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Sample records for aberration ca test

  1. Chromatic aberration measurement for transmission interferometric testing.

    PubMed

    Seong, Kibyung; Greivenkamp, John E

    2008-12-10

    A method of chromatic aberration measurement is described based on the transmitted wavefront of an optical element obtained from a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The chromatic aberration is derived from transmitted wavefronts measured at five different wavelengths. Reverse ray tracing is used to remove induced aberrations associated with the interferometer from the measurement. In the interferometer, the wavefront transmitted through the sample is tested against a plano reference, allowing for the absolute determination of the wavefront radius of curvature. The chromatic aberrations of a singlet and a doublet have been measured.

  2. Modified Matching Ronchi Test to Visualize Lens Aberrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassani, Kh; Ziafi, H. Hooshmand

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a modification to the matching Ronchi test to visualize lens aberrations with simple and inexpensive equipment available in educational optics labs. This method can help instructors and students to observe and estimate lens aberrations in real time. It is also a semi-quantitative tool for primary tests in research labs. In this work…

  3. Chromosome aberration test for hydroxyapatite in sheep.

    PubMed

    Kannan, T P; Nik Ahmad Shah, N L; Azlina, A; Samsudin, A R; Narazah, M Y; Salleh, Ma'arof

    2004-05-01

    The present study is aimed at finding the mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of dense form of synthetic hydroxyapatite (Source: School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia) in the blood of sheep. The biomaterial was implanted in the tibia of Malin, an indigenous sheep breed of Malaysia. Blood was collected from the sheep before implantation of the biomaterial, cultured and a karyological study was made. Six weeks after implantation, blood was collected from the same animal, cultured and screened for chromosome aberrations. The mitotic indices and karyological analysis indicated that the implantation of synthetic hydroxyapatite (dense form) did not produce any cytotoxicity or chromosome aberrations in the blood of sheep.

  4. Modified matching Ronchi test to visualize lens aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassani, Kh; Hooshmand Ziafi, H.

    2011-09-01

    We introduce a modification to the matching Ronchi test to visualize lens aberrations with simple and inexpensive equipment available in educational optics labs. This method can help instructors and students to observe and estimate lens aberrations in real time. It is also a semi-quantitative tool for primary tests in research labs. In this work by comparing a single lens with a doublet, we can clearly demonstrate the superior quality of the doublet over the single lens, and estimate their conic constants.

  5. CA-125 blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... above 35 U/mL is considered abnormal. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some ... 125 usually does not mean ovarian cancer is present. Most healthy women with an elevated CA-125 ...

  6. Chromosome aberration assays in genetic toxicology testing in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ishidate, M; Miura, K F; Sofuni, T

    1998-08-03

    The chromosome aberration test using cultured mammalian cells is one of the sensitive methods to predict environmental mutagens and/or carcinogens, and is a complementary test to the Salmonella/microsome assay (Ames test). From our recent survey of 951 chemicals which have been tested for their clastogenicity in cultured mammalian cells such as Chinese hamster fibroblasts or human lymphocytes, it was noted that 47% of them are consistently positive either with or without metabolic activation. When the test was performed using the cell line CHL/IU, 39.2% (292/745) were found to be positive. However, 8% (36/447) of such clastogens were positive only at an extremely high concentration of more than 10 mM. About 11% (48/447) of clastogens such as diethylstilbestrol (DES) and methyl AalphaC (Glob-P-1) induced mainly polyploid cells. Most chemicals induced chromatid-type aberrations, some induce only break-type aberrations at relatively high dose levels, but others induce more exchange-type aberrations at relatively low dose levels. Clastogenic activities were compared among different clastogens, using the D20 value, which is the minimum dose (mg/ml) at which aberrations were found in 20% of metaphases. In addition, the translocation (TR) value was calculated from the incidence of cells with exchange-type aberrations. It was suggested that possible carcinogens are included in the group of compounds with relatively low D20 values, but with high TR values. Karyological analysis was performed, using a FISH painting probe prepared from No. 1 chromosome of CHO cells, on the clonal subline isolated after treatment with benzo(a)pyrene. However, no specific changes common to the agent were detected. Laser scanning cytometry (LSC) was also applied to screen for abnormal karyotypes. A translocation between particular chromosomes was reflected by the deletion of a DNA peak.

  7. In vivo chromosome aberration test for hydroxyapetite in mice.

    PubMed

    Kannan, T P; Nik Ahmad Shah, N L; Azlina, A; Samsudin, A R; Narazah, M Y; Salleh, Ma'arof

    2004-05-01

    This study evaluates the cytotoxic and mutagenic effect of synthetic hydroxyapatite granules (source: School of Material and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia) in the bone marrow cells of mice. Mice are exposed to synthetic hydroxyapatite granules, the bone marrow cells are collected and observed for chromosome aberrations. No chromosome aberrations were noticed in the animals exposed to distilled water (negative control) and to the test substance, synthetic hydroxyapatite granules (treatment) groups. Chromosome aberrations were observed in the animals exposed to Mitomycin C (positive control group). There was no indication of cytotoxicity due to synthetic hydroxyapatite granules in the animals as revealed by the mitotic index. Hence, synthetic hydroxyapatite granules are considered non-mutagenic under the prevailing test conditions.

