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Sample records for aberrant social behavior

  1. Effects of Risperidone on Aberrant Behavior in Persons with Developmental Disabilities: II. Social Validity Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdam, David B.; Zarcone, Jennifer R.; Hellings, Jessica; Napolitano, Deborah A.; Schroeder, Stephen R.

    2002-01-01

    Consumer satisfaction and social validity were measured during a double-blind, placebo-controlled evaluation of risperidone in treating aberrant behaviors of persons with developmental disabilities. A survey showed all 17 caregivers felt participation was positive. Community members (n=52) also indicated that when on medication, the 5 participants…

  2. Deletion of Glutamate Delta-1 Receptor in Mouse Leads to Aberrant Emotional and Social Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Roopali; Gupta, Subhash C.; Hillman, Brandon G.; Bhatt, Jay M.; Stairs, Dustin J.; Dravid, Shashank M.

    2012-01-01

    The delta family of ionotropic glutamate receptors consists of glutamate δ1 (GluD1) and glutamate δ2 (GluD2) receptors. While the role of GluD2 in the regulation of cerebellar physiology is well understood, the function of GluD1 in the central nervous system remains elusive. We demonstrate for the first time that deletion of GluD1 leads to abnormal emotional and social behaviors. We found that GluD1 knockout mice (GluD1 KO) were hyperactive, manifested lower anxiety-like behavior, depression-like behavior in a forced swim test and robust aggression in the resident-intruder test. Chronic lithium rescued the depression-like behavior in GluD1 KO. GluD1 KO mice also manifested deficits in social interaction. In the sociability test, GluD1 KO mice spent more time interacting with an inanimate object compared to a conspecific mouse. D-Cycloserine (DCS) administration was able to rescue social interaction deficits observed in GluD1 KO mice. At a molecular level synaptoneurosome preparations revealed lower GluA1 and GluA2 subunit expression in the prefrontal cortex and higher GluA1, GluK2 and PSD95 expression in the amygdala of GluD1 KO. Moreover, DCS normalized the lower GluA1 expression in prefrontal cortex of GluD1 KO. We propose that deletion of GluD1 leads to aberrant circuitry in prefrontal cortex and amygdala owing to its potential role in presynaptic differentiation and synapse formation. Furthermore, these findings are in agreement with the human genetic studies suggesting a strong association of GRID1 gene with several neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, autism spectrum disorders and major depressive disorder. PMID:22412961

  3. Rooting Out Aberrant Behavior in Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokalis, Jerry, Jr.; Paquin, Dave

    1989-01-01

    Discusses aberrant, or disruptive, behavior in an industrial/business, classroom-based, instructor-led training setting. Three examples of aberrant behavior are described, typical case studies are provided for each, and preventive (long-term) and corrective (on-the-spot) strategies for dealing with the problems are discussed. (LRW)

  4. Drosophila mutants of the autism candidate gene neurobeachin (rugose) exhibit neuro-developmental disorders, aberrant synaptic properties, altered locomotion, impaired adult social behavior and activity patterns

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Alexandra; Tenezaca, Luis; Fernandez, Robert W.; Schatoff, Emma; Flores, Julian; Ueda, Atsushi; Zhong, Xiaotian; Wu, Chun-Fang; Simon, Anne F.; Venkatesh, Tadmiri

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder in humans characterized by complex behavioral deficits, including intellectual disability, impaired social interactions and hyperactivity. ASD exhibits a strong genetic component with underlying multi-gene interactions. Candidate gene studies have shown that the neurobeachin gene is disrupted in human patients with idiopathic autism (Castermans et al., 2003). The gene for neurobeachin (NBEA) spans the common fragile site FRA 13A and encodes a signal scaffold protein (Savelyeva et al., 2006). In mice, NBEA has been shown to be involved in the trafficking and function of a specific subset of synaptic vesicles. (Medrihan et al., 2009; Savelyeva, Sagulenko, Schmitt, & Schwab, 2006). rugose (rg) is the Drosophila homologue of the mammalian and human neurobeachin. Our previous genetic and molecular analyses have shown that rg encodes an A kinase anchor protein (DAKAP 550), which interacts with components of the EGFR and Notch mediated signaling pathways, facilitating cross-talk between these and other pathways (Shamloula et al., 2002). We now present functional data from studies on the larval neuromuscular junction that reveal abnormal synaptic architecture and physiology. In addition, adult rg loss-of-function mutants exhibit defective social interactions, impaired habituation, aberrant locomotion and hyperactivity. These results demonstrate that Drosophila neurobeachin (rugose) mutants exhibit phenotypic characteristics reminiscent of human ASD and thus could serve as a genetic model for studying autism spectrum disorders. PMID:26100104

  5. Aberrant Immune Responses in a Mouse with Behavioral Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Donghong; Miller, Veronica M.; Lawrence, David A.

    2011-01-01

    BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) mice have recently been reported to have behaviors that resemble those of autistic individuals, in that this strain has impairments in social interactions and a restricted repetitive and stereotyped pattern of behaviors. Since immune responses, including autoimmune responses, are known to affect behavior, and individuals with autism have aberrant immune activities, we evaluated the immune system of BTBR mice, and compared their immunity and degree of neuroinflammation with that of C57BL/6 (B6) mice, a highly social control strain, and with F1 offspring. Mice were assessed at postnatal day (pnd) 21 and after behavioral analysis at pnd70. BTBR mice had significantly higher amounts of serum IgG and IgE, of IgG anti-brain antibodies (Abs), and of IgG and IgE deposited in the brain, elevated expression of cytokines, especially IL-33 IL-18, and IL-1β in the brain, and an increased proportion of MHC class II-expressing microglia compared to B6 mice. The F1 mice had intermediate levels of Abs and cytokines as well as social activity. The high Ab levels of BTBR mice are in agreement with their increased numbers of CD40hi/I-Ahi B cells and IgG-secreting B cells. Upon immunization with KLH, the BTBR mice produced 2–3 times more anti-KLH Abs than B6 mice. In contrast to humoral immunity, BTBR mice are significantly more susceptible to listeriosis than B6 or BALB/c mice. The Th2-like immune profile of the BTBR mice and their constitutive neuroinflammation suggests that an autoimmune profile is implicated in their aberrant behaviors, as has been suggested for some humans with autism. PMID:21799730

  6. Using Brief Assessments to Evaluate Aberrant Behavior Maintained by Attention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; King, Lisa; Lally, Grainne; Dhomhnaill, Orla Nic

    2000-01-01

    Functional assessments were conducted for two Irish individuals with severe disabilities and aberrant behavior. A modified attention condition was introduced, which involved both parents interacting with a third person. Aberrant behavior occurred only in the modified attention condition. Successful treatment consisted of delivery of attention on a…

  7. Task difficulty and aberrant behavior in severely handicapped students.

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, M; Gaylord-Ross, R

    1981-01-01

    The influence of task difficulty on aberrant behavior was investigated with three severely handicapped students. Noticeably higher rates of problem behavior occurred in demand compared to no-demand conditions. In addition, there were higher rates of problem behaviors on difficult versus easy tasks. Both these findings were validated with visual discrimination and perceptual motor tasks. An errorless learning procedure effectively minimized errors and aberrant behavior in visual discrimination tasks but not in perceptual motor tasks. It was conceptualized that aberrant behavior was maintained by negative reinforcement contingencies. Difficult tasks were aversive to the children, who emitted aberrant responses to escape or avoid such tasks. By contrast, conditions in which no demands were made, easy tasks, and, in visual discrimination learning, errorless tasks, were less aversive and resulted in little or no problem behavior. Implications for reducing maladaptive behaviors through curricular modifications are discussed and contrasted to more traditional consequence manipulation approaches. PMID:7328069

  8. Longitudinal trajectories of aberrant behavior in fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hustyi, Kristin M; Hall, Scott S; Jo, Booil; Lightbody, Amy A; Reiss, Allan L

    2014-11-01

    The Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C; Aman et al., 1995) has been increasingly adopted as a primary tool for measuring behavioral change in clinical trials for individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS). To our knowledge, however, no study has documented the longitudinal trajectory of aberrant behaviors in individuals with FXS using the ABC-C. As part of a larger longitudinal study, we examined scores obtained on the ABC-C subscales for 124 children and adolescents (64 males, 60 females) with FXS who had two or more assessments (average interval between assessments was approximately 4 years). Concomitant changes in age-equivalent scores on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) were also examined. As expected for an X-linked genetic disorder, males with FXS obtained significantly higher scores on all subscales of the ABC-C and significantly lower age-equivalent scores on the VABS than females with FXS. In both males and females with FXS, scores on the Irritability/Agitation and Hyperactivity/Noncompliance subscales of the ABC-C decreased significantly with age, with little to no change occurring over time on the Lethargy/Social Withdrawal, Stereotypic Behavior, and Inappropriate Speech subscales. The decrease in scores on the Hyperactivity/Noncompliance domain was significantly greater for males than for females. In both males and females, age-equivalent scores on the VABS increased significantly over this developmental period. These results establish a basis upon which to evaluate long-term outcomes from intervention-based research. However, longitudinal direct observational studies are needed to establish whether the severity of problem behavior actually decreases over time in this population. PMID:25129200

  9. Screening for aberrant behavior in the nuclear industry

    SciTech Connect

    Borofsky, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper attempts to promote a fuller understanding of how psychological assessment procedures can be used to reduce the threat from aberrant behavior in the nuclear industry. It begins with a discussion of the scientifically based methods that are used by psychologists in constructing, scoring, and interpreting these procedures. This discussion includes an emphasis on the concepts of validity and reliability and their central importance when one is choosing specific psychological screening tools. Criteria for selecting and using psychological assessment procedures when screening for aberrant behavior are also provided. Some commonly used assessment procedures that satisfy these criteria are discussed. A number a psychological assessment procedures specifically recommended for use in screening for aberrant behavior in the nuclear industry are described.

  10. Persistence of Early Emerging Aberrant Behavior in Children with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Vanessa A.; O'Reilly, Mark; Itchon, Jonathan; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the persistence of early emerging aberrant behavior in 13 preschool children with developmental disabilities. The severity of aberrant behavior was assessed every 6 months over a 3-year period. Teachers completed the assessments using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist [Aman, M. G., & Singh, N. N. (1986). "Aberrant Behavior…

  11. Aberrant Behaviors and Road Accidents among Iranian Truck Drivers, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Ketabi, Damon; Barkhordari, Abalfazl; Mirmohammadi, Seyyed Jalil; Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang

    2011-01-01

    Background: Road accidents are a social phenomenon in different communities that its infra­structural dimensions of which as well as technologic failures such as road quality, and tech­nical faults of automobiles, need to be assessed in detail. Iran has the first order in the world for deadly road accidents. This study was designed to assess the association between aberrant behaviors of truck drivers and the incidence of road accidents in Yazd, center of Iran, in 2010. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 300 truck drivers in Yazd. We used 3 questionnaires, including one for demographic data, Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ), and one for drivers' self-evaluation of the of their driving. Results: Five types of the behavior had the highest frequency: Misjudge speed of oncoming vehicle when overtaking.; Deliberately disregard the speed limits late at night or very early in the morning.; Ignore 'give way' signs, and narrowly avoid colliding with traffic having right of way.; Stuck behind a slow-moving vehicle on a two-lane highway, you are driven by frustration to try to overtake in risky circumstances.; Drive with only 'half-an-eye' on the road while looking at a map, changing a cassette or radio channel, etc. The more the driver's driv­ing was influenced by emotional and mental states the more deliberate violations and slips. Conclusion: Among truck drivers, safety has not developed sufficiently, and because of the dangers of road accidents both for the drivers and other people and its economic losses, the importance of the presenting some solutions is completely obvious. PMID:24688909

  12. Psychometric Properties of the "Aberrant Behavior Checklist," the "Anxiety, Depression and Mood Scale," the "Assessment of Dual Diagnosis" and the "Social Performance Survey Schedule" in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojahn, Johannes; Rowe, Ellen W.; Kasdan, Shana; Moore, Linda; van Ingen, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Progress in clinical research and in empirically supported interventions in the area of psychopathology in intellectual disabilities (ID) depends on high-quality assessment instruments. To this end, psychometric properties of four instruments were examined: the "Aberrant Behavior Checklist" (ABC), the "Assessment of Dual Diagnosis" (ADD), the…

  13. Genes and Social Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Gene E.; Fernald, Russell D.; Clayton, David F.

    2011-01-01

    What specific genes and regulatory sequences contribute to the organization and functioning of brain circuits that support social behavior? How does social experience interact with information in the genome to modulate these brain circuits? Here we address these questions by highlighting progress that has been made in identifying and understanding two key “vectors of influence” that link genes, brain, and social behavior: 1) social information alters gene readout in the brain to influence behavior; and 2) genetic variation influences brain function and social behavior. We also briefly discuss how evolutionary changes in genomic elements influence social behavior and outline prospects for a systems biology of social behavior. PMID:18988841

  14. Convergent Validity of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist and Behavior Problems Inventory with People with Complex Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jennie; Powlitch, Stephanie; Furniss, Frederick

    2008-01-01

    The current study aimed to replicate and extend Rojahn et al. [Rojahn, J., Aman, M. G., Matson, J. L., & Mayville, E. (2003). "The aberrant behavior checklist and the behavior problems inventory: Convergent and divergent validity." "Research in Developmental Disabilities", 24, 391-404] by examining the convergent validity of the behavior problems…

  15. The Aberrant Behavior Checklist and the Behavior Problems Inventory: Convergent and Divergent Validity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojahn, Johannes; Aman, Michael G.; Matson, Johnny L.; Mayville, Erik

    2003-01-01

    A study compared the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) and the Behavior Problems Inventory (BPI) for assessing the maladaptive behavior of 226 adults, mostly with severe or profound mental retardation. Individuals with elevated BPI scores generally had higher ABC scores, however, the extent of covariation differed across subscales. (Contains…

  16. Effect of Training Different Classes of Verbal Behavior to Decrease Aberrant Verbal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandbakk, Monica; Arntzen, Erik; Gisnaas, Arnt; Antonsen, Vidar; Gundhus, Terje

    2012-01-01

    Inappropriate verbal behavior that is labeled "psychotic" is often described as insensitive to environmental contingencies. The purpose of the current study was to establish different classes of rational or appropriate verbal behavior in a woman with developmental disabilities and evaluate the effects on her psychotic or aberrant vocal verbal…

  17. Aberrant driving behaviors: a study of drivers in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jing; Bai, Yun; Ying, Xiwen; Atchley, Paul

    2010-07-01

    The addition of massive numbers of new drivers with varied driving experience to roads in China suggests it is important to understand the nature of aberrant driving behaviors for this new set of drivers. A paper-based and an Internet survey were administered. Factor analysis produced a five-factor structure for each survey. The distinction between violations and errors indicated in previous studies was confirmed. The violations included emotional violations, risky violations and self-willed violations, and the errors included inexperience errors and distraction errors. In contrast to previous work, age was not found to be a good predictor of violations though driving experience was. Contrary to expectations, non-automotive (bicycle) roadway experience or level of driving training failed to predict poor driving behavior. On-road experience is the key to risk for China's drivers. Good agreement between the paper-based and Internet surveys indicate online surveys to be a feasible way to conduct research of driving behavior at low cost. PMID:20441810

  18. Psychometric Study of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist in Fragile X Syndrome and Implications for Targeted Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Widaman, Keith F.; Hall, Scott S.; Reiss, Allan L.; Lightbody, Amy; Kaufmann, Walter E.; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Lachiewicz, Ave; Brown, Elaine C.

    2011-01-01

    Animal studies elucidating the neurobiology of fragile X syndrome (FXS) have led to multiple controlled trials in humans, with the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C) commonly adopted as a primary outcome measure. A multi-site collaboration examined the psychometric properties of the ABC-C in 630 individuals (ages 3–25) with FXS using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Results support a six-factor structure, with one factor unchanged (Inappropriate Speech), four modified (Irritability, Hyperactivity, Lethargy/Withdrawal, and Stereotypy), and a new Social Avoidance factor. A comparison with ABC-C data from individuals with general intellectual disability and a list of commonly endorsed items are also reported. Reformulated ABC-C scores based on this FXS-specific factor structure may provide added outcome measure specificity and sensitivity in FXS clinical trials. PMID:21972117

  19. Aberrant IgG isotype generation in mice with abnormal behaviors.

    PubMed

    Kim, So-Nam; Jo, Gwang-Ho; Kim, Hyoung-Ah; Heo, Yong

    2016-01-01

    BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) mice were recently cited as a suitable animal model for the study of autism because of their behavioral characteristics and immunological changes similar to those reported from autistic subjects. The BTBR mouse was reported to have significantly higher levels of serum IgG, brain IgG deposits and anti-brain IgG than highly social C57BL/6 mice, suggesting involvement of aberrant immune responses in the occurrence of autism. Up-regulation of IgG production was investigated here, with a focus on the pattern of IgG isotype distribution compared with that in FVB/NJ (FVB) mice, another highly social control strain. The results indicated that levels of serum IgG1, IgG2b and IgG3 in post-natal day 21 BTBR mice was significantly higher than FVB mice, regardless of sex, resulting in higher IgG1:IgG2a ratios in BTBR mice than in FVB mice (statistical significance in males). A similar outcome regarding the IgG1:IgG2a ratio was observed in culture supernatants of bone marrow cells from these hosts. A presence of brain-reactive IgG in the sera of BTBR was higher than in FVB mice; levels of brain-reactive IgG against whole brain homogenates were higher in BTBR than in FVB mice, with significant differences seen in the striatum and substantia nigra regions. Levels of IgG1 deposited in the cerebellum, cortex, hippocampus or striatum of both BTBR male and female mice were significantly higher than in FVB counterparts. Overall, these results suggest that alterations in IgG isotype production or deposition in the brain could be implicated in the aberrant immune reactivities of BTBR mice. PMID:25691089

  20. Validity of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist in a Clinical Sample of Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karabekiroglu, Koray; Aman, Michael G.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the congruent and criterion validity of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) in a clinical sample of toddlers seen over 1 year in Turkey. All consecutive patients (N = 93), 14-43 months old (mean, 30.6 mos.), in a child psychiatry outpatient clinic were included. The ABC, Autism Behavior Checklist (AuBC), and Child Behavior…

  1. Rationality and social behavior.

    PubMed

    Tullberg, Jan

    2003-10-21

    This article penetrates the relationship between social behavior and rationality. A critical analysis is made of efforts to classify some behaviors as altruistic, as they simultaneously meet criteria of rationality by not truly being self-destructive. Newcomb's paradox is one attempt to create a hybrid behavior that is both irrational and still meets some criterion of rationality. Such dubious rationality is often seen as a source of altruistic behavior. Group selection is a controversial topic. Sober and Wilson (Unto Others--The Evolution and Psychology of Unselfish Behavior, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1998) suggest that a very wide concept of group selection might be used to explain altruism. This concept also includes kin selection and reciprocity, which blurs its focus. The latter mechanisms hardly need further arguments to prove their existence. This article suggests that it is group selection in a strict sense that should be investigated to limit semantic neologism and confusion. In evaluation, the effort to muster a mechanism for altruism out of group selection has not been successful. However, this is not the end to group selection, but rather a good reason to investigate more promising possibilities. There is little reason to burden group selection with the instability of altruism caused by altruistic members of a group having lower fitness than egoistic members. Group selection is much more likely to develop in combination with group egoism. A common project is supported by incitement against free riding, where conformist members joined in solidarity achieve a higher fitness than members pursuing more individualistic options. Group egoism is in no conflict with rationality, and the effects of group selection will be supported rather than threatened by individual selection. Empirical evidence indicates a high level of traits such as conformism and out-group antagonism in line with group egoism. These traits are also likely candidates for

  2. Factor Analysis of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinkley, Jason; Nations, Laura; Abramson, Ruth K.; Hall, Alicia; Wright, Harry H.; Gabriels, Robin; Gilbert, John R.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A. O.; Cuccaro, Michael L.

    2007-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (varimax and promax rotations) of the aberrant behavior checklist-community version (ABC) in 275 individuals with Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) identified four- and five-factor solutions which accounted for greater than 70% of the variance. Confirmatory factor analysis (Lisrel 8.7) revealed indices of moderate fit for…

  3. Validity of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaat, Aaron J.; Lecavalier, Luc; Aman, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    The Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) is a widely used measure in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) treatment studies. We conducted confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses of the ABC in 1,893 children evaluated as part of the Autism Treatment Network. The root mean square error of approximation was .086 for the standard item assignment, and in…

  4. Psychometric Study of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist in Fragile X Syndrome and Implications for Targeted Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sansone, Stephanie M.; Widaman, Keith F.; Hall, Scott S.; Reiss, Allan L.; Lightbody, Amy; Kaufmann, Walter E.; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Lachiewicz, Ave; Brown, Elaine C.; Hessl, David

    2012-01-01

    Animal studies elucidating the neurobiology of fragile X syndrome (FXS) have led to multiple controlled trials in humans, with the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C) commonly adopted as a primary outcome measure. A multi-site collaboration examined the psychometric properties of the ABC-C in 630 individuals (ages 3-25) with FXS using…

  5. Aberrant metastatic behavior and particular features of early gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Gurzu, Simona; Jung, Ioan; Kadar, Zoltan

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we have focused on the metastatic behavior of EGC and its particularities. The main factors that are currently considered as predictors of the metastatic behavior and that are used in the therapeutic decision (endoscopic resection vs surgical removal) are the tumor size (upper or bellow 2 cm), depth of infiltration, angiolymphatic invasion, the presence or absence of ulceration, and histologic type (undifferentiated vs differentiated carcinomas). However, most of the metastatic cases were published as case reports or case series. This is the reason why a proper estimation of metastatic risk in EGC is not well known. To date, 79 cases presenting bone metastases, three reports of brain metastases, and one EGC that was associated with skin metastasis were published. However, occult metastasis, lymph node micrometastasis, and skip metastasis can also occur and should be identified. Making a synthesis of the literature data that is correlated with our experience, we finally proposed the inclusion of the six Japanese subgrouping system, tumor size, angiolymphatic invasion, and micrometastasis as components of the pTNM staging system, which should be particularly adapted for EGC. PMID:26547366

  6. Helping Behavior and Social Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enzle, Michael E.; Lowe, Charles A.

    1976-01-01

    Social exchange theory was employed to predict instigative helping behavior as a function of two types of resources available to the recipient for reciprocation (social and non-social). The possibility of influencing reciprocation of both types of resources produced significant increases in subjects' helping. (Author)

  7. Neuroethology of primate social behavior

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Steve W. C.; Brent, Lauren J. N.; Adams, Geoffrey K.; Klein, Jeffrey T.; Pearson, John M.; Watson, Karli K.; Platt, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    A neuroethological approach to human and nonhuman primate behavior and cognition predicts biological specializations for social life. Evidence reviewed here indicates that ancestral mechanisms are often duplicated, repurposed, and differentially regulated to support social behavior. Focusing on recent research from nonhuman primates, we describe how the primate brain might implement social functions by coopting and extending preexisting mechanisms that previously supported nonsocial functions. This approach reveals that highly specialized mechanisms have evolved to decipher the immediate social context, and parallel circuits have evolved to translate social perceptual signals and nonsocial perceptual signals into partially integrated social and nonsocial motivational signals, which together inform general-purpose mechanisms that command behavior. Differences in social behavior between species, as well as between individuals within a species, result in part from neuromodulatory regulation of these neural circuits, which itself appears to be under partial genetic control. Ultimately, intraspecific variation in social behavior has differential fitness consequences, providing fundamental building blocks of natural selection. Our review suggests that the neuroethological approach to primate behavior may provide unique insights into human psychopathology. PMID:23754410

  8. Use of self-operated auditory prompts to decrease aberrant behaviors in students with moderate mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Alberto, P A; Taber, T A; Fredrick, L D

    1999-01-01

    We examined the effectiveness of self-operated auditory prompts when used to decrease the off-task and aberrant behaviors of two students with moderate mental retardation. Its purpose was to determine if self-operated auditory prompts could be effectively used by these individuals to decrease their off-task and aberrant behaviors in work settings and during transitional times between settings. A multiple-probe across settings design with a reversal and replication was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the self-operated auditory prompting system on aberrant student behaviors in school and community settings. Previous findings were replicated in this study that demonstrate that stimulus control can be achieved through the use of self-operated auditory prompts, and demonstrates that these prompts can serve to occasion a decrease in aberrant behaviors when used by individuals with moderate mental retardation in school and community settings. PMID:10641252

  9. Testosterone and Social Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Alan; Granger, Douglas A.; Mazur, Allan; Kivlighan, Katie T.

    2006-01-01

    Popular perceptions of the effect of testosterone on "manly" behavior are inaccurate. We need to move away from such simplistic notions by treating testosterone as one component along with other physiological, psychological and sociological variables in interactive and reciprocal models of behavior. Several hormones can now be measured in saliva,…

  10. Endotoxin elicits ambivalent social behaviors.

    PubMed

    Yee, Jason R; Prendergast, Brian J

    2012-07-01

    The acute phase response to infection is reliably accompanied by decreases in social investigation; however, social behavior is commonly assayed in inescapable environments using unfamiliar social stimuli. In this experiment, male Wistar rats were raised from weaning with 2 familiar, same-sex conspecifics. In adulthood, rats were implanted with radiotelemetry devices that permitted localization in space, and were challenged with LPS treatments (150 μg/kg, i.p.) in a novel, semi-natural arena which afforded the treated (Focal) animal exclusive control of social exposure, and the ability to avoid social interactions. LPS reliably elicited thermoregulatory responses (transient hypothermia and fever) during the scotophase following injection, but did not yield changes in the proportion of time spent engaged in social interactions: both LPS- and saline-treated rats spent approximately 10% of the night with their familiar cagemates. Injection treatments markedly altered the spatial distribution of activity: LPS-treated rats exhibited significant increases in the amount of time spent as far as possible from their cagemates. The data suggest that sickness responses to LPS may give rise to a transient state of social ambivalence-characterized by a persistent motivation to engage in social contact, but also by increased avoidance of social environments. Selective maintenance of social motivation illustrates plasticity in the expression of sickness behaviors and may be adaptive in social species. PMID:22172640

  11. Crash risk and aberrant driving behaviors among bus drivers: the role of personality and attitudes towards traffic safety.

    PubMed

    Mallia, Luca; Lazuras, Lambros; Violani, Cristiano; Lucidi, Fabio

    2015-06-01

    Several studies have shown that personality traits and attitudes toward traffic safety predict aberrant driving behaviors and crash involvement. However, this process has not been adequately investigated in professional drivers, such as bus drivers. The present study used a personality-attitudes model to assess whether personality traits predicted aberrant self-reported driving behaviors (driving violations, lapses, and errors) both directly and indirectly, through the effects of attitudes towards traffic safety in a large sample of bus drivers. Additionally, the relationship between aberrant self-reported driving behaviors and crash risk was also assessed. Three hundred and one bus drivers (mean age=39.1, SD=10.7 years) completed a structured and anonymous questionnaire measuring personality traits, attitudes toward traffic safety, self-reported aberrant driving behaviors (i.e., errors, lapses, and traffic violations), and accident risk in the last 12 months. Structural equation modeling analysis revealed that personality traits were associated to aberrant driving behaviors both directly and indirectly. In particular altruism, excitement seeking, and normlessness directly predicted bus drivers' attitudes toward traffic safety which, in turn, were negatively associated with the three types of self-reported aberrant driving behaviors. Personality traits relevant to emotionality directly predicted bus drivers' aberrant driving behaviors, without any mediation of attitudes. Finally, only self-reported violations were related to bus drivers' accident risk. The present findings suggest that the hypothesized personality-attitudes model accounts for aberrant driving behaviors in bus drivers, and provide the empirical basis for evidence-based road safety interventions in the context of public transport. PMID:25823904

  12. The Social Validity Assessment of Social Competence Intervention Behavior Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Jennifer J.; Wehby, Joseph H.; Feurer, Irene D.

    2010-01-01

    Social validation is the value judgment from society on the importance of a study. The social validity of behavior goals used in the social competence intervention literature was assessed using the Q-sort technique. The stimulus items were 80 different social competence behavior goals taken from 78 classroom-based social competence intervention…

  13. The Behavioral and Social Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Herbert A.

    1980-01-01

    This article reviews some recent technical progress in the social sciences and three frontier areas including evolutionary theory as related to sociobiology, the theory of human rational choice, and cognitive science. These areas offer explanations for broad areas of human behavior. (Author/SA)

  14. Citizenship behavior and social exchange.

    PubMed

    Konovsky, M A; Pugh, S D

    1994-06-01

    This article develops and empirically examines a social exchange model of organizational citizenship behavior. An employee's trust in a supervisor is proposed to mediate the relationship between procedural fairness in the supervisor's decision making and employee citizenship. Data from 475 hospital employees and their supervisors were consistent with our model. We discuss future research directions. PMID:10134637

  15. Animal Behavior and Social Anthropology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washburn, S. L.

    1978-01-01

    There is no clearly defined, universally accepted evolutionary theory that social anthropologists must accept. There has been great progress in the understanding of genetic mechanisms, but there are still major controversies. The most fundamental problem comes from postulating genes to account for behaviors. (Author/AM)

  16. Sex Differences in Social Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Therese

    Examining theories from a wide spectrum of disciplines, this paper categorizes research on sex differences in social behavior into four groups and examines the implications of each. The first category of research interprets sex differences as the result of anatomical differences which later affect psychological roles. The implication of this…

  17. Telephone Administration of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist: A Pilot Study of Feasibility in Children with Intellectual Disability and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Matthew; Milligan, Briana; Stein, Hannah; Teer, Olivia; Smith, Kahsi A.

    2013-01-01

    To advance clinical care and research in children with intellectual disability and autism there is a growing need for efficient means to measure behavioral severity and response to treatment. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of telephone administration of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Irritability Subscale (ABC-I). The…

  18. Use of a short-term inpatient model to evaluate aberrant behavior: outcome data summaries from 1996 to 2001.

    PubMed Central

    Asmus, Jennifer M; Ringdahl, Joel E; Sellers, Jennifer A; Call, Nathan A; Andelman, Marc S; Wacker, David P

    2004-01-01

    Previous outcome studies have provided descriptions of functional analyses conducted in outpatient clinics (Derby et al., 1992), long-term inpatient programs (Iwata, Pace, et al., 1994), and home environments (Wacker et al., 1998). This study provides a description of 138 children and adults with and without developmental disabilities who were evaluated and treated for aberrant behaviors on a short-term inpatient unit. The results indicated that the functional analyses conducted during a short-term inpatient evaluation were successful for 96% of the participants in identifying maintaining reinforcers of aberrant behavior and leading to an 80% or greater reduction in aberrant behavior for 76% of the participants in an average of 10 days. PMID:15529887

  19. Predicting aberrant drug behavior in patients treated for chronic pain: importance of abuse history.

    PubMed

    Michna, Edward; Ross, Edgar L; Hynes, Wilfred L; Nedeljkovic, Srdjan S; Soumekh, Sharonah; Janfaza, David; Palombi, Diane; Jamison, Robert N

    2004-09-01

    Physicians can encounter problems in prescribing opioids for some patients with chronic pain such as multiple unsanctioned dose escalations, episodes of lost or stolen prescriptions, and positive urine drug screenings for illicit substances. This study explored the usefulness of questions on abuse history in predicting problems with prescribing opioids for patients at a hospital-based pain management program. One hundred forty-five (145) patients who were taking long- and short-acting opioids for their pain were classified as high or low risk on the basis of their responses to interview questions about 1) substance abuse history in their family, 2) past problems with drug or alcohol abuse, and 3) history of legal problems. The treating physicians completed a questionnaire about problems that they had encountered with their patients. Problem behaviors were verified through chart review. No differences in demographic characteristics were found between those classified as high and low risk. Patients who admitted to a family history of substance abuse, a history of legal problems, and drug or alcohol abuse were prone to more aberrant drug-related behaviors, including a higher incidence of lost or stolen prescriptions and the presence of illicit substances in their urine (P < 0.05). Patients classified as high risk also had a significantly higher frequency of reported mental health problems and motor vehicle accidents. More of these patients smoked cigarettes, tended to need a cigarette within the first hour of the day, took higher doses of opioids, and reported fewer adverse effects from the medications than did those without such a history (P < 0.05). This study demonstrates that questions about abuse history and legal problems can be useful in predicting aberrant drug-related behavior with opioid use in persons with chronic noncancer pain. PMID:15336337

  20. Social Context, Social Behavior, and Socialization: Investigating the Child's Developing Organization of the Behavioral Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costanzo, Philip R.; Siegel, Alexander W.

    1993-01-01

    Gives an overview of the 10 research articles in this issue. Notes that all studies in this issue examine child behavior from a perspective that views behavior as mediated by social context, challenging the logical positivism of conventional experimentation. (MM)

  1. Clinical Presentation and Microarray Analysis of Peruvian Children with Atypical Development and/or Aberrant Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Merlin G.; Usrey, Kelly; Roberts, Jennifer L.; Schroeder, Stephen R.

    2014-01-01

    We report our experience with high resolution microarray analysis in infants and young children with developmental disability and/or aberrant behavior enrolled at the Centro Ann Sullivan del Peru in Lima, Peru, a low income country. Buccal cells were collected with cotton swabs from 233 participants for later DNA isolation and identification of copy number variation (deletions/duplications) and regions of homozygosity (ROH) for estimating consanguinity status in 15 infants and young children (12 males, 3 females; mean age ± SD = 28.1 m ±  7.9 m; age range 14 m–41 m) randomly selected for microarray analysis. An adequate DNA yield was found in about one-half of the enrolled participants. Ten participants showed deletions or duplications containing candidate genes reported to impact behavior or cognitive development. Five children had ROHs which could have harbored recessive gene alleles contributing to their clinical presentation. The coefficient of inbreeding was calculated and three participants showed first-second cousin relationships, indicating consanguinity. Our preliminary study showed that DNA isolated from buccal cells using cotton swabs was suboptimal, but yet in a subset of participants the yield was adequate for high resolution microarray analysis and several genes were found that impact development and behavior and ROHs identified to determine consanguinity status. PMID:25400949

  2. Factor Analysis and Norms for Parent Ratings on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community for Young People in Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Elaine C.; Aman, Michael G.; Havercamp, Susan M.

    2002-01-01

    Parents of 601 children and adolescents with mental retardation rated their children on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC). Factor analysis revealed a factor structure similar to the original ABC but without the inappropriate speech factor. Analysis of subject variables revealed main effects for gender, age, and classroom assignment…

  3. Factor Validity and Norms for the Aberrant Behavior Checklist in a Community Sample of Children with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshburn, Elaine C.; Aman, Michael G.

    1992-01-01

    Teacher ratings on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist were collected on 666 students with mental retardation attending special classes. Classroom placement and age had significant effects on subscale scores, whereas sex failed to affect ratings. The study concludes that the original scoring method, developed for individuals in residential facilities,…

  4. Differentiated Effects of Sensory Activities as Abolishing Operations via Non-Contingent Reinforcement on Academic and Aberrant Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancil, G. Richmond; Haydon, Todd; Boman, Marty

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of sensory activities used as antecedent interventions on the percentage correct on academic tasks and rate of aberrant behavior in three elementary aged children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Study activities were conducted in an after school program for children with ASD where…

  5. Aberrant hedgehog signaling is responsible for the highly invasive behavior of a subpopulation of hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Fan, Y-H; Ding, J; Nguyen, S; Liu, X-J; Xu, G; Zhou, H-Y; Duan, N-N; Yang, S-M; Zern, M A; Wu, J

    2016-01-01

    Hepatoma exhibits a series of heterogeneous subpopulations in its cell surface markers, tumorigenicity, invasion and metastatic capability. We previously demonstrated that the CD133(-)/EpCAM(-) hepatoma subpopulation was more metastatic than its counterpart; however, the controlling mechanisms are unexplored. The present study aimed to delineate the significance of aberrant hedgehog (Hh) signaling in the mediation of metastases. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting-enriched CD133(-)/EpCAM(-) (double negative, DN), Huh-7 cells underwent a transwell selection for metastatic cells (transwell-selected, TS). The TS cells displayed much greater metastatic activity as evidenced by an increased invasion rate, extremely upregulated expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1/2/9 genes compared with DN and double-positive (DP) subpopulations. In contrast to DP cells, TS cells lost E-cadherin and were all vimentin-positive as shown by immunocytochemistry. There was a transitional increase in Gli-1/2 gene expression levels from DP, DN to TS subpopulations, which was consistent with elevated Gli-1/2 or Twist-1 protein levels in the nuclear fraction. Furthermore, truncated Gli-1 (tGli-1), which transactivates molecules involved in metastasis, was detected in the highly invasive Huh-7 cell subpopulation, but not in less metastatic hepatoma cells or normal hepatocytes. The enhanced metastatic features with increased expression of MMPs as well as the presence of twist and snail genes in TS Huh-7 cells were reversed by LDE225, a potent Smoothened antagonist. In conclusion, the highly metastatic capability of a unique TS subpopulation was highly attributed to significant epithelial-mesenchymal transition, enhanced Hh activity and aberrant occurrence of a tGli-1 variant, which appears to be responsible for the highly invasive behavior. PMID:25772244

  6. Cognitive Modeling of Social Behaviors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancey, William J.; Sierhuis, Maarten; Damer. Bruce; Brodsky, Boris

    2004-01-01

    The driving theme of cognitive modeling for many decades has been that knowledge affects how and which goals are accomplished by an intelligent being (Newell 1991). But when one examines groups of people living and working together, one is forced to recognize that whose knowledge is called into play, at a particular time and location, directly affects what the group accomplishes. Indeed, constraints on participation, including roles, procedures, and norms, affect whether an individual is able to act at all (Lave & Wenger 1991; Jordan 1992; Scribner & Sachs 1991). To understand both individual cognition and collective activity, perhaps the greatest opportunity today is to integrate the cognitive modeling approach (which stresses how beliefs are formed and drive behavior) with social studies (which stress how relationships and informal practices drive behavior). The crucial insight is that norms are conceptualized in the individual &nd as ways of carrying out activities (Clancey 1997a, 2002b). This requires for the psychologist a shift from only modeling goals and tasks - why people do what they do - to modeling behavioral patterns-what people do-as they are engaged in purposeful activities. Instead of a model that exclusively deduces actions from goals, behaviors are also, if not primarily, driven by broader patterns of chronological and located activities (akin to scripts). This analysis is particular inspired by activity theory (Leont ev 1979). While acknowledging that knowledge (relating goals and operations) is fundamental for intelligent behavior, activity theory claims that a broader driver is the person s motives and conceptualization of activities. Such understanding of human interaction is normative (i.e., viewed with respect to social standards), affecting how knowledge is called into play and applied in practice. Put another way, how problems are discovered and framed, what methods are chosen, and indeed who even cares or has the authority to act, are all

  7. Aberrant hippocampal Atp8a1 levels are associated with altered synaptic strength, electrical activity, and autistic-like behavior.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Daniel J; Marsillo, Alexandra; Guariglia, Sara R; Budylin, Tatyana; Sadek, Rodina; Menkes, Silvia; Chauhan, Abha; Wen, Guang Y; McCloskey, Daniel P; Wieraszko, Andrzej; Banerjee, Probal

    2016-09-01

    Type IV ATPases are putative aminophospholipid translocases (APLTs), more commonly known as flippases. A pronounced induction of the flippase Atp8a1 was observed in post-mortem tissue homogenates from the hippocampus and temporal lobe of juvenile autistic subjects compared to age-matched controls. In order to simulate the human data, C57BL/6 mice were allowed to develop after intra-hippocampal injection of recombinant lentivirus expressing Atp8a1 at the early developmental stage of postnatal day 6 (P6). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of the lentivirus-Atp8a1 treated (Atp8a1+) mice in adulthood revealed fewer and weaker excitatory synapses in the hippocampal CA1 region compared to mice injected with empty virus. Significant inhibition of the Schaffer collateral pathway was observed in the Atp8a1+ mice in paired-pulse recording (PPR) at 20-ms inter-stimulus interval. In the three-chambered sociability test, the Atp8a1+ mice displayed no preference for an encaged stranger mouse over a novel object, which is a characteristic autistic-like behavior. In sharp contrast, Atp8a1 (-/-) mice displayed a preference for a stranger mouse over the novel object, which is characteristic of neurotypical mouse behavior. However, similar to the Atp8a1+ mice, the Atp8a1 (-/-) mice harbored fewer and weaker excitatory synapses in CA1 compared to wild-type controls, and displayed inhibition at 20-ms inter-stimulus interval in PPR. These findings suggest that both elevated and diminished levels of Atp8a1 during early development are detrimental to brain connectivity, but only elevated Atp8a1 is associated with aberrant social behavior. Mice with augmented levels of Atp8a1 may therefore serve as a potential model in autism research. PMID:27287255

  8. Theorizing Social Context: Rethinking Behavioral Theory

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Nancy J.; Joseph, Galen; Pasick, Rena J.; Barker, Judith C.

    2013-01-01

    Major behavioral theories focus on proximal influences on behavior that are considered to be predominantly cognitive characteristics of the individual largely uninfluenced by social context. Social ecological models integrate multiple levels of influence on health behavior and are noted for emphasizing the interdependence of environmental settings and life domains. This theory-based article explains how social context is conceptualized in the social sciences and how the social science conceptualization differs from and can broaden the analytic approach to health behavior. The authors use qualitative data from the “Behavioral Constructs and Culture in Cancer Screening” study to illustrate our conceptualization of social context. We conclude that the incorporation into health behavior theory of a multidimensional socio-culturally oriented, theoretical approach to social context is critical to understand and redress health disparities in multicultural societies like that in the United States. PMID:19805791

  9. Social behavior as discriminative stimulus and consequence in social anthropology

    PubMed Central

    Guerin, Bernard

    1992-01-01

    A behavior analysis is provided for three topics in social anthropology. Food, social relations, and ritual behaviors can enter into contingencies both as functional consequences and as discriminative stimuli for the reinforcement of behaviors through generalized social consequences. Many “symbolic” behaviors, which some social anthropologists believe go beyond an individual material basis, are analyzed as the latter. It is shown how the development of self-regulation to bridge remote consequences can undermine a group's generalized social control. It is also shown that rituals and taboos can be utilized to maintain generalized social compliance, which in turn can maintain both the community's verbal behavior and other group behaviors that bridge indirect and remote consequences. PMID:22478112

  10. Theorizing Social Context: Rethinking Behavioral Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Nancy J.; Joseph, Galen; Pasick, Rena J.; Barker, Judith C.

    2009-01-01

    Major behavioral theories focus on proximal influences on behavior that are considered to be predominantly cognitive characteristics of the individual largely uninfluenced by social context. Social ecological models integrate multiple levels of influence on health behavior and are noted for emphasizing the interdependence of environmental settings…

  11. Tryptophan supplementation modulates social behavior: A review.

    PubMed

    Steenbergen, Laura; Jongkees, Bryant J; Sellaro, Roberta; Colzato, Lorenza S

    2016-05-01

    Tryptophan (TRP), the precursor of serotonin (5-HT), is one of the most investigated amino-acids. TRP supplementation can increase 5-HT levels in the brain and for this reason numerous studies have investigated whether administration of TRP can positively influence social behavior that relies on serotonergic function. Here we review the available studies on TRP, to clarify if and under what circumstances TRP supplementation might modulate social behavior. TRP supplementation seems to improve control over social behavior in patients and individuals suffering from disorders or behaviors associated with dysfunctions in serotonergic functioning. In contrast, in healthy humans TRP supplementation seems to promote social behavior. Although more research is needed to disentangle and understand the relations between individual differences, TRP effectivity, 5-HT functioning, social interactions, and context, we conclude TRP can be a promising tool for modulating social behavior. PMID:26987640

  12. Changing Social Behavior and Cognitive Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denton, Jon J.

    1978-01-01

    An overview is presented of systematic behavioral analysis as a method for modifying both social and cognitive behaviors through reinforcement. Various techniques are explained: response differentiation, shaping, chaining, fading, extinction, timeout, and response cost. (SJL)

  13. Assessing influence of stimulation on mood and aberrant behavior of persons with multiple disabilities during brief treadmill sessions.

    PubMed

    Lancioni, G E; O'Reilly, M F; Singh, N N; Oliva, D; Piazzolla, G; Groeneweg, J

    2004-12-01

    This study assessed the influence of favorite stimuli on indices of happiness, e.g., smiling or excited vocalizations, and aberrant behavior, e.g., cantilena-like vocalizations or hand waving, of two young adults with multiple disabilities during 5-min. treadmill sessions. Several favorite stimuli, e.g., music and vibratory events, were available for the participants. The stimuli were presented in a rotation fashion during the sessions. To control for the effects of the stimuli, treadmill sessions without stimuli were also conducted. Analysis showed that the treadmill sessions with stimuli led to higher indices of happiness and lower aberrant behavior for both participants, compared to the treadmill sessions without stimuli. PMID:15648490

  14. The vector behavior of aberrations in high numerical aperture (0.9 < NA < 3.1) laser focusing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Sseunhyeun

    This dissertation investigates vector behavior of aberrations for high numerical aperture optical systems using a solid immersion lens (SIL). In order to analyze the system, this dissertation introduces the illumination system transfer function (ISTF), which is a map in the space of the exit pupil that shows reflection and transmission properties of individual plane waves that are emitted from corresponding points in the exit pupil. A vector analysis using ISTF presents the role of propagating and evanescent energy in the SIL systems, where the boundary between the them is defined by total internal reflection. The behavior of third-order aberrations such as coma and astigmatism, are dramatically affected by polarization in high NA systems. The irradiance distribution exhibits significantly different characteristics, depending on how coma or astigmatism is aligned with the incident linear polarized light. Vector effects including diffraction, polarization, and aberration, are used to analyze tolerances along with a comparison to geometrical optics. Apodization in amplitude and phase of the angular spectrum is generated in high NA focusing systems due to the difference in vector transmission and reflection for each plane wave. The size of the incident gaussian beam is effectively reduced at the exit pupil by the amplitude apodization and causes a spot size increase in image space. The apodization in phase is called gap-induced aberration due to its dependence on the air gap. The gap- induced aberration does not come from lens surface imperfection, and it exhibits multiple orders of spherical aberration and astigmatism. The apodization in amplitude and phase is well characterized by separable supergaussian functions, where each function depends on the refractive index of the SIL n SIL and the air gap height h. The best defocus, based on characteristics of gap-induced aberration, is suggested to be a good compensator only for low nSIL and h. The system performance, as

  15. Associations Between Behavioral Inhibition and Children's Social Problem Solving Behavior During Social Exclusion

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Olga L.; Henderson, Heather A.; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Penela, Elizabeth C.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the associations between the early childhood temperament of behavioral inhibition and children's displays of social problem-solving (SPS) behavior during social exclusion. During toddlerhood (ages 2-3), maternal report and behavioral observations of behavioral inhibition were collected. At age 7, children's SPS behaviors were observed during a laboratory social exclusion task based on the commonly used Cyberball game. Results showed that behavioral inhibition was positively associated with displayed social withdrawal and negatively associated with assertive behavior during the observed social exclusion task at 7 years of age. These results add to our understanding of inhibited children's SPS behaviors during social exclusion and provide evidence for the associations between toddler temperament and children's social behavior during middle childhood. PMID:25360063

  16. Effects of Behavioral and Social Class Information on Social Judgment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Reuben M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigated the role of disconfirming behavioral information and the limits on social class schema effects. Using a Bayesian model of social perception, it was found that unambiguous, relevant stimulus information influenced judgments. Although social class information did not affect relevant stimulus information, it did sway judgments in…

  17. Socialization Tactics, Proactive Behavior, and Newcomer Learning: Integrating Socialization Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashforth, Blake E.; Sluss, David M.; Saks, Alan M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine how socialization processes (socialization tactics and proactive behavior) jointly affect socialization content (i.e., what newcomers learn) and adjustment. Longitudinal survey data from 150 business and engineering graduates during their first 7 months of work indicate that: (1) institutionalized…

  18. Fostering Social Responsibility and Handling Disruptive Social Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Marvin

    1998-01-01

    Describes The Social Development Program, a way to foster social responsibility and in the process reduce unacceptable classroom behavior simply and easily. The strategy is based on several principles: positivity; empowerment by choice; the importance of self-evaluation and self-correction; assumption of social responsibility; and authority…

  19. The Essential Social Science of Behavioral Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, Michael M.

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses how and why scientific work directed toward behavioral disorders is almost a perfect metaphor for the dilemma of the social sciences as a whole. It argues that, although the social character of behavioral disorders means that our knowledge is imperfect, we cannot escape responsibility for decisions made to relieve the…

  20. Promoting Appropriate Behavior through Social Skill Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogdan, Joan; Dye, Jerilyn; Leitner, Bonnie; Meersman, Roxanne

    This action research project examined the impact of a social skills curriculum on the behavior of targeted second, fourth, and fifth graders. Problems in student behavior were documented through an analysis of records of peer mediation, student referrals, and staff surveys. The intervention consisted of a social skills curriculum, "Second Step, A…

  1. Social Interaction and Repetitive Motor Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loftin, Rachel L.; Odom, Samuel L.; Lantz, Johanna F.

    2008-01-01

    Students with autism have difficulty initiating social interactions and may exhibit repetitive motor behavior (e.g., body rocking, hand flapping). Increasing social interaction by teaching new skills may lead to reductions in problem behavior, such as motor stereotypies. Additionally, self-monitoring strategies can increase the maintenance of…

  2. Adapting Behavioral Interventions for Social Media Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Waring, Molly E; May, Christine N; Ding, Eric Y; Kunz, Werner H; Hayes, Rashelle; Oleski, Jessica L

    2016-01-01

    Patients are increasingly using online social networks (ie, social media) to connect with other patients and health care professionals—a trend called peer-to-peer health care. Because online social networks provide a means for health care professionals to communicate with patients, and for patients to communicate with each other, an opportunity exists to use social media as a modality to deliver behavioral interventions. Social media-delivered behavioral interventions have the potential to reduce the expense of behavioral interventions by eliminating visits, as well as increase our access to patients by becoming embedded in their social media feeds. Trials of online social network-delivered behavioral interventions have shown promise, but much is unknown about intervention development and methodology. In this paper, we discuss the process by which investigators can translate behavioral interventions for social media delivery. We present a model that describes the steps and decision points in this process, including the necessary training and reporting requirements. We also discuss issues pertinent to social media-delivered interventions, including cost, scalability, and privacy. Finally, we identify areas of research that are needed to optimize this emerging behavioral intervention modality. PMID:26825969

  3. Adapting Behavioral Interventions for Social Media Delivery.

    PubMed

    Pagoto, Sherry; Waring, Molly E; May, Christine N; Ding, Eric Y; Kunz, Werner H; Hayes, Rashelle; Oleski, Jessica L

    2016-01-01

    Patients are increasingly using online social networks (ie, social media) to connect with other patients and health care professionals--a trend called peer-to-peer health care. Because online social networks provide a means for health care professionals to communicate with patients, and for patients to communicate with each other, an opportunity exists to use social media as a modality to deliver behavioral interventions. Social media-delivered behavioral interventions have the potential to reduce the expense of behavioral interventions by eliminating visits, as well as increase our access to patients by becoming embedded in their social media feeds. Trials of online social network-delivered behavioral interventions have shown promise, but much is unknown about intervention development and methodology. In this paper, we discuss the process by which investigators can translate behavioral interventions for social media delivery. We present a model that describes the steps and decision points in this process, including the necessary training and reporting requirements. We also discuss issues pertinent to social media-delivered interventions, including cost, scalability, and privacy. Finally, we identify areas of research that are needed to optimize this emerging behavioral intervention modality. PMID:26825969

  4. Perspective-Taking and Social Behavior in Behaviorally Disordered Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uphoff, Jane W.; and Others

    Although role or perspective taking has been considered important for the development of mature social thought and behavior, and training for perspective taking has been used to remediate deficient behavior, few studies with either normal or disturbed populations have examined naturally occurring behaviors expected to correlate with…

  5. Illness Behavior and Social Competence in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Lynn S.; Van Slyke, Deborah A.

