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Sample records for aberrant notch signaling

  1. An aberrant NOTCH2-BCR signaling axis in B cells from patients with chronic GVHD.

    PubMed

    Poe, Jonathan C; Jia, Wei; Su, Hsuan; Anand, Sarah; Rose, Jeremy J; Tata, Prasanthi V; Suthers, Amy N; Jones, Corbin D; Kuan, Pei Fen; Vincent, Benjamin G; Serody, Jonathan S; Horwitz, Mitchell E; Ho, Vincent T; Pavletic, Steven Z; Hakim, Frances T; Owzar, Kouros; Zhang, Dadong; Blazar, Bruce R; Siebel, Christian W; Chao, Nelson J; Maillard, Ivan; Sarantopoulos, Stefanie

    2017-11-09

    B-cell receptor (BCR)-activated B cells contribute to pathogenesis in chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD), a condition manifested by both B-cell autoreactivity and immune deficiency. We hypothesized that constitutive BCR activation precluded functional B-cell maturation in cGVHD. To address this, we examined BCR-NOTCH2 synergy because NOTCH has been shown to increase BCR responsiveness in normal mouse B cells. We conducted ex vivo activation and signaling assays of 30 primary samples from hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients with and without cGVHD. Consistent with a molecular link between pathways, we found that BCR-NOTCH activation significantly increased the proximal BCR adapter protein BLNK. BCR-NOTCH activation also enabled persistent NOTCH2 surface expression, suggesting a positive feedback loop. Specific NOTCH2 blockade eliminated NOTCH-BCR activation and significantly altered NOTCH downstream targets and B-cell maturation/effector molecules. Examination of the molecular underpinnings of this "NOTCH2-BCR axis" in cGVHD revealed imbalanced expression of the transcription factors IRF4 and IRF8 , each critical to B-cell differentiation and fate. All- trans retinoic acid (ATRA) increased IRF4 expression, restored the IRF4 -to- IRF8 ratio, abrogated BCR-NOTCH hyperactivation, and reduced NOTCH2 expression in cGVHD B cells without compromising viability. ATRA-treated cGVHD B cells had elevated TLR9 and PAX5 , but not BLIMP1 (a gene-expression pattern associated with mature follicular B cells) and also attained increased cytosine guanine dinucleotide responsiveness. Together, we reveal a mechanistic link between NOTCH2 activation and robust BCR responses to otherwise suboptimal amounts of surrogate antigen. Our findings suggest that peripheral B cells in cGVHD patients can be pharmacologically directed from hyperactivation toward maturity.

  2. Notch signaling and ageing.

    PubMed

    Polychronidou, Eleftheria; Vlachakis, Dimitrios; Vlamos, Panayiotis; Baumann, Marc; Kossida, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    Notch signaling is a master controller of the neural stem cell and neural development maintaining a significant role in the normal brain function. Notch genes are involved in embryogenesis, nervous system, and cardiovascular and endocrine function. On the other side, there are studies representing the involvement of Notch mutations in sporadic Alzheimer disease, other neurodegenerative diseases such as Down syndrome, Pick's and Prion's disease, and CADASIL. This manuscript attempts to present a holistic view of the positive or negative contribution of Notch signaling in the adult brain, and at the same time to present and promote the promising research fields of study.

  3. Notch signaling genes

    PubMed Central

    Terragni, Jolyon; Zhang, Guoqiang; Sun, Zhiyi; Pradhan, Sriharsa; Song, Lingyun; Crawford, Gregory E; Lacey, Michelle; Ehrlich, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Notch intercellular signaling is critical for diverse developmental pathways and for homeostasis in various types of stem cells and progenitor cells. Because Notch gene products need to be precisely regulated spatially and temporally, epigenetics is likely to help control expression of Notch signaling genes. Reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) indicated significant hypomethylation in myoblasts, myotubes, and skeletal muscle vs. many nonmuscle samples at intragenic or intergenic regions of the following Notch receptor or ligand genes: NOTCH1, NOTCH2, JAG2, and DLL1. An enzymatic assay of sites in or near these genes revealed unusually high enrichment of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (up to 81%) in skeletal muscle, heart, and cerebellum. Epigenetics studies and gene expression profiles suggest that hypomethylation and/or hydroxymethylation help control expression of these genes in heart, brain, myoblasts, myotubes, and within skeletal muscle myofibers. Such regulation could promote cell renewal, cell maintenance, homeostasis, and a poised state for repair of tissue damage. PMID:24670287

  4. Notch Signaling and Alloreactivity.

    PubMed

    Radojcic, Vedran; Maillard, Ivan

    2016-12-01

    Solid organ and allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation have become standard therapeutic interventions that save patient lives and improve quality of life. Our enhanced understanding of transplantation immunobiology has refined clinical management and improved outcomes. However, organ rejection and graft-versus-host disease remain major obstacles to the broader successful application of these therapeutic procedures. Notch signaling regulates multiple aspects of adaptive and innate immunity. Preclinical studies identified Notch signaling as a promising target in autoimmune diseases, as well as after allogeneic hematopoietic cell and solid organ transplantation. Notch was found to be a central regulator of alloreactivity across clinically relevant models of transplantation. Notch inhibition in T cells prevented graft-versus-host disease and organ rejection, establishing organ tolerance by skewing CD4 T helper polarization away from a proinflammatory response toward suppressive regulatory T cells. Notch ligand blockade also dampened alloantibody deposition and prevented chronic rejection through humoral mechanisms. Toxicities of systemic Notch blockade were observed with γ-secretase inhibitors in preclinical and early clinical trials across different indications, but they did not arise upon preclinical targeting of Delta-like Notch ligands, a strategy sufficient to confer full benefits of Notch ablation in T cell alloimmunity. Because multiple clinical grade reagents have been developed to target individual Notch ligands and receptors, the benefits of Notch blockade in transplantation are calling for translation of preclinical findings into human transplantation medicine.

  5. Notch signaling in lung diseases: focus on Notch1 and Notch3

    PubMed Central

    Zong, Dandan; Ouyang, Ruoyun; Li, Jinhua; Chen, Yan; Chen, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Notch signaling is an evolutionarily conserved cell–cell communication mechanism that plays a key role in lung homeostasis, injury and repair. The loss of regulation of Notch signaling, especially Notch1 and Notch3, has recently been linked to the pathogenesis of important lung diseases, in particular, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), lung cancer and lung lesions in some congenital diseases. This review focuses on recent advances related to the mechanisms and the consequences of aberrant or absent Notch1/3 activity in the initiation and progression of lung diseases. Our increasing understanding of this signaling pathway offers great hope that manipulating Notch signaling may represent a promising alternative complementary therapeutic strategy in the future. PMID:27378579

  6. Notch signaling drives multiple myeloma induced osteoclastogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Michela; Thümmler, Katja; Mirandola, Leonardo; Garavelli, Silvia; Todoerti, Katia; Apicella, Luana; Lazzari, Elisa; Lancellotti, Marialuigia; Platonova, Natalia; Akbar, Moeed; Chiriva-Internati, Maurizio; Soutar, Richard; Neri, Antonino; Goodyear, Carl S.; Chiaramonte, Raffaella

    2014-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is closely associated with bone destruction. Once migrated to the bone marrow, MM cells unbalance bone formation and resorption via the recruitment and maturation of osteoclast precursors. The Notch pathway plays a key role in different types of cancer and drives several biological processes relevant in MM, including cell localization within the bone marrow, proliferation, survival and pharmacological resistance. Here we present evidences that MM can efficiently drive osteoclastogenesis by contemporaneously activating Notch signaling on tumor cells and osteoclasts through the aberrant expression of Notch ligands belonging to the Jagged family. Active Notch signaling in MM cells induces the secretion of the key osteoclastogenic factor, RANKL, which can be boosted in the presence of stromal cells. In turn, MM cells-derived RANKL causes the upregulation of its receptor, RANK, and Notch2 in pre-osteoclasts. Notch2 stimulates osteoclast differentiation by promoting autocrine RANKL signaling. Finally, MM cells through Jagged ligands expression can also activate Notch signaling in pre-osteoclast by direct contact. Such synergism between tumor cells and pre-osteoclasts in MM-induced osteoclastogenesis can be disrupted by silencing tumor-derived Jagged1 and 2. These results make the Jagged ligands new promising therapeutic targets in MM to contrast bone disease and the associated co-morbidities. PMID:25257302

  7. Notch Signaling in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Baeten, J.T.; Lilly, B.

    2018-01-01

    The Notch signaling pathway is a highly conserved pathway involved in cell fate determination in embryonic development and also functions in the regulation of physiological processes in several systems. It plays an especially important role in vascular development and physiology by influencing angiogenesis, vessel patterning, arterial/venous specification, and vascular smooth muscle biology. Aberrant or dysregulated Notch signaling is the cause of or a contributing factor to many vascular disorders, including inherited vascular diseases, such as cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, associated with degeneration of the smooth muscle layer in cerebral arteries. Like most signaling pathways, the Notch signaling axis is influenced by complex interactions with mediators of other signaling pathways. This complexity is also compounded by different members of the Notch family having both overlapping and unique functions. Thus, it is vital to fully understand the roles and interactions of each Notch family member in order to effectively and specifically target their exact contributions to vascular disease. In this chapter, we will review the Notch signaling pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells as it relates to vascular development and human disease. PMID:28212801

  8. Notch signaling: its roles and therapeutic potential in hematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yisu

    2016-01-01

    Notch is a highly conserved signaling system that allows neighboring cells to communicate, thereby controlling their differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis, with the outcome of its activation being highly dependent on signal strength and cell type. As such, there is growing evidence that disturbances in physiological Notch signaling contribute to cancer development and growth through various mechanisms. Notch was first reported to contribute to tumorigenesis in the early 90s, through identification of the involvement of the Notch1 gene in the chromosomal translocation t(7;9)(q34;q34.3), found in a small subset of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Since then, Notch mutations and aberrant Notch signaling have been reported in numerous other precursor and mature hematological malignancies, of both myeloid and lymphoid origin, as well as many epithelial tumor types. Of note, Notch has been reported to have both oncogenic and tumor suppressor roles, dependent on the cancer cell type. In this review, we will first give a general description of the Notch signaling pathway, and its physiologic role in hematopoiesis. Next, we will review the role of aberrant Notch signaling in several hematological malignancies. Finally, we will discuss current and potential future therapeutic approaches targeting this pathway. PMID:26934331

  9. Targeting the Notch signaling pathway in autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Ma, Daoxin; Zhu, Yuanchao; Ji, Chunyan; Hou, Ming

    2010-05-01

    The Notch signaling pathway regulates a variety of processes and has been linked to diverse effects. Aberrant Notch function is important in several disorders. Pre-clinical studies have suggested that inhibition of Notch is an attractive approach to treat hematologic and solid malignancies. Many patients with refractory autoimmune diseases respond poorly to therapy and have significant morbidity and the treatment is highly toxic, so more effective therapies for autoimmune diseases are being examined. The role of the Notch pathway and therapeutic strategies targeting it in many illnesses, especially autoimmune diseases. The Notch pathway has unique and attractive advantages for targeting. Targeting it has already been trialed in many experiments, which may show better efficacy and fewer side effects compared with classical drugs for the treatment. Targeting Notch might provide etiological rather than symptomatic treatment. Various methods targeting the Notch pathway have been under investigation. Rational targeting of the Notch signaling pathway in cancer and some autoimmune diseases has proven to be successful. Classical drugs for the treatment of autoimmune diseases are inefficient and toxic to some extent, and targeting the Notch pathway is a promising therapeutic concept. However, there are still many questions about targeting Notch in autoimmune diseases, and further investigation will be needed.

  10. Epidermal Notch signalling: differentiation, cancer and adhesion.

    PubMed

    Watt, Fiona M; Estrach, Soline; Ambler, Carrie A

    2008-04-01

    The Notch pathway plays an important role in regulating epidermal differentiation. Notch ligands, receptors and effectors are expressed in a complex and dynamic pattern in embryonic and adult skin. Genetic ablation or activation of the pathway reveals that Notch signalling promotes differentiation of the hair follicle, sebaceous gland and interfollicular epidermal lineages and that Notch acts as an epidermal tumour suppressor. Notch signalling interacts with a range of other pathways to fulfil these functions and acts via RBP-Jkappa dependent and independent mechanisms. The effects on differentiation can be cell autonomous and non-autonomous, and Notch contributes to stem cell clustering via modulation of cell adhesion.

  11. Non-canonical NOTCH3 signalling limits tumour angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shuheng; Negulescu, Ana; Bulusu, Sirisha; Gibert, Benjamin; Delcros, Jean-Guy; Ducarouge, Benjamin; Rama, Nicolas; Gadot, Nicolas; Treilleux, Isabelle; Saintigny, Pierre; Meurette, Olivier; Mehlen, Patrick

    2017-07-18

    Notch signalling is a causal determinant of cancer and efforts have been made to develop targeted therapies to inhibit the so-called canonical pathway. Here we describe an unexpected pro-apoptotic role of Notch3 in regulating tumour angiogenesis independently of the Notch canonical pathway. The Notch3 ligand Jagged-1 is upregulated in a fraction of human cancer and our data support the view that Jagged-1, produced by cancer cells, is inhibiting the apoptosis induced by the aberrant Notch3 expression in tumour vasculature. We thus present Notch3 as a dependence receptor inducing endothelial cell death while this pro-apoptotic activity is blocked by Jagged-1. Along this line, using Notch3 mutant mice, we demonstrate that tumour growth and angiogenesis are increased when Notch3 is silenced in the stroma. Consequently, we show that the well-documented anti-tumour effect mediated by γ-secretase inhibition is at least in part dependent on the apoptosis triggered by Notch3 in endothelial cells.

  12. Non-canonical NOTCH3 signalling limits tumour angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shuheng; Negulescu, Ana; Bulusu, Sirisha; Gibert, Benjamin; Delcros, Jean-Guy; Ducarouge, Benjamin; Rama, Nicolas; Gadot, Nicolas; Treilleux, Isabelle; Saintigny, Pierre; Meurette, Olivier; Mehlen, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Notch signalling is a causal determinant of cancer and efforts have been made to develop targeted therapies to inhibit the so-called canonical pathway. Here we describe an unexpected pro-apoptotic role of Notch3 in regulating tumour angiogenesis independently of the Notch canonical pathway. The Notch3 ligand Jagged-1 is upregulated in a fraction of human cancer and our data support the view that Jagged-1, produced by cancer cells, is inhibiting the apoptosis induced by the aberrant Notch3 expression in tumour vasculature. We thus present Notch3 as a dependence receptor inducing endothelial cell death while this pro-apoptotic activity is blocked by Jagged-1. Along this line, using Notch3 mutant mice, we demonstrate that tumour growth and angiogenesis are increased when Notch3 is silenced in the stroma. Consequently, we show that the well-documented anti-tumour effect mediated by γ-secretase inhibition is at least in part dependent on the apoptosis triggered by Notch3 in endothelial cells. PMID:28719575

  13. Notch signalling in T cell lymphoblastic leukaemia/lymphoma and other haematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Aster, Jon C.; Blacklow, Stephen C.; Pear, Warren S.

    2010-01-01

    Notch receptors participate in a highly conserved signalling pathway that regulates normal development and tissue homeostasis in a context- and dose-dependent manner. Deregulated Notch signalling has been implicated in many diseases, but the clearest example of a pathogenic role is found in T cell lymphoblastic leukaemia/lymphoma (T-LL), in which the majority of human and murine tumours have acquired mutations that lead to aberrant increases in Notch1 signalling. Remarkably, it appears that the selective pressure for Notch mutations is virtually unique among cancers to T-LL, presumably reflecting a special context-dependent role for Notch in normal T cell progenitors. Nevertheless, there are some recent reports suggesting that Notch signalling has subtle yet important roles in other forms of hematologic malignancy as well. Here, we review the role of Notch signalling in various blood cancers, focusing on T-LL with an eye toward targeted therapeutics. PMID:20967796

  14. Overexpression of protein O-fucosyltransferase 1 accelerates hepatocellular carcinoma progression via the Notch signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Lijie; Dong, Pingping; Liu, Longzi

    Aberrant activation of Notch signaling frequently occurs in liver cancer, and is associated with liver malignancies. However, the mechanisms regulating pathologic Notch activation in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unclear. Protein O-fucosyltransferase 1 (Pofut1) catalyzes the addition of O-linked fucose to the epidermal growth factor-like repeats of Notch. In the present study, we detected the expression of Pofut1 in 8 HCC cell lines and 253 human HCC tissues. We reported that Pofut1 was overexpressed in HCC cell lines and clinical HCC tissues, and Pofut1 overexpression clinically correlated with the unfavorable survival and high disease recurrence in HCC. The in vitro assay demonstratedmore » that Pofut1 overexpression accelerated the cell proliferation and migration in HCC cells. Furthermore, Pofut1 overexpression promoted the binding of Notch ligand Dll1 to Notch receptor, and hence activated Notch signaling pathway in HCC cells, indicating that Pofut1 overexpression could be a reason for the aberrant activation of Notch signaling in HCC. Taken together, our findings indicated that an aberrant activated Pofut1-Notch pathway was involved in HCC progression, and blockage of this pathway could be a promising strategy for the therapy of HCC. - Highlights: • Pofut1 overexpression in HCC was correlated with aggressive tumor behaviors. • Pofut1 overexpression in HCC was associated with poor prognosis. • Pofut1 promoted cell proliferation, migration and invasion in hepatoma cells. • Pofut1 activated Notch signaling pathway in hepatoma cells.« less

  15. The adhesion force of Notch with Delta and the rate of Notch signaling.

    PubMed

    Ahimou, Francois; Mok, Lee-Peng; Bardot, Boris; Wesley, Cedric

    2004-12-20

    Notch signaling is repeatedly used during animal development to specify cell fates. Using atomic force microscopy on live cells, chemical inhibitors, and conventional analyses, we show that the rate of Notch signaling is linked to the adhesion force between cells expressing Notch receptors and Delta ligand. Both the Notch extracellular and intracellular domains are required for the high adhesion force with Delta. This high adhesion force is lost within minutes, primarily due to the action of Presenilin on Notch. Reduced turnover or Delta pulling accelerate this loss. These data suggest that strong adhesion between Notch and Delta might serve as a booster for initiating Notch signaling at a high rate.

  16. NOTCH1 Is Aberrantly Activated in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Hematopoietic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Di Ianni, Mauro; Baldoni, Stefano; Del Papa, Beatrice; Aureli, Patrizia; Dorillo, Erica; De Falco, Filomena; Albi, Elisa; Varasano, Emanuela; Di Tommaso, Ambra; Giancola, Raffaella; Accorsi, Patrizia; Rotta, Gianluca; Rompietti, Chiara; Silva Barcelos, Estevão Carlos; Campese, Antonio Francesco; Di Bartolomeo, Paolo; Screpanti, Isabella; Rosati, Emanuela; Falzetti, Franca; Sportoletti, Paolo

    2018-01-01

    To investigate chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)-initiating cells, we assessed NOTCH1 mutation/expression in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). In NOTCH1- mutated CLL, we detected subclonal mutations in 57% CD34+/CD38- HSCs. NOTCH1 mutation was present in 66% CD34+/CD38+ progenitor cells displaying an increased mutational burden compared to HSCs. Flow cytometric analysis revealed significantly higher NOTCH1 activation in CD34+/CD38- and CD34+/CD38+ cells from CLL patients, regardless NOTCH1 mutation compared to healthy donors. Activated NOTCH1 resulted in overexpression of the NOTCH1 target c-MYC. We conclude that activated NOTCH1 is an early event in CLL that may contribute to aberrant HSCs in this disease.

  17. Genetic deletion of Rnd3 in neural stem cells promotes proliferation via upregulation of Notch signaling.

    PubMed

    Dong, Huimin; Lin, Xi; Li, Yuntao; Hu, Ronghua; Xu, Yang; Guo, Xiaojie; La, Qiong; Wang, Shun; Fang, Congcong; Guo, Junli; Li, Qi; Mao, Shanping; Liu, Baohui

    2017-10-31

    Rnd3, a Rho GTPase, is involved in the inhibition of actin cytoskeleton dynamics through the Rho kinase-dependent signaling pathway. We previously demonstrated that mice with genetic deletion of Rnd3 developed a markedly larger brain compared with wild-type mice. Here, we demonstrate that Rnd3 knockout mice developed an enlarged subventricular zone, and we identify a novel role for Rnd3 as an inhibitor of Notch signaling in neural stem cells. Rnd3 deficiency, both in vivo and in vitro , resulted in increased levels of Notch intracellular domain protein. This led to enhanced Notch signaling and promotion of aberrant neural stem cell growth, thereby resulting in a larger subventricular zone and a markedly larger brain. Inhibition of Notch activity abrogated this aberrant neural stem cell growth.

  18. Aberrant Notch1-dependent effects on glomerular parietal epithelial cells promotes collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis with progressive podocyte loss.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Toshiharu; Kobayashi, Namiko; Nakayama, Makiko; Takashima, Yasutoshi; Ohse, Takamoto; Pastan, Ira; Pippin, Jeffrey W; Shankland, Stuart J; Uesugi, Noriko; Matsusaka, Taiji; Nagata, Michio

    2013-06-01

    Collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (cFSGS) is a progressive kidney disease characterized by glomerular collapse with epithelial hyperplasia. Here we used a transgenic mouse model of cFSGS with immunotoxin-induced podocyte-specific injury to determine the role for Notch signaling in its pathogenesis. The mice exhibited progressive loss of podocytes and severe proteinuria concomitant with histological features of cFSGS. Hyperplastic epithelium was negative for genetic podocyte tags, but positive for the parietal epithelial cell marker claudin-1, and expressed Notch1, Jagged1, and Hes1 mRNA and protein. Enhanced Notch mRNA expression induced by transforming growth factor-β1 in cultured parietal epithelial cells was associated with mesenchymal markers (α-smooth muscle actin, vimentin, and Snail1). Notch inhibition in vitro suppressed these phenotypic transcripts and Notch-dependent cell migration. Moreover, Notch inhibition in vivo significantly decreased parietal epithelial cell lesions but worsened proteinuria and histopathology in our cFSGS model. Thus, aberrant Notch1-mediated parietal epithelial cell migration with phenotypic changes appears to underlie the pathogenesis of cFSGS. Parietal epithelial cell hyperplasia may also represent an adaptive response to compensate for a disrupted filtration barrier with progressive podocyte loss.

  19. Constitutive NOTCH3 Signaling Promotes the Growth of Basal Breast Cancers.

    PubMed

    Choy, Lisa; Hagenbeek, Thijs J; Solon, Margaret; French, Dorothy; Finkle, David; Shelton, Amy; Venook, Rayna; Brauer, Matthew J; Siebel, Christian W

    2017-03-15

    Notch ligands signal through one of four receptors on neighboring cells to mediate cell-cell communication and control cell fate, proliferation, and survival. Although aberrant Notch activation has been implicated in numerous malignancies, including breast cancer, the importance of individual receptors in distinct breast cancer subtypes and the mechanisms of receptor activation remain unclear. Using a novel antibody to detect active NOTCH3, we report here that NOTCH3 signals constitutively in a panel of basal breast cancer cell lines and in more than one third of basal tumors. Selective inhibition of individual ligands revealed that this signal does not require canonical ligand induction. A NOTCH3 antagonist antibody inhibited growth of basal lines, whereas a NOTCH3 agonist antibody enhanced the transformed phenotype in vitro and in tumor xenografts. Transcriptomic analyses generated a Notch gene signature that included Notch pathway components, the oncogene c-Myc , and the mammary stem cell regulator Id4 This signature drove clustering of breast cancer cell lines and tumors into the common subtypes and correlated with the basal classification. Our results highlight an unexpected ligand-independent induction mechanism and suggest that constitutive NOTCH3 signaling can drive an oncogenic program in a subset of basal breast cancers. Cancer Res; 77(6); 1439-52. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  20. Epithelial transformation by KLF4 requires Notch1 but not canonical Notch1 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhaoli; Teng, Lihong; Bailey, Sarah K.; Frost, Andra R.; Bland, Kirby I.; LoBuglio, Albert F.; Ruppert, J. Michael; Lobo-Ruppert, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    The transcription factors Notch1 and KLF4 specify epithelial cell fates and confer stem cell properties. suggesting a functional relationship, each gene can act to promote or suppress tumorigenesis in a context-dependent manner, and alteration of KLF4 or Notch pathway genes in mice gives rise to similar phenotypes. Activation of a conditional allele of KLF4 in RK3E epithelial cells rapidly induces expression of Notch1 mRNA and the active, intracellular form of Notch1. KLF4-induced transformation was suppressed by knockdown of endogenous Notch1 using siRNA or an inhibitor of γ-secretase. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay shows that KLF4 binds to the proximal Notch1 promoter in human mammary epithelial cells, and siRNA-mediated suppression of KLF4 in human mammary cancer cells results in reduced expression of Notch1. Furthermore, KLF4 and Notch1 expression are correlated in primary human breast tumors (N = 89; pearson analysis, r > 0.5, p < 0.0001). Like KLF4, Notch1 was previously shown to induce transformation of rat cells immortalized with adenovirus E1A, similar to RK3E cells. We therefore compared the signaling requirements for Notch1- or KLF4-induced malignant transformation of RK3E. As expected, transformation by Notch1 was suppressed by dominant-negative CSL or MaML1, inhibitors of canonical Notch1 signaling. However, these inhibitors did not suppress transformation by KLF4. Therefore, while KLF4-induced transformation requires Notch1, canonical Notch1 signaling is not required, and Notch1 may signal through a distinct pathway in cells with increased KLF4 activity. These results suggest that KLF4 could contribute to breast tumor progression by activating synthesis of Notch1 and by promoting signaling through a non-canonical Notch1 pathway. PMID:19717984

  1. Complex regulation of HSC emergence by the Notch signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Butko, Emerald; Pouget, Claire; Traver, David

    2016-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells are formed during embryonic development, and serve as the foundation of the definitive blood program for life. Notch signaling has been well established as an essential direct contributor to HSC specification. However, several recent studies have indicated that the contribution of Notch signaling is complex. HSC specification requires multiple Notch signaling inputs, some received directly by hematopoietic precursors, and others that occur indirectly within neighboring somites. Of note, proinflammatory signals provided by primitive myeloid cells are needed for HSC specification via upregulation of the Notch pathway in hemogenic endothelium. In addition to multiple requirements for Notch activation, recent studies indicate that Notch signaling must subsequently be repressed to permit HSC emergence. Finally, Notch must then be reactivated to maintain HSC fate. In this review, we discuss the growing understanding of the dynamic contributions of Notch signaling to the establishment of hematopoiesis during development. PMID:26586199

  2. Inhibition of Notch1 promotes hedgehog signalling in a HES1-dependent manner in chondrocytes and exacerbates experimental osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Neng-Yu; Distler, Alfiya; Beyer, Christian; Philipi-Schöbinger, Ariella; Breda, Silvia; Dees, Clara; Stock, Michael; Tomcik, Michal; Niemeier, Andreas; Dell'Accio, Francesco; Gelse, Kolja; Mattson, Mark P; Schett, Georg; Distler, Jörg Hw

    2016-11-01

    Notch ligands and receptors have recently been shown to be differentially expressed in osteoarthritis (OA). We aim to further elucidate the functional role of Notch signalling in OA using Notch1 antisense transgenic (Notch1 AS) mice. Notch and hedgehog signalling were analysed by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Notch-1 AS mice were employed as a model of impaired Notch signalling in vivo. Experimental OA was induced by destabilisation of the medial meniscus (DMM). The extent of cartilage destruction and osteophyte formation was analysed by safranin-O staining with subsequent assessment of the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) and Mankin scores and µCT scanning. Collagen X staining was used as a marker of chondrocyte hypertrophy. The role of hairy/enhancer of split 1 (Hes-1) was investigated with knockdown and overexpression experiments. Notch signalling was activated in human and murine OA with increased expression of Jagged1, Notch-1, accumulation of the Notch intracellular domain 1 and increased transcription of Hes-1. Notch1 AS mice showed exacerbated OA with increases in OARSI scores, osteophyte formation, increased subchondral bone plate density, collagen X and osteocalcin expression and elevated levels of Epas1 and ADAM-TS5 mRNA. Inhibition of the Notch pathway induced activation of hedgehog signalling with induction of Gli-1 and Gli-2 and increased transcription of hedgehog target genes. The regulatory effects of Notch signalling on Gli-expression were mimicked by Hes-1. Inhibition of Notch signalling activates hedgehog signalling, enhances chondrocyte hypertrophy and exacerbates experimental OA including osteophyte formation. These data suggest that the activation of the Notch pathway may limit aberrant hedgehog signalling in OA. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Notch3-Jagged signaling controls the pool of undifferentiated airway progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Munemasa; Mahoney, John E.; Stupnikov, Maria R.; Paez-Cortez, Jesus R.; Szymaniak, Aleksander D.; Varelas, Xaralabos; Herrick, Dan B.; Schwob, James; Zhang, Hong; Cardoso, Wellington V.

    2015-01-01

    Basal cells are multipotent airway progenitors that generate distinct epithelial cell phenotypes crucial for homeostasis and repair of the conducting airways. Little is known about how these progenitor cells expand and transition to differentiation to form the pseudostratified airway epithelium in the developing and adult lung. Here, we show by genetic and pharmacological approaches that endogenous activation of Notch3 signaling selectively controls the pool of undifferentiated progenitors of upper airways available for differentiation. This mechanism depends on the availability of Jag1 and Jag2, and is key to generating a population of parabasal cells that later activates Notch1 and Notch2 for secretory-multiciliated cell fate selection. Disruption of this mechanism resulted in aberrant expansion of basal cells and altered pseudostratification. Analysis of human lungs showing similar abnormalities and decreased NOTCH3 expression in subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease suggests an involvement of NOTCH3-dependent events in the pathogenesis of this condition. PMID:25564622

  4. Endothelial Notch signalling limits angiogenesis via control of artery formation

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Sana S.; Tsaryk, Roman; Lange, Martin; Wisniewski, Laura; Moore, John C.; Lawson, Nathan D.; Wojciechowska, Karolina; Schnittler, Hans; Siekmann, Arndt F.

    2017-01-01

    Angiogenic sprouting needs to be tightly controlled. It has been suggested that the Notch ligand dll4 expressed in leading tip cells restricts angiogenesis by activating Notch signalling in trailing stalk cells. Here, we show using live imaging in zebrafish that activation of Notch signalling is rather required in tip cells. Notch activation initially triggers expression of the chemokine receptor cxcr4a. This allows for proper tip cell migration and connection to the pre-existing arterial circulation, ultimately establishing functional arterial-venous blood flow patterns. Subsequently, Notch signalling reduces cxcr4a expression, thereby preventing excessive blood vessel growth. Finally, we find that Notch signalling is dispensable for limiting blood vessel growth during venous plexus formation that does not generate arteries. Together, these findings link the role of Notch signalling in limiting angiogenesis to its role during artery formation and provide a framework for our understanding of the mechanisms underlying blood vessel network expansion and maturation. PMID:28714969

  5. Therapeutic targeting of NOTCH1 signaling in T-ALL

    PubMed Central

    Palomero, Teresa; Ferrando, Adolfo

    2010-01-01

    The recent identification of activating mutations in NOTCH1 in the majority of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias (T-ALL) has brought major interest towards targeting the NOTCH signaling pathway in this disease. Small molecule γ-secretase inhibitors (GSIs) which block a critical proteolytic step required for NOTCH1 activation can effectively block the activity of NOTCH1 mutant alleles. However, the clinical development of GSIs has been hampered by their low cytotoxicity against human T-ALL and the development of significant gastrointestinal toxicity derived from inhibition of NOTCH signaling in the gut. Improved understanding of the oncogenic mechanisms of NOTCH1 and the effects of NOTCH inhibition in leukemic cells and the intestinal epithelium are required for the design of effective anti-NOTCH1 therapies in T-ALL. PMID:19778842

  6. Molecular Pathways of Notch Signaling in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, Joshua; Gridley, Thomas; Liaw, Lucy

    2012-01-01

    Notch signaling in the cardiovascular system is important during embryonic development, vascular repair of injury, and vascular pathology in humans. The vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) expresses multiple Notch receptors throughout its life cycle, and responds to Notch ligands as a regulatory mechanism of differentiation, recruitment to growing vessels, and maturation. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of the current understanding of the molecular basis for Notch regulation of VSMC phenotype. Further, we will explore Notch interaction with other signaling pathways important in VSMC. PMID:22509166

  7. PKCδ activated by c-MET enhances infiltration of human glioblastoma cells through NOTCH2 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seok-Gu; Kim, Rae-Kwon; Cui, Yan-Hong; Lee, Hae-June; Kim, Min-Jung; Lee, Jae-Seong; Kim, In-Gyu; Suh, Yongjoon; Lee, Su-Jae

    2016-01-01

    Poor prognosis of glioblastoma (GBM) is attributable to the propensity of tumor cells to infiltrate into the brain parenchyma. Protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes are highly expressed or aberrantly activated in GBM. However, how this signaling node translates to GBM cell invasiveness remains unknown. Here, we report that among PKC isoforms, PKCδ is strongly associated with infiltration of GBM cells. Notably, PKCδ enhanced Tyr418 phosphorylation of the non-receptor tyrosine kinase SRC, which in turn activated STAT3 and subsequent NOTCH2 signaling, ultimately leading to GBM cell invasiveness. Furthermore, we showed that PKCδ was aberrantly activated in GBM cells by c-MET, a receptor tyrosine kinase hyperactivated in GBM. In agreement, inhibition either component in the c-MET/PKCδ/SRC/STAT3 signaling axis effectively blocked the NOTCH2 signaling and invasiveness of GBM cells. Taken together, our findings shed a light on the signaling mechanisms behind the constitutive activation of PKCδ signaling in GBM. PMID:26700818

  8. Notch Signaling Pathway Is Activated in Motoneurons of Spinal Muscular Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Caraballo-Miralles, Víctor; Cardona-Rossinyol, Andrea; Garcera, Ana; Torres-Benito, Laura; Soler, Rosa M.; Tabares, Lucía; Lladó, Jerònia; Olmos, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neurodegenerative disease produced by low levels of Survival Motor Neuron (SMN) protein that affects alpha motoneurons in the spinal cord. Notch signaling is a cell-cell communication system well known as a master regulator of neural development, but also with important roles in the adult central nervous system. Aberrant Notch function is associated with several developmental neurological disorders; however, the potential implication of the Notch pathway in SMA pathogenesis has not been studied yet. We report here that SMN deficiency, induced in the astroglioma cell line U87MG after lentiviral transduction with a shSMN construct, was associated with an increase in the expression of the main components of Notch signaling pathway, namely its ligands, Jagged1 and Delta1, the Notch receptor and its active intracellular form (NICD). In the SMNΔ7 mouse model of SMA we also found increased astrocyte processes positive for Jagged1 and Delta1 in intimate contact with lumbar spinal cord motoneurons. In these motoneurons an increased Notch signaling was found, as denoted by increased NICD levels and reduced expression of the proneural gene neurogenin 3, whose transcription is negatively regulated by Notch. Together, these findings may be relevant to understand some pathologic attributes of SMA motoneurons. PMID:23759991

  9. Human-Specific NOTCH2NL Genes Affect Notch Signaling and Cortical Neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Fiddes, Ian T; Lodewijk, Gerrald A; Mooring, Meghan; Bosworth, Colleen M; Ewing, Adam D; Mantalas, Gary L; Novak, Adam M; van den Bout, Anouk; Bishara, Alex; Rosenkrantz, Jimi L; Lorig-Roach, Ryan; Field, Andrew R; Haeussler, Maximilian; Russo, Lotte; Bhaduri, Aparna; Nowakowski, Tomasz J; Pollen, Alex A; Dougherty, Max L; Nuttle, Xander; Addor, Marie-Claude; Zwolinski, Simon; Katzman, Sol; Kriegstein, Arnold; Eichler, Evan E; Salama, Sofie R; Jacobs, Frank M J; Haussler, David

    2018-05-31

    Genetic changes causing brain size expansion in human evolution have remained elusive. Notch signaling is essential for radial glia stem cell proliferation and is a determinant of neuronal number in the mammalian cortex. We find that three paralogs of human-specific NOTCH2NL are highly expressed in radial glia. Functional analysis reveals that different alleles of NOTCH2NL have varying potencies to enhance Notch signaling by interacting directly with NOTCH receptors. Consistent with a role in Notch signaling, NOTCH2NL ectopic expression delays differentiation of neuronal progenitors, while deletion accelerates differentiation into cortical neurons. Furthermore, NOTCH2NL genes provide the breakpoints in 1q21.1 distal deletion/duplication syndrome, where duplications are associated with macrocephaly and autism and deletions with microcephaly and schizophrenia. Thus, the emergence of human-specific NOTCH2NL genes may have contributed to the rapid evolution of the larger human neocortex, accompanied by loss of genomic stability at the 1q21.1 locus and resulting recurrent neurodevelopmental disorders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Inhibition of Delta-induced Notch signaling using fucose analogs

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Michael; Kumar, Vivek; Nordstrøm, Lars Ulrik; Feng, Lei; Takeuchi, Hideyuki; Hao, Huilin; Luca, Vincent C.; Garcia, K. Christopher; Stanley, Pamela; Wu, Peng; Haltiwanger, Robert S.

    2017-01-01

    Notch is a cell-surface receptor that controls cell fate decisions and is regulated by O-glycans attached to epidermal growth factor-like (EGF) repeats in its extracellular domain. Protein O-fucosyltransferase 1 (Pofut1) modifies EGF repeats with O-fucose and is essential for Notch signaling. Constitutive activation of Notch signaling has been associated with a variety of human malignancies. Therefore, tools for inhibiting Notch activity are being developed as cancer therapeutics. Towards this end, we screened L-fucose analogs for their effects on Notch signaling. Two analogs, 6-alkynyl and 6-alkenyl fucose, were substrates of Pofut1 and were incorporated directly into Notch EGF repeats in cells. Both analogs were potent inhibitors of binding to and activation of Notch1 by Notch ligands Dll1 and Dll4, but not by Jag1. Mutagenesis and modeling studies suggest that incorporation of the analogs into EGF8 of Notch1 markedly reduces the ability of Delta ligands to bind and activate Notch1. PMID:29176671

  11. Notch Signaling Regulates Late-Stage Epidermal Differentiation and Maintains Postnatal Hair Cycle Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hsien-Yi; Kao, Cheng-Heng; Lin, Kurt Ming-Chao; Kaartinen, Vesa; Yang, Liang-Tung

    2011-01-01

    Background Notch signaling involves ligand-receptor interactions through direct cell-cell contact. Multiple Notch receptors and ligands are expressed in the epidermis and hair follicles during embryonic development and the adult stage. Although Notch signaling plays an important role in regulating differentiation of the epidermis and hair follicles, it remains unclear how Notch signaling participates in late-stage epidermal differentiation and postnatal hair cycle homeostasis. Methodology and Principal Findings We applied Cre/loxP system to generate conditional gene targeted mice that allow inactivation of critical components of Notch signaling pathway in the skin. Rbpj, the core component of all four Notch receptors, and Pofut1, an essential factor for ligand-receptor interactions, were inactivated in hair follicle lineages and suprabasal layer of the epidermis using the Tgfb3-Cre mouse line. Rbpj conditional inactivation resulted in granular parakeratosis and reactive epidermal hyperplasia. Pofut1 conditional inactivation led to ultrastructural abnormalities in the granular layer and altered filaggrin processing in the epidermis, suggesting a perturbation of the granular layer differentiation. Disruption of Pofut1 in hair follicle lineages resulted in aberrant telogen morphology, a decrease of bulge stem cell markers, and a concomitant increase of K14-positive keratinocytes in the isthmus of mutant hair follicles. Pofut1-deficent hair follicles displayed a delay in anagen re-entry and dysregulation of proliferation and apoptosis during the hair cycle transition. Moreover, increased DNA double stand breaks were detected in Pofut1-deficent hair follicles, and real time PCR analyses on bulge keratinocytes isolated by FACS revealed an induction of DNA damage response and a paucity of DNA repair machinery in mutant bulge keratinocytes. Significance our data reveal a role for Notch signaling in regulating late-stage epidermal differentiation. Notch signaling is

  12. The Role of Notch Signaling Pathway in Breast Cancer Pathogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    breast cancer cells, I tested whether ErbB2 overexpression will cooperate with Notch in HMLE cells. While overexpression of activated Notch1 failed to...tyrosine kinase upstream of Ras normally found overexpressed in many breast cancers , also failed to transform HMLE cells. These observations suggested...cooperation between Notch1IC and ErbB2 signaling in transforming HMLE cells. Breast cancers typically do not harbor oncogenic Ras mutations; nevertheless

  13. Effects of varying Notch1 signal strength on embryogenesis and vasculogenesis in compound mutant heterozygotes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Identifying developmental processes regulated by Notch1 can be addressed in part by characterizing mice with graded levels of Notch1 signaling strength. Here we examine development in embryos expressing various combinations of Notch1 mutant alleles. Mice homozygous for the hypomorphic Notch112f allele, which removes the single O-fucose glycan in epidermal growth factor-like repeat 12 (EGF12) of the Notch1 ligand binding domain (lbd), exhibit reduced growth after weaning and defective T cell development. Mice homozygous for the inactive Notch1lbd allele express Notch1 missing an ~20 kDa internal segment including the canonical Notch1 ligand binding domain, and die at embryonic day ~E9.5. The embryonic and vascular phenotypes of compound heterozygous Notch112f/lbd embryos were compared with Notch1+/12f, Notch112f/12f, and Notch1lbd/lbd embryos. Embryonic stem (ES) cells derived from these embryos were also examined in Notch signaling assays. While Notch1 signaling was stronger in Notch112f/lbd compound heterozygotes compared to Notch1lbd/lbd embryos and ES cells, Notch1 signaling was even stronger in embryos carrying Notch112f and a null Notch1 allele. Results Mouse embryos expressing the hypomorphic Notch112f allele, in combination with the inactive Notch1lbd allele which lacks the Notch1 ligand binding domain, died at ~E11.5-12.5. Notch112f/lbd ES cells signaled less well than Notch112f/12f ES cells but more strongly than Notch1lbd/lbd ES cells. However, vascular defects in Notch112f/lbd yolk sac were severe and similar to Notch1lbd/lbd yolk sac. By contrast, vascular disorganization was milder in Notch112f/lbd compared to Notch1lbd/lbd embryos. The expression of Notch1 target genes was low in Notch112f/lbd yolk sac and embryo head, whereas Vegf and Vegfr2 transcripts were increased. The severity of the compound heterozygous Notch112f/lbd yolk sac phenotype suggested that the allelic products may functionally interact. By contrast, compound heterozygotes

  14. Parkin mediates neuroprotection through activation of Notch1 signaling.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Ji-Hye; Ann, Eun-Jung; Kim, Mi-Yeon; Ahn, Ji-Seon; Jo, Eun-Hye; Lee, Hye-Jin; Lee, Hye-Won; Lee, Young Chul; Kim, Jeong-Sun; Park, Hee-Sae

    2017-02-04

    Parkin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is the most frequently mutated gene in hereditary Parkinson's disease. Inactivation of Parkin leads to impairment of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, resulting in the accumulation of misfolded or aggregated proteins and ensuing neurodegeneration. In this study, we show that Parkin positively regulates the Notch1 signaling pathway. Overexpression of Parkin stabilized Notch1-IC protein levels, whereas knockdown of Parkin decreased Notch1-IC protein stability. Notably, overexpression of Parkin disrupted oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in neuronal cells. However, knockdown of Notch1 inhibited Parkin-induced neuronal cell survival. Together, these results indicate that Parkin is a novel regulator of the Notch1 signaling pathway, which promotes neuronal cell survival.

  15. Constitutive activation of NOTCH1 signaling in Sertoli cells causes gonocyte exit from quiescence

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Thomas Xavier; DeFalco, Tony; Capel, Blanche; Hofmann, Marie-Claude

    2013-01-01

    Notch signaling components have long been detected in Sertoli and germ cells in the developing and mature testis. However, the role of this pathway in testis development and spermatogenesis remains unknown. Using reporter mice expressing green fluorescent protein following Notch receptor activation, we found that Notch signaling was active in Sertoli cells at various fetal, neonatal, and adult stages. Since Notch signaling specifies stem cell fate in many developing and mature organ systems, we hypothesized that maintenance and differentiation of gonocytes and/or spermatogonial stem cells would be modulated through this pathway in Sertoli cells. To this end, we generated mutant mice constitutively expressing the active, intracellular domain of NOTCH1 (NICD1) in Sertoli cells. We found that mutant Sertoli cells were morphologically normal before and after birth, but presented a number of functional changes that drastically affected gonocyte numbers and physiology. We observed aberrant exit of gonocytes from mitotic arrest, migration toward cord periphery, and premature differentiation before birth. These events, presumably unsupported by the cellular microenvironment, were followed by gonocyte apoptosis and near complete disappearance of the gonocytes by day 2 after birth. Molecular analysis demonstrated that these effects are correlated with a dysregulation of Sertoli-expressed genes that are required for germ cell maintenance, such as Cyp26b1 and Gdnf. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Notch signaling is active in Sertoli cells throughout development and that proper regulation of Notch signaling in Sertoli cells is required for the maintenance of gonocytes in an undifferentiated state during fetal development. PMID:23391689

  16. The Hippo signaling functions through the Notch signaling to regulate intrahepatic bile duct development in mammals.

    PubMed

    Wu, Nan; Nguyen, Quy; Wan, Ying; Zhou, Tiaohao; Venter, Julie; Frampton, Gabriel A; DeMorrow, Sharon; Pan, Duojia; Meng, Fanyin; Glaser, Shannon; Alpini, Gianfranco; Bai, Haibo

    2017-07-01

    The Hippo signaling pathway and the Notch signaling pathway are evolutionary conserved signaling cascades that have important roles in embryonic development of many organs. In murine liver, disruption of either pathway impairs intrahepatic bile duct development. Recent studies suggested that the Notch signaling receptor Notch2 is a direct transcriptional target of the Hippo signaling pathway effector YAP, and the Notch signaling is a major mediator of the Hippo signaling in maintaining biliary cell characteristics in adult mice. However, it remains to be determined whether the Hippo signaling pathway functions through the Notch signaling in intrahepatic bile duct development. We found that loss of the Hippo signaling pathway tumor suppressor Nf2 resulted in increased expression levels of the Notch signaling pathway receptor Notch2 in cholangiocytes but not in hepatocytes. When knocking down Notch2 on the background of Nf2 deficiency in mouse livers, the excessive bile duct development induced by Nf2 deficiency was suppressed by heterozygous and homozygous deletion of Notch2 in a dose-dependent manner. These results implicated that Notch signaling is one of the downstream effectors of the Hippo signaling pathway in regulating intrahepatic bile duct development.

  17. The Hippo signaling functions through the Notch signaling to regulate intrahepatic bile duct development in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Nan; Nguyen, Quy; Wan, Ying; Zhou, Tiaohao; Venter, Julie; Frampton, Gabriel A; DeMorrow, Sharon; Pan, Duojia; Meng, Fanyin; Glaser, Shannon; Alpini, Gianfranco; Bai, Haibo

    2018-01-01

    The Hippo signaling pathway and the Notch signaling pathway are evolutionary conserved signaling cascades that have important roles in embryonic development of many organs. In murine liver, disruption of either pathway impairs intrahepatic bile duct development. Recent studies suggested that the Notch signaling receptor Notch2 is a direct transcriptional target of the Hippo signaling pathway effector YAP, and the Notch signaling is a major mediator of the Hippo signaling in maintaining biliary cell characteristics in adult mice. However, it remains to be determined whether the Hippo signaling pathway functions through the Notch signaling in intrahepatic bile duct development. We found that loss of the Hippo signaling pathway tumor suppressor Nf2 resulted in increased expression levels of the Notch signaling pathway receptor Notch2 in cholangiocytes but not in hepatocytes. When knocking down Notch2 on the background of Nf2 deficiency in mouse livers, the excessive bile duct development induced by Nf2 deficiency was suppressed by heterozygous and homozygous deletion of Notch2 in a dose-dependent manner. These results implicated that Notch signaling is one of the downstream effectors of the Hippo signaling pathway in regulating intrahepatic bile duct development. PMID:28581486

  18. Notch Signaling Regulates Ovarian Follicle Formation and Coordinates Follicular Growth

    PubMed Central

    Vanorny, Dallas A.; Prasasya, Rexxi D.; Chalpe, Abha J.; Kilen, Signe M.

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian follicles form through a process in which somatic pregranulosa cells encapsulate individual germ cells from germ cell syncytia. Complementary expression of the Notch ligand, Jagged1, in germ cells and the Notch receptor, Notch2, in pregranulosa cells suggests a role for Notch signaling in mediating cellular interactions during follicle assembly. Using a Notch reporter mouse, we demonstrate that Notch signaling is active within somatic cells of the embryonic ovary, and these cells undergo dramatic reorganization during follicle histogenesis. This coincides with a significant increase in the expression of the ligands, Jagged1 and Jagged2; the receptor, Notch2; and the target genes, Hes1 and Hey2. Histological examination of ovaries from mice with conditional deletion of Jagged1 within germ cells (J1 knockout [J1KO]) or Notch2 within granulosa cells (N2 knockout [N2KO]) reveals changes in follicle dynamics, including perturbations in the primordial follicle pool and antral follicle development. J1KO and N2KO ovaries also contain multi-oocytic follicles, which represent a failure to resolve germ cell syncytia, and follicles with enlarged oocytes but lacking somatic cell growth, signifying a potential role of Notch signaling in follicle activation and the coordination of follicle development. We also observed decreased cell proliferation and increased apoptosis in the somatic cells of both conditional knockout lines. As a consequence of these defects, J1KO female mice are subfertile; however, N2KO female mice remain fertile. This study demonstrates important functions for Jagged1 and Notch2 in the resolution of germ cell syncytia and the coordination of somatic and germ cell growth within follicles of the mouse ovary. PMID:24552588

  19. Notch signalling mediates reproductive constraint in the adult worker honeybee

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Elizabeth J.; Hyink, Otto; Dearden, Peter K.

    2016-01-01

    The hallmark of eusociality is the reproductive division of labour, in which one female caste reproduces, while reproduction is constrained in the subordinate caste. In adult worker honeybees (Apis mellifera) reproductive constraint is conditional: in the absence of the queen and brood, adult worker honeybees activate their ovaries and lay haploid male eggs. Here, we demonstrate that chemical inhibition of Notch signalling can overcome the repressive effect of queen pheromone and promote ovary activity in adult worker honeybees. We show that Notch signalling acts on the earliest stages of oogenesis and that the removal of the queen corresponds with a loss of Notch protein in the germarium. We conclude that the ancient and pleiotropic Notch signalling pathway has been co-opted into constraining reproduction in worker honeybees and we provide the first molecular mechanism directly linking ovary activity in adult worker bees with the presence of the queen. PMID:27485026

  20. Curcumin Induces Cell Death in Esophageal Cancer Cells through Modulating Notch Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Dharmalingam; Ponnurangam, Sivapriya; Ramamoorthy, Prabhu; Standing, David; Battafarano, Richard J.; Anant, Shrikant; Sharma, Prateek

    2012-01-01

    Background Curcumin inhibits the growth of esophageal cancer cell lines; however, the mechanism of action is not well understood. It is becoming increasingly clear that aberrant activation of Notch signaling has been associated with the development of esophageal cancer. Here, we have determined that curcumin inhibits esophageal cancer growth via a mechanism mediated through the Notch signaling pathway. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we show that curcumin treatment resulted in a dose and time dependent inhibition of proliferation and colony formation in esophageal cancer cell lines. Furthermore, curcumin treatment induced apoptosis through caspase 3 activation, confirmed by an increase in the ratio of Bax to Bcl2. Cell cycle analysis demonstrated that curcumin treatment induced cell death and down regulated cyclin D1 levels. Curcumin treatment also resulted in reduced number and size of esophagospheres. Furthermore, curcumin treatment led to reduced Notch-1 activation, expression of Jagged-1 and its downstream target Hes-1. This reduction in Notch-1 activation was determined to be due to the down-regulation of critical components of the γ-secretase complex proteins such as Presenilin 1 and Nicastrin. The combination of a known γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT and curcumin further decreased proliferation and induced apoptosis in esophageal cancer cells. Finally, curcumin treatment down-regulate the expressions of Notch-1 specific microRNAs miR-21 and miR-34a, and upregulated tumor suppressor let-7a miRNA. Conclusion/Significance Curcumin is a potent inhibitor of esophageal cancer growth that targets the Notch-1 activating γ-secretase complex proteins. These data suggest that Notch signaling inhibition is a novel mechanism of action for curcumin during therapeutic intervention in esophageal cancers. PMID:22363450

  1. Notch signaling: switching an oncogene to a tumor suppressor

    PubMed Central

    Lobry, Camille; Oh, Philmo; Mansour, Marc R.; Look, A. Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The Notch signaling pathway is a regulator of self-renewal and differentiation in several tissues and cell types. Notch is a binary cell-fate determinant, and its hyperactivation has been implicated as oncogenic in several cancers including breast cancer and T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Recently, several studies also unraveled tumor-suppressor roles for Notch signaling in different tissues, including tissues where it was before recognized as an oncogene in specific lineages. Whereas involvement of Notch as an oncogene in several lymphoid malignancies (T-ALL, B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia, splenic marginal zone lymphoma) is well characterized, there is growing evidence involving Notch signaling as a tumor suppressor in myeloid malignancies. It therefore appears that Notch signaling pathway’s oncogenic or tumor-suppressor abilities are highly context dependent. In this review, we summarize and discuss latest advances in the understanding of this dual role in hematopoiesis and the possible consequences for the treatment of hematologic malignancies. PMID:24608975

  2. Notch-signalling is required for head regeneration and tentacle patterning in Hydra.

    PubMed

    Münder, Sandra; Tischer, Susanne; Grundhuber, Maresa; Büchels, Nathalie; Bruckmeier, Nadine; Eckert, Stefanie; Seefeldt, Carolin A; Prexl, Andrea; Käsbauer, Tina; Böttger, Angelika

    2013-11-01

    Local self-activation and long ranging inhibition provide a mechanism for setting up organising regions as signalling centres for the development of structures in the surrounding tissue. The adult hydra hypostome functions as head organiser. After hydra head removal it is newly formed and complete heads can be regenerated. The molecular components of this organising region involve Wnt-signalling and β-catenin. However, it is not known how correct patterning of hypostome and tentacles are achieved in the hydra head and whether other signals in addition to HyWnt3 are needed for re-establishing the new organiser after head removal. Here we show that Notch-signalling is required for re-establishing the organiser during regeneration and that this is due to its role in restricting tentacle activation. Blocking Notch-signalling leads to the formation of irregular head structures characterised by excess tentacle tissue and aberrant expression of genes that mark the tentacle boundaries. This indicates a role for Notch-signalling in defining the tentacle pattern in the hydra head. Moreover, lateral inhibition by HvNotch and its target HyHes are required for head regeneration and without this the formation of the β-catenin/Wnt dependent head organiser is impaired. Work on prebilaterian model organisms has shown that the Wnt-pathway is important for setting up signalling centres for axial patterning in early multicellular animals. Our data suggest that the integration of Wnt-signalling with Notch-Delta activity was also involved in the evolution of defined body plans in animals. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Notch3 Interactome Analysis Identified WWP2 as a Negative Regulator of Notch3 Signaling in Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Bin; Wu, Ren-Chin; Zhu, Heng; Blackshaw, Seth; Shih, Ie-Ming; Wang, Tian-Li

    2014-01-01

    The Notch3 signaling pathway is thought to play a critical role in cancer development, as evidenced by the Notch3 amplification and rearrangement observed in human cancers. However, the molecular mechanism by which Notch3 signaling contributes to tumorigenesis is largely unknown. In an effort to identify the molecular modulators of the Notch3 signaling pathway, we screened for Notch3-intracellular domain (N3-ICD) interacting proteins using a human proteome microarray. Pathway analysis of the Notch3 interactome demonstrated that ubiquitin C was the molecular hub of the top functional network, suggesting the involvement of ubiquitination in modulating Notch3 signaling. Thereby, we focused on functional characterization of an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase, WWP2, a top candidate in the Notch3 interactome list. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments showed that WWP2 interacted with N3-ICD but not with intracellular domains from other Notch receptors. Wild-type WWP2 but not ligase-deficient mutant WWP2 increases mono-ubiquitination of the membrane-tethered Notch3 fragment, therefore attenuating Notch3 pathway activity in cancer cells and leading to cell cycle arrest. The mono-ubiquitination by WWP2 may target an endosomal/lysosomal degradation fate for Notch3 as suggested by the fact that the process could be suppressed by the endosomal/lysosomal inhibitor. Analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas dataset showed that the majority of ovarian carcinomas harbored homozygous or heterozygous deletions in WWP2 locus, and there was an inverse correlation in the expression levels between WWP2 and Notch3 in ovarian carcinomas. Furthermore, ectopic expression of WWP2 decreased tumor development in a mouse xenograft model and suppressed the Notch3-induced phenotypes including increase in cancer stem cell-like cell population and platinum resistance. Taken together, our results provide evidence that WWP2 serves as a tumor suppressor by negatively regulating Notch3 signaling in ovarian cancer

  4. An amelogenin mutation leads to disruption of the odontogenic apparatus and aberrant expression of Notch I

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xu; Li, Yong; Alawi, Faizan; Bouchard, Jessica R.; Kulkarni, Ashok B.; Gibson, Carolyn W.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Amelogenins are highly conserved proteins secreted by ameloblasts in the dental organ of developing teeth. These proteins regulate dental enamel thickness and structure in humans and mice. Mice that express an amelogenin transgene with a P70T mutation (TgP70T) develop abnormal epithelial proliferation in an amelogenin null (KO) background. Some of these cellular masses have the appearance of proliferating stratum intermedium, which is the layer adjacent to the ameloblasts in unerupted teeth. As Notch proteins are thought to constitute the developmental switch that separates ameloblasts from stratum intermedium, these signaling proteins were evaluated in normal and proliferating tissues. METHODS Mandibles were dissected for histology and immunohistochemistry using Notch I antibodies. Molar teeth were dissected for western blotting and RT-PCR for evaluation of Notch levels through imaging and statistical analyses. RESULTS Notch I was immunolocalized to ameloblasts of TgP70TKO mice, KO ameloblasts stained, but less strongly, and wild-type teeth had minimal staining. Cells within the proliferating epithelial cell masses were positive for Notch I and had an appearance reminiscent of calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor with amyloid-like deposits. Notch I protein and mRNA were elevated in molar teeth from TgP70TKO mice. CONCLUSION Expression of TgP70T leads to abnormal structures in mandibles and maxillae of mice with the KO genetic background and these mice have elevated levels of Notch I in developing molars. As cells within the masses also express transgenic amelogenins, development of the abnormal proliferations suggests communication between amelogenin producing cells and the proliferating cells, dependent on the presence of the mutated amelogenin protein. PMID:20923441

  5. Investigation of the Effects of Notch Width on Eddy Current Response and Comparison of Signals from Notches and Cracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, B. F.; Lo, C. C. H.; Nakagawa, N.

    2010-02-01

    This paper reports on work conducted to investigate the effect that electrical discharge machining (EDM) notch width has on the eddy current (EC) signal as a function of coil drive frequency. The notch results are also compared to EC signals from laboratory-grown fatigue cracks. This study builds upon previous work with titanium, Inconel and aluminum materials where the signal amplitude was shown to decrease, as expected, as the notch width decreases. The trend was captured well by numerical results and this allowed estimates to be made about the signals from idealized "zero-width" notches. The results indicated that the signal reduction factor from a 0.127 mm (0.005 inch) wide, rectangular notch to a theoretical zero-width semi-elliptical notch of the same size ranged from 25 to 42% for low conductivity materials when data was collected at 2 MHz. For aluminum, the difference between signals from 0.127 mm wide notches and estimated signals for zero-width notches was approximately 50%. However, 2 MHz is an uncommonly high frequency for inspecting aluminum alloys so additional work was necessary to investigate the notch width effect at lower frequencies. This study sought to determine how the notch-width effect changed as a function of frequency for high conductivity materials such as aluminum.

  6. NOTCH signaling in skeletal progenitors is critical for fracture repair

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cuicui; Inzana, Jason A.; Mirando, Anthony J.; Liu, Zhaoyang; Shen, Jie; O’Keefe, Regis J.; Awad, Hani A.; Hilton, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Fracture nonunions develop in 10%–20% of patients with fractures, resulting in prolonged disability. Current data suggest that bone union during fracture repair is achieved via proliferation and differentiation of skeletal progenitors within periosteal and soft tissues surrounding bone, while bone marrow stromal/stem cells (BMSCs) and other skeletal progenitors may also contribute. The NOTCH signaling pathway is a critical maintenance factor for BMSCs during skeletal development, although the precise role for NOTCH and the requisite nature of BMSCs following fracture is unknown. Here, we evaluated whether NOTCH and/or BMSCs are required for fracture repair by performing nonstabilized and stabilized fractures on NOTCH-deficient mice with targeted deletion of RBPjk in skeletal progenitors, maturing osteoblasts, and committed chondrocytes. We determined that removal of NOTCH signaling in BMSCs and subsequent depletion of this population result in fracture nonunion, as the fracture repair process was normal in animals harboring either osteoblast- or chondrocyte-specific deletion of RBPjk. Together, this work provides a genetic model of a fracture nonunion and demonstrates the requirement for NOTCH and BMSCs in fracture repair, irrespective of fracture stability and vascularity. PMID:26950423

  7. O-GlcNAc on NOTCH1 EGF repeats regulates ligand-induced Notch signaling and vascular development in mammals.

    PubMed

    Sawaguchi, Shogo; Varshney, Shweta; Ogawa, Mitsutaka; Sakaidani, Yuta; Yagi, Hirokazu; Takeshita, Kyosuke; Murohara, Toyoaki; Kato, Koichi; Sundaram, Subha; Stanley, Pamela; Okajima, Tetsuya

    2017-04-11

    The glycosyltransferase EOGT transfers O-GlcNAc to a consensus site in epidermal growth factor-like (EGF) repeats of a limited number of secreted and membrane proteins, including Notch receptors. In EOGT-deficient cells, the binding of DLL1 and DLL4, but not JAG1, canonical Notch ligands was reduced, and ligand-induced Notch signaling was impaired. Mutagenesis of O-GlcNAc sites on NOTCH1 also resulted in decreased binding of DLL4. EOGT functions were investigated in retinal angiogenesis that depends on Notch signaling. Global or endothelial cell-specific deletion of Eogt resulted in defective retinal angiogenesis, with a mild phenotype similar to that caused by reduced Notch signaling in retina. Combined deficiency of different Notch1 mutant alleles exacerbated the abnormalities in Eogt -/- retina, and Notch target gene expression was decreased in Eogt -/- endothelial cells. Thus, O-GlcNAc on EGF repeats of Notch receptors mediates ligand-induced Notch signaling required in endothelial cells for optimal vascular development.

  8. Notch pathway signaling in the skin antagonizes Merkel cell development.

    PubMed

    Logan, Gregory J; Wright, Margaret C; Kubicki, Adam C; Maricich, Stephen M

    2018-02-15

    Merkel cells are mechanosensitive skin cells derived from the epidermal lineage whose development requires expression of the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Atoh1. The genes and pathways involved in regulating Merkel cell development during embryogenesis are poorly understood. Notch pathway signaling antagonizes Atoh1 expression in many developing body regions, so we hypothesized that Notch signaling might inhibit Merkel cell development. We found that conditional, constitutive overexpression of the Notch intracellular domain (NICD) in mouse epidermis significantly decreased Merkel cell numbers in whisker follicles and touch domes of hairy skin. Conversely, conditional deletion of the obligate NICD binding partner RBPj in the epidermis significantly increased Merkel cell numbers in whisker follicles, led to the development of ectopic Merkel cells outside of touch domes in hairy skin epidermis, and altered the distribution of Merkel cells in touch domes. Deletion of the downstream Notch effector gene Hes1 also significantly increased Merkel cell numbers in whisker follicles. Together, these data demonstrate that Notch signaling regulates Merkel cell production and patterning. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Notch-Induced Expression of FZD7 Requires Noncanonical NOTCH3 Signaling in Human Breast Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Vasudeva; Sun, Yu Jia; Weger, Steve; Raouf, Afshin

    2016-04-01

    The evolutionarily conserved Notch and Wnt signaling pathways have demonstrated roles in normal mammary gland development and in breast carcinogenesis. We previously reported that in human mammary gland, signaling through NOTCH3 alone regulates the commitment of the undifferentiated bipotential progenitors to the luminal cell fate, indicating that NOTCH3 may regulate the expression of unique genes apart from the other Notch receptors. In this study, we used gain of function and loss of function experiments and found that a Wnt signaling receptor, Frizzled7 (FZD7), is a unique and nonredundant target of NOTCH3 in human breast epithelial cells. Interestingly, neither the constitutively active forms of NOTCH1-2, 4 nor loss of expression of these receptors were able to alter expression of FZD7 in human breast epithelial cells. We further show that FZD7-expressing cells are found more frequently in the luminal progenitor-enriched subpopulation of cells obtained from breast reduction samples compared with the undifferentiated bipotent progenitors. Also, we show that NOTCH3-induced expression of FZD7 occurs in the absence of CSL (CBF1-Suppressor of Hairless-Lag-1). Our data suggest that noncanonical Notch signaling through NOTCH3 could modulate Wnt signaling via FZD7 and in this way, might be involved in luminal cell differentiation.

  10. A Dual Role for NOTCH Signaling in Joint Cartilage Maintenance and Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhaoyang; Chen, Jianquan; Mirando, Anthony; Wang, Cuicui; Zuscik, Michael J.; O’Keefe, Regis J.; Hilton, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Loss of NOTCH signaling in postnatal murine joints results in osteoarthritis (OA), indicating a requirement for NOTCH during joint cartilage maintenance. Unexpectedly, NOTCH components are significantly up-regulated in human and murine post-traumatic OA, suggesting either a reparative or pathological role for NOTCH activation in OA. Here we investigated the potential dual role for NOTCH in joint maintenance and OA by generating two mouse models overexpressing the NOTCH1 intracellular domain within postnatal joint cartilage; one with sustained NOTCH activation that likely resembles pathological NOTCH signaling and one with transient NOTCH activation that more closely reflects physiological NOTCH signaling. Sustained NOTCH signaling in joint cartilage leads to an early and progressive OA pathology, while on the contrary, transient NOTCH activation enhances cartilage matrix synthesis and promotes joint maintenance under normal physiological conditions. Using RNA-seq, immunohistochemical, and biochemical approaches we identified several novel targets potentially responsible for NOTCH-mediated cartilage degradation, fibrosis, and OA progression, including components of the IL6/STAT3 and ERK/p38 MAPK pathways; factors that may also contribute to post-traumatic OA development. Collectively, these data demonstrate a dual role for the NOTCH pathway in joint cartilage and identify important downstream NOTCH effectors as potential targets for disease modifying osteoarthritis drugs (DMOADs). PMID:26198357

  11. Direct induction of T lymphocyte-specific gene expression by the mammalian Notch signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Reizis, Boris; Leder, Philip

    2002-01-01

    The Notch signaling pathway regulates the commitment and early development of T lymphocytes. We studied Notch-mediated induction of the pre-T cell receptor α (pTa) gene, a T-cell-specific transcriptional target of Notch. The pTa enhancer was activated by Notch signaling and contained binding sites for its nuclear effector, CSL. Mutation of the CSL-binding sites abolished enhancer induction by Notch and delayed the up-regulation of pTa transgene expression during T cell lineage commitment. These results show a direct mechanism of stage- and tissue-specific gene induction by the mammalian Notch/CSL signaling pathway. PMID:11825871

  12. Homozygous NOTCH3 null mutation and impaired NOTCH3 signaling in recessive early-onset arteriopathy and cavitating leukoencephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Pippucci, Tommaso; Maresca, Alessandra; Magini, Pamela; Cenacchi, Giovanna; Donadio, Vincenzo; Palombo, Flavia; Papa, Valentina; Incensi, Alex; Gasparre, Giuseppe; Valentino, Maria Lucia; Preziuso, Carmela; Pisano, Annalinda; Ragno, Michele; Liguori, Rocco; Giordano, Carla; Tonon, Caterina; Lodi, Raffaele; Parmeggiani, Antonia; Carelli, Valerio; Seri, Marco

    2015-06-01

    Notch signaling is essential for vascular physiology. Neomorphic heterozygous mutations in NOTCH3, one of the four human NOTCH receptors, cause cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL). Hypomorphic heterozygous alleles have been occasionally described in association with a spectrum of cerebrovascular phenotypes overlapping CADASIL, but their pathogenic potential is unclear. We describe a patient with childhood-onset arteriopathy, cavitating leukoencephalopathy with cerebral white matter abnormalities presented as diffuse cavitations, multiple lacunar infarctions and disseminated microbleeds. We identified a novel homozygous c.C2898A (p.C966*) null mutation in NOTCH3 abolishing NOTCH3 expression and causing NOTCH3 signaling impairment. NOTCH3 targets acting in the regulation of arterial tone (KCNA5) or expressed in the vasculature (CDH6) were downregulated. Patient's vessels were characterized by smooth muscle degeneration as in CADASIL, but without deposition of granular osmiophilic material (GOM), the CADASIL hallmark. The heterozygous parents displayed similar but less dramatic trends in decrease in the expression of NOTCH3 and its targets, as well as in vessel degeneration. This study suggests a functional link between NOTCH3 deficiency and pathogenesis of vascular leukoencephalopathies. © 2015 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  13. Cell-cell contact area affects Notch signaling and Notch-dependent patterning

    PubMed Central

    Shaya, Oren; Binshtok, Udi; Hersch, Micha; Rivkin, Dmitri; Weinreb, Sheila; Amir-Zilberstein, Liat; Khamaisi, Bassma; Oppenheim, Olya; Desai, Ravi A.; Goodyear, Richard J.; Richardson, Guy P.; Chen, Christopher S.; Sprinzak, David

    2017-01-01

    Summary During development, cells undergo dramatic changes in their morphology. By affecting contact geometry, these morphological changes could influence cellular communication. However, it has remained unclear whether and how signaling depends on contact geometry. This question is particularly relevant for Notch signaling, which coordinates neighboring cell fates through direct cell-cell signaling. Using micropatterning with a receptor trans-endocytosis assay, we show that signaling between pairs of cells correlates with their contact area. This relationship extends across contact diameters ranging from microns to tens of microns. Mathematical modeling predicts that dependence of signaling on contact area can bias cellular differentiation in Notch-mediated lateral inhibition processes, such that smaller cells are more likely to differentiate into signal-producing cells. Consistent with this prediction, analysis of developing chick inner ear revealed that ligand-producing hair cell precursors have smaller apical footprints than non-hair cells. Together, these results highlight the influence of cell morphology on fate determination processes. PMID:28292428

  14. Cell-Cell Contact Area Affects Notch Signaling and Notch-Dependent Patterning.

    PubMed

    Shaya, Oren; Binshtok, Udi; Hersch, Micha; Rivkin, Dmitri; Weinreb, Sheila; Amir-Zilberstein, Liat; Khamaisi, Bassma; Oppenheim, Olya; Desai, Ravi A; Goodyear, Richard J; Richardson, Guy P; Chen, Christopher S; Sprinzak, David

    2017-03-13

    During development, cells undergo dramatic changes in their morphology. By affecting contact geometry, these morphological changes could influence cellular communication. However, it has remained unclear whether and how signaling depends on contact geometry. This question is particularly relevant for Notch signaling, which coordinates neighboring cell fates through direct cell-cell signaling. Using micropatterning with a receptor trans-endocytosis assay, we show that signaling between pairs of cells correlates with their contact area. This relationship extends across contact diameters ranging from micrometers to tens of micrometers. Mathematical modeling predicts that dependence of signaling on contact area can bias cellular differentiation in Notch-mediated lateral inhibition processes, such that smaller cells are more likely to differentiate into signal-producing cells. Consistent with this prediction, analysis of developing chick inner ear revealed that ligand-producing hair cell precursors have smaller apical footprints than non-hair cells. Together, these results highlight the influence of cell morphology on fate determination processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Faster embryonic segmentation through elevated Delta-Notch signalling

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Bo-Kai; Jörg, David J.; Oates, Andrew C.

    2016-01-01

    An important step in understanding biological rhythms is the control of period. A multicellular, rhythmic patterning system termed the segmentation clock is thought to govern the sequential production of the vertebrate embryo's body segments, the somites. Several genetic loss-of-function conditions, including the Delta-Notch intercellular signalling mutants, result in slower segmentation. Here, we generate DeltaD transgenic zebrafish lines with a range of copy numbers and correspondingly increased signalling levels, and observe faster segmentation. The highest-expressing line shows an altered oscillating gene expression wave pattern and shortened segmentation period, producing embryos with more, shorter body segments. Our results reveal surprising differences in how Notch signalling strength is quantitatively interpreted in different organ systems, and suggest a role for intercellular communication in regulating the output period of the segmentation clock by altering its spatial pattern. PMID:27302627

  16. Tyrosine phosphorylation and proteolytic cleavage of Notch are required for non-canonical Notch/Abl signaling in Drosophila axon guidance.

