degree of neuroinflammation with that of C57BL/6 (B6) mice, a highly social control strain, and with F1 offspring. Mice were assessed at postnatal day (pnd) 21 and after behavioral analysis at pnd70. BTBR mice had significantly higher amounts of serum IgG and IgE, of IgG anti-brain antibodies (Abs), and of IgG and IgE deposited in the brain, elevated expression of cytokines, especially IL-33 IL-18, and IL-1β in the brain, and an increased proportion of MHC class II-expressing microglia compared to B6 mice. The F1 mice had intermediate levels of Abs and cytokines as well as social activity. The high Ab levels of BTBR mice are in agreement with their increased numbers of CD40hi/I-Ahi B cells and IgG-secreting B cells. Upon immunization with KLH, the BTBR mice produced 2–3 times more anti-KLH Abs than B6 mice. In contrast to humoral immunity, BTBR mice are significantly more susceptible to listeriosis than B6 or BALB/c mice. The Th2-like immune profile of the BTBR mice and their constitutive neuroinflammation suggests that an autoimmune profile is implicated in their aberrant behaviors, as has been suggested for some humans with autism. PMID:21799730

  12. Effect of Training Different Classes of Verbal Behavior to Decrease Aberrant Verbal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandbakk, Monica; Arntzen, Erik; Gisnaas, Arnt; Antonsen, Vidar; Gundhus, Terje

    2012-01-01

    Inappropriate verbal behavior that is labeled "psychotic" is often described as insensitive to environmental contingencies. The purpose of the current study was to establish different classes of rational or appropriate verbal behavior in a woman with developmental disabilities and evaluate the effects on her psychotic or aberrant vocal verbal…

  13. Social Interaction and Repetitive Motor Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loftin, Rachel L.; Odom, Samuel L.; Lantz, Johanna F.

    2008-01-01

    Students with autism have difficulty initiating social interactions and may exhibit repetitive motor behavior (e.g., body rocking, hand flapping). Increasing social interaction by teaching new skills may lead to reductions in problem behavior, such as motor stereotypies. Additionally, self-monitoring strategies can increase the maintenance of…

  14. Aberrant driving behaviors: a study of drivers in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jing; Bai, Yun; Ying, Xiwen; Atchley, Paul

    2010-07-01

    The addition of massive numbers of new drivers with varied driving experience to roads in China suggests it is important to understand the nature of aberrant driving behaviors for this new set of drivers. A paper-based and an Internet survey were administered. Factor analysis produced a five-factor structure for each survey. The distinction between violations and errors indicated in previous studies was confirmed. The violations included emotional violations, risky violations and self-willed violations, and the errors included inexperience errors and distraction errors. In contrast to previous work, age was not found to be a good predictor of violations though driving experience was. Contrary to expectations, non-automotive (bicycle) roadway experience or level of driving training failed to predict poor driving behavior. On-road experience is the key to risk for China's drivers. Good agreement between the paper-based and Internet surveys indicate online surveys to be a feasible way to conduct research of driving behavior at low cost. PMID:20441810

  15. Aberrant Behaviors and Road Accidents among Iranian Truck Drivers, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Ketabi, Damon; Barkhordari, Abalfazl; Mirmohammadi, Seyyed Jalil; Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang

    2011-01-01

    Background: Road accidents are a social phenomenon in different communities that its infra­structural dimensions of which as well as technologic failures such as road quality, and tech­nical faults of automobiles, need to be assessed in detail. Iran has the first order in the world for deadly road accidents. This study was designed to assess the association between aberrant behaviors of truck drivers and the incidence of road accidents in Yazd, center of Iran, in 2010. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 300 truck drivers in Yazd. We used 3 questionnaires, including one for demographic data, Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ), and one for drivers' self-evaluation of the of their driving. Results: Five types of the behavior had the highest frequency: Misjudge speed of oncoming vehicle when overtaking.; Deliberately disregard the speed limits late at night or very early in the morning.; Ignore 'give way' signs, and narrowly avoid colliding with traffic having right of way.; Stuck behind a slow-moving vehicle on a two-lane highway, you are driven by frustration to try to overtake in risky circumstances.; Drive with only 'half-an-eye' on the road while looking at a map, changing a cassette or radio channel, etc. The more the driver's driv­ing was influenced by emotional and mental states the more deliberate violations and slips. Conclusion: Among truck drivers, safety has not developed sufficiently, and because of the dangers of road accidents both for the drivers and other people and its economic losses, the importance of the presenting some solutions is completely obvious. PMID:24688909

  16. Severe aberrant glenohumeral motor patterns in a young female rower: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Timothy W; Seebauer, Jessica; Walker, Bruce; McGurk, Neal; Cooley, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Background This case features an 18-year-old female with glenohumeral dysrhythmia and subluxation-relocation patterns. This unusual case highlights the need for careful examination and consideration to the anatomical structures involved. Conventional approaches to shoulder examination include range of motion, orthopaedic tests and manual resistance tests. We also assessed the patient's cognitive ability to coordinate muscle function. With this type of assessment we found that co-contraction of local muscle groups seemed to initially improve the patients abnormal shoulder motion. With this information a rehabilitation method was instituted with a goal to maintain the improvement. Case presentation An 18-year-old female with no history of trauma, presented with painless kinesiopathology of the left shoulder (in abduction) consisting of dysrhythmia of the glenohumeral joint and early lateral rotation of the scapula. Examination also showed associated muscle atrophy of the lower trapezius and surrounding general muscle weakness. We used an untested functional assessment method in addition to more conventional methods. Exercise rehabilitation interventions were subsequently prescribed and graduated in accordance with what is known as the General Physical Rehabilitation Pyramid. Conclusion This paper presents an unusual case of aberrant shoulder movement. It highlights the need for careful examination and thought regarding the anatomical structures and normal motor patterns associated with the manoeuvre being tested. It also emphasised the use of co-contraction during examination in an attempt to immediately improve a regional dysrythmia if there is suspicion of a regional aberrant motor pattern. Further research may be warranted to test this approach. PMID:17997860

  17. Predicting aberrant drug behavior in patients treated for chronic pain: importance of abuse history.

    PubMed

    Michna, Edward; Ross, Edgar L; Hynes, Wilfred L; Nedeljkovic, Srdjan S; Soumekh, Sharonah; Janfaza, David; Palombi, Diane; Jamison, Robert N

    2004-09-01

    Physicians can encounter problems in prescribing opioids for some patients with chronic pain such as multiple unsanctioned dose escalations, episodes of lost or stolen prescriptions, and positive urine drug screenings for illicit substances. This study explored the usefulness of questions on abuse history in predicting problems with prescribing opioids for patients at a hospital-based pain management program. One hundred forty-five (145) patients who were taking long- and short-acting opioids for their pain were classified as high or low risk on the basis of their responses to interview questions about 1) substance abuse history in their family, 2) past problems with drug or alcohol abuse, and 3) history of legal problems. The treating physicians completed a questionnaire about problems that they had encountered with their patients. Problem behaviors were verified through chart review. No differences in demographic characteristics were found between those classified as high and low risk. Patients who admitted to a family history of substance abuse, a history of legal problems, and drug or alcohol abuse were prone to more aberrant drug-related behaviors, including a higher incidence of lost or stolen prescriptions and the presence of illicit substances in their urine (P < 0.05). Patients classified as high risk also had a significantly higher frequency of reported mental health problems and motor vehicle accidents. More of these patients smoked cigarettes, tended to need a cigarette within the first hour of the day, took higher doses of opioids, and reported fewer adverse effects from the medications than did those without such a history (P < 0.05). This study demonstrates that questions about abuse history and legal problems can be useful in predicting aberrant drug-related behavior with opioid use in persons with chronic noncancer pain. PMID:15336337

  18. Relationships between problematic behaviors and motor abilities of children with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Uesugi, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Akira; Nanba, Yosifumi; Otani, Yoshitaka; Takemasa, Seiichi; Hujii, Shun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine whether motor abilities of children with cerebral palsy are related to their problematic behaviors. [Subjects] The subjects were children with mental retardation who were undergoing physical therapy. [Methods] Twenty-one examiners, 13 physical therapists, and 8 occupational therapists treated and examined the subjects by using the Japanese version of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist. The Japanese version of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist scores were compared between the Gross Motor Function Classification System I to III (12 subjects) and Gross Motor Function Classification System IV and V groups (17 subjects). [Results] Lethargy and stereotypy scores significantly differed between the groups, proving that patients with Gross Motor Function Classification System levels IV and V have more severe problematic behaviors. [Conclusion] In this study, only five types of problematic behaviors, namely irritability, lethargy, stereotypy, hyperactivity, and inappropriate speech, were examined. Despite this limitation, the study clarifies that problematic behaviors of children with cerebral palsy, except lethargy and stereotypy, have little relationship with their motor abilities. PMID:26504335

  19. Validity of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist in a Clinical Sample of Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karabekiroglu, Koray; Aman, Michael G.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the congruent and criterion validity of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) in a clinical sample of toddlers seen over 1 year in Turkey. All consecutive patients (N = 93), 14-43 months old (mean, 30.6 mos.), in a child psychiatry outpatient clinic were included. The ABC, Autism Behavior Checklist (AuBC), and Child Behavior…

  20. Dynamic Primitives of Motor Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Neville; Sternad, Dagmar

    2013-01-01

    We present in outline a theory of sensorimotor control based on dynamic primitives, which we define as attractors. To account for the broad class of human interactive behaviors—especially tool use—we propose three distinct primitives: submovements, oscillations and mechanical impedances, the latter necessary for interaction with objects. Due to fundamental features of the neuromuscular system, most notably its slow response, we argue that encoding in terms of parameterized primitives may be an essential simplification required for learning, performance, and retention of complex skills. Primitives may simultaneously and sequentially be combined to produce observable forces and motions. This may be achieved by defining a virtual trajectory composed of submovements and/or oscillations interacting with impedances. Identifying primitives requires care: in principle, overlapping submovements would be sufficient to compose all observed movements but biological evidence shows that oscillations are a distinct primitive. Conversely, we suggest that kinematic synergies, frequently discussed as primitives of complex actions, may be an emergent consequence of neuromuscular impedance. To illustrate how these dynamic primitives may account for complex actions, we briefly review three types of interactive behaviors: constrained motion, impact tasks, and manipulation of dynamic objects. PMID:23124919

  1. Motor Behavior Activates Bergmann Glial Networks

    PubMed Central

    Nimmerjahn, Axel; Mukamel, Eran A.; Schnitzer, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Although it is firmly established neuronal activity is a prime determinant of animal behavior, relationships between astrocytic excitation and animal behavior have remained opaque. Cerebellar Bergmann glia are radial astrocytes that are implicated in motor behavior and exhibit Ca2+-excitation. However, Ca2+-excitation in these cells has not previously been studied in behaving animals. Using two-photon microscopy we found that Bergmann glia exhibit three forms of Ca2+-excitation in awake behaving mice. Two of these are ongoing within the cerebellar vermis. During locomotor performance concerted Ca2+-excitation arises in networks of at least hundreds of Bergmann glia extending across several hundred microns or more. Concerted Ca2+-excitation was abolished by anesthesia or blockade of either neural activity or glutamatergic transmission. Thus, large networks of Bergmann glia can be activated by specific animal behaviors and undergo excitation of sufficient magnitude to potentially initiate macroscopic changes in brain dynamics or blood flow. PMID:19447095

  2. Effects of Risperidone on Aberrant Behavior in Persons with Developmental Disabilities: II. Social Validity Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdam, David B.; Zarcone, Jennifer R.; Hellings, Jessica; Napolitano, Deborah A.; Schroeder, Stephen R.

    2002-01-01

    Consumer satisfaction and social validity were measured during a double-blind, placebo-controlled evaluation of risperidone in treating aberrant behaviors of persons with developmental disabilities. A survey showed all 17 caregivers felt participation was positive. Community members (n=52) also indicated that when on medication, the 5 participants…

  3. Factor Analysis of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinkley, Jason; Nations, Laura; Abramson, Ruth K.; Hall, Alicia; Wright, Harry H.; Gabriels, Robin; Gilbert, John R.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A. O.; Cuccaro, Michael L.

    2007-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (varimax and promax rotations) of the aberrant behavior checklist-community version (ABC) in 275 individuals with Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) identified four- and five-factor solutions which accounted for greater than 70% of the variance. Confirmatory factor analysis (Lisrel 8.7) revealed indices of moderate fit for…

  4. Validity of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaat, Aaron J.; Lecavalier, Luc; Aman, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    The Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) is a widely used measure in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) treatment studies. We conducted confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses of the ABC in 1,893 children evaluated as part of the Autism Treatment Network. The root mean square error of approximation was .086 for the standard item assignment, and in…

  5. Psychometric Study of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist in Fragile X Syndrome and Implications for Targeted Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sansone, Stephanie M.; Widaman, Keith F.; Hall, Scott S.; Reiss, Allan L.; Lightbody, Amy; Kaufmann, Walter E.; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Lachiewicz, Ave; Brown, Elaine C.; Hessl, David

    2012-01-01

    Animal studies elucidating the neurobiology of fragile X syndrome (FXS) have led to multiple controlled trials in humans, with the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C) commonly adopted as a primary outcome measure. A multi-site collaboration examined the psychometric properties of the ABC-C in 630 individuals (ages 3-25) with FXS using…

  6. A Behavior Analytic Approach to Exploratory Motor Behavior: How Can Caregivers Teach EM Behavior to Infants with Down Syndrome?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Sara M.; Jones, Emily A.

    2014-01-01

    Impairment in exploratory motor (EM) behavior is part of the Down syndrome behavioral phenotype. Exploratory motor behavior may be a pivotal skill for early intervention with infants with Down syndrome. Exploratory motor impairments are often attributed to general delays in motor development in infants with Down syndrome. A behavior analytic…

  7. Aberrant metastatic behavior and particular features of early gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Gurzu, Simona; Jung, Ioan; Kadar, Zoltan

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we have focused on the metastatic behavior of EGC and its particularities. The main factors that are currently considered as predictors of the metastatic behavior and that are used in the therapeutic decision (endoscopic resection vs surgical removal) are the tumor size (upper or bellow 2 cm), depth of infiltration, angiolymphatic invasion, the presence or absence of ulceration, and histologic type (undifferentiated vs differentiated carcinomas). However, most of the metastatic cases were published as case reports or case series. This is the reason why a proper estimation of metastatic risk in EGC is not well known. To date, 79 cases presenting bone metastases, three reports of brain metastases, and one EGC that was associated with skin metastasis were published. However, occult metastasis, lymph node micrometastasis, and skip metastasis can also occur and should be identified. Making a synthesis of the literature data that is correlated with our experience, we finally proposed the inclusion of the six Japanese subgrouping system, tumor size, angiolymphatic invasion, and micrometastasis as components of the pTNM staging system, which should be particularly adapted for EGC. PMID:26547366

  8. Aberrant self-grooming as early marker of motor dysfunction in a rat model of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Tartaglione, Anna Maria; Armida, Monica; Potenza, Rosa Luisa; Pezzola, Antonella; Popoli, Patrizia; Calamandrei, Gemma

    2016-10-15

    In the study of neurodegenerative diseases, rodent models provide experimentally accessible systems to study multiple pathogenetic aspects. The identification of early and robust behavioural changes is crucial to monitoring disease progression and testing potential therapeutic strategies in animals. Consistent experimental data support the translational value of rodent self-grooming as index of disturbed motor functions and perseverative behaviour patterns in different rodent models of brain disorders. Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by severe degeneration of basal ganglia, cognitive and psychiatric impairments and motor abnormalities. In the rat species, intrastriatal injection of the excitotoxin quinolinic acid (QA) mimics some of the neuroanatomical and behavioural changes found in HD, including the loss of GABAergic neurons and the appearance of motor and cognitive deficits. We show here that striatal damage induced by unilateral QA injection in dorsal striatum of rats triggers aberrant grooming behaviour as early as three weeks post-lesion in absence of other motor impairments: specifically, both quantitative (frequency and duration) and qualitative (the sequential pattern of movements) features of self-grooming behaviour were significantly altered in QA-lesioned rats placed in either the elevated plus-maze and the open-field. The consistent abnormalities in self-grooming recorded in two different experimental contexts support the use of this behavioural marker in rodent models of striatal damage such as HD, to assess the potential effects of drug and cell replacement therapy in the early stage of disease. PMID:27374158

  9. Role of nitric oxide on motor behavior.

    PubMed

    Del Bel, E A; Guimarães, F S; Bermúdez-Echeverry, M; Gomes, M Z; Schiaveto-de-souza, A; Padovan-Neto, F E; Tumas, V; Barion-Cavalcanti, A P; Lazzarini, M; Nucci-da-Silva, L P; de Paula-Souza, D

    2005-03-01

    The present review paper describes results indicating the influence of nitric oxide (NO) on motor control. Our last studies showed that systemic injections of low doses of inhibitors of NO synthase (NOS), the enzyme responsible for NO formation, induce anxiolytic effects in the elevated plus maze whereas higher doses decrease maze exploration. Also, NOS inhibitors decrease locomotion and rearing in an open field arena. These results may involve motor effects of this compounds, since inhibitors of NOS, NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG), N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME), N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), and 7-Nitroindazole (7-NIO), induced catalepsy in mice. This effect was also found in rats after systemic, intracebroventricular or intrastriatal administration. Acute administration of L-NOARG has an additive cataleptic effect with haloperidol, a dopamine D2 antagonist. The catalepsy is also potentiated by WAY 100135 (5-HT1a receptor antagonist), ketanserin (5HT2a and alfal adrenergic receptor antagonist), and ritanserin (5-HT2a and 5HT2c receptor antagonist). Atropine sulfate and biperiden, antimuscarinic drugs, block L-NOARG-induced catalepsy in mice. L-NOARG subchronic administration in mice induces rapid tolerance (3 days) to its cataleptic effects. It also produces cross-tolerance to haloperidol-induced catalepsy. After subchronic L-NOARG treatment there is an increase in the density NADPH-d positive neurons in the dorsal part of nucleus caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens, and tegmental pedunculupontinus nucleus. In contrast, this treatment decreases NADPH-d neuronal number in the substantia nigra compacta. Considering these results we suggest that (i) NO may modulate motor behavior, probably by interfering with dopaminergic, serotonergic, and cholinergic neurotransmission in the striatum; (ii) Subchronic NO synthesis inhibition induces plastic changes in NO-producing neurons in brain areas related to motor control and causes cross-tolerance to the

  10. Cerebellar Influence on Motor Cortex Plasticity: Behavioral Implications for Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kishore, Asha; Meunier, Sabine; Popa, Traian

    2014-01-01

    Normal motor behavior involves the creation of appropriate activity patterns across motor networks, enabling firing synchrony, synaptic integration, and normal functioning of these networks. Strong topography-specific connections among the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and their projections to overlapping areas in the motor cortices suggest that these networks could influence each other’s plastic responses and functions. The defective striatal signaling in Parkinson’s disease (PD) could therefore lead to abnormal oscillatory activity and aberrant plasticity at multiple levels within the interlinked motor networks. Normal striatal dopaminergic signaling and cerebellar sensory processing functions influence the scaling and topographic specificity of M1 plasticity. Both these functions are abnormal in PD and appear to contribute to the abnormal M1 plasticity. Defective motor map plasticity and topographic specificity within M1 could lead to incorrect muscle synergies, which could manifest as abnormal or undesired movements, and as abnormal motor learning in PD. We propose that the loss of M1 plasticity in PD reflects a loss of co-ordination among the basal ganglia, cerebellar, and cortical inputs which translates to an abnormal plasticity of motor maps within M1 and eventually to some of the motor signs of PD. The initial benefits of dopamine replacement therapy on M1 plasticity and motor signs are lost during the progressive course of disease. Levodopa-induced dyskinesias in patients with advanced PD is linked to a loss of M1 sensorimotor plasticity and the attenuation of dyskinesias by cerebellar inhibitory stimulation is associated with restoration of M1 plasticity. Complimentary interventions should target reestablishing physiological communication between the striatal and cerebellar circuits, and within striato-cerebellar loop. This may facilitate correct motor synergies and reduce abnormal movements in PD. PMID:24834063

  11. Use of self-operated auditory prompts to decrease aberrant behaviors in students with moderate mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Alberto, P A; Taber, T A; Fredrick, L D

    1999-01-01

    We examined the effectiveness of self-operated auditory prompts when used to decrease the off-task and aberrant behaviors of two students with moderate mental retardation. Its purpose was to determine if self-operated auditory prompts could be effectively used by these individuals to decrease their off-task and aberrant behaviors in work settings and during transitional times between settings. A multiple-probe across settings design with a reversal and replication was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the self-operated auditory prompting system on aberrant student behaviors in school and community settings. Previous findings were replicated in this study that demonstrate that stimulus control can be achieved through the use of self-operated auditory prompts, and demonstrates that these prompts can serve to occasion a decrease in aberrant behaviors when used by individuals with moderate mental retardation in school and community settings. PMID:10641252

  12. Crash risk and aberrant driving behaviors among bus drivers: the role of personality and attitudes towards traffic safety.

    PubMed

    Mallia, Luca; Lazuras, Lambros; Violani, Cristiano; Lucidi, Fabio

    2015-06-01

    Several studies have shown that personality traits and attitudes toward traffic safety predict aberrant driving behaviors and crash involvement. However, this process has not been adequately investigated in professional drivers, such as bus drivers. The present study used a personality-attitudes model to assess whether personality traits predicted aberrant self-reported driving behaviors (driving violations, lapses, and errors) both directly and indirectly, through the effects of attitudes towards traffic safety in a large sample of bus drivers. Additionally, the relationship between aberrant self-reported driving behaviors and crash risk was also assessed. Three hundred and one bus drivers (mean age=39.1, SD=10.7 years) completed a structured and anonymous questionnaire measuring personality traits, attitudes toward traffic safety, self-reported aberrant driving behaviors (i.e., errors, lapses, and traffic violations), and accident risk in the last 12 months. Structural equation modeling analysis revealed that personality traits were associated to aberrant driving behaviors both directly and indirectly. In particular altruism, excitement seeking, and normlessness directly predicted bus drivers' attitudes toward traffic safety which, in turn, were negatively associated with the three types of self-reported aberrant driving behaviors. Personality traits relevant to emotionality directly predicted bus drivers' aberrant driving behaviors, without any mediation of attitudes. Finally, only self-reported violations were related to bus drivers' accident risk. The present findings suggest that the hypothesized personality-attitudes model accounts for aberrant driving behaviors in bus drivers, and provide the empirical basis for evidence-based road safety interventions in the context of public transport. PMID:25823904

  13. Recruitment of rat diaphragm motor units across motor behaviors with different levels of diaphragm activation

    PubMed Central

    Seven, Yasin B.; Mantilla, Carlos B.

    2014-01-01

    Phrenic motor neurons are recruited across a range of motor behaviors to generate varying levels of diaphragm muscle (DIAm) force. We hypothesized that DIAm motor units are recruited in a fixed order across a range of motor behaviors of varying force levels, consistent with the Henneman Size Principle. Single motor unit action potentials and compound DIAm EMG activities were recorded in anesthetized, neurally intact rats across different motor behaviors, i.e., eupnea, hypoxia-hypercapnia (10% O2 and 5% CO2), deep breaths, sustained airway occlusion, and sneezing. Central drive [estimated by root-mean-squared (RMS) EMG value 75 ms after the onset of EMG activity (RMS75)], recruitment delay, and onset discharge frequencies were similar during eupnea and hypoxia-hypercapnia. Compared with eupnea, central drive increased (∼25%) during deep breaths, and motor units were recruited ∼12 ms earlier (P < 0.01). During airway occlusion, central drive was ∼3 times greater, motor units were recruited ∼30 ms earlier (P < 0.01), and motor unit onset discharge frequencies were significantly higher (P < 0.01). Recruitment order of motor unit pairs observed during eupnea was maintained for 98%, 87%, and 84% of the same pairs recorded during hypoxia-hypercapnia, deep breaths, and airway occlusion, respectively. Reversals in motor unit recruitment order were observed primarily if motor unit pairs were recruited <20 ms apart. These results are consistent with DIAm motor unit recruitment order being determined primarily by the intrinsic size-dependent electrophysiological properties of phrenic motor neurons. PMID:25257864

  14. Aberrant Fat Metabolism in Caenorhabditis elegans Mutants with Defects in the Defecation Motor Program

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Ming; Gaur, Rahul; Selstam, Eva; Tuck, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms by which dietary fatty acids are absorbed by the intestine, and the way in which the process is regulated are poorly understood. In a genetic screen for mutations affecting fat accumulation in the intestine of Caenorhabditis elegans, nematode worms, we have isolated mutations in the aex-5 gene, which encodes a Kex2/subtilisin-family, Ca2+-sensitive proprotein convertase known to be required for maturation of certain neuropeptides, and for a discrete step in an ultradian rhythmic phenomenon called the defecation motor program. We demonstrate that aex-5 mutants have markedly lower steady-state levels of fat in the intestine, and that this defect is associated with a significant reduction in the rate at which labeled fatty acid derivatives are taken up from the intestinal lumen. Other mutations affecting the defecation motor program also affect steady-state levels of triglycerides, suggesting that the program is required per se for the proper accumulation of neutral lipids. Our results suggest that an important function of the defecation motor program in C. elegans is to promote the uptake of an important class of dietary nutrients. They also imply that modulation of the program might be one way in which worms adjust nutrient uptake in response to altered metabolic status. PMID:25849533

  15. Spatial organization of cortical and spinal neurons controlling motor behavior

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Ariel J; Lewallen, Kathryn A; Pfaff, Samuel L

    2013-01-01

    A major task of the central nervous system (CNS) is to control behavioral actions, which necessitates a precise regulation of muscle activity. The final components of the circuitry controlling muscles are the motorneurons, which settle into pools in the ventral horn of the spinal cord in positions that mirror the musculature organization within the body. This ‘musculotopic’ motor-map then becomes the internal CNS reference for the neuronal circuits that control motor commands. This review describes recent progress in defining the neuroanatomical organization of the higher-order motor circuits in the cortex and spinal cord, and our current understanding of the integrative features that contribute to complex motor behaviors. We highlight emerging evidence that cortical and spinal motor command centers are loosely organized with respect to the musculotopic spatial-map, but these centers also incorporate organizational features that associate with the function of different muscle groups during commonly enacted behaviors. PMID:22841417

  16. Telephone Administration of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist: A Pilot Study of Feasibility in Children with Intellectual Disability and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Matthew; Milligan, Briana; Stein, Hannah; Teer, Olivia; Smith, Kahsi A.

    2013-01-01

    To advance clinical care and research in children with intellectual disability and autism there is a growing need for efficient means to measure behavioral severity and response to treatment. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of telephone administration of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Irritability Subscale (ABC-I). The…

  17. Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex modulates supplementary motor area in coordinated unimanual motor behavior

    PubMed Central

    Asemi, Avisa; Ramaseshan, Karthik; Burgess, Ashley; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A.; Bressler, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    Motor control is integral to all types of human behavior, and the dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex (dACC) is thought to play an important role in the brain network underlying motor control. Yet the role of the dACC in motor control is under-characterized. Here we aimed to characterize the dACC’s role in adolescent brain network interactions during a simple motor control task involving visually coordinated unimanual finger movements. Network interactions were assessed using both undirected and directed functional connectivity analysis of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) Blood-Oxygen-Level-Dependent (BOLD) signals, comparing the task with a rest condition. The relation between the dACC and Supplementary Motor Area (SMA) was compared to that between the dACC and Primary Motor Cortex (M1). The directed signal from dACC to SMA was significantly elevated during motor control in the task. By contrast, the directed signal from SMA to dACC, both directed signals between dACC and M1, and the undirected functional connections of dACC with SMA and M1, all did not differ between task and rest. Undirected coupling of dACC with both SMA and dACC, and only the dACC-to-SMA directed signal, were significantly greater for a proactive than a reactive task condition, suggesting that dACC plays a role in motor control by maintaining stimulus timing expectancy. Overall, these results suggest that the dACC selectively modulates the SMA during visually coordinated unimanual behavior in adolescence. The role of the dACC as an important brain area for the mediation of task-related motor control may be in place in adolescence, continuing into adulthood. The task and analytic approach described here should be extended to the study of healthy adults to examine network profiles of the dACC during basic motor behavior. PMID:26089783

  18. Use of a short-term inpatient model to evaluate aberrant behavior: outcome data summaries from 1996 to 2001.

    PubMed Central

    Asmus, Jennifer M; Ringdahl, Joel E; Sellers, Jennifer A; Call, Nathan A; Andelman, Marc S; Wacker, David P

    2004-01-01

    Previous outcome studies have provided descriptions of functional analyses conducted in outpatient clinics (Derby et al., 1992), long-term inpatient programs (Iwata, Pace, et al., 1994), and home environments (Wacker et al., 1998). This study provides a description of 138 children and adults with and without developmental disabilities who were evaluated and treated for aberrant behaviors on a short-term inpatient unit. The results indicated that the functional analyses conducted during a short-term inpatient evaluation were successful for 96% of the participants in identifying maintaining reinforcers of aberrant behavior and leading to an 80% or greater reduction in aberrant behavior for 76% of the participants in an average of 10 days. PMID:15529887

  19. The Synaptic Impact of the Host Immune Response in a Parkinsonian Allograft Rat Model: Influence on Graft-Derived Aberrant Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Soderstrom, KE; Meredith, G; Freeman, TB; McGuire, SO; Collier, TJ; Sortwell, CE; Wu, Qun; Steece-Collier, K

    2010-01-01

    Graft-induced dyskinesias (GIDs), side-effects found in clinical grafting trials for Parkinson’s disease (PD), may be associated with the withdrawal of immunosuppression. The goal of this study was to determine the role of the immune response in GIDs. We examined levodopa-induced dyskinesias (LIDs), GIDs-like behaviors, and synaptic ultrastructure in levodopa-treated, grafted, parkinsonian rats with mild (sham), moderate (allografts) or high (allografts plus peripheral spleen cell injections) immune activation. Grafts attenuated amphetamine-induced rotations and LIDs, but two abnormal motor syndromes (tapping stereotypy, litter retrieval/chewing) emerged and increased with escalating immune activation. Immunohistochemical analyses confirmed immune activation and graft survival. Ultrastructural analyses showed increases in tyrosine hydroxylase-positive (TH+) axo-dendritic synapses, TH+ asymmetric specializations, and non-TH+ perforated synapses in grafted, compared to intact, striata. These features were exacerbated in rats with the highest immune activation and correlated statistically with GIDs-like behaviors, suggesting immune-mediated aberrant synaptology may contribute to graft-induced aberrant behaviors. PMID:18672063

  20. Transgenerational effects of environmental enrichment on repetitive motor behavior development.

    PubMed

    Bechard, Allison R; Lewis, Mark H

    2016-07-01

    The favorable consequences of environmental enrichment (EE) on brain and behavior development are well documented. Much less is known, however, about transgenerational benefits of EE on non-enriched offspring. We explored whether transgenerational effects of EE might extend to the development of repetitive motor behaviors in deer mice. Repetitive motor behaviors are invariant patterns of movement that, across species, can be reduced by EE. We found that EE not only attenuated the development of repetitive behavior in dams, but also in their non-enriched offspring. Moreover, maternal behavior did not seem to mediate the transgenerational effect we found, although repetitive behavior was affected by reproductive experience. These data support a beneficial transgenerational effect of EE on repetitive behavior development and suggest a novel benefit of reproductive experience. PMID:27059336

  1. Psychometric Study of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist in Fragile X Syndrome and Implications for Targeted Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Widaman, Keith F.; Hall, Scott S.; Reiss, Allan L.; Lightbody, Amy; Kaufmann, Walter E.; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Lachiewicz, Ave; Brown, Elaine C.

    2011-01-01

    Animal studies elucidating the neurobiology of fragile X syndrome (FXS) have led to multiple controlled trials in humans, with the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C) commonly adopted as a primary outcome measure. A multi-site collaboration examined the psychometric properties of the ABC-C in 630 individuals (ages 3–25) with FXS using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Results support a six-factor structure, with one factor unchanged (Inappropriate Speech), four modified (Irritability, Hyperactivity, Lethargy/Withdrawal, and Stereotypy), and a new Social Avoidance factor. A comparison with ABC-C data from individuals with general intellectual disability and a list of commonly endorsed items are also reported. Reformulated ABC-C scores based on this FXS-specific factor structure may provide added outcome measure specificity and sensitivity in FXS clinical trials. PMID:21972117

  2. Clinical Presentation and Microarray Analysis of Peruvian Children with Atypical Development and/or Aberrant Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Merlin G.; Usrey, Kelly; Roberts, Jennifer L.; Schroeder, Stephen R.

    2014-01-01

    We report our experience with high resolution microarray analysis in infants and young children with developmental disability and/or aberrant behavior enrolled at the Centro Ann Sullivan del Peru in Lima, Peru, a low income country. Buccal cells were collected with cotton swabs from 233 participants for later DNA isolation and identification of copy number variation (deletions/duplications) and regions of homozygosity (ROH) for estimating consanguinity status in 15 infants and young children (12 males, 3 females; mean age ± SD = 28.1 m ±  7.9 m; age range 14 m–41 m) randomly selected for microarray analysis. An adequate DNA yield was found in about one-half of the enrolled participants. Ten participants showed deletions or duplications containing candidate genes reported to impact behavior or cognitive development. Five children had ROHs which could have harbored recessive gene alleles contributing to their clinical presentation. The coefficient of inbreeding was calculated and three participants showed first-second cousin relationships, indicating consanguinity. Our preliminary study showed that DNA isolated from buccal cells using cotton swabs was suboptimal, but yet in a subset of participants the yield was adequate for high resolution microarray analysis and several genes were found that impact development and behavior and ROHs identified to determine consanguinity status. PMID:25400949

  3. Factor Analysis and Norms for Parent Ratings on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community for Young People in Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Elaine C.; Aman, Michael G.; Havercamp, Susan M.

    2002-01-01

    Parents of 601 children and adolescents with mental retardation rated their children on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC). Factor analysis revealed a factor structure similar to the original ABC but without the inappropriate speech factor. Analysis of subject variables revealed main effects for gender, age, and classroom assignment…

  4. Factor Validity and Norms for the Aberrant Behavior Checklist in a Community Sample of Children with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshburn, Elaine C.; Aman, Michael G.

    1992-01-01

    Teacher ratings on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist were collected on 666 students with mental retardation attending special classes. Classroom placement and age had significant effects on subscale scores, whereas sex failed to affect ratings. The study concludes that the original scoring method, developed for individuals in residential facilities,…

  5. Differentiated Effects of Sensory Activities as Abolishing Operations via Non-Contingent Reinforcement on Academic and Aberrant Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancil, G. Richmond; Haydon, Todd; Boman, Marty

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of sensory activities used as antecedent interventions on the percentage correct on academic tasks and rate of aberrant behavior in three elementary aged children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Study activities were conducted in an after school program for children with ASD where…

  6. Aberrant hedgehog signaling is responsible for the highly invasive behavior of a subpopulation of hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Fan, Y-H; Ding, J; Nguyen, S; Liu, X-J; Xu, G; Zhou, H-Y; Duan, N-N; Yang, S-M; Zern, M A; Wu, J

    2016-01-01

    Hepatoma exhibits a series of heterogeneous subpopulations in its cell surface markers, tumorigenicity, invasion and metastatic capability. We previously demonstrated that the CD133(-)/EpCAM(-) hepatoma subpopulation was more metastatic than its counterpart; however, the controlling mechanisms are unexplored. The present study aimed to delineate the significance of aberrant hedgehog (Hh) signaling in the mediation of metastases. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting-enriched CD133(-)/EpCAM(-) (double negative, DN), Huh-7 cells underwent a transwell selection for metastatic cells (transwell-selected, TS). The TS cells displayed much greater metastatic activity as evidenced by an increased invasion rate, extremely upregulated expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1/2/9 genes compared with DN and double-positive (DP) subpopulations. In contrast to DP cells, TS cells lost E-cadherin and were all vimentin-positive as shown by immunocytochemistry. There was a transitional increase in Gli-1/2 gene expression levels from DP, DN to TS subpopulations, which was consistent with elevated Gli-1/2 or Twist-1 protein levels in the nuclear fraction. Furthermore, truncated Gli-1 (tGli-1), which transactivates molecules involved in metastasis, was detected in the highly invasive Huh-7 cell subpopulation, but not in less metastatic hepatoma cells or normal hepatocytes. The enhanced metastatic features with increased expression of MMPs as well as the presence of twist and snail genes in TS Huh-7 cells were reversed by LDE225, a potent Smoothened antagonist. In conclusion, the highly metastatic capability of a unique TS subpopulation was highly attributed to significant epithelial-mesenchymal transition, enhanced Hh activity and aberrant occurrence of a tGli-1 variant, which appears to be responsible for the highly invasive behavior. PMID:25772244

  7. Aberrant IgG isotype generation in mice with abnormal behaviors.

    PubMed

    Kim, So-Nam; Jo, Gwang-Ho; Kim, Hyoung-Ah; Heo, Yong

    2016-01-01

    BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) mice were recently cited as a suitable animal model for the study of autism because of their behavioral characteristics and immunological changes similar to those reported from autistic subjects. The BTBR mouse was reported to have significantly higher levels of serum IgG, brain IgG deposits and anti-brain IgG than highly social C57BL/6 mice, suggesting involvement of aberrant immune responses in the occurrence of autism. Up-regulation of IgG production was investigated here, with a focus on the pattern of IgG isotype distribution compared with that in FVB/NJ (FVB) mice, another highly social control strain. The results indicated that levels of serum IgG1, IgG2b and IgG3 in post-natal day 21 BTBR mice was significantly higher than FVB mice, regardless of sex, resulting in higher IgG1:IgG2a ratios in BTBR mice than in FVB mice (statistical significance in males). A similar outcome regarding the IgG1:IgG2a ratio was observed in culture supernatants of bone marrow cells from these hosts. A presence of brain-reactive IgG in the sera of BTBR was higher than in FVB mice; levels of brain-reactive IgG against whole brain homogenates were higher in BTBR than in FVB mice, with significant differences seen in the striatum and substantia nigra regions. Levels of IgG1 deposited in the cerebellum, cortex, hippocampus or striatum of both BTBR male and female mice were significantly higher than in FVB counterparts. Overall, these results suggest that alterations in IgG isotype production or deposition in the brain could be implicated in the aberrant immune reactivities of BTBR mice. PMID:25691089

  8. A Framework to Describe, Analyze and Generate Interactive Motor Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Jarrassé, Nathanaël; Charalambous, Themistoklis; Burdet, Etienne

    2012-01-01

    While motor interaction between a robot and a human, or between humans, has important implications for society as well as promising applications, little research has been devoted to its investigation. In particular, it is important to understand the different ways two agents can interact and generate suitable interactive behaviors. Towards this end, this paper introduces a framework for the description and implementation of interactive behaviors of two agents performing a joint motor task. A taxonomy of interactive behaviors is introduced, which can classify tasks and cost functions that represent the way each agent interacts. The role of an agent interacting during a motor task can be directly explained from the cost function this agent is minimizing and the task constraints. The novel framework is used to interpret and classify previous works on human-robot motor interaction. Its implementation power is demonstrated by simulating representative interactions of two humans. It also enables us to interpret and explain the role distribution and switching between roles when performing joint motor tasks. PMID:23226231

  9. Deletion of Glutamate Delta-1 Receptor in Mouse Leads to Aberrant Emotional and Social Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Roopali; Gupta, Subhash C.; Hillman, Brandon G.; Bhatt, Jay M.; Stairs, Dustin J.; Dravid, Shashank M.

    2012-01-01

    The delta family of ionotropic glutamate receptors consists of glutamate δ1 (GluD1) and glutamate δ2 (GluD2) receptors. While the role of GluD2 in the regulation of cerebellar physiology is well understood, the function of GluD1 in the central nervous system remains elusive. We demonstrate for the first time that deletion of GluD1 leads to abnormal emotional and social behaviors. We found that GluD1 knockout mice (GluD1 KO) were hyperactive, manifested lower anxiety-like behavior, depression-like behavior in a forced swim test and robust aggression in the resident-intruder test. Chronic lithium rescued the depression-like behavior in GluD1 KO. GluD1 KO mice also manifested deficits in social interaction. In the sociability test, GluD1 KO mice spent more time interacting with an inanimate object compared to a conspecific mouse. D-Cycloserine (DCS) administration was able to rescue social interaction deficits observed in GluD1 KO mice. At a molecular level synaptoneurosome preparations revealed lower GluA1 and GluA2 subunit expression in the prefrontal cortex and higher GluA1, GluK2 and PSD95 expression in the amygdala of GluD1 KO. Moreover, DCS normalized the lower GluA1 expression in prefrontal cortex of GluD1 KO. We propose that deletion of GluD1 leads to aberrant circuitry in prefrontal cortex and amygdala owing to its potential role in presynaptic differentiation and synapse formation. Furthermore, these findings are in agreement with the human genetic studies suggesting a strong association of GRID1 gene with several neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, autism spectrum disorders and major depressive disorder. PMID:22412961

  10. The Feldenkrais Method: A Dynamic Approach to Changing Motor Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Patricia A.; Ulrich, Beverly D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Feldenkrais Method of somatic education, noting parallels with a dynamic systems theory (DST) approach to motor behavior. Feldenkrais uses movement and perception to foster individualized improvement in function. DST explains that a human-environment system continually adapts to changing conditions and assembles behaviors…

  11. Motor resonance evoked by observation of subtle nonverbal behavior.

    PubMed

    van Ulzen, Niek R; Fiorio, Mirta; Cesari, Paola

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to combine two, otherwise separated, fields of research regarding motor resonance and mimicry by adopting a naturalistic mimicry paradigm while probing motor resonance with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). At stake was whether the motor system resonates instantaneously with unobtrusive nonverbal behavior of another person. We measured excitability in the left and right hand while participants viewed sequences of video clips and static images. In the video clips an actor performed several clerical tasks, while either inconspicuously touching his face (face-touching (FT) condition) or not (no face-touching (NFT) condition). We found that excitability was higher in the FT condition than in the NFT and baseline conditions. Furthermore, our data showed a general heightened excitability in the left motor cortex relative to the right. Taken together, the results suggest that observed hand-face gestures--even though outside the primary focus of attention and occurring inconspicuously throughout an ongoing action setting--can cause instantaneous resonant activity in the observer's motor system. It thus supports the idea of motor resonance involvement in mimicry and demonstrates that this can be studied using a naturalistic mimicry paradigm. PMID:23758553

  12. [Non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease: cognition and behavior].

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Anne Marie; Czernecki, Virginie

    2013-09-01

    Although the diagnosis of Parkinson disease is based on motor symptoms, it is now well known that non-motor symptoms are an integral part of this pathology, involving in fact multiple systems. These non-motor symptoms affect large population of patients and can appear sometimes before the motor disorders. The non-motor symptoms include mainly neuropsychological difficulties, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and autonomic disorders, but involve also pain and sleep disturbances for example. Depression may occur at any stage of the disease, and consists in major depressive disorder, minor depressive disorder, and dysthymia. During the course of the disease, 50% of patients experience anxiety. Apathy is present in up to 30-40% of patients, due to loss of motivation, appearing in emotional, intellectual and behavioral domains. Dopamine dysregulation syndrome and impulse control disorders are not rare, and in relation with dopaminergic therapies. Impulse control disorders include pathological gambling, hyper sexuality, compulsive shopping, and eating disorder. Visual hallucinations can occur in 30% of patients, mostly induced by dopaminergic therapies. Often, they have deeper impact on the quality of life than the motor symptoms themselves, which stay the focus of attention during consulting. Identifying those can help in providing better care with a positive impact on the quality of life of the patients. PMID:24026132

  13. Causal Role of Motor Simulation in Turn-Taking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Novembre, Giacomo; Keller, Peter E.; Pickering, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Overlap between sensory and motor representations has been documented for a range of human actions, from grasping (Rizzolatti et al., 1996b) to playing a musical instrument (Novembre and Keller, 2014). Such overlap suggests that individuals use motor simulation to predict the outcome of observed actions (Wolpert, 1997). Here we investigate motor simulation as a basis of human communication. Using a musical turn-taking task, we show that pianists call on motor representations of their partner's part to predict when to come in for their own turn. Pianists played alternating solos with a videoed partner, and double-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation was applied around the turn-switch to temporarily disrupt processing in two cortical regions implicated previously in different forms of motor simulation: (1) the dorsal premotor cortex (dPMC), associated with automatic motor resonance during passive observation of hand actions, especially when the actions are familiar (Lahav et al., 2007); and (2) the supplementary motor area (SMA), involved in active motor imagery, especially when the actions are familiar (Baumann et al., 2007). Stimulation of the right dPMC decreased the temporal accuracy of pianists' (right-hand) entries relative to sham when the partner's (left-hand) part had been rehearsed previously. This effect did not occur for dPMC stimulation without rehearsal or for SMA stimulation. These findings support the role of the dPMC in predicting the time course of observed actions via resonance-based motor simulation during turn-taking. Because turn-taking spans multiple modes of human interaction, we suggest that simulation is a foundational mechanism underlying the temporal dynamics of joint action. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Even during passive observation, seeing or hearing somebody execute an action from within our repertoire activates motor cortices of our brain. But what is the functional relevance of such “motor simulation”? By combining a musical duet

  14. How does environmental enrichment reduce repetitive motor behaviors? Neuronal activation and dendritic morphology in the indirect basal ganglia pathway of a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Bechard, Allison R; Cacodcar, Nadia; King, Michael A; Lewis, Mark H

    2016-02-15

    Repetitive motor behaviors are observed in many neurodevelopmental and neurological disorders (e.g., autism spectrum disorders, Tourette syndrome, fronto-temporal dementia). Despite their clinical importance, the neurobiology underlying these highly stereotyped, apparently functionless behaviors is poorly understood. Identification of mechanisms that mediate the development of repetitive behaviors will aid in the discovery of new therapeutic targets and treatment development. Using a deer mouse model, we have shown that decreased indirect basal ganglia pathway activity is associated with high levels of repetitive behavior. Environmental enrichment (EE) markedly attenuates the development of such aberrant behaviors in mice, although mechanisms driving this effect are unknown. We hypothesized that EE would reduce repetitive motor behaviors by increasing indirect basal ganglia pathway function. We assessed neuronal activation and dendritic spine density in basal ganglia of adult deer mice reared in EE and standard housing. Significant increases in neuronal activation and dendritic spine densities were observed only in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and globus pallidus (GP), and only for those mice that exhibited an EE-induced decrease in repetitive motor behavior. As the STN and GP lie within the indirect pathway, these data suggest that EE-induced attenuation of repetitive motor behaviors is associated with increased functional activation of the indirect basal ganglia pathway. These results are consistent with our other findings highlighting the importance of the indirect pathway in mediating repetitive motor behaviors. PMID:26620495

  15. Transformation of Context-dependent Sensory Dynamics into Motor Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Latorre, Roberto; Levi, Rafael; Varona, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    The intrinsic dynamics of sensory networks play an important role in the sensory-motor transformation. In this paper we use conductance based models and electrophysiological recordings to address the study of the dual role of a sensory network to organize two behavioral context-dependent motor programs in the mollusk Clione limacina. We show that: (i) a winner take-all dynamics in the gravimetric sensory network model drives the typical repetitive rhythm in the wing central pattern generator (CPG) during routine swimming; (ii) the winnerless competition dynamics of the same sensory network organizes the irregular pattern observed in the wing CPG during hunting behavior. Our model also shows that although the timing of the activity is irregular, the sequence of the switching among the sensory cells is preserved whenever the same set of neurons are activated in a given time window. These activation phase locks in the sensory signals are transformed into specific events in the motor activity. The activation phase locks can play an important role in motor coordination driven by the intrinsic dynamics of a multifunctional sensory organ. PMID:23459114

  16. Assessing influence of stimulation on mood and aberrant behavior of persons with multiple disabilities during brief treadmill sessions.

    PubMed

    Lancioni, G E; O'Reilly, M F; Singh, N N; Oliva, D; Piazzolla, G; Groeneweg, J

    2004-12-01

    This study assessed the influence of favorite stimuli on indices of happiness, e.g., smiling or excited vocalizations, and aberrant behavior, e.g., cantilena-like vocalizations or hand waving, of two young adults with multiple disabilities during 5-min. treadmill sessions. Several favorite stimuli, e.g., music and vibratory events, were available for the participants. The stimuli were presented in a rotation fashion during the sessions. To control for the effects of the stimuli, treadmill sessions without stimuli were also conducted. Analysis showed that the treadmill sessions with stimuli led to higher indices of happiness and lower aberrant behavior for both participants, compared to the treadmill sessions without stimuli. PMID:15648490

  17. Dynamical movement primitives: learning attractor models for motor behaviors.

    PubMed

    Ijspeert, Auke Jan; Nakanishi, Jun; Hoffmann, Heiko; Pastor, Peter; Schaal, Stefan

    2013-02-01

    Nonlinear dynamical systems have been used in many disciplines to model complex behaviors, including biological motor control, robotics, perception, economics, traffic prediction, and neuroscience. While often the unexpected emergent behavior of nonlinear systems is the focus of investigations, it is of equal importance to create goal-directed behavior (e.g., stable locomotion from a system of coupled oscillators under perceptual guidance). Modeling goal-directed behavior with nonlinear systems is, however, rather difficult due to the parameter sensitivity of these systems, their complex phase transitions in response to subtle parameter changes, and the difficulty of analyzing and predicting their long-term behavior; intuition and time-consuming parameter tuning play a major role. This letter presents and reviews dynamical movement primitives, a line of research for modeling attractor behaviors of autonomous nonlinear dynamical systems with the help of statistical learning techniques. The essence of our approach is to start with a simple dynamical system, such as a set of linear differential equations, and transform those into a weakly nonlinear system with prescribed attractor dynamics by means of a learnable autonomous forcing term. Both point attractors and limit cycle attractors of almost arbitrary complexity can be generated. We explain the design principle of our approach and evaluate its properties in several example applications in motor control and robotics. PMID:23148415

  18. The vector behavior of aberrations in high numerical aperture (0.9 < NA < 3.1) laser focusing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Sseunhyeun

    This dissertation investigates vector behavior of aberrations for high numerical aperture optical systems using a solid immersion lens (SIL). In order to analyze the system, this dissertation introduces the illumination system transfer function (ISTF), which is a map in the space of the exit pupil that shows reflection and transmission properties of individual plane waves that are emitted from corresponding points in the exit pupil. A vector analysis using ISTF presents the role of propagating and evanescent energy in the SIL systems, where the boundary between the them is defined by total internal reflection. The behavior of third-order aberrations such as coma and astigmatism, are dramatically affected by polarization in high NA systems. The irradiance distribution exhibits significantly different characteristics, depending on how coma or astigmatism is aligned with the incident linear polarized light. Vector effects including diffraction, polarization, and aberration, are used to analyze tolerances along with a comparison to geometrical optics. Apodization in amplitude and phase of the angular spectrum is generated in high NA focusing systems due to the difference in vector transmission and reflection for each plane wave. The size of the incident gaussian beam is effectively reduced at the exit pupil by the amplitude apodization and causes a spot size increase in image space. The apodization in phase is called gap-induced aberration due to its dependence on the air gap. The gap- induced aberration does not come from lens surface imperfection, and it exhibits multiple orders of spherical aberration and astigmatism. The apodization in amplitude and phase is well characterized by separable supergaussian functions, where each function depends on the refractive index of the SIL n SIL and the air gap height h. The best defocus, based on characteristics of gap-induced aberration, is suggested to be a good compensator only for low nSIL and h. The system performance, as

  19. Functional Measurement of Respiratory Muscle Motor Behaviors Using Transdiaphragmatic Pressure.

    PubMed

    Greising, Sarah M; Mantilla, Carlos B; Sieck, Gary C

    2016-01-01

    The diaphragm muscle must be able to generate sufficient forces to accomplish a range of ventilatory and non-ventilatory behaviors throughout life. Measurements of transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi) can be conducted during eupnea, hypoxia (10 % O2)-hypercapnia (5 % CO2), chemical airway stimulation (i.e., sneezing), spontaneously occurring deep breaths (i.e., sighs), sustained airway or tracheal occlusion, and maximal efforts elicited via bilateral phrenic nerve stimulation, representing the full range of motor behaviors available by the diaphragm muscle. We provide detailed methods on the in vivo measurements of Pdi in mice. PMID:27492181

  20. Chronic Assessment of Diaphragm Muscle EMG Activity across Motor Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Mantilla, Carlos B.; Seven, Yasin B.; Hurtado-Palomino, Juan N.; Zhan, Wen-Zhi; Sieck, Gary C.

    2011-01-01

    The diaphragm muscle is main inspiratory muscle in mammals. Quantitative analyses documenting the reliability of chronic diaphragm EMG recordings are lacking. Assessment of ventilatory and non-ventilatory motor behaviors may facilitate evaluating diaphragm EMG activity over time. We hypothesized that normalization of diaphragm EMG amplitude across behaviors provides stable and reliable parameters for longitudinal assessments of diaphragm activity. We found that diaphragm EMG activity shows substantial intra-animal variability over 6 weeks, with coefficient of variation (CV) for different behaviors ~29–42%. Normalization of diaphragm EMG activity to near maximal behaviors (e.g., deep breathing) reduced intra-animal variability over time (CV ~22–29%). Plethysmographic measurements of eupneic ventilation were also stable over 6 weeks (CV ~13% for minute ventilation). Thus, stable and reliable measurements of diaphragm EMG activity can be obtained longitudinally using chronically implanted electrodes by examining multiple motor behaviors. By quantitatively determining the reliability of longitudinal diaphragm EMG analyses, we provide an important tool for evaluating the progression of diseases or injuries that impair ventilation. PMID:21414423

  1. The Feldenkrais Method: a dynamic approach to changing motor behavior.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, P A; Ulrich, B D

    2001-12-01

    This tutorial describes the Feldenkrais Method and points to parallels with a dynamic systems theory (DST) approach to motor behavior Feldenkrais is an educational system designed to use movement and perception to foster individualized improvement in function. Moshe Feldenkrais, its originator, believed his method enhanced people's ability to discover flexible and adaptable behavior and that behaviors are self-organized. Similarly, DST explains that a human-environment system is continually adapting to changing conditions and assembling behaviors accordingly. Despite little research, Feldenkrais is being used with people of widely ranging ages and abilities in varied settings. We propose that DSTprovides an integrated foundation for research on the Feldenkrais Method, suggest research questions, and encourage researchers to test the fundamental tenets of Feldenkrais. PMID:11770781

  2. Repetitive motor behavior: further characterization of development and temporal dynamics.

    PubMed

    Muehlmann, Amber M; Bliznyuk, Nikolay; Duerr, Isaac; Lewis, Mark H

    2015-03-01

    Repetitive behaviors are diagnostic for autism spectrum disorders, common in related neurodevelopmental disorders, and normative in typical development. In order to identify factors that mediate repetitive behavior development, it is necessary to characterize the expression of these behaviors from an early age. Extending previous findings, we characterized further the ontogeny of stereotyped motor behavior both in terms of frequency and temporal organization in deer mice. A three group trajectory model provided a good fit to the frequencies of stereotyped behavior across eight developmental time points. Group based trajectory analysis using a measure of temporal organization of stereotyped behavior also resulted in a three group solution. Additionally, as the frequency of stereotyped behavior increased with age, the temporal distribution of stereotyped responses became increasingly regular or organized indicating a strong association between these measures. Classification tree and principal components analysis showed that accurate classification of trajectory group could be done with fewer observations. This ability to identify trajectory group membership earlier in development allows for examination of a wide range of variables, both experiential and biological, to determine their impact on altering the expected trajectory of repetitive behavior across development. Such studies would have important implications for treatment efforts in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism. PMID:25631623

  3. Validity and Reliability of the "Behavior Problems Inventory," the "Aberrant Behavior Checklist," and the "Repetitive Behavior Scale--Revised" among Infants and Toddlers at Risk for Intellectual or Developmental Disabilities: A Multi-Method Assessment Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojahn, Johannes; Schroeder, Stephen R.; Mayo-Ortega, Liliana; Oyama-Ganiko, Rosao; LeBlanc, Judith; Marquis, Janet; Berke, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Reliable and valid assessment of aberrant behaviors is essential in empirically verifying prevention and intervention for individuals with intellectual or developmental disabilities (IDD). Few instruments exist which assess behavior problems in infants. The current longitudinal study examined the performance of three behavior-rating scales for…

  4. Neonatal Stroke Causes Poor Midline Motor Behaviors and Poor Fine and Gross Motor Skills during Early Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chao-Ying; Lo, Warren D.; Heathcock, Jill C.

    2013-01-01

    Upper extremity movements, midline behaviors, fine, and gross motor skills are frequently impaired in hemiparesis and cerebral palsy. We investigated midline toy exploration and fine and gross motor skills in infants at risk for hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Eight infants with neonatal stroke (NS) and thirteen infants with typical development (TD)…

  5. β-catenin stabilization in skeletal muscles, but not in motor neurons, leads to aberrant motor innervation of the muscle during neuromuscular development in mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yun; Sugiura, Yoshie; Wu, Fenfen; Mi, Wentao; Taketo, Makoto M.; Cannon, Steve; Carroll, Thomas; Lin, Weichun

    2012-01-01

    β-catenin, a key component of the Wnt signaling pathway, has been implicated in the development of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) in mice, but its precise role in this process remains unclear. Here we use a β-catenin gain-of-function mouse model to stabilize β-catenin selectively in either skeletal muscles or motor neurons. We found that β-catenin stabilization in skeletal muscles resulted in increased motor axon number and excessive intramuscular nerve defasciculation and branching. In contrast, β-catenin stabilization in motor neurons had no adverse effect on motor innervation pattern. Furthermore, stabilization of β-catenin, either in skeletal muscles or in motor neurons, had no adverse effect on the formation and function of the NMJ. Our findings demonstrate that β-catenin levels in developing muscles in mice are crucial for proper muscle innervation, rather than specifically affecting synapse formation at the NMJ, and that the regulation of muscle innervation by β-catenin is mediated by a non-cell autonomous mechanism. PMID:22537499

  6. Localization of Motor Neurons and Central Pattern Generators for Motor Patterns Underlying Feeding Behavior in Drosophila Larvae.

    PubMed

    Hückesfeld, Sebastian; Schoofs, Andreas; Schlegel, Philipp; Miroschnikow, Anton; Pankratz, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Motor systems can be functionally organized into effector organs (muscles and glands), the motor neurons, central pattern generators (CPG) and higher control centers of the brain. Using genetic and electrophysiological methods, we have begun to deconstruct the motor system driving Drosophila larval feeding behavior into its component parts. In this paper, we identify distinct clusters of motor neurons that execute head tilting, mouth hook movements, and pharyngeal pumping during larval feeding. This basic anatomical scaffold enabled the use of calcium-imaging to monitor the neural activity of motor neurons within the central nervous system (CNS) that drive food intake. Simultaneous nerve- and muscle-recordings demonstrate that the motor neurons innervate the cibarial dilator musculature (CDM) ipsi- and contra-laterally. By classical lesion experiments we localize a set of CPGs generating the neuronal pattern underlying feeding movements to the subesophageal zone (SEZ). Lesioning of higher brain centers decelerated all feeding-related motor patterns, whereas lesioning of ventral nerve cord (VNC) only affected the motor rhythm underlying pharyngeal pumping. These findings provide a basis for progressing upstream of the motor neurons to identify higher regulatory components of the feeding motor system. PMID:26252658

  7. Adaptive coding of orofacial and speech actions in motor and somatosensory spaces with and without overt motor behavior.

    PubMed

    Sato, Marc; Vilain, Coriandre; Lamalle, Laurent; Grabski, Krystyna

    2015-02-01

    Studies of speech motor control suggest that articulatory and phonemic goals are defined in multidimensional motor, somatosensory, and auditory spaces. To test whether motor simulation might rely on sensory-motor coding common with those for motor execution, we used a repetition suppression (RS) paradigm while measuring neural activity with sparse sampling fMRI during repeated overt and covert orofacial and speech actions. RS refers to the phenomenon that repeated stimuli or motor acts lead to decreased activity in specific neural populations and are associated with enhanced adaptive learning related to the repeated stimulus attributes. Common suppressed neural responses were observed in motor and posterior parietal regions in the achievement of both repeated overt and covert orofacial and speech actions, including the left premotor cortex and inferior frontal gyrus, the superior parietal cortex and adjacent intraprietal sulcus, and the left IC and the SMA. Interestingly, reduced activity of the auditory cortex was observed during overt but not covert speech production, a finding likely reflecting a motor rather an auditory imagery strategy by the participants. By providing evidence for adaptive changes in premotor and associative somatosensory brain areas, the observed RS suggests online state coding of both orofacial and speech actions in somatosensory and motor spaces with and without motor behavior and sensory feedback. PMID:25203272

  8. Localization of Motor Neurons and Central Pattern Generators for Motor Patterns Underlying Feeding Behavior in Drosophila Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Hückesfeld, Sebastian; Schoofs, Andreas; Schlegel, Philipp; Miroschnikow, Anton; Pankratz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Motor systems can be functionally organized into effector organs (muscles and glands), the motor neurons, central pattern generators (CPG) and higher control centers of the brain. Using genetic and electrophysiological methods, we have begun to deconstruct the motor system driving Drosophila larval feeding behavior into its component parts. In this paper, we identify distinct clusters of motor neurons that execute head tilting, mouth hook movements, and pharyngeal pumping during larval feeding. This basic anatomical scaffold enabled the use of calcium-imaging to monitor the neural activity of motor neurons within the central nervous system (CNS) that drive food intake. Simultaneous nerve- and muscle-recordings demonstrate that the motor neurons innervate the cibarial dilator musculature (CDM) ipsi- and contra-laterally. By classical lesion experiments we localize a set of CPGs generating the neuronal pattern underlying feeding movements to the subesophageal zone (SEZ). Lesioning of higher brain centers decelerated all feeding-related motor patterns, whereas lesioning of ventral nerve cord (VNC) only affected the motor rhythm underlying pharyngeal pumping. These findings provide a basis for progressing upstream of the motor neurons to identify higher regulatory components of the feeding motor system. PMID:26252658

  9. Trained, generalized, and collateral behavior changes of preschool children receiving gross-motor skills training.

    PubMed

    Kirby, K C; Holborn, S W

    1986-01-01

    Three preschool children participated in a behavioral training program to improve their gross-motor skills. Ten target behaviors were measured in the training setting to assess direct effects of the program. Generalization probes for two gross-motor behaviors, one fine-motor skill, and two social behaviors were conducted in other settings. Results indicated that the training program improved the gross-motor skills trained and that improvements sometimes generalized to other settings. Contrary to suggestions in educational literature, the gross-motor training program did not produce changes in fine-motor skills or social behaviors. Implications for educators and for the development of the technology of generalization are outlined. PMID:3771421

  10. Motor Behavior: From Telegraph Keys and Twins to Linear Slides and Stepping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jerry R.

    2006-01-01

    Motor behavior is a significant area of scholarship with 64 Fellows from the American Academy of Kinesiology and Physical Education engaged in that work since 1930. This paper provides a brief overview of the history of research in motor development and motor control/learning, particularly noting the contributions to scholarship of Academy…

  11. Mechanism of Cooperative Behavior in Systems of Slow and Fast Molecular Motors

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Adam G.; Landahl, Eric C.; Rice, Sarah E.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Two recent theoretical advances have described cargo transport by multiple identical motors and by multiple oppositely directed, but otherwise identical motors [1, 2]. Here we combine a similar theoretical approach with a simple experiment to describe the behavior of a system comprised of slow and fast molecular motors having the same directionality. We observed the movement of microtubules by mixtures of slow and fast kinesin motors attached to a glass coverslip in a classic sliding filament assay. The motors are identical, except that the slow ones contain five point mutations that collectively reduce their velocity ∼15-fold without compromising maximal ATPase activity. Our results indicate that a small fraction of fast motors are able to accelerate the dissociation of slow motors from microtubules. Because of this, a sharp, highly cooperative transition occurs from slow to fast microtubule movement as the relative number of fast motors in the assay is increased. Microtubules move at half-maximal velocity when only 15% of the motors in the assay are fast. Our model indicates that this behavior depends primarily on the relative motor velocities and the asymmetry between their forward and backward dissociation forces. It weakly depends on the number of motors and their processivity. We predict that movement of cargoes bound to two types of motors having very different velocities will be dominated by one or the other motor. Therefore, cargoes can potentially undergo abrupt changes in movement in response to regulatory mechanisms acting on only a small fraction of motors. PMID:19506764

  12. Reported lifetime aberrant drug-taking behaviors are predictive of current substance use and mental health problems in primary care patients

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Michael F.; Davis, James; Passik, Steven D.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The aim of this report is to determine the frequency of aberrant drug behaviors and their relationship substance abuse disorders in a large primary sample of patients receiving opioids for chronic pain. Methods: The data utilized for this report was obtained from 904 chronic pain patients receiving opioid therapy from their primary care physician. A questionnaire was developed based on 12 aberrant drug behaviors reported in the clinical literature. The diagnosis of a current substance use disorder was determined using DSM-IV criteria. Results: The average duration of chronic pain in the sample was 16 years, and for opioid therapy 6.4 years. 80.5% of the sample reported one or more lifetime aberrant drug behaviors. The most frequent behaviors reported included early refills (41.7%), increase dose without physician consent (35.7%) and felt intoxicated from opioids (32.2%). Only 1.1% of subjects with 1-3 aberrant behaviors (n=464, 51.2%) met DSM-IV criteria for current opioid dependence compared to 9.9% of patients with 4 or more behaviors (n=264, 29.3%). Persons with a positive urine toxicology tests for cocaine were 14 times more likely to report 4 or more behaviors than no behaviors (14.1% v.s.1.1%). A logistic model found that subjects who reported four or more aberrant behaviors were more likely to have a current substance use disorder (OR 10.14; 3.72, 27.64), a positive test for cocaine (OR 3.01; 1.74, 15.4), an ASI psychiatric composite score >0.5 (OR 2.38; 1.65, 3.44), male gender (OR 2.08: 1.48, 2.92) and older age (OR 0.69; 0.59, 0.81) compared to subjects with three or fewer behaviors. Pain levels, employment status and morphine equivalent dose do not enter the model. Conclusions: Patients who report 4 or more aberrant drug behaviors are associated with a current substance use disorder and illicit drug use, whereas subjects with up to 3 aberrant behaviors have a very low probability of a current substance abuse disorder. Four behaviors - over

  13. An Evaluation of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist for Children under Age 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Jonathan D.; Huete, John M.; Fodstad, Jill C.; Chin, Michelle D.; Kurtz, Patricia F.