    This study examined the relationship of illness behavior to perceived competence and gender in adolescents. It was hypothesized that, like adults, adolescents with lower levels of perceived social competence would report more illness behavior. A significant gender difference was expected such that girls would report more illness behavior than…

  6. Improving Student Behavior through Social Skills Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Staci; And Others

    A program for improving student social skills was implemented in three classrooms of lower-class kindergarten and second grade students at two schools in order to reduce the number of behavior problems. Student behavior is a nationwide educational concern, and the problem of inappropriate behavior at the schools was documented by teacher…

  7. Validity and Reliability of the "Behavior Problems Inventory," the "Aberrant Behavior Checklist," and the "Repetitive Behavior Scale--Revised" among Infants and Toddlers at Risk for Intellectual or Developmental Disabilities: A Multi-Method Assessment Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojahn, Johannes; Schroeder, Stephen R.; Mayo-Ortega, Liliana; Oyama-Ganiko, Rosao; LeBlanc, Judith; Marquis, Janet; Berke, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Reliable and valid assessment of aberrant behaviors is essential in empirically verifying prevention and intervention for individuals with intellectual or developmental disabilities (IDD). Few instruments exist which assess behavior problems in infants. The current longitudinal study examined the performance of three behavior-rating scales for…

  8. Social Goals, Social Behavior, and Social Status in Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodkin, Philip C.; Ryan, Allison M.; Jamison, Rhonda; Wilson, Travis

    2013-01-01

    This study examines motivational precursors of social status and the applicability of a dual-component model of social competence to middle childhood. Concurrent and longitudinal relationships between self-reported social goals (social development, demonstration-approach, demonstration-avoid goal orientations), teacher-rated prosocial and…

  9. The Double Meaning of Online Social Space: Three-Way Interactions Among Social Anxiety, Online Social Behavior, and Offline Social Behavior.

    PubMed

    Koo, Hoon Jung; Woo, Sungbum; Yang, Eunjoo; Kwon, Jung Hye

    2015-09-01

    The present study aimed to investigate how online and offline social behavior interact with each other ultimately to affect the well-being of socially anxious adolescents. Based on previous studies, it was assumed that there might be three-way interactive effects among online social behavior, offline social behavior, and social anxiety regarding the relationship with well-being. To measure social anxiety, online and offline social behavior, and mental well-being, self-report questionnaires such as the Korean-Social Avoidance and Distress Scale, Korean version of the Relational Maintenance Behavior Questionnaire, and Korean version of Mental Health Continuum Short Form were administered to 656 Korean adolescents. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that the three-way interaction of online social behavior, offline social behavior, and social anxiety was indeed significant. First, online social behavior was associated with lower well-being of adolescents with higher social anxiety under conditions of low engagement in offline social behavior. In contrast, a higher level of online social behavior predicted greater well-being for individuals with high social anxiety under conditions of more engagement in offline social behavior. Second, online social behavior was not significantly related to well-being in youths with low social anxiety under conditions of both high and low engagement in offline social behavior. Implications and limitations of this study were discussed. PMID:26348811

  10. Social, Cultural, and Behavioral Contexts of Mentoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ianni, Francis A. J.

    This paper explores and highlights the importance of social, cultural, and behavioral contexts in the effectiveness of mentoring relationships. A first section looks at growing up in American and the varieties of personal and social development that are found. This section argues against viewing adolescents as similar across the boundaries of…

  11. Social Skills: Improving Student Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duvall, M. Letha; Miller, Patricia; Miller, Teresa; Tillman, Izola

    This action research project implemented and evaluated an intervention for increasing prosocial behaviors while decreasing inappropriate behaviors among elementary school children. The targeted population consisted of elementary school students in both lower- and upper-middle-class communities located in central Illinois. The problem of poor…

  12. Children's Awareness of Their Social Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Christine D.

    This study examined children's awareness of peers' perception of them in three areas of social behavior: Sociability-Leadership, Aggressive-Disruptive, and Sensitive-Isolated. Subjects were 175 first- through fifth-grade students who evaluated same-sex classmates using the standard version of the Revised Class Play (RCP) behavior nomination…

  13. APPLICATIONS OF BEHAVIOR THEORY TO SOCIAL CASEWORK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STUART, RICHARD B.

    BEHAVIOR THEORY CAN FORTIFY SOCIAL CASEWORK BY PROVIDING PRACTICAL LINKS BETWEEN THE IDENTIFICATION OF THE CLIENT IN DISTRESS, THE DELINEATION OF CLINICAL GOALS, THE FORMULATION OF PLANS OF INTERVENTION, AND THE MEASUREMENT OF OUTCOME. THESE BASIC ASSUMPTIONS IN THE BEHAVIORAL APPROACH ARE IMPLICIT IN THE STRUCTURE TREATMENT--(1) ALL SOCIAL…

  14. Learning About Social Behavior. Implementation Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Favero, Jane; And Others

    Designed for teaching students in regular and special education classes, the guide provides an instructional approach (as opposed to a counseling approach) to teaching social and behavioral skills. This approach, based on the premise that behavioral skills can be developed through instruction, drills, and applied practice, employs concepts from…

  15. A pilot double-blind placebo-controlled trial of pioglitazone as adjunctive treatment to risperidone: Effects on aberrant behavior in children with autism.

    PubMed

    Ghaleiha, Ali; Rasa, Soudeh Mohebbi; Nikoo, Mohammadali; Farokhnia, Mehdi; Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    2015-09-30

    To assess the safety and efficacy of pioglitazone added to risperidone in the treatment of irritability in autistic disorder (AD), we conducted this study. In a 10-week, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 44 outpatients of both genders aged 4-12 years with a diagnosis of AD and a score of ≥12 on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C) irritability subscale were included. Mean change of ABC-C irritability subscale score as primary outcome, change in other ABC-C subscale scores and partial and complete responses were compared between two groups. Twenty patients completed the trial in each group. Level of reduction and effect of time×treatment interaction in the treatment group were significant for irritability (P=0.03), lethargy/social withdrawal (P=0.04) and hyperactivity/non-compliance (P=0.03) but not for stereotypic behavior and inappropriate speech subscales compared with the placebo group. Vomiting and headache were the most frequent reported side-effects. Results of this preliminary study indicate positive effects of pioglitazone compared with placebo in improving the behavioral symptoms of AD. PMID:26208985

  16. 20 CFR 664.430 - What are positive social behaviors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What are positive social behaviors? 664.430....430 What are positive social behaviors? Positive social behaviors are outcomes of leadership... menu of services. Positive social behaviors focus on areas that may include the following: (a)...

  17. Development of social behavior in young zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Dreosti, Elena; Lopes, Gonçalo; Kampff, Adam R.; Wilson, Stephen W.

    2015-01-01

    Adult zebrafish are robustly social animals whereas larva is not. We designed an assay to determine at what stage of development zebrafish begin to interact with and prefer other fish. One week old zebrafish do not show significant social preference whereas most 3 weeks old zebrafish strongly prefer to remain in a compartment where they can view conspecifics. However, for some individuals, the presence of conspecifics drives avoidance instead of attraction. Social preference is dependent on vision and requires viewing fish of a similar age/size. In addition, over the same 1–3 weeks period larval zebrafish increasingly tend to coordinate their movements, a simple form of social interaction. Finally, social preference and coupled interactions are differentially modified by an NMDAR antagonist and acute exposure to ethanol, both of which are known to alter social behavior in adult zebrafish. PMID:26347614

  18. Reported lifetime aberrant drug-taking behaviors are predictive of current substance use and mental health problems in primary care patients

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Michael F.; Davis, James; Passik, Steven D.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The aim of this report is to determine the frequency of aberrant drug behaviors and their relationship substance abuse disorders in a large primary sample of patients receiving opioids for chronic pain. Methods: The data utilized for this report was obtained from 904 chronic pain patients receiving opioid therapy from their primary care physician. A questionnaire was developed based on 12 aberrant drug behaviors reported in the clinical literature. The diagnosis of a current substance use disorder was determined using DSM-IV criteria. Results: The average duration of chronic pain in the sample was 16 years, and for opioid therapy 6.4 years. 80.5% of the sample reported one or more lifetime aberrant drug behaviors. The most frequent behaviors reported included early refills (41.7%), increase dose without physician consent (35.7%) and felt intoxicated from opioids (32.2%). Only 1.1% of subjects with 1-3 aberrant behaviors (n=464, 51.2%) met DSM-IV criteria for current opioid dependence compared to 9.9% of patients with 4 or more behaviors (n=264, 29.3%). Persons with a positive urine toxicology tests for cocaine were 14 times more likely to report 4 or more behaviors than no behaviors (14.1% v.s.1.1%). A logistic model found that subjects who reported four or more aberrant behaviors were more likely to have a current substance use disorder (OR 10.14; 3.72, 27.64), a positive test for cocaine (OR 3.01; 1.74, 15.4), an ASI psychiatric composite score >0.5 (OR 2.38; 1.65, 3.44), male gender (OR 2.08: 1.48, 2.92) and older age (OR 0.69; 0.59, 0.81) compared to subjects with three or fewer behaviors. Pain levels, employment status and morphine equivalent dose do not enter the model. Conclusions: Patients who report 4 or more aberrant drug behaviors are associated with a current substance use disorder and illicit drug use, whereas subjects with up to 3 aberrant behaviors have a very low probability of a current substance abuse disorder. Four behaviors - over

  19. An Evaluation of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist for Children under Age 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Jonathan D.; Huete, John M.; Fodstad, Jill C.; Chin, Michelle D.; Kurtz, Patricia F.

    2013-01-01

    Severe problem behaviors such as self-injury and aggression are frequently observed in young children under age 5 with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). Although early identification of problem behavior is critical to effective intervention, there are few standardized measures available that identify severe problem behavior in…

  20. [The teenager who finds it difficult to wake up in the morning: aberrant behavior, misperception or an underlying sleep disorder?].

    PubMed

    van den Bossche, R A; Peeters, E A; de Weerd, A W

    2004-02-14

    Three teenagers, two girls aged 14 years and one boy aged 10 years, had had difficulty with getting to sleep in the evening and waking up in the morning from a very early age. These difficulties led to underperformance at school and/or tension in the household. The anamneses and a sleep study led to the following conclusions: 'delayed sleep phase syndrome', 'sleep state misperception' and 'aberrant interaction between the child and its parents'. Treatment with phototherapy and regulation of the bedtimes, information and regulation of the bedtimes, and pedagogic advice, respectively, was successful within a few months. Teenagers often complain about problems with sleeping, in particular about late onset of sleep and difficulties with awakening. These problems are self-limiting in most cases, but can have a disastrous influence on social life and education. PMID:15015243

  1. Natural neural projection dynamics underlying social behavior.

    PubMed

    Gunaydin, Lisa A; Grosenick, Logan; Finkelstein, Joel C; Kauvar, Isaac V; Fenno, Lief E; Adhikari, Avishek; Lammel, Stephan; Mirzabekov, Julie J; Airan, Raag D; Zalocusky, Kelly A; Tye, Kay M; Anikeeva, Polina; Malenka, Robert C; Deisseroth, Karl

    2014-06-19

    Social interaction is a complex behavior essential for many species and is impaired in major neuropsychiatric disorders. Pharmacological studies have implicated certain neurotransmitter systems in social behavior, but circuit-level understanding of endogenous neural activity during social interaction is lacking. We therefore developed and applied a new methodology, termed fiber photometry, to optically record natural neural activity in genetically and connectivity-defined projections to elucidate the real-time role of specified pathways in mammalian behavior. Fiber photometry revealed that activity dynamics of a ventral tegmental area (VTA)-to-nucleus accumbens (NAc) projection could encode and predict key features of social, but not novel object, interaction. Consistent with this observation, optogenetic control of cells specifically contributing to this projection was sufficient to modulate social behavior, which was mediated by type 1 dopamine receptor signaling downstream in the NAc. Direct observation of deep projection-specific activity in this way captures a fundamental and previously inaccessible dimension of mammalian circuit dynamics. PMID:24949967

  2. Natural neural projection dynamics underlying social behavior

    PubMed Central

    Gunaydin, Lisa A.; Grosenick, Logan; Finkelstein, Joel C.; Kauvar, Isaac V.; Fenno, Lief E.; Adhikari, Avishek; Lammel, Stephan; Mirzabekov, Julie J.; Airan, Raag D.; Zalocusky, Kelly A.; Tye, Kay M.; Anikeeva, Polina; Malenka, Robert C.; Deisseroth, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Social interaction is a complex behavior essential for many species, and is impaired in major neuropsychiatric disorders. Pharmacological studies have implicated certain neurotransmitter systems in social behavior, but circuit-level understanding of endogenous neural activity during social interaction is lacking. We therefore developed and applied a new methodology, termed fiber photometry, to optically record natural neural activity in genetically- and connectivity-defined projections to elucidate the real-time role of specified pathways in mammalian behavior. Fiber photometry revealed that activity dynamics of a ventral tegmental area (VTA)-to-nucleus accumbens (NAc) projection could encode and predict key features of social but not novel-object interaction. Consistent with this observation, optogenetic control of cells specifically contributing to this projection was sufficient to modulate social behavior, which was mediated by type-1 dopamine receptor signaling downstream in the NAc. Direct observation of projection-specific activity in this way captures a fundamental and previously inaccessible dimension of circuit dynamics. PMID:24949967

  3. Evolution and social behavior in krill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdy, Ariane; Flierl, Glenn

    2008-02-01

    We simulate the formation of social aggregations in a turbulent fluid environment. The theoretical framework is employed to investigate the ecological consequences of spatial patchiness in the density distribution of krill, which often assemble in swarms or schools. We first describe the formation of aggregations resulting from the interplay of social forces and population dynamics, and then consider an idealized ecosystem model of zooplankton with social behavior who feed on phytoplankton; this is solved analytically for the initial growth of patches and numerically for the steady-state distributions of predator and prey biomass. Environmental variability changes the linear instability criterion for spontaneous aggregation. The second part of the paper addresses the evolution of social behavior in a population with density-dependent mating success. The model simulates the transmission of a gene controlling social behavior; natural selection determines whether the grouping or non-grouping type becomes dominant. It is found that the behavior can evolve when mixing occurs rapidly enough for resources to remain available to the clustered organisms. Turbulent advection prevents the grouping type from becoming dominant if the shear of the flow is strong enough to disrupt the patches; otherwise the aggregated zooplankton benefit from enhanced diffusion of resources by the turbulent flow.

  4. Reproductive Neuroendocrine Pathways of Social Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Parhar, Ishwar S.; Ogawa, Satoshi; Ubuka, Takayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Social behaviors are key components of reproduction, because they are essential for successful fertilization. Social behaviors, such as courtship, mating, and aggression, are strongly associated with sex steroids, such as testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone. Secretion of sex steroids from the gonads is regulated by the hypothalamus–pituitary–gonadal (HPG) axis in vertebrates. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a pivotal hypothalamic neuropeptide that stimulates gonadotropin release from the pituitary. In recent years, the role of neuropeptides containing the C-terminal Arg–Phe–NH2 (RFamide peptides) has been emphasized in vertebrate reproduction. In particular, two key RFamide peptides, kisspeptin and gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), emerged as critical accelerator and suppressor of gonadotropin secretion. Kisspeptin stimulates GnRH release by directly acting on GnRH neurons, whereas GnIH inhibits gonadotropin release by inhibiting kisspeptin, GnRH neurons, or pituitary gonadotropes. These neuropeptides can regulate social behavior by regulating the HPG axis. However, distribution of neuronal fibers of GnRH, kisspeptin, and GnIH neurons is not limited within the hypothalamus, and the existence of extrahypothalamic neuronal fibers suggests direct control of social behavior within the brain. It has traditionally been shown that central administration of GnRH can stimulate female sexual behavior in rats. Recently, it was shown that Kiss1, one of the paralogs of kisspeptin peptide family, regulates fear responses in zebrafish and GnIH inhibits sociosexual behavior in birds. Here, we highlight recent findings regarding the role of GnRH, kisspeptin, and GnIH in the regulation of social behaviors in fish, birds, and mammals and discuss their importance in future biological and biomedical research. PMID:27065948

  5. Imitation promotes affiliation in infant macaques at risk for impaired social behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Sclafani, Valentina; Paukner, Annika; Suomi, Stephen J.; Ferrari, Pier F.

    2014-01-01

    Parental responsiveness and synchronization during early face-to-face interactions between mother and infant have been theorized to affect a broad spectrum of positive developmental outcomes in social and cognitive infant growth and to facilitate the development of a sense of self in the baby. Here we show that being imitated can significantly affect the behavior of nursery-reared infant monkeys, which are at an increased risk for developing aberrant social behaviors. Infants look longer and lipsmack more at an experimenter both during imitation and after being imitated. These results demonstrate that from early in life imitation might be used as a privileged form of communication by adults to enhance infants’ visual engagement and their social communication. Imitation may therefore be useful to counteract the negative effects of early social adversities. PMID:25227917

  6. Imitation promotes affiliation in infant macaques at risk for impaired social behaviors.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, Valentina; Paukner, Annika; Suomi, Stephen J; Ferrari, Pier F

    2015-07-01

    Parental responsiveness and synchronization during early face-to-face interactions between mother and infant have been theorized to affect a broad spectrum of positive developmental outcomes in social and cognitive infant growth and to facilitate the development of a sense of self in the baby. Here we show that being imitated can significantly affect the behavior of nursery-reared infant monkeys, which are at an increased risk for developing aberrant social behaviors. Infants look longer and lipsmack more at an experimenter both during imitation and after being imitated. These results demonstrate that from early in life imitation might be used as a privileged form of communication by adults to enhance infants' visual engagement and their social communication. Imitation may therefore be useful to counteract the negative effects of early social adversities. PMID:25227917

  7. The coevolution of recognition and social behavior

    PubMed Central

    Smead, Rory; Forber, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Recognition of behavioral types can facilitate the evolution of cooperation by enabling altruistic behavior to be directed at other cooperators and withheld from defectors. While much is known about the tendency for recognition to promote cooperation, relatively little is known about whether such a capacity can coevolve with the social behavior it supports. Here we use evolutionary game theory and multi-population dynamics to model the coevolution of social behavior and recognition. We show that conditional harming behavior enables the evolution and stability of social recognition, whereas conditional helping leads to a deterioration of recognition ability. Expanding the model to include a complex game where both helping and harming interactions are possible, we find that conditional harming behavior can stabilize recognition, and thereby lead to the evolution of conditional helping. Our model identifies a novel hypothesis for the evolution of cooperation: conditional harm may have coevolved with recognition first, thereby helping to establish the mechanisms necessary for the evolution of cooperation. PMID:27225673

  8. The coevolution of recognition and social behavior.

    PubMed

    Smead, Rory; Forber, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Recognition of behavioral types can facilitate the evolution of cooperation by enabling altruistic behavior to be directed at other cooperators and withheld from defectors. While much is known about the tendency for recognition to promote cooperation, relatively little is known about whether such a capacity can coevolve with the social behavior it supports. Here we use evolutionary game theory and multi-population dynamics to model the coevolution of social behavior and recognition. We show that conditional harming behavior enables the evolution and stability of social recognition, whereas conditional helping leads to a deterioration of recognition ability. Expanding the model to include a complex game where both helping and harming interactions are possible, we find that conditional harming behavior can stabilize recognition, and thereby lead to the evolution of conditional helping. Our model identifies a novel hypothesis for the evolution of cooperation: conditional harm may have coevolved with recognition first, thereby helping to establish the mechanisms necessary for the evolution of cooperation. PMID:27225673

  9. Videotape assessment of changes in aberrant meal-time behaviors in anorexia nervosa after treatment.

    PubMed

    Tappe, K A; Gerberg, S E; Shide, D J; Andersen, A E; Rolls, B J

    1998-04-01

    This study compared meal-time behaviors in patients with anorexia nervosa to normal-weight controls and the effects of hospital treatment on these behaviors. Ten restricting-anorexics and six normal-weight controls were given a standard lunch and asked to eat the entire meal. Their behaviors were recorded via hidden camera. All participants were tested twice--anorexics before and after in-patient treatment, and controls at similar intervals. Videotapes of these sessions were analysed for occurrence and duration of eight categories of non-ingestive behaviors: food manipulation, food preparation, food moving, non-food manipulation, concealment, vigilance, passivity and physical activity. Food-ingestion patterns, including number of bites of food and switches between different kinds of food, were also recorded. Results indicated that anorexics spent significantly more time than controls in behaviors that were directly food-related, and exhibited more vigilance behavior. Pre-treatment anorexics spent significantly more time in these behaviors than did post-treatment anorexics. Few group differences or treatment effects were found in food-ingestion patterns, although there was an indication that both pre- and post-treatment anorexics avoided high-fat foods more than controls did. These results suggest that videotaping provides a useful technique for characterizing the behavior associated with eating disorders. Further studies should explore whether normalization of these behaviors is associated with a positive clinical outcome. PMID:9573451

  10. Disinhibited Social Engagement in Postinstitutionalized Children: Differentiating Normal from Atypical Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Lawler, Jamie M.; Hostinar, Camelia E.; Mliner, Shanna B.; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2015-01-01

    The most commonly reported socially aberrant behavior in postinstitutionalized (PI) children is disinhibited social engagement (DSE; also known as indiscriminate friendliness). There is no gold standard for measurement of this phenomenon or agreement on how to differentiate it from normative behavior. We adopted a developmental psychopathology approach (Cicchetti, 1984) to study this phenomenon by comparing it to normative social development and by studying its patterns over time in 50 newly adopted PI children (16–36 months at adoption) compared with 41 children adopted early from foster care overseas and 47 nonadopted (NA) controls. Using coded behavioral observations of the child’s interaction with an unfamiliar adult, atypical behaviors were differentiated from normative behaviors. Principal components analysis identified two dimensions of social disinhibition. The nonphysical social dimension (e.g., initiations, proximity) showed wide variation in NA children and is therefore considered a typical form of sociability. Displays of physical contact and intimacy were rare in NA children, suggesting that they represent an atypical pattern of behavior. Both adopted groups demonstrated more physical DSE behavior than NA children. There were no group differences on the nonphysical factor, and it increased over time in all groups. Implications for understanding the etiology of DSE and future directions are discussed. PMID:24621789

  11. Automatic Behavior Pattern Classification for Social Robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, Abraham; Bellas, Francisco; Caamaño, Pilar; Duro, Richard J.

    In this paper, we focus our attention on providing robots with a system that allows them to automatically detect behavior patterns in other robots, as a first step to introducing social responsive robots. The system is called ANPAC (Automatic Neural-based Pattern Classification). Its main feature is that ANPAC automatically adjusts the optimal processing window size and obtains the appropriate features through a dimensional transformation process that allow for the classification of behavioral patterns of large groups of entities from perception datasets. Here we present the basic elements and operation of ANPAC, and illustrate its applicability through the detection of behavior patterns in the motion of flocks.

  12. Social Learning Theory and Group Behavioral Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, David; Balow, Bruce

    This study investigated whether collaborative and socially sensitive behaviors, necessary in group problem solving, can be taught to emotionally disturbed children in residential treatment centers. The sample consisted of 180 males ranging in age from nine through 12 years in 12 residential centers. The children were required to perform a…

  13. Social Background Differences in Early Family Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoen, Robert; Landale, Nancy S.; Daniels, Kimberly; Cheng, Yen-Hsin Alice

    2009-01-01

    Social background has historically been recognized as a major factor influencing family behavior, though recent work has largely emphasized racial/ethnic influences. Here we use 1994 - 1995 and 2001 - 2002 Add Health data to examine the cohabitation, first marriage, and first birth experience of young women. In a multi state life table context,…

  14. Fixed-Time Schedules Attenuate Extinction-Induced Phenomena in the Treatment of Severe Aberrant Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollmer, Timothy R.; Progar, Patrick R.; Lalli, Joseph S.; Van Camp, Carole M.; Sierp, Barbara J.; Wright, Carrie S.; Natasi, Julia; Eisenschink, Kevin J.

    1998-01-01

    A study compared the effects of extinction (EXT) and fixed-time (FT) schedules as treatment for the severe problem behaviors of three individuals with developmental disabilities. During EXT, the reinforcer maintaining problem behavior was withheld. During FT, the reinforcers were presented response independently at preset intervals. FT schedules…

  15. Behavior of Aberrant Chromosome Configurations in Drosophila melanogaster Female Meiosis I

    PubMed Central

    Gilliland, William D.; Colwell, Eileen M.; Lane, Fiona M.; Snouffer, Ashley A.

    2014-01-01

    One essential role of the first meiotic division is to reduce chromosome number by half. Although this is normally accomplished by segregating homologous chromosomes from each other, it is possible for a genome to have one or more chromosomes that lack a homolog (such as compound chromosomes), or have chromosomes with multiple potential homologs (such as in XXY females). These configurations complete meiosis but engage in unusual segregation patterns. In Drosophila melanogaster females carrying two compound chromosomes, the compounds can accurately segregate from each other, a process known as heterologous segregation. Similarly, in XXY females, when the X chromosomes fail to cross over, they often undergo secondary nondisjunction, where both Xs segregate away from the Y. Although both of these processes have been known for decades, the orientation mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Taking advantage of the recent discovery of chromosome congression in female meiosis I, we have examined a number of different aberrant chromosome configurations. We show that these genotypes complete congression normally, with their chromosomes bioriented at metaphase I arrest at the same rates that they segregate, indicating that orientation must be established during prometaphase I before congression. We also show that monovalent chromosomes can move out on the prometaphase I spindle, but the dot 4 chromosomes appear required for this movement. Finally, we show that, similar to achiasmate chromosomes, heterologous chromosomes can be connected by chromatin threads, suggesting a mechanism for how heterochromatic homology establishes these unusual biorientation patterns. PMID:25491942

  16. Behavior of aberrant chromosome configurations in Drosophila melanogaster female meiosis I.

    PubMed

    Gilliland, William D; Colwell, Eileen M; Lane, Fiona M; Snouffer, Ashley A

    2015-02-01

    One essential role of the first meiotic division is to reduce chromosome number by half. Although this is normally accomplished by segregating homologous chromosomes from each other, it is possible for a genome to have one or more chromosomes that lack a homolog (such as compound chromosomes), or have chromosomes with multiple potential homologs (such as in XXY females). These configurations complete meiosis but engage in unusual segregation patterns. In Drosophila melanogaster females carrying two compound chromosomes, the compounds can accurately segregate from each other, a process known as heterologous segregation. Similarly, in XXY females, when the X chromosomes fail to cross over, they often undergo secondary nondisjunction, where both Xs segregate away from the Y. Although both of these processes have been known for decades, the orientation mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Taking advantage of the recent discovery of chromosome congression in female meiosis I, we have examined a number of different aberrant chromosome configurations. We show that these genotypes complete congression normally, with their chromosomes bioriented at metaphase I arrest at the same rates that they segregate, indicating that orientation must be established during prometaphase I before congression. We also show that monovalent chromosomes can move out on the prometaphase I spindle, but the dot 4 chromosomes appear required for this movement. Finally, we show that, similar to achiasmate chromosomes, heterologous chromosomes can be connected by chromatin threads, suggesting a mechanism for how heterochromatic homology establishes these unusual biorientation patterns. PMID:25491942

  17. Defining the Social Phenotype in Williams Syndrome: A Model for Linking Gene, the Brain, and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Järvinen-Pasley, Anna; Bellugi, Ursula; Reilly, Judy; Mills, Debra L.; Galaburda, Albert; Reiss, Allan L.; Korenberg, Julie R.

    2010-01-01

    Research into phenotype-genotype correlations in neurodevelopmental disorders has greatly elucidated the contribution of genetic and neurobiological factors to variations in typical and atypical development. Etiologically relatively homogeneous disorders, such as Williams syndrome (WS), provide unique opportunities for elucidating gene-brain-behavior relationships. WS is a neurogenetic disorder, caused by a hemizygous deletion of approximately 25 genes on chromosome 7q11.23. This results in a cascade of physical, cognitive-behavioral, affective, and neurobiological aberrations. WS is associated with a markedly uneven neurocognitive profile, and the mature state cognitive profile of WS is relatively well developed. Although anecdotally, individuals with WS have been frequently described as unusually friendly and sociable, personality remains a considerably less well-studied area. This paper investigates genetic influences, cognitive-behavioral characteristics, aberrations in brain structure and function, and environmental and biological variables that influence the social outcomes of individuals with WS. We bring together a series of findings across multiple levels of scientific enquiry to examine the social phenotype in WS, reflecting the journey from gene to the brain to behavior. Understanding the complex multilevel scientific perspective in WS has implications for understanding typical social development by identifying important developmental events and markers, as well as helping to define the boundaries of psychopathology. PMID:18211726

  18. Socially guided attention influences infants' communicative behavior.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jennifer L; Gros-Louis, Julie

    2013-12-01

    For effective prelinguistic communication, infants must be able to direct their attention, vocalizations, and nonverbal gestures in social interactions. The purpose of our study was to examine how different styles of caregiver responses influenced infant attentional and communicative behavior in social interactions, based on prior studies that have shown influences of responsiveness on attention, language and cognitive outcomes. Infants were exposed to redirective and sensitive behavior systematically using an ABA design to examine real-time changes in infants' behavior as a function of caregiver responses. During the two baseline "A" periods, caregivers were instructed to play as they would at home. During the social response "B" period, caregivers were instructed to respond sensitively to infants' behavior on one visit and redirectively on the other visit. Results demonstrated that when caregivers behaved redirectively, infants shifted their attention more frequently and decreased the duration of their visual attention. Caregiver responses also resulted in changes in vocal and gesture production. Infants decreased their production of caregiver-directed vocalizations, gestures, and gesture-vocal combinations during in the redirective condition. Results suggest that caregiver sensitive responding to infants' attentional focus may be one influence on infants' attentional and prelinguistic communicative behavior. PMID:23906941

  19. Countervailing Social Network Influences on Problem Behaviors among Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Eric; Stein, Judith A.; Milburn, Norweeta

    2008-01-01

    The impact of countervailing social network influences (i.e., pro-social, anti-social or HIV risk peers) on problem behaviors (i.e., HIV drug risk, HIV sex risk or anti-social behaviors) among 696 homeless youth was assessed using structural equation modeling. Results revealed that older youth were less likely to report having pro-social peers and…

  20. Goals and Social Comparisons Promote Walking Behavior.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Gretchen B; Colby, Helen; Convery, Kimberly; Coups, Elliot J

    2016-05-01

    The effectiveness of a pedometer intervention was affected by manipulating the goals given to participants and by providing social comparison feedback about how participants' performance compared with others. In study 1 (n= 148), university staff members received a low, medium, or high walking goal (10%, 50%, or 100% increase over baseline walking). Participants walked 1358 more steps per day (95% confidence interval [CI], 729, 1985), when receiving a high goal than when receiving a medium goal, but a medium goal did not increase walking relative to a low goal (554 more steps; 95% CI, -71,1179). In study 2 (n= 64), participants received individual feedback only or individual plus social comparison feedback. Participants walked 1120 more steps per day (95% CI, 538, 1703) when receiving social comparison feedback than when receiving only individual feedback. Goals and the performance of others act as reference points and influence the effect that pedometer feedback has on walking behavior, illustrating the applicability of the principles of behavioral economics and social psychology to the design of health behavior interventions. PMID:26139447

  1. Deficits in Social Behavior Emerge during Development after Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Canchola, Sandra A.; Noble-Haeusslein, Linda J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The pediatric brain may be particularly vulnerable to social deficits after traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to the protracted nature of psychosocial development through adolescence. However, the majority of pre-clinical studies fail to assess social outcomes in experimental pediatric TBI. The current study evaluated social behavior in mice subjected to TBI at post-natal day (p)21. Social behaviors were assessed by a partition test, resident-intruder, three-chamber, and tube dominance tasks during adolescence (p35-42) and again during early adulthood (p60-70), during encounters with unfamiliar, naïve stimulus mice. Despite normal olfactory function and normal social behaviors during adolescence, brain-injured mice showed impaired social investigation by adulthood, evidenced by reduced ano-genital sniffing and reduced following of stimulus mice in the resident-intruder task, as well as a loss of preference for sociability in the three-chamber task. TBI mice also lacked a preference for social novelty, suggestive of a deficit in social recognition or memory. By adulthood, brain-injured mice exerted more frequent dominance in the tube task compared to sham-operated controls, a finding suggestive of aggressive tendencies. Together these findings reveal reduced social interaction and a tendency towards increased aggression, which evolves across development to adulthood. This emergence of aberrant social behavior, which parallels the development of other cognitive deficits in this model and behaviors seen in brain-injured children, is consistent with the hypothesis that the full extent of deficits is not realized until the associated skills reach maturity. Thus, efficacy of therapeutics for pediatric TBI should take into account the time-dependent emergence of abnormal behavioral patterns. PMID:22888909

  2. Toward a Neural Basis for Social Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Damian A.; Adolphs, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Nearly 25 years ago, the shared interests of psychologists and biologists in understanding the neural basis of social behavior led to the inception of social neuroscience. In the past decade, this field has exploded, in large part due to the infusion of studies that use fMRI. At the same time, tensions have arisen about how to prioritize a diverse range of questions and about the authority of neurobiological data in answering them. The field is now poised to tackle some of the most interesting and important questions about human and animal behavior but at the same time faces uncertainty about how to achieve focus in its research and cohesion among the scientists who tackle it. The next 25 years offer the opportunity to alleviate some of these growing pains, as well as the challenge of answering large questions that encompass the nature and bounds of diverse social interactions (in humans, including interactions through the internet); how to characterize, and treat, social dysfunction in psychiatric illness; and how to compare social cognition in humans with that in other animals. PMID:24183030

  3. An aberrant precision account of autism

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Rebecca P.; Rees, Geraint; Friston, Karl J.

    2014-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by problems with social-communication, restricted interests and repetitive behavior. A recent and thought-provoking article presented a normative explanation for the perceptual symptoms of autism in terms of a failure of Bayesian inference (Pellicano and Burr, 2012). In response, we suggested that when Bayesian inference is grounded in its neural instantiation—namely, predictive coding—many features of autistic perception can be attributed to aberrant precision (or beliefs about precision) within the context of hierarchical message passing in the brain (Friston et al., 2013). Here, we unpack the aberrant precision account of autism. Specifically, we consider how empirical findings—that speak directly or indirectly to neurobiological mechanisms—are consistent with the aberrant encoding of precision in autism; in particular, an imbalance of the precision ascribed to sensory evidence relative to prior beliefs. PMID:24860482

  4. Glutamatergic transmission aberration: a major cause of behavioral deficits in a murine model of Down's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurjinder; Sharma, Ajay; Xu, Wenjin; Gerum, Scott; Alldred, Melissa J; Subbanna, Shivakumar; Basavarajappa, Balapal S; Pawlik, Monika; Ohno, Masuo; Ginsberg, Stephen D; Wilson, Donald A; Guilfoyle, David N; Levy, Efrat

    2014-04-01

    Trisomy 21, or Down's syndrome (DS), is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability. Altered neurotransmission in the brains of DS patients leads to hippocampus-dependent learning and memory deficiency. Although genetic mouse models have provided important insights into the genes and mechanisms responsible for DS-specific changes, the molecular mechanisms leading to memory deficits are not clear. We investigated whether the segmental trisomy model of DS, Ts[Rb(12.1716)]2Cje (Ts2), exhibits hippocampal glutamatergic transmission abnormalities and whether these alterations cause behavioral deficits. Behavioral assays demonstrated that Ts2 mice display a deficit in nest building behavior, a measure of hippocampus-dependent nonlearned behavior, as well as dysfunctional hippocampus-dependent spatial memory tested in the object-placement and the Y-maze spontaneous alternation tasks. Magnetic resonance spectra measured in the hippocampi revealed a significantly lower glutamate concentration in Ts2 as compared with normal disomic (2N) littermates. The glutamate deficit accompanied hippocampal NMDA receptor1 (NMDA-R1) mRNA and protein expression level downregulation in Ts2 compared with 2N mice. In concert with these alterations, paired-pulse analyses suggested enhanced synaptic inhibition and/or lack of facilitation in the dentate gyrus of Ts2 compared with 2N mice. Ts2 mice also exhibited disrupted synaptic plasticity in slice recordings of the hippocampal CA1 region. Collectively, these findings imply that deficits in glutamate and NMDA-R1 may be responsible for impairments in synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus associated with behavioral dysfunctions in Ts2 mice. Thus, these findings suggest that glutamatergic deficits have a significant role in causing intellectual disabilities in DS. PMID:24719089

  5. Administration of Lactobacillus helveticus NS8 improves behavioral, cognitive, and biochemical aberrations caused by chronic restraint stress.

    PubMed

    Liang, S; Wang, T; Hu, X; Luo, J; Li, W; Wu, X; Duan, Y; Jin, F

    2015-12-01

    Increasing numbers of studies have suggested that the gut microbiota is involved in the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders. Chronic stress can cause behavioral, cognitive, biochemical, and gut microbiota aberrations. Gut bacteria can communicate with the host through the microbiota-gut-brain axis (which mainly includes the immune, neuroendocrine, and neural pathways) to influence brain and behavior. It is hypothesized that administration of probiotics can improve chronic-stress-induced depression. In order to examine this hypothesis, the chronic restraint stress depression model was established in this study. Adult specific pathogen free (SPF) Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 21 days of restraint stress followed by behavioral testing (including the sucrose preference test (SPT), elevated-plus maze test, open-field test (OFT), object recognition test (ORT), and object placement test (OPT)) and biochemical analysis. Supplemental Lactobacillus helveticus NS8 was provided every day during stress until the end of experiment, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram (CIT) served as a positive control. Results showed that L. helveticus NS8 improved chronic restraint stress-induced behavioral (anxiety and depression) and cognitive dysfunction, showing an effect similar to and better than that of CIT. L. helveticus NS8 also resulted in lower plasma corticosterone (CORT) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, higher plasma interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels, restored hippocampal serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) levels, and more hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA expression than in chronic stress rats. Taken together, these results indicate an anti-depressant effect of L. helveticus NS8 in rats subjected to chronic restraint stress depression and that this effect could be due to the microbiota-gut-brain axis. They also suggest the therapeutic potential of L. helveticus NS8 in stress-related and possibly other

  6. Classification of group behaviors in social media via social behavior grammars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levchuk, Georgiy; Getoor, Lise; Smith, Marc

    2014-06-01

    The increasing use of online collaboration and information sharing in the last decade has resulted in explosion of criminal and anti-social activities in online communities. Detection of such behaviors are of interest to commercial enterprises who want to guard themselves from cyber criminals, and the military intelligence analysts who desire to detect and counteract cyberwars waged by adversarial states and organizations. The most challenging behaviors to detect are those involving multiple individuals who share actions and roles in the hostile activities and individually appear benign. To detect these behaviors, the theories of group behaviors and interactions must be developed. In this paper we describe our exploration of the data from collaborative social platform to categorize the behaviors of multiple individuals. We applied graph matching algorithms to explore consistent social interactions. Our research led us to a conclusion that complex collaborative behaviors can be modeled and detected using a concept of group behavior grammars, in a manner analogous to natural language processing. These grammars capture constraints on how people take on roles in virtual environments, form groups, and interact over time, providing the building blocks for scalable and accurate multi-entity interaction analysis and social behavior hypothesis testing.

  7. Social embodiment in directional stepping behavior.

    PubMed

    Stins, John F; Lobel, Adam; Roelofs, Karin; Beek, Peter J

    2014-08-01

    Embodiment theories emphasize the role played by sensory and motor processes in psychological states, such as social information processing. Motivated by this idea, we examined how whole-body postural behaviors couple to social affective cues, viz., pictures of smiling and angry faces. We adopted a Simon-like paradigm, whereby healthy female volunteers were asked to select and initiate a forward or backward step on a force plate in response to the gender of the poser (male/female), regardless of emotion. Detailed analysis of the spatiotemporal unfolding of the body center of pressure during the steps revealed that task-irrelevant emotion had no effect on the initiation times of the steps, i.e., there was no evidence of an affective Simon effect. An unexpected finding was that steps were initiated relatively slow in response to female angry faces. This Stroop-like effect suggests that postural behavior is influenced by whether certain stimulus features match or mismatch. PMID:24362584

  8. Functional-Based Assessment of Social Behavior: Introduction and Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Timothy J.; Sugai, George

    1994-01-01

    This introduction to and overview of a special issue on social behavior assessment within schools discusses the impact of function-based methodologies on assessment and intervention practices in identification and remediation of challenging social behaviors. (JDD)

  9. Group Colocation Behavior in Technological Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Chloë; Lathia, Neal; Mascolo, Cecilia; Noulas, Anastasios; Blondel, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    We analyze two large datasets from technological networks with location and social data: user location records from an online location-based social networking service, and anonymized telecommunications data from a European cellphone operator, in order to investigate the differences between individual and group behavior with respect to physical location. We discover agreements between the two datasets: firstly, that individuals are more likely to meet with one friend at a place they have not visited before, but tend to meet at familiar locations when with a larger group. We also find that groups of individuals are more likely to meet at places that their other friends have visited, and that the type of a place strongly affects the propensity for groups to meet there. These differences between group and solo mobility has potential technological applications, for example, in venue recommendation in location-based social networks. PMID:25148037

  10. Neurobiology of social behavior abnormalities in autism and Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Barak, Boaz; Feng, Guoping

    2016-04-26

    Social behavior is a basic behavior mediated by multiple brain regions and neural circuits, and is crucial for the survival and development of animals and humans. Two neuropsychiatric disorders that have prominent social behavior abnormalities are autism spectrum disorders (ASD), which is characterized mainly by hyposociability, and Williams syndrome (WS), whose subjects exhibit hypersociability. Here we review the unique properties of social behavior in ASD and WS, and discuss the major theories in social behavior in the context of these disorders. We conclude with a discussion of the research questions needing further exploration to enhance our understanding of social behavior abnormalities. PMID:27116389

  11. Nicastrin overexpression in transgenic mice induces aberrant behavior and APP processing.

    PubMed

    Goo, Jun Seo; Kim, Yong Bin; Shim, Sun Bo; Jee, Seung Wan; Lee, Su Hae; Kim, Ji Een; Hwang, In Sik; Lee, Young Ju; Kwak, Moon Hwa; Lim, Chuel Ju; Hong, Jin Tae; Hwang, Dae Youn

    2013-08-01

    Nicastrin (NCT) is a component of the presenilin protein complex, which is involved in the cleavage of β-amyloid precursor protein (βAPP) and Notch. The aim of this study was to determine the manner in which overexpression of wild-type human nicastrin (hNCTw) or mutant human nicastrin (hNCTm, D336A/Y337A) regulates brain functions and amyloid precusor protein (APP) processing. For this, we created transgenic (Tg) mice expressing neuron-specific enolase (NSE)-controlled hNCTw or hNCTm and measured their phenotypes as time passed. The NSE/hNCTw and NSE/hNCTm Tg groups exhibited greater behavioral dysfunction from 10 months of age than the non-Tg group, although their severities differed. Further, activity and component levels of the γ-secretase complex were significantly elevated in NSE/hNCTw Tg mice, expect for PEN-2. These alterations induced stimulation of APP processing, resulting in overproduction of Aβ-42 peptide in the NSE/hNCTw Tg group, whereas the NSE/hNCTm Tg group showed a comparatively weaker effect. Furthermore, the highest expression levels of β-secretase and NICD were observed in the NSE/hNCTw Tg group, similar to other phenotypes. Especially, a significances interference on the interaction between NCT and γ-secretase substrates was detected in NSE/hNCTm Tg groups compare with NSE/hNCTw Tg group. These results indicate that hNCTw overexpression in Tg mice promoted active assembly of the γ-secretase complex through modulation of APP processing and behavior, whereas the lesser effect in NSE/hNCTm Tg mice was due to reduced expression of hNCTm. These Tg mice could be useful for the development and application of therapeutic drugs in an animal model of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:23595812

  12. Aberrant Activation of Notch Signaling Inhibits PROX1 Activity to Enhance the Malignant Behavior of Thyroid Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dongwon; Ramu, Swapnika; Park, Eunkyung; Jung, Eunson; Yang, Sara; Jung, Wonhyeuk; Choi, Inho; Lee, Sunju; Kim, Kyu Eui; Seong, Young Jin; Hong, Mingu; Daghlian, George; Kim, Daniel; Shin, Eugene; Seo, Jung In; Khatchadourian, Vicken; Zou, Mengchen; Li, Wei; De Filippo, Roger; Kokorowski, Paul; Chang, Andy; Kim, Steve; Bertoni, Ana; Furlanetto, Tania Weber; Shin, Sung; Li, Meng; Chen, Yibu; Wong, Alex; Koh, Chester; Geliebter, Jan; Hong, Young-Kwon

    2016-02-01

    Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is one of the most common endocrine malignancies associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although multiple studies have contributed to a better understanding of the genetic alterations underlying this frequently arising disease, the downstream molecular effectors that impact PTC pathogenesis remain to be further defined. Here, we report that the regulator of cell fate specification, PROX1, becomes inactivated in PTC through mRNA downregulation and cytoplasmic mislocalization. Expression studies in clinical specimens revealed that aberrantly activated NOTCH signaling promoted PROX1 downregulation and that cytoplasmic mislocalization significantly altered PROX1 protein stability. Importantly, restoration of PROX1 activity in thyroid carcinoma cells revealed that PROX1 not only enhanced Wnt/β-catenin signaling but also regulated several genes known to be associated with PTC, including thyroid cancer protein (TC)-1, SERPINA1, and FABP4. Furthermore, PROX1 reexpression suppressed the malignant phenotypes of thyroid carcinoma cells, such as proliferation, motility, adhesion, invasion, anchorage-independent growth, and polyploidy. Moreover, animal xenograft studies demonstrated that restoration of PROX1 severely impeded tumor formation and suppressed the invasiveness and the nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio of PTC cells. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that NOTCH-induced PROX1 inactivation significantly promotes the malignant behavior of thyroid carcinoma and suggest that PROX1 reactivation may represent a potential therapeutic strategy to attenuate disease progression. PMID:26609053

  13. Stress, social behavior, and resilience: Insights from rodents

    PubMed Central

    Beery, Annaliese K.; Kaufer, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    The neurobiology of stress and the neurobiology of social behavior are deeply intertwined. The social environment interacts with stress on almost every front: social interactions can be potent stressors; they can buffer the response to an external stressor; and social behavior often changes in response to stressful life experience. This review explores mechanistic and behavioral links between stress, anxiety, resilience, and social behavior in rodents, with particular attention to different social contexts. We consider variation between several different rodent species and make connections to research on humans and non-human primates. PMID:25562050

  14. Validity and Reliability of the Behavior Problems Inventory, the Aberrant Behavior Checklist, and the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised among Infants and Toddlers at Risk for Developmental Disabilities: A Multi-Method Assessment Approach

    PubMed Central

    Rojahn, Johannes; Schroeder, Stephen R.; Mayo-Ortega, Liliana; Oyama-Ganiko, Rosao; LeBlanc, Judith; Marquis, Janet; Berke, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with developmental disabilities (DD) are at a heightened risk of developing aberrant behaviors during the course of their lives. Reliable and valid assessment of such behaviors is an important element in empirically verifying successful prevention and intervention. Only a few instruments exist which were developed for behavior problems in children of a young age. The purpose of the current longitudinal study was to examine the performance of three behavior-rating instruments for individuals with developmental disabilities that have been proven useful and psychometrically sound in older populations: the Behavior Problems Inventory (BPI-01), the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), the Repetitive Behavior Scale – Revised (RBS-R). Data were analyzed for 180 children at risk for a developmental disability in Lima, Peru who were involved in active behavioral treatment for behavior problems. Cronbach’s alpha of all three measures showed variable internal consistency across the subscales of the three instruments. BPI-01 test-retest reliability for its three subscales over three times of measurement within approximately a 12 months period showed ICC coefficients ranging between .68 to .77 for frequency ratings and .65 to .80 for severity ratings. Using a multitrait-multimethod matrix approach for the constructs self-injurious behavior (SIB), stereotyped behavior, and aggressive/destructive behavior, we found high levels of convergent and discriminant validity across the three instruments. Sensitivity of the SIB and the Stereotyped Behavior subscales of the BPI-01, the RBS-R, and the ABC showed that while there was some overlap between the three instruments, each scale contributed unique information. This was especially true for stereotyped behavior. In addition, since each one of the three instruments contains subscales that are not represented by the others, it merits to consider using all three scales together. PMID:23511345

  15. Neurogenetic interactions and aberrant behavioral co-morbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): dispelling myths

    PubMed Central

    Comings, David E; Chen, Thomas JH; Blum, Kenneth; Mengucci, Julie F; Blum, Seth H; Meshkin, Brian

    2005-01-01

    Background Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, commonly referred to as ADHD, is a common, complex, predominately genetic but highly treatable disorder, which in its more severe form has such a profound effect on brain function that every aspect of the life of an affected individual may be permanently compromised. Despite the broad base of scientific investigation over the past 50 years supporting this statement, there are still many misconceptions about ADHD. These include believing the disorder does not exist, that all children have symptoms of ADHD, that if it does exist it is grossly over-diagnosed and over-treated, and that the treatment is dangerous and leads to a propensity to drug addiction. Since most misconceptions contain elements of truth, where does the reality lie? Results We have reviewed the literature to evaluate some of the claims and counter-claims. The evidence suggests that ADHD is primarily a polygenic disorder involving at least 50 genes, including those encoding enzymes of neurotransmitter metabolism, neurotransmitter transporters and receptors. Because of its polygenic nature, ADHD is often accompanied by other behavioral abnormalities. It is present in adults as well as children, but in itself it does not necessarily impair function in adult life; associated disorders, however, may do so. A range of treatment options is reviewed and the mechanisms responsible for the efficacy of standard drug treatments are considered. Conclusion The genes so far implicated in ADHD account for only part of the total picture. Identification of the remaining genes and characterization of their interactions is likely to establish ADHD firmly as a biological disorder and to lead to better methods of diagnosis and treatment. PMID:16375770

  16. Behavioral Confirmation in Social Interaction: From Social Perception to Social Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Mark; Swann, William B., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Of what importance are our impressions and perceptions of others? This empirical investigation suggests that social perceptions can and do exert powerful channeling effects on subsequent social interaction such that actual behavioral confirmation of these beliefs is produced. Outlines a theoretical account of the processes believed to underlie…

  17. Impaired Social Behavior in 5-HT3A Receptor Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Smit-Rigter, Laura A.; Wadman, Wytse J.; van Hooft, Johannes A.