    PubMed

    Kannan, Ramakrishnan; Cox, Eric; Wang, Lei; Kuzina, Irina; Gu, Qun; Giniger, Edward

    2018-01-17

    Notch signaling is required for the development and physiology of nearly every tissue in metazoans. Much of Notch signaling is mediated by transcriptional regulation of downstream target genes, but Notch controls axon patterning in Drosophila by local modulation of Abl tyrosine kinase signaling, via direct interactions with the Abl co-factors Disabled and Trio. Here, we show that Notch-Abl axonal signaling requires both of the proteolytic cleavage events that initiate canonical Notch signaling. We further show that some Notch protein is tyrosine phosphorylated in Drosophila , that this form of the protein is selectively associated with Disabled and Trio, and that relevant tyrosines are essential for Notch-dependent axon patterning but not for canonical Notch-dependent regulation of cell fate. Based on these data, we propose a model for the molecular mechanism by which Notch controls Abl signaling in Drosophila axons. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. The emerging roles of Notch signaling in leukemia and stem cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The Notch signaling pathway plays a critical role in maintaining the balance between cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis, and is a highly conserved signaling pathway that regulates normal development in a context- and dose-dependent manner. Dysregulation of Notch signaling has been suggested to be key events in a variety of hematological malignancies. Notch1 signaling appears to be the central oncogenic trigger in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), in which the majority of human malignancies have acquired mutations that lead to constitutive activation of Notch1 signaling. However, emerging evidence unexpectedly demonstrates that Notch signaling can function as a potent tumor suppressor in other forms of leukemia. This minireview will summarize recent advances related to the roles of activated Notch signaling in human lymphocytic leukemia, myeloid leukemia, stem cells and stromal microenvironment, and we will discuss the perspectives of Notch signaling as a potential therapeutic target as well. PMID:24252593

  18. NOTCH2 signaling confers immature morphology and aggressiveness in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    HAYASHI, YOSHIHIRO; OSANAI, MAKOTO; LEE, GANG-HONG

    2015-01-01

    The NOTCH family of membranous receptors plays key roles during development and carcinogenesis. Since NOTCH2, yet not NOTCH1 has been shown essential for murine hepatogenesis, NOTCH2 rather than NOTCH1 may be more relevant to human hepatocarcinogenesis; however, no previous studies have supported this hypothesis. We therefore assessed the role of NOTCH2 in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by immunohistochemistry and cell culture. Immunohistochemically, 19% of primary HCCs showed nuclear staining for NOTCH2, indicating activated NOTCH2 signaling. NOTCH2-positive HCCs were on average in more advanced clinical stages, and exhibited more immature cellular morphology, i.e. higher nuclear-cytoplasmic ratios and nuclear densities. Such features were not evident in NOTCH1-positive HCCs. In human HCC cell lines, abundant NOTCH2 expression was associated with anaplasia, represented by loss of E-cadherin. When NOTCH2 signaling was stably downregulated in HLF cells, an anaplastic HCC cell line, the cells were attenuated in potential for in vitro invasiveness and migration, as well as in vivo tumorigenicity accompanied by histological maturation. Generally, inverse results were obtained for a differentiated HCC cell line, Huh7, manipulated to overexpress activated NOTCH2. These findings suggested that the NOTCH2 signaling may confer aggressive behavior and immature morphology in human HCC cells. PMID:26252838

  19. NOTCH2 signaling confers immature morphology and aggressiveness in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yoshihiro; Osanai, Makoto; Lee, Gang-Hong

    2015-10-01

    The NOTCH family of membranous receptors plays key roles during development and carcinogenesis. Since NOTCH2, yet not NOTCH1 has been shown essential for murine hepatogenesis, NOTCH2 rather than NOTCH1 may be more relevant to human hepatocarcinogenesis; however, no previous studies have supported this hypothesis. We therefore assessed the role of NOTCH2 in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by immunohistochemistry and cell culture. Immunohistochemically, 19% of primary HCCs showed nuclear staining for NOTCH2, indicating activated NOTCH2 signaling. NOTCH2-positive HCCs were on average in more advanced clinical stages, and exhibited more immature cellular morphology, i.e. higher nuclear-cytoplasmic ratios and nuclear densities. Such features were not evident in NOTCH1‑positive HCCs. In human HCC cell lines, abundant NOTCH2 expression was associated with anaplasia, represented by loss of E-cadherin. When NOTCH2 signaling was stably downregulated in HLF cells, an anaplastic HCC cell line, the cells were attenuated in potential for in vitro invasiveness and migration, as well as in vivo tumorigenicity accompanied by histological maturation. Generally, inverse results were obtained for a differentiated HCC cell line, Huh7, manipulated to overexpress activated NOTCH2. These findings suggested that the NOTCH2 signaling may confer aggressive behavior and immature morphology in human HCC cells.

  20. Current views on the role of Notch signaling and the pathogenesis of human leukemia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The Notch signaling pathway is highly conserved from Drosophila to humans and plays an important role in the regulation of cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Constitutive activation of Notch signaling has been shown to result in excessive cellular proliferation and a wide range of malignancies, including leukemia, glioblastoma and lung and breast cancers. Notch can also act as a tumor suppressor, and its inactivation has been associated with an increased risk of spontaneous squamous cell carcinoma. This minireview focuses on recent advances related to the mechanisms and roles of activated Notch1, Notch2, Notch3 and Notch4 signaling in human lymphocytic leukemia, myeloid leukemia and B cell lymphoma, as well as their significance, and recent advances in Notch-targeted therapies. PMID:22128846

  1. A critical role of Notch signaling in osteosarcoma invasion and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pingyu; Yang, Yanwen; Zweidler-McKay, Patrick A.; Hughes, Dennis P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Notch signaling is an important mediator of growth and survival in several cancer types, with Notch pathway genes functioning as oncogenes or tumor suppressors in different cancers. However, the role of Notch in osteosarcoma is unknown. Experimental Design We assessed the expression of Notch pathway genes in human osteosarcoma cell lines and patient samples. We then employed pharmacologic and retroviral manipulation of the Notch pathway and studied the impact on osteosarcoma cell proliferation, survival, anchorage-independent growth, invasion and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. Results Notch pathway genes, including Notch ligand DLL1, Notch 1 and 2, and the Notch target gene HES1 were expressed in osteosarcoma cells, and expression of HES1 was associated with invasive and metastatic potential. Blockade of Notch pathway signaling with a small molecule inhibitor of gamma secretase eliminated invasion in matrigel without affecting cell proliferation, survival, or anchorage-independent growth. Manipulation of Notch and HES1 signaling demonstrated a crucial role for HES1 in osteosarcoma invasiveness and metastasis in vivo. Conclusion These studies identify a new invasion and metastasis-regulating pathway in osteosarcoma and define a novel function for the Notch pathway: regulation of metastasis. Since the Notch pathway can be inhibited pharmacologically, these findings point toward possible new treatments to reduce invasion and metastasis in osteosarcoma. PMID:18483362

  2. Different profiles of notch signaling in cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary emphysema and bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Shi; Hu, Xiaofei; Wang, Zheng; Wu, Meng; Zhang, Jinnong

    2015-05-01

    Different profiles of Notch signaling mediate naive T cell differentiation which might be involved in pulmonary emphysema and fibrosis. C57BL/6 mice were randomized into cigarette smoke (CS) exposure, bleomycin (BLM) exposure, and two separate groups of control for sham exposure to CS or BLM. The paratracheal lymph nodes of the animals were analyzed by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Morphometry of the lung parenchyma, measurement of the cytokines, and cytometry of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were also done accordingly. In comparison with controls, all Notch receptors and ligands were upregulated by chronic CS exposure, especially Notch3 and DLL1 (P < 0.01), and this was in line with emphysema-like morphology and Th1-biased inflammation. While Notch3 and DLL1 were downregulated by BLM exposure (P < 0.01), those was in line with fibrotic lung remodeling and Th2 polarization. This founding implies that the CS exposure but not the BLM exposure is capable of initiating Notch signaling in lymphoid tissue of the lung, which is likely relevant to the pathogenesis of pulmonary emphysema. Unable to initiate the Th1 response or inhibit it may lead to Th2 polarization and aberrant repair.

  3. The Endocannabinoid, Anandamide, Augments Notch-1 Signaling in Cultured Cortical Neurons Exposed to Amyloid-β and in the Cortex of Aged Rats*

    PubMed Central

    Tanveer, Riffat; Gowran, Aoife; Noonan, Janis; Keating, Sinead E.; Bowie, Andrew G.; Campbell, Veronica A.

    2012-01-01

    Aberrant Notch signaling has recently emerged as a possible mechanism for the altered neurogenesis, cognitive impairment, and learning and memory deficits associated with Alzheimer disease (AD). Recently, targeting the endocannabinoid system in models of AD has emerged as a potential approach to slow the progression of the disease process. Although studies have identified neuroprotective roles for endocannabinoids, there is a paucity of information on modulation of the pro-survival Notch pathway by endocannabinoids. In this study the influence of the endocannabinoids, anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, on the Notch-1 pathway and on its endogenous regulators were investigated in an in vitro model of AD. We report that AEA up-regulates Notch-1 signaling in cultured neurons. We also provide evidence that although Aβ1–42 increases expression of the endogenous inhibitor of Notch-1, numb (Nb), this can be prevented by AEA and 2-arachidonoylglycerol. Interestingly, AEA up-regulated Nct expression, a component of γ-secretase, and this was found to play a crucial role in the enhanced Notch-1 signaling mediated by AEA. The stimulatory effects of AEA on Notch-1 signaling persisted in the presence of Aβ1–42. AEA was found to induce a preferential processing of Notch-1 over amyloid precursor protein to generate Aβ1–40. Aging, a natural process of neurodegeneration, was associated with a reduction in Notch-1 signaling in rat cortex and hippocampus, and this was restored with chronic treatment with URB 597. In summary, AEA has the proclivity to enhance Notch-1 signaling in an in vitro model of AD, which may have relevance for restoring neurogenesis and cognition in AD. PMID:22891244

  4. Nandrolone reduces activation of Notch signaling in denervated muscle associated with increased Numb expression

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xin-Hua; Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029; Yao, Shen

    2011-10-14

    Highlights: {yields} Nerve transection increased Notch signaling in paralyzed muscle. {yields} Nandrolone prevented denervation-induced Notch signaling. {yields} Nandrolone induced the expression of an inhibitor of the Notch signaling, Numb. {yields} Reduction of denervation-induced Notch signaling by nandrolone is likely through upregulation of Numb. -- Abstract: Nandrolone, an anabolic steroid, slows denervation-atrophy in rat muscle. The molecular mechanisms responsible for this effect are not well understood. Androgens and anabolic steroids activate Notch signaling in animal models of aging and thereby mitigate sarcopenia. To explore the molecular mechanisms by which nandrolone prevents denervation-atrophy, we investigated the effects of nandrolone on Notch signalingmore » in denervated rat gastrocnemius muscle. Denervation significantly increased Notch activity reflected by elevated levels of nuclear Notch intracellular domain (NICD) and expression of Hey1 (a Notch target gene). Activation was greatest at 7 and 35 days after denervation but remained present at 56 days after denervation. Activation of Notch in denervated muscle was prevented by nandrolone associated with upregulated expression of Numb mRNA and protein. These data demonstrate that denervation activates Notch signaling, and that nandrolone abrogates this response associated with increased expression of Numb, suggesting a potential mechanism by which nandrolone reduces denervation-atrophy.« less

  5. N-acetylcysteine negatively regulates Notch3 and its malignant signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Juan-Juan; Liu, Xue-Xia; You, Hui; Gong, Mei-Ying; Zou, Ming; Cheng, Wen-Hsing; Zhu, Jian-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Notch3 receptor is expressed in a variety of cancers and the excised active intracellular domain (N3ICD) initiates its signaling cascade. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) as an antioxidant has been implicated in cancer prevention and therapy. In this study, we demonstrated a negative regulation of Notch3 by NAC in cancer cells. HeLa cells treated with NAC exhibited a time- and concentration-dependent decrease in Notch3 levels and its downstream effectors Hes1 and HRT1 in a manner independent of f-secretase or glutathione. In contrast, NAC did not affect protein levels of Notch1, the full length Notch3 precursor, or ectopically expressed N3ICD. Although SOD, catalase and NAC suppressed reactive oxygen species in HeLa cells, the first two antioxidants did not impact on Notch3 levels. While the mRNA expression of Notch3 was not altered by NAC, functional inhibition of lysosome, but not proteasome, blocked the NAC-dependent reduction of Notch3 levels. Furthermore, results from Notch3 silencing and N3ICD overexpression demonstrated that NAC prevented malignant phenotypes through down-regulation of Notch3 protein in multiple cancer cells. In summary, NAC reduces Notch3 levels through lysosome-dependent protein degradation, thereby negatively regulates Notch3 malignant signaling in cancer cells. These results implicate a novel NAC treatment in sensitizing Notch3-expressing tumors. PMID:27102435

  6. N-acetylcysteine negatively regulates Notch3 and its malignant signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiong; Wang, Ya-Nan; Zhu, Juan-Juan; Liu, Xue-Xia; You, Hui; Gong, Mei-Ying; Zou, Ming; Cheng, Wen-Hsing; Zhu, Jian-Hong

    2016-05-24

    Notch3 receptor is expressed in a variety of cancers and the excised active intracellular domain (N3ICD) initiates its signaling cascade. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) as an antioxidant has been implicated in cancer prevention and therapy. In this study, we demonstrated a negative regulation of Notch3 by NAC in cancer cells. HeLa cells treated with NAC exhibited a time- and concentration-dependent decrease in Notch3 levels and its downstream effectors Hes1 and HRT1 in a manner independent of f-secretase or glutathione. In contrast, NAC did not affect protein levels of Notch1, the full length Notch3 precursor, or ectopically expressed N3ICD. Although SOD, catalase and NAC suppressed reactive oxygen species in HeLa cells, the first two antioxidants did not impact on Notch3 levels. While the mRNA expression of Notch3 was not altered by NAC, functional inhibition of lysosome, but not proteasome, blocked the NAC-dependent reduction of Notch3 levels. Furthermore, results from Notch3 silencing and N3ICD overexpression demonstrated that NAC prevented malignant phenotypes through down-regulation of Notch3 protein in multiple cancer cells. In summary, NAC reduces Notch3 levels through lysosome-dependent protein degradation, thereby negatively regulates Notch3 malignant signaling in cancer cells. These results implicate a novel NAC treatment in sensitizing Notch3-expressing tumors.

  7. Discrete Notch signaling requirements in the specification of hematopoietic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Albert D; Melick, Chase H; Clements, Wilson K; Stachura, David L; Distel, Martin; Panáková, Daniela; MacRae, Calum; Mork, Lindsey A; Crump, J Gage; Traver, David

    2014-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) require multiple molecular inputs for proper specification, including activity of the Notch signaling pathway. A requirement for the Notch1 and dispensability of the Notch2 receptor has been demonstrated in mice, but the role of the remaining Notch receptors has not been investigated. Here, we demonstrate that three of the four Notch receptors are independently required for the specification of HSCs in the zebrafish. The orthologues of the murine Notch1 receptor, Notch1a and Notch1b, are each required intrinsically to fate HSCs, just prior to their emergence from aortic hemogenic endothelium. By contrast, the Notch3 receptor is required earlier within the developing somite to regulate HSC emergence in a non-cell-autonomous manner. Epistatic analyses demonstrate that Notch3 function lies downstream of Wnt16, which is required for HSC specification through its regulation of two Notch ligands, dlc and dld. Collectively, these findings demonstrate for the first time that multiple Notch signaling inputs are required to specify HSCs and that Notch3 performs a novel role within the somite to regulate the neighboring precursors of hemogenic endothelium. PMID:25230933

  8. CONNECTIVE TISSUE GROWTH FACTOR IS A TARGET OF NOTCH SIGNALING IN CELLS OF THE OSTEOBLASTIC LINEAGE

    PubMed Central

    Canalis, Ernesto; Zanotti, Stefano; Smerdel-Ramoya, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (Ctgf) or CCN2 is a protein synthesized by osteoblasts necessary for skeletal homeostasis, although its overexpression inhibits osteogenic signals and bone formation. Ctgf is induced by bone morphogenetic proteins, transforming growth factor β and Wnt; and in the present studies, we explored whether Notch regulated Ctgf expression in osteoblasts. We employed RosaNotch mice, where the Notch intracellular domain (NICD) is expressed following the excision of a STOP cassette, placed between the Rosa26 promoter and NICD. Notch was activated by transduction of adenoviral vectors expressing Cre recombinase (Ad-CMV-Cre). Notch induced Ctgf mRNA levels in a time dependent manner and increased Ctgf heterogeneous nuclear RNA. Notch also destabilized Ctgf mRNA shortening its half-life from 13 h to 3 h. The effect of Notch on Ctgf expression was lost following Rbpjκ downregulation, demonstrating that it was mediated by Notch canonical signaling. However, downregulation of the classic Notch target genes Hes1, Hey1 and Hey2 did not modify the effect of Notch on Ctgf expression. Wild type osteoblasts exposed to immobilized Delta-like 1 displayed enhanced Notch signaling and increased Ctgf expression. In addition to the effects of Notch in vitro, Notch induced Ctgf in vivo, and calvariae and femurs from RosaNotch mice mated with transgenics expressing the Cre recombinase in cells of the osteoblastic lineage exhibited increased expression of Ctgf. In conclusion, Ctgf is a target of Notch canonical signaling in osteoblasts, and may act in concert with Notch to regulate skeletal homeostasis. PMID:24792956

  9. From Fly Wings to Targeted Cancer Therapies: A Centennial for Notch Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ntziachristos, Panagiotis; Lim, Jing Shan; Sage, Julien; Aifantis, Iannis

    2014-01-01

    Since Notch phenotypes in Drosophila melanogaster were identified 100 years, Notch signaling has been extensively characterized as a regulator of cell fate decisions in a variety of organisms and tissues. However, in the past 20 years, accumulating evidence has linked alterations in the Notch pathway to tumorigenesis. In this Perspective, we discuss the pro-tumorigenic and tumor suppressive functions of Notch signaling and dissect the molecular mechanisms that underlie these functions in hematopoietic cancers and solid tumors. Finally, we link these mechanisms and observations to possible therapeutic strategies targeting the Notch pathway in human cancers. PMID:24651013

  10. Acetylation-Dependent Regulation of Notch Signaling in Macrophages by SIRT1 Affects Sepsis Development

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Xiaozhi; He, Ting; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Julei; Li, Xiaoqiang; Shi, Jihong; Wang, Kejia; Han, Fu; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Yijie; Cai, Weixia; Hu, Dahai

    2018-01-01

    SIRT1 is reported to participate in macrophage differentiation and affect sepsis, and Notch signaling is widely reported to influence inflammation and macrophage activation. However, the specific mechanisms through which SIRT1 regulates sepsis and the relationship between SIRT1 and Notch signaling remain poorly elucidated. In this study, we found that SIRT1 levels were decreased in sepsis both in vitro and in vivo and that SIRT1 regulation of Notch signaling affected inflammation. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis, the levels of Notch signaling molecules, including Notch1, Notch2, Hes1, and intracellular domain of Notch (NICD), were increased. However, NICD could be deacetylated by SIRT1, and this led to the suppression of Notch signaling. Notably, in macrophages from myeloid-specific RBP-J−/− mice, in which Notch signaling is inhibited, pro-inflammatory cytokines were expressed at lower levels than in macrophages from wild-type littermates and in RBP-J−/− macrophages, and the NF-κB pathway was also inhibited. Accordingly, in the case of RBP-J−/− mice, LPS-induced inflammation and mortality were lower than in wild-type mice. Our results indicate that SIRT1 inhibits Notch signaling through NICD deacetylation and thus ultimately alleviates sepsis. PMID:29867921

  11. Targeting Notch signalling pathway of cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Vandana; Nataraj, Raghu; Thangaraj, Gopenath S; Karthikeyan, Murugesan; Gnanasekaran, Ashok; Kaginelli, Shanmukhappa B; Kuppanna, Gobianand; Kallappa, Chandrashekrappa Gowdru; Basalingappa, Kanthesh M

    2018-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been defined as cells within tumor that possess the capacity to self-renew and to cause the heterogeneous lineages of cancer cells that comprise the tumor. CSCs have been increasingly identified in blood cancer, prostate, ovarian, lung, melanoma, pancreatic, colon, brain and many more malignancies. CSCs have slow growth rate and are resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy that lead to the failure of traditional current therapy. Eradicating the CSCs and recurrence, is promising aspect for the cure of cancer. The CSCs like any other stem cells activate the signal transduction pathways that involve the development and tissue homeostasis, which include Notch signaling pathway. The new treatment targets these pathway that control stem-cell replication, survival and differentiation that are under development. Notch inhibitors either single or in combination with chemotherapy drugs have been developed to treat cancer and its recurrence. This approach of targeting signaling pathway of CSCs represents a promising future direction for the therapeutic strategy to cure cancer.

  12. Evaluation of role of Notch3 signaling pathway in human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Wael Abdo; Yoshida, Ryoji; Kudoh, Shinji; Motooka, Yamato; Ito, Takaaki

    2016-05-01

    There is still a debate on the extent to which Notch3 signaling is involved in lung carcinogenesis and whether such function is dependent on cancer type or not. To evaluate Notch3 expression in different types of human lung cancer cells. Notch3 was detected in human lung cancer cell lines and in tissues. Then, small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to down-regulate the expression of Notch3 in H69AR small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) cells; two non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cells; A549 adenocarcinoma (ADC); and H2170 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). In addition, Notch3 intracellular domain (N3ICD) plasmid was transfected into H1688 human SCLC cells. We observed the effect of deregulating Notch3 signaling on the following cell properties: Notch-related proteins, cell morphology, adhesion, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), motility, proliferation and neuroendocrine (NE) features of SCLC. Notch3 is mainly expressed in NSCLC, and the expression of Notch1, Hes1 and Jagged1 is affected by Notch3. Notch3 has opposite functions in SCLC and NSCLC, being a tumor suppressor in the former and tumor promoting in the latter, in the context of cell adhesion, EMT and motility. Regarding cell proliferation, we found that inhibiting Notch3 in NSCLC decreases cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in NSCLC. Notch3 has no effect on cell proliferation or NE features of SCLC. Notch3 signaling in lung carcinoma is dependent on cell type. In SCLC, Notch3 behaves as a tumor suppressor pathway, while in NSCLC it acts as a tumor-promoting pathway.

  13. Sequential Ligand-Dependent Notch Signaling Activation Regulates Valve Primordium Formation and Morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    MacGrogan, Donal; D'Amato, Gaetano; Travisano, Stanislao; Martinez-Poveda, Beatriz; Luxán, Guillermo; Del Monte-Nieto, Gonzalo; Papoutsi, Tania; Sbroggio, Mauro; Bou, Vanesa; Gomez-Del Arco, Pablo; Gómez, Manuel Jose; Zhou, Bin; Redondo, Juan Miguel; Jiménez-Borreguero, Luis J; de la Pompa, José Luis

    2016-05-13

    The Notch signaling pathway is crucial for primitive cardiac valve formation by epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and NOTCH1 mutations cause bicuspid aortic valve; however, the temporal requirement for the various Notch ligands and receptors during valve ontogeny is poorly understood. The aim of this study is to determine the functional specificity of Notch in valve development. Using cardiac-specific conditional targeted mutant mice, we find that endothelial/endocardial deletion of Mib1-Dll4-Notch1 signaling, possibly favored by Manic-Fringe, is specifically required for cardiac epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Mice lacking endocardial Jag1, Notch1, or RBPJ displayed enlarged valve cusps, bicuspid aortic valve, and septal defects, indicating that endocardial Jag1 to Notch1 signaling is required for post-epithelial-mesenchymal transition valvulogenesis. Valve dysmorphology was associated with increased mesenchyme proliferation, indicating that Jag1-Notch1 signaling restricts mesenchyme cell proliferation non-cell autonomously. Gene profiling revealed upregulated Bmp signaling in Jag1-mutant valves, providing a molecular basis for the hyperproliferative phenotype. Significantly, the negative regulator of mesenchyme proliferation, Hbegf, was markedly reduced in Jag1-mutant valves. Hbegf expression in embryonic endocardial cells could be readily activated through a RBPJ-binding site, identifying Hbegf as an endocardial Notch target. Accordingly, addition of soluble heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor to Jag1-mutant outflow tract explant cultures rescued the hyperproliferative phenotype. During cardiac valve formation, Dll4-Notch1 signaling leads to epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cushion formation. Jag1-Notch1 signaling subsequently restrains Bmp-mediated valve mesenchyme proliferation by sustaining Hbegf-EGF receptor signaling. Our studies identify a mechanism of signaling cross talk during valve morphogenesis involved in the origin of congenital heart

  14. Opposing activities of Notch and Wnt signaling regulate intestinal stem cells and gut homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Hua; Biehs, Brian; Chiu, Cecilia; Siebel, Chris; Wu, Yan; Costa, Mike; de Sauvage, Frederic J.; Klein, Ophir D.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Proper organ homeostasis requires tight control of adult stem cells and differentiation through integration of multiple inputs. In the mouse small intestine, Notch and Wnt signaling are required both for stem cell maintenance and for a proper balance of differentiation between secretory and absorptive cell lineages. In the absence of Notch signaling, stem cells preferentially generate secretory cells at the expense of absorptive cells. Here, we use function-blocking antibodies against Notch receptors to demonstrate that Notch blockade perturbs intestinal stem cell function by causing a de-repression of the Wnt signaling pathway, leading to mis-expression of prosecretory genes. Importantly, attenuation of the Wnt pathway rescued the phenotype associated with Notch blockade. These studies bring to light a negative regulatory mechanism that maintains stem cell activity and balanced differentiation, and we propose that the interaction between Wnt and Notch signaling described here represents a common theme in adult stem cell biology. PMID:25818302

  15. Jam1a-Jam2a interactions regulate haematopoietic stem cell fate through Notch signalling.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Isao; Kobayashi-Sun, Jingjing; Kim, Albert D; Pouget, Claire; Fujita, Naonobu; Suda, Toshio; Traver, David

    2014-08-21

    Notch signalling plays a key role in the generation of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) during vertebrate development and requires intimate contact between signal-emitting and signal-receiving cells, although little is known regarding when, where and how these intercellular events occur. We previously reported that the somitic Notch ligands, Dlc and Dld, are essential for HSC specification. It has remained unclear, however, how these somitic requirements are connected to the later emergence of HSCs from the dorsal aorta. Here we show in zebrafish that Notch signalling establishes HSC fate as their shared vascular precursors migrate across the ventral face of the somite and that junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs) mediate this required Notch signal transduction. HSC precursors express jam1a (also known as f11r) and migrate axially across the ventral somite, where Jam2a and the Notch ligands Dlc and Dld are expressed. Despite no alteration in the expression of Notch ligand or receptor genes, loss of function of jam1a led to loss of Notch signalling and loss of HSCs. Enforced activation of Notch in shared vascular precursors rescued HSCs in jam1a or jam2a deficient embryos. Together, these results indicate that Jam1a-Jam2a interactions facilitate the transduction of requisite Notch signals from the somite to the precursors of HSCs, and that these events occur well before formation of the dorsal aorta.

  16. Notch-1 Signalling Is Activated in Brain Arteriovenous Malformations in Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ZhuGe, Qichuan; Zhong, Ming; Zheng, WeiMing; Yang, Guo-Yuan; Mao, XiaoOu; Xie, Lin; Chen, Gourong; Chen, Yongmei; Lawton, Michael T.; Young, William L.; Greenberg, David A.; Jin, Kunlin

    2009-01-01

    A role for the Notch signalling pathway in the formation of arteriovenous malformations during development has been suggested. However, whether Notch signalling is involved in brain arteriovenous malformations in humans remains unclear. Here, we performed immunohistochemistry on surgically resected brain arteriovenous malformations and found that,…

  17. Notch signaling controls chondrocyte hypertrophy via indirect regulation of Sox9

    PubMed Central

    Kohn, Anat; Rutkowski, Timothy P; Liu, Zhaoyang; Mirando, Anthony J; Zuscik, Michael J; O’Keefe, Regis J; Hilton, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    RBPjk-dependent Notch signaling regulates both the onset of chondrocyte hypertrophy and the progression to terminal chondrocyte maturation during endochondral ossification. It has been suggested that Notch signaling can regulate Sox9 transcription, although how this occurs at the molecular level in chondrocytes and whether this transcriptional regulation mediates Notch control of chondrocyte hypertrophy and cartilage development is unknown or controversial. Here we have provided conclusive genetic evidence linking RBPjk-dependent Notch signaling to the regulation of Sox9 expression and chondrocyte hypertrophy by examining tissue-specific Rbpjk mutant (Prx1Cre;Rbpjkf/f), Rbpjk mutant/Sox9 haploinsufficient (Prx1Cre;Rbpjkf/f;Sox9f/+), and control embryos for alterations in SOX9 expression and chondrocyte hypertrophy during cartilage development. These studies demonstrate that Notch signaling regulates the onset of chondrocyte maturation in a SOX9-dependent manner, while Notch-mediated regulation of terminal chondrocyte maturation likely functions independently of SOX9. Furthermore, our in vitro molecular analyses of the Sox9 promoter and Notch-mediated regulation of Sox9 gene expression in chondrogenic cells identified the ability of Notch to induce Sox9 expression directly in the acute setting, but suppresses Sox9 transcription with prolonged Notch signaling that requires protein synthesis of secondary effectors. PMID:26558140

  18. Cellular Notch responsiveness is defined by phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent signals

    PubMed Central

    Mckenzie, Grahame; Ward, George; Stallwood, Yvette; Briend, Emmanuel; Papadia, Sofia; Lennard, Andrew; Turner, Martin; Champion, Brian; Hardingham, Giles E

    2006-01-01

    Background Notch plays a wide-ranging role in controlling cell fate, differentiation and development. The PI3K-Akt pathway is a similarly conserved signalling pathway which regulates processes such as differentiation, proliferation and survival. Mice with disrupted Notch and PI3K signalling show phenotypic similarities during haematopoietic cell development, suggesting functional interaction between these pathways. Results We show that cellular responsiveness to Notch signals depends on the activity of the PI3K-Akt pathway in cells as diverse as CHO cells, primary T-cells and hippocampal neurons. Induction of the endogenous PI3K-Akt pathway in CHO cells (by the insulin pathway), in T-cells (via TCR activation) or in neurons (via TrKB activation) potentiates Notch-dependent responses. We propose that the PI3K-Akt pathway exerts its influence on Notch primarily via inhibition of GSK3-beta, a kinase known to phosphorylate and regulate Notch signals. Conclusion The PI3K-Akt pathway acts as a "gain control" for Notch signal responses. Since physiological levels of intracellular Notch are often low, coincidence with PI3K-activation may be crucial for induction of Notch-dependent responses. PMID:16507111

  19. Endodermal Hedgehog signals modulate Notch pathway activity in the developing digestive tract mesenchyme

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Hee; Kim, Byeong-Moo; Mao, Junhao; Rowan, Sheldon; Shivdasani, Ramesh A.

    2011-01-01

    The digestive tract epithelium and its adjoining mesenchyme undergo coordinated patterning and growth during development. The signals they exchange in the process are not fully characterized but include ligands of the Hedgehog (Hh) family, which originate in the epithelium and are necessary for mesenchymal cells to expand in number and drive elongation of the developing gut tube. The Notch signaling pathway has known requirements in fetal and adult intestinal epithelial progenitors. We detected Notch pathway activity in the embryonic gut mesenchyme and used conditional knockout mice to study its function. Selective disruption of the Notch effector gene RBP-Jκ (Rbpj) in the mesenchyme caused progressive loss of subepithelial fibroblasts and abbreviated gut length, revealing an unexpected requirement in this compartment. Surprisingly, constitutive Notch activity also induced rapid mesenchymal cell loss and impaired organogenesis, probably resulting from increased cell death and suggesting the need for a delicate balance in Notch signaling. Because digestive tract anomalies in mouse embryos with excess Notch activity phenocopy the absence of Hh signaling, we postulated that endodermal Hh restrains mesenchymal Notch pathway activity. Indeed, Hh-deficient embryos showed Notch overactivity in their defective gut mesenchyme and exposure to recombinant sonic hedgehog could override Notch-induced death of cultured fetal gut mesenchymal cells. These results reveal unexpected interactions between prominent signals in gastrointestinal development and provide a coherent explanation for Hh requirements in mesenchymal cell survival and organ growth. PMID:21750033

  20. Visualization of Notch signaling oscillation in cells and tissues.

    PubMed

    Shimojo, Hiromi; Harima, Yukiko; Kageyama, Ryoichiro

    2014-01-01

    The Notch signaling effectors Hes1 and Hes7 exhibit oscillatory expression with a period of about 2-3 h during embryogenesis. Hes1 oscillation is important for proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells, whereas Hes7 oscillation regulates periodic formation of somites. Continuous expression of Hes1 and Hes7 inhibits these developmental processes. Thus, expression dynamics are very important for gene functions, but it is difficult to distinguish between oscillatory and persistent expression by conventional methods such as in situ hybridization and immunostaining. Here, we describe time-lapse imaging methods using destabilized luciferase reporters and a highly sensitive cooled charge-coupled device camera, which can monitor dynamic gene expression. Furthermore, the expression of two genes can be examined simultaneously by a dual reporter system using two-color luciferase reporters. Time-lapse imaging analyses reveal how dynamically gene expression changes in many biological events.

  1. Far infrared promotes wound healing through activation of Notch1 signaling.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yung-Ho; Lin, Yuan-Feng; Chen, Cheng-Hsien; Chiu, Yu-Jhe; Chiu, Hui-Wen

    2017-11-01

    The Notch signaling pathway is critically involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, development, and homeostasis. Far infrared (FIR) has an effect that promotes wound healing. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. In the present study, we employed in vivo and HaCaT (a human skin keratinocyte cell line) models to elucidate the role of Notch1 signaling in FIR-promoted wound healing. We found that FIR enhanced keratinocyte migration and proliferation. FIR induced the Notch1 signaling pathway in HaCaT cells and in a microarray dataset from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. We next determined the mRNA levels of NOTCH1 in paired normal and wound skin tissues derived from clinical patients using the microarray dataset and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software. The result indicated that the Notch1/Twist1 axis plays important roles in wound healing and tissue repair. In addition, inhibiting Notch1 signaling decreased the FIR-enhanced proliferation and migration. In a full-thickness wound model in rats, the wounds healed more rapidly and the scar size was smaller in the FIR group than in the light group. Moreover, FIR could increase Notch1 and Delta1 in skin tissues. The activation of Notch1 signaling may be considered as a possible mechanism for the promoting effect of FIR on wound healing. FIR stimulates keratinocyte migration and proliferation. Notch1 in keratinocytes has an essential role in FIR-induced migration and proliferation. NOTCH1 promotes TWIST1-mediated gene expression to assist wound healing. FIR might promote skin wound healing in a rat model. FIR stimulates keratinocyte migration and proliferation. Notch1 in keratinocytes has an essential role in FIR-induced migration and proliferation. NOTCH1 promotes TWIST1-mediated gene expression to assist wound healing. FIR might promote skin wound healing in a rat model.

  2. Notch signaling pathways in human thoracic ossification of the ligamentum flavum.

    PubMed

    Qu, Xiaochen; Chen, Zhongqiang; Fan, Dongwei; Sun, Chuiguo; Zeng, Yan; Hou, Xiaofei; Ning, Shanglong

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the pathological process of Notch signaling in the osteogenesis of ligamentum flavum tissues and cells, and the associated regulatory mechanisms. Notch receptors, ligands, and target genes were identified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in ligamentum flavum cells and immunohistochemistry in ligamentum flavum sections from ossification of the ligamentum flavum (OLF) patients and controls. The temporospatial expression patterns of JAG1/Notch2/HES1 in human ligamentum flavum cells during osteogenic differentiation were determined by qPCR. Lentiviral vectors for Notch2 overexpression and knockdown were constructed and transfected into ligamentum flavum cells before osteogenic differentiation to examine the function of Notch signaling pathways in the osteogenic differentiation of ligamentum flavum cells. Alkaline phosphatase, Runx2, Osterix, osteocalcin, and osteopontin mRNA levels, alkaline phosphatase activity, and Alizarin Red staining were used as indicators of osteogenic differentiation. JAG1/Notch2/HES1 mRNA levels were up-regulated in ligamentum flavum cells from OLF patients, which increased during osteogenic differentiation. Immunohistochemical analysis suggested positive Notch2 expression at the ossification front. Down-regulation of Notch2 expression decelerated osteogenic differentiation of ligamentum flavum cells, and Notch2 overexpression promoted osteogenic differentiation of ligamentum flavum cells. Expression of Runx2 and Osterix increased in a manner similar to that of Notch2 during osteogenic differentiation of ligamentum flavum cells, and Notch2 knockdown and overexpression influenced their expression levels. Notch signaling plays an important role in OLF, and Notch may affect the osteogenic differentiation of ligamentum flavum cells via interactions with Runx2 and Osterix.© 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1481-1491, 2016. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research

  3. Apelin13/APJ promotes proliferation of colon carcinoma by activating Notch3 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tong; Liu, Ning; Xu, Guang-Meng; Liu, Tong-Jun; Liu, Ying; Zhou, Yan; Huo, Si-Bo; Zhang, Kai

    2017-11-24

    The link between Apelin (APL)/APL receptor (APJ) and Jagged (JAG)/Notch signaling pathways in colorectal cancer (CRC) has been poorly investigated. APL/APJ system, a potent angiogenic factor, is up-regulated in a variety of cancers. It contributes to tumor angiogenesis, and correlates with progression of malignancy. JAG/Notch signaling also contributes to progression, proliferation and metastasis of multiple cancers, including CRC. Here we tested the hypothesis that APL/APJ system promotes CRC proliferation by up-regulating Notch3, thus allowing further binding of JAG1 to Notch3. We used a variety of methods including Western blot, RT-qPCR, gene silencing, ELISA, immunofluorescence staining, to investigate the interaction between APL/APJ system and Notch3 signaling pathway in both surgically-resected specimens and CRC cell line LS180. We show that the expression of APL13, APJ, and Notch3 is elevated in CRC. We further demonstrate that APL13 can be secreted into culture media of LS180 cells, suggesting the existence of autocrine loop in CRC. Moreover, we found that APL13 stimulated expression of Notch3. Finally, we found that inhibition of either APJ or Notch3 prevents proliferation of LS180 cells. Our results suggest that APL13/APJ and JAG1/Notch3 signaling pathways are linked in CRC. These findings provide a new direction to the efforts targeting effective therapeutic and management approaches in the treatment of CRC.

  4. Multiple Notch signaling events control Drosophila CNS midline neurogenesis, gliogenesis and neuronal identity

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Scott R.; Stagg, Stephanie B.; Crews, Stephen T.

    2009-01-01

    The study of how transcriptional control and cell signaling influence neurons and glia to acquire their differentiated properties is fundamental to understanding CNS development and function. The Drosophila CNS midline cells are an excellent system for studying these issues because they consist of a small population of diverse cells with well-defined gene expression profiles. In this paper, the origins and differentiation of midline neurons and glia were analyzed. Midline precursor (MP) cells each divide once giving rise to two neurons; here, we use a combination of single-cell gene expression mapping and time-lapse imaging to identify individual MPs, their locations, movements and stereotyped patterns of division. The role of Notch signaling was investigated by analyzing 37 midline-expressed genes in Notch pathway mutant and misexpression embryos. Notch signaling had opposing functions: it inhibited neurogenesis in MP1,3,4 and promoted neurogenesis in MP5,6. Notch signaling also promoted midline glial and median neuroblast cell fate. This latter result suggests that the median neuroblast resembles brain neuroblasts that require Notch signaling, rather than nerve cord neuroblasts, the formation of which is inhibited by Notch signaling. Asymmetric MP daughter cell fates also depend on Notch signaling. One member of each pair of MP3–6 daughter cells was responsive to Notch signaling. By contrast, the other daughter cell asymmetrically acquired Numb, which inhibited Notch signaling, leading to a different fate choice. In summary, this paper describes the formation and division of MPs and multiple roles for Notch signaling in midline cell development, providing a foundation for comprehensive molecular analyses. PMID:18701546

  5. Physiological Notch Signaling Maintains Bone Homeostasis via RBPjk and Hey Upstream of NFATc1

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Xiaolin; Chen, Jianquan; Lim, Joohyun; Karner, Courtney M.; Lee, Seung-Yon; Heisig, Julia; Wiese, Cornelia; Surendran, Kameswaran; Kopan, Raphael; Gessler, Manfred; Long, Fanxin

    2012-01-01

    Notch signaling between neighboring cells controls many cell fate decisions in metazoans both during embryogenesis and in postnatal life. Previously, we uncovered a critical role for physiological Notch signaling in suppressing osteoblast differentiation in vivo. However, the contribution of individual Notch receptors and the downstream signaling mechanism have not been elucidated. Here we report that removal of Notch2, but not Notch1, from the embryonic limb mesenchyme markedly increased trabecular bone mass in adolescent mice. Deletion of the transcription factor RBPjk, a mediator of all canonical Notch signaling, in the mesenchymal progenitors but not the more mature osteoblast-lineage cells, caused a dramatic high-bone-mass phenotype characterized by increased osteoblast numbers, diminished bone marrow mesenchymal progenitor pool, and rapid age-dependent bone loss. Moreover, mice deficient in Hey1 and HeyL, two target genes of Notch-RBPjk signaling, exhibited high bone mass. Interestingly, Hey1 bound to and suppressed the NFATc1 promoter, and RBPjk deletion increased NFATc1 expression in bone. Finally, pharmacological inhibition of NFAT alleviated the high-bone-mass phenotype caused by RBPjk deletion. Thus, Notch-RBPjk signaling functions in part through Hey1-mediated inhibition of NFATc1 to suppress osteoblastogenesis, contributing to bone homeostasis in vivo. PMID:22457635

  6. Interferon regulatory factor 4 attenuates Notch signaling to suppress the development of chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Vipul; Shukla, Ashima; Joshi, Shantaram S.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular pathogenesis of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) is not fully elucidated. Genome wide association studies have linked Interferon Regulatory Factor 4 (IRF4) to the development of CLL. We recently established a causal relationship between low levels of IRF4 and development of CLL. However, the molecular mechanism through which IRF4 suppresses CLL development remains unclear. Deregulation of Notch signaling pathway has been identified as one of the most recurrent molecular anomalies in the pathogenesis of CLL. Yet, the role of Notch signaling as well as its regulation during CLL development remains poorly understood. Previously, we demonstrated that IRF4 deficient mice expressing immunoglobulin heavy chain Vh11 (IRF4−/−Vh11) developed spontaneous CLL with complete penetrance. In this study, we show that elevated Notch2 expression and the resulting hyperactivation of Notch signaling are common features of IRF4−/−Vh11 CLL cells. Our studies further reveal that Notch signaling is indispensable for CLL development in the IRF4−/−Vh11 mice. Moreover, we identify E3 ubiquitin ligase Nedd4, which targets Notch for degradation, as a direct target of IRF4 in CLL cells and their precursors. Collectively, our studies provide the first in vivo evidence for an essential role of Notch signaling in the development of CLL and establish IRF4 as a critical regulator of Notch signaling during CLL development. PMID:27232759

  7. Notch Signaling in Postnatal Pituitary Expansion: Proliferation, Progenitors, and Cell Specification

    PubMed Central

    Nantie, Leah B.; Himes, Ashley D.; Getz, Dan R.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in PROP1 account for up to half of the cases of combined pituitary hormone deficiency that result from known causes. Despite this, few signaling molecules and pathways that influence PROP1 expression have been identified. Notch signaling has been linked to Prop1 expression, but the developmental periods during which Notch signaling influences Prop1 and overall pituitary development remain unclear. To test the requirement for Notch signaling in establishing the normal pituitary hormone milieu, we generated mice with early embryonic conditional loss of Notch2 (conditional knockout) and examined the consequences of chemical Notch inhibition during early postnatal pituitary maturation. We show that loss of Notch2 has little influence on early embryonic pituitary proliferation but is crucial for postnatal progenitor maintenance and proliferation. In addition, we show that Notch signaling is necessary embryonically and postnatally for Prop1 expression and robust Pit1 lineage hormone cell expansion, as well as repression of the corticotrope lineage. Taken together, our studies identify temporal and cell type–specific roles for Notch signaling and highlight the importance of this pathway throughout pituitary development. PMID:24673559

  8. Role of CSL-dependent and independent Notch signaling pathways in cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Chong; Xing, Rui; Liu, Jing; Xing, Feiyue

    2016-01-01

    Apoptosis is a normally biological phenomenon in various organisms, involving complexly molecular mechanisms with a series of signaling processes. Notch signaling is found evolutionarily conserved in many species, playing a critical role in embryonic development, normal tissue homeostasis, angiogenesis and immunoregulation. The focus of this review is on currently novel advances about roles of CSL-dependent and independent Notch signaling pathways in cell apoptosis. The CSL can bind Notch intracellular domain (NIC) to act as a switch in mediating transcriptional activation or inactivation of the Notch signaling pathway downstream genes in the nucleus. It shows that CSL-dependent signaling regulates the cell apoptosis through Hes-1-PTEN-AKT-mTOR signaling, but rather the CSL-independent signaling mediates the cell apoptosis possibly via NIC-mTORC2-AKT-mTOR signaling, providing a new insight into apoptotic mechanisms.

  9. Notch signaling dynamics in the adult healthy prostate and in prostatic tumor development.

    PubMed

    Pedrosa, Ana-Rita; Graça, José L; Carvalho, Sandra; Peleteiro, Maria C; Duarte, António; Trindade, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    The Notch signaling pathway has been implicated in prostate development, maintenance and tumorigenesis by its key role in cell-fate determination, differentiation and proliferation. Therefore, we proposed to analyze Notch family members transcription and expression, including ligands (Dll1, 3, 4 and Jagged1 and 2), receptors (Notch1-4) and effectors (Hes1, 2, 5 and Hey1, 2, L), in both normal and tumor bearing mouse prostates to better understand the dynamics of Notch signaling in prostate tumorigenesis. Wild type mice and transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate model (TRAMP) mice were sacrificed at 18, 24 or 30 weeks of age and the prostates collected and processed for either whole prostate or prostate cell specific populations mRNA analysis and for protein expression analysis by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. We observed that Dll1 and Dll4 are expressed in the luminal compartment of the mouse healthy prostate, whereas Jagged2 expression is restricted to the basal and stromal compartment. Additionally, Notch2 and Notch4 are normally expressed in the prostate luminal compartment while Notch2 and Notch3 are also expressed in the stromal layer of the healthy prostate. As prostate tumor development takes place, there is up-regulation of Notch components. Particularly, the prostate tumor lesions have increased expression of Jagged1 and 2, of Notch3 and of Hey1. We have also detected the presence of activated Notch3 in prostatic tumors that co-express Jagged1 and ultimately the Hey1 effector. Taken together our results point out the Notch axis Jagged1-2/Notch3/Hey1 to be important for prostate tumor development and worthy of additional functional studies and validation in human clinical disease. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Role of Notch Signaling in Human Breast Cancer Pathogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    transform HMLE cells. Similarly, overexpression of ErbB2, a receptor tyrosine kinase upstream of Ras normally found overexpressed in many breast cancers ...Assess Notch-Ras cooperation in breast cancers in vivo: Since the major observation in this project has been the cooperation of Notch and Ras in HMLE ...metastasis. The in vitro cooperation between Notch and Ras in HMLE cells is mimicked in naturally arising breast cancers in vivo. Further dissection of the

  11. Control of Cell Morphology: Signalling by the Receptor Notch.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-10-01

    missense mutations or small deletions at the extreme C-terminus of NOTCH, and lie within the minimal region that includes the C-terminal binding site for...20 Figure 4. Genetic interaction of null and hypomorphic alleles of Notch with abl mutations ...wide variety of cell types during Drosophila embryogenesis [1, 2]. Mutations in the Notch gene lead to severe defects in cell identity in the nervous

  12. C. elegans Notch signaling regulates adult chemosensory response and larval molting quiescence

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Komudi; Chao, Michael Y.; Somers, Gerard A.; Komatsu, Hidetoshi; Corkins, Mark E.; Larkins-Ford, Jonah; Tucey, Tim; Dionne, Heather M.; Walsh, Melissa B.; Beaumont, Emma K.; Hart, Douglas P.; Lockery, Shawn; Hart, Anne C.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background The conserved DOS motif proteins OSM-7 and OSM-11 function as co-ligands with canonical DSL ligands to activate C. elegans Notch receptors during development. We report herein that Notch ligands, co-ligands and the receptors LIN-12 and GLP-1 regulate two C. elegans behaviors: chemosensory avoidance of octanol and quiescence during molting lethargus. Results C. elegans lacking osm-7 or osm-11 are defective in their response to octanol. We find that OSM-11 is secreted from hypodermal seam cells into the pseudocoelomic body cavity and acts non-cell autonomously as a diffusible factor. OSM-11 acts with the DSL ligand LAG-2 to activate LIN-12 and GLP-1 Notch receptors in the neurons of adult animals,- thereby regulating octanol avoidance response. In adult animals, over-expression of osm-11 and consequent Notch receptor activation induces anachronistic sleep-like quiescence. Perturbation of Notch signaling altered basal activity in adults as well as arousal thresholds and quiescence during molting lethargus. Genetic epistasis studies revealed that Notch signaling regulates quiescence via previously identified circuits and genetic pathways including the egl-4 cGMP-dependent kinase. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the conserved Notch pathway modulates behavior in adult C. elegans in response to environmental stress. Additionally, Notch signaling regulates sleep-like quiescence in C. elegans suggesting Notch may regulate sleep in other species. PMID:21549604

  13. Effect of verteporfin-PDT on the Notch signaling pathway in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerec, Virginie; Andreola, Fausto; Pereira, Stephen P.

    2009-06-01

    Accumulating preclinical and clinical evidence supports a pro-oncogenic function for Notch signaling in several solid tumors. Therefore, Notch inhibitory agents, such as gamma-secretase inhibitors (GSI), are being investigated as cancer therapeutic agents and a potential adjuvant to conventional chemo/radiotherapy. To date, no in vitro data are available on the cellular response and effect of either photodynamic therapy (PDT) or GSI on human cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Consequently, we aimed to study the: (i) constitutive expression of Notch signaling pathway in CCA cell lines; (ii) response to Verteporfin-PDT and to GSI, as single agents on CCA cell lines; (iii) effect of Verteporfin-PDT on Notch signaling pathway expression. Expression of Notch signaling components was studied in two cholangiocarcinoma cell lines, HuCCT1 and TFK-1 (intra- and extrahepatic, respectively). No difference in basal expression of Notch1, 2 and Jagged1 was observed in either cell line. In contrast, Notch3 was found to be weakly and highly expressed in HuCCT1 and TFK-1 cells, respectively - supporting our recent microarray data which showed Notch3 overexpression in biliary brushings from patients with extrahepatic CCA. HuCCT1 and TFK-1 differentially responded to Verteporfin-PDT treatment; preliminary data showed no clear effect of GSI on proliferation/apoptosis in either cell line following short exposure (6 and 24h). Following Verteporfin-PDT, Notch1, 2 and Jagged-1 expression was down-regulated in both cell lines, while Notch3 expression was unaffected in HuCCT1 cells and down-regulated in TFK-1 cells. The Notch signaling pathway could represent a potential target for combination therapy in CCA treatment.

  14. PI3K/AKT signaling inhibits NOTCH1 lysosome-mediated degradation.

    PubMed

    Platonova, Natalia; Manzo, Teresa; Mirandola, Leonardo; Colombo, Michela; Calzavara, Elisabetta; Vigolo, Emilia; Cermisoni, Greta Chiara; De Simone, Daria; Garavelli, Silvia; Cecchinato, Valentina; Lazzari, Elisa; Neri, Antonino; Chiaramonte, Raffaella

    2015-06-06

    The pathways of NOTCH and PI3K/AKT are dysregulated in about 60% and 48% of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) patients, respectively. In this context, they interact and cooperate in controlling tumor cell biology. Here, we propose a novel mechanism by which the PI3K/AKT pathway regulates NOTCH1 in T-ALL, starting from the evidence that the inhibition of PI3K/AKT signaling induced by treatment with LY294002 or transient transfection with a dominant negative AKT mutant downregulates NOTCH1 protein levels and activity, without affecting NOTCH1 transcription. We showed that the withdrawal of PI3K/AKT signaling was associated to NOTCH1 phosphorylation in tyrosine residues and monoubiquitination of NOTCH1 detected by Ubiquitin capture assay. Co-immunoprecipitation assay and colocalization analysis further showed that the E3 ubiquitin ligase c-Cbl interacts and monoubiquitinates NOTCH1, activating its lysosomal degradation. These results suggest that the degradation of NOTCH1 could represent a mechanism of control by which NOTCH1 receptors are actively removed from the cell surface. This mechanism is finely regulated by the PI3K/AKT pathway in physiological conditions. In pathological conditions characterized by PI3K/AKT hyperactivation, such as T-ALL, the excessive AKT signaling could lead to NOTCH1 signaling dysregulation. Therefore, a therapeutic strategy directed to PI3K/AKT in T-ALL could contemporaneously inhibit the dysregulated NOTCH1 signaling. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Notch signaling regulates the responses of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages in the presence of immune complexes.

    PubMed

    Wongchana, Wipawee; Kongkavitoon, Pornrat; Tangtanatakul, Pattarin; Sittplangkoon, Chutamath; Butta, Patcharavadee; Chawalitpong, Supatta; Pattarakankul, Thitiporn; Osborne, Barbara A; Palaga, Tanapat

    2018-01-01

    Macrophages exhibit diverse effector phenotypes depending on the stimuli and their microenvironment. Classically activated macrophages are primed with interferon (IFN)γ and stimulated with pathogen-associated molecular patterns. They produce inflammatory mediators and inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-12. In the presence of immune complexes (ICs), activated macrophages have decreased IL-12 production and increased IL-10 production and presumably act as regulatory macrophages. Notch signaling has been shown to regulate the effector functions of classically activated macrophages. In this study, we investigated whether Notch signaling is active in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages in the presence of ICs. LPS/IC stimulation increased the level of cleaved Notch1 in murine macrophages, while IC stimulation alone did not. Delta-like 4, but not Jagged1, was responsible for generating cleaved Notch1. The activation of Notch signaling by LPS/ICs depended upon NF-κB and MEK/Erk pathway activation. Macrophages with the targeted deletion of Rbpj, which encodes a DNA-binding protein central to canonical Notch signaling, produced significantly less IL-10 upon LPS/IC stimulation. A similar impact on IL-10 production was observed when Notch signaling was inhibited with a gamma-secretase inhibitor (GSI). Defects in NF-κB p50 nuclear localization were observed in GSI-treated macrophages and in Rbpj-/- macrophages, suggesting cross-regulation between the Notch and NF-κB pathways. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that Notch signaling regulates the transcription of genes involved in the cell cycle, macrophage activation, leukocyte migration and cytokine production in LPS/IC-stimulated macrophages. Taken together, these results suggest that the Notch signaling pathway plays an important role in regulating the functions of macrophages activated by LPS and ICs.

  16. Dll1- and dll4-mediated notch signaling are required for homeostasis of intestinal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Pellegrinet, Luca; Rodilla, Veronica; Liu, Zhenyi; Chen, Shuang; Koch, Ute; Espinosa, Lluis; Kaestner, Klaus H; Kopan, Raphael; Lewis, Julian; Radtke, Freddy

    2011-04-01

    Ablation of Notch signaling within the intestinal epithelium results in loss of proliferating crypt progenitors due to their conversion into postmitotic secretory cells. We aimed to confirm that Notch was active in stem cells (SCs), investigate consequences of loss of Notch signaling within the intestinal SC compartment, and identify the physiologic ligands of Notch in mouse intestine. Furthermore, we investigated whether the induction of goblet cell differentiation that results from loss of Notch requires the transcription factor Krüppel-like factor 4 (Klf4). Transgenic mice that carried a reporter of Notch1 activation were used for lineage tracing experiments. The in vivo functions of the Notch ligands Jagged1 (Jag1), Delta-like1 (Dll1), Delta-like4 (Dll4), and the transcription factor Klf4 were assessed in mice with inducible, gut-specific gene targeting (Vil-Cre-ER(T2)). Notch1 signaling was found to be activated in intestinal SCs. Although deletion of Jag1 or Dll4 did not perturb the intestinal epithelium, inactivation of Dll1 resulted in a moderate increase in number of goblet cells without noticeable effects of progenitor proliferation. However, simultaneous inactivation of Dll1 and Dll4 resulted in the complete conversion of proliferating progenitors into postmitotic goblet cells, concomitant with loss of SCs (Olfm4(+), Lgr5(+), and Ascl2(+)). Klf4 inactivation did not interfere with goblet cell differentiation in adult wild-type or in Notch pathway-deficient gut. Notch signaling in SCs and progenitors is activated by Dll1 and Dll4 ligands and is required for maintenance of intestinal progenitor and SCs. Klf4 is dispensable for goblet cell differentiation in intestines of adult Notch-deficient mice. Copyright © 2011 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Dll1- and Dll4-mediated Notch signaling is required for homeostasis of intestinal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrinet, Luca; Rodilla, Veronica; Liu, Zhenyi; Chen, Shuang; Koch, Ute; Espinosa, Lluis; Kaestner, Klaus H.; Kopan, Raphael; Lewis, Julian; Radtke, Freddy

    2011-01-01

    Background & Aims Ablation of Notch signaling within the intestinal epithelium results in loss of proliferating crypt progenitors, due to their conversion into post-mitotic secretory cells. We aimed to confirm that Notch was active in stem cells (SC), investigate consequences of loss of Notch signaling within the intestinal SC compartment, and identify the physiological ligands of Notch in mouse intestine. Furthermore, we investigated whether the induction of goblet cell differentiation that results from loss of Notch requires the transcription factor Krüppel-like factor 4 (Klf4). Methods Trasgenic mice that carried a reporter of Notch1 activation were used for lineage tracing experiments. The in vivo functions of the Notch ligands Jagged1 (Jag1), Delta-like1 (Dll1), Delta-like4 (Dll4), and the transcription factor Klf4 were assessed in mice with inducible, gut-specific gene targeting (Vil-Cre-ERT2). Results Notch1 signaling was found to be activated in intestinal SC. Although deletion of Jag1 or Dll4 did not perturb the intestinal epithelium, inactivation of Dll1 resulted in a moderate increase in number of goblet cells without noticeable effects of progenitor proliferation. However, simultaneous inactivation of Dll1 and Dll4 resulted in the complete conversion of proliferating progenitors into post-mitotic goblet cells, concomitant with loss of SC (Olfm4+, Lgr5+ and Ascl2+). Klf4 inactivation did not interfere with goblet cell differentiation in adult wild-type or in Notch pathway-deficient gut. Conclusions Notch signaling in SC and progenitors is activated by Dll1 and Dll4 ligands and is required for maintenance of intestinal progenitor and SC. Klf4 is dispensable for goblet cell differentiation in intestines of adult Notch-deficient mice. PMID:21238454

  18. An alternative way to initiate Notch1 signaling in non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi-Lin; Jablons, David

    2014-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells activate Notch1 signaling to promote cell proliferation and facilitate their survival. It now emerges that endothelial Delta-like ligand 4 (Dll4) may mediate Notch1 activation and inhibit tumor cell growth. PMID:25806306

  19. Notch signalling in cardiovasculogenesis: insight into their role in early cardiovascular development.

    PubMed

    Saravanakumar, Marimuthu; Devaraj, Halagowder

    2013-05-01

    The role of Notch signalling in congenital cardiovascular disease is evident by the identification of human mutations in several Notch signalling components, which also indicates the importance of activated Notch pathway in cardiovascular biology. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate the expression pattern of the components of Notch signalling molecules and their role in mice embryonic heart and vascular development. Group A: normal control pregnant mice, group B: pregnant mice were injected with DMSO, group C: DAPT were subcutaneously injected to pregnant mice. The morphological and molecular changes of trabeculation-defective phenotype were analysed using histological, scanning electron microscope, immunoblot, immunolocalization and reverse transcriptase-PCR. E15.5 DAPT-treated mice revealed that there was a major reduction in the formation of septal walls between the ventricular chambers compared with normal control pregnant mice. VEGF expression was found in the DAPT treated and wild-type embryonic artery, whereas notch target genes GATA4, Hey1 expression were not found in the DAPT treated mice embryo. The role of Notch in ventricular development is supported by the trabeculation-defective phenotype seen in standard and endocardial-specific inhibition of Notch targets. The present study reveals the significant role of Notch signalling during the formation of ventricular septum and proper development of endothelial cell lineage and its precursor in mice cardiogenesis.

  20. Microbiota promote secretory cell determination in the intestinal epithelium by modulating host Notch signaling.

    PubMed

    Troll, Joshua V; Hamilton, M Kristina; Abel, Melissa L; Ganz, Julia; Bates, Jennifer M; Stephens, W Zac; Melancon, Ellie; van der Vaart, Michiel; Meijer, Annemarie H; Distel, Martin; Eisen, Judith S; Guillemin, Karen

    2018-02-23

    Resident microbes promote many aspects of host development, although the mechanisms by which microbiota influence host tissues remain unclear. We showed previously that the microbiota is required for allocation of appropriate numbers of secretory cells in the zebrafish intestinal epithelium. Because Notch signaling is crucial for secretory fate determination, we conducted epistasis experiments to establish whether the microbiota modulates host Notch signaling. We also investigated whether innate immune signaling transduces microbiota cues via the Myd88 adaptor protein. We provide the first evidence that microbiota-induced, Myd88-dependent signaling inhibits host Notch signaling in the intestinal epithelium, thereby promoting secretory cell fate determination. These results connect microbiota activity via innate immune signaling to the Notch pathway, which also plays crucial roles in intestinal homeostasis throughout life and when impaired can result in chronic inflammation and cancer. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Cartilage-specific RBPjκ-dependent and -independent Notch signals regulate cartilage and bone development

    PubMed Central

    Kohn, Anat; Dong, Yufeng; Mirando, Anthony J.; Jesse, Alana M.; Honjo, Tasuku; Zuscik, Michael J.; O’Keefe, Regis J.; Hilton, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    The Notch signaling pathway has emerged as an important regulator of endochondral bone formation. Although recent studies have examined the role of Notch in mesenchymal and chondro-osteo progenitor cell populations, there has yet to be a true examination of Notch signaling specifically within developing and committed chondrocytes, or a determination of whether cartilage and bone formation are regulated via RBPjκ-dependent or -independent Notch signaling mechanisms. To develop a complete understanding of Notch signaling during cartilage and bone development we generated and compared general Notch gain-of-function (Rosa-NICDf/+), RBPjκ-deficient (Rbpjκf/f), and RBPjκ-deficient Notch gain-of-function (Rosa-NICDf/+;Rbpjκf/f) conditional mutant mice, where activation or deletion of floxed alleles were specifically targeted to mesenchymal progenitors (Prx1Cre) or committed chondrocytes (inducible Col2CreERT2). These data demonstrate, for the first time, that Notch regulation of chondrocyte maturation is solely mediated via the RBPjκ-dependent pathway, and that the perichodrium or osteogenic lineage probably influences chondrocyte terminal maturation and turnover of the cartilage matrix. Our study further identifies the cartilage-specific RBPjκ-independent pathway as crucial for the proper regulation of chondrocyte proliferation, survival and columnar chondrocyte organization. Unexpectedly, the RBPjκ-independent Notch pathway was also identified as an important long-range cell non-autonomous regulator of perichondral bone formation and an important cartilage-derived signal required for coordinating chondrocyte and osteoblast differentiation during endochondral bone development. Finally, cartilage-specific RBPjκ-independent Notch signaling likely regulates Ihh responsiveness during cartilage and bone development. PMID:22354840

  2. Cisplatin selects for stem-like cells in osteosarcoma by activating Notch signaling

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jian; Gao, Tian; Simões, Bruno M.; Eyre, Rachel; Guo, Weichun; Clarke, Robert B.

    2016-01-01

    Notch signaling regulates normal stem cells and is also thought to regulate cancer stem cells (CSCs). Recent data indicate that Notch signaling plays a role in the development and progression of osteosarcoma, however the regulation of Notch in chemo-resistant stem-like cells has not yet been fully elucidated. In this study we generated cisplatin-resistant osteosarcoma cells by treating them with sub-lethal dose of cisplatin, sufficient to induce DNA damage responses. Cisplatin-resistant osteosarcoma cells exhibited lower proliferation, enhanced spheroid formation and more mesenchymal characteristics than cisplatin-sensitive cells, were enriched for Stro-1+/CD117+ cells and showed increased expression of stem cell-related genes. A similar effect was observed in vivo, and in addition in vivo tumorigenicity was enhanced during serial transplantation. Using several publicly available datasets, we identified that Notch expression was closely associated with osteosarcoma stem cells and chemotherapy resistance. We confirmed that cisplatin-induced enrichment of osteosarcoma stem cells was mediated through Notch signaling in vitro, and immunohistochemistry showed that cleaved Notch1 (NICD1) positive cells were significantly increased in a relapsed xenograft which had received cisplatin treatment. Furthermore, pretreatment with a γ-secretase inhibitor (GSI) to prevent Notch signalling inhibited cisplatin-enriched osteosarcoma stem cell activity in vitro, including Stro-1+/CD117+ double positive cells and spheroid formation capacity. The Notch inhibitor DAPT also prevented tumor recurrence in resistant xenograft tumors. Overall, our results show that cisplatin induces the enrichment of osteosarcoma stem-like cells through Notch signaling, and targeted inactivation of Notch may be useful for the elimination of CSCs and overcoming drug resistance. PMID:27102300

  3. Hippo signaling is required for Notch-dependent smooth muscle differentiation of neural crest.

    PubMed

    Manderfield, Lauren J; Aghajanian, Haig; Engleka, Kurt A; Lim, Lillian Y; Liu, Feiyan; Jain, Rajan; Li, Li; Olson, Eric N; Epstein, Jonathan A

    2015-09-01

    Notch signaling has well-defined roles in the assembly of arterial walls and in the development of the endothelium and smooth muscle of the vasculature. Hippo signaling regulates cellular growth in many tissues, and contributes to regulation of organ size, in addition to other functions. Here, we show that the Notch and Hippo pathways converge to regulate smooth muscle differentiation of the neural crest, which is crucial for normal development of the aortic arch arteries and cranial vasculature during embryonic development. Neural crest-specific deletion of the Hippo effectors Yap and Taz produces neural crest precursors that migrate normally, but fail to produce vascular smooth muscle, and Notch target genes such as Jagged1 fail to activate normally. We show that Yap is normally recruited to a tissue-specific Jagged1 enhancer by directly interacting with the Notch intracellular domain (NICD). The Yap-NICD complex is recruited to chromatin by the DNA-binding protein Rbp-J in a Tead-independent fashion. Thus, Hippo signaling can modulate Notch signaling outputs, and components of the Hippo and Notch pathways physically interact. Convergence of Hippo and Notch pathways by the mechanisms described here might be relevant for the function of these signaling cascades in many tissues and in diseases such as cancer. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Therapeutic antibody targeting of Notch3 signaling prevents mural cell loss in CADASIL.

    PubMed

    Machuca-Parra, Arturo I; Bigger-Allen, Alexander A; Sanchez, Angie V; Boutabla, Anissa; Cardona-Vélez, Jonathan; Amarnani, Dhanesh; Saint-Geniez, Magali; Siebel, Christian W; Kim, Leo A; D'Amore, Patricia A; Arboleda-Velasquez, Joseph F

    2017-08-07

    Cerebral autosomal-dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a neurological syndrome characterized by small vessel disease (SVD), stroke, and vascular cognitive impairment and dementia caused by mutations in NOTCH3 No therapies are available for this condition. Loss of mural cells, which encompass pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells, is a hallmark of CADASIL and other SVDs, including diabetic retinopathy, resulting in vascular instability. Here, we showed that Notch3 signaling is both necessary and sufficient to support mural cell coverage in arteries using genetic rescue in Notch3 knockout mice. Furthermore, we show that systemic administration of an agonist Notch3 antibody prevents mural cell loss and modifies plasma proteins associated with Notch3 activity, including endostatin/collagen 18α1 and Notch3 extracellular domain in mice with the C455R mutation, a CADASIL variant associated with Notch3 loss of function. These findings open opportunities for the treatment of CADASIL and other SVDs by modulating Notch3 signaling. © 2017 Machuca-Parra et al.

  5. Therapeutic antibody targeting of Notch3 signaling prevents mural cell loss in CADASIL

    PubMed Central

    Machuca-Parra, Arturo I.; Bigger-Allen, Alexander A.; Sanchez, Angie V.; Saint-Geniez, Magali

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral autosomal-dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a neurological syndrome characterized by small vessel disease (SVD), stroke, and vascular cognitive impairment and dementia caused by mutations in NOTCH3. No therapies are available for this condition. Loss of mural cells, which encompass pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells, is a hallmark of CADASIL and other SVDs, including diabetic retinopathy, resulting in vascular instability. Here, we showed that Notch3 signaling is both necessary and sufficient to support mural cell coverage in arteries using genetic rescue in Notch3 knockout mice. Furthermore, we show that systemic administration of an agonist Notch3 antibody prevents mural cell loss and modifies plasma proteins associated with Notch3 activity, including endostatin/collagen 18α1 and Notch3 extracellular domain in mice with the C455R mutation, a CADASIL variant associated with Notch3 loss of function. These findings open opportunities for the treatment of CADASIL and other SVDs by modulating Notch3 signaling. PMID:28698285

  6. Molecular Pathways: Translational and Therapeutic Implications of the Notch Signaling Pathway in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Previs, Rebecca A.; Coleman, Robert L.; Harris, Adrian L.; Sood, Anil K.

    2014-01-01

    Over 100 years have passed since the first observation of the notched wing phenotype in Drosophila melanogaster, and significant progress has been made to characterize the role of the Notch receptor, its ligands, downstream targets, and crosstalk with other signaling pathways. The canonical Notch pathway with four Notch receptors (Notch1-4) and five ligands (DLL1, 3–4, Jagged 1–2) is an evolutionarily conserved cell signaling pathway that plays critical roles in cell-fate determination, differentiation, development, tissue patterning, cell proliferation, and death. In cancer, these roles have a critical impact on tumor behavior and response to therapy. Since the role of Notch remains tissue and context dependent, alterations within this pathway may lead to tumor suppressive or oncogenic phenotypes. Although no FDA approved therapies currently exist for the Notch pathway, multiple therapeutics (e.g., demcizumab, tarextumab, GSI MK0752, R04929097, and PF63084014) have been developed to target different aspects of this pathway for both hematologic and solid malignancies. Understanding the context-specific effects of the Notch pathway will be important for individualized therapies targeting this pathway. PMID:25388163

  7. Functional studies on the role of Notch signaling in Hydractinia development.

    PubMed

    Gahan, James M; Schnitzler, Christine E; DuBuc, Timothy Q; Doonan, Liam B; Kanska, Justyna; Gornik, Sebastian G; Barreira, Sofia; Thompson, Kerry; Schiffer, Philipp; Baxevanis, Andreas D; Frank, Uri

    2017-08-01

    The function of Notch signaling was previously studied in two cnidarians, Hydra and Nematostella, representing the lineages Hydrozoa and Anthozoa, respectively. Using pharmacological inhibition in Hydra and a combination of pharmacological and genetic approaches in Nematostella, it was shown in both animals that Notch is required for tentacle morphogenesis and for late stages of stinging cell maturation. Surprisingly, a role for Notch in neural development, which is well documented in bilaterians, was evident in embryonic Nematostella but not in adult Hydra. Adult neurogenesis in the latter seemed to be unaffected by DAPT, a drug that inhibits Notch signaling. To address this apparent discrepancy, we studied the role of Notch in Hydractinia echinata, an additional hydrozoan, in all life stages. Using CRISPR-Cas9 mediated mutagenesis, transgenesis, and pharmacological interference we show that Notch is dispensable for Hydractinia normal neurogenesis in all life stages but is required for the maturation of stinging cells and for tentacle morphogenesis. Our results are consistent with a conserved role for Notch in morphogenesis and nematogenesis across Cnidaria, and a lineage-specific loss of Notch dependence in neurogenesis in hydrozoans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Suppression of colon cancer metastasis by Aes through inhibition of Notch signaling.

    PubMed

    Sonoshita, Masahiro; Aoki, Masahiro; Fuwa, Haruhiko; Aoki, Koji; Hosogi, Hisahiro; Sakai, Yoshiharu; Hashida, Hiroki; Takabayashi, Arimichi; Sasaki, Makoto; Robine, Sylvie; Itoh, Kazuyuki; Yoshioka, Kiyoko; Kakizaki, Fumihiko; Kitamura, Takanori; Oshima, Masanobu; Taketo, Makoto Mark

    2011-01-18

    Metastasis is responsible for most cancer deaths. Here, we show that Aes (or Grg5) gene functions as an endogenous metastasis suppressor. Expression of Aes was decreased in liver metastases compared with primary colon tumors in both mice and humans. Aes inhibited Notch signaling by converting active Rbpj transcription complexes into repression complexes on insoluble nuclear matrix. In tumor cells, Notch signaling was triggered by ligands on adjoining blood vessels, and stimulated transendothelial migration. Genetic depletion of Aes in Apc(Δ716) intestinal polyposis mice caused marked tumor invasion and intravasation that were suppressed by Notch signaling inhibition. These results suggest that inhibition of Notch signaling can be a promising strategy for prevention and treatment of colon cancer metastasis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Crosstalk between the Notch signaling pathway and non-coding RNAs in gastrointestinal cancers

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yangyang; Mao, Yuyan; Jin, Rong; Jiang, Lei

    2018-01-01

    The Notch signaling pathway is one of the main signaling pathways that mediates direct contact between cells, and is essential for normal development. It regulates various cellular processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis. It additionally serves an important function in tumor progression. Non-coding RNAs mainly include small microRNAs, long non-coding RNAs and circular RNAs. At present, a large body of literature supports the biological significance of non-coding RNAs in tumor progression. It is also becoming increasingly evident that cross-talk exists between Notch signaling and non-coding RNAs. The present review summarizes the current knowledge of Notch-mediated gastrointestinal cancer cell processes, and the effect of the crosstalk between the three major types of non-coding RNAs and the Notch signaling pathway on the fate of gastrointestinal cancer cells. PMID:29285185

  10. Wavelet Transform Based Filter to Remove the Notches from Signal Under Harmonic Polluted Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Sukanta; Ranjan, Vikash

    2017-12-01

    The work proposes to annihilate the notches present in the synchronizing signal required for converter operation appearing due to switching of semiconductor devices connected to the system in the harmonic polluted environment. The disturbances in the signal are suppressed by wavelet based novel filtering technique. In the proposed technique, the notches in the signal are determined and eliminated by the wavelet based multi-rate filter using `Daubechies4' (db4) as mother wavelet. The computational complexity of the adapted technique is very less as compared to any other conventional notch filtering techniques. The proposed technique is developed in MATLAB/Simulink and finally validated with dSPACE-1103 interface. The recovered signal, thus obtained, is almost free of the notches.

  11. Notch Signalling Synchronizes the Zebrafish Segmentation Clock but Is Not Needed To Create Somite Boundaries

    PubMed Central

    Özbudak, Ertuğrul M; Lewis, Julian

    2008-01-01

    Somite segmentation depends on a gene expression oscillator or clock in the posterior presomitic mesoderm (PSM) and on read-out machinery in the anterior PSM to convert the pattern of clock phases into a somite pattern. Notch pathway mutations disrupt somitogenesis, and previous studies have suggested that Notch signalling is required both for the oscillations and for the read-out mechanism. By blocking or overactivating the Notch pathway abruptly at different times, we show that Notch signalling has no essential function in the anterior PSM and is required only in the posterior PSM, where it keeps the oscillations of neighbouring cells synchronized. Using a GFP reporter for the oscillator gene her1, we measure the influence of Notch signalling on her1 expression and show by mathematical modelling that this is sufficient for synchronization. Our model, in which intracellular oscillations are generated by delayed autoinhibition of her1 and her7 and synchronized by Notch signalling, explains the observations fully, showing that there are no grounds to invoke any additional role for the Notch pathway in the patterning of somite boundaries in zebrafish. PMID:18248098

  12. Drosophila melanogaster auxilin regulates the internalization of Delta to control activity of the Notch signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hagedorn, Elliott J.; Bayraktar, Jennifer L.; Kandachar, Vasundhara R.; Bai, Ting; Englert, Dane M.; Chang, Henry C.