    2013-01-01

    Severe problem behaviors such as self-injury and aggression are frequently observed in young children under age 5 with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). Although early identification of problem behavior is critical to effective intervention, there are few standardized measures available that identify severe problem behavior in…

  14. Motor planning modulates sensory-motor control of collision avoidance behavior in the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Hideki; Nishida, Yuuya

    2012-01-01

    Summary In this study, we examined the collision avoidance behavior of the frog, Rana catesbeiana to an approaching object in the upper visual field. The angular velocity of the frog's escape turn showed a significant positive correlation with the turn angle (r2 = 0.5741, P<0.05). A similar mechanism of velocity control has been known in head movements of the owl and in human saccades. By analogy, this suggests that the frog planned its escape velocity in advance of executing the turn, to make the duration of the escape behavior relatively constant. For escape turns less than 60°, the positive correlation was very strong (r2 = 0.7097, P<0.05). Thus, the frog controlled the angular velocity of small escape turns very accurately and completed the behavior within a constant time. On the other hand, for escape turns greater than 60°, the same correlation was not significant (r2 = 0.065, P>0.05). Thus, the frog was not able to control the velocity of the large escape turns accurately and did not complete the behavior within a constant time. In the latter case, there was a small but significant positive correlation between the threshold angular size and the angular velocity (r2 = 0.1459, P<0.05). This suggests that the threshold is controlled to compensate for the insufficient escape velocity achieved during large turn angles, and could explain a significant negative correlation between the turn angle and the threshold angular size (r2 = 0.1145, P<0.05). Thus, it is likely that the threshold angular size is also controlled by the turn angle and is modulated by motor planning. PMID:23213389

  15. Videotape assessment of changes in aberrant meal-time behaviors in anorexia nervosa after treatment.

    PubMed

    Tappe, K A; Gerberg, S E; Shide, D J; Andersen, A E; Rolls, B J

    1998-04-01

    This study compared meal-time behaviors in patients with anorexia nervosa to normal-weight controls and the effects of hospital treatment on these behaviors. Ten restricting-anorexics and six normal-weight controls were given a standard lunch and asked to eat the entire meal. Their behaviors were recorded via hidden camera. All participants were tested twice--anorexics before and after in-patient treatment, and controls at similar intervals. Videotapes of these sessions were analysed for occurrence and duration of eight categories of non-ingestive behaviors: food manipulation, food preparation, food moving, non-food manipulation, concealment, vigilance, passivity and physical activity. Food-ingestion patterns, including number of bites of food and switches between different kinds of food, were also recorded. Results indicated that anorexics spent significantly more time than controls in behaviors that were directly food-related, and exhibited more vigilance behavior. Pre-treatment anorexics spent significantly more time in these behaviors than did post-treatment anorexics. Few group differences or treatment effects were found in food-ingestion patterns, although there was an indication that both pre- and post-treatment anorexics avoided high-fat foods more than controls did. These results suggest that videotaping provides a useful technique for characterizing the behavior associated with eating disorders. Further studies should explore whether normalization of these behaviors is associated with a positive clinical outcome. PMID:9573451

  16. REM sleep behavior disorder: motor manifestations and pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Arnulf, Isabelle

    2012-05-01

    Patients with REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) enact violent dreams during REM sleep in the absence of normal muscle atonia. This disorder is highly frequent in patients with synucleinopathies (60%-100% of patients) and rare in patients with other neurodegenerative disorders. The disorder is detected by interview plus video and sleep monitoring. Abnormal movements expose the patients and bed partners to a high risk of injury and sleep disruption. The disorder is usually alleviated with melatonin and clonazepam. Limb movements are mainly minor, jerky, fast, pseudohallucinatory, and repeated, with a limp wrist during apparently grasping movements, although body jerks and complex violent (fights) and nonviolent culturally acquired behaviors are also observed. Notably, parkinsonism disappears during RBD-associated complex behaviors in patients with Parkinson's disease and with multiple system atrophy, suggesting that the upper motor stream bypasses the basal ganglia during REM sleep. Longitudinal studies show that idiopathic RBD predisposes patients to later develop Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and, more rarely, multiple system atrophy, with a rate of conversion of 46% within 5 years. During this time window, patients concomitantly develop nonmotor signs (decreased olfaction and color vision, orthostatic hypotension, altered visuospatial abilities, increased harm avoidance) and have abnormal test results (decreased putamen dopamine uptake, slower EEG). Patients with idiopathic RBD have higher and faster risk for conversion to Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies if abnormalities in dopamine transporter imaging, transcranial sonography, olfaction, and color vision are found at baseline. They constitute a highly specific target for testing neuroprotective agents. PMID:22447623

  17. Monitoring tectal neuronal activities and motor behavior in zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Sumbre, Germán; Poo, Mu-Ming

    2013-09-01

    To understand how visuomotor behaviors are controlled by the nervous system, it is necessary to monitor the activity of large populations of neurons with single-cell resolution over a large area of the brain in a relatively simple, behaving organism. The zebrafish larva, a small lower vertebrate with transparent skin, serves as an excellent model for this purpose. Immediately after the larva hatches, it needs to catch prey and avoid predators. This strong evolutionary pressure leads to the rapid development of functional sensory systems, particularly vision. By 5 d postfertilization (dpf), tectal cells show distinct visually evoked patterns of activation, and the larvae are able to perform a variety of visuomotor behaviors. During the early larval stage, zebrafish breathe mainly through the skin and can be restrained under the microscope using a drop of low-melting-point agarose, without the use of anesthetics. Moreover, the transparency of the skin, the small diameter of the neurons (4-5 µm), and the high-neuronal density enable the use of in vivo noninvasive imaging techniques to monitor neuronal activities of up to ∼500 cells within the central nervous system, still with single-cell resolution. This article describes a method for simultaneously monitoring spontaneous and visually evoked activities of large populations of neurons in the optic tectum of the zebrafish larva, using a synthetic calcium dye (Oregon Green BAPTA-1 AM) and a conventional confocal or two-photon scanning fluorescence microscope, together with a method for measuring the tail motor behavior of the head-immobilized zebrafish larva. PMID:24003199

  18. Dopamine-Dependent Compensation Maintains Motor Behavior in Mice with Developmental Ablation of Dopaminergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    DeMaro, Joseph A.; Knoten, Amanda; Hoshi, Masato; Pehek, Elizabeth; Johnson, Eugene M.; Gereau, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    The loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and consequent depletion of striatal dopamine are known to underlie the motor deficits observed in Parkinson's disease (PD). Adaptive changes in dopaminergic terminals and in postsynaptic striatal neurons can compensate for significant losses of striatal dopamine, resulting in preservation of motor behavior. In addition, compensatory changes independent of striatal dopamine have been proposed based on PD therapies that modulate nondopaminergic circuits within the basal ganglia. We used a genetic strategy to selectively destroy dopaminergic neurons in mice during development to determine the necessity of these neurons for the maintenance of normal motor behavior in adult and aged mice. We find that loss of 90% of SNc dopaminergic neurons and consequent depletion of >95% of striatal dopamine does not result in changes in motor behavior in young-adult or aged mice as evaluated by an extensive array of motor behavior tests. Treatment of aged mutant mice with the dopamine receptor antagonist haloperidol precipitated motor behavior deficits in aged mutant mice, indicating that <5% of striatal dopamine is sufficient to maintain motor function in these mice. We also found that mutant mice exhibit an exaggerated response to l-DOPA compared with control mice, suggesting that preservation of motor function involves sensitization of striatal dopamine receptors. Our results indicate that congenital loss of dopaminergic neurons induces remarkable adaptions in the nigrostriatal system where limited amounts of dopamine in the dorsal striatum can maintain normal motor function. PMID:24155314

  19. Fixed-Time Schedules Attenuate Extinction-Induced Phenomena in the Treatment of Severe Aberrant Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollmer, Timothy R.; Progar, Patrick R.; Lalli, Joseph S.; Van Camp, Carole M.; Sierp, Barbara J.; Wright, Carrie S.; Natasi, Julia; Eisenschink, Kevin J.

    1998-01-01

    A study compared the effects of extinction (EXT) and fixed-time (FT) schedules as treatment for the severe problem behaviors of three individuals with developmental disabilities. During EXT, the reinforcer maintaining problem behavior was withheld. During FT, the reinforcers were presented response independently at preset intervals. FT schedules…

  20. Behavior of Aberrant Chromosome Configurations in Drosophila melanogaster Female Meiosis I

    PubMed Central

    Gilliland, William D.; Colwell, Eileen M.; Lane, Fiona M.; Snouffer, Ashley A.

    2014-01-01

    One essential role of the first meiotic division is to reduce chromosome number by half. Although this is normally accomplished by segregating homologous chromosomes from each other, it is possible for a genome to have one or more chromosomes that lack a homolog (such as compound chromosomes), or have chromosomes with multiple potential homologs (such as in XXY females). These configurations complete meiosis but engage in unusual segregation patterns. In Drosophila melanogaster females carrying two compound chromosomes, the compounds can accurately segregate from each other, a process known as heterologous segregation. Similarly, in XXY females, when the X chromosomes fail to cross over, they often undergo secondary nondisjunction, where both Xs segregate away from the Y. Although both of these processes have been known for decades, the orientation mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Taking advantage of the recent discovery of chromosome congression in female meiosis I, we have examined a number of different aberrant chromosome configurations. We show that these genotypes complete congression normally, with their chromosomes bioriented at metaphase I arrest at the same rates that they segregate, indicating that orientation must be established during prometaphase I before congression. We also show that monovalent chromosomes can move out on the prometaphase I spindle, but the dot 4 chromosomes appear required for this movement. Finally, we show that, similar to achiasmate chromosomes, heterologous chromosomes can be connected by chromatin threads, suggesting a mechanism for how heterochromatic homology establishes these unusual biorientation patterns. PMID:25491942

  1. Behavior of aberrant chromosome configurations in Drosophila melanogaster female meiosis I.

    PubMed

    Gilliland, William D; Colwell, Eileen M; Lane, Fiona M; Snouffer, Ashley A

    2015-02-01

    One essential role of the first meiotic division is to reduce chromosome number by half. Although this is normally accomplished by segregating homologous chromosomes from each other, it is possible for a genome to have one or more chromosomes that lack a homolog (such as compound chromosomes), or have chromosomes with multiple potential homologs (such as in XXY females). These configurations complete meiosis but engage in unusual segregation patterns. In Drosophila melanogaster females carrying two compound chromosomes, the compounds can accurately segregate from each other, a process known as heterologous segregation. Similarly, in XXY females, when the X chromosomes fail to cross over, they often undergo secondary nondisjunction, where both Xs segregate away from the Y. Although both of these processes have been known for decades, the orientation mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Taking advantage of the recent discovery of chromosome congression in female meiosis I, we have examined a number of different aberrant chromosome configurations. We show that these genotypes complete congression normally, with their chromosomes bioriented at metaphase I arrest at the same rates that they segregate, indicating that orientation must be established during prometaphase I before congression. We also show that monovalent chromosomes can move out on the prometaphase I spindle, but the dot 4 chromosomes appear required for this movement. Finally, we show that, similar to achiasmate chromosomes, heterologous chromosomes can be connected by chromatin threads, suggesting a mechanism for how heterochromatic homology establishes these unusual biorientation patterns. PMID:25491942

  2. Ketogenic diet restores aberrant cortical motor maps and excitation-to-inhibition imbalance in the BTBR mouse model of autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jacklyn; Rho, Jong M; Teskey, G Campbell

    2016-05-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is an increasingly prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in sociability and communication, and restricted and/or repetitive motor behaviors. Amongst the diverse hypotheses regarding the pathophysiology of ASD, one possibility is that there is increased neuronal excitation, leading to alterations in sensory processing, functional integration and behavior. Meanwhile, the high-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD), traditionally used in the treatment of medically intractable epilepsy, has already been shown to reduce autistic behaviors in both humans and in rodent models of ASD. While the mechanisms underlying these effects remain unclear, we hypothesized that this dietary approach might shift the balance of excitation and inhibition towards more normal levels of inhibition. Using high-resolution intracortical microstimulation, we investigated basal sensorimotor excitation/inhibition in the BTBR T+Itpr(tf)/J (BTBR) mouse model of ASD and tested whether the KD restores the balance of excitation/inhibition. We found that BTBR mice had lower movement thresholds and larger motor maps indicative of higher excitation/inhibition compared to C57BL/6J (B6) controls, and that the KD reversed both these abnormalities. Collectively, our results afford a greater understanding of cortical excitation/inhibition balance in ASD and may help expedite the development of therapeutic approaches aimed at improving functional outcomes in this disorder. PMID:26876011

  3. Glutamatergic transmission aberration: a major cause of behavioral deficits in a murine model of Down's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurjinder; Sharma, Ajay; Xu, Wenjin; Gerum, Scott; Alldred, Melissa J; Subbanna, Shivakumar; Basavarajappa, Balapal S; Pawlik, Monika; Ohno, Masuo; Ginsberg, Stephen D; Wilson, Donald A; Guilfoyle, David N; Levy, Efrat

    2014-04-01

    Trisomy 21, or Down's syndrome (DS), is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability. Altered neurotransmission in the brains of DS patients leads to hippocampus-dependent learning and memory deficiency. Although genetic mouse models have provided important insights into the genes and mechanisms responsible for DS-specific changes, the molecular mechanisms leading to memory deficits are not clear. We investigated whether the segmental trisomy model of DS, Ts[Rb(12.1716)]2Cje (Ts2), exhibits hippocampal glutamatergic transmission abnormalities and whether these alterations cause behavioral deficits. Behavioral assays demonstrated that Ts2 mice display a deficit in nest building behavior, a measure of hippocampus-dependent nonlearned behavior, as well as dysfunctional hippocampus-dependent spatial memory tested in the object-placement and the Y-maze spontaneous alternation tasks. Magnetic resonance spectra measured in the hippocampi revealed a significantly lower glutamate concentration in Ts2 as compared with normal disomic (2N) littermates. The glutamate deficit accompanied hippocampal NMDA receptor1 (NMDA-R1) mRNA and protein expression level downregulation in Ts2 compared with 2N mice. In concert with these alterations, paired-pulse analyses suggested enhanced synaptic inhibition and/or lack of facilitation in the dentate gyrus of Ts2 compared with 2N mice. Ts2 mice also exhibited disrupted synaptic plasticity in slice recordings of the hippocampal CA1 region. Collectively, these findings imply that deficits in glutamate and NMDA-R1 may be responsible for impairments in synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus associated with behavioral dysfunctions in Ts2 mice. Thus, these findings suggest that glutamatergic deficits have a significant role in causing intellectual disabilities in DS. PMID:24719089

  4. Administration of Lactobacillus helveticus NS8 improves behavioral, cognitive, and biochemical aberrations caused by chronic restraint stress.

    PubMed

    Liang, S; Wang, T; Hu, X; Luo, J; Li, W; Wu, X; Duan, Y; Jin, F

    2015-12-01

    Increasing numbers of studies have suggested that the gut microbiota is involved in the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders. Chronic stress can cause behavioral, cognitive, biochemical, and gut microbiota aberrations. Gut bacteria can communicate with the host through the microbiota-gut-brain axis (which mainly includes the immune, neuroendocrine, and neural pathways) to influence brain and behavior. It is hypothesized that administration of probiotics can improve chronic-stress-induced depression. In order to examine this hypothesis, the chronic restraint stress depression model was established in this study. Adult specific pathogen free (SPF) Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 21 days of restraint stress followed by behavioral testing (including the sucrose preference test (SPT), elevated-plus maze test, open-field test (OFT), object recognition test (ORT), and object placement test (OPT)) and biochemical analysis. Supplemental Lactobacillus helveticus NS8 was provided every day during stress until the end of experiment, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram (CIT) served as a positive control. Results showed that L. helveticus NS8 improved chronic restraint stress-induced behavioral (anxiety and depression) and cognitive dysfunction, showing an effect similar to and better than that of CIT. L. helveticus NS8 also resulted in lower plasma corticosterone (CORT) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, higher plasma interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels, restored hippocampal serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) levels, and more hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA expression than in chronic stress rats. Taken together, these results indicate an anti-depressant effect of L. helveticus NS8 in rats subjected to chronic restraint stress depression and that this effect could be due to the microbiota-gut-brain axis. They also suggest the therapeutic potential of L. helveticus NS8 in stress-related and possibly other

  5. Mandibular Motor Control During the Early Development of Speech and Nonspeech Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Steeve, Roger W.; Moore, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The mandible is often portrayed as a primary structure of early babble production, but empiricists still need to specify (a) how mandibular motor control and kinematics vary among different types of multisyllabic babble, (b) whether chewing or jaw oscillation relies on a coordinative infrastructure that can be exploited for early types of multisyllables, and (c) whether the organization of motor control and associated kinematics varies across the nonspeech behaviors that are candidate motor stereotypies for speech. Method Electromyographic signals were obtained from mandibular muscle groups, and associated kinematics were measured longitudinally from a typically developing infant from 9 to 22 months during jaw oscillation, chewing, and several types of early multisyllabic babble. Results Measures of early motor control and mandibular kinematics for multisyllabic productions indicated task-dependent changes across syllable types and significant differences across babble and nonspeech behaviors. Differences in motor control were also observed across nonspeech behaviors. Conclusions Motor control for babble appears to be influenced by the balanced interaction between developing motor and linguistic systems, such that variation in linguistic complexity systematically evinces changes in motor organization apparently to meet these demands. This same effect was noted among chewing and jaw oscillation; task-dependent changes in mandibular control were noted across behaviors. PMID:19717649

  6. A Model for the Transfer of Perceptual-Motor Skill Learning in Human Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosalie, Simon M.; Muller, Sean

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary model that outlines the mechanisms underlying the transfer of perceptual-motor skill learning in sport and everyday tasks. Perceptual-motor behavior is motivated by performance demands and evolves over time to increase the probability of success through adaptation. Performance demands at the time of an event…

  7. Aberrant hippocampal Atp8a1 levels are associated with altered synaptic strength, electrical activity, and autistic-like behavior.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Daniel J; Marsillo, Alexandra; Guariglia, Sara R; Budylin, Tatyana; Sadek, Rodina; Menkes, Silvia; Chauhan, Abha; Wen, Guang Y; McCloskey, Daniel P; Wieraszko, Andrzej; Banerjee, Probal

    2016-09-01

    Type IV ATPases are putative aminophospholipid translocases (APLTs), more commonly known as flippases. A pronounced induction of the flippase Atp8a1 was observed in post-mortem tissue homogenates from the hippocampus and temporal lobe of juvenile autistic subjects compared to age-matched controls. In order to simulate the human data, C57BL/6 mice were allowed to develop after intra-hippocampal injection of recombinant lentivirus expressing Atp8a1 at the early developmental stage of postnatal day 6 (P6). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of the lentivirus-Atp8a1 treated (Atp8a1+) mice in adulthood revealed fewer and weaker excitatory synapses in the hippocampal CA1 region compared to mice injected with empty virus. Significant inhibition of the Schaffer collateral pathway was observed in the Atp8a1+ mice in paired-pulse recording (PPR) at 20-ms inter-stimulus interval. In the three-chambered sociability test, the Atp8a1+ mice displayed no preference for an encaged stranger mouse over a novel object, which is a characteristic autistic-like behavior. In sharp contrast, Atp8a1 (-/-) mice displayed a preference for a stranger mouse over the novel object, which is characteristic of neurotypical mouse behavior. However, similar to the Atp8a1+ mice, the Atp8a1 (-/-) mice harbored fewer and weaker excitatory synapses in CA1 compared to wild-type controls, and displayed inhibition at 20-ms inter-stimulus interval in PPR. These findings suggest that both elevated and diminished levels of Atp8a1 during early development are detrimental to brain connectivity, but only elevated Atp8a1 is associated with aberrant social behavior. Mice with augmented levels of Atp8a1 may therefore serve as a potential model in autism research. PMID:27287255

  8. Nicastrin overexpression in transgenic mice induces aberrant behavior and APP processing.

    PubMed

    Goo, Jun Seo; Kim, Yong Bin; Shim, Sun Bo; Jee, Seung Wan; Lee, Su Hae; Kim, Ji Een; Hwang, In Sik; Lee, Young Ju; Kwak, Moon Hwa; Lim, Chuel Ju; Hong, Jin Tae; Hwang, Dae Youn

    2013-08-01

    Nicastrin (NCT) is a component of the presenilin protein complex, which is involved in the cleavage of β-amyloid precursor protein (βAPP) and Notch. The aim of this study was to determine the manner in which overexpression of wild-type human nicastrin (hNCTw) or mutant human nicastrin (hNCTm, D336A/Y337A) regulates brain functions and amyloid precusor protein (APP) processing. For this, we created transgenic (Tg) mice expressing neuron-specific enolase (NSE)-controlled hNCTw or hNCTm and measured their phenotypes as time passed. The NSE/hNCTw and NSE/hNCTm Tg groups exhibited greater behavioral dysfunction from 10 months of age than the non-Tg group, although their severities differed. Further, activity and component levels of the γ-secretase complex were significantly elevated in NSE/hNCTw Tg mice, expect for PEN-2. These alterations induced stimulation of APP processing, resulting in overproduction of Aβ-42 peptide in the NSE/hNCTw Tg group, whereas the NSE/hNCTm Tg group showed a comparatively weaker effect. Furthermore, the highest expression levels of β-secretase and NICD were observed in the NSE/hNCTw Tg group, similar to other phenotypes. Especially, a significances interference on the interaction between NCT and γ-secretase substrates was detected in NSE/hNCTm Tg groups compare with NSE/hNCTw Tg group. These results indicate that hNCTw overexpression in Tg mice promoted active assembly of the γ-secretase complex through modulation of APP processing and behavior, whereas the lesser effect in NSE/hNCTm Tg mice was due to reduced expression of hNCTm. These Tg mice could be useful for the development and application of therapeutic drugs in an animal model of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:23595812

  9. The relationship of motor skills and adaptive behavior skills in young children with autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Megan; Lord, Catherine; Ulrich, Dale

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship of motor skills and the core behaviors of young children with autism, social affective skills and repetitive behaviors, as indicated through the calibrated autism severity scores. Design The univariate GLM tested the relationship of gross and fine motor skills measured by the gross motor scale and the fine motor scale of the MSEL with autism symptomology as measured by calibrated autism severity scores. Setting Majority of the data collected took place in an autism clinic. Participants A cohort of 159 young children with ASD (n=110), PDD-NOS (n=26) and non-ASD (developmental delay, n=23) between the ages of 12–33 months were recruited from early intervention studies and clinical referrals. Children with non-ASD (developmental delay) were included in this study to provide a range of scores indicted through calibrated autism severity. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures The primary outcome measures in this study were calibrated autism severity scores. Results Fine motor skills and gross motor skills significantly predicted calibrated autism severity (p < 0.01). Children with weaker motor skills displayed higher levels of calibrated autism severity. Conclusions The fine and gross motor skills are significantly related to autism symptomology. There is more to focus on and new avenues to explore in the realm of discovering how to implement early intervention and rehabilitation for young children with autism and motor skills need to be a part of the discussion. PMID:25774214

  10. Cross-species assessments of Motor and Exploratory Behavior related to Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Brook L.; Minassian, Arpi; Young, Jared W.; Paulus, Martin P.; Geyer, Mark A.; Perry, William

    2010-01-01

    Alterations in exploratory behavior are a fundamental feature of bipolar mania, typically characterized as motor hyperactivity and increased goal-directed behavior in response to environmental cues. In contrast, abnormal exploration associated with schizophrenia and depression can manifest as prominent withdrawal, limited motor activity, and inattention to the environment. While motor abnormalities are cited frequently as clinical manifestations of these disorders, relatively few empirical studies have quantified human exploratory behavior. This article reviews the literature characterizing motor and exploratory behavior associated with bipolar disorder and genetic and pharmacological animal models of the illness. Despite sophisticated assessment of exploratory behavior in rodents, objective quantification of human motor activity has been limited primarily to actigraphy studies with poor cross-species translational value. Furthermore, symptoms that reflect the cardinal features of bipolar disorder have proven difficult to establish in putative animal models of this illness. Recently, however, novel tools such as the Human Behavioral Pattern Monitor provide multivariate translational measures of motor and exploratory activity, enabling improved understanding of the neurobiology underlying psychiatric disorders. PMID:20398694

  11. Aberrant Activation of Notch Signaling Inhibits PROX1 Activity to Enhance the Malignant Behavior of Thyroid Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dongwon; Ramu, Swapnika; Park, Eunkyung; Jung, Eunson; Yang, Sara; Jung, Wonhyeuk; Choi, Inho; Lee, Sunju; Kim, Kyu Eui; Seong, Young Jin; Hong, Mingu; Daghlian, George; Kim, Daniel; Shin, Eugene; Seo, Jung In; Khatchadourian, Vicken; Zou, Mengchen; Li, Wei; De Filippo, Roger; Kokorowski, Paul; Chang, Andy; Kim, Steve; Bertoni, Ana; Furlanetto, Tania Weber; Shin, Sung; Li, Meng; Chen, Yibu; Wong, Alex; Koh, Chester; Geliebter, Jan; Hong, Young-Kwon

    2016-02-01

    Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is one of the most common endocrine malignancies associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although multiple studies have contributed to a better understanding of the genetic alterations underlying this frequently arising disease, the downstream molecular effectors that impact PTC pathogenesis remain to be further defined. Here, we report that the regulator of cell fate specification, PROX1, becomes inactivated in PTC through mRNA downregulation and cytoplasmic mislocalization. Expression studies in clinical specimens revealed that aberrantly activated NOTCH signaling promoted PROX1 downregulation and that cytoplasmic mislocalization significantly altered PROX1 protein stability. Importantly, restoration of PROX1 activity in thyroid carcinoma cells revealed that PROX1 not only enhanced Wnt/β-catenin signaling but also regulated several genes known to be associated with PTC, including thyroid cancer protein (TC)-1, SERPINA1, and FABP4. Furthermore, PROX1 reexpression suppressed the malignant phenotypes of thyroid carcinoma cells, such as proliferation, motility, adhesion, invasion, anchorage-independent growth, and polyploidy. Moreover, animal xenograft studies demonstrated that restoration of PROX1 severely impeded tumor formation and suppressed the invasiveness and the nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio of PTC cells. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that NOTCH-induced PROX1 inactivation significantly promotes the malignant behavior of thyroid carcinoma and suggest that PROX1 reactivation may represent a potential therapeutic strategy to attenuate disease progression. PMID:26609053

  12. Validity and Reliability of the Behavior Problems Inventory, the Aberrant Behavior Checklist, and the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised among Infants and Toddlers at Risk for Developmental Disabilities: A Multi-Method Assessment Approach

    PubMed Central

    Rojahn, Johannes; Schroeder, Stephen R.; Mayo-Ortega, Liliana; Oyama-Ganiko, Rosao; LeBlanc, Judith; Marquis, Janet; Berke, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with developmental disabilities (DD) are at a heightened risk of developing aberrant behaviors during the course of their lives. Reliable and valid assessment of such behaviors is an important element in empirically verifying successful prevention and intervention. Only a few instruments exist which were developed for behavior problems in children of a young age. The purpose of the current longitudinal study was to examine the performance of three behavior-rating instruments for individuals with developmental disabilities that have been proven useful and psychometrically sound in older populations: the Behavior Problems Inventory (BPI-01), the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), the Repetitive Behavior Scale – Revised (RBS-R). Data were analyzed for 180 children at risk for a developmental disability in Lima, Peru who were involved in active behavioral treatment for behavior problems. Cronbach’s alpha of all three measures showed variable internal consistency across the subscales of the three instruments. BPI-01 test-retest reliability for its three subscales over three times of measurement within approximately a 12 months period showed ICC coefficients ranging between .68 to .77 for frequency ratings and .65 to .80 for severity ratings. Using a multitrait-multimethod matrix approach for the constructs self-injurious behavior (SIB), stereotyped behavior, and aggressive/destructive behavior, we found high levels of convergent and discriminant validity across the three instruments. Sensitivity of the SIB and the Stereotyped Behavior subscales of the BPI-01, the RBS-R, and the ABC showed that while there was some overlap between the three instruments, each scale contributed unique information. This was especially true for stereotyped behavior. In addition, since each one of the three instruments contains subscales that are not represented by the others, it merits to consider using all three scales together. PMID:23511345

  13. Neurogenetic interactions and aberrant behavioral co-morbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): dispelling myths

    PubMed Central

    Comings, David E; Chen, Thomas JH; Blum, Kenneth; Mengucci, Julie F; Blum, Seth H; Meshkin, Brian

    2005-01-01

    Background Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, commonly referred to as ADHD, is a common, complex, predominately genetic but highly treatable disorder, which in its more severe form has such a profound effect on brain function that every aspect of the life of an affected individual may be permanently compromised. Despite the broad base of scientific investigation over the past 50 years supporting this statement, there are still many misconceptions about ADHD. These include believing the disorder does not exist, that all children have symptoms of ADHD, that if it does exist it is grossly over-diagnosed and over-treated, and that the treatment is dangerous and leads to a propensity to drug addiction. Since most misconceptions contain elements of truth, where does the reality lie? Results We have reviewed the literature to evaluate some of the claims and counter-claims. The evidence suggests that ADHD is primarily a polygenic disorder involving at least 50 genes, including those encoding enzymes of neurotransmitter metabolism, neurotransmitter transporters and receptors. Because of its polygenic nature, ADHD is often accompanied by other behavioral abnormalities. It is present in adults as well as children, but in itself it does not necessarily impair function in adult life; associated disorders, however, may do so. A range of treatment options is reviewed and the mechanisms responsible for the efficacy of standard drug treatments are considered. Conclusion The genes so far implicated in ADHD account for only part of the total picture. Identification of the remaining genes and characterization of their interactions is likely to establish ADHD firmly as a biological disorder and to lead to better methods of diagnosis and treatment. PMID:16375770

  14. Opposing effects of appetitive and aversive cues on go/no-go behavior and motor excitability.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Yu-Chin; Cools, Roshan; Aron, Adam R

    2014-08-01

    Everyday life, as well as psychiatric illness, is replete with examples where appetitive and aversive stimuli hijack the will, leading to maladaptive behavior. Yet the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are not well understood. Here we investigate how motivational cues influence action tendencies in healthy individuals with a novel paradigm. Behaviorally, we observed that an appetitive cue biased go behavior (making a response), whereas an aversive cue biased no-go behavior (withholding a response). We hypothesized that the origin of this behavioral go/no-go bias occurs at the motor system level. To test this, we used single-pulse TMS as a motor system probe (rather than a disruptive tool) to index motivational biasing. We found that the appetitive cue biased the participants to go more by relatively increasing motor system excitability, and that the aversive cue biased participants to no-go more by relatively decreasing motor system excitability. These results show, first, that maladaptive behaviors arise from motivational cues quickly spilling over into the motor system and biasing behavior even before action selection and, second, that this occurs in opposing directions for appetitive and aversive cues. PMID:24564469

  15. Polarization Aberrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguire, James P., Jr.; Chipman, Russell A.

    1990-01-01

    The analysis of the polarization characteristics displayed by optical systems can be divided into two categories: geometrical and physical. Geometrical analysis calculates the change in polarization of a wavefront between pupils in an optical instrument. Physical analysis propagates the polarized fields wherever the geometrical analysis is not valid, i.e., near the edges of stops, near images, in anisotropic media, etc. Polarization aberration theory provides a starting point for geometrical design and facilitates subsequent optimization. The polarization aberrations described arise from differences in the transmitted (or reflected) amplitudes and phases at interfaces. The polarization aberration matrix (PAM) is calculated for isotropic rotationally symmetric systems through fourth order and includes the interface phase, amplitude, linear diattenuation, and linear retardance aberrations. The exponential form of Jones matrices used are discussed. The PAM in Jones matrix is introduced. The exact calculation of polarization aberrations through polarization ray tracing is described. The report is divided into three sections: I. Rotationally Symmetric Optical Systems; II. Tilted and Decentered Optical Systems; and Polarization Analysis of LIDARs.

  16. Response-Specific Effects of Pain Observation on Motor Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, India; Poliakoff, Ellen; Gordon, Lucy; Downing, Paul

    2007-01-01

    How does seeing a painful event happening to someone else influence the observer's own motor system? To address this question, we measured simple reaction times following videos showing noxious or innocuous implements contacting corporeal or noncorporeal objects. Key releases in a go/nogo task were speeded, and key presses slowed, after subjects…

  17. Post-impact behavior of composite solid rocket motor cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Highsmith, Alton L.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, composite materials have seen increasing use in advanced structural applications because of the significant weight savings they offer when compared to more traditional engineering materials. The higher cost of composites must be offset by the increased performance that results from reduced structural weight if these new materials are to be used effectively. At present, there is considerable interest in fabricating solid rocket motor cases out of composite materials, and capitalizing on the reduced structural weight to increase rocket performance. However, one of the difficulties that arises when composite materials are used is that composites can develop significant amounts of internal damage during low velocity impacts. Such low velocity impacts may be encountered in routine handling of a structural component like a rocket motor case. The ability to assess the reduction in structural integrity of composite motor cases that experience accidental impacts is essential if composite rocket motor cases are to be certified for manned flight. The study described herein was an initial investigation of damage development and reduction of tensile strength in an idealized composite subjected to low velocity impacts.

  18. Effects of Interventions Based in Behavior Analysis on Motor Skill Acquisition: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alstot, Andrew E.; Kang, Minsoo; Alstot, Crystal D.

    2013-01-01

    Techniques based in applied behavior analysis (ABA) have been shown to be useful across a variety of settings to improve numerous behaviors. Specifically within physical activity settings, several studies have examined the effect of interventions based in ABA on a variety of motor skills, but the overall effects of these interventions are unknown.…

  19. The Development of Verbal Control over Motor Behavior: A Replication and Extension of Luria's Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinsley, Virginia S.; Waters, Harriet Salatas

    1982-01-01

    Two experiments replicate and extend Luria's (1959, 1961) findings on the development of verbal self-regulation during early childhood. Results support Luria's hypothesis that overt verbalizations facilitate control of motor behavior in young children and that language can play an active and integrative role in the development of behavioral and…

  20. Behavioral Prescription Guide. Manual IIb: Motor. Parent/Child Home Stimulation 'The Marshalltown Project.'

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keiser, Arlene F.; And Others

    Presented is the Marshalltown Behavioral Prescription Guide for motor development which consists of incremental behavioral objectives and strategies to aid parents in the prescriptive teaching of handicapped and culturally deprived infants and preschool children. The guide is intended for use prior to a weekly home visit resulting in a weekly…

  1. The Role of the Pediatric Cerebellum in Motor Functions, Cognition, and Behavior: A Clinical Perspective.

    PubMed

    Salman, Michael S; Tsai, Peter

    2016-08-01

    This article discusses the contribution of the pediatric cerebellum to locomotion, ocular motor control, speech articulation, cognitive function, and behavior modulation. Hypotheses on cerebellar function are discussed. Clinical features in patients with cerebellar disorders are outlined. Cerebellar abnormalities in cognitive and behavioral disorders are detailed. PMID:27423796

  2. Applying Behavioral Principles to Motor Vehicle Occupant Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleet, David A.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Successful programs designed to encourage protective behaviors (e.g., wearing safety belts and using child safety seats) have applied such behavioral principles as a combination of rewards, feedback, guidance, contingency management, and modeling. (Author/DB)

  3. Hypocretinergic neurons are activated in conjunction with goal-oriented survival-related motor behaviors.

    PubMed

    Torterolo, Pablo; Ramos, Oscar V; Sampogna, Sharon; Chase, Michael H

    2011-10-24

    Hypocretinergic neurons are located in the area of the lateral hypothalamus which is responsible for mediating goal-directed, survival-related behaviors. Consequently, we hypothesize that the hypocretinergic system functions to promote these behaviors including those patterns of somatomotor activation upon which they are based. Further, we hypothesize that the hypocretinergic system is not involved with repetitive motor activities unless they occur in conjunction with the goal-oriented behaviors that are governed by the lateral hypothalamus. In order to determine the veracity of these hypotheses, we examined Fos immunoreactivity (as a marker of neuronal activity) in hypocretinergic neurons in the cat during: a) Exploratory Motor Activity; b) Locomotion without Reward; c) Locomotion with Reward; and d) Wakefulness without Motor Activity. Significantly greater numbers of hypocretinergic neurons expressed c-fos when the animals were exploring an unknown environment during Exploratory Motor Activity compared with all other paradigms. In addition, a larger number of Hcrt+Fos+neurons were activated during Locomotion with Reward than during Wakefulness without Motor Activity. Finally, very few hypocretinergic neurons were activated during Locomotion without Reward and Wakefulness without Motor Activity, wherein there was an absence of goal-directed activities. We conclude that the hypocretinergic system does not promote wakefulness per se or motor activity per se but is responsible for mediating specific goal-oriented behaviors that take place during wakefulness. Accordingly, we suggest that the hypocretinergic system is responsible for controlling the somatomotor system and coordinating its activity with other systems in order to produce successful goal-oriented survival-related behaviors that are controlled by the lateral hypothalamus. PMID:21839102

  4. Evoked Potentials in Motor Cortical Local Field Potentials Reflect Task Timing and Behavioral Performance

    PubMed Central

    Confais, Joachim; Ponce-Alvarez, Adrián; Diesmann, Markus; Riehle, Alexa

    2010-01-01

    Evoked potentials (EPs) are observed in motor cortical local field potentials (LFPs) during movement execution (movement-related potentials [MRPs]) and in response to relevant visual cues (visual evoked potentials [VEPs]). Motor cortical EPs may be directionally selective, but little is known concerning their relation to other aspects of motor behavior, such as task timing and performance. We recorded LFPs in motor cortex of two monkeys during performance of a precued arm-reaching task. A time cue at the start of each trial signaled delay duration and thereby the pace of the task and the available time for movement preparation. VEPs and MRPs were strongly modulated by the delay duration, VEPs being systematically larger in short-delay trials and MRPs larger in long-delay trials. Despite these systematic modulations related to the task timing, directional selectivity was similar in short and long trials. The behavioral reaction time was positively correlated with MRP size and negatively correlated with VEP size, within sessions. In addition, the behavioral performance improved across sessions, in parallel with a slow decrease in the size of VEPs and MRPs. Our results clearly show the strong influence of the behavioral context and performance on motor cortical population activity during movement preparation and execution. PMID:20884766

  5. Structural behavior of solid rocket motor field joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, Michael F.; Wingate, Robert T.

    1987-01-01

    Structural analysis studies conducted on three concepts for the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor field joints are summarized. Deflections and stresses in the Challenger clevis-tang joint are compared with a proposed capture-tang replacement joint and with an alternate bolted joint design. Results indicate deflections and stresses are subsequently reduced in both the capture-tang and bolted joint concepts. The capture-tang and bolted joint designs are respectively 24 and 70 percent heavier than the baseline clevis-tang joint.

  6. Stochastic kinetics of ribosomes: Single motor properties and collective behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garai, Ashok; Chowdhury, Debanjan; Chowdhury, Debashish; Ramakrishnan, T. V.

    2009-07-01

    Syntheses of protein molecules in a cell are carried out by ribosomes. A ribosome can be regarded as a molecular motor which utilizes the input chemical energy to move on a messenger RNA (mRNA) track that also serves as a template for the polymerization of the corresponding protein. The forward movement, however, is characterized by an alternating sequence of translocation and pause. Using a quantitative model, which captures the mechanochemical cycle of an individual ribosome, we derive an exact analytical expression for the distribution of its dwell times at the successive positions on the mRNA track. Inverse of the average dwell time satisfies a “Michaelis-Menten-type” equation and is consistent with the general formula for the average velocity of a molecular motor with an unbranched mechanochemical cycle. Extending this formula appropriately, we also derive the exact force-velocity relation for a ribosome. Often many ribosomes simultaneously move on the same mRNA track, while each synthesizes a copy of the same protein. We extend the model of a single ribosome by incorporating steric exclusion of different individuals on the same track. We draw the phase diagram of this model of ribosome traffic in three-dimensional spaces spanned by experimentally controllable parameters. We suggest new experimental tests of our theoretical predictions.

  7. EEG spectra, behavioral states and motor activity in rats exposed to acetylcholinesterase inhibitor chlorpyrifos.

    PubMed

    Timofeeva, Olga A; Gordon, Christopher J

    2002-06-01

    Exposure to organophosphates (OP) has been associated with sleep disorders such as insomnia and "excessive dreaming." The central mechanisms of these effects are not well understood. OPs inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, leading to a hyperactivity of the brain cholinergic systems that are involved in sleep regulation. We studied alterations in the EEG, behavioral states, motor activity and core temperature in rats orally administered with 10 or 40 mg/kg of the OP insecticide chlorpyrifos (CHP). Occipital EEG, motor activity and core temperature were recorded with telemetric transmitters. Behavioral sleep-wake states were visually scored. Both doses of CHP produced alterations of the EEG (decrease in power of sigma/beta and increase in slow theta and fast gamma bands) characteristic of arousal. EEG alterations were consistent with behavioral changes such as an increase in wakefulness and a decrease in sleep. Waking immobility was a prevalent behavior. We did not detect any overt signs of CHP toxicity, such as an abnormal posture or gait, suggesting that reduced locomotion can be a result of central effects of CHP (such as activation of cholinergic motor inhibitory system) rather than peripheral (such as an impairment of neuromuscular function). Changes in the EEG and behavior occurred independently of the decrease in core temperature. Increased wakefulness together with reduced motor activity after exposure to CHP seems to be a result of hyperactivity in brain cholinergic neuronal networks. PMID:12175464

  8. Apparent and Actual Trajectory Control Depend on the Behavioral Context in Upper Limb Motor Tasks.

    PubMed

    Cluff, Tyler; Scott, Stephen H

    2015-09-01

    A central problem in motor neuroscience is to understand how we select, plan, and control motor actions. An influential idea is that the motor system computes and implements a desired limb trajectory, an intermediary control process between the behavioral goal (reach a spatial goal) and motor commands to move the limb. The most compelling evidence for trajectory control is that corrective responses are directed back toward the unperturbed trajectory when the limb is disturbed during movement. However, the idea of trajectory control conflicts with optimal control theories that emphasize goal-directed motor corrections. Here we show that corrective responses in human subjects can deviate back toward the unperturbed trajectory, but these reversals were only present when there were explicit limits on movement time. Our second experiment asked whether trajectory control could be generated if the trajectory was made an explicit goal of the task. Participants countered unexpected loads while reaching to a static goal, tracking a moving target, or maintaining their hand within a visually constrained path to a static goal. Corrective responses were directed back toward the constrained path or to intercept the moving target. However, corrections back to the unperturbed path disappeared when reaching to the static target. Long-latency muscle responses paralleled changes in the behavioral goal in both sets of experiments, but goal-directed responses were delayed by 15-25 ms when tracking the moving goal. Our results show the motor system can behave like a trajectory controller but only if a "desired trajectory" is the goal of the task. Significance statement: One of the most influential ideas in motor control is that the motor system computes a "desired trajectory" when reaching to a spatial goal. Here we revisit the experimental paradigm from seminal papers supporting trajectory control to illustrate that corrective responses appear to return to the original trajectory of the

  9. Functional Genetic Screen to Identify Interneurons Governing Behaviorally Distinct Aspects of Drosophila Larval Motor Programs.

    PubMed

    Clark, Matt Q; McCumsey, Stephanie J; Lopez-Darwin, Sereno; Heckscher, Ellie S; Doe, Chris Q

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila larval crawling is an attractive system to study rhythmic motor output at the level of animal behavior. Larval crawling consists of waves of muscle contractions generating forward or reverse locomotion. In addition, larvae undergo additional behaviors, including head casts, turning, and feeding. It is likely that some neurons (e.g., motor neurons) are used in all these behaviors, but the identity (or even existence) of neurons dedicated to specific aspects of behavior is unclear. To identify neurons that regulate specific aspects of larval locomotion, we performed a genetic screen to identify neurons that, when activated, could elicit distinct motor programs. We used 165 Janelia CRM-Gal4 lines-chosen for sparse neuronal expression-to ectopically express the warmth-inducible neuronal activator TrpA1, and screened for locomotor defects. The primary screen measured forward locomotion velocity, and we identified 63 lines that had locomotion velocities significantly slower than controls following TrpA1 activation (28°). A secondary screen was performed on these lines, revealing multiple discrete behavioral phenotypes, including slow forward locomotion, excessive reverse locomotion, excessive turning, excessive feeding, immobile, rigid paralysis, and delayed paralysis. While many of the Gal4 lines had motor, sensory, or muscle expression that may account for some or all of the phenotype, some lines showed specific expression in a sparse pattern of interneurons. Our results show that distinct motor programs utilize distinct subsets of interneurons, and provide an entry point for characterizing interneurons governing different elements of the larval motor program. PMID:27172197

  10. Functional Genetic Screen to Identify Interneurons Governing Behaviorally Distinct Aspects of Drosophila Larval Motor Programs

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Matt Q.; McCumsey, Stephanie J.; Lopez-Darwin, Sereno; Heckscher, Ellie S.; Doe, Chris Q.

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila larval crawling is an attractive system to study rhythmic motor output at the level of animal behavior. Larval crawling consists of waves of muscle contractions generating forward or reverse locomotion. In addition, larvae undergo additional behaviors, including head casts, turning, and feeding. It is likely that some neurons (e.g., motor neurons) are used in all these behaviors, but the identity (or even existence) of neurons dedicated to specific aspects of behavior is unclear. To identify neurons that regulate specific aspects of larval locomotion, we performed a genetic screen to identify neurons that, when activated, could elicit distinct motor programs. We used 165 Janelia CRM-Gal4 lines—chosen for sparse neuronal expression—to ectopically express the warmth-inducible neuronal activator TrpA1, and screened for locomotor defects. The primary screen measured forward locomotion velocity, and we identified 63 lines that had locomotion velocities significantly slower than controls following TrpA1 activation (28°). A secondary screen was performed on these lines, revealing multiple discrete behavioral phenotypes, including slow forward locomotion, excessive reverse locomotion, excessive turning, excessive feeding, immobile, rigid paralysis, and delayed paralysis. While many of the Gal4 lines had motor, sensory, or muscle expression that may account for some or all of the phenotype, some lines showed specific expression in a sparse pattern of interneurons. Our results show that distinct motor programs utilize distinct subsets of interneurons, and provide an entry point for characterizing interneurons governing different elements of the larval motor program. PMID:27172197

  11. Motor characteristics determine the rheological behavior of a suspension of microswimmers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmakar, Richa; Gulvady, Ranjit; Tirumkudulu, Mahesh S.; Venkatesh, K. V.

    2014-07-01

    A suspension of motile cells exhibits complex rheological properties due to their collective motion. We measure the shear viscosity of a suspension of Escherichia coli strains varying in motor characteristics such as duration of run and tumble. At low cell densities, all strains irrespective of their motor characteristics exhibit a linear increase in viscosity with cell density suggesting that the cells behave as a suspension of passive rods with an effective aspect ratio set by the motor characteristics of the bacteria. As the cell density is increased beyond a critical value, the viscosity drops sharply signaling the presence of strongly coordinated motion among bacteria. The critical density depends not only on the magnitude of shear but also the motor characteristics of individual cells. High shear rate disrupts the coordinated motion reducing its behavior, once again, to a suspension of inactive particles.

  12. Early communicative behaviors and their relationship to motor skills in extremely preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Benassi, Erika; Savini, Silvia; Iverson, Jana M; Guarini, Annalisa; Caselli, Maria Cristina; Alessandroni, Rosina; Faldella, Giacomo; Sansavini, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Despite the predictive value of early spontaneous communication for identifying risk for later language concerns, very little research has focused on these behaviors in extremely low-gestational-age infants (ELGA<28 weeks) or on their relationship with motor development. In this study, communicative behaviors (gestures, vocal utterances and their coordination) were evaluated during mother-infant play interactions in 20 ELGA infants and 20 full-term infants (FT) at 12 months (corrected age for ELGA infants). Relationships between gestures and motor skills, evaluated using the Bayley-III Scales were also examined. ELGA infants, compared with FT infants, showed less advanced communicative, motor, and cognitive skills. Giving and representational gestures were produced at a lower rate by ELGA infants. In addition, pointing gestures and words were produced by a lower percentage of ELGA infants. Significant positive correlations between gestures (pointing and representational gestures) and fine motor skills were found in the ELGA group. We discuss the relevance of examining spontaneous communicative behaviors and motor skills as potential indices of early development that may be useful for clinical assessment and intervention with ELGA infants. PMID:26555385

  13. Measured particulate behavior in a subscale solid propellant rocket motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, W. D.; Hovland, D. L.; Netzer, D. W.

    1992-10-01

    Particulate matter are sized in the exhaust nozzle and plume of small rocket motors of varying geometry to assess the effects of the expansion process on particle size. Both converging and converging-diverging nozzles are considered, and particle sizing is accomplished at pressures of up to 4.36 MPa with aluminum loadings of 2.0 and 4.7 percent. An instrument based on Fraunhofer diffraction is used to measure the particle-size distributions showing that: (1) high burning rates reduce particle agglomeration and increase C* efficiency; (2) high pressures lead to small and monomodal D32 entering the nozzle; and (3) D32 sizes increase appreciably at the tailoff. Some variations in plume signature are theorized to be caused by the tailoff phenomenon, and particle collisions and/or surface effects in the nozzle convergence are suggested by the reduced number of larger particles at the nozzle convergence.

  14. Motor Origin of Precise Synaptic Inputs onto Forebrain Neurons Driving a Skilled Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Vallentin, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Sensory feedback is crucial for learning and performing many behaviors, but its role in the execution of complex motor sequences is poorly understood. To address this, we consider the forebrain nucleus HVC in the songbird, which contains the premotor circuitry for song production and receives multiple convergent sensory inputs. During singing, projection neurons within HVC exhibit precisely timed synaptic events that may represent the ongoing motor program or song-related sensory feedback. To distinguish between these possibilities, we recorded the membrane potential from identified HVC projection neurons in singing zebra finches. External auditory perturbations during song production did not affect synaptic inputs in these neurons. Furthermore, the systematic removal of three sensory feedback streams (auditory, proprioceptive, and vagal) did not alter the frequency or temporal precision of synaptic activity observed. These findings support a motor origin for song-related synaptic events and suggest an updated circuit model for generating behavioral sequences. PMID:25568122

  15. Reducing the Stress of Intensive Care: Effects on Motor and State Behavior. Conference Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Patricia T.

    This report presents outcome data on infant motor activity and behavioral state. Subjects were 45 infants who had birth weight of less than 1,501 grams, were appropriate for gestational age, and were free of major complications. A total of 21 infants were studied during a preintervention (control period), and 24 were studied in a posttraining…

  16. Pre-reproductive maternal enrichment influences offspring developmental trajectories: motor behavior and neurotrophin expression

    PubMed Central

    Caporali, Paola; Cutuli, Debora; Gelfo, Francesca; Laricchiuta, Daniela; Foti, Francesca; De Bartolo, Paola; Mancini, Laura; Angelucci, Francesco; Petrosini, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Environmental enrichment is usually applied immediately after weaning or in adulthood, with strong effects on CNS anatomy and behavior. To examine the hypothesis that a pre-reproductive environmental enrichment of females could affect the motor development of their offspring, female rats were reared in an enriched environment from weaning to sexual maturity, while other female rats used as controls were reared under standard conditions. Following mating with standard-reared males, all females were housed individually. To evaluate the eventual transgenerational influence of positive pre-reproductive maternal experiences, postural and motor development of male pups was analyzed from birth to weaning. Moreover, expression of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Nerve Growth Factor in different brain regions was evaluated at birth and weaning. Pre-reproductive environmental enrichment of females affected the offspring motor development, as indicated by the earlier acquisition of complex motor abilities displayed by the pups of enriched females. The earlier acquisition of motor abilities was associated with enhanced neurotrophin levels in striatum and cerebellum. In conclusion, maternal positive experiences were transgenerationally transmitted, and influenced offspring phenotype at both behavioral and biochemical levels. PMID:24910599

  17. Analysis of Cooperative Behavior in Multiple Kinesins Motor Protein Transport by Varying Structural and Chemical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Uppulury, Karthik; Efremov, Artem K.; Driver, Jonathan W.; Jamison, D. Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Intracellular transport is a fundamental biological process during which cellular materials are driven by enzymatic molecules called motor proteins. Recent optical trapping experiments and theoretical analysis have uncovered many features of cargo transport by multiple kinesin motor protein molecules under applied loads. These studies suggest that kinesins cooperate negatively under typical transport conditions, although some productive cooperation could be achieved under higher applied loads. However, the microscopic origins of this complex behavior are still not well understood. Using a discrete-state stochastic approach we analyze factors that affect the cooperativity among kinesin motors during cargo transport. Kinesin cooperation is shown to be largely unaffected by the structural and mechanical parameters of a multiple motor complex connected to a cargo, but much more sensitive to biochemical parameters affecting motor-filament affinities. While such behavior suggests the net negative cooperative responses of kinesins will persist across a relatively wide range of cargo types, it is also shown that the rates with which cargo velocities relax in time upon force perturbations are influenced by structural factors that affect the free energies of and load distributions within a multiple kinesin complex. The implications of these later results on transport phenomena where loads change temporally, as in the case of bidirectional transport, are discussed. PMID:24489614

  18. Motor behaviors in the sheep evoked by electrical stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Lentz, Linnea; Zhao, Yan; Kelly, Matthew T; Schindeldecker, William; Goetz, Steven; Nelson, Dwight E; Raike, Robert S

    2015-11-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is used to treat movement disorders, including advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). The pathogenesis of PD and the therapeutic mechanisms of DBS are not well understood. Large animal models are essential for investigating the mechanisms of PD and DBS. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel sheep model of STN DBS and quantify the stimulation-evoked motor behaviors. To do so, a large sample of animals was chronically-implanted with commercial DBS systems. Neuroimaging and histology revealed that the DBS leads were implanted accurately relative to the neurosurgical plan and also precisely relative to the STN. It was also possible to repeatedly conduct controlled evaluations of stimulation-evoked motor behavior in the awake-state. The evoked motor responses depended on the neuroanatomical location of the electrode contact selected for stimulation, as contacts proximal to the STN evoked movements at significantly lower voltages. Tissue stimulation modeling demonstrated that selecting any of the contacts stimulated the STN, whereas selecting the relatively distal contacts often also stimulated thalamus but only the distal-most contact stimulated internal capsule. The types of evoked motor behaviors were specific to the stimulation frequency, as low but not high frequencies consistently evoked movements resembling human tremor or dyskinesia. Electromyography confirmed that the muscle activity underlying the tremor-like movements in the sheep was consistent with human tremor. Overall, this work establishes that the sheep is a viable a large-animal platform for controlled testing of STN DBS with objective motor outcomes. Moreover, the results support the hypothesis that exaggerated low-frequency activity within individual nodes of the motor network can drive symptoms of human movement disorders, including tremor and dyskinesia. PMID:26231574

  19. Perinatal thiamine restriction affects central GABA and glutamate concentrations and motor behavior of adult rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-Vieira, Talita Hélen; de Freitas-Silva, Danielle Marra; Ribeiro, Andrea Frozino; Pereira, Sílvia Rejane Castanheira; Ribeiro, Ângela Maria

    2016-03-23

    The purposes of the present study were to investigate the effects of perinatal thiamine deficiency, from the 11th day of gestation until the 5th day of lactation, on motor behavior and neurochemical parameters in adult rat offspring, using 3-month-old, adult, male Wistar rats. All rats were submitted to motor tests, using the rotarod and paw print tasks. After behavioral tests, their thalamus, cerebellum and spinal cord were dissected for glutamate and GABA quantifications by high performance liquid chromatography. The thiamine-restricted mothers (RM) group showed a significant reduction of time spent on the rotarod at 25 rpm and an increase in hind-base width. A significant decrease of glutamate concentration in the cerebellum and an increase of GABA concentrations in the thalamus were also observed. For the offspring from control mothers (CM) group there were significant correlations between thalamic GABA concentrations and both rotarod performance and average hind-base width. In addition, for rats from the RM group a significant correlation between stride length and cerebellar GABA concentration was found. These results show that the deficiency of thiamine during an early developmental period affects certain motor behavior parameters and GABA and glutamate levels in specific brain areas. Hence, a thiamine deficiency episode during an early developmental period can induce motor impairments and excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter changes that are persistent and detectable in later periods of life. PMID:26836141

  20. A structured assessment of motor function and behavior in patients with Kleefstra syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Susanne; Nag, Heidi E; Hunn, Bente S; Houge, Gunnar; Hoxmark, Lise B

    2016-04-01

    The present study aimed to further our understanding of Kleefstra syndrome, especially regarding motor function and behavioral characteristics. In total, four males and four females between two and 27 years of age with a genetically confirmed diagnosis of Kleefstra syndrome and their parents participated in this study. Four patients had 9q34.3 deletions that caused Euchromatin Histone Methyl Transferase 1 (EHMT1) haplo-insufficiency, and four patients harbored EHMT1 mutations. The motor function was evaluated via systematic observation. Standardized assessments such as the Vineland Adapted Behavior Scales II (VABS II), the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) and the Child or Adult Behavior Checklist (CBCL, ABCL) were used for the behavioral assessment. All patients showed a delayed developmental status. Muscular hypotonia and its manifestations were present in all patients, regardless of their age. The mean values for all VABS II domains (communication, socialization, daily living skills, and motor skills) were significantly lower than the mean of the reference population (p < 0.001), but similar to other rare intellectual disabilities such as Smith-Magenis syndrome and Angelman syndrome. The results from the SCQ indicated that all patient values exceeded the cut-off value, suggesting the possibility of autism spectrum disorder. The behavioral and emotional problems assessed by CBCL and ABCL were less frequent. In conclusion, patients with Kleefstra syndrome present with a broad range of clinical problems in all age groups and are therefore in need of a multidisciplinary follow-up also after their transition into adulthood. PMID:26808425

  1. Harmony from Chaos? Perceptual-Motor Delays Enhance Behavioral Anticipation in Social Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Washburn, Auriel; Kallen, Rachel W.; Coey, Charles A.; Shockley, Kevin; Richardson, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Effective interpersonal coordination is fundamental to robust social interaction, and the ability to anticipate a co-actor's behavior is essential for achieving this coordination. However, coordination research has focused on the behavioral synchrony that occurs between the simple periodic movements of co-actors and, thus, little is known about the anticipation that occurs during complex, everyday interaction. Research on the dynamics of coupled neurons, human motor control, electrical circuits, and laser semiconductors universally demonstrates that small temporal feedback delays are necessary for the anticipation of chaotic events. We therefore investigated whether similar feedback delays would promote anticipatory behavior during social interaction. Results revealed that co-actors were not only able to anticipate others' chaotic movements when experiencing small perceptual-motor delays, but also exhibited movement patterns of equivalent complexity. This suggests that such delays, including those within the human nervous system, may enhance, rather than hinder, the anticipatory processes that underlie successful social interaction. PMID:26030437

  2. Natural descriptions of motor behavior: examples from E. coli and C. elegans.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, William

    2007-03-01

    E. coli has a natural behavioral variable - the direction of rotation of its flagellar rotorary motor. Monitoring this one-dimensional behavioral response in reaction to chemical perturbation has been instrumental in the understanding of how E. coli performs chemotaxis at the genetic, physiological, and computational level. Here we apply this experimental strategy to the study of bacterial thermotaxis - a sensory mode that is less well understood. We investigate bacterial thermosensation by studying the motor response of single cells subjected to impulses of heat produced by an IR laser. A simple temperature dependent modification to an existing chemotaxis model can explain the observed temperature response. Higher organisms may have a more complicated behavioral response due to the simple fact that their motions have more degrees of freedom. Here we provide a principled analysis of motor behavior of such an organism -- the roundworm C. elegans. Using tracking video-microscopy we capture a worm's image and extract the skeleton of the shape as a head-to-tail ordered collection of tangent angles sampled along the curve. Applying principal components analysis we show that the space of shapes is remarkably low dimensional, with four dimensions accounting for > 95% of the shape variance. We also show that these dimensions align with behaviorally relevant states. As an application of this analysis we study the thermal response of worms stimulated by laser heating. Our quantitative description of C. elegans movement should prove useful in a wide variety of contexts, from the linking of motor output with neural circuitry to the genetic basis of adaptive behavior.

  3. Comparison of motor, cognitive, and behavioral features in progressive supranuclear palsy and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Cordato, Nicholas J; Halliday, Glenda M; Caine, Diana; Morris, John G L

    2006-05-01

    Major clinical features and global measures were systematically evaluated and compared in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and Parkinson's disease (PD). In addition to gaze palsy and early postural instability in PSP, absence of levodopa-induced dyskinesia, frontalis muscle overactivity, primitive reflexes, visuospatial impairment, and substantial frontal behavioral disturbances differentiated almost all patients with this disorder from PD. For PSP, behavioral changes related to severity of general disability, thereby challenging previous models of relationships between behavior, motor, and cognitive disturbance for this disorder. PMID:16353177

  4. [Formation of probabilistic structure of motor behavior in bottlenose dolphins in captivity].

    PubMed

    Chechina, O N; Kondrat'eva, N L

    2009-01-01

    A probabilistic structure of the motor behavior was analyzed in dolphin calves Tursiops truncatus in the prenatal period and adult dolphins in an oceanarium. Ethograms were recorded and subjected to a computer analysis. Ranking probabilities of transitions between behavioral acts revealed a highly determined sequence of operations underlying the newborn dolphins' behavior. The principle of formation of the variation ethologic structures providing a contact between a developing organism and the environment was determined. The results are discussed in terms of the concept of the informational brain-environment interaction. PMID:19947534

  5. The Association of Intelligence, Visual-Motor Functioning, and Personality Characteristics With Adaptive Behavior in Individuals With Williams Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fu, Trista J; Lincoln, Alan J; Bellugi, Ursula; Searcy, Yvonne M

    2015-07-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is associated with deficits in adaptive behavior and an uneven adaptive profile. This study investigated the association of intelligence, visual-motor functioning, and personality characteristics with the adaptive behavior in individuals with WS. One hundred individuals with WS and 25 individuals with developmental disabilities of other etiologies were included in this study. This study found that IQ and visual-motor functioning significantly predicted adaptive behavior in individuals of WS. Visual-motor functioning especially predicted the most amount of unique variance in overall adaptive behavior and contributed to the variance above and beyond that of IQ. Present study highlights the need for interventions that address visual-motor and motor functioning in individuals with WS. PMID:26161466

  6. Fish Chromatophores--From Molecular Motors to Animal Behavior.

    PubMed

    Sköld, Helen Nilsson; Aspengren, Sara; Cheney, Karen L; Wallin, Margareta

    2016-01-01

    Chromatophores are pigment-bearing cells of lower vertebrates, including fish that cater for the ability of individual animals to shift body coloration and pattern. Color change provides dynamic camouflage and various kinds of communication. It is also a spectacular example of phenotypic plasticity, and of significant importance for adaptation and survival in novel environments. Through different cellular mechanisms, color change can occur within minutes or more slowly over weeks. Chromatophores have different pigment types and are located not only in the skin, but also in the eyes and internally. While morphological color change, including seasonal color change, has received a lot of interest from evolutionary biologists and behavioral ecologists, the more rapid physiological color change has been largely a research subject for cell physiologists. In this cross-disciplinary review, we have highlighted emerging trends in pigment cell research and identified unsolved problems for future research. PMID:26811288

  7. Behavioral Symptoms in Motor Neuron Disease and Their Negative Impact on Caregiver Burden

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Bo; Cui, Li-Ying; Liu, Ming-Sheng; Li, Xiao-Guang; Ma, Jun-Fang; Fang, Jia; Ding, Qing-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Background: The spectrum of abnormal behaviors in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease (ALS/MND) has been described, but its practical meaning, namely its impact on caregiver burden, has not been clearly documented in Chinese population. This study aimed to assess the distribution of abnormal behaviors in Chinese population, and to analyze the relationship between behavior changes and caregiver burden. Methods: Sixty-five patients with ALS/MND have been consecutively enrolled into registry platform of Peking Union Medical College Hospital. An investigation was performed to these patients and their caregivers using the revised ALS function rating scale, Frontal Behavioral Inventory-ALS version, the Frontal Assessment Battery, and the Caregiver Burden Inventory. Results: Twenty-eight (43.1%) patients displayed abnormal behaviors of varying degrees, with one fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of frontotemporal lobe degeneration. Irritability, logopenia, and inflexibility ranked top 3 of abnormal behavior list. Correlation analysis revealed that the degree of behavioral change and frontal cognitive status were significantly associated with caregiver burden, with more extensive impact from disinhibitive behaviors. Analysis of covariance analysis showed that after associated factors were corrected, caregivers of patients with moderate to severe behavior change reported significantly heavier developmental burden, physical burden, and total burden than those with no behavioral change. Conclusions: Neurobehavioral symptoms could present in around 40% of Chinese patients with ALS/MND, and the distribution of these behaviors was also unique. Besides, abnormal behaviors were highly related to caregivers’ burden. PMID:26315075

  8. REM Sleep Behavior and Motor Findings in Parkinson's Disease: A Cross-sectional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Abhimanyu; Rosenthal, Liana S.; Gamaldo, Charlene; Salas, Rachel E.; Pontone, Gregory M.; McCoy, Arita; Umeh, Chizoba; Mari, Zoltan

    2014-01-01

    Background Parkinson's disease (PD) represents a major public health challenge that will only grow in our aging population. Understanding the connection between PD and associated prodromal conditions, such as rapid eye movement sleep behavioral disorder (RBD), is critical to identifying prevention strategies. However, the relationship between RBD and severity of motor findings in early PD is unknown. This study aims to examine this relationship. Methods The study population consisted of 418 PD patients who completed the Movement Disorders Society-United Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) and rapid eye movement sleep (REM) disorder questionnaires at the baseline visit of the Michael J. Fox's Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI). Cross-sectional analysis was carried out to assess the association between REM Sleep Behavior Screening Questionnaire score and MDS UPDRS-3 (motor) score categories. Correlation with a higher score category was described as “worse motor findings”. A score of 5 on the REM disorder questionnaire was defined as predictive of RBD. Results Out of the 418 PD patients, 113 (27.0%) had RBD. With univariate logistic regression analysis, individuals with scores predictive of RBD were 1.66 times more likely to have worse motor findings (p = 0.028). Even with age, gender, and Geriatric Depression Scale scores taken into account, individuals with scores predictive of RBD were 1.69 times more likely to have worse motor findings (p = 0.025). Discussion PD patients with RBD symptoms had worse motor findings than those unlikely to have RBD. This association provides further evidence for the relationship between RBD and PD. PMID:25009765

  9. Distributed Effects of Biological Sex Define Sex-Typical Motor Behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Mowrey, William R.; Bennett, Jessica R.

    2014-01-01

    Sex differences in shared behaviors (for example, locomotion and feeding) are a nearly universal feature of animal biology. Though these behaviors may share underlying neural programs, their kinematics can exhibit robust differences between males and females. The neural underpinnings of these differences are poorly understood because of the often-untested assumption that they are determined by sex-specific body morphology. Here, we address this issue in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which features two sexes with distinct body morphologies but similar locomotor circuitry and body muscle. Quantitative behavioral analysis shows that C. elegans and related nematodes exhibit significant sex differences in the dynamics and geometry of locomotor body waves, such that the male is generally faster. Using a recently proposed model of locomotor wave propagation, we show that sex differences in both body mechanics and the intrinsic dynamics of the motor system can contribute to kinematic differences in distinct mechanical contexts. By genetically sex-reversing the properties of specific tissues and cells, however, we find that sex-specific locomotor frequency in C. elegans is determined primarily by the functional modification of shared sensory neurons. Further, we find that sexual modification of body wall muscle together with the nervous system is required to alter body wave speed. Thus, rather than relying on a single focus of modification, sex differences in motor dynamics require independent modifications to multiple tissue types. Our results suggest shared motor behaviors may be sex-specifically optimized though distributed modifications to several aspects of morphology and physiology. PMID:24478342

  10. Biographic and behavioral factors are associated with music-related motor skills in children pianists.

    PubMed

    Spector, June T; Yong, Raymond; Altenmüller, Eckart; Jabusch, Hans-Christian

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to identify biographical and behavioral factors associated with children pianists' motor skills using an objective assessment of a music-relevant motor task. Motor skills at the piano were assessed in 30 children pianists by measuring temporal unevenness in standardized scale playing using musical instrument digital interface (MIDI)-based scale analysis. Questionnaires were used to collect detailed information about the amount of time playing the piano, practice characteristics, attitudes toward music and practice, and the environment of music and practice. Associations between performance values and variables from the questionnaire were investigated using multivariable linear regression. A higher number of years playing the piano, more frequent parental involvement in the child's practice, more frequent practice of technical exercises, and greater enjoyment of practice and of the visual arts were associated with better motor performance. In addition to cumulative experience and aspects of practice, extrinsic motivational factors (e.g., parental interest) and intrinsic motivational factors (e.g., an artistic disposition) were associated with better performance on a musically-relevant motor task in children pianists. PMID:25215624

  11. ALS-linked TDP-43 mutations produce aberrant RNA splicing and adult-onset motor neuron disease without aggregation or loss of nuclear TDP-43.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Eveline S; Ling, Shuo-Chien; Huelga, Stephanie C; Lagier-Tourenne, Clotilde; Polymenidou, Magdalini; Ditsworth, Dara; Kordasiewicz, Holly B; McAlonis-Downes, Melissa; Platoshyn, Oleksandr; Parone, Philippe A; Da Cruz, Sandrine; Clutario, Kevin M; Swing, Debbie; Tessarollo, Lino; Marsala, Martin; Shaw, Christopher E; Yeo, Gene W; Cleveland, Don W

    2013-02-19

    Transactivating response region DNA binding protein (TDP-43) is the major protein component of ubiquitinated inclusions found in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) with ubiquitinated inclusions. Two ALS-causing mutants (TDP-43(Q331K) and TDP-43(M337V)), but not wild-type human TDP-43, are shown here to provoke age-dependent, mutant-dependent, progressive motor axon degeneration and motor neuron death when expressed in mice at levels and in a cell type-selective pattern similar to endogenous TDP-43. Mutant TDP-43-dependent degeneration of lower motor neurons occurs without: (i) loss of TDP-43 from the corresponding nuclei, (ii) accumulation of TDP-43 aggregates, and (iii) accumulation of insoluble TDP-43. Computational analysis using splicing-sensitive microarrays demonstrates alterations of endogenous TDP-43-dependent alternative splicing events conferred by both human wild-type and mutant TDP-43(Q331K), but with high levels of mutant TDP-43 preferentially enhancing exon exclusion of some target pre-mRNAs affecting genes involved in neurological transmission and function. Comparison with splicing alterations following TDP-43 depletion demonstrates that TDP-43(Q331K) enhances normal TDP-43 splicing function for some RNA targets but loss-of-function for others. Thus, adult-onset motor neuron disease does not require aggregation or loss of nuclear TDP-43, with ALS-linked mutants producing loss and gain of splicing function of selected RNA targets at an early disease stage. PMID:23382207

  12. [The teenager who finds it difficult to wake up in the morning: aberrant behavior, misperception or an underlying sleep disorder?].