  8. Lanthanum nitrate genotoxicity evaluation: Ames test, mouse micronucleus assay, and chromosome aberration test.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Liu, Haibo; Cui, Wenming; Zhang, Qiannan; Li, Yongning; Yu, Zhou; Jia, Xudong

    2016-11-01

    The increasing use of rare-earth elements (REE) and their compounds has led to their accumulation in the environment and has raised concern about their safety. The toxic effects of REE such as lanthanum are largely unknown; genotoxicity studies have been limited and results are controversial. We evaluated the genotoxicity of lanthanum nitrate (La(NO3)3) in several in vitro and in vivo tests, including bacterial reverse mutation assay (Ames test), mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay, and chromosome aberration assay. La(NO3)3 was not mutagenic in the Ames test. La(NO3)3 did not increase the frequencies of bone marrow micronuclei or chromosome aberration in the mouse after repeated treatments at oral doses up to 735 (females) and 855mg/kg (males). The compound did not increase the frequency of chromosome aberrations in CHO cells in vitro. These results indicate that lanthanum is not a genotoxic hazard.

  9. Bayesian Procedures for Identifying Aberrant Response-Time Patterns in Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.; Guo, Fanmin

    2008-01-01

    In order to identify aberrant response-time patterns on educational and psychological tests, it is important to be able to separate the speed at which the test taker operates from the time the items require. A lognormal model for response times with this feature was used to derive a Bayesian procedure for detecting aberrant response times.…

  10. 10. "TEST STAND 15, AIR FORCE FLIGHT TEST CENTER." ca. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. "TEST STAND 1-5, AIR FORCE FLIGHT TEST CENTER." ca. 1958. Test Area 1-115. Original is a color print, showing Test Stand 1-5 from below, also showing the superstructure of TS1-4 at left. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Leuhman Ridge near Highways 58 & 395, Boron, Kern County, CA

  11. Redox modification of ryanodine receptors by mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species contributes to aberrant Ca2+ handling in ageing rabbit hearts.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Leroy L; Li, Weiyan; Lu, Yichun; Centracchio, Jason; Terentyeva, Radmila; Koren, Gideon; Terentyev, Dmitry

    2013-12-01

    Ageing is associated with a blunted response to sympathetic stimulation and an increased risk of arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. Aberrant calcium (Ca(2+)) handling is an important contributor to the electrical and contractile dysfunction associated with ageing. Yet, the specific molecular mechanisms underlying abnormal Ca(2+) handling in ageing heart remain poorly understood. In this study, we used ventricular myocytes isolated from young (5-9 months) and old (4-6 years) rabbit hearts to test the hypothesis that changes in Ca(2+) homeostasis are caused by post-translational modification of ryanodine receptors (RyRs) by mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated in the ageing heart. Changes in parameters of Ca(2+) handling were determined by measuring cytosolic and intra-sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) dynamics in intact and permeabilized ventricular myocytes using confocal microscopy. We also measured age-related changes in ROS production and mitochondria membrane potential using a ROS-sensitive dye and a mitochondrial voltage-sensitive fluorescent indicator, respectively. In permeablized myocytes, ageing did not change SERCA activity and spark frequency but decreased spark amplitude and SR Ca(2+) load suggesting increased RyR activity. Treatment with the antioxidant dithiothreitol reduced RyR-mediated SR Ca(2+) leak in permeabilized myocytes from old rabbit hearts to the level comparable to young. Moreover, myocytes from old rabbits had more depolarized mitochondria membrane potential and increased rate of ROS production. Under β-adrenergic stimulation, Ca(2+) transient amplitude, SR Ca(2+) load, and latency of pro-arrhythmic spontaneous Ca(2+) waves (SCWs) were decreased while RyR-mediated SR Ca(2+) leak was increased in cardiomyocytes from old rabbits. Additionally, with β-adrenergic stimulation, scavenging of mitochondrial ROS in myocytes from old rabbit hearts restored redox status of RyRs, which reduced SR Ca(2+) leak, ablated most

  12. Structural and numerical chromosome aberration inducers in liver micronucleus test in rats with partial hepatectomy.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Satoru; Hattori, Chiharu; Nagata, Mayumi; Sanbuissho, Atsushi

    2012-08-30

    The liver micronucleus test is an important method to detect pro-mutagens such as active metabolites not reaching bone marrow due to their short lifespan. We have already reported that dosing of the test compound after partial hepatectomy (PH) is essential to detect genotoxicity of numerical chromosome aberration inducers in mice [Mutat. Res. 632 (2007) 89-98]. In naive animals, the proportion of binucleated cells in rats is less than half of that in mice, which suggests a species difference in the response to chromosome aberration inducers. In the present study, we investigated the responses to structural and numerical chromosome aberration inducers in the rat liver micronucleus test. Two structural chromosome aberretion inducers (diethylnitrosamine and 1,2-dimethylhydrazine) and two numerical chromosome aberration inducers (colchicine and carbendazim) were used in the present study. PH was performed a day before or after the dosing of the test compound in 8-week old male F344 rats and hepatocytes were isolated 4 days after the PH. As a result, diethylnitrosamine and 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, structural chromosome aberration inducers, exhibited significant increase in the incidence of micronucleated hepatocyte (MNH) when given either before and after PH. Colchicine and carbendazim, numerical chromosome aberration inducers, did not result in any toxicologically significant increase in MNH frequency when given before PH, while they exhibited MNH induction when given after PH. It is confirmed that dosing after PH is essential in order to detect genotoxicity of numerical chromosome aberration inducers in rats as well as in mice. Regarding the species difference, a different temporal response to colchicine was identified. Colchicine increased the incidence of MNH 4 days after PH in rats, although such induction in mice was observed 8-10 days after PH.