    2006-01-01

    We have isolated mutations in the Drosophila melanogaster homologue of auxilin, a J-domain–containing protein known to cooperate with Hsc70 in the disassembly of clathrin coats from clathrin-coated vesicles in vitro. Consistent with this biochemical role, animals with reduced auxilin function exhibit genetic interactions with Hsc70 and clathrin. Interestingly, the auxilin mutations interact specifically with Notch and disrupt several Notch-mediated processes. Genetic evidence places auxilin function in the signal-sending cells, upstream of Notch receptor activation, suggesting that the relevant cargo for this auxilin-mediated endocytosis is the Notch ligand Delta. Indeed, the localization of Delta protein is disrupted in auxilin mutant tissues. Thus, our data suggest that auxilin is an integral component of the Notch signaling pathway, participating in the ubiquitin-dependent endocytosis of Delta. Furthermore, the fact that auxilin is required for Notch signaling suggests that ligand endocytosis in the signal-sending cells needs to proceed past coat disassembly to activate Notch. PMID:16682530

  13. Notch Signaling in Prostate Cancer Cells Promotes Osteoblastic Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-01

    in the tumor- bone microenvironment. Conversely, inhibition of Notch3 in PC3, 22rv1 and C42B cells with shRNA, promoted prostate cancer–induced...metastasis and thus may be a therapeutic target for such metastatic lesions. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Prostate Cancer; Notch3; MMP3; Bone -Tumor microenvironment...9 4 1. Introduction: To address the clinical problem of disease progression in prostate cancer- induced bone metastasis, the

  14. Notch3/Akt signaling contributes to OSM-induced protection against cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingming; Wang, Chen; Hu, Jianqiang; Lin, Jie; Zhao, Zhijing; Shen, Min; Gao, Haokao; Li, Na; Liu, Min; Zheng, Pengfei; Qiu, Cuiting; Gao, Erhe; Wang, Haichang; Sun, Dongdong

    2015-09-01

    Oncostatin M (OSM) exhibits many unique biological activities by activating the Oβ receptor. However, its role in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R injury) in mice remains unknown. We investigated whether Notch3/Akt signaling is involved in the regulation of OSM-induced protection against cardiac I/R injury. The effects of OSM were assessed in mice that underwent myocardial I/R injury by OSM treatment or by genetic deficiency of the OSM receptor Oβ. We investigated its effects on cardiomyocyte apoptosis and mitochondrial biogenesis and whether Notch3/Akt signaling was involved in the regulation of OSM-induced protection against cardiac I/R injury. The mice underwent 30 min of ischemia followed by 3 h of reperfusion and were randomized to be treated with Notch3 siRNA (siNotch3) or lentivirus carrying Notch3 cDNA (Notch3) 72 h before coronary artery ligation. Myocardial infarct size, cardiac function, cardiomyocyte apoptosis and mitochondria morphology in mice that underwent cardiac I/R injury were compared between groups. OSM alleviated cardiac I/R injury by inhibiting cardiomyocyte apoptosis through promotion of Notch3 production, thus activating the PI3K/Akt pathway. OSM enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial function in mice subjected to cardiac I/R injury. In contrast, OSM receptor Oβ knock out exacerbated cardiac I/R injury, decreased Notch3 production, enhanced cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and impaired mitochondrial biogenesis in cardiac I/R injured mice. The mechanism of OSM on cardiac I/R injury is partly mediated by the Notch3/Akt pathway. These results suggest a novel role of Notch3/Akt signaling that contributes to OSM-induced protection against cardiac I/R injury.

  15. Notch signalling drives bone marrow stromal cell-mediated chemoresistance in acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Kamga, Paul Takam; Bassi, Giulio; Cassaro, Adriana; Midolo, Martina; Di Trapani, Mariano; Gatti, Alessandro; Carusone, Roberta; Resci, Federica; Perbellini, Omar; Gottardi, Michele; Bonifacio, Massimiliano; Kamdje, Armel Hervé Nwabo; Ambrosetti, Achille; Krampera, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Both preclinical and clinical investigations suggest that Notch signalling is critical for the development of many cancers and for their response to chemotherapy. We previously showed that Notch inhibition abrogates stromal-induced chemoresistance in lymphoid neoplasms. However, the role of Notch in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and its contribution to the crosstalk between leukemia cells and bone marrow stromal cells remain controversial. Thus, we evaluated the role of the Notch pathway in the proliferation, survival and chemoresistance of AML cells in co-culture with bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells expanded from both healthy donors (hBM-MSCs) and AML patients (hBM-MSCs*). As compared to hBM-MSCs, hBM-MSCs* showed higher level of Notch1, Jagged1 as well as the main Notch target gene HES1. Notably, hBM-MSCs* induced expression and activation of Notch signalling in AML cells, supporting AML proliferation and being more efficientin inducing AML chemoresistance than hBM-MSCs*. Pharmacological inhibition of Notch using combinations of Notch receptor-blocking antibodies or gamma-secretase inhibitors (GSIs), in presence of chemotherapeutic agents, significant lowered the supportive effect of hBM-MSCs and hBM-MSCs* towards AML cells, by activating apoptotic cascade and reducing protein level of STAT3, AKT and NF-κB. These results suggest that Notch signalling inhibition, by overcoming the stromal-mediated promotion of chemoresistance,may represent a potential therapeutic targetnot only for lymphoid neoplasms, but also for AML. PMID:26967055

  16. Structure and Function of the Mind bomb E3 ligase in the context of Notch Signal Transduction

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Bingqian; McMillan, Brian J.; Blacklow, Stephen C.

    2016-01-01

    The Notch signaling pathway has a critical role in cell fate determination and tissue homeostasis in a variety of different lineages. In the context of normal Notch signaling, the Notch receptor of the “signal-receiving” cell is activated in trans by a Notch ligand from a neighboring “signal-sending” cell. Genetic studies in several model organisms have established that ubiquitination of the Notch ligand, and its regulated endocytosis, is essential for transmission of this activation signal. In mammals, this ubiquitination step is dependent on the protein Mind bomb 1 (Mib1), a large multi-domain RING-type E3 ligase, and its direct interaction with the intracellular tails of Notch ligand molecules. Here, we discuss our current understanding of Mind bomb structure and mechanism in the context of Notch signaling and beyond. PMID:27285058

  17. Investigation of Notch Signaling during Spontaneous Regeneration of Cochlear Hair Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0475 TITLE: Investigation of Notch Signaling during Spontaneous Regeneration of Cochlear Hair Cells PRINCIPAL...Sep 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Investigation of Notch Signaling during Spontaneous Regeneration of Cochlear Hair Cells 5b...inherent to military settings. These noise exposures damage and kill sensory hair cells (HCs) found in the cochlea of the inner ear, resulting in permanent

  18. The common oncogenomic program of NOTCH1 and NOTCH3 signaling in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sung Hee; Severson, Eric; Pear, Warren S; Liu, Xiaole S; Aster, Jon C; Blacklow, Stephen C

    2017-01-01

    Notch is a major oncogenic driver in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), in part because it binds to an enhancer that increases expression of MYC. Here, we exploit the capacity of activated NOTCH1 and NOTCH3 to induce T-ALL, despite substantial divergence in their intracellular regions, as a means to elucidate a broad, common Notch-dependent oncogenomic program through systematic comparison of the transcriptomes and Notch-bound genomic regulatory elements of NOTCH1- and NOTCH3-dependent T-ALL cells. ChIP-seq studies show a high concordance of functional NOTCH1 and NOTCH3 genomic binding sites that are enriched in binding motifs for RBPJ, the transcription factor that recruits activated Notch to DNA. The interchangeability of NOTCH1 and NOTCH3 was confirmed by rescue of NOTCH1-dependent T-ALL cells with activated NOTCH3 and vice versa. Despite remarkable overall similarity, there are nuanced differences in chromatin landscapes near critical common Notch target genes, most notably at a Notch-dependent enhancer that regulates MYC, which correlates with responsiveness to Notch pathway inhibitors. Overall, a common oncogenomic program driven by binding of either Notch is sufficient to maintain T-ALL cell growth, whereas cell-context specific differences appear to influence the response of T-ALL cells to Notch inhibition.

  19. The common oncogenomic program of NOTCH1 and NOTCH3 signaling in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Pear, Warren S.; Liu, Xiaole S.; Aster, Jon C.

    2017-01-01

    Notch is a major oncogenic driver in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), in part because it binds to an enhancer that increases expression of MYC. Here, we exploit the capacity of activated NOTCH1 and NOTCH3 to induce T-ALL, despite substantial divergence in their intracellular regions, as a means to elucidate a broad, common Notch-dependent oncogenomic program through systematic comparison of the transcriptomes and Notch-bound genomic regulatory elements of NOTCH1- and NOTCH3-dependent T-ALL cells. ChIP-seq studies show a high concordance of functional NOTCH1 and NOTCH3 genomic binding sites that are enriched in binding motifs for RBPJ, the transcription factor that recruits activated Notch to DNA. The interchangeability of NOTCH1 and NOTCH3 was confirmed by rescue of NOTCH1-dependent T-ALL cells with activated NOTCH3 and vice versa. Despite remarkable overall similarity, there are nuanced differences in chromatin landscapes near critical common Notch target genes, most notably at a Notch-dependent enhancer that regulates MYC, which correlates with responsiveness to Notch pathway inhibitors. Overall, a common oncogenomic program driven by binding of either Notch is sufficient to maintain T-ALL cell growth, whereas cell-context specific differences appear to influence the response of T-ALL cells to Notch inhibition. PMID:29023469

  20. The Bro1-Domain Protein, EGO-2, Promotes Notch Signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Maine, Eleanor M.

    2007-01-01

    In Caenorhabditis elegans, as in other animals, Notch-type signaling mediates numerous inductive events during development. The mechanism of Notch-type signaling involves proteolytic cleavage of the receptor and subsequent transport of the receptor intracellular domain to the nucleus, where it acts as a transcriptional regulator. Notch-type signaling activity is modulated by post-translational modifications and endocytosis of ligand and receptor. We previously identified the ego-2 (enhancer of glp-1) gene as a positive regulator of germline proliferation that interacts genetically with the GLP-1/Notch signaling pathway in the germline. Here, we show that ego-2 positively regulates signaling in various tissues via both GLP-1 and the second C. elegans Notch-type receptor, LIN-12. ego-2 activity also promotes aspects of development not known to require GLP-1 or LIN-12. The EGO-2 protein contains a Bro1 domain, which is known in other systems to localize to certain endosomal compartments. EGO-2 activity in the soma promotes GLP-1 signaling in the germline, consistent with a role for EGO-2 in production of active ligand. Another C. elegans Bro1-domain protein, ALX-1, is known to interact physically with LIN-12/Notch. We document a complex phenotypic interaction between ego-2 and alx-1, consistent with their relationship being antagonistic with respect to some developmental processes and agonistic with respect to others. PMID:17603118

  1. ALK1 Signaling Inhibits Angiogenesis by Cooperating with the Notch Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Larrivée, Bruno; Prahst, Claudia; Gordon, Emma; del Toro, Raquel; Mathivet, Thomas; Duarte, Antonio; Simons, Michael; Eichmann, Anne

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK1) is an endothelial-specific member of the TGF-β/BMP receptor family that is inactivated in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). How ALK1 signaling regulates angiogenesis remains incompletely understood. Here we show that ALK1 inhibits angiogenesis by cooperating with the Notch pathway. Blocking Alk1 signaling during postnatal development in mice leads to retinal hypervascularization and the appearance of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Combined blockade of Alk1 and Notch signaling further exacerbates hypervascularization, whereas activation of Alk1 by its high-affinity ligand BMP9 rescues hypersprouting induced by Notch inhibition. Mechanistically, ALK1-dependent SMAD signaling synergizes with activated Notch in stalk cells to induce expression of the Notch targets HEY1 and HEY2, thereby repressing VEGF signaling, tip cell formation, and endothelial sprouting. Taken together, these results uncover a direct link between ALK1 and Notch signaling during vascular morpho-genesis that may be relevant to the pathogenesis of HHT vascular lesions. PMID:22421041

  2. ALK1 signaling inhibits angiogenesis by cooperating with the Notch pathway.

    PubMed

    Larrivée, Bruno; Prahst, Claudia; Gordon, Emma; del Toro, Raquel; Mathivet, Thomas; Duarte, Antonio; Simons, Michael; Eichmann, Anne

    2012-03-13

    Activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK1) is an endothelial-specific member of the TGF-β/BMP receptor family that is inactivated in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). How ALK1 signaling regulates angiogenesis remains incompletely understood. Here we show that ALK1 inhibits angiogenesis by cooperating with the Notch pathway. Blocking Alk1 signaling during postnatal development in mice leads to retinal hypervascularization and the appearance of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Combined blockade of Alk1 and Notch signaling further exacerbates hypervascularization, whereas activation of Alk1 by its high-affinity ligand BMP9 rescues hypersprouting induced by Notch inhibition. Mechanistically, ALK1-dependent SMAD signaling synergizes with activated Notch in stalk cells to induce expression of the Notch targets HEY1 and HEY2, thereby repressing VEGF signaling, tip cell formation, and endothelial sprouting. Taken together, these results uncover a direct link between ALK1 and Notch signaling during vascular morphogenesis that may be relevant to the pathogenesis of HHT vascular lesions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Reduced Notch signalling leads to postnatal skeletal muscle hypertrophy in Pofut1cax/cax mice.

    PubMed

    Al Jaam, Bilal; Heu, Katy; Pennarubia, Florian; Segelle, Alexandre; Magnol, Laetitia; Germot, Agnès; Legardinier, Sébastien; Blanquet, Véronique; Maftah, Abderrahman

    2016-09-01

    Postnatal skeletal muscle growth results from the activation of satellite cells and/or an increase in protein synthesis. The Notch signalling pathway maintains satellite cells in a quiescent state, and once activated, sustains their proliferation and commitment towards differentiation. In mammals, POFUT1-mediated O-fucosylation regulates the interactions between NOTCH receptors and ligands of the DELTA/JAGGED family, thus initiating the activation of canonical Notch signalling. Here, we analysed the consequences of downregulated expression of the Pofut1 gene on postnatal muscle growth in mutant Pofut1(cax/cax) (cax, compact axial skeleton) mice and differentiation of their satellite cell-derived myoblasts (SCDMs). Pofut1(cax/cax) mice exhibited muscle hypertrophy, no hyperplasia and a decrease in satellite cell numbers compared with wild-type C3H mice. In agreement with these observations, Pofut1(cax/cax) SCDMs differentiated earlier concomitant with reduced Pax7 expression and decrease in PAX7(+)/MYOD(-) progenitor cells. In vitro binding assays showed a reduced interaction of DELTA-LIKE 1 ligand (DLL1) with NOTCH receptors expressed at the cell surface of SCDMs, leading to a decreased Notch signalling as seen by the quantification of cleaved NICD and Notch target genes. These results demonstrated that POFUT1-mediated O-fucosylation of NOTCH receptors regulates myogenic cell differentiation and affects postnatal muscle growth in mice. © 2016 The Authors.

  4. Reduced Notch signalling leads to postnatal skeletal muscle hypertrophy in Pofut1cax/cax mice

    PubMed Central

    Al Jaam, Bilal; Heu, Katy; Pennarubia, Florian; Segelle, Alexandre; Magnol, Laetitia; Germot, Agnès; Blanquet, Véronique; Maftah, Abderrahman

    2016-01-01

    Postnatal skeletal muscle growth results from the activation of satellite cells and/or an increase in protein synthesis. The Notch signalling pathway maintains satellite cells in a quiescent state, and once activated, sustains their proliferation and commitment towards differentiation. In mammals, POFUT1-mediated O-fucosylation regulates the interactions between NOTCH receptors and ligands of the DELTA/JAGGED family, thus initiating the activation of canonical Notch signalling. Here, we analysed the consequences of downregulated expression of the Pofut1 gene on postnatal muscle growth in mutant Pofut1cax/cax (cax, compact axial skeleton) mice and differentiation of their satellite cell-derived myoblasts (SCDMs). Pofut1cax/cax mice exhibited muscle hypertrophy, no hyperplasia and a decrease in satellite cell numbers compared with wild-type C3H mice. In agreement with these observations, Pofut1cax/cax SCDMs differentiated earlier concomitant with reduced Pax7 expression and decrease in PAX7+/MYOD− progenitor cells. In vitro binding assays showed a reduced interaction of DELTA-LIKE 1 ligand (DLL1) with NOTCH receptors expressed at the cell surface of SCDMs, leading to a decreased Notch signalling as seen by the quantification of cleaved NICD and Notch target genes. These results demonstrated that POFUT1-mediated O-fucosylation of NOTCH receptors regulates myogenic cell differentiation and affects postnatal muscle growth in mice. PMID:27628322

  5. Nandrolone reduces activation of Notch signaling in denervated muscle associated with increased Numb expression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin-Hua; Yao, Shen; Qiao, Rui-Fang; Levine, Alice C; Kirschenbaum, Alexander; Pan, Jiangping; Wu, Yong; Qin, Weiping; Bauman, William A; Cardozo, Christopher P

    2011-10-14

    Nandrolone, an anabolic steroid, slows denervation-atrophy in rat muscle. The molecular mechanisms responsible for this effect are not well understood. Androgens and anabolic steroids activate Notch signaling in animal models of aging and thereby mitigate sarcopenia. To explore the molecular mechanisms by which nandrolone prevents denervation-atrophy, we investigated the effects of nandrolone on Notch signaling in denervated rat gastrocnemius muscle. Denervation significantly increased Notch activity reflected by elevated levels of nuclear Notch intracellular domain (NICD) and expression of Hey1 (a Notch target gene). Activation was greatest at 7 and 35 days after denervation but remained present at 56 days after denervation. Activation of Notch in denervated muscle was prevented by nandrolone associated with upregulated expression of Numb mRNA and protein. These data demonstrate that denervation activates Notch signaling, and that nandrolone abrogates this response associated with increased expression of Numb, suggesting a potential mechanism by which nandrolone reduces denervation-atrophy. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. GPER activates Notch signaling in breast cancer cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs).

    PubMed

    Pupo, Marco; Pisano, Assunta; Abonante, Sergio; Maggiolini, Marcello; Musti, Anna Maria

    2014-01-01

    The G protein-coupled receptor GPR30/GPER has been shown to mediate rapid effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) in diverse types of cancer cells. Here, we provide evidence for a novel crosstalk between GPER and the Notch signaling pathway in breast cancer cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). We show that E2 and the GPER selective ligand G-1 induce both the γ-secretase-dependent activation of Notch-1 and the expression of the Notch target gene Hes-1. These inductions are prevented by knocking down GPER or by using a dominant-negative mutant of the Notch transcriptional co-activator Master-mind like-1 (DN-MAML-1), hence suggesting the involvement of GPER in the Notch-dependent transcription. By performing chromatin-immunoprecipitation experiments and luciferase assays, we also demonstrate that E2 and G-1 induce the recruitment of the intracellular domain of Notch-1 (N1ICD) to the Hes-1 promoter and the transactivation of a Hes-1-reporter gene, respectively. Functionally, the E2 and G-1-induced migration of breast cancer cells and CAFs is abolished in presence of the γ-secretase inhibitor GSI or DN-MAML-1, which both inhibit the Notch signaling pathway. In addition, we demonstrate that E2 and G-1 prevent the expression of VE-Cadherin, while both compounds induce the expression of Snail, a Notch target gene acting as a repressor of cadherins expression. Notably, both GSI and DN-MAML-1 abolish the up-regulation of Snail-1 by E2 and G-1, whereas the use of GSI rescues VE-Cadherin expression. Taken together, our results prove the involvement of the Notch signaling pathway in mediating the effects of estrogenic GPER signaling in breast cancer cells and CAFs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Minocycline attenuates the development of diabetic neuropathy by inhibiting spinal cord Notch signaling in rat.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cheng; Gao, Jie; Wu, Banglin; Yan, Nuo; Li, Hui; Ren, Yiqing; Kan, Yufei; Liang, Jiamin; Jiao, Yang; Yu, Yonghao

    2017-10-01

    We studied the effects of minocycline (an inhibitor of microglial activation) on the expression and activity of Notch-1 receptor, and explored the therapeutic efficacy of minocycline combined with Notch inhibitor DAPT in the treatment of diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP). Diabetic rat model was established by intraperitoneal injection (ip) of Streptozotocin (STZ). Expression and activity of Notch-1 and expression of macrophage/microglia marker Iba-1 were detected by WB. Diabetes induction significantly attenuated sciatic nerve conduction velocity, and dramatically augmented the expression and the activity of Notch-1 in the lumbar enlargement of the spinal cord. Minocycline treatment, however, accelerated the decreased conduction velocity of sciatic nerve and suppressed Notch-1expression and activity in diabetic rats. Similar to DAPT treatment, minocycline administration also prolonged thermal withdrawal latency (TWL) and increase mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) in diabetic rats in response to heat or mechanical stimulation via inhibition the expression and the activity of Notch-1 in spinal cord. Combination of DAPT and minocycline further inhibited Notch-1 receptor signaling and reduce neuropathic pain exhibited as improved TWL and MWT. Our study revealed a novel mechanism of Notch-1 receptor inhibition in spinal cord induced by minocycline administration, and suggested that the combination of minocycline and DAPT has the potential to treat DNP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Notch activates Wnt-4 signalling to control medio-lateral patterning of the pronephros.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Richard W; Jones, Elizabeth A

    2009-11-01

    Previous studies have highlighted a role for the Notch signalling pathway during pronephrogenesis in the amphibian Xenopus laevis, and in nephron development in the mammalian metanephros, yet a mechanism for this function remains elusive. Here, we further the understanding of how Notch signalling patterns the early X. laevis pronephros anlagen, a function that might be conserved in mammalian nephron segmentation. Our results indicate that early phase pronephric Notch signalling patterns the medio-lateral axis of the dorso-anterior pronephros anlagen, permitting the glomus and tubules to develop in isolation. We show that this novel function acts through the Notch effector gene hrt1 by upregulating expression of wnt4. Wnt-4 then patterns the proximal pronephric anlagen to establish the specific compartments that span the medio-lateral axis. We also identified pronephric expression of lunatic fringe and radical fringe that is temporally and spatially appropriate for a role in regulating Notch signalling in the dorso-anterior region of the pronephros anlagen. On the basis of these results, along with data from previous publications, we propose a mechanism by which the Notch signalling pathway regulates a Wnt-4 function that patterns the proximal pronephric anlagen.

  9. Immunohistochemical expression of Notch signaling in the lining epithelium of periapical cysts.

    PubMed

    Meliou, Eleni; Kerezoudis, Nikolaos; Tosios, Konstantinos; Lafkas, Daniel; Kiaris, Hippokratis

    2011-02-01

    In this study we evaluated the immunohistochemical expression of the receptors Notch 1 and Notch 2, the ligand Delta 1, and the transcription factors HES 1 and HES 5 in the epithelium of well-defined periapical cysts. Immunohistochemistry was carried out on 55 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded, well-defined periapical cysts with minimum inflammation, obtained from the archival tissue database of the Department of Oral Pathology and Surgery. Western blotting was performed to evaluate the specificity of the anti-Notch antibody and the expression of Notch signaling in 5 fresh-frozen periapical cysts. The levels of staining intensity were estimated by the performance of a semiautomated image analysis system. Descriptive statistic of mean values obtained by computerized image analysis method was performed. Immunostaining reaction of all Notch signaling components was observed in the cytoplasm and/or the cytoplasmic membrane in the majority of epithelial cells of periapical cysts. Nuclear staining was observed occasionally in all cases. Notch 2 showed strong staining in 52.83% of the cases, followed by Notch 1 (35.85%), HES 1 and HES 5 moderate staining in 72.73% and 57.69% of the cases, respectively, and Delta 1 weak staining in 58.33% of the cases. No statistical correlation was found between the antibodies and the sex or the age of the study group. Notch is an evolutionarily conserved signaling mechanism that regulates cell fate decisions during development and postnatal life in organisms as diverse as worms, flies, and humans. The present observations indicate that Notch pathway is active downstream in the lining epithelium of periapical cysts, suggesting an involvement of this pathway in periapical cyst growth and expansion. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Notch signaling is involved in human articular chondrocytes de-differentiation during osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Sassi, Nadia; Gadgadi, Nadia; Laadhar, Lilia; Allouche, Mohamed; Mourali, Slim; Zandieh-Doulabi, Behrouz; Hamdoun, Moncef; Nulend, Jenneke Klein; Makni, Sondès; Sellami, Slaheddine

    2014-02-01

    During osteoarthritis (OA), chondrocytes undergo de-differentiation, resulting in the acquisition of a fibroblast-like morphology, decreased expression of collagen type II (colII) and aggrecan, and increased expression of collagen type I (colI), metalloproteinase 13 (MMP13) and nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Notch signaling plays a crucial role during embryogenesis. Several studies showed that Notch is expressed in adulthood. The aim of our study was to confirm the involvement of Notch signaling in human OA at in vitro and ex vivo levels. Normal human articular chondrocytes were cultured during four passages either treated or not with a Notch inhibitor: DAPT. Human OA cartilage was cultured with DAPT for five days. Chondrocytes secreted markers and some Notch pathway components were analyzed using Western blotting and qPCR. Passaging chondrocytes induced a decrease in the cartilage markers: colII and aggrecan. DAPT-treated chondrocytes and OA cartilage showed a significant increase in healthy cartilage markers. De-differentiation markers, colI, MMP13 and eNOS, were significantly reduced in DAPT-treated chondrocytes and OA cartilage. Notch1 expression was proportional to colI, MMP13 and eNOS expression and inversely proportional to colII and aggrecan expression in nontreated cultured chondrocytes. Notch ligand: Jagged1 increased in chondrocytes culture. DAPT treatment resulted in reduced Jagged1 expression. Notch target gene HES1 increased during chondrocyte culture and was reduced when treated with DAPT. Targeting Notch signaling during OA might lead to the restitution of the typical chondrocyte phenotype and even to chondrocyte redifferentiation during the pathology.

  11. Notch signaling modulates sleep homeostasis and learning after sleep deprivation in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Seugnet, Laurent; Suzuki, Yasuko; Merlin, Gabriel; Gottschalk, Laura; Duntley, Stephen P; Shaw, Paul J

    2011-05-24

    The role of the transmembrane receptor Notch in the adult brain is poorly understood. Here, we provide evidence that bunched, a negative regulator of Notch, is involved in sleep homeostasis. Genetic evidence indicates that interfering with bunched activity in the mushroom bodies (MBs) abolishes sleep homeostasis. Combining bunched and Delta loss-of-function mutations rescues normal homeostasis, suggesting that Notch signaling may be involved in regulating sensitivity to sleep loss. Preventing the downregulation of Delta by overexpressing a wild-type transgene in MBs reduces sleep homeostasis and, importantly, prevents learning impairments induced by sleep deprivation. Similar resistance to sleep loss is observed with Notch(spl-1) gain-of-function mutants. Immunohistochemistry reveals that the Notch receptor is expressed in glia, whereas Delta is localized in neurons. Importantly, the expression in glia of the intracellular domain of Notch, a dominant activated form of the receptor, is sufficient to prevent learning deficits after sleep deprivation. Together, these results identify a novel neuron-glia signaling pathway dependent on Notch and regulated by bunched. These data highlight the emerging role of neuron-glia interactions in regulating both sleep and learning impairments associated with sleep loss. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Role of stromal cell-mediated Notch signaling in CLL resistance to chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Nwabo Kamdje, A H; Bassi, G; Pacelli, L; Malpeli, G; Amati, E; Nichele, I; Pizzolo, G; Krampera, M

    2012-05-01

    Stromal cells are essential components of the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment that regulate and support the survival of different tumors, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). In this study, we investigated the role of Notch signaling in the promotion of survival and chemoresistance of human CLL cells in coculture with human BM-mesenchymal stromal cells (hBM-MSCs) of both autologous and allogeneic origin. The presence of BM-MSCs rescued CLL cells from apoptosis both spontaneously and following induction with various drugs, including Fludarabine, Cyclophosphamide, Bendamustine, Prednisone and Hydrocortisone. The treatment with a combination of anti-Notch-1, Notch-2 and Notch-4 antibodies or γ-secretase inhibitor XII (GSI XII) reverted this protective effect by day 3, even in presence of the above-mentioned drugs. Overall, our findings show that stromal cell-mediated Notch-1, Notch-2 and Notch-4 signaling has a role in CLL survival and resistance to chemotherapy. Therefore, its blocking could be an additional tool to overcome drug resistance and improve the therapeutic strategies for CLL.

  13. Role of stromal cell-mediated Notch signaling in CLL resistance to chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kamdje, A H Nwabo; Bassi, G; Pacelli, L; Malpeli, G; Amati, E; Nichele, I; Pizzolo, G; Krampera, M

    2012-01-01

    Stromal cells are essential components of the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment that regulate and support the survival of different tumors, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). In this study, we investigated the role of Notch signaling in the promotion of survival and chemoresistance of human CLL cells in coculture with human BM-mesenchymal stromal cells (hBM-MSCs) of both autologous and allogeneic origin. The presence of BM-MSCs rescued CLL cells from apoptosis both spontaneously and following induction with various drugs, including Fludarabine, Cyclophosphamide, Bendamustine, Prednisone and Hydrocortisone. The treatment with a combination of anti-Notch-1, Notch-2 and Notch-4 antibodies or γ-secretase inhibitor XII (GSI XII) reverted this protective effect by day 3, even in presence of the above-mentioned drugs. Overall, our findings show that stromal cell-mediated Notch-1, Notch-2 and Notch-4 signaling has a role in CLL survival and resistance to chemotherapy. Therefore, its blocking could be an additional tool to overcome drug resistance and improve the therapeutic strategies for CLL. PMID:22829975

  14. Gamma-glutamylcyclotransferase promotes the growth of human glioma cells by activating Notch-Akt signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Shang-Hang; Yu, Ning; Liu, Xi-Yao

    Glioma as an aggressive type tumor is rapidly growing and has become one of the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. γ-Glutamylcyclotransferase (GGCT) has been shown as a diagnostic marker in various cancers. To reveal whether there is a correlation between GGCT and human glioma, GGCT expression in human glioma tissues and cell lines was first determined. We found that GGCT expression was up-regulated in human glioma tissues and cell lines. Further, we demonstrate that GGCT knockdown inhibits glioma cell T98G and U251 proliferation and colony formation, whereas GGCT overexpression leads to oppose effects. GGCT overexpression promotes the expression ofmore » Notch receptors and activates Akt signaling in glioma cells, and Notch-Akt signaling is activated in glioma tissues with high expression of GGCT. Finally, we show that inhibition of Notch-Akt signaling with Notch inhibitor MK-0752 blocks the effects of GGCT on glioma proliferation and colony formation. In conclusion, GGCT plays a critical role in glioma cell proliferation and may be a potential cancer therapeutic target. - Highlights: • GGCT expression is up-regulated in human glioma tissues and cell lines. • GGCT promotes glioma cell growth and colony formation. • GGCT promotes the activation of Notch-Akt signaling in glioma cells and tissues. • Notch inhibition blocks the role of GGCT in human glioma cells.« less

  15. Mechanosensitivity of Jagged–Notch signaling can induce a switch-type behavior in vascular homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Stassen, Oscar M. J. A.; ter Huurne, Fleur M.; Boareto, Marcelo; Sahlgren, Cecilia M.

    2018-01-01

    Hemodynamic forces and Notch signaling are both known as key regulators of arterial remodeling and homeostasis. However, how these two factors integrate in vascular morphogenesis and homeostasis is unclear. Here, we combined experiments and modeling to evaluate the impact of the integration of mechanics and Notch signaling on vascular homeostasis. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were cyclically stretched on flexible membranes, as quantified via video tracking, demonstrating that the expression of Jagged1, Notch3, and target genes was down-regulated with strain. The data were incorporated in a computational framework of Notch signaling in the vascular wall, where the mechanical load was defined by the vascular geometry and blood pressure. Upon increasing wall thickness, the model predicted a switch-type behavior of the Notch signaling state with a steep transition of synthetic toward contractile VSMCs at a certain transition thickness. These thicknesses varied per investigated arterial location and were in good agreement with human anatomical data, thereby suggesting that the Notch response to hemodynamics plays an important role in the establishment of vascular homeostasis. PMID:29610298

  16. Primary cilia maintain corneal epithelial homeostasis by regulation of the Notch signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Grisanti, Laura; Revenkova, Ekaterina; Gordon, Ronald E.

    2016-01-01

    Primary cilia have been linked to signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation, cell motility and cell polarity. Defects in ciliary function result in developmental abnormalities and multiple ciliopathies. Patients affected by severe ciliopathies, such as Meckel syndrome, present several ocular surface disease conditions of unclear pathogenesis. Here, we show that primary cilia are predominantly present on basal cells of the mouse corneal epithelium (CE) throughout development and in the adult. Conditional ablation of cilia in the CE leads to an increase in proliferation and vertical migration of basal corneal epithelial cells (CECs). A consequent increase in cell density of suprabasal layers results in a thicker than normal CE. Surprisingly, in cilia-deficient CE, cilia-mediated signaling pathways, including Hh and Wnt pathways, were not affected but the intensity of Notch signaling was severely diminished. Although Notch1 and Notch2 receptors were expressed normally, nuclear Notch1 intracellular domain (N1ICD) expression was severely reduced. Postnatal development analysis revealed that in cilia-deficient CECs downregulation of the Notch pathway precedes cell proliferation defects. Thus, we have uncovered a function of the primary cilium in maintaining homeostasis of the CE by balancing proliferation and vertical migration of basal CECs through modulation of Notch signaling. PMID:27122169

  17. RBP-Jκ-Dependent Notch Signaling Is Dispensable for Mouse Early Embryonic Development

    PubMed Central

    Souilhol, Céline; Cormier, Sarah; Tanigaki, Kenji; Babinet, Charles; Cohen-Tannoudji, Michel

    2006-01-01

    The Notch signaling pathway is an evolutionarily conserved signaling system which has been shown to be essential in cell fate specification and in numerous aspects of embryonic development in all metazoans thus far studied. We recently demonstrated that several components of the Notch signaling pathway, including the four Notch receptors and their five ligands known in mammals, are expressed in mouse oocytes, in mouse preimplantation embryos, or both. This suggested a possible implication of the Notch pathway in the first cell fate specification of the dividing mouse embryo, which results in the formation of the blastocyst. To address this issue directly, we generated zygotes in which both the maternal and the zygotic expression of Rbpsuh, a key element of the core Notch signaling pathway, were abrogated. We find that such zygotes give rise to blastocysts which implant and develop normally. Nevertheless, after gastrulation, these embryos die around midgestation, similarly to Rbpsuh-null mutants. This demonstrates that the RBP-Jκ-dependent pathway, otherwise called the canonical Notch pathway, is dispensable for blastocyst morphogenesis and the establishment of the three germ layers, ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm. These results are discussed in the light of recent observations which have challenged this conclusion. PMID:16782866

  18. RBP-Jkappa-dependent notch signaling is dispensable for mouse early embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Souilhol, Céline; Cormier, Sarah; Tanigaki, Kenji; Babinet, Charles; Cohen-Tannoudji, Michel

    2006-07-01

    The Notch signaling pathway is an evolutionarily conserved signaling system which has been shown to be essential in cell fate specification and in numerous aspects of embryonic development in all metazoans thus far studied. We recently demonstrated that several components of the Notch signaling pathway, including the four Notch receptors and their five ligands known in mammals, are expressed in mouse oocytes, in mouse preimplantation embryos, or both. This suggested a possible implication of the Notch pathway in the first cell fate specification of the dividing mouse embryo, which results in the formation of the blastocyst. To address this issue directly, we generated zygotes in which both the maternal and the zygotic expression of Rbpsuh, a key element of the core Notch signaling pathway, were abrogated. We find that such zygotes give rise to blastocysts which implant and develop normally. Nevertheless, after gastrulation, these embryos die around midgestation, similarly to Rbpsuh-null mutants. This demonstrates that the RBP-Jkappa-dependent pathway, otherwise called the canonical Notch pathway, is dispensable for blastocyst morphogenesis and the establishment of the three germ layers, ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm. These results are discussed in the light of recent observations which have challenged this conclusion.

  19. JAG1-Mediated Notch Signaling Regulates Secretory Cell Differentiation of the Human Airway Epithelium.

    PubMed

    Gomi, Kazunori; Staudt, Michelle R; Salit, Jacqueline; Kaner, Robert J; Heldrich, Jonna; Rogalski, Allison M; Arbelaez, Vanessa; Crystal, Ronald G; Walters, Matthew S

    2016-08-01

    Basal cells (BC) are the stem/progenitor cells of the human airway epithelium capable of differentiating into secretory and ciliated cells. Notch signaling activation increases BC differentiation into secretory cells, but the role of individual Notch ligands in regulating this process in the human airway epithelium is largely unknown. The objective of this study was to define the role of the Notch ligand JAG1 in regulating human BC differentiation. JAG1 over-expression in BC increased secretory cell differentiation, with no effect on ciliated cell differentiation. Conversely, knockdown of JAG1 decreased expression of secretory cell genes. These data demonstrate JAG1-mediated Notch signaling regulates differentiation of BC into secretory cells.

  20. Bone morphogenetic protein and Notch signalling crosstalk in poor-prognosis, mesenchymal-subtype colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Irshad, Shazia; Bansal, Mukesh; Guarnieri, Paolo; Davis, Hayley; Al Haj Zen, Ayman; Baran, Brygida; Pinna, Claudia Maria Assunta; Rahman, Haseeb; Biswas, Sujata; Bardella, Chiara; Jeffery, Rosemary; Wang, Lai Mun; East, James Edward; Tomlinson, Ian; Lewis, Annabelle; Leedham, Simon John

    2017-06-01

    The functional role of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling in colorectal cancer (CRC) is poorly defined, with contradictory results in cancer cell line models reflecting the inherent difficulties of assessing a signalling pathway that is context-dependent and subject to genetic constraints. By assessing the transcriptional response of a diploid human colonic epithelial cell line to BMP ligand stimulation, we generated a prognostic BMP signalling signature, which was applied to multiple CRC datasets to investigate BMP heterogeneity across CRC molecular subtypes. We linked BMP and Notch signalling pathway activity and function in human colonic epithelial cells, and normal and neoplastic tissue. BMP induced Notch through a γ-secretase-independent interaction, regulated by the SMAD proteins. In homeostasis, BMP/Notch co-localization was restricted to cells at the top of the intestinal crypt, with more widespread interaction in some human CRC samples. BMP signalling was downregulated in the majority of CRCs, but was conserved specifically in mesenchymal-subtype tumours, where it interacts with Notch to induce an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype. In intestinal homeostasis, BMP-Notch pathway crosstalk is restricted to differentiating cells through stringent pathway segregation. Conserved BMP activity and loss of signalling stringency in mesenchymal-subtype tumours promotes a synergistic BMP-Notch interaction, and this correlates with poor patient prognosis. BMP signalling heterogeneity across CRC subtypes and cell lines can account for previous experimental contradictions. Crosstalk between the BMP and Notch pathways will render mesenchymal-subtype CRC insensitive to γ-secretase inhibition unless BMP activation is concomitantly addressed. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. © 2017 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley

  1. Developmental expression of the Notch signaling pathway genes during mouse preimplantation development.

    PubMed

    Cormier, Sarah; Vandormael-Pournin, Sandrine; Babinet, Charles; Cohen-Tannoudji, Michel

    2004-10-01

    Notch signaling is an evolutionary conserved pathway involved in intercellular signaling and essential for proper cell fate choices during development. Thus, it could be involved in mouse preimplantation development where intercellular signaling plays a crucial role, particularly between the inner cell mass and the trophectoderm of the blastocyst. At their face value, the phenotypes observed when disrupting each of the four Notch genes known in the mouse do not support this view as none of them involves perturbation of preimplantation development. However this could be due to functional redundancy and/or maternal expression. As a first step to address this issue, we decided to examine the expression in early development of various genes known to participate in Notch signaling. Here, we report on the expression pattern of Notch1-4, Jagged1 (Jag1), Jag2, Delta-like1 (Dll-1), Dll-3, Dll-4, Rbpsuh, Deltex1(Dtx1)and Dtx2 genes during preimplantation development from unfertilized eggs until late blastocyst stage using a RT-PCR strategy. We show that Notch1, 2, Jag1-2, Dll-3, Rbpsuh and Dtx2 transcripts are expressed at all stages. Notch4 and Dll-4 mRNAs are synthesized from the 2-cell through to the hatched blastocyst stage. Notch3, Dll-1 and Dtx1exhibit a stage dependent expression as their mRNAs are detected in 2-cell embryos and in hatched blastocysts, but are absent or weakly detected at the morula stage. Finally, we show that all the above genes are expressed both in Embryonic and Trophoblast Stem cells (ES and TS cells, respectively). Our results suggest that the Notch pathway may be active during mouse preimplantation development.

  2. Notch signaling is a potent inducer of growth arrest and apoptosis in a wide range of B-cell malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Zweidler-McKay, Patrick A.; He, Yiping; Xu, Lanwei; Rodriguez, Carlos G.; Karnell, Fredrick G.; Carpenter, Andrea C.; Aster, Jon C.; Allman, David; Pear, Warren S.

    2005-01-01

    Although Notch receptor expression on malignant B cells is widespread, the effect of Notch signaling in these cells is poorly understood. To investigate Notch signaling in B-cell malignancy, we assayed the effect of Notch activation in multiple murine and human B-cell tumors, representing both immature and mature subtypes. Expression of constitutively active, truncated forms of the 4 mammalian Notch receptors (ICN1-4) inhibited growth and induced apoptosis in both murine and human B-cell lines but not T-cell lines. Similar results were obtained in human precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia lines when Notch activation was achieved by coculture with fibroblasts expressing the Notch ligands Jagged1 or Jagged2. All 4 truncated Notch receptors, as well as the Jagged ligands, induced Hes1 transcription. Retroviral expression of Hairy/Enhancer of Split-1 (Hes1) recapitulated the Notch effects, suggesting that Hes1 is an important mediator of Notch-induced growth arrest and apoptosis in B cells. Among the B-cell malignancies that were susceptible to Notch-mediated growth inhibition/apoptosis were mature B-cell and therapy-resistant B-cell malignancies, including Hodgkin, myeloma, and mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL)–translocated cell lines. These results suggest that therapies capable of activating Notch/Hes1 signaling may have therapeutic potential in a wide range of human B-cell malignancies. PMID:16118316

  3. Therapeutic antibody targeting of individual Notch receptors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan; Cain-Hom, Carol; Choy, Lisa; Hagenbeek, Thijs J; de Leon, Gladys P; Chen, Yongmei; Finkle, David; Venook, Rayna; Wu, Xiumin; Ridgway, John; Schahin-Reed, Dorreyah; Dow, Graham J; Shelton, Amy; Stawicki, Scott; Watts, Ryan J; Zhang, Jeff; Choy, Robert; Howard, Peter; Kadyk, Lisa; Yan, Minhong; Zha, Jiping; Callahan, Christopher A; Hymowitz, Sarah G; Siebel, Christian W

    2010-04-15

    The four receptors of the Notch family are widely expressed transmembrane proteins that function as key conduits through which mammalian cells communicate to regulate cell fate and growth. Ligand binding triggers a conformational change in the receptor negative regulatory region (NRR) that enables ADAM protease cleavage at a juxtamembrane site that otherwise lies buried within the quiescent NRR. Subsequent intramembrane proteolysis catalysed by the gamma-secretase complex liberates the intracellular domain (ICD) to initiate the downstream Notch transcriptional program. Aberrant signalling through each receptor has been linked to numerous diseases, particularly cancer, making the Notch pathway a compelling target for new drugs. Although gamma-secretase inhibitors (GSIs) have progressed into the clinic, GSIs fail to distinguish individual Notch receptors, inhibit other signalling pathways and cause intestinal toxicity, attributed to dual inhibition of Notch1 and 2 (ref. 11). To elucidate the discrete functions of Notch1 and Notch2 and develop clinically relevant inhibitors that reduce intestinal toxicity, we used phage display technology to generate highly specialized antibodies that specifically antagonize each receptor paralogue and yet cross-react with the human and mouse sequences, enabling the discrimination of Notch1 versus Notch2 function in human patients and rodent models. Our co-crystal structure shows that the inhibitory mechanism relies on stabilizing NRR quiescence. Selective blocking of Notch1 inhibits tumour growth in pre-clinical models through two mechanisms: inhibition of cancer cell growth and deregulation of angiogenesis. Whereas inhibition of Notch1 plus Notch2 causes severe intestinal toxicity, inhibition of either receptor alone reduces or avoids this effect, demonstrating a clear advantage over pan-Notch inhibitors. Our studies emphasize the value of paralogue-specific antagonists in dissecting the contributions of distinct Notch receptors to

  4. RITA, a novel modulator of Notch signalling, acts via nuclear export of RBP-J.

    PubMed

    Wacker, Stephan Armin; Alvarado, Cristobal; von Wichert, Götz; Knippschild, Uwe; Wiedenmann, Jörg; Clauss, Karen; Nienhaus, Gerd Ulrich; Hameister, Horst; Baumann, Bernd; Borggrefe, Tilman; Knöchel, Walter; Oswald, Franz

    2011-01-05

    The evolutionarily conserved Notch signal transduction pathway regulates fundamental cellular processes during embryonic development and in the adult. Ligand binding induces presenilin-dependent cleavage of the receptor and a subsequent nuclear translocation of the Notch intracellular domain (NICD). In the nucleus, NICD binds to the recombination signal sequence-binding protein J (RBP-J)/CBF-1 transcription factor to induce expression of Notch target genes. Here, we report the identification and functional characterization of RBP-J interacting and tubulin associated (RITA) (C12ORF52) as a novel RBP-J/CBF-1-interacting protein. RITA is a highly conserved 36 kDa protein that, most interestingly, binds to tubulin in the cytoplasm and shuttles rapidly between cytoplasm and nucleus. This shuttling RITA exports RBP-J/CBF-1 from the nucleus. Functionally, we show that RITA can reverse a Notch-induced loss of primary neurogenesis in Xenopus laevis. Furthermore, RITA is able to downregulate Notch-mediated transcription. Thus, we propose that RITA acts as a negative modulator of the Notch signalling pathway, controlling the level of nuclear RBP-J/CBF-1, where its amounts are limiting.

  5. PKCθ links proximal T cell and Notch signaling through localized regulation of the actin cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Britton, Graham J; Ambler, Rachel; Clark, Danielle J; Hill, Elaine V; Tunbridge, Helen M; McNally, Kerrie E; Burton, Bronwen R; Butterweck, Philomena; Sabatos-Peyton, Catherine; Hampton-O’Neil, Lea A; Verkade, Paul; Wülfing, Christoph; Wraith, David Cameron

    2017-01-01

    Notch is a critical regulator of T cell differentiation and is activated through proteolytic cleavage in response to ligand engagement. Using murine myelin-reactive CD4 T cells, we demonstrate that proximal T cell signaling modulates Notch activation by a spatiotemporally constrained mechanism. The protein kinase PKCθ is a critical mediator of signaling by the T cell antigen receptor and the principal costimulatory receptor CD28. PKCθ selectively inactivates the negative regulator of F-actin generation, Coronin 1A, at the center of the T cell interface with the antigen presenting cell (APC). This allows for effective generation of the large actin-based lamellum required for recruitment of the Notch-processing membrane metalloproteinase ADAM10. Such enhancement of Notch activation is critical for efficient T cell proliferation and Th17 differentiation. We reveal a novel mechanism that, through modulation of the cytoskeleton, controls Notch activation at the T cell:APC interface thereby linking T cell receptor and Notch signaling pathways. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20003.001 PMID:28112644

  6. A POGLUT1 mutation causes a muscular dystrophy with reduced Notch signaling and satellite cell loss.

    PubMed

    Servián-Morilla, Emilia; Takeuchi, Hideyuki; Lee, Tom V; Clarimon, Jordi; Mavillard, Fabiola; Area-Gómez, Estela; Rivas, Eloy; Nieto-González, Jose L; Rivero, Maria C; Cabrera-Serrano, Macarena; Gómez-Sánchez, Leonardo; Martínez-López, Jose A; Estrada, Beatriz; Márquez, Celedonio; Morgado, Yolanda; Suárez-Calvet, Xavier; Pita, Guillermo; Bigot, Anne; Gallardo, Eduard; Fernández-Chacón, Rafael; Hirano, Michio; Haltiwanger, Robert S; Jafar-Nejad, Hamed; Paradas, Carmen

    2016-11-01

    Skeletal muscle regeneration by muscle satellite cells is a physiological mechanism activated upon muscle damage and regulated by Notch signaling. In a family with autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, we identified a missense mutation in POGLUT1 (protein O-glucosyltransferase 1), an enzyme involved in Notch posttranslational modification and function. In vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that the mutation reduces O-glucosyltransferase activity on Notch and impairs muscle development. Muscles from patients revealed decreased Notch signaling, dramatic reduction in satellite cell pool and a muscle-specific α-dystroglycan hypoglycosylation not present in patients' fibroblasts. Primary myoblasts from patients showed slow proliferation, facilitated differentiation, and a decreased pool of quiescent PAX7 + cells. A robust rescue of the myogenesis was demonstrated by increasing Notch signaling. None of these alterations were found in muscles from secondary dystroglycanopathy patients. These data suggest that a key pathomechanism for this novel form of muscular dystrophy is Notch-dependent loss of satellite cells. © 2016 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  7. Notch/Delta signaling constrains reengineering of pro-T cells by PU.1

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Christopher B.; Scripture-Adams, Deirdre D.; Proekt, Irina; Taghon, Tom; Weiss, Angela H.; Yui, Mary A.; Adams, Stephanie L.; Diamond, Rochelle A.; Rothenberg, Ellen V.

    2006-01-01

    PU.1 is essential for early stages of mouse T cell development but antagonizes it if expressed constitutively. Two separable mechanisms are involved: attenuation and diversion. Dysregulated PU.1 expression inhibits pro-T cell survival, proliferation, and passage through β-selection by blocking essential T cell transcription factors, signaling molecules, and Rag gene expression, which expression of a rearranged T cell antigen receptor transgene cannot rescue. However, Bcl2 transgenic cells are protected from this attenuation and may even undergo β-selection, as shown by PU.1 transduction of defined subsets of Bcl2 transgenic fetal thymocytes with differentiation in OP9-DL1 and OP9 control cultures. The outcome of PU.1 expression in these cells depends on Notch/Delta signaling. PU.1 can efficiently divert thymocytes toward a myeloid-like state with multigene regulatory changes, but Notch/Delta signaling vetoes diversion. Gene expression analysis distinguishes sets of critical T lineage regulatory genes with different combinatorial responses to PU.1 and Notch/Delta signals, suggesting particular importance for inhibition of E proteins, Myb, and/or Gfi1 (growth factor independence 1) in diversion. However, Notch signaling only protects against diversion of cells that have undergone T lineage specification after Thy-1 and CD25 up-regulation. The results imply that in T cell precursors, Notch/Delta signaling normally acts to modulate and channel PU.1 transcriptional activities during the stages from T lineage specification until commitment. PMID:16880393

  8. Structural and functional analysis of the repressor complex in the Notch signaling pathway of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Dieter; Kurth, Patricia; Schulz, Adriana; Russell, Andrew; Yuan, Zhenyu; Gruber, Kim; Kovall, Rhett A.; Preiss, Anette

    2011-01-01

    In metazoans, the highly conserved Notch pathway drives cellular specification. On receptor activation, the intracellular domain of Notch assembles a transcriptional activator complex that includes the DNA-binding protein CSL, a composite of human C-promoter binding factor 1, Suppressor of Hairless of Drosophila melanogaster [Su(H)], and lin-12 and Glp-1 phenotype of Caenorhabditis elegans. In the absence of ligand, CSL represses Notch target genes. However, despite the structural similarity of CSL orthologues, repression appears largely diverse between organisms. Here we analyze the Notch repressor complex in Drosophila, consisting of the fly CSL protein, Su(H), and the corepressor Hairless, which recruits general repressor proteins. We show that the C-terminal domain of Su(H) is necessary and sufficient for forming a high-affinity complex with Hairless. Mutations in Su(H) that affect interactions with Notch and Mastermind have no effect on Hairless binding. Nonetheless, we demonstrate that Notch and Hairless compete for CSL in vitro and in cell culture. In addition, we identify a site in Hairless that is crucial for binding Su(H) and subsequently show that this Hairless mutant is strongly impaired, failing to properly assemble the repressor complex in vivo. Finally, we demonstrate Hairless-mediated inhibition of Notch signaling in a cell culture assay, which hints at a potentially similar repression mechanism in mammals that might be exploited for therapeutic purposes. PMID:21737682

  9. Monitoring Notch Signaling-Associated Activation of Stem Cell Niches within Injured Dental Pulp

    PubMed Central

    Mitsiadis, Thimios A.; Catón, Javier; Pagella, Pierfrancesco; Orsini, Giovanna; Jimenez-Rojo, Lucia

    2017-01-01

    Dental pulp stem/progenitor cells guarantee tooth homeostasis, repair and regeneration throughout life. The decision between renewal and differentiation of these cells is influenced by physical and molecular interactions with stromal cells and extracellular matrix molecules forming the specialized microenvironment of dental pulp stem cell niches. Here we study the activation of putative pulp niches after tooth injury through the upregulation of Notch signaling pathway. Notch1, Notch2, and Notch3 molecules were used as markers of dental pulp stem/progenitor cells. Upon dental injury, Notch1 and Notch3 are detected in cells related to vascular structures suggesting a role of these proteins in the activation of specific pulpal perivascular niches. In contrast, a population of Notch2-positive cells that are actively proliferative is observed in the apical part of the pulp. Kinetics of these cells is followed up with a lipophilic DiI labeling, showing that apical pulp cells migrate toward the injury site where dynamic regenerative/repair events occur. The knowledge of the activation and regulation of dental pulp stem/progenitor cells within their niches in pathologic conditions may be helpful for the realization of innovative dental treatments in the near future. PMID:28611689

  10. Notch signalling coordinates tissue growth and wing fate specification in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Rafel, Neus; Milán, Marco

    2008-12-01

    During the development of a given organ, tissue growth and fate specification are simultaneously controlled by the activity of a discrete number of signalling molecules. Here, we report that these two processes are extraordinarily coordinated in the Drosophila wing primordium, which extensively proliferates during larval development to give rise to the dorsal thoracic body wall and the adult wing. The developmental decision between wing and body wall is defined by the opposing activities of two secreted signalling molecules, Wingless and the EGF receptor ligand Vein. Notch signalling is involved in the determination of a variety of cell fates, including growth and cell survival. We present evidence that growth of the wing primordium mediated by the activity of Notch is required for wing fate specification. Our data indicate that tissue size modulates the activity range of the signalling molecules Wingless and Vein. These results highlight a crucial role of Notch in linking proliferation and fate specification in the developing wing primordium.

  11. Notch1-STAT3-ETBR signaling axis controls reactive astrocyte proliferation after brain injury.

    PubMed

    LeComte, Matthew D; Shimada, Issei S; Sherwin, Casey; Spees, Jeffrey L

    2015-07-14

    Defining the signaling network that controls reactive astrogliosis may provide novel treatment targets for patients with diverse CNS injuries and pathologies. We report that the radial glial cell antigen RC2 identifies the majority of proliferating glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive (GFAP(+)) reactive astrocytes after stroke. These cells highly expressed endothelin receptor type B (ETB(R)) and Jagged1, a Notch1 receptor ligand. To study signaling in adult reactive astrocytes, we developed a model based on reactive astrocyte-derived neural stem cells isolated from GFAP-CreER-Notch1 conditional knockout (cKO) mice. By loss- and gain-of-function studies and promoter activity assays, we found that Jagged1/Notch1 signaling increased ETB(R) expression indirectly by raising the level of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), a previously unidentified EDNRB transcriptional activator. Similar to inducible transgenic GFAP-CreER-Notch1-cKO mice, GFAP-CreER-ETB(R)-cKO mice exhibited a defect in reactive astrocyte proliferation after cerebral ischemia. Our results indicate that the Notch1-STAT3-ETB(R) axis connects a signaling network that promotes reactive astrocyte proliferation after brain injury.

  12. Notch Signaling Is Involved in Neurogenic Commitment of Human Periodontal Ligament-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Osathanon, Thanaphum; Manokawinchoke, Jeeranan; Nowwarote, Nunthawan; Aguilar, Panuroot; Palaga, Tanapat

    2013-01-01

    Notch signaling plays critical roles in stem cells by regulating cell fate determination and differentiation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the participation of Notch signaling in neurogenic commitment of human periodontal ligament-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hPDLSCs) and to examine the ability to control differentiation of these cells using modified surfaces containing affinity immobilized Notch ligands. Neurogenic induction of hPDLSCs was performed via neurosphere formation. Cells were aggregated and form spheres as early 1 day in culture. In addition, the induced cells exhibited increased mRNA and protein expression of neuronal markers that is, β3-tubulin and neurofilament. During neuronal differentiation, a significant increase of Hes1 and Hey1 mRNA expression was noted. Using pharmacological inhibition (γ-secretase inhibitor) or genetic manipulation (overexpression of dominant negative mastermind-like transcription co-activators), neurosphere formation was attenuated and a marked decrease in neurogenic mRNA expression was observed. To confirm the role of Notch signaling in neuronal differentiation of hPDLSCs, the Notch ligand, Jagged-1, is bound to the surface using an affinity immobilization technique. The hPDLSC cultured on a Jagged-1-modified surface had increased expression of Notch signaling target genes, Hes-1 and Hey-1, confirming the activity and potency of surface-bound Jagged-1. Further, hPDLSC on surface-bound Jagged-1 under serum-free conditions showed multiple long and thin neurite-like extensions, and an increase in the expression of neurogenic mRNA markers was observed. Pretreatment of the cells with γ-secretase inhibitor, DAPT, before seeding on the Jagged-1-modified surface blocked development of the neurite-like morphology. Together, the results in this study suggest the involvement of Notch signaling in neurogenic commitment of hPDLSCs. PMID:23379739

  13. Activation of the Notch-1 signaling pathway may be involved in intracerebral hemorrhage-induced reactive astrogliosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jian-Hua; Zhou, Hua-Jun; Tang, Tao; Cui, Han-Jin; Yang, A-Li; Zhang, Qi-Mei; Zhou, Jing-Hua; Zhang, Qiang; Gong, Xun; Zhang, Zhao-Hui; Mei, Zhi-Gang

    2017-10-27

    OBJECTIVE Reactive astrogliosis, a key feature that is characterized by glial proliferation, has been observed in rat brains after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). However, the mechanisms that control reactive astrogliosis formation remain unknown. Notch-1 signaling plays a critical role in modulating reactive astrogliosis. The purpose of this paper was to establish whether Notch-1 signaling is involved in reactive astrogliosis after ICH. METHODS ICH was induced in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats via stereotactic injection of autologous blood into the right globus pallidus. N-[ N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl)-l-alanyl]- S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester (DAPT) was injected into the lateral ventricle to block Notch-1 signaling. The rats' brains were perfused to identify proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive/GFAP-positive nuclei. The expression of GFAP, Notch-1, and the activated form of Notch-1 (Notch intracellular domain [NICD]) and its ligand Jagged-1 was assessed using immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses, respectively. RESULTS Notch-1 signaling was upregulated and activated after ICH as confirmed by an increase in the expression of Notch-1 and NICD and its ligand Jagged-1. Remarkably, blockade of Notch-1 signaling with the specific inhibitor DAPT suppressed astrocytic proliferation and GFAP levels caused by ICH. In addition, DAPT improved neurological outcome after ICH. CONCLUSIONS Notch-1 signaling is a critical regulator of ICH-induced reactive astrogliosis, and its blockage may be a potential therapeutic strategy for hemorrhagic injury.

  14. Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase PRL2 Mediates Notch and Kit Signals in Early T Cell Progenitors.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Michihiro; Nabinger, Sarah C; Bai, Yunpeng; Yoshimoto, Momoko; Gao, Rui; Chen, Sisi; Yao, Chonghua; Dong, Yuanshu; Zhang, Lujuan; Rodriguez, Sonia; Yashiro-Ohtani, Yumi; Pear, Warren S; Carlesso, Nadia; Yoder, Mervin C; Kapur, Reuben; Kaplan, Mark H; Daniel Lacorazza, Hugo; Zhang, Zhong-Yin; Liu, Yan

    2017-04-01

    The molecular pathways regulating lymphoid priming, fate, and development of multipotent bone marrow hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) that continuously feed thymic progenitors remain largely unknown. While Notch signal is indispensable for T cell specification and differentiation, the downstream effectors are not well understood. PRL2, a protein tyrosine phosphatase that regulates hematopoietic stem cell proliferation and self-renewal, is highly expressed in murine thymocyte progenitors. Here we demonstrate that protein tyrosine phosphatase PRL2 and receptor tyrosine kinase c-Kit are critical downstream targets and effectors of the canonical Notch/RBPJ pathway in early T cell progenitors. While PRL2 deficiency resulted in moderate defects of thymopoiesis in the steady state, de novo generation of T cells from Prl2 null hematopoietic stem cells was significantly reduced following transplantation. Prl2 null HSPCs also showed impaired T cell differentiation in vitro. We found that Notch/RBPJ signaling upregulated PRL2 as well as c-Kit expression in T cell progenitors. Further, PRL2 sustains Notch-mediated c-Kit expression and enhances stem cell factor/c-Kit signaling in T cell progenitors, promoting effective DN1-DN2 transition. Thus, we have identified a critical role for PRL2 phosphatase in mediating Notch and c-Kit signals in early T cell progenitors. Stem Cells 2017;35:1053-1064. © 2016 AlphaMed Press.

  15. Rbpj-κ mediated Notch signaling plays a critical role in development of hypothalamic Kisspeptin neurons

    PubMed Central

    Biehl, Matthew J; Raetzman, Lori T

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian arcuate nucleus (ARC) houses neurons critical for energy homeostasis and sexual maturation. Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and Neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurons function to balance energy intake and Kisspeptin neurons are critical for the onset of puberty and reproductive function. While the physiological roles of these neurons have been well established, their development remains unclear. We have previously shown that Notch signaling plays an important role in cell fate within the ARC of mice. Active Notch signaling prevented neural progenitors from differentiating into feeding circuit neurons, whereas conditional loss of Notch signaling lead to a premature differentiation of these neurons. Presently, we hypothesized that Kisspeptin neurons would similarly be affected by Notch manipulation. To address this, we utilized mice with a conditional deletion of the Notch signaling co-factor Rbpj-κ (Rbpj cKO), or mice persistently expressing the Notch1 intracellular domain (NICD tg) within Nkx2.1 expressing cells of the developing hypothalamus. Interestingly, we found that in both models, a lack of Kisspeptin neurons are observed. This suggests that Notch signaling must be properly titrated for formation of Kisspeptin neurons. These results led us to hypothesize that Kisspeptin neurons of the ARC may arise from a different lineage of intermediate progenitors than NPY neurons and that Notch was responsible for the fate choice between these neurons. To determine if Kisspeptin neurons of the ARC differentiate similarly through a Pomc intermediate, we utilized a genetic model expressing the tdTomato fluorescent protein in all cells that have ever expressed Pomc. We observed some Kisspeptin expressing neurons labeled with the Pomc reporter similar to NPY neurons, suggesting that these distinct neurons can arise from a common progenitor. Finally, we hypothesized that temporal differences leading to premature depletion of progenitors in cKO mice lead to our observed

  16. Disrupting Jagged1-Notch signaling impairs spatial memory formation in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Sargin, Derya; Botly, Leigh C P; Higgs, Gemma; Marsolais, Alexander; Frankland, Paul W; Egan, Sean E; Josselyn, Sheena A

    2013-07-01

    It is well-known that Notch signaling plays a critical role in brain development and growing evidence implicates this signaling pathway in adult synaptic plasticity and memory formation. The Notch1 receptor is activated by two subclasses of ligands, Delta-like (including Dll1 and Dll4) and Jagged (including Jag1 and Jag2). Ligand-induced Notch1 receptor signaling is modulated by a family of Fringe proteins, including Lunatic fringe (Lfng). Although Dll1, Jag1 and Lfng are critical regulators of Notch signaling, their relative contribution to memory formation in the adult brain is unknown. To investigate the roles of these important components of Notch signaling in memory formation, we examined spatial and fear memory formation in adult mice with reduced expression of Dll1, Jag1, Lfng and Dll1 plus Lfng. We also examined motor activity, anxiety-like behavior and sensorimotor gating using the acoustic startle response in these mice. Of the lines of mutant mice tested, we found that only mice with reduced Jag1 expression (mice heterozygous for a null mutation in Jag1, Jag1(+/-)) showed a selective impairment in spatial memory formation. Importantly, all other behavior including open field activity, conditioned fear memory (both context and discrete cue), acoustic startle response and prepulse inhibition, was normal in this line of mice. These results provide the first in vivo evidence that Jag1-Notch signaling is critical for memory formation in the adult brain. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Notch signaling deficiency underlies age-dependent depletion of satellite cells in muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Chunhui; Wen, Yefei; Kuroda, Kazuki; Hannon, Kevin; Rudnicki, Michael A.; Kuang, Shihuan

    2014-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a devastating disease characterized by muscle wasting, loss of mobility and death in early adulthood. Satellite cells are muscle-resident stem cells responsible for the repair and regeneration of damaged muscles. One pathological feature of DMD is the progressive depletion of satellite cells, leading to the failure of muscle repair. Here, we attempted to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying satellite cell ablation in the dystrophin mutant mdx mouse, a well-established model for DMD. Initial muscle degeneration activates satellite cells, resulting in increased satellite cell number in young mdx mice. This is followed by rapid loss of satellite cells with age due to the reduced self-renewal ability of mdx satellite cells. In addition, satellite cell composition is altered even in young mdx mice, with significant reductions in the abundance of non-committed (Pax7+ and Myf5−) satellite cells. Using a Notch-reporter mouse, we found that the mdx satellite cells have reduced activation of Notch signaling, which has been shown to be necessary to maintain satellite cell quiescence and self-renewal. Concomitantly, the expression of Notch1, Notch3, Jag1, Hey1 and HeyL are reduced in the mdx primary myoblast. Finally, we established a mouse model to constitutively activate Notch signaling in satellite cells, and show that Notch activation is sufficient to rescue the self-renewal deficiencies of mdx satellite cells. These results demonstrate that Notch signaling is essential for maintaining the satellite cell pool and that its deficiency leads to depletion of satellite cells in DMD. PMID:24906372

  18. Cutaneous Papillomavirus E6 oncoproteins associate with MAML1 to repress transactivation and NOTCH signaling

    PubMed Central

    Brimer, Nicole; Lyons, Charles; Wallberg, Annika E.; Vande Pol, Scott B.

    2011-01-01

    Papillomavirus E6 oncoproteins associate with LXXLL motifs on target cellular proteins to alter their function. Using a proteomic approach, we found the E6 oncoproteins of cutaneous papillomaviruses Bovine Papillomavirus Type 1 (BE6) and HPV types 1 and 8 (1E6 and 8E6) associated with the MAML1 transcriptional co-activator. All three E6 proteins bind to an acidic LXXLL motif at the carboxy-terminus of MAML1 and repress transactivation by MAML1. MAML1 is best known as the co-activator and effector of NOTCH induced transcription, and BPV-1 E6 represses synthetic NOTCH responsive promoters, endogenous NOTCH responsive promoters, and is found in a complex with MAML1 in stably transformed cells. BPV-1 induced papillomas show characteristics of repressed NOTCH signal transduction, including suprabasal expression of integrins, talin, and basal type keratins, and delayed expression of the NOTCH dependent HES1 transcription factor. These observations give rise to a model whereby papillomavirus oncoproteins including BPV-1 E6 and the cancer associated HPV-8 E6 repress Notch induced transcription, thereby delaying keratinocyte differentiation. PMID:22249263

  19. BLOS2 negatively regulates Notch signaling during neural and hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell development

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wenwen; He, Qiuping; Zhang, Chunxia; He, Xin; Cui, Zongbin; Liu, Feng; Li, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Notch signaling plays a crucial role in controling the proliferation and differentiation of stem and progenitor cells during embryogenesis or organogenesis, but its regulation is incompletely understood. BLOS2, encoded by the Bloc1s2 gene, is a shared subunit of two lysosomal trafficking complexes, biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex-1 (BLOC-1) and BLOC-1-related complex (BORC). Bloc1s2−/− mice were embryonic lethal and exhibited defects in cortical development and hematopoiesis. Loss of BLOS2 resulted in elevated Notch signaling, which consequently increased the proliferation of neural progenitor cells and inhibited neuronal differentiation in cortices. Likewise, ablation of bloc1s2 in zebrafish or mice led to increased hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell production in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros region. BLOS2 physically interacted with Notch1 in endo-lysosomal trafficking of Notch1. Our findings suggest that BLOS2 is a novel negative player in regulating Notch signaling through lysosomal trafficking to control multiple stem and progenitor cell homeostasis in vertebrates. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18108.001 PMID:27719760

  20. Folic Acid supplementation stimulates notch signaling and cell proliferation in embryonic neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huan; Huang, Guo-Wei; Zhang, Xu-Mei; Ren, Da-Lin; X Wilson, John

    2010-09-01

    The present study investigated the effect of folic acid supplementation on the Notch signaling pathway and cell proliferation in rat embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs). The NSCs were isolated from E14-16 rat brain and grown as neurospheres in serum-free suspension culture. Individual cultures were assigned to one of 3 treatment groups that differed according to the concentration of folic acid in the medium: Control (baseline folic acid concentration of 4 mg/l), low folic acid supplementation (4 mg/l above baseline, Folate-L) and high folic acid supplementation (40 mg/l above baseline, Folate-H). NSCs were identified by their expression of immunoreactive nestin and proliferating cells by incorporation of 5'bromo-2'deoxyuridine. Cell proliferation was also assessed by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay. Notch signaling was analyzed by real-time PCR and western blot analyses of the expression of Notch1 and hairy and enhancer of split 5 (Hes5). Supplementation of NSCs with folic acid increased the mRNA and protein expression levels of Notch1 and Hes5. Folic acid supplementation also stimulated NSC proliferation dose-dependently. Embryonic NSCs respond to folic acid supplementation with increased Notch signaling and cell proliferation. This mechanism may mediate the effects of folic acid supplementation on neurogenesis in the embryonic nervous system.

  1. Notch signaling regulates expression of Mcl-1 and apoptosis in PPD-treated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Palaga, Tanapat; Ratanabunyong, Siriluk; Pattarakankul, Thitiporn; Sangphech, Naunpun; Wongchana, Wipawee; Hadae, Yukihiro; Kueanjinda, Patipark

    2013-09-01

    Macrophages are cellular targets for infection by bacteria and viruses. The fate of infected macrophages plays a key role in determining the outcome of the host immune response. Apoptotic cell death of macrophages is considered to be a protective host defense that eliminates pathogens and infected cells. In this study, we investigated the involvement of Notch signaling in regulating apoptosis in macrophages treated with tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD). Murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) treated with PPD or infected with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) induced upregulation of Notch1. This upregulation correlated well with the upregulation of the anti-apoptotic gene mcl-1 both at the transcriptional and translational levels. Decreased levels of Notch1 and Mcl-1 were observed in BMM treated with PPD when a gamma secretase inhibitor (GSI), which inhibits the processing of Notch receptors, was used. Moreover, silencing Notch1 in the macrophage-like cell line RAW264.7 decreased Mcl-1 protein expression, suggesting that Notch1 is critical for Mcl-1 expression in macrophages. A significant increase in apoptotic cells was observed upon treatment of BMM with PPD in the presence of GSI compared to the vehicle-control treated cells. Finally, analysis of the mcl-1 promoter in humans and mice revealed a conserved potential CSL/RBP-Jκ binding site. The association of Notch1 with the mcl-1 promoter was confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Taken together, these results indicate that Notch1 inhibits apoptosis of macrophages stimulated with PPD by directly controlling the mcl-1 promoter.

  2. Dysregulation of Notch and ERα signaling in AhR−/− male mice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bo; Butler, Ryan; Miao, Yifei; Dai, Yubing; Wu, Wanfu; Su, Wen; Fujii-Kuriyama, Yoshiaki; Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke

    2016-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is now recognized as an important physiological regulator in the immune and reproductive systems, and in the development of the liver and vascular system. AhR regulates cell cycle, cell proliferation, and differentiation through interacting with other signaling pathways, like estrogen receptor α (ERα), androgen receptor (AR), and Notch signaling. In the present study, we investigated Notch and estrogen signaling in AhR−/− mice. We found low fertility with degenerative changes in the testes, germ cell apoptosis, and a reduced number of early spermatids. There was no change in aromatase, AR, ERα, or ERβ expression in the testis and no detectable change in serum estrogen levels. However, expression of Notch receptors (Notch1 and Notch3) and their target Hairy and Enhancer of Split homolog 1 (HES1) was reduced. In addition, the testosterone level was slightly reduced in the serum. In the mammary fat pad, AhR appeared to regulate estrogen signaling because, in AhR−/− males, there was significant growth of the mammary ducts with high expression of ERα in the ductal epithelium. The enhanced mammary ductal growth appears to be related to overexpression of ERα accompanied by a high proliferation index, whereas the reduced fertility appears to be related defects in Notch signaling that leads to reduced expression of HES1 and, consequently, early maturation of spermatocytes and a depletion of primary spermatids. Previous reports have indicated that AhR pathway is associated with infertility in men. Our results provide a mechanistic explanation for this defect. PMID:27688768

  3. Notch and the awesome power of genetics.

    PubMed

    Greenwald, Iva

    2012-07-01

    Notch is a receptor that mediates cell-cell interactions in animal development, and aberrations in Notch signal transduction can cause cancer and other human diseases. Here, I describe the major advances in the Notch field from the identification of the first mutant in Drosophila almost a century ago through the elucidation of the unusual mechanism of signal transduction a little over a decade ago. As an essay for the GENETICS Perspectives series, it is my personal and critical commentary as well as an historical account of discovery.