    2010-01-01

    The 5-HT3 receptor is a ligand-gated ion channel expressed on interneurons throughout the brain. So far, analysis of the 5-HT3A knockout mouse revealed changes in nociceptive processing and a reduction in anxiety related behavior. Recently, it was shown that the 5-HT3 receptor is also expressed on Cajal-Retzius cells which play a key role in cortical development and that knockout mice lacking this receptor showed aberrant growth of the dendritic tree of cortical layer II/III pyramidal neurons. Other mouse models in which serotonergic signaling was disrupted during development showed similar morphological changes in the cortex, and in addition, also deficits in social behavior. Here, we subjected male and female 5-HT3A knockout mice and their non-transgenic littermates to several tests of social behavior. We found that 5-HT3A knockout mice display impaired social communication in the social transmission of food preference task. Interestingly, we showed that in the social interaction test only female 5-HT3A knockout mice spent less time in reciprocal social interaction starting after 5 min of testing. Moreover, we observed differences in preference for social novelty for male and female 5-HT3A knockout mice during the social approach test. However, no changes in olfaction, exploratory activity and anxiety were detected. These results indicate that the 5-HT3A knockout mouse displays impaired social behavior with specific changes in males and females, reminiscent to other mouse models in which serotonergic signaling is disturbed in the developing brain. PMID:21103015

  18. When does "economic man" dominate social behavior?

    PubMed

    Camerer, Colin F; Fehr, Ernst

    2006-01-01

    The canonical model in economics considers people to be rational and self-regarding. However, much evidence challenges this view, raising the question of when "Economic Man" dominates the outcome of social interactions, and when bounded rationality or other-regarding preferences dominate. Here we show that strategic incentives are the key to answering this question. A minority of self-regarding individuals can trigger a "noncooperative" aggregate outcome if their behavior generates incentives for the majority of other-regarding individuals to mimic the minority's behavior. Likewise, a minority of other-regarding individuals can generate a "cooperative" aggregate outcome if their behavior generates incentives for a majority of self-regarding people to behave cooperatively. Similarly, in strategic games, aggregate outcomes can be either far from or close to Nash equilibrium if players with high degrees of strategic thinking mimic or erase the effects of others who do very little strategic thinking. Recently developed theories of other-regarding preferences and bounded rationality explain these findings and provide better predictions of actual aggregate behavior than does traditional economic theory. PMID:16400140

  19. Polarization Aberrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguire, James P., Jr.; Chipman, Russell A.

    1990-01-01

    The analysis of the polarization characteristics displayed by optical systems can be divided into two categories: geometrical and physical. Geometrical analysis calculates the change in polarization of a wavefront between pupils in an optical instrument. Physical analysis propagates the polarized fields wherever the geometrical analysis is not valid, i.e., near the edges of stops, near images, in anisotropic media, etc. Polarization aberration theory provides a starting point for geometrical design and facilitates subsequent optimization. The polarization aberrations described arise from differences in the transmitted (or reflected) amplitudes and phases at interfaces. The polarization aberration matrix (PAM) is calculated for isotropic rotationally symmetric systems through fourth order and includes the interface phase, amplitude, linear diattenuation, and linear retardance aberrations. The exponential form of Jones matrices used are discussed. The PAM in Jones matrix is introduced. The exact calculation of polarization aberrations through polarization ray tracing is described. The report is divided into three sections: I. Rotationally Symmetric Optical Systems; II. Tilted and Decentered Optical Systems; and Polarization Analysis of LIDARs.

  20. Evolved differences in larval social behavior mediated by novel pheromones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pheromones, chemical signals that convey social information, mediate many insect social behaviors in both adult and immature stages. Multiple pheromones and neural pathways that underlie adult social behavior have been described in the genetic model organism, Drosophila melanogaster, but there is no...

  1. Social Isolation Rearing: Species Differences in Behavior of Macaque Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sackett, Gene P.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Social and nonsocial behaviors of infant rhesus (macaca mulatta) and pigtail (M. nemestrina) monkeys reared in total social isolation were compared with those of socialized controls. Results question the generality of rhesus total isolate behavior as a model for some human problems. (Author/SB)

  2. Unemployment, Social Support, Individual Resources, and Job Search Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slebarska, Katarzyna; Moser, Klaus; Gunnesch-Luca, George

    2009-01-01

    The authors investigated the relation between the social support received by unemployed individuals (N = 104) and their job search behavior. A moderated mediation model demonstrated that the effect of social support on job search behaviors was mediated by self-esteem but only if adequacy of social support was perceived as low. In addition, the…

  3. Defective quorum sensing of acute lymphoblastic leukemic cells: evidence of collective behavior of leukemic populations as semi-autonomous aberrant ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sapan J; Dao, Su; Darie, Costel C; Clarkson, Bayard D

    2016-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a generic term used to describe cell-cell communication and collective decision making by bacterial and social insects to regulate the expression of specific genes in controlling cell density and other properties of the populations in response to nutrient supply or changes in the environment. QS mechanisms also have a role in higher organisms in maintaining homeostasis, regulation of the immune system and collective behavior of cancer cell populations. In the present study, we used a p190BCR-ABL driven pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL3) cell line derived from the pleural fluid of a terminally ill patient with ALL to test the QS hypothesis in leukemia. ALL3 cells don’t grow at low density (LD) in liquid media but grow progressively faster at increasingly high cell densities (HD) in contrast to other established leukemic cell lines that grow well at very low starting cell densities. The ALL3 cells at LD are poised to grow but shortly die without additional stimulation. Supernates of ALL3 cells (HDSN) and some other primary cells grown at HD stimulate the growth of the LD ALL3 cells without which they won’t survive. To get further insight into the activation processes we performed microarray analysis of the LD ALL3 cells after stimulation with ALL3 HDSN at days 1, 3, and 6. This screen identified several candidate genes, and we linked them to signaling networks and their functions. We observed that genes involved in lipid, cholesterol, fatty acid metabolism, and B cell activation are most up- or down-regulated upon stimulation of the LD ALL3 cells using HDSN. We also discuss other pathways that are differentially expressed upon stimulation of the LD ALL3 cells. Our findings suggest that the Ph+ ALL population achieves dominance by functioning as a collective aberrant ecosystem subject to defective quorum-sensing regulatory mechanisms. PMID:27429840

  4. Defective quorum sensing of acute lymphoblastic leukemic cells: evidence of collective behavior of leukemic populations as semi-autonomous aberrant ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sapan J; Dao, Su; Darie, Costel C; Clarkson, Bayard D

    2016-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a generic term used to describe cell-cell communication and collective decision making by bacterial and social insects to regulate the expression of specific genes in controlling cell density and other properties of the populations in response to nutrient supply or changes in the environment. QS mechanisms also have a role in higher organisms in maintaining homeostasis, regulation of the immune system and collective behavior of cancer cell populations. In the present study, we used a p190(BCR-ABL) driven pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL3) cell line derived from the pleural fluid of a terminally ill patient with ALL to test the QS hypothesis in leukemia. ALL3 cells don't grow at low density (LD) in liquid media but grow progressively faster at increasingly high cell densities (HD) in contrast to other established leukemic cell lines that grow well at very low starting cell densities. The ALL3 cells at LD are poised to grow but shortly die without additional stimulation. Supernates of ALL3 cells (HDSN) and some other primary cells grown at HD stimulate the growth of the LD ALL3 cells without which they won't survive. To get further insight into the activation processes we performed microarray analysis of the LD ALL3 cells after stimulation with ALL3 HDSN at days 1, 3, and 6. This screen identified several candidate genes, and we linked them to signaling networks and their functions. We observed that genes involved in lipid, cholesterol, fatty acid metabolism, and B cell activation are most up- or down-regulated upon stimulation of the LD ALL3 cells using HDSN. We also discuss other pathways that are differentially expressed upon stimulation of the LD ALL3 cells. Our findings suggest that the Ph+ ALL population achieves dominance by functioning as a collective aberrant ecosystem subject to defective quorum-sensing regulatory mechanisms. PMID:27429840

  5. Breaks Are Better: A Tier II Social Behavior Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, R. Justin; Anderson, Cynthia M.

    2013-01-01

    Multi-tiered systems of social behavioral support in schools provide varying levels of intervention matched to student need. Tier I (primary or universal) systems are for all students and are designed to promote pro-social behavior. Tier III (tertiary or intensive) supports are for students who engage in serious challenging behavior that has not…

  6. Individual behavior, culture, and social change

    PubMed Central

    Glenn, Sigrid S.

    2004-01-01

    The principle of operant selection is examined as a prototype of cultural selection, and the role of the social environment is suggested as the critical element in the emergence of cultural phenomena. Operant contingencies are compared to cultural selection contingencies, designated as metacontingencies. Both of these types of contingency relations result in evolving lineages of recurrences that can become increasingly complex in the number and organization of their elements. In addition to its role in the recurring interlocking behavioral contingencies that constitute cultural organization, operant behavior plays another role in cultures. Although the operants of individuals are functionally independent of one another, the behavior of each person may contribute to a cumulative effect that is relevant to the well-being of many people. Similarly, the outcomes of metacontingencies may also contribute to a cumulative effect. The relation between independently evolving operant lineages, or between independently evolving cultural lineages, and their cumulative effect is identified as a macrocontingency. Macrocontingencies do not involve cultural-level selection per se. Effective cultural engineering requires identifying the macrocontingencies that produce less than desirable effects and altering the relevant operant contingencies or metacontingencies to produce change in the cumulative effects. PMID:22478424

  7. Human behavior in online social systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowski, A.

    2009-06-01

    We present and study data concerning human behavior in four online social systems: (i) an Internet community of friends of over 107 people, (ii) a music community website with over 106 users, (iii) a gamers’ community server with over 5 × 106 users and (iv) a booklovers’ website with over 2.5 × 105 users. The purpose of those systems is different; however, their properties are very similar. We have found that the distribution of human activity (e.g., the sum of books read or songs played) has the form of a power law. Moreover, the relationship between human activity and time has a power-law form, too. We present a simple interest-driven model of the evolution of such systems which explains the emergence of two scaling regimes.

  8. Appropriate Social Behavior: Teaching Expectations to Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Deborah Russell; Pool, Juli Lull

    2012-01-01

    Young children's challenging behavior can impact all aspects of the classroom environment, including relationships (peer-peer, student-teacher), learning, and safety. Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (PBIS) is a program that focuses on supporting pro-social behaviors and preventing challenging behavior. PBIS begins with building a…

  9. Individual differences in toddlers' social understanding and prosocial behavior: disposition or socialization?

    PubMed

    Gross, Rebekkah L; Drummond, Jesse; Satlof-Bedrick, Emma; Waugh, Whitney E; Svetlova, Margarita; Brownell, Celia A

    2015-01-01

    We examined how individual differences in social understanding contribute to variability in early-appearing prosocial behavior. Moreover, potential sources of variability in social understanding were explored and examined as additional possible predictors of prosocial behavior. Using a multi-method approach with both observed and parent-report measures, 325 children aged 18-30 months were administered measures of social understanding (e.g., use of emotion words; self-understanding), prosocial behavior (in separate tasks measuring instrumental helping, empathic helping, and sharing, as well as parent-reported prosociality at home), temperament (fearfulness, shyness, and social fear), and parental socialization of prosocial behavior in the family. Individual differences in social understanding predicted variability in empathic helping and parent-reported prosociality, but not instrumental helping or sharing. Parental socialization of prosocial behavior was positively associated with toddlers' social understanding, prosocial behavior at home, and instrumental helping in the lab, and negatively associated with sharing (possibly reflecting parents' increased efforts to encourage children who were less likely to share). Further, socialization moderated the association between social understanding and prosocial behavior, such that social understanding was less predictive of prosocial behavior among children whose parents took a more active role in socializing their prosociality. None of the dimensions of temperament was associated with either social understanding or prosocial behavior. Parental socialization of prosocial behavior is thus an important source of variability in children's early prosociality, acting in concert with early differences in social understanding, with different patterns of influence for different subtypes of prosocial behavior. PMID:26029139

  10. Individual differences in toddlers’ social understanding and prosocial behavior: disposition or socialization?

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Rebekkah L.; Drummond, Jesse; Satlof-Bedrick, Emma; Waugh, Whitney E.; Svetlova, Margarita; Brownell, Celia A.

    2015-01-01

    We examined how individual differences in social understanding contribute to variability in early-appearing prosocial behavior. Moreover, potential sources of variability in social understanding were explored and examined as additional possible predictors of prosocial behavior. Using a multi-method approach with both observed and parent-report measures, 325 children aged 18–30 months were administered measures of social understanding (e.g., use of emotion words; self-understanding), prosocial behavior (in separate tasks measuring instrumental helping, empathic helping, and sharing, as well as parent-reported prosociality at home), temperament (fearfulness, shyness, and social fear), and parental socialization of prosocial behavior in the family. Individual differences in social understanding predicted variability in empathic helping and parent-reported prosociality, but not instrumental helping or sharing. Parental socialization of prosocial behavior was positively associated with toddlers’ social understanding, prosocial behavior at home, and instrumental helping in the lab, and negatively associated with sharing (possibly reflecting parents’ increased efforts to encourage children who were less likely to share). Further, socialization moderated the association between social understanding and prosocial behavior, such that social understanding was less predictive of prosocial behavior among children whose parents took a more active role in socializing their prosociality. None of the dimensions of temperament was associated with either social understanding or prosocial behavior. Parental socialization of prosocial behavior is thus an important source of variability in children’s early prosociality, acting in concert with early differences in social understanding, with different patterns of influence for different subtypes of prosocial behavior. PMID:26029139

  11. Dietary Behaviors among Fourth Graders: A Social Cognitive Theory Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corwin, Sara J.; Sargent, Roger G.; Rheaume, Carol E.; Saunders, Ruth P.

    1999-01-01

    Examined the impact of behavioral, personal, and environmental factors on fourth graders' dietary practices, using a social cognitive theory framework. Survey results highlighted social cognitive variables that significantly influenced dietary behaviors: gender, race, socioeconomic status, fruit and vegetable availability at home, nutrition…

  12. Children's Behavioral Characteristics and Their Ability to Detect Social Contingency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Normandeau, Sylvie; Cantin, Stephane

    Studies have suggested that the presence of individual differences in children's ability to detect social contingencies may be related to their behavioral characteristics, as a result of cumulative transactions with their physical and social environments. This study sought to identify behavioral characteristics associated with children's ability…

  13. Genetic and Environmental Etiology of Social Behavior in Infancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plomin, Robert; Rowe, David C.

    1979-01-01

    A twin analysis was applied to infants' social behavior in standardized situations that permitted the comparison of social responding to mother and a stranger in different contexts. Twenty-one identical twin pairs and twenty-five fraternal twin pairs were observed in their homes using time-sampled observations of specific behaviors. (Author/SS)

  14. Social Validity of a Positive Behavior Interventions and Support Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miramontes, Nancy Y.; Marchant, Michelle; Heath, Melissa Allen; Fischer, Lane

    2011-01-01

    As more schools turn to positive behavior interventions and support (PBIS) to address students' academic and behavioral problems, there is an increased need to adequately evaluate these programs for social relevance. The present study used social validation measures to evaluate a statewide PBIS initiative. Active consumers of the program were…

  15. Social Problem Solving and Health Behaviors of Undergraduate Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Timothy R.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Examines the relationship of social problem solving to health behaviors as reported by 126 undergraduate students. Findings revealed significant relationships between elements of social problem solving and wellness and accident prevention behaviors, and traffic and substance risk taking. However, correlations revealed differences between men and…

  16. Homophily and health behavior in social networks of older adults

    PubMed Central

    Flatt, Jason D.; Agimi, Yll; Albert, Steve M.

    2016-01-01

    A common network phenomenon, homophily, involves developing relationships with others that are similar to you. The intent of this study was to determine if older adults’ health behaviors were shared within social networks. We interviewed older adults from low-income senior housing (egos) on egocentric social network characteristics and key health behaviors for themselves and for named social ties (alters). Findings suggest strong effects for homophily, especially for those who smoked and were physically inactive. Public health interventions for older adults should consider the influence that social relationships have on personal health behaviors. Network-based interventions may be required. PMID:22929377

  17. Using Social Stories to Improve the Social Behavior of Children with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sansosti, Frank J.; Powell-Smith, Kelly A.

    2006-01-01

    To date, the empirical support for the use of social story interventions for children with Asperger syndrome (AS) is small. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of individualized social story interventions on the social behavior of three children with AS. Using a multiple-baseline-across-participants design, social stories were…

  18. Evaluating Social Learning Behaviors in the Open Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swick, Kevin; Lamb, Morris

    A brief overview describes the necessary components of an effective social learning evaluation system for the open classroom. In order to develop such a social learning evaluation system one must: (1) organize the evaluation system around the progress and needs of the child, (2) identify the kinds of social learning behaviors to be assessed, (3)…

  19. Aggressive and Prosocial Behaviors: The Social Success of Bistrategic Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurster, Tabitha; Xie, Hongling

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the social functioning of bistrategic youths (i.e., those who employ both aggressive and prosocial behavior) in order to further understand their social competence in peer social networks. Within our sample of 318 fifth-grade participants recruited from an urban school district in the northeastern US, bistrategic preadolescents…

  20. Networking for philanthropy: increasing volunteer behavior via social networking sites.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoojung; Lee, Wei-Na

    2014-03-01

    Social networking sites (SNSs) provide a unique social venue to engage the young generation in philanthropy through their networking capabilities. An integrated model that incorporates social capital into the Theory of Reasoned Action is developed to explain volunteer behavior through social networks. As expected, volunteer behavior was predicted by volunteer intention, which was influenced by attitudes and subjective norms. In addition, social capital, an outcome of the extensive use of SNSs, was as an important driver of users' attitude and subjective norms toward volunteering via SNSs. PMID:24102569

  1. Stressing out the Social Network.

    PubMed

    Kirkby, Lowry A; Sohal, Vikaas S

    2016-07-20

    In this issue of Neuron, Hultman et al. (2016) find that stress-induced abnormal social behavior reflects aberrant prefrontal regulation of downstream limbic networks. This illustrates how linking aberrant network dynamics to neuropsychiatric disorders may lead to new circuit-based therapeutic interventions. PMID:27477012

  2. Left brain cortical activity modulates stress effects on social behavior.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunee; Hong, Jiso; Park, Young-Gyun; Chae, Sujin; Kim, Yong; Kim, Daesoo

    2015-01-01

    When subjected to stress, some individuals develop maladaptive symptoms whereas others retain normal behavior. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is known to control these adaptive responses to stress. Here, we show that mPFC neurons in the left hemisphere control stress effects on social behavior. Mice made socially avoidant by the stress of chronic social defeats showed depressed neural activity in the left mPFC. Photoactivation of these neurons reversed social avoidance and restored social activity. Despite social defeats, resilient mice with normal sociability showed normal firing rates in the left mPFC; however, photoinhibition of these neurons induced social avoidance. The same photomodulation administered to the right mPFC caused no significant effects. These results explain how stressed individuals develop maladaptive behaviors through left cortical depression, as reported in mood and anxiety disorders. PMID:26302668

  3. Left brain cortical activity modulates stress effects on social behavior

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eunee; Hong, Jiso; Park, Young-Gyun; Chae, Sujin; Kim, Yong; Kim, Daesoo

    2015-01-01

    When subjected to stress, some individuals develop maladaptive symptoms whereas others retain normal behavior. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is known to control these adaptive responses to stress. Here, we show that mPFC neurons in the left hemisphere control stress effects on social behavior. Mice made socially avoidant by the stress of chronic social defeats showed depressed neural activity in the left mPFC. Photoactivation of these neurons reversed social avoidance and restored social activity. Despite social defeats, resilient mice with normal sociability showed normal firing rates in the left mPFC; however, photoinhibition of these neurons induced social avoidance. The same photomodulation administered to the right mPFC caused no significant effects. These results explain how stressed individuals develop maladaptive behaviors through left cortical depression, as reported in mood and anxiety disorders. PMID:26302668

  4. The Synaptic Impact of the Host Immune Response in a Parkinsonian Allograft Rat Model: Influence on Graft-Derived Aberrant Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Soderstrom, KE; Meredith, G; Freeman, TB; McGuire, SO; Collier, TJ; Sortwell, CE; Wu, Qun; Steece-Collier, K

    2010-01-01

    Graft-induced dyskinesias (GIDs), side-effects found in clinical grafting trials for Parkinson’s disease (PD), may be associated with the withdrawal of immunosuppression. The goal of this study was to determine the role of the immune response in GIDs. We examined levodopa-induced dyskinesias (LIDs), GIDs-like behaviors, and synaptic ultrastructure in levodopa-treated, grafted, parkinsonian rats with mild (sham), moderate (allografts) or high (allografts plus peripheral spleen cell injections) immune activation. Grafts attenuated amphetamine-induced rotations and LIDs, but two abnormal motor syndromes (tapping stereotypy, litter retrieval/chewing) emerged and increased with escalating immune activation. Immunohistochemical analyses confirmed immune activation and graft survival. Ultrastructural analyses showed increases in tyrosine hydroxylase-positive (TH+) axo-dendritic synapses, TH+ asymmetric specializations, and non-TH+ perforated synapses in grafted, compared to intact, striata. These features were exacerbated in rats with the highest immune activation and correlated statistically with GIDs-like behaviors, suggesting immune-mediated aberrant synaptology may contribute to graft-induced aberrant behaviors. PMID:18672063

  5. The Vertebrate Social Behavior Network: Evolutionary Themes and Variations

    PubMed Central

    Goodson, James L.

    2008-01-01

    Based on a wide variety of data, it is now clear that the brains of birds and teleost (bony) fish possess a core “social behavior network” within the basal forebrain and midbrain that is homologous to the social behavior network of mammals. The nodes of this network are reciprocally connected, contain receptors for sex steroid hormones, and are involved in multiple forms of social behavior. Other hodological features and neuropeptide distributions are likewise very similar across taxa. This evolutionary conservation represents a boon for experiments on phenotypic behavioral variation, as the extraordinary social diversity of teleost fish and songbirds can now be used to generate broadly relevant insights into issues of brain function that are not particularly tractable in other vertebrate groups. Two such lines of research are presented here, each of which addresses functional variation within the network as it relates to divergent patterns of social behavior. In the first set of experiments, we have used a sexually polymorphic fish to demonstrate that natural selection can operate independently on hypothalamic neuroendocrine functions that are relevant for 1) gonadal regulation and 2) sex-typical behavioral modulation. In the second set of experiments, we have exploited the diversity of avian social organizations and ecologies to isolate species-typical group size as a quasi-independent variable. These experiments have shown that specific areas and peptidergic components of the social behavior network possess functional properties that evolve in parallel with divergence and convergence in sociality. PMID:15885690

  6. Social isolation during puberty affects female sexual behavior in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kercmar, Jasmina; Tobet, Stuart A.; Majdic, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to stress during puberty can lead to long-term behavioral alterations in adult rodents coincident with sex steroid hormone-dependent brain remodeling and reorganization. Social isolation is a stress for social animals like mice, but little is known about the effects of such stress during adolescence on later reproductive behaviors. The present study examined sexual behavior of ovariectomized, estradiol and progesterone primed female mice that were individually housed from 25 days of age until testing at approximately 95 days, or individually housed from day 25 until day 60 (during puberty), followed by housing in social groups. Mice in these isolated groups were compared to females that were group housed throughout the experiment. Receptive sexual behaviors of females and behaviors of stimulus males were recorded. Females housed in social groups displayed greater levels of receptive behaviors in comparison to both socially isolated groups. Namely, social females had higher lordosis quotients (LQs) and more often displayed stronger lordosis postures in comparison to isolated females. No differences between female groups were observed in stimulus male sexual behavior suggesting that female “attractiveness” was not affected by their social isolation. Females housed in social groups had fewer cells containing immunoreactive estrogen receptor (ER) α in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) and in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) than both isolated groups. These results suggest that isolation during adolescence affects female sexual behavior and re-socialization for 1 month in adulthood is insufficient to rescue lordosis behavior from the effects of social isolation during the pubertal period. PMID:25324747

  7. Brain Evolution: The Origins of Social and Cognitive Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLean, Paul

    1983-01-01

    Argues that common anatomical and functional characteristics exist among the brains of reptiles, mammals, and man--the most significant commonality for educators being social behavior. Illustrates inherited behavior, including behavior observed in classroom and believed to be learned by placing it in context of a model "triune" (reptilian,…

  8. Teachers' Perspectives on Student Problematic Behavior and Social Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riney, Summer Sides; Bullock, Lyndal M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined program outcomes of student problem behavior and social skills, based on teachers' perspectives, before and after early behavioral intervention services. The study targeted students in kindergarten through grade 5 who were identified by the school system as being at risk for emotional and behavioral disorders. Students…

  9. Social behaviors as determined by different arrangements of social consequences: diffusion of responsibility effects with competition.

    PubMed

    Guerin, Bernard

    2003-06-01

    According to a recently proposed synthesis, social loafing, social facilitation, and deindividuation can be viewed as different ways of arranging social consequences (B. Guerin, 1999). The effects of such arrangements have been measured in past research as productive output (social loafing and social facilitation) or as antinormative behaviors (deindividuation), but all 3 effects are manipulable by changing individual identifiability, evaluation, social identity, task difficulty, and presence in a group. The synthesis also predicted that these same variables would apply to other measures and other arrangements of social consequences. To this end, in the present 2 experiments, the author varied the arrangements for consequence diffusion in a competition situation by varying small and large competing groups and measured productive output and antinormative behaviors simultaneously. The 2 experiments showed social-consequence effects in competition situations with college students, giving further support for the social-consequence synthesis and the idea that the verbal naming of phenomena in social psychology is arbitrary. PMID:12846515

  10. Behavior Based Social Dimensions Extraction for Multi-Label Classification.

    PubMed

    Li, Le; Xu, Junyi; Xiao, Weidong; Ge, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Classification based on social dimensions is commonly used to handle the multi-label classification task in heterogeneous networks. However, traditional methods, which mostly rely on the community detection algorithms to extract the latent social dimensions, produce unsatisfactory performance when community detection algorithms fail. In this paper, we propose a novel behavior based social dimensions extraction method to improve the classification performance in multi-label heterogeneous networks. In our method, nodes' behavior features, instead of community memberships, are used to extract social dimensions. By introducing Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) to model the network generation process, nodes' connection behaviors with different communities can be extracted accurately, which are applied as latent social dimensions for classification. Experiments on various public datasets reveal that the proposed method can obtain satisfactory classification results in comparison to other state-of-the-art methods on smaller social dimensions. PMID:27049849

  11. Behavior Based Social Dimensions Extraction for Multi-Label Classification

    PubMed Central

    Li, Le; Xu, Junyi; Xiao, Weidong; Ge, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Classification based on social dimensions is commonly used to handle the multi-label classification task in heterogeneous networks. However, traditional methods, which mostly rely on the community detection algorithms to extract the latent social dimensions, produce unsatisfactory performance when community detection algorithms fail. In this paper, we propose a novel behavior based social dimensions extraction method to improve the classification performance in multi-label heterogeneous networks. In our method, nodes’ behavior features, instead of community memberships, are used to extract social dimensions. By introducing Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) to model the network generation process, nodes’ connection behaviors with different communities can be extracted accurately, which are applied as latent social dimensions for classification. Experiments on various public datasets reveal that the proposed method can obtain satisfactory classification results in comparison to other state-of-the-art methods on smaller social dimensions. PMID:27049849

  12. The role of the striatum in social behavior

    PubMed Central

    Báez-Mendoza, Raymundo; Schultz, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    Where and how does the brain code reward during social behavior? Almost all elements of the brain's reward circuit are modulated during social behavior. The striatum in particular is activated by rewards in social situations. However, its role in social behavior is still poorly understood. Here, we attempt to review its participation in social behaviors of different species ranging from voles to humans. Human fMRI experiments show that the striatum is reliably active in relation to others' rewards, to reward inequity and also while learning about social agents. Social contact and rearing conditions have long-lasting effects on behavior, striatal anatomy and physiology in rodents and primates. The striatum also plays a critical role in pair-bond formation and maintenance in monogamous voles. We review recent findings from single neuron recordings showing that the striatum contains cells that link own reward to self or others' actions. These signals might be used to solve the agency-credit assignment problem: the question of whose action was responsible for the reward. Activity in the striatum has been hypothesized to integrate actions with rewards. The picture that emerges from this review is that the striatum is a general-purpose subcortical region capable of integrating social information into coding of social action and reward. PMID:24339801

  13. [Personal and social norms that determine children's waste reduction behavior].

    PubMed

    Yorifuji, Kayo

    2011-08-01

    Research has demonstrated the environmentally conscious behavior of parents and caregivers acts as a social influence that produces environmentally conscious behavior in their children, and also has an effect on their children's cost-benefit evaluations and social norm evaluations. The present study examined the personal norms for producing continuous environmentally conscious behavior, and two social norms that form the personal norms, which are categorized as descriptive and subjective norms. The results of this study suggest that the subjective norm formed the personal norm. Furthermore, the parents' normative social influences affected the personal norm through the subjective norm, and the parents' behavior affected their children's environmentally conscious behavior through the descriptive norm. PMID:21919301

  14. Social control of health behavior: associations with conscientiousness and neuroticism.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Joan S; Elliott, Marc N; Klein, David J

    2006-09-01

    Despite considerable research demonstrating associations of conscientiousness and neuroticism with health-related behavior, our understanding of how and why these traits are related to lifestyle is limited. This study examined the social regulation of health behavior in a probability sample of 509 household residents who completed a Random Digit Dial (RDD) telephone survey. Results suggest that the social regulation of health behavior experienced by highly conscientious individuals has more to do with their own internalized notions of responsibility and obligation to others than to specific actions by others aimed at influencing their health habits. In contrast, individuals with higher neuroticism experience more overt attempts by others to influence their health habits but have more negative affective and behavioral responses to these social influence attempts. Findings suggest that elucidating the distinct social influence processes that operate for conscientiousness and neuroticism may further understanding of how these traits are related to health behaviors and status. PMID:16902235

  15. Ethical, Legal, Social, and Policy Implications of Behavioral Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Berryessa, Colleen M.; Cho, Mildred K.

    2015-01-01

    The field of behavioral genetics has engendered a host of moral and social concerns virtually since its inception. The policy implications of a genetic basis for behaviors are widespread and extend beyond the clinic to the socially important realms of education, criminal justice, childbearing, and child rearing. The development of new techniques and analytic approaches, including whole-genome sequencing, noninvasive prenatal genetic testing, and optogenetics, has clearly changed the study of behavioral genetics. However, the social context of biomedical research has also changed profoundly over the past few decades, and in ways that are especially relevant to behavioral genetics. The ever-widening scope of behavioral genetics raises ethical, legal, social, and policy issues in the potential new applications to criminal justice, education, the military, and reproduction. These issues are especially critical to address because of their potentially disproportionate effects on vulnerable populations such as children, the unborn, and the incarcerated. PMID:23452225

  16. Social Relationships and Health Behavior Across Life Course

    PubMed Central

    Umberson, Debra; Crosnoe, Robert; Reczek, Corinne

    2011-01-01

    Sociological theory and research point to the importance of social relationships in affecting health behavior. This work tends to focus on specific stages of the life course, with a division between research on childhood/adolescent and adult populations. Yet recent advances demonstrate that early life course experiences shape health outcomes well into adulthood. We synthesize disparate bodies of research on social ties and health behavior throughout the life course, with attention to explaining how various social ties influence health behaviors at different life stages and how these processes accumulate and reverberate throughout the life course. PMID:21921974

  17. Oxytocin, Vasopressin, and the Motivational Forces that Drive Social Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Heather K; Albers, H Elliott

    2016-01-01

    The motivation to engage in social behaviors is influenced by past experience and internal state, but also depends on the behavior of other animals. Across species, the oxytocin (Oxt) and vasopressin (Avp) systems have consistently been linked to the modulation of motivated social behaviors. However, how they interact with other systems, such as the mesolimbic dopamine system, remains understudied. Further, while the neurobiological mechanisms that regulate prosocial/cooperative behaviors have been extensively examined, far less is understood about competitive behaviors, particularly in females. In this chapter, we highlight the specific contributions of Oxt and Avp to several cooperative and competitive behaviors and discuss their relevance to the concept of social motivation across species, including humans. Further, we discuss the implications for neuropsychiatric diseases and suggest future areas of investigation. PMID:26472550

  18. Characterization of Social Behaviors in caspase-3 deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Shih-Ching; Scearce-Levie, Kimberly; Sheng, Morgan

    2016-01-01

    Impaired social interaction is a defining feature of autism spectrum disorder, a neurodevelopmental disorder that shows a strong male preponderance in prevalence. Studies have identified neural circuits, neuromodulators and genetic factors involved in social behaviors, but mechanistic understanding of gender-specific social deficits is lacking. We report that deletion of the caspase-3 gene, encoding a protease with functions in apoptosis and neural plasticity, alters specific social behaviors in male mice, while leaving females unaffected. Casp3−/− mice showed normal behavioral responses to olfactory cues from food, neutral chemical and biological sources. Both Casp3−/− males and females displayed robust social exploration, sociability, recognition and preference for an enclosed novel mouse in the three-chamber test. However, Casp3−/− males showed significantly reduced social interaction behaviors when exposed to a freely moving novel mouse, including decreased interaction time and diminished mounting. Thus caspase-3 is essential for a subset of social behaviors, but despite similar hyper-locomotion in both sexes, only male Casp3−/− mice exhibited social interaction deficits, which is interesting given the male bias of autism. PMID:26783106

  19. Social Transitions Cause Rapid Behavioral and Neuroendocrine Changes

    PubMed Central

    Maruska, Karen P.

    2015-01-01

    In species that form dominance hierarchies, there are often opportunities for low-ranking individuals to challenge high-ranking ones, resulting in a rise or fall in social rank. How does an animal rapidly detect, process, and then respond to these social transitions? This article explores and summarizes how these social transitions can rapidly (within 24 h) impact an individual’s behavior, physiology, and brain, using the African cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni, as a model. Male A. burtoni form hierarchies in which a few brightly-colored dominant males defend territories and spawn with females, while the remaining males are subordinate, more drab-colored, do not hold a territory, and have minimal opportunities for reproduction. These social phenotypes are plastic and reversible, meaning that individual males may switch between dominant and subordinate status multiple times within a lifetime. When the social environment is manipulated to create males that either ascend (subordinate to dominant) or descend (dominant to subordinate) in rank, there are rapid changes in behavior, circulating hormones, and levels of gene expression in the brain that reflect the direction of transition. For example, within minutes, males ascending in status show bright coloration, a distinct eye-bar, increased dominance behaviors, activation of brain nuclei in the social behavior network, and higher levels of sex steroids in the plasma. Ascending males also show rapid changes in levels of neuropeptide and steroid receptors in the brain, as well as in the pituitary and testes. To further examine hormone–behavior relationships in this species during rapid social ascent, the present study also measured levels of testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone, estradiol, progestins, and cortisol in the plasma during the first week of social ascent and tested for correlations with behavior. Plasma levels of all steroids were rapidly increased at 30 min after social ascent, but were not correlated

  20. Social Transitions Cause Rapid Behavioral and Neuroendocrine Changes.

    PubMed

    Maruska, Karen P

    2015-08-01

    In species that form dominance hierarchies, there are often opportunities for low-ranking individuals to challenge high-ranking ones, resulting in a rise or fall in social rank. How does an animal rapidly detect, process, and then respond to these social transitions? This article explores and summarizes how these social transitions can rapidly (within 24 h) impact an individual's behavior, physiology, and brain, using the African cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni, as a model. Male A. burtoni form hierarchies in which a few brightly-colored dominant males defend territories and spawn with females, while the remaining males are subordinate, more drab-colored, do not hold a territory, and have minimal opportunities for reproduction. These social phenotypes are plastic and reversible, meaning that individual males may switch between dominant and subordinate status multiple times within a lifetime. When the social environment is manipulated to create males that either ascend (subordinate to dominant) or descend (dominant to subordinate) in rank, there are rapid changes in behavior, circulating hormones, and levels of gene expression in the brain that reflect the direction of transition. For example, within minutes, males ascending in status show bright coloration, a distinct eye-bar, increased dominance behaviors, activation of brain nuclei in the social behavior network, and higher levels of sex steroids in the plasma. Ascending males also show rapid changes in levels of neuropeptide and steroid receptors in the brain, as well as in the pituitary and testes. To further examine hormone-behavior relationships in this species during rapid social ascent, the present study also measured levels of testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone, estradiol, progestins, and cortisol in the plasma during the first week of social ascent and tested for correlations with behavior. Plasma levels of all steroids were rapidly increased at 30 min after social ascent, but were not correlated with

  1. Self-Perceived Social Acceptance and Peer Social Standing in Children with Aggressive-Disruptive Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardini, Dustin A.; Barry, Tammy D.; Barth, Joan M.; Lochman, John E.; Wells, Karen C.

    2006-01-01

    Examining children's perceptions of their social acceptance in conjunction with others' ratings of their peer social standing can enhance our understanding of the heterogeneity in children exhibiting disruptive behavior problems. Using a sample of 213 youth rated in the top 31 percent of their class on aggressive-disruptive behaviors, the current…

  2. The Relationships among Social Cognition, Peer Acceptance, and Social Behavior in Israeli Kindergarteners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diesendruck, Gil; Ben-Eliyahu, Adar

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationships among Israeli kindergarten children's social cognitive capacities, their popularity, and their social behavior. We found that children's understanding of others' behavioral motives was positively related to their popularity, that children's false-belief understanding was positively related to peers'…

  3. Links between social understanding and social behavior in verbally able children with autism.

    PubMed

    Travis, L; Sigman, M; Ruskin, E

    2001-04-01

    This study investigated the relations between various measures of social understanding and social interaction competence in verbally able children with autism. Measures of social understanding included measures of verbalizable knowledge (false belief understanding, affective perspective taking), as well as measures of more intuitive forms of social responsiveness (empathy, concern to distress, and initiating joint attention). Two measures of social interaction competence were employed: level of engagement with peers on the playground, and prosocial behavior in a structured laboratory task. For children with autism, initiating joint attention and empathy were strongly related to both measures of social interaction competence. No understanding-behavior links were identified for a language-age matched comparison sample of developmentally delayed children. Several accounts of these understanding-behavior links are considered, including the possibility that for children with autism, more impaired forms of understanding are more closely linked to behavior because they serve as limits on competence. PMID:11450811

  4. The Relative Importance of Socially Induced Tension and Behavioral Contagion for Smoking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glad, Wayne; Adesso, Vincent J.

    1976-01-01

    The purposes of this experiment were to determine (a) whether socially stimulated smoking (behavior contagion) occurs, (b) if evaluation by others is tension producing and if subjects smoke to reduce that tension, (c) if a relaxed social atmosphere would be conducive to smoking, and (d) if sex differences exist in smoking behavior. (Author)

  5. Social Skills Training Augments the Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbert, James D.; Gaudiano, Brandon A.; Rheingold, Alyssa A.; Myers, Valerie H.; Dalrymple, Kristy; Nolan, Elizabeth M.

    2005-01-01

    Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy (CBGT) is the most widely researched intervention program for social anxiety disorder (SAD, also known as social phobia), with a number of studies demonstrating its effectiveness. Another common treatment, social skills training (SST), has also been shown to be efficacious for SAD. The present study compared the…

  6. Using "I Will" Cards and Social Coaches to Improve Social Behaviors of Students with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boutot, E. Amanda

    2009-01-01

    Many studies have examined ways to improve social functioning of students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Some common strategies include: (1) social stories strategy; (2) social scripts strategy; (3) power card strategy; (4) cognitive behavioral modification; and (5) the "I Will" card strategy. The "I Will" card strategy utilizes components…

  7. Perceived TV Reality as a Predictor of Children's Social Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Byron

    1978-01-01

    Results of a study conducted with 721 fourth, sixth, and eighth graders were not supportive of the assumed role of children's perceived reality of television in determining the impact of exposure to television on children's social behavior. (GT)

  8. Intervention with School Social Systems: A Behavioral-Systems Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Charles A.

    1981-01-01

    The Behavioral-Systems Approach (BSA), a broad-based approach to intervention with a range of school social systems, is presented and some outcome evidence of the utility of the approach for practicing school psychologists reported. (Author/BW)

  9. Perceptions of social support, empowerment and youth risk behaviors.

    PubMed

    Reininger, Belinda M; Pérez, Adriana; Aguirre Flores, Maria I; Chen, Zhongxue; Rahbar, Mohammad H

    2012-02-01

    This study examined the association of perceived social support and community empowerment among urban middle-school students living in Matamoros, Mexico and the risk behaviors of fighting, alcohol and tobacco use, and sexual activity. Middle school students (n = 1,181) from 32 public and private Mexican schools were surveyed. Weighted multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted. Among girls, lack of parent/teacher interactions regarding school increased odds for fighting, alcohol and tobacco use. Among boys, lack of empowerment increased odds of alcohol and tobacco use and lack of parent/teacher interactions regarding school increased odds for sexual activity. Community empowerment and perceived social support are uniquely associated with risk behaviors for girls and boys. Additionally, perceived social support from individuals most immediate to the youth are associated with protection against risk for some behaviors, while perceived social support from individuals more removed from youth have mixed association with risk behaviors. PMID:22302149

  10. Global social skill ratings: measures of social behavior or physical attractiveness?

    PubMed

    Hope, D A; Mindell, J A

    1994-05-01

    Calvert reviewed the literature on social skills and physical attractiveness and concluded that many ratings of social skill may be confounded by the physical attractiveness of the target individual, possibly due to a general perception that physical attractiveness and social competence are positively correlated. In order to examine the influence of physical attractiveness on social skill ratings, Ss made global ratings of social skill and attractiveness for a confederate whose appearance and behavior had been altered to appear attractive or unattractive and socially skilled or unskilled in an assertiveness and heterosocial vignette. The results indicated that the same skilled behavior was viewed as more competent when performed by an attractive person compared to an unattractive person. Attractiveness had no influence on ratings of generally incompetent behavior. Thus, it appears that physical attractiveness does not compensate for poor interpersonal skills, but a skilled, attractive individual may be judged to have particularly good skills. Implications for the assessment of social skills are discussed. PMID:8192645

  11. Relationships between Infants' Social Behavior and Their Mothers' Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckwith, Leila

    1972-01-01

    Qualitatively, the more suppressive and critical the mother, the less responsive the baby was in social play with her. The more the baby responded to his mother, the less he responded to a stranger. (Author)

  12. Empirical Analysis of Attention Behaviors in Online Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Fang; Xuan, Qi; Wu, Tie-Jun

    Studying attention behavior has its social significance because such behavior is considered to lead the evolution of the friendship network. However, this type of behavior in social networks has attracted relatively little attention before, which is mainly because, in reality, such behaviors are always transitory and rarely recorded. In this paper, we collected the attention behaviors as well as the friendship network from Douban database and then carefully studied the attention behaviors in the friendship network as a latent metric space. The revealed similar patterns of attention behavior and friendship suggest that attention behavior may be the pre-stage of friendship to a certain extent, which can be further validated by the fact that pairwise nodes in Douban network connected by attention links beforehand are indeed far more likely to be connected by friendship links in the near future. This phenomenon can also be used to explain the high clustering of many social networks. More interestingly, it seems that attention behaviors are more likely to take place between individuals who have more mutual friends as well as more different friends, which seems a little different from the principles of many link prediction algorithms. Moreover, it is also found that forward attention is preferred to inverse attention, which is quite natural because, usually, an individual must be more interested in others that he is paying attention to than those paying attention to him. All of these findings can be used to guide the design of more appropriate social network models in the future.

  13. Perinatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls alters social behaviors in rats

    PubMed Central

    Jolous-Jamshidi, Banafsheh; Cromwell, Howard C.; McFarland, Ashley M.; Meserve, Lee A.

    2014-01-01

    Perinatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) leads to significant alterations of neural and hormonal systems. These alterations have been shown to impair motor and sensory development. Less is known about the influence of PCB exposure on developing emotional and motivational systems involved in social interactions and social learning. The present study examined the impact of perinatal PCB exposure (mixture of congeners 47 and 77) on social recognition in juvenile animals, conspecific-directed investigation in adults and on neural and hormonal systems involved in social functions. We used a standard habituation–dishabituation paradigm to evaluate juvenile recognition and a social port paradigm to monitor adult social investigation. Areal measures of the periventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus were obtained to provide correlations with related hormone and brain systems. PCB exposed rats were significantly impaired in social recognition as indicated by persistent conspecific-directed exploration by juvenile animals regardless of social experience. As adults, PCB exposure led to a dampening of the isolation-induced enhancement of social investigation. There was not a concomitant alteration of social investigation in pair-housed PCB exposed animals at this stage of development. Interestingly, PVN area was significantly decreased in juvenile animals exposed to PCB during the perinatal period. Shifts in hypothalamic regulation of hormones involved in social behavior and stress could be involved in the behavioral changes observed. Overall, the results suggest that PCB exposure impairs context or experience-dependent modulation of social approach and investigation. These types of social-context deficits are similar to behavioral deficits observed in social disorders such as autism and other pervasive developmental disorders. PMID:20813172

  14. Perinatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls alters social behaviors in rats.

    PubMed

    Jolous-Jamshidi, Banafsheh; Cromwell, Howard C; McFarland, Ashley M; Meserve, Lee A

    2010-11-30

    Perinatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) leads to significant alterations of neural and hormonal systems. These alterations have been shown to impair motor and sensory development. Less is known about the influence of PCB exposure on developing emotional and motivational systems involved in social interactions and social learning. The present study examined the impact of perinatal PCB exposure (mixture of congeners 47 and 77) on social recognition in juvenile animals, conspecific-directed investigation in adults and on neural and hormonal systems involved in social functions. We used a standard habituation-dishabituation paradigm to evaluate juvenile recognition and a social port paradigm to monitor adult social investigation. Areal measures of the periventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus were obtained to provide correlations with related hormone and brain systems. PCB exposed rats were significantly impaired in social recognition as indicated by persistent conspecific-directed exploration by juvenile animals regardless of social experience. As adults, PCB exposure led to a dampening of the isolation-induced enhancement of social investigation. There was not a concomitant alteration of social investigation in pair-housed PCB exposed animals at this stage of development. Interestingly, PVN area was significantly decreased in juvenile animals exposed to PCB during the perinatal period. Shifts in hypothalamic regulation of hormones involved in social behavior and stress could be involved in the behavioral changes observed. Overall, the results suggest that PCB exposure impairs context or experience-dependent modulation of social approach and investigation. These types of social-context deficits are similar to behavioral deficits observed in social disorders such as autism and other pervasive developmental disorders. PMID:20813172

  15. Marmosets: A Neuroscientific Model of Human Social Behavior.

    PubMed

    Miller, Cory T; Freiwald, Winrich A; Leopold, David A; Mitchell, Jude F; Silva, Afonso C; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2016-04-20

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) has garnered interest recently as a powerful model for the future of neuroscience research. Much of this excitement has centered on the species' reproductive biology and compatibility with gene editing techniques, which together have provided a path for transgenic marmosets to contribute to the study of disease as well as basic brain mechanisms. In step with technical advances is the need to establish experimental paradigms that optimally tap into the marmosets' behavioral and cognitive capacities. While conditioned task performance of a marmoset can compare unfavorably with rhesus monkey performance on conventional testing paradigms, marmosets' social behavior and cognition are more similar to that of humans. For example, marmosets are among only a handful of primates that, like humans, routinely pair bond and care cooperatively for their young. They are also notably pro-social and exhibit social cognitive abilities, such as imitation, that are rare outside of the Apes. In this Primer, we describe key facets of marmoset natural social behavior and demonstrate that emerging behavioral paradigms are well suited to isolate components of marmoset cognition that are highly relevant to humans. These approaches generally embrace natural behavior, which has been rare in conventional primate testing, and thus allow for a new consideration of neural mechanisms underlying primate social cognition and signaling. We anticipate that through parallel technical and paradigmatic advances, marmosets will become an essential model of human social behavior, including its dysfunction in neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:27100195

  16. Social Capital, Safety Concerns, Parenting, and Early Adolescents' Antisocial Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vieno, Alessio; Nation, Maury; Perkins, Douglas D.; Pastore, Massimiliano; Santinello, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the relations between neighborhood social capital (neighbor support and social climate), safety concerns (fear of crime and concern for one's child), parenting (solicitation and support), and adolescent antisocial behavior in a sample of 952 parents (742 mothers) and 588 boys and 559 girls from five middle schools (sixth…

  17. Improving Cooperative Behavior through the Use of Social Skills Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlender, Angie; Wolf, Lisa

    This action research project implemented and evaluated a program for improving social skills in order to increase cooperative behavior among elementary school students. The targeted students were from a fourth- and a sixth-grade classroom in a middle-class suburban community. The lack of social skills development interfered with positive…

  18. Social Motives Underlying Antisocial Behavior across Middle School Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juvonen, Jaana; Ho, Alice Y.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of the study was to examine whether social motives (social mimicry, mutual attraction, and unreciprocated attraction) predict changes in antisocial behavior across middle school grades. The 2,003 initial participants (55% girls) were drawn from a larger longitudinal study of urban public school students: 44% Latino, 26% African-American,…

  19. Temperament and Peer Acceptance: The Mediating Role of Social Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterry, Terry W.; Reiter-Purtill, Jennifer; Gartstein, Maria A.; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.; Vannatta, Kathryn; Noll, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether children's social behavior mediated the associations between specific dimensions of temperament and peer acceptance, and whether these associations were moderated by gender. We also explored the role of child's age on the associations between temperament and social functioning. Primary caregiver reports of temperament…

  20. Behavioral and Social Science Research: A National Resource. Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Robert McC., Ed.; And Others

    The value, significance, and social utility of basic research in the behavioral and social sciences are examined. Following an introduction in chapter 1, there are 4 major chapters. Chapter 2 discusses how the research terrain has been divided among the disciplines of psychology, sociology, anthropology, economics, political science, geography,…

  1. Organizational Socialization Tactics and Newcomer Proactive Behaviors: An Integrative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruman, Jamie A.; Saks, Alan M.; Zweig, David I.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between organizational socialization tactics, newcomers' self-efficacy, proactive behaviors, and socialization outcomes. Based on a sample of 140 co-op university students who completed surveys at the end of their work term, the results indicated that newcomers' self-efficacy and…

  2. Behavioral and Social Science: Fifty Years of Discovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smelser, Neil J., Ed.; Gerstein, Dean R., Ed.