  13. Testing for Aberrant Behavior in Response Time Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marianti, Sukaesi; Fox, Jean-Paul; Avetisyan, Marianna; Veldkamp, Bernard P.; Tijmstra, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Many standardized tests are now administered via computer rather than paper-and-pencil format. In a computer-based testing environment, it is possible to record not only the test taker's response to each question (item) but also the amount of time spent by the test taker in considering and answering each item. Response times (RTs) provide…

  14. STIM1 elevation in the heart results in aberrant Ca2+ handling and cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Correll, Robert N.; Goonasekera, Sanjeewa A.; van Berlo, Jop H.; Burr, Adam R.; Accornero, Federica; Zhang, Hongyu; Makarewich, Catherine A.; York, Allen J.; Sargent, Michelle A.; Chen, Xiongwen; Houser, Steven R.; Molkentin, Jeffery D.

    2015-01-01

    Stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) is a Ca2+ sensor that partners with Orai1 to elicit Ca2+ entry in response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ store depletion. While store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) is important for maintaining ER Ca2+ homeostasis in non-excitable cells, it is unclear what role it plays in the heart, although STIM1 is expressed in the heart and upregulated during disease. Here we analyzed transgenic mice with STIM1 overexpression in the heart to model the known increase of this protein in response to disease. As expected, STIM1 transgenic myocytes showed enhanced Ca2+ entry following store depletion and partial co-localization with the type 2 ryanodine receptor (RyR2) within the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), as well as enrichment around the sarcolemma. STIM1 transgenic mice exhibited sudden cardiac death as early as 6 weeks of age, while mice surviving past 12 weeks of age developed heart failure with hypertrophy, induction of the fetal gene program, histopathology and mitochondrial structural alterations, loss of ventricular functional performance and pulmonary edema. Younger, pre-symptomatic STIM1 transgenic mice exhibited enhanced pathology following pressure overload stimulation or neurohumoral agonist infusion, compared to controls. Mechanistically, cardiac myocytes isolated from STIM1 transgenic mice displayed spontaneous Ca2+ transients that were prevented by the SOCE blocker SKF-96365, increased L-type Ca2+ channel (LTCC) current, and enhanced Ca2+ spark frequency. Moreover, adult cardiac myocytes from STIM1 transgenic mice showed both increased diastolic Ca2+ and maximal transient amplitude but no increase in total SR Ca2+ load. Associated with this enhanced Ca2+ profile was an increase in cardiac nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) activity. We conclude that STIM1 has an unexpected function in the heart where it alters communication between the sarcolemma and SR resulting in

  15. 40 CFR 799.9537 - TSCA in vitro mammalian chromosome aberration test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... chromosome aberration test may employ cultures of established cell lines, cell strains or primary cell cultures. The cells used are selected on the basis of growth ability in culture, stability of the karyotype... other than direct DNA damage. (e) Principle of the test method. Cell cultures are exposed to the...

  16. 40 CFR 799.9537 - TSCA in vitro mammalian chromosome aberration test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... chromosome aberration test may employ cultures of established cell lines, cell strains or primary cell cultures. The cells used are selected on the basis of growth ability in culture, stability of the karyotype... other than direct DNA damage. (e) Principle of the test method. Cell cultures are exposed to the...

  17. 40 CFR 799.9537 - TSCA in vitro mammalian chromosome aberration test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... chromosome aberration test may employ cultures of established cell lines, cell strains or primary cell cultures. The cells used are selected on the basis of growth ability in culture, stability of the karyotype... other than direct DNA damage. (e) Principle of the test method. Cell cultures are exposed to the...

  18. 40 CFR 799.9537 - TSCA in vitro mammalian chromosome aberration test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... chromosome aberration test may employ cultures of established cell lines, cell strains or primary cell cultures. The cells used are selected on the basis of growth ability in culture, stability of the karyotype... other than direct DNA damage. (e) Principle of the test method. Cell cultures are exposed to the...

  19. Decreased RyR2 refractoriness determines myocardial synchronization of aberrant Ca2+ release in a genetic model of arrhythmia.

    PubMed

    Brunello, Lucia; Slabaugh, Jessica L; Radwanski, Przemyslaw B; Ho, Hsiang-Ting; Belevych, Andriy E; Lou, Qing; Chen, Haiyan; Napolitano, Carlo; Lodola, Francesco; Priori, Silvia G; Fedorov, Vadim V; Volpe, Pompeo; Fill, Michael; Janssen, Paul M L; Györke, Sándor

    2013-06-18

    Dysregulated intracellular Ca(2+) signaling is implicated in a variety of cardiac arrhythmias, including catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. Spontaneous diastolic Ca(2+) release (DCR) can induce arrhythmogenic plasma membrane depolarizations, although the mechanism responsible for DCR synchronization among adjacent myocytes required for ectopic activity remains unclear. We investigated the synchronization mechanism(s) of DCR underlying untimely action potentials and diastolic contractions (DCs) in a catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia mouse model with a mutation in cardiac calsequestrin. We used a combination of different approaches including single ryanodine receptor channel recording, optical imaging (Ca(2+) and membrane potential), and contractile force measurements in ventricular myocytes and intact cardiac muscles. We demonstrate that DCR occurs in a temporally and spatially uniform manner in both myocytes and intact myocardial tissue isolated from cardiac calsequestrin mutation mice. Such synchronized DCR events give rise to triggered electrical activity that results in synchronous DCs in the myocardium. Importantly, we establish that synchronization of DCR is a result of a combination of abbreviated ryanodine receptor channel refractoriness and the preceding synchronous stimulated Ca(2+) release/reuptake dynamics. Our study reveals how aberrant DCR events can become synchronized in the intact myocardium, leading to triggered activity and the resultant DCs in the settings of a cardiac rhythm disorder.