  4. Notch and the Awesome Power of Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Greenwald, Iva

    2012-01-01

    Notch is a receptor that mediates cell–cell interactions in animal development, and aberrations in Notch signal transduction can cause cancer and other human diseases. Here, I describe the major advances in the Notch field from the identification of the first mutant in Drosophila almost a century ago through the elucidation of the unusual mechanism of signal transduction a little over a decade ago. As an essay for the GENETICS Perspectives series, it is my personal and critical commentary as well as an historical account of discovery. PMID:22785620

  5. Loss of Notch3 Signaling in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Promotes Severe Heart Failure Upon Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ragot, Hélène; Monfort, Astrid; Baudet, Mathilde; Azibani, Fériel; Fazal, Loubina; Merval, Régine; Polidano, Evelyne; Cohen-Solal, Alain; Delcayre, Claude; Vodovar, Nicolas; Chatziantoniou, Christos; Samuel, Jane-Lise

    2016-08-01

    Hypertension, which is a risk factor of heart failure, provokes adaptive changes at the vasculature and cardiac levels. Notch3 signaling plays an important role in resistance arteries by controlling the maturation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Notch3 deletion is protective in pulmonary hypertension while deleterious in arterial hypertension. Although this latter phenotype was attributed to renal and cardiac alterations, the underlying mechanisms remained unknown. To investigate the role of Notch3 signaling in the cardiac adaptation to hypertension, we used mice with either constitutive Notch3 or smooth muscle cell-specific conditional RBPJκ knockout. At baseline, both genotypes exhibited a cardiac arteriolar rarefaction associated with oxidative stress. In response to angiotensin II-induced hypertension, the heart of Notch3 knockout and SM-RBPJκ knockout mice did not adapt to pressure overload and developed heart failure, which could lead to an early and fatal acute decompensation of heart failure. This cardiac maladaptation was characterized by an absence of media hypertrophy of the media arteries, the transition of smooth muscle cells toward a synthetic phenotype, and an alteration of angiogenic pathways. A subset of mice exhibited an early fatal acute decompensated heart failure, in which the same alterations were observed, although in a more rapid timeframe. Altogether, these observations indicate that Notch3 plays a major role in coronary adaptation to pressure overload. These data also show that the hypertrophy of coronary arterial media on pressure overload is mandatory to initially maintain a normal cardiac function and is regulated by the Notch3/RBPJκ pathway. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Estrogen improves the proliferation and differentiation of hBMSCs derived from postmenopausal osteoporosis through notch signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jin-Zhu; Yang, Liu; Meng, Guo-Lin; Lin, Yan-shui; Wei, Bo-Yuan; Fan, Jing; Hu, Hui-Min; Liu, Yan-Wu; Chen, Shi; Zhang, Jin-Kang; He, Qi-Zhen; Luo, Zhuo-Jing; Liu, Jian

    2014-07-01

    Estrogen deficiency is the main reason of bone loss, leading to postmenopausal osteoporosis, and estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) has been demonstrated to protect bone loss efficiently. Notch signaling controls proliferation and differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Moreover, imperfect estrogen-responsive elements (EREs) were found in the 5'-untranslated region of Notch1 and Jagged1. Thus, we examined the molecular and biological links between estrogen and the Notch signaling in postmenopausal osteoporosis in vitro. hBMSCs were obtained from healthy women and patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Notch signaling molecules were quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) and Western Blot. Luciferase reporter constructs with putative EREs were transfected into hBMSCs and analyzed. hBMSCs were transduced with lentiviral vectors containing human Notch1 intracellular domain (NICD1). We also used N-[N-(3, 5-diflurophenylacetate)-l-alanyl]-(S)-phenylglycine t-butyl ester, a γ-secretase inhibitor, to suppress the Notch signaling. We found that estrogen enhanced the Notch signaling in hBMSCs by promoting the expression of Jagged1. hBMSCs cultured with estrogen resulted in the up-regulation of Notch signaling and increased proliferation and differentiation. Enhanced Notch signaling could enhance the proliferation and differentiation of hBMSCs from patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis (OP-hBMSCs). Our results demonstrated that estrogen preserved bone mass partly by activating the Notch signaling. Because long-term ERT has been associated with several side effects, the Notch signaling could be a potential target for treating postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  7. Notch Signaling Modulates MUC16 Biosynthesis in an In Vitro Model of Human Corneal and Conjunctival Epithelial Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Linjie; Woodward, Ashley M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Notch proteins are a family of transmembrane receptors that coordinate binary cell fate decisions and differentiation in wet-surfaced epithelia. We sought to determine whether Notch signaling contributes to maintaining mucosal homeostasis by modulating the biosynthesis of cell surface-associated mucins in an in vitro model of human corneal (HCLE) and conjunctival (HCjE) epithelial cell differentiation. Methods. HCLE and HCjE cells were grown at different stages of differentiation, representing nondifferentiated (preconfluent and confluent) and differentiated (stratified) epithelial cultures. Notch signaling was blocked with the γ-secretase inhibitor dibenzazepine (DBZ). The presence of Notch intracellular domains (Notch1 to Notch3) and mucin protein (MUC1, -4, -16) was evaluated by electrophoresis and Western blot analysis. Mucin gene expression was determined by TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results. Here we demonstrate that Notch3 is highly expressed in undifferentiated and differentiated HCLE and HCjE cells, and that Notch1 and Notch2 biosynthesis is enhanced by induction of differentiation with serum-containing media. Inhibition of Notch signaling with DBZ impaired MUC16 biosynthesis in a concentration-dependent manner in undifferentiated cells at both preconfluent and confluent stages, but not in postmitotic stratified cells. In contrast to protein levels, the amount of MUC16 transcripts were not significantly reduced after DBZ treatment, suggesting that Notch regulates MUC16 posttranscriptionally. Immunoblots of DBZ-treated epithelial cells grown at different stages of differentiation revealed no differences in the levels of MUC1 and MUC4. Conclusions. These results indicate that MUC16 biosynthesis is posttranscriptionally regulated by Notch signaling at early stages of epithelial cell differentiation, and suggest that Notch activation contributes to maintaining a mucosal phenotype at the ocular surface. PMID:21508102

  8. Notch signaling mediates granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor priming-induced transendothelial migration of human eosinophils.

    PubMed

    Liu, L Y; Wang, H; Xenakis, J J; Spencer, L A

    2015-07-01

    Priming with cytokines such as granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) enhances eosinophil migration and exacerbates the excessive accumulation of eosinophils within the bronchial mucosa of asthmatics. However, mechanisms that drive GM-CSF priming are incompletely understood. Notch signaling is an evolutionarily conserved pathway that regulates cellular processes, including migration, by integrating exogenous and cell-intrinsic cues. This study investigates the hypothesis that the priming-induced enhanced migration of human eosinophils requires the Notch signaling pathway. Using pan Notch inhibitors and newly developed human antibodies that specifically neutralize Notch receptor 1 activation, we investigated a role for Notch signaling in GM-CSF-primed transmigration of human blood eosinophils in vitro and in the airway accumulation of mouse eosinophils in vivo. Notch receptor 1 was constitutively active in freshly isolated human blood eosinophils, and inhibition of Notch signaling or specific blockade of Notch receptor 1 activation during GM-CSF priming impaired priming-enhanced eosinophil transendothelial migration in vitro. Inclusion of Notch signaling inhibitors during priming was associated with diminished ERK phosphorylation, and ERK-MAPK activation was required for GM-CSF priming-induced transmigration. In vivo in mice, eosinophil accumulation within allergic airways was impaired following systemic treatment with Notch inhibitor, or adoptive transfer of eosinophils treated ex vivo with Notch inhibitor. These data identify Notch signaling as an intrinsic pathway central to GM-CSF priming-induced eosinophil tissue migration. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. NOTCH SIGNALING ALTERS SENSORY OR NEURONAL CELL FATE SPECIFICATION OF INNER EAR STEM CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Sang-Jun; Fujioka, Masato; Kim, Shi-Chan; Edge, Albert S.B.

    2011-01-01

    Multipotent progenitor cells in the otic placode give rise to the specialized cell types of the inner ear, including neurons, supporting cells and hair cells. The mechanisms governing acquisition of specific fates by the cells that form the cochleovestibular organs remain poorly characterized. Here we show that whereas blocking Notch signaling with a γ-secretase inhibitor increased the conversion of inner ear stem cells to hair cells by a mechanism that involved the upregulation of bHLH transcription factor, Math1 (mouse Atoh1), differentiation to a neuronal lineage was increased by expression of the Notch intracellular domain. The shift to a neuronal lineage could be attributed in part to the continued cell proliferation in cells that did not undergo sensory cell differentiation due to the high Notch signaling, but also involved upregulation of Ngn1. The Notch intracellular domain influenced Ngn1 indirectly by upregulation of Sox2, a transcription factor expressed in many neural progenitor cells, and directly by an interaction with an RBP-J binding site in the Ngn1 promoter/enhancer. The induction of Ngn1 was blocked partially by mutation of the RBP-J site and nearly completely when the mutation was combined with inhibition of Sox2 expression. Thus Notch signaling had a significant role in the fate specification of neurons and hair cells from inner ear stem cells, and decisions about cell fate were mediated in part by a differential effect of combinatorial signaling by Notch and Sox2 on the expression of bHLH transcription factors. PMID:21653840

  10. Notch Signaling in Myeloid Cells as a Regulator of Tumor Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Fokhrul; Majumder, Samarpan; Ucar, Deniz A.; Rodriguez, Paulo C.; Golde, Todd E.; Minter, Lisa M.; Osborne, Barbara A.; Miele, Lucio

    2018-01-01

    Cancer immunotherapy, which stimulates or augments host immune responses to treat malignancies, is the latest development in the rapidly advancing field of cancer immunology. The basic principles of immunotherapies are either to enhance the functions of specific components of the immune system or to neutralize immune-suppressive signals produced by cancer cells or tumor microenvironment cells. When successful, these approaches translate into long-term survival for patients. However, durable responses are only seen in a subset of patients and so far, only in some cancer types. As for other cancer treatments, resistance to immunotherapy can also develop. Numerous research groups are trying to understand why immunotherapy is effective in some patients but not others and to develop strategies to enhance the effectiveness of immunotherapy. The Notch signaling pathway is involved in many aspects of tumor biology, from angiogenesis to cancer stem cell maintenance to tumor immunity. The role of Notch in the development and modulation of the immune response is complex, involving an intricate crosstalk between antigen-presenting cells, T-cell subpopulations, cancer cells, and other components of the tumor microenvironment. Elegant studies have shown that Notch is a central mediator of tumor-induced T-cell anergy and that activation of Notch1 in CD8 T-cells enhances cancer immunotherapy. Tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells, including myeloid-derived suppressor cells, altered dendritic cells, and tumor-associated macrophages along with regulatory T cells, are major obstacles to the development of successful cancer immunotherapies. In this article, we focus on the roles of Notch signaling in modulating tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells and discuss implications for therapeutic strategies that modulate Notch signaling to enhance cancer immunotherapy.

  11. BMPs and FGFs target Notch signalling via jagged 2 to regulate tooth morphogenesis and cytodifferentiation

    PubMed Central

    Mitsiadis, Thimios A.; Graf, Daniel; Luder, Hansueli; Gridley, Thomas; Bluteau, Gilles

    2010-01-01

    The Notch signalling pathway is an evolutionarily conserved intercellular signalling mechanism that is essential for cell fate specification and proper embryonic development. We have analysed the expression, regulation and function of the jagged 2 (Jag2) gene, which encodes a ligand for the Notch family of receptors, in developing mouse teeth. Jag2 is expressed in epithelial cells that give rise to the enamel-producing ameloblasts from the earliest stages of tooth development. Tissue recombination experiments showed that its expression in epithelium is regulated by mesenchyme-derived signals. In dental explants cultured in vitro, the local application of fibroblast growth factors upregulated Jag2 expression, whereas bone morphogenetic proteins provoked the opposite effect. Mice homozygous for a deletion in the Notch-interaction domain of Jag2 presented a variety of severe dental abnormalities. In molars, the crown morphology was misshapen, with additional cusps being formed. This was due to alterations in the enamel knot, an epithelial signalling structure involved in molar crown morphogenesis, in which Bmp4 expression and apoptosis were altered. In incisors, cytodifferentiation and enamel matrix deposition were inhibited. The expression of Tbx1 in ameloblast progenitors, which is a hallmark for ameloblast differentiation and enamel formation, was dramatically reduced in Jag2−/− teeth. Together, these results demonstrate that Notch signalling mediated by Jag2 is indispensable for normal tooth development. PMID:20685737

  12. Antioxidant proteins TSA and PAG interact synergistically with Presenilin to modulate Notch signaling in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Wangler, Michael F; Reiter, Lawrence T; Zimm, Georgianna; Trimble-Morgan, Jennifer; Wu, Jane; Bier, Ethan

    2011-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis is characterized by senile plaques in the brain and evidence of oxidative damage. Oxidative stress may precede plaque formation in AD; however, the link between oxidative damage and plaque formation remains unknown. Presenilins are transmembrane proteins in which mutations lead to accelerated plaque formation and early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease. Presenilins physically interact with two antioxidant enzymes thiol-specific antioxidant (TSA) and proliferation-associated gene (PAG) of the peroxiredoxin family. The functional consequences of these interactions are unclear. In the current study we expressed a presenilin transgene in Drosophila wing and sensory organ precursors of the fly. This caused phenotypes typical of Notch signaling loss-of-function mutations. We found that while expression of TSA or PAG alone produced no phenotype, co-expression of TSA and PAG with presenilin led to an enhanced Notch loss-of-function phenotype. This phenotype was more severe and more penetrant than that caused by the expression of Psn alone. In order to determine whether these phenotypes were indeed affecting Notch signaling, this experiment was performed in a genetic background carrying an activated Notch (Abruptex) allele. The phenotypes were almost completely rescued by this activated Notch allele. These results link peroxiredoxins with the in vivo function of Presenilin, which ultimately connects two key pathogenetic mechanisms in AD, namely, antioxidant activity and plaque formation, and raises the possibility of a role for peroxiredoxin family members in Alzheimer's pathogenesis.

  13. Repression of Ccr9 transcription in mouse T lymphocyte progenitors by the Notch signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy, Veena; Carr, Tiffany; de Pooter, Renee F; Emanuelle, Akinola Olumide; Akinola, Emanuelle Olumide; Gounari, Fotini; Kee, Barbara L

    2015-04-01

    The chemokine receptor CCR9 controls the immigration of multipotent hematopoietic progenitor cells into the thymus to sustain T cell development. Postimmigration, thymocytes downregulate CCR9 and migrate toward the subcapsular zone where they recombine their TCR β-chain and γ-chain gene loci. CCR9 is subsequently upregulated and participates in the localization of thymocytes during their selection for self-tolerant receptor specificities. Although the dynamic regulation of CCR9 is essential for early T cell development, the mechanisms controlling CCR9 expression have not been determined. In this article, we show that key regulators of T cell development, Notch1 and the E protein transcription factors E2A and HEB, coordinately control the expression of Ccr9. E2A and HEB bind at two putative enhancers upstream of Ccr9 and positively regulate CCR9 expression at multiple stages of T cell development. In contrast, the canonical Notch signaling pathway prevents the recruitment of p300 to the putative Ccr9 enhancers, resulting in decreased acetylation of histone H3 and a failure to recruit RNA polymerase II to the Ccr9 promoter. Although Notch signaling modestly modulates the binding of E proteins to one of the two Ccr9 enhancers, we found that Notch signaling represses Ccr9 in T cell lymphoma lines in which Ccr9 transcription is independent of E protein function. Our data support the hypothesis that activation of Notch1 has a dominant-negative effect on Ccr9 transcription and that Notch1 and E proteins control the dynamic expression of Ccr9 during T cell development. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  14. Upregulation of ASCL1 and inhibition of Notch signaling pathway characterize progressive astrocytoma.

    PubMed

    Somasundaram, Kumaravel; Reddy, Sreekanth P; Vinnakota, Katyayni; Britto, Ramona; Subbarayan, Madhavan; Nambiar, Sandeep; Hebbar, Aparna; Samuel, Cini; Shetty, Mitesh; Sreepathi, Hari Kishore; Santosh, Vani; Hegde, Alangar Sathyaranjandas; Hegde, Sridevi; Kondaiah, Paturu; Rao, M R S

    2005-10-27

    Astrocytoma is the most common type of brain cancer constituting more than half of all brain tumors. With an aim to identify markers describing astrocytoma progression, we have carried out microarray analysis of astrocytoma samples of different grades using cDNA microarray containing 1152 cancer-specific genes. Data analysis identified several differentially regulated genes between normal brain tissue and astrocytoma as well as between grades II/III astrocytoma and glioblastoma multiforme (GBM; grade IV). We found several genes known to be involved in malignancy including Achaete-scute complex-like 1 (Drosophila) (ASCL1; Hash 1). As ASCL has been implicated in neuroendocrine, medullary thyroid and small-cell lung cancers, we chose to examine the role of ASCL1 in the astrocytoma development. Our data revealed that ASCL1 is overexpressed in progressive astrocytoma as evidenced by increased levels of ASCL1 transcripts in 85.71% (6/7) of grade II diffuse astrocytoma (DA), 90% (9/10) of grade III anaplastic astrocytoma (AA) and 87.5% (7/8) of secondary GBMs, while the majority of primary de novo GBMs expressed similar to or less than normal brain levels (66.67%; 8/12). ASCL1 upregulation in progressive astrocytoma is accompanied by inhibition of Notch signaling as seen by uninduced levels of HES1, a transcriptional target of Notch1, increased levels of HES6, a dominant-negative inhibitor of HES1-mediated repression of ASCL1, and increased levels of Notch ligand Delta1, which is capable of inhibiting Notch signaling by forming intracellular Notch ligand autonomous complexes. Our results imply that inhibition of Notch signaling may be an important early event in the development of grade II DA and subsequent progression to grade III AA and secondary GBM. Furthermore, ASCL1 appears to be a putative marker to distinguish primary GBM from secondary GBM.

  15. Osthole prevents cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury via the Notch signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Guan, Junhong; Wei, Xiangtai; Qu, Shengtao; Lv, Tao; Fu, Qiang; Yuan, Ye

    2017-08-01

    Stroke is a common cerebrovascular disease in aging populations, and constitutes the second highest principle cause of mortality and the principle cause of permanent disability, and ischemic stroke is the primary form. Osthole is a coumarin derivative extracted from the fruits of Cnidium monnieri (L.) Cusson. In this study, we established a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAO/R) in vivo and found that MCAO/R caused cerebral infarction, hippocampus neuronal injury and apoptosis, and also activated the Notch 1 signaling pathway. However, treatment with osthole further enhanced the activity of Notch 1 signaling and reduced the cerebral infarction as well as the hippocampus neuronal injury and apoptosis induced by MCAO/R in a dose-dependent manner. The same results were observed in a primary neuronal oxygen glucose deficiency/reperfusion (OGD/R) model in vitro, and the effect of osthole could be blocked by an inhibitor of Notch 1 signaling, N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl)-l-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine tert-butyl ester (DAPT). Therefore, we demonstrated that osthole injection prevented rat ischemia-reperfusion injury via activating the Notch 1 signaling pathway in vivo and in vitro in a dose-dependent manner, which may be significant for clinical treatment of ischemic stroke.

  16. Specification of Drosophila Corpora Cardiaca Neuroendocrine Cells from Mesoderm Is Regulated by Notch Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sangbin; Bustamante, Erika L.; Antonova, Julie; McLean, Graeme W.; Kim, Seung K.

    2011-01-01

    Drosophila neuroendocrine cells comprising the corpora cardiaca (CC) are essential for systemic glucose regulation and represent functional orthologues of vertebrate pancreatic α-cells. Although Drosophila CC cells have been regarded as developmental orthologues of pituitary gland, the genetic regulation of CC development is poorly understood. From a genetic screen, we identified multiple novel regulators of CC development, including Notch signaling factors. Our studies demonstrate that the disruption of Notch signaling can lead to the expansion of CC cells. Live imaging demonstrates localized emergence of extra precursor cells as the basis of CC expansion in Notch mutants. Contrary to a recent report, we unexpectedly found that CC cells originate from head mesoderm. We show that Tinman expression in head mesoderm is regulated by Notch signaling and that the combination of Daughterless and Tinman is sufficient for ectopic CC specification in mesoderm. Understanding the cellular, genetic, signaling, and transcriptional basis of CC cell specification and expansion should accelerate discovery of molecular mechanisms regulating ontogeny of organs that control metabolism. PMID:21901108

  17. Defects in hepatic Notch signaling result in disruption of the communicating intrahepatic bile duct network in mice.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Erin E; Perrien, Daniel S; Huppert, Kari A; Peterson, Todd E; Huppert, Stacey S

    2011-05-01

    Abnormal Notch signaling in humans results in Alagille syndrome, a pleiotropic disease characterized by a paucity of intrahepatic bile ducts (IHBDs). It is not clear how IHBD paucity develops as a consequence of atypical Notch signaling, whether by a developmental lack of bile duct formation, a post-natal lack of branching and elongation or an inability to maintain formed ducts. Previous studies have focused on the role of Notch in IHBD development, and demonstrated a dosage requirement of Notch signaling for proper IHBD formation. In this study, we use resin casting and X-ray microtomography (microCT) analysis to address the role of Notch signaling in the maintenance of formed IHBDs upon chronic loss or gain of Notch function. Our data show that constitutive expression of the Notch1 intracellular domain in bi-potential hepatoblast progenitor cells (BHPCs) results in increased IHBD branches at post-natal day 60 (P60), which are maintained at P90 and P120. By contrast, loss of Notch signaling via BHPC-specific deletion of RBP-J (RBP KO), the DNA-binding partner for all Notch receptors, results in progressive loss of intact IHBD branches with age. Interestingly, in RBP KO mice, we observed a reduction in bile ducts per portal vein at P60; no further reduction had occurred at P120. Thus, bile duct structures are not lost with age; instead, we propose a model in which BHPC-specific loss of Notch signaling results in an initial developmental defect resulting in fewer bile ducts being formed, and in an acquired post-natal defect in the maintenance of intact IHBD architecture as a result of irresolvable cholestasis. Our studies reveal a previously unappreciated role for Notch signaling in the post-natal maintenance of an intact communicating IHBD structure, and suggest that liver defects observed in Alagille syndrome patients might be more complex than bile duct paucity.

  18. Defects in hepatic Notch signaling result in disruption of the communicating intrahepatic bile duct network in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sparks, Erin E.; Perrien, Daniel S.; Huppert, Kari A.; Peterson, Todd E.; Huppert, Stacey S.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Abnormal Notch signaling in humans results in Alagille syndrome, a pleiotropic disease characterized by a paucity of intrahepatic bile ducts (IHBDs). It is not clear how IHBD paucity develops as a consequence of atypical Notch signaling, whether by a developmental lack of bile duct formation, a post-natal lack of branching and elongation or an inability to maintain formed ducts. Previous studies have focused on the role of Notch in IHBD development, and demonstrated a dosage requirement of Notch signaling for proper IHBD formation. In this study, we use resin casting and X-ray microtomography (microCT) analysis to address the role of Notch signaling in the maintenance of formed IHBDs upon chronic loss or gain of Notch function. Our data show that constitutive expression of the Notch1 intracellular domain in bi-potential hepatoblast progenitor cells (BHPCs) results in increased IHBD branches at post-natal day 60 (P60), which are maintained at P90 and P120. By contrast, loss of Notch signaling via BHPC-specific deletion of RBP-J (RBP KO), the DNA-binding partner for all Notch receptors, results in progressive loss of intact IHBD branches with age. Interestingly, in RBP KO mice, we observed a reduction in bile ducts per portal vein at P60; no further reduction had occurred at P120. Thus, bile duct structures are not lost with age; instead, we propose a model in which BHPC-specific loss of Notch signaling results in an initial developmental defect resulting in fewer bile ducts being formed, and in an acquired post-natal defect in the maintenance of intact IHBD architecture as a result of irresolvable cholestasis. Our studies reveal a previously unappreciated role for Notch signaling in the post-natal maintenance of an intact communicating IHBD structure, and suggest that liver defects observed in Alagille syndrome patients might be more complex than bile duct paucity. PMID:21282722

  19. The lack of autophagy triggers precocious activation of Notch signaling during Drosophila oogenesis.

    PubMed

    Barth, Julia M I; Hafen, Ernst; Köhler, Katja

    2012-12-05

    The proper balance of autophagy, a lysosome-mediated degradation process, is indispensable for oogenesis in Drosophila. We recently demonstrated that egg development depends on autophagy in the somatic follicle cells (FC), but not in the germline cells (GCs). However, the lack of autophagy only affects oogenesis when FCs are autophagy-deficient but GCs are wild type, indicating that a dysfunctional signaling between soma and germline may be responsible for the oogenesis defects. Thus, autophagy could play an essential role in modulating signal transduction pathways during egg development. Here, we provide further evidence for the necessity of autophagy during oogenesis and demonstrate that autophagy is especially required in subsets of FCs. Generation of autophagy-deficient FCs leads to a wide range of phenotypes that are similar to mutants with defects in the classical cell-cell signaling pathways in the ovary. Interestingly, we observe that loss of autophagy leads to a precocious activation of the Notch pathway in the FCs as monitored by the expression of Cut and Hindsight, two downstream effectors of Notch signaling. Our findings point to an unexpected function for autophagy in the modulation of the Notch signaling pathway during Drosophila oogenesis and suggest a function for autophagy in proper receptor activation. Egg development is affected by an imbalance of autophagy between signal sending (germline) and signal receiving cell (FC), thus the lack of autophagy in the germline is likely to decrease the amount of active ligand and accordingly compensates for increased signaling in autophagy-defective follicle cells.

  20. Regulation of monocyte cell fate by blood vessels mediated by Notch signalling.

    PubMed

    Gamrekelashvili, Jaba; Giagnorio, Roberto; Jussofie, Jasmin; Soehnlein, Oliver; Duchene, Johan; Briseño, Carlos G; Ramasamy, Saravana K; Krishnasamy, Kashyap; Limbourg, Anne; Kapanadze, Tamar; Ishifune, Chieko; Hinkel, Rabea; Radtke, Freddy; Strobl, Lothar J; Zimber-Strobl, Ursula; Napp, L Christian; Bauersachs, Johann; Haller, Hermann; Yasutomo, Koji; Kupatt, Christian; Murphy, Kenneth M; Adams, Ralf H; Weber, Christian; Limbourg, Florian P

    2016-08-31

    A population of monocytes, known as Ly6C(lo) monocytes, patrol blood vessels by crawling along the vascular endothelium. Here we show that endothelial cells control their origin through Notch signalling. Using combinations of conditional genetic deletion strategies and cell-fate tracking experiments we show that Notch2 regulates conversion of Ly6C(hi) monocytes into Ly6C(lo) monocytes in vivo and in vitro, thereby regulating monocyte cell fate under steady-state conditions. This process is controlled by Notch ligand delta-like 1 (Dll1) expressed by a population of endothelial cells that constitute distinct vascular niches in the bone marrow and spleen in vivo, while culture on recombinant DLL1 induces monocyte conversion in vitro. Thus, blood vessels regulate monocyte conversion, a form of committed myeloid cell fate regulation.

  1. Regulation of monocyte cell fate by blood vessels mediated by Notch signalling

    PubMed Central

    Gamrekelashvili, Jaba; Giagnorio, Roberto; Jussofie, Jasmin; Soehnlein, Oliver; Duchene, Johan; Briseño, Carlos G.; Ramasamy, Saravana K.; Krishnasamy, Kashyap; Limbourg, Anne; Häger, Christine; Kapanadze, Tamar; Ishifune, Chieko; Hinkel, Rabea; Radtke, Freddy; Strobl, Lothar J.; Zimber-Strobl, Ursula; Napp, L. Christian; Bauersachs, Johann; Haller, Hermann; Yasutomo, Koji; Kupatt, Christian; Murphy, Kenneth M.; Adams, Ralf H.; Weber, Christian; Limbourg, Florian P.

    2016-01-01

    A population of monocytes, known as Ly6Clo monocytes, patrol blood vessels by crawling along the vascular endothelium. Here we show that endothelial cells control their origin through Notch signalling. Using combinations of conditional genetic deletion strategies and cell-fate tracking experiments we show that Notch2 regulates conversion of Ly6Chi monocytes into Ly6Clo monocytes in vivo and in vitro, thereby regulating monocyte cell fate under steady-state conditions. This process is controlled by Notch ligand delta-like 1 (Dll1) expressed by a population of endothelial cells that constitute distinct vascular niches in the bone marrow and spleen in vivo, while culture on recombinant DLL1 induces monocyte conversion in vitro. Thus, blood vessels regulate monocyte conversion, a form of committed myeloid cell fate regulation. PMID:27576369

  2. Planar cell polarity controls directional Notch signaling in the Drosophila leg

    PubMed Central

    Capilla, Amalia; Johnson, Ruth; Daniels, Maki; Benavente, María; Bray, Sarah J.; Galindo, Máximo Ibo

    2012-01-01

    The generation of functional structures during development requires tight spatial regulation of signaling pathways. Thus, in Drosophila legs, in which Notch pathway activity is required to specify joints, only cells distal to ligand-producing cells are capable of responding. Here, we show that the asymmetric distribution of planar cell polarity (PCP) proteins correlates with this spatial restriction of Notch activation. Frizzled and Dishevelled are enriched at distal sides of each cell and hence localize at the interface with ligand-expressing cells in the non-responding cells. Elimination of PCP gene function in cells proximal to ligand-expressing cells is sufficient to alleviate the repression, resulting in ectopic Notch activity and ectopic joint formation. Mutations that compromise a direct interaction between Dishevelled and Notch reduce the efficacy of repression. Likewise, increased Rab5 levels or dominant-negative Deltex can suppress the ectopic joints. Together, these results suggest that PCP coordinates the spatial activity of the Notch pathway by regulating endocytic trafficking of the receptor. PMID:22736244

  3. Epidermal stem cells (ESCs) accelerate diabetic wound healing via the Notch signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rong-Hua; Qi, Shao-Hai; Shu, Bin; Ruan, Shu-Bin; Lin, Ze-Peng; Lin, Yan; Shen, Rui; Zhang, Feng-Gang; Chen, Xiao-Dong; Xie, Ju-Lin

    2016-08-01

    Chronic, non-healing wounds are a major complication of diabetes. Recently, various cell therapies have been reported for promotion of diabetic wound healing. Epidermal stem cells (ESCs) are considered a powerful tool for tissue therapy. However, the effect and the mechanism of the therapeutic properties of ESCs in the diabetic wound healing are unclear. Herein, to determine the ability of ESCs to diabetic wound healing, a dorsal skin defect in a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus (DM) mouse model was used. ESCs were isolated from mouse skin. We found that both the mRNA and protein levels of a Notch ligand Jagged1 (Jag1), Notch1 and Notch target gene Hairy Enhancer of Split-1 (Hes1) were significantly increased at the wound margins. In addition, we observed that Jag1 was high expressed in ESCs. Overexpression of Jag1 promotes ESCs migration, whereas knockdown Jag1 resulted in a significant reduction in ESCs migration in vitro Importantly, Jag1 overexpression improves diabetic wound healing in vivo These results provide evidence that ESCs accelerate diabetic wound healing via the Notch signalling pathway, and provide a promising potential for activation of the Notch pathway for the treatment of diabetic wound. © 2016 The Author(s).

  4. Dysregulation of the ADAM17/Notch signalling pathways in endometriosis: from oxidative stress to fibrosis.

    PubMed

    González-Foruria, Iñaki; Santulli, Pietro; Chouzenoux, Sandrine; Carmona, Francisco; Chapron, Charles; Batteux, Frédéric

    2017-07-01

    Is oxidative stress associated with the A disintegrin and metalloproteases (ADAM) metallopeptidase domain 17 (ADAM17)/Notch signalling pathway and fibrosis in the development of endometriosis? Oxidative stress is correlated with hyperactivation of the ADAM17/Notch signalling pathway and a consequent increase in fibrosis in patients with endometriosis. It is nowadays accepted that oxidative stress plays an important role in the onset and progression of endometriosis. Oxidative stress is able to induce the synthesis of some members of the 'ADAM' family, such as ADAM17. ADAM17/Notch signalling is dysregulated in other profibrotic and inflammatory diseases. This was a prospective laboratory study conducted in a tertiary-care university hospital between January 2011 and April 2013. We investigated non-pregnant, younger than 42-year-old patients (n = 202) during surgery for a benign gynaecological condition. After complete surgical exploration of the abdominopelvic cavity, 121 women with histologically proven endometriosis and 81 endometriosis-free control women were enrolled. Peritoneal fluid (PF) samples were obtained from all the study participants during surgery in order to detect advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) and metalloproteinase activity of ADAM17. Stromal cells from endometrial specimens (n = 8) were obtained from endometrium of control patients (Cs), and from eutopic (Es) and ectopic (Ps) endometrium of patients with deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) (n = 8). ADAM17, Notch and the fibrosis markers α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and type-I collagen were assessed using immunoblotting in all the endometrial samples obtained. Additionally, fibrosis was assessed after using Notch cleavage inhibitors (DAPT and FLI-06). Notch and fibrosis were also evaluated after stimulation of stromal endometrial cells with ADAM17 purified protein, increasing concentrations of H2O2 and primary cell culture supernatants. Patients with DIE presented higher PF AOPP

  5. Cutting Edge: Notch Signaling Promotes the Plasticity of Group-2 Innate Lymphoid Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kangning; Xu, Xingyuan; Pasha, Muhammad Asghar; Siebel, Christian W; Costello, Angelica; Haczku, Angela; MacNamara, Katherine; Liang, Tingbo; Zhu, Jinfang; Bhandoola, Avinash; Maillard, Ivan; Yang, Qi

    2017-03-01

    The mechanisms underlying lymphocyte lineage stability and plasticity remain elusive. Recent work indicates that innate lymphoid cells (ILC) possess substantial plasticity. Whereas natural ILC2 (nILC2) produce type-2 cytokines, plastic inflammatory ILC2 (iILC2) can coproduce both type-2 cytokines and the ILC3-characteristic cytokine, IL-17. Mechanisms that elicit this lineage plasticity, and the importance in health and disease, remain unclear. In this study we show that iILC2 are potent inducers of airway inflammation in response to acute house dust mite challenge. We find that Notch signaling induces lineage plasticity of mature ILC2 and drives the conversion of nILC2 into iILC2. Acute blockade of Notch signaling abolished functional iILC2, but not nILC2, in vivo. Exposure of isolated nILC2 to Notch ligands induced Rorc expression and elicited dual IL-13/IL-17 production, converting nILC2 into iILC2. Together these results reveal a novel role for Notch signaling in eliciting ILC2 plasticity and driving the emergence of highly proinflammatory innate lymphocytes. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  6. O-Fucose Monosaccharide of Drosophila Notch Has a Temperature-sensitive Function and Cooperates with O-Glucose Glycan in Notch Transport and Notch Signaling Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Ishio, Akira; Sasamura, Takeshi; Ayukawa, Tomonori; Kuroda, Junpei; Ishikawa, Hiroyuki O.; Aoyama, Naoki; Matsumoto, Kenjiroo; Gushiken, Takuma; Okajima, Tetsuya; Yamakawa, Tomoko; Matsuno, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Notch (N) is a transmembrane receptor that mediates the cell-cell interactions necessary for many cell fate decisions. N has many epidermal growth factor-like repeats that are O-fucosylated by the protein O-fucosyltransferase 1 (O-Fut1), and the O-fut1 gene is essential for N signaling. However, the role of the monosaccharide O-fucose on N is unclear, because O-Fut1 also appears to have O-fucosyltransferase activity-independent functions, including as an N-specific chaperon. Such an enzymatic activity-independent function could account for the essential role of O-fut1 in N signaling. To evaluate the role of the monosaccharide O-fucose modification in N signaling, here we generated a knock-in mutant of O-fut1 (O-fut1R245A knock-in), which expresses a mutant protein that lacks O-fucosyltransferase activity but maintains the N-specific chaperon activity. Using O-fut1R245A knock-in and other gene mutations that abolish the O-fucosylation of N, we found that the monosaccharide O-fucose modification of N has a temperature-sensitive function that is essential for N signaling. The O-fucose monosaccharide and O-glucose glycan modification, catalyzed by Rumi, function redundantly in the activation of N signaling. We also showed that the redundant function of these two modifications is responsible for the presence of N at the cell surface. Our findings elucidate how different forms of glycosylation on a protein can influence the protein's functions. PMID:25378397

  7. Disruption of Cell-Cell Contact-mediated Notch Signaling via Hydrogel Encapsulation Reduces Mesenchymal Stem Cell Chondrogenic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Amanda X.; Hoffman, Michael D.; Chen, Caressa S.; Shubin, Andrew D.; Reynolds, Daniel S.; Benoit, Danielle S. W.

    2015-01-01

    Cell-cell contact-mediated Notch signaling is essential for mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) chondrogenesis during development. However, subsequent deactivation of Notch signaling is also required to allow for stem cell chondrogenic progression. Recent literature has shown that Notch signaling can also influence Wnt/β-catenin signaling, critical for MSC differentiation, through perturbations in cell-cell contacts. Traditionally, abundant cell-cell contacts, consistent with development, are emulated in vitro using pellet cultures for chondrogenesis. However, cells are often encapsulated within biomaterials-based scaffolds, such as hydrogels, to improve therapeutic cell localization in vivo. To explore the role of Notch and Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the context of hydrogel-encapsulated MSC chondrogenesis, we compared signaling and differentiation capacity of MSCs in both hydrogels and traditional pellet cultures. We demonstrate that encapsulation within poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels reduces cell-cell contacts, and both Notch (7.5-fold) and Wnt/β-catenin (84.7-fold) pathway activation. Finally, we demonstrate that following establishment of cell-cell contacts and transient Notch signaling in pellet cultures, followed by Notch signaling deactivation, resulted in a 1.5-fold increase in MSC chondrogenesis. Taken together, these findings support that cellular condensation, and the establishment of initial cell-cell contacts is critical for MSC chondrogenesis, and this process is inhibited by hydrogel encapsulation. PMID:25504509

  8. Myoblast cytonemes mediate Wg signaling from the wing imaginal disc and Delta-Notch signaling to the air sac primordium.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hai; Kornberg, Thomas B

    2015-05-07

    The flight muscles, dorsal air sacs, wing blades, and thoracic cuticle of the Drosophila adult function in concert, and their progenitor cells develop together in the wing imaginal disc. The wing disc orchestrates dorsal air sac development by producing decapentaplegic and fibroblast growth factor that travel via specific cytonemes in order to signal to the air sac primordium (ASP). Here, we report that cytonemes also link flight muscle progenitors (myoblasts) to disc cells and to the ASP, enabling myoblasts to relay signaling between the disc and the ASP. Frizzled (Fz)-containing myoblast cytonemes take up Wingless (Wg) from the disc, and Delta (Dl)-containing myoblast cytonemes contribute to Notch activation in the ASP. Wg signaling negatively regulates Dl expression in the myoblasts. These results reveal an essential role for cytonemes in Wg and Notch signaling and for a signal relay system in the myoblasts.

  9. Alterations in Notch signalling in skeletal muscles from mdx and dko dystrophic mice and patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Church, Jarrod E; Trieu, Jennifer; Chee, Annabel; Naim, Timur; Gehrig, Stefan M; Lamon, Séverine; Angelini, Corrado; Russell, Aaron P; Lynch, Gordon S

    2014-04-01

    New Findings What is the central question of this study? The Notch signalling pathway plays an important role in muscle regeneration, and activation of the pathway has been shown to enhance muscle regeneration in aged mice. It is unknown whether Notch activation will have a similarly beneficial effect on muscle regeneration in the context of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). What is the main finding and its importance? Although expression of Notch signalling components is altered in both mouse models of DMD and in human DMD patients, activation of the Notch signalling pathway does not confer any functional benefit on muscles from dystrophic mice, suggesting that other signalling pathways may be more fruitful targets for manipulation in treating DMD. Abstract In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), muscle damage and impaired regeneration lead to progressive muscle wasting, weakness and premature death. The Notch signalling pathway represents a central regulator of gene expression and is critical for cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptotic signalling during all stages of embryonic muscle development. Notch activation improves muscle regeneration in aged mice, but its potential to restore regeneration and function in muscular dystrophy is unknown. We performed a comprehensive examination of several genes involved in Notch signalling in muscles from dystrophin-deficient mdx and dko (utrophin- and dystrophin-null) mice and DMD patients. A reduction of Notch1 and Hes1 mRNA in tibialis anterior muscles of dko mice and quadriceps muscles of DMD patients and a reduction of Hes1 mRNA in the diaphragm of the mdx mice were observed, with other targets being inconsistent across species. Activation and inhibition of Notch signalling, followed by measures of muscle regeneration and function, were performed in the mouse models of DMD. Notch activation had no effect on functional regeneration in C57BL/10, mdx or dko mice. Notch inhibition significantly depressed the

  10. mNotch1 signaling and erythropoietin cooperate in erythroid differentiation of multipotent progenitor cells and upregulate beta-globin.

    PubMed

    Henning, Konstanze; Schroeder, Timm; Schwanbeck, Ralf; Rieber, Nikolaus; Bresnick, Emery H; Just, Ursula

    2007-09-01

    In many developing tissues, signaling mediated by activation of the transmembrane receptor Notch influences cell-fate decisions, differentiation, proliferation, and cell survival. Notch receptors are expressed on hematopoietic cells and cognate ligands on bone marrow stromal cells. Here, we investigate the role of mNotch1 signaling in the control of erythroid differentiation of multipotent progenitor cells. Multipotent FDCP-mix cell lines engineered to permit the conditional induction of the constitutively active intracellular domain of mNotch1 (mN1(IC)) by the 4-hydroxytamoxifen (OHT)-inducible system were used to analyze the effects of activated mNotch1 on erythroid differentiation and on expression of Gata1, Fog1, Eklf, NF-E2, and beta-globin. Expression was analyzed by Northern blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Enhancer activity of reporter constructs was determined with the dual luciferase system in transient transfection assays. Induction of mN1(IC) by OHT resulted in increased and accelerated differentiation of FDCP-mix cells along the erythroid lineage. Erythroid maturation was induced by activated Notch1 also under conditions that normally promote self-renewal, but required the presence of erythropoietin for differentiation to proceed. While induction of Notch signaling rapidly upregulated Hes1 and Hey1 expression, the expression of Gata1, Fog1, Eklf, and NF-E2 remained unchanged. Concomitantly with erythroid differentiation, activated mNotch1 upregulated beta-globin RNA. Notch signaling transactivated a reporter construct harboring a conserved RBP-J (CBF1) binding site in the hypersensitive site 2 (HS2) of human beta-globin. Transactivation by activated Notch was completely abolished when this RBP-J site was mutated to prevent RBP-J binding. Our results show that activation of mNotch1 induces erythroid differentiation in cooperation with erythropoietin and upregulates beta-globin expression.

  11. Notch1 Signaling Regulates the Th17/Treg Immune Imbalance in Patients with Psoriasis Vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lei; Xue, HaiBo; Gao, Tianqin; Gao, MeiLan; Zhang, YuJie

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the regulating effect of Notch1 signaling on Th17/Treg immune imbalance in psoriasis vulgaris (PV). Notch1, Hes-1, ROR γ t, Foxp3, IL-17, and IL-10 mRNA expression, as well as Th17 and Treg cell percentages in peripheral CD4 + T cells, were detected by real-time quantitative RT-PCR and flow cytometry, and serum concentrations of IL-17 and IL-10 were detected by ELISA in 36 PV patients and 32 healthy controls. Additionally, CD4 + T cells from 12 PV patients were treated with γ -secretase inhibitor DAPT, and the above indexes were measured. PV patients presented distinct Th17/Treg immune imbalance and highly expressed Notch1 and Hes-1 mRNA levels, which were positively correlated with psoriasis area and severity index (PASI) and the ratios of Th17/Treg and ROR γ t/Foxp3. DAPT treatment resulted in the obvious downregulation of Th17 cell percentage in cocultured CD4 + T cells, ROR γ t and IL-17 mRNA levels, and IL-17 concentration in cell-free supernatant from cocultured CD4 + T cells of PV patients in a dose-dependent manner, while there was no significant influence on Treg cell percentage, Foxp3, and IL-10 expression, therefore leading to the recovery of Th17/Treg immune imbalance. Notch1 signaling may contribute to the pathogenesis of PV by regulating Th17/Treg immune imbalance.

  12. Progranulin promotes peripheral nerve regeneration and reinnervation: role of notch signaling.

    PubMed

    Altmann, Christine; Vasic, Verica; Hardt, Stefanie; Heidler, Juliana; Häussler, Annett; Wittig, Ilka; Schmidt, Mirko H H; Tegeder, Irmgard

    2016-10-22

    Peripheral nerve injury is a frequent cause of lasting motor deficits and chronic pain. Although peripheral nerves are capable of regrowth they often fail to re-innervate target tissues. Using newly generated transgenic mice with inducible neuronal progranulin overexpression we show that progranulin accelerates axonal regrowth, restoration of neuromuscular synapses and recovery of sensory and motor functions after injury of the sciatic nerve. Oppositely, progranulin deficient mice have long-lasting deficits in motor function tests after nerve injury due to enhanced losses of motor neurons and stronger microglia activation in the ventral horn of the spinal cord. Deep proteome and gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis revealed that the proteins upregulated in progranulin overexpressing mice were involved in 'regulation of transcription' and 'response to insulin' (GO terms). Transcription factor prediction pointed to activation of Notch signaling and indeed, co-immunoprecipitation studies revealed that progranulin bound to the extracellular domain of Notch receptors, and this was functionally associated with higher expression of Notch target genes in the dorsal root ganglia of transgenic mice with neuronal progranulin overexpression. Functionally, these transgenic mice recovered normal gait and running, which was not achieved by controls and was stronger impaired in progranulin deficient mice. We infer that progranulin activates Notch signaling pathways, enhancing thereby the regenerative capacity of partially injured neurons, which leads to improved motor function recovery.

  13. Genomics and expression profiles of the Hedgehog and Notch signaling pathways in sea urchin development.

    PubMed

    Walton, Katherine D; Croce, Jenifer C; Glenn, Thomas D; Wu, Shu-Yu; McClay, David R

    2006-12-01

    The Hedgehog (Hh) and Notch signal transduction pathways control a variety of developmental processes including cell fate choice, differentiation, proliferation, patterning and boundary formation. Because many components of these pathways are conserved, it was predicted and confirmed that pathway components are largely intact in the sea urchin genome. Spatial and temporal location of these pathways in the embryo, and their function in development offer added insight into their mechanistic contributions. Accordingly, all major components of both pathways were identified and annotated in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus genome and the embryonic expression of key components was explored. Relationships of the pathway components, and modifiers predicted from the annotation of S. purpuratus, were compared against cnidarians, arthropods, urochordates, and vertebrates. These analyses support the prediction that the pathways are highly conserved through metazoan evolution. Further, the location of these two pathways appears to be conserved among deuterostomes, and in the case of Notch at least, display similar capacities in endomesoderm gene regulatory networks. RNA expression profiles by quantitative PCR and RNA in situ hybridization reveal that Hedgehog is produced by the endoderm beginning just prior to invagination, and signals to the secondary mesenchyme-derived tissues at least until the pluteus larva stage. RNA in situ hybridization of Notch pathway members confirms that Notch functions sequentially in the vegetal-most secondary mesenchyme cells and later in the endoderm. Functional analyses in future studies will embed these pathways into the growing knowledge of gene regulatory networks that govern early specification and morphogenesis.

  14. Comparison of Signal Response Between EDM Notch and Cracks in Eddy-Current Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kane, Mary; Koshti, Ajay

    2008-01-01

    In the field of ET an eddy-current instrument is calibrated on a manufactured notch that is designed to simulate a defect in a part. The calibrated instrument is then used to scan parts with the assumption that any response that is over half the amplitude of the notch signal is taken to be defective. The purpose of this study is to attempt a direct comparison of the signal response observed from an EDM notch to a crack of the same size. To make this comparison test equipment will be set up and calibrated as per normal inspection procedures. Once this has been achieved both notches and as many different sizes of crack specimens will be scanned and the data recorded. This data will then be analyzed to provide a comparison of the response. The results should also provide information that shows it is acceptable to use the half-amplitude method for determining if a part is defective. The tests will be performed on two different materials commonly inspected, titanium and aluminum. This will allow a comparison of the results between materials.

  15. Tbx6-mediated Notch signaling controls somite-specific Mesp2 expression.

    PubMed

    Yasuhiko, Yukuto; Haraguchi, Seiki; Kitajima, Satoshi; Takahashi, Yu; Kanno, Jun; Saga, Yumiko

    2006-03-07

    Mesp2 is a transcription factor that plays fundamental roles in somitogenesis, and its expression is strictly restricted to the anterior presomitic mesoderm just before segment border formation. The transcriptional on-off cycle is linked to the segmentation clock. In our current study, we show that a T-box transcription factor, Tbx6, is essential for Mesp2 expression. Tbx6 directly binds to the Mesp2 gene upstream region and mediates Notch signaling, and subsequent Mesp2 transcription, in the anterior presomitic mesoderm. Our data therefore reveal that a mechanism, via Tbx6-dependent Notch signaling, acts on the transcriptional regulation of Mesp2. This finding uncovers an additional component of the interacting network of various signaling pathways that are involved in somitogenesis.

  16. Tbx6-mediated Notch signaling controls somite-specific Mesp2 expression

    PubMed Central

    Yasuhiko, Yukuto; Haraguchi, Seiki; Kitajima, Satoshi; Takahashi, Yu; Kanno, Jun; Saga, Yumiko

    2006-01-01

    Mesp2 is a transcription factor that plays fundamental roles in somitogenesis, and its expression is strictly restricted to the anterior presomitic mesoderm just before segment border formation. The transcriptional on–off cycle is linked to the segmentation clock. In our current study, we show that a T-box transcription factor, Tbx6, is essential for Mesp2 expression. Tbx6 directly binds to the Mesp2 gene upstream region and mediates Notch signaling, and subsequent Mesp2 transcription, in the anterior presomitic mesoderm. Our data therefore reveal that a mechanism, via Tbx6-dependent Notch signaling, acts on the transcriptional regulation of Mesp2. This finding uncovers an additional component of the interacting network of various signaling pathways that are involved in somitogenesis. PMID:16505380

  17. Expression of Jagged1/Notch3 Signaling Pathway and their Relationship with the Tumor Angiogenesis in TNBC.

    PubMed

    Xue, Siliang; He, Lang; Zhang, Xiao; Zhou, Jin; Li, Fanghua; Wang, Xiaoshan

    2017-02-01

    Jagged1/Notch3 signaling pathway plays a key role in angiogenesis of breast cancer, but little is known in TNBC. This study was designed to investigate the expression of Jagged1/Notch3 mRNA and protein in TNBC, analyze their correlations with clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis. Moreover, the interrelationship among Jagged1/Notch3 and VEGF was initially evaluated. Jagged1/Notch3 mRNA and protein expression levels were determined by Q-RT-PCR and Western blotting. Additionally, Immunohistochemistry for Jagged1/Notch3 was detected by Ventana platform, VEGF and CD34 was performed using the EnVision/HRP technique. mRNA transcriptionof Jagged1/Notch3 was in accord with protein expression. TNBC patients with positive Jagged1 expression had poorer DFS (p = 0.008) and OS (p = 0.004). Jagged1 expression was independent predictors of OS (p = 0.038). The expression of VEGF was positively correlative to MVD (p = 0.018), MVD was significantly associated with Jagged1 (p <0.0001) and Notch3 (p <0.0001). The expression of Jagged1/Notch3 has no correlation with VEGF, only in positive VEGF expression of TNBC patients Jagged1/Notch3 had influence on DFS and OS (p <0.05). Jagged1/Notch3 was -expressed at both the mRNA and protein levels, Jagged1 served as an independent predictor of poor prognosis. We speculate that there is a cross-talk between Jagged1/Notch3 and VEGF in TNBC angiogenesis. Jagged1/Notch3 is expected to be an important signaling pathway for TNBC progression and a potential target for TNBC neovascularization therapy. Copyright © 2017 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Control of RUNX-induced repression of Notch signaling by MLF and its partner DnaJ-1 during Drosophila hematopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Gobert, Vanessa; Augé, Benoit; Burlet-Schiltz, Odile; Haenlin, Marc

    2017-01-01

    A tight regulation of transcription factor activity is critical for proper development. For instance, modifications of RUNX transcription factors dosage are associated with several diseases, including hematopoietic malignancies. In Drosophila, Myeloid Leukemia Factor (MLF) has been shown to control blood cell development by stabilizing the RUNX transcription factor Lozenge (Lz). However, the mechanism of action of this conserved family of proteins involved in leukemia remains largely unknown. Here we further characterized MLF’s mode of action in Drosophila blood cells using proteomic, transcriptomic and genetic approaches. Our results show that MLF and the Hsp40 co-chaperone family member DnaJ-1 interact through conserved domains and we demonstrate that both proteins bind and stabilize Lz in cell culture, suggesting that MLF and DnaJ-1 form a chaperone complex that directly regulates Lz activity. Importantly, dnaj-1 loss causes an increase in Lz+ blood cell number and size similarly as in mlf mutant larvae. Moreover we find that dnaj-1 genetically interacts with mlf to control Lz level and Lz+ blood cell development in vivo. In addition, we show that mlf and dnaj-1 loss alters Lz+ cell differentiation and that the increase in Lz+ blood cell number and size observed in these mutants is caused by an overactivation of the Notch signaling pathway. Finally, using different conditions to manipulate Lz activity, we show that high levels of Lz are required to repress Notch transcription and signaling. All together, our data indicate that the MLF/DnaJ-1-dependent increase in Lz level allows the repression of Notch expression and signaling to prevent aberrant blood cell development. Thus our findings establish a functional link between MLF and the co-chaperone DnaJ-1 to control RUNX transcription factor activity and Notch signaling during blood cell development in vivo. PMID:28742844

  19. Nrf2 regulates cellular behaviors and Notch signaling in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hong; Paiboonrungruan, Chorlada; Zhang, Xinyan; Prigge, Justin R; Schmidt, Edward E; Sun, Zheng; Chen, Xiaoxin

    2017-11-04

    Oxidative stress is known to play a pivotal role in the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We have demonstrated that activation of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway has chemopreventive effects against oxidative stress-associated OSCC. However, Nrf2 have dual roles in cancer development; while it prevents carcinogenesis of normal cells, hyperactive Nrf2 also promotes the survival of cancer cells. This study is aimed to understand the function of Nrf2 in regulating cellular behaviors of OSCC cells, and the potential mechanisms through which Nrf2 facilitates OSCC. We established the Nrf2-overexpressing and Nrf2-knockdown OSCC cell lines, and examined the function of Nrf2 in regulating cell proliferation, migration, invasion, cell cycle and colony formation. Our data showed that Nrf2 overexpression promoted cancer phenotypes in OSCC cells, whereas Nrf2 silencing inhibited these phenotypes. In addition, Nrf2 positively regulated Notch signaling pathway in OSCC cells in vitro. Consistent with this observation, Nrf2 activation in Keap1 -/- mice resulted in not only hyperproliferation of squamous epithelial cells in mouse tongue as evidenced by increased expression of PCNA, but also activation of Notch signaling in these cells as evidenced by increased expression of NICD1 and Hes1. In conclusion, Nrf2 regulates cancer behaviors and Notch signaling in OSCC cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of the HIF1 inhibitor, echinomycin, on growth and NOTCH signalling in leukaemia cells.

    PubMed

    Yonekura, Satoru; Itoh, Mai; Okuhashi, Yuki; Takahashi, Yusuke; Ono, Aya; Nara, Nobuo; Tohda, Shuji

    2013-08-01

    To examine the effects of echinomycin, a compound that inhibits DNA-binding activity of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF1), on leukaemia cell growth. Three acute myeloid leukaemia cell lines and three T-lymphoblastic leukaemia cell lines were cultured with echinomycin. Cell growth, mRNA and protein expression levels were examined by WST-1 assay, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting, respectively. HIF1α protein was expressed in all cell lines under normoxia. Treatment with echinomycin suppressed cell growth and induced apoptosis in association with decreased mRNA expression of HIF1 targets, glucose transporter-1 (GLUT1) and B-cell CLL/lymphoma-2 (BCL2). Echinomycin also suppressed the protein expression of NOTCH1, cleaved NOTCH1, v-myc myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (MYC), v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog-1 (AKT), phosphorylated AKT, mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), and phosphorylated mTOR and increased that of cleaved caspase-3 in some cell lines. Echinomycin suppresses leukaemia cell growth in association with reduced NOTCH1 expression. This is the first report to show that HIF inhibitor treatment suppresses NOTCH1 signalling. HIF inhibitors could be novel candidates for a molecular-targeted therapy against leukaemia.

  1. Development of the Drosophila entero-endocrine lineage and its specification by the Notch signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Takashima, Shigeo; Adams, Katrina L.; Ortiz, Paola A.; Ying, Chong T.; Moridzadeh, Rameen; Younossi-Hartenstein, Amelia; Hartenstein, Volker

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we have investigated the developmental-genetic steps that shape the entero-endocrine system of Drosophila melanogaster from the embryo to the adult. The process starts in the endoderm of the early embryo where precursors of endocrine cells and enterocytes of the larval midgut, as well as progenitors of the adult midgut, are specified by a Notch signaling-dependent mechanism. In a second step that occurs during the late larval period, enterocytes and endocrine cells of a transient pupal midgut are selected from within the clusters of adult midgut progenitors. As in the embryo, activation of the Notch pathway triggers enterocyte differentiation, and inhibits cells from further proliferation or choosing the endocrine fate. The third step of entero-endocrine cell development takes place at a mid-pupal stage. Before this time point, the epithelial layer destined to become the adult midgut is devoid of endocrine cells. However, precursors of the intestinal midgut stem cells (pISCs) are already present. After an initial phase of symmetric divisions which causes an increase in their own population size, pISCs start to spin off cells that become postmitotic and express the endocrine fate marker, Prospero. Activation of Notch in pISCs forces these cells into an enterocyte fate. Loss of Notch function causes an increase in the proliferatory activity of pISCs, as well as a higher ratio of Prospero-positive cells. PMID:21382366

  2. Endothelial basement membrane limits tip cell formation by inducing Dll4/Notch signalling in vivo.

    PubMed

    Stenzel, Denise; Franco, Claudio A; Estrach, Soline; Mettouchi, Amel; Sauvaget, Dominique; Rosewell, Ian; Schertel, Andreas; Armer, Hannah; Domogatskaya, Anna; Rodin, Sergey; Tryggvason, Karl; Collinson, Lucy; Sorokin, Lydia; Gerhardt, Holger

    2011-10-28

    How individual components of the vascular basement membrane influence endothelial cell behaviour remains unclear. Here we show that laminin α4 (Lama4) regulates tip cell numbers and vascular density by inducing endothelial Dll4/Notch signalling in vivo. Lama4 deficiency leads to reduced Dll4 expression, excessive filopodia and tip cell formation in the mouse retina, phenocopying the effects of Dll4/Notch inhibition. Lama4-mediated Dll4 expression requires a combination of integrins in vitro and integrin β1 in vivo. We conclude that appropriate laminin/integrin-induced signalling is necessary to induce physiologically functional levels of Dll4 expression and regulate branching frequency during sprouting angiogenesis in vivo.

  3. Endothelial basement membrane limits tip cell formation by inducing Dll4/Notch signalling in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Stenzel, Denise; Franco, Claudio A; Estrach, Soline; Mettouchi, Amel; Sauvaget, Dominique; Rosewell, Ian; Schertel, Andreas; Armer, Hannah; Domogatskaya, Anna; Rodin, Sergey; Tryggvason, Karl; Collinson, Lucy; Sorokin, Lydia; Gerhardt, Holger

    2011-01-01

    How individual components of the vascular basement membrane influence endothelial cell behaviour remains unclear. Here we show that laminin α4 (Lama4) regulates tip cell numbers and vascular density by inducing endothelial Dll4/Notch signalling in vivo. Lama4 deficiency leads to reduced Dll4 expression, excessive filopodia and tip cell formation in the mouse retina, phenocopying the effects of Dll4/Notch inhibition. Lama4-mediated Dll4 expression requires a combination of integrins in vitro and integrin β1 in vivo. We conclude that appropriate laminin/integrin-induced signalling is necessary to induce physiologically functional levels of Dll4 expression and regulate branching frequency during sprouting angiogenesis in vivo. PMID:21979816

  4. Tetrandrine induces autophagy and differentiation by activating ROS and Notch1 signaling in leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ting; Men, Qiuxu; Wu, Guixian; Yu, Chunrong; Huang, Zan; Liu, Xin; Li, Wenhua

    2015-01-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is a differentiating agent for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). However, the therapeutic efficacy of ATRA has limitations. Tetrandrine is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb extract with antitumor effects. In this study, we investigated the effects of tetrandrine on human PML-RARα-positive acute promyelocytic leukemia cells. Tetrandrine inhibited tumors in vivo. It induced autophagy and differentiation by triggering ROS generation and activating Notch1 signaling. Tetrandrine induced autophagy and differentiation in M5 type patient primary leukemia cells. The in vivo results indicated that low concentrations of tetrandrine inhibited leukemia cells proliferation and induced autophagy and then facilitated their differentiation, by activating ROS and Notch1 signaling. We suggest that tetrandrine is a potential agent for the treatment of APL by inducing differentiation of leukemia cells. PMID:25797266

  5. Monomeric C-reactive protein and Notch-3 co-operatively increase angiogenesis through PI3K signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Boras, Emhamed; Slevin, Mark; Alexander, M Yvonne; Aljohi, Ali; Gilmore, William; Ashworth, Jason; Krupinski, Jerzy; Potempa, Lawrence A; Al Abdulkareem, Ibrahim; Elobeid, Adila; Matou-Nasri, Sabine

    2014-10-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is the most acute-phase reactant serum protein of inflammation and a strong predictor of cardiovascular disease. Its expression is associated with atherosclerotic plaque instability and the formation of immature micro-vessels. We have previously shown that CRP upregulates endothelial-derived Notch-3, a key receptor involved in vascular development, remodelling and maturation. In this study, we investigated the links between the bioactive monomeric CRP (mCRP) and Notch-3 signalling in angiogenesis. We used in vitro (cell counting, wound-healing and tubulogenesis assays) and in vivo (chorioallantoic membrane) angiogenic assays and Western blotting to study the angiogenic signalling pathways induced by mCRP and Notch-3 activator chimera protein (Notch-3/Fc). Our results showed an additive effect on angiogenesis of mCRP stimulatory effect combined with Notch-3/Fc promoting bovine aortic endothelial cell (BAEC) proliferation, migration, tube formation in Matrigel(TM) with up-regulation of phospho-Akt expression. The pharmacological blockade of PI3K/Akt survival pathway by LY294002 fully inhibited in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis induced by mCRP/Notch-3/Fc combination while blocking Notch signalling by gamma-secretase inhibitor (DAPT) partially inhibited mCRP/Notch-3/Fc-induced angiogenesis. Using a BAEC vascular smooth muscle cell co-culture sprouting angiogenesis assay and transmission electron microscopy, we showed that activation of both mCRP and Notch-3 signalling induced the formation of thicker sprouts which were shown later by Western blotting to be associated with an up-regulation of N-cadherin expression and a down-regulation of VE-cadherin expression. Thus, mCRP combined with Notch-3 activator promote angiogenesis through the PI3K/Akt pathway and their therapeutic combination has potential to promote and stabilize vessel formation whilst reducing the risk of haemorrhage from unstable plaques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  6. Notch Signaling Contributes to Liver Inflammation by Regulation of Interleukin-22-Producing Cells in Hepatitis B Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xin; Wang, Jiu-Ping; Hao, Chun-Qiu; Yang, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Lin-Xu; Huang, Chang-Xing; Bai, Xue-Fan; Lian, Jian-Qi; Zhang, Ye

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism of hepatitis B virus (HBV) induced liver inflammation is not fully elucidated. Notch signaling augmented interleukin (IL)-22 secretion in CD4+ T cells, and Notch-IL-22 axis fine-tuned inflammatory response. We previously demonstrated a proinflammatory role of IL-22 in HBV infection. Thus, in this study, we analyzed the role of Notch in development of IL-22-producing cells in HBV infection by inhibition of Notch signaling using γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT in both hydrodynamic induced HBV-infected mouse model and in peripheral blood cells isolated from patients with HBV infection. mRNA expressions of Notch1 and Notch2 were significantly increased in livers and CD4+ T cells upon HBV infection. Inhibition of Notch signaling in vivo leaded to the reduction in NKp46+ innate lymphoid cells 22 (ILC22) and lymphoid tissue inducer 4 (LTi4) cells in the liver. This process was accompanied by downregulating the expressions of IL-22 and related proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the liver, as well as blocking the recruitment of antigen-non-specific inflammatory cells into the liver and subsequent liver injury, but did not affect HBV antigens production and IL-22 secretion in the serum. Furthermore, IL-22 production in HBV non-specific cultured CD4+ T cells, but not HBV-specific CD4+ T cells, was reduced in response to in vitro inhibition of Notch signaling. In conclusion, Notch siganling appears to be an important mediator of the liver inflammation by modulating hepatic ILC22. The potential proinflammatory effect of Notch-mediated ILC22 may be significant for the development of new therapeutic approaches for treatment of hepatitis B. PMID:27800305

  7. mTOR-Notch3 signaling mediates pulmonary hypertension in hypoxia-exposed neonatal rats independent of changes in autophagy.

    PubMed

    Ivanovska, Julijana; Shah, Sparsh; Wong, Mathew J; Kantores, Crystal; Jain, Amish; Post, Martin; Yeganeh, Behzad; Jankov, Robert P

    2017-11-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a pivotal regulator of cell proliferation, survival, and autophagy. Autophagy is increased in adult experimental chronic pulmonary hypertension (PHT), but its contributory role to pulmonary vascular disease remains uncertain and has yet to be explored in the neonatal animal. Notch is a major pro-proliferative pathway activated by mTOR. A direct relationship between autophagy and Notch signaling has not been previously explored. Our aim was to examine changes in mTOR-, Notch-, and autophagy-related pathways and the therapeutic effects of autophagy modulators in experimental chronic neonatal PHT secondary to chronic hypoxia. Rat pups were exposed to normoxia or hypoxia (13% O 2 ) from postnatal days 1-21, while receiving treatment with temsirolimus (mTOR inhibitor), DAPT (Notch inhibitor), or chloroquine (inhibitor of autophagic flux). Exposure to hypoxia up-regulated autophagy and Notch3 signaling markers in lung, pulmonary artery (PA), and PA-derived smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Temsirolimus prevented chronic PHT and attenuated PA and SMC signaling secondary to hypoxia. These effects were replicated by DAPT. mTOR or Notch inhibition also down-regulated smooth muscle content of platelet-derived growth factor β-receptor, a known contributor to vascular remodeling. In contrast, chloroquine had no modifying effects on markers of chronic PHT. Knockdown of Beclin-1 in SMCs had no effect on hypoxia-stimulated Notch3 signaling. mTOR-Notch3 signaling plays a critical role in experimental chronic neonatal PHT. Inhibition of autophagy did not suppress Notch signaling and had no effect on markers of chronic PHT. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Notch signal reception is required in vascular smooth muscle cells for ductus arteriosus closure

    PubMed Central

    Krebs, Luke T.; Norton, Christine R.; Gridley, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Summary The ductus arteriosus is an arterial vessel that shunts blood flow away from the lungs during fetal life, but normally occludes after birth to establish the adult circulation pattern. Failure of the ductus arteriosus to close after birth is termed patent ductus arteriosus, and is one of the most common congenital heart defects. Our previous work demonstrated that vascular smooth muscle cell expression of the Jag1 gene, which encodes a ligand for Notch family receptors, is essential for postnatal closure of the ductus arteriosus in mice. However, it was not known what cell population was responsible for receiving the Jag1-mediated signal. Here we show, using smooth muscle cell-specific deletion of the Rbpj gene, which encodes a transcription factor that mediates all canonical Notch signaling, that Notch signal reception in the vascular smooth muscle cell compartment is required for ductus arteriosus closure. These data indicate that homotypic vascular smooth muscle cell interactions are required for proper contractile smooth muscle cell differentiation and postnatal closure of the ductus arteriosus in mice. PMID:26742650

  9. Inhibition of TGF-β and NOTCH Signaling by Cutaneous Papillomaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, Jordan M.; Grace, Miranda; Uberoi, Aayushi; Lambert, Paul F.; Munger, Karl

    2018-01-01

    Infections with cutaneous papillomaviruses have been linked to cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas that arise in patients who suffer from a rare genetic disorder, epidermodysplasia verruciformis, or those who have experienced long-term, systemic immunosuppression following organ transplantation. The E6 proteins of the prototypical cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV) 5 and HPV8 inhibit TGF-β and NOTCH signaling. The Mus musculus papillomavirus 1, MmuPV1, infects laboratory mouse strains and causes cutaneous skin warts that can progress to squamous cell carcinomas. MmuPV1 E6 shares biological and biochemical activities with HPV8 E6 including the ability to inhibit TGF-β and NOTCH signaling by binding the SMAD2/SMAD3 and MAML1 transcription factors, respectively. Inhibition of TGF-β and NOTCH signaling is linked to delayed differentiation and sustained proliferation of differentiating keratinocytes. Furthermore, the ability of MmuPV1 E6 to bind MAML1 is necessary for wart and cancer formation in experimentally infected mice. Hence, experimental MmuPV1 infection in mice will be a robust and valuable experimental system to dissect key aspects of cutaneous HPV infection, pathogenesis, and carcinogenesis. PMID:29568286

  10. Characterization of a new B-ALL cell line with constitutional defect of the Notch signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kamga, Paul Takam; Dal Collo, Giada; Bassi, Giulio; Midolo, Martina; Delledonne, Massimo; Chilosi, Marco; Bonifacio, Massimiliano; Krampera, Mauro

    2018-01-01

    Notch signaling contribution to B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) development is still under investigation. The serendipitous onset of B-ALL in a patient affected by the germinal Notch mutation-dependent Alagille syndrome allowed us to establish a B-ALL cell line (VR-ALL) bearing a genetic loss of function in components of Notch signaling. VR-ALL is a common-type B-ALL cell line, grows in conventional culture medium supplemented with 10% serum, and gives rise, once injected into immunodeficient NOG mice, to a mouse xenograft model of B-ALL. Exome sequencing revealed deleterious mutations in some components of Notch signaling, including Jagged1, Notch1, and Notch2. In addition, VR-ALL is sensitive both in vitro and in vivo to γ-secretase inhibitors (GSIs) as well as conventional anti-leukemic drugs. For all these reasons, VR-ALL may help to gain more insights into the role of Notch signaling in B-ALL. PMID:29719609

  11. Aberrant T Cell Signaling and Subsets in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Katsuyama, Takayuki; Tsokos, George C; Moulton, Vaishali R

    2018-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic multi-organ debilitating autoimmune disease, which mainly afflicts women in the reproductive years. A complex interaction of genetics, environmental factors and hormones result in the breakdown of immune tolerance to "self" leading to damage and destruction of multiple organs, such as the skin, joints, kidneys, heart and brain. Both innate and adaptive immune systems are critically involved in the misguided immune response against self-antigens. Dendritic cells, neutrophils, and innate lymphoid cells are important in initiating antigen presentation and propagating inflammation at lymphoid and peripheral tissue sites. Autoantibodies produced by B lymphocytes and immune complex deposition in vital organs contribute to tissue damage. T lymphocytes are increasingly being recognized as key contributors to disease pathogenesis. CD4 T follicular helper cells enable autoantibody production, inflammatory Th17 subsets promote inflammation, while defects in regulatory T cells lead to unchecked immune responses. A better understanding of the molecular defects including signaling events and gene regulation underlying the dysfunctional T cells in SLE is necessary to pave the path for better management, therapy, and perhaps prevention of this complex disease. In this review, we focus on the aberrations in T cell signaling in SLE and highlight therapeutic advances in this field.

  12. Aberrant T Cell Signaling and Subsets in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Katsuyama, Takayuki; Tsokos, George C.; Moulton, Vaishali R.

    2018-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic multi-organ debilitating autoimmune disease, which mainly afflicts women in the reproductive years. A complex interaction of genetics, environmental factors and hormones result in the breakdown of immune tolerance to “self” leading to damage and destruction of multiple organs, such as the skin, joints, kidneys, heart and brain. Both innate and adaptive immune systems are critically involved in the misguided immune response against self-antigens. Dendritic cells, neutrophils, and innate lymphoid cells are important in initiating antigen presentation and propagating inflammation at lymphoid and peripheral tissue sites. Autoantibodies produced by B lymphocytes and immune complex deposition in vital organs contribute to tissue damage. T lymphocytes are increasingly being recognized as key contributors to disease pathogenesis. CD4 T follicular helper cells enable autoantibody production, inflammatory Th17 subsets promote inflammation, while defects in regulatory T cells lead to unchecked immune responses. A better understanding of the molecular defects including signaling events and gene regulation underlying the dysfunctional T cells in SLE is necessary to pave the path for better management, therapy, and perhaps prevention of this complex disease. In this review, we focus on the aberrations in T cell signaling in SLE and highlight therapeutic advances in this field. PMID:29868033

  13. [Valsartan inhibits angiotensin II-Notch signaling of mesangial cells induced by high glucose].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Qin; Lyu, Chuan; Wu, Can; Lei, Sha; Shao, Ying; Wang, Qiuyue

    2016-01-01

    To explore the role of angiotensin II (Ang II)-Notch signaling in high glucose-induced secretion of extracellular matrix of rat mesangial cells (RMCs) and to further investigate the protective effect of valsartan (one of Ang II receptor blockers) on kidney. Subcultured RMCs were divided into groups as follows: normal glucose group (5.5 mmol/L glucose); high glucose group (30 mmol/L glucose); high concentration of mannitol as osmotic control group (5.5 mmol/L glucose and 24.5 mmol/L mannitol); normal glucose plus 1 μmol/L N-[N-(3, 5-difluorophenacetyl)-L-alanyl ]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester (DAPT) group; normal glucose plus (1, 5, 10) μmol/L valsartan group; high glucose plus 1 μmol/L DAPT group; high glucose plus (1, 5, 10) μmol/L valsartan group. Cells and supernatants were harvested after 12, 24 and 48 hours. Notch1 expression was examined by Western blotting. Secretion of transforming growth factor (TGF-β) and fibronectin (FN) were detected by ELISA. Compared to the normal glucose group, Notch1 expression was elevated in the high glucose group after 12 hours, and peaked at 24 hours. Besides, secretion of TGF-β and FN were much higher in the high glucose group than in the normal glucose group in a time-dependent manner. Compared to the untreated group, Notch1 expression decreased in a dose-dependent manner in the valsartan or DAPT treated group under high glucose after 24 hours. After pre-treatment by either valsartan or DAPT in the high glucose group, secretion of TGF-β and FN obviously decreased as compared to the untreated group. Hyperglycemia could stimulate activation of Notch signaling in cultured RMCs, which may increase secretion of downstream fibrotic factors such as TGF-β and FN. Valsartan may decrease the secretion of downstream FN in a dose-dependent manner via inhibiting AngII-Notch signaling.

  14. NOR1 promotes hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation and migration through modulating the Notch signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    You, Kun; Sun, Peisheng; Yue, Zhongyi

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors worldwide. Previous studies have reported that the oxidored-nitro domain containing protein 1 (NOR1) is a novel tumor suppressor in several tumors. Recent evidence suggests that NOR1 is strongly expressed in HCC cells. However, its role and mechanism in HCC are unclear. In the current study, Western blot and qPCR detected strong NOR1 mRNA and protein expression in HepG2 and Hep3B cells. After transfection with NOR1 siRNA or pcDNA3.1-myc-his-NOR1, the proliferation and migration of HepG2 and Hep3B cells were analyzed in vitro. HepG2 or Hep3B cells overexpressing NOR1 showed anmore » increased proliferation and migration, whereas siRNA-mediated silencing of NOR1 showed the opposite effect. Furthermore, NOR1 activated the Notch signaling pathway, indicated by increased levels of Notch1, NICD, Hes1, and Hey1 in protein. Importantly, the Notch inhibitor DAPT downregulated Notch activation and further enhanced siNOR1-induced reduction of cell proliferation and migration in HepG2 and Hep3B cells, whereas DAPT reversed the effect of NOR1 overexpression on cell proliferation and migration. In conclusion, these results indicate that NOR1 may be involved in the progression of HCC and thus may be a potential target for the treatment of liver cancer. - Highlights: • NOR1 expression is up-regulated in HCC cells. • NOR1 promotes the proliferation and migration of HCC cells. • NOR1 promotes the progression of HCC cells by activating Notch pathway.« less

  15. Wnt and Notch signaling pathway involved in wound healing by targeting c-Myc and Hes1 separately.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yan; Shu, Bin; Yang, Ronghua; Xu, Yingbin; Xing, Bangrong; Liu, Jian; Chen, Lei; Qi, Shaohai; Liu, Xusheng; Wang, Peng; Tang, Jinming; Xie, Julin

    2015-06-16

    Wnt and Notch signaling pathways are critically involved in relative cell fate decisions within the development of cutaneous tissues. Moreover, several studies identified the above two pathways as having a significant role during wound healing. However, their biological effects during cutaneous tissues repair are unclear. We employed a self-controlled model (Sprague-Dawley rats with full-thickness skin wounds) to observe the action and effect of Wnt/β-catenin and Notch signalings in vivo. The quality of wound repair relevant to the gain/loss-of-function Wnt/β-catenin and Notch activation was estimated by hematoxylin-and-eosin and Masson staining. Immunofluorescence analysis and Western blot analysis were used to elucidate the underlying mechanism of the regulation of Wnt and Notch signaling pathways in wound healing. Meanwhile, epidermal stem cells (ESCs) were cultured in keratinocyte serum-free medium with Jaggedl or in DAPT (N-[(3,5-difluorophenyl)acetyl]-L-alanyl-2-phenyl]glycine-1,1-dimethylethyl) to investigate whether the interruption of Notch signaling contributes to the expression of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. The results showed that in vivo the gain-of-function Wnt/β-catenin and Notch activation extended the ability to promote wound closure. We further determined that activation or inhibition of Wnt signaling and Notch signaling can affect the proliferation of ESCs, the differentiation and migration of keratinocytes, and follicle regeneration by targeting c-Myc and Hes1, which ultimately lead to enhanced or delayed wound healing. Furthermore, Western blot analysis suggested that the two pathways might interact in vivo and in vitro. These results suggest that Wnt and Notch signalings play important roles in cutaneous repair by targeting c-Myc and Hes1 separately. What's more, interaction between the above two pathways might act as a vital role in regulation of wound healing.