    This commemorative book contains 10 papers that provide a selective sample of behavioral and social science research accomplishments and trends over a 50-year period, and comparisons are made with research presented in the 1933 report, "Recent Social Trends in the United States" (The Ogburn Report). Four chapters in part 1, "Understanding Social…

  3. Social/Affective Interventions in Behavioral Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosenick, Judith K., Ed.; And Others

    Seven author-contributed papers address theoretical and applied interventions with children who have behavior disorders. V. Rezmierski reviews the developmental perspective and the Intervention by Prescription model in "Developmental Interventions with Behaviorally Disordered Youth." D. Glenn et al. follow with a discussion of research and theory…

  4. Patient vs provider reports of aberrant medication-taking behavior among opioid-treated patients with chronic pain who report misusing opioid medication.

    PubMed

    Nikulina, Valentina; Guarino, Honoria; Acosta, Michelle C; Marsch, Lisa A; Syckes, Cassandra; Moore, Sarah K; Portenoy, Russell K; Cruciani, Ricardo A; Turk, Dennis C; Rosenblum, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    During long-term opioid therapy for chronic noncancer pain, monitoring medication adherence of patients with a history of aberrant opioid medication-taking behaviors (AMTB) is an essential practice. There is limited research, however, into the concordance among existing monitoring tools of self-report, physician report, and biofluid screening. This study examined associations among patient and provider assessments of AMTB and urine drug screening using data from a randomized trial of a cognitive-behavioral intervention designed to improve medication adherence and pain-related outcomes among 110 opioid-treated patients with chronic pain who screened positive for AMTB and were enrolled in a pain program. Providers completed the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) and patients completed the Current Opioid Misuse Measure (COMM) and the Chemical Coping Inventory (CCI). In multivariate analyses, ABC scores were compared with COMM and CCI scores, while controlling for demographics and established risk factors for AMTB, such as pain severity. Based on clinical cutoffs, 84% of patients reported clinically significant levels of AMTB and providers rated 36% of patients at elevated levels. Provider reports of AMTB were not correlated with COMM or CCI scores. However, the ABC ratings of experienced providers (nurse practitioners/attending physicians) were higher than those of less experienced providers (fellows) and were correlated with CCI scores and risk factors for AMTB. Associations between patient- and provider-reported AMTB and urine drug screening results were low and largely nonsignificant. In conclusion, concordance between patient and provider reports of AMTB among patients with chronic pain prescribed opioid medication varied by provider level of training. PMID:27082008

  5. The bold and the fearless among us: elevated psychopathic traits and levels of anxiety and fear are associated with specific aberrant driving behaviors.

    PubMed

    Panayiotou, Georgia

    2015-06-01

    In spite of the well-documented connection between personality traits like impulsivity, sensation seeking and fearlessness with aberrant driving behaviors, scarce research exists to examine the association between risky and aggressive driving and psychopathic characteristics, which encompass the above traits. The present investigation examines in two studies the association between specific sub-types of driving misconduct, i.e., unintentional mistakes and deliberate rule violations with psychopathic characteristics, with a focus on the role of levels of fear and anxiety in aberrant driving. Findings support the hypotheses that fearlessness, i.e., the bold, unemotional aspect of psychopathic traits, characterizes drivers who engage in frequent deliberate driving code violations, whereas the more impulsive/antisocial aspect of psychopathy, associated with higher levels of fear and anxiety, is more characteristic of drivers who engage in unintentional mistakes. Fearless features are also associated with higher self-reported driving misconduct and accidents. Study 2 conceptually replicated this finding by showing that mistakes are positively related to high sensitivity to punishment, while violations are negatively related to it. Findings are discussed in light of psychopathy theory and in relation to prevention and intervention. PMID:25819475

  6. Social contagion theory: examining dynamic social networks and human behavior.

    PubMed

    Christakis, Nicholas A; Fowler, James H

    2013-02-20

    Here, we review the research we have conducted on social contagion. We describe the methods we have employed (and the assumptions they have entailed) to examine several datasets with complementary strengths and weaknesses, including the Framingham Heart Study, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, and other observational and experimental datasets that we and others have collected. We describe the regularities that led us to propose that human social networks may exhibit a 'three degrees of influence' property, and we review statistical approaches we have used to characterize interpersonal influence with respect to phenomena as diverse as obesity, smoking, cooperation, and happiness. We do not claim that this work is the final word, but we do believe that it provides some novel, informative, and stimulating evidence regarding social contagion in longitudinally followed networks. Along with other scholars, we are working to develop new methods for identifying causal effects using social network data, and we believe that this area is ripe for statistical development as current methods have known and often unavoidable limitations. PMID:22711416

  7. Social wasps promote social behavior in Saccharomyces spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This commentary provides background and an evaluation of a paper to be published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences in which social wasps were found to harbor significant populations of two species of the yeast genus Saccharomyces. Apparently, the yeasts were acquired during feed...

  8. Social contagion theory: examining dynamic social networks and human behavior

    PubMed Central

    Christakis, Nicholas A.; Fowler, James H.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we review the research we have conducted on social contagion. We describe the methods we have employed (and the assumptions they have entailed) to examine several datasets with complementary strengths and weaknesses, including the Framingham Heart Study, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, and other observational and experimental datasets that we and others have collected. We describe the regularities that led us to propose that human social networks may exhibit a ‘three degrees of influence’ property, and we review statistical approaches we have used to characterize interpersonal influence with respect to phenomena as diverse as obesity, smoking, cooperation, and happiness. We do not claim that this work is the final word, but we do believe that it provides some novel, informative, and stimulating evidence regarding social contagion in longitudinally followed networks. Along with other scholars, we are working to develop new methods for identifying causal effects using social network data, and we believe that this area is ripe for statistical development as current methods have known and often unavoidable limitations. PMID:22711416

  9. Pro-Social and Anti-Social Behaviors on Commercial Television in 1975-76. Report No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Bradley S.; And Others

    This study investigates pro-social and anti-social behaviors portrayed on prime time and Saturday morning television during the 1975-76 season. An initial review of relevant research in this behavioral area is followed by a description of the basic content categories for pro-social and anti-social behaviors, motives and consequences of these…

  10. Implementing Social Norm Pedagogy to Impact Students' Personal Health Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Mary M.; Stover, Sheri

    2015-01-01

    This quantitative exploratory research study describes the incorporation of Social Norms as a unique pedagogical method in an undergraduate Health Behaviors course (N = 32). With the use of an audience response system (clickers), students anonymously answered health-behavior related questions. Aggregate data from the class was compared to state…

  11. Social and Behavioral Correlates of Preschoolers with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Paul C.

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between specific subtypes of speech language impairment (SLI) and concomitant social competence and behavioral adjustment was investigated. Teachers and parents completed behavior ratings of SLI preschoolers enrolled in a language-based intervention program and preschoolers without language impairment, including the Parent-Child…

  12. Behavior Management and Socialization Techniques for Severely Emotionally Disturbed Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Rebecca

    Described is a structured approach to managing behavior and increasing socialization skills of severely disturbed children in primary and adolescent classrooms. It is noted that manual signing accompanied by verbalization, gesture, and physical assisting is used to communicate behavioral expectations in the primary class; while in the adolescent…

  13. "Bien Educado": Measuring the Social Behaviors of Mexican American Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridges, Margaret; Cohen, Shana R.; McGuire, Leah Walker; Yamada, Hiro; Fuller, Bruce; Mireles, Laurie; Scott, Lyn

    2012-01-01

    Young children's expected social behaviors develop within particular cultural contexts and contribute to their academic experience in large part through their relationships with their teachers. Commonly used measures focus on children's problem behaviors, developed from psychopathology traditions, and rarely situate normative and positive…

  14. Social Networks and Aggressive Behavior: Peer Support or Peer Rejection?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cairns, Robert B.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Studied the aggressive behavior in school of two cohorts of boys and girls in the fourth and seventh grades. Highly aggressive subjects were usually solid members of peer clusters and typically had a network of friends. Aggressive patterns and correlated behaviors provided a basis for social cohesion and commonalities in friendships for both boys…

  15. Social Control of Healthy Behavior between Intimate College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Michael Robert

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The author examined whether the type of intimacy (ie, emotional, intellectual, sexual, social, recreational) featured in college students' romantic relationships affects the extent to which a partner's health-related behavior may be influenced by a variety of behavior change appeals. Participants: One hundred and thirteen female and 94…

  16. Social Phobia: A Comparison of Behavior Therapy and Atenolol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Samuel M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Randomly assigned 72 social phobics to behavioral (flooding) or drug treatment with atenolol or placebo. Found that flooding consistently was superior to placebo, whereas atenolol was not. Flooding also was superior to atenolol on behavioral measures and composite indexes. Subjects who improved during treatment maintained gains at six-month…

  17. Social Cognitive Predictors of Dietary Behavior among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Torrance T.; Resinicow, Ken; Latimer-Sport, Markita; Walker, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study examined the extent to which social cognitive theory is involved in dietary behavior changes among a sample of African Americans in Georgia. Purpose: We examined whether outcome expectations, barriers, and self-efficacy mediate changes in fruit and vegetable intake behavior. Methods: To accomplish this, we used change scores…

  18. Copulatory and agonistic behavior in Syrian hamsters following social defeat.

    PubMed

    Jeffress, Elizabeth C; Huhman, Kim L

    2013-01-01

    Syrian hamsters are highly aggressive animals that reliably defend their home territory. After social defeat, however, hamsters no longer defend their home cage but instead display submissive and defensive behavior toward an intruder, a response that we have termed conditioned defeat. Plasma testosterone is significantly reduced in Syrian hamsters following repeated defeat suggesting that social defeat might also impair copulatory behavior. The present study aimed to determine whether copulatory behavior in male Syrian hamsters is suppressed following repeated social defeats and additionally whether exposure to a hormone-primed stimulus female after social defeat reduces the behavioral response to defeat. Hamsters were paired with an aggressive opponent for one or nine defeats using a resident-intruder model, while controls were placed into the empty cage of a resident aggressor. On the day after the last treatment, half of the hamsters were paired with a receptive female for 10 min. There were no significant differences in the copulatory behavior of defeated versus non-defeated hamsters, and the opportunity to copulate had no effect on subsequent conditioned defeat testing, as defeated animals displayed significantly more submissive behavior than did non-defeated animals. The current data suggest that conditioned defeat is not necessarily a maladaptive response to social stress, at least in terms of reproductive behavior, but may instead represent a viable behavioral strategy adopted by losing animals following social defeat. Further, these data indicate that conditioned defeat is relatively persistent and stable, as the opportunity to copulate does not reduce the subsequent display of submissive behavior. PMID:23382023

  19. Children's Perceived Reality of Television and the Effects of Pro- and Anti-Social TV Content on Social Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Byron

    Interviews were conducted with 721 students in fourth, sixth, and eighth grades to study whether children's perceived reality of television would affect the relationship between pro-social and anti-social television content and pro-social and anti-social behavior. Social behavior variables, a perceived reality index, and television exposure…

  20. Cyclic AMP Regulates Social Behavior in African Trypanosomes

    PubMed Central

    Oberholzer, Michael; Saada, Edwin A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei engages in surface-induced social behavior, termed social motility, characterized by single cells assembling into multicellular groups that coordinate their movements in response to extracellular signals. Social motility requires sensing and responding to extracellular signals, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here we report that T. brucei social motility depends on cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling systems in the parasite’s flagellum (synonymous with cilium). Pharmacological inhibition of cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE) completely blocks social motility without impacting the viability or motility of individual cells. Using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based sensor to monitor cAMP dynamics in live cells, we demonstrate that this block in social motility correlates with an increase in intracellular cAMP levels. RNA interference (RNAi) knockdown of the flagellar PDEB1 phenocopies pharmacological PDE inhibition, demonstrating that PDEB1 is required for social motility. Using parasites expressing distinct fluorescent proteins to monitor individuals in a genetically heterogeneous community, we found that the social motility defect of PDEB1 knockdowns is complemented by wild-type parasites in trans. Therefore, PDEB1 knockdown cells are competent for social motility but appear to lack a necessary factor that can be provided by wild-type cells. The combined data demonstrate that the role of cyclic nucleotides in regulating microbial social behavior extends to African trypanosomes and provide an example of transcomplementation in parasitic protozoa. PMID:25922395

  1. Explaining exercise behavior and satisfaction with social exchange theory.

    PubMed

    Unger, J; Johnson, C A

    1995-10-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that the variables specified by social exchange theory (perceived rewards of exercising, perceived costs of exercising, social and tangible investments, and available alternative activities) are associated with exercise behavior and satisfaction. 190 health club members completed a questionnaire assessing attitudes toward exercise, exercise behavior, and demographic information. Exercise frequency and satisfaction were regressed on the social exchange theory variables and demographic covariates. Exercise satisfaction, the number of investments in exercise, and the number of available alternative activities were significantly related to exercise frequency, and the number of perceived rewards of exercise and the number of investments were significantly related to exercise satisfaction. These results suggest that social exchange theory is useful for explaining exercise behavior. PMID:8570365

  2. Empathy and pro-social behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ami Bartal, Inbal; Decety, Jean; Mason, Peggy

    2011-12-01

    Whereas human pro-social behavior is often driven by empathic concern for another, it is unclear whether nonprimate mammals experience a similar motivational state. To test for empathically motivated pro-social behavior in rodents, we placed a free rat in an arena with a cagemate trapped in a restrainer. After several sessions, the free rat learned to intentionally and quickly open the restrainer and free the cagemate. Rats did not open empty or object-containing restrainers. They freed cagemates even when social contact was prevented. When liberating a cagemate was pitted against chocolate contained within a second restrainer, rats opened both restrainers and typically shared the chocolate. Thus, rats behave pro-socially in response to a conspecific's distress, providing strong evidence for biological roots of empathically motivated helping behavior. PMID:22158823

  3. Korean immigrant discipline and children's social competence and behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunjung; Guo, Yuqing; Koh, Chinkang; Cain, Kevin C

    2010-12-01

    The goal of this correlational study was to explore the relationship between Korean immigrant discipline (e.g., positive, appropriate, and harsh discipline) and children's social competence and behavior problems. Self-report data were collected from 58 mothers and 20 fathers of children aged from 3 to 8 years. Only paternal harsh discipline was positively correlated with children's behavior problems. Among specific discipline strategies, maternal physical affection, correcting misbehaviors, and reasoning were positively correlated with children's social competence. Paternal physical punishment (e.g., spanking, hitting, and raising arms) was positively correlated with children's behavior problems. Immigrant fathers need to learn alternative ways of managing children's misbehaviors. PMID:21035016

  4. The secret society and the social dynamics of terrorist behavior.

    PubMed

    Mackert, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The article argues that individualist accounts cannot adequately explain the social dynamics of terrorist behavior as they turn analyses of terrorism into analyses of terrorists. A relational approach that concentrates on the social relations between terrorist organizations and their members would be able to do this, however. Therefore, the article presents a formal analysis that makes the "secret society" of terrorists the lynchpin of an explanation of how terrorist organizations shape the behavioral conditions of volunteers and suicide terrorists in a manner that triggers a type of behavior we might call terrorism. PMID:25600017

  5. Reactivity to Social Stress in Subclinical Social Anxiety: Emotional Experience, Cognitive Appraisals, Behavior, and Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Crişan, Liviu G.; Vulturar, Romana; Miclea, Mircea; Miu, Andrei C.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research indicates that subclinical social anxiety is associated with dysfunctions at multiple psychological and biological levels, in a manner that seems reminiscent of social anxiety disorder (SAD). This study aimed to describe multidimensional responses to laboratory-induced social stress in an analog sample selected for social anxiety symptoms. State anxiety, cognitive biases related to negative social evaluation, speech anxiety behaviors, and cortisol reactivity were assessed in the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Results showed that social anxiety symptoms were associated with increased state anxiety, biased appraisals related to the probability and cost of negative social evaluations, behavioral changes in facial expression that were consistent with speech anxiety, and lower cortisol reactivity. In addition, multiple interrelations between responses in the TSST were found, with positive associations between subjective experience, cognitive appraisals, and observable behavior, as well as negative associations between each of the former two types of response and cortisol reactivity. These results show that in response to social stressors, subclinical social anxiety is associated with significant changes in emotional experience, cognitive appraisals, behaviors, and physiology that could parallel those previously found in SAD samples. PMID:26858658

  6. Behavioral manifestations of social support: a microanalytic investigation.

    PubMed

    Cutrona, C E

    1986-07-01

    This study was designed to examine the specific interpersonal behaviors that convey support from one person to another. Subjects were 41 undergraduate students who completed a general measure of perceived social support and, subsequently, kept daily records of their social interactions and stressful experiences for 14 days. In addition, they completed a brief depressive mood measure (DACL; Lubin, 1981) each day. Results showed that behaviors reflecting emotional support and informational support occurred as a specific response to stressful life events. Although esteem support was expressed with equal frequency in the presence and absence of stress, it was especially effective in preventing depressive reactions to stressful events. Subjects who perceived themselves as having high levels of perceived social support were more frequently the recipients of helping behaviors following stressful events than those low in perceived support. Perceived social support was only predictive of helping behaviors on days on which at least one stressful event occurred. The total number of helping behaviors received following stressful events was a significant negative predictor of level of depressive mood, although one helping behavior was associated with higher levels of depression. Results are interpreted within the framework of the buffering model of social support. PMID:3735068

  7. Affective and Behavioral Consequences of Social Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Testa, Maria N.; Major, Brenda

    Considerable attention in recent years has focused on the consequences of social comparisons and has suggested that learning that one's outcomes or abilities compare unfavorably to others' is an unpleasant, if not painful experience. Indeed, upward comparisons have been shown to result in negative affect, loss of self-esteem, stress symptoms, and…

  8. Improving Behavior through Social Skills Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeDobbelaere, Joni; Leaf, Kristie; Ziegler, Ursula

    This action research project implemented and evaluated an intervention designed to assist students in developing their social skills to enhance the classroom atmosphere. The targeted population consisted of fourth-, fifth- and sixth- grade students in lower- to middle-class suburbs of a Midwestern city. Off-task, verbal and physical inappropriate…

  9. Autotelic Behavior in Socialization. Report Number 29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inbar, Michael; Stoll, Clarice S.

    A selective review of the literature on the socialization effect of games uncovers a varied and increasing number of hypotheses, but only little and scattered evidence. Direct studies of play and game functions are primarily in uncontrolled clinical reports. Therefore, a pilot study was conducted as a preliminary attempt to establish correlational…

  10. The Spreading of Social Energy: How Exposure to Positive and Negative Social News Affects Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Ziqing; Yu, Rongjun

    2016-01-01

    Social news, unlike video games or TV programs, conveys real-life interactions. Theoretically, social news in which people help or harm each other and violate rules should influence both prosocial and violation behaviors. In two experiments, we demonstrated the spreading effects of social news in a social interaction context emphasizing social conventions and a nonsocial interaction context emphasizing moral norms. Across the two studies, the results showed that positive social news increased cooperation (decreased defection) but had no effect on cheating, whereas negative social news increased cheating but with no change in cooperation (or defection). We conclude that there is a spreading impact of positive social news in the conventional norm domain and of negative social news in the moral norm domain. PMID:27253877

  11. The Spreading of Social Energy: How Exposure to Positive and Negative Social News Affects Behavior.

    PubMed

    Yao, Ziqing; Yu, Rongjun

    2016-01-01

    Social news, unlike video games or TV programs, conveys real-life interactions. Theoretically, social news in which people help or harm each other and violate rules should influence both prosocial and violation behaviors. In two experiments, we demonstrated the spreading effects of social news in a social interaction context emphasizing social conventions and a nonsocial interaction context emphasizing moral norms. Across the two studies, the results showed that positive social news increased cooperation (decreased defection) but had no effect on cheating, whereas negative social news increased cheating but with no change in cooperation (or defection). We conclude that there is a spreading impact of positive social news in the conventional norm domain and of negative social news in the moral norm domain. PMID:27253877

  12. Behavioral Evidence for Differences in Social and Non-Social Category Learning

    PubMed Central

    Gamond, Lucile; Tallon-Baudry, Catherine; Guyon, Nicolas; Lemaréchal, Jean-Didier; Hugueville, Laurent; George, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    When meeting someone for the very first time one spontaneously categorizes the seen person on the basis of his/her appearance. Categorization is based on the association between some physical features and category labels that can be social (character trait…) or non-social (tall, thin). Surprisingly little is known about how such associations are formed, particularly in the social domain. Here, we aimed at testing whether social and non-social category learning may be dissociated. We presented subjects with a large number of faces that had to be rated according to social or non-social labels, and induced an association between a facial feature (inter-eye distance) and the category labels using two different procedures. In a first experiment, we used a feedback procedure to reinforce the association; behavioral measures revealed an association between the physical feature manipulated and abstract non-social categories, while no evidence for an association with social labels could be found. In a second experiment, we used passive exposure to the association between physical features and labels; we obtained behavioral evidence for learning of both social and non-social categories. These results support the view of the specificity of social category learning; they suggest that social categories are best acquired through unsupervised procedures that can be considered as a simplified proxy for group transmission. PMID:22912624

  13. Examining Associations between Psychosis Risk, Social Anhedonia, and Performance of Striatum-Related Behavioral Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Karcher, Nicole R.; Martin, Elizabeth A.; Kerns, John G.

    2015-01-01

    Both psychosis and anhedonia have been associated to some extent with striatal functioning. The current study examined whether either psychosis risk or social anhedonia was associated with performance on three tasks related to striatal functioning. Psychosis risk participants had extremely elevated Perceptual Aberration/Magical Ideation (PerMag) scores (n=69), with 43% of psychosis risk participants also having semi-structured interview-assessed psychotic-like experiences which further heightens their risk of psychotic disorder (Chapman, Chapman, Kwapil, Eckblad, & Zinser, 1994). Compared to both extremely elevated Social Anhedonia (n=60) and control (n=68) groups, the PerMag group exhibited poorer performance on two of the striatum-related tasks, the Weather Prediction Task (WPT) and the Learned Irrelevance Paradigm, but not on Finger Tapping. In addition, PerMag participants with psychotic-like experiences were especially impaired on the WPT. Overall, this study arguably provides the first evidence that psychosis risk but not social anhedonia is associated with performance on the WPT, a task thought to be strongly associated with activation in the associative striatum, and also suggests that the WPT might be especially useful as a behavioral measure of psychosis risk. PMID:26075968

  14. Research Paradigms, Television, and Social Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asamen, Joy Keiko, Ed.; Berry, Gordon L., Ed.

    Straightforward and engaging in style, this book presents 10 essays that provide concrete, step-by-step examples of how to conduct studies of the impact of television on behavior from quantitative perspectives, qualitative perspectives, and an integrated approach, making the volume useful for both undergraduate and graduate students. Its…

  15. Gonadectomy Negatively Impacts Social Behavior of Adolescent Male Primates

    PubMed Central

    Richards, A. Brent; Morris, Richard W.; Ward, Sarah; Schmitz, Stephanie; Rothmond, Debora A.; Noble, Pam L.; Woodward, Ruth A.; Winslow, James T.; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon

    2009-01-01

    Social behavior changes dramatically during primate adolescence. However, the extent to which testosterone and other gonadal hormones are necessary for adolescent social behavioral development is unknown. In this study, we determined that gonadectomy significantly impairs social dominance in naturalistic settings and changes reactions to social stimuli in experimental settings. Rhesus macaques were castrated (n = 6) or sham operated (n = 6) at age 2.4 years, group-housed for 2 years, and ethograms were collected weekly. During adolescence the gonadally intact monkeys displayed a decrease in subordinate behaviors and an increase in dominant behaviors, which ultimately related to a rise in social status and rank in the dominance hierarchy. We measured monkey’s reactions to emotional faces (fear, threat, neutral) of conspecifics of three ages (adult, peer, infant). Intact monkeys were faster to retrieve a treat in front of a threatening or infant face, while castrated monkeys did not show a differential response to different emotional faces or ages. No group difference in reaction to an innate fear-eliciting object (snake) was found. Approach and proximity responses to familiar versus unfamiliar conspecifics were tested, and intact monkeys spent more time proximal to a novel conspecific as compared to castrates who tended to spend more time with a familiar conspecific. No group differences in time spent with novel or familiar objects were found. Thus, gonadectomy resulted in the emergence of significantly different responses to social stimuli, but not non-social stimuli. Our work suggests that intact gonads, which are needed to produce adolescent increases in circulating testosterone, impact social behavior during adolescences in primates. PMID:19361511

  16. Cognitive conflict links behavioral inhibition and social problem solving during social exclusion in childhood

    PubMed Central

    Lahat, Ayelet; Walker, Olga L.; Lamm, Connie; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Henderson, Heather A.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a temperament characterized by heightened negative affect and social reticence to unfamiliar peers. In a longitudinal study, 291 infants were assessed for BI at 24 and 36 months of age. At age 7, N2 amplitude was measured during a Flanker task. Also at age 7, children experienced social exclusion in the lab during an interaction with an unfamiliar peer and an experimenter. Our findings indicate that children characterized as high in BI, relative to those low in BI, had larger (i.e., more negative) N2 amplitudes. Additionally, among children with a large N2, BI was positively related to withdrawal and negatively related to assertiveness during social exclusion. These findings suggest that variations in conflict detection among behaviorally inhibited children plays a role in their social behavior during stressful social situations. PMID:25705132

  17. Social behavior shapes the chimpanzee pan-microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Moeller, Andrew H.; Foerster, Steffen; Wilson, Michael L.; Pusey, Anne E.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Ochman, Howard

    2016-01-01

    Animal sociality facilitates the transmission of pathogenic microorganisms among hosts, but the extent to which sociality enables animals’ beneficial microbial associations is poorly understood. The question is critical because microbial communities, particularly those in the gut, are key regulators of host health. We show evidence that chimpanzee social interactions propagate microbial diversity in the gut microbiome both within and between host generations. Frequent social interaction promotes species richness within individual microbiomes as well as homogeneity among the gut community memberships of different chimpanzees. Sampling successive generations across multiple chimpanzee families suggests that infants inherited gut microorganisms primarily through social transmission. These results indicate that social behavior generates a pan-microbiome, preserving microbial diversity across evolutionary time scales and contributing to the evolution of host species–specific gut microbial communities. PMID:26824072

  18. Some Useful Correspondences In Aberration Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafer, David

    1986-10-01

    There are many correspondences between the behavior of monochromatic aberrations and chromatic aberrations. Usually the behavior of the chromatic aberrations is of a lower order than the corresponding monochromatic behavior. The cause of the 5th-order mono-chromatic astigmatism, for example, is similar in type to the cause of the chromatic variation of 3rd-order astigmatism. The stop-shift behavior of 3rd-order monochromatic coma is similar to that of first-order lateral color, and so on. These correspondences are interesting for two reasons. One is that they have not been commented on much before, despite the value of one's being aware of these relationships. Methods used to control a monochromatic aberration may also apply to the corresponding chromatic aberration, and vice-versa, for example. The other benefit to studying this topic is that the chromatic aberrations, which are of a lower order than their monochro-matic correspondences, are much easier to understand and visualize. A simple diagram can illustrate the stop-shift behavior of lateral color much more easily than trying to do the same thing with 3rd-order coma. Finally, the very important distinction between intrinsic and induced aberrations can be best illustrated with chromatic aberrations, because of their lower order.

  19. Categorizing Others and the Self: How Social Memory Structures Guide Social Perception and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Kimberly A.; Rosenthal, Harriet E. S.

    2012-01-01

    In keeping with the special issue theme of "Remembering the Future," this article provides a selective review of research on how memory for social information (i.e., social category representation) influences future processing and behavior. Specifically, the authors focus on how categorization and stereotyping affect how we perceive others and…

  20. Social Networking Web Sites: Teaching Appropriate Social Competence to Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Joseph J.

    2010-01-01

    The Internet has opened a variety of different avenues for people to interact with each other. As new digital environments are developed, new sets of social skills are needed to appropriately interact. Students with emotional and behavioral disorders often have deficits in social competence and require specialized training in specific social…

  1. Television and Social Behavior; Reports and Papers, Volume II: Television and Social Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, John P., Ed.; And Others

    Concentrating on television and social learning, this second volume in the series of technical reports to the Surgeon General's Scientific Advisory Committee on Television and Social Behavior consists of an overview and the reports of five investigations. The studies included are: Leifer and Roberts, "Children's Responses to Television Violence";…

  2. Social Robots as Embedded Reinforcers of Social Behavior in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Elizabeth S.; Berkovits, Lauren D.; Bernier, Emily P.; Leyzberg, Dan; Shic, Frederick; Paul, Rhea; Scassellati, Brian

    2013-01-01

    In this study we examined the social behaviors of 4- to 12-year-old children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD; N = 24) during three tradic interactions with an adult confederate and an interaction partner, where the interaction partner varied randomly among (1) another adult human, (2) a touchscreen computer game, and (3) a social dinosaur…

  3. Social contagion and adolescent sexual behavior: a developmental EMOSA model.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, J L; Rowe, D C

    1993-07-01

    Epidemic Models of the Onset of Social Activities (EMOSA models) describe the spread of adolescent transition behaviors (e.g., sexuality, smoking, and drinking) through an interacting adolescent network. A theory of social contagion is defined to explain how social influence affects sexual development. Contacts within a network can, with some transition rate or probability, result in an increase in level of sexual experience. Five stages of sexual development are posited. One submodel proposes a systematic progression through these stages; a competing submodel treats each as an independent process. These models are represented in sets of dynamically interacting recursive equations, which are fit to empirical prevalence data to estimate parameters. Model adjustments are substantively interpretable and can be used to test for and better understand social interaction processes that affect adolescent sexual behavior. PMID:8356187

  4. Hormone response to bidirectional selection on social behavior

    PubMed Central

    Amdam, Gro V.; Page, Robert E.; Fondrk, M. Kim; Brent, Colin S.

    2010-01-01

    Behavior is a quantitative trait determined by multiple genes. Some of these genes may have effects from early development and onward by influencing hormonal systems that are active during different life-stages — leading to complex associations, or suites, of traits. Honey bees (Apis mellifera) have been used extensively in experiments on the genetic and hormonal control of complex social behavior, but the relationships between their early developmental processes and adult behavioral variation are not well understood. Bidirectional selective breeding on social food-storage behavior produced two honey bee strains, each with several sub-lines, that differ in an associated suite of anatomical, physiological, and behavioral traits found in unselected wild type bees. Using these genotypes, we document strain-specific changes during larval, pupal, and early adult life-stages for the central insect hormones juvenile hormone (JH) and ecdysteroids. Strain differences correlate with variation in female reproductive anatomy (ovary size), which can be influenced by JH during development, and with secretion rates of ecdysteroid from the ovaries of adults. Ovary size was previously assigned to the suite of traits of honey bee food-storage behavior. Our findings support that bidirectional selection on honey bee social behavior acted on pleiotropic gene networks. These networks may bias a bee’s adult phenotype by endocrine effects on early developmental processes that regulate variation in reproductive traits. PMID:20883212

  5. Hormone response to bidirectional selection on social behavior.

    PubMed

    Amdam, Gro V; Page, Robert E; Fondrk, M Kim; Brent, Colin S

    2010-01-01

    Behavior is a quantitative trait determined by multiple genes. Some of these genes may have effects from early development and onward by influencing hormonal systems that are active during different life-stages leading to complex associations, or suites, of traits. Honey bees (Apis mellifera) have been used extensively in experiments on the genetic and hormonal control of complex social behavior, but the relationships between their early developmental processes and adult behavioral variation are not well understood. Bidirectional selective breeding on social food-storage behavior produced two honey bee strains, each with several sublines, that differ in an associated suite of anatomical, physiological, and behavioral traits found in unselected wild type bees. Using these genotypes, we document strain-specific changes during larval, pupal, and early adult life-stages for the central insect hormones juvenile hormone (JH) and ecdysteroids. Strain differences correlate with variation in female reproductive anatomy (ovary size), which can be influenced by JH during development, and with secretion rates of ecdysteroid from the ovaries of adults. Ovary size was previously assigned to the suite of traits of honey bee food-storage behavior. Our findings support that bidirectional selection on honey bee social behavior acted on pleiotropic gene networks. These networks may bias a bee's adult phenotype by endocrine effects on early developmental processes that regulate variation in reproductive traits. PMID:20883212

  6. Interdependent Utilities: How Social Ranking Affects Choice Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Bault, Nadège; Coricelli, Giorgio; Rustichini, Aldo

    2008-01-01

    Organization in hierarchical dominance structures is prevalent in animal societies, so a strong preference for higher positions in social ranking is likely to be an important motivation of human social and economic behavior. This preference is also likely to influence the way in which we evaluate our outcome and the outcome of others, and finally the way we choose. In our experiment participants choose among lotteries with different levels of risk, and can observe the choice that others have made. Results show that the relative weight of gains and losses is the opposite in the private and social domain. For private outcomes, experience and anticipation of losses loom larger than gains, whereas in the social domain, gains loom larger than losses, as indexed by subjective emotional evaluations and physiological responses. We propose a theoretical model (interdependent utilities), predicting the implication of this effect for choice behavior. The relatively larger weight assigned to social gains strongly affects choices, inducing complementary behavior: faced with a weaker competitor, participants adopt a more risky and dominant behavior. PMID:18941538

  7. Social Skills Training for Behavior Disordered Students: A Meta-Behavioral Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svec, Henry; Bechard, Joseph

    The paper proposes a model which combines traditional metacognitive explanations for the acquisition of social skills in behaviorally disordered adolescents with situationally specific environment variables. Research is reported suggesting that newly learned social skills may not generalize to a wider variety of real life situations because social…

  8. Validation of the Elementary Social Behavior Assessment: A Measure of Student Prosocial School Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennefather, Jordan T.; Smolkowski, Keith

    2015-01-01

    We describe the psychometric evaluation of the "Elementary Social Behavior Assessment" (ESBA™), a 12-item scale measuring teacher-preferred, positive social skills. The ESBA was developed for use in elementary school classrooms to measure teacher perceptions of students using time-efficient, web-based data collection methods that allow…

  9. Child Temperament, Maternal Parenting Behavior, and Child Social Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Baer, Julie; Schreck, Meghan; Rettew, David C.; Harder, Valerie S.; Ayer, Lynsay; Albaugh, Matthew D.; Crehan, Eileen T.; Kuny-Slock, Ana V.; Hudziak, James J.

    2014-01-01

    We examined child temperament, maternal parenting, and the effects of their interactions with each other on child social functioning. A total of 355 children aged 5–18 years old (54% male; mean age=10.8) were evaluated. Regression equations were used to test models of the main and interactive effects of temperament and maternal parenting behavior on the Social Problems and Social Competence Subscales of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), a questionnaire assessing internalizing and externalizing behavior problems in children ages 4 to 18. Higher levels of child Novelty Seeking and Harm Avoidance and lower levels of Persistence were significantly associated with poorer social functioning. When accounting for child temperament, neither maternal parenting nor the interaction between maternal parenting and child temperament were significantly associated with social functioning. However, the interaction between maternal positive involvement and harm avoidance trended toward significance, such that at higher levels of harm avoidance, more extreme levels of maternal positive involvement were related to lower levels of social functioning. Further research on the interplay between child temperament and parenting across different stages of development is warranted. PMID:26085784

  10. Molecular and neural control of sexually dimorphic social behaviors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Taehong; Shah, Nirao M

    2016-06-01

    Sexually reproducing animals exhibit sex differences in behavior. Sexual dimorphisms in mating, aggression, and parental care directly contribute to reproductive success of the individual and survival of progeny. In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the molecular and neural network mechanisms underlying these behaviors in mice. Notable advances include novel insights into the sensory control of social interactions and the identification of molecularly-specified neuronal populations in the brain that control mating, aggression, and parental behaviors. In the case of the latter, these advances mark a watershed because scientists can now focus on discrete neural pathways in an effort to understand how the brain encodes these fundamental social behaviors. PMID:27162162

  11. Effects of Social Context on Social Interaction and Self-Injurious Behavior in Cornelia de Lange Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arron, Kate; Oliver, Chris; Hall, Scott; Sloneem, Jenny; Forman, Debbie; McClintock, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Cornelia de Lange syndrome is reported to be associated with self-injurious behavior (SIB) and social avoidance. We used analog methodology to examine the effect of manipulating adult social contact on social communicative behaviors and SIB in 16 children with this syndrome. For 9 participants engagement behavior was related to levels of adult…

  12. Using Social Stories and Visual Schedules to Improve Socially Appropriate Behaviors in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Naomi; Goldstein, Howard

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated the effects of Social Stories written according to Gray's specifications on on-task behavior in inclusive classroom settings in three children with autism. Using a multiple-baseline design across participants, modest improvements in on-task behavior were associated with implementation of an auditory-visual Social…

  13. Promoting Behavior Change Using Social Norms: Applying a Community Based Social Marketing Tool to Extension Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudhary, Anil Kumar; Warner, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    Most educational programs are designed to produce lower level outcomes, and Extension educators are challenged to produce behavior change in target audiences. Social norms are a very powerful proven tool for encouraging sustainable behavior change among Extension's target audiences. Minor modifications to program content to demonstrate the…

  14. Social Acceptability of Five Screening Instruments for Social, Emotional, and Behavioral Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Judith R.; Vannest, Kimberly J.; Reynolds, Cecil R.

    2013-01-01

    Social, emotional, and behavioral (SEB) screening occurs in only two percent of our schools. This is unfortunate because universal screening is linked to prevention and early intervention with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) in children and youth, a population who continues to experience a plethora of poor outcomes. The social…

  15. The behavioral ecology of variation in social insects.

    PubMed

    Jandt, J M; Gordon, D M

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the ecological relevance of variation within and between colonies has been an important and recurring theme in social insect research. Recent research addresses the genomic and physiological factors and fitness effects associated with behavioral variation, within and among colonies, in regulation of activity, cognitive abilities, and aggression. Behavioral variation among colonies has consequences for survival and reproductive success that are the basis for evolutionary change. PMID:27436730

  16. The Effects of Fixed-Time and Contingent Schedules of Negative Reinforcement on Compliance and Aberrant Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Gregory K.; Ringdahl, Joel E.; Wacker, David P.; Barretto, Anjali; Andelman, Marc S.

    2005-01-01

    Prior research has suggested that fixed-time (FT) schedules of reinforcement do not necessarily preclude the acquisition of appropriate behavior (e.g., mands) when combined with differential reinforcement (DRA). These studies also note that dense FT schedules are more likely to interfere with DRA packages than lean FT schedules. In the current…

  17. Impairment of Oligodendroglia Maturation Leads to Aberrantly Increased Cortical Glutamate and Anxiety-Like Behaviors in Juvenile Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xianjun; Zhang, Weiguo; Li, Tao; Guo, Yu; Tian, Yanping; Wang, Fei; Liu, Shubao; Shen, Hai-Ying; Feng, Yue; Xiao, Lan

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is the critical time for developing proper oligodendrocyte (OL)-neuron interaction and the peak of onset for many cognitive diseases, among which anxiety disorders display the highest prevalence. However, whether impairment of de novo OL development causes neuronal abnormalities and contributes to the early onset of anxiety phenotype in childhood still remains unexplored. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that defects in OL maturation manifests cortical neuron function and leads to anxiety-like behaviors in juvenile mice. We report here that conditional knockout of the Olig2 gene (Olig2 cKO) specifically in differentiating OLs in the mouse brain preferentially impaired OL maturation in the gray matter of cerebral cortex. Interestingly, localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed that Olig2 cKO mice displayed abnormally elevated cortical glutamate levels. In addition, transmission electron microscopy demonstrated increased vesicle density in excitatory glutamatergic synapses in the cortex of the Olig2 cKO mice. Moreover, juvenile Olig2 cKO mice exhibited anxiety-like behaviors and impairment in behavioral inhibition. Taken together, our results suggest that impaired OL development affects glutamatergic neuron function in the cortex and causes anxiety-related behaviors in juvenile mice. These discoveries raise an intriguing possibility that OL defects may be a contributing mechanism for the onset of anxiety in childhood. PMID:26696827

  18. Impact of Social Punishment on Cooperative Behavior in Complex Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhen; Xia, Cheng-Yi; Meloni, Sandro; Zhou, Chang-Song; Moreno, Yamir

    2013-01-01

    Social punishment is a mechanism by which cooperative individuals spend part of their resources to penalize defectors. In this paper, we study the evolution of cooperation in 2-person evolutionary games on networks when a mechanism for social punishment is introduced. Specifically, we introduce a new kind of role, punisher, which is aimed at reducing the earnings of defectors by applying to them a social fee. Results from numerical simulations show that different equilibria allowing the three strategies to coexist are possible as well as that social punishment further enhance the robustness of cooperation. Our results are confirmed for different network topologies and two evolutionary games. In addition, we analyze the microscopic mechanisms that give rise to the observed macroscopic behaviors in both homogeneous and heterogeneous networks. Our conclusions might provide additional insights for understanding the roots of cooperation in social systems. PMID:24162105

  19. Social and behavioral problems among five gambling severity groups.

    PubMed

    Moghaddam, Jacquelene F; Yoon, Gihyun; Campos, Michael D; Fong, Timothy W

    2015-12-15

    Gambling has been associated with various social and behavioral problems, but previous analyses have been limited by sample bias regarding gambling symptom severity range and the role of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). This study utilized a nationally representative data set and examined various characteristics of behavioral problems and ASPD among five gambling severity groups. Participants were 42,038 individuals who took part in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) and provided information on social and behavioral problems, ASPD, and gambling. Using DSM-IV criteria, we derived five gambling groups from the total sample: non-gambling, low-risk, at-risk, problem, and pathological gambling. Associations between all problematic behaviors and nearly every gambling severity level were significant prior to adjustment for sociodemographic variables and ASPD. Following the adjustment, all significant associations persisted, with the exception of sexual coercion. In the adjusted model, the financially oriented behaviors had the strongest associations with gambling. All gambling severity levels were associated with an increased risk for a number of problematic behaviors and social problems in comparison to non-gamblers.Further examination of gambling problems in financial and criminal justice settings is recommended. PMID:26391652

  20. Higher social class predicts increased unethical behavior

    PubMed Central

    Piff, Paul K.; Stancato, Daniel M.; Côté, Stéphane; Mendoza-Denton, Rodolfo; Keltner, Dacher

    2012-01-01

    Seven studies using experimental and naturalistic methods reveal that upper-class individuals behave more unethically than lower-class individuals. In studies 1 and 2, upper-class individuals were more likely to break the law while driving, relative to lower-class individuals. In follow-up laboratory studies, upper-class individuals were more likely to exhibit unethical decision-making tendencies (study 3), take valued goods from others (study 4), lie in a negotiation (study 5), cheat to increase their chances of winning a prize (study 6), and endorse unethical behavior at work (study 7) than were lower-class individuals. Mediator and moderator data demonstrated that upper-class individuals’ unethical tendencies are accounted for, in part, by their more favorable attitudes toward greed. PMID:22371585

  1. Mental Illness, Behavior Problems, and Social Behavior in Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straccia, Claudio; Baggio, Stéphanie; Barisnikov, Koviljka

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the behavioral characteristics of adults with Down syndrome (DS) without dementia. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the psychopathology and social behavior among adults with DS compared to adults with nonspecific intellectual disability (NSID). Thirty-four adults with DS were individually matched with 34…

  2. Investigating the underlying mechanisms of aberrant behaviors in bipolar disorder from patients to models: Rodent and human studies.

    PubMed

    van Enkhuizen, Jordy; Geyer, Mark A; Minassian, Arpi; Perry, William; Henry, Brook L; Young, Jared W

    2015-11-01

    Psychiatric patients with bipolar disorder suffer from states of depression and mania, during which a variety of symptoms are present. Current treatments are limited and neurocognitive deficits in particular often remain untreated. Targeted therapies based on the biological mechanisms of bipolar disorder could fill this gap and benefit patients and their families. Developing targeted therapies would benefit from appropriate animal models which are challenging to establish, but remain a vital tool. In this review, we summarize approaches to create a valid model relevant to bipolar disorder. We focus on studies that use translational tests of multivariate exploratory behavior, sensorimotor gating, decision-making under risk, and attentional functioning to discover profiles that are consistent between patients and rodent models. Using this battery of translational tests, similar behavior profiles in bipolar mania patients and mice with reduced dopamine transporter activity have been identified. Future investigations should combine other animal models that are biologically relevant to the neuropsychiatric disorder with translational behavioral assessment as outlined here. This methodology can be utilized to develop novel targeted therapies that relieve symptoms for more patients without common side effects caused by current treatments. PMID:26297513

  3. Social influence in child care centers: a test of the theory of normative social behavior.

    PubMed

    Lapinski, Maria Knight; Anderson, Jenn; Shugart, Alicia; Todd, Ewen

    2014-01-01

    Child care centers are a unique context for studying communication about the social and personal expectations about health behaviors. The theory of normative social behavior (TNSB; Rimal & Real, 2005 ) provides a framework for testing the role of social and psychological influences on handwashing behaviors among child care workers. A cross-sectional survey of child care workers in 21 centers indicates that outcome expectations and group identity increase the strength of the relationship between descriptive norms and handwashing behavior. Injunctive norms also moderate the effect of descriptive norms on handwashing behavior such that when strong injunctive norms are reported, descriptive norms are positively related to handwashing, but when weak injunctive norms are reported, descriptive norms are negatively related to handwashing. The findings suggest that communication interventions in child care centers can focus on strengthening injunctive norms in order to increase handwashing behaviors in child care centers. The findings also suggest that the theory of normative social behavior can be useful in organizational contexts. PMID:23682754

  4. Social Influences on Neurobiology and Behavior: Epigenetic Effects During Development

    PubMed Central

    Curley, JP; Jensen, CL; Mashoodh, R; Champagne, FA

    2010-01-01

    The quality of the social environment can have profound influences on the development and activity of neural systems with implications for numerous behavioral and physiological responses, including the expression of emotionality. Though social experiences occurring early in development may be particularly influential on the developing brain, there is continued plasticity within these neural circuits amongst juveniles and into early adulthood. In this review, we explore the evidence derived from studies in rodents which illustrates the social modulation during development of neural systems, with a particular emphasis on those systems in which a long-term effect is observed. One possible explanation for the persistence of dynamic changes in these systems in response to the environment is the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms, and here we discuss recent studies which support the role of these mechanisms in mediating the link between social experiences, gene expression, neurobiological changes, and behavioral variation. This literature raises critical questions about the interaction between neural systems, the concordance between neural and behavioral changes, sexual dimorphism in effects, the importance of considering individual differences in response to the social environment, and the potential of an epigenetic perspective in advancing our understanding of the pathways leading to variations in mental health. PMID:20650569

  5. Improving Cooperative Behavior through the Use of Social Skills Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zukauskas, Julie A.

    Elementary school students often exhibit a lack of social skills that interferes with positive classroom interaction. This action research project examined the impact of an intervention for improving respect for others, self control, and listening to increase cooperative behavior in students. The targeted population consisted of a class of fourth…

  6. Affect-Congruent Social-Cognitive Evaluations and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peets, Katlin; Hodges, Ernest V. E.; Salmivalli, Christina

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether the affect children feel toward peers would influence children's social-cognitive evaluations and behaviors. The sample consisted of 209 fifth-grade children (11- to 12-year-olds; 119 boys and 90 girls). For each child, 3 target peers (liked, disliked, and neutral) were identified via a sociometric nomination procedure.…

  7. Integration of Social, Behavioral, and Academic Initiatives--Part 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohanon, Hank; Wu, Meng-Jia

    2012-01-01

    In part one of this series, the authors discussed the connections among social and emotional learning (SEL), positive behavior interventions and supports (PBIS), and response to intervention (RTI). Specifically, they compared the processes and fidelity components of these approaches. They attempted to highlight the similarities in systems,…

  8. Aspects of Television Content and Children's Social Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, W. Andrew; And Others

    Three studies examine the impact of different types of television content on the social behavior of children at various ages. The studies represent research into the interrelated problem of the processes involved in media effects and age-related differences. In the first study an action-adventure program, in which a character's reputation and…

  9. Addiction: pulling at the neural threads of social behaviors.

    PubMed

    Volkow, Nora D; Baler, Ruben D; Goldstein, Rita Z

    2011-02-24

    Addiction coopts the brain's neuronal circuits necessary for insight, reward, motivation, and social behaviors. This functional overlap results in addicted individuals making poor choices despite awareness of the negative consequences; it explains why previously rewarding life situations and the threat of judicial punishment cannot stop drug taking and why a medical rather than a criminal approach is more effective in curtailing addiction. PMID:21338873

  10. 20 CFR 664.430 - What are positive social behaviors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What are positive social behaviors? 664.430 Section 664.430 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) YOUTH ACTIVITIES UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Youth Program Design, Elements,...

  11. 20 CFR 664.430 - What are positive social behaviors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What are positive social behaviors? 664.430 Section 664.430 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) YOUTH ACTIVITIES UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Youth Program Design, Elements,...

  12. 20 CFR 664.430 - What are positive social behaviors?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What are positive social behaviors? 664.430 Section 664.430 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) YOUTH ACTIVITIES UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Youth Program Design, Elements,...

  13. The Effects of Noise Reduction on Social Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbone, Vincent J.; Duncan, Phillip K.

    1986-01-01

    The study found no relationship between improved social behavior in a group of juveniles residing at a county shelter care facility and decreased frequency and duration of disruptions above 85 decibels. Subjects did reduce noise levels when stereo listening was made contingent on reduced noise. (Author/DB)

  14. Behavioral flexibility and the evolution of primate social states.

    PubMed

    Strier, Karen B; Lee, Phyllis C; Ives, Anthony R

    2014-01-01

    Comparative approaches to the evolution of primate social behavior have typically involved two distinct lines of inquiry. One has focused on phylogenetic analyses that treat social traits as static, species-specific characteristics; the other has focused on understanding the behavioral flexibility of particular populations or species in response to local ecological or demographic variables. Here, we combine these approaches by distinguishing between constraining traits such as dispersal regimes (male, female, or bi-sexual), which are relatively invariant, and responding traits such as grouping patterns (stable, fission-fusion, sometimes fission-fusion), which can reflect rapid adjustments to current conditions. Using long-term and cross-sectional data from 29 studies of 22 species of wild primates, we confirm that dispersal regime exhibits a strong phylogenetic signal in our sample. We then show that primate species with high variation in group size and adult sex ratios exhibit variability in grouping pattern (i.e., sometimes fission-fusion) with dispersal regime constraining the grouping response. When assessing demographic variation, we found a strong positive relationship between the variability in group size over time and the number of observation years, which further illustrates the importance of long-term demographic data to interpretations of social behavior. Our approach complements other comparative efforts to understand the role of behavioral flexibility by distinguishing between constraining and responding traits, and incorporating these distinctions into analyses of social states over evolutionary and ecological time. PMID:25470593

  15. Addiction: Pulling at the Neural Threads of Social Behaviors

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.; Volkow, N.D.; Baler, R.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2011-01-27

    Addiction coopts the brain's neuronal circuits necessary for insight, reward, motivation, and social behaviors. This functional overlap results in addicted individuals making poor choices despite awareness of the negative consequences; it explains why previously rewarding life situations and the threat of judicial punishment cannot stop drug taking and why a medical rather than a criminal approach is more effective in curtailing addiction.