  20. Decreased RyR2 refractoriness determines myocardial synchronization of aberrant Ca2+ release in a genetic model of arrhythmia

    PubMed Central

    Brunello, Lucia; Slabaugh, Jessica L.; Radwański, Przemysław B.; Ho, Hsiang-Ting; Belevych, Andriy E.; Lou, Qing; Chen, Haiyan; Napolitano, Carlo; Lodola, Francesco; Priori, Silvia G.; Fedorov, Vadim V.; Volpe, Pompeo; Fill, Michael; Janssen, Paul M. L.; Györke, Sándor

    2013-01-01

    Dysregulated intracellular Ca2+ signaling is implicated in a variety of cardiac arrhythmias, including catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. Spontaneous diastolic Ca2+ release (DCR) can induce arrhythmogenic plasma membrane depolarizations, although the mechanism responsible for DCR synchronization among adjacent myocytes required for ectopic activity remains unclear. We investigated the synchronization mechanism(s) of DCR underlying untimely action potentials and diastolic contractions (DCs) in a catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia mouse model with a mutation in cardiac calsequestrin. We used a combination of different approaches including single ryanodine receptor channel recording, optical imaging (Ca2+ and membrane potential), and contractile force measurements in ventricular myocytes and intact cardiac muscles. We demonstrate that DCR occurs in a temporally and spatially uniform manner in both myocytes and intact myocardial tissue isolated from cardiac calsequestrin mutation mice. Such synchronized DCR events give rise to triggered electrical activity that results in synchronous DCs in the myocardium. Importantly, we establish that synchronization of DCR is a result of a combination of abbreviated ryanodine receptor channel refractoriness and the preceding synchronous stimulated Ca2+ release/reuptake dynamics. Our study reveals how aberrant DCR events can become synchronized in the intact myocardium, leading to triggered activity and the resultant DCs in the settings of a cardiac rhythm disorder. PMID:23733959

  1. Variable aberration generator using a high-order even aspheric singlet for testing optical surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jinfeng; Chen, Shanyong; Xue, Shuai

    2016-10-01

    Traditional null optics is generally designed for a particular optical surface. It must be redesigned when the test surface is changed no matter the null optic is reflective, transmitted or a CGH. Development of advanced optical machining and testing based on deterministic figuring and null test makes it possible to apply high-order aspheres. This paper presents a plano-concave singlet to realize variable aberration correction for testing different surfaces. The concave surface is an even asphere with high-order terms. By changing the axial distances among the transmission sphere, the null singlet and the test surface, variable aberrations are generated to meet the aberration balance requirement for various surfaces. The residual aberrations are confirmed within the vertical dynamic range of measurement of the interferometer. It enables flexible testing of optical surfaces without dedicated null optics. The optical design verifies that the aspheric singlet can be used to test conic surfaces with different conic constant and radius of curvature ranging from ellipsoid, paraboloid to hyperboloid and an even asphere.

  2. Cryogenic Pupil Alignment Test Architecture for Aberrated Pupil Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bos, Brent; Kubalak, David A.; Antonille, Scott; Ohl, Raymond; Hagopian, John G.

    2009-01-01

    A document describes cryogenic test architecture for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) integrated science instrument module (ISIM). The ISIM element primarily consists of a mechanical metering structure, three science instruments, and a fine guidance sensor. One of the critical optomechanical alignments is the co-registration of the optical telescope element (OTE) exit pupil with the entrance pupils of the ISIM instruments. The test architecture has been developed to verify that the ISIM element will be properly aligned with the nominal OTE exit pupil when the two elements come together. The architecture measures three of the most critical pupil degrees-of-freedom during optical testing of the ISIM element. The pupil measurement scheme makes use of specularly reflective pupil alignment references located inside the JWST instruments, ground support equipment that contains a pupil imaging module, an OTE simulator, and pupil viewing channels in two of the JWST flight instruments. Pupil alignment references (PARs) are introduced into the instrument, and their reflections are checked using the instrument's mirrors. After the pupil imaging module (PIM) captures a reflected PAR image, the image will be analyzed to determine the relative alignment offset. The instrument pupil alignment preferences are specularly reflective mirrors with non-reflective fiducials, which makes the test architecture feasible. The instrument channels have fairly large fields of view, allowing PAR tip/tilt tolerances on the order of 0.5deg.

  3. Contribution of MLPA to routine diagnostic testing of recurrent genomic aberrations in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Véronèse, Lauren; Tournilhac, Olivier; Combes, Patricia; Prie, Nolwen; Pierre-Eymard, Eléonore; Guièze, Romain; Veyrat-Masson, Richard; Bay, Jacques-Olivier; Vago, Philippe; Tchirkov, Andreï

    2013-01-01

    To better define the place of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) in routine cytogenetic diagnosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), we compared MLPA and fluorescence in situ hybridization (iFISH) data obtained in 77 CLL patients. Although MLPA detected most recurrent copy number genomic aberrations (90.9%), false-negative results were found in cases with small-size abnormal clones and false-positive MLPA findings resulting from point mutations (TP53) or an apparent lack of probe specificity (chromosome 19) were observed. Thus, MLPA may be a useful complementary but not alternative approach for iFISH testing of genomic aberration in CLL.