  16. 17β-estradiol regulates the differentiation of cementoblasts via Notch signaling cascade

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Jing; Zhou, Zeyuan; Huang, Li

    Estrogen has been well recognized as a key factor in the homeostasis of bone and periodontal tissue, but the way it regulates the activities of cementoblasts, the cell population maintaining cementum has not been fully understood. In this study, we examined the expression of estrogen receptor in OCCM-30 cells and the effect of 17β-estradiol (E2) on the proliferation and differentiation of OCCM-30 cells. We found that both estrogen receptor α and β were expressed in OCCM-30 cells. E2 exerted no significant influence on the proliferation of OCCM-30 cells, but inhibited the transcription and translation of BSP and Runx2 in the early phase of osteogenicmore » induction except the BSP mRNA. Afterwards in the late phase of osteogenic induction, E2 enhanced the transcription and translation of BSP and Runx2 and promoted the calcium deposition. In addition, the expression level of Notch1, NICD and Hey1 mRNAs responded to exogenous E2 in a pattern similar to that of the osteoblastic markers. DAPT could attenuate the effect of E2 on the expression of osteoblastic markers. These findings indicated that E2 might regulate the differentiation of cementoblasts via Notch signaling. - Highlights: • 17β-estradiol showed no significant effect on the proliferation of cementoblasts. • 17β-estradiol promoted the osteoblastic differentiation of cementoblasts despite of an early transient inhibition. • Notch signaling was regulated by 17β-estradiol and was responsible for mediating the effect of E2 on cementoblasts. • Hey1 might display an opposite expression pattern to Notch signaling in certain circumstances.« less

  17. Sonic Hedgehog promotes proliferation of Notch-dependent monociliated choroid plexus tumour cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Grausam, Katie B.; Wang, Jun; Lun, Melody P.; Ohli, Jasmin; Lidov, Hart G. W.; Calicchio, Monica L.; Zeng, Erliang; Salisbury, Jeffrey L.; Wechsler-Reya, Robert J.; Lehtinen, Maria K.; Schüller, Ulrich; Zhao, Haotian

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant Notch signaling has been linked to many cancers including choroid plexus (CP) tumours, a group of rare and predominantly pediatric brain neoplasms. We developed animal models of CP tumours by inducing sustained expression of Notch1 that recapitulate properties of human CP tumours with aberrant NOTCH signaling. Whole transcriptome and functional analyses showed that tumour cell proliferation is associated with Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) in the tumour microenvironment. Unlike CP epithelial cells, which have multiple primary cilia, tumour cells possess a solitary primary cilium as a result of Notch-mediated suppression of multiciliate diffferentiation. A Shh-driven signaling cascade in the primary cilium occurs in tumour cells but not in epithelial cells. Lineage studies show that CP tumours arise from mono-ciliated progenitors in the roof plate characterized by elevated Notch signaling. Abnormal SHH signaling and distinct ciliogenesis are detected in human CP tumours, suggesting SHH pathway and cilia differentiation as potential therapeutic avenues. PMID:26999738

  18. Notch signaling is significantly suppressed in basal cell carcinomas and activation induces basal cell carcinoma cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Feng-Tao; Yu, Mei; Zloty, David; Bell, Robert H; Wang, Eddy; Akhoundsadegh, Noushin; Leung, Gigi; Haegert, Anne; Carr, Nicholas; Shapiro, Jerry; McElwee, Kevin J

    2017-04-01

    A subset of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) are directly derived from hair follicles (HFs). In some respects, HFs can be defined as 'ordered' skin appendage growths, while BCCs can be regarded as 'disordered' skin appendage growths. The aim of the present study was to examine HFs and BCCs to define the expression of common and unique signaling pathways in each skin appendage. Human nodular BCCs, along with HFs and non‑follicular skin epithelium from normal individuals, were examined using microarrays, qPCR, and immunohistochemistry. Subsequently, BCC cells and root sheath keratinocyte cells from HFs were cultured and treated with Notch signaling peptide Jagged1 (JAG1). Gene expression, protein levels, and cell apoptosis susceptibility were assessed using qPCR, immunoblotting, and flow cytometry, respectively. Specific molecular mechanisms were found to be involved in the process of cell self‑renewal in the HFs and BCCs, including Notch and Hedgehog signaling pathways. However, several key Notch signaling factors showed significant differential expression in BCCs compared with HFs. Stimulating Notch signaling with JAG1 induced apoptosis of BCC cells by increasing Fas ligand expression and downstream caspase-8 activation. The present study showed that Notch signaling pathway activity is suppressed in BCCs, and is highly expressed in HFs. Elements of the Notch pathway could, therefore, represent targets for the treatment of BCCs and potentially in hair follicle engineering.

  19. Control of Neural Daughter Cell Proliferation by Multi-level Notch/Su(H)/E(spl)-HLH Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Bivik, Caroline; MacDonald, Ryan B.; Gunnar, Erika; Mazouni, Khalil; Schweisguth, Francois; Thor, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The Notch pathway controls proliferation during development and in adulthood, and is frequently affected in many disorders. However, the genetic sensitivity and multi-layered transcriptional properties of the Notch pathway has made its molecular decoding challenging. Here, we address the complexity of Notch signaling with respect to proliferation, using the developing Drosophila CNS as model. We find that a Notch/Su(H)/E(spl)-HLH cascade specifically controls daughter, but not progenitor proliferation. Additionally, we find that different E(spl)-HLH genes are required in different neuroblast lineages. The Notch/Su(H)/E(spl)-HLH cascade alters daughter proliferation by regulating four key cell cycle factors: Cyclin E, String/Cdc25, E2f and Dacapo (mammalian p21CIP1/p27KIP1/p57Kip2). ChIP and DamID analysis of Su(H) and E(spl)-HLH indicates direct transcriptional regulation of the cell cycle genes, and of the Notch pathway itself. These results point to a multi-level signaling model and may help shed light on the dichotomous proliferative role of Notch signaling in many other systems. PMID:27070787

  20. Notch1-Dll4 signaling and mechanical force regulate leader cell formation during collective cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Riahi, Reza; Sun, Jian; Wang, Shue; Long, Min; Zhang, Donna D.; Wong, Pak Kin

    2015-01-01

    At the onset of collective cell migration, a subset of cells within an initially homogenous population acquires a distinct “leader” phenotype with characteristic morphology and motility. However, the factors driving leader cell formation as well as the mechanisms regulating leader cell density during the migration process remain to be determined. Here, we use single cell gene expression analysis and computational modeling to show that leader cell identity is dynamically regulated by Dll4 signaling through both Notch1 and cellular stress in a migrating epithelium. Time-lapse microscopy reveals that Dll4 is induced in leader cells after the creation of the cell-free region and leader cells are regulated via Notch1-Dll4 lateral inhibition. Furthermore, mechanical stress inhibits Dll4 expression and leader cell formation in the monolayer. Collectively, our findings suggest that a reduction of mechanical force near the boundary promotes Notch1-Dll4 signaling to dynamically regulate the density of leader cells during collective cell migration. PMID:25766473

  1. Shaping of inner ear sensory organs through antagonistic interactions between Notch signalling and Lmx1a

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Zoe F; Chen, Ziqi; Chrysostomou, Elena; Żak, Magdalena; Kang, Miso; Canden, Elachumee

    2017-01-01

    The mechanisms of formation of the distinct sensory organs of the inner ear and the non-sensory domains that separate them are still unclear. Here, we show that several sensory patches arise by progressive segregation from a common prosensory domain in the embryonic chicken and mouse otocyst. This process is regulated by mutually antagonistic signals: Notch signalling and Lmx1a. Notch-mediated lateral induction promotes prosensory fate. Some of the early Notch-active cells, however, are normally diverted from this fate and increasing lateral induction produces misshapen or fused sensory organs in the chick. Conversely Lmx1a (or cLmx1b in the chick) allows sensory organ segregation by antagonizing lateral induction and promoting commitment to the non-sensory fate. Our findings highlight the dynamic nature of sensory patch formation and the labile character of the sensory-competent progenitors, which could have facilitated the emergence of new inner ear organs and their functional diversification in the course of evolution. PMID:29199954

  2. Epithelial-stromal interaction via Notch signaling is essential for the full maturation of gut-associated lymphoid tissues.

    PubMed

    Obata, Yuuki; Kimura, Shunsuke; Nakato, Gaku; Iizuka, Keito; Miyagawa, Yurika; Nakamura, Yutaka; Furusawa, Yukihiro; Sugiyama, Machiko; Suzuki, Keiichiro; Ebisawa, Masashi; Fujimura, Yumiko; Yoshida, Hisahiro; Iwanaga, Toshihiko; Hase, Koji; Ohno, Hiroshi

    2014-12-01

    Intrinsic Notch signaling in intestinal epithelial cells restricts secretory cell differentiation. In gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), stromal cells located beneath the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) abundantly express the Notch ligand delta-like 1 (Dll1). Here, we show that mice lacking Rbpj-a gene encoding a transcription factor implicated in Notch signaling-in intestinal epithelial cells have defective GALT maturation. This defect can be attributed to the expansion of goblet cells, which leads to the down-regulation of CCL20 in FAE. These data demonstrate that epithelial Notch signaling maintained by stromal cells contributes to the full maturation of GALT by restricting secretory cell differentiation in FAE. © 2014 The Authors.

  3. Transient gamma-secretase inhibition accelerates and enhances fracture repair likely via Notch signaling modulation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cuicui; Shen, Jie; Yukata, Kiminori; Inzana, Jason A.; O'Keefe, Regis J.; Awad, Hani A.; Hilton, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 10% of skeletal fractures result in healing complications and non-union, while most fractures repair with appropriate stabilization and without pharmacologic intervention. It is the latter injuries that cannot be underestimated as the expenses associated with their treatment and subsequent lost productivity are predicted to increase to over $74 billion by 2015. During fracture repair, local mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSCs) differentiate to form new cartilage and bone, reminiscent of events during skeletal development. We previously demonstrated that permanent loss of gamma-secretase activity and Notch signaling accelerates bone and cartilage formation from MSC progenitors during skeletal development, leading to pathologic acquisition of bone and depletion of bone marrow derived MSCs. Here, we investigated whether transient and systemic gamma-secretase and Notch inhibition is capable of accelerating and enhancing fracture repair by promoting controlled MSC differentiation near the fracture site. Our radiographic, microCT, histological, cell and molecular analyses reveal that single and intermittent gamma-secretase inhibitor (GSI) treatments significantly enhance cartilage and bone callus formation via the promotion of MSC differentiation, resulting in only a moderate reduction of local MSCs. Biomechanical testing further demonstrates that GSI treated fractures exhibit superior strength earlier in the healing process, with single dose GSI treated fractures exhibiting bone strength approaching that of un-fractured tibiae. These data further establish that transient inhibition of gamma-secretase activity and Notch signaling temporarily increases osteoclastogenesis and accelerates bone remodeling, which coupled with the effects on MSCs likely explains the accelerated and enhanced fracture repair. Therefore, we propose that the Notch pathway serves as an important therapeutic target during skeletal fracture repair. PMID:25527421

  4. Reciprocal signalling by Notch-Collagen V-CALCR retains muscle stem cells in their niche.

    PubMed

    Baghdadi, Meryem B; Castel, David; Machado, Léo; Fukada, So-Ichiro; Birk, David E; Relaix, Frederic; Tajbakhsh, Shahragim; Mourikis, Philippos

    2018-05-01

    The cell microenvironment, which is critical for stem cell maintenance, contains both cellular and non-cellular components, including secreted growth factors and the extracellular matrix 1-3 . Although Notch and other signalling pathways have previously been reported to regulate quiescence of stem cells 4-9 , the composition and source of molecules that maintain the stem cell niche remain largely unknown. Here we show that adult muscle satellite (stem) cells in mice produce extracellular matrix collagens to maintain quiescence in a cell-autonomous manner. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing, we identified NOTCH1/RBPJ-bound regulatory elements adjacent to specific collagen genes, the expression of which is deregulated in Notch-mutant mice. Moreover, we show that Collagen V (COLV) produced by satellite cells is a critical component of the quiescent niche, as depletion of COLV by conditional deletion of the Col5a1 gene leads to anomalous cell cycle entry and gradual diminution of the stem cell pool. Notably, the interaction of COLV with satellite cells is mediated by the Calcitonin receptor, for which COLV acts as a surrogate local ligand. Systemic administration of a calcitonin derivative is sufficient to rescue the quiescence and self-renewal defects found in COLV-null satellite cells. This study reveals a Notch-COLV-Calcitonin receptor signalling cascade that maintains satellite cells in a quiescent state in a cell-autonomous fashion, and raises the possibility that similar reciprocal mechanisms act in diverse stem cell populations.

  5. Inhibition of myostatin signaling through Notch activation following acute resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, Matthew G; Hamilton, David Lee; Pepin, Mark; Patton, Amy; Baar, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Myostatin is a TGFβ family member and negative regulator of muscle size. Due to the complexity of the molecular pathway between myostatin mRNA/protein and changes in transcription, it has been difficult to understand whether myostatin plays a role in resistance exercise-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy. To circumvent this problem, we determined the expression of a unique myostatin target gene, Mighty, following resistance exercise. Mighty mRNA increased by 6 h (82.9 ± 24.21%) and remained high out to 48 h (56.5 ± 19.67%) after resistance exercise. Further examination of the soleus, plantaris and tibialis anterior muscles showed that the change in Mighty mRNA at 6 h correlated with the increase in muscle size associated with this protocol (R(2) = 0.9996). The increase in Mighty mRNA occurred both independent of Smad2 phosphorylation and in spite of an increase in myostatin mRNA (341.8 ± 147.14% at 3 h). The myostatin inhibitor SKI remained unchanged. However, activated Notch, another potential inhibitor of TGFβ signaling, increased immediately following resistance exercise (83 ± 11.2%) and stayed elevated out to 6 h (78 ± 16.6%). Electroportion of the Notch intracellular domain into the tibialis anterior resulted in an increase in Mighty mRNA (63 ± 13.4%) that was equivalent to the canonical Notch target HES-1 (94.4 ± 7.32%). These data suggest that acute resistance exercise decreases myostatin signaling through the activation of the TGFβ inhibitor Notch resulting in a decrease in myostatin transcriptional activity that correlates well with muscle hypertrophy.

  6. NADPH Oxidase 1 Modulates WNT and NOTCH1 Signaling To Control the Fate of Proliferative Progenitor Cells in the Colon▿

    PubMed Central

    Coant, Nicolas; Ben Mkaddem, Sanae; Pedruzzi, Eric; Guichard, Cécile; Tréton, Xavier; Ducroc, Robert; Freund, Jean-Noel; Cazals-Hatem, Dominique; Bouhnik, Yoram; Woerther, Paul-Louis; Skurnik, David; Grodet, Alain; Fay, Michèle; Biard, Denis; Lesuffleur, Thécla; Deffert, Christine; Moreau, Richard; Groyer, André; Krause, Karl-Heinz; Daniel, Fanny; Ogier-Denis, Eric

    2010-01-01

    The homeostatic self-renewal of the colonic epithelium requires coordinated regulation of the canonical Wnt/β-catenin and Notch signaling pathways to control proliferation and lineage commitment of multipotent stem cells. However, the molecular mechanisms by which the Wnt/β-catenin and Notch1 pathways interplay in controlling cell proliferation and fate in the colon are poorly understood. Here we show that NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX1), a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-producing oxidase that is highly expressed in colonic epithelial cells, is a pivotal determinant of cell proliferation and fate that integrates Wnt/β-catenin and Notch1 signals. NOX1-deficient mice reveal a massive conversion of progenitor cells into postmitotic goblet cells at the cost of colonocytes due to the concerted repression of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/Wnt/β-catenin and Notch1 signaling. This conversion correlates with the following: (i) the redox-dependent activation of the dual phosphatase PTEN, causing the inactivation of the Wnt pathway effector β-catenin, and (ii) the downregulation of Notch1 signaling that provokes derepression of mouse atonal homolog 1 (Math1) expression. We conclude that NOX1 controls the balance between goblet and absorptive cell types in the colon by coordinately modulating PI3K/AKT/Wnt/β-catenin and Notch1 signaling. This finding provides the molecular basis for the role of NOX1 in cell proliferation and postmitotic differentiation. PMID:20351171

  7. Requirement for Jagged1-Notch2 signaling in patterning the bones of the mouse and human middle ear.

    PubMed

    Teng, Camilla S; Yen, Hai-Yun; Barske, Lindsey; Smith, Bea; Llamas, Juan; Segil, Neil; Go, John; Sanchez-Lara, Pedro A; Maxson, Robert E; Crump, J Gage

    2017-05-31

    Whereas Jagged1-Notch2 signaling is known to pattern the sensorineural components of the inner ear, its role in middle ear development has been less clear. We previously reported a role for Jagged-Notch signaling in shaping skeletal elements derived from the first two pharyngeal arches of zebrafish. Here we show a conserved requirement for Jagged1-Notch2 signaling in patterning the stapes and incus middle ear bones derived from the equivalent pharyngeal arches of mammals. Mice lacking Jagged1 or Notch2 in neural crest-derived cells (NCCs) of the pharyngeal arches display a malformed stapes. Heterozygous Jagged1 knockout mice, a model for Alagille Syndrome (AGS), also display stapes and incus defects. We find that Jagged1-Notch2 signaling functions early to pattern the stapes cartilage template, with stapes malformations correlating with hearing loss across all frequencies. We observe similar stapes defects and hearing loss in one patient with heterozygous JAGGED1 loss, and a diversity of conductive and sensorineural hearing loss in nearly half of AGS patients, many of which carry JAGGED1 mutations. Our findings reveal deep conservation of Jagged1-Notch2 signaling in patterning the pharyngeal arches from fish to mouse to man, despite the very different functions of their skeletal derivatives in jaw support and sound transduction.

  8. Notch ligands Delta1 and Jagged1 transmit distinct signals to T-cell precursors

    PubMed Central

    Lehar, Sophie M.; Dooley, James; Farr, Andrew G.; Bevan, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Signaling through the Notch pathway plays an essential role in inducing T-lineage commitment and promoting the maturation of immature thymocytes. Using an in vitro culture system, we show that 2 different classes of Notch ligands, Jagged1 or Delta1, transmit distinct signals to T-cell progenitors. OP9 stromal cells expressing either Jagged1 or Delta1 inhibit the differentiation of DN1 thymocytes into the B-cell lineage, but only the Delta1-expressing stromal cells promote the proliferation and maturation of T-cell progenitors through the early double-negative (DN) stages of thymocyte development. Whereas the majority of bone marrow-derived stem cells do not respond to Jagged1 signals, T-cell progenitors respond to Jagged1 signals during a brief window of their development between the DN1 and DN3 stages of thymic development. During these stages, Jagged1 signals can influence the differentiation of immature thymocytes along the natural killer (NK) and γδ T-cell lineages. PMID:15486060

  9. COE inhibits vasculogenic mimicry in hepatocellular carcinoma via suppressing Notch1 signaling.

    PubMed

    Jue, Chen; Min, Zhao; Zhisheng, Zhang; Lin, Cui; Yayun, Qian; Xuanyi, Wang; Feng, Jin; Haibo, Wang; Youyang, Shi; Tadashi, Hisamitsu; Shintaro, Ishikawa; Shiyu, Guo; Yanqing, Liu

    2017-08-17

    Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) has been suggested to be present in various malignant tumors and associated with tumor nutrition supply and metastasis, leading to poor prognosis of patients. Notch1 has been demonstrated to contribute to VM formation in hepathocellular carcinoma (HCC). Celastrus orbiculatus extract (COE), a mixture of 11 terpenoids isolated from the Chinese Herb Celastrus orbiculatus Vine, has been suggested to be effective in cancer treatment. In the current study, experiments were carried out to examine the effect of COE on VM formation and HCC tumor growth both in vitro and in vivo. CCK-8 assay and Nikon live-work station were used to observe the viability of malignant cells treated with COE. Cell invasion was examined using Transwell. Matrigel was used to establish a 3-D culture condition for VM formation. Changes of mRNA and protein expression were examined by RT-PCR and Western Blot respectively. Tumor growth in vivo was monitored using in vivo fluorescence imaging device. PAS-CD34 dual staining and electron microscopy were used to observe VM formation. Immunohistochemical staining (IHC) was used to examine Notch1 and Hes1 expression in tumor tissues. Results showed that COE can inhibit HCC cells proliferation and invasion in a concentration-dependent manner. VM formation induced by TGF-β1 was blocked by COE. In mouse xenograft model, COE inhibited tumor growth and VM formation. Both in vitro and in vivo studies showed that COE can downregulate expression of Notch1 and Hes1. The current results indicate that COE can inhibit VM formation and HCC tumor growth by downregulating Notch1 signaling. This study demonstrates that COE is superior to other anti-angiogenesis agents and can be considered as a promising candidate in HCC treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. An endothelial cell niche induces hepatic specification through dual repression of Wnt and Notch signaling

    PubMed Central

    Han, Songyan; Dziedzic, Noelle; Gadue, Paul; Keller, Gordon M.; Gouon-Evans, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    Complex cross-talk between endoderm and the microenvironment is an absolute requirement to orchestrate hepatic specification and expansion. In the mouse, the septum transversum and cardiac mesoderm, through secreted BMPs and FGFs, respectively, instruct the adjacent ventral endoderm to become hepatic endoderm. Consecutively, endothelial cells promote expansion of the specified hepatic endoderm. Using a mouse reporter embryonic stem (ES) cell line in which hCD4 and hCD25 were targeted to the Foxa2 and Foxa3 loci, we reconstituted an in vitro culture system in which committed endoderm cells co-expressing hCD4-Foxa2 and hCD25-Foxa3 were isolated, and co-cultured with endothelial cells in the presence of BMP4 and bFGF. In this culture setting, we provide mechanistic evidence that endothelial cells function not only to promote hepatic endoderm expansion, but are also required at an earlier step for hepatic specification, at least in part through regulation of the Wnt and Notch pathways. Activation of Wnt and Notch by chemical or genetic approaches increases endoderm cell numbers but inhibits hepatic specification, and conversely, chemical inhibition of both pathways enhances hepatic specification and reduces proliferation. Using identical co-culture conditions, we defined a similar dependence of endoderm harvested from embryos on endothelial cells to support their growth and hepatic specification. Our findings (1) confirm a conserved role of Wnt repression for mouse hepatic specification, (2) uncover a novel role for Notch repression in the hepatic fate decision, and (3) demonstrate that repression of Wnt and Notch signaling in hepatic endoderm is controlled by the endothelial cell niche. PMID:21732480

  11. Integrated β-catenin, BMP, PTEN, and Notch signalling patterns the nephron

    PubMed Central

    Lindström, Nils O; Lawrence, Melanie L; Burn, Sally F; Johansson, Jeanette A; Bakker, Elvira RM; Ridgway, Rachel A; Chang, C-Hong; Karolak, Michele J; Oxburgh, Leif; Headon, Denis J; Sansom, Owen J; Smits, Ron; Davies, Jamie A; Hohenstein, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The different segments of the nephron and glomerulus in the kidney balance the processes of water homeostasis, solute recovery, blood filtration, and metabolite excretion. When segment function is disrupted, a range of pathological features are presented. Little is known about nephron patterning during embryogenesis. In this study, we demonstrate that the early nephron is patterned by a gradient in β-catenin activity along the axis of the nephron tubule. By modifying β-catenin activity, we force cells within nephrons to differentiate according to the imposed β-catenin activity level, thereby causing spatial shifts in nephron segments. The β-catenin signalling gradient interacts with the BMP pathway which, through PTEN/PI3K/AKT signalling, antagonises β-catenin activity and promotes segment identities associated with low β-catenin activity. β-catenin activity and PI3K signalling also integrate with Notch signalling to control segmentation: modulating β-catenin activity or PI3K rescues segment identities normally lost by inhibition of Notch. Our data therefore identifies a molecular network for nephron patterning. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04000.001 PMID:25647637

  12. Integrated β-catenin, BMP, PTEN, and Notch signalling patterns the nephron.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Nils O; Lawrence, Melanie L; Burn, Sally F; Johansson, Jeanette A; Bakker, Elvira R M; Ridgway, Rachel A; Chang, C-Hong; Karolak, Michele J; Oxburgh, Leif; Headon, Denis J; Sansom, Owen J; Smits, Ron; Davies, Jamie A; Hohenstein, Peter

    2015-02-03

    The different segments of the nephron and glomerulus in the kidney balance the processes of water homeostasis, solute recovery, blood filtration, and metabolite excretion. When segment function is disrupted, a range of pathological features are presented. Little is known about nephron patterning during embryogenesis. In this study, we demonstrate that the early nephron is patterned by a gradient in β-catenin activity along the axis of the nephron tubule. By modifying β-catenin activity, we force cells within nephrons to differentiate according to the imposed β-catenin activity level, thereby causing spatial shifts in nephron segments. The β-catenin signalling gradient interacts with the BMP pathway which, through PTEN/PI3K/AKT signalling, antagonises β-catenin activity and promotes segment identities associated with low β-catenin activity. β-catenin activity and PI3K signalling also integrate with Notch signalling to control segmentation: modulating β-catenin activity or PI3K rescues segment identities normally lost by inhibition of Notch. Our data therefore identifies a molecular network for nephron patterning.

  13. Competition between Jagged-Notch and Endothelin1 Signaling Selectively Restricts Cartilage Formation in the Zebrafish Upper Face

    PubMed Central

    Barske, Lindsey; Askary, Amjad; Zuniga, Elizabeth; Balczerski, Bartosz; Bump, Paul; Nichols, James T.; Crump, J. Gage

    2016-01-01

    The intricate shaping of the facial skeleton is essential for function of the vertebrate jaw and middle ear. While much has been learned about the signaling pathways and transcription factors that control facial patterning, the downstream cellular mechanisms dictating skeletal shapes have remained unclear. Here we present genetic evidence in zebrafish that three major signaling pathways − Jagged-Notch, Endothelin1 (Edn1), and Bmp − regulate the pattern of facial cartilage and bone formation by controlling the timing of cartilage differentiation along the dorsoventral axis of the pharyngeal arches. A genomic analysis of purified facial skeletal precursors in mutant and overexpression embryos revealed a core set of differentiation genes that were commonly repressed by Jagged-Notch and induced by Edn1. Further analysis of the pre-cartilage condensation gene barx1, as well as in vivo imaging of cartilage differentiation, revealed that cartilage forms first in regions of high Edn1 and low Jagged-Notch activity. Consistent with a role of Jagged-Notch signaling in restricting cartilage differentiation, loss of Notch pathway components resulted in expanded barx1 expression in the dorsal arches, with mutation of barx1 rescuing some aspects of dorsal skeletal patterning in jag1b mutants. We also identified prrx1a and prrx1b as negative Edn1 and positive Bmp targets that function in parallel to Jagged-Notch signaling to restrict the formation of dorsal barx1+ pre-cartilage condensations. Simultaneous loss of jag1b and prrx1a/b better rescued lower facial defects of edn1 mutants than loss of either pathway alone, showing that combined overactivation of Jagged-Notch and Bmp/Prrx1 pathways contribute to the absence of cartilage differentiation in the edn1 mutant lower face. These findings support a model in which Notch-mediated restriction of cartilage differentiation, particularly in the second pharyngeal arch, helps to establish a distinct skeletal pattern in the upper

  14. Notch3 signaling is associated with MUC5AC expression and favorable prognosis in patients with small intestinal adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Eom, Dae-Woon; Hong, Seung-Mo; Kim, Jihun; Kim, Gwangil; Bae, Young Kyung; Jang, Kee-Taek; Yu, Eunsil

    2014-08-01

    Notch signaling plays diverse roles not only in physiologic processes, including development and differentiation but also in tumorigenesis, either as a tumor promoter or suppressor depending on the cellular context, level of expression and cross-talk with other signaling pathways. In this study we investigated the expression of Notch3 and MUC proteins and their clinicopathological significance in small intestinal adenocarcinoma (SIAC). Surgically resected 191 SIACs and their clinical data were collected. Immunohistochemistry for Notch3, MUC2, MUC5AC, and MUC6 using tissue microarrays from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded normal and matched tumor tissues was performed. Notch3 expression was found in 52 (29.9%) cases of the tumors. MUC2, MUC5AC, and MUC6 were expressed in 52 (27.5%), 51 (31.9%), and 42 (22.0%) cases of the tumor, respectively. Notch3 expression was correlated with the absence of lymphovascular invasion (p=0.009), lower T stage (p=0.038), and histological subtype of tubular adenocarcinoma (p=0.01), respectively. MUC2 was correlated with large tumor size (p=0.013) and mucinous and signet ring cell adenocarcinomas (p=0.01). MUC5A was correlated with proximal tumor location (p<0.0001) and tumor differentiation (p=0.027). MUC6 was correlated with proximal tumor location (p<0.0001) and lower pT stage (p=0.009), and absence of lymphovascular invasion, respectively. A significant correlation was noted between Notch3 and MUC5AC expression (p=0.019). Notch3 expression was a relatively favorable prognostic factor in SIACs by univariate (p=0.05) and multivariate analysis (p=0.08, Cox Hazard ratio 0.841). Our findings indicate that Notch3 signaling, associated with MUC5AC expression, could be a more favorable prognostic factor in SIACs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Notch signaling sustains the expression of Mcl-1 and the activity of eIF4E to promote cell survival in CLL

    PubMed Central

    De Falco, Filomena; Sabatini, Rita; Del Papa, Beatrice; Falzetti, Franca; Di Ianni, Mauro; Sportoletti, Paolo; Baldoni, Stefano; Screpanti, Isabella; Marconi, Pierfrancesco; Rosati, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), Notch1 and Notch2 signaling is constitutively activated and contributes to apoptosis resistance. We show that genetic inhibition of either Notch1 or Notch2, through small-interfering RNA, increases apoptosis of CLL cells and is associated with decreased levels of the anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1. Thus, Notch signaling promotes CLL cell survival at least in part by sustaining Mcl-1 expression. In CLL cells, an enhanced Notch activation also contributes to the increase in Mcl-1 expression and cell survival induced by IL-4. Mcl-1 downregulation by Notch targeting is not due to reduced transcription or degradation by caspases, but in part, to increased degradation by the proteasome. Mcl-1 downregulation by Notch targeting is also accompanied by reduced phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E), suggesting that this protein is another target of Notch signaling in CLL cells. Overall, we show that Notch signaling sustains CLL cell survival by promoting Mcl-1 expression and eIF4E activity, and given the oncogenic role of these factors, we underscore the therapeutic potential of Notch inhibition in CLL. PMID:26041884

  16. Notch signaling patterns neurogenic ectoderm and regulates the asymmetric division of neural progenitors in sea urchin embryos.

    PubMed

    Mellott, Dan O; Thisdelle, Jordan; Burke, Robert D

    2017-10-01

    We have examined regulation of neurogenesis by Delta/Notch signaling in sea urchin embryos. At gastrulation, neural progenitors enter S phase coincident with expression of Sp-SoxC. We used a BAC containing GFP knocked into the Sp-SoxC locus to label neural progenitors. Live imaging and immunolocalizations indicate that Sp-SoxC-expressing cells divide to produce pairs of adjacent cells expressing GFP. Over an interval of about 6 h, one cell fragments, undergoes apoptosis and expresses high levels of activated Caspase3. A Notch reporter indicates that Notch signaling is activated in cells adjacent to cells expressing Sp-SoxC. Inhibition of γ-secretase, injection of Sp-Delta morpholinos or CRISPR/Cas9-induced mutation of Sp-Delta results in supernumerary neural progenitors and neurons. Interfering with Notch signaling increases neural progenitor recruitment and pairs of neural progenitors. Thus, Notch signaling restricts the number of neural progenitors recruited and regulates the fate of progeny of the asymmetric division. We propose a model in which localized signaling converts ectodermal and ciliary band cells to neural progenitors that divide asymmetrically to produce a neural precursor and an apoptotic cell. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Regulation of differentiation flux by Notch signalling influences the number of dopaminergic neurons in the adult brain

    PubMed Central

    Trujillo-Paredes, Niurka; Valencia, Concepción; Guerrero-Flores, Gilda; Arzate, Dulce-María; Baizabal, José-Manuel; Guerra-Crespo, Magdalena; Fuentes-Hernández, Ayari; Zea-Armenta, Iván; Covarrubias, Luis

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Notch signalling is a well-established pathway that regulates neurogenesis. However, little is known about the role of Notch signalling in specific neuronal differentiation. Using Dll1 null mice, we found that Notch signalling has no function in the specification of mesencephalic dopaminergic neural precursor cells (NPCs), but plays an important role in regulating their expansion and differentiation into neurons. Premature neuronal differentiation was observed in mesencephalons of Dll1-deficient mice or after treatment with a Notch signalling inhibitor. Coupling between neurogenesis and dopaminergic differentiation was indicated from the coincident emergence of neuronal and dopaminergic markers. Early in differentiation, decreasing Notch signalling caused a reduction in NPCs and an increase in dopaminergic neurons in association with dynamic changes in the proportion of sequentially-linked dopaminergic NPCs (Msx1/2+, Ngn2+, Nurr1+). These effects in differentiation caused a significant reduction in the number of dopaminergic neurons produced. Accordingly, Dll1 haploinsufficient adult mice, in comparison with their wild-type littermates, have a consistent reduction in neuronal density that was particularly evident in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Our results are in agreement with a mathematical model based on a Dll1-mediated regulatory feedback loop between early progenitors and their dividing precursors that controls the emergence and number of dopaminergic neurons. PMID:26912775

  18. Regulation of differentiation flux by Notch signalling influences the number of dopaminergic neurons in the adult brain.

    PubMed

    Trujillo-Paredes, Niurka; Valencia, Concepción; Guerrero-Flores, Gilda; Arzate, Dulce-María; Baizabal, José-Manuel; Guerra-Crespo, Magdalena; Fuentes-Hernández, Ayari; Zea-Armenta, Iván; Covarrubias, Luis

    2016-02-24

    Notch signalling is a well-established pathway that regulates neurogenesis. However, little is known about the role of Notch signalling in specific neuronal differentiation. Using Dll1 null mice, we found that Notch signalling has no function in the specification of mesencephalic dopaminergic neural precursor cells (NPCs), but plays an important role in regulating their expansion and differentiation into neurons. Premature neuronal differentiation was observed in mesencephalons of Dll1-deficient mice or after treatment with a Notch signalling inhibitor. Coupling between neurogenesis and dopaminergic differentiation was indicated from the coincident emergence of neuronal and dopaminergic markers. Early in differentiation, decreasing Notch signalling caused a reduction in NPCs and an increase in dopaminergic neurons in association with dynamic changes in the proportion of sequentially-linked dopaminergic NPCs (Msx1/2+, Ngn2+, Nurr1+). These effects in differentiation caused a significant reduction in the number of dopaminergic neurons produced. Accordingly, Dll1 haploinsufficient adult mice, in comparison with their wild-type littermates, have a consistent reduction in neuronal density that was particularly evident in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Our results are in agreement with a mathematical model based on a Dll1-mediated regulatory feedback loop between early progenitors and their dividing precursors that controls the emergence and number of dopaminergic neurons. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Fgf signaling controls pharyngeal taste bud formation through miR-200 and Delta-Notch activity.

    PubMed

    Kapsimali, Marika; Kaushik, Anna-Lila; Gibon, Guillaume; Dirian, Lara; Ernest, Sylvain; Rosa, Frederic M

    2011-08-01

    Taste buds, the taste sensory organs, are conserved in vertebrates and composed of distinct cell types, including taste receptor, basal/presynaptic and support cells. Here, we characterize zebrafish taste bud development and show that compromised Fgf signaling in the larva results in taste bud reduction and disorganization. We determine that Fgf activity is required within pharyngeal endoderm for formation of Calb2b(+) cells and reveal miR-200 and Delta-Notch signaling as key factors in this process. miR-200 knock down shows that miR-200 activity is required for taste bud formation and in particular for Calb2b(+) cell formation. Compromised delta activity in mib(-/-) dramatically reduces the number of Calb2b(+) cells and increases the number of 5HT(+) cells. Conversely, larvae with increased Notch activity and ascl1a(-/-) mutants are devoid of 5HT(+) cells, but have maintained and increased Calb2b(+) cells, respectively. These results show that Delta-Notch signaling is required for intact taste bud organ formation. Consistent with this, Notch activity restores Calb2b(+) cell formation in pharyngeal endoderm with compromised Fgf signaling, but fails to restore the formation of these cells after miR-200 knock down. Altogether, this study provides genetic evidence that supports a novel model where Fgf regulates Delta-Notch signaling, and subsequently miR-200 activity, in order to promote taste bud cell type differentiation.

  20. Notch1–STAT3–ETBR signaling axis controls reactive astrocyte proliferation after brain injury

    PubMed Central

    LeComte, Matthew D.; Shimada, Issei S.; Sherwin, Casey; Spees, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Defining the signaling network that controls reactive astrogliosis may provide novel treatment targets for patients with diverse CNS injuries and pathologies. We report that the radial glial cell antigen RC2 identifies the majority of proliferating glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive (GFAP+) reactive astrocytes after stroke. These cells highly expressed endothelin receptor type B (ETBR) and Jagged1, a Notch1 receptor ligand. To study signaling in adult reactive astrocytes, we developed a model based on reactive astrocyte-derived neural stem cells isolated from GFAP-CreER-Notch1 conditional knockout (cKO) mice. By loss- and gain-of-function studies and promoter activity assays, we found that Jagged1/Notch1 signaling increased ETBR expression indirectly by raising the level of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), a previously unidentified EDNRB transcriptional activator. Similar to inducible transgenic GFAP-CreER-Notch1-cKO mice, GFAP-CreER-ETBR-cKO mice exhibited a defect in reactive astrocyte proliferation after cerebral ischemia. Our results indicate that the Notch1–STAT3–ETBR axis connects a signaling network that promotes reactive astrocyte proliferation after brain injury. PMID:26124113

  1. Fast Synchronization of Ultradian Oscillators Controlled by Delta-Notch Signaling with Cis-Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Tiedemann, Hendrik B.; Schneltzer, Elida; Zeiser, Stefan; Wurst, Wolfgang; Beckers, Johannes; Przemeck, Gerhard K. H.; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin

    2014-01-01

    While it is known that a large fraction of vertebrate genes are under the control of a gene regulatory network (GRN) forming a clock with circadian periodicity, shorter period oscillatory genes like the Hairy-enhancer-of split (Hes) genes are discussed mostly in connection with the embryonic process of somitogenesis. They form the core of the somitogenesis-clock, which orchestrates the periodic separation of somites from the presomitic mesoderm (PSM). The formation of sharp boundaries between the blocks of many cells works only when the oscillators in the cells forming the boundary are synchronized. It has been shown experimentally that Delta-Notch (D/N) signaling is responsible for this synchronization. This process has to happen rather fast as a cell experiences at most five oscillations from its ‘birth’ to its incorporation into a somite. Computer simulations describing synchronized oscillators with classical modes of D/N-interaction have difficulties to achieve synchronization in an appropriate time. One approach to solving this problem of modeling fast synchronization in the PSM was the consideration of cell movements. Here we show that fast synchronization of Hes-type oscillators can be achieved without cell movements by including D/N cis-inhibition, wherein the mutual interaction of DELTA and NOTCH in the same cell leads to a titration of ligand against receptor so that only one sort of molecule prevails. Consequently, the symmetry between sender and receiver is partially broken and one cell becomes preferentially sender or receiver at a given moment, which leads to faster entrainment of oscillators. Although not yet confirmed by experiment, the proposed mechanism of enhanced synchronization of mesenchymal cells in the PSM would be a new distinct developmental mechanism employing D/N cis-inhibition. Consequently, the way in which Delta-Notch signaling was modeled so far should be carefully reconsidered. PMID:25275459

  2. HES1, a target of Notch signaling, is elevated in canine osteosarcoma, but reduced in the most aggressive tumors.

    PubMed

    Dailey, Deanna D; Anfinsen, Kristin P; Pfaff, Liza E; Ehrhart, E J; Charles, J Brad; Bønsdorff, Tina B; Thamm, Douglas H; Powers, Barbara E; Jonasdottir, Thora J; Duval, Dawn L

    2013-07-01

    Hairy and enhancer of split 1 (HES1), a basic helix-loop-helix transcriptional repressor, is a downstream target of Notch signaling. Notch signaling and HES1 expression have been linked to growth and survival in a variety of human cancer types and have been associated with increased metastasis and invasiveness in human osteosarcoma cell lines. Osteosarcoma (OSA) is an aggressive cancer demonstrating both high metastatic rate and chemotherapeutic resistance. The current study examined expression of Notch signaling mediators in primary canine OSA tumors and canine and human osteosarcoma cell lines to assess their role in OSA development and progression. Reverse transcriptase - quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was utilized to quantify HES1, HEY1, NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 gene expression in matched tumor and normal metaphyseal bone samples taken from dogs treated for appendicular OSA at the Colorado State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Gene expression was also assessed in tumors from dogs with a disease free interval (DFI) of <100 days compared to those with a DFI > 300 days following treatment with surgical amputation followed by standard chemotherapy. Immunohistochemistry was performed to confirm expression of HES1. Data from RT-qPCR and immunohistochemical (IHC) experiments were analyzed using REST2009 software and survival analysis based on IHC expression employed the Kaplan-Meier method and log rank analysis. Unbiased clustered images were generated from gene array analysis data for Notch/HES1 associated genes. Gene array analysis of Notch/HES1 associated genes suggested alterations in the Notch signaling pathway may contribute to the development of canine OSA. HES1 mRNA expression was elevated in tumor samples relative to normal bone, but decreased in tumor samples from dogs with a DFI < 100 days relative to those with a DFI > 300 days. NOTCH2 and HEY1 mRNA expression was also elevated in tumors relative to normal bone, but was not differentially expressed

  3. HES1, a target of Notch signaling, is elevated in canine osteosarcoma, but reduced in the most aggressive tumors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hairy and enhancer of split 1 (HES1), a basic helix-loop-helix transcriptional repressor, is a downstream target of Notch signaling. Notch signaling and HES1 expression have been linked to growth and survival in a variety of human cancer types and have been associated with increased metastasis and invasiveness in human osteosarcoma cell lines. Osteosarcoma (OSA) is an aggressive cancer demonstrating both high metastatic rate and chemotherapeutic resistance. The current study examined expression of Notch signaling mediators in primary canine OSA tumors and canine and human osteosarcoma cell lines to assess their role in OSA development and progression. Results Reverse transcriptase - quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was utilized to quantify HES1, HEY1, NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 gene expression in matched tumor and normal metaphyseal bone samples taken from dogs treated for appendicular OSA at the Colorado State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Gene expression was also assessed in tumors from dogs with a disease free interval (DFI) of <100 days compared to those with a DFI > 300 days following treatment with surgical amputation followed by standard chemotherapy. Immunohistochemistry was performed to confirm expression of HES1. Data from RT-qPCR and immunohistochemical (IHC) experiments were analyzed using REST2009 software and survival analysis based on IHC expression employed the Kaplan-Meier method and log rank analysis. Unbiased clustered images were generated from gene array analysis data for Notch/HES1 associated genes. Gene array analysis of Notch/HES1 associated genes suggested alterations in the Notch signaling pathway may contribute to the development of canine OSA. HES1 mRNA expression was elevated in tumor samples relative to normal bone, but decreased in tumor samples from dogs with a DFI < 100 days relative to those with a DFI > 300 days. NOTCH2 and HEY1 mRNA expression was also elevated in tumors relative to normal bone, but was not

  4. Notch3 Signaling-Mediated Melanoma-Endothelial Crosstalk Regulates Melanoma Stem-Like Cell Homeostasis and Niche Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Mei-Yu; Yang, Moon Hee; Schnegg, Caroline I.; Hwang, Soonyean; Ryu, Byungwoo; Alani, Rhoda M.

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma is among the most virulent cancers, owing to its propensity to metastasize and its resistance to current therapies. The treatment failure is largely attributed to tumor heterogeneity, particularly subpopulations possessing stem cell-like properties, i.e., melanoma stem-like cells (MSLCs). Evidence indicates that the MSLC phenotype is malleable and may be acquired by non-MSLCs through phenotypic switching upon appropriate stimuli, the so–called “dynamic stemness”. Since the phenotypic characteristics and functional integrity of MSLCs depend on their vascular niche, using a two dimensional (2D) melanoma-endothelium co-culture model, where the MSLC niche is recapitulated in vitro, we identified Notch3 signaling pathway as a micro-environmental cue governing MSLC phenotypic plasticity via pathway-specific gene expression arrays. Accordingly, lentiviral shRNA-mediated Notch3 knockdown (KD) in melanoma cell lines exhibiting high levels of endogenous Notch3 led to retarded/abolished tumorigenicity in vivo through both depleting MSLC fractions, evinced by MSLC marker down-regulation (e.g., CD133 and CD271); and impeding the MSLC niche, corroborated by the attenuated tumor angiogenesis as well as vasculogenic mimicry. In contrast, Notch3 KD affected neither tumor growth nor MSLC subsets in a melanoma cell line with relatively low endogenous Notch3 expression. Thus, Notch3 signaling may facilitate MSLC plasticity and niche morphogenesis in a cell context-dependent fashion. Our findings illustrate Notch3 as a molecular switch driving melanoma heterogeneity, and provide the biological rationale for Notch inhibition as a promising therapeutic option. PMID:28165469

  5. Notch3 signaling-mediated melanoma-endothelial crosstalk regulates melanoma stem-like cell homeostasis and niche morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Mei-Yu; Yang, Moon Hee; Schnegg, Caroline I; Hwang, Soonyean; Ryu, Byungwoo; Alani, Rhoda M

    2017-06-01

    Melanoma is among the most virulent cancers, owing to its propensity to metastasize and its resistance to current therapies. The treatment failure is largely attributed to tumor heterogeneity, particularly subpopulations possessing stem cell-like properties, ie, melanoma stem-like cells (MSLCs). Evidence indicates that the MSLC phenotype is malleable and may be acquired by non-MSLCs through phenotypic switching upon appropriate stimuli, the so-called 'dynamic stemness'. Since the phenotypic characteristics and functional integrity of MSLCs depend on their vascular niche, using a two-dimensional (2D) melanoma-endothelium co-culture model, where the MSLC niche is recapitulated in vitro, we identified Notch3 signaling pathway as a micro-environmental cue governing MSLC phenotypic plasticity via pathway-specific gene expression arrays. Accordingly, lentiviral shRNA-mediated Notch3 knockdown (KD) in melanoma cell lines exhibiting high levels of endogenous Notch3 led to retarded/abolished tumorigenicity in vivo through both depleting MSLC fractions, evinced by MSLC marker downregulation (eg, CD133 and CD271); and impeding the MSLC niche, corroborated by the attenuated tumor angiogenesis as well as vasculogenic mimicry. In contrast, Notch3 KD affected neither tumor growth nor MSLC subsets in a melanoma cell line with relatively low endogenous Notch3 expression. Thus, Notch3 signaling may facilitate MSLC plasticity and niche morphogenesis in a cell context-dependent manner. Our findings illustrate Notch3 as a molecular switch driving melanoma heterogeneity, and provide the biological rationale for Notch inhibition as a promising therapeutic option.

  6. Thyroid Hormone-Induced Activation of Notch Signaling is Required for Adult Intestinal Stem Cell Development During Xenopus Laevis Metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Hasebe, Takashi; Fujimoto, Kenta; Kajita, Mitsuko; Fu, Liezhen; Shi, Yun-Bo; Ishizuya-Oka, Atsuko

    2017-04-01

    In Xenopus laevis intestine during metamorphosis, the larval epithelial cells are removed by apoptosis, and the adult epithelial stem (AE) cells appear concomitantly. They proliferate and differentiate to form the adult epithelium (Ep). Thyroid hormone (TH) is well established to trigger this remodeling by regulating the expression of various genes including Notch receptor. To study the role of Notch signaling, we have analyzed the expression of its components, including the ligands (DLL and Jag), receptor (Notch), and targets (Hairy), in the metamorphosing intestine by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization or immunohistochemistry. We show that they are up-regulated during both natural and TH-induced metamorphosis in a tissue-specific manner. Particularly, Hairy1 is specifically expressed in the AE cells. Moreover, up-regulation of Hairy1 and Hairy2b by TH was prevented by treating tadpoles with a γ-secretase inhibitor (GSI), which inhibits Notch signaling. More importantly, TH-induced up-regulation of LGR5, an adult intestinal stem cell marker, was suppressed by GSI treatment. Our results suggest that Notch signaling plays a role in stem cell development by regulating the expression of Hairy genes during intestinal remodeling. Furthermore, we show with organ culture experiments that prolonged exposure of tadpole intestine to TH plus GSI leads to hyperplasia of secretory cells and reduction of absorptive cells. Our findings here thus provide evidence for evolutionarily conserved role of Notch signaling in intestinal cell fate determination but more importantly reveal, for the first time, an important role of Notch pathway in the formation of adult intestinal stem cells during vertebrate development. Stem Cells 2017;35:1028-1039. © 2016 The Authors STEM CELLS published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Press.

  7. Thyroid Hormone‐Induced Activation of Notch Signaling is Required for Adult Intestinal Stem Cell Development During Xenopus Laevis Metamorphosis

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Kenta; Kajita, Mitsuko; Fu, Liezhen; Shi, Yun‐Bo; Ishizuya‐Oka, Atsuko

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In Xenopus laevis intestine during metamorphosis, the larval epithelial cells are removed by apoptosis, and the adult epithelial stem (AE) cells appear concomitantly. They proliferate and differentiate to form the adult epithelium (Ep). Thyroid hormone (TH) is well established to trigger this remodeling by regulating the expression of various genes including Notch receptor. To study the role of Notch signaling, we have analyzed the expression of its components, including the ligands (DLL and Jag), receptor (Notch), and targets (Hairy), in the metamorphosing intestine by real‐time reverse transcription‐polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization or immunohistochemistry. We show that they are up‐regulated during both natural and TH‐induced metamorphosis in a tissue‐specific manner. Particularly, Hairy1 is specifically expressed in the AE cells. Moreover, up‐regulation of Hairy1 and Hairy2b by TH was prevented by treating tadpoles with a γ‐secretase inhibitor (GSI), which inhibits Notch signaling. More importantly, TH‐induced up‐regulation of LGR5, an adult intestinal stem cell marker, was suppressed by GSI treatment. Our results suggest that Notch signaling plays a role in stem cell development by regulating the expression of Hairy genes during intestinal remodeling. Furthermore, we show with organ culture experiments that prolonged exposure of tadpole intestine to TH plus GSI leads to hyperplasia of secretory cells and reduction of absorptive cells. Our findings here thus provide evidence for evolutionarily conserved role of Notch signaling in intestinal cell fate determination but more importantly reveal, for the first time, an important role of Notch pathway in the formation of adult intestinal stem cells during vertebrate development. Stem Cells 2017;35:1028–1039 PMID:27870267

  8. Emodin suppresses TGF-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in alveolar epithelial cells through Notch signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Rundi; Chen, Ruilin; Cao, Yu

    Pulmonary fibrosis is characterized by the destruction of lung tissue architecture and the formation of fibrous foci, currently has no satisfactory treatment. Emodin is a component of Chinese herb that has been reported to be medicament on pancreatic fibrosis and liver fibrosis. However, its role in pulmonary fibrosis has not been established yet. In the present study, we investigated the hypothesis that Emodin plays an inhibitory role in TGF-β1 induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of alveolar epithelial cell, and Emodin exerts its effect through the Notch signaling pathway. Emodin inhibits the proliferation of Rat alveolar type II epithelial cells RLE-6TN inmore » a concentration-dependent manner; reduces the expression of Collagen I, α-SMA and Vimentin, promotes the expression of E-cadherin. Moreover, Emodin could regulate the expression patterns of the Notch signaling pathway-related factors and reduce the Notch-1 nucleus translocation. Knockdown of Notch-1 enhances the inhibitory effect of Emodin on TGF-β1-induced EMT in RLE-6TN cells. In conclusion, the data of the present study suggests that Emodin suppresses TGF-β1-induced EMT in alveolar epithelial cells through Notch signaling pathway and shows the potential to be effective in the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis. - Highlights: • Emodin inhibits TGF-β1-induced EMT in alveolar epithelial cells. • Emodin regulates the expression patterns of the Notch signaling pathway-related factors. • Emodin inhibits TGF-β1-induced Notch-1 nucleus translocation and activation.« less

  9. The Molecular Chaperone HSP90 Promotes Notch Signaling in the Germline of Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Lissemore, James L.; Connors, Elyse; Liu, Ying; Qiao, Li; Yang, Bing; Edgley, Mark L.; Flibotte, Stephane; Taylor, Jon; Au, Vinci; Moerman, Donald G.; Maine, Eleanor M.

    2018-01-01

    In a genetic screen to identify genes that promote GLP-1/Notch signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans germline stem cells, we found a single mutation, om40, defining a gene called ego-3. ego-3(om40) causes several defects in the soma and the germline, including paralysis during larval development, sterility, delayed proliferation of germline stem cells, and ectopic germline stem cell proliferation. Whole genome sequencing identified om40 as an allele of hsp-90, previously known as daf-21, which encodes the C. elegans ortholog of the cytosolic form of HSP90. This protein is a molecular chaperone with a central position in the protein homeostasis network, which is responsible for proper folding, structural maintenance, and degradation of proteins. In addition to its essential role in cellular function, HSP90 plays an important role in stem cell maintenance and renewal. Complementation analysis using a deletion allele of hsp-90 confirmed that ego-3 is the same gene. hsp-90(om40) is an I→N conservative missense mutation of a highly conserved residue in the middle domain of HSP-90. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of hsp-90 expression partially phenocopied hsp-90(om40), confirming the loss-of-function nature of hsp-90(om40). Furthermore, reduced HSP-90 activity enhanced the effect of reduced function of both the GLP-1 receptor and the downstream LAG-1 transcription factor. Taken together, our results provide the first experimental evidence of an essential role for HSP90 in Notch signaling in development. PMID:29507057

  10. Notch-1-PTEN-ERK1/2 signaling axis promotes HER2+ breast cancer cell proliferation and stem cell survival.

    PubMed

    Baker, Andrew; Wyatt, Debra; Bocchetta, Maurizio; Li, Jun; Filipovic, Aleksandra; Green, Andrew; Peiffer, Daniel S; Fuqua, Suzanne; Miele, Lucio; Albain, Kathy S; Osipo, Clodia

    2018-05-10

    Trastuzumab targets the HER2 receptor on breast cancer cells to attenuate HER2-driven tumor growth. However, resistance to trastuzumab-based therapy remains a major clinical problem for women with HER2+ breast cancer. Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) are suggested to be responsible for drug resistance and tumor recurrence. Notch signaling has been shown to promote BCSC survival and self-renewal. Trastuzumab-resistant cells have increased Notch-1 expression. Notch signaling drives cell proliferation in vitro and is required for tumor recurrence in vivo. We demonstrate herein a mechanism by which Notch-1 is required for trastuzumab resistance by repressing PTEN expression to contribute to activation of ERK1/2 signaling. Furthermore, Notch-1-mediated inhibition of PTEN is necessary for BCSC survival in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of MEK1/2-ERK1/2 signaling in trastuzumab-resistant breast cancer cells mimics effects of Notch-1 knockdown on bulk cell proliferation and BCSC survival. These findings suggest that Notch-1 contributes to trastuzumab resistance by repressing PTEN and this may lead to hyperactivation of ERK1/2 signaling. Furthermore, high Notch-1 and low PTEN mRNA expression may predict poorer overall survival in women with breast cancer. Notch-1 protein expression predicts poorer survival in women with HER2+ breast cancer. These results support a potential future clinical trial combining anti-Notch-1 and anti-MEK/ERK therapy for trastuzumab-resistant breast cancer.

  11. Naringin Stimulates Osteogenic Differentiation of Rat Bone Marrow Stromal Cells via Activation of the Notch Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Guo-yong; Zheng, Gui-zhou; Chang, Bo; Hu, Qin-xiao; Lin, Fei-xiang; Liu, De-zhong; Wu, Chu-cheng; Du, Shi-xin

    2016-01-01

    Naringin is a major flavonoid found in grapefruit and is an active compound extracted from the Chinese herbal medicine Rhizoma Drynariae. Naringin is a potent stimulator of osteogenic differentiation and has potential application in preventing bone loss. However, the signaling pathway underlying its osteogenic effect remains unclear. We hypothesized that the osteogenic activity of naringin involves the Notch signaling pathway. Rat bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were cultured in osteogenic medium containing-naringin, with or without DAPT (an inhibitor of Notch signaling), the effects on ALP activity, calcium deposits, osteogenic genes (ALP, BSP, and cbfa1), adipogenic maker gene PPARγ2 levels, and Notch expression were examined. We found that naringin dose-dependently increased ALP activity and Alizarin red S staining, and treatment at the optimal concentration (50 μg/mL) increased mRNA levels of osteogenic genes and Notch1 expression, while decreasing PPARγ2 mRNA levels. Furthermore, treatment with DAPT partly reversed effects of naringin on BMSCs, as judged by decreases in naringin-induced ALP activity, calcium deposits, and osteogenic genes expression, as well as upregulation of PPARγ2 mRNA levels. These results suggest that the osteogenic effect of naringin partly involves the Notch signaling pathway. PMID:27069482

  12. Differential regulation of transcription through distinct Suppressor of Hairless DNA binding site architectures during Notch signaling in proneural clusters.

    PubMed

    Cave, John W; Xia, Li; Caudy, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, achaete (ac) and m8 are model basic helix-loop-helix activator (bHLH A) and repressor genes, respectively, that have the opposite cell expression pattern in proneural clusters during Notch signaling. Previous studies have shown that activation of m8 transcription in specific cells within proneural clusters by Notch signaling is programmed by a "combinatorial" and "architectural" DNA transcription code containing binding sites for the Su(H) and proneural bHLH A proteins. Here we show the novel result that the ac promoter contains a similar combinatorial code of Su(H) and bHLH A binding sites but contains a different Su(H) site architectural code that does not mediate activation during Notch signaling, thus programming a cell expression pattern opposite that of m8 in proneural clusters.

  13. Core binding factors are necessary for natural killer cell development and cooperate with Notch signaling during T-cell specification

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yalin; Maillard, Ivan; Chakraborti, Sankhamala; Rothenberg, Ellen V.

    2008-01-01

    CBFβ is the non-DNA binding subunit of the core binding factors (CBFs). Mice with reduced CBFβ levels display profound, early defects in T-cell but not B-cell development. Here we show that CBFβ is also required at very early stages of natural killer (NK)–cell development. We also demonstrate that T-cell development aborts during specification, as the expression of Gata3 and Tcf7, which encode key regulators of T lineage specification, is substantially reduced, as are functional thymic progenitors. Constitutively active Notch or IL-7 signaling cannot restore T-cell expansion or differentiation of CBFβ insufficient cells, nor can overexpression of Runx1 or CBFβ overcome a lack of Notch signaling. Therefore, the ability of the prethymic cell to respond appropriately to Notch is dependent on CBFβ, and both signals converge to activate the T-cell developmental program. PMID:18390836

  14. Regulation of podocyte lesions in diabetic nephropathy via miR-34a in the Notch signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiangying; Song, Shuping; Luo, Huixin

    2016-11-01

    The activation of the Notch signaling pathway has been shown to play an important role in diabetic nephropathy (DN) development. Besides, Notch-1 is a target gene in miR-34a. However, the regulation of the podocyte lesions involved in DN by miR-34a has not been identified. This study utilized miR-34a mimics and small interfering RNA transfection to construct miR-34a overexpression and lower-expression model to investigate the effect of miR-34a on the regulation of the Notch signaling pathway and podocyte lesions in DN. Western blotting and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction were applied for the quantitative testing of mRNA and protein expression. Apoptosis of podocyte was detected by TUNEL staining. In high-glucose (HG) conditions, miR-34a overexpression inhibited the expression of Notch 1, Jagged 1, NICD, Hes 1, and Hey 1 proteins. Further, cleaved caspase-3, Bax, and phosphorylation of p53 (p-p53) were reduced significantly. Therefore, miR-34a overexpression inhibited the Notch signaling pathway and podocyte lesions induced by HG. β-arrestin was slightly reduced in HG conditions. Meanwhile, miR-34a overexpression could remit the inhibition. Results from this study provide evidence that miR-34a may offer a new approach for the treatment of diabetes.

  15. Emodin suppresses TGF-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in alveolar epithelial cells through Notch signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Gao, Rundi; Chen, Ruilin; Cao, Yu; Wang, Yuan; Song, Kang; Zhang, Ya; Yang, Junchao

    2017-03-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is characterized by the destruction of lung tissue architecture and the formation of fibrous foci, currently has no satisfactory treatment. Emodin is a component of Chinese herb that has been reported to be medicament on pancreatic fibrosis and liver fibrosis. However, its role in pulmonary fibrosis has not been established yet. In the present study, we investigated the hypothesis that Emodin plays an inhibitory role in TGF-β1 induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of alveolar epithelial cell, and Emodin exerts its effect through the Notch signaling pathway. Emodin inhibits the proliferation of Rat alveolar type II epithelial cells RLE-6TN in a concentration-dependent manner; reduces the expression of Collagen I, α-SMA and Vimentin, promotes the expression of E-cadherin. Moreover, Emodin could regulate the expression patterns of the Notch signaling pathway-related factors and reduce the Notch-1 nucleus translocation. Knockdown of Notch-1 enhances the inhibitory effect of Emodin on TGF-β1-induced EMT in RLE-6TN cells. In conclusion, the data of the present study suggests that Emodin suppresses TGF-β1-induced EMT in alveolar epithelial cells through Notch signaling pathway and shows the potential to be effective in the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Future Perspectives: Therapeutic Targeting of Notch Signalling May Become a Strategy in Patients Receiving Stem Cell Transplantation for Hematologic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Ersvaer, Elisabeth; Hatfield, Kimberley J.; Reikvam, Håkon; Bruserud, Øystein

    2011-01-01

    The human Notch system consists of 5 ligands and 4 membrane receptors with promiscuous ligand binding, and Notch-initiated signalling interacts with a wide range of other intracellular pathways. The receptor signalling seems important for regulation of normal and malignant hematopoiesis, development of the cellular immune system, and regulation of immune responses. Several Notch-targeting agents are now being developed, including natural receptor ligands, agonistic and antagonistic antibodies, and inhibitors of intracellular Notch-initiated signalling. Some of these agents are in clinical trials, and several therapeutic strategies seem possible in stem cell recipients: (i) agonists may be used for stem cell expansion and possibly to enhance posttransplant lymphoid reconstitution; (ii) receptor-specific agonists or antagonists can be used for immunomodulation; (iii) Notch targeting may have direct anticancer effects. Although the effects of therapeutic targeting are difficult to predict due to promiscuous ligand binding, targeting of this system may represent an opportunity to achieve combined effects with earlier posttransplant reconstitution, immunomodulation, or direct anticancer effects. PMID:22046566

  17. A Primate lncRNA Mediates Notch Signaling During Neuronal Development by Sequestering miRNA

    PubMed Central

    Rani, Neha; Nowakowski, Tomasz J; Zhou, Hongjun; Godshalk, Sirie E.; Lisi, Véronique; Kriegstein, Arnold R.; Kosik, Kenneth S.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a diverse and poorly conserved category of transcripts that have expanded greatly in primates, particularly in the brain. We identified a lncRNA, which has acquired 16 microRNA response elements for miR-143-3p in the Catarrhini branch of primates. This lncRNA termed LncND (neuro-development) is expressed in neural progenitor cells and then declines in neurons. Binding and release of miR-143-3p, by LncND, controls the expression of Notch receptors. LncND expression is enriched in radial glia cells (RGCs) in the ventricular and subventricular zones of developing human brain. Down-regulation in neuroblastoma cells reduced cell proliferation and induced neuronal differentiation, an effect phenocopied by miR-143-3p over-expression. Gain-of-function of LncND in developing mouse cortex led to an expansion of PAX6+ RGCs. These findings support role for LncND in miRNA-mediated regulation of Notch signaling within the neural progenitor pool in primates that may have contributed to the expansion of cerebral cortex. PMID:27263970

  18. The endoderm specifies the mesodermal niche for the germline in Drosophila via Delta-Notch signaling

    PubMed Central

    Okegbe, Tishina C.; DiNardo, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Interactions between niche cells and stem cells are vital for proper control over stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. However, there are few tissues where the initial establishment of a niche has been studied. The Drosophila testis houses two stem cell populations, which each lie adjacent to somatic niche cells. Although these niche cells sustain spermatogenesis throughout life, it is not understood how their fate is established. Here, we show that Notch signaling is necessary to specify niche cell fate in the developing gonad. Surprisingly, our results indicate that adjacent endoderm is the source of the Notch-activating ligand Delta. We also find that niche cell specification occurs earlier than anticipated, well before the expression of extant markers for niche cell fate. This work further suggests that endoderm plays a dual role in germline development. The endoderm assists both in delivering germ cells to the somatic gonadal mesoderm, and in specifying the niche where these cells will subsequently develop as stem cells. Because in mammals primordial germ cells also track through endoderm on their way to the genital ridge, our work raises the possibility that conserved mechanisms are employed to regulate germline niche formation. PMID:21350008

  19. Tuning of major signaling networks (TGF-β, Wnt, Notch and Hedgehog) by miRNAs in human stem cells commitment to different lineages: Possible clinical application.

    PubMed

    Aval, Sedigheh Fekri; Lotfi, Hajie; Sheervalilou, Roghayeh; Zarghami, Nosratollah

    2017-07-01

    Two distinguishing characteristics of stem cells, their continuous division in the undifferentiated state and growth into any cell types, are orchestrated by a number of cell signaling pathways. These pathways act as a niche factor in controlling variety of stem cells. The core stem cell signaling pathways include Wingless-type (Wnt), Hedgehog (HH), and Notch. Additionally, they critically regulate the self-renewal and survival of cancer stem cells. Conversely, stem cells' main properties, lineage commitment and stemness, are tightly controlled by epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation, histone modifications and non-coding RNA-mediated regulatory events. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are cellular switches that modulate stem cells outcomes in response to diverse extracellular signals. Numerous scientific evidences implicating miRNAs in major signal transduction pathways highlight new crosstalks of cellular processes. Aberrant signaling pathways and miRNAs levels result in developmental defects and diverse human pathologies. This review discusses the crosstalk between the components of main signaling networks and the miRNA machinery, which plays a role in the context of stem cells development and provides a set of examples to illustrate the extensive relevance of potential novel therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  20. Histone deacetylase 6 controls Notch3 trafficking and degradation in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Pinazza, Marica; Ghisi, Margherita; Minuzzo, Sonia; Agnusdei, Valentina; Fossati, Gianluca; Ciminale, Vincenzo; Pezzè, Laura; Ciribilli, Yari; Pilotto, Giorgia; Venturoli, Carolina; Amadori, Alberto; Indraccolo, Stefano

    2018-04-12

    Several studies have revealed that endosomal sorting controls the steady-state levels of Notch at the cell surface in normal cells and prevents its inappropriate activation in the absence of ligands. However, whether this highly dynamic physiologic process can be exploited to counteract dysregulated Notch signaling in cancer cells remains unknown. T-ALL is a malignancy characterized by aberrant Notch signaling, sustained by activating mutations in Notch1 as well as overexpression of Notch3, a Notch paralog physiologically subjected to lysosome-dependent degradation in human cancer cells. Here we show that treatment with the pan-HDAC inhibitor Trichostatin A (TSA) strongly decreases Notch3 full-length protein levels in T-ALL cell lines and primary human T-ALL cells xenografted in mice without substantially reducing NOTCH3 mRNA levels. Moreover, TSA markedly reduced the levels of Notch target genes, including pTα, CR2, and DTX-1, and induced apoptosis of T-ALL cells. We further observed that Notch3 was post-translationally regulated following TSA treatment, with reduced Notch3 surface levels and increased accumulation of Notch3 protein in the lysosomal compartment. Surface Notch3 levels were rescued by inhibition of dynein with ciliobrevin D. Pharmacologic studies with HDAC1, 6, and 8-specific inhibitors disclosed that these effects were largely due to inhibition of HDAC6 in T-ALL cells. HDAC6 silencing by specific shRNA was followed by reduced Notch3 expression and increased apoptosis of T-ALL cells. Finally, HDAC6 silencing impaired leukemia outgrowth in mice, associated with reduction of Notch3 full-length protein in vivo. These results connect HDAC6 activity to regulation of total and surface Notch3 levels and suggest HDAC6 as a potential novel therapeutic target to lower Notch signaling in T-ALL and other Notch3-addicted tumors.

  1. Fine-tuning of Notch signaling sets the boundary of the organ of Corti and establishes sensory cell fates

    PubMed Central

    Basch, Martin L; Brown, Rogers M; Jen, Hsin-I; Semerci, Fatih; Depreux, Frederic; Edlund, Renée K; Zhang, Hongyuan; Norton, Christine R; Gridley, Thomas; Cole, Susan E; Doetzlhofer, Angelika; Maletic-Savatic, Mirjana; Segil, Neil; Groves, Andrew K

    2016-01-01

    The signals that induce the organ of Corti and define its boundaries in the cochlea are poorly understood. We show that two Notch modifiers, Lfng and Mfng, are transiently expressed precisely at the neural boundary of the organ of Corti. Cre-Lox fate mapping shows this region gives rise to inner hair cells and their associated inner phalangeal cells. Mutation of Lfng and Mfng disrupts this boundary, producing unexpected duplications of inner hair cells and inner phalangeal cells. This phenotype is mimicked by other mouse mutants or pharmacological treatments that lower but not abolish Notch signaling. However, strong disruption of Notch signaling causes a very different result, generating many ectopic hair cells at the expense of inner phalangeal cells. Our results show that Notch signaling is finely calibrated in the cochlea to produce precisely tuned levels of signaling that first set the boundary of the organ of Corti and later regulate hair cell development. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19921.001 PMID:27966429

  2. Appropriate suppression of Notch signaling by Mesp factors is essential for stripe pattern formation leading to segment boundary formation.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yu; Yasuhiko, Yukuto; Kitajima, Satoshi; Kanno, Jun; Saga, Yumiko

    2007-04-15

    Mesp1 and Mesp2 are homologous transcription factors that are co-expressed in the anterior presomitic mesoderm (PSM) during mouse somitogenesis. The loss of Mesp2 alone in our conventional Mesp2-null mice results in the complete disruption of somitogenesis, including segment border formation, rostro-caudal patterning and epithelialization of somitic mesoderm. This has led us to interpret that Mesp2 is solely responsible for somitogenesis. Our novel Mesp2 knock-in alleles, however, exhibit a remarkable upregulation of Mesp1. Removal of the pgk-neo cassette from the new allele leads to localization of Mesp1 and several gene expression, and somite formation in the tail region. Moreover, a reduction in the gene dosage of Mesp1 by one copy disrupts somite formation, confirming the involvement of Mesp1 in the rescue events. Furthermore, we find that activated Notch1 knock-in significantly upregulates Mesp1 expression, even in the absence of a Notch signal mediator, Psen1. This indicates that the Psen1-independent effects of activated Notch1 are mostly attributable to the induction of Mesp1. However, we have also confirmed that Mesp2 enhances the expression of the Notch1 receptor in the anterior PSM. The activation and subsequent suppression of Notch signaling might thus be a crucial event for both stripe pattern formation and boundary formation.

  3. GDE2 regulates subtype-specific motor neuron generation through inhibition of Notch signaling.

    PubMed

    Sabharwal, Priyanka; Lee, Changhee; Park, Sungjin; Rao, Meenakshi; Sockanathan, Shanthini

    2011-09-22

    The specification of spinal interneuron and motor neuron identities initiates within progenitor cells, while motor neuron subtype diversification is regulated by hierarchical transcriptional programs implemented postmitotically. Here we find that mice lacking GDE2, a six-transmembrane protein that triggers motor neuron generation, exhibit selective losses of distinct motor neuron subtypes, specifically in defined subsets of limb-innervating motor pools that correlate with the loss of force-generating alpha motor neurons. Mechanistically, GDE2 is expressed by postmitotic motor neurons but utilizes extracellular glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase activity to induce motor neuron generation by inhibiting Notch signaling in neighboring motor neuron progenitors. Thus, neuronal GDE2 controls motor neuron subtype diversity through a non-cell-autonomous feedback mechanism that directly regulates progenitor cell differentiation, implying that subtype specification initiates within motor neuron progenitor populations prior to their differentiation into postmitotic motor neurons. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. GDE2 regulates subtype specific motor neuron generation through inhibition of Notch signaling

    PubMed Central

    Sabharwal, Priyanka; Lee, Changhee; Park, Sungjin; Rao, Meenakshi; Sockanathan, Shanthini

    2011-01-01

    The specification of spinal interneuron and motor neuron identities initiates within progenitor cells, while motor neuron subtype diversification is regulated by hierarchical transcriptional programs implemented postmitotically. Here, we find that mice lacking GDE2, a six-transmembrane protein that triggers motor neuron generation, exhibit selective losses of distinct motor neuron subtypes, specifically in defined subsets of limb-innervating motor pools that correlate with the loss of force-generating alpha motor neurons. Mechanistically, GDE2 is expressed by postmitotic motor neurons but utilizes extracellular glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase activity to induce motor neuron generation by inhibiting Notch signaling in neighboring motor neuron progenitors. Thus, neuronal GDE2 controls motor neuron subtype diversity through a non cell-autonomous feedback mechanism that directly regulates progenitor cell differentiation, implying that subtype specification initiates within motor neuron progenitor populations prior to their differentiation into postmitotic motor neurons. PMID:21943603

  5. Inhibition of Notch signaling alters the phenotype of orthotopic tumors formed from glioblastoma multiforme neurosphere cells but does not hamper intracranial tumor growth regardless of endogene Notch pathway signature.

    PubMed

    Kristoffersen, Karina; Nedergaard, Mette Kjølhede; Villingshøj, Mette; Borup, Rehannah; Broholm, Helle; Kjær, Andreas; Poulsen, Hans Skovgaard; Stockhausen, Marie-Thérése

    2014-07-01

    Brain cancer stem-like cells (bCSC) are cancer cells with neural stem cell (NSC)-like properties found in the devastating brain tumor glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). bCSC are proposed a central role in tumor initiation, progression, treatment resistance and relapse and as such present a promising target in GBM research. The Notch signaling pathway is often deregulated in GBM and we have previously characterized GBM-derived bCSC cultures based on their expression of the Notch-1 receptor and found that it could be used as predictive marker for the effect of Notch inhibition. The aim of the present project was therefore to further elucidate the significance of Notch pathway activity for the tumorigenic properties of GBM-derived bCSC. Human-derived GBM xenograft cells previously established as NSC-like neurosphere cultures were used. Notch inhibition was accomplished by exposing the cells to the gamma-secretase inhibitor DAPT prior to gene expression analysis and intracranial injection into immunocompromised mice. By analyzing the expression of several Notch pathway components, we found that the cultures indeed displayed different Notch pathway signatures. However, when DAPT-treated neurosphere cells were injected into the brain of immunocompromised mice, no increase in survival was obtained regardless of Notch pathway signature and Notch inhibition. We did however observe a decrease in the expression of the stem cell marker Nestin, an increase in the proliferative marker Ki-67 and an increased number of abnormal vessels in tumors formed from DAPT-treated, high Notch-1 expressing cultures, when compared with the control. Based on the presented results we propose that Notch inhibition partly induces differentiation of bCSC, and selects for a cell type that more strongly induces angiogenesis if the treatment is not sustained. However, this more differentiated cell type might prove to be more sensitive to conventional therapies.