  16. Responsible Behavior: The Importance of Social Cognition and Emotion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bear, George G.; Manning, Maureen A.; Izard, Carroll E.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a brief review of research linking social cognition and emotion to responsible behavior. Implications for school psychologists are discussed, with a particular emphasis on the importance of developing and implementing prevention and intervention programs that address the multiple components of responsible…

  17. MDMA as a Probe and Treatment for Social Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Heifets, Boris D; Malenka, Robert C

    2016-07-14

    MDMA, better known as the recreational drug "ecstasy," is well known for stimulating a feeling of closeness and empathy in its users. We advocate that exploring its mechanism of action could lead to new treatments for psychiatric conditions characterized by impairments in social behavior. PMID:27419864

  18. Effects of Fenfluramine on Social Behavior in Autistic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiss, Allan L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The effect of the therapeutic drug, fenfluramine, on the social interactions of seven autistic children was evaluated. Results demonstrated that the drug effect was inconsistent across children, with two children possibly demonstrating a tolerance to the behavioral effects of the drug. (Author/DB)

  19. Social Behavior of Mentally Handicapped Clients in Different Community Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romer, Daniel; Berkson, Gershon

    To study the influence that community settings have upon peer relationships and social behavior, 81 mentally disabled (retarded and emotionally disturbed retarded) adults were observed in their intermediate care residential facility and in one of four workshop programs. In summary, Ss tended to have more extensive affiliation and to aggregate more…

  20. Behavioral Flexibility and the Evolution of Primate Social States

    PubMed Central

    Strier, Karen B.; Lee, Phyllis C.; Ives, Anthony R.

    2014-01-01

    Comparative approaches to the evolution of primate social behavior have typically involved two distinct lines of inquiry. One has focused on phylogenetic analyses that treat social traits as static, species-specific characteristics; the other has focused on understanding the behavioral flexibility of particular populations or species in response to local ecological or demographic variables. Here, we combine these approaches by distinguishing between constraining traits such as dispersal regimes (male, female, or bi-sexual), which are relatively invariant, and responding traits such as grouping patterns (stable, fission-fusion, sometimes fission-fusion), which can reflect rapid adjustments to current conditions. Using long-term and cross-sectional data from 29 studies of 22 species of wild primates, we confirm that dispersal regime exhibits a strong phylogenetic signal in our sample. We then show that primate species with high variation in group size and adult sex ratios exhibit variability in grouping pattern (i.e., sometimes fission-fusion) with dispersal regime constraining the grouping response. When assessing demographic variation, we found a strong positive relationship between the variability in group size over time and the number of observation years, which further illustrates the importance of long-term demographic data to interpretations of social behavior. Our approach complements other comparative efforts to understand the role of behavioral flexibility by distinguishing between constraining and responding traits, and incorporating these distinctions into analyses of social states over evolutionary and ecological time. PMID:25470593

  1. Online Searching in the Behavioral and Social Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Sara D.

    1979-01-01

    This overview of 48 online databases relevant to behavioral and social sciences provides access and scope information for each database, a listing of database vendors, and a list of selected references. Use and limitations of online bibliographic searching and difficulties encountered in staying up to date are discussed. (Author/EJS)

  2. Social Behavior of Urban and Kibbutz Preschool Children in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy-Shiff, Rachel; Hoffman, Michael A.

    1985-01-01

    Observes early social interactions in free play settings of Israeli kibbutz and urban preschool children. Kibbutz preschoolers displayed some aspects of more advanced group functioning (e.g., coordinated play) but also more behaviors reflecting affective distancing (e.g., solitary play, reduced affective expression, verbal aggression). (Author/NH)

  3. Environmental Learning in Online Social Networks: Adopting Environmentally Responsible Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelia, Beth A.; Greenhow, Christine; Burton, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Online social networks are increasingly important information and communication tools for young people and for the environmental movement. Networks may provide the motivation for young adults to increase environmental behaviors by increasing their knowledge of environmental issues and of the specific actions they can take to reduce greenhouse gas…

  4. Behavioral Group Counseling with Socially Anxious and Unassertive College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedquist, Francis J.; Weinhold, Barry K.

    1970-01-01

    Compared effectiveness of two counseling approaches in increasing the frequency of verbal assertive responses. A homogeneous sample of students was divided into matched pairs and randomly assigned to the social learning and behavior rehearsal treatments and to a control group. Results indicated that the treatment groups produced significantly more…

  5. Social Density: Its Effect on Behaviors and Perceptions of Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loo, Chalsa; Kennelly, Denise

    1979-01-01

    The effects of social density on the behaviors and perceptions of five-year-old children in four- and eight-person groups were investigated. Differential effects of density for sex and for preferred personal space were examined. Five factors emerged and were examined: Activity-Aggression-Anger, Positive Interactions, Distress-and-Nonplay, Feeling…

  6. Students' Individual and Social Behaviors with Physical Education Teachers' Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbabisarjou, Azizollah; Sourki, Mehdi Sadeghian; Bonjar, Seyedeh Elaham Hashemi

    2016-01-01

    The main objective for this survey is to assess the relationship between physical education teachers' personality and students' individual with social behaviors. The statistical population of the study was all the teachers of physical education working at high schools in the academic year 2012-2013. The sample consisted of sixty teachers that were…

  7. Moral Development and Behavior: Theory, Research, and Social Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lickona, Thomas, Ed.

    This book contains selections from psychologists, social scientists, and educators on the origins and nature of moral reasoning and behavior. Part one is an introduction and is intended to help the reader organize the wealth of theory and research in the field around eight basic questions confronting a science of morality. Part two sets forth…

  8. Perceptions of Social Support, Empowerment and Youth Risk Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reininger, Belinda M.; Perez, Adriana; Flores, Maria I. Aguirre; Chen, Zhongxue; Rahbar, Mohammad H.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the association of perceived social support and community empowerment among urban middle-school students living in Matamoros, Mexico and the risk behaviors of fighting, alcohol and tobacco use, and sexual activity. Middle school students (n = 1,181) from 32 public and private Mexican schools were surveyed. Weighted multiple…

  9. Perceptions of Social Behavior and Peer Acceptance in Kindergarten.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipsen, Leslie C.; Bridges, Sara K.; McLemore, T. Gayle; Saponaro, Lisa A.

    1999-01-01

    Used social behavior ratings from observers, teachers, and parents to predict kindergartners' perceptions of peer acceptance. Found that friendship skill predicted parent- and child-reported peer acceptance. Shyness/withdrawal inversely predicted teacher-reported peer acceptance. Aggression did not predict peer acceptance. Girls were rated as more…

  10. Using Precorrection to Manage Inappropriate Academic and Social Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Shane; Jolivette, Kristine; Patterson, DaShaunda

    2006-01-01

    This article illustrates a proactive strategy, precorrection, for addressing problem academic and social behaviors with students. Practical classroom scenarios are provided to give teachers a step-by-step guide of how to implement this seven-step preventative strategy. Empirical support for and the benefits of precorrection also are discussed.…

  11. Children's Type A Behavior and Teacher Ratings of Social Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jose, Paul E.; Langer, Beth A.

    Research has indicated that some Type A individuals lack social support networks; this study was designed to determine whether an alienating aspect of Type A behavior pattern (TABP) is evident in grade school children. As part of the study, two commonly used TABP scales for children, the Matthews Youth Test for Health (MYTH) Scale and the Hunter…

  12. Young Children's Social Information Processing: Family Antecedents and Behavioral Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runions, Kevin C.; Keating, Daniel P.

    2007-01-01

    Little research has examined whether social information processing (SIP) measures from early childhood predict externalizing problems beyond the shared association with familial risk markers. In the present study, family antecedents and first-grade externalizing behaviors were studied in relation to preschool and 1st-grade SIP using data from…

  13. Behavioral and Social Science Research: A National Resource. Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Robert McC., Ed.; And Others

    Areas of behavioral and social science research that have achieved significant breakthroughs in knowledge or application or that show future promise of achieving such breakthroughs are discussed in 12 papers. For example, the paper on formal demography shows how mathematical or statistical techniques can be used to explain and predict change in…

  14. Social and Behavioral Characteristics of Preschoolers with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton-Chapman, Tina L.; Justice, Laura M.; Skibbe, Lori E.; Grant, Staci L.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the social and behavioral characteristics of children with specific language impairment (SLI) as compared with a group of children with typically developing language skills (TL). The participants were 45 children (17 girls and 28 boys) with SLI and 53 children (27 girls and 26 boys) with TL. Maternal ratings of participants'…

  15. Protective Behavioral Strategies, Social Norms, and Alcohol-Related Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Arterberry, Brooke J.; Smith, Ashley E.; Martens, Matthew P.; Cadigan, Jennifer M.; Murphy, James G.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the unique contributions of protective behavioral strategies and social norms in predicting alcohol-related outcomes. Participants were 363 students from a large public university in the Midwest who reported at least one binge-drinking episode (5+/4+ drinks for men/women in one sitting) in the past 30 days. Data were collected 1/2010–3/2011. We used SEM to test models where protective behavioral strategies (PBS) and social norms were predictors of both alcohol use and alcohol-related problems, after controlling for the effects of gender. Both PBS and descriptive norms had relationships with alcohol use. PBS also had a relationship with alcohol-related problems. Overall, the findings suggest that PBS and social norms have unique associations with distinct alcohol-related outcomes. PMID:25419202

  16. Relational correlates of interpersonal citizenship behavior: a social network perspective.

    PubMed

    Bowler, Wm Matthew; Brass, Daniel J

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the role of social network ties in the performance and receipt of interpersonal citizenship behavior (ICB), one form of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). A field study involving 141 employees of a manufacturing firm provided evidence that social network ties are related to the performance and receipt of ICB. Results support hypothesized relationships, which are based on social exchange theory, suggesting strength of friendship is related to performance and receipt of ICB. Support was also found for impression management-based hypotheses suggesting that asymmetric influence and 3rd-party influence are related to the performance and receipt of ICB. These relationships were significant when controlling for job satisfaction, commitment, procedural justice, hierarchical level, demographic similarity, and job similarity. Implications and directions for future research are addressed. PMID:16435939

  17. Bipolar Disorder Affects Behavior and Social Skills on the Internet

    PubMed Central

    Martini, Thaís; Czepielewski, Letícia Sanguinetti; Fijtman, Adam; Sodré, Leonardo; Wollenhaupt-Aguiar, Bianca; Pereira, Caroline Silveira; Vianna-Sulzbach, Mireia; Goi, Pedro D.; Rosa, Adriane Ribeiro; Kapczinski, Flavio; Kunz, Maurício; Kauer-Sant'Anna, Marcia

    2013-01-01

    Background Bipolar disorder (BD) is a significant cause of functional, cognitive, and social impairment. However, classic studies of functioning and social skills have not investigated how BD may impact behavior on the Internet. Given that the digital age has been changing the way people communicate, this study aims to investigate the pattern of Internet use in patients with BD. Methods This cross-sectional study assessed 30 patients with BD I or II and 30 matched controls. Patients were not in an acute mood episode, according to DSM-IV. A standard protocol examined sociodemographic variables and social behavior on the Internet, assessed by Facebook number of friends (FBN) and lifetime estimated number of offline contacts (social network number, SNN). Results SNN (p<0.001) and FBN (p = 0.036) of patients with BD were significantly lower than those of controls. Also, variables related with Internet use were significantly lower in patients, e.g., close contacts on Facebook (p = 0.021), Internet experience (p = 0.020), and knowledge of terms associated with social networking sites (p = 0.042). Also, patients showed lower rates of the expected pattern of Internet use (based on their age generation), including a poorer knowledge of SNS (p = 0.018) and a lower frequency of Internet use (p = 0.010). Discussion This study suggests that patients with BD show smaller social networks both in real-world settings and on the Internet. Also, patients tend to use the Internet and social networking sites less frequently and show a poorer knowledge of Internet and social media than healthy controls, below the expected for their generation. These significant differences between patients and controls suggest that the effects of BD on social relationships and functioning extend to electronic media. PMID:24244541

  18. Social exclusion intensifies anxiety-like behavior in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunchan; Noh, Jihyun

    2015-05-01

    Social connection reduces the physiological reactivity to stressors, while social exclusion causes emotional distress. Stressful experiences in rats result in the facilitation of aversive memory and induction of anxiety. To determine the effect of social interaction, such as social connection, social exclusion and equality or inequality, on emotional change in adolescent distressed rats, the emotional alteration induced by restraint stress in individual rats following exposure to various social interaction circumstances was examined. Rats were assigned to one of the following groups: all freely moving rats, all rats restrained, rats restrained in the presence of freely moving rats and freely moving rats with a restrained rat. No significant difference in fear-memory and sucrose consumption between all groups was found. Change in body weight significantly increased in freely moving rats with a restrained rat, suggesting that those rats seems to share the stressful experience of the restrained rat. Interestingly, examination of the anxiety-like behavior revealed only rats restrained in the presence of freely moving rats to have a significant increase, suggesting that emotional distress intensifies in positions of social exclusion. These results demonstrate that unequally excluded social interaction circumstances could cause the amplification of distressed status and anxiety-related emotional alteration. PMID:25680679

  19. Competitiveness and conflict behavior in simulation of a social dilemma.

    PubMed

    Houston, J M; Kinnie, J; Lupo, B; Terry, C; Ho, S S

    2000-06-01

    This experiment examined the competitive behavior in a seven-choice Prisoner's Dilemma game of 108 adult students (68 women, 40 men) classified as high, average, or low in competitiveness based on their scores on the Competitiveness Index. Participants were then presented one of three preprogrammed response conditions representing (1) Competitive, (2) De-escalating, or (3) Noncompetitive conflict behavior from a simulated opponent. Participants high in competitiveness engaged in more competitive behavior and reported higher satisfaction with the task than those low in competitiveness. As expected, the Competitive conditions elicited more competitive behavior than Noncompetitive conditions. The results suggest competitive individuals may be particularly susceptible to social cues that trigger competitive behavior. PMID:10932584

  20. Concurrent Bursty Behavior of Social Sensors in Sporting Events

    PubMed Central

    Takeichi, Yuki; Sasahara, Kazutoshi; Suzuki, Reiji; Arita, Takaya

    2015-01-01

    The advent of social media expands our ability to transmit information and connect with others instantly, which enables us to behave as “social sensors.” Here, we studied concurrent bursty behavior of Twitter users during major sporting events to determine their function as social sensors. We show that the degree of concurrent bursts in tweets (posts) and retweets (re-posts) works as a strong indicator of winning or losing a game. More specifically, our simple tweet analysis of Japanese professional baseball games in 2013 revealed that social sensors can immediately react to positive and negative events through bursts of tweets, but that positive events are more likely to induce a subsequent burst of retweets. We confirm that these findings also hold true for tweets related to Major League Baseball games in 2015. Furthermore, we demonstrate active interactions among social sensors by constructing retweet networks during a baseball game. The resulting networks commonly exhibited user clusters depending on the baseball team, with a scale-free connectedness that is indicative of a substantial difference in user popularity as an information source. While previous studies have mainly focused on bursts of tweets as a simple indicator of a real-world event, the temporal correlation between tweets and retweets implies unique aspects of social sensors, offering new insights into human behavior in a highly connected world. PMID:26659028

  1. Concurrent Bursty Behavior of Social Sensors in Sporting Events.

    PubMed

    Takeichi, Yuki; Sasahara, Kazutoshi; Suzuki, Reiji; Arita, Takaya

    2015-01-01

    The advent of social media expands our ability to transmit information and connect with others instantly, which enables us to behave as "social sensors." Here, we studied concurrent bursty behavior of Twitter users during major sporting events to determine their function as social sensors. We show that the degree of concurrent bursts in tweets (posts) and retweets (re-posts) works as a strong indicator of winning or losing a game. More specifically, our simple tweet analysis of Japanese professional baseball games in 2013 revealed that social sensors can immediately react to positive and negative events through bursts of tweets, but that positive events are more likely to induce a subsequent burst of retweets. We confirm that these findings also hold true for tweets related to Major League Baseball games in 2015. Furthermore, we demonstrate active interactions among social sensors by constructing retweet networks during a baseball game. The resulting networks commonly exhibited user clusters depending on the baseball team, with a scale-free connectedness that is indicative of a substantial difference in user popularity as an information source. While previous studies have mainly focused on bursts of tweets as a simple indicator of a real-world event, the temporal correlation between tweets and retweets implies unique aspects of social sensors, offering new insights into human behavior in a highly connected world. PMID:26659028

  2. Social Competence and Behavior Problems in Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Farrokhi, Farahman; Farajian, Fathemeh

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study examines development of social competence, and behavior problems in kindergarten children during a specific period of childhood. Method A sample of 499 kindergarten children (244 girls and 255 boys) with the age range of 2 years up to 5 years and 6 months was selected using the random stratified sampling method. To collect data, California Preschool Social Competence Scale and Social Skills Rating System were completed by kindergarten teachers. Results The trend analysis shows that both the linear and quadratic trends for verbal facility were statistically significant. Similarly, both the linear and cubic trends were significant for considerateness, and the linear trend tendency was significant for subscales of extraversion, response to unfamiliar and task orientation. Pearson's correlation coefficient yielded a low-to-moderate and negative correlation patterns between social component and problem behaviors. Conclusion The study findings indicate a significant linear trend between the progression in social competence and increasing age, consequently leading to a decrease in social problems for children whose age was from 2 years up to 5 years and 6 months. PMID:23139694

  3. Ethical, Legal and Social Issues Surrounding Research on Genetic Contributions to Anti-Social Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Berryessa, Colleen M.; Martinez-Martin, Nicole A.; Allyse, Megan A.

    2013-01-01

    Scientific study of genetic contributions to chronic antisocial behavior has stemmed from many lines of research in recent years. Genetic research involving twin, family, and adoption studies have traditionally been used to compare the health and behavior outcomes of individuals who share the same environment or hereditary lineage; several of these studies have concluded that heredity plays some role in the formation of chronic antisocial behavior, including various forms of aggression and chronic norm-defiance. However, the ethical, social, and legal environment surrounding research on the biological contributions to antisocial behavior in the United States is contentious. Although there has been some discussion in the last few decades regarding the ethical, social, and legal concerns around this type of research within academic and policy circles, analysis and discussion of these concerns rarely appear together. This paper explores the main themes that interact to form the basis of much of the resistance to positing biological contributions to antisocial behavior. PMID:24319343

  4. Social Expectations and Behavioral Indicators in School-Wide Positive Behavior Supports: A National Study of Behavior Matrices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynass, Lori; Tsai, Shu-Fei; Richman, Taylor D.; Cheney, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    The three-tiered School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) model is now being implemented in more than 13,000 schools in the United States (Horner, Sugai, & Anderson, 2010). One core feature of Tier One of the SWPBIS model is the identification of social expectations and behavior indicators across all school settings.…

  5. Programming social behavior by the maternal fragile X protein.

    PubMed

    Zupan, B; Sharma, A; Frazier, A; Klein, S; Toth, M

    2016-07-01

    The developing fetus and neonate are highly sensitive to maternal environment. Besides the well-documented effects of maternal stress, nutrition and infections, maternal mutations, by altering the fetal, perinatal and/or early postnatal environment, can impact the behavior of genetically normal offspring. Mutation/premutation in the X-linked FMR1 (encoding the translational regulator FMRP) in females, although primarily responsible for causing fragile X syndrome (FXS) in their children, may also elicit such maternal effects. We showed that a deficit in maternal FMRP in mice results in hyperactivity in the genetically normal offspring. To test if maternal FMRP has a broader intergenerational effect, we measured social behavior, a core dimension of neurodevelopmental disorders, in offspring of FMRP-deficient dams. We found that male offspring of Fmr1(+/-) mothers, independent of their own Fmr1 genotype, exhibit increased approach and reduced avoidance toward conspecific strangers, reminiscent of 'indiscriminate friendliness' or the lack of stranger anxiety, diagnosed in neglected children and in patients with Asperger's and Williams syndrome. Furthermore, social interaction failed to activate mesolimbic/amygdala regions, encoding social aversion, in these mice, providing a neurobiological basis for the behavioral abnormality. This work identifies a novel role for FMRP that extends its function beyond the well-established genetic function into intergenerational non-genetic inheritance/programming of social behavior and the corresponding neuronal circuit. As FXS premutation and some psychiatric conditions that can be associated with reduced FMRP expression are more prevalent in mothers than full FMR1 mutation, our findings potentially broaden the significance of FMRP-dependent programming of social behavior beyond the FXS population. PMID:27198123

  6. Social, Behavioral, and Genetic Linkages from Adolescence Into Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Hussey, Jon; Whitsel, Eric A.; Tabor, Joyce; Elder, Glen; Hewitt, John; Shanahan, Michael; Williams, Redford; Siegler, Ilene; Smolen, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The influence of genetic factors on health and behavior is conditioned by social, cultural, institutional, and physical environments in which individuals live, work, and play. We encourage studies supporting multilevel integrative approaches to understanding these contributions to health, and describe the Add Health study as an exemplar. Add Health is a large sample of US adolescents in grades 7 to 12 in 1994–1995 followed into adulthood with 4 in-home interviews and biomarker collections, including DNA. In addition to sampling multiple environments and measuring diverse social and health behavior, Add Health features a fully articulated behavioral genetic sample (3000 pairs) and ongoing genotyping of 12 000 archived samples. We illustrate approaches to understanding health through investigation of the interplay among biological, psychosocial, and physical, contextual, or cultural experiences. PMID:23927505

  7. Affect-congruent social-cognitive evaluations and behaviors.

    PubMed

    Peets, Kätlin; Hodges, Ernest V E; Salmivalli, Christina

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether the affect children feel toward peers would influence children's social-cognitive evaluations and behaviors. The sample consisted of 209 fifth-grade children (11- to 12-year-olds; 119 boys and 90 girls). For each child, 3 target peers (liked, disliked, and neutral) were identified via a sociometric nomination procedure. The names of the targets were then inserted into hypothetical vignettes in which the target peer's behavior had a negative consequence for the child. After each vignette, questions about intent, outcome expectations, and self-efficacy beliefs were asked. In addition, self-reports regarding relationship-specific proactive and reactive aggression and regarding victimization were collected. The results demonstrate that children social-cognitively differentiate between the relationship types and that relationship-specific evaluations are associated with relationship-specific behaviors. PMID:18269516

  8. Social, behavioral, and genetic linkages from adolescence into adulthood.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Hussey, Jon; Whitsel, Eric A; Killeya-Jones, Ley; Tabor, Joyce; Elder, Glen; Hewitt, John; Shanahan, Michael; Williams, Redford; Siegler, Ilene; Smolen, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    The influence of genetic factors on health and behavior is conditioned by social, cultural, institutional, and physical environments in which individuals live, work, and play. We encourage studies supporting multilevel integrative approaches to understanding these contributions to health, and describe the Add Health study as an exemplar. Add Health is a large sample of US adolescents in grades 7 to 12 in 1994-1995 followed into adulthood with 4 in-home interviews and biomarker collections, including DNA. In addition to sampling multiple environments and measuring diverse social and health behavior, Add Health features a fully articulated behavioral genetic sample (3000 pairs) and ongoing genotyping of 12,000 archived samples. We illustrate approaches to understanding health through investigation of the interplay among biological, psychosocial, and physical, contextual, or cultural experiences. PMID:23927505

  9. Teacher characteristics, social classroom relationships, and children's social, emotional, and behavioral classroom adjustment in special education.

    PubMed

    Breeman, L D; Wubbels, T; van Lier, P A C; Verhulst, F C; van der Ende, J; Maras, A; Hopman, J A B; Tick, N T

    2015-02-01

    The goal of this study was to explore relations between teacher characteristics (i.e., competence and wellbeing); social classroom relationships (i.e., teacher-child and peer interactions); and children's social, emotional, and behavioral classroom adjustment. These relations were explored at both the individual and classroom levels among 414 children with emotional and behavioral disorders placed in special education. Two models were specified. In the first model, children's classroom adjustment was regressed on social relationships and teacher characteristics. In the second model, reversed links were examined by regressing teacher characteristics on social relationships and children's adjustment. Results of model 1 showed that, at the individual level, better social and emotional adjustment of children was predicted by higher levels of teacher-child closeness and better behavioral adjustment was predicted by both positive teacher-child and peer interactions. At the classroom level, positive social relationships were predicted by higher levels of teacher competence, which in turn were associated with lower classroom levels of social problems. Higher levels of teacher wellbeing were directly associated with classroom adaptive and maladaptive child outcomes. Results of model 2 showed that, at the individual and classroom levels, only the emotional and behavioral problems of children predicted social classroom relationships. At the classroom level, teacher competence was best predicted by positive teacher-child relationships and teacher wellbeing was best predicted by classroom levels of prosocial behavior. We discuss the importance of positive teacher-child and peer interactions for children placed in special education and suggest ways of improving classroom processes by targeting teacher competence. PMID:25636262

  10. Amphetamine as a social drug: Effects of d-amphetamine on social processing and behavior

    PubMed Central

    Wardle, Margaret C.; Garner, Matthew J.; Munafò, Marcus R.; de Wit, Harriet

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Drug users often report using drugs to enhance social situations, and empirical studies support the idea that drugs increase both social behavior and the value of social interactions. One way drugs may affect social behavior is by altering social processing, for example by decreasing perceptions of negative emotion in others. Objectives We examined effects of d-amphetamine on processing of emotional facial expressions, and on the social behavior of talking. We predicted amphetamine would enhance attention, identification and responsivity to positive expressions, and that this in turn would predict increased talkativeness. Methods Over three sessions, 36 healthy normal adults received placebo, 10mg, and 20mg d-amphetamine under counterbalanced double-blind conditions. At each session we measured processing of happy, fearful, sad and angry expressions using an attentional visual probe task, a dynamic emotion identification task, and measures of facial muscle activity. We also measured talking. Results Amphetamine decreased the threshold for identifying all emotions, increased negative facial responses to sad expressions, and increased talkativeness. Contrary to our hypotheses, amphetamine did not alter attention to, identification of or facial responses to positive emotions specifically. Interestingly, the drug decreased the threshold to identify all emotions, and this effect was uniquely related to increased talkativeness, even after controlling for overall sensitivity to amphetamine. Conclusions The results suggest that amphetamine may encourage sociability by increasing sensitivity to subtle emotional expressions. These findings suggest novel social mechanisms that may contribute to the rewarding effects of amphetamine. PMID:22526538

  11. Social robots as embedded reinforcers of social behavior in children with autism.

    PubMed

    Kim, Elizabeth S; Berkovits, Lauren D; Bernier, Emily P; Leyzberg, Dan; Shic, Frederick; Paul, Rhea; Scassellati, Brian

    2013-05-01

    In this study we examined the social behaviors of 4- to 12-year-old children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD; N = 24) during three tradic interactions with an adult confederate and an interaction partner, where the interaction partner varied randomly among (1) another adult human, (2) a touchscreen computer game, and (3) a social dinosaur robot. Children spoke more in general, and directed more speech to the adult confederate, when the interaction partner was a robot, as compared to a human or computer game interaction partner. Children spoke as much to the robot as to the adult interaction partner. This study provides the largest demonstration of social human-robot interaction in children with autism to date. Our findings suggest that social robots may be developed into useful tools for social skills and communication therapies, specifically by embedding social interaction into intrinsic reinforcers and motivators. PMID:23111617

  12. Assessing Social Competence and Behavior Problems in a Sample of Italian Preschoolers Using the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sette, Stefania; Baumgartner, Emma; MacKinnon, David P.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The main goals of this study were to examine the factor validity of the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation (SCBE-30) scale using exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis and to test factor invariance across gender in a sample of Italian preschool-age children (241 boys, 252 girls). The concurrent…

  13. Social Network Analysis and Nutritional Behavior: An Integrated Modeling Approach

    PubMed Central

    Senior, Alistair M.; Lihoreau, Mathieu; Buhl, Jerome; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Animals have evolved complex foraging strategies to obtain a nutritionally balanced diet and associated fitness benefits. Recent research combining state-space models of nutritional geometry with agent-based models (ABMs), show how nutrient targeted foraging behavior can also influence animal social interactions, ultimately affecting collective dynamics and group structures. Here we demonstrate how social network analyses can be integrated into such a modeling framework and provide a practical analytical tool to compare experimental results with theory. We illustrate our approach by examining the case of nutritionally mediated dominance hierarchies. First we show how nutritionally explicit ABMs that simulate the emergence of dominance hierarchies can be used to generate social networks. Importantly the structural properties of our simulated networks bear similarities to dominance networks of real animals (where conflicts are not always directly related to nutrition). Finally, we demonstrate how metrics from social network analyses can be used to predict the fitness of agents in these simulated competitive environments. Our results highlight the potential importance of nutritional mechanisms in shaping dominance interactions in a wide range of social and ecological contexts. Nutrition likely influences social interactions in many species, and yet a theoretical framework for exploring these effects is currently lacking. Combining social network analyses with computational models from nutritional ecology may bridge this divide, representing a pragmatic approach for generating theoretical predictions for nutritional experiments. PMID:26858671

  14. Social Network Analysis and Nutritional Behavior: An Integrated Modeling Approach.

    PubMed

    Senior, Alistair M; Lihoreau, Mathieu; Buhl, Jerome; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Animals have evolved complex foraging strategies to obtain a nutritionally balanced diet and associated fitness benefits. Recent research combining state-space models of nutritional geometry with agent-based models (ABMs), show how nutrient targeted foraging behavior can also influence animal social interactions, ultimately affecting collective dynamics and group structures. Here we demonstrate how social network analyses can be integrated into such a modeling framework and provide a practical analytical tool to compare experimental results with theory. We illustrate our approach by examining the case of nutritionally mediated dominance hierarchies. First we show how nutritionally explicit ABMs that simulate the emergence of dominance hierarchies can be used to generate social networks. Importantly the structural properties of our simulated networks bear similarities to dominance networks of real animals (where conflicts are not always directly related to nutrition). Finally, we demonstrate how metrics from social network analyses can be used to predict the fitness of agents in these simulated competitive environments. Our results highlight the potential importance of nutritional mechanisms in shaping dominance interactions in a wide range of social and ecological contexts. Nutrition likely influences social interactions in many species, and yet a theoretical framework for exploring these effects is currently lacking. Combining social network analyses with computational models from nutritional ecology may bridge this divide, representing a pragmatic approach for generating theoretical predictions for nutritional experiments. PMID:26858671

  15. Extracting Human Behavioral Patterns by Mining Geo-Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forghani, M.; Karimipour, F.

    2014-10-01

    Accessibility of positioning technologies such as GPS offer the opportunity to store one's travel experience and publish it on the web. Using this feature in web-based social networks and considering location information shared by users as a bridge connecting the users' network to location information layer leads to the formation of Geo-Social Networks. The availability of large amounts of geographical and social data on these networks provides rich sources of information that can be utilized for studying human behavior through data analysis in a spatial-temporal-social context. This paper attempts to investigate the behavior of around 1150 users of Foursquare network by making use of their check-ins. The authors analyzed the metadata associated with the whereabouts of the users, with an emphasis on the type of places, to uncover patterns across different temporal and geographical scales for venue category usage. The authors found five groups of meaningful patterns that can explore region characteristics and recognize a number of major crowd behaviors that recur over time and space.

  16. Knowledge Structures, Social Information Processing, and Children's Aggressive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Burks, Virginia Salzer; Laird, Robert D.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Although a multitude of factors may be involved in the development of children's violent behavior, the actual aggressive act is preceded by a decision-making process that serves as the proximal control mechanism. The primary goal of this longitudinal study was to understand the nature of this proximal control mechanism involved in children's aggressive acts by focusing on two aspects of social cognitions: social information processing and stored knowledge (i.e., internal knowledge structures that are the latent memories of past events). It was hypothesized that: (1) children with hostile knowledge structures will display more biased patterns of aggressive social information processing than children whose knowledge structures are less hostile and negative; (2) children who display hostile knowledge structures will behave in chronically aggressive ways; and (3) the development of hostile knowledge structures and hostile patterns of social information processing contribute to the stability of aggressive behavior and thus partially mediate the relation between early and later aggressive behavior. 585 boys and girls (19% African-American) were followed from kindergarten through eighth grade. Results from this investigation support the hypotheses and are discussed in terms of the significance of the inclusion of knowledge structures in our theories of the mental processes involved in children's violent behaviour. PMID:20011226

  17. The Neuropeptide Oxytocin Facilitates Pro-Social Behavior and Prevents Social Avoidance in Rats and Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lukas, Michael; Toth, Iulia; Reber, Stefan O; Slattery, David A; Veenema, Alexa H; Neumann, Inga D

    2011-01-01

    Social avoidance and social phobia are core symptoms of various psychopathologies but their underlying etiology remains poorly understood. Therefore, this study aims to reveal pro-social effects of the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT), under both basal and stress-induced social avoidance conditions in rodents using a social preference paradigm. We initially show that intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) application of an OT receptor antagonist (OTR-A) in naïve male rats (0.75 μg/5 μl), or mice (20 μg/2 μl), reduced social exploration of a novel con-specific indicative of attenuated social preference. Previous exposure of male rats to a single social defeat resulted in loss of their social preference and social avoidance, which could be restored by i.c.v. infusion of synthetic OT (0.1 μg/5 μl) 20 min before the social preference test. Although the amygdala has been implicated in both social and OT-mediated actions, bilateral OTR-A (0.1 μg/1 μl) or OT (0.01 μg/1 μl) administration into various subnuclei of the amygdala did not affect basal or stress-induced social preference behavior, respectively. Finally, we demonstrate the social specificity of these OT-mediated effects by showing that neither an arginine vasopressin V1a receptor antagonist (0.75 μg/5 μl, i.c.v.) nor the anxiogenic drug pentylenetetrazol (15 mg/kg, i.p.) altered social preference, with OTR-A not affecting non-social anxiety on the elevated plus-maze. Overall, the data indicate that the basal activity of the endogenous brain OT system is sufficient to promote natural occurring social preference in rodents while synthetic OT shows potential to reverse stress-induced social avoidance and might thus be of use for treating social phobia and social dysfunction in humans. PMID:21677650

  18. The Antiquity and Evolutionary History of Social Behavior in Bees

    PubMed Central

    Cardinal, Sophie; Danforth, Bryan N.

    2011-01-01

    A long-standing controversy in bee social evolution concerns whether highly eusocial behavior has evolved once or twice within the corbiculate Apidae. Corbiculate bees include the highly eusocial honey bees and stingless bees, the primitively eusocial bumble bees, and the predominantly solitary or communal orchid bees. Here we use a model-based approach to reconstruct the evolutionary history of eusociality and date the antiquity of eusocial behavior in apid bees, using a recent molecular phylogeny of the Apidae. We conclude that eusociality evolved once in the common ancestor of the corbiculate Apidae, advanced eusociality evolved independently in the honey and stingless bees, and that eusociality was lost in the orchid bees. Fossil-calibrated divergence time estimates reveal that eusociality first evolved at least 87 Mya (78 to 95 Mya) in the corbiculates, much earlier than in other groups of bees with less complex social behavior. These results provide a robust new evolutionary framework for studies of the organization and genetic basis of social behavior in honey bees and their relatives. PMID:21695157

  19. Dynamics of Social Behavior in Fruit Fly Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Durisko, Zachary; Kemp, Rebecca; Mubasher, Rameeshay; Dukas, Reuven

    2014-01-01

    We quantified the extent and dynamics of social interactions among fruit fly larvae over time. Both a wild-type laboratory population and a recently-caught strain of larvae spontaneously formed social foraging groups. Levels of aggregation initially increased during larval development and then declined with the wandering stage before pupation. We show that larvae aggregated more on hard than soft food, and more at sites where we had previously broken the surface of the food. Groups of larvae initiated burrowing sooner than solitary individuals, indicating that one potential benefit of larval aggregations is an improved ability to dig and burrow into the food substrate. We also show that two closely related species, D. melanogaster and D. simulans, differ in their tendency to aggregate, which may reflect different evolutionary histories. Our protocol for quantifying social behavior in larvae uncovered robust social aggregations in this simple model, which is highly amenable to neurogenetic analyses, and can serve for future research into the mechanisms and evolution of social behavior. PMID:24740198

  20. Emotion Socialization by Mothers and Fathers: Coherence among Behaviors and Associations with Parent Attitudes and Children's Social Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Jason K.; Fenning, Rachel M.; Crnic, Keith A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined inter-relations among different types of parental emotion socialization behaviors in 88 mothers and 76 fathers (co-residing with participating mothers) of eight-year-old children. Parents completed questionnaires assessing emotion socialization behaviors, emotion-related attitudes, and their children's social functioning. An…

  1. On the neural control of social emotional behavior.

    PubMed

    Roelofs, Karin; Minelli, Alessandra; Mars, Rogier B; van Peer, Jacobien; Toni, Ivan

    2009-03-01

    It is known that the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is crucially involved in emotion regulation. However, the specific role of the OFC in controlling the behavior evoked by these emotions, such as approach-avoidance (AA) responses, remains largely unexplored. We measured behavioral and neural responses (using fMRI) during the performance of a social task, a reaction time (RT) task where subjects approached or avoided visually presented emotional faces by pulling or pushing a joystick, respectively. RTs were longer for affect-incongruent responses (approach angry faces and avoid happy faces) as compared to affect-congruent responses (approach-happy; avoid-angry). Moreover, affect-incongruent responses recruited increased activity in the left lateral OFC. These behavioral and neural effects emerged only when the subjects responded explicitly to the emotional value of the faces (AA-task) and largely disappeared when subjects responded to an affectively irrelevant feature of the faces during a control (gender evaluation: GE) task. Most crucially, the size of the OFC-effect correlated positively with the size of the behavioral costs of approaching angry faces. These findings qualify the role of the lateral OFC in the voluntary control of social-motivational behavior, emphasizing the relevance of this region for selecting rule-driven stimulus-response associations, while overriding automatic (affect-congruent) stimulus-response mappings. PMID:19047074

  2. Analysis of Online Social Networks to Understand Information Sharing Behaviors Through Social Cognitive Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Hong-Jun; Tourassi, Georgia

    2014-01-01

    Analyzing the contents of online social networks is an effective process for monitoring and understanding peoples behaviors. Since the nature of conversation and information propagation is similar to traditional conversation and learning, one of the popular socio-cognitive methods, social cognitive theory was applied to online social networks to. Two major news topics about colon cancer were chosen to monitor traffic of Twitter messages. The activity of leaders on the issue (i.e., news companies or people will prior Twitter activity on topics related to colon cancer) was monitored. In addition, the activity of followers , people who never discussed the topics before, but replied to the discussions was also monitored. Topics that produce tangible benefits such as positive outcomes from appropriate preventive actions received dramatically more attention and online social media traffic. Such characteristics can be explained with social cognitive theory and thus present opportunities for effective health campaigns.

  3. Relevance of behavioral and social models to the study of consumer energy decision making and behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, B.A.

    1980-11-01

    This report reviews social and behavioral science models and techniques for their possible use in understanding and predicting consumer energy decision making and behaviors. A number of models and techniques have been developed that address different aspects of the decision process, use different theoretical bases and approaches, and have been aimed at different audiences. Three major areas of discussion were selected: (1) models of adaptation to social change, (2) decision making and choice, and (3) diffusion of innovation. Within these three areas, the contributions of psychologists, sociologists, economists, marketing researchers, and others were reviewed. Five primary components of the models were identified and compared. The components are: (1) situational characteristics, (2) product characteristics, (3) individual characteristics, (4) social influences, and (5) the interaction or decision rules. The explicit use of behavioral and social science models in energy decision-making and behavior studies has been limited. Examples are given of a small number of energy studies which applied and tested existing models in studying the adoption of energy conservation behaviors and technologies, and solar technology.

  4. Behavior analysis, mentalism, and the path to social justice

    PubMed Central

    Moore, J.

    2003-01-01

    Traditional psychology is mentalistic in the sense that it appeals to inner causes in the explanation of behavior. Two examples of mentalism in traditional psychology are (a) dispositional attributions and (b) conventional treatments of intelligence. These examples may be linked to such pernicious social -isms as racism and sexism by noting that some individuals justify engaging in discriminatory conduct toward others by appealing to some deficient inner quality of those being discriminated against. This sort of mentalistic appeal ultimately prevents some members of our society from being integrated into society and from progressing down the path of social justice. Behavior analysis offers a constructional alternative to the mentalistic views of traditional psychology and allows our society as a whole to move down the path. PMID:22478401

  5. [Effects of environmental change and others' behavior on cooperative behavior and solution preference in social dilemma].

    PubMed

    Ohnuma, S

    2001-12-01

    This study examined how environmental change and others' behavior affected cooperative behavior and solution preference of the person in social dilemma situation. Participants in two experiments played an "environment game," in which gradual pollution in environment and reduction in profit rate were simulated. Information on behavior of other players was manipulated: in "free rider" condition, one person was an extreme free rider, and the others were cooperative; in "loafing" condition, everyone loafed. In both experiments, "Bad Apple Effect" was not observed clearly, and cooperative behavior increased as environmental pollution worsened. In Experiment 2, there was no main effect of others' behavior on solution preference. However, significant correlations were found among solution preference, motivation to control others' behavior, and perceived seriousness of the situation, only when an extreme free rider was among them. PMID:11883324

  6. Applying Quantitative Genetic Methods to Primate Social Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Brent, Lauren J. N.

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, behavioral ecologists have applied quantitative genetic methods to investigate the evolution of behaviors in wild animal populations. The promise of quantitative genetics in unmanaged populations opens the door for simultaneous analysis of inheritance, phenotypic plasticity, and patterns of selection on behavioral phenotypes all within the same study. In this article, we describe how quantitative genetic techniques provide studies of the evolution of behavior with information that is unique and valuable. We outline technical obstacles for applying quantitative genetic techniques that are of particular relevance to studies of behavior in primates, especially those living in noncaptive populations, e.g., the need for pedigree information, non-Gaussian phenotypes, and demonstrate how many of these barriers are now surmountable. We illustrate this by applying recent quantitative genetic methods to spatial proximity data, a simple and widely collected primate social behavior, from adult rhesus macaques on Cayo Santiago. Our analysis shows that proximity measures are consistent across repeated measurements on individuals (repeatable) and that kin have similar mean measurements (heritable). Quantitative genetics may hold lessons of considerable importance for studies of primate behavior, even those without a specific genetic focus. PMID:24659839

  7. [Social marketing--seduction with the aim of healthy behavior?].

    PubMed

    Loss, J; Nagel, E

    2010-01-01

    SOCIAL MARKETING - SEDUCTION WITH THE AIM OF HEALTHY BEHAVIOR? Social marketing is the use of marketing principles to design and implement programs that promote socially beneficial behaviour change. Contrary to the marketing of consumption goods, social marketing does not deal with material products, but with behaviour, e. g. not smoking. This 'product' has a basic benefit (i. e. reduction of health risks in the long run), which is, however, difficult to convey. Therefore, the intended change in behaviour has to be related to a further reward which consists of symbolic goods, e. g. social appreciation or a better body feeling. The communication policy is essential for information on and motivation for the preventive issue. Social marketing campaigns whose development and management follow the principles of classical marketing can render preventive efforts more effective. In addition, social marketing can lead to a better quality management as compared to conventional preventive activities. These advantages can be explained by a) tailoring the campaign more specifically to the target group's needs and motives, b) presenting health risks more convincingly, and c) continuously analysing and evaluating the campaign and its effects. On the other hand, the marketing of preventive aims through mass media can bear several risks, as exemplified by different national and international public health campaigns. The necessity to communicate briefly and succinctly can lead to misleading simplifications and, in case of cancer screening, to the trivialization of a behaviour's consequences and adverse effects. Also, many campaigns do not intend to educate and inform, but try to persuade target persons of a certain behaviour, using emotions such as fear. This has led to social marketing being criticized as manipulation. Sometimes, social marketing campaigns cause stigma and discrimination of certain population subgroups, e. g. obese or HIV-positive people. Health promoters who plan

  8. 77 FR 62538 - Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ... of the Assistant Director, Directorate for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences, National Science... recommendations to the National Science Foundation on major goals and policies pertaining to Social, Behavioral... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE...

  9. Reading Interventions With Behavioral and Social Skill Outcomes: A Synthesis of Research

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Garrett J.; Solis, Michael; Ciullo, Stephen; McKenna, John W.; Vaughn, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Research findings have suggested that reading deficits and problem behaviors are positively related. This synthesis investigated how reading interventions impact behavioral/social skill outcomes by reviewing studies that included (a) a reading intervention without behavioral/social skill components, (b) behavioral/social skill dependent variables, and (c) students in Grades K-12. Fifteen articles were evaluated by the type of reading intervention, associations between positive reading effects and behavioral/social skill outcomes, and The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) determinants of study ratings. Findings suggested that reading interventions tended to have positive reading outcomes, while behavioral/social skill outcomes were small or negative. Research did not suggest an association between improved reading and behavioral performance, regardless of the WWC study determinants rating. Implications include reading instruction may not be sufficient to improve behavioral and social skill outcomes. Additional research is warranted to investigate the long-term impact of reading on behavioral and social skill outcomes. PMID:25548392

  10. Applied social and behavioral science to address complex health problems.

    PubMed

    Livingood, William C; Allegrante, John P; Airhihenbuwa, Collins O; Clark, Noreen M; Windsor, Richard C; Zimmerman, Marc A; Green, Lawrence W

    2011-11-01

    Complex and dynamic societal factors continue to challenge the capacity of the social and behavioral sciences in preventive medicine and public health to overcome the most seemingly intractable health problems. This paper proposes a fundamental shift from a research approach that presumes to identify (from highly controlled trials) universally applicable interventions expected to be implemented "with fidelity" by practitioners, to an applied social and behavioral science approach similar to that of engineering. Such a shift would build on and complement the recent recommendations of the NIH Office of Behavioral and Social Science Research and require reformulation of the research-practice dichotomy. It would also require disciplines now engaged in preventive medicine and public health practice to develop a better understanding of systems thinking and the science of application that is sensitive to the complexity, interactivity, and unique elements of community and practice settings. Also needed is a modification of health-related education to ensure that those entering the disciplines develop instincts and capacities as applied scientists. PMID:22011425

  11. Schoolwide Social-Behavioral Climate, Student Problem Behavior, and Related Administrative Decisions: Empirical Patterns from 1,510 Schools Nationwide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaulding, Scott A.; Irvin, Larry K.; Horner, Robert H.; May, Seth L.; Emeldi, Monica; Tobin, Tary J.; Sugai, George

    2010-01-01

    Office discipline referral (ODR) data provide useful information about problem behavior and consequence patterns, social-behavioral climates, and effects of social-behavioral interventions in schools. The authors report patterns of ODRs and subsequent administrative decisions from 1,510 schools nationwide that used the School-Wide Information…

  12. The Roots of Social Dominance: Aggression, Prosocial Behavior, and Social Interdependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Jiyoung; Johnson, David W.; Johnson, Roger

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined the nature of dominant students in Grades 3-5 in a midwestern school system in the United States. Previous research has indicated 2 ways a student may gain dominance--through bullying and prosocial behaviors. A cluster analysis for dominant children was conducted using social interdependence attitude scores, children's…

  13. Early Nonparental Care and Social Behavior in Elementary School: Support for a Social Group Adaptation Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Tremblay, Richard E.; Vitaro, Frank; Japel, Christa; Boivin, Michel; Côté, Sylvana M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of nonparental child-care services received during the preschool years to the development of social behavior between kindergarten and the end of elementary school with a birth cohort from Québec, Canada (N = 1,544). Mothers reported on the use of child-care services, while elementary school teachers rated…

  14. Child social skills training in developmental crime prevention: effects on antisocial behavior and social competence.

    PubMed

    Beelmann, Andreas; Lösel, Friedrich

    2006-08-01

    Social skills training for children is becoming increasingly popular as a measure for developmental crime prevention. Although previous reviews of such programs have shown positive effects, they have also revealed problems of research design, outcome measures, and long-term follow up. Accordingly, this article reports on a recent meta-analysis of randomized evaluations of the effect of social skills training in preventing antisocial behavior and promoting social competence. Of 841 retrievable references, 84 research reports with a total of 136 treatment-control comparisons fulfilled the eligibility criteria. Results showed a small but significant overall positive effect of d = .39 at post-intervention and d = .28 at follow-up (3 months and later). Effect sizes were somewhat greater for outcome measures of social competence than for measures of antisocial behavior, particularly when delinquency was assessed. Cognitive-behavioral programs revealed the best results in terms of generalization over time and on outcome criteria. In addition, prevention measures indicated for children and adolescents who already manifested some behavioral problems had higher effect sizes than universal approaches. Because most studies dealt with small sample sizes, non-official outcome data, and measurements after less than one year, the results should be interpreted with caution. Further high-quality studies with long-term empirical outcome criteria are needed, particularly outside the United States. PMID:17296094

  15. Social Goals, Social Status, and Problem Behavior among Low-Achieving and High-Achieving Adolescents from Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludden, Alison Bryant

    2012-01-01

    The current research examines how social goals and perceptions of what is needed for social status at school relate to school misbehavior and substance use among rural adolescents (N = 683). Results indicate that social goals and perceptions of social status have differential links to problem behaviors depending upon adolescents' achievement.…

  16. Nodal aberration theory applied to freeform surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuerschbach, Kyle; Rolland, Jannick P.; Thompson, Kevin P.

    2014-12-01

    When new three-dimensional packages are developed for imaging optical systems, the rotational symmetry of the optical system is often broken, changing its imaging behavior and making the optical performance worse. A method to restore the performance is to use freeform optical surfaces that compensate directly the aberrations introduced from tilting and decentering the optical surfaces. In order to effectively optimize the shape of a freeform surface to restore optical functionality, it is helpful to understand the aberration effect the surface may induce. Using nodal aberration theory the aberration fields induced by a freeform surface in an optical system are explored. These theoretical predications are experimentally validated with the design and implementation of an aberration generating telescope.

  17. A Longitudinal Study of Emotion Recognition and Preschool Children's Social Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Joan M.; Bastiani, Andrea

    1997-01-01

    Examined relations between 90 four-year-old preschoolers' social behavior and emotion recognition accuracy and bias with familiar classmates. Found that recognition biases were more important than recognition accuracy in predicting social behavior, that angry recognition biases negatively influenced social behavior, and that recognition accuracy…

  18. 75 FR 65363 - Basic Behavioral and Social Science Opportunity Network (OppNet)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Basic Behavioral and Social Science Opportunity Network... promote and publicize the Basic Behavioral and Social Science Opportunity Network (OppNet) initiative... Behavioral and Social Science Opportunity Network (OppNet) is a trans-NIH initiative to expand the...

  19. A Review of Interventions Designed to Increase Sharing Behaviors in Children with Social Delays or Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Justin D.; Ledford, Jennifer R.

    2016-01-01

    Sharing materials is a complex social behavior that may lead to long-term development of friendships and concomitant increases in related prosocial behaviors. Given the complexities of sharing behaviors, children with social delays or deficits may not recognize when, how, and with whom to share. Because children with social delays or deficits,…

  20. 76 FR 24062 - Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-29

    ... Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting In accordance with... following meeting: Name: Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences ( 1171) Date/Time... Person: Ms. Lisa Jones, Office of the Assistant Director, Directorate for Social, Behavioral and...