  4. Aberration Corrected Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy of (Ca , Sr)Fe2O5 Brownmillerite superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Debangshu; Stone, Greg; Moon, Eun Ju; Young, Joshua; Gopalan, Venkatraman; Rondinelli, James; May, Steven; Alem, Nasim

    The brownmillerite phase A2B2O5 consists of ordered oxygen vacancies in alternate perovskite layers forming chiral tetrahedral chains. The handedness of these tetrahedral chains control the polarization of the structure. The current study focuses on 1-1 brownmillerite superlattices grown on a SrTiO3 substrates using molecular beam epitaxy. The B-site in this structure is iron throughout the superlattice film, while the A-site alternates between calcium and strontium in the superlattice layers. In this study, we use atomic resolution aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) to investigate the structure and chemistry of the film-substrate interface as well as the chemical structure of the superlattice. Atom positions are determined to measure displacement vectors of A-site cations in the superlattice structure. D.M., G.A.S., V.G. and N.A. were supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. DMR-1420620. E.J.M. and S.J.M. were supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. DMR-1151649.

  5. Test Mass Temperature Field and Laser Aberration Modeling in Advanced LIGO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramette, Joshua; Kasprzack, Marie; Gonzalez, Gabriela; Brooks, Aidan; Blair, Carl; Kandhasamy, Shivaraj; Wang, Haoyu; LIGO Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Advanced LIGO uses high laser power in the main interferometer arm cavities to achieve design sensitivity. A small part of this power is absorbed in the interferometer cavity mirrors where it creates thermal lenses. Actuation by ``ring heaters,'' additional heater elements aimed to reduce the temperature gradients in the mirrors, minimizes aberrations in the main laser beam due to thermal lensing. We derive the first analytical model of the temperature field contribution in the mirrors generated by an ideal ring heater. In addition, we simulate the test mass temperature field using finite element analysis software and find agreement with the prediction of our ring heater analytical model and existing models for self-heating of the test mass by the main laser beam. From our ring heater temperature field models, we then express the resulting optical aberration contribution in the main laser and compare to Hartmann wavefront sensor measurements of the aberration. Used in conjunction with wavefront measurements, our model provides a more complete understanding of the thermal state of the cavity mirrors and will allow a more efficient use of the ring heaters in Advanced LIGO. We thank the National Science Foundation for supporting this work (NSF grant #1262890 and #1205882).

  6. Field applications of the piscine anaphase aberration test: lessons from the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed

    Hose, J E; Brown, E D

    1998-03-20

    Several large-scale genotoxicity assessments have been performed in coastal marine areas that have demonstrated either localized or widespread genetic effects resulting from human activity. One common assessment method is the anaphase aberration test, a measurement of abnormal chromosome division, using embryolarval fishes. It can be used to detect the presence of mutagens within a poorly characterized complex mixture or monitor specific genotoxins and is easily adapted for laboratory screening. One comprehensive marine genotoxicity assessment was conducted using Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) following the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) in Prince William Sound (PWS), AK in late March 1989. In early May, genetic damage was detected at many sites within the oil trajectory and was correlated with concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons characteristic of Exxon Valdez oil (EVO) in intertidal mussels. Effects were related spatially and temporally to oil exposure. Anaphase aberration rates decreased throughout May and June 1989, and by 1991, genotoxicity was undetectable. The abundance of the 1989 herring year class in PWS is significantly reduced; this is the first reported example linking genotoxicity to subsequent population level effects. This review describes the methodology for the anaphase aberration test using fish eggs, its applications for large-scale assessments and supportive laboratory studies, and its limitations for prediction of higher level effects on populations.

  7. F-T Jet Fuel Reverse Mutation Assay and Chromosome Aberration Test

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    2000). Many chemicals that result in mutagenic responses in the Salmonella assay have been found to be potentially mutagenic and carcinogenic to...range. At 25°C only 3.5 percent of its potency was lost after 24 hours (Gallelli, 1967). The solution was stored in aliquots at 15°C. Blood...clastogenic in this chromosome aberration test. 6.0 REFERENCES Ames, B.N., Durston, W.E., Yamasaki, E. and Lee, F.D. (1973) Carcinogens are

  8. Using aberration test patterns to optimize the performance of EUV aerial imaging microscopes

    SciTech Connect

    Mochi, Iacopo; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Miyakawa, Ryan; Naulleau, Patrick; Han, Hak-Seung; Huh, Sungmin

    2009-06-16

    The SEMATECH Berkeley Actinic Inspection Tool (AIT) is a prototype EUV-wavelength zoneplate microscope that provides high quality aerial image measurements of EUV reticles. To simplify and improve the alignment procedure we have created and tested arrays of aberration-sensitive patterns on EUV reticles and we have compared their images collected with the AIT to the expected shapes obtained by simulating the theoretical wavefront of the system. We obtained a consistent measure of coma and astigmatism in the center of the field of view using two different patterns, revealing a misalignment condition in the optics.

  9. Genotoxicity evaluation of dental restoration nanocomposite using comet assay and chromosome aberration test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musa, Marahaini; Thirumulu Ponnuraj, Kannan; Mohamad, Dasmawati; Rahman, Ismail Ab

    2013-01-01

    Nanocomposite is used as a dental filling to restore the affected tooth, especially in dental caries. The dental nanocomposite (KelFil) for tooth restoration used in this study was produced by the School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia and is incorporated with monodispersed, spherical nanosilica fillers. The aim of the study was to determine the genotoxic effect of KelFil using in vitro genotoxicity tests. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of KelFil was evaluated using MTT assay, comet assay and chromosome aberration tests with or without the addition of a metabolic activation system (S9 mix), using the human lung fibroblast cell line (MRC-5). Concurrent negative and positive controls were included. In the comet assay, no comet formation was found in the KelFil groups. There was a significant difference in tail moment between KelFil groups and positive control (p < 0.05). Similarly, no significant aberrations in chromosomes were noticed in KelFil groups. The mitotic indices of treatment groups and negative control were significantly different from positive controls. Hence, it can be concluded that the locally produced dental restoration nanocomposite (KelFil) is non-genotoxic under the present test conditions.