  6. The Molecular Chaperone HSP90 Promotes Notch Signaling in the Germline of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Lissemore, James L; Connors, Elyse; Liu, Ying; Qiao, Li; Yang, Bing; Edgley, Mark L; Flibotte, Stephane; Taylor, Jon; Au, Vinci; Moerman, Donald G; Maine, Eleanor M

    2018-05-04

    In a genetic screen to identify genes that promote GLP-1/Notch signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans germline stem cells, we found a single mutation, om40 , defining a gene called ego-3. ego-3(om40) causes several defects in the soma and the germline, including paralysis during larval development, sterility, delayed proliferation of germline stem cells, and ectopic germline stem cell proliferation. Whole genome sequencing identified om40 as an allele of hsp-90 , previously known as daf-21 , which encodes the C. elegans ortholog of the cytosolic form of HSP90. This protein is a molecular chaperone with a central position in the protein homeostasis network, which is responsible for proper folding, structural maintenance, and degradation of proteins. In addition to its essential role in cellular function, HSP90 plays an important role in stem cell maintenance and renewal. Complementation analysis using a deletion allele of hsp-90 confirmed that ego-3 is the same gene. hsp-90(om40) is an I→N conservative missense mutation of a highly conserved residue in the middle domain of HSP-90 RNA interference-mediated knockdown of hsp-90 expression partially phenocopied hsp-90(om40) , confirming the loss-of-function nature of hsp-90(om40) Furthermore, reduced HSP-90 activity enhanced the effect of reduced function of both the GLP-1 receptor and the downstream LAG-1 transcription factor. Taken together, our results provide the first experimental evidence of an essential role for HSP90 in Notch signaling in development. Copyright © 2018 Lissemore et al.

  7. Epithelial cell-intrinsic Notch signaling plays an essential role in the maintenance of gut immune homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Obata, Yuuki; Takahashi, Daisuke; Ebisawa, Masashi; Kakiguchi, Kisa; Yonemura, Shigenobu; Jinnohara, Toshi; Kanaya, Takashi; Fujimura, Yumiko; Ohmae, Masumi; Hase, Koji; Ohno, Hiroshi

    2012-03-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) have important functions as the first line of defense against diverse microorganisms on the luminal surface. Impaired integrity of IEC has been implicated in increasing the risk for inflammatory disorders in the gut. Notch signaling plays a critical role in the maintenance of epithelial integrity by regulating the balance of secretory and absorptive cell lineages, and also by facilitating epithelial cell proliferation. We show in this article that mice harboring IEC-specific deletion of Rbpj (RBP-J(ΔIEC)), a transcription factor that mediates signaling through Notch receptors, spontaneously develop chronic colitis characterized by the accumulation of Th17 cells in colonic lamina propria. Intestinal bacteria are responsible for the development of colitis, because their depletion with antibiotics prevented the development of colitis in RBP-J(ΔIEC) mice. Furthermore, bacterial translocation was evident in the colonic mucosa of RBP-J(ΔIEC) mice before the onset of colitis, suggesting attenuated epithelial barrier functions in these mice. Indeed, RBP-J(ΔIEC) mice displayed increase in intestinal permeability after rectal administration of FITC-dextran. In addition to the defect in physical barrier, loss of Notch signaling led to arrest of epithelial cell turnover caused by downregulation of Hes1, a transcriptional repressor of p27(Kip1) and p57(Kip2). Thus, epithelial cell-intrinsic Notch signaling ensures integrity and homeostasis of IEC, and this mechanism is required for containment of intestinal inflammation.

  8. Integration of T Cell Receptor, Notch and Cytokine Signals Programs in Mouse γδ T Cell Effector Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Zarin, Payam; In, Tracy S H; Chen, Edward L Y; Singh, Jastaranpreet; Wong, Gladys W; Mohtashami, Mahmood; Wiest, David L; Anderson, Michele K; Zúñiga-Pflücker, Juan Carlos

    2018-05-13

    γδ T-cells perform a wide range of tissue and disease specific functions that are dependent on the effector cytokines produced by these cells. However, the aggregate signals required for the development of interferon-γ (IFNγ) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) producing γδ T-cells remain unknown. Here, we define the cues involved in the functional programming of γδ T-cells, by examining the roles of T-cell receptor (TCR), Notch, and cytokine-receptor signaling. KN6 γδTCR-transduced Rag2 -/- T-cell progenitors were cultured on stromal cells variably expressing TCR and Notch ligands, supplemented with different cytokines. We found that distinct combinations of these signals are required to program IFNγ versus IL-17 producing γδ T cell subsets, with Notch and weak TCR ligands optimally enabling development of γδ17 cells in the presence of IL-1β, IL-21 and IL-23. Notably, these cytokines were also shown to be required for the intrathymic development of γδ17 cells. Together, this work provides a framework of how signals downstream of TCR, Notch and cytokine receptors integrate to program the effector function of IFNγ and IL-17 producing γδ T-cell subsets. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Mind bomb-1 is an essential modulator of long-term memory and synaptic plasticity via the Notch signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Notch signaling is well recognized as a key regulator of the neuronal fate during embryonic development, but its function in the adult brain is still largely unknown. Mind bomb-1 (Mib1) is an essential positive regulator in the Notch pathway, acting non-autonomously in the signal-sending cells. Therefore, genetic ablation of Mib1 in mature neuron would give valuable insight to understand the cell-to-cell interaction between neurons via Notch signaling for their proper function. Results Here we show that the inactivation of Mib1 in mature neurons in forebrain results in impaired hippocampal dependent spatial memory and contextual fear memory. Consistently, hippocampal slices from Mib1-deficient mice show impaired late-phase, but not early-phase, long-term potentiation and long-term depression without change in basal synaptic transmission at SC-CA1 synapses. Conclusions These data suggest that Mib1-mediated Notch signaling is essential for long-lasting synaptic plasticity and memory formation in the rodent hippocampus. PMID:23111145

  10. Activated Notch signaling cascade is correlated with stem cell differentiation toward absorptive progenitors after massive small bowel resection in a rat.

    PubMed

    Sukhotnik, Igor; Coran, Arnold G; Pollak, Yulia; Kuhnreich, Eviatar; Berkowitz, Drora; Saxena, Amulya K

    2017-09-01

    Notch signaling is thought to act to drive cell versification in the lining of the small intestine. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the role of the Notch signaling pathway in stem cell differentiation in the late stages of intestinal adaptation after massive small bowel resection in a rat. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of two experimental groups of eight rats each: Sham rats underwent bowel transection and reanastomosis, while SBS rats underwent 75% small bowel resection. Rats were euthanized on day 14 Illumina's Digital Gene Expression (DGE) analysis was used to determine Notch signaling gene expression profiling. Notch-related gene and protein expression was determined using real-time PCR, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry. From seven investigated Notch-related (by DGE analysis) genes, six genes were upregulated in SBS vs. control animals with a relative change in gene expression level of 20% or more. A significant upregulation of Notch signaling-related genes in resected animals was accompanied by a significant increase in Notch-1 protein levels (Western blot analysis) and a significant increase in the number of Notch1 and Hes1 (target gene)-positive cells (immunohistochemistry) compared with sham animals. Evaluation of cell differentiation has shown a strong increase in total number of absorptive cells (unchanged secretory cells) compared with control rats. In conclusion, 2 wk after bowel resection in rats, stimulated Notch signaling directs the crypt cell population toward absorptive progenitors. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study provides novel insight into the mechanisms of cell proliferation following massive small bowel resection. We show that 2 wk after bowel resection in rats, enhanced stem cell activity was associated with stimulated Notch signaling pathway. We demonstrate that activated Notch signaling cascade directs the crypt cell population toward absorptive progenitors. Copyright © 2017 the American

  11. Interactions of Notch1 and TLR4 signaling pathways in DRG neurons of in vivo and in vitro models of diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tianhua; Li, Hao; Yin, Yiting; Zhang, Yuanpin; Liu, Zhen; Liu, Huaxiang

    2017-11-02

    Understanding the interactions between Notch1 and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathways in the development of diabetic peripheral neuropathy may lead to interpretation of the mechanisms and novel approaches for preventing diabetic neuropathic pain. In the present study, the interactions between Notch1 and TLR4 signaling pathways were investigated by using dorsal root ganglion (DRG) from diabetic neuropathic pain rats and cultured DRG neurons under high glucose challenge. The results showed that high glucose induced not only Notch1 mRNA, HES1 mRNA, and TLR4 mRNA expression, but also Notch1 intracellular domain (NICD1) and TLR4 protein expression in DRG neurons. The proportion of NICD1-immunoreactive (IR) and TLR4-IR neurons in DRG cultures was also increased after high glucose challenge. The above alterations could be partially reversed by inhibition of either Notch1 or TLR4 signaling pathway. Inhibition of either Notch1 or TLR4 signaling pathway could improve mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia thresholds. Inhibition of Notch1 or TLR4 signaling also decreased tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels in DRG from diabetic neuropathic rats. These data imply that the interaction between Notch1 and TLR4 signaling pathways is one of the important mechanisms in the development or progression of diabetic neuropathy.

  12. [IL-23 promotes invasion of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells by activating DLL4/Notch1 signaling pathway].

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Zhou, Yuepeng; Su, Yuting; Ouyang, Yibo; Xie, Xiaodong; Wu, Yingying; Mao, Chaoming; Chen, Deyu

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the role of interlukin-23 (IL-23) in the invasion of human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cells and the related mechanism. IL-23 expression in tumor and adjacent tissues from 10 ESCC patients were detected by immunohistochemistry. Real-time fluorescent PCR was used to examine the expressions of Notch1 and Foxn4 mRNAs in different concentration IL-23-treated TE-1 cells. After Notch pathway was blocked with γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT, expressions of Notch intracellular domain (NICD), Delta-like 4 (DLL4), hairy enhancer of split 1 (Hes1), matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) in IL-23-treated TE-1 cells were measured by Western blotting. And the migration of IL-23-treated TE-1 cells was studied by TranswellTM migration assay. Compared with adjacent tissues, IL-23 was highly expressed in ESCC tissues. IL-23 treatment up-regulated significantly the expressions of NICD, DLL4, Hes1 and MMP-9 in TE-1 cells. The blockade of Notch1 pathway inhibited the expressions induced by IL-23. Migration assay revealed that IL-23 treatment significantly enhanced the migration of TE-1 cells. IL-23 could promote migration of human ESCC cells by activating DLL4/Notch1 signaling pathway.

  13. Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) interacts with the Notch1 intracellular domain and contributes to the activity of Notch signaling in myelin-reactive CD4 T cells.

    PubMed

    Juryńczyk, Maciej; Lewkowicz, Przemysław; Domowicz, Małgorzata; Mycko, Marcin P; Selmaj, Krzysztof W

    2015-10-15

    Notch receptors (Notch1-4) are involved in the differentiation of CD4 T cells and the development of autoimmunity. Mechanisms regulating Notch signaling in CD4 T cells are not fully elucidated. In this study we investigated potential crosstalk between Notch pathway molecules and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), the major intracellular chaperone involved in the protein transport during immune responses and other stress conditions. Using Hsp70(-/-) mice we found that Hsp70 is critical for up-regulation of NICD1 and induction of Notch target genes in Jagged1- and Delta-like1-stimulated CD4 T cells. Co-immunoprecipitation analysis of wild-type CD4 T cells stimulated with either Jagged1 or Delta-like1 showed a direct interaction between NICD1 and Hsp70. Both molecules co-localized within the nucleus of CD4 T cells stimulated with Notch ligands. Molecular interaction and nuclear colocalization of NICD1 and Hsp70 were also detected in CD4 T cells reactive against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)35-55, which showed Hsp70-dependent up-regulation of both NICD1 and Notch target genes. In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time that Hsp70 interacts with NICD1 and contributes to the activity of Notch signaling in CD4 T cells. Interaction between Hsp70 and NICD1 may represent a novel mechanism regulating Notch signaling in activated CD4 T cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Parkinson’s Disease-Associated Protein Kinase LRRK2 Modulates Notch Signaling through the Endosomal Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Imai, Yuzuru; Kobayashi, Yoshito; Inoshita, Tsuyoshi; Meng, Hongrui; Arano, Taku; Uemura, Kengo; Asano, Takeshi; Yoshimi, Kenji; Zhang, Chang-Liang; Matsumoto, Gen; Ohtsuka, Toshiyuki; Kageyama, Ryoichiro; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Shioi, Go; Nukina, Nobuyuki; Hattori, Nobutaka; Takahashi, Ryosuke

    2015-01-01

    Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is a key molecule in the pathogenesis of familial and idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD). We have identified two novel LRRK2-associated proteins, a HECT-type ubiquitin ligase, HERC2, and an adaptor-like protein with six repeated Neuralized domains, NEURL4. LRRK2 binds to NEURL4 and HERC2 via the LRRK2 Ras of complex proteins (ROC) domain and NEURL4, respectively. HERC2 and NEURL4 link LRRK2 to the cellular vesicle transport pathway and Notch signaling, through which the LRRK2 complex promotes the recycling of the Notch ligand Delta-like 1 (Dll1)/Delta (Dl) through the modulation of endosomal trafficking. This process negatively regulates Notch signaling through cis-inhibition by stabilizing Dll1/Dl, which accelerates neural stem cell differentiation and modulates the function and survival of differentiated dopaminergic neurons. These effects are strengthened by the R1441G ROC domain-mutant of LRRK2. These findings suggest that the alteration of Notch signaling in mature neurons is a component of PD etiology linked to LRRK2. PMID:26355680

  15. Lineage-specific effects of Notch/Numb signaling in post-embryonic development of the Drosophila brain

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Suewei; Lai, Sen-Lin; Yu, Huang-Hsiang; Chihara, Takahiro; Luo, Liqun; Lee, Tzumin

    2010-01-01

    Numb can antagonize Notch signaling to diversify the fates of sister cells. We report here that paired sister cells acquire different fates in all three Drosophila neuronal lineages that make diverse types of antennal lobe projection neurons (PNs). Only one in each pair of postmitotic neurons survives into the adult stage in both anterodorsal (ad) and ventral (v) PN lineages. Notably, Notch signaling specifies the PN fate in the vPN lineage but promotes programmed cell death in the missing siblings in the adPN lineage. In addition, Notch/Numb-mediated binary sibling fates underlie the production of PNs and local interneurons from common precursors in the lAL lineage. Furthermore, Numb is needed in the lateral but not adPN or vPN lineages to prevent the appearance of ectopic neuroblasts and to ensure proper self-renewal of neural progenitors. These lineage-specific outputs of Notch/Numb signaling show that a universal mechanism of binary fate decision can be utilized to govern diverse neural sibling differentiations. PMID:20023159

  16. Lineage-specific effects of Notch/Numb signaling in post-embryonic development of the Drosophila brain.

    PubMed

    Lin, Suewei; Lai, Sen-Lin; Yu, Huang-Hsiang; Chihara, Takahiro; Luo, Liqun; Lee, Tzumin

    2010-01-01

    Numb can antagonize Notch signaling to diversify the fates of sister cells. We report here that paired sister cells acquire different fates in all three Drosophila neuronal lineages that make diverse types of antennal lobe projection neurons (PNs). Only one in each pair of postmitotic neurons survives into the adult stage in both anterodorsal (ad) and ventral (v) PN lineages. Notably, Notch signaling specifies the PN fate in the vPN lineage but promotes programmed cell death in the missing siblings in the adPN lineage. In addition, Notch/Numb-mediated binary sibling fates underlie the production of PNs and local interneurons from common precursors in the lAL lineage. Furthermore, Numb is needed in the lateral but not adPN or vPN lineages to prevent the appearance of ectopic neuroblasts and to ensure proper self-renewal of neural progenitors. These lineage-specific outputs of Notch/Numb signaling show that a universal mechanism of binary fate decision can be utilized to govern diverse neural sibling differentiations.

  17. A novel population of local pericyte precursor cells in tumor stroma that require Notch signaling for differentiation.

    PubMed

    Patenaude, Alexandre; Woerher, Stefan; Umlandt, Patricia; Wong, Fred; Ibrahim, Rawa; Kyle, Alastair; Unger, Sandy; Fuller, Megan; Parker, Jeremy; Minchinton, Andrew; Eaves, Connie J; Karsan, Aly

    2015-09-01

    Pericytes are perivascular support cells, the origin of which in tumor tissue is not clear. Recently, we identified a Tie1(+) precursor cell that differentiates into vascular smooth muscle, in a Notch-dependent manner. To understand the involvement of Notch in the ontogeny of tumor pericytes we used a novel flow immunophenotyping strategy to define CD146(+)/CD45(-)/CD31(-/lo) pericytes in the tumor stroma. This strategy combined with ex vivo co-culture experiments identified a novel pericyte progenitor cell population defined as Sca1(hi)/CD146(-)/CD45(-)/CD31(-). The differentiation of these progenitor cells was stimulated by co-culture with endothelial cells. Overexpression of the Notch ligand Jagged1 in endothelial cells further stimulated the differentiation of Sca1(hi)/CD146(-)/CD45(-)/CD31(-) cells into pericytes, while inhibition of Notch signaling with a γ-secretase inhibitor reduced this differentiation. However, Notch inhibition specifically in Tie1-expressing cells did not change the abundance of pericytes in tumors, suggesting that the pericyte precursor is distinct from the vascular smooth muscle cell precursor. Transplant experiments showed that the bone marrow contributes minimally to tumor pericytes. Immunophenotyping revealed that Sca1(hi)/CD146(-)/CD45(-)/CD31(-) cells have greater potential to differentiate into pericytes and have increased expression of classic mesenchymal stem cell markers (CD13, CD44, Nt5e and Thy-1) compared to Sca1(-/lo)/CD146(-)/CD45(-)/CD31(-) cells. Our results suggest that a local Sca1(hi)/CD146(-)/CD45(-)/CD31(-) pericyte progenitor resides in the tumor microenvironment and requires Notch signaling for differentiation into mature pericytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Novel cell culture technique for primary ductal carcinoma in situ: role of Notch and epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Farnie, Gillian; Clarke, Robert B; Spence, Katherine; Pinnock, Natasha; Brennan, Keith; Anderson, Neil G; Bundred, Nigel J

    2007-04-18

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Notch signaling pathways have been implicated in self-renewal of normal breast stem cells. We investigated the involvement of these signaling pathways in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast. Samples of normal breast tissue (n = 15), pure DCIS tissue of varying grades (n = 35), and DCIS tissue surrounding an invasive cancer (n = 7) were used for nonadherent (i.e., mammosphere) culture. Mammosphere cultures were treated at day 0 with gefitinib (an EGFR inhibitor), DAPT (N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl-L-alanyl)]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester) (a gamma-secretase inhibitor), or Notch 4-neutralizing antibody. Mammosphere-forming efficiency (MFE) was calculated by dividing the number of mammospheres of 60 microm or more formed by the number of single cells seeded and is expressed as a percentage. The Notch 1 intracellular domain (NICD) was detected immunohistochemically in paraffin-embedded DCIS tissue from 50 patients with at least 60 months of follow-up. All statistical tests were two-sided. DCIS had a greater MFE than normal breast tissue (1.5% versus 0.5%, difference = 1%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.62% to 1.25%, P<.001). High-grade DCIS had a greater MFE than low-grade DCIS (1.6% versus 1.09%, difference = 0.51%, 95% CI = 0.07% to 0.94%, P = .01). The MFE of high-grade DCIS treated with gefitinib in the absence of exogenous EGF was lower than that of high-grade DCIS treated with mammosphere medium lacking gefitinib and exogenous EGF (0.56% versus 1.36%, difference 0.8%, 95% CI = 0.33% to 1.4%, P = .004). Increased Notch signaling as detected by NICD staining was associated with recurrence at 5 years (P = .012). DCIS MFE was reduced when Notch signaling was inhibited using either DAPT (0.89% versus 0.51%, difference = 0.38%, 95% CI = 0.2% to 0.6%, P<.001) or a Notch 4-neutralizing antibody (0.97% versus 0.2%, difference = 0.77%, 95% CI = 0.52% to 1.0%, P<.001). We describe a novel primary culture technique

  19. Notch Inhibitors for Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Espinoza, Ingrid; Miele, Lucio

    2013-01-01

    Notch signaling is an evolutionarily conserved cell signaling pathway involved in cell fate during development, stem cell renewal and differentiation in postnatal tissues. Roles for Notch in carcinogenesis, in the biology of cancer stem cells and tumor angiogenesis have been reported. These features identify Notch as a potential therapeutic target in oncology. Based on the molecular structure of Notch receptor, Notch ligands and Notch activators, a set of Notch pathway inhibitors have been developed. Most of these inhibitors had shown anti-tumor effects in preclinical studies. At the same time, the combinatorial effect of these inhibitors with current chemotherapeutical drugs still under study in different clinical trials. In this review, we describe the basics of Notch signaling and the role of Notch in normal and cancer stem cells as a logic way to develop different Notch inhibitors and their current stage of progress for cancer patient’s treatment. PMID:23458608

  20. MET signalling in primary colon epithelial cells leads to increased transformation irrespective of aberrant Wnt signalling

    PubMed Central

    Boon, E M J; Kovarikova, M; Derksen, P W B; van der Neut, R

    2005-01-01

    It has been shown that in hereditary and most sporadic colon tumours, components of the Wnt pathway are mutated. The Wnt target MET has been implicated in the development of colon cancer. Here, we show that overexpression of wild-type or a constitutively activated form of MET in colon epithelial cells leads to increased transformation irrespective of Wnt signalling. Fetal human colon epithelial cells without aberrant Wnt signalling were transfected with wild-type or mutated MET constructs. Expression of these constructs leads to increased phosphorylation of MET and its downstream targets PKB and MAPK. Upon stimulation with HGF, the expression of E-cadherin is downregulated in wild-type MET-transfected cells, whereas cells expressing mutated MET show low E-cadherin levels independent of stimulation with ligand. This implies a higher migratory propensity of these cells. Furthermore, fetal human colon epithelial cells expressing the mutated form of MET have colony-forming capacity in soft agar, while cells expressing wild-type MET show an intermediate phenotype. Subcutaneous injection of mutated MET-transfected cells in nude mice leads to the formation of tumours within 12 days in all mice injected. At this time point, mock-transfected cells do not form tumours, while wild-type MET-transfected cells form subcutaneous tumours in one out of five mice. We thus show that MET signalling can lead to increased transformation of colon epithelial cells independent of Wnt signalling and in this way could play an essential role in the onset and progression of colorectal cancer. PMID:15785735

  1. Jagged–Delta asymmetry in Notch signaling can give rise to a Sender/Receiver hybrid phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Boareto, Marcelo; Jolly, Mohit Kumar; Lu, Mingyang; Onuchic, José N.; Clementi, Cecilia; Ben-Jacob, Eshel

    2015-01-01

    Notch signaling pathway mediates cell-fate determination during embryonic development, wound healing, and tumorigenesis. This pathway is activated when the ligand Delta or the ligand Jagged of one cell interacts with the Notch receptor of its neighboring cell, releasing the Notch Intracellular Domain (NICD) that activates many downstream target genes. NICD affects ligand production asymmetrically––it represses Delta, but activates Jagged. Although the dynamical role of Notch–Jagged signaling remains elusive, it is widely recognized that Notch–Delta signaling behaves as an intercellular toggle switch, giving rise to two distinct fates that neighboring cells adopt––Sender (high ligand, low receptor) and Receiver (low ligand, high receptor). Here, we devise a specific theoretical framework that incorporates both Delta and Jagged in Notch signaling circuit to explore the functional role of Jagged in cell-fate determination. We find that the asymmetric effect of NICD renders the circuit to behave as a three-way switch, giving rise to an additional state––a hybrid Sender/Receiver (medium ligand, medium receptor). This phenotype allows neighboring cells to both send and receive signals, thereby attaining similar fates. We also show that due to the asymmetric effect of the glycosyltransferase Fringe, different outcomes are generated depending on which ligand is dominant: Delta-mediated signaling drives neighboring cells to have an opposite fate; Jagged-mediated signaling drives the cell to maintain a similar fate to that of its neighbor. We elucidate the role of Jagged in cell-fate determination and discuss its possible implications in understanding tumor–stroma cross-talk, which frequently entails Notch–Jagged communication. PMID:25605936

  2. Embryonic Ethanol Exposure Dysregulates BMP and Notch Signaling, Leading to Persistent Atrio-Ventricular Valve Defects in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Sarmah, Swapnalee; Muralidharan, Pooja

    2016-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), birth defects associated with ethanol exposure in utero, includes a wide spectrum of congenital heart defects (CHDs), the most prevalent of which are septal and conotruncal defects. Zebrafish FASD model was used to dissect the mechanisms underlying FASD-associated CHDs. Embryonic ethanol exposure (3–24 hours post fertilization) led to defects in atrio-ventricular (AV) valvulogenesis beginning around 37 hpf, a morphogenetic event that arises long after ethanol withdrawal. Valve leaflets of the control embryos comprised two layers of cells confined at the compact atrio-ventricular canal (AVC). Ethanol treated embryos had extended AVC and valve forming cells were found either as rows of cells spanning the AVC or as unorganized clusters near the AV boundary. Ethanol exposure reduced valve precursors at the AVC, but some ventricular cells in ethanol treated embryos exhibited few characteristics of valve precursors. Late staged larvae and juvenile fish exposed to ethanol during embryonic development had faulty AV valves. Examination of AVC morphogenesis regulatory networks revealed that early ethanol exposure disrupted the Bmp signaling gradient in the heart during valve formation. Bmp signaling was prominent at the AVC in controls, but ethanol-exposed embryos displayed active Bmp signaling throughout the ventricle. Ethanol exposure also led to mislocalization of Notch signaling cells in endocardium during AV valve formation. Normally, highly active Notch signaling cells were organized at the AVC. In ethanol-exposed embryos, highly active Notch signaling cells were dispersed throughout the ventricle. At later stages, ethanol-exposed embryos exhibited reduced Wnt/β-catenin activity at the AVC. We conclude that early embryonic ethanol exposure alters Bmp, Notch and other signaling activities during AVC differentiation leading to faulty valve morphogenesis and valve defects persist in juvenile fish. PMID:27556898

  3. Embryonic Ethanol Exposure Dysregulates BMP and Notch Signaling, Leading to Persistent Atrio-Ventricular Valve Defects in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Sarmah, Swapnalee; Muralidharan, Pooja; Marrs, James A

    2016-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), birth defects associated with ethanol exposure in utero, includes a wide spectrum of congenital heart defects (CHDs), the most prevalent of which are septal and conotruncal defects. Zebrafish FASD model was used to dissect the mechanisms underlying FASD-associated CHDs. Embryonic ethanol exposure (3-24 hours post fertilization) led to defects in atrio-ventricular (AV) valvulogenesis beginning around 37 hpf, a morphogenetic event that arises long after ethanol withdrawal. Valve leaflets of the control embryos comprised two layers of cells confined at the compact atrio-ventricular canal (AVC). Ethanol treated embryos had extended AVC and valve forming cells were found either as rows of cells spanning the AVC or as unorganized clusters near the AV boundary. Ethanol exposure reduced valve precursors at the AVC, but some ventricular cells in ethanol treated embryos exhibited few characteristics of valve precursors. Late staged larvae and juvenile fish exposed to ethanol during embryonic development had faulty AV valves. Examination of AVC morphogenesis regulatory networks revealed that early ethanol exposure disrupted the Bmp signaling gradient in the heart during valve formation. Bmp signaling was prominent at the AVC in controls, but ethanol-exposed embryos displayed active Bmp signaling throughout the ventricle. Ethanol exposure also led to mislocalization of Notch signaling cells in endocardium during AV valve formation. Normally, highly active Notch signaling cells were organized at the AVC. In ethanol-exposed embryos, highly active Notch signaling cells were dispersed throughout the ventricle. At later stages, ethanol-exposed embryos exhibited reduced Wnt/β-catenin activity at the AVC. We conclude that early embryonic ethanol exposure alters Bmp, Notch and other signaling activities during AVC differentiation leading to faulty valve morphogenesis and valve defects persist in juvenile fish.

  4. Notch Signaling Augments BMP9-Induced Bone Formation by Promoting the Osteogenesis-Angiogenesis Coupling Process in Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs).

    PubMed

    Liao, Junyi; Wei, Qiang; Zou, Yulong; Fan, Jiaming; Song, Dongzhe; Cui, Jing; Zhang, Wenwen; Zhu, Yunxiao; Ma, Chao; Hu, Xue; Qu, Xiangyang; Chen, Liqun; Yu, Xinyi; Zhang, Zhicai; Wang, Claire; Zhao, Chen; Zeng, Zongyue; Zhang, Ruyi; Yan, Shujuan; Wu, Tingting; Wu, Xingye; Shu, Yi; Lei, Jiayan; Li, Yasha; Luu, Hue H; Lee, Michael J; Reid, Russell R; Ameer, Guillermo A; Wolf, Jennifer Moriatis; He, Tong-Chuan; Huang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent progenitors that can differentiate into several lineages including bone. Successful bone formation requires osteogenesis and angiogenesis coupling of MSCs. Here, we investigate if simultaneous activation of BMP9 and Notch signaling yields effective osteogenesis-angiogenesis coupling in MSCs. Recently-characterized immortalized mouse adipose-derived progenitors (iMADs) were used as MSC source. Transgenes BMP9, NICD and dnNotch1 were expressed by adenoviral vectors. Gene expression was determined by qPCR and immunohistochem¡stry. Osteogenic activity was assessed by in vitro assays and in vivo ectopic bone formation model. BMP9 upregulated expression of Notch receptors and ligands in iMADs. Constitutively-active form of Notch1 NICD1 enhanced BMP9-induced osteogenic differentiation both in vitro and in vivo, which was effectively inhibited by dominant-negative form of Notch1 dnNotch1. BMP9- and NICD1-transduced MSCs implanted with a biocompatible scaffold yielded highly mature bone with extensive vascularization. NICD1 enhanced BMP9-induced expression of key angiogenic regulators in iMADs and Vegfa in ectopic bone, which was blunted by dnNotch1. Notch signaling may play an important role in BMP9-induced osteogenesis and angiogenesis. It's conceivable that simultaneous activation of the BMP9 and Notch pathways should efficiently couple osteogenesis and angiogenesis of MSCs for successful bone tissue engineering. © 2017 The Author(s)Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Cyclic AMP Response Element Binding Protein Mediates Pathological Retinal Neovascularization via Modulating DLL4-NOTCH1 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Nikhlesh K.; Kotla, Sivareddy; Kumar, Raj; Rao, Gadiparthi N.

    2015-01-01

    Retinal neovascularization is the most common cause of moderate to severe vision loss in all age groups. Despite the use of anti-VEGFA therapies, this complication continues to cause blindness, suggesting a role for additional molecules in retinal neovascularization. Besides VEGFA and VEGFB, hypoxia induced VEGFC expression robustly. Based on this finding, we tested the role of VEGFC in pathological retinal angiogenesis. VEGFC induced proliferation, migration, sprouting and tube formation of human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMVECs) and these responses require CREB-mediated DLL4 expression and NOTCH1 activation. Furthermore, down regulation of VEGFC levels substantially reduced tip cell formation and retinal neovascularization in vivo. In addition, we observed that CREB via modulating the DLL4-NOTCH1 signaling mediates VEGFC-induced tip cell formation and retinal neovascularization. In regard to upstream mechanism, we found that down regulation of p38β levels inhibited hypoxia-induced CREB-DLL4-NOTCH1 activation, tip cell formation, sprouting and retinal neovascularization. Based on these findings, it may be suggested that VEGFC besides its role in the regulation of lymphangiogenesis also plays a role in pathological retinal angiogenesis and this effect depends on p38β and CREB-mediated activation of DLL4-NOTCH1 signaling. PMID:26870802

  6. Gamma-Secretase and Notch Signaling: Novel Therapeutic Targets In Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    Giovarelli,M. et al. 2000. Constitutive activation of NF-kappaB and T-cell leukemia/lymphoma in Notch3 transgenic mice. EMBOJ. 19:3337-3348. 16 14...8217-AATTCAACGGCACAGTCAAAG 9. Maekawa, Y. et al. Deltal- Notch3 interactions bias the functional differentiation of o CCGAGAATG-3’, and reverse, 5

  7. Waveform frequency notching

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin W.; Andrews, John

    The various technologies presented herein relate to incorporating one or more notches into a radar spectrum, whereby the notches relate to one or more frequencies for which no radar transmission is to occur. An instantaneous frequency is monitored and if the frequency is determined to be of a restricted frequency, then a radar signal can be modified. Modification can include replacing the signal with a signal having a different instantaneous amplitude, a different instantaneous phase, etc. The modification can occur in a WFS prior to a DAC, as well as prior to a sin ROM component and/or a cos ROMmore » component. Further, the notch can be dithered to enable formation of a deep notch. The notch can also undergo signal transitioning to enable formation of a deep notch. The restricted frequencies can be stored in a LUT against which an instantaneous frequency can be compared.« less

  8. Activation of Dll4/Notch Signaling and Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1 Alpha Facilitates Lymphangiogenesis in Lacrimal Glands in Dry Eye.

    PubMed

    Min, Ji Hwan; Lee, Chul Hee; Ji, Yong Woo; Yeo, Areum; Noh, Hyemi; Song, Insil; Kim, Eung Kweon; Lee, Hyung Keun

    2016-01-01

    By using hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha conditional knockout (HIF-1α CKO) mice and a dry eye (DE) mouse model, we aimed to determine the role played by delta-like ligand 4 (Dll4)/Notch signaling and HIF-1α in the lymphangiogenesis of lacrimal glands (LGs). C57BL/6 mice were housed in a controlled-environment chamber for DE induction. During DE induction, the expression level of Dll4/Notch signaling and lymphangiogenesis in LGs was measured by quantitative RT-PCR, immunoblot, and immunofluorescence staining. Next, lymphangiogenesis was measured after Dll4/Notch signal inhibition by anti-Dll4 antibody or γ-secretase inhibitor. Using HIF-1α CKO mice, the expression of Dll4/Notch signaling and lymphangiogenesis in LGs of DE-induced HIF-1α CKO mice were assessed. Additionally, the infiltration of CD45+ cells in LGs was assessed by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining and flow cytometry for each condition. DE significantly upregulated Dll4/Notch and lymphangiogenesis in LGs. Inhibition of Dll4/Notch significantly suppressed lymphangiogenesis in LGs. Compared to wild-type (WT) mice, DE induced HIF-1α CKO mice showed markedly low levels of Dll4/Notch and lymphangiogenesis. Inhibition of lymphangiogenesis by Dll4/Notch suppression resulted in increased CD45+ cell infiltration in LGs. Likewise, CD45+ cells infiltrated more in the LGs of HIF-1α CKO DE mice than in non-DE HIF-1α CKO mice. Dll4/Notch signaling and HIF-1α are closely related to lymphangiogenesis in DE-induced LGs. Lymphangiogenesis stimulated by Dll4/Notch and HIF-1α may play a role in protecting LGs from DE-induced inflammation by aiding the clearance of immune cells from LGs.

  9. Aberrant Signaling Pathways in T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Bongiovanni, Deborah; Saccomani, Valentina

    2017-01-01

    T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive disease caused by the malignant transformation of immature progenitors primed towards T-cell development. Clinically, T-ALL patients present with diffuse infiltration of the bone marrow by immature T-cell blasts high blood cell counts, mediastinal involvement, and diffusion to the central nervous system. In the past decade, the genomic landscape of T-ALL has been the target of intense research. The identification of specific genomic alterations has contributed to identify strong oncogenic drivers and signaling pathways regulating leukemia growth. Notwithstanding, T-ALL patients are still treated with high-dose multiagent chemotherapy, potentially exposing these patients to considerable acute and long-term side effects. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of the signaling pathways relevant for the pathogenesis of T-ALL and the opportunities offered for targeted therapy. PMID:28872614

  10. Could Notch signaling pathway be a potential therapeutic option in renal diseases?

    PubMed

    Marquez-Exposito, Laura; Cantero-Navarro, Elena; Lavoz, Carolina; Fierro-Fernández, Marta; Poveda, Jonay; Rayego-Mateos, Sandra; Rodrigues-Diez, Raúl R; Morgado-Pascual, José Luis; Orejudo, Macarena; Mezzano, Sergio; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta

    2018-02-10

    Notch pathway regulates key processes in the kidney, involved in embryonic development and tissue damage. In many human chronic renal diseases a local activation of Notch pathway has been described, suggesting that several components of Notch pathway could be considered as biomarkers of renal damage. Experimental studies by genetic modulation of Notch components or pharmacological approaches by γ-secretase inhibitors have demonstrated the role of this pathway in renal regeneration renal, podocyte apoptosis, proliferation and fibroblasts activation, and induction of epithelial to mesenchymal transition of tubular epithelial cells. Recent studies suggest an interaction between Notch and NF-κB pathway involved in the regulation of renal inflammatory process. On the other hand, there are some miRNAs that could regulate Notch components and down-stream responses. All these data suggest that Notch blockade could be a novel therapeutic option for renal diseases. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Angiopoietin-like proteins stimulate HSPC development through interaction with notch receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Michelle I; Price, Emily N; Boatman, Sonja; Hagedorn, Elliott J; Trompouki, Eirini; Satishchandran, Sruthi; Carspecken, Charles W; Uong, Audrey; DiBiase, Anthony; Yang, Song; Canver, Matthew C; Dahlberg, Ann; Lu, Zhigang; Zhang, Cheng Cheng; Orkin, Stuart H; Bernstein, Irwin D; Aster, Jon C; White, Richard M; Zon, Leonard I

    2015-01-01

    Angiopoietin-like proteins (angptls) are capable of ex vivo expansion of mouse and human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). Despite this intriguing ability, their mechanism is unknown. In this study, we show that angptl2 overexpression is sufficient to expand definitive HSPCs in zebrafish embryos. Angptl1/2 are required for definitive hematopoiesis and vascular specification of the hemogenic endothelium. The loss-of-function phenotype is reminiscent of the notch mutant mindbomb (mib), and a strong genetic interaction occurs between angptls and notch. Overexpressing angptl2 rescues mib while overexpressing notch rescues angptl1/2 morphants. Gene expression studies in ANGPTL2-stimulated CD34+ cells showed a strong MYC activation signature and myc overexpression in angptl1/2 morphants or mib restored HSPCs formation. ANGPTL2 can increase NOTCH activation in cultured cells and ANGPTL receptor interacted with NOTCH to regulate NOTCH cleavage. Together our data provide insight to the angptl-mediated notch activation through receptor interaction and subsequent activation of myc targets. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05544.001 PMID:25714926

  12. The homeobox gene mirror links EGF signalling to embryonic dorso-ventral axis formation through notch activation.

    PubMed

    Jordan, K C; Clegg, N J; Blasi, J A; Morimoto, A M; Sen, J; Stein, D; McNeill, H; Deng, W M; Tworoger, M; Ruohola-Baker, H

    2000-04-01

    Recent studies in vertebrates and Drosophila melanogaster have revealed that Fringe-mediated activation of the Notch pathway has a role in patterning cell layers during organogenesis. In these processes, a homeobox-containing transcription factor is responsible for spatially regulating fringe (fng) expression and thus directing activation of the Notch pathway along the fng expression border. Here we show that this may be a general mechanism for patterning epithelial cell layers. At three stages in Drosophila oogenesis, mirror (mirr) and fng have complementary expression patterns in the follicle-cell epithelial layer, and at all three stages loss of mirr enlarges, and ectopic expression of mirr restricts, fng expression, with consequences for follicle-cell patterning. These morphological changes are similar to those caused by Notch mutations. Ectopic expression of mirr in the posterior follicle cells induces a stripe of rhomboid (rho) expression and represses pipe (pip), a gene with a role in the establishment of the dorsal-ventral axis, at a distance. Ectopic Notch activation has a similar long-range effect on pip. Our results suggest that Mirror and Notch induce secretion of diffusible morphogens and we have identified TGF-beta (encoded by dpp) as such a molecule in germarium. We also found that mirr expression in dorsal follicle cells is induced by the EGF-receptor (EGFR) pathway and that mirr then represses pip expression in all but the ventral follicle cells, connecting EGFR activation in the dorsal follicle cells to repression of pip in the dorsal and lateral follicle cells. Our results suggest that the differentiation of ventral follicle cells is not a direct consequence of germline signalling, but depends on long-range signals from dorsal follicle cells, and provide a link between early and late events in Drosophila embryonic dorsal-ventral axis formation.

  13. Pancreatic islet regeneration through PDX-1/Notch-1/Ngn3 signaling after gastric bypass surgery in db/db mice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tao; Fu, Jun; Zhang, Zhijing; Zhang, Yuhao; Liang, Yunjia; Ge, Cuicui; Qin, Xianju

    2017-01-01

    In view of the compelling anti-diabetic effects of gastric bypass surgery (GBS) in the treatment of morbid obesity, it is important to clarify its enhancing effect on pancreatic islets, which is closely linked with diabetes remission in obese patients, as well as the underlying mechanisms. The present study evaluated the effects of GBS on glycemic control and other pancreatic changes in db/db mice. The db/db mice were divided into Control, Sham and GBS group. A significant improvement in fasting plasma glucose levels and glucose intolerance were observed post-surgery. At 4 weeks after surgery, further noteworthy changes were observed in the GBS group, including improved islet structure (revealed by immunohistochemical analysis), enhanced insulin secretion, pancreatic hyperplasia and a marked increase in the ratio of β-cells to non-β endocrine cells. Furthermore, notable changes in the levels of Notch-1, pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX-1) and neurogenin 3 (Ngn3) were observed in the GBS group, indicating a potential role of Notch signaling in pancreatic islet regeneration after surgery. In addition, results obtained in PDX-1 knockout (KO), Notch-1 KO and Ngn3 KO mouse models with GBS suggested that elevated PDX-1 resulted in the inhibition of Notch-1, further facilitated Ngn3 and thus promoted pancreatic β-cell regeneration after GBS. The present findings demonstrated that GBS in db/db mice resulted in pancreatic islet regeneration through the PDX-1/Notch-1/Ngn3 signaling pathway, which also reflected the important role of the gastrointestinal system in metabolism control. PMID:28966671

  14. Indispensable role of Notch ligand-dependent signaling in the proliferation and stem cell niche maintenance of APC-deficient intestinal tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Nakata, Toru; Shimizu, Hiromichi; Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA

    Ligand-dependent activation of Notch signaling is required to maintain the stem-cell niche of normal intestinal epithelium. However, the precise role of Notch signaling in the maintenance of the intestinal tumor stem cell niche and the importance of the RBPJ-independent non-canonical pathway in intestinal tumors remains unknown. Here we show that Notch signaling was activated in LGR5{sup +ve} cells of APC-deficient mice intestinal tumors. Accordingly, Notch ligands, including Jag1, Dll1, and Dll4, were expressed in these tumors. In vitro studies using tumor-derived organoids confirmed the intrinsic Notch activity-dependent growth of tumor cells. Surprisingly, the targeted deletion of Jag1 but not RBPJ inmore » LGR5{sup +ve} tumor-initiating cells resulted in the silencing of Hes1 expression, disruption of the tumor stem cell niche, and dramatic reduction in the proliferation activity of APC-deficient intestinal tumors in vivo. Thus, our results highlight the importance of ligand-dependent non-canonical Notch signaling in the proliferation and maintenance of the tumor stem cell niche in APC-deficient intestinal adenomas. - Highlights: • Notch signaling is activated in LGR5{sup +ve} cells of APC-deficient intestinal tumors. • Lack of Jag1 but not RBPJ disrupts stem cell niche formation in those tumors. • Lack of Jag1 reduces the proliferation activity of APC-deficient intestinal tumors.« less

  15. 3,6-dihydroxyflavone suppresses the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer cells by inhibiting the Notch signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junli; Chang, Hui; Peng, Xiaoli; Gu, Yeyun; Yi, Long; Zhang, Qianyong; Zhu, Jundong; Mi, Mantian

    2016-06-27

    The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical developmental program in cancer stem cell (CSC) maintenance and in cancer metastasis. Here, our study found that 3,6-DHF could effectively inhibit EMT in BC cells in vitro and in vivo. 3,6-DHF effectively inhibits the formation and proliferation of BCSCs, and consequently reduces the tumor-initiating capacity of tumor cells in NOD/SCID mice. Optical in vivo imaging of cancer metastasis showed that 3,6-DHF administration suppresses the lung metastasis of BC cells in vivo. Further studies indicated that 3,6-DHF down-regulates Notch1, NICD, Hes-1 and c-Myc, consequently decreasing the formation of the functional transcriptional unit of NICD-CSL-MAML, causing Notch signaling inactivation in BC cells. Over-expression of Notch1 or inhibition of miR-34a significantly reduced the inhibitory effects of 3,6-DHF on EMT, CSCs, as well as cells migration and invasion in BC cells. These data indicated that 3,6-DHF effectively inhibits EMT and CSCs, as well as cells migration and invasion in BC cells, in which miR-34a-mediated Notch1 down-regulation plays a crucial role.

  16. Asperosaponin VI promotes progesterone receptor expression in decidual cells via the notch signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jie; Zhou, Chun; Li, Yadi; Gao, Feixia; Wu, Haiwang; Yang, Lilin; Qiu, Weiyu; Zhu, Lin; Du, Xin; Lin, Weixian; Huang, Dandan; Liu, Haibin; Liang, Chun; Luo, Songping

    2016-09-01

    Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) is a common clinical condition, but its reasons remain unknown in 37-79% of the affected women. The steroid hormone progesterone (P4) is an integral mediator of early pregnancy events, exerting its effects via the progesterone receptor (PR). Dipsaci Radix (DR) has long been used for treating gynecological diseases in Chinese medicine, while its molecular mechanisms and active ingredients are still unclear. We report here the progesterone-like effects of the alcohol extraction and Asperosaponin VI from DR in primary decidual cells and HeLa cell line. We first determined the safe concentration of Asperosaponin VI in the cells with MTT assay and then found by using dual luciferase reporter and Western blotting that Asperosaponin VI significantly increased PR expression. Moreover, we explored the mechanisms of action of the DR extracts and Asperosaponin VI, and the results showed that they could activate Notch signaling, suggesting that they may function by promoting decidualization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Curcumin Inhibits Chondrocyte Hypertrophy of Mesenchymal Stem Cells through IHH and Notch Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhen; Dou, Ce; Dong, Shiwu

    2017-01-01

    Using tissue engineering technique to repair cartilage damage caused by osteoarthritis is a promising strategy. However, the regenerated tissue usually is fibrous cartilage, which has poor mechanical characteristics compared to hyaline cartilage. Chondrocyte hypertrophy plays an important role in this process. Thus, it is very important to find out a suitable way to maintain the phenotype of chondrocytes and inhibit chondrocyte hypertrophy. Curcumin deriving from turmeric was reported with anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor pharmacological effects. However, the role of curcumin in metabolism of chondrocytes, especially in the chondrocyte hypertrophy remains unclear. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are widely used in cartilage tissue engineering as seed cells. So we investigated the effect of curcumin on chondrogenesis and chondrocyte hypertrophy in MSCs through examination of cell viability, glycosaminoglycan synthesis and specific gene expression. We found curcumin had no effect on expression of chondrogenic markers including Sox9 and Col2a1 while hypertrophic markers including Runx2 and Col10a1 were down-regulated. Further exploration showed that curcumin inhibited chondrocyte hypertrophy through Indian hedgehog homolog (IHH) and Notch signalings. Our results indicated curcumin was a potential agent in modulating cartilage homeostasis and maintaining chondrocyte phenotype.

  18. Down-regulation of Notch signaling pathway reverses the Th1/Th2 imbalance in tuberculosis patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Qifeng; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Liang; Wu, Chao; Luo, Xinhui; Sun, He; Ding, Jianbing

    2018-01-01

    Th1/Th2 imbalance to Th2 is of significance in the peripheral immune responses in Tuberculosis (TB) development. However, the mechanisms for Th1/Th2 imbalance are still not well determined. Notch signaling pathway is involved in the peripheral T cell activation and effector cell differentiation. However, whether it affects Th1/Th2 imbalance in TB patients is still not known. Here, we used γ-secretase inhibitor (DAPT) to treat the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy people or individuals with latent or active TB infection in vitro, respectively. Then, the Th1/Th2 ratios were determined by flow cytometry, and cytokines of IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10 in the culture supernatant were measured by CBA method. The Notch signal pathway associated proteins Hes1, GATA3 and T-bet were quantitated by real-time PCR or immunoblotting. Our results showed that DAPT effectively inhibited the protein level of Hes1. In TB patients, the Th2 ratio increased in the PBMCs, alone with the high expression of GATA3 and IL-4, resulting in the high ratios of Th2/Th1 and GATA3/T-bet in TB patients. However, Th2 cells ratio decreased after blocking the Notch signaling pathway by DAPT and the Th2/Th1 ratio in TB patients were DAPT dose-dependent, accompanied by the decrease of IL-4 and GATA3. But, its influence on Th1 ratio and Th1 related T-bet and IFN-γ levels were not significant. In conclusion, our results suggest that blocking Notch signaling by DAPT could inhibit Th2 responses and restore Th1/Th2 imbalance in TB patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Aberrant Epithelial-Mesenchymal Hedgehog Signaling Characterizes Barrett's Metaplasia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, David H.; Clemons, Nicholas J.; Miyashita, Tomoharu; Dupuy, Adam J.; Zhang, Wei; Szczepny, Anette; Corcoran-Schwartz, Ian M.; Wilburn, Daniel L.; Montgomery, Elizabeth A.; Wang, Jean S.; Jenkins, Nancy A.; Copeland, Neal A.; Harmon, John W.; Phillips, Wayne A.; Watkins, D. Neil

    2010-01-01

    Background & Aims The molecular mechanism underlying epithelial metaplasia in Barrett's esophagus remains unknown. Recognizing that Hedgehog signaling is required for early esophageal development, we sought to determine if the Hedgehog pathway is reactivated in Barrett's esophagus, and if genes downstream of the pathway could promote columnar differentiation of esophageal epithelium. Methods Immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and quantitative real-time PCR were used to analyze clinical specimens, human esophageal cell lines, and mouse esophagi. Human esophageal squamous epithelial (HET-1A) and adenocarcinoma (OE33) cells were subjected to acid treatment and used in transfection experiments. Swiss Webster mice were used in a surgical model of bile reflux injury. An in vivo transplant culture system was created using esophageal epithelium from Sonic hedgehog transgenic mice. Results Marked upregulation of Hedgehog ligand expression, which can be induced by acid or bile exposure, occurs frequently in Barrett's epithelium and is associated with stromal expression of the Hedgehog target genes PTCH1 and BMP4. BMP4 signaling induces expression of SOX9, an intestinal crypt transcription factor, which is highly expressed in Barrett's epithelium. We further show that expression of DMBT1, the human homologue of the columnar cell factor Hensin, occurs in Barrett's epithelium and is induced by SOX9. Finally, transgenic expression of Sonic hedgehog in mouse esophageal epithelium induces expression of stromal Bmp4, epithelial Sox9 and columnar cytokeratins. Conclusions Epithelial Hedgehog ligand expression may contribute to the initiation of Barrett's esophagus through induction of stromal BMP4, which triggers reprogramming of esophageal epithelium in favor of a columnar phenotype. PMID:20138038

  20. The Varied Roles of Notch in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Aster, Jon C.; Pear, Warren S.; Blacklow, Stephen C.

    2018-01-01

    Notch receptors influence cellular behavior by participating in a seemingly simple signaling pathway, but outcomes produced by Notch signaling are remarkably varied depending on signal dose and cell context. Here, after briefly reviewing new insights into physiologic mechanisms of Notch signaling in healthy tissues and defects in Notch signaling that contribute to congenital disorders and viral infection, we discuss the varied roles of Notch in cancer, focusing on cell autonomous activities that may be either oncogenic or tumor suppressive. PMID:27959635

  1. Targeting Notch signalling by the conserved miR-8/200 microRNA family in development and cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Vallejo, Diana M; Caparros, Esther; Dominguez, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Notch signalling is crucial for the correct development and growth of numerous organs and tissues, and when subverted it can cause cancer. Loss of miR-8/200 microRNAs (miRNAs) is commonly observed in advanced tumours and correlates with their invasion and acquisition of stem-like properties. Here, we show that this miRNA family controls Notch signalling activation in Drosophila and human cells. In an overexpression screen, we identified the Drosophila miR-8 as a potent inhibitor of Notch-induced overgrowth and tumour metastasis. Gain and loss of mir-8 provoked developmental defects reminiscent of impaired Notch signalling and we demonstrated that miR-8 directly inhibits Notch ligand Serrate. Likewise, miR-200c and miR-141 directly inhibited JAGGED1, impeding proliferation of human metastatic prostate cancer cells. It has been suggested that JAGGED1 may also be important for metastases. Although in metastatic cancer cells, JAGGED1 modestly regulated ZEB1, the miR-200c's target in invasion, studies in Drosophila revealed that only concurrent overexpression of Notch and Zfh1/ZEB1 induced tumour metastases. Together, these data define a new way to attenuate or boost Notch signalling that may have clinical interest. PMID:21224847

  2. Pofut1 point-mutations that disrupt O-fucosyltransferase activity destabilize the protein and abolish Notch1 signaling during mouse somitogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Emiko; Saga, Yumiko

    2017-01-01

    The segmental pattern of the vertebrate body is established via the periodic formation of somites from the presomitic mesoderm (PSM). This periodical process is controlled by the cyclic and synchronized activation of Notch signaling in the PSM. Protein O-fucosyltransferase1 (Pofut1), which transfers O-fucose to the EGF domains of the Notch1 receptor, is indispensable for Notch signaling activation. The Drosophila homologue Ofut1 was reported to control Notch localization via two different mechanisms, working as a chaperone for Notch or as a regulator of Notch endocytosis. However, these were found to be independent of O-fucosyltransferase activity because the phenotypes were rescued by Ofut1 mutants lacking O-fucosyltransferase activity. Pofut1 may also be involved in the Notch receptor localization in mice. However, the contribution of enzymatic activity of Pofut1 to the Notch receptor dynamics remains to be elucidated. In order to clarify the importance of the O-fucosyltransferase activity of Pofut1 for Notch signaling activation and the protein localization in the PSM, we established mice carrying point mutations at the 245th a.a. or 370-372th a.a., highly conserved amino-acid sequences whose mutations disrupt the O-fucosyltransferase activity of both Drosophila Ofut1 and mammalian Pofut1, with the CRISPR/Cas9 mediated genome-engineering technique. Both mutants displayed the same severely perturbed somite formation and Notch1 subcellular localization defects as the Pofut1 null mutants. In the mutants, Pofut1 protein, but not RNA, became undetectable by E9.5. Furthermore, both wild-type and mutant Pofut1 proteins were degraded through lysosome dependent machinery. Pofut1 protein loss in the point mutant embryos caused the same phenotypes as those observed in Pofut1 null embryos. PMID:29095923

  3. Analysis of the Transcriptomes Downstream of Eyeless and the Hedgehog, Decapentaplegic and Notch Signaling Pathways in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Nfonsam, Landry E.; Cano, Carlos; Mudge, Joann; Schilkey, Faye D.; Curtiss, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Tissue-specific transcription factors are thought to cooperate with signaling pathways to promote patterned tissue specification, in part by co-regulating transcription. The Drosophila melanogaster Pax6 homolog Eyeless forms a complex, incompletely understood regulatory network with the Hedgehog, Decapentaplegic and Notch signaling pathways to control eye-specific gene expression. We report a combinatorial approach, including mRNAseq and microarray analyses, to identify targets co-regulated by Eyeless and Hedgehog, Decapentaplegic or Notch. Multiple analyses suggest that the transcriptomes resulting from co-misexpression of Eyeless+signaling factors provide a more complete picture of eye development compared to previous efforts involving Eyeless alone: (1) Principal components analysis and two-way hierarchical clustering revealed that the Eyeless+signaling factor transcriptomes are closer to the eye control transcriptome than when Eyeless is misexpressed alone; (2) more genes are upregulated at least three-fold in response to Eyeless+signaling factors compared to Eyeless alone; (3) based on gene ontology analysis, the genes upregulated in response to Eyeless+signaling factors had a greater diversity of functions compared to Eyeless alone. Through a secondary screen that utilized RNA interference, we show that the predicted gene CG4721 has a role in eye development. CG4721 encodes a neprilysin family metalloprotease that is highly up-regulated in response to Eyeless+Notch, confirming the validity of our approach. Given the similarity between D. melanogaster and vertebrate eye development, the large number of novel genes identified as potential targets of Ey+signaling factors will provide novel insights to our understanding of eye development in D. melanogaster and humans. PMID:22952997

  4. Conditional ablation of the Notch2 receptor in the ocular lens

    PubMed Central

    Saravanamuthu, Senthil S.; Le, Tien T.; Gao, Chun Y.; Cojocaru, Radu I.; Pandiyan, Pushpa; Liu, Chunqiao; Zhang, Jun; Zelenka, Peggy S.; Brown, Nadean L.

    2011-01-01

    Notch signaling is essential for proper lens development, however the specific requirements of individual Notch receptors have not been investigated. Here we report the lens phenotypes of Notch2 conditionally mutant mice, which exhibited severe microphthalmia, reduced pupillary openings, disrupted fiber cell morphology, eventual loss of the anterior epithelium, fiber cell dysgenesis, denucleation defects, and cataracts. Notch2 mutants also had persistent lens stalks as early as E11.5, and aberrant DNA synthesis in the fiber cell compartment by E14.5. Gene expression analyses showed that upon loss of Notch2, there were elevated levels of the cell cycle regulators Cdkn1a (p21Cip1), Ccnd2 (CyclinD2), and Trp63 (p63) that negatively regulates Wnt signaling, plus down-regulation of Cdh1 (E-Cadherin). Removal of Notch2 also resulted in an increased proportion of fiber cells, as was found in Rbpj and Jag1 conditional mutant lenses. However, Notch2 is not required for AEL proliferation, suggesting that a different receptor regulates this process. We found that Notch2 normally blocks lens progenitor cell death. Overall, we conclude that Notch2-mediated signaling regulates lens morphogenesis, apoptosis, cell cycle withdrawal, and secondary fiber cell differentiation. PMID:22173065

  5. Nuclear factor of activated T-cells 5 increases intestinal goblet cell differentiation through an mTOR/Notch signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yuning; Wang, Qingding; Weiss, Heidi L.; Evers, B. Mark

    2014-01-01

    The intestinal mucosa undergoes a continual process of proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis that is regulated by multiple signaling pathways. Previously, we have shown that the nuclear factor of activated T-cells 5 (NFAT5) is involved in the regulation of intestinal enterocyte differentiation. Here we show that treatment with sodium chloride (NaCl), which activates NFAT5 signaling, increased mTORC1 repressor regulated in development and DNA damage response 1 (REDD1) protein expression and inhibited mTOR signaling; these alterations were attenuated by knockdown of NFAT5. Knockdown of NFAT5 activated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and significantly inhibited REDD1 mRNA expression and protein expression. Consistently, overexpression of NFAT5 increased REDD1 expression. In addition, knockdown of REDD1 activated mTOR and Notch signaling, whereas treatment with mTOR inhibitor rapamycin repressed Notch signaling and increased the expression of the goblet cell differentiation marker mucin 2 (MUC2). Moreover, knockdown of NFAT5 activated Notch signaling and decreased MUC2 expression, while overexpression of NFAT5 inhibited Notch signaling and increased MUC2 expression. Our results demonstrate a role for NFAT5 in the regulation of mTOR signaling in intestinal cells. Importantly, these data suggest that NFAT5 participates in the regulation of intestinal homeostasis via the suppression of mTORC1/Notch signaling pathway. PMID:25057011

  6. [Notch signaling pathway participates in the differentiation of hepatic progenitor cells into bile duct epithelial cells and progression of hepatic fibrosis in cholestatic liver fibrosis rat].

    PubMed

    Mu, Y P; Zhang, X; Xu, Y; Fan, W W; Li, X W; Chen, J M; Chen, G F; Liu, P

    2017-06-08

    Objective: To investigate differentiation direction of hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) in cholestatic liver fibrosis (CLF), and the role of Notch signaling pathway in the differentiation of HPCs. Methods: A CLF rat model was established by bile duct ligation (BDL) followed by monitoring changes of Notch signal pathway and the cellular origin of proliferating cholangiocytes. After intraperitoneal injection of DAPT (a Notch signaling inhibitor) after bile duct ligation, the progress of liver fibrosis and the proliferation of cholangiocytes after inhibition of the Notch pathway were analyzed. Results: Data showed that bile duct proliferation gradually increased along with inflammatory cell infiltration and proliferating bile duct cells surrounded by abundant collagen in the BDL group. Immunostaining confirmed markedly increased expression of CK19, OV6, Sox9 and EpCAM. In addition, RT-PCR results showed that Notch signaling pathway was activated significantly. Once the Notch signaling pathway was inhibited by DAPT, bile duct proliferation markedly suppressed along with significantly decreased the mRNA expression of CK19, OV6, Sox9 and EpCAM, compared with BDL group [(10.2±0.7) vs . (22.3±0.8), (7.6±1.5) vs . (18.1±3.7), (1.4±0.4) vs . (4.1±1.1), (1.3±0.3) vs . (5.0±1.4), respectively, P <0.01]. Moreover, liver fibrosis was also reduced significantly. Conclusion: Notch signaling activation is required for HPCs differentiation into cholangiocytes in CLF and inhibition of the Notch signaling pathway may offer a therapeutic option for treating CLF.

  7. Differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells from local precursors during embryonic and adult arteriogenesis requires Notch signaling

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Linda; Noseda, Michela; Higginson, Michelle; Ly, Michelle; Patenaude, Alexandre; Fuller, Megan; Kyle, Alastair H.; Minchinton, Andrew I.; Puri, Mira C.; Dumont, Daniel J.; Karsan, Aly

    2012-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) have been suggested to arise from various developmental sources during embryogenesis, depending on the vascular bed. However, evidence also points to a common subpopulation of vascular progenitor cells predisposed to VSMC fate in the embryo. In the present study, we use binary transgenic reporter mice to identify a Tie1+CD31dimvascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin−CD45− precursor that gives rise to VSMC in vivo in all vascular beds examined. This precursor does not represent a mature endothelial cell, because a VE-cadherin promoter-driven reporter shows no expression in VSMC during murine development. Blockade of Notch signaling in the Tie1+ precursor cell, but not the VE-cadherin+ endothelial cell, decreases VSMC investment of developing arteries, leading to localized hemorrhage in the embryo at the time of vascular maturation. However, Notch signaling is not required in the Tie1+ precursor after establishment of a stable artery. Thus, Notch activity is required in the differentiation of a Tie1+ local precursor to VSMC in a spatiotemporal fashion across all vascular beds. PMID:22509029

  8. EGFR blockade enriches for lung cancer stem-like cells through Notch3-dependent signaling

    PubMed Central

    Arasada, Rajeswara Rao; Amann, Joseph M.; Rahman, Mohammad A; Huppert, Stacey S.; Carbone, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are the most common actionable genetic abnormalities yet discovered in lung cancer. However, targeting these mutations with kinase inhibitors is not curative in advanced disease and has yet to demonstrate an impact on potentially curable, early-stage disease, with some data suggesting adverse outcomes. Here, we report that treatment of EGFR-mutated lung cancer cell lines with erlotinib, while showing robust cell death, enriches the ALDH+ stem-like cells through EGFR-dependent activation of Notch3. Additionally, we demonstrate that erlotinib treatment increases the clonogenicity of lung cancer cells in a sphere-forming assay, suggesting increased stem-like cell potential. We demonstrate that inhibition of EGFR kinase activity leads to activation of Notch transcriptional targets in a gamma secretase inhibitor sensitive manner and causes Notch activation. leading to an increase in ALDH high+ cells. We also find a kinase-dependent physical association between the Notch3 and EGFR receptors and tyrosine phosphorylation of Notch3. This could explain the worsened survival observed in some studies of erlotinib treatment at early-stage disease, and suggests that specific dual targeting might overcome this adverse effect. PMID:25125655

  9. Overcoming failure to repair demyelination in EAE: gamma-secretase inhibition of Notch signaling.

    PubMed

    Jurynczyk, Maciej; Jurewicz, Anna; Bielecki, Bartosz; Raine, Cedric S; Selmaj, Krzysztof

    2008-02-15

    In multiple sclerosis (MS), myelin destroyed by the immune attack is not effectively repaired by oligodendrocytes (OLs) and MS foci eventually undergo glial scarring. Although oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) are normally recruited to the lesion areas, they fail to mature and remyelinate the damaged fibers. Activation of the Notch pathway has been shown to inhibit OPC differentiation and to hamper their ability to produce myelin during CNS development. We have recently shown that inhibition of gamma-secretase within the CNS of SJL/J mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) blocks Notch pathway activation in OLs, promotes remyelination, reduces axonal damage and significantly enhances clinical recovery from the disease. Our results suggest that inhibiting the non-myelin permissive environment maintained by Notch pathways within the mature CNS offers a new strategy for treating autoimmune demyelination, including MS.

  10. Medicarpin, a Natural Pterocarpan, Heals Cortical Bone Defect by Activation of Notch and Wnt Canonical Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Chandra Prakash; Kureel, Jyoti; Mansoori, Mohd Nizam; Shukla, Priyanka; John, Aijaz A.; Singh, Kavita; Purohit, Dipak; Awasthi, Pallavi; Singh, Divya; Goel, Atul

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the bone regeneration and healing effect of Medicarpin (med) in cortical bone defect model that heals by intramembranous ossification. For the study, female Sprague–Dawley rats were ovariectomized and rendered osteopenic. A drill hole injury was generated in mid femoral bones of all the animals. Med treatment was commenced the day after and continued for 15 days. PTH was taken as a reference standard. Fifteen days post-treatment, animals were sacrificed. Bones were collected for histomorphometry studies at the injury site by micro-computed tomography (μCT) and confocal microscopy. RNA and protein was harvested from newly generated bone. For immunohistochemistry, 5μm sections of decalcified femur bone adjoining the drill hole site were cut. By μCT analysis and calcein labeling of newly generated bone it was found that med promotes bone healing and new bone formation at the injury site and was comparable to PTH in many aspects. Med treatment led to increase in the Runx-2 and osteocalcin signals indicating expansion of osteoprogenitors at the injury site as evaluated by qPCR and immunohistochemical localization. It was observed that med promoted bone regeneration by activating canonical Wnt and notch signaling pathway. This was evident by increased transcript and protein levels of Wnt and notch signaling components in the defect region. Finally, we confirmed that med treatment leads to elevated bone healing in pre-osteoblasts by co localization of beta catenin with osteoblast marker alkaline phosphatase. In conclusion, med treatment promotes new bone regeneration and healing at the injury site by activating Wnt/canonical and notch signaling pathways. This study also forms a strong case for evaluation of med in delayed union and non-union fracture cases. PMID:26657206

  11. Medicarpin, a Natural Pterocarpan, Heals Cortical Bone Defect by Activation of Notch and Wnt Canonical Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Manisha; Raghuvanshi, Ashutosh; Gupta, Chandra Prakash; Kureel, Jyoti; Mansoori, Mohd Nizam; Shukla, Priyanka; John, Aijaz A; Singh, Kavita; Purohit, Dipak; Awasthi, Pallavi; Singh, Divya; Goel, Atul

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the bone regeneration and healing effect of Medicarpin (med) in cortical bone defect model that heals by intramembranous ossification. For the study, female Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomized and rendered osteopenic. A drill hole injury was generated in mid femoral bones of all the animals. Med treatment was commenced the day after and continued for 15 days. PTH was taken as a reference standard. Fifteen days post-treatment, animals were sacrificed. Bones were collected for histomorphometry studies at the injury site by micro-computed tomography (μCT) and confocal microscopy. RNA and protein was harvested from newly generated bone. For immunohistochemistry, 5μm sections of decalcified femur bone adjoining the drill hole site were cut. By μCT analysis and calcein labeling of newly generated bone it was found that med promotes bone healing and new bone formation at the injury site and was comparable to PTH in many aspects. Med treatment led to increase in the Runx-2 and osteocalcin signals indicating expansion of osteoprogenitors at the injury site as evaluated by qPCR and immunohistochemical localization. It was observed that med promoted bone regeneration by activating canonical Wnt and notch signaling pathway. This was evident by increased transcript and protein levels of Wnt and notch signaling components in the defect region. Finally, we confirmed that med treatment leads to elevated bone healing in pre-osteoblasts by co localization of beta catenin with osteoblast marker alkaline phosphatase. In conclusion, med treatment promotes new bone regeneration and healing at the injury site by activating Wnt/canonical and notch signaling pathways. This study also forms a strong case for evaluation of med in delayed union and non-union fracture cases.

  12. LIN-12/Notch signaling instructs postsynaptic muscle arm development by regulating UNC-40/DCC and MADD-2 in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pengpeng; Collins, Kevin M; Koelle, Michael R; Shen, Kang

    2013-01-01

    The diverse cell types and the precise synaptic connectivity between them are the cardinal features of the nervous system. Little is known about how cell fate diversification is linked to synaptic target choices. Here we investigate how presynaptic neurons select one type of muscles, vm2, as a synaptic target and form synapses on its dendritic spine-like muscle arms. We found that the Notch-Delta pathway was required to distinguish target from non-target muscles. APX-1/Delta acts in surrounding cells including the non-target vm1 to activate LIN-12/Notch in the target vm2. LIN-12 functions cell-autonomously to up-regulate the expression of UNC-40/DCC and MADD-2 in vm2, which in turn function together to promote muscle arm formation and guidance. Ectopic expression of UNC-40/DCC in non-target vm1 muscle is sufficient to induce muscle arm extension from these cells. Therefore, the LIN-12/Notch signaling specifies target selection by selectively up-regulating guidance molecules and forming muscle arms in target cells. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00378.001 PMID:23539368

  13. Inhibition of gamma-secretase in Notch1 signaling pathway as a novel treatment for ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhaoyi; Xu, Wandong; Zhang, Chenguang; Liu, Mengran; Wen, Hongwu

    2017-01-31

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the leading cause of death for gynecological cancer. Most patients are not diagnosed until the cancer is at an advanced stage with poor prognosis. Notch1 signaling pathway plays an oncogenic role in EOC. There have been few studies on enzymatic activity of γ-secretase and the mechanism of how γ-secretase inhibitor works on cancer cell. Here, we show that Jagged1 and NICD were highly expressed in ovarian carcinoma. The expressions of Notch1, Jagged1 and NICD in Notch1 pathway did not correlate with outcome in ovarian cancer. The enzymatic activity of γ-secretase in ovarian cancer cell lines SKOV3, CAOV3 and ES2 is significantly higher than in normal ovarian epithelial cell line T29. DAPT (a γ-secretase inhibitor) reduced the enzymatic activity of γ-secretase, inhibited the proliferation, and increased the apoptosis in ovarian cancer cell lines. Hence, γ-secretase inhibitor may become a highly promising novel therapeutic strategy against ovarian cancer in the field of precision medicine.

  14. Hes repressors are essential regulators of hematopoietic stem cell development downstream of Notch signaling

    PubMed Central

    Guiu, Jordi; Shimizu, Ritsuko; D’Altri, Teresa; Fraser, Stuart T.; Hatakeyama, Jun; Bresnick, Emery H.; Kageyama, Ryoichiro; Dzierzak, Elaine; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Espinosa, Lluis

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have identified Notch as a key regulator of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) development, but the underlying downstream mechanisms remain unknown. The Notch target Hes1 is widely expressed in the aortic endothelium and hematopoietic clusters, though Hes1-deficient mice show no overt hematopoietic abnormalities. We now demonstrate that Hes is required for the development of HSC in the mouse embryo, a function previously undetected as the result of functional compensation by de novo expression of Hes5 in the aorta/gonad/mesonephros (AGM) region of Hes1 mutants. Analysis of embryos deficient for Hes1 and Hes5 reveals an intact arterial program with overproduction of nonfunctional hematopoietic precursors and total absence of HSC activity. These alterations were associated with increased expression of the hematopoietic regulators Runx1, c-myb, and the previously identified Notch target Gata2. By analyzing the Gata2 locus, we have identified functional RBPJ-binding sites, which mutation results in loss of Gata2 reporter expression in transgenic embryos, and functional Hes-binding sites, which mutation leads to specific Gata2 up-regulation in the hematopoietic precursors. Together, our findings show that Notch activation in the AGM triggers Gata2 and Hes1 transcription, and next HES-1 protein represses Gata2, creating an incoherent feed-forward loop required to restrict Gata2 expression in the emerging HSCs. PMID:23267012

  15. Targeting Notch1 signaling pathway positively affects the sensitivity of osteosarcoma to cisplatin by regulating the expression and/or activity of Caspase family

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The introduction of cisplatin has improved the long-term survival rate in osteosarcoma patients. However, some patients are intrinsically resistant to cisplatin. This study reported that the activation of Notch1 is positively correlated with cisplatin sensitivity, evidenced by both clinical and in vitro data. Results In this study, a total 8 osteosarcoma specimens were enrolled and divided into two groups according to their cancer chemotherapeutic drugs sensitivity examination results. The relationship between Notch1 expression and cisplatin sensitivity of osteosarcoma patients was detected by immunohistochemistry and semi-quantitative analysis. Subsequently, two typical osteosarcoma cell lines, Saos-2 and MG63, were selected to study the changes of cisplatin sensitivity by up-regulating (NICD1 plasmid transfeciton) or decreasing (gamma-secretase complex inhibitor DAPT) the activation state of Notch1 signaling pathway. Our results showed a significant correlation between the expression of Notch1 and cisplatin sensitivity in patient specimens. In vitro, Saos-2 with higher expression of Notch1 had significantly better cisplatin sensitivity than MG63 whose Notch1 level was relatively lower. By targeting regulation in vitro, the cisplatin sensitivity of Saos-2 and MG63 had significantly increased after the activation of Notch1 signaling pathway, and vice versa. Further mechanism investigation revealed that activation/inhibition of Notch1 sensitized/desensitized cisplatin-induced apoptosis, which probably depended on the changes in the activity of Caspase family, including Caspase 3, Caspase 8 and Caspase 9 in these cells. Conclusions Our data clearly demonstrated that Notch1 is critical for cisplatin sensitivity in osteosarcoma. It can be used as a molecular marker and regulator for cisplatin sensitivity in osteosarcoma patients. PMID:24894297

  16. Manipulation of a VEGF-Notch signaling circuit drives formation of functional vascular endothelial progenitors from human pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Sahara, Makoto; Hansson, Emil M; Wernet, Oliver; Lui, Kathy O; Später, Daniela; Chien, Kenneth R

    2014-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived endothelial lineage cells constitutes a promising source for therapeutic revascularization, but progress in this arena has been hampered by a lack of clinically-scalable differentiation protocols and inefficient formation of a functional vessel network integrating with the host circulation upon transplantation. Using a human embryonic stem cell reporter cell line, where green fluorescent protein expression is driven by an endothelial cell-specific VE-cadherin (VEC) promoter, we screened for > 60 bioactive small molecules that would promote endothelial differentiation, and found that administration of BMP4 and a GSK-3β inhibitor in an early phase and treatment with VEGF-A and inhibition of the Notch signaling pathway in a later phase led to efficient differentiation of hPSCs to the endothelial lineage within six days. This sequential approach generated > 50% conversion of hPSCs to endothelial cells (ECs), specifically VEC+CD31+CD34+CD14−KDRhigh endothelial progenitors (EPs) that exhibited higher angiogenic and clonogenic proliferation potential among endothelial lineage cells. Pharmaceutical inhibition or genetical knockdown of Notch signaling, in combination with VEGF-A treatment, resulted in efficient formation of EPs via KDR+ mesodermal precursors and blockade of the conversion of EPs to mature ECs. The generated EPs successfully formed functional capillary vessels in vivo with anastomosis to the host vessels when transplanted into immunocompromised mice. Manipulation of this VEGF-A-Notch signaling circuit in our protocol leads to rapid large-scale production of the hPSC-derived EPs by 12- to 20-fold vs current methods, which may serve as an attractive cell population for regenerative vascularization with superior vessel forming capability compared to mature ECs. PMID:24810299

  17. Stereotypical architecture of the stem cell niche is spatiotemporally established by miR-125-dependent coordination of Notch and steroid signaling.