  1. 76 FR 65219 - Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ... Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences; Notice of Meeting In accordance with... following meeting: Name: Advisory Committee for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences ( 1171) Date/Time... Person: Ms. Lisa Jones, Office of the Assistant Director, Directorate for Social, Behavioral and...

  2. The Role of Classroom Norms in Contextualizing the Relations of Children's Social Behaviors to Peer Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Lei

    2004-01-01

    This study introduces a social context model within which peer acceptances of prosocial-leadership, aggression, and social withdrawal were examined as functions of the contextual norms of these behaviors. The major postulate of the model is that the extent to which a behavior permeates a social context facilitates peer acceptance of the behavior.…

  3. Effects of mixing in threshold models of social behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmetzhanov, Andrei R.; Worden, Lee; Dushoff, Jonathan

    2013-07-01

    We consider the dynamics of an extension of the influential Granovetter model of social behavior, where individuals are affected by their personal preferences and observation of the neighbors’ behavior. Individuals are arranged in a network (usually the square lattice), and each has a state and a fixed threshold for behavior changes. We simulate the system asynchronously by picking a random individual and we either update its state or exchange it with another randomly chosen individual (mixing). We describe the dynamics analytically in the fast-mixing limit by using the mean-field approximation and investigate it mainly numerically in the case of finite mixing. We show that the dynamics converge to a manifold in state space, which determines the possible equilibria, and show how to estimate the projection of this manifold by using simulated trajectories, emitted from different initial points. We show that the effects of considering the network can be decomposed into finite-neighborhood effects, and finite-mixing-rate effects, which have qualitatively similar effects. Both of these effects increase the tendency of the system to move from a less-desired equilibrium to the “ground state.” Our findings can be used to probe shifts in behavioral norms and have implications for the role of information flow in determining when social norms that have become unpopular in particular communities (such as foot binding or female genital cutting) persist or vanish.

  4. The Effect of Naturalistic Behavior Strategies on the Quality of Social Interactions for Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Susan Marie

    2012-01-01

    Autism is primarily a social disorder and deficits in social-orienting may be responsible for the failure of children with autism to initiate critical social behaviors. The purpose of this research was to improve the quality of social interactions of children with autism by implementing naturalistic behavior strategies intervention utilizing a…

  5. Subjective Social Status and Health Behaviors Among African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Nguyen, Nga; Strong, Larkin L.; Wetter, David W.; McNeill, Lorna H.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To examine associations of the US and community subjective social status (SSS) ladders with smoking status, at-risk drinking, fruit and vegetable intake, physical activity, and body mass index among 1467 church-going African American adults from a larger cohort study. Methods Regression analyses, adjusted for sociodemographics, examined associations between SSS ladders and health behaviors. Results The SSS-US ladder was significantly associated with fruit and vegetable consumption (p = .007) and physical activity (p = .005). The SSS-community ladder was not significantly associated with any health behaviors. Conclusions Among this sample of African Americans, the SSS-US ladder is more predictive of some health behaviors than is the SSS-community ladder. PMID:22943107

  6. Language Competence and Social Behavior of Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinaldi, Claudia

    2003-01-01

    This study was designed to explore a model of communicative competence (Abbeduto & Nuccio, 1989) and identify whether its components could (a) predict pragmatic language difficulties for children with emotional or behavioral disorders (E/BD) and (b) describe the semantic, syntactic, and pragmatic language ability as well as the social skills of…

  7. Psychiatry as a Behavioral Science. The Behavioral and Social Sciences Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamburg, David A., Ed.

    This book is another in a series prepared in connection with the Survey of the Behavioral Social Sciences (BASS) conducted between 1967 and 1969. The task here is to provide several illustrative lines of research in sufficient depth to convey the flavor of scientific work on psychiatric problems to a wide range of readers. The report is primarily…

  8. Prefrontal control and predictors of cognitive behavioral therapy response in social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Klumpp, Heide; Fitzgerald, Daniel A; Piejko, Katherine; Roberts, Julia; Kennedy, Amy E; Phan, K Luan

    2016-04-01

    Generalized social anxiety disorder (gSAD) is associated with aberrant anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) response to threat distractors. Perceptual load has been shown to modulate ACC activity such that under high load, when demands on processing capacity is restricted, individuals with gSAD exhibit compensatory activation to threat distractors yet under low load, there is evidence of reduced activation. It is not known if neural predictors of response to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), based on such emotional conflict resolution, interact with demands on controlled processes. Prior to CBT, 32 patients with gSAD completed an fMRI task involving a target letter in a string of identical targets (low perceptual load) or a target letter in a mixed letter string (high perceptual load) superimposed on fearful, angry and neutral face distractors. Whole-brain voxel-wise analyses revealed better CBT outcome was predicted by more frontopartial activity that included dorsal ACC (dACC) and insula to threat (vsneutral) distractors during high, but not low, perceptual load. Psychophysiological interaction analysis with dACC as the seed region revealed less connectivity with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to threat distractors during high load. Results indicate patients with less regulatory capability when demands on higher-order control are great may benefit more from CBT. PMID:26634281

  9. Trait agreeableness and social status moderate behavioral responsiveness to communal behavior.

    PubMed

    Yao, Qi; Moskowitz, Debbie S

    2015-04-01

    The present study examined the influence of trait Agreeableness and its interaction with social role status on interpersonal correspondence as reflected in the within-person relation between a person's communal (agreeable-quarrelsome) behavior and perceptions of the interaction partner's communal behavior. We used a sample of working adults (original data set: 113 participants and 12,303 interpersonal events; constrained data set in the work setting: 109 participants and 3,193 interpersonal events) and an event-contingent recording procedure to assess behavior in naturalistic interpersonal events. The results of multilevel modeling indicated that interpersonal correspondence was lower for high trait Agreeableness persons than for low trait Agreeableness persons, apparently due to less responsiveness to more disagreeable behavior by the other person in an interaction. High Agreeableness persons manifest greater interpersonal correspondence when in a high-status role than when in a low-status role, apparently by increasing responsiveness to disagreeable behavior from others. The results imply that high social role status may influence the effortful control process of high trait Agreeableness persons over their behavioral reactions to others' disagreeable behavior during interpersonal interactions. PMID:24602021

  10. Early Nonparental Care and Social Behavior in Elementary School: Support for a Social Group Adaptation Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Tremblay, Richard E; Vitaro, Frank; Japel, Christa; Boivin, Michel; Côté, Sylvana M

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of nonparental child-care services received during the preschool years to the development of social behavior between kindergarten and the end of elementary school with a birth cohort from Québec, Canada (N = 1,544). Mothers reported on the use of child-care services, while elementary school teachers rated children's shyness, social withdrawal, prosociality, opposition, and aggression. Children who received nonparental child-care services were less shy, less socially withdrawn, more oppositional, and more aggressive at school entry (age 6 years). However, these differences disappeared during elementary school as children who received exclusive parental care caught up with those who received nonparental care services. This "catch-up" effect from the perspective of children's adaptation to the social group is discussed. PMID:26358177

  11. Race, Social and Environmental Conditions, and Health Behaviors in Men.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Roland J; Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Griffith, Derek M; Bruce, Marino A; Coa, Kisha; Bell, Caryn N; Young, Jessica; Bowie, Janice V; LaVeist, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    Although understanding race differences in health behaviors among men is an important step in reducing disparities in leading causes of death in the United States, progress has been stifled when using national data because of the confounding of race, socioeconomic status, and residential segregation. The purpose of this study is to examine the nature of disparities in health behaviors among African American and white men in the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities Study-Southwest Baltimore, which was conducted in a racially integrated neighborhood of Baltimore to data from the 2003 National Health Interview Survey. After adjusting for age, marital status, insurance, income, educational attainment, poor or fair health, and obesity status, African American men in National Health Interview Survey had greater odds of being physically inactive (odds ratio [OR] = 1.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 129-1.69), reduced odds of being a current smoker (OR = 0.77; 95% CI, 0.65-0.90), and reduced odds of being a current drinker (OR = 0.58; 95% CI, 0.50-0.67). In the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities Study-Southwest Baltimore sample, African American and white men had similar odds of being physically inactive (OR = 0.79; 95% CI, 0.50-1.24), being a current smoker (OR = 0.86; 95% CI, 0.60-1.23), or being a current drinker (OR = 1.34; 95% CI, 0.81-2.21). Because race disparities in these health behaviors were ameliorated in the sample where African American and white men were living under similar social, environmental, and socioeconomic status conditions, these findings suggest that social environment may be an important determinant of health behaviors among African American and white men. Public health interventions and health promotion strategies should consider the social environment when seeking to better understand men's health disparities. PMID:26291190

  12. Electro-acupuncture improves the social interaction behavior of rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Feng; Li, Han-Xia; Dai, Yu-Chuan; Xu, Xin-Jie; Han, Song-Ping; Zhang, Rong; Han, Ji-Sheng

    2015-11-01

    Oxytocin (OXT) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) are two closely related neuropeptides and implicated in the regulation of mammalian social behaviors. A prior clinical study in our laboratory suggested that electro-acupuncture (EA) alleviated social impairment in autistic children accompanied by changes of peripheral levels of OXT and AVP. However, it remains unclear whether EA stimulation had an impact on central OXT and AVP levels. In the present study, rats were subjected to a single session of EA (sEA) or repeated sessions of EA (rEA). Following the stimulation, mRNA levels and peptide levels of OXT/AVP systems were determined. The results showed that sEA led to region-specific up-regulation of OXT and AVP mRNA levels in the hypothalamus where the peptides were produced, without affecting the content of OXT and AVP in the hypothalamus and peripheral blood. The rEA of 5 sessions in 9 days was given to the low socially interacting (LSI) rats. LSI rats that underwent rEA showed significant improvement of social behavior characterized by spending more time investigating the strange rats in the three-chamber sociability test. The improved sociability was accompanied by an up-regulation of mRNA and the peptide levels of OXT or AVP in SON of the hypothalamus as well as a significant increase of the serum level of AVP. It is concluded that activation of OXT/AVP systems may be associated with the pro-social effect caused by EA stimulation. PMID:26265492

  13. Spontaneous Social Behaviors Discriminate “Behavioral Dementias” from Psychiatric Disorders and Other Dementias

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, Katherine P.; Santos-Modesitt, Wendy; Kramer, Joel H.; Pavlic, Danijela; Beckman, Victoria; Miller, Bruce L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Changes in social behavior are often the first symptoms of neurodegenerative disease. Patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) often go undiagnosed, or are misclassified as psychiatric patients, because in the absence of cognitive deficits, non-experts fail to recognize these social changes as dementia symptoms. The object of this study was to improve screening for behavioral dementia in primary care and mental health settings by quantifying spontaneous social behaviors specific to FTLD. Method In a university hospital dementia clinic, examiners blind to subject diagnosis performed one hour of cognitive testing, then completed the Interpersonal Measure of Psychopathy (IMP), an 18-item checklist of observed inappropriate behaviors. Patients then underwent a multidisciplinary evaluation to derive a neurodegenerative or psychiatric diagnosis. Data were collected from 288 subjects: 45 Alzheimer's disease (AD), 40 frontotemporal dementia (FTD), 21 semantic dementia (SD), 13 progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA), 14 corticobasal degeneration (CBD), 21 progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), 37 dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), 16 vascular dementia, 29 mixed vascular and AD, 35 primary psychiatric disorders, and 17 normal older controls. Results Statistical item analyses demonstrated specific patterns of social behavior that differentiated both FTD and SD patients from 1) non-dementing older adults, 2) non-dementing individuals with psychiatric conditions, 3) individuals with cerebrovascular disease, and 4) individuals with other neurodegenerative disorders. SDs verbally and physically interrupted evaluations, spoke perseveratively and tangentially and resisted clinician redirection. FTDs were apathetic or disinhibited and were unconcerned about meeting clinician expectations. Conclusions Specific, abnormal interpersonal behaviors can alert non-experts to the need for specialized dementia referral. PMID:18312039

  14. Social Network Assessments and Interventions for Health Behavior Change: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Latkin, Carl A.; Knowlton, Amy R.

    2016-01-01

    Social networks provide a powerful approach for health behavior change. This article documents how social network interventions have been successfully utilized for a range of health behaviors including HIV risk practices, smoking, exercise, dieting, family planning, bullying, and mental health. We review the literature that suggests relationship between health behaviors and social network attributes demonstrate a high degree of specificity. The article then examines hypothesized social influence mechanisms including social norms, modeling, and social rewards and the factors of social identity and social rewards that can be employed to sustain social network interventions. Areas of future research avenues are highlighted, including the need to examine and analytically adjust for contamination and social diffusion, social influence versus differential affiliation, and network change. Use and integration of mhealth and face-to-face networks for promoting health behavior change are also critical research areas. PMID:26332926

  15. Developing Behavioral Theory with the Systematic Integration of Community Social Capital Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuel, Laura J.; Commodore-Mensah, Yvonne; Dennison Himmelfarb, Cheryl R.

    2014-01-01

    Health behavior theories state that social environments influence health behaviors, but theories of how this occurs are relatively underdeveloped. This article systematically surveys community social capital concepts in health behavior literature and proposes a conceptual framework that integrates these concepts into existing behavioral theory.…

  16. Dynamic behavior of a social model for opinion formation.

    PubMed

    Bordogna, Clelia M; Albano, Ezequiel V

    2007-12-01

    The dynamic behavior of a social group influenced by both a strong leader and the mass media, which is modeled according to the social impact theory, is studied under two situations: (i) The strong leader changes his/her state of opinion periodically while the mass media are not considered. In this case, the leader is capable of driving the group between a dynamically ordered state with a weak leader-group coupling (high-frequency regime) and a dynamically disordered state where the group follows the opinion of the leader (low-frequency regime). (ii) The mass-media change periodically their message and have to compete with a strong leader that keeps his/her state of opinion unchanged. In this case, the mass media require an amplitude threshold in order to overcome the influence of the leader and drive the system into a dynamically disordered state. The dynamic behavior characteristic of the studied social opinion model shares many features of physical systems that are relevant in the fields of statistical mechanics and condensed matter. PMID:18233832

  17. Evolution of the brain and social behavior in chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2013-06-01

    The comparison of humans and chimpanzees is a unique way to highlight the evolutionary origins of human nature. This paper summarizes the most recent advances in the study of chimpanzee brains, cognition, and behavior. It covers the topics such as eye-tracking study, helping behavior, prefrontal WM volume increase during infancy, and fetal brain development. Based on the facts, the paper proposed the "social brain hypothesis". Chimpanzees are good at capturing images as a whole, while humans are better at understanding the meaning of what they see. Chimpanzees apparently focus on the salient objects, neglecting the social context. In contrast, humans always recognize things within the social context, paying preferential attention to people, as agents. This is consistent with the fact that humans are highly altruistic and collaborative from a very young age. Thus, humans have evolved towards increased collaboration and mutual support. This kind of evolutionary pressure may have provided the basis for the development of the human brain with its unique functions. PMID:23414685

  18. Dynamic behavior of a social model for opinion formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordogna, Clelia M.; Albano, Ezequiel V.

    2007-12-01

    The dynamic behavior of a social group influenced by both a strong leader and the mass media, which is modeled according to the social impact theory, is studied under two situations: (i) The strong leader changes his/her state of opinion periodically while the mass media are not considered. In this case, the leader is capable of driving the group between a dynamically ordered state with a weak leader-group coupling (high-frequency regime) and a dynamically disordered state where the group follows the opinion of the leader (low-frequency regime). (ii) The mass-media change periodically their message and have to compete with a strong leader that keeps his/her state of opinion unchanged. In this case, the mass media require an amplitude threshold in order to overcome the influence of the leader and drive the system into a dynamically disordered state. The dynamic behavior characteristic of the studied social opinion model shares many features of physical systems that are relevant in the fields of statistical mechanics and condensed matter.

  19. Preschool Children's Learning Behaviors, Concept Attainment, Social Skills, and Problem Behaviors: Validity Evidence for Preschool Learning Behaviors Scale Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Barbara A.; Shur, Kimberely Fitch; Macri-Summers, Maria; MacDonald, Scott L.

    2004-01-01

    This study provides concurrent and predictive validity and test-retest reliability evidence for scores from the preschool teacher-completed Preschool Learning Behaviors Scale (PLBS; McDermott, Green, Francis, & Stott, 2002) using two regional samples of preschool children aged 3 to 5.5 years (Ns of 61 and 70). Teacher ratings of social skills and…

  20. Sex differences in morphine-induced behavioral sensitization and social behaviors in ICR mice

    PubMed Central

    ZHAN, Bo; MA, Hong-Yuan; WANG, Jian-Li; LIU, Chao-Bao

    2015-01-01

    Gender and genetic strain are two prominent variants that influence drug abuse. Although certain sex-related behavioral responses have been previously characterized in ICR mice, little is known about the effects of sex on morphine-induced behavioral responses in this outbred strain. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the sex differences of morphine-induced locomotion, anxiety-like and social behaviors in ICR mice. After morphine or saline exposure for four consecutive days (twice daily), increased locomotion, more time spent in the central area, as well as attenuated rearing and self-grooming behaviors were found in morphine-treated females in an open field; no differences were found in locomotion and the time spent in the central area between male and female controls. When interacting with the same-sex individuals, female controls were engaged in more social investigation, following, body contacting and self-grooming behaviors than controls; morphine exposure reduced contacting and self-grooming behaviors in females; in contrast, these effects were not found in males. These results indicate that female ICR mice are more prosocial and are more susceptible to morphine exposure than males. PMID:25855229

  1. Growth and social behavior in a cichlid fish are affected by social rearing environment and kinship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesse, Saskia; Thünken, Timo

    2014-04-01

    Living in groups is a widespread phenomenon in many animal taxa. The reduction of predation risk is thought to be an important cause for the formation of groups. Consequently, grouping behavior is particularly pronounced during vulnerable life stages, i.e., as juveniles. However, group living does not only provide benefits but also imposes costs on group members, e.g., increased competition for food. Thus, benefits of grouping behavior might not be evident when predation risk is absent. The adaptive significance of living and also developing in a group independent from predation risk has received relatively little attention although this might have important implications on the evolution and maintenance of group living. The first aim of the present study was to examine whether the social environment affects juvenile performance in the cichlid fish Pelvicachromis taeniatus and, secondly, whether kinship affects social behavior. Kin selection theory predicts benefits from grouping with kin. Here, we demonstrate that juveniles reared in a group grow on average faster compared to juveniles reared in isolation under standardized laboratory conditions without predation risk. Furthermore, we found significant differences in social behavior between juveniles reared in a group and reared in isolation. Fish reared in isolation were significantly more aggressive and less willing to shoal than group-reared fish. As expected, genetic relatedness influenced social behavior in group-reared fish as well: dyads of juveniles consisting of kin showed increased group cohesiveness compared to non-kin dyads. We discuss the potential benefits of group living in general and living with kin in particular.

  2. Interpreting Chromosome Aberration Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, Dan; Reeder, Christopher; Loucas, Bradford; Hlatky, Lynn; Chen, Allen; Cornforth, Michael; Sachs, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can damage cells by breaking both strands of DNA in multiple locations, essentially cutting chromosomes into pieces. The cell has enzymatic mechanisms to repair such breaks; however, these mechanisms are imperfect and, in an exchange process, may produce a large-scale rearrangement of the genome, called a chromosome aberration. Chromosome aberrations are important in killing cells, during carcinogenesis, in characterizing repair/misrepair pathways, in retrospective radiation biodosimetry, and in a number of other ways. DNA staining techniques such as mFISH ( multicolor fluorescent in situ hybridization) provide a means for analyzing aberration spectra by examining observed final patterns. Unfortunately, an mFISH observed final pattern often does not uniquely determine the underlying exchange process. Further, resolution limitations in the painting protocol sometimes lead to apparently incomplete final patterns. We here describe an algorithm for systematically finding exchange processes consistent with any observed final pattern. This algorithm uses aberration multigraphs, a mathematical formalism that links the various aspects of aberration formation. By applying a measure to the space of consistent multigraphs, we will show how to generate model-specific distributions of aberration processes from mFISH experimental data. The approach is implemented by software freely available over the internet. As a sample application, we apply these algorithms to an aberration data set, obtaining a distribution of exchange cycle sizes, which serves to measure aberration complexity. Estimating complexity, in turn, helps indicate how damaging the aberrations are and may facilitate identification of radiation type in retrospective biodosimetry.

  3. Linking Individual and Collective Behavior in Adaptive Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro, Flávio L.; Santos, Francisco C.; Pacheco, Jorge M.

    2016-03-01

    Adaptive social structures are known to promote the evolution of cooperation. However, up to now the characterization of the collective, population-wide dynamics resulting from the self-organization of individual strategies on a coevolving, adaptive network has remained unfeasible. Here we establish a (reversible) link between individual (micro)behavior and collective (macro)behavior for coevolutionary processes. We demonstrate that an adaptive network transforms a two-person social dilemma locally faced by individuals into a collective dynamics that resembles that associated with an N -person coordination game, whose characterization depends sensitively on the relative time scales between the entangled behavioral and network evolutions. In particular, we show that the faster the relative rate of adaptation of the network, the smaller the critical fraction of cooperators required for cooperation to prevail, thus establishing a direct link between network adaptation and the evolution of cooperation. The framework developed here is general and may be readily applied to other dynamical processes occurring on adaptive networks, notably, the spreading of contagious diseases or the diffusion of innovations.

  4. The social behavior and the evolution of sexually transmitted diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Sebastián; Kuperman, Marcelo

    2003-10-01

    We introduce a model for the evolution of sexually transmitted diseases, in which the social behavior is incorporated as a determinant factor for the further propagation of the infection. The system may be regarded as a society of agents where in principle, anyone can sexually interact with any other one in the population, indeed, in this contribution only the homosexual case is analyzed. Different social behaviors are reflected in a distribution of sexual attitudes ranging from the more conservative to the more promiscuous. This is measured by what we call the promiscuity parameter. In terms of this parameter, we find a critical behavior for the evolution of the disease. There is a threshold below which the epidemic does not occur. We relate this critical value of promiscuity to what epidemiologists call the basic reproductive number, connecting it with the other parameters of the model, namely the infectivity and the infective period in a quantitative way. We consider the possibility of subjects to be grouped in couples.

  5. Understanding change in recycling and littering behavior across a school social network.

    PubMed

    Long, Jennifer; Harré, Niki; Atkinson, Quentin D

    2014-06-01

    Understanding how communities change requires examining how individuals' beliefs and behaviors are shaped by those around them. This paper investigates behavior change across a large social network following a recycling intervention in a New Zealand high school community. We used a mixed methods design, combining focus group data with social network analysis from two waves of a questionnaire that measured friendship networks; recycling and littering behaviors; perceived behavioral norms; and teacher, friend, and parent encouragement for these behaviors. Recycling behavior increased significantly over the course of our study. Supporting the importance of social networks in this context, both littering and recycling behavior showed clear social clustering. Further, the degree of change in an individuals' littering and recycling behavior across time was predicted by friends' prior behavior. Focus group data provided insight into students' perceptions of social interactions and how these contributed to littering and recycling behavior. PMID:24327210

  6. Estrogen involvement in social behavior in rodents: Rapid and long-term actions.

    PubMed

    Ervin, Kelsy S J; Lymer, Jennifer M; Matta, Richard; Clipperton-Allen, Amy E; Kavaliers, Martin; Choleris, Elena

    2015-08-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue ("Estradiol and cognition"). Estrogens have repeatedly been shown to influence a wide array of social behaviors, which in rodents are predominantly olfactory-mediated. Estrogens are involved in social behavior at multiple levels of processing, from the detection and integration of socially relevant olfactory information to more complex social behaviors, including social preferences, aggression and dominance, and learning and memory for social stimuli (e.g. social recognition and social learning). Three estrogen receptors (ERs), ERα, ERβ, and the G protein-coupled ER 1 (GPER1), differently affect these behaviors. Social recognition, territorial aggression, and sexual preferences and mate choice, all requiring the integration of socially related olfactory information, seem to primarily involve ERα, with ERβ playing a lesser, modulatory role. In contrast, social learning consistently responds differently to estrogen manipulations than other social behaviors. This suggests differential ER involvement in brain regions important for specific social behaviors, such as the ventromedial and medial preoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus in social preferences and aggression, the medial amygdala and hippocampus in social recognition, and the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus in social learning. While the long-term effects of ERα and ERβ on social behavior have been extensively investigated, our knowledge of the rapid, non-genomic, effects of estrogens is more limited and suggests that they may mediate some social behaviors (e.g. social learning) differently from long-term effects. Further research is required to compare ER involvement in regulating social behavior in male and female animals, and to further elucidate the roles of the more recently described G protein-coupled ERs, both the GPER1 and the Gq-mER. PMID:26122289

  7. Social marketing of condoms: selling protection and changing behavior.

    PubMed

    Townsend, S

    1991-06-01

    Social marketing of condoms in Zaire began in 1987 and sales rose to 8 million in 1990, a notable change from the previous situation where about half a million condoms were distributed by government health clinics only. Social marketing is the use of for-profit sales and marketing techniques for public health problem.s When the Zaire National AIDS Committee initiated social marketing of condoms, with the assistance of Population Services International, they had the experience of successful Asian programs of the 1970s, and the political sanction resulting from the AIDS threat to back them up. Efforts were made to find just the right product name, "Prudence," logo, package, color and slogan by consumer research. Prudence implies responsible behavior, capturing both the AIDS and STD prevention and the family planning markets. Consumers like the package and associate it with quality, since most condoms sold before in Zaire had no special packaging. Distribution outlets include 7000 retail shops, groceries, pharmacies, hotel, social clubs, 300 bars and even Congo River barges which sex workers frequent. The price was set close to that of a pack of gum for 3, or that of a bottle of beer for a dozen. Promotion is limited by a government ban of advertising in mass media, so point of purchase materials, special offers and promotional items are being used. Prudence condoms are now being marketed in Cameroon and Burundi. PMID:12316887

  8. Available Supports and Coping Behaviors of Mental Health Social Workers Following Fatal and Nonfatal Client Suicidal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ting, Laura; Jacobson, Jodi M.; Sanders, Sara

    2008-01-01

    Research indicates that mental health social workers risk being confronted with fatal and nonfatal client suicidal behaviors during professional practice. Although reactions to client suicidal behavior have been documented, there is little empirical evidence about coping behaviors and available supports following client suicidal behavior. This…

  9. Rapid behavioral and genomic responses to social opportunity.

    PubMed

    Burmeister, Sabrina S; Jarvis, Erich D; Fernald, Russell D

    2005-11-01

    From primates to bees, social status regulates reproduction. In the cichlid fish Astatotilapia (Haplochromis) burtoni, subordinate males have reduced fertility and must become dominant to reproduce. This increase in sexual capacity is orchestrated by neurons in the preoptic area, which enlarge in response to dominance and increase expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GnRH1), a peptide critical for reproduction. Using a novel behavioral paradigm, we show for the first time that subordinate males can become dominant within minutes of an opportunity to do so, displaying dramatic changes in body coloration and behavior. We also found that social opportunity induced expression of the immediate-early gene egr-1 in the anterior preoptic area, peaking in regions with high densities of GnRH1 neurons, and not in brain regions that express the related peptides GnRH2 and GnRH3. This genomic response did not occur in stable subordinate or stable dominant males even though stable dominants, like ascending males, displayed dominance behaviors. Moreover, egr-1 in the optic tectum and the cerebellum was similarly induced in all experimental groups, showing that egr-1 induction in the anterior preoptic area of ascending males was specific to this brain region. Because egr-1 codes for a transcription factor important in neural plasticity, induction of egr-1 in the anterior preoptic area by social opportunity could be an early trigger in the molecular cascade that culminates in enhanced fertility and other long-term physiological changes associated with dominance. PMID:16216088

  10. Rapid Behavioral and Genomic Responses to Social Opportunity

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    From primates to bees, social status regulates reproduction. In the cichlid fish Astatotilapia (Haplochromis) burtoni, subordinate males have reduced fertility and must become dominant to reproduce. This increase in sexual capacity is orchestrated by neurons in the preoptic area, which enlarge in response to dominance and increase expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GnRH1), a peptide critical for reproduction. Using a novel behavioral paradigm, we show for the first time that subordinate males can become dominant within minutes of an opportunity to do so, displaying dramatic changes in body coloration and behavior. We also found that social opportunity induced expression of the immediate-early gene egr-1 in the anterior preoptic area, peaking in regions with high densities of GnRH1 neurons, and not in brain regions that express the related peptides GnRH2 and GnRH3. This genomic response did not occur in stable subordinate or stable dominant males even though stable dominants, like ascending males, displayed dominance behaviors. Moreover, egr-1 in the optic tectum and the cerebellum was similarly induced in all experimental groups, showing that egr-1 induction in the anterior preoptic area of ascending males was specific to this brain region. Because egr-1 codes for a transcription factor important in neural plasticity, induction of egr-1 in the anterior preoptic area by social opportunity could be an early trigger in the molecular cascade that culminates in enhanced fertility and other long-term physiological changes associated with dominance. PMID:16216088

  11. Cannibalism: a social behavior in sporulating Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    González-Pastor, José Eduardo

    2011-05-01

    A social behavior named cannibalism has been described during the early stages of sporulation of the Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis. This phenomenon is based on the heterogeneity of sporulating populations, constituted by at least two cell types: (1) sporulating cells, in which the master regulator of sporulation Spo0A is active, and (2) nonsporulating cells, in which Spo0A is inactive. Sporulating cells produce two toxins that act cooperatively to kill the nonsporulating sister cells. The nutrients released by the dead cells into the starved medium are used for growth by the sporulating cells that are not yet fully committed to sporulate, and as a result, sporulation is arrested. This review outlines the molecular mechanisms of the killing and immunity to the toxins, the regulation of their production and other examples of killing of siblings in microorganisms. The biological significance of this behavior is discussed. PMID:20955377

  12. Workplace Social and Organizational Environments and Healthy-Weight Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Tabak, Rachel G.; Hipp, J. Aaron; Marx, Christine M.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2015-01-01

    Background The workplace is an important setting for health promotion including nutrition and physical activity behaviors to prevent obesity. This paper explores the relationship between workplace social environment and cultural factors and diet and physical activity (PA) behaviors and obesity among employees. Methods Between 2012 and 2013, telephone interviews were conducted with participants residing in four Missouri metropolitan areas. Questions included demographic characteristics, workplace socio/organizational factors related to activity and diet, and individual diet and PA behaviors, and obesity. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between the workplace socio/organizational environment and nutrition, PA, and obesity. Results There were differences in reported health behaviors and socio/organizational environment by gender, race, age, income, and worksite size. For example, agreement with the statement the ‘company values my health’ was highest among Whites, older employees, and higher income workers. As worksite size increased, the frequency of reporting seeing co-workers doing several types of healthy behaviors (eat fruits and vegetables, doing PA, and doing PA on breaks at work) increased. In adjusted analyses, employees agreeing the company values my health were more likely to engage in higher PA levels (aOR=1.54, 95% CI: 1.09-2.16) and less likely to be obese (aOR=0.73, 95% CI: 0.54-0.98). Seeing co-workers eating fruits and vegetables was associated with increased reporting of eating at least one vegetable per day (aOR=1.43, 95% CI: 1.06-1.91) and seeing co-workers being active was associated with higher PA levels (aOR 1.56, 95% CI: 1.19-2.05). Conclusions This research suggests that social/organizational characteristics of the workplace environment, particularly feeling the company values the workers’ health and to seeing co-workers engaging in healthy behaviors, may be related to nutrition and PA behaviors and

  13. Developing a Change-Sensitive Brief Behavior Rating Scale as a Progress Monitoring Tool for Social Behavior: An Example Using the Social Skills Rating System--Teacher Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresham, Frank M.; Cook, Clayton R.; Collins, Tai; Dart, Evan; Rasetshwane, Kutlo; Truelson, Erica; Grant, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    Research has been unsuccessful at revealing an analogue to curriculum-based measurement in the area of progress monitoring for social behavior. As a result, there is a need to develop change-sensitive, technically adequate, feasible progress monitoring tools for social behavior that represent general outcome measures of performance. The purpose of…

  14. Social exclusion, infant behavior, social isolation, and maternal expectations independently predict maternal depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, John; Jalaludin, Bin; Kemp, Lynn; Phung, Hai; Barnett, Bryanne; Tobin, Jacinta

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to identify latent variables that can be used to inform theoretical models of perinatal influences on postnatal depressed mood and maternal-infant attachment. A routine survey of mothers with newborn infants was commenced in South Western Sydney in 2000. The survey included the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and 46 psychosocial and health-related variables. Mothers (n = 15,389) delivering in 2002 and 2003 were surveyed at 2-3 weeks for depressive symptoms. Nonlinear principal components analysis was undertaken to identify dimensions that might represent latent variables. Correlations between latent variables and EPDS >12 were assessed by logistic regression. A five-dimension solution was identified, which accounted for 51% of the variance among the items studied. The five dimensions identified were maternal responsiveness, social exclusion, infant behavior, migrant social isolation, and family size. In addition, the variable maternal expectation contributed significantly to total variance and was included in the regression analysis. Regression on EPDS >12 was predictive for all variables except for maternal responsiveness, which was considered an outcome variable. The findings are consistent with the proposition that social exclusion, infant behavior, social isolation among migrant mothers, and maternal expectations are determinants of maternal mood. PMID:23408743

  15. Behavior-Specific Social Support for Healthy Behaviors among African American Church Members: Applying Optimal Matching Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thrasher, James F.; Campbell, Marci Kramish; Oates, Veronica

    2004-01-01

    This study used data from 850 African Americans to test optimal matching theory (OMT). OMT predicts that (1) the most important dimensions of social support depend on the controllability of the behavior and (2) different network members often provide support across health behaviors. Data were gathered on social support source for physical…

  16. Parsing protection and risk for problem behavior versus pro-social behavior among US and Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jessor, Richard; Turbin, Mark S

    2014-07-01

    This study investigates the different roles played by protective factors and risk factors-and by particular protective and risk factors-when the concern is with accounting for adolescent problem behavior than when the concern is with accounting for adolescent pro-social behavior. The protective and risk factor literature on adolescent problem behavior reveals considerable conceptual and operational ambiguity; an aim of the present study was to advance understanding in this domain of inquiry by providing a systematic conceptualization of protection and risk and of their measurement. Within the systematic framework of Problem Behavior Theory, four protective and four risk factors are assessed in a cross-national study of both problem behavior and pro-social behavior involving large adolescent samples in China (N = 1,368) and the US (N = 1,087), in grades 9, 10, and 11; females 56 %, US; 50 %, China. The findings reveal quite different roles for protection and risk, and for particular protective and risk factors, when the outcome criterion is problem behavior than when it is pro-social behavior. The protective factor, Controls Protection, which engages rule and regulations and sanctions in the adolescent's ecology, emerges as most important in influencing problem behavior, but it plays a relatively minor role in relationship to pro-social behavior. By contrast, Models Protection, the presence of pro-social models in the adolescent's ecology, and Support Protection, the presence of interest and care in that same ecology, have no significant relationship to problem behavior variation, but they are both the major predictors of variation in pro-social behavior. The findings are robust across the samples from the two very diverse societies. These results suggest that greater attention be given to protection in problem behavior research and that a more nuanced perspective is needed about the roles that particular protective and risk factors play in reducing problem

  17. Evolved differences in larval social behavior mediated by novel pheromones

    PubMed Central

    Mast, Joshua D; De Moraes, Consuelo M; Alborn, Hans T; Lavis, Luke D; Stern, David L

    2014-01-01

    Pheromones, chemical signals that convey social information, mediate many insect social behaviors, including navigation and aggregation. Several studies have suggested that behavior during the immature larval stages of Drosophila development is influenced by pheromones, but none of these compounds or the pheromone-receptor neurons that sense them have been identified. Here we report a larval pheromone-signaling pathway. We found that larvae produce two novel long-chain fatty acids that are attractive to other larvae. We identified a single larval chemosensory neuron that detects these molecules. Two members of the pickpocket family of DEG/ENaC channel subunits (ppk23 and ppk29) are required to respond to these pheromones. This pheromone system is evolving quickly, since the larval exudates of D. simulans, the sister species of D. melanogaster, are not attractive to other larvae. Our results define a new pheromone signaling system in Drosophila that shares characteristics with pheromone systems in a wide diversity of insects. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04205.001 PMID:25497433

  18. Understanding and Predicting Human Behavior for Social Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoes, Jose; Magedanz, Thomas

    Over the last years, with the rapid advance in technology, it is becoming increasingly feasible for people to take advantage of the devices and services in the surrounding environment to remain "connected" and continuously enjoy the activity they are engaged in, be it sports, entertainment, or work. Such a ubiquitous computing environment will allow everyone permanent access to the Internet anytime, anywhere and anyhow [1]. Nevertheless, despite the evolution of services, social aspects remain in the roots of every human behavior and activities. Great examples of such phenomena are online social networks, which engage users in a way never seen before in the online world. At the same time, being aware and communicating context is a key part of human interaction and is a particularly powerful concept when applied to a community of users where services can be made more personalized and useful. Altogether, harvesting context to reason and learn about user behavior will further enhance the future multimedia vision where services can be composed and customized according to user context. Moreover, it will help us to understand users in a better way.

  19. Mild expression differences of MECP2 influencing aggressive social behavior

    PubMed Central

    Tantra, Martesa; Hammer, Christian; Kästner, Anne; Dahm, Liane; Begemann, Martin; Bodda, Chiranjeevi; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Giegling, Ina; Stepniak, Beata; Castillo Venzor, Aracely; Konte, Bettina; Erbaba, Begun; Hartmann, Annette; Tarami, Asieh; Schulz-Schaeffer, Walter; Rujescu, Dan; Mannan, Ashraf U; Ehrenreich, Hannelore

    2014-01-01

    The X-chromosomal MECP2/Mecp2 gene encodes methyl-CpG-binding protein 2, a transcriptional activator and repressor regulating many other genes. We discovered in male FVB/N mice that mild (∼50%) transgenic overexpression of Mecp2 enhances aggression. Surprisingly, when the same transgene was expressed in C57BL/6N mice, transgenics showed reduced aggression and social interaction. This suggests that Mecp2 modulates aggressive social behavior. To test this hypothesis in humans, we performed a phenotype-based genetic association study (PGAS) in >1000 schizophrenic individuals. We found MECP2 SNPs rs2239464 (G/A) and rs2734647 (C/T; 3′UTR) associated with aggression, with the G and C carriers, respectively, being more aggressive. This finding was replicated in an independent schizophrenia cohort. Allele-specific MECP2mRNA expression differs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by ∼50% (rs2734647: C > T). Notably, the brain-expressed, species-conserved miR-511 binds to MECP2 3′UTR only in T carriers, thereby suppressing gene expression. To conclude, subtle MECP2/Mecp2 expression alterations impact aggression. While the mouse data provides evidence of an interaction between genetic background and mild Mecp2 overexpression, the human data convey means by which genetic variation affects MECP2 expression and behavior. PMID:24648499

  20. Mild expression differences of MECP2 influencing aggressive social behavior.

    PubMed

    Tantra, Martesa; Hammer, Christian; Kästner, Anne; Dahm, Liane; Begemann, Martin; Bodda, Chiranjeevi; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Giegling, Ina; Stepniak, Beata; Castillo Venzor, Aracely; Konte, Bettina; Erbaba, Begun; Hartmann, Annette; Tarami, Asieh; Schulz-Schaeffer, Walter; Rujescu, Dan; Mannan, Ashraf U; Ehrenreich, Hannelore

    2014-05-01

    The X-chromosomal MECP2/Mecp2 gene encodes methyl-CpG-binding protein 2, a transcriptional activator and repressor regulating many other genes. We discovered in male FVB/N mice that mild (~50%) transgenic overexpression of Mecp2 enhances aggression. Surprisingly, when the same transgene was expressed in C57BL/6N mice, transgenics showed reduced aggression and social interaction. This suggests that Mecp2 modulates aggressive social behavior. To test this hypothesis in humans, we performed a phenotype-based genetic association study (PGAS) in >1000 schizophrenic individuals. We found MECP2 SNPs rs2239464 (G/A) and rs2734647 (C/T; 3'UTR) associated with aggression, with the G and C carriers, respectively, being more aggressive. This finding was replicated in an independent schizophrenia cohort. Allele-specific MECP2 mRNA expression differs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by ~50% (rs2734647: C > T). Notably, the brain-expressed, species-conserved miR-511 binds to MECP2 3'UTR only in T carriers, thereby suppressing gene expression. To conclude, subtle MECP2/Mecp2 expression alterations impact aggression. While the mouse data provides evidence of an interaction between genetic background and mild Mecp2 overexpression, the human data convey means by which genetic variation affects MECP2 expression and behavior. PMID:24648499

  1. Impairment of social and emotional behaviors in Cadm1-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Takayanagi, Yuki; Fujita, Eriko; Yu, Zhiling; Yamagata, Takanori; Momoi, Mariko Y; Momoi, Takashi; Onaka, Tatsushi

    2010-06-01

    Cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1), a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, mediates synaptic cell adhesion. Missense mutations in the CADM1 gene have been identified in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) patients. In the present study, we examined emotional behaviors, social behaviors and motor performances in Cadm1-knockout (KO) mice. Cadm1-KO mice showed increased anxiety-related behavior in open-field and light-dark transition tests. Social behaviors of Cadm1-KO mice were impaired in social interaction, resident-intruder and social memory/recognition tests. Furthermore, motor coordination and gait of Cadm1-KO mice were impaired in rotarod and footprint tests. Our study demonstrates that CADM1 plays roles in regulating emotional behaviors, social behaviors and motor performances, and that CADM1 has important implications for psychiatric disorders with disruptions in social behavior, such as autism. PMID:20450890

  2. The Social Functions of Antisocial Behavior: Considerations for School Violence Prevention Strategies for Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Thomas W.; Lane, Kathleen L.; Lee, David L.; Hamm, Jill V.; Lambert, Kerrylin

    2012-01-01

    Research on school social dynamics suggests that antisocial behavior is often supported by peer group processes particularly during late childhood and adolescence. Building from a social interactional framework, this article explores how information on the social functions of aggressive and disruptive behavior may help to guide function-based…

  3. Using a Modified Social Story to Decrease Disruptive Behavior of a Child With Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crozier, Shannon; Tincani, Matthew J.

    2005-01-01

    Despite the popularity of Social Stories[TM] as an intervention for disruptive behavior in children with autism, there have been few investigations on the effectiveness of Social Stories. Scattone, Wilczynski, Edwards, and Rabian (2002) found that Social Stories decreased challenging behaviors in children with autism, but they identified verbal…

  4. Extending the Use of Social Stories to Young Children with Emotional and Behavioral Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delano, Monica E.; Stone, Liz

    2008-01-01

    Many students identified with emotional or behavioral disorders have social skill deficits, often displayed as less mature or inappropriate social behavior. Students may have difficulty engaging in appropriate play or social interactions and may at times become aggressive. The inability to interact with others has a negative impact on academic…

  5. Establishing a Relationship between Behavior Change Theory and Social Marketing: Implications for Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thackeray, Rosemary; Neiger, Brad L.

    2000-01-01

    Describes relationships between behavior change theory and social marketing practice, noting challenges in making behavior change theory an important component of social marketing and proposing that social marketing is the framework to which theory can be applied, creating theory-driven, consumer-focused, more effective health education programs.…

  6. Young Adolescents' Gender-, Ethnicity-, and Popularity-Based Social Schemas of Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemans, Katherine H.; Graber, Julia A.

    2016-01-01

    Social schemas can influence the perception and recollection of others' behavior and may create biases in the reporting of social events. This study investigated young adolescents' (N = 317) gender-, ethnicity-, and popularity-based social schemas of overtly and relationally aggressive behavior. Results indicated that participants associated overt…

  7. Aggressive Behavior in Preschoolers' Social Networks: Do Birds of a Feather Flock Together?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farver, Jo Ann M.

    1996-01-01

    Examined influence of gender, behavioral style, social competence, reciprocal friendships, and social clique membership on naturally occurring aggression in preschoolers. Found that variations in aggression were associated with behavioral style and social competence and that children within cliques were similar in frequency of observed aggression.…

  8. Parental Social Support and the Physical Activity-Related Behaviors of Youth: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beets, Michael W.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Alderman, Brandon L.

    2010-01-01

    Social support from parents serves as one of the primary influences of youth physical activity-related behaviors. A systematic review was conducted on the relationship of parental social support to the physical activity-related behaviors of youth. Four categories of social support were identified, falling under two distinct mechanisms--tangible…

  9. Social Interaction Behaviors Discriminate Young Children with Autism and Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Alan J.; Searcy, Yvonne M.; Jones, Wendy; Lord, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Autistic disorder (AD) and Williams syndrome (WS) are neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by contrasting abnormal social behavior (the former, socially avoidant; the latter, outwardly social); nonetheless, there are individuals with WS who display some behaviors that are characteristic of AD. We quantified the extent to which…

  10. Relationships between Social Skills, Behavioral Problems, and School Readiness for Head Start Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracken, Stacey Storch; Fischel, Janet

    2007-01-01

    This study followed 515 4-year-olds from Head Start entry to exit to investigate their social and behavioral skills and the impact of these skills on school readiness outcomes. Results indicated that, on average, social skills improved across the preschool year, while behavior problems remained relatively stable. Social skills and behavior…

  11. Social Desirability and Behavior Rating Scales: An Exploratory Study with the Child Behavior Checklist/4-18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merydith, Scott P.; Prout, H. Thompson; Blaha, John

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the Child Behavior Checklist/4-18 (CBCL/4-18) and two modified measures of social desirability, the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale and the Edwards Social Desirability Scale with a sample of 65 parents of normal children from grades K-7. Results from correlational and multiple regression…

  12. Social behavior in a genetic model of dopamine dysfunction at different neurodevelopmental time points

    PubMed Central

    Kabitzke, P. A.; Simpson, E. H.; Kandel, E. R.; Balsam, P. D.

    2016-01-01

    Impairments in social behavior characterize many neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders. In fact, the temporal emergence and trajectory of these deficits can define the disorder, specify their treatment and signal their prognosis. The sophistication of mouse models with neurobiological endophenotypes of many aspects of psychiatric diseases has increased in recent years, with the necessity to evaluate social behavior in these models. We adapted an assay for the multimodal characterization of social behavior at different development time points (juvenile, adolescent and adult) in control mice in different social contexts (specifically, different sex pairings). Although social context did not affect social behavior in juvenile mice, it did have an effect on the quantity and type of social interaction as well as ultrasonic vocalizations in both adolescence and adulthood. We compared social development in control mice to a transgenic mouse model of the increase in postsynaptic striatal D2R activity observed in patients with schizophrenia (D2R-OE mice). Genotypic differences in social interactions emerged in adolescence and appeared to become more pronounced in adulthood. That vocalizations emitted from dyads with a D2R-OE subject were negatively correlated with active social behavior while vocalizations from control dyads were positively correlated with both active and passive social behavior also suggest social deficits. These data show that striatal dopamine dysfunction plays an important role in the development of social behavior and mouse models such as the one studied here provide an opportunity for screening potential therapeutics at different developmental time points. PMID:26176662

  13. Social Behavior of Offspring Following Prenatal Cocaine Exposure in Rodents: A Comparison with Prenatal Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Sobrian, Sonya K.; Holson, R. R.

    2011-01-01

    Clinical and experimental reports suggest that prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) alters the offsprings’ social interactions with caregivers and conspecifics. Children exposed to prenatal cocaine show deficits in caregiver attachment and play behavior. In animal models, a developmental pattern of effects that range from deficits in play and social interaction during adolescence, to aggressive reactions during competition in adulthood is seen. This review will focus primarily on the effects of PCE on social behaviors involving conspecifics in animal models. Social relationships are critical to the developing organism; maternally directed interactions are necessary for initial survival. Juvenile rats deprived of play behavior, one of the earliest forms of non-mother directed social behaviors in rodents, show deficits in learning tasks and sexual competence. Social behavior is inherently complex. Because the emergence of appropriate social skills involves the interplay between various conceptual and biological facets of behavior and social information, it may be a particularly sensitive measure of prenatal insult. The social behavior surveyed include social interactions, play behavior/fighting, scent marking, and aggressive behavior in the offspring, as well as aspects of maternal behavior. The goal is to determine if there is a consensus of results in the literature with respect to PCE and social behaviors, and to discuss discrepant findings in terms of exposure models, the paradigms, and dependent variables, as well as housing conditions, and the sex and age of the offspring at testing. As there is increasing evidence that deficits in social behavior may be sequelae of developmental exposure alcohol, we compare changes in social behaviors reported for prenatal alcohol with those reported for prenatal cocaine. Shortcomings in the both literatures are identified and addressed in an effort to improve the translational value of future experimentation. PMID:22144967

  14. Ethanol intake under social circumstances or alone in Sprague-Dawley rats: Impact of age, sex, social activity and social anxiety-like behavior

    PubMed Central

    Varlinskaya, Elena I.; Truxell, Eric M.; Spear, Linda P.