    PubMed

    van den Bossche, R A; Peeters, E A; de Weerd, A W

    2004-02-14

    Three teenagers, two girls aged 14 years and one boy aged 10 years, had had difficulty with getting to sleep in the evening and waking up in the morning from a very early age. These difficulties led to underperformance at school and/or tension in the household. The anamneses and a sleep study led to the following conclusions: 'delayed sleep phase syndrome', 'sleep state misperception' and 'aberrant interaction between the child and its parents'. Treatment with phototherapy and regulation of the bedtimes, information and regulation of the bedtimes, and pedagogic advice, respectively, was successful within a few months. Teenagers often complain about problems with sleeping, in particular about late onset of sleep and difficulties with awakening. These problems are self-limiting in most cases, but can have a disastrous influence on social life and education. PMID:15015243

  13. Patient vs provider reports of aberrant medication-taking behavior among opioid-treated patients with chronic pain who report misusing opioid medication.

    PubMed

    Nikulina, Valentina; Guarino, Honoria; Acosta, Michelle C; Marsch, Lisa A; Syckes, Cassandra; Moore, Sarah K; Portenoy, Russell K; Cruciani, Ricardo A; Turk, Dennis C; Rosenblum, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    During long-term opioid therapy for chronic noncancer pain, monitoring medication adherence of patients with a history of aberrant opioid medication-taking behaviors (AMTB) is an essential practice. There is limited research, however, into the concordance among existing monitoring tools of self-report, physician report, and biofluid screening. This study examined associations among patient and provider assessments of AMTB and urine drug screening using data from a randomized trial of a cognitive-behavioral intervention designed to improve medication adherence and pain-related outcomes among 110 opioid-treated patients with chronic pain who screened positive for AMTB and were enrolled in a pain program. Providers completed the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) and patients completed the Current Opioid Misuse Measure (COMM) and the Chemical Coping Inventory (CCI). In multivariate analyses, ABC scores were compared with COMM and CCI scores, while controlling for demographics and established risk factors for AMTB, such as pain severity. Based on clinical cutoffs, 84% of patients reported clinically significant levels of AMTB and providers rated 36% of patients at elevated levels. Provider reports of AMTB were not correlated with COMM or CCI scores. However, the ABC ratings of experienced providers (nurse practitioners/attending physicians) were higher than those of less experienced providers (fellows) and were correlated with CCI scores and risk factors for AMTB. Associations between patient- and provider-reported AMTB and urine drug screening results were low and largely nonsignificant. In conclusion, concordance between patient and provider reports of AMTB among patients with chronic pain prescribed opioid medication varied by provider level of training. PMID:27082008

  14. The bold and the fearless among us: elevated psychopathic traits and levels of anxiety and fear are associated with specific aberrant driving behaviors.

    PubMed

    Panayiotou, Georgia

    2015-06-01

    In spite of the well-documented connection between personality traits like impulsivity, sensation seeking and fearlessness with aberrant driving behaviors, scarce research exists to examine the association between risky and aggressive driving and psychopathic characteristics, which encompass the above traits. The present investigation examines in two studies the association between specific sub-types of driving misconduct, i.e., unintentional mistakes and deliberate rule violations with psychopathic characteristics, with a focus on the role of levels of fear and anxiety in aberrant driving. Findings support the hypotheses that fearlessness, i.e., the bold, unemotional aspect of psychopathic traits, characterizes drivers who engage in frequent deliberate driving code violations, whereas the more impulsive/antisocial aspect of psychopathy, associated with higher levels of fear and anxiety, is more characteristic of drivers who engage in unintentional mistakes. Fearless features are also associated with higher self-reported driving misconduct and accidents. Study 2 conceptually replicated this finding by showing that mistakes are positively related to high sensitivity to punishment, while violations are negatively related to it. Findings are discussed in light of psychopathy theory and in relation to prevention and intervention. PMID:25819475

  15. Deprivation and Recovery of Sleep in Succession Enhances Reflexive Motor Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Sprenger, Andreas; Weber, Frederik D.; Machner, Bjoern; Talamo, Silke; Scheffelmeier, Sabine; Bethke, Judith; Helmchen, Christoph; Gais, Steffen; Kimmig, Hubert; Born, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Sleep deprivation impairs inhibitory control over reflexive behavior, and this impairment is commonly assumed to dissipate after recovery sleep. Contrary to this belief, here we show that fast reflexive behaviors, when practiced during sleep deprivation, is consolidated across recovery sleep and, thereby, becomes preserved. As a model for the study of sleep effects on prefrontal cortex-mediated inhibitory control in humans, we examined reflexive saccadic eye movements (express saccades), as well as speeded 2-choice finger motor responses. Different groups of subjects were trained on a standard prosaccade gap paradigm before periods of nocturnal sleep and sleep deprivation. Saccade performance was retested in the next morning and again 24 h later. The rate of express saccades was not affected by sleep after training, but slightly increased after sleep deprivation. Surprisingly, this increase augmented even further after recovery sleep and was still present 4 weeks later. Additional experiments revealed that the short testing after sleep deprivation was sufficient to increase express saccades across recovery sleep. An increase in speeded responses across recovery sleep was likewise found for finger motor responses. Our findings indicate that recovery sleep can consolidate motor disinhibition for behaviors practiced during prior sleep deprivation, thereby persistently enhancing response automatization. PMID:26048955

  16. Cellular Mechanisms Underlying Behavioral State-Dependent Bidirectional Modulation of Motor Cortex Output

    PubMed Central

    Schiemann, Julia; Puggioni, Paolo; Dacre, Joshua; Pelko, Miha; Domanski, Aleksander; van Rossum, Mark C.W.; Duguid, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Summary Neuronal activity in primary motor cortex (M1) correlates with behavioral state, but the cellular mechanisms underpinning behavioral state-dependent modulation of M1 output remain largely unresolved. Here, we performed in vivo patch-clamp recordings from layer 5B (L5B) pyramidal neurons in awake mice during quiet wakefulness and self-paced, voluntary movement. We show that L5B output neurons display bidirectional (i.e., enhanced or suppressed) firing rate changes during movement, mediated via two opposing subthreshold mechanisms: (1) a global decrease in membrane potential variability that reduced L5B firing rates (L5Bsuppressed neurons), and (2) a coincident noradrenaline-mediated increase in excitatory drive to a subpopulation of L5B neurons (L5Benhanced neurons) that elevated firing rates. Blocking noradrenergic receptors in forelimb M1 abolished the bidirectional modulation of M1 output during movement and selectively impaired contralateral forelimb motor coordination. Together, our results provide a mechanism for how noradrenergic neuromodulation and network-driven input changes bidirectionally modulate M1 output during motor behavior. PMID:25981037

  17. Proficient Motor Impulse Control in Parkinson Disease patients with Impulsive and Compulsive Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Claassen, Daniel O.; van den Wildenberg, Wery P. M.; Harrison, Madaline; van Wouwe, Nelleke C.; Kanoff, Kristen; Neimat, Joseph; Wylie, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Parkinson Disease (PD) patients treated with Dopamine Agonist therapy can develop maladaptive reward-driven behaviors, known as Impulse Control Disorder (ICD). In this study, we assessed if ICD patients have evidence of motor-impulsivity. Methods We used the stop-signal task in a cohort of patients with and without active symptoms of ICD to evaluate motor-impulsivity. Of those with PD, 12 were diagnosed with ICD symptoms (PD-ICD) and were assessed before clinical reduction of Dopamine Agonist medication; 12 were without symptoms of ICD [PD-control] and taking equivalent dosages of Dopamine Agonist. Levodopa, if present, was maintained in both settings. Groups were similar in age, duration, and severity of motor symptoms, levodopa co-therapy, and total levodopa daily dose. All were tested in the Dopamine Agonist medicated and acutely withdrawn (24 hours) state, in a counterbalanced manner. Primary outcome measures were mean reaction time to correct go trials (Go Reaction Time), and mean stop-signal reaction time (SSRT). Results ICD patients produce faster SSRT than both Healthy Controls, and PD Controls. Faster SSRT in ICD patients is apparent in both Dopamine Agonist medication states. Also, we show unique dopamine medication effects on GoRT. In Dopamine Agonist monotherapy patients, Dopamine Agonist administration speeds Go Reaction Time. Conversely, in those with levodopa co-therapy, Dopamine Agonist administration slows Go Reaction Time. Discussion PD patients with active ICD symptoms are significantly faster at stopping initiated motor actions, and this is not altered by acute Dopamine Agonist withdrawal. In addition, the effect of Dopamine Agonist on Go Reaction Time is strongly influenced by the presence or absence of levodopa, even though levodopa co-therapy does not appear to influence SSRT. We discuss these findings as they pertain to the multifaceted definition of ‘impulsivity,’ the lack of evidence for motor-impulsivity in PD-ICD, and

  18. Noninvasive, accurate assessment of the behavior of representative populations of motor units in targeted reinnervated muscles.

    PubMed

    Farina, Dario; Rehbaum, Hubertus; Holobar, Aleš; Vujaklija, Ivan; Jiang, Ning; Hofer, Christian; Salminger, Stefan; van Vliet, Hans-Willem; Aszmann, Oskar C

    2014-07-01

    Targeted muscle reinnervation (TMR) redirects nerves that have lost their target, due to amputation, to remaining muscles in the region of the stump with the intent of establishing intuitive myosignals to control a complex prosthetic device. In order to directly recover the neural code underlying an attempted limb movement, in this paper, we present the decomposition of high-density surface electromyographic (EMG) signals detected from three TMR patients into the individual motor unit spike trains. The aim was to prove, for the first time, the feasibility of decoding the neural drive that would reach muscles of the missing limb in TMR patients, to show the accuracy of the decoding, and to demonstrate the representativeness of the pool of extracted motor units. Six to seven flexible EMG electrode grids of 64 electrodes each were mounted over the reinnervated muscles of each patient, resulting in up to 448 EMG signals. The subjects were asked to attempt elbow extension and flexion, hand open and close, wrist extension and flexion, wrist pronation and supination, of their missing limb. The EMG signals were decomposed using the Convolution Kernel Compensation technique and the decomposition accuracy was evaluated with a signal-based index of accuracy, called pulse-to-noise ratio (PNR). The results showed that the spike trains of 3 to 27 motor units could be identified for each task, with a sensitivity of the decomposition > 90%, as revealed by PNR. The motor unit discharge rates were within physiological values of normally innervated muscles. Moreover, the detected motor units showed a high degree of common drive so that the set of extracted units per task was representative of the behavior of the population of active units. The results open a path for a new generation of human-machine interfaces in which the control signals are extracted from noninvasive recordings and the obtained neural information is based directly on the spike trains of motor neurons. PMID

  19. Structural and functional connectivity in healthy aging: Associations for cognition and motor behavior.

    PubMed

    Hirsiger, Sarah; Koppelmans, Vincent; Mérillat, Susan; Liem, Franziskus; Erdeniz, Burak; Seidler, Rachael D; Jäncke, Lutz

    2016-03-01

    Age-related behavioral declines may be the result of deterioration of white matter tracts, affecting brain structural (SC) and functional connectivity (FC) during resting state. To date, it is not clear if the combination of SC and FC data could better predict cognitive/motor performance than each measure separately. We probed these relationships in the cingulum bundle, a major white matter pathway of the default mode network. We aimed to attain deeper knowledge about: (a) the relationship between age and the cingulum's SC and FC strength, (b) the association between SC and FC, and particularly (c) how the cingulum's SC and FC are related to cognitive/motor performance separately and combined. We examined these associations in a healthy and well-educated sample of 165 older participants (aged 64-85). SC and FC were acquired using probabilistic tractography to derive measures to capture white matter integrity within the cingulum bundle (fractional anisotropy, mean, axial and radial diffusivity) and a seed-based resting-state functional MRI correlation approach, respectively. Participants performed cognitive tests measuring processing speed, memory and executive functions, and motor tests measuring motor speed and grip force. Our data revealed that only SC but not resting state FC was significantly associated with age. Further, the cingulum's SC and FC showed no relation. Different relationships between cognitive/motor performance and SC/FC separately were found, but no additive effect of the combined analysis of cingulum's SC and FC for predicting cognitive/motor performance was apparent. Hum Brain Mapp 37:855-867, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26663386

  20. Adolescent Balloon Analog Risk Task and Behaviors that Influence Risk of Motor Vehicle Crash Injury

    PubMed Central

    Vaca, Federico E.; Walthall, Jessica M.; Ryan, Sheryl; Moriarty-Daley, Alison; Riera, Antonio; Crowley, Michael J.; Mayes, Linda C.

    2013-01-01

    Risk-taking propensity is a pivotal facet of motor vehicle crash involvement and subsequent traumatic injury in adolescents. Clinical encounters are important opportunities to identify teens with high risk-taking propensity who may later experience serious injury. Our objective was to compare self-reports of health risk behavior with performance on the Balloon Analog Risk Task (BART), a validated metric of risk-taking propensity, in adolescents during a clinical encounter. 100 adolescent patients from a hospital emergency department and adolescent health clinic completed a computer-based survey of self-reported risk behaviors including substance use behaviors and behaviors that influence crash involvement. They then completed the BART, a validated laboratory-based risk task in which participants earn points by pumping up a computer-generated balloon with greater pumps leading to increased chance of balloon explosion. 20 trials were undertaken. Mean number of pumps on the BART showed a correlation of .243 (p=.015) with self-reported driver/passenger behaviors and attitudes towards driving that influence risk of crash injury. Regression analyses showed that self-reports of substance use and mean number of pumps on the BART uniquely predict self-reports of behaviors influencing the risk of crash injury. The BART is a promising correlate of real-world risk-taking behavior related to traffic safety. It remains a valid predictor of behaviors influencing risk of crash injury when using just 10 trials, suggesting its utility as a quick and effective screening measure for use in busy clinical environments. This tool may be an important link to prevention interventions for those most at-risk for future motor vehicle crash involvement and injury. PMID:24406948

  1. Transition to superdiffusive behavior in intracellular actin-based transport mediated by molecular motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, L.; Levi, V.; Brunstein, M.; Despósito, M. A.

    2009-07-01

    Intracellular transport of large cargoes, such as organelles, vesicles, or large proteins, is a complex dynamical process that involves the interplay of adenosine triphosphate-consuming molecular motors, cytoskeleton filaments, and the viscoelastic cytoplasm. In this work we investigate the motion of pigment organelles (melanosomes) driven by myosin-V motors in Xenopus laevis melanocytes using a high-spatio-temporal resolution tracking technique. By analyzing the obtained trajectories, we show that the melanosomes mean-square displacement undergoes a transition from a subdiffusive to a superdiffusive behavior. A stochastic theoretical model, which explicitly considers the collective action of the molecular motors, is introduced to generalize the interpretation of our data. Starting from a generalized Langevin equation, we derive an analytical expression for the mean square displacement, which also takes into account the experimental noise. By fitting theoretical expressions to experimental data we were able to discriminate the exponents that characterize the passive and active contributions to the dynamics and to estimate the “global” motor forces correctly. Then, our model gives a quantitative description of active transport in living cells with a reduced number of parameters.

  2. Circuits for grasping: spinal dI3 interneurons mediate cutaneous control of motor behavior.

    PubMed

    Bui, Tuan V; Akay, Turgay; Loubani, Osama; Hnasko, Thomas S; Jessell, Thomas M; Brownstone, Robert M

    2013-04-10

    Accurate motor performance depends on the integration in spinal microcircuits of sensory feedback information. Hand grasp is a skilled motor behavior known to require cutaneous sensory feedback, but spinal microcircuits that process and relay this feedback to the motor system have not been defined. We sought to define classes of spinal interneurons involved in the cutaneous control of hand grasp in mice and to show that dI3 interneurons, a class of dorsal spinal interneurons marked by the expression of Isl1, convey input from low threshold cutaneous afferents to motoneurons. Mice in which the output of dI3 interneurons has been inactivated exhibit deficits in motor tasks that rely on cutaneous afferent input. Most strikingly, the ability to maintain grip strength in response to increasing load is lost following genetic silencing of dI3 interneuron output. Thus, spinal microcircuits that integrate cutaneous feedback crucial for paw grip rely on the intermediary role of dI3 interneurons. PMID:23583114

  3. Regression rate behaviors of HTPB-based propellant combinations for hybrid rocket motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xingliang; Tian, Hui; Li, Yuelong; Yu, Nanjia; Cai, Guobiao

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to characterize the regression rate behavior of hybrid rocket motor propellant combinations, using hydrogen peroxide (HP), gaseous oxygen (GOX), nitrous oxide (N2O) as the oxidizer and hydroxyl-terminated poly-butadiene (HTPB) as the based fuel. In order to complete this research by experiment and simulation, a hybrid rocket motor test system and a numerical simulation model are established. Series of hybrid rocket motor firing tests are conducted burning different propellant combinations, and several of those are used as references for numerical simulations. The numerical simulation model is developed by combining the Navies-Stokes equations with the turbulence model, one-step global reaction model, and solid-gas coupling model. The distribution of regression rate along the axis is determined by applying simulation mode to predict the combustion process and heat transfer inside the hybrid rocket motor. The time-space averaged regression rate has a good agreement between the numerical value and experimental data. The results indicate that the N2O/HTPB and GOX/HTPB propellant combinations have a higher regression rate, since the enhancement effect of latter is significant due to its higher flame temperature. Furthermore, the containing of aluminum (Al) and/or ammonium perchlorate(AP) in the grain does enhance the regression rate, mainly due to the more energy released inside the chamber and heat feedback to the grain surface by the aluminum combustion.

  4. Effects of moderate prenatal ethanol exposure and age on social behavior, spatial response perseveration errors and motor behavior.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Derek A; Barto, Daniel; Rodriguez, Carlos I; Magcalas, Christy M; Fink, Brandi C; Rice, James P; Bird, Clark W; Davies, Suzy; Savage, Daniel D

    2014-08-01

    Persistent deficits in social behavior are among the major negative consequences associated with exposure to ethanol during prenatal development. Prior work from our laboratory has linked deficits in social behavior following moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in the rat to functional alterations in the ventrolateral frontal cortex [21]. In addition to social behaviors, the regions comprising the ventrolateral frontal cortex are critical for diverse processes ranging from orofacial motor movements to flexible alteration of behavior in the face of changing consequences. The broader behavioral implications of altered ventrolateral frontal cortex function following moderate PAE have, however, not been examined. In the present study we evaluated the consequences of moderate PAE on social behavior, tongue protrusion, and flexibility in a variant of the Morris water task that required modification of a well-established spatial response. PAE rats displayed deficits in tongue protrusion, reduced flexibility in the spatial domain, increased wrestling, and decreased investigation, indicating that several behaviors associated with ventrolateral frontal cortex function are impaired following moderate PAE. A linear discriminant analysis revealed that measures of wrestling and tongue protrusion provided the best discrimination of PAE rats from saccharin-exposed control rats. We also evaluated all behaviors in young adult (4-5 months) or older (10-11 months) rats to address the persistence of behavioral deficits in adulthood and possible interactions between early ethanol exposure and advancing age. Behavioral deficits in each domain persisted well into adulthood (10-11 months), however, there was no evidence that aging enhances the effects of moderate PAE within the age ranges that were studied. PMID:24769174

  5. Bimanual non-congruent actions in motor neglect syndrome: a combined behavioral/fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Garbarini, F; Turella, L; Rabuffetti, M; Cantagallo, A; Piedimonte, A; Fainardi, E; Berti, A; Fadiga, L

    2015-01-01

    In Motor Neglect (MN) syndrome, a specific impairment in non-congruent bimanual movements has been described. In the present case-control study, we investigated the neuro-functional correlates of this behavioral deficit. Two right-brain-damaged (RBD) patients, one with (MN+) and one without (MN-) MN, were evaluated by means of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) in a bimanual Circles-Lines (CL) paradigm. Patients were requested to perform right-hand movements (lines-drawing) and, simultaneously, congruent (lines-drawing) or non-congruent (circles-drawing) left-hand movements. In the behavioral task, MN- patient showed a bimanual-coupling-effect, while MN+ patient did not. The fMRI study showed that in MN-, a fronto-parietal network, mainly involving the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) and the posterior parietal cortex (PPC), was significantly more active in non-congruent than in congruent conditions, as previously shown in healthy subjects. On the contrary, MN+ patient showed an opposite pattern of activation both in pre-SMA and in PPC. Within this fronto-parietal network, the pre-SMA is supposed to exert an inhibitory influence on the default coupling of homologous muscles, thus allowing the execution of non-congruent movements. In MN syndrome, the described abnormal pre-SMA activity supports the hypothesis that a failure to inhibit ipsilesional motor programs might determine a specific impairment of non-congruent movements. PMID:26500520

  6. Odor-identity dependent motor programs underlie behavioral responses to odors

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Seung-Hye; Hueston, Catherine; Bhandawat, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    All animals use olfactory information to perform tasks essential to their survival. Odors typically activate multiple olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) classes and are therefore represented by the patterns of active ORNs. How the patterns of active ORN classes are decoded to drive behavior is under intense investigation. In this study, using Drosophila as a model system, we investigate the logic by which odors modulate locomotion. We designed a novel behavioral arena in which we could examine a fly’s locomotion under precisely controlled stimulus condition. In this arena, in response to similarly attractive odors, flies modulate their locomotion differently implying that odors have a more diverse effect on locomotion than was anticipated. Three features underlie odor-guided locomotion: First, in response to odors, flies modulate a surprisingly large number of motor parameters. Second, similarly attractive odors elicit changes in different motor programs. Third, different ORN classes modulate different subset of motor parameters. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11092.001 PMID:26439011

  7. Bimanual non-congruent actions in motor neglect syndrome: a combined behavioral/fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Garbarini, F.; Turella, L.; Rabuffetti, M.; Cantagallo, A.; Piedimonte, A.; Fainardi, E.; Berti, A.; Fadiga, L.

    2015-01-01

    In Motor Neglect (MN) syndrome, a specific impairment in non-congruent bimanual movements has been described. In the present case-control study, we investigated the neuro-functional correlates of this behavioral deficit. Two right-brain-damaged (RBD) patients, one with (MN+) and one without (MN−) MN, were evaluated by means of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) in a bimanual Circles-Lines (CL) paradigm. Patients were requested to perform right-hand movements (lines-drawing) and, simultaneously, congruent (lines-drawing) or non-congruent (circles-drawing) left-hand movements. In the behavioral task, MN− patient showed a bimanual-coupling-effect, while MN+ patient did not. The fMRI study showed that in MN−, a fronto-parietal network, mainly involving the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) and the posterior parietal cortex (PPC), was significantly more active in non-congruent than in congruent conditions, as previously shown in healthy subjects. On the contrary, MN+ patient showed an opposite pattern of activation both in pre-SMA and in PPC. Within this fronto-parietal network, the pre-SMA is supposed to exert an inhibitory influence on the default coupling of homologous muscles, thus allowing the execution of non-congruent movements. In MN syndrome, the described abnormal pre-SMA activity supports the hypothesis that a failure to inhibit ipsilesional motor programs might determine a specific impairment of non-congruent movements. PMID:26500520

  8. The effects of yoga practice in school physical education on children's motor abilities and social behavior

    PubMed Central

    Folleto, Júlia C; Pereira, Keila RG; Valentini, Nadia Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Background: In recent years, yoga programs in childhood have been implemented in schools, to promote the development for children. Aim: To investigate the effects of yoga program in physical education classes on the motor abilities and social behavior parameters of 6–8-year-old children. Methods: The study included 16 children from the 1st grade of a public elementary school in the South of Brazil. The children participated in a 12-week intervention, twice weekly, with 45 min each session. To assess children's performance, we used the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency - Second Edition, the flexibility test (sit and reach – Eurofit, 1988), the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children and semi-structured interviews with children, parents, and classroom’ teacher. Data were analyzed with Wilcoxon test and level of significance was 5%. Results: The yoga program was well accepted by children, children also demonstrated significant and positive changes in overall motor abilities scores (balance, strength, and flexibility). In addition, the interviews reported changing in social behavior and the use of the knowledge learned in the program in contexts outside of school. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the implementation of yoga practice in physical education lessons contributed to children's development. PMID:27512323

  9. A pilot double-blind placebo-controlled trial of pioglitazone as adjunctive treatment to risperidone: Effects on aberrant behavior in children with autism.

    PubMed

    Ghaleiha, Ali; Rasa, Soudeh Mohebbi; Nikoo, Mohammadali; Farokhnia, Mehdi; Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    2015-09-30

    To assess the safety and efficacy of pioglitazone added to risperidone in the treatment of irritability in autistic disorder (AD), we conducted this study. In a 10-week, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 44 outpatients of both genders aged 4-12 years with a diagnosis of AD and a score of ≥12 on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C) irritability subscale were included. Mean change of ABC-C irritability subscale score as primary outcome, change in other ABC-C subscale scores and partial and complete responses were compared between two groups. Twenty patients completed the trial in each group. Level of reduction and effect of time×treatment interaction in the treatment group were significant for irritability (P=0.03), lethargy/social withdrawal (P=0.04) and hyperactivity/non-compliance (P=0.03) but not for stereotypic behavior and inappropriate speech subscales compared with the placebo group. Vomiting and headache were the most frequent reported side-effects. Results of this preliminary study indicate positive effects of pioglitazone compared with placebo in improving the behavioral symptoms of AD. PMID:26208985

  10. Multiplexing of Motor Information in the Discharge of a Collision Detecting Neuron during Escape Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Fotowat, Haleh; Harrison, Reid R; Gabbiani, Fabrizio

    2010-01-01

    Locusts possess an identified neuron, the descending contralateral movement detector (DCMD), conveying visual information about impending collision from the brain to thoracic motor centers. We built a telemetry system to simultaneously record, in freely behaving animals, the activity of the DCMD and of motoneurons involved in jump execution. Co-contraction of antagonistic leg muscles, a required preparatory phase, was triggered after the DCMD firing rate crossed a threshold. Thereafter, the number of DCMD spikes predicted precisely motoneuron activity and jump occurrence. Additionally, the time of DCMD peak firing rate predicted that of jump. Ablation experiments suggest that the DCMD, together with a nearly identical ipsilateral descending neuron, is responsible for the timely execution of the escape. Thus, three distinct features that are multiplexed in a single neuron’s sensory response to impending collision – firing rate threshold, peak firing time, and spike count – likely control three distinct motor aspects of escape behaviors. PMID:21220105

  11. Multiplexing of motor information in the discharge of a collision detecting neuron during escape behaviors.

    PubMed

    Fotowat, Haleh; Harrison, Reid R; Gabbiani, Fabrizio

    2011-01-13

    Locusts possess an identified neuron, the descending contralateral movement detector (DCMD), conveying visual information about impending collision from the brain to thoracic motor centers. We built a telemetry system to simultaneously record, in freely behaving animals, the activity of the DCMD and of motoneurons involved in jump execution. Cocontraction of antagonistic leg muscles, a required preparatory phase, was triggered after the DCMD firing rate crossed a threshold. Thereafter, the number of DCMD spikes predicted precisely motoneuron activity and jump occurrence. Additionally, the time of DCMD peak firing rate predicted that of jump. Ablation experiments suggest that the DCMD, together with a nearly identical ipsilateral descending neuron, is responsible for the timely execution of the escape. Thus, three distinct features that are multiplexed in a single neuron's sensory response to impending collision-firing rate threshold, peak firing time, and spike count-probably control three distinct motor aspects of escape behaviors. PMID:21220105

  12. Some Useful Correspondences In Aberration Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafer, David

    1986-10-01

    There are many correspondences between the behavior of monochromatic aberrations and chromatic aberrations. Usually the behavior of the chromatic aberrations is of a lower order than the corresponding monochromatic behavior. The cause of the 5th-order mono-chromatic astigmatism, for example, is similar in type to the cause of the chromatic variation of 3rd-order astigmatism. The stop-shift behavior of 3rd-order monochromatic coma is similar to that of first-order lateral color, and so on. These correspondences are interesting for two reasons. One is that they have not been commented on much before, despite the value of one's being aware of these relationships. Methods used to control a monochromatic aberration may also apply to the corresponding chromatic aberration, and vice-versa, for example. The other benefit to studying this topic is that the chromatic aberrations, which are of a lower order than their monochro-matic correspondences, are much easier to understand and visualize. A simple diagram can illustrate the stop-shift behavior of lateral color much more easily than trying to do the same thing with 3rd-order coma. Finally, the very important distinction between intrinsic and induced aberrations can be best illustrated with chromatic aberrations, because of their lower order.

  13. Psychometric Properties of the "Aberrant Behavior Checklist," the "Anxiety, Depression and Mood Scale," the "Assessment of Dual Diagnosis" and the "Social Performance Survey Schedule" in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojahn, Johannes; Rowe, Ellen W.; Kasdan, Shana; Moore, Linda; van Ingen, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Progress in clinical research and in empirically supported interventions in the area of psychopathology in intellectual disabilities (ID) depends on high-quality assessment instruments. To this end, psychometric properties of four instruments were examined: the "Aberrant Behavior Checklist" (ABC), the "Assessment of Dual Diagnosis" (ADD), the…

  14. Descending influences on escape behavior and motor pattern in the cockroach.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, P L; Ritzmann, R E

    2001-10-01

    The escape behavior of the cockroach is a ballistic behavior with well characterized kinematics. The circuitry known to control the behavior lies in the thoracic ganglia, abdominal ganglia, and abdominal nerve cord. Some evidence suggests inputs may occur from the brain or suboesophageal ganglion. We tested this notion by decapitating cockroaches, removing all descending inputs, and evoking escape responses. The decapitated cockroaches exhibited directionally appropriate escape turns. However, there was a front-to-back gradient of change: the front legs moved little if at all, the middle legs moved in the proper direction but with reduced excursion, and the rear legs moved normally. The same pattern was seen when only inputs from the brain were removed, the suboesophageal ganglion remaining intact and connected to the thoracic ganglia. Electromyogram (EMG) analysis showed that the loss of or reduction in excursion was accompanied by a loss of or reduction in fast motor neuron activity. The loss of fast motor neuron activity was also observed in a reduced preparation in which descending neural signals were reversibly blocked via an isotonic sucrose solution superfusing the neck connectives, indicating that the changes seen were not due to trauma. Our data demonstrate that while the thoracic circuitry is sufficient to produce directional escape, lesion or blockage of the connective affects the excitability of components of the escape circuitry. Because of the rapidity of the escape response, such effects are likely due to the elimination of tonic descending inputs. PMID:11536194

  15. The Effects of Fixed-Time and Contingent Schedules of Negative Reinforcement on Compliance and Aberrant Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Gregory K.; Ringdahl, Joel E.; Wacker, David P.; Barretto, Anjali; Andelman, Marc S.

    2005-01-01

    Prior research has suggested that fixed-time (FT) schedules of reinforcement do not necessarily preclude the acquisition of appropriate behavior (e.g., mands) when combined with differential reinforcement (DRA). These studies also note that dense FT schedules are more likely to interfere with DRA packages than lean FT schedules. In the current…

  16. Impairment of Oligodendroglia Maturation Leads to Aberrantly Increased Cortical Glutamate and Anxiety-Like Behaviors in Juvenile Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xianjun; Zhang, Weiguo; Li, Tao; Guo, Yu; Tian, Yanping; Wang, Fei; Liu, Shubao; Shen, Hai-Ying; Feng, Yue; Xiao, Lan

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is the critical time for developing proper oligodendrocyte (OL)-neuron interaction and the peak of onset for many cognitive diseases, among which anxiety disorders display the highest prevalence. However, whether impairment of de novo OL development causes neuronal abnormalities and contributes to the early onset of anxiety phenotype in childhood still remains unexplored. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that defects in OL maturation manifests cortical neuron function and leads to anxiety-like behaviors in juvenile mice. We report here that conditional knockout of the Olig2 gene (Olig2 cKO) specifically in differentiating OLs in the mouse brain preferentially impaired OL maturation in the gray matter of cerebral cortex. Interestingly, localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed that Olig2 cKO mice displayed abnormally elevated cortical glutamate levels. In addition, transmission electron microscopy demonstrated increased vesicle density in excitatory glutamatergic synapses in the cortex of the Olig2 cKO mice. Moreover, juvenile Olig2 cKO mice exhibited anxiety-like behaviors and impairment in behavioral inhibition. Taken together, our results suggest that impaired OL development affects glutamatergic neuron function in the cortex and causes anxiety-related behaviors in juvenile mice. These discoveries raise an intriguing possibility that OL defects may be a contributing mechanism for the onset of anxiety in childhood. PMID:26696827

  17. Motor control of jaw movements: An fMRI study of parafunctional clench and grind behavior.

    PubMed

    Wong, Donald; Dzemidzic, Mario; Talavage, Thomas M; Romito, Laura M; Byrd, Kenneth E

    2011-04-01

    Jaw-clenching and tooth-grinding associated with bruxism can contribute to abnormal tooth wear and pain in the masticatory system. Clench and tooth-grinding jaw-movement tasks were evaluated in a block-design fMRI study comparing a dental-control (DC) group with a tooth-grinding (TG) group. Group classification was made prior to imaging based upon self-reported parafunctional clench and grind behavior and clinical evidence of abnormal tooth wear. Group differences in brain activation patterns were found for each task compared to the resting baseline. The DC group showed a more widely distributed pattern; more extensive activity in the supplementary motor area (SMA) proper that extended into the pre-SMA; and, for clench, activity in the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL). The DC group activated more than the TG subjects the left IPL for clench, and pre-SMA for grind. Neither task elicited more activity in the TG than DC subjects. Our group findings suggest that jaw-movement tasks executed by the TG group elicited (1) more efficient brain activation pattern consistent with other studies that found less extensive activity with executing "over-learned" tasks; (2) "underactive" SMA activity that underlies reduced motor planning; (3) decreased inferior parietal activity that is associated with lesser motor-attentional demands. Thus orofacial parafunctional habits may influence brain circuits recruited for jaw movements, providing a possible basis for understanding involuntary jaw movements in bruxism and oral movement disorders in general. PMID:21295015

  18. Dissociation of Structural and Functional Integrities of the Motor System in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Behavioral-Variant Frontotemporal Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Jong Seok; Ferguson, Michele; Tan, Rachel; Mioshi, Eneida; Simon, Neil; Burrell, James; Vucic, Steve; Hodges, John R.; Kiernan, Matthew C

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose This study investigated the structural and functional changes in the motor system in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS; n=25) and behavioral-variant fronto-temporal dementia (bvFTD; n=17) relative to healthy controls (n=37). Methods Structural changes were examined using a region-of-interest approach, applying voxel-based morphometry for gray-matter changes and diffusion tensor imaging for white-matter changes. Functional changes in the motor system were elucidated using threshold-tracking transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) measurements of upper motor-neuron excitability. Results The structural analyses showed that in ALS there were more white-matter changes in the corticospinal and motor-cortex regions and more gray-matter changes in the cerebellum in comparison to controls. bvFTD showed substantial gray- and white-matter changes across virtually all motor-system regions compared to controls, although the brainstem was affected less than the other regions. Direct comparisons across patient groups showed that the gray- and white-matter motor-system changes inclusive of the motor cortex were greater in bvFTD than in ALS. By contrast, the functional integrity of the motor system was more adversely affected in ALS than in bvFTD, with both patient groups showing increased excitability of upper motor neurons compared to controls. Conclusions Cross-correlation of structural and functional data further revealed a neural dissociation of different motor-system regions and tracts covarying with the TMS excitability across both patient groups. The structural and functional motor-system integrities appear to be dissociated between ALS and bvFTD, which represents useful information for the diagnosis of motor-system changes in these two disorders. PMID:26932257

  19. Behavioral Problems in Children with Motor and Intellectual Disabilities: Prevalence and Associations with Maladaptive Personality and Marital Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrijmoeth, Cis; Monbaliu, Elegast; Lagast, Emmy; Prinzie, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Prevalence rates of behavioral problems in children with motor disabilities are commonly based on questionnaires developed for a general population (e.g., Child Behavior CheckList). These questionnaires do not take into account lower levels of intellectual functioning. The first aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of parent-reported…

  20. The Cinderella of Psychology: The Neglect of Motor Control in the Science of Mental Life and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, David A.

    2005-01-01

    One would expect psychology--the science of mental life and behavior--to place great emphasis on the means by which mental life is behaviorally expressed. Surprisingly, however, the study of how decisions are enacted--the focus of motor control research--has received little attention in psychology. This article documents the neglect and considers…

  1. Motor Circuit-Specific Burst Patterns Drive Different Muscle and Behavior Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Diehl, Florian; White, Rachel S.; Stein, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    In the isolated CNS, different modulatory inputs can enable one motor network to generate multiple output patterns. Thus far, however, few studies have established whether different modulatory inputs also enable a defined network to drive distinct muscle and movement patterns in vivo, much as they enable these distinctions in behavioral studies. This possibility is not a foregone conclusion, because additional influences present in vivo (e.g., sensory feedback, hormonal modulation) could alter the motor patterns. Additionally, rhythmic neuronal activity can be transformed into sustained muscle contractions, particularly in systems with slow muscle dynamics, as in the crab (Cancer borealis) stomatogastric system used here. We assessed whether two different versions of the biphasic (protraction, retraction) gastric mill (chewing) rhythm, triggered in the isolated stomatogastric system by the modulatory ventral cardiac neurons (VCNs) and postoesophageal commissure (POC) neurons, drive different muscle and movement patterns. One distinction between these rhythms is that the lateral gastric (LG) protractor motor neuron generates tonic bursts during the VCN rhythm, whereas its POC-rhythm bursts are divided into fast, rhythmic burstlets. Intracellular muscle fiber recordings and tension measurements show that the LG-innervated muscles retain the distinct VCN-LG and POC-LG neuron burst structures. Moreover, endoscope video recordings in vivo, during VCN-triggered and POC-triggered chewing, show that the lateral teeth protraction movements exhibit the same, distinct protraction patterns generated by LG in the isolated nervous system. Thus, the multifunctional nature of an identified motor network in the isolated CNS can be preserved in vivo, where it drives different muscle activity and movement patterns. PMID:23864688

  2. Suppressing aberrant GluN3A expression rescues NMDA receptor dysfunction, synapse loss and motor and cognitive decline in Huntington's disease models

    PubMed Central

    Marco, Sonia; Giralt, Albert; Petrovic, Milos M.; Pouladi, Mahmoud A.; Martínez-Turrillas, Rebeca; Martínez-Hernández, José; Kaltenbach, Linda S.; Torres-Peraza, Jesús; Graham, Rona K.; Watanabe, Masahiko; Luján, Rafael; Nakanishi, Nobuki; Lipton, Stuart A.; Lo, Donald C.; Hayden, Michael R.; Alberch, Jordi; Wesseling, John F.

    2013-01-01

    Huntington's disease is caused by an expanded polyglutamine repeat in huntingtin (Htt), but the pathophysiological sequence of events that trigger synaptic failure and neuronal loss are not fully understood. Alterations in NMDA-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs) have been implicated, yet it remains unclear how the Htt mutation impacts NMDAR function and direct evidence for a causative role is missing. Here we show that mutant Htt re-directs an intracellular store of juvenile NMDARs to the surface of striatal neurons by sequestering and disrupting the subcellular localization of the GluN3A subunit-specific endocytic adaptor PACSIN1. Overexpressing GluN3A in wild-type striatum mimicked the synapse loss observed in Huntington's disease mouse models, whereas genetic deletion of GluN3A prevented synapse degeneration, ameliorated motor and cognitive decline, and reduced striatal atrophy and neuronal loss in the YAC128 model. Furthermore, GluN3A deletion corrected the abnormally enhanced NMDAR currents, which have been linked to cell death in Huntington's disease and other neurodegenerative conditions. Our findings reveal an early pathogenic role of GluN3A dysregulation in Huntington's disease, and suggest that therapies targeting GluN3A or pathogenic Htt-PACSIN1 interactions might prevent or delay disease progression. PMID:23852340

  3. Investigating the underlying mechanisms of aberrant behaviors in bipolar disorder from patients to models: Rodent and human studies.

    PubMed

    van Enkhuizen, Jordy; Geyer, Mark A; Minassian, Arpi; Perry, William; Henry, Brook L; Young, Jared W

    2015-11-01

    Psychiatric patients with bipolar disorder suffer from states of depression and mania, during which a variety of symptoms are present. Current treatments are limited and neurocognitive deficits in particular often remain untreated. Targeted therapies based on the biological mechanisms of bipolar disorder could fill this gap and benefit patients and their families. Developing targeted therapies would benefit from appropriate animal models which are challenging to establish, but remain a vital tool. In this review, we summarize approaches to create a valid model relevant to bipolar disorder. We focus on studies that use translational tests of multivariate exploratory behavior, sensorimotor gating, decision-making under risk, and attentional functioning to discover profiles that are consistent between patients and rodent models. Using this battery of translational tests, similar behavior profiles in bipolar mania patients and mice with reduced dopamine transporter activity have been identified. Future investigations should combine other animal models that are biologically relevant to the neuropsychiatric disorder with translational behavioral assessment as outlined here. This methodology can be utilized to develop novel targeted therapies that relieve symptoms for more patients without common side effects caused by current treatments. PMID:26297513

  4. Pomegranate supplementation improves affective and motor behavior in mice after radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Dulcich, Melissa S; Hartman, Richard E

    2013-01-01

    Currently, NASA has plans for extended space travel, and previous research indicates that space radiation can have negative effects on cognitive skills as well as physical and mental health. With long-term space travel, astronauts will be exposed to greater radiation levels. Research shows that an antioxidant-enriched diet may offer some protection against the cellular effects of radiation and may provide significant neuroprotection from the effects of radiation-induced cognitive and behavioral skill deficits. Ninety-six C57BL/6 mice (48 pomegranate fed and 48 control) were irradiated with proton radiation (2 Gy), and two-month postradiation behaviors were assessed using a battery of behavioral tests to measure cognitive and motor functions. Proton irradiation was associated with depression-like behaviors in the tail suspension test, but this effect was ameliorated by the pomegranate diet. Males, in general, displayed worse coordination and balance than females on the rotarod task, and the pomegranate diet ameliorated this effect. Overall, it appears that proton irradiation, which may be encountered in space, may induce a different pattern of behavioral deficits in males than females and that a pomegranate diet may confer protection against some of those effects. PMID:23662154

  5. Regulation of motor function and behavior by atypical chemokine receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Erich H; Fowler, Stephen C; Lionakis, Michail S; Swamydas, Muthulekha; Holmes, Gibran; Diaz, Vivian; Munasinghe, Jeeva; Peiper, Stephen C; Gao, Ji-Liang; Murphy, Philip M

    2014-09-01

    Atypical Chemokine Receptor 1 (ACKR1), previously known as Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines, stands out among chemokine receptors for high selective expression on cerebellar Purkinje neurons. Although ACKR1 ligands activate Purkinje cells in vitro, evidence for ACKR1 regulation of brain function in vivo is lacking. Here we demonstrate that Ackr1 (-/-) mice have markedly impaired balance and ataxia on a rotating rod and increased tremor when injected with harmaline, which induces whole-body tremor by activating Purkinje cells. Ackr1 (-/-) mice also exhibited impaired exploratory behavior, increased anxiety-like behavior and frequent episodes of marked hypoactivity under low-stress conditions. Surprisingly, Ackr1 (+/-) had similar behavioral abnormalities, indicating pronounced haploinsufficiency. The behavioral phenotype of Ackr1 (-/-) mice was the opposite of mouse models of cerebellar degeneration, and the defects persisted when Ackr1 was deficient only on non-hematopoietic cells. Together, the results suggest that normal motor function and behavior may partly depend on negative regulation of Purkinje cell activity by Ackr1. PMID:24997773

  6. Functional architectures and structured flows on manifolds: a dynamical framework for motor behavior.

    PubMed

    Huys, Raoul; Perdikis, Dionysios; Jirsa, Viktor K

    2014-07-01

    We outline a dynamical framework for sequential sensorimotor behavior based on the sequential composition of basic behavioral units. Basic units are conceptualized as temporarily existing low-dimensional dynamical objects, or structured flows, emerging from a high-dimensional system, referred to as structured flows on manifolds. Theorems from dynamical system theory allow for the unambiguous classification of behaviors as represented by structured flows, and thus provide a means to define and identify basic units. The ensemble of structured flows available to an individual defines his or her dynamical repertoire. We briefly review experimental evidence that has identified a few basic elements likely to contribute to each individual's repertoire. Complex behavior requires the involvement of a (typically high-dimensional) dynamics operating at a time scale slower than that of the elements in the dynamical repertoire. At any given time, in the competition between units of the repertoire, the slow dynamics temporarily favor the dominance of one element over others in a sequential fashion, binding together the units and generating complex behavior. The time scale separation between the elements of the repertoire and the slow dynamics define a time scale hierarchy, and their ensemble defines a functional architecture. We illustrate the approach with a functional architecture for handwriting as proof of concept and discuss the implications of the framework for motor control. PMID:25090422

  7. A Perceptual Motor Intervention Improves Play Behavior in Children with Moderate to Severe Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Ryalls, Brigette O.; Harbourne, Regina; Kelly-Vance, Lisa; Wickstrom, Jordan; Stergiou, Nick; Kyvelidou, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    For children with moderate or severe cerebral palsy (CP), a foundational early goal is independent sitting. Sitting offers additional opportunities for object exploration, play and social engagement. The achievement of sitting coincides with important milestones in other developmental areas, such as social engagement with others, understanding of spatial relationships, and the use of both hands to explore objects. These milestones are essential skills necessary for play behavior. However, little is known about how sitting and play behavior might be affected by a physical therapy intervention in children with moderate or severe CP. Therefore, our overall purpose in this study was to determine if sitting skill could be advanced in children with moderate to severe CP using a perceptual motor intervention, and if play skills would change significantly as sitting advanced. Thirty children between the ages of 18 months and 6 years who were able to hold prop sitting for at least 10 s were recruited for this study. Outcome measures were the sitting subsection of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), and the Play Assessment of Children with Motor Impairment play assessment scale, which is a modified version of the Play in Early Childhood Evaluation System. Significant improvements in GMFM sitting scores (p < 0.001) and marginally significant improvement in play assessment scores (p = 0.067) were found from pre- to post-intervention. Sitting change explained a significant portion of the variance in play change for children over the age of 3 years, who were more severely affected by CP. The results of this study indicate that advances in sitting skill may be a factor in supporting improvements in functional play, along with age and severity of physical impairment. PMID:27199868

  8. Effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor on dopaminergic function and motor behavior during aging

    PubMed Central

    Boger, Heather A.; Mannangatti, Padmanabhan; Samuvel, Devadoss J.; Saylor, Alicia J.; Bender, Tara S.; McGinty, Jacqueline F.; Fortress, Ashley M.; Zaman, Vandana; Huang, Peng; Middaugh, Lawrence D.; Randall, Patrick K.; Jayanthi, Lankupalle D.; Rohrer, Baerbel; Helke, Kristi L.; Granholm, Ann-Charlotte; Ramamoorthy, Sammanda

    2010-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is critical in synaptic plasticity and in the survival and function of midbrain dopamine neurons. In the present study, we assessed the effects of a partial genetic deletion of BDNF on motor function and dopamine (DA) neurotransmitter measures by comparing (Bdnf+/−) with wildtype mice (WT) at different ages. Bdnf+/ and WT mice had similar body weights until 12 months of age; however, at 21 months, Bdnf+/− mice were significantly heavier than WT mice. Horizontal and vertical motor activity was reduced for Bdnf+/− compared to WT mice; but was not influenced by Age. Performance on an accelerating rotarod declined with age for both genotypes and was exacerbated for Bdnf+/− mice. Body weight did not correlate with any of the three behavioral measures studied. DA neurotransmitter markers indicated no genotypic difference in striatal tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine transporter (DAT), or vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) immunoreactivity at any age. However, DA transport via DAT (starting at 12 months) and VMAT2 (starting at 3 months) as well as KCl-stimulated DA release were reduced in Bdnf+/− mice and declined with age suggesting an increasingly important role for BDNF in the release and uptake of DA with the aging process. These findings suggest that a BDNF expression deficit becomes more critical to dopaminergic dynamics and related behavioral activities with increasing age. PMID:20860702

  9. Chronic behavioral stress exaggerates motor deficit and neuroinflammation in the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Lauretti, E; Di Meco, A; Merali, S; Praticò, D

    2016-01-01

    Environmental stressor exposure is associated with a variety of age-related diseases including neurodegeneration. Although the initial events of sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD) are not known, consistent evidence supports the hypothesis that the disease results from the combined effect of genetic and environmental risk factors. Among them, behavioral stress has been shown to cause damage and neuronal loss in different areas of the brain, however, its effect on the dopaminergic system and PD pathogenesis remains to be characterized. The C57BL/6 mice underwent chronic restraint/isolation (RI) stress and were then treated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), whereas the control mice were treated only with MPTP and the effect on the PD-like phenotype was evaluated. The mice that underwent RI before the administration of MPTP manifested an exaggerated motor deficit and impairment in the acquisition of motor skills, which were associated with a greater loss of neuronal tyrosine hydroxylase and astrocytes activation. By showing that RI influences the onset and progression of the PD-like phenotype, our study underlines the novel pathogenetic role that chronic behavioral stressor has in the disease process by triggering neuroinflammation and degeneration of the nigral dopaminergic system. PMID:26859816

  10. Neuropsychological evaluation and parental assessment of behavioral and motor difficulties in children with neurofibromatosis type 1.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, V; Kemlin, I; Dorison, N; Billette de Villemeur, T; Rodriguez, D; Dellatolas, G

    2016-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant multisystem disorder, with large inter and intrafamilial clinical variability and uncertain prognosis. In children with NF1 cognitive disorders, learning difficulties and behavioral problems are common. The present study aims to establish the neuropsychological and behavioral profiles of 78 patients with NF1, aged between 5 and 18 years, and to examine the relationship between these profiles and the transmission of NF1 (sporadic vs. familial), clinical manifestations, and environmental factors. We used several questionnaires completed by parents and neuropsychological tests. The results confirmed specific neuropsychological disabilities in children with NF1, especially involving visuospatial and fine motor skills, learning difficulties and behavioral problems. Cognitive difficulties were significantly more frequent in patients with familial than in those with sporadic NF1. All parental questionnaires were correlated with each other, but parental reports were not associated with FSIQ, SES, school status, and clinical manifestations of the disease. Neuropsychological tests were poorly related to parental reports of cognitive and behavioral difficulties. PMID:26625207

  11. Drosophila mutants of the autism candidate gene neurobeachin (rugose) exhibit neuro-developmental disorders, aberrant synaptic properties, altered locomotion, impaired adult social behavior and activity patterns

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Alexandra; Tenezaca, Luis; Fernandez, Robert W.; Schatoff, Emma; Flores, Julian; Ueda, Atsushi; Zhong, Xiaotian; Wu, Chun-Fang; Simon, Anne F.; Venkatesh, Tadmiri

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder in humans characterized by complex behavioral deficits, including intellectual disability, impaired social interactions and hyperactivity. ASD exhibits a strong genetic component with underlying multi-gene interactions. Candidate gene studies have shown that the neurobeachin gene is disrupted in human patients with idiopathic autism (Castermans et al., 2003). The gene for neurobeachin (NBEA) spans the common fragile site FRA 13A and encodes a signal scaffold protein (Savelyeva et al., 2006). In mice, NBEA has been shown to be involved in the trafficking and function of a specific subset of synaptic vesicles. (Medrihan et al., 2009; Savelyeva, Sagulenko, Schmitt, & Schwab, 2006). rugose (rg) is the Drosophila homologue of the mammalian and human neurobeachin. Our previous genetic and molecular analyses have shown that rg encodes an A kinase anchor protein (DAKAP 550), which interacts with components of the EGFR and Notch mediated signaling pathways, facilitating cross-talk between these and other pathways (Shamloula et al., 2002). We now present functional data from studies on the larval neuromuscular junction that reveal abnormal synaptic architecture and physiology. In addition, adult rg loss-of-function mutants exhibit defective social interactions, impaired habituation, aberrant locomotion and hyperactivity. These results demonstrate that Drosophila neurobeachin (rugose) mutants exhibit phenotypic characteristics reminiscent of human ASD and thus could serve as a genetic model for studying autism spectrum disorders. PMID:26100104

  12. GABAergic influences on ORX receptor-dependent abnormal motor behaviors and neurodegenerative events in fish

    SciTech Connect

    Facciolo, Rosa Maria; Crudo, Michele; Giusi, Giuseppina; Canonaco, Marcello

    2010-02-15

    At date the major neuroreceptors i.e. gamma-aminobutyric acid{sub A} (GABA{sub A}R) and orexin (ORXR) systems are beginning to be linked to homeostasis, neuroendocrine and emotional states. In this study, intraperitoneal treatment of the marine teleost Thalassoma pavo with the highly selective GABA{sub A}R agonist (muscimol, MUS; 0,1 mug/g body weight) and/or its antagonist bicuculline (BIC; 1 mug/g body weight) have corroborated a GABA{sub A}ergic role on motor behaviors. In particular, MUS induced moderate (p < 0.05) and great (p < 0.01) increases of swimming towards food sources and resting states after 24 (1 dose) and 96 (4 doses) h treatment sessions, respectively, when compared to controls. Conversely, BIC caused a very strong (p < 0.001) reduction of the former behavior and in some cases convulsive swimming. From the correlation of BIC-dependent behavioral changes to neuronal morphological and ORXR transcriptional variations, it appeared that the disinhibitory action of GABA{sub A}R was very likely responsible for very strong and strong ORXR mRNA reductions in cerebellum valvula and torus longitudinalis, respectively. Moreover these effects were linked to evident ultra-structural changes such as shrunken cell membranes and loss of cytoplasmic architecture. In contrast, MUS supplied a very low, if any, argyrophilic reaction in hypothalamic and mesencephalic regions plus a scarce level of ultra-structural damages. Interestingly, combined administrations of MUS + BIC were not related to consistent damages, aside mild neuronal alterations in motor-related areas such as optic tectum. Overall it is tempting to suggest, for the first time, a neuroprotective role of GABA{sub A}R inhibitory actions against the overexcitatory ORXR-dependent neurodegeneration and consequently abnormal swimming events in fish.

  13. A high performance sensorimotor beta rhythm-based brain computer interface associated with human natural motor behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Ou; Lin, Peter; Vorbach, Sherry; Floeter, Mary Kay; Hattori, Noriaki; Hallett, Mark

    2008-03-01

    To explore the reliability of a high performance brain-computer interface (BCI) using non-invasive EEG signals associated with human natural motor behavior does not require extensive training. We propose a new BCI method, where users perform either sustaining or stopping a motor task with time locking to a predefined time window. Nine healthy volunteers, one stroke survivor with right-sided hemiparesis and one patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) participated in this study. Subjects did not receive BCI training before participating in this study. We investigated tasks of both physical movement and motor imagery. The surface Laplacian derivation was used for enhancing EEG spatial resolution. A model-free threshold setting method was used for the classification of motor intentions. The performance of the proposed BCI was validated by an online sequential binary-cursor-control game for two-dimensional cursor movement. Event-related desynchronization and synchronization were observed when subjects sustained or stopped either motor execution or motor imagery. Feature analysis showed that EEG beta band activity over sensorimotor area provided the largest discrimination. With simple model-free classification of beta band EEG activity from a single electrode (with surface Laplacian derivation), the online classifications of the EEG activity with motor execution/motor imagery were: >90%/~80% for six healthy volunteers, >80%/~80% for the stroke patient and ~90%/~80% for the ALS patient. The EEG activities of the other three healthy volunteers were not classifiable. The sensorimotor beta rhythm of EEG associated with human natural motor behavior can be used for a reliable and high performance BCI for both healthy subjects and patients with neurological disorders. Significance: The proposed new non-invasive BCI method highlights a practical BCI for clinical applications, where the user does not require extensive training.

  14. C9ORF72 hexanucleotide repeats in behavioral and motor neuron disease: clinical heterogeneity and pathological diversity

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Jennifer S; Sirkis, Daniel W; Miller, Bruce L

    2014-01-01

    Hexanucleotide repeat expansion in C9ORF72 is the most common genetic cause of frontotemporal dementia (FTD), a predominantly behavioral disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a disease of motor neurons. The primary objectives of this review are to highlight the clinical heterogeneity associated with C9ORF72 pathogenic expansion and identify potential molecular mechanisms underlying selective vulnerability of distinct neural populations. The proposed mechanisms by which C9ORF72 expansion causes behavioral and motor neuron disease highlight the emerging role of impaired RNA and protein homeostasis in a spectrum of neurodegeneration and strengthen the biological connection between FTD and ALS. PMID:24753999

  15. The Sensorimotor System Can Sculpt Behaviorally Relevant Representations for Motor Learning.

    PubMed

    Franklin, David W; Batchelor, Alexandra V; Wolpert, Daniel M

    2016-01-01

    The coordinate system in which humans learn novel motor skills is controversial. The representation of sensorimotor skills has been extensively studied by examining generalization after learning perturbations specifically designed to be ambiguous as to their coordinate system. Recent studies have found that learning is not represented in any simple coordinate system and can potentially be accounted for by a mixed representation. Here, instead of probing generalization, which has led to conflicting results, we examine whether novel dynamics can be learned when explicitly and unambiguously presented in particular coordinate systems. Subjects performed center-out reaches to targets in the presence of a force field, while varying the orientation of their hand (i.e., the wrist angle) across trials. Different groups of subjects experienced force fields that were explicitly presented either in Cartesian coordinates (field independent of hand orientation), in object coordinates (field rotated with hand orientation), or in anti-object coordinates (field rotated counter to hand orientation). Subjects learned to represent the dynamics when presented in either Cartesian or object coordinates, learning these as well as an ambiguous force field. However, learning was slower for the object-based dynamics and substantially impaired for the anti-object presentation. Our results show that the motor system is able to tune its representation to at least two natural coordinate systems but is impaired when the representation of the task does not correspond to a behaviorally relevant coordinate system. Our results show that the motor system can sculpt its representation through experience to match those of natural tasks. PMID:27588304

  16. The Sensorimotor System Can Sculpt Behaviorally Relevant Representations for Motor Learning

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The coordinate system in which humans learn novel motor skills is controversial. The representation of sensorimotor skills has been extensively studied by examining generalization after learning perturbations specifically designed to be ambiguous as to their coordinate system. Recent studies have found that learning is not represented in any simple coordinate system and can potentially be accounted for by a mixed representation. Here, instead of probing generalization, which has led to conflicting results, we examine whether novel dynamics can be learned when explicitly and unambiguously presented in particular coordinate systems. Subjects performed center–out reaches to targets in the presence of a force field, while varying the orientation of their hand (i.e., the wrist angle) across trials. Different groups of subjects experienced force fields that were explicitly presented either in Cartesian coordinates (field independent of hand orientation), in object coordinates (field rotated with hand orientation), or in anti-object coordinates (field rotated counter to hand orientation). Subjects learned to represent the dynamics when presented in either Cartesian or object coordinates, learning these as well as an ambiguous force field. However, learning was slower for the object-based dynamics and substantially impaired for the anti-object presentation. Our results show that the motor system is able to tune its representation to at least two natural coordinate systems but is impaired when the representation of the task does not correspond to a behaviorally relevant coordinate system. Our results show that the motor system can sculpt its representation through experience to match those of natural tasks. PMID:27588304

  17. The first mecp2-null zebrafish model shows altered motor behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Pietri, Thomas; Roman, Angel-Carlos; Guyon, Nicolas; Romano, Sebastián A.; Washbourne, Philip; Moens, Cecilia B.; de Polavieja, Gonzalo G.; Sumbre, Germán

    2013-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder and one of the most common causes of mental retardation in affected girls. Other symptoms include a rapid regression of motor and cognitive skills after an apparently early normal development. Sporadic mutations in the transcription factor MECP2 has been shown to be present in more than 90% of the patients and several models of MeCP2-deficient mice have been created to understand the role of this gene. These models have pointed toward alterations in the maintenance of the central nervous system rather than its development, in line with the late onset of the disease in humans. However, the exact functions of MeCP2 remain difficult to delineate and the animal models have yielded contradictory results. Here, we present the first mecp2-null allele mutation zebrafish model. Surprisingly and in contrast to MeCP2-null mouse models, mecp2-null zebrafish are viable and fertile. They present nonetheless clear behavioral alterations during their early development, including spontaneous and sensory-evoked motor anomalies, as well as defective thigmotaxis. PMID:23874272

  18. Group Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for PTSD: Treatment of Motor Vehicle Accident Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Beck, J. Gayle; Coffey, Scott F.

    2006-01-01

    Individual cognitive behavioral therapies (CBT) are now considered the first-line treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; Foa, Keane, & Friedman, 2000). As mental health reimbursement becomes more restricted, it is imperative that we adapt individual-format therapies for use in a small group format. Group therapies have a number of advantages, including provision of a natural support group, the ability to reach more patients, and greater cost efficiency. In this article, we describe the development of a group CBT for PTSD in the aftermath of a serious motor vehicle accident (MVA). Issues unique to the group treatment format are discussed, along with special considerations such as strategies to reduce the potential for triggering reexperiencing symptoms during group sessions. A case example is presented, along with discussion of group process issues. Although still in the early stages, this group CBT may offer promise as an effective treatment of MVA-related PTSD. PMID:16525513

  19. Regression rate and pyrolysis behavior of HTPB-based solid fuels in a hybrid rocket motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiaverini, Martin John

    An experimental investigation on the regression rate and pyrolysis behavior of hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene-based solid fuels has been conducted. The overall objective was to obtain a better understanding of the physical processes governing solid-fuel regression and pyrolysis under different operating regimes. Experiments were conducted using a windowed, slab geometry hybrid motor and a conductive-heating induced thermal pyrolysis test rig. Gaseous oxygen was employed as the oxidizer in the 1-m long, lab-scale hybrid motor, which had realistic operating conditions. A real-time X-ray radiography system and an ultrasonic pulse-echo system were both used to obtain the local, instantaneous solid fuel regression rates. A semi-empirical approach was developed to analyze the experimental results and to correlate the regression rates with physically descriptive, dimensionless parameters. For relatively high surface temperatures above 722 K, the activation energy of pure HTPB was 4.91 kcal/mole, indicating that the pyrolysis process was governed by formation and desorption of high molecular weight fragments from the fuel surface. The conductive-heating induced pyrolysis rates of HTPB, conducted at atmospheric pressure, were very similar to those measured in the hybrid motor tests at much higher pressures. This result implies that the regression rate of HTPB was governed primarily by thermal decomposition processes and not influenced by heterogeneous surface reactions. Radiant heat transfer had a significant effect on the overall regression rate behavior of HTPB. Radiation from soot generally accounted for about 80 to 90% of the total radiant heat flux. Two separate expressions, one for the developing flow regime and one for fully-developed flow, were used to correlate the regression rate data. Both correlations show that standard hybrid boundary layer correlations must be modified to account for the effects of variable fluid properties across the boundary layer and

  20. Nodal aberration theory applied to freeform surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuerschbach, Kyle; Rolland, Jannick P.; Thompson, Kevin P.

    2014-12-01

    When new three-dimensional packages are developed for imaging optical systems, the rotational symmetry of the optical system is often broken, changing its imaging behavior and making the optical performance worse. A method to restore the performance is to use freeform optical surfaces that compensate directly the aberrations introduced from tilting and decentering the optical surfaces. In order to effectively optimize the shape of a freeform surface to restore optical functionality, it is helpful to understand the aberration effect the surface may induce. Using nodal aberration theory the aberration fields induced by a freeform surface in an optical system are explored. These theoretical predications are experimentally validated with the design and implementation of an aberration generating telescope.