  10. Genotoxicity testing of wastewater sludge using the Allium cepa anaphase-telophase chromosome aberration assay.

    PubMed

    Rank, J; Nielsen, M H

    1998-10-12

    Wastewater sludges were analysed in the Allium cepa genotoxicity test. They were sampled during three winter periods from three Danish municipal wastewater treatment plants differing in size and industrial load. The toxicity of the sludge was tested in the Allium root inhibition assay, and the results expressed as EC30 and EC50 values showed that the toxicity could be positive correlated to the industrial load. However, when genotoxicity was tested at concentrations corresponding to the EC30 and EC50 values in the A. cepa anaphase-telophase assay, only two sludge samples from the smallest plant with the lowest industrial load induced significant chromosome aberrations. Concentrations of the heavy metal's Pb, Ni, Cr, Zn, Cu, and Cd were also determined and could partly be correlated with the toxicity of the sludge and the industrial load of the treatment plants.

  11. Testing highly aberrated large optics with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, Daniel R.; Pulaski, Paul; Raymond, Thomas D.; Neal, David A.; Wang, Quandou; Griesmann, Ulf

    2003-12-01

    We have adapted a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWFS) to the measurement of highly aberrated large optics. The experiment uses a concave mirror operating at the radius point with a small lens to re-collimate the light onto the wavefront sensor. It is used to test large (300 mm) fused silica wafers in double pass transmission. The optic under test is placed in the intermediate path near the large return mirror. The aberrations of the large mirror, beam splitter and other optics are subtracted by recording a reference set of focal spot on the SHWFS without the wafer. The wavefront error for some of these wafers is nearly 100 waves, yet we are able to make accurate measurements with the wavefront sensor by selecting a sensor with the appropriate combination of focal length and lenslet diameter. The special sensor that we developed uses a megapixel camera with an arrangement of 100 X 100 lenslets. This sensor could achieve several hundred waves of dynamic range with better than λ/20 accuracy. Additional wafer thickness measurements that were made at NIST with the XCALIBIR interferometer corroborate the SHWFS results.

  12. Aberration extraction in the hartmann test by use of spatial filters.

    PubMed

    Robledo-Sánchez, C; Camacho-Basilio, G; Jaramillo-Núñez, A; Gale, D

    1999-06-01

    Using a computer, we generated a set of filters to aid in the retrieval of aberration functions from Hartmanngrams. These filters consist of discrete two-dimensional data points, like the Hartmanngrams themselves, and are orthogonalized by the Gram-Schmidt procedure. The aberration coefficients are obtained by calculation of the scalar product of the Hartmanngram and each orthogonal filter.

  13. Recombinant Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Prevents Aberrant Ca2+ Leakage through the Ryanodine Receptor by Suppressing Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species Production Induced by Isoproterenol in Failing Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Susa, Takehisa; Nanno, Takuma; Ishiguchi, Hironori; Myoren, Takeki; Nishimura, Shigehiko; Kato, Takayoshi; Hino, Akihiro; Oda, Tetsuro; Okuda, Shinichi; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Yano, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    Catecholamines induce intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), thus enhancing diastolic Ca2+ leakage through the ryanodine receptor during heart failure (HF). However, little is known regarding the effect of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) on ROS generation and Ca2+ handling in failing cardiomyocytes. The aim of the present study was to clarify the mechanism by which an exogenous ANP exerts cardioprotective effects during HF. Cardiomyocytes were isolated from the left ventricles of a canine tachycardia-induced HF model and sham-operated vehicle controls. The degree of mitochondrial oxidized DNA was evaluated by double immunohistochemical (IHC) staining using an anti-VDAC antibody for the mitochondria and an anti-8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine antibody for oxidized DNA. The effect of ANP on ROS was investigated using 2,7-dichlorofluorescin diacetate, diastolic Ca2+ sparks assessed by confocal microscopy using Fluo 4-AM, and the survival rate of myocytes after 48 h. The double IHC study revealed that isoproterenol (ISO) markedly increased oxidized DNA in the mitochondria in HF and that the ISO-induced DNA damage was markedly inhibited by the co-presence of ANP. ROS production and Ca2+ spark frequency (CaSF) were increased in HF compared to normal controls, and were further increased in the presence of ISO. Notably, ANP significantly suppressed both ISO-induced ROS and CaSF without changing sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ content in HF (p<0.01, respectively). The survival rate after 48 h in HF was significantly decreased in the presence of ISO compared with baseline (p<0.01), whereas it was significantly improved by the co-presence of ANP (p<0.01). Together, our results suggest that ANP strongly suppresses ISO-induced mitochondrial ROS generation, which might correct aberrant diastolic Ca2+ sparks, eventually contributing to the improvement of cardiomyocyte survival in HF. PMID:27657534

  14. Comprehensive retrospective evaluation of existing in vitro chromosomal aberration test data by cytotoxicity index transformation.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Yurika; Morita, Takeshi; Matsumura, Shoji; Kawamoto, Taisuke; Ito, Yuichi; Nishiyama, Naohiro; Honda, Hiroshi