    2014-01-01

    Background In human adolescents, heavy drinking is often predicted by high sociability in males and high social anxiety in females. This study assessed the impact of baseline levels of social activity and social anxiety-like behavior in group-housed adolescent and adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats on ethanol intake when drinking alone or in a social group. Methods Social activity and anxiety-like behavior initially were assessed in a modified social interaction test, followed by six drinking sessions that occurred every other day in animals given ad libitum food and water. Sessions consisted of 30-min access to 10% ethanol in a “supersac” (3% sucrose + 0.1% saccharin) solution given alone as well as in groups of five same-sex littermates, with order of the alternating session types counterbalanced across animals. Results Adolescent males and adults of both sexes overall consumed more ethanol under social than alone circumstances, whereas adolescent females ingested more ethanol when alone. Highly socially active adolescent males demonstrated elevated levels of ethanol intake relative to their low and medium socially active counterparts when drinking in groups, but not when tested alone. Adolescent females with high levels of social anxiety-like behavior demonstrated the highest ethanol intake under social, but not alone circumstances. Among adults, baseline levels of social anxiety-like behavior did not contribute to individual differences in ethanol intake in either sex. Conclusions The results clearly demonstrate that in adolescent rats, but not their adult counterparts, responsiveness to a social peer predicts ethanol intake in a social setting – circumstances under which drinking typically occurs in human adolescents. High levels of social activity in males and high levels of social anxiety-like behavior in females were associated with elevated social drinking, suggesting that males ingest ethanol for its socially enhancing properties, whereas

  15. Minimal Social Networks Effects Evident in Cancer Screening Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Nancy L.; O’Malley, A. James; Murabito, Joanne M.; Smith, Kirsten P.; Christakis, Nicholas A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Social networks may influence screening behaviors. We assessed whether screening for breast, prostate, or colorectal cancer is influenced by the actual screening behaviors of siblings, friends, spouse, and coworkers. Methods Observational study using Framingham Heart Study data to assess screening for eligible individuals during the late 1990s. We used logistic regression to assess if the probability of screening for breast, prostate, or colorectal cancer was influenced by the proportion of siblings, friends, and coworkers who had the same screening, as well as spouse’s screening for colorectal cancer, adjusting for other factors that might influence screening rates. Results Among 1660 women aged 41–70, 71.7% reported mammography in the past year; among 1217 men aged 51–70, 43.3% reported prostate specific antigen testing in the past year; and among 1426 men and women aged 51–80, 46.9% reported stool blood testing and/or sigmoidoscopy in the past year. An increasing proportion of sisters who had mammography in the past year was associated with mammography screening in the ego (odds ratio [OR]=1.034, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.000–1.065 for each 10% increase). A spouse with recent screening was associated with more colorectal cancer screening (OR 1.65, 95% CI=1.39–1.98 vs. unmarried). Otherwise, screening behaviors of siblings, friends, and coworkers were not associated with screening in the ego. Conclusion Aside from a slight increase in breast cancer screening among women whose sisters were screened and colorectal cancer screening if spouses were screened, the screening behavior of siblings, friends, or coworkers did not influence cancer screening behaviors. PMID:21264828

  16. Nonverbal behavior during face-to-face social interaction in schizophrenia: a review.

    PubMed

    Lavelle, Mary; Healey, Patrick G T; McCabe, Rosemarie

    2014-01-01

    Patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia display social cognitive deficits. However, little is known about patients' nonverbal communication during their social encounters with others. This review identified 17 studies investigating nonverbal communication in patients' unscripted face-to-face interactions, addressing a) nonverbal differences between patients and others, b) nonverbal behavior of the patients' partners, c) the association between nonverbal behavior and symptoms, and d) the association between nonverbal behavior and social outcomes. Patients displayed fewer nonverbal behaviors inviting interaction, with negative symptoms exacerbating this pattern. Positive symptoms were associated with heightened nonverbal behavior. Patients' partners changed their own nonverbal behavior in response to the patient. Reduced prosocial behaviors, inviting interaction, were associated with poorer social outcomes. The evidence suggests that patients' nonverbal behavior, during face-to-face interaction, is influenced by patients symptoms and impacts the success of their social interactions. PMID:24375212

  17. Socialization and Risk Behavior in Two Countries: Denmark and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen; Jensen, Lene Arnett

    1994-01-01

    One hundred Danish adolescents and 133 American adolescents were compared on various aspects of socialization and risk behavior. Overall, socialization was narrower among Danish adolescents, and rates of risk behavior were higher for American adolescents in the areas of driving and minor criminal behavior. Rates of sex without contraception were…

  18. Attention Biases to Threat Link Behavioral Inhibition to Social Withdrawal over Time in Very Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Edgar, Koraly; Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany C.; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; White, Lauren K.; Henderson, Heather A.; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Hane, Amie A.; Pine, Daniel S.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2011-01-01

    Behaviorally inhibited children display a temperamental profile characterized by social withdrawal and anxious behaviors. Previous research, focused largely on adolescents, suggests that attention biases to threat may sustain high levels of behavioral inhibition (BI) over time, helping link early temperament to social outcomes. However, no prior…

  19. Teaching Online Social Skills to Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Joseph John

    2012-01-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral disorders often lack appropriate social skills. This deficit can lead to negative outcomes including peer and teacher rejection, increased behavioral problems at school, and decreased academic achievement. In order to improve the social outcomes of students with emotional and behavioral disorders, teachers…

  20. Systematic Review of Social Network Analysis in Adolescent Cigarette Smoking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Huang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Social networks are important in adolescent smoking behavior. Previous research indicates that peer context is a major causal factor of adolescent smoking behavior. To date, however, little is known about the influence of peer group structure on adolescent smoking behavior. Methods: Studies that examined adolescent social networks with…

  1. Canid mating systems, social behavior, parental care and ontogeny: are they flexible?

    PubMed

    Kleiman, Devra G

    2011-11-01

    Benson Ginsburg's early studies of canid socialization and wolf social and reproductive behavior were focused, in part, on the degree to which there was flexibility in social development and specifically whether there was a critical period during development after which wolf pups could not be socialized to humans. My focus was the degree to which differences in canid ecology and social structure were correlated with differences in the plasticity of social and reproductive behavior, including development. Canid species are unusual among the Mammalia in being primarily monogamous. Males may play an indirect or direct role in parental care, depending on a species degree of sociality. Canid species also differ in developmental parameters, and reproductive suppression is common in the group-living pack hunters. I review comparative studies of the social and reproductive behavior of three South American canids which vary in their degree of sociality and explore the degree to which the species are ecologically and socially flexible. PMID:21487689

  2. Social behavior in the “Age of Empathy”?—A social scientist's perspective on current trends in the behavioral sciences

    PubMed Central

    Matusall, Svenja

    2013-01-01

    Recently, several behavioral sciences became increasingly interested in investigating biological and evolutionary foundations of (human) social behavior. In this light, prosocial behavior is seen as a core element of human nature. A central role within this perspective plays the “social brain” that is not only able to communicate with the environment but rather to interact directly with other brains via neuronal mind reading capacities such as empathy. From the perspective of a sociologist, this paper investigates what “social” means in contemporary behavioral and particularly brain sciences. It will be discussed what “social” means in the light of social neuroscience and a glance into the history of social psychology and the brain sciences will show that two thought traditions come together in social neuroscience, combining an individualistic and an evolutionary notion of the “social.” The paper concludes by situating current research on prosocial behavior in broader social discourses about sociality and society, suggesting that to naturalize prosocial aspects in human life is a current trend in today's behavioral sciences and beyond. PMID:23755003

  3. The Aberration Corrected SEM

    SciTech Connect

    Joy, David C.

    2005-09-09

    The performance of the conventional low-energy CD-SEM is limited by the aberrations inherent in the probe forming lens. Multi-pole correctors are now available which can reduce or eliminate these aberrations. An SEM equipped with such a corrector offers higher spatial resolution and more probe current from a given electron source, and other aspects of the optical performance are also improved, but the much higher numerical aperture associated with an aberration corrected lens results in a reduction in imaging depth of field.

  4. Do Pharmacological and Behavioral Interventions Differentially Affect Treatment Outcome for Children with Social Phobia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharfstein, Lindsay A.; Beidel, Deborah C.; Rendon Finnell, Laura; Distler, Aaron; Carter, Nathan T.

    2011-01-01

    In a randomized trial for children with social phobia (SP), Social Effectiveness Therapy for Children (SET-C; a treatment consisting of exposure and social skills training) and fluoxetine were more effective than pill placebo in reducing social distress and behavioral avoidance, but only SET-C demonstrated significantly improved overall social…

  5. Social Approach and Autistic Behavior in Children with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Jane E.; Weisenfeld, Leigh Anne H.; Hatton, Deborah D.; Heath, Morgan; Kaufmann, Walter E.

    2007-01-01

    Social avoidance is a core phenotypic characteristic of fragile X syndrome (FXS) that has critical cognitive and social consequences. However, no study has examined modulation of multiple social avoidant behaviors in children with FXS. In the current study, we introduce the "Social Approach Scale" (SAS), an observation scale that includes physical…

  6. Investigating Teachers' Approval and Disapproval Behaviors Towards Academic and Social Behaviors of Students with and without Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sazak-Pinar, Elif; Guner-Yildiz, Nevin

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to (a) investigate teachers' approval and disapproval behaviors towards academic and social behaviors of students in mainstreaming classrooms and (b) determine whether or not having special needs be a predictor of teachers' approval and disapproval behaviors. The study group consisted of 43 teachers who…

  7. Nutrigenomic targeting of carbohydrate craving behavior: Can we manage obesity and aberrant craving behaviors with neurochemical pathway manipulation by Immunological Compatible Substances (nutrients) using a Genetic Positioning System (GPS) Map?

    PubMed Central

    Downs, B. William; Chen, Amanda L.C.; Chen, Thomas J.H.; Waite, Roger L.; Braverman, Eric R.; Kerner, Mallory; Braverman, Dasha; Rhoades, Patrick; Prihoda, Thomas J.; Palomo, Tomas; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Reinking, Jeffrey; Blum, Seth H.; DiNubile, Nicholas A.; Liu, H.H.; Blum, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Genetic mediated physiological processes that rely on both pharmacological and nutritional principles hold great promise for the successful therapeutic targeting of reduced carbohydrate craving, body-friendly fat loss, healthy body recomposition, and overall wellness. By integrating an assembly of scientific knowledge on inheritable characteristics and environmental mediators of gene expression, we review the relationship of genes, hormones, neurotransmitters, and nutrients as they correct unwanted weight gain coupled with unhappiness. In contrast to a simple one-locus, one-mechanism focus on pharmaceuticals alone, we hypothesize that the use of nutrigenomic treatment targeting multi-physiological neurological, immunological, and metabolic pathways will enable clinicians to intercede in the process of lipogenesis by promoting lipolysis while attenuating aberrant glucose cravings. In turn, this approach will enhance wellness in a safe and predictable manner through the use of a Genetic Positioning System (GPS) Map. The GPS Map, while presently incomplete, ultimately will serve not only as a blueprint for personalized medicine in the treatment of obesity, but also for the development of strategies for reducing many harmful addictive behaviors and promoting optimal health by using substances compatible with the body’s immune system. PMID:19450935

  8. The Relationship between Neighborhood Characteristics and Effective Parenting Behaviors: The Role of Social Support

    PubMed Central

    Byrnes, Hilary F.; Miller, Brenda A.

    2011-01-01

    Neighborhood characteristics have been linked to healthy behavior, including effective parenting behaviors. This may be partially explained through the neighborhood’s relation to parents’ access to social support from friends and family. The current study examined associations of neighborhood characteristics with parenting behaviors indirectly through social support. The sample included 614 mothers of 11–12 year old youths enrolled in a health care system in the San Francisco area. Structural equations modeling shows that neighborhood perceptions were related to parenting behaviors, indirectly through social support, while archival census neighborhood indicators were unrelated to social support and parenting. Perceived neighborhood social cohesion and control were related to greater social support, which was related to more effective parenting style, parent-child communication, and monitoring. Perceived neighborhood disorganization was unrelated to social support. Prevention strategies should focus on helping parents build a social support network that can act as a resource in times of need. PMID:23794774

  9. The Contributions of Applied Behavior Analysis and Behavior Theory to Innovative Research and Practice Cultures in Social Work.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Harold Eugene; Sharkey, Caroline; Briggs, Adam Christopher

    2016-01-01

    In this article the authors tie the emergence of an empirical practice research culture, which enabled the rise in evidence-based practice in social work to the introduction of applied behavior analysis and behavioral theory to social work practice and research. The authors chronicle the: (1) scientific foundations of social work, (2) influence and push by corporatized university cultures for higher scholarship productivity among faculty, (3) significance of theory in general, (4) importance of behavioral theory in particular as a major trigger of the growth in research on effective social work practice approaches, and (5) commonalities between applied behavior analysis and evidence-based practice. The authors conclude with implications for addressing the dual challenges of building an enhanced research culture in schools of social work and the scholarship of transferring practice research to adoption in real world practice settings. PMID:26849086

  10. Pro-social behavior in rats is modulated by social experience.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ami Bartal, Inbal; Rodgers, David A; Bernardez Sarria, Maria Sol; Decety, Jean; Mason, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    In mammals, helping is preferentially provided to members of one's own group. Yet, it remains unclear how social experience shapes pro-social motivation. We found that rats helped trapped strangers by releasing them from a restrainer, just as they did cagemates. However, rats did not help strangers of a different strain, unless previously housed with the trapped rat. Moreover, pair-housing with one rat of a different strain prompted rats to help strangers of that strain, evidence that rats expand pro-social motivation from one individual to phenotypically similar others. To test if genetic relatedness alone can motivate helping, rats were fostered from birth with another strain and were not exposed to their own strain. As adults, fostered rats helped strangers of the fostering strain but not rats of their own strain. Thus, strain familiarity, even to one's own strain, is required for the expression of pro-social behavior. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01385.001. PMID:24424411

  11. Pro-social behavior in rats is modulated by social experience

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Ami Bartal, Inbal; Rodgers, David A; Bernardez Sarria, Maria Sol; Decety, Jean; Mason, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    In mammals, helping is preferentially provided to members of one’s own group. Yet, it remains unclear how social experience shapes pro-social motivation. We found that rats helped trapped strangers by releasing them from a restrainer, just as they did cagemates. However, rats did not help strangers of a different strain, unless previously housed with the trapped rat. Moreover, pair-housing with one rat of a different strain prompted rats to help strangers of that strain, evidence that rats expand pro-social motivation from one individual to phenotypically similar others. To test if genetic relatedness alone can motivate helping, rats were fostered from birth with another strain and were not exposed to their own strain. As adults, fostered rats helped strangers of the fostering strain but not rats of their own strain. Thus, strain familiarity, even to one’s own strain, is required for the expression of pro-social behavior. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01385.001 PMID:24424411

  12. Dynamic and social behaviors of human pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Phadnis, Smruti M.; Loewke, Nathan O.; Dimov, Ivan K.; Pai, Sunil; Amwake, Christine E.; Solgaard, Olav; Baer, Thomas M.; Chen, Bertha; Pera, Renee A. Reijo

    2015-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) can self-renew or differentiate to diverse cell types, thus providing a platform for basic and clinical applications. However, pluripotent stem cell populations are heterogeneous and functional properties at the single cell level are poorly documented leading to inefficiencies in differentiation and concerns regarding reproducibility and safety. Here, we use non-invasive time-lapse imaging to continuously examine hPSC maintenance and differentiation and to predict cell viability and fate. We document dynamic behaviors and social interactions that prospectively distinguish hPSC survival, self-renewal, and differentiation. Results highlight the molecular role of E-cadherin not only for cell-cell contact but also for clonal propagation of hPSCs. Results indicate that use of continuous time-lapse imaging can distinguish cellular heterogeneity with respect to pluripotency as well as a subset of karyotypic abnormalities whose dynamic properties were monitored. PMID:26381699

  13. Do pharmacological and behavioral interventions differentially affect treatment outcome for children with social phobia?

    PubMed

    Scharfstein, Lindsay A; Beidel, Deborah C; Finnell, Laura Rendon; Distler, Aaron; Carter, Nathan T

    2011-09-01

    In a randomized trial for children with social phobia (SP), Social Effectiveness Therapy for Children (SET-C; a treatment consisting of exposure and social skills training) and fluoxetine were more effective than pill placebo in reducing social distress and behavioral avoidance, but only SET-C demonstrated significantly improved overall social skill and social competence. In the current study, the authors examined the specific social skills enhanced by SET-C using a recently developed coding schema. At posttreatment, children treated with SET-C displayed a more effective ability to manage the conversational topic (pragmatic social behaviors) and more appropriate motor movement, facial orientation, and posture (paralinguistic social behaviors) than children treated with fluoxetine or placebo. In contrast, children treated with fluoxetine displayed no more pragmatic or paralinguistic skill than children given a pill placebo. There were no group differences on ratings of voice volume and vocal inflection (speech and prosodic social behaviors). Furthermore, only children treated with SET-C improved from pre- to posttreatment on all three skill variables. Findings suggest that pharmacological interventions that only target reduction in anxious arousal may not have an impact on social skill deficits and may not be adequate to optimally treat SP. The relationship of social skill to social avoidance and the importance of social skills training to enhance social competence in the treatment of childhood SP are discussed. PMID:21586501

  14. Social Behavior and Meningococcal Carriage in British Teenagers

    PubMed Central

    MacLennan, Jenny; Kafatos, George; Neal, Keith; Andrews, Nick; Cameron, J. Claire; Roberts, Richard; Evans, Meirion R.; Cann, Kathy; Baxter, David N.; Maiden, Martin C.J.

    2006-01-01

    Understanding predisposing factors for meningococcal carriage may identify targets for public health interventions. Before mass vaccination with meningococcal group C conjugate vaccine began in autumn 1999, we took pharyngeal swabs from ≈14,000 UK teenagers and collected information on potential risk factors. Neisseria meningitidis was cultured from 2,319 (16.7%) of 13,919 swabs. In multivariable analysis, attendance at pubs/clubs, intimate kissing, and cigarette smoking were each independently and strongly associated with increased risk for meningococcal carriage (p<0.001). Carriage in those with none of these risk factors was 7.8%, compared to 32.8% in those with all 3. Passive smoking was also linked to higher risk for carriage, but age, sex, social deprivation, home crowding, or school characteristics had little or no effect. Social behavior, rather than age or sex, can explain the higher frequency of meningococcal carriage among teenagers. A ban on smoking in public places may reduce risk for transmission. PMID:16707051

  15. Psychological, social, and behavioral issues for young adults with cancer.

    PubMed

    Zebrack, Brad J

    2011-05-15

    Theories of human development suggest that, although all cancer patients experience a common set of life disruptions, they experience them differently, focus on different issues, and attach different levels of importance to different aspects of the experience depending on the time in life at which they were diagnosed. During the critical developmental transition from childhood to adulthood, older adolescents and young adults in particular have typical concerns with establishing identity, developing a positive body image and sexual identity, separating from parents, increasing involvement with peers and dating, and beginning to make decisions about careers or employment, higher education, and/or family. Accordingly, cancer-related issues such as premature confrontation with mortality, changes in physical appearance, increased dependence on parents, disruptions in social life and school/employment because of treatment, loss of reproductive capacity, and health-related concerns about the future may be particularly distressing for adolescents and young adults. Psychosocial and behavioral interventions for young adult cancer patients and survivors often involve assisting these individuals in retaining or returning to function in significant social roles, such as spouse, parent, student, worker, or friend. Successful interventions will enable these young people to overcome the detrimental impact of a health crisis and strengthen the internal and external coping resources available to them. PMID:21523748

  16. Parents' Perceptions of Their Children's Social Behavior: The Social Validity of Social Stories[TM] and Comic Strip Conversations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Tiffany L.; Prelock, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a family-centered collaborative approach to the development and socially valid assessment of Social Stories[TM] and comic strip conversations (CSCs) for supporting the social behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Seventeen children with ASD (ages 4-12 years) participated in either an immediate or a…

  17. The Effects of a Token Economy on First Grade Students Inappropriate Social Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shook, Suzan C.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Studies the effectiveness of a token economy on specific inappropriate social behaviors of three first grade students. Suggests that token economy systems can be very effective in decreasing disruptive behaviors of primary aged students. (MG)

  18. Social deficits and perseverative behaviors, but not overt aggression, in MAO-A hypomorphic mice.

    PubMed

    Bortolato, Marco; Chen, Kevin; Godar, Sean C; Chen, Gao; Wu, Weihua; Rebrin, Igor; Farrell, Mollee R; Scott, Anna L; Wellman, Cara L; Shih, Jean C

    2011-12-01

    Monoamine oxidase (MAO)-A is a key enzyme for the degradation of brain serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE). In humans and mice, total MAO-A deficiency results in high 5-HT and NE levels, as well as elevated reactive aggression. Here we report the generation of MAO-A(Neo) mice, a novel line of hypomorphic MAO-A mutants featuring the insertion of a floxed neomycin-resistance cassette in intron-12 of the Maoa gene. This construct resulted in a chimeric, non-functional variant of the Maoa-Neo transcript, with a truncated C-terminus, likely due to aberrant splicing; these deficits notwithstanding, small amounts of functional Maoa transcript were found in the brain of MAO-A(Neo) mice. In the prefrontal cortex and amygdala, MAO-A(Neo) mice showed low, yet detectable, MAO-A catalytic activity, as well as 5-HT levels equivalent to WT littermates; conversely, the hippocampus and midbrain of MAO-A(Neo) mice featured a neurochemical profile akin to MAO-A-knockout (KO) mice, with undetectable MAO-A activity and high 5-HT concentrations. MAO-A(Neo) mice showed significant increases in dendritic length in the pyramidal neurons of orbitofrontal cortex, but not basolateral amygdala, in comparison with WT littermates; by contrast, the orbitofrontal cortex of MAO-A KO mice showed significant reductions in basilar dendritic length, as well as a profound increase in apical dendritic length. MAO-A(Neo) mice showed a unique set of behavioral abnormalities, encompassing reduced open-field locomotion, perseverative responses, such as marble burying and water mist-induced grooming, and a lack of anxiety-like behaviors in the elevated plus-maze and light-dark box paradigms. Notably, whereas MAO-A(Neo) and KO mice showed significant reductions in social interaction, only the latter genotype showed increases in resident-intruder aggression. Taken together, our findings indicate that MAO A hypomorphism results in behavioral and morphological alterations distinct from

  19. Response to Hypothetical Social Scenarios in Individuals with Traumatic Brain Injury Who Present Inappropriate Social Behavior: A Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, Jean; Henry, Anne; Decoste, François-Pierre; Ouellette, Michel; McDuff, Pierre; Daelman, Sacha

    2013-01-01

    Background: Very little research thus far has examined the decision making that underlies inappropriate social behavior (ISB) post-TBI (traumatic brain injury). Objectives: To verify the usefulness of a new instrument, the Social Responding Task, for investigating whether, in social decision making, individuals with TBI, who present inappropriate social behavior (ISB), have difficulty anticipating their own feelings of embarrassment and others’ angry reactions following an ISB. Methods: Seven subjects with TBI presenting with inappropriate social behavior (TBI-ISB), 10 presenting with appropriate social behavior (TBI-ASB), and 15 healthy controls were given 12 hypothetical scenarios three times, each time ending with a different behavioral response. Subjects were asked to gauge the likelihood of their displaying the behavior in that situation (part A) and of it being followed by an angry reaction from the other or by feelings of embarrassment in themselves (part B). Results: TBI-ISB subjects scored higher than TBI-ASB and healthy controls on a scale of likelihood of displaying an ISB. Results regarding expectations of angry reactions from others and feelings of embarrassment after an ISB were similar among groups. Negative correlations between endorsement of an inappropriate behavior and anticipation of negative emotional consequences were significant for both TBI-ASB and control subjects, but not for TBI-ISB subjects. Conclusions: Results suggest that the TBI-ISB participants were likely to endorse an ISB despite being able to anticipate a negative emotional response in themselves or others, suggesting that there were other explanations for their poor behavior. A self-reported likely response to hypothetical social scenarios can be a useful approach for studying the neurocognitive processes behind the poor choices of individuals with TBI-ISB, but the task needs further validation studies. A comprehensive discussion follows on the underlying mechanisms affecting

  20. Relations Between Nonverbal and Verbal Social Cognitive Skills and Complex Social Behavior in Children and Adolescents with Autism.

    PubMed

    Demopoulos, Carly; Hopkins, Joyce; Lewine, Jeffrey D

    2016-07-01

    Although there is an extensive literature on domains of social skill deficits in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), little research has examined the relation between specific social cognitive skills and complex social behaviors in daily functioning. This was the aim of the present study. Participants were 37 (26 male and 11 female) children and adolescents aged 6-18 years diagnosed with ASD. To determine the amount of variance in parent-rated complex social behavior accounted for by the linear combination of five directly-assessed social cognitive variables (i.e., adult and child facial and vocal affect recognition and social judgment) after controlling for general intellectual ability, a hierarchical regression analysis was performed. The linear combination of variables accounted for 35.4 % of the variance in parent-rated complex social behavior. Vocal affect recognition in adult voices showed the strongest association with complex social behavior in ASD. Results suggest that assessment and training in vocal affective comprehension should be an important component of social skills interventions for individuals with ASD. PMID:26386582

  1. Modeling the Impact of Motivation, Personality, and Emotion on Social Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Lynn C.; Read, Stephen J.; Zachary, Wayne; Rosoff, Andrew

    Models seeking to predict human social behavior must contend with multiple sources of individual and group variability that underlie social behavior. One set of interrelated factors that strongly contribute to that variability - motivations, personality, and emotions - has been only minimally incorporated in previous computational models of social behavior. The Personality, Affect, Culture (PAC) framework is a theory-based computational model that addresses this gap. PAC is used to simulate social agents whose social behavior varies according to their personalities and emotions, which, in turn, vary according to their motivations and underlying motive control parameters. Examples involving disease spread and counter-insurgency operations show how PAC can be used to study behavioral variability in different social contexts.

  2. Social capital and risk and protective behaviors: a global health perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kaljee, Linda M; Chen, Xinguang

    2011-01-01

    Social capital and health research has emerged as a focus of contemporary behavioral epidemiology, while intervention research is seeking more effective measures to increase health protective behaviors and decrease health-risk behaviors. In this review we explored current literature on social capital and health outcomes at the micro-, mesa-, and macro-levels with a particular emphasis on research that incorporates a social capital framework, and adolescent and young adult engagement in risk behaviors. These data indicate that across a broad range of socio-cultural and economic contexts, social capital can affect individuals’ risk for negative health outcomes and their engagement in risk behaviors. Further research is needed which should focus on differentiating and measuring positive and negative social capital within both mainstream and alternative social networks, assessing how social constructions of gender, ethnicity, and race – within specific cultural contexts – mediate the relationship between social capital and risk and/or protective behaviors. This new research should integrate the existing research within historical socioeconomic and political conditions. In addition, social capital scales need to be developed to be both culturally and developmentally appropriate for use with adolescents living in a diversity of settings. Despite the proliferation of social capital research, the concept remains underutilized in both assessment and intervention development for adolescents’ and young adults’ engagement in risk behaviors and their associated short- and long-term poor health outcomes. PMID:23243387

  3. Disruption of social bonds induces behavioral and physiological dysregulation in male and female prairie voles

    PubMed Central

    McNeal, Neal; Scotti, Melissa-Ann L.; Wardwell, Joshua; Chandler, Danielle L.; Bates, Suzanne L.; LaRocca, Meagan; Trahanas, Diane M.; Grippo, Angela J.

    2013-01-01

    The social disruption of losing a partner may have particularly strong adverse effects on psychological and physiological functioning. More specifically, social stressors may play a mediating role in the association between mood disorders and cardiovascular dysfunction. This study investigated the hypothesis that the disruption of established social bonds between male and female prairie voles would produce depressive behaviors and cardiac dysregulation, coupled with endocrine and autonomic nervous system dysfunction. In Experiment 1, behaviors related to depression, cardiac function, and autonomic nervous system regulation were monitored in male prairie voles during social bonding with a female partner, social isolation from the bonded partner, and a behavioral stressor. Social isolation produced depressive behaviors, increased heart rate, heart rhythm dysregulation, and autonomic imbalance characterized by increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic drive to the heart. In Experiment 2, behaviors related to depression and endocrine function were measured following social bonding and social isolation in both male and female prairie voles. Social isolation produced similar levels of depressive behaviors in both sexes, as well as significant elevations of adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone. These alterations in behavioral and physiological functioning provide insight into the mechanisms by which social stressors negatively influence emotional and cardiovascular health in humans. PMID:24161576

  4. Neuronal Categorization and Discrimination of Social Behaviors in Primate Prefrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Tsunada, Joji; Sawaguchi, Toshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    It has been implied that primates have an ability to categorize social behaviors between other individuals for the execution of adequate social-interactions. Since the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) is involved in both the categorization and the processing of social information, the primate LPFC may be involved in the categorization of social behaviors. To test this hypothesis, we examined neuronal activity in the LPFC of monkeys during presentations of two types of movies of social behaviors (grooming, mounting) and movies of plural monkeys without any eye- or body-contacts between them (no-contacts movies). Although the monkeys were not required to categorize and discriminate the movies in this task, a subset of neurons sampled from the LPFC showed a significantly different activity during the presentation of a specific type of social behaviors in comparison with the others. These neurons categorized social behaviors at the population level and, at the individual neuron level, the majority of the neurons discriminated each movie within the same category of social behaviors. Our findings suggest that a fraction of LPFC neurons process categorical and discriminative information of social behaviors, thereby contributing to the adaptation to social environments. PMID:23285110

  5. Disruption of social bonds induces behavioral and physiological dysregulation in male and female prairie voles.

    PubMed

    McNeal, Neal; Scotti, Melissa-Ann L; Wardwell, Joshua; Chandler, Danielle L; Bates, Suzanne L; Larocca, Meagan; Trahanas, Diane M; Grippo, Angela J

    2014-02-01

    The social disruption of losing a partner may have particularly strong adverse effects on psychological and physiological functioning. More specifically, social stressors may play a mediating role in the association between mood disorders and cardiovascular dysfunction. This study investigated the hypothesis that the disruption of established social bonds between male and female prairie voles would produce depressive behaviors and cardiac dysregulation, coupled with endocrine and autonomic nervous system dysfunction. In Experiment 1, behaviors related to depression, cardiac function, and autonomic nervous system regulation were monitored in male prairie voles during social bonding with a female partner, social isolation from the bonded partner, and a behavioral stressor. Social isolation produced depressive behaviors, increased heart rate, heart rhythm dysregulation, and autonomic imbalance characterized by increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic drive to the heart. In Experiment 2, behaviors related to depression and endocrine function were measured following social bonding and social isolation in both male and female prairie voles. Social isolation produced similar levels of depressive behaviors in both sexes, as well as significant elevations of adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone. These alterations in behavioral and physiological functioning provide insight into the mechanisms by which social stressors negatively influence emotional and cardiovascular health in humans. PMID:24161576

  6. Moderate Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Quantification of Social Behavior in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Derek A.; Magcalas, Christy M.; Barto, Daniel; Bird, Clark W.; Rodriguez, Carlos I.; Fink, Brandi C.; Pellis, Sergio M.; Davies, Suzy; Savage, Daniel D.

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in social behavior are among the major negative consequences observed in children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs). Several independent laboratories have demonstrated robust alterations in the social behavior of rodents exposed to alcohol during brain development across a wide range of exposure durations, timing, doses, and ages at the time of behavioral quantification. Prior work from this laboratory has identified reliable alterations in specific forms of social interaction following moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in the rat that persist well into adulthood, including increased wrestling and decreased investigation. These behavioral alterations have been useful in identifying neural circuits altered by moderate PAE1, and may hold importance for progressing toward a more complete understanding of the neural bases of PAE-related alterations in social behavior. This paper describes procedures for performing moderate PAE in which rat dams voluntarily consume ethanol or saccharin (control) throughout gestation, and measurement of social behaviors in adult offspring. PMID:25549080

  7. Moderate prenatal alcohol exposure and quantification of social behavior in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Derek A; Magcalas, Christy M; Barto, Daniel; Bird, Clark W; Rodriguez, Carlos I; Fink, Brandi C; Pellis, Sergio M; Davies, Suzy; Savage, Daniel D

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in social behavior are among the major negative consequences observed in children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs). Several independent laboratories have demonstrated robust alterations in the social behavior of rodents exposed to alcohol during brain development across a wide range of exposure durations, timing, doses, and ages at the time of behavioral quantification. Prior work from this laboratory has identified reliable alterations in specific forms of social interaction following moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in the rat that persist well into adulthood, including increased wrestling and decreased investigation. These behavioral alterations have been useful in identifying neural circuits altered by moderate PAE(1), and may hold importance for progressing toward a more complete understanding of the neural bases of PAE-related alterations in social behavior. This paper describes procedures for performing moderate PAE in which rat dams voluntarily consume ethanol or saccharin (control) throughout gestation, and measurement of social behaviors in adult offspring. PMID:25549080

  8. Early life seizures in female rats lead to anxiety-related behavior and abnormal social behavior characterized by reduced motivation to novelty and deficit in social discrimination.

    PubMed

    Castelhano, Adelisandra Silva Santos; Ramos, Fabiane Ochai; Scorza, Fulvio Alexandre; Cysneiros, Roberta Monterazzo

    2015-03-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that male Wistar rats submitted to neonatal status epilepticus showed abnormal social behavior characterized by deficit in social discrimination and enhanced emotionality. Taking into account that early insult can produce different biological manifestations in a gender-dependent manner, we aimed to investigate the social behavior and anxiety-like behavior in female Wistar rats following early life seizures. Neonate female Wistar rats at 9 days postnatal were subject to pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus and the control received saline. Behavioral tests started from 60 days postnatal and were carried out only during the diestrus phase of the reproductive cycle. In sociability test experimental animals exhibited reduced motivation for social encounter and deficit in social discrimination. In open field and the elevated plus maze, experimental animals showed enhanced emotionality with no changes in basal locomotor activity. The results showed that female rats submitted to neonatal status epipepticus showed impaired social behavior, characterized by reduced motivation to novelty and deficit in social discrimination in addition to enhanced emotionality. PMID:25139483

  9. Classroom peer relationships and behavioral engagement in elementary school: the role of social network equity.

    PubMed

    Cappella, Elise; Kim, Ha Yeon; Neal, Jennifer W; Jackson, Daisy R

    2013-12-01

    Applying social capital and systems theories of social processes, we examine the role of the classroom peer context in the behavioral engagement of low-income students (N = 80) in urban elementary school classrooms (N = 22). Systematic child observations were conducted to assess behavioral engagement among second to fifth graders in the fall and spring of the same school year. Classroom observations, teacher and child questionnaires, and social network data were collected in the fall. Confirming prior research, results from multilevel models indicate that students with more behavioral difficulties or less academic motivation in the fall were less behaviorally engaged in the spring. Extending prior research, classrooms with more equitably distributed and interconnected social ties-social network equity-had more behaviorally engaged students in the spring, especially in classrooms with higher levels of observed organization (i.e., effective management of behavior, time, and attention). Moreover, social network equity attenuated the negative relation between student behavioral difficulties and behavioral engagement, suggesting that students with behavioral difficulties were less disengaged in classrooms with more equitably distributed and interconnected social ties. Findings illuminate the need to consider classroom peer contexts in future research and intervention focused on the behavioral engagement of students in urban elementary schools. PMID:24081319

  10. Classroom Peer Relationships and Behavioral Engagement in Elementary School: The Role of Social Network Equity

    PubMed Central

    Cappella, Elise; Kim, Ha Yeon; Neal, Jennifer W.; Jackson, Daisy R.

    2014-01-01

    Applying social capital and systems theories of social processes, we examine the role of the classroom peer context in the behavioral engagement of low-income students (N = 80) in urban elementary school classrooms (N = 22). Systematic child observations were conducted to assess behavioral engagement among second to fifth graders in the fall and spring of the same school year. Classroom observations, teacher and child questionnaires, and social network data were collected in the fall. Confirming prior research, results from multilevel models indicate that students with more behavioral difficulties or less academic motivation in the fall were less behaviorally engaged in the spring. Extending prior research, classrooms with more equitably distributed and interconnected social ties—social network equity—had more behaviorally engaged students in the spring, especially in classrooms with higher levels of observed organization (i.e., effective management of behavior, time, and attention). Moreover, social network equity attenuated the negative relation between student behavioral difficulties and behavioral engagement, suggesting that students with behavioral difficulties were less disengaged in classrooms with more equitably distributed and interconnected social ties. Findings illuminate the need to consider classroom peer contexts in future research and intervention focused on the behavioral engagement of students in urban elementary schools. PMID:24081319

  11. Obesity-Related Behaviors among Poor Adolescents and Young Adults: Is Social Position Associated with Risk Behaviors?

    PubMed

    Ritterman Weintraub, Miranda Lucia; Fernald, Lia C; Goodman, Elizabeth; Guendelman, Sylvia; Adler, Nancy E

    2015-01-01

    HighlightsDifferent measures of social position capture unique dimensions of relative rank among youth.Youth-specific measures of social position may be important in identifying the most at-risk for obesity.Lower social status youth are more likely to be at-risk for obesity-related behaviors compared to those with a higher rank. This cross-sectional study examines multiple dimensions of social position in relation to obesity-related behaviors in an adolescent and young adult population. In addition to using conventional measures of social position, including parental education and household expenditures, we explore the usefulness of three youth-specific measures of social position - community and society subjective social status and school dropout status. Data are taken from a 2004 house-to-house survey of urban households within the bottom 20th percentile of income distribution within seven states in Mexico. A total of 5,321 Mexican adolescents, aged 12-22 years, provided information on obesity-related behaviors (e.g., diet, physical activity, sedentary behavior) and indicators of subjective and objective social position. A parent in each household provided information on socioeconomic status of the parent and household. Ordinal logistic regressions are used to estimate the associations of parental, household and adolescent indicators of social position and obesity-related risk behaviors. Those adolescents with the highest odds of adopting obesity risk behaviors were the ones who perceived themselves as lower in social status in reference to their peer community and those who had dropped out of school. We found no significant associations between parental education or household expenditures and obesity-related risk behaviors. Immediate social factors in adolescents' lives may have a strong influence on their health-related behaviors. This study provides evidence for the usefulness of two particular measures, both of which are youth-specific. Adolescents and

  12. Obesity-Related Behaviors among Poor Adolescents and Young Adults: Is Social Position Associated with Risk Behaviors?

    PubMed Central

    Ritterman Weintraub, Miranda Lucia; Fernald, Lia C.; Goodman, Elizabeth; Guendelman, Sylvia; Adler, Nancy E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights Different measures of social position capture unique dimensions of relative rank among youth. Youth-specific measures of social position may be important in identifying the most at-risk for obesity. Lower social status youth are more likely to be at-risk for obesity-related behaviors compared to those with a higher rank. This cross-sectional study examines multiple dimensions of social position in relation to obesity-related behaviors in an adolescent and young adult population. In addition to using conventional measures of social position, including parental education and household expenditures, we explore the usefulness of three youth-specific measures of social position – community and society subjective social status and school dropout status. Data are taken from a 2004 house-to-house survey of urban households within the bottom 20th percentile of income distribution within seven states in Mexico. A total of 5,321 Mexican adolescents, aged 12–22 years, provided information on obesity-related behaviors (e.g., diet, physical activity, sedentary behavior) and indicators of subjective and objective social position. A parent in each household provided information on socioeconomic status of the parent and household. Ordinal logistic regressions are used to estimate the associations of parental, household and adolescent indicators of social position and obesity-related risk behaviors. Those adolescents with the highest odds of adopting obesity risk behaviors were the ones who perceived themselves as lower in social status in reference to their peer community and those who had dropped out of school. We found no significant associations between parental education or household expenditures and obesity-related risk behaviors. Immediate social factors in adolescents’ lives may have a strong influence on their health-related behaviors. This study provides evidence for the usefulness of two particular measures, both of which are youth

  13. The Impact of Social-Behavioral Learning Strategy Training on the Social Interaction Skills of Four Students with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bock, Marjorie A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effect of a social-behavioral learning strategy intervention (SODA) on the social interaction skills of 4 elementary school children with Asperger syndrome (AS). More specifically, the study investigated the effect of SODA training on the abilities of 4 children with AS to participate in cooperative learning activities,…

  14. Social Information-Processing Skills Training to Promote Social Competence and Prevent Aggressive Behavior in the Third Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Mark W.; Galinsky, Maeda J.; Smokowski, Paul R.; Day, Steven H.; Terzian, Mary A.; Rose, Roderick A.; Guo, Shenyang

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a school-based study designed to promote social competence and reduce aggressive behavior by strengthening children's skills in processing social information and regulating emotions. Three successive cohorts of 3rd graders (N = 548) from 2 schools participated. In 2000-2001, children received a routine health curriculum; in…

  15. The Efficacy of a Social Skills Group Intervention for Improving Social Behaviors in Children with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeRosier, Melissa E.; Swick, Danielle C.; Davis, Naomi Ornstein; McMillen, Janey Sturtz; Matthews, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the efficacy of a new social skills intervention, "S ocial S kills GR oup IN tervention-High Functioning Autism" ("S.S.GRIN-HFA"), designed to improve social behaviors in children with high functioning autism spectrum disorders. Fifty-five children were randomly assigned to "S.S.GRIN-HFA" treatment (n = 27) or control (i.e.,…

  16. Measuring Changes in Social Communication Behaviors: Preliminary Development of the Brief Observation of Social Communication Change (BOSCC)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grzadzinski, Rebecca; Carr, Themba; Colombi, Costanza; McGuire, Kelly; Dufek, Sarah; Pickles, Andrew; Lord, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Psychometric properties and initial validity of the Brief Observation of Social Communication Change (BOSCC), a measure of treatment-response for social-communication behaviors, are described. The BOSCC coding scheme is applied to 177 video observations of 56 young children with ASD and minimal language abilities. The BOSCC has high to excellent…

  17. The Importance of Rural, Township, and Urban Life in the Interaction between Social and Emotional Learning and Social Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totan, Tarik; Ozyesil, Zümra; Deniz, M. Engin; Kiyar, Fatma

    2014-01-01

    Whether an individual lives in a rural or urban setting may have direct impact on a wide variety of psychological patterns adopted by students. In this study, the effects of positive and negative social behaviors on the relationship between social and emotional learning needs and skills gaps of students who reside in both rural and urban areas…

  18. Social Capital Role in Managing High Risk Behavior: a Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Afzali, Mansoure; Shahhosseini, Zohreh; Hamzeghardeshi, Zeinab

    2015-01-01

    Background: Social capital as a social context based concept is a new component in addition to the previous factors including the biologic–environmental, the genetic and the individual behavior factors that influence health and society. Social capital refers to the information that makes people believe being interesting & being paid attention to, & respected, valued, and belonging to a network of bilateral relations. Health issue is greatly affected by the existence of social capital. High risk behaviors refer to the ones enhancing the probability of negative and devastating physical, psychological and social consequences for an individual. Negative & overwhelming results mean keeping one’s distance from social norms as a result rejection and labeling (social stigma) and finally, to distance oneself from the benefits of social life in the individuals with high risk behaviors. The present study reviews social capital in the groups having high risk behaviors. Methods: The present study is a narrative review in which researchers conducted their computer search in public databases like Google Scholar, and more specifically in Pubmed, Magiran, SID, Springer, Science Direct, and ProQuest using the keywords: social capital, social support, risk behaviors, addicts, HIV, AIDS, and selected the articles related to the study subject from 2004 to 2014. Overall 96 articles have been searched. Researchers reviewed the summary of all articles searched, & ultimately, they applied the data from 20 full articles to compile this review paper. Results: Article review results led to organizing the subjects into 6 general categories: Social capital and its role in health; Social capital in groups with high risk behaviors (Including: substance abusers, AIDS patients, the homeless and multi-partner women); Social capital in different social groups; measurement tools for social capital and risk behaviors; the role of health in helping people with risky behaviors with the focus on

  19. Behavioral and Physiological Plasticity: Rapid Changes during Social Ascent in an African Cichlid Fish

    PubMed Central

    Fernald, Russell D.

    2010-01-01

    In many vertebrates, reproduction is regulated by social interactions in which dominant males control access to females and food. Subordinate males that displace dominant individuals must rapidly adopt behavioral and physiological traits of the higher rank to gain reproductive success. To understand the process of phenotypic plasticity during social ascent, we analyzed the temporal expression pattern of dominance behaviors and circulating androgen levels when socially-suppressed males of an African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni ascended in status. These experiments tested a prediction of the ‘challenge hypothesis’ that, during periods of social instability, male androgen levels are higher than during socially stable times. We found that socially and reproductively suppressed males perform territorial and reproductive behaviors within minutes of an opportunity to ascend in status, and that animals switch from initial expression of territorial behaviors to more reproductive behaviors during territory establishment. Following this rapid response, social stability may be achieved within 1–3 days of social ascent. Consistent with predictions of the ‘challenge hypothesis’, circulating 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) levels were elevated within 30 min following social opportunity, coincident with increased aggressive behavior. However, territorial behaviors and serum 11-KT levels were then dissociated by 72 hrs after social ascent, suggesting either rapid social stability and/or increased physiological potential for androgen production. This behavioral and physiological plasticity in male A. burtoni suggests that perception of social opportunity triggers a suite of quick changes to facilitate rapid transition towards reproductive success, and reveals important features of social ascent not previously recognized. PMID:20303357

  20. What Is the Proof? A Methodological Review of Studies That Have Utilized Social Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaf, Justin B.; Oppenheim-Leaf, Misty L.; Leaf, Ronald B.; Taubman, Mitchell; McEachin, John; Parker,Tracee; Waks, Andrea B.; Mountjoy, Toby

    2015-01-01

    Social stories are a commonly empirically evaluated and implemented procedure to increase pro-social behaviors and decrease aberrant behaviors for individuals diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder. Despite their widespread use there have been questions raised to the soundness of the research methodology and the results which have been…

  1. The Effectiveness of Social Stories on Decreasing Disruptive Behaviors of Children with Autism: Three Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir, Selda

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of social stories on decreasing the disruptive behaviors of children with autism. Social stories were created for three participants, ages 7 and 9, to decrease three target disruptive behaviors, using a loud voice in class, chair tipping, and cutting in lunch line. Using a…

  2. Decreasing Inappropriate Behaviors for Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders Using Modified Social Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graetz, Janet E.; Mastropieri, Margo A.; Scruggs, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    A multiple baseline design study was implemented to assess the effects of a modified social story intervention on inappropriate social behaviors of three adolescents with moderate autism. Baseline data were collected on inappropriate behaviors that included refusal to stand, use of a high-pitched voice, and placing hands/objects in mouth.…

  3. A Strategic Approach to Urban Research and Development: Social and Behavioral Science Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    The Committee on Social and Behavioral Urban Research was asked to advise the Housing and Urban Development Department (HUD) on elements of its long-range research and development program (R & D). Federal, state, and local governments have had access to only small amounts of relevant social and behavioral science knowledge or small numbers of…

  4. Anxiety and Social Stress Related to Adolescent Gambling Behavior and Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ste-Marie, Chantal; Gupta, Rina; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between anxiety, social stress, substance use, and gambling behavior was examined in a sample of 1,044 high school students from grades 7-11. Adolescents completed several instruments assessing their state, trait, and generalized anxiety, social stress, substance use, and gambling behavior. Results reveal that probable…

  5. Behavioral and Social Sciences Theories and Models: Are They Used in Unintentional Injury Prevention Research?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trifiletti, L. B.; Gielen, A. C.; Sleet, D. A.; Hopkins, K.

    2005-01-01

    Behavioral and social sciences theories and models have the potential to enhance efforts to reduce unintentional injuries. The authors reviewed the published literature on behavioral and social science theory applications to unintentional injury problems to enumerate and categorize the ways different theories and models are used in injury…

  6. Social Goals in Urban Physical Education: Relationships with Effort and Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garn, Alex; McCaughtry, Nate; Shen, Bo; Martin, Jeffrey J.; Fahlman, Mariane M.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships among four distinct types of social goals, effort, and disruptive behavior in urban physical education. Social responsibility, affiliation, recognition, status goals, along with effort and disruptive behavior in physical education were reported by high school physical education students (N = 314) from…

  7. Children's Social Behaviors as Predictors of Academic Achievement: A Longitudinal Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malecki, Christine Kerres; Elliott, Stephen N.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates relationships among a diverse sample of elementary students' social skills, problem behaviors, academic competence, and academic achievement. Results indicate that social skills are positively predictive of concurrent levels of academic achievement and problem behaviors are negatively predictive of concurrent academic achievement.…

  8. Stress-Induced Elevation of Oxytocin in Maltreated Children: Evolution, Neurodevelopment, and Social Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seltzer, Leslie J.; Ziegler, Toni; Connolly, Michael J.; Prososki, Ashley R.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2014-01-01

    Child maltreatment often has a negative impact on the development of social behavior and health. The biobehavioral mechanisms through which these adverse outcomes emerge, however, are not clear. To better understand the ways in which early life adversity affects subsequent social behavior, changes in the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) in children…

  9. Context–Specific Social Behavior is Altered by Orbitofrontal Cortex Lesions in Adult Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Babineau, Brooke A.; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Machado, Christopher J.; Toscano, Jessica E.; Mason, William A.; Amaral, David G.

    2012-01-01

    Although the orbitofrontal cortex has been implicated in important aspects of social behavior, few studies have evaluated semi-naturalistic social behavior in nonhuman primates after discrete lesions of this cortical area. In the present report, we evaluated the behavior of adult rhesus monkeys during dyadic social interactions with novel animals following discrete lesions of the orbitofrontal cortex. In a constrained condition, in which animals could engage in only restricted social behaviors, there were no significant differences in social behavior between the lesion group and the sham-operated control group. When the experimental animals could freely interact with partner animals, however, lesioned animals differed from control animals in terms of social interest and fear-related behaviors. These alterations were contingent on the partner with which they interacted. The lesioned animals, when compared to the control animals, had a significantly greater propensity to approach some but not all of their social partners. They also grimaced more towards the partner animal that they did not approach. Behavioral alterations were more apparent during the initial interactions between animals. We discuss these findings in relation to the role of the orbitofrontal cortex in context dependent modulation of social behavior. PMID:21256192

  10. Reciprocal Relations between Student-Teacher Conflict, Children's Social Skills and Externalizing Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skalická, Vera; Stenseng, Frode; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that the relation between student-teacher conflict and children's externalizing behavior might be reciprocal, and possibly also between student-teacher conflict and children's social skills. Because children with externalizing behavior also tend to display low levels of social skills, we do not know if one or both of these…

  11. Increasing On-Task Behavior through the Development of Classroom Social Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arritola, Kathleen; Breen, Jennifer; Paz, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    In recent years teachers within the classroom have experienced an increase in the off-task behaviors of students. The purpose of this action research project was to increase on-task behavior through development of classroom social skills. The causes may be a lack of social skills, outside influences, presentation of materials, students not…

  12. Social Competence as a Mediating Factor in Reduction of Behavioral Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langeveld, Johannes H.; Gundersen, Knut K.; Svartdal, Frode

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to explore how social competence reduces behavioral problems. Based on previous findings, we assume that increased social competence can be regarded as a mediating factor in reducing behavior problems. All participants (children and adolescents, n = 112) received an intervention intended to increase social…

  13. Behavioral, Social, and Cognitive Predictors of Adolescent Academic Self-Concept: A Longitudinal Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arsenault, Darin J.

    In a longitudinal investigation, a model was developed to assess behavioral, social, and cognitive influences on the academic self-concept of 104 adolescents (57 males, 47 females) who participated in the Fullerton Longitudinal Study between 18 months and 17 years of age. The basic model was Academic Self-Concept = Constant + Behavior + Social +…

  14. Behavioral, Social, and Emotional Assessment of Children and Adolescents. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitcomb, Sara A.; Merrell, Kenneth W.

    2013-01-01

    Generally recognized as the standard work in its field, "Behavioral, Social, and Emotional Assessment of Children and Adolescents" provides a comprehensive foundation and guide for conducting conceptually sound, culturally responsive, and ecologically oriented assessments of student social and emotional behavior. It is aimed at graduate…

  15. Interpersonal versus Intergroup Behavior: The Social Psychology of Desired Union Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacharach, Samuel B.; Mitchell, Stephen M.

    Emphasizing a distinction between interpersonal versus intergroup behavior, this paper investigates the impact of interpersonal and intergroup characteristics on the individual's decision to rely on collective action. Four dimensions of interpersonal versus intergroup behavior--social mobility versus social change, personal deprivation versus…

  16. Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Television on Social Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearold, Susan Lee

    This report statistically aggregates 230 studies on the effects of television viewing on social behavior. All empirical studies that measured a social behavior or attitude of subjects who had seen a non-educational television film or videotape and which had a program comparison group were considered appropriate. Pre-post comparison studies and…

  17. Relation of Social Support and Self-Esteem to Problem Behavior: Investigation of Differing Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Benjamin L.; DuBois, David L.