  1. Behavioral, Cognitive, and Motor Preparation Deficits in a Visual Cued Spatial Attention Task in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Sokhadze, Estate M; Tasman, Allan; Sokhadze, Guela E; El-Baz, Ayman S; Casanova, Manuel F

    2016-03-01

    Abnormalities in motor skills have been regarded as part of the symptomatology characterizing autism spectrum disorder (ASD). It has been estimated that 80 % of subjects with autism display "motor dyspraxia" or clumsiness that are not readily identified in a routine neurological examination. In this study we used behavioral measures, event-related potentials (ERP), and lateralized readiness potential (LRP) to study cognitive and motor preparation deficits contributing to the dyspraxia of autism. A modified Posner cueing task was used to analyze motor preparation abnormalities in children with autism and in typically developing children (N = 30/per group). In this task, subjects engage in preparing motor response based on a visual cue, and then execute a motor movement based on the subsequent imperative stimulus. The experimental conditions, such as the validity of the cue and the spatial location of the target stimuli were manipulated to influence motor response selection, preparation, and execution. Reaction time and accuracy benefited from validly cued targets in both groups, while main effects of target spatial position were more obvious in the autism group. The main ERP findings were prolonged and more negative early frontal potentials in the ASD in incongruent trials in both types of spatial location. The LRP amplitude was larger in incongruent trials and had stronger effect in the children with ASD. These effects were better expressed at the earlier stages of LRP, specifically those related to response selection, and showed difficulties at the cognitive phase of stimulus processing rather that at the motor execution stage. The LRP measures at different stages reflect the chronology of cognitive aspects of movement preparation and are sensitive to manipulations of cue correctness, thus representing very useful biomarker in autism dyspraxia research. Future studies may use more advance and diverse manipulations of movement preparation demands in testing more

  2. Defective quorum sensing of acute lymphoblastic leukemic cells: evidence of collective behavior of leukemic populations as semi-autonomous aberrant ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sapan J; Dao, Su; Darie, Costel C; Clarkson, Bayard D

    2016-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a generic term used to describe cell-cell communication and collective decision making by bacterial and social insects to regulate the expression of specific genes in controlling cell density and other properties of the populations in response to nutrient supply or changes in the environment. QS mechanisms also have a role in higher organisms in maintaining homeostasis, regulation of the immune system and collective behavior of cancer cell populations. In the present study, we used a p190BCR-ABL driven pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL3) cell line derived from the pleural fluid of a terminally ill patient with ALL to test the QS hypothesis in leukemia. ALL3 cells don’t grow at low density (LD) in liquid media but grow progressively faster at increasingly high cell densities (HD) in contrast to other established leukemic cell lines that grow well at very low starting cell densities. The ALL3 cells at LD are poised to grow but shortly die without additional stimulation. Supernates of ALL3 cells (HDSN) and some other primary cells grown at HD stimulate the growth of the LD ALL3 cells without which they won’t survive. To get further insight into the activation processes we performed microarray analysis of the LD ALL3 cells after stimulation with ALL3 HDSN at days 1, 3, and 6. This screen identified several candidate genes, and we linked them to signaling networks and their functions. We observed that genes involved in lipid, cholesterol, fatty acid metabolism, and B cell activation are most up- or down-regulated upon stimulation of the LD ALL3 cells using HDSN. We also discuss other pathways that are differentially expressed upon stimulation of the LD ALL3 cells. Our findings suggest that the Ph+ ALL population achieves dominance by functioning as a collective aberrant ecosystem subject to defective quorum-sensing regulatory mechanisms. PMID:27429840

  3. Defective quorum sensing of acute lymphoblastic leukemic cells: evidence of collective behavior of leukemic populations as semi-autonomous aberrant ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sapan J; Dao, Su; Darie, Costel C; Clarkson, Bayard D

    2016-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a generic term used to describe cell-cell communication and collective decision making by bacterial and social insects to regulate the expression of specific genes in controlling cell density and other properties of the populations in response to nutrient supply or changes in the environment. QS mechanisms also have a role in higher organisms in maintaining homeostasis, regulation of the immune system and collective behavior of cancer cell populations. In the present study, we used a p190(BCR-ABL) driven pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL3) cell line derived from the pleural fluid of a terminally ill patient with ALL to test the QS hypothesis in leukemia. ALL3 cells don't grow at low density (LD) in liquid media but grow progressively faster at increasingly high cell densities (HD) in contrast to other established leukemic cell lines that grow well at very low starting cell densities. The ALL3 cells at LD are poised to grow but shortly die without additional stimulation. Supernates of ALL3 cells (HDSN) and some other primary cells grown at HD stimulate the growth of the LD ALL3 cells without which they won't survive. To get further insight into the activation processes we performed microarray analysis of the LD ALL3 cells after stimulation with ALL3 HDSN at days 1, 3, and 6. This screen identified several candidate genes, and we linked them to signaling networks and their functions. We observed that genes involved in lipid, cholesterol, fatty acid metabolism, and B cell activation are most up- or down-regulated upon stimulation of the LD ALL3 cells using HDSN. We also discuss other pathways that are differentially expressed upon stimulation of the LD ALL3 cells. Our findings suggest that the Ph+ ALL population achieves dominance by functioning as a collective aberrant ecosystem subject to defective quorum-sensing regulatory mechanisms. PMID:27429840

  4. Children with Multiple Disabilities and Minimal Motor Behavior Using Chin Movements to Operate Microswitches to Obtain Environmental Stimulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Tota, Alessia; Antonucci, Massimo; Oliva, Doretta

    2006-01-01

    In these two studies, two children with multiple disabilities and minimal motor behavior were assessed to see if they could use chin movements to operate microswitches to obtain environmental stimulation. In Study I, we applied an adapted version of a recently introduced electronic microswitch [Lancioni, G. E., O'Reilly, M. F., Singh, N. N.,…

  5. Assisting People with Multiple Disabilities and Minimal Motor Behavior to Control Environmental Stimulation through a Mouse Wheel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Shih, Ching-Tien; Lin, Kun-Tsan; Chiang, Ming-Shan

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed whether two people with profound multiple disabilities and minimal motor behavior would be able to control environmental stimulation using thumb poke ability with a mouse wheel and a newly developed mouse driver (i.e., a new mouse driver replacing standard mouse driver, and turning a mouse into a precise thumb poke detector).…

  6. Assisting People with Multiple Disabilities and Minimal Motor Behavior to Improve Computer Pointing Efficiency through a Mouse Wheel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Chang, Man-Ling; Shih, Ching-Tien

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated whether two people with multiple disabilities and minimal motor behavior would be able to improve their pointing performance using finger poke ability with a mouse wheel through a Dynamic Pointing Assistive Program (DPAP) and a newly developed mouse driver (i.e., a new mouse driver replaces standard mouse driver, changes a…

  7. Fundamental motor skill, physical activity, and sedentary behavior in socioeconomically disadvantaged kindergarteners.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xiangli

    2016-10-01

    Guided by Stodden et al's conceptual model, the main purpose of the study was to examine the relation between fundamental motor skills (FMS; locomotor and objective control skills), different intensity levels of physical activity (light PA [LPA], moderate-to-vigorous PA [MVPA], and vigorous PA[VPA]), and sedentary behavior (SB) in socioeconomically disadvantaged kindergarteners. A prospective design was used in this study and the data were collected across the 2013-2014 academic school year. Participants were 256 (129 boys; 127 girls; Mage = 5.37, SD = 0.48) kindergarteners recruited from three public schools in the southern United States. Results found that FMS were significantly related to LPA, MVPA, VPA, and SB. Regression analyses indicate that locomotor skills explained significant variance for LPA (6.4%; p < .01), MVPA (7.9%; p < .001), and VPA (5.3%; p < .01) after controlling for weight status. Mediational analysis supports the significant indirect effect of MVPA on the relation between FMS and SB (95% CI: [-0.019, -0.006]). Adequate FMS development during early childhood may result in participating in more varied physical activities, thus leading to lower risk of obesity-related behaviors. PMID:26691744

  8. Nonlinear dynamic behaviors of permanent magnet synchronous motors in electric vehicles caused by unbalanced magnetic pull

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Changle; Liu, Feng; Liu, Hui; Han, Lijin; Zhang, Xun

    2016-06-01

    Unbalanced magnetic pull (UMP) plays a key role in nonlinear dynamic behaviors of permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) in electric vehicles. Based on Jeffcott rotor model, the stiffness characteristics of the rotor system of the PMSM are analyzed and the nonlinear dynamic behaviors influenced by UMP are investigated. In free vibration study, eigenvalue-based stability analysis for multiple equilibrium points is performed which offers an insight in system stiffness. Amplitude modulation effects are discovered of which the mechanism is explained and the period of modulating signal is carried out by phase analysis and averaging method. The analysis indicates that the effects are caused by the interaction of the initial phases of forward and backward whirling motions. In forced vibration study, considering dynamic eccentricity, frequency characteristics revealing softening type are obtained by harmonic balance method, and the stability of periodic solution is investigated by Routh-Hurwitz criterion. The frequency characteristics analysis indicates that the response amplitude is limited in the range between the amplitudes of the two kinds of equilibrium points. In the vicinity of the continuum of equilibrium points, the system hardly provides resistance to bending, and hence external disturbances easily cause loss of stability. It is useful for the design of the PMSM with high stability and low vibration and acoustic noise.

  9. Interpreting Chromosome Aberration Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, Dan; Reeder, Christopher; Loucas, Bradford; Hlatky, Lynn; Chen, Allen; Cornforth, Michael; Sachs, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can damage cells by breaking both strands of DNA in multiple locations, essentially cutting chromosomes into pieces. The cell has enzymatic mechanisms to repair such breaks; however, these mechanisms are imperfect and, in an exchange process, may produce a large-scale rearrangement of the genome, called a chromosome aberration. Chromosome aberrations are important in killing cells, during carcinogenesis, in characterizing repair/misrepair pathways, in retrospective radiation biodosimetry, and in a number of other ways. DNA staining techniques such as mFISH ( multicolor fluorescent in situ hybridization) provide a means for analyzing aberration spectra by examining observed final patterns. Unfortunately, an mFISH observed final pattern often does not uniquely determine the underlying exchange process. Further, resolution limitations in the painting protocol sometimes lead to apparently incomplete final patterns. We here describe an algorithm for systematically finding exchange processes consistent with any observed final pattern. This algorithm uses aberration multigraphs, a mathematical formalism that links the various aspects of aberration formation. By applying a measure to the space of consistent multigraphs, we will show how to generate model-specific distributions of aberration processes from mFISH experimental data. The approach is implemented by software freely available over the internet. As a sample application, we apply these algorithms to an aberration data set, obtaining a distribution of exchange cycle sizes, which serves to measure aberration complexity. Estimating complexity, in turn, helps indicate how damaging the aberrations are and may facilitate identification of radiation type in retrospective biodosimetry.

  10. Longitudinal Motor and Behavioral Assessment of Blood-Brain Barrier Opening with Transcranial Focused Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Olumolade, Oluyemi O; Wang, Shutao; Samiotaki, Gesthimani; Konofagou, Elisa E

    2016-09-01

    Focused ultrasound (FUS), in combination with microbubbles, has been found to open the blood-brain barrier (BBB) non-invasively. When this technique is used for drug delivery, repeated drug administration and BBB opening are likely required. Therefore, it is worth investigating the long-term effects of FUS-induced BBB opening. In this study, we focused on the assessment of potential behavior changes in mice that could be attributed to repeated BBB opening for up to 6 months. The striatum of animals was unilaterally sonicated either monthly or biweekly throughout the monitoring period. Behavioral assessments were conducted using open-field and rotarod performance tests. Upon completion of each sonication, mice underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to confirm and assess the volume of the BBB opening. No differences in locomotor activity between BBB-opened and control groups in both biweekly and monthly treated mice were evident up to 6 months. Similarly, there was no affinity for a particular turn angle in the sonicated mice compared with the control animals. However, the positive control group exhibited a significant decrease in locomotor activity, as well as rotation ipsilateral to the sonicated hemisphere. Our results based on the assessment using open-field and rotarod tests indicated that repeated opening of the BBB in the striatum using FUS in conjunction with microbubbles over a period of 6 mo and under the parameters used here did not cause motor impairment, behavioral changes or morphologic alterations. This reinforces the tolerability of repeated and long-term drug delivery using FUS-induced BBB opening. PMID:27339763

  11. PKA Controls Calcium Influx into Motor Neurons during a Rhythmic Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Han; Sieburth, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) has been implicated in the execution of diverse rhythmic behaviors, but how cAMP functions in neurons to generate behavioral outputs remains unclear. During the defecation motor program in C. elegans, a peptide released from the pacemaker (the intestine) rhythmically excites the GABAergic neurons that control enteric muscle contractions by activating a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling pathway that is dependent on cAMP. Here, we show that the C. elegans PKA catalytic subunit, KIN-1, is the sole cAMP target in this pathway and that PKA is essential for enteric muscle contractions. Genetic analysis using cell-specific expression of dominant negative or constitutively active PKA transgenes reveals that knockdown of PKA activity in the GABAergic neurons blocks enteric muscle contractions, whereas constitutive PKA activation restores enteric muscle contractions to mutants defective in the peptidergic signaling pathway. Using real-time, in vivo calcium imaging, we find that PKA activity in the GABAergic neurons is essential for the generation of synaptic calcium transients that drive GABA release. In addition, constitutively active PKA increases the duration of calcium transients and causes ectopic calcium transients that can trigger out-of-phase enteric muscle contractions. Finally, we show that the voltage-gated calcium channels UNC-2 and EGL-19, but not CCA-1 function downstream of PKA to promote enteric muscle contractions and rhythmic calcium influx in the GABAergic neurons. Thus, our results suggest that PKA activates neurons during a rhythmic behavior by promoting presynaptic calcium influx through specific voltage-gated calcium channels. PMID:24086161

  12. Inducible Nitric Oxide Inhibitors Block NMDA Antagonist-Stimulated Motoric Behaviors and Medial Prefrontal Cortical Glutamate Efflux

    PubMed Central

    Bergstrom, Hadley C.; Darvesh, Altaf S.; Berger, S. P.

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays a critical role in the motoric and glutamate releasing action of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-antagonist stimulants. Earlier studies utilized neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors (nNOS) for studying the neurobehavioral effects of non-competitive NMDA-antagonist stimulants such as dizocilpine (MK-801) and phencyclidine (PCP). This study explores the role of the inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitors (iNOS) aminoguanidine (AG) and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) in NMDA-antagonist induced motoric behavior and prefrontal cortical glutamate efflux. Adult male rats were administered a dose range of AG, EGCG, or vehicle prior to receiving NMDA antagonists MK-801, PCP, or a conventional psychostimulant (cocaine) and tested for motoric behavior in an open arena. Glutamate in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) was measured using in vivo microdialysis after a combination of AG or EGCG prior to MK-801. Acute administration of AG or EGCG dose-dependently attenuated the locomotor and ataxic properties of MK-801 and PCP. Both AG and EGCG were unable to block the motoric effects of cocaine, indicating the acute pharmacologic action of AG and EGCG is specific to NMDA antagonism and not generalizable to all stimulant class drugs. AG and EGCG normalized MK-801-stimulated mPFC glutamate efflux. These data demonstrate that AG and EGCG attenuates NMDA antagonist-stimulated motoric behavior and cortical glutamate efflux. Our results suggest that EGCG-like polyphenol nutraceuticals (contained in “green tea” and chocolate) may be clinically useful in protecting against the adverse behavioral dissociative and cortical glutamate stimulating effects of NMDA antagonists. Medications that interfere with NMDA antagonists such as MK-801 and PCP have been proposed as treatments for schizophrenia. PMID:26696891

  13. Extensive early motor and non-motor behavioral deficits are followed by striatal neuronal loss in Knock-in Huntington’s disease mice

    PubMed Central

    Hickey, Miriam A.; Kosmalska, Agata; Enayati, Joseph; Cohen, Rachel; Zeitlin, Scott; Levine, Michael S.; Chesselet, Marie-Françoise

    2008-01-01

    Huntington’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder, caused by an elongation of CAG repeats in the huntingtin gene. Mice with an insertion of an expanded polyglutamine repeat in the mouse huntingtin gene (knock-in mice) most closely model the disease because the mutation is expressed in the proper genomic and protein context. However, few knock-in mouse lines have been extensively characterized and available data suggest marked differences in the extent and time course of their behavioral and pathological phenotype. We have previously described behavioral anomalies in the open field as early as 1 month of age, followed by the appearance at 2 months of progressive huntingtin neuropathology, in a mouse carrying a portion of human exon 1 with approximately 140 CAG repeats inserted into the mouse huntingtin gene. Here we extend these observations by showing that early behavioral anomalies exist in a wide range of motor (climbing, vertical pole, rotarod, and running wheel performance) and non-motor functions (fear conditioning and anxiety) starting at 1–4 months of age, and are followed by progressive gliosis and decrease in DARPP32 (12 months) and a loss of striatal neurons at 2 years. At this age, mice also present striking spontaneous behavioral deficits in their home cage. The data show that this line of knock-in mice reproduces canonical characteristics of Huntington’s disease, preceded by deficits which may correspond to the protracted pre-manifest phase of the disease in humans. Accordingly, they provide a useful model to elucidate early mechanisms of pathophysiology and the progression to overt neurodegeneration. PMID:18805465

  14. Rotating bouncing disks, tossing pizza dough, and the behavior of ultrasonic motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kuang-Chen; Friend, James; Yeo, Leslie

    2009-10-01

    Pizza tossing and certain forms of standing-wave ultrasonic motors (SWUMs) share a similar process for converting reciprocating input into continuous rotary motion. We show that the key features of this motion conversion process such as collision, separation and friction coupling are captured by the dynamics of a disk bouncing on a vibrating platform. The model shows that the linear or helical hand motions commonly used by pizza chefs and dough-toss performers for single tosses maximize energy efficiency and the dough’s airborne rotational speed; on the other hand, the semielliptical hand motions used for multiple tosses make it easier to maintain dough rotation at the maximum speed. The system’s bifurcation diagram and basins of attraction also provide a physical basis for understanding the peculiar behavior of SWUMs and provide a means to design them. The model is able to explain the apparently chaotic oscillations that occur in SWUMs and predict the observed trends in steady-state speed and stall torque as preload is increased.

  15. Binocular Perception of 2D Lateral Motion and Guidance of Coordinated Motor Behavior.

    PubMed

    Fath, Aaron J; Snapp-Childs, Winona; Kountouriotis, Georgios K; Bingham, Geoffrey P

    2016-04-01

    Zannoli, Cass, Alais, and Mamassian (2012) found greater audiovisual lag between a tone and disparity-defined stimuli moving laterally (90-170 ms) than for disparity-defined stimuli moving in depth or luminance-defined stimuli moving laterally or in depth (50-60 ms). We tested if this increased lag presents an impediment to visually guided coordination with laterally moving objects. Participants used a joystick to move a virtual object in several constant relative phases with a laterally oscillating stimulus. Both the participant-controlled object and the target object were presented using a disparity-defined display that yielded information through changes in disparity over time (CDOT) or using a luminance-defined display that additionally provided information through monocular motion and interocular velocity differences (IOVD). Performance was comparable for both disparity-defined and luminance-defined displays in all relative phases. This suggests that, despite lag, perception of lateral motion through CDOT is generally sufficient to guide coordinated motor behavior. PMID:26614099

  16. Mice lacking the Parkinson's related GPR37/PAEL receptor show non-motor behavioral phenotypes: age and gender effect.

    PubMed

    Mandillo, S; Golini, E; Marazziti, D; Di Pietro, C; Matteoni, R; Tocchini-Valentini, G P

    2013-06-01

    Non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) have been often described at different stages of the disease but they are poorly understood. We observed specific phenotypes related to these symptoms in mice lacking the PD-associated GPR37/PAEL receptor. GPR37 is an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor highly expressed in the mammalian central nervous system. It is a substrate of parkin and it is involved in the pathogenesis of PD. GPR37 interacts with the dopamine transporter (DAT), modulating nigro-striatal dopaminergic signaling and behavioral responses to amphetamine and cocaine. GPR37 knockout (KO) mice are resistant to MPTP and exhibit several motor behavioral abnormalities related to altered dopaminergic system function. To evaluate non-motor behavioral domains, adult and aged, male and female GPR37 KO mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates were analyzed in a series of cross-sectional studies. Aged GPR37 KO female mice showed mild improvements in olfactory function, while anxiety and depression-like behaviors appeared to be significantly increased. A reduction of the startle response to acoustic stimuli was observed only in adult GPR37 KO mice of both genders. Furthermore, HPLC analysis of major neurotransmitter levels revealed gender differences in the striatum, hippocampus and olfactory bulb of mutant mice. The absence of GPR37 receptor could have a neuroprotective effect in an age and gender-dependent manner, and the study of this receptor could be valuable in the search for novel therapeutic targets. PMID:23574697

  17. Premixed ignition behavior of C{sub 9} fatty acid esters: A motored engine study

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yu.; Yang, Yi; Boehman, Andre L.

    2009-06-15

    An experimental study on the premixed ignition behavior of C{sub 9} fatty acid esters has been conducted in a motored CFR engine. For each test fuel, the engine compression ratio was gradually increased from the lowest point (4.43) to the point where significant high temperature heat release (HTHR) was observed. The engine exhaust was sampled and analyzed through GC-FID/TCD and GC-MS. Combustion analysis showed that the four C{sub 9} fatty acid esters tested in this study exhibited evidently different ignition behavior. The magnitude of low temperature heat release (LTHR) follows the order, ethyl nonanoate > methyl nonanoate >> methyl 2-nonenoate > methyl 3-nonenoate. The lower oxidation reactivity for the unsaturated fatty acid esters in the low temperature regime can be explained by the reduced amount of six- or seven-membered transition state rings formed during the oxidation of the unsaturated esters due to the presence of a double bond in the aliphatic chain of the esters. The inhibition effect of the double bond on the low temperature oxidation reactivity of fatty acid esters becomes more pronounced as the double bond moves toward the central position of the aliphatic chain. GC-MS analysis of exhaust condensate collected under the engine conditions where only LTHR occurred showed that the alkyl chain of the saturated fatty acid esters participated in typical paraffin-like low temperature oxidation sequences. In contrast, for unsaturated fatty acid esters, the autoignition can undergo olefin ignition pathways. For all test compounds, the ester functional group remains largely intact during the early stage of oxidation. (author)

  18. Influence of flow velocity on motor behavior of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yang; Zhang, Libin; Lin, Chenggang; Sun, Jiamin; Kan, Rentao; Yang, Hongsheng

    2015-05-15

    The influence of flow velocity on the motor behavior of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus was investigated in the laboratory. Cameras were used to record sea cucumber movements and behavior analysis software was used to measure the distance traveled, time spent, upstream or downstream of the start position and the speed of movements. In general, the mean velocity of A. japonicus was below 0.7mms(-1). The maximum velocity recorded for all the sea cucumbers tested was for a large individual (89.25±17.11g), at a flow rate of 4.6±0.5cms(-1). Medium sized (19.68±5.53g) and large individuals moved significantly faster than small individuals (2.65±1.24g) at the same flow rate. A. japonicus moved significantly faster when there was a moderate current (4.6±0.5cms(-1) and 14.7±0.3cms(-1)), compared with the fast flow rate (29.3±3.7cms(-1)) and when there was no flow (0cms(-1)). Sea cucumbers did not show positive rheotaxis in general, but did move in a downstream direction at faster current speeds. Large, medium and small sized individuals moved downstream at the fastest current speed tested, 29.3±3.7cms(-1). When there was no water flow, sea cucumbers tended to move in an irregular pattern. The movement patterns show that the sea cucumber, A. japonicus can move across the direction of flow, and can move both upstream and downstream along the direction of flow. PMID:25727024

  19. Interhemispheric claustral circuits coordinate sensory and motor cortical areas that regulate exploratory behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jared B.; Alloway, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    The claustrum has a role in the interhemispheric transfer of certain types of sensorimotor information. Whereas the whisker region in rat motor (M1) cortex sends dense projections to the contralateral claustrum, the M1 forelimb representation does not. The claustrum sends strong ipsilateral projections to the whisker regions in M1 and somatosensory (S1) cortex, but its projections to the forelimb cortical areas are weak. These distinctions suggest that one function of the M1 projections to the contralateral claustrum is to coordinate the cortical areas that regulate peripheral sensor movements during behaviors that depend on bilateral sensory acquisition. If this hypothesis is true, then similar interhemispheric circuits should interconnect the frontal eye fields (FEF) with the contralateral claustrum and its network of projections to vision-related cortical areas. To test this hypothesis, anterograde and retrograde tracers were placed in physiologically-defined parts of the FEF and primary visual cortex (V1) in rats. We observed dense FEF projections to the contralateral claustrum that terminated in the midst of claustral neurons that project to both FEF and V1. While the FEF inputs to the claustrum come predominantly from the contralateral hemisphere, the claustral projections to FEF and V1 are primarily ipsilateral. Detailed comparison of the present results with our previous studies on somatomotor claustral circuitry revealed a well-defined functional topography in which the ventral claustrum is connected with visuomotor cortical areas and the dorsal regions are connected with somatomotor areas. These results suggest that subregions within the claustrum play a critical role in coordinating the cortical areas that regulate the acquisition of modality-specific sensory information during exploration and other behaviors that require sensory attention. PMID:24904315

  20. Intercostal muscle motor behavior during tracheal occlusion conditioning in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Poonam B; Davenport, Paul W

    2016-04-01

    A respiratory load compensation response is characterized by increases in activation of primary respiratory muscles and/or recruitment of accessory respiratory muscles. The contribution of the external intercostal (EI) muscles, which are a primary respiratory muscle group, during normal and loaded breathing remains poorly understood in conscious animals. Consciousness has a significant role on modulation of respiratory activity, as it is required for the integration of behavioral respiratory responses and voluntary control of breathing. Studies of respiratory load compensation have been predominantly focused in anesthetized animals, which make their comparison to conscious load compensation responses challenging. Using our established model of intrinsic transient tracheal occlusions (ITTO), our aim was to evaluate the motor behavior of EI muscles during normal and loaded breathing in conscious rats. We hypothesized that1) conscious rats exposed to ITTO will recruit the EI muscles with an increased electromyogram (EMG) activation and2) repeated ITTO for 10 days would potentiate the baseline EMG activity of this muscle in conscious rats. Our results demonstrate that conscious rats exposed to ITTO respond by recruiting the EI muscle with a significantly increased EMG activation. This response to occlusion remained consistent over the 10-day experimental period with little or no effect of repeated ITTO exposure on the baseline ∫EI EMG amplitude activity. The pattern of activation of the EI muscle in response to an ITTO is discussed in detail. The results from the present study demonstrate the importance of EI muscles during unloaded breathing and respiratory load compensation in conscious rats. PMID:26823339

  1. Motor neuron pathology and behavioral alterations at late stages in a SMA mouse model.

    PubMed

    Fulceri, Federica; Bartalucci, Alessia; Paparelli, Silvio; Pasquali, Livia; Biagioni, Francesca; Ferrucci, Michela; Ruffoli, Riccardo; Fornai, Francesco

    2012-03-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neurogenetic autosomal recessive disorder characterized by degeneration of lower motor neurons. The validation of appropriate animal models is key in fostering SMA research. Recent studies set up an animal model showing long survival and slow disease progression. This model is knocked out for mouse SMN (Smn(-/-)) gene and carries a human mutation of the SMN1 gene (SMN1A2G), along with human SMN2 gene. In the present study we used this knock out double transgenic mouse model (SMN2(+/+); Smn(-/-); SMN1A2G(+/-)) to characterize the spinal cord pathology along with motor deficit at prolonged survival times. In particular, motor neuron loss was established stereologically (44.77%) after motor deficit reached a steady state. At this stage, spared motor neurons showed significant cell body enlargement. Moreover, similar to what was described in patients affected by SMA we found neuronal heterotopy (almost 4% of total motor neurons) in the anterior white matter. The delayed disease progression was likely to maintain fair motor activity despite a dramatic loss of large motor neurons. This provides a wonderful tool to probe novel drugs finely tuning the survival of motor neurons. In fact, small therapeutic effects protracted over considerable time intervals (even more than a year) are expected to be magnified. PMID:22306031

  2. Effect of Implicit Perceptual-Motor Training on Decision-Making Skills and Underpinning Gaze Behavior in Combat Athletes.

    PubMed

    Milazzo, Nicolas; Farrow, Damian; Fournier, Jean F

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of a 12-session, implicit perceptual-motor training program on decision-making skills and visual search behavior of highly skilled junior female karate fighters (M age = 15.7 years, SD = 1.2). Eighteen participants were required to make (physical or verbal) reaction decisions to various attacks within different fighting scenarios. Fighters' performance and eye movements were assessed before and after the intervention, and during acquisition through the use of video-based and on-mat decision-making tests. The video-based test revealed that following training, only the implicit perceptual-motor group (n = 6) improved their decision-making accuracy significantly compared to a matched motor training (placebo, n = 6) group and a control group (n = 6). Further, the implicit training group significantly changed their visual search behavior by focusing on fewer locations for longer durations. In addition, the session-by-session analysis showed no significant improvement in decision accuracy between training session 1 and all the other sessions, except the last one. Coaches should devote more practice time to implicit learning approaches during perceptual-motor training program to achieve significant decision-making improvements and more efficient visual search strategy with elite athletes. PMID:27371637

  3. Effects of Vestibular Stimulation on Motor Development and Stereotyped Behavior of Developmentally Delayed Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLean, William E., Jr.; Baumeister, Alfred A.

    1982-01-01

    Four developmentally delayed babies were given semicircular canal stimulation in an effort to facilitate their motor and reflex development. All of the children showed motor and/or reflex changes that were attributable to the vestibular stimulation. In addition, some evidence was obtained linking changes in stereotypic responding to the vestibular…

  4. Generalized Motor Abilities and Timing Behavior in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelaznik, Howard N.; Goffman, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine whether children with specific language impairment (SLI) differ from normally developing peers in motor skills, especially those skills related to timing. Method: Standard measures of gross and fine motor development were obtained. Furthermore, finger and hand movements were recorded while children engaged in 4 different timing…

  5. The Aberration Corrected SEM

    SciTech Connect

    Joy, David C.

    2005-09-09

    The performance of the conventional low-energy CD-SEM is limited by the aberrations inherent in the probe forming lens. Multi-pole correctors are now available which can reduce or eliminate these aberrations. An SEM equipped with such a corrector offers higher spatial resolution and more probe current from a given electron source, and other aspects of the optical performance are also improved, but the much higher numerical aperture associated with an aberration corrected lens results in a reduction in imaging depth of field.

  6. A Huntingtin-based peptide inhibitor of caspase-6 provides protection from mutant Huntingtin-induced motor and behavioral deficits

    PubMed Central

    Aharony, Israel; Ehrnhoefer, Dagmar E.; Shruster, Adi; Qiu, Xiaofan; Franciosi, Sonia; Hayden, Michael R.; Offen, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, increasing evidence has implied a significant connection between caspase-6 activity and the pathogenesis of Huntington's disease (HD). Consequently, inhibiting caspase-6 activity was suggested as a promising therapeutic strategy to reduce mutant Huntingtin toxicity, and to provide protection from mutant Huntingtin-induced motor and behavioral deficits. Here, we describe a novel caspase-6 inhibitor peptide based on the huntingtin caspase-6 cleavage site, fused with a cell-penetrating sequence. The peptide reduces mutant Huntingtin proteolysis by caspase-6, and protects cells from mutant Huntingtin toxicity. Continuous subcutaneous administration of the peptide protected pre-symptomatic BACHD mice from motor deficits and behavioral abnormalities. Moreover, administration of the peptide in an advanced disease state resulted in the partial recovery of motor performance, and an alleviation of depression-related behavior and cognitive deficits. Our findings reveal the potential of substrate-based caspase inhibition as a therapeutic strategy, and present a promising agent for the treatment of HD. PMID:25616965

  7. Behavioral and Neural Plasticity of Ocular Motor Control: Changes in Performance and fMRI Activity Following Antisaccade Training

    PubMed Central

    Jamadar, Sharna D.; Johnson, Beth P.; Clough, Meaghan; Egan, Gary F.; Fielding, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    The antisaccade task provides a model paradigm that sets the inhibition of a reflexively driven behavior against the volitional control of a goal-directed behavior. The stability and adaptability of antisaccade performance was investigated in 23 neurologically healthy individuals. Behavior and brain function were measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) prior to and immediately following 2 weeks of daily antisaccade training. Participants performed antisaccade trials faster with no change in directional error rate following 2 weeks of training; however this increased speed came at the cost of the spatial accuracy of the saccade (gain) which became more hypometric following training. Training on the antisaccade task resulted in increases in fMRI activity in the fronto-basal ganglia-parietal-cerebellar ocular motor network. Following training, antisaccade latency was positively associated with fMRI activity in the frontal and supplementary eye fields, anterior cingulate and intraparietal sulcus; antisaccade gain was negatively associated with fMRI activity in supplementary eye fields, anterior cingulate, intraparietal sulcus, and cerebellar vermis. In sum, the results suggest that following training, larger antisaccade latency is associated with larger activity in fronto-parietal-cerebellar ocular motor regions, and smaller antisaccade gain is associated with larger activity in fronto-parietal ocular motor regions. PMID:26733841

  8. Nutrigenomic targeting of carbohydrate craving behavior: Can we manage obesity and aberrant craving behaviors with neurochemical pathway manipulation by Immunological Compatible Substances (nutrients) using a Genetic Positioning System (GPS) Map?

    PubMed Central

    Downs, B. William; Chen, Amanda L.C.; Chen, Thomas J.H.; Waite, Roger L.; Braverman, Eric R.; Kerner, Mallory; Braverman, Dasha; Rhoades, Patrick; Prihoda, Thomas J.; Palomo, Tomas; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Reinking, Jeffrey; Blum, Seth H.; DiNubile, Nicholas A.; Liu, H.H.; Blum, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Genetic mediated physiological processes that rely on both pharmacological and nutritional principles hold great promise for the successful therapeutic targeting of reduced carbohydrate craving, body-friendly fat loss, healthy body recomposition, and overall wellness. By integrating an assembly of scientific knowledge on inheritable characteristics and environmental mediators of gene expression, we review the relationship of genes, hormones, neurotransmitters, and nutrients as they correct unwanted weight gain coupled with unhappiness. In contrast to a simple one-locus, one-mechanism focus on pharmaceuticals alone, we hypothesize that the use of nutrigenomic treatment targeting multi-physiological neurological, immunological, and metabolic pathways will enable clinicians to intercede in the process of lipogenesis by promoting lipolysis while attenuating aberrant glucose cravings. In turn, this approach will enhance wellness in a safe and predictable manner through the use of a Genetic Positioning System (GPS) Map. The GPS Map, while presently incomplete, ultimately will serve not only as a blueprint for personalized medicine in the treatment of obesity, but also for the development of strategies for reducing many harmful addictive behaviors and promoting optimal health by using substances compatible with the body’s immune system. PMID:19450935

  9. The effects of chronic intracortical microstimulation on neural tissue and fine motor behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajan, Alexander T.; Boback, Jessica L.; Dammann, John F.; Tenore, Francesco V.; Wester, Brock A.; Otto, Kevin J.; Gaunt, Robert A.; Bensmaia, Sliman J.

    2015-12-01

    Objective. One approach to conveying sensory feedback in neuroprostheses is to electrically stimulate sensory neurons in the cortex. For this approach to be viable, it is critical that intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) causes minimal damage to the brain. Here, we investigate the effects of chronic ICMS on the neuronal tissue across a variety of stimulation regimes in non-human primates. We also examine each animal’s ability to use their hand—the cortical representation of which is targeted by the ICMS—as a further assay of possible neuronal damage. Approach. We implanted electrode arrays in the primary somatosensory cortex of three Rhesus macaques and delivered ICMS four hours per day, five days per week, for six months. Multiple regimes of ICMS were delivered to investigate the effects of stimulation parameters on the tissue and behavior. Parameters included current amplitude (10-100 μA), pulse train duration (1, 5 s), and duty cycle (1/1, 1/3). We then performed a range of histopathological assays on tissue near the tips of both stimulated and unstimulated electrodes to assess the effects of chronic ICMS on the tissue and their dependence on stimulation parameters. Main results. While the implantation and residence of the arrays in the cortical tissue did cause significant damage, chronic ICMS had no detectable additional effect; furthermore, the animals exhibited no impairments in fine motor control. Significance. Chronic ICMS may be a viable means to convey sensory feedback in neuroprostheses as it does not cause significant damage to the stimulated tissue.

  10. Sensory gating of an embryonic zebrafish interneuron during spontaneous motor behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Knogler, Laura D.; Drapeau, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    In all but the simplest monosynaptic reflex arcs, sensory stimuli are encoded by sensory neurons that transmit a signal via sensory interneurons to downstream partners in order to elicit a response. In the embryonic zebrafish (Danio rerio), cutaneous Rohon-Beard (RB) sensory neurons fire in response to mechanical stimuli and excite downstream glutamatergic commissural primary ascending (CoPA) interneurons to produce a flexion response contralateral to the site of stimulus. In the absence of sensory stimuli, zebrafish spinal locomotor circuits are spontaneously active during development due to pacemaker activity resulting in repetitive coiling of the trunk. Self-generated movement must therefore be distinguishable from external stimuli in order to ensure the appropriate activation of touch reflexes. Here, we recorded from CoPAs during spontaneous and evoked fictive motor behaviors in order to examine how responses to self-movement are gated in sensory interneurons. During spontaneous coiling, CoPAs received glycinergic inputs coincident with contralateral flexions that shunted firing for the duration of the coiling event. Shunting inactivation of CoPAs was caused by a slowly deactivating chloride conductance that resulted in lowered membrane resistance and increased action potential threshold. During spontaneous burst swimming, which develops later, CoPAs received glycinergic inputs that arrived in phase with excitation to ipsilateral motoneurons and provided persistent shunting. During a touch stimulus, short latency glutamatergic inputs produced cationic currents through AMPA receptors that drove a single, large amplitude action potential in the CoPA before shunting inhibition began, providing a brief window for the activation of downstream neurons. We compared the properties of CoPAs to those of other spinal neurons and propose that glycinergic signaling onto CoPAs acts as a corollary discharge signal for reflex inhibition during movement. PMID:25324729

  11. Rapid Amygdala Kindling Causes Motor Seizure and Comorbidity of Anxiety- and Depression-Like Behaviors in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shang-Der; Wang, Yu-Lin; Liang, Sheng-Fu; Shaw, Fu-Zen

    2016-01-01

    Amygdala kindling is a model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with convulsion. The rapid amygdala kindling has an advantage on quick development of motor seizures and for antiepileptic drugs screening. The rapid amygdala kindling causes epileptogenesis accompanied by an anxiolytic response in early isolation of rat pups or depressive behavior in immature rats. However, the effect of rapid amygdala kindling on comorbidity of anxiety- and depression-like behaviors is unexplored in adult rats with normal breeding. In the present study, 40 amygdala stimulations given within 2 days were applied in adult Wistar rats. Afterdischarge (AD) and seizure stage were recorded throughout the amygdala kindling. Anxiety-like behaviors were evaluated by the elevated plus maze (EPM) test and open field (OF) test, whereas depression-like behaviors were assessed by the forced swim (FS) and sucrose consumption (SC) tests. A tonic-clonic convulsion was provoked in the kindle group. Rapid amygdala kindling resulted in a significantly lower frequency entering an open area of either open arms of the EPM or the central zone of an OF, lower sucrose intake, and longer immobility of the FS test in the kindle group. Our results suggest that rapid amygdala kindling elicited severe motor seizures comorbid with anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. PMID:27445726

  12. Stepper motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dekramer, Cornelis

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the more commonly used permanent magnet stepper motors for spaceflight. It will discuss the mechanical and electrical aspects of the devices, their torque behavior, those parameters which need to be controlled and measured, and test methods to be employed. It will also discuss torque margins, compare these to the existing margin requirements, and determine the applicability of these requirements. Finally it will attempt to generate a set of requirements which will be used in any stepper motor procurement and will fully characterize the stepper motor behavior in a consistent and repeatable fashion.

  13. Behavioral and neurophysiological effects of delayed training following a small ischemic infarct in primary motor cortex of squirrel monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Plautz, Erik J.; Friel, Kathleen M.; Frost, Shawn B.; Dancause, Numa; Stowe, Ann M.; Nudo, Randolph J.

    2009-01-01

    A focal injury within the cerebral cortex results in functional reorganization within the spared cortex through time-dependent metabolic and physiological reactions. Physiological changes are also associated with specific post-injury behavioral experiences. Knowing how these factors interact can be beneficial in planning rehabilitative intervention after a stroke. The purpose of this study was to assess the functional impact of delaying the rehabilitative behavioral experience upon movement representations within the primary motor cortex (M1) in an established nonhuman primate, ischemic infarct model. Five adult squirrel monkeys were trained on a motor-skill task prior to and 1 month after an experimental ischemic infarct was induced in M1. Movement representations of the hand were derived within M1 using standard electrophysiological procedures prior to the infarct and again one and two months after the infarct. The results of this study show that even though recovery of motor skills was similar to that of a previous study in squirrel monkeys after early training, unlike early training, delayed training did not result in maintenance of the spared hand representation within the M1 peri-infarct hand area. Instead, delaying training resulted in a large decrease in spared hand representation during the spontaneous recovery period that persisted following the delayed training. In addition, delayed training resulted in an increase of simultaneously evoked movements that are typically independent. These results indicate that post-injury behavioral experience, such as motor skill training, may modulate peri-infarct cortical plasticity in different ways in the acute versus chronic stages following stroke. PMID:16273404

  14. A temporal predictive code for voice motor control: Evidence from ERP and behavioral responses to pitch-shifted auditory feedback.

    PubMed

    Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Sangtian, Stacey; Korzyukov, Oleg; Larson, Charles R

    2016-04-01

    The predictive coding model suggests that voice motor control is regulated by a process in which the mismatch (error) between feedforward predictions and sensory feedback is detected and used to correct vocal motor behavior. In this study, we investigated how predictions about timing of pitch perturbations in voice auditory feedback would modulate ERP and behavioral responses during vocal production. We designed six counterbalanced blocks in which a +100cents pitch-shift stimulus perturbed voice auditory feedback during vowel sound vocalizations. In three blocks, there was a fixed delay (500, 750 or 1000ms) between voice and pitch-shift stimulus onset (predictable), whereas in the other three blocks, stimulus onset delay was randomized between 500, 750 and 1000ms (unpredictable). We found that subjects produced compensatory (opposing) vocal responses that started at 80ms after the onset of the unpredictable stimuli. However, for predictable stimuli, subjects initiated vocal responses at 20ms before and followed the direction of pitch shifts in voice feedback. Analysis of ERPs showed that the amplitudes of the N1 and P2 components were significantly reduced in response to predictable compared with unpredictable stimuli. These findings indicate that predictions about temporal features of sensory feedback can modulate vocal motor behavior. In the context of the predictive coding model, temporally-predictable stimuli are learned and reinforced by the internal feedforward system, and as indexed by the ERP suppression, the sensory feedback contribution is reduced for their processing. These findings provide new insights into the neural mechanisms of vocal production and motor control. PMID:26835556

  15. Development and Validation of a Computational Model for Predicting the Behavior of Plumes from Large Solid Rocket Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, Jason E.; Black, David L.; Taylor, Casey L.

    2013-01-01

    Exhaust plumes from large solid rocket motors fired at ATK's Promontory test site carry particulates to high altitudes and typically produce deposits that fall on regions downwind of the test area. As populations and communities near the test facility grow, ATK has become increasingly concerned about the impact of motor testing on those surrounding communities. To assess the potential impact of motor testing on the community and to identify feasible mitigation strategies, it is essential to have a tool capable of predicting plume behavior downrange of the test stand. A software package, called PlumeTracker, has been developed and validated at ATK for this purpose. The code is a point model that offers a time-dependent, physics-based description of plume transport and precipitation. The code can utilize either measured or forecasted weather data to generate plume predictions. Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) data and field observations from twenty-three historical motor test fires at Promontory were collected to test the predictive capability of PlumeTracker. Model predictions for plume trajectories and deposition fields were found to correlate well with the collected dataset.

  16. Absence of glia maturation factor protects dopaminergic neurons and improves motor behavior in mouse model of Parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mohammad Moshahid; Zaheer, Smita; Ramasamy, Thangavel; Patel, Margi; Kempuraj, Duraisamy; Zaheer, Asgar

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we have shown that aberrant expression of glia maturation factor (GMF), a proinflammatory protein, is associated with the neuropathological conditions underlying diseases suggesting an important role for GMF in neurodegeneration. In the present study, we demonstrate that absence of GMF suppresses dopaminergic (DA) neuron loss, glial activation, and expression of proinflammatory mediators in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SN) and striatum (STR) of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) treated mice. Dopaminergic neuron numbers in the SN and fiber densities in the STR were reduced in wild type (Wt) mice when compared with GMF-deficient (GMF-KO) mice after MPTP treatment. We compared the motor abnormalities caused by MPTP treatment in Wt and GMF-KO mice as measured by Rota rod and grip strength test. Results show that the deficits in motor coordination and decrease in dopamine and its metabolite content were protected significantly in GMF-KO mice after MPTP treatment when compared with control Wt mice under identical experimental conditions. These findings were further supported by the immunohistochemical analysis that showed reduced glial activation in the SN of MPTP-treated GMF-KO mice. Similarly, in MPTP-treated GMF-KO mice, production of inflammatory tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukine-1 beta (IL-1β), granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) MCP-1 was suppressed, findings consistent with a role for GMF in MPTP neurotoxicity. In conclusion, present investigation provides the first evidence that deficiency of GMF protects the DA neuron loss and reduces the inflammatory load following MPTP administration in mice. Thus depletion of endogenous GMF represents an effective and selective strategy to slow down the MPTP-induced neurodegeneration. PMID:25754447

  17. Fish Oil Diet Associated with Acute Reperfusion Related Hemorrhage, and with Reduced Stroke-Related Sickness Behaviors and Motor Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Pascoe, Michaela C.; Howells, David W.; Crewther, David P.; Constantinou, Nicki; Carey, Leeanne M.; Rewell, Sarah S.; Turchini, Giovanni M.; Kaur, Gunveen; Crewther, Sheila G.

    2014-01-01

    Ischemic stroke is associated with motor impairment and increased incidence of affective disorders such as anxiety/clinical depression. In non-stroke populations, successful management of such disorders and symptoms has been reported following diet supplementation with long chain omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids (PUFAs). However, the potential protective effects of PUFA supplementation on affective behaviors after experimentally induced stroke and sham surgery have not been examined previously. This study investigated the behavioral effects of PUFA supplementation over a 6-week period following either middle cerebral artery occlusion or sham surgery in the hooded-Wistar rat. The PUFA diet supplied during the acclimation period prior to surgery was found to be associated with an increased risk of acute hemorrhage following the reperfusion component of the surgery. In surviving animals, PUFA supplementation did not influence infarct size as determined 6 weeks after surgery, but did decrease omega-6-fatty-acid levels, moderate sickness behaviors, acute motor impairment, and longer-term locomotor hyperactivity and depression/anxiety-like behavior. PMID:24567728

  18. Fish oil diet associated with acute reperfusion related hemorrhage, and with reduced stroke-related sickness behaviors and motor impairment.

    PubMed

    Pascoe, Michaela C; Howells, David W; Crewther, David P; Constantinou, Nicki; Carey, Leeanne M; Rewell, Sarah S; Turchini, Giovanni M; Kaur, Gunveen; Crewther, Sheila G

    2014-01-01

    Ischemic stroke is associated with motor impairment and increased incidence of affective disorders such as anxiety/clinical depression. In non-stroke populations, successful management of such disorders and symptoms has been reported following diet supplementation with long chain omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids (PUFAs). However, the potential protective effects of PUFA supplementation on affective behaviors after experimentally induced stroke and sham surgery have not been examined previously. This study investigated the behavioral effects of PUFA supplementation over a 6-week period following either middle cerebral artery occlusion or sham surgery in the hooded-Wistar rat. The PUFA diet supplied during the acclimation period prior to surgery was found to be associated with an increased risk of acute hemorrhage following the reperfusion component of the surgery. In surviving animals, PUFA supplementation did not influence infarct size as determined 6 weeks after surgery, but did decrease omega-6-fatty-acid levels, moderate sickness behaviors, acute motor impairment, and longer-term locomotor hyperactivity and depression/anxiety-like behavior. PMID:24567728

  19. Effects of short-term training on behavioral learning and skill acquisition during intraoral fine motor task.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A; Grigoriadis, J; Trulsson, M; Svensson, P; Svensson, K G

    2015-10-15

    Sensory information from the orofacial mechanoreceptors are used by the nervous system to optimize the positioning of food, determine the force levels, and force vectors involved in biting of food morsels. Moreover, practice resulting from repetition could be a key to learning and acquiring a motor skill. Hence, the aim of the experiment was to test the hypothesis that repeated splitting of a food morsel during a short-term training with an oral fine motor task would result in increased performance and optimization of jaw movements, in terms of reduction in duration of various phases of the jaw movements. Thirty healthy volunteers were asked to intraorally manipulate and split a chocolate candy, into two equal halves. The participants performed three series (with 10 trials) of the task before and after a short-term (approximately 30 min) training. The accuracy of the split and vertical jaw movement during the task were recorded. The precision of task performance improved significantly after training (22% mean deviation from ideal split after vs. 31% before; P<0.001). There was a significant decrease in the total duration of jaw movements during the task after the training (1.21 s total duration after vs. 1.56 s before; P<0.001). Further, when the jaw movements were divided into different phases, the jaw opening phase and contact phase were significantly shorter after training than before training (P=0.001, P=0.002). The results indicate that short-term training of an oral fine motor task induces behavior learning, skill acquisition and optimization of jaw movements in terms of better performance and reduction in the duration of jaw movements, during the task. The finding of the present study provides insights into how humans learn oral motor behaviors or the kind of adaptation that takes place after a successful prosthetic rehabilitation. PMID:26162238

  20. Properties of the Driving Behavior Survey Among Individuals with Motor Vehicle Accident-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Clapp, Joshua D.; Baker, Aaron S.; Litwack, Scott D.; Sloan, Denise M.; Beck, J. Gayle

    2014-01-01

    Data suggest anxious drivers may engage in problematic behaviors that place themselves and others at increased risk of negative traffic events. Three domains of problematic behavior – exaggerated safety/caution, performance deficits, and hostile/aggressive behaviors – previously were identified during development of the Driving Behavior Survey (DBS), a novel measure of anxiety-related behavior. Extending this research, the current study examined the psychometric properties of DBS scores among individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) subsequent to motor vehicle trauma (N = 40). Internal consistencies and 12-week test-retest reliabilities for DBS scales ranged from good to excellent. Comparison of scores to normative student data indicated dose-response relationships for safety/caution and performance deficit subscales, with increased frequency of anxious behavior occurring within the PTSD sample. Associations with standard clinical measures provide additional evidence for anxiety-related driving behavior as a unique marker of functional impairment, distinct from both avoidance and disorder-specific symptoms. PMID:24325891

  1. Properties of the Driving Behavior Survey among individuals with motor vehicle accident-related posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Clapp, Joshua D; Baker, Aaron S; Litwack, Scott D; Sloan, Denise M; Beck, J Gayle

    2014-01-01

    Data suggest anxious drivers may engage in problematic behaviors that place themselves and others at increased risk of negative traffic events. Three domains of problematic behavior--exaggerated safety/caution, performance deficits, and hostile/aggressive behaviors--previously were identified during development of the Driving Behavior Survey (DBS), a novel measure of anxiety-related behavior. Extending this research, the current study examined the psychometric properties of DBS scores among individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) subsequent to motor vehicle trauma (N=40). Internal consistencies and 12-week test-retest reliabilities for DBS scales ranged from good to excellent. Comparison of scores to normative student data indicated dose-response relationships for safety/caution and performance deficit subscales, with increased frequency of anxious behavior occurring within the PTSD sample. Associations with standard clinical measures provide additional evidence for anxiety-related driving behavior as a unique marker of functional impairment, distinct from both avoidance and disorder-specific symptoms. PMID:24325891

  2. Disruption of motor behavior and injury to the CNS induced by 3-thienylboronic acid in mice.

    PubMed

    Farfán-García, E D; Pérez-Rodríguez, M; Espinosa-García, C; Castillo-Mendieta, N T; Maldonado-Castro, M; Querejeta, E; Trujillo-Ferrara, J G; Soriano-Ursúa, M A

    2016-09-15

    The scarcity of studies on boron containing compounds (BCC) in the medicinal field is gradually being remedied. Efforts have been made to explore the effects of BCCs due to the properties that boron confers to molecules. Research has shown that the safety of some BCCs is similar to that found for boron-free compounds (judging from the acute toxicological evaluation). However, it has been observed that the administration of 3-thienylboronic acid (3TB) induced motor disruption in CD1 mice. In the current contribution we studied in deeper form the disruption of motor performance produced by the intraperitoneal administration of 3TB in mice from two strains (CD1 and C57BL6). Disruption of motor activity was dependent not only on the dose of 3TB administered, but also on the DMSO concentration in the vehicle. The ability of 3TB to enter the Central Nervous System (CNS) was evidenced by Raman spectroscopy as well as morphological effects on the CNS, such as loss of neurons yielding biased injury to the substantia nigra and striatum at doses ≥200mg/kg, and involving granular cell damage at doses of 400mg/kg but less injury in the motor cortex. Our work acquaints about the use of this compound in drug design, but the interesting profile as neurotoxic agent invite us to study it regarding the damage on the motor system. PMID:27495897

  3. The effects of oral motor stimulation on feeding behaviors of infants born with univentricle anatomy.

    PubMed

    Coker-Bolt, Patty; Jarrard, Courtney; Woodard, Francis; Merrill, Paige

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the effects of oral motor stimulation on infants born with complex univentricle anatomy who required surgery shortly after birth. A quasi-experimental group design was used to compare 18 infants receiving an oral motor stimulation program with 10 infants who did not receive any oral motor intervention. Infants in the treatment group received the oral motor treatment prior to cardiac surgery and immediately following surgery, one time a day, 6 days a week. Outcomes data were collected for length of time to reach full bottle-feeds and length of hospital stay. A statistically significant difference was seen in the overall length of hospital stay between the two groups (p = .04). Infants in the experimental group were hospitalized for a mean of 28.6 days and infants in the comparison group for a mean of 35.3 days. Infants in the treatment group achieved full bottle-feeds 2 days earlier than infants in the comparison group, although this was not statistically significant. There is positive support for the use of oral motor stimulation for infants born with univentricle anatomy, but further study is needed to determine the long-lasting effects of this intervention. PMID:22497742

  4. Collective behavior of minus-ended motors in mitotic microtubule asters gliding toward DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athale, Chaitanya A.; Dinarina, Ana; Nedelec, Francois; Karsenti, Eric

    2014-02-01

    Microtubules (MTs) nucleated by centrosomes form star-shaped structures referred to as asters. Aster motility and dynamics is vital for genome stability, cell division, polarization and differentiation. Asters move either toward the cell center or away from it. Here, we focus on the centering mechanism in a membrane independent system of Xenopus cytoplasmic egg extracts. Using live microscopy and single particle tracking, we find that asters move toward chromatinized DNA structures. The velocity and directionality profiles suggest a random-walk with drift directed toward DNA. We have developed a theoretical model that can explain this movement as a result of a gradient of MT length dynamics and MT gliding on immobilized dynein motors. In simulations, the antagonistic action of the motor species on the radial array of MTs leads to a tug-of-war purely due to geometric considerations and aster motility resembles a directed random-walk. Additionally, our model predicts that aster velocities do not change greatly with varying initial distance from DNA. The movement of asymmetric asters becomes increasingly super-diffusive with increasing motor density, but for symmetric asters it becomes less super-diffusive. The transition of symmetric asters from superdiffusive to diffusive mobility is the result of number fluctuations in bound motors in the tug-of-war. Overall, our model is in good agreement with experimental data in Xenopus cytoplasmic extracts and predicts novel features of the collective effects of motor-MT interactions.

  5. Collective behavior of minus-ended motors in mitotic microtubule asters gliding toward DNA.

    PubMed

    Athale, Chaitanya A; Dinarina, Ana; Nedelec, Francois; Karsenti, Eric

    2014-02-01

    Microtubules (MTs) nucleated by centrosomes form star-shaped structures referred to as asters. Aster motility and dynamics is vital for genome stability, cell division, polarization and differentiation. Asters move either toward the cell center or away from it. Here, we focus on the centering mechanism in a membrane independent system of Xenopus cytoplasmic egg extracts. Using live microscopy and single particle tracking, we find that asters move toward chromatinized DNA structures. The velocity and directionality profiles suggest a random-walk with drift directed toward DNA. We have developed a theoretical model that can explain this movement as a result of a gradient of MT length dynamics and MT gliding on immobilized dynein motors. In simulations, the antagonistic action of the motor species on the radial array of MTs leads to a tug-of-war purely due to geometric considerations and aster motility resembles a directed random-walk. Additionally, our model predicts that aster velocities do not change greatly with varying initial distance from DNA. The movement of asymmetric asters becomes increasingly super-diffusive with increasing motor density, but for symmetric asters it becomes less super-diffusive. The transition of symmetric asters from superdiffusive to diffusive mobility is the result of number fluctuations in bound motors in the tug-of-war. Overall, our model is in good agreement with experimental data in Xenopus cytoplasmic extracts and predicts novel features of the collective effects of motor-MT interactions. PMID:24476749

  6. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) affects forelimb motor map expression but has little effect on skilled and unskilled behavior.

    PubMed

    Scullion, K; Guy, A R; Singleton, A; Spanswick, S C; Hill, M N; Teskey, G C

    2016-04-01

    It has previously been shown in rats that acute administration of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exerts a dose-dependent effect on simple locomotor activity, with low doses of THC causing hyper-locomotion and high doses causing hypo-locomotion. However the effect of acute THC administration on cortical movement representations (motor maps) and skilled learned movements is completely unknown. It is important to determine the effects of THC on motor maps and skilled learned behaviors because behaviors like driving place people at a heightened risk. Three doses of THC were used in the current study: 0.2mg/kg, 1.0mg/kg and 2.5mg/kg representing the approximate range of the low to high levels of available THC one would consume from recreational use of cannabis. Acute peripheral administration of THC to drug naïve rats resulted in dose-dependent alterations in motor map expression using high resolution short duration intracortical microstimulation (SD-ICMS). THC at 0.2mg/kg decreased movement thresholds and increased motor map size, while 1.0mg/kg had the opposite effect, and 2.5mg/kg had an even more dramatic effect. Deriving complex movement maps using long duration (LD)-ICMS at 1.0mg/kg resulted in fewer complex movements. Dosages of 1.0mg/kg and 2.5mg/kg THC reduced the number of reach attempts but did not affect percentage of success or the kinetics of reaching on the single pellet skilled reaching task. Rats that received 2.5mg/kg THC did show an increase in latency of forelimb removal on the bar task, while dose-dependent effects of THC on unskilled locomotor activity using the rotorod and horizontal ladder tasks were not observed. Rats may be employing compensatory strategies after receiving THC, which may account for the robust changes in motor map expression but moderate effects on behavior. PMID:26826333

  7. Striatal Cholinergic Interneurons Control Motor Behavior and Basal Ganglia Function in Experimental Parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Maurice, Nicolas; Liberge, Martine; Jaouen, Florence; Ztaou, Samira; Hanini, Marwa; Camon, Jeremy; Deisseroth, Karl; Amalric, Marianne; Kerkerian-Le Goff, Lydia; Beurrier, Corinne

    2015-10-27

    Despite evidence showing that anticholinergic drugs are of clinical relevance in Parkinson's disease (PD), the causal role of striatal cholinergic interneurons (CINs) in PD pathophysiology remains elusive. Here, we show that optogenetic inhibition of CINs alleviates motor deficits in PD mouse models, providing direct demonstration for their implication in parkinsonian motor dysfunctions. As neural correlates, CIN inhibition in parkinsonian mice differentially impacts the excitability of striatal D1 and D2 medium spiny neurons, normalizes pathological bursting activity in the main basal ganglia output structure, and increases the functional weight of the direct striatonigral pathway in cortical information processing. By contrast, CIN inhibition in non-lesioned mice does not affect locomotor activity, equally modulates medium spiny neuron excitability, and does not modify spontaneous or cortically driven activity in the basal ganglia output, suggesting that the role of these interneurons in motor function is highly dependent on dopamine tone. PMID:26489458

  8. Thalamocortical Projections onto Behaviorally Relevant Neurons Exhibit Plasticity during Adult Motor Learning.

    PubMed

    Biane, Jeremy S; Takashima, Yoshio; Scanziani, Massimo; Conner, James M; Tuszynski, Mark H

    2016-03-16

    Layer 5 neurons of the neocortex receive direct and relatively strong input from the thalamus. However, the intralaminar distribution of these inputs and their capacity for plasticity in adult animals are largely unknown. In slices of the primary motor cortex (M1), we simultaneously recorded from pairs of corticospinal neurons associated with control of distinct motor outputs: distal forelimb versus proximal forelimb. Activation of ChR2-expressing thalamocortical afferents in M1 before motor learning produced equivalent responses in monosynaptic excitation of neurons controlling the distal and proximal forelimb, suggesting balanced thalamic input at baseline. Following skilled grasp training, however, thalamocortical input shifted to bias activation of corticospinal neurons associated with control of the distal forelimb. This increase was associated with a cell-specific increase in mEPSC amplitude but not presynaptic release probability. These findings demonstrate distinct and highly segregated plasticity of thalamocortical projections during adult learning. PMID:26948893

  9. Molecular motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allemand, Jean François Desbiolles, Pierre

    2015-10-01

    How do we move? More precisely, what are the molecular mechanisms that can explain that our muscles, made of very small components can move at a osopic scale? To answer these questions we must introduce molecular motors. Those motors are proteins, or small protein assemblies that, in our cells, transform chemical energy into mechanical work. Then, like we could do for a oscopic motor, used in a car or in a fan, we are going to study the basic behavior of these molecular machines, present what are their energy sources, calculate their power, their yield. If molecular motors are crucial for our oscopic movements, we are going to see that they are also essential to cellular transport and that considering the activity of some enzymes as molecular motors bring some interesting new insights on their activity.

  10. The beneficial effects of berries on cognition, motor behavior, and neuronal function in aging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously, it has been shown that strawberry or blueberry supplementations, when fed to rats from 19-21 months of age, reverse age-related decrements in motor and cognitive performance. We have postulated that these effects may be the result of a number of positive benefits of the berry polyphenol...

  11. A Neurobehavioral Investigation into Judgmental Processes: Effect of Bilateral Motor Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cretenet, Joel; Dru, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted in order to examine how different bilateral motor activations of the approach and avoidance motivational systems influenced participants' evaluations of valenced stimuli (figurative expressions and pictures of everyday situations). The first Study (Study 1) showed that participants judged valenced expressions…

  12. Muscle fiber and motor unit behavior in the longest human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Harris, A John; Duxson, Marilyn J; Butler, Jane E; Hodges, Paul W; Taylor, Janet L; Gandevia, Simon C

    2005-09-14

    The sartorius muscle is the longest muscle in the human body. It is strap-like, up to 600 mm in length, and contains five to seven neurovascular compartments, each with a neuromuscular endplate zone. Some of its fibers terminate intrafascicularly, whereas others may run the full length of the muscle. To assess the location and timing of activation within motor units of this long muscle, we recorded electromyographic potentials from multiple intramuscular electrodes along sartorius muscle during steady voluntary contraction and analyzed their activity with spike-triggered averaging from a needle electrode inserted near the proximal end of the muscle. Approximately 30% of sartorius motor units included muscle fibers that ran the full length of the muscle, conducting action potentials at 3.9 +/- 0.1 m/s. Most motor units were innervated within a single muscle endplate zone that was not necessarily near the midpoint of the fiber. As a consequence, action potentials reached the distal end of a unit as late as 100 ms after initiation at an endplate zone. Thus, contractile activity is not synchronized along the length of single sartorius fibers. We postulate that lateral transmission of force from fiber to endomysium and a wide distribution of motor unit endplates along the muscle are critical for the efficient transmission of force from sarcomere to tendon and for the prevention of muscle injury caused by overextension of inactive regions of muscle fibers. PMID:16162934

  13. Mandibular Motor Control during the Early Development of Speech and Nonspeech Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steeve, Roger W.; Moore, Christopher A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The mandible is often portrayed as a primary structure of early babble production, but empiricists still need to specify (a) how mandibular motor control and kinematics vary among different types of multisyllabic babble, (b) whether chewing or jaw oscillation relies on a coordinative infrastructure that can be exploited for early types of…

  14. Beneficial effects of gfap/vimentin reactive astrocytes for axonal remodeling and motor behavioral recovery in mice after stroke.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhongwu; Li, Yi; Cui, Yisheng; Roberts, Cynthia; Lu, Mei; Wilhelmsson, Ulrika; Pekny, Milos; Chopp, Michael

    2014-12-01

    The functional role of reactive astrocytes after stroke is controversial. To elucidate whether reactive astrocytes contribute to neurological recovery, we compared behavioral outcome, axonal remodeling of the corticospinal tract (CST), and the spatio-temporal change of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) expression between wild-type (WT) and glial fibrillary acidic protein/vimentin double knockout (GFAP(-/-) Vim(-/-) ) mice subjected to Rose Bengal induced cerebral cortical photothrombotic stroke in the right forelimb motor area. A foot-fault test and a single pellet reaching test were performed prior to and on day 3 after stroke, and weekly thereafter to monitor functional deficit and recovery. Biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) was injected into the left motor cortex to anterogradely label the CST axons. Compared with WT mice, the motor functional recovery and BDA-positive CST axonal length in the denervated side of the cervical gray matter were significantly reduced in GFAP(-/-) Vim(-/-) mice (n = 10/group, P < 0.01). Immunohistological data showed that in GFAP(-/-) Vim(-/-) mice, in which astrocytic reactivity is attenuated, CSPG expression was significantly increased in the lesion remote areas in both hemispheres, but decreased in the ischemic lesion boundary zone, compared with WT mice (n = 12/group, P < 0.001). Our data suggest that attenuated astrocytic reactivity impairs or delays neurological recovery by reducing CST axonal remodeling in the denervated spinal cord. Thus, manipulation of astrocytic reactivity post stroke may represent a therapeutic target for neurorestorative strategies. PMID:25043249

  15. Adaptive intermittent control: A computational model explaining motor intermittency observed in human behavior.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Yutaka; Tanaka, Masato; Inoue, Yasuyuki

    2015-07-01

    It is a fundamental question how our brain performs a given motor task in a real-time fashion with the slow sensorimotor system. Computational theory proposed an influential idea of feed-forward control, but it has mainly treated the case that the movement is ballistic (such as reaching) because the motor commands should be calculated in advance of movement execution. As a possible mechanism for operating feed-forward control in continuous motor tasks (such as target tracking), we propose a control model called "adaptive intermittent control" or "segmented control," that brain adaptively divides the continuous time axis into discrete segments and executes feed-forward control in each segment. The idea of intermittent control has been proposed in the fields of control theory, biological modeling and nonlinear dynamical system. Compared with these previous models, the key of the proposed model is that the system speculatively determines the segmentation based on the future prediction and its uncertainty. The result of computer simulation showed that the proposed model realized faithful visuo-manual tracking with realistic sensorimotor delays and with less computational costs (i.e., with fewer number of segments). Furthermore, it replicated "motor intermittency", that is, intermittent discontinuities commonly observed in human movement trajectories. We discuss that the temporally segmented control is an inevitable strategy for brain which has to achieve a given task with small computational (or cognitive) cost, using a slow control system in an uncertain variable environment, and the motor intermittency is the side-effect of this strategy. PMID:25897510

  16. The Effect of a Developmental Play Program on the Self Concept, Risk-Taking Behaviors, and Motoric Proficiency of Mildly Handicapped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roswal, Glenn; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The results of an investigation to determine the effect of the Children's Developmental Play Program on behavioral and neuromotor functioning of developmentally disabled children indicates that it serves as a valuable resource to the child, community, and inservice teachers. This study observed risk-taking behaviors, self-concept, and motor skills…

  17. An aberrant precision account of autism

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Rebecca P.; Rees, Geraint; Friston, Karl J.

    2014-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by problems with social-communication, restricted interests and repetitive behavior. A recent and thought-provoking article presented a normative explanation for the perceptual symptoms of autism in terms of a failure of Bayesian inference (Pellicano and Burr, 2012). In response, we suggested that when Bayesian inference is grounded in its neural instantiation—namely, predictive coding—many features of autistic perception can be attributed to aberrant precision (or beliefs about precision) within the context of hierarchical message passing in the brain (Friston et al., 2013). Here, we unpack the aberrant precision account of autism. Specifically, we consider how empirical findings—that speak directly or indirectly to neurobiological mechanisms—are consistent with the aberrant encoding of precision in autism; in particular, an imbalance of the precision ascribed to sensory evidence relative to prior beliefs. PMID:24860482

  18. Comments on "the Feldenkrais Method: a dynamic approach to changing motor behavior".

    PubMed

    Ives, Jeffrey C

    2003-06-01

    The Feldenkrais Method has recently been discussed to fit within a dynamic systems model of human movement. One basis for this discussion is that small changes in one system--for example, enhanced body awareness--has far reaching implications across the whole of human performance. An alternative view on the Feldenkrais Method is argued here. It is argued that the clinical data do not support the Feldenkrais Method as being an effective way to improve motor performance. Further, it is argued that positive outcomes in pain and other wellness measures following Feldenkrais interventions can be ascribed to self-regulation. As part of this discussion, the role of body awareness, attentional focus, and kinesthesia in motor leaning and control are explored. PMID:12848224

  19. Prediction of propellant behavior in spinning flow of a space motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gany, A.; Levy, Y.; Timnat, Y. M.

    1992-01-01

    A model for 2-phase flow dynamics in a spinning spherical rocket motor, developed for the Ofeq satellite program, is based on the sectional approach to solution of the flow equations. An experimental model was built, to enable the motion of the aluminum/aluminum-oxide particles resulting from combustion within a solid-fuel motor to be simulated by injected paraffin droplets. The injected droplets included under-5 micrometer droplets which move with the gas stream and larger droplets, averaging 20 micrometer diameter, which simulate the motion of aluminum particles. The test chamber comprised a pair of cylindrical pyrex tubes with a sharp contraction in diameter, rotated at various speeds by a frequency-controllable motor. An optical system, based on a 5 W argon ion laser with a beam splitter and frequency shifter, mounted on a movable table, facilitated sectional measurements of the three velocity components and determination of size-velocity relationships. Preliminary results indicate that the effect of rotation on axial velocity is negligible, while its effect on tangential velocity approximates to solid-body rotation.

  20. An Item Response Analysis of the Motor and Behavioral Subscales of the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale in Huntington Disease Gene Expansion Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Vaccarino, Anthony L.; Anderson, Karen; Borowsky, Beth; Duff, Kevin; Giuliano, Joseph; Guttman, Mark; Ho, Aileen K.; Orth, Michael; Paulsen, Jane S.; Sills, Terrence; van Kammen, Daniel P.; Evans, Kenneth R.