    2016-05-01

    New OECD test guidelines have been issued, in which the cytotoxicity index relative cell count (RCC) is replaced with a new index, RICC or RPD (relative increase in cell count/relative population doubling), with the goal of reducing the high proportion of false positive results in in vitro chromosomal aberration tests. Using a mathematical approach to estimate new indices from the RCC, we constructed an evaluation flow that quantitatively estimates how often the previous test conclusions change when applying the updated cytotoxicity criteria. The new evaluation flow was applied to a retrospective evaluation of 285 chemicals in two databases. The effects of the employment of new cytotoxicity indices are investigated at a large scale. Using the new evaluation flow, 90 chemicals were estimated as positive, 39 were designated as estimated negative (13 probably negative and 26 possibly negative), and 140 were designated as negative. Moreover, we also applied a prioritization index to indicate the likelihood of a chemical being re-evaluated as negative and assigned priorities for testing. Most of the chemicals that were designated as estimated negative and had negative results in the in vivo micronucleus tests were considered as false-positives that would be correctly judged under the new test guideline. Furthermore, statistical analysis of the frequency of estimated negatives revealed that the results for Ames-positive chemicals, especially those with a strong response, are unlikely to change. Therefore, we concluded that the new indices would likely reduce the proportion of false positive results and not increase the proportion of false negative results. This study is the first report of a comprehensive re-evaluation of test results in terms of new cytotoxicity indices. The evaluation flow we have developed facilitates efficient retrospective evaluation of genotoxicity.

  15. Allium cepa chromosome aberration and micronucleus tests applied to study genotoxicity of extracts from pesticide-treated vegetables and grapes.

    PubMed

    Feretti, D; Zerbini, I; Zani, C; Ceretti, E; Moretti, M; Monarca, S

    2007-06-01

    The Allium cepa assay is an efficient test for chemical screening and in situ monitoring for genotoxicity of environmental contaminants. The test has been used widely to study genotoxicity of many pesticides revealing that these compounds can induce chromosomal aberrations in root meristems of A. cepa. Pesticide residues can be present in fruit and vegetables and represent a risk for human health. The mutagenic and carcinogenic action of herbicides, insecticides and fungicides on experimental animals is well known. Several studies have shown that chronic exposure to low levels of pesticides can cause birth defects and that prenatal exposure is associated with carcinogenicity. This study evaluated the potential application of plant genotoxicity tests for monitoring mutagens in edible vegetables. The presence of pesticides and genotoxic compounds extracted from 21 treated vegetables and eight types of grapes sampled from several markets in Campania, a region in Southern Italy, was monitored concurrently. The extracts were analysed for pesticides by gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography, and for genotoxicity using two plant tests: the micronucleus test and the chromosomal aberration test in A. cepa roots. Thirty-three pesticides were detected, some of which are not approved. Genotoxicity was found in some of the vegetables and grapes tested. Allium cepa tests proved to be sensitive in monitoring genotoxicity in food extracts. The micronucleus test in interphase cells gave a much higher mutagenicity than the chromosomal aberration test in anaphase-telophase cells.

  16. CA Testing Workshops: Process, Issues, Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennelly, Robert A., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation will describe the organization and conduct of the workshops, list the topics discussed, and conclude with a more-detailed examination of a related set of issues dear to the presenters heart. Because the current HSCT configuration is expected to have (mostly) turbulent flow over the wings, and because current CFD predictions assume fully-turbulent flow, the wind tunnel testing to date has attempted to duplicate this condition at the lower Reynolds numbers attainable on the ground. This frequently requires some form of artificial boundary layer trip to induce transition near the wing's leading edge. But this innocent-sounding goal leads to a number of complications, and it is not clear that present-day testing technology is adequate to the task. An description of some of the difficulties, and work underway to address them, forms the "Results" section of this talk. Additional results of the testing workshop will be covered in presentations by other team members.

  17. TEST REACTOR AREA PLOT PLAN CA. 1968. MTR AND ETR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TEST REACTOR AREA PLOT PLAN CA. 1968. MTR AND ETR AREAS SOUTH OF PERCH AVENUE. "COLD" SERVICES NORTH OF PERCH. ADVANCED TEST REACTOR IN NEW SECTION WEST OF COLD SERVICES SECTION. NEW PERIMETER FENCE ENCLOSES BETA RAY SPECTROMETER, TRA-669, AN ATR SUPPORT FACILITY, AND ATR STACK. UTM LOCATORS HAVE BEEN DELETED. IDAHO NUCLEAR CORPORATION, FROM A BLAW-KNOX DRAWING, 3/1968. INL INDEX NO. 530-0100-00-400-011646, REV. 0. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  18. ANALOG I/O MODULE TEST SYSTEM BASED ON EPICS CA PROTOCOL AND ACTIVEX CA INTERFACE

    SciTech Connect

    YENG,YHOFF,L.

    2003-10-13

    Analog input (ADC) and output (DAC) modules play a substantial role in device level control of accelerator and large experiment physics control system. In order to get the best performance some features of analog modules including linearity, accuracy, crosstalk, thermal drift and so on have to be evaluated during the preliminary design phase. Gain and offset error calibration and thermal drift compensation (if needed) may have to be done in the implementation phase as well. A natural technique for performing these tasks is to interface the analog VO modules and GPIB interface programmable test instruments with a computer, which can complete measurements or calibration automatically. A difficulty is that drivers of analog modules and test instruments usually work on totally different platforms (vxworks VS Windows). Developing new test routines and drivers for testing instruments under VxWorks (or any other RTOS) platform is not a good solution because such systems have relatively poor user interface and developing such software requires substantial effort. EPICS CA protocol and ActiveX CA interface provide another choice, a PC and LabVIEW based test system. Analog 110 module can be interfaced from LabVIEW test routines via ActiveX CA interface. Test instruments can be controlled via LabVIEW drivers, most of which are provided by instrument vendors or by National Instruments. Labview also provides extensive data analysis and process functions. Using these functions, users can generate powerful test routines very easily. Several applications built for Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Beam Loss Monitor (BLM) system are described in this paper.