    PubMed

    Yatsenko, Andriy S; Shcherbata, Halyna R

    2018-02-08

    Stem cell niches act as signaling platforms that regulate stem cell self-renewal and sustain stem cells throughout life; however, the specific developmental events controlling their assembly are not well understood. Here, we show that during Drosophila ovarian germline stem cell niche formation, the status of Notch signaling in the cell can be reprogrammed. This is controlled via steroid-induced miR-125 , which targets a negative regulator of Notch signaling, Tom. Thus, miR-125 acts as a spatiotemporal coordinator between paracrine Notch and endocrine steroid signaling. Moreover, a dual security mechanism for Notch signaling activation exists to ensure the robustness of niche assembly. Particularly, stem cell niche cells can be specified either via lateral inhibition, in which a niche cell precursor acquires Notch signal-sending status randomly, or via peripheral induction, whereby Delta is produced by a specific cell. When one mechanism is perturbed due to mutations, developmental defects or environmental stress, the remaining mechanism ensures that the niche is formed, perhaps abnormally, but still functional. This guarantees that the germline stem cells will have their residence, thereby securing progressive oogenesis and, thus, organism reproduction. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. SOX1 links the function of neural patterning and Notch signalling in the ventral spinal cord during the neuron-glial fate switch

    SciTech Connect

    Genethliou, Nicholas; Panayiotou, Elena; Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia

    2009-12-25

    During neural development the transition from neurogenesis to gliogenesis, known as the neuron-glial ({Nu}/G) fate switch, requires the coordinated function of patterning factors, pro-glial factors and Notch signalling. How this process is coordinated in the embryonic spinal cord is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that during the N/G fate switch in the ventral spinal cord (vSC) SOX1 links the function of neural patterning and Notch signalling. We show that, SOX1 expression in the vSC is regulated by PAX6, NKX2.2 and Notch signalling in a domain-specific manner. We further show that SOX1 regulates the expression of Hes1 and that loss ofmore » Sox1 leads to enhanced production of oligodendrocyte precursors from the pMN. Finally, we show that Notch signalling functions upstream of SOX1 during this fate switch and is independently required for the acquisition of the glial fate perse by regulating Nuclear Factor I A expression in a PAX6/SOX1/HES1/HES5-independent manner. These data integrate functional roles of neural patterning factors, Notch signalling and SOX1 during gliogenesis.« less

  19. Indole-3-Carbinol Promotes Goblet-Cell Differentiation Regulating Wnt and Notch Signaling Pathways AhR-Dependently.

    PubMed

    Park, Joo-Hung; Lee, Jeong-Min; Lee, Eun-Jin; Hwang, Won-Bhin; Kim, Da-Jeong

    2018-04-30

    Using an in vitro model of intestinal organoids derived from intestinal crypts, we examined effects of indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a phytochemical that has anticancer and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-activating abilities and thus is sold as a dietary supplement, on the development of intestinal organoids and investigated the underlying mechanisms. I3C inhibited the in vitro development of mouse intestinal organoids. Addition of α-naphthoflavone, an AhR antagonist or AhR siRNA transfection, suppressed I3C function, suggesting that I3C-mediated interference with organoid development is AhR-dependent. I3C increased the expression of Muc2 and lysozyme, lineage-specific genes for goblet cells and Paneth cells, respectively, but inhibits the expression of IAP, a marker gene for enterocytes. In the intestines of mice treated with I3C, the number of goblet cells was reduced, but the number of Paneth cells and the depth and length of crypts and villi were not changed. I3C increased the level of active nonphosphorylated β-catenin, but suppressed the Notch signal. As a result, expression of Hes1, a Notch target gene and a transcriptional repressor that plays a key role in enterocyte differentiation, was reduced, whereas expression of Math1, involved in the differentiation of secretory lineages, was increased. These results provide direct evidence for the role of AhR in the regulation of the development of intestinal stem cells and indicate that such regulation is likely mediated by regulation of Wnt and Notch signals.

  20. Dll4-Notch signaling determines the formation of native arterial collateral networks and arterial function in mouse ischemia models.

    PubMed

    Cristofaro, Brunella; Shi, Yu; Faria, Marcella; Suchting, Steven; Leroyer, Aurelie S; Trindade, Alexandre; Duarte, Antonio; Zovein, Ann C; Iruela-Arispe, M Luisa; Nih, Lina R; Kubis, Nathalie; Henrion, Daniel; Loufrani, Laurent; Todiras, Mihail; Schleifenbaum, Johanna; Gollasch, Maik; Zhuang, Zhen W; Simons, Michael; Eichmann, Anne; le Noble, Ferdinand

    2013-04-01

    Arteriogenesis requires growth of pre-existing arteriolar collateral networks and determines clinical outcome in arterial occlusive diseases. Factors responsible for the development of arteriolar collateral networks are poorly understood. The Notch ligand Delta-like 4 (Dll4) promotes arterial differentiation and restricts vessel branching. We hypothesized that Dll4 may act as a genetic determinant of collateral arterial networks and functional recovery in stroke and hind limb ischemia models in mice. Genetic loss- and gain-of-function approaches in mice showed that Dll4-Notch signaling restricts pial collateral artery formation by modulating arterial branching morphogenesis during embryogenesis. Adult Dll4(+/-) mice showed increased pial collateral numbers, but stroke volume upon middle cerebral artery occlusion was not reduced compared with wild-type littermates. Likewise, Dll4(+/-) mice showed reduced blood flow conductance after femoral artery occlusion, and, despite markedly increased angiogenesis, tissue ischemia was more severe. In peripheral arteries, loss of Dll4 adversely affected excitation-contraction coupling in arterial smooth muscle in response to vasopressor agents and arterial vessel wall adaption in response to increases in blood flow, collectively contributing to reduced flow reserve. We conclude that Dll4-Notch signaling modulates native collateral formation by acting on vascular branching morphogenesis during embryogenesis. Dll4 furthermore affects tissue perfusion by acting on arterial function and structure. Loss of Dll4 stimulates collateral formation and angiogenesis, but in the context of ischemic diseases such beneficial effects are overruled by adverse functional changes, demonstrating that ischemic recovery is not solely determined by collateral number but rather by vessel functionality.

  1. Dll4-Notch signaling determines the formation of native arterial collateral networks and arterial function in mouse ischemia models

    PubMed Central

    Cristofaro, Brunella; Shi, Yu; Faria, Marcella; Suchting, Steven; Leroyer, Aurelie S.; Trindade, Alexandre; Duarte, Antonio; Zovein, Ann C.; Iruela-Arispe, M. Luisa; Nih, Lina R.; Kubis, Nathalie; Henrion, Daniel; Loufrani, Laurent; Todiras, Mihail; Schleifenbaum, Johanna; Gollasch, Maik; Zhuang, Zhen W.; Simons, Michael; Eichmann, Anne; le Noble, Ferdinand

    2013-01-01

    Arteriogenesis requires growth of pre-existing arteriolar collateral networks and determines clinical outcome in arterial occlusive diseases. Factors responsible for the development of arteriolar collateral networks are poorly understood. The Notch ligand Delta-like 4 (Dll4) promotes arterial differentiation and restricts vessel branching. We hypothesized that Dll4 may act as a genetic determinant of collateral arterial networks and functional recovery in stroke and hind limb ischemia models in mice. Genetic loss- and gain-of-function approaches in mice showed that Dll4-Notch signaling restricts pial collateral artery formation by modulating arterial branching morphogenesis during embryogenesis. Adult Dll4+/- mice showed increased pial collateral numbers, but stroke volume upon middle cerebral artery occlusion was not reduced compared with wild-type littermates. Likewise, Dll4+/- mice showed reduced blood flow conductance after femoral artery occlusion, and, despite markedly increased angiogenesis, tissue ischemia was more severe. In peripheral arteries, loss of Dll4 adversely affected excitation-contraction coupling in arterial smooth muscle in response to vasopressor agents and arterial vessel wall adaption in response to increases in blood flow, collectively contributing to reduced flow reserve. We conclude that Dll4-Notch signaling modulates native collateral formation by acting on vascular branching morphogenesis during embryogenesis. Dll4 furthermore affects tissue perfusion by acting on arterial function and structure. Loss of Dll4 stimulates collateral formation and angiogenesis, but in the context of ischemic diseases such beneficial effects are overruled by adverse functional changes, demonstrating that ischemic recovery is not solely determined by collateral number but rather by vessel functionality. PMID:23533173

  2. Aberrant astrocyte Ca2+ signals "AxCa signals" exacerbate pathological alterations in an Alexander disease model.

    PubMed

    Saito, Kozo; Shigetomi, Eiji; Yasuda, Rei; Sato, Ryuichi; Nakano, Masakazu; Tashiro, Kei; Tanaka, Kenji F; Ikenaka, Kazuhiro; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko; Mizuta, Ikuko; Yoshida, Tomokatsu; Nakagawa, Masanori; Mizuno, Toshiki; Koizumi, Schuichi

    2018-05-01

    Alexander disease (AxD) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder caused by gain of function mutations in the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) gene. Accumulation of GFAP proteins and formation of Rosenthal fibers (RFs) in astrocytes are hallmarks of AxD. However, malfunction of astrocytes in the AxD brain is poorly understood. Here, we show aberrant Ca 2+ responses in astrocytes as playing a causative role in AxD. Transcriptome analysis of astrocytes from a model of AxD showed age-dependent upregulation of GFAP, several markers for neurotoxic reactive astrocytes, and downregulation of Ca 2+ homeostasis molecules. In situ AxD model astrocytes produced aberrant extra-large Ca 2+ signals "AxCa signals", which increased with age, correlated with GFAP upregulation, and were dependent on stored Ca 2+ . Inhibition of AxCa signals by deletion of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate type 2 receptors (IP3R2) ameliorated AxD pathogenesis. Taken together, AxCa signals in the model astrocytes would contribute to AxD pathogenesis. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Neural stem cell quiescence and stemness are molecularly distinct outputs of the Notch3 signalling cascade in the vertebrate adult brain.

    PubMed

    Than-Trong, Emmanuel; Ortica-Gatti, Sara; Mella, Sébastien; Nepal, Chirag; Alunni, Alessandro; Bally-Cuif, Laure

    2018-05-15

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) in the adult vertebrate brain are found in a quiescent state and can preserve long-lasting progenitor potential (stemness). Whether and how these two properties are linked, and to what extent they can be independently controlled by NSC maintenance pathways, is unresolved. We have previously identified Notch3 signalling as a major quiescence-promoting pathway in adult NSCs of the zebrafish pallium. We now show that Notch3 also controls NSC stemness. Using parallel transcriptomic characterizations of notch3 mutant NSCs and adult NSC physiological states, we demonstrate that a set of potentially direct Notch3 target genes distinguishes quiescence and stemness control. As a proof of principle, we focus on one 'stemness' target, encoding the bHLH transcription factor Hey1, that has not yet been analysed in adult NSCs. We show that abrogation of Hey1 function in adult pallial NSCs in vivo , including quiescent NSCs, leads to their differentiation without affecting their proliferation state. These results demonstrate that quiescence and stemness are molecularly distinct outputs of Notch3 signalling, and identify Hey1 as a major Notch3 effector controlling NSC stemness in the vertebrate adult brain. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Neural stem cell quiescence and stemness are molecularly distinct outputs of the Notch3 signalling cascade in the vertebrate adult brain

    PubMed Central

    Than-Trong, Emmanuel; Ortica-Gatti, Sara; Mella, Sébastien; Nepal, Chirag; Alunni, Alessandro

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Neural stem cells (NSCs) in the adult vertebrate brain are found in a quiescent state and can preserve long-lasting progenitor potential (stemness). Whether and how these two properties are linked, and to what extent they can be independently controlled by NSC maintenance pathways, is unresolved. We have previously identified Notch3 signalling as a major quiescence-promoting pathway in adult NSCs of the zebrafish pallium. We now show that Notch3 also controls NSC stemness. Using parallel transcriptomic characterizations of notch3 mutant NSCs and adult NSC physiological states, we demonstrate that a set of potentially direct Notch3 target genes distinguishes quiescence and stemness control. As a proof of principle, we focus on one ‘stemness’ target, encoding the bHLH transcription factor Hey1, that has not yet been analysed in adult NSCs. We show that abrogation of Hey1 function in adult pallial NSCs in vivo, including quiescent NSCs, leads to their differentiation without affecting their proliferation state. These results demonstrate that quiescence and stemness are molecularly distinct outputs of Notch3 signalling, and identify Hey1 as a major Notch3 effector controlling NSC stemness in the vertebrate adult brain. PMID:29695612

  5. Vehicular exhaust particles promote allergic airway inflammation through an aryl hydrocarbon receptor-notch signaling cascade.

    PubMed

    Xia, Mingcan; Viera-Hutchins, Loida; Garcia-Lloret, Maria; Noval Rivas, Magali; Wise, Petra; McGhee, Sean A; Chatila, Zena K; Daher, Nancy; Sioutas, Constantinos; Chatila, Talal A

    2015-08-01

    Traffic-related particulate matter (PM) has been linked to a heightened incidence of asthma and allergic diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms by which PM exposure promotes allergic diseases remain elusive. We sought to determine the expression, function, and regulation of pathways involved in promotion of allergic airway inflammation by PM. We used gene expression transcriptional profiling, in vitro culture assays, and in vivo murine models of allergic airway inflammation. We identified components of the Notch pathway, most notably Jagged 1 (Jag1), as targets of PM induction in human monocytes and murine dendritic cells. PM, especially ultrafine particles, upregulated TH cytokine levels, IgE production, and allergic airway inflammation in mice in a Jag1- and Notch-dependent manner, especially in the context of the proasthmatic IL-4 receptor allele Il4raR576. PM-induced Jag1 expression was mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), which bound to and activated AhR response elements in the Jag1 promoter. Pharmacologic antagonism of AhR or its lineage-specific deletion in CD11c(+) cells abrogated the augmentation of airway inflammation by PM. PM activates an AhR-Jag1-Notch cascade to promote allergic airway inflammation in concert with proasthmatic alleles. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Luteolin suppresses angiogenesis and vasculogenic mimicry formation through inhibiting Notch1-VEGF signaling in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Zang, Mingde; Hu, Lei; Zhang, Baogui; Zhu, Zhenglun; Li, Jianfang; Zhu, Zhenggang; Yan, Min; Liu, Bingya

    2017-08-26

    Gastric cancer is a great threat to the health of the people worldwide and lacks effective therapeutic regimens. Luteolin is one of Chinese herbs and presents in many fruits and green plants. In our previous study, we observed that luteolin inhibited cell migration and promoted cell apoptosis in gastric cancer. In the present study, luteolin significantly inhibited tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) through decreasing cell migration and proliferation of HUVECs in a dose-dependent manner. Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) tubes formed by gastric cancer cells were also inhibited with luteolin treatment. To explore how luteolin inhibited tubes formation, ELISA assay for VEGF was performed. Both of the VEGF secretion from Hs-746T cells and HUVECs were significantly decreased subsequent to luteolin treatment. In addition, cell migration was increased with the interaction between gastric cancer cells and HUVECs in co-culture assays. However, the promoting effects were abolished subsequent to luteolin treatment. Furthermore, luteolin inhibited VEGF secretion through suppressing Notch1 expression in gastric cancer. Overexpression of Notch1 in gastric cancer cells partially rescued the effects on cell migration, proliferation, HUVECs tube formation, and VM formation induced by luteolin treatment. In conclusion, luteolin inhibits angiogenesis and VM formation in gastric cancer through suppressing VEGF secretion dependent on Notch1 expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Effect of Physiological Stimuli on Sarcopenia; Impact of Notch and Wnt Signaling on Impaired Aged Skeletal Muscle Repair

    PubMed Central

    Arthur, Susan Tsivitse; Cooley, Ian D.

    2012-01-01

    The age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function that is associated with sarcopenia can result in ultimate consequences such as decreased quality of life. The causes of sarcopenia are multifactorial and include environmental and biological factors. The purpose of this review is to synthesize what the literature reveals in regards to the cellular regulation of sarcopenia, including impaired muscle regenerative capacity in the aged, and to discuss if physiological stimuli have the potential to slow the loss of myogenic potential that is associated with sarcopenia. In addition, this review article will discuss the effect of aging on Notch and Wnt signaling, and whether physiological stimuli have the ability to restore Notch and Wnt signaling resulting in rejuvenated aged muscle repair. The intention of this summary is to bring awareness to the benefits of consistent physiological stimulus (exercise) to combating sarcopenia as well as proclaiming the usefulness of contraction-induced injury models to studying the effects of local and systemic influences on aged myogenic capability. PMID:22701343

  8. Mesoporous silica nanoparticle-based substrates for cell directed delivery of Notch signalling modulators to control myoblast differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böcking, Dominique; Wiltschka, Oliver; Niinimäki, Jenni; Shokry, Hussein; Brenner, Rolf; Lindén, Mika; Sahlgren, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    Biochemical cues are critical to control stem cell function and can be utilized to develop smart biomaterials for stem cell engineering. The challenge is to deliver these cues in a restricted manner with spatial and temporal control. Here we have developed bilayer films of mesoporous silica nanoparticles for delayed cellular delivery of Notch modulators to promote muscle stem cell differentiation. We demonstrate that drug-loaded particles are internalized from the particle-covered surface, which allows for direct delivery of the drug into the cell and a delayed and confined drug release. Substrates of particles loaded with γ-secretase-inhibitors, which block the Notch signalling pathway, promoted efficient differentiation of myoblasts. The particle substrates were fully biocompatible and did not interfere with the inherent differentiation process. We further demonstrate that impregnating commercially available, biocompatible polymer scaffolds with MSNs allows for a free standing substrate for cell directed drug delivery.Biochemical cues are critical to control stem cell function and can be utilized to develop smart biomaterials for stem cell engineering. The challenge is to deliver these cues in a restricted manner with spatial and temporal control. Here we have developed bilayer films of mesoporous silica nanoparticles for delayed cellular delivery of Notch modulators to promote muscle stem cell differentiation. We demonstrate that drug-loaded particles are internalized from the particle-covered surface, which allows for direct delivery of the drug into the cell and a delayed and confined drug release. Substrates of particles loaded with γ-secretase-inhibitors, which block the Notch signalling pathway, promoted efficient differentiation of myoblasts. The particle substrates were fully biocompatible and did not interfere with the inherent differentiation process. We further demonstrate that impregnating commercially available, biocompatible polymer scaffolds with

  9. The Functions of Auxilin and Rab11 in Drosophila Suggest That the Fundamental Role of Ligand Endocytosis in Notch Signaling Cells Is Not Recycling

    PubMed Central

    Bilder, David; Fischer, Janice A.

    2011-01-01

    Notch signaling requires ligand internalization by the signal sending cells. Two endocytic proteins, epsin and auxilin, are essential for ligand internalization and signaling. Epsin promotes clathrin-coated vesicle formation, and auxilin uncoats clathrin from newly internalized vesicles. Two hypotheses have been advanced to explain the requirement for ligand endocytosis. One idea is that after ligand/receptor binding, ligand endocytosis leads to receptor activation by pulling on the receptor, which either exposes a cleavage site on the extracellular domain, or dissociates two receptor subunits. Alternatively, ligand internalization prior to receptor binding, followed by trafficking through an endosomal pathway and recycling to the plasma membrane may enable ligand activation. Activation could mean ligand modification or ligand transcytosis to a membrane environment conducive to signaling. A key piece of evidence supporting the recycling model is the requirement in signaling cells for Rab11, which encodes a GTPase critical for endosomal recycling. Here, we use Drosophila Rab11 and auxilin mutants to test the ligand recycling hypothesis. First, we find that Rab11 is dispensable for several Notch signaling events in the eye disc. Second, we find that Drosophila female germline cells, the one cell type known to signal without clathrin, also do not require auxilin to signal. Third, we find that much of the requirement for auxilin in Notch signaling was bypassed by overexpression of both clathrin heavy chain and epsin. Thus, the main role of auxilin in Notch signaling is not to produce uncoated ligand-containing vesicles, but to maintain the pool of free clathrin. Taken together, these results argue strongly that at least in some cell types, the primary function of Notch ligand endocytosis is not for ligand recycling. PMID:21448287

  10. Longitudinal study of esophageal mucosal damage after esophagectomy and gastric interposition: relationship between reflux-related mucosal injury and Notch signaling

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yong; Tong, Tie-Jun; Zeng, Xiao-Xi; Yang, Yu-Shang; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Yun-Cang; Gou, Jun-He

    2017-01-01

    Background Esophagectomy with gastric interposition could serve as a good human reflux model to study the molecular pathogenesis of esophageal mucosal damage induced by gastroesophageal reflux. This study was to investigate the role of Notch signaling in reflux injury of esophageal mucosa. Methods Patients undergoing Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy for early stage esophageal squamous cell carcinoma were included. Follow-ups were scheduled at 6, 18, 36 and 48 months postoperatively, including reflux symptom assessment, endoscopic and histological evaluation of esophageal mucosal damage. The expressions of Notch1 and its downstream target gene Hes1 were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results Forty-four out of 48 patients completed four follow-ups. Injuries of esophageal remnant confirmed by endoscopical and histological examinations were both more often with a longer postoperative period (P<0.05). The mRNA expression levels of Notch1 and Hes1 were decreased in a time-dependent manner after operation (P<0.001). Notch1 and Hes1 mRNA levels were significantly higher in normal squamous mucosa than in esophagitis, and higher in esophagitis than in metaplasia (P<0.05). Immunohistochemical study also demonstrated a similar protein expression pattern. Samples with endoscopic evidence of mucosal damage exhibited lower expression of Notch1 mRNA levels as compared to biopsies without visualized damage (P=0.035). Conclusions This is the first longitudinal study on Notch signaling in human esophagectomy model, our preliminary findings suggest decreased Notch signaling might be involved in the development of mucosa damage caused by gastroesophageal reflux. PMID:29312733

  11. Diallyl trisulfide inhibits proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis of osteosarcoma cells by switching on suppressor microRNAs and inactivating of Notch-1 signaling.

    PubMed

    Li, Yonggang; Zhang, Jingru; Zhang, Lei; Si, Meng; Yin, Han; Li, Jianmin

    2013-07-01

    Notch signaling pathway plays critical roles in human cancers, including osteosarcoma, suggesting that the discovery of specific agents targeting Notch would be extremely valuable for osteosarcoma. Our previous studies have shown that diallyl trisulfide (DATS) inhibits proliferation of osteosarcoma cells by triggering cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in vitro. However, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. In this study, we found that DATS suppressed cell survival, wound-healing capacity, invasion and angiogenesis in osteosarcoma cells. These effects were associated with decreased expression of Notch-1 and its downstream genes, such as vascular endothelial growth factor and matrix metalloproteinases, as well as increased expression of a panel of tumor-suppressive microRNAs (miRNAs), including miR-34a, miR-143, miR-145 and miR-200b/c that are typically lost in osteosarcoma. We also found that reexpression of miR-34a and miR-200b by transfection led to reduced expression of Notch-1, resulting in the inhibition of osteosarcoma cell proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis. These results clearly suggest that DATS inhibited osteosarcoma growth and aggressiveness via a novel mechanism targeting a Notch-miRNA regulatory circuit. Our data provide the first evidence that the downregulation of Notch-1 and reexpression of miRNAs by DATS may be an effective approach for the treatment of osteosarcoma.

  12. The clerodane diterpene casearin J induces apoptosis of T-ALL cells through SERCA inhibition, oxidative stress, and interference with Notch1 signaling

    PubMed Central

    De Ford, C; Heidersdorf, B; Haun, F; Murillo, R; Friedrich, T; Borner, C; Merfort, I

    2016-01-01

    T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive hematologic malignancy that preferentially affects children and adolescents. Over 50% of human T-ALLs possess activating mutations of Notch1. The clerodane diterpene casearin J (CJ) is a natural product that inhibits the sarcoendoplasmatic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) pump and induces cell death in leukemia cells, but the molecular mechanism of cytotoxicity remains poorly understood. Here we show that owing to SERCA pump inhibition, CJ induces depletion of the endoplasmic reticulum calcium pools, oxidative stress, and apoptosis via the intrinsic signaling pathway. Moreover, Notch1 signaling is reduced in T-ALL cells with auto-activating mutations in the HD-domain of Notch1, but not in cells that do not depend on Notch1 signaling. CJ also provoked a slight activation of NF-κB, and consistent with this notion a combined treatment of CJ and the NF-κB inhibitor parthenolide (Pt) led to a remarkable synergistic cell death in T-ALL cells. Altogether, our data support the concept that inhibition of the SERCA pump may be a novel strategy for the treatment of T-ALL with HD-domain-mutant Notch1 receptors and that additional treatment with the NF-κB inhibitor parthenolide may have further therapeutic benefits. PMID:26821066

  13. Structure of human POFUT1, its requirement in ligand-independent oncogenic Notch signaling, and functional effects of Dowling-Degos mutations

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, Brian J.; Zimmerman, Brandon; Egan, Emily D.

    Protein O-fucosyltransferase-1 (POFUT1), which transfers fucose residues to acceptor sites on serine and threonine residues of epidermal growth factor-like repeats of recipient proteins, is essential for Notch signal transduction in mammals. Here, we examine the consequences of POFUT1 loss on the oncogenic signaling associated with certain leukemia-associated mutations of human Notch1, report the structures of human POFUT1 in free and GDP-fucose bound states, and assess the effects of Dowling-Degos mutations on human POFUT1 function. CRISPR-mediated knockout of POFUT1 in U2OS cells suppresses both normal Notch1 signaling, and the ligand-independent signaling associated with leukemogenic mutations of Notch1. Normal and oncogenic signalingmore » are rescued by wild-type POFUT1 but rescue is impaired by an active-site R240A mutation. The overall structure of the human enzyme closely resembles that of the Caenorhabditis elegans protein, with an overall backbone RMSD of 0.93 Å, despite primary sequence identity of only 39% in the mature protein. GDP-fucose binding to the human enzyme induces limited backbone conformational movement, though the side chains of R43 and D244 reorient to make direct contact with the fucose moiety in the complex. The reported Dowling-Degos mutations of POFUT1, except for M262T, fail to rescue Notch1 signaling efficiently in the CRISPR-engineered POFUT1 -/- background. Together, these studies identify POFUT1 as a potential target for cancers driven by Notch1 mutations and provide a structural roadmap for its inhibition.« less

  14. Acquisition of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition phenotype of gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cells is linked with activation of Notch signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiwei; Li, Yiwei; Kong, Dejuan; Banerjee, Sanjeev; Ahmad, Aamir; Azmi, Asfar Sohail; Ali, Shadan; Abbruzzese, James L.; Gallick, Gary E.; Sarkar, Fazlul H

    2009-01-01

    Despite rapid advances in many fronts, pancreatic cancer (PC) remains one of the most difficult human malignancies to treat, in part due to de novo and acquired chemo- and radio-resistance. Gemcitabine alone or in combination with other conventional therapeutics is the standard of care for the treatment of advanced PC without any significant improvement in the overall survival of patients diagnosed with this deadly disease. Previous studies have shown that PC cells that are gemcitabine-resistant (GR) acquired epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype which is reminiscent of “cancer stem-like cells (CSC)”; however the molecular mechanism that led to EMT phenotype has not been fully investigated. The present study demonstrates that Notch-2 and its ligand Jagged-1 are highly up-regulated in GR cells, which is consistent with the role of Notch signaling pathway in the acquisition of EMT and CSC phenotype. We also found that the down-regulation of Notch signaling was associated with decreased invasive behavior of GR cells. Moreover, down-regulation of Notch signaling by siRNA approach led to partial reversal of the EMT phenotype, resulting in the mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET), which was associated with decreased expression of vimentin, ZEB1, Slug, Snail and NF-κB. These results provide molecular evidence showing that the activation of Notch signaling is mechanistically linked with chemo-resistance phenotype (EMT phenotype) of PC cells, suggesting that the inactivation of Notch signaling by novel strategies could be a potential targeted therapeutic approach for overcoming chemo-resistance toward the prevention of tumor progression and/or treatment of metastatic PC. PMID:19276344

  15. Delta-like 4/Notch signaling promotes Apc Min/+ tumor initiation through angiogenic and non-angiogenic related mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Badenes, Marina; Trindade, Alexandre; Pissarra, Hugo; Lopes-da-Costa, Luís; Duarte, António

    2017-01-13

    Delta like 4 (Dll4)/Notch signaling is a key regulator of tumor angiogenesis. Additionally, the role of Dll4 has been studied on tumor stem cells. However, as these cells are implicated in tumor angiogenesis, it is conceivable that the effect of Dll4 on these cells may be a consequence of its angiogenic function. Our aim was to evaluate the expression and dissect the functions of Dll4 in the Apc Min/+ model of colorectal cancer. We evaluated the protein expression pattern of Dll4 and other Notch members in the Apc Min/+ tumors relatively to the normal gut and compared endothelial-specific with ubiquitous Dll4 knockout mice on an Apc Min/+ background. All Notch pathway members were present in the normal small and large intestine and in the adenomas of the same regions. Dll4, all Notch receptors and Hes1 expression seemed upregulated in the tumors, with some regional differences. The same members and Hes5, instead of Hes1, presented ectopic expression in the tumor parenchyma. Dll4 expression was most pronounced in the tumor cells but it was also present in the tumor blood vessels and in other stromal cells. Ubiquitous and endothelial-specific Dll4 deletion led to an equivalent reduction of tumor growth because of a similarly marked tumoral angiogenic phenotype promoting non-productive vasculature and consequently hypoxia and apoptosis. The ubiquitous Dll4 inhibition led to a stronger decrease of tumor multiplicity than the endothelial-specific deletion by further reducing tumor proliferation and tumor stem cell density through upregulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors 1C and 1B and downregulation of Myc, Cyclin D1 and D2 independently of β-catenin activation. This phenotype was associated to the observed increased epithelial differentiation deviated towards the secretory lineages by Atoh1 and Klf4 upregulation only in the ubiquitous Dll4 mutants. Dll4 seems to promote Apc Min/+ tumorigenesis through both angiogenic and non-angiogenic related mechanisms.

  16. Notch signaling inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma following inactivation of the RB pathway

    PubMed Central

    Viatour, Patrick; Ehmer, Ursula; Saddic, Louis A.; Dorrell, Craig; Andersen, Jesper B.; Lin, Chenwei; Zmoos, Anne-Flore; Mazur, Pawel K.; Schaffer, Bethany E.; Ostermeier, Austin; Vogel, Hannes; Sylvester, Karl G.; Thorgeirsson, Snorri S.; Grompe, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third cancer killer worldwide with >600,000 deaths every year. Although the major risk factors are known, therapeutic options in patients remain limited in part because of our incomplete understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms influencing HCC development. Evidence indicates that the retinoblastoma (RB) pathway is functionally inactivated in most cases of HCC by genetic, epigenetic, and/or viral mechanisms. To investigate the functional relevance of this observation, we inactivated the RB pathway in the liver of adult mice by deleting the three members of the Rb (Rb1) gene family: Rb, p107, and p130. Rb family triple knockout mice develop liver tumors with histopathological features and gene expression profiles similar to human HCC. In this mouse model, cancer initiation is associated with the specific expansion of populations of liver stem/progenitor cells, indicating that the RB pathway may prevent HCC development by maintaining the quiescence of adult liver progenitor cells. In addition, we show that during tumor progression, activation of the Notch pathway via E2F transcription factors serves as a negative feedback mechanism to slow HCC growth. The level of Notch activity is also able to predict survival of HCC patients, suggesting novel means to diagnose and treat HCC. PMID:21875955

  17. DHA Suppresses Primary Macrophage Inflammatory Responses via Notch 1/ Jagged 1 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mehboob; Heyob, Kathryn; Rogers, Lynette K.

    2016-01-01

    Persistent macrophages were observed in the lungs of murine offspring exposed to maternal LPS and neonatal hyperoxia. Maternal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation prevented the accumulation of macrophages and improved lung development. We hypothesized that these macrophages are responsible for pathologies observed in this model and the effects of DHA supplementation. Primary macrophages were isolated from adult mice fed standard chow, control diets, or DHA supplemented diets. Macrophages were exposed to hyperoxia (O2) for 24 h and LPS for 6 h or 24 h. Our data demonstrate significant attenuation of Notch 1 and Jagged 1 protein levels in response to DHA supplementation in vivo but similar results were not evident in macrophages isolated from mice fed standard chow and supplemented with DHA in vitro. Co-culture of activated macrophages with MLE12 epithelial cells resulted in the release of high mobility group box 1 and leukotriene B4 from the epithelial cells and this release was attenuated by DHA supplementation. Collectively, our data indicate that long term supplementation with DHA as observed in vivo, resulted in deceased Notch 1/Jagged 1 protein expression however, DHA supplementation in vitro was sufficient to suppress release LTB4 and to protect epithelial cells in co-culture. PMID:26940787

  18. DHA Suppresses Primary Macrophage Inflammatory Responses via Notch 1/ Jagged 1 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mehboob; Heyob, Kathryn; Rogers, Lynette K

    2016-03-04

    Persistent macrophages were observed in the lungs of murine offspring exposed to maternal LPS and neonatal hyperoxia. Maternal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation prevented the accumulation of macrophages and improved lung development. We hypothesized that these macrophages are responsible for pathologies observed in this model and the effects of DHA supplementation. Primary macrophages were isolated from adult mice fed standard chow, control diets, or DHA supplemented diets. Macrophages were exposed to hyperoxia (O2) for 24 h and LPS for 6 h or 24 h. Our data demonstrate significant attenuation of Notch 1 and Jagged 1 protein levels in response to DHA supplementation in vivo but similar results were not evident in macrophages isolated from mice fed standard chow and supplemented with DHA in vitro. Co-culture of activated macrophages with MLE12 epithelial cells resulted in the release of high mobility group box 1 and leukotriene B4 from the epithelial cells and this release was attenuated by DHA supplementation. Collectively, our data indicate that long term supplementation with DHA as observed in vivo, resulted in deceased Notch 1/Jagged 1 protein expression however, DHA supplementation in vitro was sufficient to suppress release LTB4 and to protect epithelial cells in co-culture.

  19. The Role of mDia1 in the Aberrant Innate Immune Signaling in del(5q) Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-01

    especially in cells with sensitized innate immune signaling8,9,20. To analyze whether treatment of DAMPs could induce the over-production of pro...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0335 TITLE: The Role of mDia1 in the Aberrant Innate Immune Signaling in del(5q) Myelodysplastic Syndromes...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER WThe Role of mDia1 in the Aberrant Innate Immune Signaling in del(5q) Myelodysplastic Syndromes 5b. GRANT

  20. A Spatio-Temporal Model of Notch Signalling in the Zebrafish Segmentation Clock: Conditions for Synchronised Oscillatory Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Terry, Alan J.; Sturrock, Marc; Dale, J. Kim; Maroto, Miguel; Chaplain, Mark A. J.

    2011-01-01

    In the vertebrate embryo, tissue blocks called somites are laid down in head-to-tail succession, a process known as somitogenesis. Research into somitogenesis has been both experimental and mathematical. For zebrafish, there is experimental evidence for oscillatory gene expression in cells in the presomitic mesoderm (PSM) as well as evidence that Notch signalling synchronises the oscillations in neighbouring PSM cells. A biological mechanism has previously been proposed to explain these phenomena. Here we have converted this mechanism into a mathematical model of partial differential equations in which the nuclear and cytoplasmic diffusion of protein and mRNA molecules is explictly considered. By performing simulations, we have found ranges of values for the model parameters (such as diffusion and degradation rates) that yield oscillatory dynamics within PSM cells and that enable Notch signalling to synchronise the oscillations in two touching cells. Our model contains a Hill coefficient that measures the co-operativity between two proteins (Her1, Her7) and three genes (her1, her7, deltaC) which they inhibit. This coefficient appears to be bounded below by the requirement for oscillations in individual cells and bounded above by the requirement for synchronisation. Consistent with experimental data and a previous spatially non-explicit mathematical model, we have found that signalling can increase the average level of Her1 protein. Biological pattern formation would be impossible without a certain robustness to variety in cell shape and size; our results possess such robustness. Our spatially-explicit modelling approach, together with new imaging technologies that can measure intracellular protein diffusion rates, is likely to yield significant new insight into somitogenesis and other biological processes. PMID:21386903

  1. A spatio-temporal model of Notch signalling in the zebrafish segmentation clock: conditions for synchronised oscillatory dynamics.

    PubMed

    Terry, Alan J; Sturrock, Marc; Dale, J Kim; Maroto, Miguel; Chaplain, Mark A J

    2011-02-28

    In the vertebrate embryo, tissue blocks called somites are laid down in head-to-tail succession, a process known as somitogenesis. Research into somitogenesis has been both experimental and mathematical. For zebrafish, there is experimental evidence for oscillatory gene expression in cells in the presomitic mesoderm (PSM) as well as evidence that Notch signalling synchronises the oscillations in neighbouring PSM cells. A biological mechanism has previously been proposed to explain these phenomena. Here we have converted this mechanism into a mathematical model of partial differential equations in which the nuclear and cytoplasmic diffusion of protein and mRNA molecules is explicitly considered. By performing simulations, we have found ranges of values for the model parameters (such as diffusion and degradation rates) that yield oscillatory dynamics within PSM cells and that enable Notch signalling to synchronise the oscillations in two touching cells. Our model contains a Hill coefficient that measures the co-operativity between two proteins (Her1, Her7) and three genes (her1, her7, deltaC) which they inhibit. This coefficient appears to be bounded below by the requirement for oscillations in individual cells and bounded above by the requirement for synchronisation. Consistent with experimental data and a previous spatially non-explicit mathematical model, we have found that signalling can increase the average level of Her1 protein. Biological pattern formation would be impossible without a certain robustness to variety in cell shape and size; our results possess such robustness. Our spatially-explicit modelling approach, together with new imaging technologies that can measure intracellular protein diffusion rates, is likely to yield significant new insight into somitogenesis and other biological processes.

  2. Antagonistic regulation of p57kip2 by Hes/Hey downstream of Notch signaling and muscle regulatory factors regulates skeletal muscle growth arrest.

    PubMed

    Zalc, Antoine; Hayashi, Shinichiro; Auradé, Frédéric; Bröhl, Dominique; Chang, Ted; Mademtzoglou, Despoina; Mourikis, Philippos; Yao, Zizhen; Cao, Yi; Birchmeier, Carmen; Relaix, Frédéric

    2014-07-01

    A central question in development is to define how the equilibrium between cell proliferation and differentiation is temporally and spatially regulated during tissue formation. Here, we address how interactions between cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors essential for myogenic growth arrest (p21(cip1) and p57(kip2)), the Notch pathway and myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) orchestrate the proliferation, specification and differentiation of muscle progenitor cells. We first show that cell cycle exit and myogenic differentiation can be uncoupled. In addition, we establish that skeletal muscle progenitor cells require Notch signaling to maintain their cycling status. Using several mouse models combined with ex vivo studies, we demonstrate that Notch signaling is required to repress p21(cip1) and p57(kip2) expression in muscle progenitor cells. Finally, we identify a muscle-specific regulatory element of p57(kip2) directly activated by MRFs in myoblasts but repressed by the Notch targets Hes1/Hey1 in progenitor cells. We propose a molecular mechanism whereby information provided by Hes/Hey downstream of Notch as well as MRF activities are integrated at the level of the p57(kip2) enhancer to regulate the decision between progenitor cell maintenance and muscle differentiation. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Chemotactic Cues for NOTCH1-Dependent Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Piovan, Erich; Tosello, Valeria; Amadori, Alberto; Zanovello, Paola

    2018-01-01

    The NOTCH signaling pathway is a conserved signaling cascade that regulates many aspects of development and homeostasis in multiple organ systems. Aberrant activity of this signaling pathway is linked to the initiation and progression of several hematological malignancies, exemplified by T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Interestingly, frequent non-mutational activation of NOTCH1 signaling has recently been demonstrated in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL), significantly extending the pathogenic significance of this pathway in B-CLL. Leukemia patients often present with high-blood cell counts, diffuse disease with infiltration of the bone marrow, secondary lymphoid organs, and diffusion to the central nervous system (CNS). Chemokines are chemotactic cytokines that regulate migration of cells between tissues and the positioning and interactions of cells within tissue. Homeostatic chemokines and their receptors have been implicated in regulating organ-specific infiltration, but may also directly and indirectly modulate tumor growth. Recently, oncogenic NOTCH1 has been shown to regulate infiltration of leukemic cells into the CNS hijacking the CC-chemokine ligand 19/CC-chemokine receptor 7 chemokine axis. In addition, a crucial role for the homing receptor axis CXC-chemokine ligand 12/CXC-chemokine receptor 4 has been demonstrated in leukemia maintenance and progression. Moreover, the CCL25/CCR9 axis has been implicated in the homing of leukemic cells into the gut, particularly in the presence of phosphatase and tensin homolog tumor suppressor loss. In this review, we summarize the latest developments regarding the role of NOTCH signaling in regulating the chemotactic microenvironmental cues involved in the generation and progression of T-ALL and compare these findings to B-CLL. PMID:29666622

  4. Aberrant neuronal activity-induced signaling and gene expression in a mouse model of RASopathy

    PubMed Central

    Nakhaei-Rad, Saeideh; Montenegro-Venegas, Carolina; Pina-Fernández, Eneko; Marini, Claudia; Santos, Monica; Ahmadian, Mohammad R.; Stork, Oliver; Zenker, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Noonan syndrome (NS) is characterized by reduced growth, craniofacial abnormalities, congenital heart defects, and variable cognitive deficits. NS belongs to the RASopathies, genetic conditions linked to mutations in components and regulators of the Ras signaling pathway. Approximately 50% of NS cases are caused by mutations in PTPN11. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying cognitive impairments in NS patients are still poorly understood. Here, we report the generation and characterization of a new conditional mouse strain that expresses the overactive Ptpn11D61Y allele only in the forebrain. Unlike mice with a global expression of this mutation, this strain is viable and without severe systemic phenotype, but shows lower exploratory activity and reduced memory specificity, which is in line with a causal role of disturbed neuronal Ptpn11 signaling in the development of NS-linked cognitive deficits. To explore the underlying mechanisms we investigated the neuronal activity-regulated Ras signaling in brains and neuronal cultures derived from this model. We observed an altered surface expression and trafficking of synaptic glutamate receptors, which are crucial for hippocampal neuronal plasticity. Furthermore, we show that the neuronal activity-induced ERK signaling, as well as the consecutive regulation of gene expression are strongly perturbed. Microarray-based hippocampal gene expression profiling revealed profound differences in the basal state and upon stimulation of neuronal activity. The neuronal activity-dependent gene regulation was strongly attenuated in Ptpn11D61Y neurons. In silico analysis of functional networks revealed changes in the cellular signaling beyond the dysregulation of Ras/MAPK signaling that is nearly exclusively discussed in the context of NS at present. Importantly, changes in PI3K/AKT/mTOR and JAK/STAT signaling were experimentally confirmed. In summary, this study uncovers aberrant neuronal activity-induced signaling and regulation

  5. Aberrant RSPO3-LGR4 signaling in Keap1-deficient lung adenocarcinomas promotes tumor aggressiveness.

    PubMed

    Gong, X; Yi, J; Carmon, K S; Crumbley, C A; Xiong, W; Thomas, A; Fan, X; Guo, S; An, Z; Chang, J T; Liu, Q J

    2015-09-03

    The four R-spondins (RSPO1-4) and their three related receptors LGR4, 5 and 6 (LGR4-6) have emerged as a major ligand-receptor system with critical roles in development and stem cell survival through modulation of Wnt signaling. Recurrent, gain-of-expression gene fusions of RSPO2 (to EIF3E) and RSPO3 (to PTPRK) occur in a subset of human colorectal cancer. However, the exact roles and mechanisms of the RSPO-LGR system in oncogenesis remain largely unknown. We found that RSPO3 is aberrantly expressed at high levels in approximately half of Keap1-mutated lung adenocarcinomas (ADs). This high RSPO3 expression is driven by a combination of demethylation of its own promoter region and deficiency in Keap1 instead of gene fusion as in colon cancer. Patients with RSPO3-high tumors (~9%, 36/412) displayed much poorer survival than the rest of the cohort (median survival of 28 vs 163 months, log-rank test P<0.0001). Knockdown (KD) of RSPO3, LGR4 or their signaling mediator IQGAP1 in lung cancer cell lines with Keap1 deficiency and high RSPO3-LGR4 expression led to reduction in cell proliferation and migration in vitro, and KD of LGR4 or IQGAP1 resulted in decrease in tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. These findings suggest that aberrant RSPO3-LGR4 signaling potentially acts as a driving mechanism in the aggressiveness of Keap1-deficient lung ADs.

  6. Aberrant RSPO3-LGR4 signaling in Keap1-deficient lung adenocarcinomas promotes tumor aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Xing; Yi, Jing; Carmon, Kendra S.; Crumbley, Christine A.; Xiong, Wei; Thomas, Anthony; Fan, Xuejun; Guo, Shan; An, Zhiqiang; Chang, Jeffrey T.; Liu, Qingyun J.

    2015-01-01

    The four R-spondins (RSPO1-4) and their three related receptors LGR4, 5 and 6 (LGR4-6) have emerged as a major ligand-receptor system with critical roles in development and stem cell survival through modulation of Wnt signaling. Recurrent, gain-of-expression gene fusions of RSPO2 (to EIF3E) and RSPO3 (to PTPRK) occur in a subset of human colorectal cancer. However, the exact roles and mechanisms of the RSPO-LGR system in oncogenesis remain largely unknown. We found that RSPO3 is aberrantly expressed at high levels in approximately half of the Keap1-mutated lung adenocarcinomas. This high RSPO3 expression is driven by a combination of demethylation of its own promoter region and deficiency in Keap1 instead of gene fusion as in colon cancer. Patients with RSPO3-high tumors (~9%, 36/412) displayed much poorer survival than the rest of the cohorts (median survival of 28 vs. 163 months, logrank test p < 0.0001). Knockdown of RSPO3, LGR4, or their signaling mediator IQGAP1 in lung cancer cell lines with Keap1 deficiency and high RSPO3-LGR4 expression led to reduction in cell proliferation and migration in vitro, and knockdown of LGR4 or IQGAP1 resulted in decrease in tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. These findings suggest that aberrant RSPO3-LGR4 signaling potentially acts as a driving mechanism in the aggressiveness of Keap1-deficient lung adenocarcinomas. PMID:25531322

  7. Cooperative STAT/NF-κB signaling regulates lymphoma metabolic reprogramming and aberrant GOT2 expression.

    PubMed

    Feist, Maren; Schwarzfischer, Philipp; Heinrich, Paul; Sun, Xueni; Kemper, Judith; von Bonin, Frederike; Perez-Rubio, Paula; Taruttis, Franziska; Rehberg, Thorsten; Dettmer, Katja; Gronwald, Wolfram; Reinders, Jörg; Engelmann, Julia C; Dudek, Jan; Klapper, Wolfram; Trümper, Lorenz; Spang, Rainer; Oefner, Peter J; Kube, Dieter

    2018-04-17

    Knowledge of stromal factors that have a role in the transcriptional regulation of metabolic pathways aside from c-Myc is fundamental to improvements in lymphoma therapy. Using a MYC-inducible human B-cell line, we observed the cooperative activation of STAT3 and NF-κB by IL10 and CpG stimulation. We show that IL10 + CpG-mediated cell proliferation of MYC low cells depends on glutaminolysis. By 13 C- and 15 N-tracing of glutamine metabolism and metabolite rescue experiments, we demonstrate that GOT2 provides aspartate and nucleotides to cells with activated or aberrant Jak/STAT and NF-κB signaling. A model of GOT2 transcriptional regulation is proposed, in which the cooperative phosphorylation of STAT3 and direct joint binding of STAT3 and p65/NF-κB to the proximal GOT2 promoter are important. Furthermore, high aberrant GOT2 expression is prognostic in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma underscoring the current findings and importance of stromal factors in lymphoma biology.

  8. Aberrant Expression of Retinoic Acid Signaling Molecules Influences Patient Survival in Astrocytic Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Benito; Centner, Franz-Simon; Bermejo, Justo Lorenzo; Ali, Ramadan; Dorsch, Katharina; Wan, Feng; Felsberg, Jörg; Ahmadi, Rezvan; Grabe, Niels; Reifenberger, Guido; Unterberg, Andreas; Burhenne, Jürgen; Herold-Mende, Christel

    2011-01-01

    Undifferentiated cell populations may influence tumor growth in malignant glioma. We investigated potential disruptions in the retinoic acid (RA) differentiation pathway that could lead to a loss of differentiation capacity, influencing patient prognosis. Expression of key molecules belonging to the RA differentiation pathway was analyzed in 283 astrocytic gliomas and was correlated with tumor proliferation, tumor differentiation, and patient survival. In addition, in situ concentrations of retinoids were measured in tumors, and RA signaling events were studied in vitro. Unlike other tumors, in gliomas expression of most RA signaling molecules increased with malignancy and was associated with augmented intratumoral retinoid levels in high-grade gliomas. Aberrantly expressed RA signaling molecules included i) the retinol-binding protein CRBP1, which facilitates cellular retinoid uptake; ii) ALDH1A1, capable of activating RA precursors; iii) the RA-degrading enzyme CYP26B1; and iv) the RA-binding protein FABP5, which can inhibit RA-induced differentiation. In contrast, expression of the RA-binding protein CRABP2, which fosters differentiation, was decreased in high-grade tumors. Moreover, expression of CRBP1 correlated with tumor proliferation, and FABP5 expression correlated with an undifferentiated tumor phenotype. CRBP1 and ALDH1A1 were independent prognostic markers for adverse patient survival. Our data indicate a complex and clinically relevant deregulation of RA signaling, which seems to be a central event in glioma pathogenesis. PMID:21514413

  9. Notch signaling proteins HES-1 and Hey-1 bind to insulin degrading enzyme (IDE) proximal promoter and repress its transcription and activity: Implications for cellular Aβ metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Leal, María C.; Surace, Ezequiel I.; Holgado, María P.; Ferrari, Carina C.; Tarelli, Rodolfo; Pitossi, Fernando; Wisniewski, Thomas; Castaño, Eduardo M.; Morelli, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral amyloid β (Aβ) accumulation is pathogenically associated with sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (SAD). BACE-1 is involved in Aβ generation while insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) partakes in Aβ proteolytic clearance. Vulnerable regions in AD brains show increased BACE-1 protein levels and enzymatic activity while the opposite occurs with IDE. Another common feature in SAD brains is Notch1 overexpression. Here we demonstrate an increase in mRNA levels of Hey-1, a Notch target gene, and a decrease of IDE transcripts in the hippocampus of SAD brains as compared to controls. Transient transfection of Notch intracellular domain (NICD) in N2aSW cells, mouse neuroblastoma cells (N2a) stably expressing human amyloid precursor protein (APP) Swedish mutation, reduce IDE mRNA levels, promoting extracellular Aβ accumulation. Also, NICD, HES-1 and Hey-1 overexpression result in decreased IDE proximal promoter activity. This effect was mediated by 2 functional sites located at −379/−372 and −310 −303 from the first translation start site in the −575/−19 (556 bp) fragment of IDE proximal promoter. By site-directed mutagenesis of the IDE promoter region we reverted the inhibitory effect mediated by NICD transfection suggesting that these sites are indeed responsible for the Notch-mediated inhibition of the IDE gene expression. Intracranial injection of the Notch ligand JAG-1 in Tg2576 mice, expressing the Swedish mutation in human APP, induced overexpression of HES-1 and Hey-1 and reduction of IDE mRNA levels, respectively. Our results support our theory that a Notch-dependent IDE transcriptional modulation may impact on Aβ metabolism providing a functional link between Notch signaling and the amyloidogenic pathway in SAD. PMID:22036964

  10. Dietary selenium disrupts hepatic triglyceride stores and transcriptional networks associated with growth and Notch signaling in juvenile rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Knight, Rosalinda; Marlatt, Vicki L; Baker, Josh A; Lo, Bonnie P; deBruyn, Adrian M H; Elphick, James R; Martyniuk, Christopher J

    2016-11-01

    Dietary Se has been shown to adversely affect adult fish by altering growth rates and metabolism. To determine the underlying mechanisms associated with these observations, we measured biochemical and transcriptomic endpoints in rainbow trout following dietary Se exposures. Treatment groups of juvenile rainbow trout were fed either control Lumbriculus variegatus worms or worms cultured on selenized yeast. Selenized yeast was cultured at four nominal doses of 5, 10, 20 or 40mg/kg Se dry weight (measured dose in the worms of 7.1, 10.7, 19.5, and 31.8mg/kgSedw respectively) and fish were fed for 60days. At 60 d, hepatic triglycerides, glycogen, total glutathione, 8-isoprostane and the transcriptome response in the liver (n=8/group) were measured. Fish fed the nominal dose of 20 and 40mg/kg Se dry weight had lower body weight and a shorter length, as well as lower triglyceride in the liver compared to controls. Evidence was lacking for an oxidative stress response and there was no change in total glutathione, 8-isoprostane levels, nor relative mRNA levels for glutathione peroxidase isoforms among groups. Microarray analysis revealed that molecular networks for long-chain fatty acid transport, lipid transport, and low density lipid oxidation were increased in the liver of fish fed 40mg/kg, and this is hypothesized to be associated with the lower triglyceride levels in these fish. In addition, up-regulated gene networks in the liver of 40mg/kg Se treated fish included epidermal growth factor receptor signaling, growth hormone receptor, and insulin growth factor receptor 1 signaling pathways. These molecular changes are hypothesized to be compensatory and related to impaired growth. A gene network related to Notch signaling, which is involved in cell-cell communication and gene transcription regulation, was also increased in the liver following dietary treatments with both 20 and 40mg/kg Se. Transcriptomic data support the hypothesis that dietary Se increases the

  11. Total alkaloids of Rubus alceifolius Poir inhibit tumor angiogenesis through suppression of the Notch signaling pathway in a mouse model of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinyan; Lin, Wei; Cao, Zhiyun; Zhuang, Qunchuan; Zheng, Liangpu; Peng, Jun; Hong, Zhenfeng

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis, which has a critical role in human tumor growth and development, is tightly regulated by the Notch signaling pathway. Total alkaloids are active components of the plant Rubus alceifolius Poir, which is used for the treatment of various types of cancer. A previous study by our group showed that the total alkaloids of Rubus alceifolius Poir (TARAP) induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell apoptosis through the activation of the mitochondria-dependent pathway in vitro and in vivo, as well as inhibited angiogenesis in a chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane model. In the present study, to further analyze the specific mechanisms underlying the antitumor activity of TARAP, a HCC xenograft mouse model was used to assess the effect of TARAP on angiogenesis in vivo. TARAP was found to suppress the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) A and VEGF receptor-2 in tumor tissues, which resulted in the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. In addition, TARAP treatment was observed to inhibit the expression of Notch1, delta-like ligand 4 and jagged 1, which are key mediators of the Notch signaling pathway. The present study identified that the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis through the suppression of the Notch signaling pathway may be one of the mechanisms through which TARAP may be effective in the treatment of cancer.

  12. Mediator 1 contributes to enamel mineralization as a coactivator for Notch1 signaling and stimulates transcription of the alkaline phosphatase gene.

    PubMed

    Yoshizaki, Keigo; Hu, Lizhi; Nguyen, Thai; Sakai, Kiyoshi; Ishikawa, Masaki; Takahashi, Ichiro; Fukumoto, Satoshi; DenBesten, Pamela K; Bikle, Daniel D; Oda, Yuko; Yamada, Yoshihiko

    2017-08-18

    Tooth enamel is mineralized through the differentiation of multiple dental epithelia including ameloblasts and the stratum intermedium (SI), and this differentiation is controlled by several signaling pathways. Previously, we demonstrated that the transcriptional coactivator Mediator 1 (MED1) plays a critical role in enamel formation. For instance, conditional ablation of Med1 in dental epithelia causes functional changes in incisor-specific dental epithelial stem cells, resulting in mineralization defects in the adult incisors. However, the molecular mechanism by which Med1 deficiency causes these abnormalities is not clear. Here, we demonstrated that Med1 ablation causes early SI differentiation defects resulting in enamel hypoplasia of the Med1 -deficient molars. Med1 deletion prevented Notch1-mediated differentiation of the SI cells resulting in decreased alkaline phosphatase (ALPL), which is essential for mineralization. However, it does not affect the ability of ameloblasts to produce enamel matrix proteins. Using the dental epithelial SF2 cell line, we demonstrated that MED1 directly activates transcription of the Alpl gene through the stimulation of Notch1 signaling by forming a complex with cleaved Notch1-RBP-Jk on the Alpl promoter. These results suggest that MED1 may be essential for enamel matrix mineralization by serving as a coactivator for Notch1 signaling regulating transcription of the Alpl gene.

  13. The EGF Repeat-Specific O-GlcNAc-Transferase Eogt Interacts with Notch Signaling and Pyrimidine Metabolism Pathways in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Reto; Jenny, Andreas; Stanley, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    The O-GlcNAc transferase Eogt modifies EGF repeats in proteins that transit the secretory pathway, including Dumpy and Notch. In this paper, we show that the Notch ligands Delta and Serrate are also substrates of Eogt, that mutation of a putative UDP-GlcNAc binding DXD motif greatly reduces enzyme activity, and that Eogt and the cytoplasmic O-GlcNAc transferase Ogt have distinct substrates in Drosophila larvae. Loss of Eogt is larval lethal and disrupts Dumpy functions, but does not obviously perturb Notch signaling. To identify novel genetic interactions with eogt, we investigated dominant modification of wing blister formation caused by knock-down of eogt. Unexpectedly, heterozygosity for several members of the canonical Notch signaling pathway suppressed wing blister formation. And importantly, extensive genetic interactions with mutants in pyrimidine metabolism were identified. Removal of pyrimidine synthesis alleles suppressed wing blister formation, while removal of uracil catabolism alleles was synthetic lethal with eogt knock-down. Therefore, Eogt may regulate protein functions by O-GlcNAc modification of their EGF repeats, and cellular metabolism by affecting pyrimidine synthesis and catabolism. We propose that eogt knock-down in the wing leads to metabolic and signaling perturbations that increase cytosolic uracil levels, thereby causing wing blister formation. PMID:23671640

  14. Notch Signaling Activation Is Associated with Patient Mortality and Increased FGF1-Mediated Invasion in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Alice N; Burch, M Benjamin; Cooper, Tiffiny S; Della Manna, Deborah L; Wei, Shi; Ojesina, Akinyemi I; Rosenthal, Eben L; Yang, Eddy S

    2016-09-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a cancer subtype that lacks validated prognostic and therapeutic biomarkers, and human papillomavirus status has not proven beneficial in predicting patient outcomes. A gene expression pathway analysis was conducted using OSCC patient specimens to identify molecular targets that may improve management of this disease. RNA was isolated from 19 OSCCs treated surgically at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB; Birmingham, AL) and evaluated using the NanoString nCounter system. Results were confirmed using the oral cavity subdivision of the Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cancer (HNSCC) study generated by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network. Further characterization of the in vitro phenotype produced by Notch pathway activation in HNSCC cell lines included gene expression, proliferation, cell cycle, migration, invasion, and radiosensitivity. In both UAB and TCGA samples, Notch pathway upregulation was significantly correlated with patient mortality status and with expression of the proinvasive gene FGF1 In vitro Notch activation in HNSCC cells increased transcription of FGF1 and induced a marked increase in cell migration and invasion, which was fully abrogated by FGF1 knockdown. These results reveal that increased Notch pathway signaling plays a role in cancer progression and patient outcomes in OSCC. Accordingly, the Notch-FGF interaction should be further studied as a prognostic biomarker and potential therapeutic target for OSCC. Patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity who succumb to their disease are more likely to have upregulated Notch signaling, which may mediate a more invasive phenotype through increased FGF1 transcription. Mol Cancer Res; 14(9); 883-91. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Portulaca oleracea extract can inhibit nodule formation of colon cancer stem cells by regulating gene expression of the Notch signal transduction pathway.

    PubMed

    Jin, Heiying; Chen, Li; Wang, Shuiming; Chao, Deng

    2017-07-01

    To investigate whether Portulaca oleracea extract affects tumor formation in colon cancer stem cells and its chemotherapy sensitivity. In addition, to analyze associated genetic changes within the Notch signal transduction pathway. Serum-free cultures of colon cancer cells (HT-29) and HT-29 cancer stem cells were treated with the chemotherapeutic drug 5-fluorouracil to assess sensitivity. Injections of the stem cells were also given to BALB/c mice to confirm tumor growth and note its characteristics. In addition, the effect of different concentrations of P. oleracea extract was tested on the growth of HT-29 colon cancer cells and HT-29 cancer stem cells, as determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method. The effects of P. oleracea extract on the expression of β-catenin, Notch1, and Notch2 in the HT-29 cells were studied using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. The tumor volume of the HT29 cells was two times larger than that of HT29 cancer stem cells. Treatment with P. oleracea extract inhibited the proliferation of both HT-29 cancer cells and HT-29 cancer stem cells at doses from 0.07 to 2.25 µg/mL. Apoptosis of HT-29 cancer cells and HT-29 cancer stem cells was assessed by flow cytometry; it was enhanced by the addition of P. oleracea extract. Finally, treatment with P. oleracea extract significantly downregulated the expression of the Notch1 and β-catenin genes in both cell types. The results of this study show that P. oleracea extract inhibits the growth of colon cancer stem cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, it inhibits the expression of the Notch1 and β-catenin genes. Taken together, this suggests that it may elicit its effects through regulatory and target genes that mediate the Notch signal transduction pathway.

  16. Evolution of the Chordate Regeneration Blastema: Differential Gene Expression and Conserved Role of Notch Signaling During Siphon Regeneration in the Ascidian Ciona

    PubMed Central

    Hamada, Mayuko; Goricki, Spela; Byerly, Mardi S.; Satoh, Noriyuki; Jeffery, William R.

    2015-01-01

    The regeneration of the oral siphon (OS) and other distal structures in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis occurs by epimorphosis involving the formation of a blastema of proliferating cells. Despite the longstanding use of Ciona as a model in molecular developmental biology, regeneration in this system has not been previously explored by molecular analysis. Here we have employed microarray analysis and quantitative real time RT-PCR to identify genes with differential expression profiles during OS regeneration. The majority of differentially expressed genes were downregulated during OS regeneration, suggesting roles in normal growth and homeostasis. However, a subset of differentially expressed genes was upregulated in the regenerating OS, suggesting functional roles during regeneration. Among the upregulated genes were key members of the Notch signaling pathway, including those encoding the delta and jagged ligands, two fringe modulators, and to a lesser extent the notch receptor. In situ hybridization showed a complementary pattern of delta1 and notch gene expression in the blastema of the regenerating OS. Chemical inhibition of the Notch signaling pathway reduced the levels of cell proliferation in the branchial sac, a stem cell niche that contributes progenitor cells to the regenerating OS, and in the OS regeneration blastema, where siphon muscle fibers eventually re-differentiate. Chemical inhibition also prevented the replacement of oral siphon pigment organs, sensory receptors rimming the entrance of the OS, and siphon muscle fibers, but had no effects on the formation of the wound epidermis. Since Notch signaling is involved in the maintenance of proliferative activity in both the Ciona and vertebrate regeneration blastema, the results suggest a conserved evolutionary role of this signaling pathway in chordate regeneration. The genes identified in this investigation provide the foundation for future molecular analysis of OS regeneration. PMID:26206613

  17. Evidence for the Induction of Key Components of the NOTCH Signaling Pathway via Deltamethrin and Azamethiphos Treatment in the Sea Louse Caligus rogercresseyi

    PubMed Central

    Boltaña, Sebastian; Chávez-Mardones, Jaqueline; Valenzuela-Muñoz, Valentina; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    The extensive use of organophosphates and pyrethroids in the aquaculture industry has negatively impacted parasite sensitivity to the delousing effects of these antiparasitics, especially among sea lice species. The NOTCH signaling pathway is a positive regulator of ABC transporter subfamily C expression and plays a key role in the generation and modulation of pesticide resistance. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms behind pesticide resistance, partly due to the lack of genomic and molecular information on the processes involved in the resistance mechanism of sea lice. Next-generation sequencing technologies provide an opportunity for rapid and cost-effective generation of genome-scale data. The present study, through RNA-seq analysis, determined that the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi (C. rogercresseyi) specifically responds to the delousing drugs azamethiphos and deltamethrin at the transcriptomic level by differentially activating mRNA of the NOTCH signaling pathway and of ABC genes. These results suggest that frequent antiparasitic application may increase the activity of inhibitory mRNA components, thereby promoting inhibitory NOTCH output and conditions for increased resistance to delousing drugs. Moreover, data analysis underscored that key functions of NOTCH/ABC components were regulated during distinct phases of the drug response, thus indicating resistance modifications in C. rogercresseyi resulting from the frequent use of organophosphates and pyrethroids. PMID:27187362

  18. Evidence for the Induction of Key Components of the NOTCH Signaling Pathway via Deltamethrin and Azamethiphos Treatment in the Sea Louse Caligus rogercresseyi.

    PubMed

    Boltaña, Sebastian; Chávez-Mardones, Jaqueline; Valenzuela-Muñoz, Valentina; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2016-05-12

    The extensive use of organophosphates and pyrethroids in the aquaculture industry has negatively impacted parasite sensitivity to the delousing effects of these antiparasitics, especially among sea lice species. The NOTCH signaling pathway is a positive regulator of ABC transporter subfamily C expression and plays a key role in the generation and modulation of pesticide resistance. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms behind pesticide resistance, partly due to the lack of genomic and molecular information on the processes involved in the resistance mechanism of sea lice. Next-generation sequencing technologies provide an opportunity for rapid and cost-effective generation of genome-scale data. The present study, through RNA-seq analysis, determined that the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi (C. rogercresseyi) specifically responds to the delousing drugs azamethiphos and deltamethrin at the transcriptomic level by differentially activating mRNA of the NOTCH signaling pathway and of ABC genes. These results suggest that frequent antiparasitic application may increase the activity of inhibitory mRNA components, thereby promoting inhibitory NOTCH output and conditions for increased resistance to delousing drugs. Moreover, data analysis underscored that key functions of NOTCH/ABC components were regulated during distinct phases of the drug response, thus indicating resistance modifications in C. rogercresseyi resulting from the frequent use of organophosphates and pyrethroids.

  19. Rare variants in the notch signaling pathway describe a novel type of autosomal recessive Klippel-Feil syndrome.

    PubMed

    Karaca, Ender; Yuregir, Ozge O; Bozdogan, Sevcan T; Aslan, Huseyin; Pehlivan, Davut; Jhangiani, Shalini N; Akdemir, Zeynep C; Gambin, Tomasz; Bayram, Yavuz; Atik, Mehmed M; Erdin, Serkan; Muzny, Donna; Gibbs, Richard A; Lupski, James R

    2015-11-01

    Klippel-Feil syndrome is a rare disorder represented by a subgroup of segmentation defects of the vertebrae and characterized by fusion of the cervical vertebrae, low posterior hairline, and short neck with limited motion. Both autosomal dominant and recessive inheritance patterns were reported in families with Klippel-Feil. Mutated genes for both dominant (GDF6 and GDF3) and recessive (MEOX1) forms of Klippel-Feil syndrome have been shown to be involved in somite development via transcription regulation and signaling pathways. Heterotaxy arises from defects in proteins that function in the development of left-right asymmetry of the developing embryo. We describe a consanguineous family with a male proband who presents with classical Klippel-Feil syndrome together with heterotaxy (situs inversus totalis). The present patient also had Sprengel's deformity, deformity of the sternum, and a solitary kidney. Using exome sequencing, we identified a homozygous frameshift mutation (c.299delT; p.L100fs) in RIPPLY2, a gene shown to play a crucial role in somitogenesis and participate in the Notch signaling pathway via negatively regulating Tbx6. Our data confirm RIPPLY2 as a novel gene for autosomal recessive Klippel-Feil syndrome, and in addition-from a mechanistic standpoint-suggest the possibility that mutations in RIPPLY2 could also lead to heterotaxy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Nonoverlapping functions for Notch1 and Notch3 during murine steady-state thymic lymphopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jianjun; Fallahi, Mohammad; Luo, Jun-Li

    2011-01-01

    Notch1 signaling is absolutely essential for steady-state thymic lymphopoiesis, but the role of other Notch receptors, and their potential overlap with the function of Notch1, remains unclear. Here we show that like Notch1, Notch3 is differentially expressed by progenitor thymocytes, peaking at the DN3 progenitor stage. Using mice carrying a gene-trapped allele, we show that thymic cellularity is slightly reduced in the absence of Notch3, although progression through the defined sequence of TCR-αβ development is normal, as are NKT and TCRγδ cell production. The absence of a profound effect from Notch3 deletion is not explained by residual function of the gene-trapped allele because insertion mapping suggests that the targeted allele would not encode functional signaling domains. We also show that although Notch1 and Notch3 are coexpressed on some early intrathymic progenitors, the relatively mild phenotype seen after Notch3 deletion does not result from the compensatory function of Notch1, nor does Notch3 function explain the likewise mild phenotype seen after conditional (intrathymic) deletion of Notch1. Our studies indicate that Notch1 and Notch3 carry out nonoverlapping functions during thymocyte differentiation, and that while Notch1 is absolutely required early in the lymphopoietic process, neither receptor is essential at later stages. PMID:21768299

  1. MicroRNA-449a Inhibition Protects H9C2 Cells Against Hypoxia/Reoxygenation-Induced Injury by Targeting the Notch-1 Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jing; Wu, Qianfu; Lv, Rong; Huang, Li; Xu, Banglong; Wang, Xianbao; Chen, Aihua; He, Fei

    2018-05-07

    The present study aimed to detect the expression of miR-449a and investigate the effect of miR-449a on cell injury in cardiomyocytes subjected to hypoxia/ reoxygenation (H/R) and its underlying mechanisms. The expression of miR-449a was determined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in both neonatal rat ventricular myocytes and H9C2 cells. For gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies, H9C2 cells were transfected with either miR-449a mimics or miR-449a inhibitor. The target gene of miR-449a was confirmed by a dual-luciferase reporter assay. Apoptosis was analyzed by both flow cytometry using Annexin V and propidium iodide and transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL). Necrosis was confirmed by the detection of lactate dehydrogenase release. The cell viability was measured using the methylthiotetrazole method. The protein levels of Notch-1, Notch-1 intracellular domain, hairy and enhancer of split-1 (Hes-1), and apoptosis-related genes were measured by Western blot analysis. MiR-449a was significantly upregulated in both neonatal rat ventricular myocytes and H9C2 cells subjected to H/R. However, H/R-induced cell apoptosis and necrosis were markedly reduced by miR-449a inhibition. By targeting Notch-1, miR-449a regulated the Notch-1/ Hes-1 signaling pathway. The blockade of the Notch signaling pathway partly abolished the protective effect of miR-449a suppression against H/R injury, whereas the overexpression of Notch-1 intracellular domain partly reversed the effect of miR-449a overexpression on H/R-induced cell injury. The present study suggested that miR-449a inhibition protected H9C2 cells against H/R-induced cell injury by targeting the Notch-1 signaling pathway, providing a novel insight into the molecular basis of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury and a potential therapeutic target. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Bisphenol A causes malformation of the head region in embryos of Xenopus laevis and decreases the expression of the ESR-1 gene mediated by Notch signaling.

    PubMed

    Imaoka, Susumu; Mori, Tomohiro; Kinoshita, Tsutomu

    2007-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BpA) is widely used in industry and dentistry. Its effects on the embryonic development of Xenopus laevis were investigated. Xenopus embryos at stage 10.5 were treated with BpA. Developmental abnormalities were observed at stage 35; malformation of the head region including eyes and scoliosis. The expression of several markers of embryonic development was investigated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The pan-neural marker SOX-2, the neural stem cell marker nrp-1, the mesodermal marker MyoD, and the endodermal marker sox17alpha, were used. Although the expression of marker genes was not changed by treatment with BpA, that of Pax-6, a key regulator of the morphogenesis of the eyes, was decreased by BpA. Pax-6 is a downstream factor of Notch signaling. So, the expression of a typical Notch-dependent factor, ESR-1, was investigated in the presence of BpA. The expression of ESR-1 was efficiently suppressed by BpA. In whole mount in situ hybridization (WISH), Pax-6 was expressed in the central nervous system and eyes. The expression was lost completely on treatment with BpA. The expression of ESR-1 in the central nervous system and eyes also disappeared with BpA treatment. Injection of the intracellular domain of Notch efficiently recovered ESR-1 expression in the presence of BpA although injection of a ligand for notch, Delta, did not. These results suggest that BpA decreased the expression of ESR-1 by disrupting the Notch signal.

  3. Application of oncoproteomics to aberrant signalling networks in changing the treatment paradigm in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    López Villar, Elena; Wang, Xiangdong; Madero, Luis; Cho, William C

    2015-01-01

    Oncoproteomics is an important innovation in the early diagnosis, management and development of personalized treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). As inherent factors are not completely known - e.g. age or family history, radiation exposure, benzene chemical exposure, certain viral exposures such as infection with the human T-cell lymphoma/leukaemia virus-1, as well as some inherited syndromes may raise the risk of ALL - each ALL patient may modify the susceptibility of therapy. Indeed, we consider these unknown inherent factors could be explained via coupling cytogenetics plus proteomics, especially when proteins are the ones which play function within cells. Innovative proteomics to ALL therapy may help to understand the mechanism of drug resistance and toxicities, which in turn will provide some leads to improve ALL management. Most important of these are shotgun proteomic strategies to unravel ALL aberrant signalling networks. Some shotgun proteomic innovations and bioinformatic tools for ALL therapies will be discussed. As network proteins are distinctive characteristics for ALL patients, unrevealed by cytogenetics, those network proteins are currently an important source of novel therapeutic targets that emerge from shotgun proteomics. Indeed, ALL evolution can be studied for each individual patient via oncoproteomics. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  4. Quality Enhancement of Ultrasonic TOFD Signals from Carbon Steel Weld Pad with Notches.