    2011-01-01

    Although the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS) is widely used in the assessment of Huntington disease (HD), the ability of individual items to discriminate individual differences in motor or behavioral manifestations has not been extensively studied in HD gene expansion carriers without a motor-defined clinical diagnosis (i.e., prodromal-HD or prHD). To elucidate the relationship between scores on individual motor and behavioral UHDRS items and total score for each subscale, a non-parametric item response analysis was performed on retrospective data from two multicentre, longitudinal studies. Motor and Behavioral assessments were supplied for 737 prHD individuals with data from 2114 visits (PREDICT-HD) and 686 HD individuals with data from 1482 visits (REGISTRY). Option characteristic curves were generated for UHDRS subscale items in relation to their subscale score. In prHD, overall severity of motor signs was low and participants had scores of 2 or above on very few items. In HD, motor items that assessed ocular pursuit, saccade initiation, finger tapping, tandem walking, and to a lesser extent saccade velocity, dysarthia, tongue protrusion, pronation/supination, Luria, bradykinesia, choreas, gait and balance on the retropulsion test were found to discriminate individual differences across a broad range of motor severity. In prHD, depressed mood, anxiety, and irritable behavior demonstrated good discriminative properties. In HD, depressed mood demonstrated a good relationship with the overall behavioral score. These data suggest that at least some UHDRS items appear to have utility across a broad range of severity, although many items demonstrate problematic features. PMID:21370269

  1. Parallel evolution of serotonergic neuromodulation underlies independent evolution of rhythmic motor behavior.

    PubMed

    Lillvis, Joshua L; Katz, Paul S

    2013-02-01

    Neuromodulation can dynamically alter neuronal and synaptic properties, thereby changing the behavioral output of a neural circuit. It is therefore conceivable that natural selection might act upon neuromodulation as a mechanism for sculpting the behavioral repertoire of a species. Here we report that the presence of neuromodulation is correlated with the production of a behavior that most likely evolved independently in two species: Tritonia diomedea and Pleurobranchaea californica (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia, Nudipleura). Individuals of both species exhibit escape swimming behaviors consisting of repeated dorsal-ventral whole-body flexions. The central pattern generator (CPG) circuits underlying these behaviors contain homologous identified neurons: DSI and C2 in Tritonia and As and A1 in Pleurobranchaea. Homologs of these neurons also can be found in Hermissenda crassicornis where they are named CPT and C2, respectively. However, members of this species do not exhibit an analogous swimming behavior. In Tritonia and Pleurobranchaea, but not in Hermissenda, the serotonergic DSI homologs modulated the strength of synapses made by C2 homologs. Furthermore, the serotonin receptor antagonist methysergide blocked this neuromodulation and the swimming behavior. Additionally, in Pleurobranchaea, the robustness of swimming correlated with the extent of the synaptic modulation. Finally, injection of serotonin induced the swimming behavior in Tritonia and Pleurobranchaea, but not in Hermissenda. This suggests that the analogous swimming behaviors of Tritonia and Pleurobranchaea share a common dependence on serotonergic neuromodulation. Thus, neuromodulation may provide a mechanism that enables species to acquire analogous behaviors independently using homologous neural circuit components. PMID:23392697

  2. Splitting of the cerebellar vermis in juvenile rats--effects on social behavior, vocalization and motor activity.

    PubMed

    Al-Afif, Shadi; Staden, Mareike; Krauss, Joachim K; Schwabe, Kerstin; Hermann, Elvis J

    2013-08-01

    Radical resection of malignant midline tumors of the posterior fossa in childhood followed by adjuvant therapies like chemotherapy or radiotherapy often leads to longterm survival and even healing of such patients. Therefore, quality of life becomes particular important. Postoperative neurological deficits, such as cerebellar mutism and ataxia have been attributed to splitting of the cerebellar vermis to remove these tumors. Here, we tested the effect of vermian splitting in juvenile rats on social behavior, vocalization and motor activity. Juvenile male Sprague Dawley rats, aged 23 days, underwent vermian splitting under general anesthesia after medial suboccipital craniotomy (lesioned group, n=16). In sham-lesioned rats, only craniotomy was performed and the dura was opened with release of cerebrospinal fluid (n=16). Naïve rats served as controls (n=14). All groups were tested on day 0 (before surgery), and on days 1-4 and 7 after surgery for locomotor activity, motor coordination, social behavior, and ultrasound vocalization during social interaction. Finally, splitting of the vermis was histologically verified. Social interaction was reduced for two days after surgery in lesioned rats compared to sham-lesioned rats and controls. Vocalization was decreased for one day compared to controls. Locomotor activity was disturbed for several days after surgery in both lesioned and sham-lesioned rats as compared to controls. Deficient social behavior and vocalization after surgery are related to vermian splitting in juvenile rats. These results indicate that similar to the human context vermian splitting can reduce communicative drive in the early postsurgical phase. PMID:23685319

  3. Behavioral and neurochemical effects of chronic L-DOPA treatment on non-motor sequelae in the hemiparkinsonian rat

    PubMed Central

    Eskow Jaunarajs, Karen L.; Dupre, Kristin B.; Ostock, Corinne Y.; Button, Thomas; Deak, Terrence; Bishop, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Depression and anxiety are prevalent non-motor symptoms that worsen quality of life for Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients. While dopamine (DA) cell loss is a commonly proposed mechanism, the reported efficacy of DA replacement therapy with L-DOPA on affective symptoms is inconsistent. In order to delineate the effects of DA denervation and chronic L-DOPA treatment on affective behaviors, male Sprague-Dawley rats received unilateral 6-OHDA or sham lesions and were treated daily with L-DOPA (12 mg/kg + benserazide, 15 mg/kg, sc) or vehicle (0.9% NaCl, 0.1% ascorbic acid) for 28 days before commencing investigations into anxiety (locomotor chambers, social interaction) and depression-like behaviors (forced swim test) during the OFF phase of L-DOPA. One h after final treatments, rats were killed and striatum, prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala were analyzed via high performance liquid chromatography for monoamine levels. In locomotor chambers and social interaction, DA lesions exerted mild anxiogenic effects. Surprisingly, chronic L-DOPA treatment did not improve these effects. While DA lesion reduced climbing behaviors on day 2 of exposure to the forced swim test, chronic L-DOPA treatment did not reverse these effects. Neurochemically, L-DOPA treatment in hemiparkinsonian rats reduced NE levels in the prefrontal cortex, striatum, and hippocampus. Collectively, the present data suggest that chronic L-DOPA therapy in severely DA-lesioned rats does not improve non-motor symptoms and may impair non-dopaminergic processes, indicating that long-term L-DOPA therapy does not exert necessary cause neuroplastic changes for improving affect. PMID:20838211

  4. Motor and behavioral phenotype in conditional mutants with targeted ablation of cortical D1 dopamine receptor-expressing cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Luning; O'Leary, Claire; Kim, Hyun Ah; Parish, Clare L; Massalas, Jim; Waddington, John L; Ehrlich, Michelle E; Schütz, Günter; Gantois, Ilse; Lawrence, Andrew J; Drago, John

    2015-04-01

    D1-dopamine receptors (Drd1a) are highly expressed in the deep layers of the cerebral cortex and the striatum. A number of human diseases such as Huntington disease and schizophrenia are known to have cortical pathology involving dopamine receptor expressing neurons. To illuminate their functional role, we exploited a Cre/Lox molecular paradigm to generate Emx-1(tox) MUT mice, a transgenic line in which cortical Drd1a-expressing pyramidal neurons were selectively ablated. Emx-1(tox) MUT mice displayed prominent forelimb dystonia, hyperkinesia, ataxia on rotarod testing, heightened anxiety-like behavior, and age-dependent abnormalities in a test of social interaction. The latter occurred in the context of normal working memory on testing in the Y-maze and for novel object recognition. Some motor and behavioral abnormalities in Emx-1(tox) MUT mice overlapped with those in CamKIIα(tox) MUT transgenic mice, a line in which both striatal and cortical Drd1a-expressing cells were ablated. Although Emx-1(tox) MUT mice had normal striatal anatomy, both Emx-1(tox) MUT and CamKIIα(tox) MUT mice displayed selective neuronal loss in cortical layers V and VI. This study shows that loss of cortical Drd1a-expressing cells is sufficient to produce deficits in multiple motor and behavioral domains, independent of striatal mechanisms. Primary cortical changes in the D1 dopamine receptor compartment are therefore likely to model a number of core clinical features in disorders such as Huntington disease and schizophrenia. PMID:25684539

  5. Chaotic motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laroche, C.; Labbé, R.; Pétrélis, F.; Fauve, S.

    2012-02-01

    We show that electric motors and dynamos can be used to illustrate most elementary instabilities or bifurcations discussed in courses on nonlinear oscillators and dynamical systems. These examples are easier to understand and display a richer behavior than the ones commonly used from mechanics, electronics, hydrodynamics, lasers, chemical reactions, and population dynamics. In particular, an electric motor driven by a dynamo can display stationary, Hopf, and codimension-two bifurcations by tuning the driving speed of the dynamo and the electric current in the stator of the electric motor. When the dynamo is driven at constant torque instead of constant rotation rate, chaotic reversals of the generated current and of the angular rotation of the motor are observed. Simple deterministic models are presented which capture the observed dynamical regimes.

  6. Frontocentral DC-potential shifts predicting behavior with or without a motor task.

    PubMed

    Morgan, J M; Wenzl, M; Lang, W; Lindinger, G; Deecke, L

    1992-12-01

    This study was designed to investigate the predictive value of the event-related potentials (ERPs) preceding the initiation of a difficult perceptual-memory task and to investigate whether these ERPs require a motor movement on the part of the subject for their occurrence. Across 4 conditions the DC-potential shifts were recorded from 23 right-handed subjects using DC amplifiers. Although the start of each trial began with a ready signal, the conditions differed in that the subjects initiated the task by a button press in 2 conditions and the computer initiated it in 2 others without a press. The results showed that, especially in the frontocentral electrode sites, the DC-potential shifts which began those trials ending in correct performance were more negative relative to those trials ending in an incorrect response. Those conditions which required the subjects to self-initiate the trial and those which were initiated by the computer showed similar results indicating that the negative DC-potential shifts preceding correct performance are neither produced by nor depend on a task initiating motor movement. The onset of the DC-potential shifts preceded task initiation by up to 4.1 sec indicating that they were more than the Bereitschaftspotential. PMID:1281084

  7. A Large-Scale Behavioral Screen to Identify Neurons Controlling Motor Programs in the Drosophila Brain

    PubMed Central

    Flood, Thomas F.; Gorczyca, Michael; White, Benjamin H.; Ito, Kei; Yoshihara, Motojiro

    2013-01-01

    Drosophila is increasingly used for understanding the neural basis of behavior through genetically targeted manipulation of specific neurons. The primary approach in this regard has relied on the suppression of neuronal activity. Here, we report the results of a novel approach to find and characterize neural circuits by expressing neuronal activators to stimulate subsets of neurons to induce behavior. Classical electrophysiological studies demonstrated that stimulation of command neurons could activate neural circuits to trigger fixed action patterns. Our method was designed to find such command neurons for diverse behaviors by screening flies in which random subsets of brain cells were activated. We took advantage of the large collection of Gal4 lines from the NP project and crossed 835 Gal4 strains with relatively limited Gal4 expression in the brain to flies carrying a UAS transgene encoding TRPM8, a cold-sensitive ion channel. Low temperatures opened the TRPM8 channel in Gal4-expressing cells, leading to their excitation, and in many cases induced overt behavioral changes in adult flies. Paralysis was reproducibly observed in the progeny of crosses with 84 lines, whereas more specific behaviors were induced with 24 other lines. Stimulation performed using the heat-activated channel, TrpA1, resulted in clearer and more robust behaviors, including flight, feeding, and egg-laying. Through follow-up studies starting from this screen, we expect to find key components of the neural circuits underlying specific behaviors, thus providing a new avenue for their functional analysis. PMID:23934998

  8. The effects of load-sensitive behavior on the operability margins of motor-operated gate valves

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, R. Jr.; Russell, M.J.; DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    Testing of motor-operated gate valves at various loads has produced a phenomenon we call load-sensitive behavior. This phenomenon has a significant effect on the accuracy of the methods used (and proposed) in the nuclear industry for determining that these valves can perform their design basis function. A valve subjected to tests with low flow and pressure loadings may achieve a stem thrust (at seating) analytically determined to be adequate for design basis flows and pressures, but this is no guarantee that the valve will achieve the same stem thrust when actually subjected to those design basis loads. This is because the friction at the interface between the stem and the stem nut is higher in tests with higher flow and pressure loadings, and this loss to friction is outside the control of the motor-operator's torque switch. This paper identifies a tentative method for determining, a stable, useful value for the stem/stem-nut coefficient of friction, one that can possibly be extrapolated and used in calculations to accurately estimate the design basis thrust requirements of these valves.

  9. The effects of load-sensitive behavior on the operability margins of motor-operated gate valves

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, R. Jr.; Russell, M.J.; DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.

    1993-05-01

    Testing of motor-operated gate valves at various loads has produced a phenomenon we call load-sensitive behavior. This phenomenon has a significant effect on the accuracy of the methods used (and proposed) in the nuclear industry for determining that these valves can perform their design basis function. A valve subjected to tests with low flow and pressure loadings may achieve a stem thrust (at seating) analytically determined to be adequate for design basis flows and pressures, but this is no guarantee that the valve will achieve the same stem thrust when actually subjected to those design basis loads. This is because the friction at the interface between the stem and the stem nut is higher in tests with higher flow and pressure loadings, and this loss to friction is outside the control of the motor-operator`s torque switch. This paper identifies a tentative method for determining, a stable, useful value for the stem/stem-nut coefficient of friction, one that can possibly be extrapolated and used in calculations to accurately estimate the design basis thrust requirements of these valves.

  10. Caenorhabditis elegans male sensory-motor neurons and dopaminergic support cells couple ejaculation and post-ejaculatory behaviors.

    PubMed

    LeBoeuf, Brigitte; Correa, Paola; Jee, Changhoon; García, L René

    2014-01-01

    The circuit structure and function underlying post-coital male behaviors remain poorly understood. Using mutant analysis, laser ablation, optogenetics, and Ca2+ imaging, we observed that following C. elegans male copulation, the duration of post-coital lethargy is coupled to cellular events involved in ejaculation. We show that the SPV and SPD spicule-associated sensory neurons and the spicule socket neuronal support cells function with intromission circuit components, including the cholinergic SPC and PCB and the glutamatergic PCA sensory-motor neurons, to coordinate sex muscle contractions with initiation and continuation of sperm movement. Our observations suggest that the SPV and SPD and their associated dopamine-containing socket cells sense the intrauterine environment through cellular endings exposed at the spicule tips and regulate both sperm release into the hermaphrodite and the recovery from post-coital lethargy. PMID:24915976

  11. Walking in School-Aged Children in a Dual-Task Paradigm Is Related to Age But Not to Cognition, Motor Behavior, Injuries, or Psychosocial Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Hagmann-von Arx, Priska; Manicolo, Olivia; Lemola, Sakari; Grob, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Age-dependent gait characteristics and associations with cognition, motor behavior, injuries, and psychosocial functioning were investigated in 138 typically developing children aged 6.7–13.2 years (M = 10.0 years). Gait velocity, normalized velocity, and variability were measured using the walkway system GAITRite without an additional task (single task) and while performing a motor or cognitive task (dual task). Assessment of children’s cognition included tests for intelligence and executive functions; parents reported on their child’s motor behavior, injuries, and psychosocial functioning. Gait variability (an index of gait regularity) decreased with increasing age in both single- and dual-task walking. Dual-task gait decrements were stronger when children walked in the motor compared to the cognitive dual-task condition and decreased with increasing age in both dual-task conditions. Gait alterations from single- to dual-task conditions were not related to children’s cognition, motor behavior, injuries, or psychosocial functioning. PMID:27014158

  12. Endogenous attention modulates attentional and motor interference from distractors: evidence from behavioral and electrophysiological results

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Arévalo, Elisa; Lupiáñez, Juan; Botta, Fabiano; Chica, Ana B.

    2015-01-01

    Selective visual attention enhances the processing of relevant stimuli and filters out irrelevant stimuli and/or distractors. However, irrelevant information is sometimes processed, as demonstrated by the Simon effect (Simon and Rudell, 1967). We examined whether fully irrelevant distractors (task and target-irrelevant) produce interference (measured as the Simon effect), and whether endogenous orienting modulated this interference. Despite being fully irrelevant, distractors were attentionally coded (as reflected by the distractor-related N2pc component), and interfered with the processing of the target response (as reflected by the target-related lateralized readiness potential component). Distractors’ attentional capture depended on endogenous attention, and their interference with target responses was modulated by both endogenous attention and distractor location repetition. These results demonstrate both endogenous attentional and motor modulations over the Simon effect produced by fully irrelevant distractors. PMID:25750629

  13. Adolescents and Young Adults with Down Syndrome Presenting to a Medical Clinic with Depression: Phenomenology and Characterization Using the Reiss Scales and Aberrant Behavior Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capone, George T.; Aidikoff, Jenna M.; Goyal, Parag

    2011-01-01

    Caretakers of adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome (DS) may report the onset of a depressive illness in previously mentally well individuals. However, the behavioral phenomenology of these conditions has not been well characterized. We ascertained a cohort of DS patient-subjects presenting to a specialty clinic with medical and/or…

  14. Does listening to action-related sentences modulate the activity of the motor system? Replication of a combined TMS and behavioral study

    PubMed Central

    Gianelli, Claudia; Dalla Volta, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    The neurophysiological and behavioral correlates of action-related language processing have been debated for long time. A precursor in this field was the study by Buccino et al. (2005) combining transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and behavioral measures (reaction times, RTs) to study the effect of listening to hand- and foot-related sentences. In the TMS experiment, the authors showed a decrease of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) recorded from hand muscles when processing hand-related verbs as compared to foot-related verbs. Similarly, MEPs recorded from leg muscles decreased when participants processed foot-related as compared to hand-related verbs. In the behavioral experiment, using the same stimuli and a semantic decision task the authors found slower RTs when the participants used the body effector (hand or foot) involved in the actual execution of the action expressed by the presented verb to give their motor responses. These findings were interpreted as an interference effect due to a simultaneous involvement of the motor system in both a language and a motor task. Our replication aimed to enlarge the sample size and replicate the findings with higher statistical power. The TMS experiment showed a significant modulation of hand MEPs, but in the sense of a motor facilitation when processing hand-related verbs. On the contrary, the behavioral experiment did not show significant results. The results are discussed within the general debate on the time-course of the modulation of motor cortex during implicit and explicit language processing and in relation to the studies on action observation/understanding. PMID:25601845

  15. The Use of Music to Increase Task-Oriented Behaviors in Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in a Gross Motor Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dieringer, Shannon M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of music and music + instruction on task-oriented behaviors in preschool children with ASD within individual gross motor movement settings. Five preschool children (four boys; one girl) diagnosed with ASD attending a Midwestern private preschool for children with ASD served as participants. The…

  16. Children's Search Strategies and Accompanying Verbal and Motor Strategic Behavior: Developmental Trends and Relations with Task Performance among Children Age 5 to 17

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winsler, Adam; Naglieri, Jack; Manfra, Louis

    2006-01-01

    Children's reported use of single and multiple search strategies during a matching numbers task, along with accompanying verbal (private speech, self-talk) and motoric (finger pointing, place-holding) strategic behaviors were examined with a large, nationally representative cross-sectional sample ("n"=1,979) of children between the ages of 5 and…

  17. The Effect of Voice Ambulatory Biofeedback on the Daily Performance and Retention of a Modified Vocal Motor Behavior in Participants with Normal Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Stan, Jarrad H.; Mehta, Daryush D.; Hillman, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Ambulatory biofeedback has potential to improve carryover of newly established vocal motor behaviors into daily life outside of the clinic and warrants systematic research that is lacking in the literature. This proof-of-concept study was designed to establish an empirical basis for future work in this area by formally assessing whether…

  18. The effect of voice ambulatory biofeedback on the daily performance and retention of a modified vocal motor behavior in participants with normal voices

    PubMed Central

    Van Stan, Jarrad H.; Mehta, Daryush D.; Hillman, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Ambulatory biofeedback has potential to improve carryover of newly-established vocal motor behaviors into daily life outside of the clinic and warrants systematic research that is lacking in the literature. This proof-of-concept study was designed to establish an empirical basis for future work in this area by formally assessing whether ambulatory biofeedback reduces daily vocal intensity (performance) and the extent to which this change remains after biofeedback removal (retention). Method Six participants with normal voices wore the KayPENTAX Ambulatory Phonation Monitor for three baseline days followed by four days with biofeedback provided on odd days. Results Compared to baseline days, participants exhibited a statistically significant decrease in mean vocal intensity (4.4 dB) and an increase in compliance (16.8 percentage points) when biofeedback was provided above a participant-specific intensity threshold. After biofeedback removal, mean vocal intensity and compliance reverted back to baseline levels. Conclusions These findings suggest that although current ambulatory biofeedback approaches have potential to modify a vocal motor behavior, the modified behavior may not be retained after biofeedback removal. Future work calls for the testing of more innovative ambulatory biofeedback approaches based on motor control and learning theories to improve retention of a desired vocal motor behavior. PMID:25765862

  19. Assisting People with Multiple Disabilities and Minimal Motor Behavior to Improve Computer Drag-and-Drop Efficiency through a Mouse Wheel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated whether two people with multiple disabilities and minimal motor behavior would be able to improve their Drag-and-Drop (DnD) performance using their finger/thumb poke ability with a mouse scroll wheel through a Dynamic Drag-and-Drop Assistive Program (DDnDAP). A multiple probe design across participants was used in this study…

  20. Neural Basis of Stimulus-Angle-Dependent Motor Control of Wind-Elicited Walking Behavior in the Cricket Gryllus bimaculatus

    PubMed Central

    Oe, Momoko; Ogawa, Hiroto

    2013-01-01

    Crickets exhibit oriented walking behavior in response to air-current stimuli. Because crickets move in the opposite direction from the stimulus source, this behavior is considered to represent ‘escape behavior’ from an approaching predator. However, details of the stimulus-angle-dependent control of locomotion during the immediate phase, and the neural basis underlying the directional motor control of this behavior remain unclear. In this study, we used a spherical-treadmill system to measure locomotory parameters including trajectory, turn angle and velocity during the immediate phase of responses to air-puff stimuli applied from various angles. Both walking direction and turn angle were correlated with stimulus angle, but their relationships followed different rules. A shorter stimulus also induced directionally-controlled walking, but reduced the yaw rotation in stimulus-angle-dependent turning. These results suggest that neural control of the turn angle requires different sensory information than that required for oriented walking. Hemi-severance of the ventral nerve cords containing descending axons from the cephalic to the prothoracic ganglion abolished stimulus-angle-dependent control, indicating that this control required descending signals from the brain. Furthermore, we selectively ablated identified ascending giant interneurons (GIs) in vivo to examine their functional roles in wind-elicited walking. Ablation of GI8-1 diminished control of the turn angle and decreased walking distance in the initial response. Meanwhile, GI9-1b ablation had no discernible effect on stimulus-angle-dependent control or walking distance, but delayed the reaction time. These results suggest that the ascending signals conveyed by GI8-1 are required for turn-angle control and maintenance of walking behavior, and that GI9-1b is responsible for rapid initiation of walking. It is possible that individual types of GIs separately supply the sensory signals required to control

  1. Baseline Cognition, Behavior, and Motor Skills in Children with New-Onset, Idiopathic Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhise, Vikram V.; Burack, Gail D.; Mandelbaum, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Epilepsy is associated with difficulties in cognition and behavior in children. These problems have been attributed to genetics, ongoing seizures, psychosocial issues, underlying abnormality of the brain, and/or antiepileptic drugs. In a previous study, we found baseline cognitive differences between children with partial versus generalized…

  2. Group Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for PTSD: Treatment of Motor Vehicle Accident Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, J. Gayle; Coffey, Scott F.

    2005-01-01

    Individual cognitive behavioral therapies (CBT) are now considered the first-line treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; Foa, Keane, & Friedman, 2000). As mental health reimbursement becomes more restricted, it is imperative that we adapt individual-format therapies for use in a small group format. Group therapies have a number of…

  3. The Effect of Geography and Citizen Behavior on Motor Vehicle Deaths in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Abaid, Nicole; Macinko, James; Silver, Diana; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Death due to motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) remains a leading cause of death in the US and alcohol plays a prominent role in a large proportion of these fatalities nationwide. Rates for these incidents vary widely among states and over time. Here, we explore the extent to which driving volume, alcohol consumption, legislation, political ideology, and geographical factors influence MVC deaths across states and time. We specify structural equation models for extracting associations between the factors and outcomes for MVC deaths and compute correlation functions of states’ relative geographic and political positions to elucidate the relative contribution of these factors. We find evidence that state-level variation in MVC deaths is associated with time-varying driving volume, alcohol consumption, and legislation. These relationships are modulated by state spatial proximity, whereby neighboring states are found to share similar MVC death rates over the thirty-year observation period. These results support the hypothesis that neighboring states exhibit similar risk and protective characteristics, despite differences in political ideology. PMID:25850105

  4. Smad2 protein disruption in the central nervous system leads to aberrant cerebellar development and early postnatal ataxia in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lixiang; Nomura, Masatoshi; Goto, Yutaka; Tanaka, Kimitaka; Sakamoto, Ryuichi; Abe, Ichiro; Sakamoto, Shohei; Shibata, Atsushi; Enciso, Patricio L M; Adachi, Masahiro; Ohnaka, Keizo; Kawate, Hisaya; Takayanagi, Ryoichi

    2011-05-27

    Smad2 is a critical mediator of TGF-β signals that are known to play an important role in a wide range of biological processes in various cell types. Its role in the development of the CNS, however, is largely unknown. Mice lacking Smad2 in the CNS (Smad2-CNS-KO) were generated by a Cre-loxP approach. These mice exhibited behavioral abnormalities in motor coordination from an early postnatal stage and mortality at approximately 3 weeks of age, suggestive of severe cerebellar dysfunction. Gross observation of Smad2-CNS-KO cerebella demonstrated aberrant foliations in lobule IX and X. Further analyses revealed increased apoptotic cell death, delayed migration and maturation of granule cells, and retardation of dendritic arborization of Purkinje cells. These findings indicate that Smad2 plays a key role in cerebellar development and motor function control. PMID:21464123

  5. Aberration correction of unstable resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Robert J. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Construction of aspheric reflectors for unstable resonator lasers to provide an arbitrary laser mode inside the resonator to correct aberrations of an output beam by the construction of the shape of an end reflector opposite the output reflector of the resonator cavity, such as aberrations resulting from refraction of a beam exiting the solid of the resonator having an index of refraction greater than 1 or to produce an aberration in the output beam that will precisely compensate for the aberration of an optical train into which the resonator beam is coupled.

  6. From one to many: dynamic assembly and collective behavior of self-propelled colloidal motors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Duan, Wentao; Ahmed, Suzanne; Sen, Ayusman; Mallouk, Thomas E

    2015-07-21

    The assembly of complex structures from simpler, individual units is a hallmark of biology. Examples include the pairing of DNA strands, the assembly of protein chains into quaternary structures, the formation of tissues and organs from cells, and the self-organization of bacterial colonies, flocks of birds, and human beings in cities. While the individual behaviors of biomolecules, bacteria, birds, and humans are governed by relatively simple rules, groups assembled from many individuals exhibit complex collective behaviors and functions that do not exist in the absence of the hierarchically organized structure. Self-assembly is a familiar concept to chemists who study the formation and properties of monolayers, crystals, and supramolecular structures. In chemical self-assembly, disorder evolves to order as the system approaches equilibrium. In contrast, living assemblies are typically characterized by two additional features: (1) the system constantly dissipates energy and is not at thermodynamic equilibrium; (2) the structure is dynamic and can transform or disassemble in response to stimuli or changing conditions. To distinguish them from equilibrium self-assembled structures, living (or nonliving) assemblies of objects with these characteristics are referred to as active matter. In this Account, we focus on the powered assembly and collective behavior of self-propelled colloids. These nano- and microparticles, also called nano- and micromotors or microswimmers, autonomously convert energy available in the environment (in the form of chemical, electromagnetic, acoustic, or thermal energy) into mechanical motion. Collections of these colloids are a form of synthetic active matter. Because of the analogy to living swimmers of similar size such as bacteria, the dynamic interactions and collective behavior of self-propelled colloids are interesting in the context of understanding biological active matter and in the development of new applications. The progression

  7. Emergent behaviors of a fuzzy sensory-motor controller evolved by genetic algorithm.

    PubMed

    Lee, S I; Cho, S B

    2001-01-01

    Recently, there has been extensive work on the construction of fuzzy controllers for mobile robots by a genetic algorithm (GA); therefore, we can realize evolutionary optimization as a promising method for developing fuzzy controllers. However, much investigation on the evolutionary fuzzy controller remains because most of the previous works have not seriously attempted to analyze the fuzzy controller obtained by evolution. This paper develops a fuzzy logic controller for a mobile robot with a GA in simulation environments and analyzes the behaviors of the controller with a state transition diagram of the internal model. Experimental results show that appropriate control mechanisms of the fuzzy controller are obtained by evolution. The controller has evolved wen enough to smoothly drive the robot in different environments. The robot produces emergent behaviors by the interaction of several fuzzy rules obtained. PMID:18244857

  8. Relationship between BDNF expression in major striatal afferents, striatum morphology and motor behavior in the R6/2 mouse model of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Samadi, P; Boutet, A; Rymar, V V; Rawal, K; Maheux, J; Kvann, J-C; Tomaszewski, M; Beaubien, F; Cloutier, J F; Levesque, D; Sadikot, A F

    2013-02-01

    Patients with Huntington's disease (HD) and transgenic mouse models of HD show neuronal loss in the striatum as a major feature, which contributes to cognitive and motor manifestations. Reduced expression of the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in striatal afferents may play a role in neuronal loss. How progressive loss of BDNF expression in different cortical or subcortical afferents contributes to striatal atrophy and behavioral dysfunction in HD is not known, and may best be determined in animal models. We compared age-dependent alterations of BDNF mRNA expression in major striatal afferents from the cerebral cortex, thalamus and midbrain in the R6/2 transgenic mouse model of HD. Corresponding changes in striatal morphology were quantified using unbiased stereology. Changes in motor behavior were measured using an open field, grip strength monitor, limb clasping and a rotarod apparatus. BDNF expression in cortical limbic and midbrain striatal afferents is reduced by age 4 weeks, prior to onset of motor abnormalities. BDNF expression in motor cortex and thalamic afferents is reduced by 6 weeks, coinciding with early motor dysfunction and reduced striatum volume. BDNF loss in afferents progresses until death at 13-15 weeks, correlating with progressive striatal neuronal loss and motor abnormalities. Mutant huntingtin protein expression in R6/2 mice results in progressive loss of BDNF in both cortical and subcortical striatal afferents. BDNF loss in limbic and dopaminergic striatal inputs may contribute to cognitive/psychiatric dysfunction in HD. Subsequent BDNF loss in cortical motor and thalamic afferents may accelerate striatal degeneration, resulting in progressive involuntary movements. PMID:23006318

  9. Influences of early thyroid hormone manipulations: delays in pup motor and exploratory behavior are evident in adult operant performance.

    PubMed

    Brosvic, Gary M; Taylor, Jodi N; Dihoff, Roberta E

    2002-04-15

    The effects of thyroid hormone depletion and enhancement on litter size, survival, body mass, ambulation, quadrant crossing, home orientation, day of eye opening, and free serum T3 and T4 levels were examined in Study 1. In Study 2, the effects of the timing of prenatal insult and the level of thyroid hormone depletion on litter size, survival, body mass, and free serum T3 and T4 levels were examined. Upon the completion of Study 1, randomly selected pups were maintained on ad-libitum water and food for 2 years, and performance was evaluated on fixed and variable ratio schedules, fixed and variable interval schedules, and probability and reversal learning tasks (Study 3). In Study 4, human subjects diagnosed with and treated for either congenital hypothyroidism or congenital hyperthyroidism were tested on the operant procedures used in Study 3, as well as on a series of simple reaction time, serial timing, and conjunctive and disjunctive search tasks. Dose-dependent decreases in survival and delays in the presentation of early motor and exploratory skills were observed following thyroid hormone depletion; dose-dependent accelerations in the presentation of early motor and exploratory skills were observed following thyroid hormone enhancement. Pups that had been prenatally exposed to propylthiouracil (PTU) 1-2 years after the return of thyroid hormones to baseline levels were significantly less accurate at timing on fixed and variable interval schedules, demonstrated an inability to allocate responding on probability tasks, and committed more errors during original learning (OL) and on each reversal problem. Similar deficits were observed in follow-up tests with humans diagnosed with congenital hypothyroidism, as were deficits in serial timing and visual searching. Collectively, the present results demonstrate that the pervasive and negative effects of prenatal thyroid deficiency on early behavior are also expressed during adult operant performance. PMID:12020735

  10. Effects of sex and housing on social, spatial, and motor behavior in adult rats exposed to moderate levels of alcohol during prenatal development.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Carlos I; Magcalas, Christy M; Barto, Daniel; Fink, Brandi C; Rice, James P; Bird, Clark W; Davies, Suzy; Pentkowski, Nathan S; Savage, Daniel D; Hamilton, Derek A

    2016-10-15

    Persistent deficits in social behavior, motor behavior, and behavioral flexibility are among the major negative consequences associated with exposure to ethanol during prenatal development. Prior work from our laboratory has linked moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in the rat to deficits in these behavioral domains, which depend upon the ventrolateral frontal cortex (Hamilton et al., 2014) [20]. Manipulations of the social environment cause modifications of dendritic morphology and experience-dependent immediate early gene expression in ventrolateral frontal cortex (Hamilton et al., 2010) [19], and may yield positive behavioral outcomes following PAE. In the present study we evaluated the effects of housing PAE rats with non-exposed control rats on adult behavior. Rats of both sexes were either paired with a partner from the same prenatal treatment condition (ethanol or saccharin) or from the opposite condition (mixed housing condition). At four months of age (∼3 months after the housing manipulation commenced), social behavior, tongue protrusion, and behavioral flexibility in the Morris water task were measured as in (Hamilton et al., 2014) [20]. The behavioral effects of moderate PAE were primarily limited to males and were not ameliorated by housing with a non-ethanol exposed partner. Unexpectedly, social behavior, motor behavior, and spatial flexibility were adversely affected in control rats housed with a PAE rat (i.e., in mixed housing), indicating that housing with a PAE rat has broad behavioral consequences beyond the social domain. These observations provide further evidence that moderate PAE negatively affects social behavior, and underscore the importance of considering potential negative effects of housing with PAE animals on the behavior of critical comparison groups. PMID:27424779

  11. Evidence for distinct brain networks in the control of rule-based motor behavior

    PubMed Central

    Granek, Joshua A.

    2015-01-01

    Reach guidance when the spatial location of the viewed target and hand movement are incongruent (i.e., decoupled) necessitates use of explicit cognitive rules (strategic control) or implicit recalibration of gaze and limb position (sensorimotor recalibration). In a patient with optic ataxia (OA) and bilateral superior parietal lobule damage, we recently demonstrated an increased reliance on strategic control when the patient performed a decoupled reach (Granek JA, Pisella L, Stemberger J, Vighetto A, Rossetti Y, Sergio LE. PLoS One 8: e86138, 2013). To more generally understand the fundamental mechanisms of decoupled visuomotor control and to more specifically test whether we could distinguish these two modes of movement control, we tested healthy participants in a cognitively demanding dual task. Participants continuously counted backward while simultaneously reaching toward horizontal (left or right) or diagonal (equivalent to top-left or top-right) targets with either veridical or rotated (90°) cursor feedback. By increasing the overall neural load and selectively compromising potentially overlapping neural circuits responsible for strategic control, the complex dual task served as a noninvasive means to disrupt the integration of a cognitive rule into a motor action. Complementary to our previous results observed in patients with optic ataxia, here our dual task led to greater performance deficits during movements that required an explicit rule, implying a selective disruption of strategic control in decoupled reaching. Our results suggest that distinct neural processing is required to control these different types of reaching because in considering the current results and previous patient results together, the two classes of movement could be differentiated depending on the type of interference. PMID:26133796

  12. Evidence for distinct brain networks in the control of rule-based motor behavior.

    PubMed

    Granek, Joshua A; Sergio, Lauren E

    2015-08-01

    Reach guidance when the spatial location of the viewed target and hand movement are incongruent (i.e., decoupled) necessitates use of explicit cognitive rules (strategic control) or implicit recalibration of gaze and limb position (sensorimotor recalibration). In a patient with optic ataxia (OA) and bilateral superior parietal lobule damage, we recently demonstrated an increased reliance on strategic control when the patient performed a decoupled reach (Granek JA, Pisella L, Stemberger J, Vighetto A, Rossetti Y, Sergio LE. PLoS One 8: e86138, 2013). To more generally understand the fundamental mechanisms of decoupled visuomotor control and to more specifically test whether we could distinguish these two modes of movement control, we tested healthy participants in a cognitively demanding dual task. Participants continuously counted backward while simultaneously reaching toward horizontal (left or right) or diagonal (equivalent to top-left or top-right) targets with either veridical or rotated (90°) cursor feedback. By increasing the overall neural load and selectively compromising potentially overlapping neural circuits responsible for strategic control, the complex dual task served as a noninvasive means to disrupt the integration of a cognitive rule into a motor action. Complementary to our previous results observed in patients with optic ataxia, here our dual task led to greater performance deficits during movements that required an explicit rule, implying a selective disruption of strategic control in decoupled reaching. Our results suggest that distinct neural processing is required to control these different types of reaching because in considering the current results and previous patient results together, the two classes of movement could be differentiated depending on the type of interference. PMID:26133796

  13. A Cholinergic-Regulated Circuit Coordinates the Maintenance and Bi-Stable States of a Sensory-Motor Behavior during Caenorhabditis elegans Male Copulation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yishi; LeBeouf, Brigitte; Guo, Xiaoyan; Correa, Paola A.; Gualberto, Daisy G.; Lints, Robyn; Garcia, L. Rene

    2011-01-01

    Penetration of a male copulatory organ into a suitable mate is a conserved and necessary behavioral step for most terrestrial matings; however, the detailed molecular and cellular mechanisms for this distinct social interaction have not been elucidated in any animal. During mating, the Caenorhabditis elegans male cloaca is maintained over the hermaphrodite's vulva as he attempts to insert his copulatory spicules. Rhythmic spicule thrusts cease when insertion is sensed. Circuit components consisting of sensory/motor neurons and sex muscles for these steps have been previously identified, but it was unclear how their outputs are integrated to generate a coordinated behavior pattern. Here, we show that cholinergic signaling between the cloacal sensory/motor neurons and the posterior sex muscles sustains genital contact between the sexes. Simultaneously, via gap junctions, signaling from these muscles is transmitted to the spicule muscles, thus coupling repeated spicule thrusts with vulval contact. To transit from rhythmic to sustained muscle contraction during penetration, the SPC sensory-motor neurons integrate the signal of spicule's position in the vulva with inputs from the hook and cloacal sensilla. The UNC-103 K+ channel maintains a high excitability threshold in the circuit, so that sustained spicule muscle contraction is not stimulated by fewer inputs. We demonstrate that coordination of sensory inputs and motor outputs used to initiate, maintain, self-monitor, and complete an innate behavior is accomplished via the coupling of a few circuit components. PMID:21423722

  14. A Low Concentration of Ethanol Impairs Learning but Not Motor and Sensory Behavior in Drosophila Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Ghezzi, Alfredo; Cady, Amanda M.; Najjar, Kristina; Hatch, Michael M.; Shah, Ruchita R.; Bhat, Amar; Hariri, Omar; Haroun, Kareem B.; Young, Melvin C.; Fife, Kathryn; Hooten, Jeff; Tran, Tuan; Goan, Daniel; Desai, Foram; Husain, Farhan; Godinez, Ryan M.; Sun, Jeffrey C.; Corpuz, Jonathan; Moran, Jacxelyn; Zhong, Allen C.; Chen, William Y.; Atkinson, Nigel S.

    2012-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster has proven to be a useful model system for the genetic analysis of ethanol-associated behaviors. However, past studies have focused on the response of the adult fly to large, and often sedating, doses of ethanol. The pharmacological effects of low and moderate quantities of ethanol have remained understudied. In this study, we tested the acute effects of low doses of ethanol (∼7 mM internal concentration) on Drosophila larvae. While ethanol did not affect locomotion or the response to an odorant, we observed that ethanol impaired associative olfactory learning when the heat shock unconditioned stimulus (US) intensity was low but not when the heat shock US intensity was high. We determined that the reduction in learning at low US intensity was not a result of ethanol anesthesia since ethanol-treated larvae responded to the heat shock in the same manner as untreated animals. Instead, low doses of ethanol likely impair the neuronal plasticity that underlies olfactory associative learning. This impairment in learning was reversible indicating that exposure to low doses of ethanol does not leave any long lasting behavioral or physiological effects. PMID:22624024

  15. Motor Planning.

    PubMed

    Wong, Aaron L; Haith, Adrian M; Krakauer, John W

    2015-08-01

    Motor planning colloquially refers to any process related to the preparation of a movement that occurs during the reaction time prior to movement onset. However, this broad definition encompasses processes that are not strictly motor-related, such as decision-making about the identity of task-relevant stimuli in the environment. Furthermore, the assumption that all motor-planning processes require processing time, and can therefore be studied behaviorally by measuring changes in the reaction time, needs to be reexamined. In this review, we take a critical look at the processes leading from perception to action and suggest a definition of motor planning that encompasses only those processes necessary for a movement to be executed-that is, processes that are strictly movement related. These processes resolve the ambiguity inherent in an abstract goal by defining a specific movement to achieve it. We propose that the majority of processes that meet this definition can be completed nearly instantaneously, which means that motor planning itself in fact consumes only a small fraction of the reaction time. PMID:24981338

  16. From neuron to behavior: dynamic equation-based prediction of biological processes in motor control.

    PubMed

    Daun-Gruhn, Silvia; Büschges, Ansgar

    2011-07-01

    This article presents the use of continuous dynamic models in the form of differential equations to describe and predict temporal changes in biological processes and discusses several of its important advantages over discontinuous bistable ones, exemplified on the stick insect walking system. In this system, coordinated locomotion is produced by concerted joint dynamics and interactions on different dynamical scales, which is therefore difficult to understand. Modeling using differential equations possesses, in general, the potential for the inclusion of biological detail, the suitability for simulation, and most importantly, parameter manipulation to make predictions about the system behavior. We will show in this review article how, in case of the stick insect walking system, continuous dynamical system models can help to understand coordinated locomotion. PMID:21769740

  17. [Reaching behavior of rats during realization of a lateralized motor food skill].

    PubMed

    Stashkevich, I S; Kulikov, M A

    2004-01-01

    Adult Wistar rats were trained to obtain food pellets from a narrow horizontal tube with a preferred forepaw. The feeder was equipped with five photoelectric sensors with 5-mm spacing. The following parameters were recorded: total number of movements performed for a given task, amplitude (depth) of each movement, number of anticipatory movements performed with different amplitudes, and amplitude of a successful movement. It was shown that in rats with good skill acquisition, a successful food extraction was preceded by a series of differently organized sequence of preliminary movements. In some rats, such a series consisted of initial non-deep attempts followed by movements with high amplitude, whereas in other animals, it was represented, mainly, by deep attempts. Both groups of animals terminated the series by grasping and extracting food from a long distance. It is suggested that the observed organizations of the lateralized food-getting behavior of rats under the given experimental conditions represent fixed (stereotyped) action patterns. PMID:15326954

  18. Exercise Effects on Motor and Affective Behavior and Catecholamine Neurochemistry in the MPTP-Lesioned Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Gorton, Lori M.; Vuckovic, Marta G.; Vertelkina, Nina; Petzinger, Giselle M.; Jakowec, Michael W.; Wood, Ruth I.

    2010-01-01

    This study used 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6,-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) in mice to determine if exercise improves behavior and dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5HT) content. Male C57BL/6 mice received MPTP (4×20 mg/kg) or saline. They remained sedentary or exercised by treadmill or voluntary running wheel for 6 weeks (n=8/group). Saline-treated mice ran significantly faster on running wheels (22.8±1.0 m/min) than on treadmill (8.5±0.5 m/min), and MPTP lesion did not reduce voluntary exercise (19.3±1.5 m/min, p>0.05). There was a significant effect of both lesion and exercise on overall Rotarod performance (ORP): MPTP lesion reduced ORP, while treadmill exercise increased ORP vs sedentary mice (p<0.05). MPTP increased anxiety in the marble-burying test: sedentary lesioned mice buried more marbles (74.0±5.2%) than sedentary controls (34.8±11.8%, p<0.05). Conversely, exercise reduced anxiety on the elevated plus maze. Among saline-treated mice, those exposed to voluntary wheel-running showed an increased percent of open arm entries (49.8±3.5%, p<0.05) relative to relative to sedentary controls (36.2±4.0%, p<0.05). Neither MPTP nor exercise altered symptoms of depression measured by sucrose preference or tail suspension. MPTP significantly reduced DA in striatum (in sedentary lesioned mice to 42.1±3.0% of saline controls), and lowered 5HT in amygdala and striatum (in sedentary lesioned mice to 86.1±4.1% and 66.5±8.2% of saline controls, respectively); exercise had no effect. Thus, exercise improves behavior in a model of DA depletion, without changes in DA or 5HT. PMID:20472000

  19. Curcumin Treatment Improves Motor Behavior in α-Synuclein Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Spinelli, Kateri J.; Osterberg, Valerie R.; Meshul, Charles K.; Soumyanath, Amala; Unni, Vivek K.

    2015-01-01

    The curry spice curcumin plays a protective role in mouse models of neurodegenerative diseases, and can also directly modulate aggregation of α-synuclein protein in vitro, yet no studies have described the interaction of curcumin and α-synuclein in genetic synucleinopathy mouse models. Here we examined the effect of chronic and acute curcumin treatment in the Syn-GFP mouse line, which overexpresses wild-type human α-synuclein protein. We discovered that curcumin diet intervention significantly improved gait impairments and resulted in an increase in phosphorylated forms of α-synuclein at cortical presynaptic terminals. Acute curcumin treatment also caused an increase in phosphorylated α-synuclein in terminals, but had no direct effect on α-synuclein aggregation, as measured by in vivo multiphoton imaging and Proteinase-K digestion. Using LC-MS/MS, we detected ~5 ng/mL and ~12 ng/mL free curcumin in the plasma of chronic or acutely treated mice, with a glucuronidation rate of 94% and 97%, respectively. Despite the low plasma levels and extensive metabolism of curcumin, these results show that dietary curcumin intervention correlates with significant behavioral and molecular changes in a genetic synucleinopathy mouse model that mimics human disease. PMID:26035833

  20. Long-term treatment with L-DOPA or pramipexole affects adult neurogenesis and corresponding non-motor behavior in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Chiu, W-H; Depboylu, C; Hermanns, G; Maurer, L; Windolph, A; Oertel, W H; Ries, V; Höglinger, G U

    2015-08-01

    Non-motor symptoms such as hyposmia and depression are often observed in Parkinson's disease (PD) and can precede the onset of motor symptoms for years. The underlying pathological alterations in the brain are not fully understood so far. Dysregulation of adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and the olfactory bulb has been recently suggested to be implicated in non-motor symptoms of PD. However, there is so far no direct evidence to support the relationship of non-motor symptoms and the modulation of adult neurogenesis following dopamine depletion and/or dopamine replacement. In this study, we investigated the long-term effects of l-DOPA and pramipexole, a dopamine agonist, in a mouse model of bilateral intranigral 6-OHDA lesion, in order to assess the impact of adult neurogenesis on non-motor behavior. We found that l-DOPA and pramipexole can normalize decreased neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus and the periglomerular layer of the olfactory bulb caused by a 6-OHDA lesion. Interestingly, pramipexole showed an antidepressant and anxiolytic effect in the forced swim test and social interaction test. However, there was no significant change in learning and memory function after dopamine depletion and dopamine replacement, respectively. PMID:25839898

  1. Exendin-4 reverses biochemical and behavioral deficits in a pre-motor rodent model of Parkinson's disease with combined noradrenergic and serotonergic lesions.

    PubMed

    Rampersaud, N; Harkavyi, A; Giordano, G; Lever, R; Whitton, J; Whitton, P S

    2012-10-01

    Research on Parkinson's disease (PD) has mainly focused on the degeneration of the dopaminergic neurons of nigro-striatal pathway; however, post-mortem studies have demonstrated that other brain regions such as the locus coeruleus (LC) and raphe nuclei (RN) are significantly affected as well. Degeneration of these crucial neuronal cell bodies may be responsible for depressive behavior and cognitive decline present in the pre-motor stage of PD. We have thus set out to create a pre-motor rodent model of PD which mimics the early stages of the condition. N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP-4), a selective noradrenergic neurotoxin, and parachloroampetamine (pCA), a selective serotonergic neurotoxin, were utilized concomitantly with bilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) injections into the striatum to produce a pre-motor rodent model of PD with partial deficits in the dopaminergic, noradrenergic, and serotonergic systems. Our model exhibited a depressive/anhedonic condition as assessed using sucrose preference testing and the forced swim test. Our model also demonstrated deficits in object memory. These behavioral impairments were accompanied by a decline in both tissue and extracellular levels of all three neurotransmitters in both the frontal cortex and striatum. Immunohistochemistry also revealed a decrease in TH+ cells in the LC and substantia nigra. Exendin-4 (EX-4), a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist, promoted recovery of both the biochemical and behavioral dysfunction exhibited by our model. EX-4 was able to preserve the functional integrity of the dopaminergic, noradrenergic, and serotonergic systems. In conclusion, we have generated a novel animal model of PD that recapitulates certain pre-motor symptomology. These symptoms and causative physiology are ameliorated upon treatment with EX-4 and thus it could be used as a possible therapy for the non-motor symptoms prominent in the early stages of PD. PMID:22921965

  2. Chromosome Aberrations in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Kerry A.; Durante, M.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    A review of currently available data on in vivo induced chromosome damage in the blood lymphocytes of astronauts proves that, after protracted exposure of a few months or more to space radiation, cytogenetic biodosimetry analyses of blood collected within a week or two of return from space provides a reliable estimate of equivalent radiation dose and risk. Recent studies indicate that biodosimetry estimates from single spaceflights lie within the range expected from physical dosimetry and biophysical models, but very large uncertainties are associated with single individual measurements and the total sample population remains low. Retrospective doses may be more difficult to estimate because of the fairly rapid time-dependent loss of "stable" aberrations in blood lymphocytes. Also, biodosimetry estimates from individuals who participate in multiple missions, or very long (interplanetary) missions, may be complicated by an adaptive response to space radiation and/or changes in lymphocyte survival and repopulation. A discussion of published data is presented and specific issues related to space radiation biodosimetry protocols are discussed.

  3. Deficits in coordinated motor behavior and in nigrostriatal dopaminergic system ameliorated and VMAT2 expression up-regulated in aged male rats by administration of testosterone propionate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Kang, Yunxiao; Zhang, Guoliang; Zhang, Yingbo; Cui, Rui; Yan, Wensheng; Tan, Huibing; Li, Shuangcheng; Wu, Baiyila; Cui, Huixian; Shi, Geming

    2016-06-01

    The effects of testosterone propionate (TP) supplements on the coordinated motor behavior and nigrostriatal dopaminergic (NSDA) system were analyzed in aged male rats. The present study showed the coordinated motor behavioral deficits, the reduced activity of NSDA system and the decreased expression of vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) in 24month-old male rats. Long term TP treatment improved the motor coordination dysfunction with aging. Increased tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter, as well as dopamine and its metabolites were found in the NSDA system of TP-treated 24month-old male rats, indicative of the amelioratory effects of TP supplements on NSDA system of aged male rats. The enhancement of dopaminergic (DAergic) activity of NSDA system by TP supplements might underlie the amelioration of the coordinated motor dysfunction in aged male rats. TP supplements up-regulated VMAT2 expression in NSDA system of aged male rats. Up-regulation of VMAT2 expression in aged male rats following chronic TP treatment might be involved in the maintenance of DAergic function of NSDA system in aged male rats. PMID:26956479

  4. Correction of Distributed Optical Aberrations

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, K; Olivier, S; Carrano, C; Phillion, D

    2006-02-12

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate the use of multiple distributed deformable mirrors (DMs) to improve the performance of optical systems with distributed aberrations. This concept is expected to provide dramatic improvement in the optical performance of systems in applications where the aberrations are distributed along the optical path or within the instrument itself. Our approach used multiple actuated DMs distributed to match the aberration distribution. The project developed the algorithms necessary to determine the required corrections and simulate the performance of these multiple DM systems.

  5. Coating-induced wavefront aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiley, Daniel J.; Chipman, Russell A.

    1992-12-01

    The coatings which are used on telescope mirrors and other optical interfaces can have a profound effect on the image quality formed by an optical system. This paper evaluates the defocus and astigmatism which are caused by the s- and p-phase shifts of coatings. These coating-induced wavefront aberrations are usually insignificant, but can, under certain circumstances, overshadow the geometric wavefront aberrations of the system. The wavefront aberrations induced by reflection-enhanced coatings on an f/1.5 Cassegrain telescope are numerically evaluated as an example.

  6. Language and Motor Abilities of Preschool Children Who Stutter: Evidence from Behavioral and Kinematic Indices of Nonword Repetition Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Anne; Goffman, Lisa; Sasisekaran, Jayanthi; Weber-Fox, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Stuttering is a disorder of speech production that typically arises in the preschool years, and many accounts of its onset and development implicate language and motor processes as critical underlying factors. There have, however, been very few studies of speech motor control processes in preschool children who stutter. Hearing novel nonwords and…

  7. Online and Offline Performance Gains Following Motor Imagery Practice: A Comprehensive Review of Behavioral and Neuroimaging Studies.

    PubMed

    Di Rienzo, Franck; Debarnot, Ursula; Daligault, Sébastien; Saruco, Elodie; Delpuech, Claude; Doyon, Julien; Collet, Christian; Guillot, Aymeric

    2016-01-01

    There is now compelling evidence that motor imagery (MI) promotes motor learning. While MI has been shown to influence the early stages of the learning process, recent data revealed that sleep also contributes to the consolidation of the memory trace. How such "online" and "offline" processes take place and how they interact to impact the neural underpinnings of movements has received little attention. The aim of the present review is twofold: (i) providing an overview of recent applied and fundamental studies investigating the effects of MI practice (MIP) on motor learning; and (ii) detangling applied and fundamental findings in support of a sleep contribution to motor consolidation after MIP. We conclude with an integrative approach of online and offline learning resulting from intense MIP in healthy participants, and underline research avenues in the motor learning/clinical domains. PMID:27445755

  8. Online and Offline Performance Gains Following Motor Imagery Practice: A Comprehensive Review of Behavioral and Neuroimaging Studies

    PubMed Central

    Di Rienzo, Franck; Debarnot, Ursula; Daligault, Sébastien; Saruco, Elodie; Delpuech, Claude; Doyon, Julien; Collet, Christian; Guillot, Aymeric

    2016-01-01

    There is now compelling evidence that motor imagery (MI) promotes motor learning. While MI has been shown to influence the early stages of the learning process, recent data revealed that sleep also contributes to the consolidation of the memory trace. How such “online” and “offline” processes take place and how they interact to impact the neural underpinnings of movements has received little attention. The aim of the present review is twofold: (i) providing an overview of recent applied and fundamental studies investigating the effects of MI practice (MIP) on motor learning; and (ii) detangling applied and fundamental findings in support of a sleep contribution to motor consolidation after MIP. We conclude with an integrative approach of online and offline learning resulting from intense MIP in healthy participants, and underline research avenues in the motor learning/clinical domains. PMID:27445755

  9. Historical aspects of aberration correction.

    PubMed

    Rose, Harald H

    2009-06-01

    A brief history of the development of direct aberration correction in electron microscopy is outlined starting from the famous Scherzer theorem established in 1936. Aberration correction is the long story of many seemingly fruitless efforts to improve the resolution of electron microscopes by compensating for the unavoidable resolution-limiting aberrations of round electron lenses over a period of 50 years. The successful breakthrough, in 1997, can be considered as a quantum step in electron microscopy because it provides genuine atomic resolution approaching the size of the radius of the hydrogen atom. The additional realization of monochromators, aberration-free imaging energy filters and spectrometers has been leading to a new generation of analytical electron microscopes providing elemental and electronic information about the object on an atomic scale. PMID:19254915

  10. Aberrations in Fresnel Lenses and Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Don

    1999-01-01

    The NASA/MSFC Shooting Star program revealed a number of technical problems that must be solved before solar thermal propulsion can become a reality. The fundamental problem of interest here is the collection of solar energy. This is the first step in the propulsion process and indeed the most important. Everything else depends on the efficiency and focusing ability of the collection lens or mirror. An initial model of Fresnel lens behavior using a wave optics approach has been completed and the results were encouraging enough to warrant an experimental investigation. This experimental investigation confirmed some of the effects predicted and produced invaluable photographic evidence of coherence based diffraction and aberration.

  11. Sensory signals and neuronal groups involved in guiding the sea-ward motor behavior in turtle hatchlings of Chelonia agassizi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuentes, A. L.; Camarena, V.; Ochoa, G.; Urrutia, J.; Gutierrez, G.

    2007-05-01

    Turtle hatchlings orient display sea-ward oriented movements as soon as they emerge from the nest. Although most studies have emphasized the role of the visual information in this process, less attention has been paid to other sensory modalities. Here, we evaluated the nature of sensory cues used by turtle hatchlings of Chelonia agassizi to orient their movements towards the ocean. We recorded the time they took to crawl from the nest to the beach front (120m long) in control conditions and in visually, olfactory and magnetically deprived circumstances. Visually-deprived hatchlings displayed a high degree of disorientation. Olfactory deprivation and magnetic field distortion impaired, but not abolished, sea-ward oriented movements. With regard to the neuronal mapping experiments, visual deprivation reduced dramatically c-fos expression in the whole brain. Hatchlings with their nares blocked revealed neurons with c-fos expression above control levels principally in the c and d areas, while those subjected to magnetic field distortion had a wide spread activation of neurons throughout the brain predominantly in the dorsal ventricular ridge The present results support that Chelonia agassizi hatchlings use predominantly visual cues to orient their movements towards the sea. Olfactory and magnetic cues may also be use but their influence on hatchlings oriented motor behavior is not as clear as it is for vision. This conclusion is supported by the fact that in the absence of olfactory and magnetic cues, the brain turns on the expression of c- fos in neuronal groups that, in the intact hatchling, are not normally involved in accomplishing the task.

  12. Effects of haloperidol on the behavioral, subjective, cognitive, motor, and neuroendocrine effects of Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in humans

    PubMed Central

    Braley, Gabriel; Blaise, Rebecca; Vendetti, Michael; Oliver, Stephen; Pittman, Brian; Ranganathan, Mohini; Bhakta, Savita; Zimolo, Zoran; Cooper, Thomas; Perry, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Cannabinoids produce a spectrum of effects in humans including euphoria, cognitive impairments, psychotomimetic effects, and perceptual alterations. The extent to which dopaminergic systems contribute to the effects of Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ-9-THC) remains unclear. This study evaluated whether pretreatment with a dopamine receptor antagonist altered the effects of Δ-9-THC in humans. Materials and methods In a 2-test-day double-blind study, 28 subjects including healthy subjects (n=17) and frequent users of cannabis (n=11) were administered active (0.057 mg/kg) or placebo oral haloperidol in random order followed 90 and 215 min later by fixed order intravenous administration of placebo (vehicle) and active (0.0286 mg/kg) Δ-9-THC, respectively. Results Consistent with previous reports, intravenous Δ-9-THC produced psychotomimetic effects, perceptual alterations, and subjective effects including “high.” Δ-9-THC also impaired verbal recall and attention. Haloperidol pretreatment did not reduce any of the behavioral effects of Δ-9-THC. Haloperidol worsened the immediate free and delayed free and cued recall deficits produced by Δ-9-THC. Haloperidol and Δ-9-THC worsened distractibility and vigilance. Neither drug impaired performance on a motor screening task, the Stockings of Cambridge task, or the delayed match to sample task. Frequent users had lower baseline plasma prolactin levels and blunted Δ-9-THC induced memory impairments. Conclusions The deleterious effects of haloperidol pretreatment on the cognitive effects of Δ-9-THC are consistent with the preclinical literature in suggesting crosstalk between DAergic and CBergic systems. However, it is unlikely that DA D2 receptor mechanisms play a major role in mediating the psychotomimetic and perceptual altering effects of Δ-9-THC. Further investigation is warranted to understand the basis of the psychotomimetic effects of Δ-9-THC and to better understand the crosstalk between DAergic

  13. Disease-specific monoclonal antibodies targeting glutamate decarboxylase impair GABAergic neurotransmission and affect motor learning and behavioral functions

    PubMed Central

    Manto, Mario; Honnorat, Jérôme; Hampe, Christiane S.; Guerra-Narbona, Rafael; López-Ramos, Juan Carlos; Delgado-García, José María; Saitow, Fumihito; Suzuki, Hidenori; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Mitoma, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Autoantibodies to the smaller isoform of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) can be found in patients with type 1 diabetes and a number of neurological disorders, including stiff-person syndrome, cerebellar ataxia and limbic encephalitis. The detection of disease-specific autoantibody epitopes led to the hypothesis that distinct GAD autoantibodies may elicit specific neurological phenotypes. We explored the in vitro/in vivo effects of well-characterized monoclonal GAD antibodies. We found that GAD autoantibodies present in patients with stiff person syndrome (n = 7) and cerebellar ataxia (n = 15) recognized an epitope distinct from that recognized by GAD autoantibodies present in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (n = 10) or limbic encephalitis (n = 4). We demonstrated that the administration of a monoclonal GAD antibody representing this epitope specificity; (1) disrupted in vitro the association of GAD with γ-Aminobutyric acid containing synaptic vesicles; (2) depressed the inhibitory synaptic transmission in cerebellar slices with a gradual time course and a lasting suppressive effect; (3) significantly decreased conditioned eyelid responses evoked in mice, with no modification of learning curves in the classical eyeblink-conditioning task; (4) markedly impaired the facilitatory effect exerted by the premotor cortex over the motor cortex in a paired-pulse stimulation paradigm; and (5) induced decreased exploratory behavior and impaired locomotor function in rats. These findings support the specific targeting of GAD by its autoantibodies in the pathogenesis of stiff-person syndrome and cerebellar ataxia. Therapies of these disorders based on selective removal of such GAD antibodies could be envisioned. PMID:25870548

  14. Sexual aberration or instinctual vicissitude? Revisiting freud's "the sexual aberrations".

    PubMed

    Phillips, Sidney H

    2014-04-01

    The author reconsiders Freud's "The Sexual Aberrations," the first of his Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality (1905), in light of contemporary psychoanalytic theory. Are the concepts of sexual aberration and norm still viable? The author argues that they are necessary but insufficient elements in current theory. He then presents a competing model in which sexuality can be reduced to a more elemental level of disturbance and wish, where it is an expression of a nonsexual wish--for example, to possess or control the object to eliminate separateness. The author presents clinical material to demonstrate this alternative model. PMID:24777366

  15. Aberrations in asymmetrical electron lenses.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, J P S; Word, R C; Könenkamp, R

    2012-08-01

    Starting from well established knowledge in light-optics we explore the question if electron-optical aberration can be improved in asymmetrical electron lenses. We show that spherical as well as chromatic aberration coefficients are reduced in asymmetric electrostatic einzel lenses when the center electrode is moved away from the center position towards the entrance electrode. Relative improvements up to 40% for both the chromatic and the spherical aberration coefficients can be obtained. We use analytical and numerical calculations to confirm this result for exemplary cases of a lens with fixed length and working distance. The agreement of the two calculation methods is very good. We then derive an estimate for the electron-optical aberration coefficients from light-optics. The derived expressions for chromatic and spherical aberrations are somewhat simpler than the ones derived from electron-optics as they involve integrals only over the electrostatic potential, not over the electron paths. The estimated formulas still agree well with the electron optical calculations. Overall, we are tempted to suggest that the enormous knowledge base of light optics can provide considerable guidance for electron-optical applications. PMID:22206603

  16. Neurophysiology of spontaneous facial expressions: I. Motor control of the upper and lower face is behaviorally independent in adults.

    PubMed

    Ross, Elliott D; Gupta, Smita S; Adnan, Asif M; Holden, Thomas L; Havlicek, Joseph; Radhakrishnan, Sridhar

    2016-03-01

    Facial expressions are described traditionally as monolithic entities. However, humans have the capacity to produce facial blends, in which the upper and lower face simultaneously display different emotional expressions. This, in turn, has led to the Component Theory of facial expressions. Recent neuroanatomical studies in monkeys have demonstrated that there are separate cortical motor areas for controlling the upper and lower face that, presumably, also occur in humans. The lower face is represented on the posterior ventrolateral surface of the frontal lobes in the primary motor and premotor cortices and the upper face is represented on the medial surface of the posterior frontal lobes in the supplementary motor and anterior cingulate cortices. Our laboratory has been engaged in a series of studies exploring the perception and production of facial blends. Using high-speed videography, we began measuring the temporal aspects of facial expressions to develop a more complete understanding of the neurophysiology underlying facial expressions and facial blends. The goal of the research presented here was to determine if spontaneous facial expressions in adults are predominantly monolithic or exhibit independent motor control of the upper and lower face. We found that spontaneous facial expressions are very complex and that the motor control of the upper and lower face is overwhelmingly independent, thus robustly supporting the Component Theory of facial expressions. Seemingly monolithic expressions, be they full facial or facial blends, are most likely the result of a timing coincident rather than a synchronous coordination between the ventrolateral and medial cortical motor areas responsible for controlling the lower and upper face, respectively. In addition, we found evidence that the right and left face may also exhibit independent motor control, thus supporting the concept that spontaneous facial expressions are organized predominantly across the horizontal facial

  17. How To Measure Gravitational Aberration?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krizek, M.; Solcova, A.

    2007-08-01

    In 1905, Henri Poincaré predicted the existence of gravitational waves and assumed that their speed c[g] would be that of the speed of light c. If the gravitational aberration would also have the same magnitude as the aberration of light, we would observe several paradoxical phenomena. For instance, the orbit of two bodies of equal mass would be unstable, since two attractive forces arise that are not in line and hence form a couple. This tends to increase the angular momentum, period, and total energy of the system. This can be modelled by a system of ordinary differential equations with delay. A big advantage of computer simulation is that we can easily perform many test for various possible values of the speed of gravity [1]. In [2], Carlip showed that gravitational aberration in general relativity is almost cancelled out by velocity-dependent interactions. This means that rays of sunlight are not parallel to the attractive gravitational force of the Sun, i.e., we do not see the Sun in the direction of its attractive force, but slightly shifted about an angle less than 20``. We show how the actual value of the gravitational aberration can be obtained by measurement of a single angle at a suitable time instant T corresponding to the perihelion of an elliptic orbit. We also derive an a priori error estimate that expresses how acurately T has to be determined to attain the gravitational aberration to a prescribed tolerance. [1] M. Křížek: Numerical experience with the finite speed of gravitational interaction, Math. Comput. Simulation 50 (1999), 237-245. [2] S. Carlip: Aberration and the speed of gravity, Phys. Lett. A 267 (2000), 81-87.

  18. Chromosome Aberrations by Heavy Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballarini, Francesca; Ottolenghi, Andrea

    It is well known that mammalian cells exposed to ionizing radiation can show different types of chromosome aberrations (CAs) including dicentrics, translocations, rings, deletions and complex exchanges. Chromosome aberrations are a particularly relevant endpoint in radiobiology, because they play a fundamental role in the pathways leading either to cell death, or to cell conversion to malignancy. In particular, reciprocal translocations involving pairs of specific genes are strongly correlated (and probably also causally-related) with specific tumour types; a typical example is the BCR-ABL translocation for Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia. Furthermore, aberrations can be used for applications in biodosimetry and more generally as biomarkers of exposure and risk, that is the case for cancer patients monitored during Carbon-ion therapy and astronauts exposed to space radiation. Indeed hadron therapy and astronauts' exposure to space radiation represent two of the few scenarios where human beings can be exposed to heavy ions. After a brief introduction on the main general features of chromosome aberrations, in this work we will address key aspects of the current knowledge on chromosome aberration induction, both from an experimental and from a theoretical point of view. More specifically, in vitro data will be summarized and discussed, outlining important issues such as the role of interphase death/mitotic delay and that of complex-exchange scoring. Some available in vivo data on cancer patients and astronauts will be also reported, together with possible interpretation problems. Finally, two of the few available models of chromosome aberration induction by ionizing radiation (including heavy ions) will be described and compared, focusing on the different assumptions adopted by the authors and on how these models can deal with heavy ions.

  19. The α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor modulates autism-like behavioral and motor abnormalities in pentylenetetrazol-kindled mice.

    PubMed

    Takechi, Kenshi; Suemaru, Katsuya; Kiyoi, Takeshi; Tanaka, Akihiro; Araki, Hiroaki

    2016-03-15

    Epilepsy is associated with several psychiatric disorders, including cognitive impairment, autism and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the psychopathology of epilepsy is frequently unrecognized and untreated in patients. In the present study, we investigated the effects of ABT-418, a neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-kindled mice with behavioral and motor abnormalities. PTZ-kindled mice displayed impaired motor coordination (in the rotarod test), anxiety (in the elevated plus maze test) and social approach impairment (in the three-chamber social test) compared with control mice. ABT-418 treatment (0.05mg/kg, intraperitoneally) alleviated these behavioral abnormalities in PTZ-kindled mice. Immunolabeling of tissue sections demonstrated that expression of the α4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit in the medial habenula was similar in control and PTZ-kindled mice. However, expression was significantly decreased in the piriform cortex in PTZ-kindled mice. In addition, we examined the expression of the synaptic adhesion molecule neuroligin 3 (NLG3). NLG3 expression in the piriform cortex was significantly higher in PTZ-kindled mice compared with control mice. Collectively, our findings suggest that ADHD-like or autistic-like behavioral abnormalities associated with epilepsy are closely related to the downregulation of the α4 nicotinic receptor and the upregulation of NLG3 in the piriform cortex. In summary, this study indicates that ABT-418 might have therapeutic potential for attentional impairment in epileptic patients with psychiatric disorders such as autism and ADHD. PMID:26868186

  20. Modulation of motor behavior by dopamine and the D1-like dopamine receptor AmDOP2 in the honey bee

    PubMed Central

    Mustard, Julie A.; Pham, Priscilla M.; Smith, Brian H.