    2002-01-01

    Relations of social support and self-esteem to problem behavior were investigated among young adolescents. Three models were evaluated, and the mediated and direct effects model was found best fitting. Social support and self-esteem predicted less involvement in problem behavior, and unique variance in peer self-esteem predicted greater problem…

  18. Explaining Sex Differences in Social Behavior: A Meta-Analytic Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagly, Alice H.; Wood, Wendy

    The relatively simple question of whether sex differences exist has evolved into the more theoretically interesting question of why sex differences occur. This transition has come about because of the meta-analytic investigations of sex differences in social behavior which established sex difference trends in a variety of social behaviors. Many…

  19. Assessment Instruments for Measuring Young Children's Social-Emotional Behavioral Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caselman, Tonia D.; Self, Patricia A.

    2008-01-01

    Early identification of social-emotional behavioral problems in infants and preschoolers is critical. Nine parent-report and caregiver/teacher-report instruments measuring preschool social-emotional behavioral problems and strengths are reviewed. Advantages to the use of parent-report and caregiver/teacher-report instruments are that they are easy…

  20. The Relationship Between Social Behavior and Emergent Literacy Among Preschool Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doctoroff, Greta L.; Greer, Joseph A.; Arnold, David H.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate relationships between social behaviors and emergent literacy among young children, and sex differences in these relationships. Participants were 123 ethnically and socioeconomically diverse preschoolers (63 girls, 60 boys). Social behaviors were observed in classrooms, and emergent literacy…

  1. Social Workers and the NASW "Code of Ethics": Belief, Behavior, Disjuncture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiFranks, Nikki Nelson

    2008-01-01

    A quantitative descriptive survey of a national sample of social workers (N = 206) examined discrepancies between belief in the NASW "Code of Ethics" and behavior in implementing the code and social workers' disjunctive distress (disjuncture) when belief and behavior are discordant. Relationships between setting and disjuncture and ethics…

  2. Assessment and Treatment of Aggressive Behavior without a Clear Social Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringdahl, Joel E.; Call, Nathan A.; Mews, Jayme B.; Boelter, Eric W.; Christensen, Tory J.

    2008-01-01

    We conducted functional analyses of two individuals' aggressive behavior. Results of each of the initial functional analyses were inconclusive with respect to the role of social reinforcers in the maintenance of the behavior. Further assessment was conducted to clarify the role of social reinforcers. One individual's results suggested social…

  3. Mental and Behavioral Symptoms of Person's with Asperger's Syndrome: Relationships with Social Isolation and Handicaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tani, Masayuki; Kanai, Chieko; Ota, Haruhisa; Yamada, Takashi; Watanabe, Hiromi; Yokoi, Hideki; Takayama, Yuko; Ono, Taisei; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro; Kato, Nobumasa; Iwanami, Akira

    2012-01-01

    People with Asperger's syndrome (AS) experience mental comorbidities, and behavioral symptoms that can deepen social isolation and handicaps. We compared the frequency of mental and behavioral symptoms, motor abnormality, and life history between adults with AS and those with no mental disorders but with disturbance of social functions and…

  4. Social Behavior and Autism Traits in a Sex Chromosomal Disorder: Klinefelter (47XXY) Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Rijn, Sophie; Swaab, Hanna; Aleman, Andre; Kahn, Rene S.

    2008-01-01

    Although Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY) has been associated with psychosocial difficulties, knowledge of the social behavioral phenotype is limited. We examined specific social abilities and autism traits in Klinefelter syndrome. Scores of 31 XXY men on the Scale for Interpersonal Behavior and the Autism Spectrum Questionnaire were compared to 24…

  5. Beyond behavior modification: Benefits of social-emotional/self-regulation training for preschoolers with behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Graziano, Paulo A; Hart, Katie

    2016-10-01

    The current study evaluated the initial efficacy of three intervention programs aimed at improving school readiness in preschool children with externalizing behavior problems (EBP). Participants for this study included 45 preschool children (76% boys; Mage=5.16years; 84% Hispanic/Latino background) with at-risk or clinically elevated levels of EBP. During the summer between preschool and kindergarten, children were randomized to receive three newly developed intervention packages. The first and most cost effective intervention package was an 8-week School Readiness Parenting Program (SRPP). Families randomized into the second and third intervention packages received not only the weekly SRPP, but children also attended two different versions of an intensive kindergarten summer readiness class (M-F, 8a.m.-5p.m.) that was part of an 8-week summer treatment program for pre-kindergarteners (STP-PreK). One version included the standard behavioral modification system and academic curriculum (STP-PreK) while the other additionally contained social-emotional and self-regulation training (STP-PreK Enhanced). Baseline, post-intervention, and 6-month follow-up data were collected on children's school readiness outcomes including parent, teacher, and objective assessment measures. Analyses using linear mixed models indicated that children's behavioral functioning significantly improved across all groups in a similar magnitude. Children in the STP-PreK Enhanced group, however, experienced greater growth across time in academic achievement, emotion knowledge, emotion regulation, and executive functioning compared to children in the other groups. These findings suggest that while parent training is sufficient to address children's behavioral difficulties, an intensive summer program that goes beyond behavioral modification and academic preparation by targeting socio-emotional and self-regulation skills can have incremental benefits across multiple aspects of school readiness. PMID

  6. Teacher Attitudes and Behavior toward the Inclusion of Children with Social, Emotional and Behavioral Difficulties in Mainstream Schools: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacFarlane, Kate; Woolfson, Lisa Marks

    2013-01-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was used to examine relationships between teacher attitudes and behavior toward children with social, emotional and behavioral difficulties (SEBD). One hundred and eleven elementary school teachers completed questionnaires. Teacher perception of their school principals' expectations (subjective norm) predicted…

  7. Visual and Oral Feedback to Promote Appropriate Social Behavior for a Student with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lingo, Amy S.; Jolivette, Kristine; Barton-Arwood, Sally M.

    2009-01-01

    On a routine basis, educators collect data on their students' academic and social performance to make informed decisions regarding curricular and social instruction. The authors conducted a case study for a student with emotional and behavioral disorders. The student's teacher provided oral and visual feedback during reading instruction. Data…

  8. Social Skills and Problem Behaviors as Mediators of the Relationship between Behavioral Self-Regulation and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montroy, Janelle J.; Bowles, Ryan P.; Skibbe, Lori E.; Foster, Tricia D.

    2014-01-01

    Early behavioral self-regulation is an important predictor of the skills children need to be successful in school. However, little is known about the mechanism(s) through which self-regulation affects academic achievement. The current study investigates the possibility that two aspects of children's social func- tioning, social skills and problem…

  9. Social behavior of bacteria: from physics to complex organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Jacob, E.

    2008-10-01

    I describe how bacteria develop complex colonial patterns by utilizing intricate communication capabilities, such as quorum sensing, chemotactic signaling and exchange of genetic information (plasmids) Bacteria do not store genetically all the information required for generating the patterns for all possible environments. Instead, additional information is cooperatively generated as required for the colonial organization to proceed. Each bacterium is, by itself, a biotic autonomous system with its own internal cellular informatics capabilities (storage, processing and assessments of information). These afford the cell certain plasticity to select its response to biochemical messages it receives, including self-alteration and broadcasting messages to initiate alterations in other bacteria. Hence, new features can collectively emerge during self-organization from the intra-cellular level to the whole colony. Collectively bacteria store information, perform decision make decisions (e.g. to sporulate) and even learn from past experience (e.g. exposure to antibiotics)-features we begin to associate with bacterial social behavior and even rudimentary intelligence. I also take Schrdinger’s’ “feeding on negative entropy” criteria further and propose that, in addition organisms have to extract latent information embedded in the environment. By latent information we refer to the non-arbitrary spatio-temporal patterns of regularities and variations that characterize the environmental dynamics. In other words, bacteria must be able to sense the environment and perform internal information processing for thriving on latent information embedded in the complexity of their environment. I then propose that by acting together, bacteria can perform this most elementary cognitive function more efficiently as can be illustrated by their cooperative behavior.

  10. THE ROLE OF MESOCORTICOLIMBIC DOPAMINE IN REGULATING INTERACTIONS BETWEEN DRUGS OF ABUSE AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOR

    PubMed Central

    Young, Kimberly A.; Gobrogge, Kyle L.; Wang, Zuoxin

    2010-01-01

    The use of addictive drugs can have profound short- and long-term consequences on social behaviors. Similarly, social experiences and the presence or absence of social attachments during early development and throughout life can greatly influence drug intake and the susceptibility to drug abuse. The following review details this reciprocal interaction, focusing on common drugs of abuse (e.g., psychostimulants, opiates, alcohol and nicotine) and social behaviors (e.g., maternal, sexual, play, aggressive and bonding behaviors). The neural mechanisms underlying this interaction are discussed, with a particular emphasis on the involvement of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system. PMID:20600286

  11. Early life overnutrition induced by litter size manipulation decreases social play behavior in adolescent male rats.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Ana Laura O; Ferri, Bárbara G; de Sousa, Francielly A Lopes; Vilela, Fabiana C; Giusti-Paiva, Alexandre

    2016-10-01

    Several studies have investigated the effects of artificial litter size adjustment on offspring development. Social play behavior is important for neurobehavioral development and is impaired in several developmental psychiatric disorders. This study therefore investigated the effect of litter size on play behavior in adolescent rats. On postnatal day (PND) 2, litters were adjusted to a small litter (SL) size of 3 pups per dam or normal litter (NL) size of 12 pups per dam. Maternal behaviors scored daily during the first week of lactation (PND2-8) revealed that arched nursing and pup licking behaviors were increased in dams with SLs versus those with NLs. SL offspring exhibited accelerated weight gain and advanced development of physical landmarks and reflexes, possibly due to overnutrition. Social isolation lasting 3.5h prior to social play behavioral testing produced a higher frequency and duration of pouncing, pinning, sniffing, and grooming in both male and female offspring. However, male SL offspring exhibited a lower frequency of pouncing and pinning when compared with male NL offspring, while no litter size-dependent differences were observed in social behaviors unrelated to play (sniffing and grooming). These findings identify a possible sexually dimorphic influence of litter size in the development of social behavior. Given that social behaviors such as play behavior are vital for normal cognitive and social development, these findings have important implications for developmental and neuropsychiatric research. PMID:27469432

  12. Relations between Behavior Problems in Classroom Social and Learning Situations and Peer Social Competence in Head Start and Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulotsky-Shearer, Rebecca J.; Dominguez, Ximena; Bell, Elizabeth R.; Rouse, Heather L.; Fantuzzo, John W.

    2010-01-01

    The relations between early emotional and behavioral problems in classroom situations and peer social competence were examined for a representative sample of urban Head Start children. Behavior problems were assessed within the context of routine peer, teacher, and structured learning classroom situations early in the preschool year. Two path…

  13. Impairment of social behavior and communication in mice lacking the Uba6-dependent ubiquitin activation system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Yeon; Kwak, Minseok; Lee, Peter C W

    2015-03-15

    The Uba6-Use1 ubiquitin enzyme cascade is a poorly understood arm of the ubiquitin-proteasome system required for mouse development. Recently, we reported that Uba6 brain-specific knockout (termed NKO) mice display abnormal social behavior and neuronal development due to a decreased spine density and accumulation of Ube3a and Shank3. To better characterize a potential role for NKO mice in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), we performed a comprehensive behavioral characterization of the social behavior and communication of NKO mice. Our behavioral results confirmed that NKO mice display social impairments, as indicated by fewer vocalizations and decreased social interaction. We conclude that UBA6 NKO mice represent a novel ASD mouse model of anti-social and less verbal behavioral symptoms. PMID:25523030

  14. Effects of Social Stories on Prosocial Behavior of Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crozier, Shannon; Tincani, Matt

    2007-01-01

    Social Stories[TM] are a popular intervention for preschool children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but little research on Social Stories has been conducted with this population. This study investigated the effects of Social Stories on prosocial behavior of three preschool children with ASD in an inclusive setting. An ABAB design was used…

  15. Using Social Stories to Increase Positive Behaviors for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Vicky G.; Simpson, Cynthia G.; Lynch, Sharon A.

    2008-01-01

    One support that has shown some promise for teaching appropriate classroom behaviors to students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is the use of social stories. A social story is a short, simple story written from the child's perspective. It describes a social situation, and through text and visual supports, it provides instruction on positive…

  16. Social Adjustment and Academic Achievement: A Predictive Model for Students with Diverse Academic and Behavior Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Corey E.; Elliott, Stephen N.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the hypothesized relationship between social adjustment, as measured by perceived social support, self-concept, and social skills, and performance on academic achievement tests. Participants included 27 teachers and 77 fourth- and eighth-grade students with diverse academic and behavior competencies. Teachers were asked to…

  17. Contexts of Uninhibited Online Behavior: Flaming in Social Newsgroups on Usenet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayany, Joseph M.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses uninhibited behavior in computer-mediated communication (CMC), or flaming, and describes a study that examined the social context in which flaming occurs by analyzing messages posted during one week to four Usenet social newsgroups that represented different national and cultural groups. Results confirm that social context is the primary…

  18. Behavioral Signs of Schizoidia and Schizotypy in the Biological Parents of Social Anhedonics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmerson, Lindsay C.; Miller, Sarah L.; Blanchard, Jack J.

    2009-01-01

    A community sample of 88 putative schizotypes (48 social anhedonics, 40 controls), aged 18 to 19 years, and their biological parents (42 mothers of social anhedonics, 37 mothers of controls; 24 fathers of social anhedonics, 20 fathers of controls) receive videotaped diagnostic evaluations that serve as the basis for ratings of behavioral signs of…

  19. Promoting Social, Emotional and Behavioral Outcomes of Young Children Served under IDEA. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Lise; Smith, Barbara J.

    2007-01-01

    A growing body of evidence confirms that serious and persistent challenging behaviors in early childhood directly relate to later problems in school success, social relationships, educational and vocational success, and social adjustment. Conversely, key social skills associated with learning in group settings include being able to get along with…

  20. Adolescent Peer Relationships and Behavior Problems Predict Young Adults' Communication on Social Networking Websites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Szwedo, David E.; Allen, Joseph P.; Evans, Meredyth A.; Hare, Amanda L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined online communication on social networking web pages in a longitudinal sample of 92 youths (39 male, 53 female). Participants' social and behavioral adjustment was assessed when they were ages 13-14 years and again at ages 20-22 years. At ages 20-22 years, participants' social networking website use and indicators of friendship…

  1. PUSH(ing) Limits: Using Fiction in the Classroom for Human Behavior and the Social Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendoza, Natasha S.; Bonta, Kimberly; Horn, Philip; Moore, Erin; Gibson, Allison; Simmons, David

    2012-01-01

    The use of fiction and autobiography in social science course work has been shown to enhance students' learning experience. Using the novel PUSH, by Sapphire, we designed a curriculum supplement for the social work course, human behavior and the social environment (HBSE) that encourages students to integrate course content in an innovative way and…

  2. Brief Report: Altered Social Behavior in Isolation-Reared "Fmr1" Knockout Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitzer, Andrew M.; Roth, Alexandra K.; Nawrocki, Lauren; Wrenn, Craige C.; Valdovinos, Maria G.

    2013-01-01

    Social behavior abnormalities in Fragile X syndrome (FXS) are characterized by social withdrawal, anxiety, and deficits in social cognition. To assess these deficits, a model of FXS, the "Fmr1" knockout mouse ("Fmr1" KO), has been utilized. This mouse model has a null mutation in the fragile X mental retardation 1 gene ("Fmr1") and displays…

  3. Organizational citizenship behavior and social loafing: the role of personality, motives, and contextual factors.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hwee Hoon; Tan, Min Li

    2008-01-01

    The present study integrates the literature on social loafing and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). The authors examined the roles of personality, motives, and contextual factors in influencing the work behaviors of OCB and social loafing. In a sample of 341 individuals working in project groups, with data collected over 3 time periods, the authors found that conscientiousness was negatively related to social loafing. They also found the known positive relation of OCB with conscientiousness. Felt responsibility was negatively related to social loafing. The authors found no significant relations between social loafing and OCB motives. PMID:18350846

  4. Economic considerations for social distancing and behavioral based policies during an epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Fenichel, Eli P.

    2013-01-01

    Public policies intended to induce behavioral change, specifically incentives to reduce interpersonal contacts or to “social distance,” increasingly play a prominent role in public disease response strategies as governments plan for and respond to major epidemics. I compare social distancing incentives and outcomes under decentralized, full control social planner, and constrained social planner, without health class specific control, decision making scenarios. Constrained social planner decision making, based on non-health class specific controls, can in some instances make society worse off than decentralized decision making (i.e. no intervention). The oft neglected behavior of recovered and immune individuals is important for welfare and health outcomes. PMID:23419635

  5. The interaction between pain and social behavior in humans and rodents.

    PubMed

    Martin, Loren J; Tuttle, Alexander H; Mogil, Jeffrey S

    2014-01-01

    Pain elicits behaviors in humans and nonhuman animals that serve as social cues. Pain behaviors serve a communicative function in humans, and this may be true as well in other animals. This review considers the current evidence for modulation of acute pain in different social contexts in humans and rodents, with a focus on dyadic social interactions. Increasing data supports the ability of social buffering, emotional contagion (a form of empathy), vicarious learning, and social stress to modulate pain sensitivity and pain behavior in mice and rats. As in humans, many of these social factors operate, and affect pain, in a sex-dependent manner. The development of a true social neuroscience of pain, with detailed explication of the underlying neurochemistry and genetics, now seems achievable. PMID:24557935

  6. Using Literacy-Based Behavioral Interventions and Social Stories to Improve Work Behavior in Employees with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucholz, Jessica L.; Brady, Michael P.; Duffy, Mary Lou; Scott, Jack; Kontosh, Larry G.

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of Literacy-Based Behavioral Interventions and social stories to improve the work behavior of employees with developmental disabilities. Two experiments were conducted. In the first experiment a multiple baseline across subjects was used to examine the effects of the intervention on employees'…

  7. Health and behavior: the interplay of biological, behavioral, and social influences: summary of an Institute of Medicine report.

    PubMed

    Pellmar, Terry C; Brandt, Edward N; Baird, Macaran A

    2002-01-01

    An Institute of Medicine committee was convened to explore the links between biological, psychosocial, and behavioral factors and health and to review effective applications of behavioral interventions. Based on the evidence about interactions of the physiological responses to stress, behavioral choices, and social influences, the committee encouraged additional research efforts to explore the integration of these variables and to evaluate their mechanisms. An understanding of the social factors influencing behavior is growing and should be considered in programs and policies for public health, in addition to individual behavior and physiological status. Interventions to change behaviors have been directed toward individuals, communities, and society. Many intervention trials have documented the capacity of interventions to modify risk factors. However, more trials that include measures of morbidity and mortality to determine if the strategy has the desired health effects are needed. Behavior can be changed and new behaviors can be taught. Maintaining behavior changes is a greater challenge. Although short-term changes in behavior following interventions are encouraging, long-duration efforts are needed to improve health outcomes and to provide long-term assessments of effectiveness. Interventions aimed at any level can influence behavior change; however, existing research suggests that concurrent interventions at multiple levels are most likely to sustain behavior change and should be encouraged. PMID:11913326

  8. Exposure to Violence, Social Information Processing, and Problem Behavior in Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Ziv, Yair

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms by which early risk factors for social maladjustment contribute to disruptive behaviors in social settings is vital to developmental research and practice. A major risk factor for social maladjustment is early exposure to violence which was examined in this short-term longitudinal study in relation to social information processing patterns and externalizing and internalizing behaviors in a sample of 256 preschool children. Data on exposure to violence were obtained via parent report, data on social information processing were obtained via child interview, and data on child problem behavior were obtained via teacher report. Findings supported the hypothesis that, compared to children not exposed to violence, children reported to witness and/or experience violence are more likely to attribute hostile intent to peers, generate aggressive responses, and evaluate socially unaccepted responses (aggressive and inept) as socially suitable. The former were also found to exhibit higher levels of externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Finally, social information processing mediated the link between exposure to violence and problem behavior thus supporting this study’s general approach which argues that the link between exposure to violence and children’s problem behaviors are better understood within the context of their perceptions about social relationships. PMID:23011955

  9. Dopamine pathway is highly diverged in primate species that differ markedly in social behavior.

    PubMed

    Bergey, Christina M; Phillips-Conroy, Jane E; Disotell, Todd R; Jolly, Clifford J

    2016-05-31

    In the endeavor to associate genetic variation with complex traits, closely related taxa are particularly fruitful for understanding the neurophysiological and genetic underpinnings of species-specific attributes. Similarity to humans has motivated research into nonhuman primate models, yet few studies of wild primates have investigated immediate causal factors of evolutionarily diverged social behaviors. Neurotransmitter differences have been invoked to explain the distinct behavioral suites of two baboon species in Awash, Ethiopia, which differ markedly in social behavior despite evolutionary propinquity. With this natural experiment, we test the hypothesis that genomic regions associated with monoamine neurotransmitters would be highly differentiated, and we identify a dopamine pathway as an outlier, highlighting the system as a potential cause of species-specific social behaviors. Dopamine levels and resultant variation in impulsivity were likely under differential selection in the species due to social system structure differences, with either brash or circumspect social behavior advantageous to secure mating opportunities depending on the social backdrop. Such comparative studies into the causes of the behavioral agendas that create and interact with social systems are of particular interest, and differences in temperament related to boldness and associated with dopamine variation likely played important roles in the evolution of all social, behaviorally complex animals, including baboons and humans. PMID:27140612

  10. [Alteration of Social Behaviors in Male Mice of CBA/Lac Strain under Agonistic Interactions].

    PubMed

    Kovalenko, I L; Kudryavtseva, N N

    2015-01-01

    Ability of people to communicate with each other is a necessary component of social behavior and normal development of individuals living in community. A pronounced impairment in communication may be the result of autism which is characterized by impaired socialization, low communication and restricted and/or repetitive behaviors. It is hypothesized that genes or rare mutations play a key role in the development of autism. However a multifold increase of the cases with autistic spectrum symptoms over the last years cannot be attributed exclusively to genetic mutations or heredity. Environmental contribution to the development of autistic symptoms has to be considered. The paper aimed to analyze the social behaviors of CBA/Lac mice with repeated experience of aggression or social defeats in daily agonistic interactions with accent on searches of associations with autistic symptoms in comparison with previously studied C57BL/6J animals. It has been shown that male mice of both strains with alternative social behaviors demonstrated the changes in social behaviors; however the expression of some form of behaviors was different. The data obtained to assert that long-term hostile social environment lead to development of disturbances in social behaviors, accompanying by autistic-like symptoms. PMID:26601507

  11. Mapping the Social World of Classrooms: A Multi-Level, Multi-Reporter Approach to Social Processes and Behavioral Engagement.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ha Yeon; Cappella, Elise

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the social context of classrooms has been a central goal of research focused on the promotion of academic development. Building on the current literature on classroom social settings and guided by a risk and protection framework, this study examines the unique and combined contribution of individual relationships and quality of classroom interactions on behavioral engagement among low-income Latino students in kindergarten to fifth grade (N = 111). Findings indicate that individual relationships with teachers and peers and classroom quality, each independently predicted behavioral engagement. Moreover, high-quality classrooms buffered the negative influence of students' difficulties in individual relationships on behavioral engagement. Findings illuminate the need to consider multiple layers of social classroom relationships and interactions and suggest the potential benefit of targeting classroom quality as a mechanism for improving behavioral engagement in urban elementary schools. PMID:27217309

  12. Religious behaviors as strategies for organizing groups of people: A social contingency analysis

    PubMed Central

    Guerin, Bernard

    1998-01-01

    A social contingency analysis of religion is presented, arguing that individual religious behaviors are principally maintained by the many powerful benefits of participating in social groups rather than by any immediate or obvious consequences of the religious behaviors. Six common strategies are outlined that can shape the behaviors of large groups of people. More specifically, religious behavior is shaped and maintained by making already-existing contingencies contingent upon low-probability, but socially beneficial, group behaviors. Many specific examples of religious themes are then analyzed in terms of these common strategies for social shaping, including taboos, rituals, totems, personal religious crises, and symbolic expression. For example, a common view is that people are anxious about life, death, and the unknown, and that the direct function of religious behaviors is to provide escape from such anxiety. Such an explanation is instead reversed—that any such anxiety is utilized or created by groups through having escape contingent upon members performing less probable behaviors that nonetheless provide important benefits to most individual group members. These generalized beneficial outcomes, rather than escape from anxiety, maintain the religious behaviors and this fits with observations that religions typically act to increase anxiety rather than to reduce it. An implication of this theory is that there is no difference in principle between religious and nonreligious social control, and it is demonstrated that the same social strategies are utilized in both contexts, although religion has been the more historically important form of social control. PMID:22478297

  13. The convergent and divergent evolution of social-behavioral economics.

    PubMed

    Crespi, Bernard J

    2016-01-01

    Human hunter-gatherers share a suite of traits with social insects, which demonstrates convergent social evolution of these taxa prior to agriculture. Humans differ from social insects in that their divisions of labor are more competitive than cooperative. Resulting higher within-group competition in humans has been alleviated by religion and culturally imposed monogamy, both of which also find parallels among social insects. PMID:27562318

  14. Social Support and HIV-related Risk Behaviors: A Systematic Review of the Global Literature

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2013-01-01

    Existing empirical evidence has well documented the role of social support in both physical and psychological well-being among various populations. In the context of HIV prevention, the rapid increase of studies on social support merits a systematic review to synthesize the current global literature on association between social support and HIV-related risk behaviors. The current review reveals a complex picture of this relationship across diverse populations. Existing studies indicate that higher levels of social support are related to fewer HIV-related risk behaviors among female sex workers and people living with HIV/AIDS and heterosexual adults in general. However, influences of social support on HIV-related risk behaviors are inconsistent within drug users, men who have sex with men and adolescents. These variations in findings may be attributed to different measurement of social support in different studies, specific context of social support for diverse population, or various characteristics of the social networks the study population obtained support from. Future studies are needed to explore the mechanism of how social support affects HIV-related risk behaviors. HIV prevention intervention efforts need to focus on the positive effect of social support for various vulnerable and at-risk populations. Future efforts also need to incorporate necessary structure change and utilize technical innovation in order to maximize the protective role of social support in HIV risk prevention or reduction. PMID:23921582

  15. Methylphenidate and Atomoxetine Inhibit Social Play Behavior through Prefrontal and Subcortical Limbic Mechanisms in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Achterberg, E.J. Marijke; van Kerkhof, Linda W.M.; Damsteegt, Ruth; Trezza, Viviana

    2015-01-01

    Positive social interactions during the juvenile and adolescent phases of life, in the form of social play behavior, are important for social and cognitive development. However, the neural mechanisms of social play behavior remain incompletely understood. We have previously shown that methylphenidate and atomoxetine, drugs widely used for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), suppress social play in rats through a noradrenergic mechanism of action. Here, we aimed to identify the neural substrates of the play-suppressant effects of these drugs. Methylphenidate is thought to exert its effects on cognition and emotion through limbic corticostriatal systems. Therefore, methylphenidate was infused into prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortical regions as well as into several subcortical limbic areas implicated in social play. Infusion of methylphenidate into the anterior cingulate cortex, infralimbic cortex, basolateral amygdala, and habenula inhibited social play, but not social exploratory behavior or locomotor activity. Consistent with a noradrenergic mechanism of action of methylphenidate, infusion of the noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine into these same regions also reduced social play. Methylphenidate administration into the prelimbic, medial/ventral orbitofrontal, and ventrolateral orbitofrontal cortex, mediodorsal thalamus, or nucleus accumbens shell was ineffective. Our data show that the inhibitory effects of methylphenidate and atomoxetine on social play are mediated through a distributed network of prefrontal and limbic subcortical regions implicated in cognitive control and emotional processes. These findings increase our understanding of the neural underpinnings of this developmentally important social behavior, as well as the mechanism of action of two widely used treatments for ADHD. PMID:25568111

  16. Methylphenidate and atomoxetine inhibit social play behavior through prefrontal and subcortical limbic mechanisms in rats.

    PubMed

    Achterberg, E J Marijke; van Kerkhof, Linda W M; Damsteegt, Ruth; Trezza, Viviana; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J

    2015-01-01

    Positive social interactions during the juvenile and adolescent phases of life, in the form of social play behavior, are important for social and cognitive development. However, the neural mechanisms of social play behavior remain incompletely understood. We have previously shown that methylphenidate and atomoxetine, drugs widely used for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), suppress social play in rats through a noradrenergic mechanism of action. Here, we aimed to identify the neural substrates of the play-suppressant effects of these drugs. Methylphenidate is thought to exert its effects on cognition and emotion through limbic corticostriatal systems. Therefore, methylphenidate was infused into prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortical regions as well as into several subcortical limbic areas implicated in social play. Infusion of methylphenidate into the anterior cingulate cortex, infralimbic cortex, basolateral amygdala, and habenula inhibited social play, but not social exploratory behavior or locomotor activity. Consistent with a noradrenergic mechanism of action of methylphenidate, infusion of the noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine into these same regions also reduced social play. Methylphenidate administration into the prelimbic, medial/ventral orbitofrontal, and ventrolateral orbitofrontal cortex, mediodorsal thalamus, or nucleus accumbens shell was ineffective. Our data show that the inhibitory effects of methylphenidate and atomoxetine on social play are mediated through a distributed network of prefrontal and limbic subcortical regions implicated in cognitive control and emotional processes. These findings increase our understanding of the neural underpinnings of this developmentally important social behavior, as well as the mechanism of action of two widely used treatments for ADHD. PMID:25568111

  17. Aggression and prosocial behaviors in social conflicts mediating the influence of cold social intelligence and affective empathy on children's social preference.

    PubMed

    Carreras, M R; Braza, P; Muñoz, J M; Braza, F; Azurmendi, A; Pascual-Sagastizabal, E; Cardas, J; Sánchez-Martín, J R

    2014-08-01

    This study proposes a model in which aggressive and prosocial behaviors exhibited in social conflicts mediate the influence of empathy and social intelligence to children's social preference by same-sex peers. Data were obtained from kindergarten to the end of the first grade. The sample yielded 117 Spanish children (64 girls and 53 boys) with a mean age of 62.8 months (SD = 3.3) at the beginning of the study. For boys, affective empathy contributed to boys' social preference through a decrease in physical aggression as responses to social conflict. For girls, affective empathy had an indirect effect on girls' preference by increasing assistance to others in their conflicts. No mediating effect in the contribution of social intelligence on girls' social preference was detected. Our results suggest that, only for girls, cold social intelligence can promote both indirect aggression (coercive strategic that do not leave social preference, at least at these ages) and behaviors that lead social preference (such as prosocial behaviors). PMID:24766354

  18. Developing Behavioral Theory With the Systematic Integration of Community Social Capital Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Laura J.; Commodore-Mensah, Yvonne; Dennison Himmelfarb, Cheryl R.

    2014-01-01

    Health behavior theories state that social environments influence health behaviors, but theories of how this occurs are relatively underdeveloped. This article systematically surveys community social capital concepts in health behavior literature and proposes a conceptual framework that integrates these concepts into existing behavioral theory. Fifty-three studies tested associations between community social capital concepts and physical activity (38 studies), smoking (19 studies), and diet (2 studies). Trustworthiness of community members was consistently associated with more health-promoting and less disease-promoting behaviors in 19 studies. Neighborly reciprocity showed mixed results in 10 studies. Reporting a good sense of community was associated with more physical activity in only 5 of 16 studies. Neighborhood collective efficacy, which includes social cohesion and informal social control, was inconsistently associated with behaviors in 22 studies. Behavioral social norms were associated with smoking and physical activity in 2 of 6 studies, and neighborhood modeling of physical activity was associated with increased activity in 12 of 17 studies, with 1 opposing result. This review identifies several community social capital–related concepts that are, at times, associated with both health-promoting and disease-promoting behaviors and often have no associations. Theory explains these findings by describing the relationships and interactions among these concepts. Using these findings, this article proposes a conceptual framework that integrates community social capital concepts into existing behavioral theory. Iterative empirically based theory development is needed to address these concepts, which affect behaviors. These results can also inform theoretically based community-based and socially tailored interventions. PMID:24092886

  19. Aggression Norms in the Classroom Social Network: Contexts of Aggressive Behavior and Social Preference in Middle Childhood.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Daisy R; Cappella, Elise; Neal, Jennifer Watling

    2015-12-01

    In a cross-sectional sample of African-American 2nd-4th grade students (N = 681), we examine the moderating effects of classroom overt and relational aggression norms on peers' social acceptance of classmates who exhibit overt and relational aggression in urban schools. Extending theory and research on classroom norms, we integrate social network data to adjust aggression norms based on children's direct and indirect connections in the classroom. Results of multilevel models indicate that network-based classroom aggression norms moderated relations between children's aggressive behavior and their social preference. Specifically, children benefited socially when their form of aggressive behavior fit with what was normative in the classroom social context. The moderating effect of classroom aggression norms was stronger for the association between overt aggression and social preference than relational aggression and social preference. Relationally aggressive youth were socially preferred by peers regardless of the classroom norm, although this positive association was magnified in classrooms with higher levels of relational aggression. Future research focused on aggression norms within classroom social networks are discussed and implications for school prevention efforts are considered. PMID:26415598

  20. Social Networks and Peer-Assessed Problem Behavior in Elementary Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Thomas W.; Van Acker, Richard M.; Pearl, Ruth; Rodkin, Philip C.

    1999-01-01

    Peer-assessed problem behavior was examined in relation to peer-group membership and social-network centrality in 59 fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade classes. Most students with high peer-assessed problem behavior were students without disabilities, but students with disabilities were over represented at the highest levels of problem behavior.…

  1. Social Stories[TM] Improve the On-Task Behavior of Children with Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Naomi; Goldstein, Howard

    2009-01-01

    On-task behaviors are examined for three elementary-aged children who had impaired language and challenging behaviors that compromised their classroom participation and inclusion. A multiple-baseline design across participants was used. Each participant showed improvements in on-task behavior following Social Story[TM] intervention. Participants…

  2. Behavioral insights on big data: using social media for predicting biomedical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Young, Sean D

    2014-11-01

    Social media 'big data' can provide valuable insights about people's behaviors, such as their likelihood of engaging in risk behaviors or contracting a disease. Although in its infancy, advancing this research provides the promise of predicting health-related behaviors to promptly prepare for and respond to public health emergencies and epidemics. PMID:25438614

  3. School Social Work Interventions with Behaviorally Disordered Children: Practical Applications of Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullagh, James G., Ed.; McCullagh, Cheryl A., Ed.

    The handbook, intended for school social workers and related services personnel in Iowa who work with behavior disordered students, consists of 21 papers organized into four sections. The first section provides an orientation to behavior disorders in two papers: "Behavioral Disorders in Iowa--An Overview" (Carl R. Smith and Jeff Grimes); and…

  4. Social Behavior and Cortisol Reactivity in Children with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hessl, David; Glaser, Bronwyn; Dyer-Friedman, Jennifer; Reiss, Allan L.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (L-HPA) axis reactivity and social behavior in children with fragile X syndrome (FXS). Method: Salivary cortisol changes and concurrent anxiety-related behaviors consistent with the behavioral phenotype of FXS were measured in 90 children with the fragile X full…

  5. The Relationship between Neighborhood Characteristics and Effective Parenting Behaviors: The Role of Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrnes, Hilary F.; Miller, Brenda A.

    2012-01-01

    Neighborhood characteristics have been linked to healthy behavior, including effective parenting behaviors. This may be partially explained through the neighborhood's relation to parents' access to social support from friends and family. The current study examined associations of neighborhood characteristics with parenting behaviors indirectly…

  6. Exploring the Connections between Caring and Social Behaviors in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gano-Overway, Lori A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored the relationship between the caring climate, empathy, prosocial behaviors, and antisocial behaviors, like bullying, in physical education, plus investigated whether empathy mediated the possible relationships between caring and social behaviors for boys and girls. Method: Middle school physical education students…

  7. Intrinsic Functional Connectivity in Salience and Default Mode Networks and Aberrant Social Processes in Youth at Ultra-High Risk for Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Pelletier-Baldelli, Andrea; Bernard, Jessica A.; Mittal, Vijay A.

    2015-01-01

    Social processes are key to navigating the world, and investigating their underlying mechanisms and cognitive architecture can aid in understanding disease states such as schizophrenia, where social processes are highly impacted. Evidence suggests that social processes are impaired in individuals at ultra high-risk for the development of psychosis (UHR). Understanding these phenomena in UHR youth may clarify disease etiology and social processes in a period that is characterized by significantly fewer confounds than schizophrenia. Furthermore, understanding social processing deficits in this population will help explain these processes in healthy individuals. The current study examined resting state connectivity of the salience (SN) and default mode networks (DMN) in association with facial emotion recognition (FER), an integral aspect of social processes, as well as broader social functioning (SF) in UHR individuals and healthy controls. Consistent with the existing literature, UHR youth were impaired in FER and SF when compared with controls. In the UHR group, we found increased connectivity between the SN and the medial prefrontal cortex, an area of the DMN relative to controls. In UHR youth, the DMN exhibited both positive and negative correlations with the somatosensory cortex/cerebellum and precuneus, respectively, which was linked with better FER performance. For SF, results showed that sensory processing links with the SN might be important in allowing for better SF for both groups, but especially in controls where sensory processing is likely to be unimpaired. These findings clarify how social processing deficits may manifest in psychosis, and underscore the importance of SN and DMN connectivity for social processing more generally. PMID:26252525

  8. Does caregiver's social bonding enhance the health of their children?: the association between social capital and child behaviors.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Takao, Soshi; Iwase, Toshihide; Hamada, Jun; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the association between social capital and child behaviors. This study aims to investigate that association. A complete population-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted for all the caregivers with preschool children in a rural town in Okayama prefecture in Japan. Two dimensions of individual-level social capital and unhealthy child behaviors were reported by parent-administered questionnaire. We analyzed 354 preschool children (57.6% of all children for whom questionnaires were completed). Children whose main caregiver had high cognitive social capital were 89% less likely to miss breakfast (odds ratio [OR]=0.11;95% confidence interval [CI]:0.01-1.03). Children whose caregiver had high structural social capital were 71% less likely to wake up late (OR=0.29;95% CI:0.12-0.71) and 78% less likely to skip tooth brushing more than once per day (OR=0.22;95% CI:0.05-0.93). Both cognitive and structural social capital were negatively associated with unhealthy child behaviors. A further intervention study is needed to confirm the impact of social capital on child behavior. PMID:22918207

  9. The effect of negative experiences on delinquent behavior of youth in a social withdrawal situation.

    PubMed

    Chan, Gloria Hongyee; Lo, T Wing

    2016-07-01

    This study examines the relationship between negative experiences, negative emotions, and delinquent behavior among young people in a social withdrawal situation. There were 533 participants in this study and various quantitative analyses were utilized. Results showed that participants with a longer period of social withdrawal were generally less affected by negative experiences, while those with a higher level of social withdrawal were more affected by negative experiences, particularly negative relationships with other people. Also, both negative emotions and higher level of social withdrawal mediated the relationship between negative experiences and involvement in delinquent behavior, with negative emotions displaying a higher mediating effect. This reflects that the root of delinquent behavior is the negative experiences which arouse negative emotions, rather than the social withdrawal behavior itself. Results imply that practitioners should first explore the negative experiences suffered by these young people, so as to provide them the most appropriate support. PMID:27232102

  10. Little behaviors with big impacts: Exploring the sense of community surrounding socially conscious consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devincenzo, Marie E. Hafey

    The thesis is a study of socially conscious consumption practices and the meanings those behaviors have for consumers who participate in them. Psychological sense of community was used as the theoretical grounding for the study because it provided a way to examine socially conscious behaviors not solely as the behaviors of individuals but as behaviors within a social context with social meaning. Data were collected in two phases. First, a written, projective instrument compared cultural perceptions of various types of socially conscious consumption practices. Then, in-depth interviews were conducted to collect consumption narratives from participants and nonparticipants in a wind energy program called Blue Sky. The interviews were analyzed using a hermeneutical approach. The findings identified a new type of consumption community not recognized in prior literature: the principle based consumption community.

  11. Mindful parenting decreases aggression and increases social behavior in children with developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nirbhay N; Lancioni, Giulio E; Winton, Alan S W; Singh, Judy; Curtis, W John; Wahler, Robert G; McAleavey, Kristen M

    2007-11-01

    Research shows that after training in the philosophy and practice of mindfulness, parents can mindfully attend to the challenging behaviors of their children with autism. Parents also report an increased satisfaction with their parenting skills and social interactions with their children. These findings were replicated and extended with 4 parents of children who had developmental disabilities, exhibited aggressive behavior, and had limited social skills. After mindfulness training, the parents were able to decrease aggressive behavior and increase their children's social skills. They also reported a greater practice of mindfulness, increased satisfaction with their parenting, more social interactions with their children, and lower parenting stress. Furthermore, the children showed increased positive and decreased negative social interactions with their siblings. We speculate that mindfulness produces transformational change in the parents that is reflected in enhanced positive behavioral transactions with their children. PMID:17932234

  12. Effects of social conditions during adolescence on courtship and aggressive behavior are not abolished by adult social experience.

    PubMed

    Ruploh, Tim; Henning, Miriam; Bischof, Hans-Joachim; von Engelhardt, Nikolaus

    2015-01-01

    Social experience during adolescence has long-lasting consequences for adult social behavior in many species. In zebra finches, individuals reared in pairs during adolescence start to court females faster, sing more courtship motifs to females and are more aggressive compared with group-reared males. We investigated whether such differences are stable during adulthood or can be abolished by novel social experience after adolescence by giving all birds extensive experience with group life during adulthood. Courtship and aggressiveness increased in all males, but pair-reared males still had a higher motif rate and were more aggressive than group-reared males. Males no longer differed in courtship latency. In addition to the stable treatment differences, individual differences in behavior remained stable over time. Our results show that differences in behavior acquired during adolescence are preserved into adulthood, although adults still change their social behavior. Adolescence can thus be seen as a sensitive period during which social conditions have a lasting effect on adult behavior. PMID:25545997

  13. HIV-related Social Intolerance and Risky Sexual Behavior in a High HIV Prevalence Environment

    PubMed Central

    Delavande, Adeline; Sampaio, Mafalda

    2014-01-01

    Although most countries state that fighting social intolerance against persons with HIV is part of their national HIV strategy, the impact of reducing intolerance on risky sexual behavior is largely unknown. In this paper, we estimate the effect of social intolerance against HIV+ persons on risky sexual behavior in rural Malawi using data from roughly 2,000 respondents from the 2004 and 2006 waves of the Malawi Longitudional Study of Families and Health (MLSFH). The effect of social intolerance on risky behavior is a priori ambiguous. On the one hand, higher social intolerance or stigma can lead people to disassociate from the stigmatized group and hence promote risky behavior. On the other hand, intolerance can be viewed as a social tax on being HIV+ and thus higher intolerance may reduce risky behavior. We find that a decrease in social intolerance is associated with a decrease in risky behavior, including fewer partners and a lower likelihood of having extra-marital relations. This effect is mainly driven by the impact of social intolerance on men. Overall the results suggests that reducing social intolerance might not only benefit the HIV positive but might also forestall the spread of HIV. PMID:24768779

  14. Optogenetic insights on the relationship between anxiety-related behaviors and social deficits

    PubMed Central

    Allsop, Stephen A.; Vander Weele, Caitlin M.; Wichmann, Romy; Tye, Kay M.

    2014-01-01

    Many psychiatric illnesses are characterized by deficits in the social domain. For example, there is a high rate of co-morbidity between autism spectrum disorders and anxiety disorders. However, the common neural circuit mechanisms by which social deficits and other psychiatric disease states, such as anxiety, are co-expressed remains unclear. Here, we review optogenetic investigations of neural circuits in animal models of anxiety-related behaviors and social behaviors and discuss the important role of the amygdala in mediating aspects of these behaviors. In particular, we focus on recent evidence that projections from the basolateral amygdala (BLA) to the ventral hippocampus (vHPC) modulate anxiety-related behaviors and also alter social interaction. Understanding how this circuit influences both social behavior and anxiety may provide a mechanistic explanation for the pathogenesis of social anxiety disorder, as well as the prevalence of patients co-diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders and anxiety disorders. Furthermore, elucidating how circuits that modulate social behavior also mediate other complex emotional states will lead to a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms by which social deficits are expressed in psychiatric disease. PMID:25076878

  15. The vasopressin 1b receptor and the neural regulation of social behavior.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Erica L; Caldwell, Heather K

    2012-03-01

    To date, much of the work in rodents implicating vasopressin (Avp) in the regulation of social behavior has focused on its action via the Avp 1a receptor (Avpr1a). However, there is mounting evidence that the Avp 1b receptor (Avpr1b) also plays a significant role in Avp's modulation of social behavior. The Avpr1b is heavily expressed on the anterior pituitary cortiocotrophs where it acts as an important modulator of the endocrine stress response. In the brain, the Avpr1b is prominent in the CA2 region of the hippocampus, but can also be found in areas such as the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and the olfactory bulb. Studies that have employed genetic knockouts or pharmacological manipulation of the Avpr1b point to the importance of central Avpr1b in the modulation of social behavior. However, there continues to be a knowledge gap in our understanding of where in the brain this is occurring, as well as how and if the central actions of Avp acting via the Avpr1b interact with the stress axis. In this review we focus on the genetic and pharmacological studies that have implicated the Avpr1b in the neural regulation of social behaviors, including social forms of aggressive behavior, social memory, and social motivation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Oxytocin, Vasopressin, and Social Behavior. PMID:22178035

  16. Group compositional changes impact the social and feeding behaviors of captive hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas).

    PubMed

    Ryan, Amy M; Hauber, Mark E

    2016-01-01

    The formation and modification of social groups in captivity are delicate management tasks. The ability for personnel to anticipate changes in group dynamics following compositional changes can increase the likelihood of successful management with minimized injury or social instability. Hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas) have a distinctive multi-level social system comprising of one-male units (OMUs) that can make it difficult to apply knowledge from other primates' multi-female/multi-male social structure to changes imposed onto captive hamadryas baboon groups. We conducted an observational study of the behavioral impacts following the introduction of two females into the group of hamadryas baboons at the Wildlife Conservation Society's Prospect Park Zoo in NY to test hypotheses about the relationships between changes in group composition and social and feeding behavior. Generalized linear mixed models demonstrated that social interactions significantly increased following the compositional changes, even in groups that only experienced member removals. The increase in affiliative social behavior observed suggests that during times of social stress or uncertainty, hamadryas baboons may employ social behavior as a tension-reducing mechanism to negotiate relationships as opposed to using aggression to engage in competitions for ranks and resources. The observed response to compositional changes implies that hamadryas baboons may respond with less aggression than do other Old World monkey species and that levels of affiliative behavior may be a more accurate metric for evaluating introduction success in hamadryas baboons. PMID:26828857

  17. Genetic Isolation of Hypothalamic Neurons that Regulate Context-Specific Male Social Behavior.

    PubMed

    Soden, Marta E; Miller, Samara M; Burgeno, Lauren M; Phillips, Paul E M; Hnasko, Thomas S; Zweifel, Larry S

    2016-07-12

    Nearly all animals engage in a complex assortment of social behaviors that are essential for the survival of the species. In mammals, these behaviors are regulated by sub-nuclei within the hypothalamus, but the specific cell types within these nuclei responsible for coordinating behavior in distinct contexts are only beginning to be resolved. Here, we identify a population of neurons in the ventral premammillary nucleus of the hypothalamus (PMV) that are strongly activated in male intruder mice in response to a larger resident male but that are not responsive to females. Using a combination of molecular and genetic approaches, we demonstrate that these PMV neurons regulate intruder-specific male social behavior and social novelty recognition in a manner dependent on synaptic release of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate. These data provide direct evidence for a unique population of neurons that regulate social behaviors in specific contexts. PMID:27346361

  18. Excluded and behaving unethically: social exclusion, physiological responses, and unethical behavior.

    PubMed

    Kouchaki, Maryam; Wareham, Justin

    2015-03-01

    Across 2 studies, we investigated the ethical consequences of physiological responses to social exclusion. In Study 1, participants who were socially excluded were more likely to engage in unethical behavior to make money and the level of physiological arousal experienced during exclusion--measured using galvanic skin response--mediated the effects of exclusion on unethical behavior. Likewise, in Study 2, results from a sample of supervisor-subordinate dyads revealed a positive relationship between experience of workplace ostracism and unethical behaviors as rated by the immediate supervisors. This relationship was mediated by employees' reports of experienced physiological arousal. Together, the results of these studies demonstrate that physiological arousal accompanies social exclusion and provides an explanatory mechanism for the increased unethical behavior in both samples. Theoretical implications of these findings for research on ethical behavior and social exclusion in the workplace are discussed. PMID:25314369

  19. Effects of a Modified Milieu Therapy Intervention on the Social Communicative Behaviors of Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancil, G. Richmond; Conroy, Maureen A.; Haydon, Todd F.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of combining milieu therapy and functional communication training (FCT) to replace aberrant behavior with functional communicative skills in 3 male preschool or elementary aged children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Study activities were conducted in the natural…

  20. Effects of moderate prenatal ethanol exposure and age on social behavior, spatial response perseveration errors and motor behavior.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Derek A; Barto, Daniel; Rodriguez, Carlos I; Magcalas, Christy M; Fink, Brandi C; Rice, James P; Bird, Clark W; Davies, Suzy; Savage, Daniel D

    2014-08-01

    Persistent deficits in social behavior are among the major negative consequences associated with exposure to ethanol during prenatal development. Prior work from our laboratory has linked deficits in social behavior following moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in the rat to functional alterations in the ventrolateral frontal cortex [21]. In addition to social behaviors, the regions comprising the ventrolateral frontal cortex are critical for diverse processes ranging from orofacial motor movements to flexible alteration of behavior in the face of changing consequences. The broader behavioral implications of altered ventrolateral frontal cortex function following moderate PAE have, however, not been examined. In the present study we evaluated the consequences of moderate PAE on social behavior, tongue protrusion, and flexibility in a variant of the Morris water task that required modification of a well-established spatial response. PAE rats displayed deficits in tongue protrusion, reduced flexibility in the spatial domain, increased wrestling, and decreased investigation, indicating that several behaviors associated with ventrolateral frontal cortex function are impaired following moderate PAE. A linear discriminant analysis revealed that measures of wrestling and tongue protrusion provided the best discrimination of PAE rats from saccharin-exposed control rats. We also evaluated all behaviors in young adult (4-5 months) or older (10-11 months) rats to address the persistence of behavioral deficits in adulthood and possible interactions between early ethanol exposure and advancing age. Behavioral deficits in each domain persisted well into adulthood (10-11 months), however, there was no evidence that aging enhances the effects of moderate PAE within the age ranges that were studied. PMID:24769174