    PubMed

    Manjula, K; Vijayarekha, K; Venkatraman, B

    2018-03-01

    Welding is an integral part of component fabrication in industry. Even though the science and art of welding are more than 100 years old, defects continue to occur during welding. Codes of practice require that the welds be tested and evaluated. Conventionally ultrasonic testing has been widely applied in industry for the detection and evaluation of the flaws/defects in the weldments. With advances in sensor and signal analysis technologies, the last two decades have seen extensive developments in the field of ultrasonic testing. We have advanced techniques such as Time of Flight Diffraction (TOFD) which has better probability of detection for linear defects. A major irritant during the application of TOFD, especially for the testing of carbon steel weldments, is the presence of noise. A variety of approaches has been used internationally for the suppression of such noise and each has its own merits and demerits. This paper focuses on a method of enhancing the TOFD A-scan signals in carbon steel weldments by suppressing the noise from them using the discrete wavelet transform (DWT). The analysis clearly indicates that the DWT gives better signal-to-noise ratio improvement using higher-order wavelet filters with 4-level DWT decomposition. However the computational cost of this signal enhancement depends on the wavelet filter chosen along with the chosen level of DWT decomposition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Hyperglycaemia and aberrated insulin signalling stimulate tumour progression via induction of the extracellular matrix component hyaluronan.

    PubMed

    Twarock, Sören; Reichert, Christina; Peters, Ulrike; Gorski, Daniel J; Röck, Katharina; Fischer, Jens W

    2017-08-15

    Epidemiological studies have detected a higher incidence of various tumour entities in diabetic patients. However, the underlying mechanisms remain insufficiently understood. Glucose-derived pericellular and extracellular hyaluronan (HA) promotes tumour progression and development. In our study, we tested the hypothesis that a diabetic metabolic state, characterised by hyperglycaemia and concomitant aberrant insulin signalling, stimulates tumour progression via the induction of HA synthesis. In a streptozotocin-induced diabetic nude mouse tumour xenograft model, hyperglycaemia and lack of insulin caused an increased formation of tumour-associated HA-matrix, which in turn accelerated tumour progression and neoangiogenesis. This process was effectively attenuated by treatment with 4-methylumbelliferone, a pharmacological inhibitor of HA-synthesis. To define the mechanisms behind these in vivo observations, we investigated the impact of hyperglycaemia and insulin on the glucose metabolism in oesophageal squamous cell cancer cells (ESCC). Hyperglycaemia induced HA synthesis while insulin diminished HA production by directing glucose metabolites to glycolysis. Vice versa, inhibition of glycolysis, either by knockdown of the glycolytic key enzyme phosphofructokinase or by an experimental abrogation of insulin signalling (knockdown of the insulin receptor and long-term treatment with insulin) augmented HA synthesis. Consequently, these processes induced invasion, anchorage-independent growth and adhesion of ESCC to endothelial cells in vitro. Thus, the cellular shift in glucose usage from catabolism of glucose to anabolism of HA driven by hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance may represent an important link between diabetes and cancer progression. Hence, therapeutical inhibition of HA synthesis may represent a promising approach for tumour treatment in diabetic patients. © 2017 UICC.

  6. Modulation of notch signaling pathway to prevent H2O2/menadione-induced SK-N-MC cells death by EUK134.

    PubMed

    Kamarehei, Maryam; Yazdanparast, Razieh

    2014-10-01

    The brain in Alzheimer's disease is under increased oxidative stress, and this may have a role in the pathogenesis and neural death in this disorder. It has been verified that numerous signaling pathways involved in neurodegenerative disorders are activated in response to reactive oxygen species (ROS). EUK134, a synthetic salen-manganese antioxidant complex, has been found to possess many interesting pharmacological activities awaiting exploration. The present study is to characterize the role of Notch signaling in apoptotic cell death of SK-N-MC cells. The cells were treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or menadione to induce oxidative stress. The free-radical scavenging capabilities of EUK134 were studied through the MTT assay, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) enzyme activity assay, and glutathione (GSH) Levels. The extents of lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl formation, and intracellular ROS levels, as markers of oxidative stress, were also studied. Our results showed that H2O2/menadione reduced GSH levels and GPx activity. However, EUK134 protected cells against ROS-induced cell death by down-regulation of lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl formation as well as restoration of antioxidant enzymes activity. ROS induced apoptosis and increased NICD and HES1 expression. Inhibition of NICD production proved that Notch signaling is involved in apoptosis through p53 activation. Moreover, H2O2/menadione led to Numb protein down-regulation which upon EUK134 pretreatment, its level increased and subsequently prevented Notch pathway activation. We indicated that EUK134 can be a promising candidate in designing natural-based drugs for ROS-induced neurodegenerative diseases. Collectively, ROS activated Notch signaling in SK-N-MC cells leading to cell apoptosis.

  7. Leptin-promoted human extravillous trophoblast invasion is MMP14 dependent and requires the cross talk between Notch1 and PI3K/Akt signaling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huayang; Cheng, Huanhuan; Shao, Qianqian; Dong, Zhaogang; Xie, Qi; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Qingjie; Kong, Beihua; Qu, Xun

    2014-04-01

    The overexpression of leptin is a crucial feature for the maintenance of pregnancy. The effects of leptin on trophoblast invasion are important to its reproductive function, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. MMP14 is a member of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family that is closely involved in the invasion process. Here, we characterized the importance of MMP14 in the proinvasion effect of leptin on EVT cells and elucidated its molecular mechanisms. Transwell assay revealed that leptin promoted invasion of the immortalized EVT cell line HTR-8/SVneo in a dose- and time-related fashion. Further studies suggested that leptin enhanced HTR-8/SVneo cell invasion by up-regulating MMP14 expression and that knockdown of MMP14 by small interference RNA (siRNA) blocked the proinvasion effect of leptin. Notably, leptin promoted the expression of Notch1 receptor and activated its signaling in HTR-8/SVneo cells, and blocking this pathway by siRNA inhibited both leptin-enhanced MMP14 expression and invasiveness of HTR-8/SVneo cells. Such effects of Notch1 signaling were related with the activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway, which was significantly activated after leptin stimulation and was interfered by Notch1 signaling perturbation. Taken together, our observations suggest that leptin is an effective regulator of MMP14 expression, which consequently plays critical roles in invasion of EVT cells. The promoting effects of leptin on MMP14 require the cross talk between Notch1 and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways.

  8. The Role of Notch3 in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Aburjania, Zviadi; Jang, Samuel; Whitt, Jason; Jaskula-Stzul, Renata; Chen, Herbert; Rose, J Bart

    2018-04-05

    The Notch family is a highly conserved gene group that regulates cell-cell interaction, embryogenesis, and tissue commitment. This review article focuses on the third Notch family subtype, Notch3. Regulation via Notch3 signaling was first implicated in vasculogenesis. However, more recent findings suggest that Notch3 signaling may play an important role in oncogenesis, tumor maintenance, and resistance to chemotherapy. Its role is mainly oncogenic, although in some cancers it appears to be tumor suppressive. Despite the wealth of published literature, it remains relatively underexplored and requires further research to shed more light on its role in cancer development, determine its tissue-specific function, and elaborate novel treatment strategies. Herein we summarize the role of Notch3 in cancer, possible mechanisms of its action, and current cancer treatment strategies targeting Notch3 signaling. The Notch family is a highly conserved gene group that regulates cell-cell interaction, embryogenesis, and tissue commitment. This review summarizes the existing data on the third subtype of the Notch family, Notch3. The role of Notch3 in different types of cancers is discussed, as well as implications of its modification and new strategies to affect Notch3 signaling activity. © AlphaMed Press 2018.

  9. Human papillomavirus 16E6 and NFX1-123 potentiate notch signaling and differentiation without activating cellular arrest

    SciTech Connect

    Vliet-Gregg, Portia A.; Hamilton, Jennifer R.; Katzenellenbogen, Rachel A., E-mail: rkatzen@uw.edu

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HR HPV) oncoproteins bind host cell proteins to dysregulate and uncouple apoptosis, senescence, differentiation, and growth. These pathways are important for both the viral life cycle and cancer development. HR HPV16 E6 (16E6) interacts with the cellular protein NFX1-123, and they collaboratively increase the growth and differentiation master regulator, Notch1. In 16E6 expressing keratinocytes (16E6 HFKs), the Notch canonical pathway genes Hes1 and Hes5 were increased with overexpression of NFX1-123, and their expression was directly linked to the activation or blockade of the Notch1 receptor. Keratinocyte differentiation genes Keratin 1 and Keratin 10 were also increased, butmore » in contrast their upregulation was only indirectly associated with Notch1 receptor stimulation and was fully unlinked to growth arrest, increased p21{sup Waf1/CIP1}, or decreased proliferative factor Ki67. This leads to a model of 16E6, NFX1-123, and Notch1 differently regulating canonical and differentiation pathways and entirely uncoupling cellular arrest from increased differentiation. - Highlights: • 16E6 and NFX1-123 increased the Notch canonical pathway through Notch1. • 16E6 and NFX1-123 increased the differentiation pathway indirectly through Notch1. • 16E6 and NFX1-123 increased differentiation gene expression without growth arrest. • Increased NFX1-123 with 16E6 may create an ideal cellular phenotype for HPV.« less

  10. The clathrin-binding motif and the J-domain of Drosophila Auxilin are essential for facilitating Notch ligand endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Kandachar, Vasundhara; Bai, Ting; Chang, Henry C

    2008-01-01

    Background Ligand endocytosis plays a critical role in regulating the activity of the Notch pathway. The Drosophila homolog of auxilin (dAux), a J-domain-containing protein best known for its role in the disassembly of clathrin coats from clathrin-coated vesicles, has recently been implicated in Notch signaling, although its exact mechanism remains poorly understood. Results To understand the role of auxilin in Notch ligand endocytosis, we have analyzed several point mutations affecting specific domains of dAux. In agreement with previous work, analysis using these stronger dAux alleles shows that dAux is required for several Notch-dependent processes, and its function during Notch signaling is required in the signaling cells. In support of the genetic evidences, the level of Delta appears elevated in dAux deficient cells, suggesting that the endocytosis of Notch ligand is disrupted. Deletion analysis shows that the clathrin-binding motif and the J-domain, when over-expressed, are sufficient for rescuing dAux phenotypes, implying that the recruitment of Hsc70 to clathrin is a critical role for dAux. However, surface labeling experiment shows that, in dAux mutant cells, Delta accumulates at the cell surface. In dAux mutant cells, clathrin appears to form large aggregates, although Delta is not enriched in these aberrant clathrin-positive structures. Conclusion Our data suggest that dAux mutations inhibit Notch ligand internalization at an early step during clathrin-mediated endocytosis, before the disassembly of clathrin-coated vesicles. Further, the inhibition of ligand endocytosis in dAux mutant cells possibly occurs due to depletion of cytosolic pools of clathrin via the formation of clathrin aggregates. Together, our observations argue that ligand endocytosis is critical for Notch signaling and auxilin participates in Notch signaling by facilitating ligand internalization. PMID:18466624

  11. Inflammation increases NOTCH1 activity via MMP9 and is counteracted by Eicosapentaenoic Acid-free fatty acid in colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Fazio, Chiara; Piazzi, Giulia; Vitaglione, Paola; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Munarini, Alessandra; Prossomariti, Anna; Milazzo, Maddalena; D’Angelo, Leonarda; Napolitano, Manuela; Chieco, Pasquale; Belluzzi, Andrea; Bazzoli, Franco; Ricciardiello, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant NOTCH1 signalling is critically involved in multiple models of colorectal cancer (CRC) and a prominent role of NOTCH1 activity during inflammation has emerged. Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), a crucial event promoting malignant transformation, is regulated by inflammation and Metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) plays an important role in this process. Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA), an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, was shown to prevent colonic tumors in different settings. We recently found that an extra-pure formulation of EPA as Free Fatty Acid (EPA-FFA) protects from colon cancer development in a mouse model of Colitis-Associated Cancer (CAC) through modulation of NOTCH1 signalling. In this study, we exposed colon cancer cells to an inflammatory stimulus represented by a cytokine-enriched Conditioned Medium (CM), obtained from THP1-differentiated macrophages. We found, for the first time, that CM strongly up-regulated NOTCH1 signalling and EMT markers, leading to increased invasiveness. Importantly, NOTCH1 signalling was dependent on MMP9 activity, upon CM exposure. We show that a non-cytotoxic pre-treatment with EPA-FFA antagonizes the effect of inflammation on NOTCH1 signalling, with reduction of MMP9 activity and invasiveness. In conclusion, our data suggest that, in CRC cells, inflammation induces NOTCH1 activity through MMP9 up-regulation and that this mechanism can be counteracted by EPA-FFA. PMID:26864323

  12. Inflammation increases NOTCH1 activity via MMP9 and is counteracted by Eicosapentaenoic Acid-free fatty acid in colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Fazio, Chiara; Piazzi, Giulia; Vitaglione, Paola; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Munarini, Alessandra; Prossomariti, Anna; Milazzo, Maddalena; D'Angelo, Leonarda; Napolitano, Manuela; Chieco, Pasquale; Belluzzi, Andrea; Bazzoli, Franco; Ricciardiello, Luigi

    2016-02-11

    Aberrant NOTCH1 signalling is critically involved in multiple models of colorectal cancer (CRC) and a prominent role of NOTCH1 activity during inflammation has emerged. Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), a crucial event promoting malignant transformation, is regulated by inflammation and Metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) plays an important role in this process. Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA), an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, was shown to prevent colonic tumors in different settings. We recently found that an extra-pure formulation of EPA as Free Fatty Acid (EPA-FFA) protects from colon cancer development in a mouse model of Colitis-Associated Cancer (CAC) through modulation of NOTCH1 signalling. In this study, we exposed colon cancer cells to an inflammatory stimulus represented by a cytokine-enriched Conditioned Medium (CM), obtained from THP1-differentiated macrophages. We found, for the first time, that CM strongly up-regulated NOTCH1 signalling and EMT markers, leading to increased invasiveness. Importantly, NOTCH1 signalling was dependent on MMP9 activity, upon CM exposure. We show that a non-cytotoxic pre-treatment with EPA-FFA antagonizes the effect of inflammation on NOTCH1 signalling, with reduction of MMP9 activity and invasiveness. In conclusion, our data suggest that, in CRC cells, inflammation induces NOTCH1 activity through MMP9 up-regulation and that this mechanism can be counteracted by EPA-FFA.

  13. Stroma-induced Jagged1 expression drives PC3 prostate cancer cell migration; disparate effects of RIP-generated proteolytic fragments on cell behaviour and Notch signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Delury, Craig, E-mail: c.delury@lancaster.ac.uk; Hart, Claire, E-mail: claire.hart@manchester.ac.uk; Brown, Mick, E-mail: michael.brown@ics.manchester.ac.uk

    The Notch ligand Jagged1 is subject to regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP) which yields a soluble ectodomain (sJag) and a soluble Jagged1 intracellular domain (JICD). The full-length Jagged1 protein enhances prostate cancer (PCa) cell proliferation and is highly expressed in metastatic cells. However, little is known regarding the mechanisms by which Jagged1 or its RIP-generated fragments might promote PCa bone metastasis. In the current study we show that bone marrow stroma (BMS) induces Jagged1 expression in bone metastatic prostate cancer PC3 cells and that this enhanced expression is mechanistically linked to the promotion of cell migration. We also show that RIP-generatedmore » Jagged1 fragments exert disparate effects on PC3 cell behaviour and Notch signaling. In conclusion, the expression of both the full-length ligand and its RIP-generated fragments must be considered in tandem when attempting to regulate Jagged1 as a possible PCa therapy. - Highlights: • Bone marrow stroma induces Jagged1 expression in prostate cancer (PCa) PC3 cells. • This enhanced expression of full-length Jagged1 is required for PC3 cell migration. • Proteolytic fragments of Jagged1 exert disparate effects on PC3 cell behaviour. • Effects of fragments on cell behaviour do not correlate with Notch signaling. • Effects of Jagged1 and its fragments on PCa metastasis likely to be complex.« less

  14. No evidence for induction of key components of the Notch signaling pathway (Notch-1, Jagged-1) by treatment with UV-B, 1,25(OH)(2)D(3), and/or epigenetic drugs (TSA, 5-Aza) in human keratinocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Reichrath, Sandra; Reichrath, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Notch signaling is of high importance for growth and survival of various cell types. We now analyzed the protein expression of two key components of the Notch signaling pathway (Notch-1, Jagged-1) in spontaneously immortalized (HaCaT) and in malignant (SCL-1) human keratinocytes, using western analysis. We found that Notch-1 and its corresponding ligand Jagged-1 are expressed in both cell lines, with no marked change following UV-B treatment. Moreover, treatment of both cell lines before or after UV-B irradiation with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3), the biologically active form of vitamin D, and/or epigenetic modulating drugs (TSA; 5-Aza) did not result in a marked modulation of the protein expression of Notch-1 or Jagged-1. Under the experimental conditions of this study, treatment with 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) protected human keratinocytes in part against the antiproliferative effects of UV-B-radiation. In conclusion, our findings do not point at a differential expression of these two key components of Notch signaling in non-malignant as compared to malignant human keratinocytes, indicating that alterations in their expression are not of importance for the photocarcinogenesis of human squamous cell carcinomas. Moreover, our findings do not support the hypothesis that modulation of Notch signaling may be involved in the photoprotective effect of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3), that we and others reported previously. Additionally, we demonstrate that epigenetic modulating drugs (TSA, 5-Aza) do not markedly modulate the expression Notch-1 or Jagged-1 in UV-B-treated human keratinocytes in vitro.

  15. Tissue Regeneration and Biomineralization in Sea Urchins: Role of Notch Signaling and Presence of Stem Cell Markers

    PubMed Central

    Reinardy, Helena C.; Emerson, Chloe E.; Manley, Jason M.; Bodnar, Andrea G.

    2015-01-01

    Echinoderms represent a phylum with exceptional regenerative capabilities that can reconstruct both external appendages and internal organs. Mechanistic understanding of the cellular pathways involved in regeneration in these animals has been hampered by the limited genomic tools and limited ability to manipulate regenerative processes. We present a functional assay to investigate mechanisms of tissue regeneration and biomineralization by measuring the regrowth of amputated tube feet (sensory and motor appendages) and spines in the sea urchin, Lytechinus variegatus. The ability to manipulate regeneration was demonstrated by concentration-dependent inhibition of regrowth of spines and tube feet by treatment with the mitotic inhibitor, vincristine. Treatment with the gamma-secretase inhibitor DAPT resulted in a concentration-dependent inhibition of regrowth, indicating that both tube feet and spine regeneration require functional Notch signaling. Stem cell markers (Piwi and Vasa) were expressed in tube feet and spine tissue, and Vasa-positive cells were localized throughout the epidermis of tube feet by immunohistochemistry, suggesting the existence of multipotent progenitor cells in these highly regenerative appendages. The presence of Vasa protein in other somatic tissues (e.g. esophagus, radial nerve, and a sub-population of coelomocytes) suggests that multipotent cells are present throughout adult sea urchins and may contribute to normal homeostasis in addition to regeneration. Mechanistic insight into the cellular pathways governing the tremendous regenerative capacity of echinoderms may reveal processes that can be modulated for regenerative therapies, shed light on the evolution of regeneration, and enable the ability to predict how these processes will respond to changing environmental conditions. PMID:26267358

  16. The structure and dynamics of tandem WW domains in a negative regulator of notch signaling, Suppressor of deltex.

    PubMed

    Fedoroff, Oleg Y; Townson, Sharon A; Golovanov, Alexander P; Baron, Martin; Avis, Johanna M

    2004-08-13

    WW domains mediate protein recognition, usually though binding to proline-rich sequences. In many proteins, WW domains occur in tandem arrays. Whether or how individual domains within such arrays cooperate to recognize biological partners is, as yet, poorly characterized. An important question is whether functional diversity of different WW domain proteins is reflected in the structural organization and ligand interaction mechanisms of their multiple domains. We have determined the solution structure and dynamics of a pair of WW domains (WW3-4) from a Drosophila Nedd4 family protein called Suppressor of deltex (Su(dx)), a regulator of Notch receptor signaling. We find that the binding of a type 1 PPPY ligand to WW3 stabilizes the structure with effects propagating to the WW4 domain, a domain that is not active for ligand binding. Both WW domains adopt the characteristic triple-stranded beta-sheet structure, and significantly, this is the first example of a WW domain structure to include a domain (WW4) lacking the second conserved Trp (replaced by Phe). The domains are connected by a flexible linker, which allows a hinge-like motion of domains that may be important for the recognition of functionally relevant targets. Our results contrast markedly with those of the only previously determined three-dimensional structure of tandem WW domains, that of the rigidly oriented WW domain pair from the RNA-splicing factor Prp40. Our data illustrate that arrays of WW domains can exhibit a variety of higher order structures and ligand interaction mechanisms.

  17. Neurotrophin-3 promotes proliferation and cholinergic neuronal differentiation of bone marrow- derived neural stem cells via notch signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yu-Hui; Li, Shao-Heng; Gao, Zhong; Zou, Sa-Feng; Li, Hong-Yan; Tao, Zhen-Yu; Song, Jie; Yang, Jing-Xian

    2016-12-01

    Recently, the potential for neural stem cells (NSCs) to be used in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been reported; however, the therapeutic effects are modest by virtue of the low neural differentiation rate. In our study, we transfected bone marrow-derived NSCs (BM-NSCs) with Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), a superactive neurotrophic factor that promotes neuronal survival, differentiation, and migration of neuronal cells, to investigate the effects of NT-3 gene overexpression on the proliferation and differentiation into cholinergic neuron of BM-NSCs in vitro and its possible molecular mechanism. BM-NSCs were generated from BM mesenchymal cells of adult C57BL/6 mice and cultured in vitro. After transfected with NT-3 gene, immunofluorescence and RT-PCR method were used to determine the ability of BM-NSCs on proliferation and differentiation into cholinergic neuron; Acetylcholine Assay Kit was used for acetylcholine (Ach). RT-PCR and WB analysis were used to characterize mRNA and protein level related to the Notch signaling pathway. We found that NT-3 can promote the proliferation and differentiation of BM-NSCs into cholinergic neurons and elevate the levels of acetylcholine (ACh) in the supernatant. Furthermore, NT-3 gene overexpression increase the expression of Hes1, decreased the expression of Mash1 and Ngn1 during proliferation of BM-NSCs. Whereas, the expression of Hes1 was down-regulated, and Mash1 and Ngn1 expression were up-regulated during differentiation of BM-NSCs. Our findings support the prospect of using NT-3-transduced BM-NSCs in developing therapies for AD due to their equivalent therapeutic potential as subventricular zone-derived NSCs (SVZ-NSCs), greater accessibility, and autogenous attributes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. DLL4 overexpression increases gastric cancer stem/progenitor cell self-renewal ability and correlates with poor clinical outcome via Notch-1 signaling pathway activation.

    PubMed

    Miao, Zhi-Feng; Xu, Hao; Xu, Hui-Mian; Wang, Zhen-Ning; Zhao, Ting-Ting; Song, Yong-Xi; Xu, Ying-Ying

    2017-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignant diseases, and poses a serious threat to the quality of human life. Gastric cancer stem/progenitor cells (GCSPCs) have critical effects on tumor formation, affecting specific features of self-renewal and differentiation and playing a critical role in metastasis. The Notch-1 pathway is crucially important to GCSPCs and is regulated by DLL4. In this study, DLL4 and Nestin levels were measured in 383 gastric cancer tissue samples by immunohistochemistry, and the clinico-pathological features of patients assessed. After DLL4 silencing in selected gastric cancer cell lines, the expression of GCSPC markers and colony formation ability were analyzed and the self-renewal and differentiation capacities of the cells were evaluated. The relationship between DLL4 levels and Notch-1 signaling pathway effector amounts was assessed via Western blotting and immunofluorescence. Finally, the tumor formation ability of the gastric cancer cells was evaluated with different levels of DLL4 and multiple cell densities in vivo. Our results indicate that DLL4 expression is associated with TNM stage and cancer metastasis, with high amounts of DLL4 leading to poor outcome. DLL4 silencing inhibited the self-renewal ability of GCSPCs and increased their multidifferentiation capacity, resulting in reduced GCSPC ratios. DLL4 knockdown also blocked the Notch-1 pathway, weakening invasion ability and resistance to 5-FU chemotherapy. In vivo, DLL4 silencing inhibited the tumor formation ability of GCSPCs. In conclusion, DLL4 affects GCSPC stemness, altering their pathological behavior. DLL4 silencing inhibits GCSPC metastatic potential both in vitro and in vivo by impeding Notch-1 signaling pathway activation, indicating that DLL4 may be a new potential therapeutic target. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) suppresses satellite cell self-renewal through inversely modulating Notch and NF-κB signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Yuji; Mishra, Vivek; Hindi, Sajedah M; Kuang, Shihuan; Kumar, Ashok

    2013-12-06

    Satellite cell self-renewal is an essential process to maintaining the robustness of skeletal muscle regenerative capacity. However, extrinsic factors that regulate self-renewal of satellite cells are not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that TWEAK cytokine reduces the proportion of Pax7(+)/MyoD(-) cells (an index of self-renewal) on myofiber explants and represses multiple components of Notch signaling in satellite cell cultures. The number of Pax7(+) cells is significantly increased in skeletal muscle of TWEAK knock-out (KO) mice compared with wild-type in response to injury. Furthermore, Notch signaling is significantly elevated in cultured satellite cells and in regenerating myofibers of TWEAK-KO mice. Forced activation of Notch signaling through overexpression of the Notch1 intracellular domain (N1ICD) rescued the TWEAK-mediated inhibition of satellite cell self-renewal. TWEAK also activates the NF-κB transcription factor in satellite cells and inhibition of NF-κB significantly improved the number of Pax7(+) cells in TWEAK-treated cultures. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that a reciprocal interaction between NF-κB and Notch signaling governs the inhibitory effect of TWEAK on satellite cell self-renewal. Collectively, our study demonstrates that TWEAK suppresses satellite cell self-renewal through activating NF-κB and repressing Notch signaling.

  20. Proinflammatory Cytokine Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-like Weak Inducer of Apoptosis (TWEAK) Suppresses Satellite Cell Self-renewal through Inversely Modulating Notch and NF-κB Signaling Pathways*

    PubMed Central

    Ogura, Yuji; Mishra, Vivek; Hindi, Sajedah M.; Kuang, Shihuan; Kumar, Ashok

    2013-01-01

    Satellite cell self-renewal is an essential process to maintaining the robustness of skeletal muscle regenerative capacity. However, extrinsic factors that regulate self-renewal of satellite cells are not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that TWEAK cytokine reduces the proportion of Pax7+/MyoD− cells (an index of self-renewal) on myofiber explants and represses multiple components of Notch signaling in satellite cell cultures. The number of Pax7+ cells is significantly increased in skeletal muscle of TWEAK knock-out (KO) mice compared with wild-type in response to injury. Furthermore, Notch signaling is significantly elevated in cultured satellite cells and in regenerating myofibers of TWEAK-KO mice. Forced activation of Notch signaling through overexpression of the Notch1 intracellular domain (N1ICD) rescued the TWEAK-mediated inhibition of satellite cell self-renewal. TWEAK also activates the NF-κB transcription factor in satellite cells and inhibition of NF-κB significantly improved the number of Pax7+ cells in TWEAK-treated cultures. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that a reciprocal interaction between NF-κB and Notch signaling governs the inhibitory effect of TWEAK on satellite cell self-renewal. Collectively, our study demonstrates that TWEAK suppresses satellite cell self-renewal through activating NF-κB and repressing Notch signaling. PMID:24151074

  1. Genome-wide gene expression profiling reveals aberrant MAPK and Wnt signaling pathways associated with early parthenogenesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Na; Enkemann, Steven A; Liang, Ping; Hersmus, Remko; Zanazzi, Claudia; Huang, Junjiu; Wu, Chao; Chen, Zhisheng; Looijenga, Leendert H J; Keefe, David L; Liu, Lin

    2010-12-01

    Mammalian parthenogenesis could not survive but aborted during mid-gestation, presumably because of lack of paternal gene expression. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the failure of parthenogenesis at early stages of development, we performed global gene expression profiling and functional analysis of parthenogenetic blastocysts in comparison with those of blastocysts from normally fertilized embryos. Parthenogenetic blastocysts exhibited changes in the expression of 749 genes, of which 214 had lower expression and 535 showed higher expressions than fertilized embryos using a minimal 1.8-fold change as a cutoff. Genes important for placenta development were decreased in their expression in parthenote blastocysts. Some maternally expressed genes were up-regulated and paternal-related genes were down-regulated. Moreover, aberrantly increased Wnt signaling and reduced mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling were associated with early parthenogenesis. The protein level of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) was low in parthenogenetic blastocysts compared with that of fertilized blastocysts 120 h after fertilization. 6-Bromoindirubin-3'-oxime, a specific glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) inhibitor, significantly decreased embryo hatching. The expression of several imprinted genes was altered in parthenote blastocysts. Gene expression also linked reduced expression of Xist to activation of X chromosome. Our findings suggest that failed X inactivation, aberrant imprinting, decreased ERK/MAPK signaling and possibly elevated Wnt signaling, and reduced expression of genes for placental development collectively may contribute to abnormal placenta formation and failed fetal development in parthenogenetic embryos.

  2. [Notch1 signaling participates in the release of inflammatory mediators in mouse RAW264.7 cells via activating NF-κB pathway].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongwei; Xu, Che Nan; Huang, Chao; Jiang, Jinzhi; Li, Liangchang

    2017-10-01

    Objective To study the effect of Notch1 signaling on the release of inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophages and the related mechanism. Methods The expressions of Notch1 and hairy and enhancer of split 1 (Hes1) mRNAs were investigated by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) in mouse RAW264.7 cells after stimulated with 100 ng/mL LPS for 8 hours. Prior to stimulation with LPS, mouse RAW264.7 cells were treated with DAPT (10 μmol/L), an inhibitor of Notch1 signaling, for 1 hour. The concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) in cell culture media were measured by ELISA. The mRNA levels of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were examined by RT-PCR. The protein levels of iNOS, COX-2, nuclear factor kappa Bp65 (NF-κBp65) and phosphorylated nuclear factor κB inhibitor α (p-IκBα) were detected by Western blotting. Results The expressions of Notch1 and Hes1 mRNAs significantly increased in mouse RAW264.7 cells after stimulated with LPS. The levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, NO and PGE 2 were significantly up-regulated in cell culture media after stimulated with LPS, but the levels of those inflammatory mediators were reduced by DAPT. The mRNA and protein levels of iNOS and COX-2 were significant raised in mouse RAW264.7 cells after stimulated with LPS, while they were inhibited by DAPT. Both IκBα-phosphorylation and NF-κBp65 translocation into nuclear in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells were also inhibited by DAPT. Conclusion Notch1 signaling activates NF-κB to participate in LPS-induced inflammatory mediator release in macrophages.

  3. [Effect of fermented cordyceps powder and prednisone on the Notch2/Hes-1 signaling activation in the kidney tubules of rats with acute aristolochic acid nephropathy].

    PubMed

    Huang, Ren-fa; Liang, Qun-qing; Cheng, Xin; Long, Yun; Wu, Jin-yu

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the effect of both fermented Cordyceps powder (CS) and prednisone on the Notch2/hes-1 signaling activation in the kidney tubules of rats with acute aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAAN). Totally 50 SD rats were randomly divided into 4 groups, i.e., the normal group, the model group, the CS group, the prednisone group, and the CS plus prednisone group, 10 in each group. The AAAN rat model was induced by intragastric administration of pure aristolochic acid A at the daily dose of 100 mg/kg for 3 days. Rats in the CS group were administered with CS at the daily dose of 5.0 g/kg by gastrogavage, while those in the prednisone group were administered with prednisone at the daily dose of 0.5 mg/kg. Rats in the CS plus prednisone group were treated by CS and prednisone. All treatment lasted for 3 successive weeks. Kidney functions [urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (SCr)] were detected. The pathological changes of kidneys were observed by Hematoxylin-Eosin staining. The apoptosis of the renal tubular epithelial cells was detected by TUNEL. The protein expressions of Notch2 and Hes-1 in the renal tissue were detected by immunohistochemical assay and Western blot. Results of HE staining showed the structure in the nephridial tissue was regular in rats of the normal group. The renal tubular necrosis occurred in the rats of the model group. The pathological changes of kidneys were obviously improved in the CS group, the prednisone group, and the CS plus prednisone group. Compared with the normal group, levels of BUN and SCr, semi-quantitative score of the tubular interstitial tissue, ratio of apoptotic cells, and expressions of Notch2 and Hes-1 proteins significantly increased in the model group (P < 0.01). Compared with the model group, the aforesaid indices significantly decreased in the 3 treatment groups (P < 0.01). All indices decreased most obviously in the CS plus prednisone group (P < 0.05, P < 0. 01). Notch2/hes-1 signaling activation might be

  4. Shengui Sansheng San extraction is an angiogenic switch via regulations of AKT/mTOR, ERK1/2 and Notch1 signal pathways after ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bowen; Luo, Cheng; Zheng, Zhaoguang; Xia, Zhenyan; Zhang, Qian; Ke, Chienchih; Liu, Renshyan; Zhao, Yonghua

    2018-05-15

    As a traditional Chinese herbal formula, Shengui Sansheng San (SSS) has been employed for stroke treatment more than 300 years. We hypothesize that SSS extraction is an angiogenic switch in penumbra post-stroke, and corresponding mechanisms are investigated. In present study, rats were subjected to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion model (MCAo) and were treated with low, middle and high doses of SSS extraction. We assessed neurological function and survival rate, and measured infarct volume by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining on day 7 after ischemia. von Willebrand factor (vWF), stromal cell-derived factor-1 alpha (SDF-1α) /chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 (CXCR4) axis, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) as well as protein kinase B (AKT)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) /hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and Notch1 signaling pathways were respectively investigated by immunofluorescence assay or western blotting in vivo and oxygen-glucose-deprived (OGD) brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs); simultaneously, wound healing of BMECs and tube formation assay were administrated. Compared to MCAo group, SSS extraction could significantly improve neurological functional scores, survival rate and cerebral infarct volume, enhance vWF + vascular density and perimeter, SDF-1α/CXCR4 axis, VEGF expression, as well as activate AKT/mTOR/HIF-1α and ERK1/2 and inhibit Notch1 pathways in penumbra. In vitro, containing SSS extraction serum increased BMEC migration, capillary formation and VEGF expression via up-regulations of AKT/mTOR and ERK1/2 pathways in OGD BMECs, but ERK inhibitor (U0126) reversed the result of VEGF expression in high dose of SSS group. Additionally, VEGFR2 and Notch1 expressions were suppressed by containing SSS extraction serum. All results were in dose dependent manner. Our study firstly demonstrates that SSS extraction is an

  5. Kynurenine promotes the goblet cell differentiation of HT-29 colon carcinoma cells by modulating Wnt, Notch and AhR signals.

    PubMed

    Park, Joo-Hung; Lee, Jeong-Min; Lee, Eun-Jin; Kim, Da-Jeong; Hwang, Won-Bhin

    2018-04-01

    Various amino acids regulate cell growth and differentiation. In the present study, we examined the ability of HT-29 cells to differentiate into goblet cells in RPMI and DMEM which are largely different in the amounts of numerous amino acids. Most of the HT-29 cells differentiated into goblet cells downregulating the stem cell marker Lgr5 when cultured in DMEM, but remained undifferentiated in RPMI. The goblet cell differentiation in DMEM was inhibited by 1-methyl-tryptophan (1-MT), an inhibitor of indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase-1 which is the initial enzyme in tryptophan metabolism along the kynurenine (KN) pathway, whereas tryptophan and KN induced goblet cell differentiation in RPMI. The levels of Notch1 and its activation product Notch intracytoplasmic domain in HT-29 cells were lower in DMEM than those in RPMI and were increased by 1-MT in both media. HT-29 cells grown in both media expressed β-catenin at the same level on day 2 when goblet cell differentiation was not observed. β-catenin expression, which was increased by 1-MT in both media, was decreased by KN. DMEM reduced Hes1 expression while enhancing Hath1 expression. Finally, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation moderately induced goblet cell differentiation. Our results suggest that KN promotes goblet cell differentiation by regulating Wnt, Notch, and AhR signals and expression of Hes1 and Hath1.

  6. Notch Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Richard Q.

    2004-01-01

    Notch antennas, also known as the tapered slot antenna (TSA), have been the topics of research for decades. TSA has demonstrated multi-octave bandwidth, moderate gain (7 to 10 dB), and symmetric E- and H- plane beam patterns and can be used for many different applications. This chapter summarizes the research activities on notch antennas over the past decade with emphasis on their most recent advances and applications. This chapter begins with some discussions on the designs of single TSA; then follows with detailed discussions of issues associated with TSA designs and performance characteristics. To conclude the chapter, some recent developments in TSA arrays and their applications are highlighted.

  7. Anabolic actions of Notch on mature bone

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Peng; Ping, Yilin; Ma, Meng; Zhang, Demao; Liu, Connie; Zaidi, Samir; Gao, Song; Ji, Yaoting; Lou, Feng; Yu, Fanyuan; Lu, Ping; Stachnik, Agnes; Bai, Mingru; Wei, Chengguo; Zhang, Liaoran; Wang, Ke; Chen, Rong; New, Maria I.; Rowe, David W.; Yuen, Tony; Sun, Li; Zaidi, Mone

    2016-01-01

    Notch controls skeletogenesis, but its role in the remodeling of adult bone remains conflicting. In mature mice, the skeleton can become osteopenic or osteosclerotic depending on the time point at which Notch is activated or inactivated. Using adult EGFP reporter mice, we find that Notch expression is localized to osteocytes embedded within bone matrix. Conditional activation of Notch signaling in osteocytes triggers profound bone formation, mainly due to increased mineralization, which rescues both age-associated and ovariectomy-induced bone loss and promotes bone healing following osteotomy. In parallel, mice rendered haploinsufficient in γ-secretase presenilin-1 (Psen1), which inhibits downstream Notch activation, display almost-absent terminal osteoblast differentiation. Consistent with this finding, pharmacologic or genetic disruption of Notch or its ligand Jagged1 inhibits mineralization. We suggest that stimulation of Notch signaling in osteocytes initiates a profound, therapeutically relevant, anabolic response. PMID:27036007

  8. Notch1 Signaling Sensitizes Tumor Necrosis Factor-related Apoptosis-inducing Ligand-induced Apoptosis in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells by Inhibiting Akt/Hdm2-mediated p53 Degradation and Up-regulating p53-dependent DR5 Expression*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunmei; Qi, Runzi; Li, Nan; Wang, Zhengxin; An, Huazhang; Zhang, Qinghua; Yu, Yizhi; Cao, Xuetao

    2009-01-01

    Notch signaling plays a critical role in regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Our previous study showed that overexpression of Notch1 could inhibit human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell growth by arresting the cell cycle and inducing apoptosis. HCC cells are resistant to apoptotic induction by tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), so new therapeutic approaches have been explored to sensitize HCC cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. We are wondering whether and how Notch1 signaling can enhance the sensitivity of HCC cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. In this study, we found that overexpression of ICN, the constitutive activated form of Notch1, up-regulated p53 protein expression in HCC cells by inhibiting proteasome degradation. p53 up-regulation was further observed in human primary hepatocellular carcinoma cells after activation of Notch signaling. Inhibition of the Akt/Hdm2 pathway by Notch1 signaling was responsible for the suppression of p53 proteasomal degradation, thus contributing to the Notch1 signaling-mediated up-regulation of p53 expression. Accordingly, Notch1 signaling could make HCC cells more sensitive to TRAIL-induced apoptosis, whereas Notch1 signaling lost the synergistic promotion of TRAIL-induced apoptosis in p53-silenced HepG2 HCC cells and p53-defective Hep3B HCC cells. The data suggest that enhancement of TRAIL-induced apoptosis by Notch1 signaling is dependent upon p53 up-regulation. Furthermore, Notch1 signaling could enhance DR5 expression in a p53-dependent manner. Taken together, Notch1 signaling sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptosis in HCC cells by inhibiting Akt/Hdm2-mediated p53 degradation and up-regulating p53-dependent DR5 expression. Thus, our results suggest that activation of Notch1 signaling may be a promising approach to improve the therapeutic efficacy of TRAIL-resistant HCC. PMID:19376776

  9. The impact of higher-order aberrations on the strength of directional signals produced by accommodative microfluctuations

    PubMed Central

    Metlapally, Sangeetha; Tong, Jianliang L.; Tahir, Humza J.; Schor, Clifton M.

    2014-01-01

    It has been proposed that the accommodation system could perform contrast discrimination between the two dioptric extremes of accommodative microfluctuations to extract directional signals for reflex accommodation. Higher-order aberrations (HOAs) may have a significant influence on the strength of these contrast signals. Our goal was to compute the effect HOAs may have on contrast signals for stimuli within the upper defocus limit by comparing computed microcontrast fluctuations with psychophysical contrast increment thresholds (Bradley & Ohzawa, 1986). Wavefront aberrations were measured while subjects viewed a Maltese spoke stimulus monocularly. Computations were performed for accommodation or disaccommodation stimuli from a 3 Diopter (D) baseline. Microfluctuations were estimated from the standard deviation of the wavefronts over time at baseline. Through-focus Modulation Transfer, optical contrast increments (ΔC), and Weber fractions (ΔC/C) were derived from point spread functions computed from the wavefronts at baseline for 2 and 4 cycles per degree (cpd) components, with and without HOAs. The ΔCs thus computed from the wavefronts were compared with psychophysical contrast increment threshold data. Microfluctuations are potentially useful for extracting directional information for defocus values within 3 D, where contrast increments for the 2 or 4 cpd components exceed psychophysical thresholds. HOAs largely reduce contrast signals produced by microfluctuations, depending on the mean focus error, and their magnitude in individual subjects, and they may shrink the effective stimulus range for reflex accommodation. The upper defocus limit could therefore be constrained by discrimination of microcontrast fluctuations. PMID:25342542

  10. [Effect of CP Metronomic Chemotherapy on RPMI 8226 Cell Proli-feration and Notch1/NF-κB Signaling Pathway In Vitro].

    PubMed

    Guo, Lie-Ping; Zhou, Fan; Shi, Hao-Tian; Chen, Hai-Min; Lin, Chen-Hui; Chen, Xiao-Ling; Hou, Jian

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the effect of metronomic chemotherapy of low dose phosphoramide combined with prednisolone (CP metronomic chemotherapy) on proliferation and apoptosis of RPMI 8226 cells, and to explore its regulating effect on Notch1/NF-κB signaling pathways. Experiment was divided into the DMSO control group, and the phosphoramide mustard (PM) group, the prednisolone group, the phosphoramide mustard plus prednisolone group (the CP group). RPMI 8226 cells were treated with different drugs, CCK-8 method was used to detect cell proliferation, flow cytometry was used to detect the cell cycle and apoptosis, reverse transcription PCR was used to detect Notch1 and NF-κB mRNA expression level. Compared with DMSO control group, RPMI8226 cell proliferation inhibition rate in all the PM, prednisolone and CP groups increased significantly with prolonging of time (r of 0.994,0.996,0.999, respectively, P<0.001). And at the same time, the inhibitory rate of cell proliferation was significantly different; the cell inhibitory rate in PM group was lowest, that in CP group was highgest, that in prednissone group was intermediate (P<0.01). After 48 hours, compared with the DMSO control group, the G 1 /G 0 cell proportion in treatment group increased significantly, S phase cell proportion decreased significantly, especially in PM and CP groups. The G 2 /M phase cell proportion increased in PM group, while reduced in the prednisolone and the CP groups. After 48 hours, compared with the DMSO control group, RPMI 8226 cell apoptosis rate increased as follow: in PM, pre-dnisolone and CP group(P<0.01). After 48 hours, compared with the DMSO control group, Notch1 and NF-κB mRNA expression in the prednisolone, the PM and the CP group decreased significantly(P<0.001). CP metronomic chemotherapy can significantly reduce RPMI 8226 cell proliferation, promote RPMI 8226 cell apoptosis, arrest RPMI 8226 cells mainly in the G 1 /G 0 phase, and significantly reduce Notch1 and NF-κB expression

  11. Notch3 overexpression enhances progression and chemoresistance of urothelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Heng; Liu, Limei; Liu, Chungang; Pan, Jinhong; Lu, Gensheng; Zhou, Zhansong; Chen, Zhiwen; Qian, Cheng

    2017-05-23

    Abnormal activation of Notch signaling is involved in the etiology of various diseases, including cancer, but the association between Notch3 expression in urothelial cancer and clinical outcome remains unclear, and the molecular mechanisms underlying Notch3 signaling activation are not well defined. In this study we examined 59 urothelial cancer patients and found that Notch3 was more highly expressed in human urothelial cancer tissues than in non-tumorous bladder tissue samples, with Notch3 overexpression being associated with poor clinical outcome. Notch3 knockdown resulted in decreased proliferation of urothelial cancer cells in vitro and decreased xenograft tumor growth in vivo. In addition, Notch3 knockdown rendered urothelial cancer cells more sensitive to cisplatin. Furthermore, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA, a histone deacetylase [HDAC] inhibitor) induced acetylation of NOTCH3, downregulated Notch 3, prevented urothelial cancer cell proliferation, and induced cell cycle arrest. Taken together, these data suggested that Notch 3 overexpression promotes growth and chemoresistance in urothelial cancer.

  12. Notch3 overexpression enhances progression and chemoresistance of urothelial carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Heng; Liu, Limei; Liu, Chungang; Pan, Jinhong; Lu, Gensheng; Zhou, Zhansong; Chen, Zhiwen; Qian, Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Abnormal activation of Notch signaling is involved in the etiology of various diseases, including cancer, but the association between Notch3 expression in urothelial cancer and clinical outcome remains unclear, and the molecular mechanisms underlying Notch3 signaling activation are not well defined. In this study we examined 59 urothelial cancer patients and found that Notch3 was more highly expressed in human urothelial cancer tissues than in non-tumorous bladder tissue samples, with Notch3 overexpression being associated with poor clinical outcome. Notch3 knockdown resulted in decreased proliferation of urothelial cancer cells in vitro and decreased xenograft tumor growth in vivo. In addition, Notch3 knockdown rendered urothelial cancer cells more sensitive to cisplatin. Furthermore, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA, a histone deacetylase [HDAC] inhibitor) induced acetylation of NOTCH3, downregulated Notch 3, prevented urothelial cancer cell proliferation, and induced cell cycle arrest. Taken together, these data suggested that Notch 3 overexpression promotes growth and chemoresistance in urothelial cancer. PMID:28416766

  13. Caenorhabditis elegans TRPV Channels Function in a Modality-Specific Pathway to Regulate Response to Aberrant Sensory Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ezak , Meredith J.; Hong , Elizabeth; Chaparro-Garcia , Angela; Ferkey , Denise M.

    2010-01-01

    Olfaction and some forms of taste (including bitter) are mediated by G protein-coupled signal transduction pathways. Olfactory and gustatory ligands bind to chemosensory G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in specialized sensory cells to activate intracellular signal transduction cascades. G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) are negative regulators of signaling that specifically phosphorylate activated GPCRs to terminate signaling. Although loss of GRK function usually results in enhanced cellular signaling, Caenorhabditis elegans lacking GRK-2 function are not hypersensitive to chemosensory stimuli. Instead, grk-2 mutant animals do not chemotax toward attractive olfactory stimuli or avoid aversive tastes and smells. We show here that loss-of-function mutations in the transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) channels OSM-9 and OCR-2 selectively restore grk-2 behavioral avoidance of bitter tastants, revealing modality-specific mechanisms for TRPV channel function in the regulation of C. elegans chemosensation. Additionally, a single amino acid point mutation in OCR-2 that disrupts TRPV channel-mediated gene expression, but does not decrease channel function in chemosensory primary signal transduction, also restores grk-2 bitter taste avoidance. Thus, loss of GRK-2 function may lead to changes in gene expression, via OSM-9/OCR-2, to selectively alter the levels of signaling components that transduce or regulate bitter taste responses. Our results suggest a novel mechanism and multiple modality-specific pathways that sensory cells employ in response to aberrant signal transduction. PMID:20176974

  14. Tangeretin has anti-asthmatic effects via regulating PI3K and Notch signaling and modulating Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokine balance in neonatal asthmatic mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, L-L; Li, F-H; Zhang, Y; Zhang, X-F; Yang, J

    2017-07-20

    Asthma is a chronic allergic disease characterized by airway inflammation, airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR), and mucus hypersecretion. T-lymphocytes are involved in the pathogenesis of asthma, mediating airway inflammatory reactions by secreting cytokines. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and Notch signaling pathways are associated with T cell signaling, proliferation, and differentiation, and are important in the progression of asthma. Thus, compounds that can modulate T cell proliferation and function may be of clinical value. Here, we assessed the effects of tangeretin, a plant-derived flavonoid, in experimental asthma. BALB/c mice at postnatal day (P) 12 were challenged with ovalbumin (OVA). Separate groups of mice (n=18/group) were administered tangeretin at 25 or 50 mg/kg body weight by oral gavage. Dexamethasone was used as a positive control. Tangeretin treatment reduced inflammatory cell infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and also restored the normal histology of lung tissues. OVA-specific IgE levels in serum and BALF were reduced. AHR, as determined by airway resistance and lung compliance, was normalized. Flow cytometry analyses revealed a reduced Th17 cell population. Tangeretin reduced the levels of Th2 and Th17 cytokines and raised IFN-γ levels. PI3K signaling was inhibited. The expressions of the Notch 1 receptor and its ligands Jagged 1 and 2 were downregulated by tangeretin. Our findings support the possible use of tangeretin for treating allergic asthma.

  15. Structural and functional characterization of the NHR1 domain of the Drosophila neuralized E3 ligase in the notch signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    He, Fahu; Saito, Kohei; Kobayashi, Naohiro; Harada, Takushi; Watanabe, Satoru; Kigawa, Takanori; Güntert, Peter; Ohara, Osamu; Tanaka, Akiko; Unzai, Satoru; Muto, Yutaka; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2009-10-23

    The Notch signaling pathway is critical for many developmental processes and requires complex trafficking of both Notch receptor and its ligands, Delta and Serrate. In Drosophila melanogaster, the endocytosis of Delta in the signal-sending cell is essential for Notch receptor activation. The Neuralized protein from D. melanogaster (Neur) is a ubiquitin E3 ligase, which binds to Delta through its first neuralized homology repeat 1 (NHR1) domain and mediates the ubiquitination of Delta for endocytosis. Tom, a Bearded protein family member, inhibits the Neur-mediated endocytosis through interactions with the NHR1 domain. We have identified the domain boundaries of the novel NHR1 domain, using a screening system based on our cell-free protein synthesis method, and demonstrated that the identified Neur NHR1 domain had binding activity to the 20-residue peptide corresponding to motif 2 of Tom by isothermal titration calorimetry experiments. We also determined the solution structure of the Neur NHR1 domain by heteronuclear NMR methods, using a (15)N/(13)C-labeled sample. The Neur NHR1 domain adopts a characteristic beta-sandwich fold, consisting of a concave five-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet and a convex seven-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet. The long loop (L6) between the beta6 and beta7 strands covers the hydrophobic patch on the concave beta-sheet surface, and the Neur NHR1 domain forms a compact globular fold. Intriguingly, in spite of the slight, but distinct, differences in the topology of the secondary structure elements, the structure of the Neur NHR1 domain is quite similar to those of the B30.2/SPRY domains, which are known to mediate specific protein-protein interactions. Further NMR titration experiments of the Neur NHR1 domain with the 20-residue Tom peptide revealed that the resonances originating from the bottom area of the beta-sandwich (the L3, L5, and L11 loops, as well as the tip of the L6 loop) were affected. In addition, a structural comparison

  16. Production of proinflammatory mediators in activated microglia is synergistically regulated by Notch-1, glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-3β) and NF-κB/p65 signalling.

    PubMed

    Cao, Qiong; Karthikeyan, Aparna; Dheen, S Thameem; Kaur, Charanjit; Ling, Eng-Ang

    2017-01-01

    Microglia activation and associated inflammatory response are involved in the pathogenesis of different neurodegenerative diseases. We have reported that Notch-1 and NF-κB/p65 signalling pathways operate in synergy in regulating the production of proinflammatory mediators in activated microglia. In the latter, there is also evidence by others that glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) mediates the release of proinflammatory cytokines but the interrelationships between the three signalling pathways have not been fully clarified. This is an important issue as activated microglia are potential therapeutic target for amelioration of microglia mediated neuroinflammation. Here we show that blocking of Notch-1 with N-[(3,5-Difluorophenyl) acetyl]-L-alanyl-2-phenylglycine-1,1-dimethylethyl ester (DAPT) in LPS activated BV-2 microglia not only suppressed Notch intracellular domain (NICD) and Hes-1 protein expression, but also that of GSK-3β. Conversely, blocking of the latter with lithium chloride (LiCl) decreased NICD expression in a dose-dependent manner; moreover, Hes-1 immunofluorescence was attenuated. Along with this, the protein expression level of p-GSK-3β and p-AKT protein expression was significantly increased. Furthermore, DAPT and LiCl decreased production of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, iNOS, Cox2 and MCP-1; however, IL-10 expression was increased notably in LiCl treated cells. The effects of DAPT and LiCl on changes of the above-mentioned biomarkers were confirmed by immunofluorescence in both BV-2 and primary microglia. Additionally, NF-κB/p65 immunofluorescence was attenuated by DAPT and LiCl; as opposed to this, IκBα protein expression was increased. Taken together, it is suggested that Notch-1, NF-κB/p65 and GSK-3β operate in synergy to inhibit microglia activation. This may be effected via increased expression of phospho-GSK-3β (p-GSK-3β), phospho-protein kinase B (PKB) (p-AKT) and IκBα. It is concluded that the three signalling pathways are

  17. Regulation of Monocarboxylic Acid Transporter 1 Trafficking by the Canonical Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway in Rat Brain Endothelial Cells Requires Cross-talk with Notch Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Sneve, Mary; Haroldson, Thomas A.; Smith, Jeffrey P.

    2016-01-01

    The transport of monocarboxylate fuels such as lactate, pyruvate, and ketone bodies across brain endothelial cells is mediated by monocarboxylic acid transporter 1 (MCT1). Although the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway is required for rodent blood-brain barrier development and for the expression of associated nutrient transporters, the role of this pathway in the regulation of brain endothelial MCT1 is unknown. Here we report expression of nine members of the frizzled receptor family by the RBE4 rat brain endothelial cell line. Furthermore, activation of the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway in RBE4 cells via nuclear β-catenin signaling with LiCl does not alter brain endothelial Mct1 mRNA but increases the amount of MCT1 transporter protein. Plasma membrane biotinylation studies and confocal microscopic examination of mCherry-tagged MCT1 indicate that increased transporter results from reduced MCT1 trafficking from the plasma membrane via the endosomal/lysosomal pathway and is facilitated by decreased MCT1 ubiquitination following LiCl treatment. Inhibition of the Notch pathway by the γ-secretase inhibitor N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl)-l-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester negated the up-regulation of MCT1 by LiCl, demonstrating a cross-talk between the canonical Wnt/β-catenin and Notch pathways. Our results are important because they show, for the first time, the regulation of MCT1 in cerebrovascular endothelial cells by the multifunctional canonical Wnt/β-catenin and Notch signaling pathways. PMID:26872974

  18. NOTCH pathway inactivation promotes bladder cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Maraver, Antonio; Fernandez-Marcos, Pablo J.; Cash, Timothy P.; Mendez-Pertuz, Marinela; Dueñas, Marta; Maietta, Paolo; Martinelli, Paola; Muñoz-Martin, Maribel; Martínez-Fernández, Mónica; Cañamero, Marta; Roncador, Giovanna; Martinez-Torrecuadrada, Jorge L.; Grivas, Dimitrios; de la Pompa, Jose Luis; Valencia, Alfonso; Paramio, Jesús M.; Real, Francisco X.; Serrano, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    NOTCH signaling suppresses tumor growth and proliferation in several types of stratified epithelia. Here, we show that missense mutations in NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 found in human bladder cancers result in loss of function. In murine models, genetic ablation of the NOTCH pathway accelerated bladder tumorigenesis and promoted the formation of squamous cell carcinomas, with areas of mesenchymal features. Using bladder cancer cells, we determined that the NOTCH pathway stabilizes the epithelial phenotype through its effector HES1 and, consequently, loss of NOTCH activity favors the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Evaluation of human bladder cancer samples revealed that tumors with low levels of HES1 present mesenchymal features and are more aggressive. Together, our results indicate that NOTCH serves as a tumor suppressor in the bladder and that loss of this pathway promotes mesenchymal and invasive features. PMID:25574842

  19. Mouse model of CADASIL reveals novel insights into Notch3 function in adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ehret, Fanny; Vogler, Steffen; Pojar, Sherin; Elliott, David A; Bradke, Frank; Steiner, Barbara; Kempermann, Gerd

    2015-03-01

    Could impaired adult hippocampal neurogenesis be a relevant mechanism underlying CADASIL (cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy)? Memory symptoms in CADASIL, the most common hereditary form of vascular dementia, are usually thought to be primarily due to vascular degeneration and white matter lacunes. Since adult hippocampal neurogenesis, a process essential for the integration of new spatial memory occurs in a highly vascularized niche, we considered dysregulation of adult neurogenesis as a potential mechanism for the manifestation of dementia in CADASIL. Analysis in aged mice overexpressing Notch3 with a CADASIL mutation, revealed vascular deficits in arteries of the hippocampal fissure but not in the niche of the dentate gyrus. At 12 months of age, cell proliferation and survival of newborn neurons were reduced not only in CADASIL mice but also in transgenic controls overexpressing wild type Notch3. At 6 months, hippocampal neurogenesis was altered in CADASIL mice independent of overt vascular abnormalities in the fissure. Further, we identified Notch3 expression in hippocampal precursor cells and maturing neurons in vivo as well as in cultured hippocampal precursor cells. Overexpression and knockdown experiments showed that Notch3 signaling negatively regulated precursor cell proliferation. Notch3 overexpression also led to deficits in KCl-induced precursor cell activation. This suggests a cell-autonomous effect of Notch3 signaling in the regulation of precursor proliferation and activation and a loss-of-function effect in CADASIL. Consequently, besides vascular damage, aberrant precursor cell proliferation and differentiation due to Notch3 dysfunction might be an additional independent mechanism for the development of hippocampal dysfunction in CADASIL. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Androgens Up-regulate Transcription of the Notch Inhibitor Numb in C2C12 Myoblasts via Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling to T Cell Factor Elements in the Numb Promoter*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin-Hua; Wu, Yong; Yao, Shen; Levine, Alice C.; Kirschenbaum, Alexander; Collier, Lauren; Bauman, William A.; Cardozo, Christopher P.

    2013-01-01

    Androgen signaling via the androgen receptor is a key pathway that contributes to development, cell fate decisions, and differentiation, including that of myogenic progenitors. Androgens and synthetic steroids have well established anabolic actions on skeletal muscle. Wnt and Notch signaling pathways are also essential to myogenic cell fate decisions during development and tissue repair. However, the interactions among these pathways are largely unknown. Androgenic regulation of Wnt signaling has been reported. Nandrolone, an anabolic steroid, has been shown to inhibit Notch signaling and up-regulate Numb, a Notch inhibitor. To elucidate the mechanisms of interaction between nandrolone and Wnt/Notch signaling, we investigated the effects of nandrolone on Numb expression and Wnt signaling and determined the roles of Wnt signaling in nandrolone-induced Numb expression in C2C12 myoblasts. Nandrolone increased Numb mRNA and protein levels and T cell factor (Tcf) transcriptional activity via inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3β. Up-regulation of Numb expression by nandrolone was blocked by the Wnt inhibitors, sFRP1 and DKK1, whereas Wnt3a increased Numb mRNA and protein expression. In addition, we observed that the proximal promoter of the Numb gene had functional Tcf binding elements to which β-catenin was recruited in a manner enhanced by both nandrolone and Wnt3a. Moreover, site-directed mutagenesis indicated that the Tcf binding sites in the Numb promoter are required for the nandrolone-induced Numb transcriptional activation in this cell line. These results reveal a novel molecular mechanism underlying up-regulation of Numb transcription with a critical role for increased canonical Wnt signaling. In addition, the data identify Numb as a novel target gene of the Wnt signaling pathway by which Wnts would be able to inhibit Notch signaling. PMID:23649620

  1. Pathogenic Mutations Associated with Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy Differently Affect Jagged1 Binding and Notch3 Activity via the RBP/JK Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Joutel, Anne; Monet, Marie; Domenga, Valérie; Riant, Florence; Tournier-Lasserve, Elisabeth

    2004-01-01

    Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is an inherited vascular dementia characterized by the degeneration of smooth-muscle cells in small cerebral arteries. CADASIL is caused by mutations in NOTCH3, one of the four mammalian homologs to the Drosophila melanogaster NOTCH gene. Disease-associated mutations are distributed throughout the 34 epidermal growth factor–like repeats (EGFRs) that compose the extracellular domain of the Notch3 receptor and result in a loss or a gain of a cysteine residue in one of these EGFRs. In human adults, Notch3 expression is highly restricted to vascular smooth-muscle cells. In patients with CADASIL, there is an abnormal accumulation of Notch3 in the vessel. Molecular pathways linking NOTCH3 mutations to degeneration of vascular smooth-muscle cells are as yet poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of CADASIL mutations on Notch3 activity. We studied five naturally occurring mutations: R90C and C212S, located in the previously identified mutational hotspot EGFR2–5; C428S, shown in this study to be located in the ligand-binding domain EGFR10–11; and C542Y and R1006C, located in EGFR13 and EGFR26, respectively. All five mutant proteins were correctly processed. The C428S and C542Y mutant receptors exhibited a significant reduction in Jagged1-induced transcriptional activity of a RBP/JK responsive luciferase reporter, relative to wild-type Notch3. Impaired signaling activity of these two mutants arose through different mechanisms; the C428S mutant lost its Jagged1-binding ability, whereas C542Y retained it but exhibited an impaired presentation to the cell surface. In contrast, the R90C, C212S, and R1006C mutants retained the ability to bind Jagged1 and were associated with apparently normal levels of signaling activity. We conclude that mutations in Notch3 differently affect Jagged1 binding and Notch3 signaling via the RBP/JK pathway. PMID:14714274

  2. miR-200a controls hepatic stellate cell activation and fibrosis via SIRT1/Notch1 signal pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing-Jing; Tao, Hui; Liu, Li-Ping; Hu, Wei; Deng, Zi-Yu; Li, Jun

    2017-04-01

    miR-200a has been established as a key regulator of HSC activation processes in liver fibrosis. Epigenetic silencing of miR-200a contributing to SIRT1 over-expression has been discussed in breast cancer; however, whether miR-200a controls SIRT1 gene expression in hepatic fibrosis is still unknown. We analyzed miR-200a regulation of SIRT1 expression in CCl 4 -induced liver fibrosis and TGF-β1-mediated activation of HSC. miR-200a, SIRT1, α-SMA, Col1A1, Notch1 and NICD expression were estimated by Western blotting, qRT-PCR and Immunohistochemistry. HSCs were transfected with miR-200a mimic, miR-200a inhibitor and SIRT1-RNAi. Luciferase reporter assays further confirmed the interaction between miR-200a and the SIRT1 mRNA 3'-UTR. Cell proliferation ability was assessed by MTT and cell cycle. We found that treatment activated HSC with miR-200a mimics, restored miR-200a expression and reduced SIRT1 levels. Conversely, treatment activated HSC with miR-200a inhibitors, decreased miR-200a expression and up-regulated SIRT1 levels. Restoration of miR-200a or the knockdown of SIRT1 prevented HSC activation and proliferation. We have established the SIRT1 transcript as subject to regulation by miR-200a, through miR-200a targeting of SIRT1 3'-UTR. Finally, HSC transfected with SIRT1-siRNA increased the levels of Notch1 protein and mRNA expression. Our study demonstrated that miR-200a regulates SIRT1/Notch1 expression during HSC activation and fibrosis.

  3. Notch/Her12 signalling modulates, motile/immotile cilia ratio downstream of Foxj1a in zebrafish left-right organizer

    PubMed Central

    Sampaio, Pedro; Pestana, Sara; Pinto, Andreia; Vaz, Andreia; Roxo-Rosa, Mónica; Gardner, Rui; Lopes, Telma; Schilling, Britta; Henry, Ian; Saúde, Leonor

    2017-01-01

    Foxj1a is necessary and sufficient to specify motile cilia. Using transcriptional studies and slow-scan two-photon live imaging capable of identifying the number of motile and immotile cilia, we now established that the final number of motile cilia depends on Notch signalling (NS). We found that despite all left-right organizer (LRO) cells express foxj1a and the ciliary axonemes of these cells have dynein arms, some cilia remain immotile. We identified that this decision is taken early in development in the Kupffer’s Vesicle (KV) precursors the readout being her12 transcription. We demonstrate that overexpression of either her12 or Notch intracellular domain (NICD) increases the number of immotile cilia at the expense of motile cilia, and leads to an accumulation of immotile cilia at the anterior half of the KV. This disrupts the normal fluid flow intensity and pattern, with consequent impact on dand5 expression pattern and left-right (L-R) axis establishment. PMID:28875937

  4. Rho/ROCK-dependent inhibition of 3T3-L1 adipogenesis by G-protein-deamidating dermonecrotic toxins: differential regulation of Notch1, Pref1/Dlk1, and β-catenin signaling

    PubMed Central

    Bannai, Yuka; Aminova, Leila R.; Faulkner, Melinda J.; Ho, Mengfei; Wilson, Brenda A.

    2012-01-01

    The dermonecrotic toxins from Pasteurella multocida (PMT), Bordetella (DNT), Escherichia coli (CNF1-3), and Yersinia (CNFY) modulate their G-protein targets through deamidation and/or transglutamination of an active site Gln residue, which results in activation of the G protein and its cognate downstream signaling pathways. Whereas DNT and the CNFs act on small Rho GTPases, PMT acts on the α subunit of heterotrimeric Gq, Gi, and G12/13 proteins. We previously demonstrated that PMT potently blocks adipogenesis and adipocyte differentiation in a calcineurin-independent manner through downregulation of Notch1 and stabilization of β-catenin and Pref1/Dlk1, key proteins in signaling pathways strongly linked to cell fate decisions, including fat and bone development. Here, we report that similar to PMT, DNT, and CNF1 completely block adipogenesis and adipocyte differentiation by preventing upregulation of adipocyte markers, PPARγ and C/EBPα, while stabilizing the expression of Pref1/Dlk1 and β-catenin. We show that the Rho/ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 prevented or reversed these toxin-mediated effects, strongly supporting a role for Rho/ROCK signaling in dermonecrotic toxin-mediated inhibition of adipogenesis and adipocyte differentiation. Toxin treatment was also accompanied by downregulation of Notch1 expression, although this inhibition was independent of Rho/ROCK signaling. We further show that PMT-mediated downregulation of Notch1 expression occurs primarily through G12/13 signaling. Our results reveal new details of the pathways involved in dermonecrotic toxin action on adipocyte differentiation, and the role of Rho/ROCK signaling in mediating toxin effects on Wnt/β-catenin and Notch1 signaling, and in particular the role of Gq and G12/13 in mediating PMT effects on Rho/ROCK and Notch1 signaling. PMID:22919671

  5. Notch2 blockade enhances hematopoietic stem cell mobilization and homing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weihuan; Yu, Shuiliang; Myers, Jay; Wang, Yiwei; Xin, William W; Albakri, Marwah; Xin, Alison W; Li, Ming; Huang, Alex Y; Xin, Wei; Siebel, Christian W; Lazarus, Hillard M; Zhou, Lan

    2017-10-01

    Despite use of newer approaches, some patients being considered for autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) may only mobilize limited numbers of hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) into blood, precluding use of the procedure, or being placed at increased risk of complications due to slow hematopoietic reconstitution. Developing more efficacious HPC mobilization regimens and strategies may enhance the mobilization process and improve patient outcome. Although Notch signaling is not essential for homeostasis of adult hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), Notch-ligand adhesive interaction maintains HSC quiescence and niche retention. Using Notch receptor blocking antibodies, we report that Notch2 blockade, but not Notch1 blockade, sensitizes hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors (HSPCs) to mobilization stimuli and leads to enhanced egress from marrow to the periphery. Notch2 blockade leads to transient myeloid progenitor expansion without affecting HSC homeostasis and self-renewal. We show that transient Notch2 blockade or Notch2-loss in mice lacking Notch2 receptor lead to decreased CXCR4 expression by HSC but increased cell cycling with CXCR4 transcription being directly regulated by the Notch transcriptional protein RBPJ. In addition, we found that Notch2-blocked or Notch2-deficient marrow HSPCs show an increased homing to the marrow, while mobilized Notch2-blocked, but not Notch2-deficient stem cells and progenitors, displayed a competitive repopulating advantage and enhanced hematopoietic reconstitution. These findings suggest that blocking Notch2 combined with the current clinical regimen may further enhance HPC mobilization and improve engraftment during HCT. Copyright© 2017 Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  6. A Review: Molecular Aberrations within Hippo Signaling in Bone and Soft-Tissue Sarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Deel, Michael D.; Li, Jenny J.; Crose, Lisa E. S.; Linardic, Corinne M.

    2015-01-01

    The Hippo signaling pathway is an evolutionarily conserved developmental network vital for the regulation of organ size, tissue homeostasis, repair and regeneration, and cell fate. The Hippo pathway has also been shown to have tumor suppressor properties. Hippo transduction involves a series of kinases and scaffolding proteins that are intricately connected to proteins in developmental cascades and in the tissue microenvironment. This network governs the downstream Hippo transcriptional co-activators, YAP and TAZ, which bind to and activate the output of TEADs, as well as other transcription factors responsible for cellular proliferation, self-renewal, differentiation, and survival. Surprisingly, there are few oncogenic mutations within the core components of the Hippo pathway. Instead, dysregulated Hippo signaling is a versatile accomplice to commonly mutated cancer pathways. For example, YAP and TAZ can be activated by oncogenic signaling from other pathways, or serve as co-activators for classical oncogenes. Emerging evidence suggests that Hippo signaling couples cell density and cytoskeletal structural changes to morphogenic signals and conveys a mesenchymal phenotype. While much of Hippo biology has been described in epithelial cell systems, it is clear that dysregulated Hippo signaling also contributes to malignancies of mesenchymal origin. This review will summarize the known molecular alterations within the Hippo pathway in sarcomas and highlight how several pharmacologic compounds have shown activity in modulating Hippo components, providing proof-of-principle that Hippo signaling may be harnessed for therapeutic application in sarcomas. PMID:26389076

  7. A Review: Molecular Aberrations within Hippo Signaling in Bone and Soft-Tissue Sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Deel, Michael D; Li, Jenny J; Crose, Lisa E S; Linardic, Corinne M

    2015-01-01

    The Hippo signaling pathway is an evolutionarily conserved developmental network vital for the regulation of organ size, tissue homeostasis, repair and regeneration, and cell fate. The Hippo pathway has also been shown to have tumor suppressor properties. Hippo transduction involves a series of kinases and scaffolding proteins that are intricately connected to proteins in developmental cascades and in the tissue microenvironment. This network governs the downstream Hippo transcriptional co-activators, YAP and TAZ, which bind to and activate the output of TEADs, as well as other transcription factors responsible for cellular proliferation, self-renewal, differentiation, and survival. Surprisingly, there are few oncogenic mutations within the core components of the Hippo pathway. Instead, dysregulated Hippo signaling is a versatile accomplice to commonly mutated cancer pathways. For example, YAP and TAZ can be activated by oncogenic signaling from other pathways, or serve as co-activators for classical oncogenes. Emerging evidence suggests that Hippo signaling couples cell density and cytoskeletal structural changes to morphogenic signals and conveys a mesenchymal phenotype. While much of Hippo biology has been described in epithelial cell systems, it is clear that dysregulated Hippo signaling also contributes to malignancies of mesenchymal origin. This review will summarize the known molecular alterations within the Hippo pathway in sarcomas and highlight how several pharmacologic compounds have shown activity in modulating Hippo components, providing proof-of-principle that Hippo signaling may be harnessed for therapeutic application in sarcomas.

  8. Blunted sympathoinhibitory responses in obesity-related hypertension are due to aberrant central but not peripheral signalling mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    How, Jackie M Y; Wardak, Suhail A; Ameer, Shaik I; Davey, Rachel A; Sartor, Daniela M

    2014-01-01

    The gut hormone cholecystokinin (CCK) acts at subdiaphragmatic vagal afferents to induce renal and splanchnic sympathoinhibition and vasodilatation, via reflex inhibition of a subclass of cardiovascular-controlling neurons in the rostroventrolateral medulla (RVLM). These sympathoinhibitory and vasodilator responses are blunted in obese, hypertensive rats and our aim in the present study was to determine whether this is attributable to (i) altered sensitivity of presympathetic vasomotor RVLM neurons, and (ii) aberrant peripheral or central signalling mechanisms. Using a diet-induced obesity model, male Sprague–Dawley rats exhibited either an obesity-prone (OP) or obesity-resistant (OR) phenotype when placed on a medium high fat diet for 13–15 weeks; control animals were placed on a low fat diet. OP animals had elevated resting arterial pressure compared to OR/control animals (P < 0.05). Barosensitivity of RVLM neurons was significantly attenuated in OP animals (P < 0.05), suggesting altered baroreflex gain. CCK induced inhibitory responses in RVLM neurons of OR/control animals but not OP animals. Subdiaphragmatic vagal nerve responsiveness to CCK and CCK1 receptor mRNA expression in nodose ganglia did not differ between the groups, but CCK induced significantly less Fos-like immunoreactivity in both the nucleus of the solitary tract and the caudal ventrolateral medulla of OP animals compared to controls (P < 0.05). These results suggest that blunted sympathoinhibitory and vasodilator responses in obesity-related hypertension are due to alterations in RVLM neuronal responses, resulting from aberrant central but not peripheral signalling mechanisms. In obesity, blunted sympathoinhibitory mechanisms may lead to increased regional vascular resistance and contribute to the development of hypertension. PMID:24492842

  9. Eddy current standards - Cracks versus notches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagemaier, D. J.; Collingwood, M. R.; Nguyen, K. H.

    1992-10-01

    Eddy current tests aimed at evaluating cracks and electron-discharge machined (EDM) notches in 7075-T6 aluminum specimens are described. A comparison of the shape and amplitude of recordings made from both transverse and longitudinal scans of small EDM notches and fatigue cracks showd almost identical results. The signal amplitude and phase angle increased with an increase of EDM notch and crak size. It is concluded that equivalent eddy current results obtained from similar-size surface cracks and notches in aluminum can be used to establish a desired sensitivity level for inspection.

  10. Differential Regulation of NOTCH2 and NOTCH3 Contribute to Their Unique Functions in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Baeten, Jeremy T.; Lilly, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    Notch signaling is a key regulator of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotypes, including differentiation, proliferation, and cell survival. However, the exact contribution of the individual Notch receptors has not been thoroughly delineated. In this study, we identify unique roles for NOTCH2 and NOTCH3 in regulating proliferation and cell survival in cultured VSMCs. Our results indicate that NOTCH2 inhibits PDGF-B-dependent proliferation and its expression is decreased by PDGF-B. In contrast, NOTCH3 promotes proliferation and receptor expression is increased by PDGF-B. Additionally, data show that NOTCH3, but not NOTCH2 protects VSMCs from apoptosis and apoptosis mediators degrade NOTCH3 protein. We identified three pro-survival genes specifically regulated by NOTCH3 in cultured VSMCs and in mouse aortas. This regulation is mediated through MAP kinase signaling, which we demonstrate can be activated by NOTCH3, but not NOTCH2. Overall, this study highlights discrete roles for NOTCH2 and NOTCH3 in VSMCs and connects these roles to specific upstream regulators that control their expression. PMID:25957400

  11. Differential Regulation of NOTCH2 and NOTCH3 Contribute to Their Unique Functions in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Baeten, Jeremy T; Lilly, Brenda

    2015-06-26

    Notch<