    2009-01-01

    Determining the specific molecular pathways through which dopamine affects behavior has been complicated by the presence of multiple dopamine receptor subtypes that couple to different second messenger pathways. The observation of freely moving adult bees in an arena was used to investigate the role of dopamine signaling in regulating the behavior of the honey bee. Dopamine or the dopamine receptor antagonist flupenthixol was injected into the hemolymph of worker honey bees. Significant differences between treated and control bees were seen for all behaviors (walking, stopped, upside down, grooming, flying and fanning), and behavioral shifts were dependent on drug dosage and time after injection. To examine the role of dopamine signaling through a specific dopamine receptor in the brain, RNA interference was used to reduce expression levels of a D1-like receptor, AmDOP2. Injection of Amdop2 dsRNA into the mushroom bodies reduced the levels of Amdop2 mRNA and produced significant changes in the amount of time honey bees spent performing specific behaviors with reductions in time spent walking offset by increases in grooming or time spent stopped. Taken together these results establish that dopamine plays an important role in regulating motor behavior of the honey bee. PMID:19945462

  1. Differences in the Transmission of Sensory Input into Motor Output between Introverts and Extraverts: Behavioral and Psychophysiological Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl, J.; Rammsayer, T.

    2004-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate extraversion-related individual differences in the speed of transmission of sensory input into motor output. In a sample of 16 introverted and 16 extraverted female volunteers, event-related potentials, lateralized readiness potentials (LRPs), and electromyogram (EMG) were recorded as participants…

  2. Language and motor abilities of preschool children who stutter: Evidence from behavioral and kinematic indices of nonword repetition performance

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Anne; Goffman, Lisa; Sasisekaran, Jayanthi; Weber-Fox, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Stuttering is a disorder of speech production that typically arises in the preschool years, and many accounts of its onset and development implicate language and motor processes as critical underlying factors. There have, however, been very few studies of speech motor control processes in preschool children who stutter. Hearing novel nonwords and reproducing them engages multiple neural networks, including those involved in phonological analysis and storage and speech motor programming and execution. We used this task to explore speech motor and language abilities of 31 children aged 4–5 years who were diagnosed as stuttering. We also used sensitive and specific standardized tests of speech and language abilities to determine which of the children who stutter had concomitant language and/or phonological disorders. Approximately half of our sample of stuttering children had language and/or phonological disorders. As previous investigations would suggest, the stuttering children with concomitant language or speech sound disorders produced significantly more errors on the nonword repetition task compared to typically developing children. In contrast, the children who were diagnosed as stuttering, but who had normal speech sound and language abilities, performed the nonword repetition task with equal accuracy compared to their normally fluent peers. Analyses of interarticulator motions during accurate and fluent productions of the nonwords revealed that the children who stutter (without concomitant disorders) showed higher variability in oral motor coordination indices. These results provide new evidence that preschool children diagnosed as stuttering lag their typically developing peers in maturation of speech motor control processes. Educational objectives The reader will be able to: (a) discuss why performance on nonword repetition tasks has been investigated in children who stutter; (b) discuss why children who stutter in the current study had a higher incidence

  3. Distortion of ultrashort pulses caused by aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horváth, Z. L.; Kovács, A. P.; Bor, Zs.

    The effect of the primary wave aberrations (spherical aberration, astigmatism and coma) on ultrashort pulses is studied by the Nijboer-Zernike theory. The results of the geometrical and the wave optical treatments are compared.

  4. Perceptual-Cognitive Changes During Motor Learning: The Influence of Mental and Physical Practice on Mental Representation, Gaze Behavior, and Performance of a Complex Action

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Cornelia; Land, William M.; Schack, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Despite the wealth of research on differences between experts and novices with respect to their perceptual-cognitive background (e.g., mental representations, gaze behavior), little is known about the change of these perceptual-cognitive components over the course of motor learning. In the present study, changes in one’s mental representation, quiet eye behavior, and outcome performance were examined over the course of skill acquisition as it related to physical and mental practice. Novices (N = 45) were assigned to one of three conditions: physical practice, combined physical plus mental practice, and no practice. Participants in the practice groups trained on a golf putting task over the course of 3 days, either by repeatedly executing the putt, or by both executing and imaging the putt. Findings revealed improvements in putting performance across both practice conditions. Regarding the perceptual-cognitive changes, participants practicing mentally and physically revealed longer quiet eye durations as well as more elaborate representation structures in comparison to the control group, while this was not the case for participants who underwent physical practice only. Thus, in the present study, combined mental and physical practice led to both formation of mental representations in long-term memory and longer quiet eye durations. Interestingly, the length of the quiet eye directly related to the degree of elaborateness of the underlying mental representation, supporting the notion that the quiet eye reflects cognitive processing. This study is the first to show that the quiet eye becomes longer in novices practicing a motor action. Moreover, the findings of the present study suggest that perceptual and cognitive adaptations co-occur over the course of motor learning. PMID:26779089

  5. Perceptual-Cognitive Changes During Motor Learning: The Influence of Mental and Physical Practice on Mental Representation, Gaze Behavior, and Performance of a Complex Action.

    PubMed

    Frank, Cornelia; Land, William M; Schack, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Despite the wealth of research on differences between experts and novices with respect to their perceptual-cognitive background (e.g., mental representations, gaze behavior), little is known about the change of these perceptual-cognitive components over the course of motor learning. In the present study, changes in one's mental representation, quiet eye behavior, and outcome performance were examined over the course of skill acquisition as it related to physical and mental practice. Novices (N = 45) were assigned to one of three conditions: physical practice, combined physical plus mental practice, and no practice. Participants in the practice groups trained on a golf putting task over the course of 3 days, either by repeatedly executing the putt, or by both executing and imaging the putt. Findings revealed improvements in putting performance across both practice conditions. Regarding the perceptual-cognitive changes, participants practicing mentally and physically revealed longer quiet eye durations as well as more elaborate representation structures in comparison to the control group, while this was not the case for participants who underwent physical practice only. Thus, in the present study, combined mental and physical practice led to both formation of mental representations in long-term memory and longer quiet eye durations. Interestingly, the length of the quiet eye directly related to the degree of elaborateness of the underlying mental representation, supporting the notion that the quiet eye reflects cognitive processing. This study is the first to show that the quiet eye becomes longer in novices practicing a motor action. Moreover, the findings of the present study suggest that perceptual and cognitive adaptations co-occur over the course of motor learning. PMID:26779089

  6. Changes in Sensitivity of Reward and Motor Behavior to Dopaminergic, Glutamatergic, and Cholinergic Drugs in a Mouse Model of Fragile X Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fish, Eric W.; Krouse, Michael C.; Stringfield, Sierra J.; DiBerto, Jeffrey F.; Robinson, J. Elliott; Malanga, C. J.

    2013-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a leading cause of intellectual disability. FXS is caused by loss of function of the FMR1 gene, and mice in which Fmr1 has been inactivated have been used extensively as a preclinical model for FXS. We investigated the behavioral pharmacology of drugs acting through dopaminergic, glutamatergic, and cholinergic systems in fragile X (Fmr1-/Y) mice with intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) and locomotor activity measurements. We also measured brain expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine biosynthesis. Fmr1-/Y mice were more sensitive than wild type mice to the rewarding effects of cocaine, but less sensitive to its locomotor stimulating effects. Anhedonic but not motor depressant effects of the atypical neuroleptic, aripiprazole, were reduced in Fmr1-/Y mice. The mGluR5-selective antagonist, 6-methyl-2-(phenylethynyl)pyridine (MPEP), was more rewarding and the preferential M1 antagonist, trihexyphenidyl, was less rewarding in Fmr1-/Y than wild type mice. Motor stimulation by MPEP was unchanged, but stimulation by trihexyphenidyl was markedly increased, in Fmr1-/Y mice. Numbers of midbrain TH+ neurons in the ventral tegmental area were unchanged, but were lower in the substantia nigra of Fmr1-/Y mice, although no changes in TH levels were found in their forebrain targets. The data are discussed in the context of known changes in the synaptic physiology and pharmacology of limbic motor systems in the Fmr1-/Y mouse model. Preclinical findings suggest that drugs acting through multiple neurotransmitter systems may be necessary to fully address abnormal behaviors in individuals with FXS. PMID:24205018

  7. Using geometric algebra to study optical aberrations

    SciTech Connect

    Hanlon, J.; Ziock, H.

    1997-05-01

    This paper uses Geometric Algebra (GA) to study vector aberrations in optical systems with square and round pupils. GA is a new way to produce the classical optical aberration spot diagrams on the Gaussian image plane and surfaces near the Gaussian image plane. Spot diagrams of the third, fifth and seventh order aberrations for square and round pupils are developed to illustrate the theory.

  8. A New Type of Motor: Pneumatic Step Motor

    PubMed Central

    Stoianovici, Dan; Patriciu, Alexandru; Petrisor, Doru; Mazilu, Dumitru; Kavoussi, Louis

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new type of pneumatic motor, a pneumatic step motor (PneuStep). Directional rotary motion of discrete displacement is achieved by sequentially pressurizing the three ports of the motor. Pulsed pressure waves are generated by a remote pneumatic distributor. The motor assembly includes a motor, gearhead, and incremental position encoder in a compact, central bore construction. A special electronic driver is used to control the new motor with electric stepper indexers and standard motion control cards. The motor accepts open-loop step operation as well as closed-loop control with position feedback from the enclosed sensor. A special control feature is implemented to adapt classic control algorithms to the new motor, and is experimentally validated. The speed performance of the motor degrades with the length of the pneumatic hoses between the distributor and motor. Experimental results are presented to reveal this behavior and set the expectation level. Nevertheless, the stepper achieves easily controllable precise motion unlike other pneumatic motors. The motor was designed to be compatible with magnetic resonance medical imaging equipment, for actuating an image-guided intervention robot, for medical applications. For this reason, the motors were entirely made of nonmagnetic and dielectric materials such as plastics, ceramics, and rubbers. Encoding was performed with fiber optics, so that the motors are electricity free, exclusively using pressure and light. PneuStep is readily applicable to other pneumatic or hydraulic precision-motion applications. PMID:21528106

  9. A New Type of Motor: Pneumatic Step Motor.

    PubMed

    Stoianovici, Dan; Patriciu, Alexandru; Petrisor, Doru; Mazilu, Dumitru; Kavoussi, Louis

    2007-02-01

    This paper presents a new type of pneumatic motor, a pneumatic step motor (PneuStep). Directional rotary motion of discrete displacement is achieved by sequentially pressurizing the three ports of the motor. Pulsed pressure waves are generated by a remote pneumatic distributor. The motor assembly includes a motor, gearhead, and incremental position encoder in a compact, central bore construction. A special electronic driver is used to control the new motor with electric stepper indexers and standard motion control cards. The motor accepts open-loop step operation as well as closed-loop control with position feedback from the enclosed sensor. A special control feature is implemented to adapt classic control algorithms to the new motor, and is experimentally validated. The speed performance of the motor degrades with the length of the pneumatic hoses between the distributor and motor. Experimental results are presented to reveal this behavior and set the expectation level. Nevertheless, the stepper achieves easily controllable precise motion unlike other pneumatic motors. The motor was designed to be compatible with magnetic resonance medical imaging equipment, for actuating an image-guided intervention robot, for medical applications. For this reason, the motors were entirely made of nonmagnetic and dielectric materials such as plastics, ceramics, and rubbers. Encoding was performed with fiber optics, so that the motors are electricity free, exclusively using pressure and light. PneuStep is readily applicable to other pneumatic or hydraulic precision-motion applications. PMID:21528106

  10. Computational approaches to motor control

    PubMed Central

    Flash, Tamar; Sejnowski, Terrence J

    2010-01-01

    New concepts and computational models that integrate behavioral and neurophysiological observations have addressed several of the most fundamental long-standing problems in motor control. These problems include the selection of particular trajectories among the large number of possibilities, the solution of inverse kinematics and dynamics problems, motor adaptation and the learning of sequential behaviors. PMID:11741014

  11. Translating working memory into action: behavioral and neural evidence for using motor representations in encoding visuo-spatial sequences.

    PubMed

    Langner, Robert; Sternkopf, Melanie A; Kellermann, Tanja S; Grefkes, Christian; Kurth, Florian; Schneider, Frank; Zilles, Karl; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2014-07-01

    The neurobiological organization of action-oriented working memory is not well understood. To elucidate the neural correlates of translating visuo-spatial stimulus sequences into delayed (memory-guided) sequential actions, we measured brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging while participants encoded sequences of four to seven dots appearing on fingers of a left or right schematic hand. After variable delays, sequences were to be reproduced with the corresponding fingers. Recall became less accurate with longer sequences and was initiated faster after long delays. Across both hands, encoding and recall activated bilateral prefrontal, premotor, superior and inferior parietal regions as well as the basal ganglia, whereas hand-specific activity was found (albeit to a lesser degree during encoding) in contralateral premotor, sensorimotor, and superior parietal cortex. Activation differences after long versus short delays were restricted to motor-related regions, indicating that rehearsal during long delays might have facilitated the conversion of the memorandum into concrete motor programs at recall. Furthermore, basal ganglia activity during encoding selectively predicted correct recall. Taken together, the results suggest that to-be-reproduced visuo-spatial sequences are encoded as prospective action representations (motor intentions), possibly in addition to retrospective sensory codes. Overall, our study supports and extends multi-component models of working memory, highlighting the notion that sensory input can be coded in multiple ways depending on what the memorandum is to be used for. PMID:24222405

  12. The importance of measurement precision and behavioral homologies in evaluating the behavioral consequences of fetal-ethanol exposure: commentary on Williams and colleagues ("Sensory-motor deficits in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder assessed using a robotic virtual reality platform").

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Derek A

    2014-01-01

    The recent study by Willams and colleagues utilized a novel robotic virtual reality measurement system to measure sensory-motor processing deficits in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). This system and the precise quantitation of distinct constituent behavioral processes may hold considerable utility and importance for the study of FASD-related motor deficits, their neural bases, and translational research efforts using homologous behavioral approaches in animal and human studies.. PMID:24299062

  13. Continuous exposure to glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor to mature dopaminergic transplants impairs the graft's ability to improve spontaneous motor behavior in parkinsonian rats.

    PubMed

    Winkler, C; Georgievska, B; Carlsson, T; Lacar, B; Kirik, D

    2006-08-11

    Functional recovery following intrastriatal transplantation of fetal dopaminergic neurons in animal models of Parkinson's disease is, at least in part, dependent on the number of surviving dopaminergic neurons and the degree of graft-derived dopaminergic reinnervation of the host striatum. In the present study, we analyzed whether continuous exposure of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) to mature dopaminergic grafts could further boost the functional outcome of widespread intrastriatal dopaminergic grafts. Rats with dopamine-denervating lesions received multiple intrastriatal transplants of fetal dopaminergic cells and graft-induced behavioral effects were analyzed in drug-induced and spontaneous motor behaviors. At three months after grafting, animals received intrastriatal injections of recombinant lentiviral vectors encoding for either human GDNF or the green fluorescent protein. Continuous exposure of GDNF to the grafts did not boost the functional recovery beyond what was observed in the control animals. Rather, in some of the spontaneous motor behaviors, animals in the GDNF-group showed deterioration as compared with control animals, and this negative effect of GDNF was associated with a down-regulation of the tyrosine hydroxylase enzyme. Based on these and our earlier results, we propose that intrastriatal administration of GDNF at the time of or shortly after grafting is highly effective in initially promoting the cell survival and fiber outgrowth from the grafts. However, once the grafts are mature, GDNF's ability to boost dopaminergic neurotransmission follows the same dynamics as for the native nigral dopaminergic neurons, which appears to be dependent on the concentration of GDNF. Since rather low doses of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor at nanogram levels appear to saturate these effects, it may be critical to adjust GDNF levels using tightly regulated gene expression systems. PMID:16697115

  14. Neurobehavioral phenotyping of Gαq knockout mice reveals impairments in motor functions and spatial working memory without changes in anxiety or behavioral despair

    PubMed Central

    Frederick, Aliya L.; Saborido, Tommy P.; Stanwood, Gregg D.

    2012-01-01

    Many neurotransmitters, hormones, and sensory stimuli elicit their cellular responses through the targeted activation of receptors coupled to the Gαq family of heterotrimeric G proteins. Nevertheless, we still understand little about the consequences of loss of this signaling activity on brain function. We therefore examined the effects of genetic inactivation of Gnaq, the gene that encode for Gαq, on responsiveness in a battery of behavioral tests in order to assess the contribution of Gαq signaling capacity in the brain circuits mediating expression of affective behaviors (anxiety and behavioral despair), spatial working memory, and locomotor output (coordination, strength, spontaneous activity, and drug-induced responses). First, we replicated and extended findings showing clear motor deficits in Gαq knockout mice as assessed on an accelerating rotarod and the inverted screen test. We then assessed the contribution of the basal ganglia motor loops to these impairments, using open field testing and analysis of drug-induced locomotor responses to the psychostimulant cocaine, the benzazepine D1 receptor agonists SKF83822 and SKF83959, and the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801. We observed significant increases in drug-induced locomotor activity in Gαq knockout mice from the dopaminergic agonists but not MK-801, indicating that basal ganglia locomotor circuitry is largely intact in the absence of Gαq. Additionally, we observed normal phenotypes in both the elevated zero maze and the forced swim test indicating that anxiety and depression-related circuitry appears to be largely intact after loss of Gnaq expression. Lastly, use of the Y-maze revealed spatial memory deficits in Gαq knockout mice, indicating that receptors signaling through Gαq are necessary in these circuits for proficiency in this task. PMID:22723772

  15. Gangliosides attenuate stress-induced changes on body weight, motor activity and on the behavioral response to 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine.

    PubMed

    Cancela, L M; Volosin, M; Molina, V A

    1996-01-01

    The major goal of this study was to evaluate the influence of gangliosides (GANG) treatment on the onset of adaptive changes and the sequelae induced by stress exposure. With this purpose, the behavioral response to 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeODMT, 5 mg/kg, IP) and motor activity were evaluated in rats previously submitted either to a single restraint session (2 h) or to a daily restraint event for 3 consecutive days, combined or not to GANG administration (30 mg/kg IP). GANG was always injected 2 h before stress exposure. In addition, differences in body weights were recorded throughout the experiments. A similar behavioral response after 5-MeODMT was observed between saline (SAL) and GANG unstressed rats. Exposure to one or three restraint sessions did not modify the behavioral response to 5-MeODMT, whereas the association of GANG and stress during 3 consecutive days enhanced forepaw treading and hindlimb abduction. SAL-treated animals submitted to a single or to three stressful stimuli showed reduced locomotion and rearing. The combination of GANG and stress for 3 days, but not after a unique association, reversed the decrease on motor activity induced by the aversive experience. The decrease of body weights produced by one or three stress sessions was recovered only in animals treated with GANG and stress for 3 days. These findings suggest that GANG may accelerate the onset of adaptive changes on 5-HT1 sites and attenuate certain sequelae induced by previous stress experience. PMID:8724427

  16. Correlations between corneal and total wavefront aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrochen, Michael; Jankov, Mirko; Bueeler, Michael; Seiler, Theo

    2002-06-01

    Purpose: Corneal topography data expressed as corneal aberrations are frequently used to report corneal laser surgery results. However, the optical image quality at the retina depends on all optical elements of the eye such as the human lens. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the correlations between the corneal and total wavefront aberrations and to discuss the importance of corneal aberrations for representing corneal laser surgery results. Methods: Thirty three eyes of 22 myopic subjects were measured with a corneal topography system and a Tschernig-type wavefront analyzer after the pupils were dilated to at least 6 mm in diameter. All measurements were centered with respect to the line of sight. Corneal and total wavefront aberrations were calculated up to the 6th Zernike order in the same reference plane. Results: Statistically significant correlations (p < 0.05) between the corneal and total wavefront aberrations were found for the astigmatism (C3,C5) and all 3rd Zernike order coefficients such as coma (C7,C8). No statistically significant correlations were found for all 4th to 6th order Zernike coefficients except for the 5th order horizontal coma C18 (p equals 0.003). On average, all Zernike coefficients for the corneal aberrations were found to be larger compared to Zernike coefficients for the total wavefront aberrations. Conclusions: Corneal aberrations are only of limited use for representing the optical quality of the human eye after corneal laser surgery. This is due to the lack of correlation between corneal and total wavefront aberrations in most of the higher order aberrations. Besides this, the data present in this study yield towards an aberration balancing between corneal aberrations and the optical elements within the eye that reduces the aberration from the cornea by a certain degree. Consequently, ideal customized ablations have to take both, corneal and total wavefront aberrations, into consideration.

  17. Influence of chronic dopamine transporter inhibition by RTI-336 on motor behavior, sleep, and hormone levels in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Monica L; Sawyer, Eileen K; Carroll, F Ivy; Howell, Leonard L

    2012-04-01

    Dopamine transporter (DAT) inhibitors have been developed as a promising treatment approach for cocaine dependence. However, the stimulant effects of DAT inhibitors have the potential to disrupt sleep patterns, and the influence of long-term treatment on dopamine neurochemistry is still unknown. The objectives of this study were to (1) explore the stimulant-related effects of chronic DAT inhibitor (RTI-336) treatment on motor activity and sleep-like measures in male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta; n = 4) and (2) to determine the effect of drug treatment on prolactin and cortisol levels. Subjects were fitted with a collar-mounted activity monitor to evaluate their motor activity, with 4 days of baseline recording preceding 21 days of daily saline or RTI-336 (1 mg/kg/day; intramuscular) injections. Blood samples were collected immediately prior to and following chronic treatment to assess hormone levels. RTI-336 produced a significant increase in locomotor activity at the end of the daytime period compared to saline administration. During the 3-week treatment period, sleep efficiency was decreased and the fragmentation index and latency to sleep onset were significantly increased. Hormone levels were not changed throughout the study. Chronic treatment with RTI-336 has a mild but significant stimulant effect, as evidenced by the significant increase in activity during the evening period which may cause minor disruptions in sleep measures. PMID:22023668

  18. Chromosome aberrations induced by zebularine in triticale.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xuhui; Wang, Qing; Wang, Yanzhi; Ma, Jieyun; Wu, Nan; Ni, Shuang; Luo, Tengxiao; Zhuang, Lifang; Chu, Chenggen; Cho, Seong-Woo; Tsujimoto, Hisashi; Qi, Zengjun

    2016-07-01

    Chromosome engineering is an important approach for generating wheat germplasm. Efficient development of chromosome aberrations will facilitate the introgression and application of alien genes in wheat. In this study, zebularine, a DNA methylation transferase inhibitor, was successfully used to induce chromosome aberrations in the octoploid triticale cultivar Jinghui#1. Dry seeds were soaked in zebularine solutions (250, 500, and 750 μmol/L) for 24 h, and the 500 μmol/L treatment was tested in three additional treatment times, i.e., 12, 36, and 48 h. All treatments induced aberrations involving wheat and rye chromosomes. Of the 920 cells observed in 67 M1 plants, 340 (37.0%) carried 817 aberrations with an average of 0.89 aberrations per cell (range: 0-12). The aberrations included probable deletions, telosomes and acentric fragments (49.0%), large segmental translocations (28.9%), small segmental translocations (17.1%), intercalary translocations (2.6%), long chromosomes that could carry more than one centromere (2.0%), and ring chromosomes (0.5%). Of 510 M2 plants analyzed, 110 (21.6%) were found to carry stable aberrations. Such aberrations included 79 with varied rye chromosome numbers, 7 with wheat and rye chromosome translocations, 15 with possible rye telosomes/deletions, and 9 with complex aberrations involving variation in rye chromosome number and wheat-rye translocations. These indicated that aberrations induced by zebularine can be steadily transmitted, suggesting that zebularine is a new efficient agent for chromosome manipulation. PMID:27334255

  19. Aberrant Gene Expression in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ence; Ji, Guoli; Brinkmeyer-Langford, Candice L.; Cai, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression as an intermediate molecular phenotype has been a focus of research interest. In particular, studies of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) have offered promise for understanding gene regulation through the discovery of genetic variants that explain variation in gene expression levels. Existing eQTL methods are designed for assessing the effects of common variants, but not rare variants. Here, we address the problem by establishing a novel analytical framework for evaluating the effects of rare or private variants on gene expression. Our method starts from the identification of outlier individuals that show markedly different gene expression from the majority of a population, and then reveals the contributions of private SNPs to the aberrant gene expression in these outliers. Using population-scale mRNA sequencing data, we identify outlier individuals using a multivariate approach. We find that outlier individuals are more readily detected with respect to gene sets that include genes involved in cellular regulation and signal transduction, and less likely to be detected with respect to the gene sets with genes involved in metabolic pathways and other fundamental molecular functions. Analysis of polymorphic data suggests that private SNPs of outlier individuals are enriched in the enhancer and promoter regions of corresponding aberrantly-expressed genes, suggesting a specific regulatory role of private SNPs, while the commonly-occurring regulatory genetic variants (i.e., eQTL SNPs) show little evidence of involvement. Additional data suggest that non-genetic factors may also underlie aberrant gene expression. Taken together, our findings advance a novel viewpoint relevant to situations wherein common eQTLs fail to predict gene expression when heritable, rare inter-individual variation exists. The analytical framework we describe, taking into consideration the reality of differential phenotypic robustness, may be valuable for investigating

  20. Aberrant methylation during cervical carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Virmani, A K; Muller, C; Rathi, A; Zoechbauer-Mueller, S; Mathis, M; Gazdar, A F

    2001-03-01

    We studied the pattern of aberrant methylation during the multistage pathogenesis of cervical cancers. We analyzed a total of 73 patient samples and 10 cervical cancer cell lines. In addition, tissue samples [peripheral blood lymphocytes (n = 10) and buccal epithelial cells (n = 12)] were obtained from 22 healthy volunteers. On the basis of the results of preliminary analysis, the cervical samples were grouped into three categories: (a) nondysplasia/low-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN; n = 37); (b) high-grade CIN (n = 17); and (c) invasive cancer (n = 19). The methylation status of six genes was determined (p16, RARbeta, FHIT, GSTP1, MGMT, and hMLH1). Our main findings are as follows: (a) methylation was completely absent in control tissues; (b) the frequencies of methylation for all of the genes except hMLH1 were >20% in cervical cancers; (c) aberrant methylation commenced early during multistage pathogenesis and methylation of at least one gene was noted in 30% of the nondysplasia/low-grade CIN group; (d) an increasing trend for methylation was seen with increasing pathological change; (e) methylation of RARbeta and GSTP1 were early events, p16 and MGMT methylation were intermediate events, and FHIT methylation was a late, tumor-associated event; and (f) methylation occurred independently of other risk factors including papillomavirus infection, smoking history, or hormone use. Although our findings need to be extended to a larger series, they suggest that the pattern of aberrant methylation in women with or without dysplasia may help identify subgroups at increased risk for histological progression or cancer development. PMID:11297252

  1. Aberrations for Grazing Incidence Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Timo T.

    2008-01-01

    Large number of grazing incidence telescope configurations have been designed and studied. Wolte1 telescopes are commonly used in astronomical applications. Wolter telescopes consist of a paraboloidal primary mirror and a hyperboloidal or an ellipsoidal secondary mirror. There are 8 possible combinations of Wolter telescopes. Out of these possible designs only type 1 and type 2 telescopes are widely used. Type 1 telescope is typically used for x-ray applications and type 2 telescopes are used for EUV applications. Wolter-Schwarzshild (WS) telescopes offer improved image quality over a small field of view. The WS designs are stigmatic and free of third order coma and, therefore, the PSF is significantly better over a small field of view. Typically the image is more symmetric about its centroid. As for the Wolter telescopes there are 8 possible combinations of WS telescopes. These designs have not been widely used because the surface equations are complex parametric equations complicating the analysis and typically the resolution requirements are too low to take full advantage of the WS designs. There are several other design options. Most notable are wide field x-ray telescope designs. Polynomial designs were originally suggested by Burrows4 and hyperboloid-hyperboloid designs for solar physics applications were designed by Harvey5. No general aberration theory exists for grazing incidence telescopes that would cover all the design options. Several authors have studied the aberrations of grazing incidence telescopes. A comprehensive theory of Wolter type 1 and 2 telescopes has been developed. Later this theory was expanded to include all possible combinations of grazing incidence and also normal incidence paraboloid-hyperboloid and paraboloid-ellipsoid telescopes. In this article the aberration theory of Wolter type telescopes is briefly reviewed.

  2. Correcting aberration in aspheric surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, K.; Khan, A. N.; Rauf, A.; Gul, A.

    2014-06-01

    New technique eases aspheric lens fabrication and overcome traditional limitation. An aspheric lens has been designed by using optical designing software to replace the achromat (Doublet) lens of eyepiece assembly of telescope. The devised physical parameters of aspheric lens have been incorporated into the CNC Aspheric machine to fabricate the lens. The antireflection coating for visible region has been carried out on lens by employing PVD technique. In this report diminished aberration effects due to non-spherical surface profile and comparison of optical parameters of achromat (doublet) and aspheric lens is presented.

  3. Phase and birefringence aberration correction

    DOEpatents

    Bowers, M.; Hankla, A.

    1996-07-09

    A Brillouin enhanced four wave mixing phase conjugate mirror corrects phase aberrations of a coherent electromagnetic beam and birefringence induced upon that beam. The stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugation technique is augmented to include Brillouin enhanced four wave mixing (BEFWM). A seed beam is generated by a main oscillator which arrives at the phase conjugate cell before the signal beams in order to initiate the Brillouin effect. The signal beam which is being amplified through the amplifier chain is split into two perpendicularly polarized beams. One of the two beams is chosen to be the same polarization as some component of the seed beam, the other orthogonal to the first. The polarization of the orthogonal beam is then rotated 90{degree} such that it is parallel to the other signal beam. The three beams are then focused into cell containing a medium capable of Brillouin excitation. The two signal beams are focused such that they cross the seed beam path before their respective beam waists in order to achieve BEFWM or the two signal beams are focused to a point or points contained within the focused cone angle of the seed beam to achieve seeded SBS, and thus negate the effects of all birefringent and material aberrations in the system. 5 figs.

  4. Phase and birefringence aberration correction

    DOEpatents

    Bowers, Mark; Hankla, Allen

    1996-01-01

    A Brillouin enhanced four wave mixing phase conjugate mirror corrects phase aberrations of a coherent electromagnetic beam and birefringence induced upon that beam. The stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugation technique is augmented to include Brillouin enhanced four wave mixing (BEFWM). A seed beam is generated by a main oscillator which arrives at the phase conjugate cell before the signal beams in order to initiate the Brillouin effect. The signal beam which is being amplified through the amplifier chain is split into two perpendicularly polarized beams. One of the two beams is chosen to be the same polarization as some component of the seed beam, the other orthogonal to the first. The polarization of the orthogonal beam is then rotated 90.degree. such that it is parallel to the other signal beam. The three beams are then focused into cell containing a medium capable of Brillouin excitation. The two signal beams are focused such that they cross the seed beam path before their respective beam waists in order to achieve BEFWM or the two signal beams are focused to a point or points contained within the focused cone angle of the seed beam to achieve seeded SBS, and thus negate the effects of all birefringent and material aberrations in the system.

  5. Long-Term Post-Stroke Changes Include Myelin Loss, Specific Deficits in Sensory and Motor Behaviors and Complex Cognitive Impairment Detected Using Active Place Avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Ooi, Evelyn; Bloom, Jonathan; Poon, Carrie; Lax, Daniel; Rosenbaum, Daniel M.; Barone, Frank C.

    2013-01-01

    Persistent neurobehavioral deficits and brain changes need validation for brain restoration. Two hours middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) or sham surgery was performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Neurobehavioral and cognitive deficits were measured over 10 weeks included: (1) sensory, motor, beam balance, reflex/abnormal responses, hindlimb placement, forepaw foot fault and cylinder placement tests, and (2) complex active place avoidance learning (APA) and simple passive avoidance retention (PA). Electroretinogram (ERG), hemispheric loss (infarction), hippocampus CA1 neuronal loss and myelin (Luxol Fast Blue) staining in several fiber tracts were also measured. In comparison to Sham surgery, tMCAO surgery produced significant deficits in all behavioral tests except reflex/abnormal responses. Acute, short lived deficits following tMCAO were observed for forelimb foot fault and forelimb cylinder placement. Persistent, sustained deficits for the whole 10 weeks were exhibited for motor (p<0.001), sensory (p<0.001), beam balance performance (p<0.01) and hindlimb placement behavior (p<0.01). tMCAO produced much greater and prolonged cognitive deficits in APA learning (maximum on last trial of 604±83% change, p<0.05) but only a small, comparative effect on PA retention. Hemispheric loss/atrophy was measured 10 weeks after tMCAO and cross-validated by two methods (e.g., almost identical % ischemic hemispheric loss of 33.4±3.5% for H&E and of 34.2±3.5% for TTC staining). No visual dysfunction by ERG and no hippocampus neuronal loss were detected after tMCAO. Fiber tract damage measured by Luxol Fast Blue myelin staining intensity was significant (p<0.01) in the external capsule and striatum but not in corpus callosum and anterior commissure. In summary, persistent neurobehavioral deficits were validated as important endpoints for stroke restorative research in the future. Fiber myelin loss appears to contribute to these long term behavioral dysfunctions and can be

  6. Long-term post-stroke changes include myelin loss, specific deficits in sensory and motor behaviors and complex cognitive impairment detected using active place avoidance.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jin; Zhuang, Jian; Li, Jie; Ooi, Evelyn; Bloom, Jonathan; Poon, Carrie; Lax, Daniel; Rosenbaum, Daniel M; Barone, Frank C

    2013-01-01

    Persistent neurobehavioral deficits and brain changes need validation for brain restoration. Two hours middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) or sham surgery was performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Neurobehavioral and cognitive deficits were measured over 10 weeks included: (1) sensory, motor, beam balance, reflex/abnormal responses, hindlimb placement, forepaw foot fault and cylinder placement tests, and (2) complex active place avoidance learning (APA) and simple passive avoidance retention (PA). Electroretinogram (ERG), hemispheric loss (infarction), hippocampus CA1 neuronal loss and myelin (Luxol Fast Blue) staining in several fiber tracts were also measured. In comparison to Sham surgery, tMCAO surgery produced significant deficits in all behavioral tests except reflex/abnormal responses. Acute, short lived deficits following tMCAO were observed for forelimb foot fault and forelimb cylinder placement. Persistent, sustained deficits for the whole 10 weeks were exhibited for motor (p<0.001), sensory (p<0.001), beam balance performance (p<0.01) and hindlimb placement behavior (p<0.01). tMCAO produced much greater and prolonged cognitive deficits in APA learning (maximum on last trial of 604±83% change, p<0.05) but only a small, comparative effect on PA retention. Hemispheric loss/atrophy was measured 10 weeks after tMCAO and cross-validated by two methods (e.g., almost identical % ischemic hemispheric loss of 33.4±3.5% for H&E and of 34.2±3.5% for TTC staining). No visual dysfunction by ERG and no hippocampus neuronal loss were detected after tMCAO. Fiber tract damage measured by Luxol Fast Blue myelin staining intensity was significant (p<0.01) in the external capsule and striatum but not in corpus callosum and anterior commissure. In summary, persistent neurobehavioral deficits were validated as important endpoints for stroke restorative research in the future. Fiber myelin loss appears to contribute to these long term behavioral dysfunctions and can be

  7. Aberrations of ellipsoidal reflectors for unit magnification.

    PubMed

    Mielenz, K D

    1974-12-01

    Ellipsoidal reflectors are useful for the 1:1 imaging of small objects without spherical and chromatic aberration. The magnitude of the off-axis aberrations of such reflectors is computed by application of Fermat's principle to the Hamiltonian point characteristic. The limiting form of the mirror aperture for which these aberrations do not exceed a set tolerance is an ellipse whose semiaxes depend on object size and angle of incidence. PMID:20134811

  8. Influence of aberrations in microholographic recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Ryuichi

    2015-11-01

    The influence of various types of aberrations (spherical, coma, and astigmatic) of recording and readout beams on the readout signal in a microholographic recording was investigated through a numerical simulation. The simulation conditions were that the wavelength of the laser was 405 nm and the numerical aperture of the objective lenses was 0.85. The tolerance of the root-mean-square (RMS) wavefront aberrations was defined as the aberration when the normalized signal level decreased to 0.8. Among the three types of aberrations, the influence of the spherical aberration was the most significant. When both the recording and readout beams were aberrated and the signs of the aberrations were in the worst case, the tolerance of the RMS wavefront aberrations was less than half of the Maréchal's criterion. Moreover, when the RMS wavefront aberrations of the recording and readout beams were within the above tolerance, the bit intervals of 0.13 and 0.65 μm in the inplane and vertical directions, respectively, which correspond to the recording density of 91 bit/μm3 (recording capacity of 16 TB for a 120-mm-diameter optical disk having a 300-μm-thick recording layer), were shown to be feasible for confocal detection with an allowable signal-to-noise ratio.

  9. Promoting Adaptive Behavior in Persons with Acquired Brain Injury, Extensive Motor and Communication Disabilities, and Consciousness Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina; Navarro, Jorge; Lanzilotti, Crocifissa; De Tommaso, Marina; Megna, Marisa; Badagliacca, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    These two studies extended the evidence on the use of technology-based intervention packages to promote adaptive behavior in persons with acquired brain injury and multiple disabilities. Study I involved five participants in a minimally conscious state who were provided with intervention packages based on specific arrangements of optic, tilt, or…

  10. Creep behavior of thin laminates of iron-cobalt alloys for use in switched reluctance motors and generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fingers, Richard Todd

    The United States Air Force is in the process of developing magnetic bearings as well as an aircraft Integrated Power Unit and an Internal Starter/Generator for main propulsion engines. These developments are the driving force behind a new emphasis on high temperature, high strength magnetic materials for power applications. Analytical work, utilizing elasticity theory, in conjunction with design requirements, indicates a need for magnetic materials to have strengths in excess of 80 ksi up to about 1000sp°F. It is this combination of desired material characteristics that is the motivation for this effort to measure, model, and predict the creep behavior of such advanced magnetic materials. Hipercosp°ler Alloy 50HS, manufactured by Carpenter Technology Corporation, is one of the leading candidates for application and is studied in this effort by subjecting mechanical test specimens to a battery of tensile and creep tests. The tensile tests provide stress versus strain behaviors that clearly indicate: a yield point, a heterogeneous deformation described as Luders elongation, the Portevin-LeChatelier effect at elevated temperatures, and, most often, a section of homogeneous deformation that concluded with necking and fracture. Creep testing indicated two distinct types of behavior. The first was a traditional response with primary, secondary and tertiary stages, while the second type could be characterized by an abrupt increase in strain rate that acted as a transition from one steady state behavior to another. This second linear region was then followed by the tertiary stage. The relationship between the tensile response and the creep responses is discussed. Analyses of the mechanical behavior includes double linear regression of empirically modeled data, scanning electron microscopy for microstructural investigations, isochronous stress-strain relations, and constant strain rate testing to relate the tensile and creep test parameters. Also, elastic and creep

  11. Response Inhibition in Motor Conversion Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Voon, Valerie; Ekanayake, Vindhya; Wiggs, Edythe; Kranick, Sarah; Ameli, Rezvan; Harrison, Neil A.; Hallett, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Conversion disorders (CDs) are unexplained neurological symptoms presumed to be related to a psychological issue. Studies focusing on conversion paralysis have suggested potential impairments in motor initiation or execution. Here we studied CD patients with aberrant or excessive motor movements and focused on motor response inhibition. We also assessed cognitive measures in multiple domains. We compared 30 CD patients and 30 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy volunteers on a motor response inhibition task (go/no go), along with verbal motor response inhibition (color-word interference) and measures of attention, sustained attention, processing speed, language, memory, visuospatial processing, and executive function including planning and verbal fluency. CD patients had greater impairments in commission errors on the go/no go task (P <.001) compared with healthy volunteers, which remained significant after Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons and after controlling for attention, sustained attention, depression, and anxiety. There were no significant differences in other cognitive measures. We highlight a specific deficit in motor response inhibition that may play a role in impaired inhibition of unwanted movement such as the excessive and aberrant movements seen in motor conversion. Patients with nonepileptic seizures, a different form of conversion disorder, are commonly reported to have lower IQ and multiple cognitive deficits. Our results point toward potential differences between conversion disorder subgroups. PMID:23554084

  12. Motor Priming in Neurorehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Stoykov, Mary Ellen; Madhavan, Sangeetha

    2014-01-01

    Priming is a type of implicit learning wherein a stimulus prompts a change in behavior. Priming has been long studied in the field of psychology. More recently, rehabilitation researchers have studied motor priming as a possible way to facilitate motor learning. For example, priming of the motor cortex is associated with changes in neuroplasticity that are associated with improvements in motor performance. Of the numerous motor priming paradigms under investigation, only a few are practical for the current clinical environment, and the optimal priming modalities for specific clinical presentations are not known. Accordingly, developing an understanding of the various types of motor priming paradigms and their underlying neural mechanisms is an important step for therapists in neurorehabilitation. Most importantly, an understanding of the methods and their underlying mechanisms is essential for optimizing rehabilitation outcomes. The future of neurorehabilitation is likely to include these priming methods, which are delivered prior to or in conjunction with primary neurorehabilitation therapies. In this Special Interest article we discuss those priming paradigms that are supported by the greatest amount of evidence including: (i) stimulation-based priming, (ii) motor imagery and action observation, (iii) sensory priming, (iv) movement-based priming, and (v) pharmacological priming. PMID:25415551

  13. Motor stereotypies and cognitive perseveration in non-human primates exposed to early gestational irradiation.

    PubMed

    Selemon, L D; Friedman, H R

    2013-09-17

    A number of psychiatric illnesses have been associated with prenatal disturbance of brain development, including autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and schizophrenia. Individuals afflicted with these disorders exhibit both repetitive motor and cognitive behavior. The potential role that environmental insult to the developing brain may play in generating these aberrant behaviors is unclear. Here we examine the behavioral consequences of an early gestational insult in the non-human primate. Rhesus macaques were exposed to x-irradiation during the first trimester of development to disrupt neurogenesis. The behavior of five fetally irradiated monkeys (FIMs) and five control monkeys (CONs) was observed as they matured from juvenile (1.5 years) to adult ages (4-5 years). Home-cage behavior was indistinguishable in the two groups. In the testing cage, circling was prevalent in both groups at juvenile ages, persisting to adulthood in three of the five FIMs. One FIM executed a ritualized motor sequence marked by semi-circling and undulating head movements. Seven macaques (4 FIMs, 3 CONs) were tested on a spatial Delayed Alternation (DA) task as adults. Perseverative errors and non-perseverative errors were recorded in early stages of the testing, at the 0 delay interval. While performing DA, FIMs made more errors of perseveration than CONs yet the number of total errors committed did not differ between groups. The presence of motor stereotypies and cognitive perseveration in fetally irradiated non-human primates suggests that environmental insult to the embryonic brain may contribute to repetitive motor and cognitive behaviors in neuropsychiatric diseases. PMID:23769911

  14. Motor sequence learning and motor adaptation in primary cervical dystonia.

    PubMed

    Katschnig-Winter, Petra; Schwingenschuh, Petra; Davare, Marco; Sadnicka, Anna; Schmidt, Reinhold; Rothwell, John C; Bhatia, Kailash P; Edwards, Mark J

    2014-06-01

    Motor sequence learning and motor adaptation rely on overlapping circuits predominantly involving the basal ganglia and cerebellum. Given the importance of these brain regions to the pathophysiology of primary dystonia, and the previous finding of abnormal motor sequence learning in DYT1 gene carriers, we explored motor sequence learning and motor adaptation in patients with primary cervical dystonia. We recruited 12 patients with cervical dystonia and 11 healthy controls matched for age. Subjects used a joystick to move a cursor from a central starting point to radial targets as fast and accurately as possible. Using this device, we recorded baseline motor performance, motor sequence learning and a visuomotor adaptation task. Patients with cervical dystonia had a significantly higher peak velocity than controls. Baseline performance with random target presentation was otherwise normal. Patients and controls had similar levels of motor sequence learning and motor adaptation. Our patients had significantly higher peak velocity compared to controls, with similar movement times, implying a different performance strategy. The preservation of motor sequence learning in cervical dystonia patients contrasts with the previously observed deficit seen in patients with DYT1 gene mutations, supporting the hypothesis of differing pathophysiology in different forms of primary dystonia. Normal motor adaptation is an interesting finding. With our paradigm we did not find evidence that the previously documented cerebellar abnormalities in cervical dystonia have a behavioral correlate, and thus could be compensatory or reflect "contamination" rather than being directly pathological. PMID:24411324

  15. Unidirectional startle responses and disrupted left-right coordination of motor behaviors in robo3 mutant zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Harold A.; Johnson, Stephen L.; Granato, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The Roundabout (Robo) family of receptors and their Slit ligands play well-established roles in axonal guidance, including in humans where horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis (HGPPS) is caused by mutations in the robo3 gene. While significant progress has been made towards understanding the mechanism by which Robo receptors establish commissural projections in the central nervous system, less is known about how these projections contribute to neural circuits mediating behavior. Here we report cloning of the zebrafish behavioral mutant twitch twice and show that twitch twice encodes robo3. We demonstrate that in mutant hindbrains the axons of an identified pair of neurons, the Mauthner cells, fail to cross the midline. The Mauthner neurons are essential for the startle response, and in twitch twice/robo3 mutants misguidance of the Mauthner axons results in a unidirectional startle response. Moreover, we show that twitch twice mutants exhibit normal visual acuity but display defects in horizontal eye movements, suggesting a specific and critical role for twitch twice/robo3 in sensory guided behavior. PMID:19496826

  16. Retention of Motor Skills: Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schendel, J. D.; And Others

    A summary of an extensive literature survey deals with the variables known or suspected to affect the retention of learned motor behaviors over lengthy no-practice intervals. Emphasis was given to research conducted by or for the military. The variables that may affect the retention of motor skills were dichotomized into task variables and…

  17. Harmonic oscillator states in aberration optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, Kurt Bernardo

    1993-01-01

    The states of the three-dimensional quantum harmonic oscillator classify optical aberrations of axis-symmetric systems due to the isomorphism between the two mathematical structures. Cartesian quanta and angular momentum classifications have their corresponding aberration classifications. The operation of concatenation of optical elements introduces a new operation between harmonic oscillator states.

  18. Aberrant Radial Artery Causing Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kokkalis, Zinon T.; Tolis, Konstantinos E.; Megaloikonomos, Panayiotis D.; Panagopoulos, Georgios N.; Igoumenou, Vasilios G.; Mavrogenis, Andreas F.

    2016-01-01

    Anatomical vascular variations are rare causes of carpal tunnel syndrome. An aberrant medial artery is the most common vascular variation, while an aberrant radial artery causing carpal tunnel syndrome is even more rare, with an incidence ranging less than 3%. This article reports a patient with compression of the median nerve at the carpal tunnel by an aberrant superficial branch of the radial artery. An 80- year- old man presented with a 5-year history of right hand carpal tunnel syndrome; Tinel sign, Phalen test and neurophysiological studies were positive. Open carpal tunnel release showed an aberrant superficial branch of the radial artery with its accompanying veins running from radially to medially, almost parallel to the median nerve, ending at the superficial palmar arterial arch. The median nerve was decompressed without ligating the aberrant artery. At the last follow-up, 2 years after diagnosis and treatment the patient is asymptomatic. PMID:27517078

  19. Aberrant Radial Artery Causing Carpal Tunnel Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kokkalis, Zinon T; Tolis, Konstantinos E; Megaloikonomos, Panayiotis D; Panagopoulos, Georgios N; Igoumenou, Vasilios G; Mavrogenis, Andreas F

    2016-06-01

    Anatomical vascular variations are rare causes of carpal tunnel syndrome. An aberrant medial artery is the most common vascular variation, while an aberrant radial artery causing carpal tunnel syndrome is even more rare, with an incidence ranging less than 3%. This article reports a patient with compression of the median nerve at the carpal tunnel by an aberrant superficial branch of the radial artery. An 80- year- old man presented with a 5-year history of right hand carpal tunnel syndrome; Tinel sign, Phalen test and neurophysiological studies were positive. Open carpal tunnel release showed an aberrant superficial branch of the radial artery with its accompanying veins running from radially to medially, almost parallel to the median nerve, ending at the superficial palmar arterial arch. The median nerve was decompressed without ligating the aberrant artery. At the last follow-up, 2 years after diagnosis and treatment the patient is asymptomatic. PMID:27517078

  20. Quantitative Evaluation of 3D Mouse Behaviors and Motor Function in the Open-Field after Spinal Cord Injury Using Markerless Motion Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Sheets, Alison L.; Lai, Po-Lun; Fisher, Lesley C.; Basso, D. Michele

    2013-01-01

    Thousands of scientists strive to identify cellular mechanisms that could lead to breakthroughs in developing ameliorative treatments for debilitating neural and muscular conditions such as spinal cord injury (SCI). Most studies use rodent models to test hypotheses, and these are all limited by the methods available to evaluate animal motor function. This study’s goal was to develop a behavioral and locomotor assessment system in a murine model of SCI that enables quantitative kinematic measurements to be made automatically in the open-field by applying markerless motion tracking approaches. Three-dimensional movements of eight naïve, five mild, five moderate, and four severe SCI mice were recorded using 10 cameras (100 Hz). Background subtraction was used in each video frame to identify the animal’s silhouette, and the 3D shape at each time was reconstructed using shape-from-silhouette. The reconstructed volume was divided into front and back halves using k-means clustering. The animal’s front Center of Volume (CoV) height and whole-body CoV speed were calculated and used to automatically classify animal behaviors including directed locomotion, exploratory locomotion, meandering, standing, and rearing. More detailed analyses of CoV height, speed, and lateral deviation during directed locomotion revealed behavioral differences and functional impairments in animals with mild, moderate, and severe SCI when compared with naïve animals. Naïve animals displayed the widest variety of behaviors including rearing and crossing the center of the open-field, the fastest speeds, and tallest rear CoV heights. SCI reduced the range of behaviors, and decreased speed (r = .70 p<.005) and rear CoV height (r = .65 p<.01) were significantly correlated with greater lesion size. This markerless tracking approach is a first step toward fundamentally changing how rodent movement studies are conducted. By providing scientists with sensitive, quantitative measurement

  1. Motor Starters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The power factor controller (PFC) was invented by a NASA engineer. It matches voltage with a motor's actual need by sensing shifts in the relationship between voltage and current flow. With the device, power can be trimmed as much as 65%. Intellinet adopted this technology and designed "soft start" and "load-responsive" control modes to start engines gradually and recycle voltage without reducing motor speed. Other features are lower motor heat and faster fault identification.

  2. Motor syndromes.

    PubMed

    Corea, Francesco; Micheli, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Motor disturbances alone or associated with other focal deficits are the most common symptoms suggesting a neurovascular event. An appropriate clinical assessment of these signs and symptoms may help physicians to better diagnose and to both better treat and predict outcome. In this paper the main clinical features of motor deficit are described together with other motor-related events such as ataxia and movement disturbances. PMID:22377850

  3. The Mechanisms of Aberrant Protein Aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Samuel; Vendruscolo, Michele; Dobson, Chris; Knowles, Tuomas

    2012-02-01

    We discuss the development of a kinetic theory for understanding the aberrant loss of solubility of proteins. The failure to maintain protein solubility results often in the assembly of organized linear structures, commonly known as amyloid fibrils, the formation of which is associated with over 50 clinical disorders including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. A true microscopic understanding of the mechanisms that drive these aggregation processes has proved difficult to achieve. To address this challenge, we apply the methodologies of chemical kinetics to the biomolecular self-assembly pathways related to protein aggregation. We discuss the relevant master equation and analytical approaches to studying it. In particular, we derive the underlying rate laws in closed-form using a self-consistent solution scheme; the solutions that we obtain reveal scaling behaviors that are very generally present in systems of growing linear aggregates, and, moreover, provide a general route through which to relate experimental measurements to mechanistic information. We conclude by outlining a study of the aggregation of the Alzheimer's amyloid-beta peptide. The study identifies the dominant microscopic mechanism of aggregation and reveals previously unidentified therapeutic strategies.

  4. Quantitative analysis of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations.

    PubMed

    Sachs, R K; Levy, D; Hahnfeldt, P; Hlatky, L

    2004-01-01

    We review chromosome aberration modeling and its applications, especially to biodosimetry and to characterizing chromosome geometry. Standard results on aberration formation pathways, randomness, dose-response, proximity effects, transmissibility, kinetics, and relations to other radiobiological endpoints are summarized. We also outline recent work on graph-theoretical descriptions of aberrations, Monte-Carlo computer simulations of aberration spectra, software for quantifying aberration complexity, and systematic links of apparently incomplete with complete or truly incomplete aberrations. PMID:15162028

  5. Image-based EUVL aberration metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenger, Germain Louis

    A significant factor in the degradation of nanolithographic image fidelity is optical wavefront aberration. As resolution of nanolithography systems increases, effects of wavefront aberrations on aerial image become more influential. The tolerance of such aberrations is governed by the requirements of features that are being imaged, often requiring lenses that can be corrected with a high degree of accuracy and precision. Resolution of lithographic systems is driven by scaling wavelength down and numerical aperture (NA) up. However, aberrations are also affected from the changes in wavelength and NA. Reduction in wavelength or increase in NA result in greater impact of aberrations, where the latter shows a quadratic dependence. Current demands in semiconductor manufacturing are constantly pushing lithographic systems to operate at the diffraction limit; hence, prompting a need to reduce all degrading effects on image properties to achieve maximum performance. Therefore, the need for highly accurate in-situ aberration measurement and correction is paramount. In this work, an approach has been developed in which several targets including phase wheel, phase disk, phase edges, and binary structures are used to generate optical images to detect and monitor aberrations in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithographic systems. The benefit of using printed patterns as opposed to other techniques is that the lithography system is tested under standard operating conditions. Mathematical models in conjunction with iterative lithographic simulations are used to determine pupil phase wavefront errors and describe them as combinations of Zernike polynomials.

  6. Aberration correction past and present.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, P W

    2009-09-28

    Electron lenses are extremely poor: if glass lenses were as bad, we should see as well with the naked eye as with a microscope! The demonstration by Otto Scherzer in 1936 that skillful lens design could never eliminate the spherical and chromatic aberrations of rotationally symmetric electron lenses was therefore most unwelcome and the other great electron optician of those years, Walter Glaser, never ceased striving to find a loophole in Scherzer's proof. In the wartime and early post-war years, the first proposals for correcting C(s) were made and in 1947, in a second milestone paper, Scherzer listed these and other ways of correcting lenses; soon after, Dennis Gabor invented holography for the same purpose. These approaches will be briefly summarized and the work that led to the successful implementation of quadupole-octopole and sextupole correctors in the 1990 s will be analysed. In conclusion, the elegant role of image algebra in describing image formation and processing and, above all, in developing new methods will be mentioned. PMID:19687058

  7. Mapping Genetically Controlled Neural Circuits of Social Behavior and Visuo-Motor Integration by a Preliminary Examination of Atypical Deletions with Williams Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hoeft, Fumiko; Dai, Li; Haas, Brian W.; Sheau, Kristen; Mimura, Masaru; Mills, Debra; Galaburda, Albert; Bellugi, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    In this study of eight rare atypical deletion cases with Williams-Beuren syndrome (WS; also known as 7q11.23 deletion syndrome) consisting of three different patterns of deletions, compared to typical WS and typically developing (TD) individuals, we show preliminary evidence of dissociable genetic contributions to brain structure and human cognition. Univariate and multivariate pattern classification results of morphometric brain patterns complemented by behavior implicate a possible role for the chromosomal region that includes: 1) GTF2I/GTF2IRD1 in visuo-spatial/motor integration, intraparietal as well as overall gray matter structures, 2) the region spanning ABHD11 through RFC2 including LIMK1, in social cognition, in particular approachability, as well as orbitofrontal, amygdala and fusiform anatomy, and 3) the regions including STX1A, and/or CYLN2 in overall white matter structure. This knowledge contributes to our understanding of the role of genetics on human brain structure, cognition and pathophysiology of altered cognition in WS. The current study builds on ongoing research designed to characterize the impact of multiple genes, gene-gene interactions and changes in gene expression on the human brain. PMID:25105779

  8. The effects of formalized and trained non-reciprocal peer teaching on psychosocial, behavioral, pedagogical, and motor learning outcomes in physical education

    PubMed Central

    Whipp, Peter R.; Jackson, Ben; Dimmock, James A.; Soh, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Peer teaching is recognized as a powerful instructional method; however, there is a paucity of studies that have evaluated the outcomes experienced by peer-teachers and their student recipients in the context of trained, non-reciprocal, high school physical education (PE). Accordingly, the effectiveness of a formalized and trained non-reciprocal peer teaching (T-PT) program upon psychosocial, behavioral, pedagogical, and student learning outcomes within high school PE classes was investigated. Students from eight intact classes (106 males, 94 females, Mage = 12.46, SD = 0.59) were randomly assigned to either a T-PT intervention group (taught by a volunteer peer-teacher who was trained in line with a tactical games approach) or untrained group (U-PT; where volunteer peer-teachers received no formal training, but did receive guidance on the game concepts to teach). Data were collected over 10 lessons in a 5-week soccer unit. Mixed-model ANOVAs/MANOVAs revealed that, in comparison to U-PT, the T-PT program significantly enhanced in-game performance actions and academic learning time among student recipients. Those in the T-PT also provided greater levels of feedback and structured learning time, as well as reporting more positive feelings about peer teaching and fewer perceived barriers to accessing learning outcomes. These findings show that non-reciprocal peer-teachers who receive formalized support through training and tactical games approach-based teaching resources can enhance behavioral, pedagogical, and motor performance outcomes in PE. PMID:25741309

  9. Subchronic oral administration of Benzo[a]pyrene impairs motor and cognitive behavior and modulates S100B levels and MAPKs in rats.

    PubMed

    Maciel, Erica Santos; Biasibetti, Regina; Costa, Ana Paula; Lunardi, Paula; Schunck, Rebeca Vargas Antunes; Becker, Gabriela Curbeti; Arbo, Marcelo Dutra; Dallegrave, Eliane; Gonçalves, Carlos Alberto; Saldiva, Paulo H Nascimento; Garcia, Solange Cristina; Leal, Rodrigo Bainy; Leal, Mirna Bainy

    2014-04-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is an environmental contaminant produced during incomplete combustion of organic material that is well known as a mutagenic and carcinogenic toxin. There are few studies addressing the molecular and cellular basis of behavioural alterations related to BaP exposure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of subchronic oral administration of BaP on behavioral and neurochemical parameters. Wistar male rats received BaP (2 mg/kg) or corn oil (control), once a day for 28 days (n = 12/group). Spontaneous locomotor activity and short- and long-term memories were evaluated. Glial fibrillary acid protein and S100B content in the hippocampus, serum and CSF were measured using ELISA and total and phosphorylated forms of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) named extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2, p38(MAPK) and c-Jun amino-terminal kinases 1 and 2, in the hippocampus, were evaluated by western blotting. BaP induced a significant increase on locomotor activity and a decrease in short-term memory. S100B content was increased significantly in cerebrospinal fluid. BaP induced a decrease on ERK2 phosphorylation in the hippocampus. Thus, BaP subchronic treatment induces an astroglial response and impairs both motor and cognitive behavior, with parallel inhibition of ERK2, a signaling enzyme involved in the hippocampal neuroplasticity. All these effects suggest that BaP neurotoxicity is a concern for environmental pollution. PMID:24584819

  10. Effect of aberrations in vortex spatial filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Joseph, Joby; Senthilkumaran, P.

    2012-11-01

    Edge enhancement is a very important operation in image processing and a spiral phase plate can be used as a radial Hilbert mask for isotropic edge enhancement. In this paper we analyze the effect of various Seidel aberrations on the performance of radial Hilbert mask or the vortex phase mask. The aberrated vortex phase mask is implemented optically with the help of a high resolution, spatial light modulator (SLM). It has also been shown that out of various aberrations astigmatism can introduce anisotropy in the Hilbert mask which causes selective edge enhancement.

  11. LRRK2 knockout mice have an intact dopaminergic system but display alterations in exploratory and motor co-ordination behaviors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the LRRK2 gene are the most common cause of genetic Parkinson’s disease. Although the mechanisms behind the pathogenic effects of LRRK2 mutations are still not clear, data emerging from in vitro and in vivo models suggests roles in regulating neuronal polarity, neurotransmission, membrane and cytoskeletal dynamics and protein degradation. We created mice lacking exon 41 that encodes the activation hinge of the kinase domain of LRRK2. We have performed a comprehensive analysis of these mice up to 20 months of age, including evaluation of dopamine storage, release, uptake and synthesis, behavioral testing, dendritic spine and proliferation/neurogenesis analysis. Our results show that the dopaminergic system was not functionally comprised in LRRK2 knockout mice. However, LRRK2 knockout mice displayed abnormal exploratory activity in the open-field test. Moreover, LRRK2 knockout mice stayed longer than their wild type littermates on the accelerated rod during rotarod testing. Finally, we confirm that loss of LRRK2 caused degeneration in the kidney, accompanied by a progressive enhancement of autophagic activity and accumulation of autofluorescent material, but without evidence of biphasic changes. PMID:22647713

  12. Trophic Factor Expression in Phrenic Motor Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Mantilla, Carlos B.; Sieck, Gary C.

    2008-01-01

    The function of a motor neuron and the muscle fibers it innervates (i.e., a motor unit) determines neuromotor output. Unlike other skeletal muscles, respiratory muscles (e.g., the diaphragm, DIAm) must function from birth onwards in sustaining ventilation. DIAm motor units are capable of both ventilatory and non-ventilatory behaviors, including expulsive behaviors important for airway clearance. There is significant diversity in motor unit properties across different types of motor units in the DIAm. The mechanisms underlying the development and maintenance of motor unit diversity in respiratory muscles (including the DIAm) are not well understood. Recent studies suggest that trophic factor influences contribute to this diversity. Remarkably little is known about the expression of trophic factors and their receptors in phrenic motor neurons. This review will focus on the contribution of trophic factors to the establishment and maintenance of motor unit diversity in the DIAm, during development and in response to injury or disease. PMID:18708170

  13. Role of movement in long-term basal ganglia changes: implications for abnormal motor responses

    PubMed Central

    Simola, Nicola; Morelli, Micaela; Frazzitta, Giuseppe; Frau, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) and dyskinesias elicited by drugs that stimulate dopamine receptors in the basal ganglia are a major issue in the management of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Preclinical studies in dopamine-denervated animals have contributed to the modeling of these abnormal movements, but the precise neurochemical and functional mechanisms underlying these untoward effects are still elusive. It has recently been suggested that the performance of movement may itself promote the later emergence of drug-induced motor complications, by favoring the generation of aberrant motor memories in the dopamine-denervated basal ganglia. Our recent results from hemiparkinsonian rats subjected to the priming model of dopaminergic stimulation are in agreement with this. These results demonstrate that early performance of movement is crucial for the manifestation of sensitized rotational behavior, indicative of an abnormal motor response, and neurochemical modifications in selected striatal neurons following a dopaminergic challenge. Building on this evidence, this paper discusses the possible role of movement performance in drug-induced motor complications, with a look at the implications for PD management. PMID:24167489

  14. Motor Learning and Control Foundations of Kinesiology: Defining the Academic Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischman, Mark G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines the kinesiological foundations of the motor behavior subdisciplines of motor learning and motor control. After defining the components of motor behavior, the paper addresses the undergraduate major and core knowledge by examining several classic textbooks in motor learning and control, as well as a number of contemporary…

  15. Image Ellipticity from Atmospheric Aberrations

    SciTech Connect

    de Vries, W H; Olivier, S S; Asztalos, S J; Rosenberg, L J; Baker, K L

    2007-03-06

    We investigate the ellipticity of the point-spread function (PSF) produced by imaging an unresolved source with a telescope, subject to the effects of atmospheric turbulence. It is important to quantify these effects in order to understand the errors in shape measurements of astronomical objects, such as those used to study weak gravitational lensing of field galaxies. The PSF modeling involves either a Fourier transform of the phase information in the pupil plane or a ray-tracing approach, which has the advantage of requiring fewer computations than the Fourier transform. Using a standard method, involving the Gaussian weighted second moments of intensity, we then calculate the ellipticity of the PSF patterns. We find significant ellipticity for the instantaneous patterns (up to more than 10%). Longer exposures, which we approximate by combining multiple (N) images from uncorrelated atmospheric realizations, yield progressively lower ellipticity (as 1/{radical}N). We also verify that the measured ellipticity does not depend on the sampling interval in the pupil plane using the Fourier method. However, we find that the results using the ray-tracing technique do depend on the pupil sampling interval, representing a gradual breakdown of the geometric approximation at high spatial frequencies. Therefore, ray tracing is generally not an accurate method of modeling PSF ellipticity induced by atmospheric turbulence unless some additional procedure is implemented to correctly account for the effects of high spatial frequency aberrations. The Fourier method, however, can be used directly to accurately model PSF ellipticity, which can give insights into errors in the statistics of field galaxy shapes used in studies of weak gravitational lensing.

  16. Infranuclear ocular motor disorders.

    PubMed

    Lueck, Christian J

    2011-01-01

    This chapter covers the very large number of possible disorders that can affect the three ocular motor nerves, the neuromuscular junction, or the extraocular muscles. Conditions affecting the nerves are discussed under two major headings: those in which the site of damage can be anatomically localized (e.g., fascicular lesions and lesions occurring in the subarachnoid space, the cavernous sinus, the superior orbital fissure, or the orbit) and those in which the site of the lesion is either nonspecific or variable (e.g., vascular lesions, tumors, "ophthalmoplegic migraine," and congenital disorders). Specific comments on the diagnosis and management of disorders of each of the three nerves follow. Ocular motor synkineses (including Duane's retraction syndrome and aberrant regeneration) and disorders resulting in paroxysms of excess activity (e.g., neuromyotonia) are then covered, followed by myasthenia gravis and other disorders that affect the neuromuscular junction. A final section discusses disorders of the extraocular muscles themselves, including thyroid disease, orbital myositis, mitochondrial disease, and the muscular dystrophies. PMID:21601071

  17. Transverse chromatic aberration after corneal refractive surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anera, R. G.; Jiménez, J. R.; Jiménez del Barco, L.; Hita, E.

    2005-05-01

    An expression has been deduced theoretically from a schematic-eye model, for the transverse or lateral chromatic aberration (TCA) after refractive surgery. The aim was to investigate analytically how chromatic aberration varies after the emmetropization process. These changes in the TCA have been characterized from changes in corneal asphericity. The results indicate that TCA after refractive surgery diminishes as the degree of myopia increases, a trend contrary to that occurring with monochromatic aberrations, such as spherical or coma. These results can explain the fact that the real deterioration of the visual function under photopic conditions detected in those operated on for myopia is less than expected when only monochromatic aberrations are taken into account.

  18. Spherical aberration in electrically thin flat lenses.

    PubMed

    Ruphuy, Miguel; Ramahi, Omar M

    2016-08-01

    We analyze the spherical aberration of a new generation of lenses made of flat electrically thin inhomogeneous media. For such lenses, spherical aberration is analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively, and comparison is made to the classical gradient index rod. Both flat thin and thick lenses are made of gradient index materials, but the physical mechanisms and design equations are different. Using full-wave three-dimensional numerical simulation, we evaluate the spherical aberrations using the Maréchal criterion and show that the thin lens gives significantly better performance than the thick lens (rod). Additionally, based on ray tracing formulation, third-order analysis for longitudinal aberration and optical path difference are presented, showing strong overall performance of thin lenses in comparison to classical rod lenses. PMID:27505651

  19. Aberrations of a horizontal-vertical depolarizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclain, Stephen C.; Chipman, Russell A.; Hillman, Lloyd W.

    1992-01-01

    Ray-trace equations for uniaxial birefringent materials are used here to derive third-order estimates for aberrations that are produced in imaging through uniaxial plates and horizontal-vertical (HV) depolarizers. An HV depolarizer is a spatial pseudodepolarizer; it converts a uniform input polarization state into a continuum of spatially varying polarization states in an output beam. An HV depolarizer consists of two birefringent wedges whose crystal axes are crossed at 90 deg. The interface between the wedges is included, which leads to a spatially varying retardance that provides the spatial pseudodepolarization. In HV depolarizers, spherical aberration, astigmatism, and image doubling are the principal aberrations for on-axis objects. Only spherical aberration occurs in isotropic plates, while the presence of birefringent wedges introduces astigmatism and image doubling. It is shown that image separation is proportional to the magnitude of the retardance variation.

  20. Chromosome aberrations in decondensed sperm DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    Factors that could influence the chromosomal aberration frequency observed at first cleavage following in vivo exposure of germ cells to chemical mutagens are discussed. The techniques of chromosome aberration analysis following sperm DNA condensation by in vitro fertilization or fusion seem to be viable research areas for providing information of human germ cell exposures. However, the potential sensitivity of the assay needs to be better understood, and factors that can influence this sensitivity require a great deal of further study using animal models.

  1. Sensing Phase Aberrations behind Lyot Coronagraphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Soummer, Rémi; Pueyo, Laurent; Wallace, J. Kent; Shao, Michael

    2008-11-01

    Direct detection of young extrasolar planets orbiting nearby stars can be accomplished from the ground with extreme adaptive optics and coronagraphy in the near-infrared, as long as this combination can provide an image with a dynamic range of 107 after the data are processed. Slowly varying speckles due to residual phase aberrations that are not measured by the primary wave-front sensor are the primary obstacle to achieving such a dynamic range. In particular, non-common optical path aberrations occurring between the wave-front sensor and the coronagraphic occulting spot degrade performance the most. We analyze the passage of both low and high spatial frequency phase ripples, as well as low-order Zernike aberrations, through an apodized pupil Lyot coronagraph in order to demonstrate the way coronagraphic filtering affects various aberrations. We derive the coronagraphically induced cutoff frequency of the filtering and estimate coronagraphic contrast losses due to low-order Zernike aberrations: tilt, astigmatism, defocus, coma, and spherical aberration. Such slowly varying path errors can be measured behind a coronagraph and corrected by a slowly updated optical path delay precompensation or offset asserted on the wave front by the adaptive optics (AO) system. We suggest ways of measuring and correcting all but the lowest spatial frequency aberrations using Lyot plane wave-front data, in spite of the complex interaction between the coronagraph and those mid-spatial frequency aberrations that cause image plane speckles near the coronagraphic focal plane mask occulter's edge. This investigation provides guidance for next-generation coronagraphic instruments currently under construction.

  2. Prediction of Visual Acuity from Wavefront Aberrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B. (Inventor); Ahumada, Albert J. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method for generating a visual acuity metric, based on wavefront aberrations (WFAs), associated with a test subject and representing classes of imperfections, such as defocus, astigmatism, coma and spherical aberrations, of the subject's visual system. The metric allows choices of different image template, can predict acuity for different target probabilities, can incorporate different and possibly subject-specific neural transfer functions, can predict acuity for different subject templates, and incorporates a model of the optotype identification task.

  3. The Effects of Peer Social Behavior on the Motor and Social Responses of Preschool Children with Severe Disabilities in Childcare Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Sylvia S.

    This study assessed the effects of social interaction with nondisabled peers on the motor and social responses of two preschool children with severe disabilities in separate inclusive child care settings. A multiple baseline design across motor response was used to assess the effects of the peer training intervention. Peer training included…

  4. Motor Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    M.H. Marks Enterprises' Power Factor Controller (PFC) matches voltage with motor's actual need. Plugged into a motor, PFC continuously determines motor load by sensing shifts between voltage and current flow. When it senses a light load, it cuts voltage to the minimum needed. It offers potential energy savings ranging from eight percent up to 65 percent depending on the application. Myles Marks started out with the notion of writing an article for Popular Electronics magazine at the same time offering to furnish kits to readers interested in assembling PFC's. Within two weeks from publication he had orders for 500 kits and orders are still coming three years later.

  5. Accommodation to Wavefront Vergence and Chromatic Aberration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yinan; Kruger, Philip B.; Li, James S.; Lin, Peter L.; Stark, Lawrence R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) provides a cue to accommodation with small pupils. However, large pupils increase monochromatic aberrations, which may obscure chromatic blur. In the present study, we examined the effect of pupil size and LCA on accommodation. Methods Accommodation was recorded by infrared optometer while observers (nine normal trichromats) viewed a sinusoidally moving Maltese cross target in a Badal stimulus system. There were two illumination conditions: white (3000 K; 20 cd/m2) and monochromatic (550 nm with 10 nm bandwidth; 20 cd/m2) and two artificial pupil conditions (3 mm and 5.7 mm). Separately, static measurements of wavefront aberration were made with the eye accommodating to targets between 0 and 4 D (COAS, Wavefront Sciences). Results Large individual differences in accommodation to wavefront vergence and to LCA are a hallmark of accommodation. LCA continues to provide a signal at large pupil sizes despite higher levels of monochromatic aberrations. Conclusions Monochromatic aberrations may defend against chromatic blur at high spatial frequencies, but accommodation responds best to optical vergence and to LCA at 3 c/deg where blur from higher order aberrations is less. PMID:21317666

  6. Multimotor Driven Cargos: From Single Motor under Load to the Role of Motor-Motor Coupling.

    PubMed

    Peker, Itay; Granek, Rony

    2016-07-01

    Motor proteins constitute an essential part of the cellular machinery. They have been the subject of intensive studies in the past two decades. Yet, when several motors simultaneously carry a single cargo, the effect of motor-motor coupling, such as mutual stalling and jamming, remains unclear. We commence by constructing a general model for single motor motion, which is a product of a derived load-dependent expression and a phenomenological motor specific function. Forming the latter according to recent single molecule measurements for a given load, the model correctly predicts the motor full step-size distribution for all other measured loads. We then use our proposed model to predict transport properties of multimotor complexes, with particular attention to 1-dimensional constructs with variable flexibility, motor density, and number of motors: (i) a chain of motors connected by springs, a recently studied construction of a pair, and (ii) an array of motors all connected by identical springs to a stiff rod, which is essentially a mirror image of standard gliding motility assays. In both systems, and for any number of carrying motors, we find that, while low flexibility results in a strongly damped velocity, increased flexibility renders an almost single motor velocity. Comparing our model based simulations to recent gliding assays we find remarkable qualitative agreement. We also demonstrate consistency with other multimotor motility assays. In all cases, the characteristic spring constant, that controls the crossover behavior between high and low velocity regimes, is found to be the stalling force divided by the mean step size. We conjecture that this characteristic spring constant can serve as a tool for engineering multimotor complexes. PMID:27044876

  7. Motor Cortex Reorganization across the Lifespan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plowman, Emily K.; Kleim, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    The brain is a highly dynamic structure with the capacity for profound structural and functional change. Such neural plasticity has been well characterized within motor cortex and is believed to represent one of the neural mechanisms for acquiring and modifying motor behaviors. A number of behavioral and neural signals have been identified that…

  8. Focusing Diffraction Grating Element with Aberration Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iazikov, Dmitri; Mossberg, Thomas W.; Greiner, Christoph M.

    2010-01-01

    Diffraction gratings are optical components with regular patterns of grooves, which angularly disperse incoming light by wavelength in a single plane, called dispersion plane. Traditional gratings on flat substrates do not perform wavefront transformation in the plane perpendicular to the dispersion plane. The device proposed here exhibits regular diffraction grating behavior, dispersing light. In addition, it performs wavelength transformation (focusing or defocusing) of diffracted light in a direction perpendicular to the dispersion plane (called sagittal plane). The device is composed of a diffraction grating with the grooves in the form of equidistant arcs. It may be formed by defining a single arc or an arc approximation, then translating it along a certain direction by a distance equal to a multiple of a fixed distance ("grating period") to obtain other groove positions. Such groove layout is nearly impossible to obtain using traditional ruling methods, such as mechanical ruling or holographic scribing, but is trivial for lithographically scribed gratings. Lithographic scribing is the newly developed method first commercially introduced by LightSmyth Technologies, which produces gratings with the highest performance and arbitrary groove shape/spacing for advanced aberration control. Unlike other types of focusing gratings, the grating is formed on a flat substrate. In a plane perpendicular to the substrate and parallel to the translation direction, the period of the grating and, therefore, the projection of its k-vector onto the plane is the same for any location on the grating surface. In that plane, no waveform transformation by the grating k-vector occurs, except of simple redirection.

  9. Human Spinal Motor Control.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2016-07-01

    Human studies in the past three decades have provided us with an emerging understanding of how cortical and spinal networks collaborate to ensure the vast repertoire of human behaviors. Humans have direct cortical connections to spinal motoneurons, which bypass spinal interneurons and exert a direct (willful) muscle control with the aid of a context-dependent integration of somatosensory and visual information at cortical level. However, spinal networks also play an important role. Sensory feedback through spinal circuitries is integrated with central motor commands and contributes importantly to the muscle activity underlying voluntary movements. Regulation of spinal interneurons is used to switch between motor states such as locomotion (reciprocal innervation) and stance (coactivation pattern). Cortical regulation of presynaptic inhibition of sensory afferents may focus the central motor command by opening or closing sensory feedback pathways. In the future, human studies of spinal motor control, in close collaboration with animal studies on the molecular biology of the spinal cord, will continue to document the neural basis for human behavior. PMID:27023730

  10. Adaptive optics full-field OCT: a resolution almost insensitive to aberrations (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Peng; Fink, Mathias; Boccara, A. Claude

    2016-03-01

    A Full-Field OCT (FFOCT) setup coupled to a compact transmissive liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LCSLM) is used to induce or correct aberrations and simulate eye examinations. To reduce the system complexity, strict pupil conjugation was abandoned. During our work on quantifying the effect of geometrical aberrations on FFOCT images, we found that the image resolution is almost insensitive to aberrations. Indeed if the object channel PSF is distorted, its interference with the reference channel conserves the main feature of an unperturbed PSF with only a reduction of the signal level. This unique behavior is specific to the use of a spatially incoherent illumination. Based on this, the FFOCT image intensity was used as the metric for our wavefront sensorless correction. Aberration correction was first conducted on an USAF resolution target with the LSCLM as both aberration generator and corrector. A random aberration mask was induced, and the low-order Zernike Modes were corrected sequentially according to the intensity metric function optimization. A Ficus leaf and a fixed mouse brain tissue slice were also imaged to demonstrate the correction of sample self-induced wavefront distortions. After optimization, more structured information appears for the leaf imaging. And the high-signal fiber-like myelin fiber structures were resolved much more clearly after the whole correction process for mouse brain imaging. Our experiment shows the potential of this compact AO-FFOCT system for aberration correction imaging. This preliminary approach that simulates eyes aberrations correction also opens the path to a simple implementation of FFOCT adaptive optics for retinal examinations.

  11. Multiple aberrant hormone receptors in Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    El Ghorayeb, Nada; Bourdeau, Isabelle; Lacroix, André

    2015-10-01

    The mechanisms regulating cortisol production when ACTH of pituitary origin is suppressed in primary adrenal causes of Cushing's syndrome (CS) include diverse genetic and molecular mechanisms. These can lead either to constitutive activation of the cAMP system and steroidogenesis or to its regulation exerted by the aberrant adrenal expression of several hormone receptors, particularly G-protein coupled hormone receptors (GPCR) and their ligands. Screening for aberrant expression of GPCR in bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (BMAH) and unilateral adrenal tumors of patients with overt or subclinical CS demonstrates the frequent co-expression of several receptors. Aberrant hormone receptors can also exert their activity by regulating the paracrine secretion of ACTH or other ligands for those receptors in BMAH or unilateral tumors. The aberrant expression of hormone receptors is not limited to adrenal CS but can be implicated in other endocrine tumors including primary aldosteronism and Cushing's disease. Targeted therapies to block the aberrant receptors or their ligands could become useful in the future. PMID:25971648

  12. Aberration in proper motions for Galactic stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.-C.; Xie, Y.; Zhu, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Accelerations of both the solar system barycenter (SSB) and stars in the MilkyWay cause a systematic observational effect on the stellar proper motions, which was first studied by J. Kovalevsky (2003). This paper intends to extend that work and aims to estimate the magnitude and significance of the aberration in proper motions of stars, especially in the region near the Galactic center (GC). We adopt two models for the Galactic rotation curve to evaluate the aberrational effect on the Galactic plane. We show that the effect of aberration in proper motions depends on the galactocentric distance of stars; it is dominated by the acceleration of stars in the central region of the Galaxy. Then we investigate the applicability of the theoretical expressions: if the orbital period of stars is only a fraction of the light time from the star to the SSB, the expression with approximation proposed by Kovalevsky is not appropriate. With a more suitable formulation, we found that the aberration has no effect on the determination of the stellar orbits on the celestial sphere. In the future this aberrational effect under consideration should be considered with high-accurate astrometry, particularly in constructing the Gaia celestial reference system realized by Galactic stars.

  13. Advanced Motors

    SciTech Connect

    Knoth, Edward A; Chelluri, Bhanumathi; Schumaker, Edward J

    2012-12-14

    vProject Summary Transportation energy usage is predicted to increase substantially by 2020. Hybrid vehicles and fuel cell powered vehicles are destined to become more prominent as fuel prices rise with the demand. Hybrid and fuel cell vehicle platforms are both dependent on high performance electric motors. Electric motors for transportation duty will require sizeable low-speed torque to accelerate the vehicle. As motor speed increases, the torque requirement decreases which results in a nearly constant power motor output. Interior permanent magnet synchronous motors (IPMSM) are well suited for this duty. , , These rotor geometries are configured in straight lines and semi circular arc shapes. These designs are of limited configurations because of the lack of availability of permanent magnets of any other shapes at present. We propose to fabricate rotors via a novel processing approach where we start with magnet powders and compact them into a net shape rotor in a single step. Using this approach, widely different rotor designs can be implemented for efficiency. The current limitation on magnet shape and thickness will be eliminated. This is accomplished by co-filling magnet and soft iron powders at specified locations in intricate shapes using specially designed dies and automatic powder filling station. The process fundamentals for accomplishing occurred under a previous Applied Technology Program titled, Motors and Generators for the 21st Century. New efficient motor designs that are not currently possible (or cost prohibitive) can be accomplished by this approach. Such an approach to motor fabrication opens up a new dimension in motor design. Feasibility Results We were able to optimize a IPMSM rotor to take advantage of the powder co-filling and DMC compaction processing methods. The minimum low speed torque requirement of 5 N-m can be met through an optimized design with magnet material having a Br capability of 0.2 T. This level of magnetic performance can

  14. Prospects for aberration corrected electron precession.

    PubMed

    Own, C S; Sinkler, W; Marks, L D

    2007-01-01

    Recent developments in aberration control in the TEM have yielded a tremendous enhancement of direct imaging capabilities for studying atomic structures. However, aberration correction also has substantial benefits for achieving ultra-resolution in the TEM through reciprocal space techniques. Several tools are available that allow very accurate detection of the electron distribution in surfaces allowing precise atomic-scale characterization through statistical inversion techniques from diffraction data. The precession technique now appears to extend this capability to the bulk. This article covers some of the progress in this area and details requirements for a next-generation analytical diffraction instrument. An analysis of the contributions offered by aberration correction for precision electron precession is included. PMID:17207934

  15. Properties of second-order geometrical aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grammatin, A. P.

    1994-08-01

    This paper analyzes the properties of second-order aberrations that arise in centered optical systems that contain an aspherical surface whose sagittal equation contains a term proportional to the cube of the distance from a surface point to the optical axis. It is shown that the second-order spherical aberration decreases from the center of the field to its edge. No astigmatism appears in wide, oblique beams in the central part of the field. Coma increases linearly from zero at the center of the field to a value equal to the spherical aberration, and then remains constant over the field. A proof is given of the possibility of correcting the image curvature by using an aspherical surface of the type described above.

  16. Optical mechanism for aberration of starlight.

    PubMed

    Woodruff, Robert A

    2012-07-01

    We present a physical-optics-based theory for aberration of starlight and show that the influence of the moving sensor on the incident stellar wavefront combined with a finite velocity of light within the sensor can fully account for the aberration phenomena. Our treatment differs from all previous derivations because we include wavefront-imaging physics within the sensor model. Our predictions match existing Earth-based aberration measurements but differ from predictions of the special relativistic-based theory for larger velocities. We derive design parameters for an experiment using an Earth-based sensor containing a refractive optical medium that would experimentally differentiate between these two theories and yield an independent experimental test of time dilation. PMID:22751386

  17. Aberrant immunophenotypes of mantle cell lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Wohlschlaeger, Ch; Lange, K; Merz, H; Feller, A C

    2003-02-01

    Mantle cell lymphomas (MCL) are characterized by cytomorphological criteria, a distinct immunophenotype and a characteristic chromosomal aberration (t(11;14)). In morphological variants of MCL the immunohistochemical constellation with CD5-positivity and CD23-negativity is a helpful and decisive diagnostic aid to differentiate MCL from other B-cell-lymphomas, e.g. lymphocytic lymphomas (B-CLL). In this study the morphological, immunophenotypical, and genetical features of 50 MCL were analysed. Five cases revealed an aberrant immunophenotype with lacking expression of CD5 (n = 3) and positive reactivity to CD23 (n = 2) while cyclin D1 expression could be demonstrated in all 5 cases. These constellations show that there is, besides morphological subgroups, a small group of MCL with aberrant immunophenotypes, which has to be taken into account in the differential diagnosis to lymphocytic lymphoma and other lymphomas. PMID:12688344

  18. Transitionality in addiction: A "temporal continuum" hypotheses involving the aberrant motivation, the hedonic dysregulation, and the aberrant learning.

    PubMed

    Patrono, Enrico; Gasbarri, Antonella; Tomaz, Carlos; Nishijo, Hisao

    2016-08-01

    Addiction is a chronic compulsion and relapsing disorder. It involves several brain areas and circuits, which encode vary functions such as reward, motivation, and memory. Drug addiction is defined as a "pathological pattern of use of a substance", characterized by the loss of control on drug-taking-related behaviors, the pursuance of those behaviors even in the presence of negative consequences, and a strong motivated activity to assume substances. Three different theories guide experimental research on drug addiction. Each of these theories consider singles features, such as an aberrant motivation, a hedonic dysregulation, and an aberrant habit learning as the main actor to explain the entire process of the addictive behaviors. The major goal of this study is to present a new hypotheses of transitionality from a controlled use to abuse of addictive substances trough the overview of the three different theories, considering all the single features of each single theory together on the same "temporal continuum" from use to abuse of addictive substances. Recently, it has been suggested that common neural systems may be activated by natural and pharmacological stimuli, raising the hypotheses that binge-eating disorders could be considered as addictive behaviors. The second goal of this study is to present evidences in order to highlight a possible psycho-bio-physiological superimposition between drug and "food addiction". Finally, interesting questions are brought up starting from last findings about a theoretical/psycho-bio-physiological superimposition between drug and "food addiction" and their possibly same transitionality along the same "temporal continuum" from use to abuse of addictive substances in order to investigate new therapeutic strategies based on new therapeutic strategies based on the individual moments characterizing the transition from the voluntary intake of substances to the maladaptive addictive behavior. PMID:27372858

  19. Risk factors for behavioral abnormalities in mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Apostolova, Liana G.; Di, Li Jie; Duffy, Erin L.; Brook, Jenny; Elashoff, David; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Fairbanks, Lynn; Cummings, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Behavioral symptoms are common in both MCI and AD. Methods We analyzed the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire data of 3456 MCI and 2641 mild AD NACC participants. Using factor analysis and logistic regression we estimated the effects of age, sex, race, education, MMSE, functional impairment, marital status and family history on presence of behavioral symptoms. We also compared the observed prevalence of behavioral symptoms between amnestic and nonamnestic MCI. Results Four factors were identified: affective behaviors (depression, apathy and anxiety); distress/tension behaviors (irritability and agitation); impulse control behaviors (disinhibition, elation and aberrant motor behavior), and psychotic behaviors (delusions and hallucinations). Male gender was significantly associated with all factors. Younger age was associated with higher prevalence of distress/tension, impulse control and psychotic behaviors. Being married was protective against psychotic behaviors. Lower education was associated with the presence of distress/tension behaviors. Caucasians showed higher prevalence of affective behaviors. Functional impairment was strongly associated with all behavioral abnormalities. Amnestic MCI had more elation and agitation relative to nonamnestic MCI. Conclusions Younger age, male gender and greater functional impairment were associated with higher overall presence of behavioral abnormalities in MCI and mild AD. Marital status, lower education and race had effect on selected behaviors. PMID:24481207

  20. Coupling in the cortico-basal ganglia circuit is aberrant in the ketamine model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Cordon, Ivan; Nicolás, María Jesús; Arrieta, Sandra; Lopetegui, Eneko; López-Azcárate, Jon; Alegre, Manuel; Artieda, Julio; Valencia, Miguel

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies have suggested the implication of the basal ganglia in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. To investigate this hypothesis, here we have used the ketamine model of schizophrenia to determine the oscillatory abnormalities induced in the rat motor circuit of the basal ganglia. The activity of free moving rats was recorded in different structures of the cortico-basal ganglia circuit before and after an injection of a subanesthesic dose of ketamine (10mg/kg). Spectral estimates of the oscillatory activity, phase-amplitude cross-frequency coupling interactions (CFC) and imaginary event-related coherence together with animals׳ behavior were analyzed. Oscillatory patterns in the cortico-basal ganglia circuit were highly altered by the effect of ketamine. CFC between the phases of low-frequency activities (delta, 1-4; theta 4-8Hz) and the amplitude of high-gamma (~80Hz) and high-frequency oscillations (HFO) (~150Hz) increased dramatically and correlated with the movement increment shown by the animals. Between-structure analyses revealed that ketamine had also a massive effect in the low-frequency mediated synchronization of the HFO's across the whole circuit. Our findings suggest that ketamine administration results in an aberrant hypersynchronization of the whole cortico-basal circuit where the tandem theta/HFO seems to act as the main actor in the hyperlocomotion shown by the animals. Here we stress the importance of the basal ganglia circuitry in the ketamine model of schizophrenia and leave the door open to further investigations devoted to elucidate to what extent these abnormalities also reflect the prominent neurophysiological deficits observed in schizophrenic patients. PMID:25910422

  1. Effects of spherical aberration on the laser beam of a bar code scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Hong

    1998-08-01

    The modulation transfer function of bar code scanning is a useful tool for evaluating the performance of the scanning laser beam. Understanding the behavior of the scanning laser system near the end of its depth of focus is of particular interest because it may lead to the development of techniques that could effective extend the depth of focus. In the article the MTF at focus and the two extremes of the depth of focus are presented. The presence of spherical aberration in the scanning laser beam generally reduces the depth of focus. The effects of the spherical aberration to the MTF is presented and discussed.

  2. Motor Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Kollmorgen Corporation's Mermaid II two person submersible is propeller-driven by a system of five DC brushless motors with new electronic controllers that originated in work performed in a NASA/DOE project managed by Lewis Research Center. A key feature of the system is electric commutation rather than mechanical commutation for converting AC current to DC.

  3. Therma motor

    DOEpatents

    Kandarian, R.

    The disclosure is directed to a thermal motor utilizing two tapered prestressed parallel adjacent cylinders lengthwise disposed about one third in a coolant. Heat is applied to contacting portions of the cylinders outside the coolant to cause them to deform and turn. Heat sources such as industrial waste heat, geothermal hot water, solar radiation, etc. can be used.

  4. Aberration averaging using point spread function for scanning projection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooki, Hiroshi; Noda, Tomoya; Matsumoto, Koichi

    2000-07-01

    Scanning projection system plays a leading part in current DUV optical lithography. It is frequently pointed out that the mechanically induced distortion and field curvature degrade image quality after scanning. On the other hand, the aberration of the projection lens is averaged along the scanning direction. This averaging effect reduces the residual aberration significantly. The aberration averaging based on the point spread function and phase retrieval technique in order to estimate the effective wavefront aberration after scanning is described in this paper. Our averaging method is tested using specified wavefront aberration, and its accuracy is discussed based on the measured wavefront aberration of recent Nikon projection lens.

  5. Aberrations of diffracted wave fields. II. Diffraction gratings.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, V N

    2000-12-01

    The Rayleigh-Sommerfeld theory is applied to diffraction of a spherical wave by a grating. The grating equation is obtained from the aberration-free diffraction pattern, and its aberrations are shown to be the same as the conventional aberrations obtained by using Fermat's principle. These aberrations are shown to be not associated with the diffraction process. Moreover, it is shown that the irradiance distribution of a certain diffraction order is the Fraunhofer diffraction pattern of the grating aperture as a whole aberrated by the aberration of that order. PMID:11140481

  6. Motor Neuron Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Motor Neuron Diseases Information Page Condensed from Motor Neuron Diseases ... and Information Publicaciones en Español What are Motor Neuron Diseases? The motor neuron diseases (MNDs) are a ...

  7. Motor Neuron Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... called upper motor neurons ) are transmitted to nerve cells in the brain stem and spinal cord (called lower motor neurons ) and from them to particular muscles. Upper motor neurons direct the lower motor neurons ...

  8. Determining the accommodative response from wavefront aberrations.

    PubMed

    Tarrant, Janice; Roorda, Austin; Wildsoet, Christine F

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate some of the methods used to calculate objective refractions from wavefront aberrations, to determine their applicability for accommodation research. A wavefront analyzer was used to measure the ocular aberrations of 13 emmetropes and 17 myopes at distance, and 4 near target vergences: 2, 3, 4, and 5 D. The accommodative response was calculated using the following techniques: least squares fitting (Zernike defocus), paraxial curvature matching (Seidel defocus), and 5 optical quality metrics (PFWc, PFSc, PFCc, NS, and VSMTF). We also evaluated a task-specific method of determining optimum focus that used a through-focus procedure to select the image that best optimized both contrast amplitude and gradient (CAG). Neither Zernike nor Seidel defocus appears to be the best method for determining the accommodative response from wavefront aberrations. When the eye has negative spherical aberration, Zernike defocus tends to underestimate, whereas Seidel defocus tends to overestimate the accommodative response. A better approach is to first determine the best image plane using a suitable optical quality metric and then calculate the accommodative error relative to this plane. Of the metrics evaluated, both NS and VSMTF were reasonable choices, with the CAG algorithm being a less preferred alternate. PMID:20616123

  9. Cosmological parameter estimation: impact of CMB aberration

    SciTech Connect

    Catena, Riccardo; Notari, Alessio E-mail: notari@ffn.ub.es

    2013-04-01

    The peculiar motion of an observer with respect to the CMB rest frame induces an apparent deflection of the observed CMB photons, i.e. aberration, and a shift in their frequency, i.e. Doppler effect. Both effects distort the temperature multipoles a{sub lm}'s via a mixing matrix at any l. The common lore when performing a CMB based cosmological parameter estimation is to consider that Doppler affects only the l = 1 multipole, and neglect any other corrections. In this paper we reconsider the validity of this assumption, showing that it is actually not robust when sky cuts are included to model CMB foreground contaminations. Assuming a simple fiducial cosmological model with five parameters, we simulated CMB temperature maps of the sky in a WMAP-like and in a Planck-like experiment and added aberration and Doppler effects to the maps. We then analyzed with a MCMC in a Bayesian framework the maps with and without aberration and Doppler effects in order to assess the ability of reconstructing the parameters of the fiducial model. We find that, depending on the specific realization of the simulated data, the parameters can be biased up to one standard deviation for WMAP and almost two standard deviations for Planck. Therefore we conclude that in general it is not a solid assumption to neglect aberration in a CMB based cosmological parameter estimation.

  10. Anti-forensics of chromatic aberration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Owen; Stamm, Matthew C.

    2015-03-01

    Over the past decade, a number of information forensic techniques have been developed to identify digital image manipulation and falsification. Recent research has shown, however, that an intelligent forger can use anti-forensic countermeasures to disguise their forgeries. In this paper, an anti-forensic technique is proposed to falsify the lateral chromatic aberration present in a digital image. Lateral chromatic aberration corresponds to the relative contraction or expansion between an image's color channels that occurs due to a lens's inability to focus all wavelengths of light on the same point. Previous work has used localized inconsistencies in an image's chromatic aberration to expose cut-and-paste image forgeries. The anti-forensic technique presented in this paper operates by estimating the expected lateral chromatic aberration at an image location, then removing deviations from this estimate caused by tampering or falsification. Experimental results are presented that demonstrate that our anti-forensic technique can be used to effectively disguise evidence of an image forgery.

  11. Aberration features in directional dark matter detection

    SciTech Connect

    Bozorgnia, Nassim; Gelmini, Graciela B.; Gondolo, Paolo E-mail: gelmini@physics.ucla.edu

    2012-08-01

    The motion of the Earth around the Sun causes an annual change in the magnitude and direction of the arrival velocity of dark matter particles on Earth, in a way analogous to aberration of stellar light. In directional detectors, aberration of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) modulates the pattern of nuclear recoil directions in a way that depends on the orbital velocity of the Earth and the local galactic distribution of WIMP velocities. Knowing the former, WIMP aberration can give information on the latter, besides being a curious way of confirming the revolution of the Earth and the extraterrestrial provenance of WIMPs. While observing the full aberration pattern requires extremely large exposures, we claim that the annual variation of the mean recoil direction or of the event counts over specific solid angles may be detectable with moderately large exposures. For example, integrated counts over Galactic hemispheres separated by planes perpendicular to Earth's orbit would modulate annually, resulting in Galactic Hemisphere Annual Modulations (GHAM) with amplitudes larger than the usual non-directional annual modulation.

  12. Cosmological parameter estimation: impact of CMB aberration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catena, Riccardo; Notari, Alessio

    2013-04-01

    The peculiar motion of an observer with respect to the CMB rest frame induces an apparent deflection of the observed CMB photons, i.e. aberration, and a shift in their frequency, i.e. Doppler effect. Both effects distort the temperature multipoles alm's via a mixing matrix at any l. The common lore when performing a CMB based cosmological parameter estimation is to consider that Doppler affects only the l = 1 multipole, and neglect any other corrections. In this paper we reconsider the validity of this assumption, showing that it is actually not robust when sky cuts are included to model CMB foreground contaminations. Assuming a simple fiducial cosmological model with five parameters, we simulated CMB temperature maps of the sky in a WMAP-like and in a Planck-like experiment and added aberration and Doppler effects to the maps. We then analyzed with a MCMC in a Bayesian framework the maps with and without aberration and Doppler effects in order to assess the ability of reconstructing the parameters of the fiducial model. We find that, depending on the specific realization of the simulated data, the parameters can be biased up to one standard deviation for WMAP and almost two standard deviations for Planck. Therefore we conclude that in general it is not a solid assumption to neglect aberration in a CMB based cosmological parameter estimation.

  13. Optical advantages of astigmatic aberration corrected heliostats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rooyen, De Wet; Schöttl, Peter; Bern, Gregor; Heimsath, Anna; Nitz, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Astigmatic aberration corrected heliostats adapt their shape in dependence of the incidence angle of the sun on the heliostat. Simulations show that this optical correction leads to a higher concentration ratio at the target and thus in a decrease in required receiver aperture in particular for smaller heliostat fields.

  14. Designing refractive beam shapers via aberration theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskin, Alexander; Shealy, David

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we use aberration theory to design a refractive laser beam shaper in the configuration of two-aspheric lenses, whose analytical equations are known, but rather complicated. Specifically, we use results from third order aberration theory to obtain the parameters of the refracting laser beam shaper from the transverse aberration, which are then used as a starting point for further optimization by using optical design software. This approach was developed during the beginning of the twentieth century, works well for systems with a low numerical aperture, and allows one to define the following parameters of an optical system: radii of curvature, indices of refraction, thicknesses or air gaps, and conic constants of second order aspheric surfaces. We shall consider surfaces of the second-order spherical and conic sections and shall consider the example of designing of a two-lens beam shaper of the Keplerian 1-to-1 telescopic design providing a theoretical flat phase front and a flat-top irradiance profile of the output beam, where the ray mapping function from the input aperture to the output aperture is known from the literature. Explicit expression for third order longitudinal aberration and the Seidel coefficients are expressed in terms beam waist and input beam geometrical parameter, indices, lens radii and conic constants.

  15. Corneal Aberrations Before and After Photorefractive Keratectomy

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Nicola; De Bernardo, Maddalena; Lanza, Michele; Borrelli, Maria; Fusco, Fabrizia; Flagiello, Antimo

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether - and which - higher-order corneal aberrations, up to the sixth order, are induced by photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). Methods 197 eyes of 197 patients have been examined with a corneal aberrometer for a 3.5 and a 6.0 mm pupil simulation, both before and 1, 3, 6 months after myopic PRK treatment ranging from −15.25 D to -0.5 D (mean −5.31±2.95 D). The statistical evaluation was performed using a paired Student's T-test. Results After PRK there is a clear-cut increase in almost all the higher-order corneal aberrations for both a 3.5 and a 6.0 mm pupil simulation. These aberrations tend to normalize after 3 and 6 months mainly for a 3.5 mm simulation, whereas such normalization is not present for a 6.0 mm simulation. Conclusions PRK induces significant aberrations both for 3.5 and 6 mm pupils, 1 month after PRK, but a trend towards normalization is evident at the 6 month follow-up for the smaller pupil size.

  16. Behaviorism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  17. [The number of aberrations in aberrant cells as a parameter of chromosomal instability. 1. Characterization of dose dependency].

    PubMed

    Kutsokon', N K; Bezrukov, V F; Lazarenko, L M; Rashydov, N M; Hrodzyns'kyĭ, D M

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of chromosome instability (CI) is of great importance in view of pollution of the environment by genotoxic factors. Frequency of aberrant cells, spectrum of chromosome aberrations, damages of aberrant cell and distribution of aberrations in the cells are the most conventional parameters of CI. We have carried out the comparative analysis of the frequency of aberrant cells and the dynamics of aberrant cell damages induced by different mutagenic factors (alpha-irradiation from 241Am, gamma-irradiation from 60Co and tioTEPA) in Allium-test. This comparative analysis denotes that the studied parameters have different dynamics characterizing different mechanisms of CI in Allium cepa L. PMID:14569619

  18. Low-order aberration sensitivity of eighth-order coronagraph masks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaklan, Stuart B.; Green, Joseph J.

    2005-01-01

    In a recent paper, Kuchner, Crepp, and Ge describe new image-plane coronagraph mask designs that reject to eighth order the leakage of starlight caused by image motion at the mask, resulting in a substantial relaxation of image centroiding requirements compared to previous fourth-order and second-order masks. They also suggest that the new masks are effective at rejecting leakage caused by low-order aberrations (e.g., focus, coma, and astigmatism). In this paper, we derive the sensitivity of eighth-order masks to aberrations of any order and provide simulations of coronagraph behavior in the presence of optical aberrations.We find that the masks leak light as the fourth power of focus, astigmatism, coma, and trefoil. This has tremendous performance advantages for the Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph.

  19. Low-Order Aberration Sensitivity of Eighth-Order Coronagraph Masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaklan, Stuart B.; Green, Joseph J.

    2005-07-01

    In a recent paper, Kuchner, Crepp, and Ge describe new image-plane coronagraph mask designs that reject to eighth order the leakage of starlight caused by image motion at the mask, resulting in a substantial relaxation of image centroiding requirements compared to previous fourth-order and second-order masks. They also suggest that the new masks are effective at rejecting leakage caused by low-order aberrations (e.g., focus, coma, and astigmatism). In this paper, we derive the sensitivity of eighth-order masks to aberrations of any order and provide simulations of coronagraph behavior in the presence of optical aberrations. We find that the masks leak light as the fourth power of focus, astigmatism, coma, and trefoil. This has tremendous performance advantages for the Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph.

  20. Changes in aberrations and retinal image quality due to tear film dynamics.

    PubMed

    Li, Kaccie Y; Yoon, Geunyoung

    2006-12-11

    A reliable and objective method to measure aberration changes due to the tear film is essential in improving clinical assessment of the tear film and in vivo retinal imaging. The tear film of 11 subjects are studied by acquiring continuous wavefront measurements in real-time with a customized Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. The device has a high resolution lenslet array (190 mum) and a topographer unit with an infrared pupil illuminator (940 nm). A Fourier transform reconstructor algorithm [1] was used to estimate the eyes' wavefront aberrations from slope measurements. Increasing irregularities in the tear film produced observable wavefront variations. The temporal behavior of tear induced aberrations and retinal image quality was evaluated by the root mean squared (RMS) error of the residual wavefront and the volume modulation transfer function (MTF). Similar trends were observed from both metrics. Our analysis demonstrates the applicability of the SH wavefront sensor to assessing the dynamics of the human tear film. PMID:19529690

  1. Computation of astigmatic and trefoil figure errors and misalignments for two-mirror telescopes using nodal-aberration theory.

    PubMed

    Ju, Guohao; Yan, Changxiang; Gu, Zhiyuan; Ma, Hongcai

    2016-05-01

    In active optics systems, one concern is how to quantitatively separate the effects of astigmatic and trefoil figure errors and misalignments that couple together in determining the total aberration fields when wavefront measurements are available at only a few field points. In this paper, we first quantitatively describe the impact of mount-induced trefoil deformation on the net aberration fields by proposing a modified theoretical formulation for the field-dependent aberration behavior of freeform surfaces based on the framework of nodal aberration theory. This formulation explicitly expresses the quantitative relationships between the magnitude of freeform surfaces and the induced aberration components where the freeform surfaces can be located away from the aperture stop and decentered from the optical axis. On this basis, and in combination with the mathematical presentation of nodal aberration theory for the effects of misalignments, we present the analytic expressions for the aberration fields of two-mirror telescopes in the presence of astigmatic primary mirror figure errors, mount-induced trefoil deformations on both mirrors, and misalignments. We quantitatively separate these effects using the analytical expressions with wavefront measurements at a few field points and pointing errors. Valuable insights are provided on how to separate these coupled effects in the computation process. Monte Carlo simulations are conducted to demonstrate the correctness and accuracy of the analytic method presented in this paper. PMID:27140345

  2. Role of chromosomal aberrations in clonal diversity and progression of acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Bochtler, T; Fröhling, S; Krämer, A

    2015-06-01

    Genetic abnormalities are a hallmark of cancer. Hereby, cytogenetic aberrations and small-scale abnormalities, such as single-nucleotide variations and insertion/deletion mutations, have emerged as two alternative modes of genetic diversification. Both mechanisms are at work in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), in which conventional karyotyping and molecular studies demonstrate that gene mutations occur predominantly in cytogenetically normal AML, whereas chromosomal changes are a driving force of development and progression of disease in aberrant karyotype AML. All steps of disease evolution in AML, ranging from the transformation of preleukemic clones into overt leukemia to the expansion and recurrence of malignant clones, are paralleled by clonal evolution at either the gene mutation or chromosome aberration level. Preleukemic conditions, such as Fanconi anemia and Bloom syndrome, demonstrate that the acquisition of chromosomal aberrations can contribute to leukemic transformation. Similar to what has been shown at the mutational level, expansion and recurrence of AML clones goes along with increasing genetic diversification. Hereby, cytogenetically more evolved subclones are at a proliferative advantage and outgrow ancestor clones or have evolved toward a more aggressive behavior with additional newly acquired aberrations as compared with the initial leukemic clone, respectively. PMID:25673237

  3. Molecular Motors: Power Strokes Outperform Brownian Ratchets.

    PubMed

    Wagoner, Jason A; Dill, Ken A

    2016-07-01

    Molecular motors convert chemical energy (typically from ATP hydrolysis) to directed motion and mechanical work. Their actions are often described in terms of "Power Stroke" (PS) and "Brownian Ratchet" (BR) mechanisms. Here, we use a transition-state model and stochastic thermodynamics to describe a range of mechanisms ranging from PS to BR. We incorporate this model into Hill's diagrammatic method to develop a comprehensive model of motor processivity that is simple but sufficiently general to capture the full range of behavior observed for molecular motors. We demonstrate that, under all conditions, PS motors are faster, more powerful, and more efficient at constant velocity than BR motors. We show that these differences are very large for simple motors but become inconsequential for complex motors with additional kinetic barrier steps. PMID:27136319

  4. Motor learning by observing.

    PubMed

    Mattar, Andrew A G; Gribble, Paul L

    2005-04-01

    Learning complex motor behaviors like riding a bicycle or swinging a golf club is based on acquiring neural representations of the mechanical requirements of movement (e.g., coordinating muscle forces to control the club). Here we provide evidence that mechanisms matching observation and action facilitate motor learning. Subjects who observed a video depicting another person learning to reach in a novel mechanical environment (imposed by a robot arm) performed better when later tested in the same environment than subjects who observed similar movements but no learning; moreover, subjects who observed learning of a different environment performed worse. We show that this effect is not based on conscious strategies but instead depends on the implicit engagement of neural systems for movement planning and control. PMID:15820701

  5. Motor skill acquisition.

    PubMed

    Higgins, S

    1991-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a framework for understanding motor skill and the process by which it is acquired. A selective historical overview is presented to demonstrate how the study of movement is a necessary preliminary to the study of motor skill learning. The phenomenon of skill is explored as an inherent feature of goal-directed organisms whose effective functioning depends on achieving a degree of competence in solving problems that are encountered in the everyday world. The relationship between problems and solutions is discussed. Movement is examined as a problem-solving tool and as the means by which the individual expresses skill. Factors that influence the individual's level of skill are fully explored, along with the implications for functional behavior. The creative use of resources in problem solving is thoroughly examined, and tasks are discussed in terms of the demands imposed on the individual. PMID:1989008

  6. Sensorimotor interaction between somatosensory painful stimuli and motor sequences affects both anticipatory alpha rhythms and behavior as a function of the event side.

    PubMed

    Babiloni, Claudio; Capotosto, Paolo; Del Percio, Claudio; Babiloni, Fabio; Petrini, Laura; Buttiglione, Mara; Cibelli, Giuseppe; Marusiak, Jarosław; Romani, Gian Luca; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Rossini, Paolo Maria

    2010-03-16

    It has been shown that concomitant painful stimulation and simple movement at the same hand is related to decreased anticipatory alpha event-related desynchronization (ERD) and reduced pain intensity, possibly due to the interference between somatosensory and motor information processing (Babiloni et al. [6]). Here, we tested the hypothesis that such interference also affects motor performance during sequential movements. Visual warning stimuli were followed by imperative stimuli associated to electrical painful stimulation at left or right middle finger; imperative stimuli triggered motor sequences with right index finger. Electroencephalographic data (N=10, 128 electrodes) were spatially enhanced by surface Laplacian transformation. Cortical activity as revealed by the alpha event-related desynchronization (ERD) was compared in "Pain+ipsilateral movement" condition (movements and painful stimuli performed at the right hand) vs. "Pain+contralateral movement" condition (painful stimuli at left hand and movements performed at the right hand). Results showed that compared with the "Pain+contralateral movement" condition, the "Pain+ipsilateral movement" condition induced lower anticipatory alpha ERD (about 10-12 Hz) in left sensorimotor area, lower subjective pain rate, and delayed movement initiation at the group level. These findings suggest that anticipatory alpha rhythms may underlie cortical preparatory sensorimotor processes preceding somatosensory painful and the initiation of sequential motor events occurring at unilateral or bilateral hand. PMID:19932156

  7. Sporadic ALS has compartment-specific aberrant exon splicing and altered cell–matrix adhesion biology

    PubMed Central

    Rabin, Stuart J.; Kim, Jae Mun ‘Hugo’; Baughn, Michael; Libby, Ryan T.; Kim, Young Joo; Fan, Yuxin; Libby, Randell T.; La Spada, Albert; Stone, Brad; Ravits, John

    2010-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive weakness from loss of motor neurons. The fundamental pathogenic mechanisms are unknown and recent evidence is implicating a significant role for abnormal exon splicing and RNA processing. Using new comprehensive genomic technologies, we studied exon splicing directly in 12 sporadic ALS and 10 control lumbar spinal cords acquired by a rapid autopsy system that processed nervous systems specifically for genomic studies. ALS patients had rostral onset and caudally advancing disease and abundant residual motor neurons in this region. We created two RNA pools, one from motor neurons collected by laser capture microdissection and one from the surrounding anterior horns. From each, we isolated RNA, amplified mRNA, profiled whole-genome exon splicing, and applied advanced bioinformatics. We employed rigorous quality control measures at all steps and validated findings by qPCR. In the motor neuron enriched mRNA pool, we found two distinct cohorts of mRNA signals, most of which were up-regulated: 148 differentially expressed genes (P ≤ 10−3) and 411 aberrantly spliced genes (P ≤ 10−5). The aberrantly spliced genes were highly enriched in cell adhesion (P ≤ 10−57), especially cell–matrix as opposed to cell–cell adhesion. Most of the enriching genes encode transmembrane or secreted as opposed to nuclear or cytoplasmic proteins. The differentially expressed genes were not biologically enriched. In the anterior horn enriched mRNA pool, we could not clearly identify mRNA signals or biological enrichment. These findings, perturbed and up-regulated cell–matrix adhesion, suggest possible mechanisms for the contiguously progressive nature of motor neuron degeneration. Data deposition: GeneChip raw data (CEL-files) have been deposited for public access in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo, accession number GSE18920. PMID:19864493

  8. Aberration-Coreected Electron Microscopy at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu,Y.; Wall, J.

    2008-04-01

    The last decade witnessed the rapid development and implementation of aberration correction in electron optics, realizing a more-than-70-year-old dream of aberration-free electron microscopy with a spatial resolution below one angstrom [1-9]. With sophisticated aberration correctors, modern electron microscopes now can reveal local structural information unavailable with neutrons and x-rays, such as the local arrangement of atoms, order/disorder, electronic inhomogeneity, bonding states, spin configuration, quantum confinement, and symmetry breaking [10-17]. Aberration correction through multipole-based correctors, as well as the associated improved stability in accelerating voltage, lens supplies, and goniometers in electron microscopes now enables medium-voltage (200-300kV) microscopes to achieve image resolution at or below 0.1nm. Aberration correction not only improves the instrument's spatial resolution but, equally importantly, allows larger objective lens pole-piece gaps to be employed thus realizing the potential of the instrument as a nanoscale property-measurement tool. That is, while retaining high spatial resolution, we can use various sample stages to observe the materials response under various temperature, electric- and magnetic- fields, and atmospheric environments. Such capabilities afford tremendous opportunities to tackle challenging science and technology issues in physics, chemistry, materials science, and biology. The research goal of the electron microscopy group at the Dept. of Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science and the Center for Functional Nanomaterials, as well as the Institute for Advanced Electron Microscopy, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), is to elucidate the microscopic origin of the physical- and chemical-behavior of materials, and the role of individual, or groups of atoms, especially in their native functional environments. We plan to accomplish this by developing and implementing various quantitative electron

  9. Voxel-based, brain-wide association study of aberrant functional connectivity in schizophrenia implicates thalamocortical circuitry

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Wei; Palaniyappan, Lena; Li, Mingli; Kendrick, Keith M; Zhang, Jie; Luo, Qiang; Liu, Zening; Yu, Rongjun; Deng, Wei; Wang, Qiang; Ma, Xiaohong; Guo, Wanjun; Francis, Susan; Liddle, Peter; Mayer, Andrew R; Schumann, Gunter; Li, Tao; Feng, Jianfeng

    2015-01-01

    Background: Wernicke’s concept of ‘sejunction’ or aberrant associations among specialized brain regions is one of the earliest hypotheses attempting to explain the myriad of symptoms in psychotic disorders. Unbiased data mining of all possible brain-wide connections in large data sets is an essential first step in localizing these aberrant circuits. Methods: We analyzed functional connectivity using the largest resting-state neuroimaging data set reported to date in the schizophrenia literature (415 patients vs. 405 controls from UK, USA, Taiwan, and China). An exhaustive brain-wide association study at both regional and voxel-based levels enabled a continuous data-driven discovery of the key aberrant circuits in schizophrenia. Results: Results identify the thalamus as the key hub for altered functional networks in patients. Increased thalamus–primary somatosensory cortex connectivity was the most significant aberration in schizophrenia (P=10−18). Overall, a number of thalamic links with motor and sensory cortical regions showed increased connectivity in schizophrenia, whereas thalamo–frontal connectivity was weakened. Network changes were correlated with symptom severity and illness duration, and support vector machine analysis revealed discrimination accuracies of 73.53–80.92%. Conclusions: Widespread alterations in resting-state thalamocortical functional connectivity is likely to be a core feature of schizophrenia that contributes to the extensive sensory, motor, cognitive, and emotional impairments in this disorder. Changes in this schizophrenia-associated network could be a reliable mechanistic index to discriminate patients from healthy controls. PMID:27336032

  10. Primary aberrations in focused radially polarized vortex beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biss, David P.; Brown, T. G.

    2004-02-01

    We study the effect of primary aberrations on the 3-D polarization of the electric field in a focused lowest order radially polarized beam. A full vector diffraction treatment of the focused beams is used. Attention is given to the effects of primary spherical, astigmatic, and comatic aberrations on the local polarization, Strehl ratio, and aberration induced degradation of the longitudinal field at focus

  11. Motor Control Research Requires Nonlinear Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guastello, Stephen J.

    2006-01-01

    The author comments on the original article "The Cinderella of psychology: The neglect of motor control in the science of mental life and behavior," by D. A. Rosenbaum. Rosenbaum draws attention to the study of motor control and evaluates seven possible explanations for why the topic has been relatively neglected. The point of this comment is that…

  12. A challenging case due to uncommon aberrancies.

    PubMed

    Waleed, Mohammad; Raza, Ali; Minhaj, Tariq; Houghton, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    A 71-year-old man was referred to a rapid access chest pain clinic by his general practitioner. He presented with a 6-month history of twice weekly central chest pain lasting 2-3 min with walking and exertion, relieved with rest or co-codamol tablets. After initial investigations and a positive myoview scan, he was listed for an elective coronary angiogram. Unfortunately, the procedure was abandoned due to unclear course of the guide wire and a possible aberrant aortic course. Further non-invasive tests were arranged to clarify the anatomy of the vessels. After getting a clear idea of the aberrancies, coronary angiogram was replanned, and the patient underwent successful angiography with angioplasty to one of the coronary arteries, without any complications. PMID:26404545

  13. The correction of electron lens aberrations.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, P W

    2015-09-01

    The progress of electron lens aberration correction from about 1990 onwards is chronicled. Reasonably complete lists of publications on this and related topics are appended. A present for Max Haider and Ondrej Krivanek in the year of their 65th birthdays. By a happy coincidence, this review was completed in the year that both Max Haider and Ondrej Krivanek reached the age of 65. It is a pleasure to dedicate it to the two leading actors in the saga of aberration corrector design and construction. They would both wish to associate their colleagues with such a tribute but it is the names of Haider and Krivanek (not forgetting Joachim Zach) that will remain in the annals of electron optics, next to that of Harald Rose. I am proud to know that both regard me as a friend as well as a colleague. PMID:26025209

  14. Aberrant Opioid Use and Urine Drug Testing in Outpatient Palliative Care.

    PubMed

    Arthur, Joseph A; Haider, Ali; Edwards, Tonya; Waletich-Flemming, Jessica; Reddy, Suresh; Bruera, Eduardo; Hui, David

    2016-07-01

    Aberrant opioid use is a public health issue, which has not been adequately described in the palliative care literature. With the increasing integration of palliative care into oncologic care, palliative care clinicians are seeing patients earlier in the disease trajectory, and therefore, more outpatients with chronic pain requiring chronic opioid therapy. This may have resulted in a concomitant rise in the number of patients with aberrant opioid use. In this article, we report on two patients with aberrant opioid-related behavior seen at our palliative care clinic. A high suspicion of opioid abuse, misuse, or diversion based on certain behavioral cues necessitated the ordering of a urine drug test (UDT). The tests helped the medical team to confirm an already existing pattern of maladaptive opioid use. In both cases, we provided ample opioid education and implemented effective strategies to address their aberrant opioid use. These cases suggest the need for palliative care clinicians to develop strategies to effectively address this issue in our field of medicine. It also highlights the usefulness of UDT in the outpatient palliative care setting. PMID:27171327

  15. Testing for Aberrant Behavior in Response Time Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marianti, Sukaesi; Fox, Jean-Paul; Avetisyan, Marianna; Veldkamp, Bernard P.; Tijmstra, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Many standardized tests are now administered via computer rather than paper-and-pencil format. In a computer-based testing environment, it is possible to record not only the test taker's response to each question (item) but also the amount of time spent by the test taker in considering and answering each item. Response times (RTs) provide…

  16. Aberrant phenotypes in Kikuchi’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xue-Jing; Zhou, Xiao-Ge; Xie, Jian-Lan; Zheng, Xiao-Dan; Zheng, Yuan-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Initial reports emphasized the immunophenotypic similarities between benign and malignant T cell populations, while some previous studies indicating that aberrant T-cell antigen loss is a good marker for detecting malignant T-cell proliferation. Recently, we found a very interesting and thought-provoking phenomenon: In benign disease-28 of 38 (73.7%) cases of Kikuchi’s disease also showed aberrant phenotypes with loss of pan-T cell antigens, which makes the differential diagnosis between Kikuchi’s disease and T cell lymphoma more challenging. In our study, 38 cases of Kikuchi’s disease and 30 cases of reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (RLH) were studied by EliVision immunohistochemical staining. As well as TCR gene rearrangement using PCR was negative in 10 tested cases of the Kikuchi’s disease. Among these cases, the most common antigen deficiency was CD5 (22 cases), then CD7 (11 cases), CD2 (8 cases) and CD3 (2 cases). Compared with proliferative and xanthomatous types of Kikuchi’s disease, antigens tended to be lost in necrotizing type. Based on follow-up data, a correlation was not found between the occurrence of aberrant phenotypes and prognosis. In RLH, obvious pan-T cell antigen loss was also not found. In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate distinct patterns of antigen loss in Kikuchi’s disease, suggesting that T cell antigen loss is not reliable as an auxiliary diagnostic standard for T cell lymphoma. PMID:25337197

  17. Subarachnoid Transplant of the Human Neuronal hNT2.19 Serotonergic Cell Line Attenuates Behavioral Hypersensitivity without Affecting Motor Dysfunction after Severe Contusive Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, Mary J.; Widerström-Noga, Eva; Wolfe, Stacey Quintero

    2011-01-01

    Transplant of cells which make biologic agents that can modulate the sensory and motor responses after spinal cord injury (SCI) would be useful to treat pain and paralysis. To address this need for clinically useful human cells, a unique neuronal cell line that synthesizes and secretes/releases the neurotransmitter serotonin (5HT) was isolated. Hind paw tactile allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia induced by severe contusive SCI were potently reversed after lumbar subarachnoid transplant of differentiated cells, but had no effect on open field motor scores, stride length, foot rotation, base of support, or gridwalk footfall errors associated with the SCI. The sensory effects appeared 1 week after transplant and did not diminish during the 8-week course of the experiment when grafts were placed 2 weeks after SCI. Many grafted cells were still present and synthesizing 5HT at the end of the study. These data suggest that the human neuronal serotonergic hNT2.19 cells can be used as a biologic minipump for receiving SCI-related neuropathic pain, but likely requires intraspinal grafts for motor recovery. PMID:21799949

  18. Locomotor hypoactivity and motor disturbances--behavioral effects induced by intracerebellar microinjections of dopaminergic DA-D2/D3 receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Kolasiewicz, W; Maj, J

    2001-01-01

    In the light of recent findings, DA-D3 dopamine receptors with an unclear physiological function are present in the cerebellar cortex. Our preliminary results seem to indicate that bilateral injection of 7-OH-DPAT, a DA-D2/D3 receptor agonist (1 and 10 microg/0.5 microl), to lobule 9/10 of rat cerebellar cortex reduces spontaneous locomotor activity (hypolocomotor effects) and induces balance and motor coordination disturbances, respectively. Similar effects can be observed in the case of analogous microinjection of the DA-D3/D2 agonist pramipexole. In earlier studies, peripheral (ip) injection of nafadotride (0.6 mg/kg), a D3 receptor antagonist, neither affected per se spontaneous motor activity, nor modified the above described effects of 7-OH-DPAT. Participation of cerebellar DA-D3 and DA-D2 receptors in hypolocomotor effects, as well as putative participation of other receptors in the generation of motor disturbances, has been discussed. PMID:11990070

  19. DNA Repair Defects and Chromosomal Aberrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hada, Megumi; George, K. A.; Huff, J. L.; Pluth, J. M.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2009-01-01

    Yields of chromosome aberrations were assessed in cells deficient in DNA doublestrand break (DSB) repair, after exposure to acute or to low-dose-rate (0.018 Gy/hr) gamma rays or acute high LET iron nuclei. We studied several cell lines including fibroblasts deficient in ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated; product of the gene that is mutated in ataxia telangiectasia patients) or NBS (nibrin; product of the gene mutated in the Nijmegen breakage syndrome), and gliomablastoma cells that are proficient or lacking in DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) activity. Chromosomes were analyzed using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) chromosome painting method in cells at the first division post irradiation, and chromosome aberrations were identified as either simple exchanges (translocations and dicentrics) or complex exchanges (involving >2 breaks in 2 or more chromosomes). Gamma irradiation induced greater yields of both simple and complex exchanges in the DSB repair-defective cells than in the normal cells. The quadratic dose-response terms for both simple and complex chromosome exchanges were significantly higher for the ATM- and NBS-deficient lines than for normal fibroblasts. However, in the NBS cells the linear dose-response term was significantly higher only for simple exchanges. The large increases in the quadratic dose-response terms in these repair-defective cell lines points the importance of the functions of ATM and NBS in chromatin modifications to facilitate correct DSB repair and minimize the formation of aberrations. The differences found between ATM- and NBS-deficient cells at low doses suggest that important questions should with regard to applying observations of radiation sensitivity at high dose to low-dose exposures. For aberrations induced by iron nuclei, regression models preferred purely linear dose responses for simple exchanges and quadratic dose responses for complex exchanges. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) factors of all of

  20. Chromatic variation of aberration: the role of induced aberrations and raytrace direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berner, A.; Nobis, T.; Shafer, D.; Gross, H.

    2015-09-01

    The design and optimization process of an optical system contains several first order steps. The definition of the appropriate lens type and the fixation of the raytrace direction are some of them. The latter can be understood as a hidden assumption rather than an aware design step. This is usually followed by the determination of the paraxial lens layout calculated for the primary wavelength. It is obvious, that for this primary wavelength the paraxial calculations are independent of raytrace direction. Today, most of the lens designs are specified not to work only for one wavelength, but in a certain wavelength range. Considering such rays of other wavelengths, one can observe that depending on the direction there will already occur differences in the first order chromatic aberrations and additionally in the chromatic variation of the third-order aberrations. The reason for this effect are induced aberrations emerging from one surface to the following surfaces by perturbed ray heights and ray angles. It can be shown, that the total amount of surface-resolved first order chromatic aberrations and the chromatic variation of the five primary aberrations can be split into an intrinsic part and an induced part. The intrinsic part is independent of the raytrace direction whereas the induced part is not.

  1. 3D resolved mapping of optical aberrations in thick tissues

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jun; Mahou, Pierre; Schanne-Klein, Marie-Claire; Beaurepaire, Emmanuel; Débarre, Delphine

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a simple method for mapping optical aberrations with 3D resolution within thick samples. The method relies on the local measurement of the variation in image quality with externally applied aberrations. We discuss the accuracy of the method as a function of the signal strength and of the aberration amplitude and we derive the achievable resolution for the resulting measurements. We then report on measured 3D aberration maps in human skin biopsies and mouse brain slices. From these data, we analyse the consequences of tissue structure and refractive index distribution on aberrations and imaging depth in normal and cleared tissue samples. The aberration maps allow the estimation of the typical aplanetism region size over which aberrations can be uniformly corrected. This method and data pave the way towards efficient correction strategies for tissue imaging applications. PMID:22876353

  2. Gross motor control

    MedlinePlus

    Gross motor control is the ability to make large, general movements (such as waving an arm or lifting a ... Gross motor control is a milestone in the development of an infant. Infants develop gross motor control before they ...

  3. Multifocal Motor Neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Multifocal Motor Neuropathy Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump ... done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Multifocal Motor Neuropathy? Multifocal motor neuropathy is a progressive muscle disorder ...

  4. Motor patterns during active electrosensory acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Volker; Geurten, Bart R. H.; Sanguinetti-Scheck, Juan I.; Gómez-Sena, Leonel; Engelmann, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Motor patterns displayed during active electrosensory acquisition of information seem to be an essential part of a sensory strategy by which weakly electric fish actively generate and shape sensory flow. These active sensing strategies are expected to adaptively optimize ongoing behavior with respect to either motor efficiency or sensory information gained. The tight link between the motor domain and sensory perception in active electrolocation make weakly electric fish like Gnathonemus petersii an ideal system for studying sensory-motor interactions in the form of active sensing strategies. Analyzing the movements and electric signals of solitary fish during unrestrained exploration of objects in the dark, we here present the first formal quantification of motor patterns used by fish during electrolocation. Based on a cluster analysis of the kinematic values we categorized the basic units of motion. These were then analyzed for their associative grouping to identify and extract short coherent chains of behavior. This enabled the description of sensory behavior on different levels of complexity: from single movements, over short behaviors to more complex behavioral sequences during which the kinematics alter between different behaviors. We present detailed data for three classified patterns and provide evidence that these can be considered as motor components of active sensing strategies. In accordance with the idea of active sensing strategies, we found categorical motor patterns to be modified by the sensory context. In addition these motor patterns were linked with changes in the temporal sampling in form of differing electric organ discharge frequencies and differing spatial distributions. The ability to detect such strategies quantitatively will allow future research to investigate the impact of such behaviors on sensing. PMID:24904337

  5. The Relationship between Behavior Ratings and Concurrent and Subsequent Mental and Motor Performance in Toddlers Born at Extremely Low Birth Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messinger, Daniel; Lambert, Brittany; Bauer, Charles R.; Bann, Carla M.; Hamlin-Smith, Kasey; Das, Abhik

    2010-01-01

    When predicting child developmental outcomes, reliance on children's scores on measures of developmental functioning alone might mask more subtle behavioral difficulties, especially in children with developmental risk factors. The current study examined predictors and stability of examiner behavior ratings and their association with concurrent and…

  6. Detecting independent and recurrent copy number aberrations using interval graphs

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hsin-Ta; Hajirasouliha, Iman; Raphael, Benjamin J.

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: Somatic copy number aberrations (SCNAs) are frequent in cancer genomes, but many of these are random, passenger events. A common strategy to distinguish functional aberrations from passengers is to identify those aberrations that are recurrent across multiple samples. However, the extensive variability in the length and position of SCNAs makes the problem of identifying recurrent aberrations notoriously difficult. Results: We introduce a combinatorial approach to the problem of identifying independent and recurrent SCNAs, focusing on the key challenging of separating the overlaps in aberrations across individuals into independent events. We derive independent and recurrent SCNAs as maximal cliques in an interval graph constructed from overlaps between aberrations. We efficiently enumerate all such cliques, and derive a dynamic programming algorithm to find an optimal selection of non-overlapping cliques, resulting in a very fast algorithm, which we call RAIG (Recurrent Aberrations from Interval Graphs). We show that RAIG outperforms other methods on simulated data and also performs well on data from three cancer types from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). In contrast to existing approaches that employ various heuristics to select independent aberrations, RAIG optimizes a well-defined objective function. We show that this allows RAIG to identify rare aberrations that are likely functional, but are obscured by overlaps with larger passenger aberrations. Availability: http://compbio.cs.brown.edu/software. Contact: braphael@brown.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:24931984

  7. Peripheral Aberrations and Image Quality for Contact Lens Correction

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jie; Thibos, Larry N.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Contact lenses reduced the degree of hyperopic field curvature present in myopic eyes and rigid contact lenses reduced sphero-cylindrical image blur on the peripheral retina, but their effect on higher order aberrations and overall optical quality of the eye in the peripheral visual field is still unknown. The purpose of our study was to evaluate peripheral wavefront aberrations and image quality across the visual field before and after contact lens correction. Methods A commercial Hartmann-Shack aberrometer was used to measure ocular wavefront errors in 5° steps out to 30° of eccentricity along the horizontal meridian in uncorrected eyes and when the same eyes are corrected with soft or rigid contact lenses. Wavefront aberrations and image quality were determined for the full elliptical pupil encountered in off-axis measurements. Results Ocular higher-order aberrations increase away from fovea in the uncorrected eye. Third-order aberrations are larger and increase faster with eccentricity compared to the other higher-order aberrations. Contact lenses increase all higher-order aberrations except 3rd-order Zernike terms. Nevertheless, a net increase in image quality across the horizontal visual field for objects located at the foveal far point is achieved with rigid lenses, whereas soft contact lenses reduce image quality. Conclusions Second order aberrations limit image quality more than higher-order aberrations in the periphery. Although second-order aberrations are reduced by contact lenses, the resulting gain in image quality is partially offset by increased amounts of higher-order aberrations. To fully realize the benefits of correcting higher-order aberrations in the peripheral field requires improved correction of second-order aberrations as well. PMID:21873925

  8. Chromosomal aberrations in ISS crew members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johannes, Christian; Goedecke, Wolfgang; Antonopoulos, Alexandra

    2012-07-01

    High energy radiation is a major risk factor in manned space missions. Astronauts and cosmonauts are exposed to ionising radiations of cosmic and solar origin, while on the Earth's surface people are well protected by the atmosphere and a deflecting magnetic field. There are now data available describing the dose and the quality of ionising radiation on-board of the International Space Station (ISS). Nonetheless, the effect of increased radiation dose on mutation rates of ISS crew members are hard to predict. Therefore, direct measurements of mutation rates are required in order to better estimate the radiation risk for longer duration missions. The analysis of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes is a well established method to measure radiation-induced mutations. We present data of chromosome aberration analyses from lymphocyte metaphase spreads of ISS crew members participating in short term (10-14 days) or long term (around 6 months) missions. From each subject we received two blood samples. The first sample was drawn about 10 days before launch and a second one within 3 days after return from flight. From lymphocyte cultures metaphase plates were prepared on glass slides. Giemsa stained and in situ hybridised metaphases were scored for chromosome changes in pre-flight and post-flight blood samples and the mutation rates were compared. Results obtained in chromosomal studies on long-term flight crew members showed pronounced inter-individual differences in the response to elevated radiation levels. Overall slight but significant elevations of typical radiation induced aberrations, i.e., dicentric chromosomes and reciprocal translocations have been observed. Our data indicate no elevation of mutation rates due to short term stays on-board the ISS.

  9. Hexapod kinematics for secondary mirror aberration control .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schipani, P.

    This work deals with active correction of the aberrations in a telescope by moving the secondary mirror. A special attention is dedicated to the case of a secondary mirror whose motions are controlled by a 6-6 Stewart Platform (generally called by astronomers simply "hexapod", even if this term is more general). The kinematics of the device is studied. The non trivial forward kinematics problem is solved by an iterative algorithm fitting the necessities of an active optics system and fast enough to be used in a closed loop feedback control.

  10. Aberrant splicing and drug resistance in AML.

    PubMed

    de Necochea-Campion, Rosalia; Shouse, Geoffrey P; Zhou, Qi; Mirshahidi, Saied; Chen, Chien-Shing

    2016-01-01

    The advent of next-generation sequencing technologies has unveiled a new window into the heterogeneity of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In particular, recurrent mutations in spliceosome machinery and genome-wide aberrant splicing events have been recognized as a prominent component of this disease. This review will focus on how these factors influence drug resistance through altered splicing of tumor suppressor and oncogenes and dysregulation of the apoptotic signaling network. A better understanding of these factors in disease progression is necessary to design appropriate therapeutic strategies recognizing specific alternatively spliced or mutated oncogenic targets. PMID:27613060

  11. Which motor cortical region best predicts imagined movement?

    PubMed

    Park, Chang-Hyun; Chang, Won Hyuk; Lee, Minji; Kwon, Gyu Hyun; Kim, Laehyun; Kim, Sung Tae; Kim, Yun-Hee

    2015-06-01

    In brain-computer interfacing (BCI), motor imagery is used to provide a gateway to an effector action or behavior. However, in contrast to the main functional role of the primary motor cortex (M1) in motor execution, the M1's involvement in motor imagery has been debated, while the roles of secondary motor areas such as the premotor cortex (PMC) and supplementary motor area (SMA) in motor imagery have been proposed. We examined which motor cortical region had the greatest predictive ability for imagined movement among the primary and secondary motor areas. For two modes of motor performance, executed movement and imagined movement, in 12 healthy subjects who performed two types of motor task, hand grasping and hand rotation, we used the multivariate Bayes method to compare predictive ability between the primary and secondary motor areas (M1, PMC, and SMA) contralateral to the moved hand. With the distributed representation of activation, executed movement was best predicted from the M1 while imagined movement from the SMA, among the three motor cortical regions, in both types of motor task. In addition, the most predictive information about the distinction between executed movement and imagined movement was contained in the M1. The greater predictive ability of the SMA for imagined movement suggests its functional role that could be applied to motor imagery-based BCI. PMID:25800212

  12. Motor control for a brushless DC motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, William J. (Inventor); Faulkner, Dennis T. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to a motor control system for a brushless DC motor having an inverter responsively coupled to the motor control system and in power transmitting relationship to the motor. The motor control system includes a motor rotor speed detecting unit that provides a pulsed waveform signal proportional to rotor speed. This pulsed waveform signal is delivered to the inverter to thereby cause an inverter fundamental current waveform output to the motor to be switched at a rate proportional to said rotor speed. In addition, the fundamental current waveform is also pulse width modulated at a rate proportional to the rotor speed. A fundamental current waveform phase advance circuit is controllingly coupled to the inverter. The phase advance circuit is coupled to receive the pulsed waveform signal from the motor rotor speed detecting unit and phase advance the pulsed waveform signal as a predetermined function of motor speed to thereby cause the fundamental current waveform to be advanced and thereby compensate for fundamental current waveform lag due to motor winding reactance which allows the motor to operate at higher speeds than the motor is rated while providing optimal torque and therefore increased efficiency.

  13. Lymphocyte chromosomal aberration assay in radiation biodosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Agrawala, Paban K.; Adhikari, J. S.; Chaudhury, N. K.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiations, whether medical, occupational or accidental, leads to deleterious biological consequences like mortality or carcinogenesis. It is considered that no dose of ionizing radiation exposure is safe. However, once the accurate absorbed dose is estimated, one can be given appropriate medical care and the severe consequences can be minimized. Though several accurate physical dose estimation modalities exist, it is essential to estimate the absorbed dose in biological system taking into account the individual variation in radiation response, so as to plan suitable medical care. Over the last several decades, lots of efforts have been taken to design a rapid and easy biological dosimeter requiring minimum invasive procedures. The metaphase chromosomal aberration assay in human lymphocytes, though is labor intensive and requires skilled individuals, still remains the gold standard for radiation biodosimetry. The current review aims at discussing the human lymphocyte metaphase chromosomal aberration assay and recent developments involving the application of molecular cytogenetic approaches and other technological advancements to make the assay more authentic and simple to use even in the events of mass radiation casualties. PMID:21829315

  14. Memory aberrations, transliminality, and delusional ideation.

    PubMed

    Dagnall, Neil; Munley, Gary; Parker, Andrew

    2008-02-01

    This study investigated the relationships between cognitive-perceptual personality dimensions (transliminality and delusional ideation) and self-report measures of memory error (Oblivion Scale and the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire). 100 full- and part-time psychology undergraduate students completed the measures (18 men and 82 women; M = 19.3 yr., SD = 4.4). A positive correlation was found between transliminality and reported memory aberrations (Oblivion Scale scores) and also between transliminality and Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire scores. Correlations were positive between Peters, et al. Delusions Inventory and the self-report memory measures. Transliminality and Peters, et al. Delusions Inventory scores predicted the number of memory aberrations or slips reported on the Oblivion Scale and Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire. To explore whether transliminality explained additional variance to that accounted for by the Peters, et al. Delusions Inventory, forward regression was applied and showed aspects of transliminality not accounted for by Peters, et al. Delusions Inventory did not explain additional variance within the self-report memory measures. PMID:18459357

  15. Eye aberration analysis with Zernike polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molebny, Vasyl V.; Chyzh, Igor H.; Sokurenko, Vyacheslav M.; Pallikaris, Ioannis G.; Naoumidis, Leonidas P.

    1998-06-01

    New horizons for accurate photorefractive sight correction, afforded by novel flying spot technologies, require adequate measurements of photorefractive properties of an eye. Proposed techniques of eye refraction mapping present results of measurements for finite number of points of eye aperture, requiring to approximate these data by 3D surface. A technique of wave front approximation with Zernike polynomials is described, using optimization of the number of polynomial coefficients. Criterion of optimization is the nearest proximity of the resulted continuous surface to the values calculated for given discrete points. Methodology includes statistical evaluation of minimal root mean square deviation (RMSD) of transverse aberrations, in particular, varying consecutively the values of maximal coefficient indices of Zernike polynomials, recalculating the coefficients, and computing the value of RMSD. Optimization is finished at minimal value of RMSD. Formulas are given for computing ametropia, size of the spot of light on retina, caused by spherical aberration, coma, and astigmatism. Results are illustrated by experimental data, that could be of interest for other applications, where detailed evaluation of eye parameters is needed.

  16. Effects of optical aberration on chromotomographic reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tervo, Ryan; Hawks, Michael; Perram, Glen; Fickus, Matthew

    2014-06-01

    Chromotomography is a form of hyperspectral imaging that utilizes a spinning diffractive element to resolve a rapidly evolving scene. The system captures both spatial dimensions and the spectral dimension at the same time. Advanced algorithms take the recorded dispersed images and use them to construct the data cube in which each reconstructed image is the recorded scene at a specific wavelength. A simulation tool has been developed which uses Zemax to accurately trace rays through real or proposed optical systems. The simulation is used here to explore the limitations of tomographic reconstruction in both idealized and aberrated imaging systems. Results of the study show the accuracy of reconstructed images depends upon the content of the original target scene, the number of projections measured, and the angle through which the prism is rotated. For cases studied here, 20 projections are sufficient to achieve image quality 99.5±1% of the max value. Reconstructed image quality degrades with aberrations, but no worse than equivalent conventional imagers.

  17. Relationships between chromosome structure and chromosomal aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eidelman, Yuri; Andreev, Sergey

    An interphase nucleus of human lymphocyte was simulated by the novel Monte Carlo tech-nique. The main features of interphase chromosome structure and packaging were taken into account: different levels of chromatin organisation; nonrandom localisation of chromosomes within a nucleus; chromosome loci dynamics. All chromosomes in a nucleus were modelled as polymer globules. A dynamic pattern of intra/interchromosomal contacts was simulated. The detailed information about chromosomal contacts, such as distribution of intrachromoso-mal contacts over the length of each chromosome and dependence of contact probability on genomic separation between chromosome loci, were calculated and compared to the new exper-imental data obtained by the Hi-C technique. Types and frequencies of simple and complex radiation-induced chromosomal exchange aberrations (CA) induced by X-rays were predicted with taking formation and decay of chromosomal contacts into account. Distance dependence of exchange formation probability was calculated directly. mFISH data for human lymphocytes were analysed. The calculated frequencies of simple CA agreed with the experimental data. Complex CA were underestimated despite the dense packaging of chromosome territories within a nucleus. Possible influence of chromosome-nucleus structural organisation on the frequency and spectrum of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations is discussed.

  18. Correcting Aberrations in Complex Magnet Systems for Muon Cooling Channels

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Maloney, B. Erdelyi, A. Afanaciev, R.P. Johnson, Y.S. Derbenev, V.S. Morozov

    2011-03-01

    Designing and simulating complex magnet systems needed for cooling channels in both neutrino factories and muon colliders requires innovative techniques to correct for both chromatic and spherical aberrations. Optimizing complex systems, such as helical magnets for example, is also difficult but essential. By using COSY INFINITY, a differential algebra based code, the transfer and aberration maps can be examined to discover what critical terms have the greatest influence on these aberrations.

  19. Aberrations caused by mechanical misalignments in electrostatic quadrupole lens systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranova, L. A.; Read, F. H.

    Image aberrations resulting from small misalignments in quadrupole lenses multiplets have been analysed. Analytical formulas for the coefficients of the beam displacement, astigmatism and coma associated with misalignments in a general quadrupole lens system have been derived. Numerical computations of systems of three and four quadrupole lenses have also been carried out. The aberration figures obtained for systems with and without a mechanical defect are compared. The aberration coefficients that have been obtained can be used for estimating tolerance limits for lens misalignments.

  20. Comparison of Aberrations After Standard and Customized Refractive Surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, L.; He, X.; Wang, Y.

    2013-09-01

    To detect possible differences in residual wavefront aberrations between standard and customized laser refractive surgery based onmathematical modeling, the residual optical aberrations after conventional and customized laser refractive surgery were compared accordingto the ablation profile with transition zone. The results indicated that ablation profile has a significant impact on the residual aberrations.The amount of residual aberrations for conventional correction is higher than that for customized correction. Additionally, the residualaberrations for high myopia eyes are markedly larger than those for moderate myopia eyes. For a 5 mm pupil, the main residual aberrationterm is coma and yet it is spherical aberration for a 7 mm pupil. When the pupil diameter is the same as optical zone or greater, themagnitudes of residual aberrations is obviously larger than that for a smaller pupil. In addition, the magnitudes of the residual fifth orsixth order aberrations are relatively large, especially secondary coma in a 6 mm pupil and secondary spherical aberration in a 7 mm pupil.Therefore, the customized ablation profile may be superior to the conventional correction even though the transition zone and treatmentdecentration are taken into account. However, the customized ablation profile will still induce significant amount of residual aberrations.

  1. Effect of low frequency transcutaneous magnetic stimulation on sensory and motor transmission.

    PubMed

    Leung, Albert; Shukla, Shivshil; Lee, Jacquelyn; Metzger-Smith, Valerie; He, Yifan; Chen, Jeffrey; Golshan, Shahrokh

    2015-09-01

    Peripheral nerve injury diminishes fast conducting large myelinated afferent fibers transmission but enhances smaller pain transmitting fibers firing. This aberrant afferent neuronal behavior contributes to development of chronic post-traumatic peripheral neuropathic pain (PTP-NP). Non-invasive dynamic magnetic flux stimulation has been implicated in treating PTP-NP, a condition currently not adequately addressed by other therapies including transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS). The current study assessed the effect of low frequency transcutaneous magnetic stimulation (LFTMS) on peripheral sensory thresholds, nerve conduction properties, and TENS induced fast afferent slowing effect as measured by motor and sensory conduction studies in the ulnar nerve. Results indicated sham LFTMS with TENS (Sham + TENS) significantly (P = 0.02 and 0.007, respectively) reduces sensory conduction velocity (CV) and increases sensory onset latency (OL), and motor peak latency (PL) whereas, real LFTMS with TENS (Real + TENS) reverses effects of TENS on sensory CV and OL, and significantly (P = 0.036) increases the sensory PL. LFTMS alone significantly (P < 0.05) elevates sensory PL and onset-to-peak latency. LFTMS appears to reverse TENS slowing effect on fast conducting fibers and casts a selective peripheral modulatory effect on slow conducting pain afferent fibers. PMID:25989482

  2. The Transfection of BDNF to Dopamine Neurons Potentiates the Effect of Dopamine D3 Receptor Agonist Recovering the Striatal Innervation, Dendritic Spines and Motor Behavior in an Aged Rat Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Razgado-Hernandez, Luis F.; Espadas-Alvarez, Armando J.; Reyna-Velazquez, Patricia; Sierra-Sanchez, Arturo; Anaya-Martinez, Veronica; Jimenez-Estrada, Ismael; Bannon, Michael J.; Martinez-Fong, Daniel; Aceves-Ruiz, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The progressive degeneration of the dopamine neurons of the pars compacta of substantia nigra and the consequent loss of the dopamine innervation of the striatum leads to the impairment of motor behavior in Parkinson’s disease. Accordingly, an efficient therapy of the disease should protect and regenerate the dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra and the dopamine innervation of the striatum. Nigral neurons express Brain Derived Neurotropic Factor (BDNF) and dopamine D3 receptors, both of which protect the dopamine neurons. The chronic activation of dopamine D3 receptors by their agonists, in addition, restores, in part, the dopamine innervation of the striatum. Here we explored whether the over-expression of BDNF by dopamine neurons potentiates the effect of the activation of D3 receptors restoring nigrostriatal innervation. Twelve-month old Wistar rats were unilaterally injected with 6-hydroxydopamine into the striatum. Five months later, rats were treated with the D3 agonist 7-hydroxy-N,N-di-n-propy1-2-aminotetralin (7-OH-DPAT) administered i.p. during 4½ months via osmotic pumps and the BDNF gene transfection into nigral cells using the neurotensin-polyplex nanovector (a non-viral transfection) that selectively transfect the dopamine neurons via the high-affinity neurotensin receptor expressed by these neurons. Two months after the withdrawal of 7-OH-DPAT when rats were aged (24 months old), immunohistochemistry assays were made. The over-expression of BDNF in rats receiving the D3 agonist normalized gait and motor coordination; in addition, it eliminated the muscle rigidity produced by the loss of dopamine. The recovery of motor behavior was associated with the recovery of the nigral neurons, the dopamine innervation of the striatum and of the number of dendritic spines of the striatal neurons. Thus, the over-expression of BDNF in dopamine neurons associated with the chronic activation of the D3 receptors appears to be a promising strategy for restoring

  3. Motor Function and Social Participation in Kindergarten Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bar-Haim, Yair; Bart, Orit

    2006-01-01

    This study focused on the associations between individual variations in children's motor abilities and individual differences in social participation and play behavior. Indoor and outdoor play behavior patterns of 88 kindergarten children were observed, and a battery of standard assessments of basic motor functions was administered. The findings…

  4. Altered hippocampal-dependent memory and motor function in neuropilin 2-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Shiflett, M W; Gavin, M; Tran, T S

    2015-01-01

    Semaphorins have an important role in synapse refinement in the mammalian nervous system. The class 3 semaphorin-3F (Sema3F) acting through neuropilin 2/plexin-A3 (Nrp2/PlexA3) holoreceptor complex signals in vivo to restrain apical dendritic spine morphogenesis of cortical pyramidal neurons and hippocampal neurons during postnatal development and mediates excitatory synaptic transmission. Semaphorin signaling has been implicated in the etiology of a number of neurodevelopmental disorders; however, the effects on behavior and mental function of dysregulated Sema3F-Nrp2 signaling have not been fully addressed. The present study is the first behavioral investigation of mice harboring a mutation of the nrp2 gene. Given that loss of Nrp2 signaling alters cortical and hippocampal synaptic organization, we investigated performance of nrp2-deficient mice on learning and sensorimotor function that are known to depend on cortical and hippocampal circuitry. When compared with age-matched controls, nrp2 null mice showed striking impairments in object recognition memory and preference for social novelty. In addition, nrp2(-/-) mice displayed impaired motor function in the rotarod test and in observations of grooming behavior. Exploration of novel olfactory sensory stimuli and nociception were unaffected by the loss of Nrp2. Overall, loss of Nrp2 may induce aberrant processing within hippocampal and corticostriatal networks that may contribute to neurodevelopmental disease mechanisms. PMID:25734514

  5. Motor control of fly feeding.

    PubMed

    McKellar, Claire E

    2016-06-01

    Following considerable progress on the molecular and cellular basis of taste perception in fly sensory neurons, the time is now ripe to explore how taste information, integrated with hunger and satiety, undergo a sensorimotor transformation to lead to the motor actions of feeding behavior. I examine what is known of feeding circuitry in adult flies from more than 250 years of work in larger flies and from newer work in Drosophila. I review the anatomy of the proboscis, its muscles and their functions (where known), its motor neurons, interneurons known to receive taste inputs, interneurons that diverge from taste circuitry to provide information to other circuits, interneurons from other circuits that converge on feeding circuits, proprioceptors that influence the motor control of feeding, and sites of integration of hunger and satiety on feeding circuits. In spite of the several neuron types now known, a connected pathway from taste inputs to feeding motor outputs has yet to be found. We are on the threshold of an era where these individual components will be assembled into circuits, revealing how nervous system architecture leads to the control of behavior. PMID:27309215

  6. Aberrant adenosine A2A receptor signaling contributes to neurodegeneration and cognitive impairments in a mouse model of synucleinopathy.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qidi; Ren, Xiangpeng; Liu, Ya; Li, Zhihui; Zhang, Liping; Chen, Xingjun; He, Chaoxiang; Chen, Jiang-Fan

    2016-09-01

    Synucleinopathy is characterized by abnormal accumulation of misfolded α-synuclein (α-Syn)-positive cytoplasmic inclusions and by neurodegeneration and cognitive impairments, but the pathogenesis mechanism of synucleinopathy remains to be defined. Using a transmission model of synucleinopathy by intracerebral injection of preformed A53T α-Syn fibrils, we investigated whether aberrant adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) signaling contributed to pathogenesis of synucleinopathy. We demonstrated that intra-hippocampal injection of preformed mutant α-Syn fibrils triggered a striking and selective induction of A2AR expression which was closely co-localized with pSer129 α-Syn-rich inclusions in neurons and glial cells of hippocampus. Importantly, by abolishing aberrant A2AR signaling triggered by mutant α-Syn, genetic deletion of A2ARs blunted a cascade of pathological events leading to synucleinopathy, including pSer129 α-Syn-rich and p62-positive aggregates, NF-κB activation and astrogliosis, apoptotic neuronal cell death and working memory deficits without affecting motor activity. These findings define α-Syn-triggered aberrant A2AR signaling as a critical pathogenesis mechanism of synucleinopathy with dual controls of cognition and neurodegeneration by modulating α-Syn aggregates. Thus, aberrant A2AR signaling represents a useful biomarker as well as a therapeutic target of synucleinopathy. PMID:27342081

  7. Patterns of Chromosomal Aberrations in Solid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Grade, Marian; Difilippantonio, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities are a defining feature of solid tumors. Such cytogenetic alterations are mainly classified into structural chromosomal aberrations and copy number alterations, giving rise to aneuploid karyotypes. The increasing detection of these genetic changes allowed the description of specific tumor entities and the associated patterns of gene expression. In fact, tumor-specific landscapes of gross genomic copy number changes, including aneuploidies of entire chromosome arms and chromosomes result in a global deregulation of the transcriptome of cancer cells. Furthermore, the molecular characterization of cytogenetic abnormalities has provided insights into the mechanisms of tumorigenesis and has, in a few instances, led to the clinical implementation of effective diagnostic and prognostic tools, as well as treatment strategies that target a specific genetic abnormality. PMID:26376875

  8. Patterns of Chromosomal Aberrations in Solid Tumors.

    PubMed

    Grade, Marian; Difilippantonio, Michael J; Camps, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities are a defining feature of solid tumors. Such cytogenetic alterations are mainly classified into structural chromosomal aberrations and copy number alterations, giving rise to aneuploid karyotypes. The increasing detection of these genetic changes allowed the description of specific tumor entities and the associated patterns of gene expression. In fact, tumor-specific landscapes of gross genomic copy number changes, including aneuploidies of entire chromosome arms and chromosomes result in a global deregulation of the transcriptome of cancer cells. Furthermore, the molecular characterization of cytogenetic abnormalities has provided insights into the mechanisms of tumorigenesis and has, in a few instances, led to the clinical implementation of effective diagnostic and prognostic tools, as well as treatment strategies that target a specific genetic abnormality. PMID:26376875

  9. Overlapped Fourier coding for optical aberration removal

    PubMed Central

    Horstmeyer, Roarke; Ou, Xiaoze; Chung, Jaebum; Zheng, Guoan; Yang, Changhuei

    2014-01-01

    We present an imaging procedure that simultaneously optimizes a camera’s resolution and retrieves a sample’s phase over a sequence of snapshots. The technique, termed overlapped Fourier coding (OFC), first digitally pans a small aperture across a camera’s pupil plane with a spatial light modulator. At each aperture location, a unique image is acquired. The OFC algorithm then fuses these low-resolution images into a full-resolution estimate of the complex optical field incident upon the detector. Simultaneously, the algorithm utilizes redundancies within the acquired dataset to computationally estimate and remove unknown optical aberrations and system misalignments via simulated annealing. The result is an imaging system that can computationally overcome its optical imperfections to offer enhanced resolution, at the expense of taking multiple snapshots over time. PMID:25321982

  10. Chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes from car painters.

    PubMed

    Silva, J M; Santos-Mello, R

    1996-05-01

    In the present paper we report the results of biological monitoring of a group of 25 car painters working in different automobile shops in Brasília. There was a significantly higher frequency of aneuplodies and chromosome deletions in the peripheral lymphocytes of car painters than in control subjects. We also detected a significant correlation between the time worked as a car painter and the frequency of aneuploidy. Smoking habits do not represent a significant factor in terms of production of the various types of chromosome aberrations among car painters. These results permitted us to conclude that the individuals studied represent a risk group and should be medically followed up with judicious periodic examinations. PMID:8637507

  11. Congenital Aberrant Tearing: A Re-Look

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Marilyn T.; Strömland, Kerstin; Ventura, Liana

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Congenital aberrant tearing is characterized by tearing when eating (“crocodile tears”), lack of emotional tearing, or both. Most reported cases are associated with Duane syndrome. In our previous studies we observed aberrant tearing in individuals with thalidomide embryopathy and Möbius sequence. This report summarizes the literature on the subject and adds 3 new studies that give information on this unusual condition. Methods Twenty-eight individuals with Möbius sequence were interviewed about tearing symptoms at a support group meeting in Italy. In Sweden 30 adults primarily from the original thalidomide series were reexamined. In this latter study, a Schirmer test was done at baseline and repeated 5 minutes after eating. Twenty families in Brazil who have children with Möbius sequence were questioned about tearing symptoms and exposure to misoprostol during pregnancy. Results In the 28 Italian individuals, either “crocodile tears” or lack of emotional tearing was noted in 7 cases. In the thalidomide study, 10 of 30 patients had tearing when eating and 7 had no emotional tearing. Low Schirmer scores or increased tearing after eating was noted in a few asymptomatic individuals. Among the 20 Brazilian children with Möbius sequence, 10 had some tearing abnormality. Conclusion Congenital anomalous lacrimation is rare but usually associated with Duane syndrome or abduction deficits, as in Möbius sequence and, less frequently, facial nerve palsy. Studies implicate an early insult in development at 4 to 6 weeks. At that time the facial nerve, sixth nerve, and lacrimal nucleus are in close proximity in the embryo. PMID:19277226

  12. Disc Motor: Conventional and Superconductor Simulated Results Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inácio, David; Martins, João; Neves, Mário Ventim; Álvarez, Alfredo; Rodrigues, Amadeu Leão

    Taking into consideration the development and integration of electrical machines with lower dimensions and higher performance, this paper presents the design and development of a three-phase axial flux disc motor, with 50 Hz frequency supply. It is made with two conventional semi-stators and a rotor, which can be implemented with a conventional aluminum disc or a high temperature-superconducting disc. The analysis of the motor characteristics is done with a 2D commercial finite elements package, being the modeling performed as a linear motor. The obtained results allow concluding that the superconductor motor provides a higher force than the conventional one. The conventional disc motor presents an asynchronous behavior, like a conventional induction motor, while the superconductor motor presents both synchronous and asynchronous behaviors.

  13. Using nodal aberration theory to understand the aberrations of multiple unobscured three mirror anastigmatic (TMA) telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Kevin P.; Fuerschbach, Kyle; Schmid, Tobias; Rolland, Jannick P.

    2009-08-01

    The alignment of three mirror anastigmatic (TMA) telescopes has been studied since their invention in the 60s. Recently, Thompson et al.1 reported that other than the conventional uniform coma over the field caused by misalignment, TMA telescopes display only one other misalignment induced aberration, field-asymmetric, field-linear astigmatism. Currently, an instrument with three TMAs is under development as the primary spectrometer on the James Webb Space Telescope. This paper will report on the application of Nodal Aberration Theory (NAT) to understanding the optical design of an optical system with multiple TMAs as a first step towards investigating and potentially independently analyzing the sensitivities to alignment of this key instrument.

  14. Dynamic Re-wiring of Neural Circuits in the Motor Cortex in Mouse Models of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lalchandani, Rupa R.; Cui, Yuting; Shu, Yu; Xu, Tonghui; Ding, Jun B.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Dynamic adaptations in synaptic plasticity are critical for learning new motor skills and maintaining memory throughout life, which rapidly decline with Parkinson's disease (PD). Plasticity in the motor cortex is important for acquisition and maintenance of novel motor skills, but how the loss of dopamine in PD leads to disrupted structural and functional plasticity in the motor cortex is not well understood. Here, we utilized mouse models of PD and 2-photon imaging to show that dopamine depletion resulted in structural changes in the motor cortex. We further discovered that dopamine D1 and D2 receptor signaling were linked to selectively and distinctly regulating these aberrant changes in structural and functional plasticity. Our findings suggest that both D1 and D2 receptor signaling regulate motor cortex plasticity, and loss of dopamine results in atypical synaptic adaptations that may contribute to the impairment of motor performance and motor memory observed in PD. PMID:26237365

  15. Nilotinib reverses loss of dopamine neurons and improves motor behavior via autophagic degradation of α-synuclein in Parkinson's disease models

    PubMed Central

    Hebron, Michaeline L.; Lonskaya, Irina; Moussa, Charbel E.-H.

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is a movement disorder characterized by death of dopaminergic substantia nigra (SN) neurons and brain accumulation of α-synuclein. The tyrosine kinase Abl is activated in neurodegeneration. Here, we show that lentiviral expression of α-synuclein in the mouse SN leads to Abl activation (phosphorylation) and lentiviral Abl expression increases α-synuclein levels, in agreement with Abl activation in PD brains. Administration of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor nilotinib decreases Abl activity and ameliorates autophagic clearance of α-synuclein in transgenic and lentiviral gene transfer models. Subcellular fractionation shows accumulation of α-synuclein and hyper-phosphorylated Tau (p-Tau) in autophagic vacuoles in α-synuclein expressing brains, but nilotinib enhances protein deposition into the lysosomes. Nilotinib is used for adult leukemia treatment and it enters the brain within US Food and Drug Administration approved doses, leading to autophagic degradation of α-synuclein, protection of SN neurons and amelioration of motor performance. These data suggest that nilotinib may be a therapeutic strategy to degrade α-synuclein in PD and other α-synucleinopathies. PMID:23666528

  16. Optical aberrations and alignment of the eye with age.

    PubMed

    Berrio, Esther; Tabernero, Juan; Artal, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    We explored the relative changes in ocular, corneal, and internal aberrations associated with normal aging with special emphasis in the role of ocular alignment and lens shape factor in the balance of aberrations. Ocular and corneal aberrations together with the angle kappa were measured for a 5-mm pupil diameter in 46 eyes with low refractive errors and ages ranging between 20 and 77 years. The root mean square (RMS) of the higher order ocular and corneal aberrations increased with age at a rate of 0.0032 μm/year and 0.0015 μm/year, respectively. While in young eyes the partial compensation of aberrations by the internal surfaces was clear, no significant difference was found between corneal and ocular RMS in the older group. The ocular spherical aberration (0.0011 μm/year) and horizontal coma (0.0017 μm/year) increased moderately with age. This is not due to changes in the optical alignment, since angle kappa did not vary significantly with age. Age-related variations in the radii of curvature of the crystalline lens modify slightly its shape factor, reducing the compensation of lateral coma. This suggests that geometrical changes in the crystalline lens with age contribute to modify its aberration structure, reducing the compensation mechanism and explaining most of the measured increment of ocular aberrations with age. PMID:21196516

  17. Sextupole system for the correction of spherical aberration

    DOEpatents

    Crewe, A.V.; Kopf, D.A.

    In an electron beam device in which an electron beam is developed and then focused by a lens to a particular spot, there is provided a means for eliminating spherical aberration. A sextupole electromagnetic lens is positioned between two focusing lenses. The interaction of the sextupole with the beam compensates for spherical aberration. (GHT)

  18. Modified Matching Ronchi Test to Visualize Lens Aberrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassani, Kh; Ziafi, H. Hooshmand

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a modification to the matching Ronchi test to visualize lens aberrations with simple and inexpensive equipment available in educational optics labs. This method can help instructors and students to observe and estimate lens aberrations in real time. It is also a semi-quantitative tool for primary tests in research labs. In this work…

  19. Optical aberrations measurement with a low cost optometric instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furlan, Walter D.; Muñoz-Escrivá, L.; Pons, A.; Martínez-Corral, M.

    2002-08-01

    A simple experimental method for measuring optical aberrations of a single lens is proposed. The technique is based on the use of an optometric instrument employed for the assessment of the refractive state of the eye: the retinoscope. Experimental results for spherical aberration and astigmatism are obtained.

  20. Adaptive aberration correction using a triode hyperbolic electron mirror.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, J P S; Word, R C; Könenkamp, R

    2011-01-01

    A converging electron mirror can be used to compensate spherical and chromatic aberrations in an electron microscope. This paper presents an analytical solution to a novel triode (three electrode) hyperbolic mirror as an improvement to the well-known diode (two electrode) hyperbolic mirror for aberration correction. A weakness of the diode mirror is a lack of flexibility in changing the chromatic and spherical aberration coefficients independently without changes in the mirror geometry. In order to remove this limitation, a third electrode can be added. We calculate the optical properties of the resulting triode mirror analytically on the basis of a simple model field distribution. We present the optical properties-the object/image distance, z(0), and the coefficients of spherical and chromatic aberration, C(s) and C(c), of both mirror types from an analysis of electron trajectories in the mirror field. From this analysis, we demonstrate that while the properties of both designs are similar, the additional parameters in the triode mirror improve the range of aberration that can be corrected. The triode mirror is also able to provide a dynamic adjustment range of chromatic aberration for fixed spherical aberration and focal length, or any permutation of these three parameters. While the dynamic range depends on the values of aberration correction needed, a nominal 10% tuning range is possible for most configurations accompanied by less than 1% change in the other two properties. PMID:21930022

  1. Aberration analysis calculations for synchrotron radiation beamline design

    SciTech Connect

    McKinney, W.R.; Howells, M.; Padmore, H.A.

    1997-09-01

    The application of ray deviation calculations based on aberration coefficients for a single optical surface for the design of beamline optical systems is reviewed. A systematic development is presented which allows insight into which aberration may be causing the rays to deviate from perfect focus. A new development allowing analytical calculation of line shape is presented.

  2. Aberrant regeneration in idiopathic oculomotor nerve palsy: case report.

    PubMed

    Laguna, J F; Smith, M S

    1980-06-01

    Aberrant regeneration of the oculomotor nerve usually follows injury to the nerve by posterior communicating arty aneurysms or trauma. A case of idiopathic third nerve palsy with pupillary involvement occurred in an otherwise healthy 38-year-old man. Follow-up examination 32 months later showed evidence of oculomotor function with aberrant regeneration. PMID:7381547

  3. Neural correlates of behavior therapy for Tourette's disorder.

    PubMed

    Deckersbach, Thilo; Chou, Tina; Britton, Jennifer C; Carlson, Lindsay E; Reese, Hannah E; Siev, Jedidiah; Scahill, Lawrence; Piacentini, John C; Woods, Douglas W; Walkup, John T; Peterson, Alan L; Dougherty, Darin D; Wilhelm, Sabine

    2014-12-30

    Tourette's disorder, also called Tourette syndrome (TS), is characterized by motor and vocal tics that can cause significant impairment in daily functioning. Tics are believed to be due to failed inhibition of both associative and motor cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical pathways. Comprehensive Behavioral Intervention for Tics (CBIT), which is an extension of Habit Reversal Therapy (HRT), teaches patients to become more aware of sensations that reliably precede tics (premonitory urges) and to initiate competing movements that inhibit the occurrence of tics. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural changes associated with CBIT treatment in subjects with TS. Eight subjects with TS were matched with eight healthy controls in gender, education, age, and handedness. Subjects completed the Visuospatial Priming (VSP) task, a measure of response inhibition, during fMRI scanning before and after CBIT treatment (or waiting period for controls). For TS subjects, we found a significant decrease in striatal (putamen) activation from pre- to post-treatment. Change in VSP task-related activation from pre- to post-treatment in Brodmann's area 47 (the inferior frontal gyrus) was negatively correlated with changes in tic severity. CBIT may promote normalization of aberrant cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical associative and motor pathways in individuals with TS. PMID:25444535

  4. Neural correlates of behavior therapy for Tourette’s disorder

    PubMed Central

    Deckersbach, Thilo; Chou, Tina; Britton, Jennifer C.; Carlson, Lindsay E.; Reese, Hannah E.; Siev, Jedidiah; Scahill, Lawrence; Piacentini, John C.; Woods, Douglas W.; Walkup, John T.; Peterson, Alan L.; Dougherty, Darin D.; Wilhelm, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Tourette’s disorder, also called Tourette syndrome (TS), is characterized by motor and vocal tics that can cause significant impairment in daily functioning. Tics are believed to be due to failed inhibition of both associative and motor cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical pathways. Comprehensive Behavioral Intervention for Tics (CBIT), which is an extension of Habit Reversal Therapy (HRT), teaches patients to become more aware of sensations that reliably precede tics (premonitory urges) and to initiate competing movements that inhibit the occurrence of tics. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural changes associated with CBIT treatment in subjects with TS. Eight subjects with TS were matched with eight healthy controls in gender, education, age, and handedness. Subjects completed the Visuospatial Priming (VSP) task, a measure of response inhibition, during fMRI scanning before and after CBIT treatment (or waiting period for controls). For TS subjects, we found a significant decrease in striatal (putamen) activation from pre- to post-treatment. Change in VSP task-related activation from pre- to post-treatment in Brodmann’s area 47 (the inferior frontal gyrus) was negatively correlated with changes in tic severity. CBIT may promote normalization of aberrant cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical associative and motor pathways in individuals with TS. PMID:25444535

  5. The US motor systems market assessment: Overview and preliminary findings

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, M.

    1997-07-01

    This paper summarizes the current status of the US Motor Systems Market Assessment. This component of the US Department of Energy's Motor Challenge program will provide a detailed portrait of the inventory of motor systems currently in use in US industrial facilities and a baseline characterization current practice in regard to motor system component selection, system design, maintenance, and management. This equipment and behavioral baseline will be used to target Motor Challenge program activities and to evaluate the program's impact on the motor systems markets. This paper presents an overview and selected findings from the project's principal research activities: a review of secondary sources on motor systems markets and inventory; compilation and reanalysis of existing primary information on the motor systems inventory; and an on-site survey of 300 industrial facilities.

  6. Erratum: cosmological parameter estimation: impact of CMB aberration Erratum: cosmological parameter estimation: impact of CMB aberration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catena, Riccardo; Notari, Alessio

    2013-07-01

    The peculiar motion of an observer with respect to the CMB rest frame induces an apparent deflection of the observed CMB photons, i.e. aberration, and a shift in their frequency, i.e. Doppler effect. Both effects distort the temperature multipoles alm's via a mixing matrix at any l. The common lore when performing a CMB based cosmological parameter estimation is to consider that Doppler affects only the l = 1 multipole, and neglect any other corrections. In ref. [1] we checked the validity of this assumption in parameter estimation for a Planck-like angular resolution, both for a full-sky ideal experiment and also when sky cuts are included to model CMB foreground contaminations with a sky fraction similar to the Planck satellite. The result to this analysis was that aberration and Doppler have a sizable impact on a CMB based parameter estimation. In this erratum we correct an error made in ref. [1] when comparing pseudo angular power spectra computed in the CMB rest frame with the ones measured by a moving observer. Properly comparing the two spectra we find now that although the corrections to the Cl due to aberration and Doppler are larger than the cosmic variance at l > 1000 and potentially important, the resulting bias on the parameters is negligible for Planck.

  7. Aberrations of the cathode objective lens up to fifth order.

    PubMed

    Tromp, R M; Wan, W; Schramm, S M

    2012-08-01

    In this paper we discuss a topic that was close to Prof. Gertrude Rempfer s interests for many years. On this occasion of her 100th birthday, we remember and honor Gertrude for her many outstanding contributions, and for the inspiring example that she set. We derive theoretical expressions for the aberration coefficients of the uniform electrostatic field up to 5th order and compare these with raytracing calculations for the cathode lens used in Low Energy Electron Microscopy and Photo Electron Emission Microscopy experiments. These higher order aberration coefficients are of interest for aberration corrected experiments in which chromatic (C(c)) and spherical (C₃) aberrations of the microscope are set to zero. The theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the results of raytracing. Calculations of image resolution using the Contrast Transfer Function method show that sub-nanometer resolution is achievable in an aberration corrected LEEM system. PMID:22188906

  8. Surgical and healing changes to ocular aberrations following refractive surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, Jochen; Schwiegerling, Jim

    2003-07-01

    Purpose: To measure ocular aberrations before and at several time periods after LASIK surgery to determine the change to the aberration structure of the eye. Methods: A Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor was used to measure 88 LASIK patients pre-operatively and at 1 week and 12 months following surgery. Reconstructed wavefront errors are compared to look at induced differences. Manifest refraction was measured at 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months and 12 months following surgery. Sphere, cylinder, spherical aberration, and pupil diameter are analyzed. Results: A dramatic elevation in spherical aberration is seen following surgery. This elevation appears almost immediately and remains for the duration of the study. A temporary increase in pupil size is seen following surgery. Conclusions: LASIK surgery dramatically reduces defocus and astigmatism in the eye, but simultaneously increases spherical aberration levels. This increase occurs at the time of surgery and is not an effect of the healing response.

  9. Chaos in ocular aberration dynamics of the human eye

    PubMed Central

    Hampson, Karen M.; Mallen, Edward A. H.

    2012-01-01

    Since the characterization of the eye’s monochromatic aberration fluctuations in 2001, the power spectrum has remained the most widely used method for analyzing their dynamics. However, the power spectrum does not capture the complexities of the fluctuations. We measured the monochromatic aberration dynamics of six subjects using a Shack-Hartmann sensor sampling at 21 Hz. We characterized the dynamics using techniques from chaos theory. We found that the attractor embedding dimension for all aberrations, for all subjects, was equal to three. The embedding lag averaged across aberrations and subjects was 0.31 ± 0.07 s. The Lyapunov exponent of the rms wavefront error was positive for each subject, with an average value of 0.44 ± 0.15 µm/s. This indicates that the aberration dynamics are chaotic. Implications for future modeling are discussed. PMID:22567581

  10. Correction of spherochromatic aberration by system of thin layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miks, A.; Novak, J.

    2005-08-01

    It is well-known from the theory of optical imaging that optical systems generally show a presence of a chromatic aberration, which originates from a variation of the refraction index of glass on the wavelength of light. The chromatic aberration must be well corrected in order to obtain a good quality of optical image. In practice, it is used a proper combination of optical elements manufactured from different types of optical glass with a different dispersion in order to suppress the chromatic aberration. Our work shows a way how to correct spherochromatic aberration using a system of thin aspherical layers. The equations are derived for determination of parameters of thin layers with respect to a required spherochromatic aberration.

  11. Monochromatic aberrations in resonant optical elements applied to a focusing multilevel reflectarray.

    PubMed

    Ginn, James; Alda, Javier; Gómez-Pedrero, José Antonio; Boreman, Glenn

    2010-05-24

    The monochromatic aberrations produced by the phase distribution reflected by resonant sub-wavelength metallic structures are studied both analytically and numerically. Even for normal incidence, the angular dependence of the re-radiated wavefront disturbs the overall performance of the reflectarray. This effect is modelled as combination of a linear and a cubic dependence. A complete numerical simulation of a multilevel focusing reflectarray is performed using computational-electromagnetic and physical-optics-propagation methods. A modified Strehl ratio is defined to show the dependence of the focused spot behavior on aperture. The irradiance distribution is dependent on the polarization state. A small-aperture focusing reflectarray has been designed, fabricated, and tested. The irradiance distribution at the focusing plane is compared with the simulated one, showing a good agreement when residual wavefront aberrations are included. PMID:20588948

  12. Ignition transient analysis of solid rocket motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Samuel S.

    A 1-D numerical model based on the SIMPLE is developed to predict the pressure and thrust behavior of space shuttle solid rocket motors. The present model solves the conservation equations through the attached nozzle as well as in the combustion chamber. Numerical results were seen to agree qualitatively well with the test data by controlling the wetted perimeter in the head-end star-section of the motor and the erosive burning rate of the solid propellent.

  13. Traffic of cytoskeletal motors with disordered attachment rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzeschik, H.; Harris, R. J.; Santen, L.

    2010-03-01

    Motivated by experimental results on the interplay between molecular motors and tau proteins, we extend lattice-based models of intracellular transport to include a second species of particle which locally influences the motor-filament attachment rate. We consider various exactly solvable limits of a stochastic multiparticle model before focusing on the low-motor-density regime. Here, an approximate treatment based on the random-walk behavior of single motors gives good quantitative agreement with simulation results for the tau dependence of the motor current. Finally, we discuss the possible physiological implications of our results.

  14. Aberrant Salience Is Related to Reduced Reinforcement Learning Signals and Elevated Dopamine Synthesis Capacity in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Boehme, Rebecca; Deserno, Lorenz; Gleich, Tobias; Katthagen, Teresa; Pankow, Anne; Behr, Joachim; Buchert, Ralph; Roiser, Jonathan P; Heinz, Andreas; Schlagenhauf, Florian

    2015-07-15

    The striatum is known to play a key role in reinforcement learning, specifically in the encoding of teaching signals such as reward prediction errors (RPEs). It has been proposed that aberrant salience attribution is associated with impaired coding of RPE and heightened dopamine turnover in the striatum, and might be linked to the development of psychotic symptoms. However, the relationship of aberrant salience attribution, RPE coding, and dopamine synthesis capacity has not been directly investigated. Here we assessed the association between a behavioral measure of aberrant salience attribution, the salience attribution test, to neural correlates of RPEs measured via functional magnetic resonance imaging while healthy participants (n = 58) performed an instrumental learning task. A subset of participants (n = 27) also underwent positron emission tomography with the radiotracer [(18)F]fluoro-l-DOPA to quantify striatal presynaptic dopamine synthesis capacity. Individual variability in aberrant salience measures related negatively to ventral striatal and prefrontal RPE signals and in an exploratory analysis was found to be positively associated with ventral striatal presynaptic dopamine levels. These data provide the first evidence for a specific link between the constructs of aberrant salience attribution, reduced RPE processing, and potentially increased presynaptic dopamine function. PMID:26180188

  15. Directed flux motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Andrew (Inventor); Punnoose, Andrew (Inventor); Strausser, Katherine (Inventor); Parikh, Neil (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A directed flux motor described utilizes the directed magnetic flux of at least one magnet through ferrous material to drive different planetary gear sets to achieve capabilities in six actuated shafts that are grouped three to a side of the motor. The flux motor also utilizes an interwoven magnet configuration which reduces the overall size of the motor. The motor allows for simple changes to modify the torque to speed ratio of the gearing contained within the motor as well as simple configurations for any number of output shafts up to six. The changes allow for improved manufacturability and reliability within the design.

  16. Unstable force analysis for induction motor eccentricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xu; Palazzolo, Alan

    2016-05-01

    The increasing popularity of motors in machinery trains has led to an intensified interest in the forces they produce that may influence machinery vibration. Motor design typically assumes a uniform air gap, however in practice all motors operate with the rotor slightly displaced from the motor centerline in what is referred to as an eccentric position. Rotor center eccentricity can cause a radially unbalanced magnetic field when the motor is operating. This will results in both a radial force pulling the motor further away from the center, and a tangential force which can induce a vibration stability problem. In this paper, a magnetic equivalent circuit MEC modeling method is proposed to calculate both the radial and tangential motor eccentric force. The treatment of tangential force determination is rarely addressed, but it is very important for rotordynamic vibration stability evaluation. The proposed model is also coupled with the motor electric circuit model to provide capability for transient vibration simulations. FEM is used to verify the MEC model. A parametric study is performed on the motor radial and tangential eccentric forces. Also a Jeffcott rotor model is used to study the influence of the motor eccentric force on mechanical vibration stability and nonlinear behavior. Furthermore, a stability criteria for the bearing damping is provided. The motor radial and tangential eccentric forces are both curved fitted to include their nonlinearity in time domain transient simulation for both a Jeffcott rotor model and a geared machinery train with coupled torsional-lateral motion. Nonlinear motions are observed, including limit cycles and bifurcation induced vibration amplitude jumps.

  17. Astrocyte Hypertrophy Contributes to Aberrant Neurogenesis after Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Clark; Apgar, Christopher; Shapiro, Lee A.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a widespread epidemic with severe cognitive, affective, and behavioral consequences. TBIs typically result in a relatively rapid inflammatory and neuroinflammatory response. A major component of the neuroinflammatory response is astrocytes, a type of glial cell in the brain. Astrocytes are important in maintaining the integrity of neuronal functioning, and it is possible that astrocyte hypertrophy after TBIs might contribute to pathogenesis. The hippocampus is a unique brain region, because neurogenesis persists in adults. Accumulating evidence supports the functional importance of these newborn neurons and their associated astrocytes. Alterations to either of these cell types can influence neuronal functioning. To determine if hypertrophied astrocytes might negatively influence immature neurons in the dentate gyrus, astrocyte and newborn neurons were analyzed at 30 days following a TBI in mice. The results demonstrate a loss of radial glial-like processes extending through the granule cell layer after TBI, as well as ectopic growth and migration of immature dentate neurons. The results further show newborn neurons in close association with hypertrophied astrocytes, suggesting a role for the astrocytes in aberrant neurogenesis. Future studies are needed to determine the functional significance of these alterations to the astrocyte/immature neurons after TBI. PMID:27274873

  18. LSST Telescope Alignment Plan Based on Nodal Aberration Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebag, J.; Gressler, W.; Schmid, T.; Rolland, J. P.; Thompson, K. P.

    2012-04-01

    The optical alignment of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is potentially challenging, due to its fast three-mirror optical design and its large 3.5° field of view (FOV). It is highly advantageous to align the three-mirror optical system prior to the integration of the complex science camera on the telescope, which corrects the FOV via three refractive elements and includes the operational wavefront sensors. A telescope alignment method based on nodal aberration theory (NAT) is presented here to address this challenge. Without the science camera installed on the telescope, the on-axis imaging performance of the telescope is diffraction-limited, but the field of view is not corrected. The nodal properties of the three-mirror telescope design have been analyzed and an alignment approach has been developed using the intrinsically linear nodal behavior, which is linked via sensitivities to the misalignment parameters. Since mirror figure errors will exist in any real application, a methodology to introduce primary-mirror figure errors into the analysis has been developed and is also presented.

  19. The Lunacy of It All: Lunar Phases and Human Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotton, James; Kelly, Ivan W.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between aberrant human behavior and phases of the moon. Reviews media influence, myth, superstition and pseudoscience. Examines studies purporting to have found relationships between moon phases and behavior. (JM)

  20. Effect of optical aberrations on image quality and visual performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravikumar, Sowmya

    In addition to the effects of diffraction, retinal image quality in the human eye is degraded by optical aberrations. Although the paraxial geometric optics description of defocus consists of a simple blurred circle whose size determines the extent of blur, in reality the interactions between monochromatic and chromatic aberrations create a complex pattern of retinal image degradation. My thesis work hypothesizes that although both monochromatic and chromatic optical aberrations in general reduce image quality from best achievable, the underlying causes of retinal image quality degradation are characteristic of the nature of the aberration, its interactions with other aberrations as well as the composition of the stimulus. To establish a controlled methodology, a computational model of the retinal image with various levels of aberrations was used to create filters equivalent to those produced by real optical aberrations. Visual performance was measured psychophysically by using these special filters that separately modulated amplitude and phase in the retinal image. In order to include chromatic aberration into the optical interactions, a computational polychromatic model of the eye was created and validated. The model starts with monochromatic wavefront maps and derives a composite white light point-spread function whose quality was assessed using metrics of image quality. Finally, in order to assess the effectiveness of simultaneous multifocal intra-ocular lenses in correcting the eye's optical aberrations, a polychromatic computational model of a pseudophakic eye was constructed. This model incorporated the special chromatic properties unique to an eye corrected with hybrid refractive-diffractive optical elements. Results showed that normal optical aberrations reduced visual performance not only by reducing image contrast but also by altering the phase structure of the image. Longitudinal chromatic aberration had a greater effect on image quality in isolation

  1. Motor-skill learning-associated gene regulation in the striatum: effects of cocaine.

    PubMed

    Willuhn, Ingo; Steiner, Heinz

    2006-12-01

    Psychostimulant-induced molecular changes in cortico-basal ganglia-cortical circuits play a critical role in addiction and dependence. These changes include alterations in gene regulation particularly in projection neurons of the sensorimotor striatum. We previously showed that cocaine-induced gene regulation in such neurons is dependent on the behavior performed during drug action. Rats trained on a running wheel under the influence of cocaine for 4 days subsequently displayed greater c-fos induction by cocaine than untrained controls. This effect was selective for the sensorimotor striatum, which is known to mediate forms of motor learning. In the present study, we investigated whether this enhanced cellular responsiveness was associated with learning of wheel running or with prolonged running (exercising), by assessing c-fos inducibility after 1, 2, or 8 days of training. Wheel training was performed after injection of cocaine (25 mg/kg) or vehicle, and c-fos induction by a cocaine challenge was measured 24 h later. Rats that trained under cocaine (but not vehicle) showed a greater c-fos response in the striatum compared to locked-wheel controls. This effect was present after the 1-day training, peaked after 2 days, and dissipated by 8 days of training. Similar effects were found for substance P, but not enkephalin, expression. These changes in striatal gene regulation paralleled improvement in wheel running, which was facilitated by cocaine. Thus, these training-induced molecular changes do not appear to represent exercising effects, but may reflect motor learning-associated neuronal changes altered by cocaine. Such cocaine effects may contribute to aberrant motor learning implicated in psychostimulant addiction. PMID:16395306

  2. Millisecond-Scale Motor Encoding in a Cortical Vocal Area

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Claire; Chehayeb, Diala; Srivastava, Kyle; Nemenman, Ilya; Sober, Samuel J.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of motor control have almost universally examined firing rates to investigate how the brain shapes behavior. In principle, however, neurons could encode information through the precise temporal patterning of their spike trains as well as (or instead of) through their firing rates. Although the importance of spike timing has been demonstrated in sensory systems, it is largely unknown whether timing differences in motor areas could affect behavior. We tested the hypothesis that significant information about trial-by-trial variations in behavior is represented by spike timing in the songbird vocal motor system. We found that neurons in motor cortex convey information via spike timing far more often than via spike rate and that the amount of information conveyed at the millisecond timescale greatly exceeds the information available from spike counts. These results demonstrate that information can be represented by spike timing in motor circuits and suggest that timing variations evoke differences in behavior. PMID:25490022

  3. Millisecond-scale motor encoding in a cortical vocal area.

    PubMed

    Tang, Claire; Chehayeb, Diala; Srivastava, Kyle; Nemenman, Ilya; Sober, Samuel J

    2014-12-01

    Studies of motor control have almost universally examined firing rates to investigate how the brain shapes behavior. In principle, however, neurons could encode information through the precise temporal patterning of their spike trains as well as (or instead of) through their firing rates. Although the importance of spike timing has been demonstrated in sensory systems, it is largely unknown whether timing differences in motor areas could affect behavior. We tested the hypothesis that significant information about trial-by-trial variations in behavior is represented by spike timing in the songbird vocal motor system. We found that neurons in motor cortex convey information via spike timing far more often than via spike rate and that the amount of information conveyed at the millisecond timescale greatly exceeds the information available from spike counts. These results demonstrate that information can be represented by spike timing in motor circuits and suggest that timing variations evoke differences in behavior. PMID:25490022

  4. Understanding molecular motor walking along a microtubule: a themosensitive asymmetric Brownian motor driven by bubble formation.

    PubMed

    Arai, Noriyoshi; Yasuoka, Kenji; Koishi, Takahiro; Ebisuzaki, Toshikazu; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2013-06-12

    The "asymmetric Brownian ratchet model", a variation of Feynman's ratchet and pawl system, is invoked to understand the kinesin walking behavior along a microtubule. The model system, consisting of a motor and a rail, can exhibit two distinct binding states, namely, the random Brownian state and the asymmetric potential state. When the system is transformed back and forth between the two states, the motor can be driven to "walk" in one direction. Previously, we suggested a fundamental mechanism, that is, bubble formation in a nanosized channel surrounded by hydrophobic atoms, to explain the transition between the two states. In this study, we propose a more realistic and viable switching method in our computer simulation of molecular motor walking. Specifically, we propose a thermosensitive polymer model with which the transition between the two states can be controlled by temperature pulses. Based on this new motor system, the stepping size and stepping time of the motor can be recorded. Remarkably, the "walking" behavior observed in the newly proposed model resembles that of the realistic motor protein. The bubble formation based motor not only can be highly efficient but also offers new insights into the physical mechanism of realistic biomolecule motors. PMID:23721590

  5. Optimization of image-based aberration metrology for EUV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinson, Zac; Fenger, Germain; Burbine, Andrew; Schepis, Anthony R.; Smith, Bruce W.

    2014-04-01

    EUV lithography is likely more sensitive to drift from thermal and degradation effects than optical counterparts. We have developed an automated approach to photoresist image-based aberration metrology. The approach uses binary or phase mask targets and iterative simulation based solutions to retrieve an aberrated pupil function. It is well known that a partially coherent source both allows for the diffraction information of smaller features to be collected by the condenser system, and introduces pupil averaging. In general, smaller features are more sensitive to aberrations than larger features, so there is a trade-off between target sensitivity and printability. Therefore, metrology targets using this technique must be optimized for maximum sensitivity with each illumination system. This study examines aberration metrology target optimization and suggests an optimization scheme for use with any source. Interrogation of both low and high order aberrations is considered. High order aberration terms are interrogated using two separate fitting algorithms. While the optimized targets do show the lowest RMS error under the test conditions, a desirable RMS error is not achieved by either high order interrogation scheme. The implementation of a previously developed algorithm for image-based aberration metrology is used to support this work.

  6. Gene aberrations for precision medicine against lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Saito, Motonobu; Shiraishi, Kouya; Kunitoh, Hideo; Takenoshita, Seiichi; Yokota, Jun; Kohno, Takashi

    2016-06-01

    Lung adenocarcinoma (LADC), the most frequent histological type of lung cancer, is often triggered by an aberration in a driver oncogene in tumor cells. Examples of such aberrations are EGFR mutation and ALK fusion. Lung adenocarcinoma harboring such mutations can be treated with anticancer drugs that target the aberrant gene products. Additional oncogene aberrations, including RET, ROS1, and NRG1 fusions, skipping of exon 14 of MET, and mutations in BRAF, HER2, NF1, and MEK1, were recently added to the list of such "druggable" driver oncogene aberrations, and their responses to targeted therapies are currently being evaluated in clinical trials. However, approximately 30% and 50% of LADCs in patients in Japan and Europe/USA, respectively, lack the driver oncogene aberrations listed above. Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies, such as those that exploit the vulnerabilities of cancer cells with non-oncogene aberrations, are urgently required. This review summarizes the current status of research on precision medicine against LADC and enumerates the research priorities for the near future. PMID:27027665

  7. Aberrant expression of hormone receptors in adrenal Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Christopoulos, Stavroula; Bourdeau, Isabelle; Lacroix, André

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, a novel understanding of the pathophysiology of adrenal Cushing's syndrome has emerged. The ectopic or aberrant expression of G-protein-coupled hormone receptors in the adrenal cortex was found to play a central role in the regulation of cortisol secretion in ACTH-independent macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (AIMAH) and in some unilateral adrenal adenomas. Various aberrant receptors, functionally coupled to steroidogenesis, have been reported: GIP, vasopressin, beta-adrenergic, LH/hCG, and serotonin receptors have been best characterized, but angiotensin, leptin, glucagon, IL-1 and TSH receptors have also been described. The molecular mechanisms responsible for the aberrant expression of these receptors are currently unknown. One or many of these aberrant receptors are present in most cases of AIMAH and in some cases of adrenal adenomas with overt or sub-clinical secretion of cortisol. Clinical protocols to screen for such aberrant receptors have been developed and should be performed in all patients with AIMAH. The identification of such aberrant regulation of steroidogenesis in AIMAH provides the novel opportunity to treat some of these patients with pharmacological agents that either suppress the endogenous ligand or block the aberrant receptor, thus avoiding bilateral adrenalectomy. PMID:16010457

  8. Collective Dynamics of Elastically Coupled Myosin V Motors*

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hailong; Efremov, Artem K.; Bookwalter, Carol S.; Krementsova, Elena B.; Driver, Jonathan W.; Trybus, Kathleen M.; Diehl, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of the collective behaviors of different classes of processive motor proteins has become increasingly important to understand various intracellular trafficking and transport processes. This work examines the dynamics of structurally-defined motor complexes containing two myosin Va (myoVa) motors that are linked together via a molecular scaffold formed from a single duplex of DNA. Dynamic changes in the filament-bound configuration of these complexes due to motor binding, stepping, and detachment were monitored by tracking the positions of different color quantum dots that report the position of one head of each myoVa motor on actin. As in studies of multiple kinesins, the run lengths produced by two myosins are only slightly larger than those of single motor molecules. This suggests that internal strain within the complexes, due to asynchronous motor stepping and the resultant stretching of motor linkages, yields net negative cooperative behaviors. In contrast to multiple kinesins, multiple myosin complexes move with appreciably lower velocities than a single-myosin molecule. Although similar trends are predicted by a discrete state stochastic model of collective motor dynamics, these analyses also suggest that multiple myosin velocities and run lengths depend on both the compliance and the effective size of their cargo. Moreover, it is proposed that this unique collective behavior occurs because the large step size and relatively small stalling force of myoVa leads to a high sensitivity of motor stepping rates to strain. PMID:22718762

  9. Aberrant Glycosylation in the Human Trabecular Meshwork

    PubMed Central

    Sienkiewicz, Adam E.; Rosenberg, Brandon N.; Edwards, Genea; Carreon, Teresia A.; Bhattacharya, Sanjoy K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine the difference in protein glycosylation and glycosylation enzyme levels between glaucomatous and control trabecular meshwork (TM). Experimental design Glaucomatous and normal donor (n=12 each) TM tissues, Lectin-fluorescence, fluorophore assisted carbohydrate analyses, and quantitative mass spectrometry were used to determine the glycosylation levels. Primary TM cells and glycosylation inhibitors were used to determine their effect on cell shape and motility. Results In contrast to elevated levels of glycoproteins determined by lectin-fluorescence, simultaneous hyper and hypo-glycosylation in glaucomatous trabecular meshwork was revealed by fluorophore assisted carbohydrate analyses. Analyses of enzymes showed elevation of Beta-glycosidase 1 and decrease in Galactosyltransferase family 6 domain containing protein 1 in the glaucomatous trabecular meshwork. Quantitative mass spectrometry identified select protein level changes between glaucomatous and normal trabecular meshwork. Primary trabecular meshwork cells were treated with inhibitors to elicit hypo-glycosylation, which affected cell shape, motility, and fluorescent tracer transport across a layer of trabecular meshwork cells. Conclusions and clinical relevance Global protein glycosylation is aberrant in glaucomatous trabecular meshwork compared to controls. The results presented here suggest that the alteration in global TM protein glycosylation encompassing cellular and extracellular matrix proteins contributes to glaucoma pathology likely mediated through changes in properties of TM cells. PMID:24458570

  10. Fine motor control

    MedlinePlus

    ... figure out the child's developmental age. Children develop fine motor skills over time, by practicing and being taught. To have fine motor control, children need: Awareness and planning Coordination ...

  11. Chronic motor tic disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Chronic vocal tic disorder; Tic - chronic motor tic disorder ... Chronic motor tic disorder is more common than Tourette syndrome . Chronic tics may be forms of Tourette syndrome. Tics usually start ...

  12. Stages of motor skill learning.

    PubMed

    Luft, Andreas R; Buitrago, Manuel M

    2005-12-01

    Successful learning of a motor skill requires repetitive training. Once the skill is mastered, it can be remembered for a long period of time. The durable memory makes motor skill learning an interesting paradigm for the study of learning and memory mechanisms. To gain better understanding, one scientific approach is to dissect the process into stages and to study these as well as their interactions. This article covers the growing evidence that motor skill learning advances through stages, in which different storage mechanisms predominate. The acquisition phase is characterized by fast (within session) and slow learning (between sessions). For a short period following the initial training sessions, the skill is labile to interference by other skills and by protein synthesis inhibition, indicating that consolidation processes occur during rest periods between training sessions. During training as well as rest periods, activation in different brain regions changes dynamically. Evidence for stages in motor skill learning is provided by experiments using behavioral, electrophysiological, functional imaging, and cellular/molecular methods. PMID:16385137

  13. Smart motor technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Packard, D.; Schmitt, D.

    1984-01-01

    Current spacecraft design relies upon microprocessor control; however, motors usually require extensive additional electronic circuitry to interface with these microprocessor controls. An improved control technique that allows a smart brushless motor to connect directly to a microprocessor control system is described. An actuator with smart motors receives a spacecraft command directly and responds in a closed loop control mode. In fact, two or more smart motors can be controlled for synchronous operation.

  14. Subwavelength-grating-induced wavefront aberrations: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crabtree, Karlton; Chipman, Russell A.

    2007-01-01

    The on-axis wavefront aberrations of a one-dimensional sub-wavelength grating anti-reflection coating on a f/1.7 lens surface is dominated by defocus, astigmatism, and piston. The astigmatism is 0.02 waves and the magnitude of the piston approaches 1 wave peak-to-valley. The difference in aberrations between orthogonally polarized wavefronts, or the retardance aberration, shows 0.01 waves of astigmatism like variation and more than 0.01 waves of retardance induced defocus like variation.

  15. Differential algebraic method for aberration analysis of typical electrostatic lenses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhixiong

    2006-02-01

    In this paper up to fifth-order geometric and third-order chromatic aberration coefficients of typical electrostatic lenses are calculated by means of the charged particle optics code, COSY INFINITY, based on the differential algebraic (DA) method. A two-tube immersion lens and a symmetric einzel lens have been chosen as two examples, whose axial potential distributions are numerically calculated by a FORTRAN program using the finite difference method. The DA results are in good agreement with those evaluated by the aberration integrals in electron optics. The DA method presented here can easily be extended to aberration analysis of other numerically computed electron lenses, including magnetic lenses. PMID:16125845

  16. Electrostatic mirror objective with eliminated spherical and axial chromatic aberrations.

    PubMed

    Bimurzaev, Seitkerim B; Serikbaeva, Gulnur S; Yakushev, Evgeniy M

    2003-01-01

    Computational formulae for the coefficients of the third-order spherical aberration and the second-order axial chromatic aberration are presented for an axially symmetric electrostatic electron mirror. A technique for eliminating the high-order derivatives of the potential axial distribution in mirror systems from the integrands is described. Conditions for elimination of spherical and axial chromatic aberrations, either separately or simultaneously, are found for a three-electrode axially symmetric mirror composed of coaxial cylinders of the same diameter. A principal scheme of the transmission electron microscope, where an electrostatic electron mirror serves as its objective, is presented. PMID:14599097

  17. Electrifying the motor engram: effects of tDCS on motor learning and control.

    PubMed

    Orban de Xivry, Jean-Jacques; Shadmehr, Reza

    2014-11-01

    Learning to control our movements is accompanied by neuroplasticity of motor areas of the brain. The mechanisms of neuroplasticity are diverse and produce what is referred to as the motor engram, i.e., the neural trace of the motor memory. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) alters the neural and behavioral correlates of motor learning, but its precise influence on the motor engram is unknown. In this review, we summarize the effects of tDCS on neural activity and suggest a few key principles: (1) Firing rates are increased by anodal polarization and decreased by cathodal polarization, (2) anodal polarization strengthens newly formed associations, and (3) polarization modulates the memory of new/preferred firing patterns. With these principles in mind, we review the effects of tDCS on motor control, motor learning, and clinical applications. The increased spontaneous and evoked firing rates may account for the modulation of dexterity in non-learning tasks by tDCS. The facilitation of new association may account for the effect of tDCS on learning in sequence tasks while the ability of tDCS to strengthen memories of new firing patterns may underlie the effect of tDCS on consolidation of skills. We then describe the mechanisms of neuroplasticity of motor cortical areas and how they might be influenced by tDCS. We end with current challenges for the fields of brain stimulation and motor learning. PMID:25200178

  18. Electrifying the motor engram: effects of tDCS on motor learning and control

    PubMed Central

    de Xivry, Jean-Jacques Orban; Shadmehr, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Learning to control our movements accompanies neuroplasticity of motor areas of the brain. The mechanisms of neuroplasticity are diverse and produce what is referred to as the motor engram, i.e. the neural trace of the motor memory. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) alters the neural and behavioral correlates of motor learning, but its precise influence on the motor engram is unknown. In this review, we summarize the effects of tDCS on neural activity and suggest a few key principles: 1) firing rates are increased by anodal polarization and decreased by cathodal polarization, 2) anodal polarization strengthens newly formed associations, and 3) polarization modulates the memory of new/preferred firing patterns. With these principles in mind, we review the effects of tDCS on motor control, motor learning, and clinical applications. The increased spontaneous and evoked firing rates may account for the modulation of dexterity in non-learning tasks by tDCS. The facilitation of new association may account for the effect of tDCS on learning in sequence tasks while the ability of tDCS to strengthen memories of new firing patterns may underlie the effect of tDCS on consolidation of skills. We then describe the mechanisms of neuroplasticity of motor cortical areas and how they might be influenced by tDCS. We end with current challenges for the fields of brain stimulation and motor learning. PMID:25200178

  19. Use of pupil mapping for measurement of linearly field-dependent aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampen, Sara Michelle

    Rather than measuring aberrations at several locations across the field to quantify the alignment of an optical system, we show how a simple measurement of the pupil mapping can be used to measure the off-axis performance of the system. This method uses the Abbe sine condition to relate the mapping between the entrance and the exit pupils, where the violations of the generalized sine condition are used to determine the pupil mapping error. From this pupil mapping, the linearly field-dependent aberrations can be calculated. One of the advantages to this method is that all of the test equipment can be aligned to the center of the field while making measurements of the off-axis performance, which reduces the uncertainty of the measurement. This advantage is particularly evident with systems or sub-systems that have large inherent aberrations where off-axis alignment tolerances are very tight. Additionally, in the Sine Condition Test (SCTest), the test equipment can be designed to compensate for the native Siedel coma in the system. This makes it more straightforward to measure the linearly field dependence of the aberrations. By reducing or removing coma, the measurement uncertainty is further reduced. This work begins by explaining the background of the Abbe sine condition, derivation of the pupil mapping error, and an overview of linearly field-dependent astigmatism that arises from misalignment. Next, the general method of implementation is discussed, and expanded further by exploring the two different source options: a point source with a grating or a flat-panel display. Experimental results from proof of concept systems are shown for both cases. Next, this dissertation explains how the SCTest can be implemented on more complex systems. Last, this dissertation shows how the linear aberrations, along with constant field-dependent aberrations, can be used to align a system. Here, the application of the alignment version of the SCTest on a three mirror anastigmat

  20. High order aberration and straylight evaluation after cataract surgery with implantation of an aspheric, aberration correcting monofocal intraocular lens

    PubMed Central

    Kretz, Florian T A; Tandogan, Tamer; Khoramnia, Ramin; Auffarth, Gerd U

    2015-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the quality of vision in respect to high order aberrations and straylight perception after implantation of an aspheric, aberration correcting, monofocal intraocular lens (IOL). METHODS Twenty-one patients (34 eyes) aged 50 to 83y underwent cataract surgery with implantation of an aspheric, aberration correcting IOL (Tecnis ZCB00, Abbott Medical Optics). Three months after surgery they were examined for uncorrected (UDVA) and corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), contrast sensitivity (CS) under photopic and mesopic conditions with and without glare source, ocular high order aberrations (HOA, Zywave II) and retinal straylight (C-Quant). RESULTS Postoperatively, patients achieved a postoperative CDVA of 0.0 logMAR or better in 97.1% of eyes. Mean values of high order abberations were +0.02±0.27 (primary coma components) and -0.04±0.16 (spherical aberration term). Straylight values of the C-Quant were 1.35±0.44 log which is within normal range of age matched phakic patients. The CS measurements under mesopic and photopic conditions in combination with and without glare did not show any statistical significance in the patient group observed (P≥0.28). CONCLUSION The implantation of an aspherical aberration correcting monofocal IOL after cataract surgery resulted in very low residual higher order aberration (HOA) and normal straylight. PMID:26309872