  19. Test for Chemical Induction of Chromosome Aberrations in Cultured Chinese Hamster (CHO) Cells With and Without Metabolic Activation. Test Article. Diethylene triamine trinitrate (DETN)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-25

    chromatid interchanges between chromosomes leading to four-armed configurations. This could be asymmetrical with formation of a dicentric and an acentric...fragment which may be misaligned and a shortened monocentric chromosome , and where there is no sister chromatid union. Dicentric - an asymmetrical...Test for Chemical Induction of Chromosome Aberrations in Cultured Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) Cells With and Without Metabolic Activation Test

  20. Characterization of durable nanostructured thin film catalysts tested under transient conditions using analytical aberration-corrected electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, David A; More, Karren Leslie; Reeves, Kimberly Shawn; Vernstrom, George; Atanasoska, Liliana; Haugen, Gregory; Atanasoski, Radoslav

    2011-01-01

    The stability of Ru0.1Ir0.9 oxidation evolution reaction (OER) catalysts deposited on Pt-coated nanostructured thin films (NSTFs) has been investigated by aberration-corrected electron microscopy. Accelerated stress tests showed that the OER catalysts significantly improved the durability of the Pt under cell reversal conditions. High-resolution images of the end-of-life NSTFs showed significant Ir loss from the whisker surfaces, while no Pt loss was observed, indicating that the OER catalysts had protected the catalyst coated whisker surfaces from degradation.

  1. Genotoxicity evaluation of dimethoate to experimental mice by micronucleus, chromosome aberration tests, and comet assay.

    PubMed

    Ayed-Boussema, Imen; Rjiba, Karima; Mnasri, Nourhène; Moussa, Amal; Bacha, Hassen

    2012-01-01

    Dimethoate (DM) is an organophosphate insecticide with numerous uses on field and agricultural crops and ornamentals. Data concerning DM-acute genotoxicity are controversial and knowledge on its delayed effect is limited. For this reason, we aimed to further explore DM genotoxicity resulting from subchronic intoxication of experimental mice. Thus, DM was administered to mice at doses ranging from 1 to 30 mg/kg body weight for a period of 30 consecutive days. There was a significant increase (P < .05) in the frequency of micronucleated bone marrow cells following DM administration. Furthermore, the chromosome aberration assay revealed a significant increase in the percentage of chromosome abnormalities in a dose-dependent manner. Dimethoate was also found to induce significant DNA damage in mouse bone marrow cells as assessed by the comet assay. Altogether, our results showed that, after a subchronic exposure, DM was a genotoxic compound in experimental mice.

  2. Late-occurring chromosome aberrations and global DNA methylation in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells of CBA/CaJ mice exposed to silicon ((28)Si) ions.

    PubMed

    Rithidech, Kanokporn Noy; Honikel, Louise M; Reungpathanaphong, Paiboon; Tungjai, Montree; Jangiam, Witawat; Whorton, Elbert B

    2015-11-01

    Although myeloid leukemia (ML) is one of the major health concerns from exposure to space radiation, the risk prediction for developing ML is unsatisfactory. To increase the reliability of predicting ML risk, a much improved understanding of space radiation-induced changes in the target cells, i.e. hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs), is important. We focused on the in vivo induction of late-occurring damage in HSPCs of mice exposed to (28)Si ions since such damage is associated with radiation-induced genomic instability (a key event of carcinogenesis). We gave adult male CBA/CaJ mice, known to be sensitive to radiation-induced ML, a whole-body exposure (2 fractionated exposures, 15 days apart, that totaled each selected dose, delivered at the dose-rate of 1 cGy/min) to various doses of 300 MeV/n (28)Si ions, i.e. 0 (sham controls), 0.1, 0.25, or 0.5 Gy. At 6 months post-irradiation, we collected bone marrow cells from each mouse (five mice per treatment-group) for obtaining the myeloid-lineage of HSPC-derived clones for analyses. We measured the frequencies of late-occurring chromosome aberrations (CAs), using the genome-wide multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization method. The measurement of CAs was coupled with the characterization of the global DNA methylation patterns, i.e. 5-methylcytosine (5 mC) and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5 hmC). A dose-dependent increase in the frequencies of CAs was detected (Analysis of Variance or ANOVA, p<0.01), indicating the induction of genomic instability after exposure of mice to 300 MeV/n (28)Si ions. Slight increases in the levels of 5 mC were observed in all treatment groups, as compared to the sham-control level. In contrast, there was a significant reduction in levels of 5 hmC (ANOVA, p<0.01). Since these endpoints were evaluated in the same mouse, our data suggested for the first time a link between a reduction in 5 hmC and genomic instability in HSPC-derived myeloid colonies of CBA/CaJ mice exposed to 300 Me

  3. Nicotine derived genotoxic effects in human primary parotid gland cells as assessed in vitro by comet assay, cytokinesis-block micronucleus test and chromosome aberrations test.

    PubMed

    Ginzkey, Christian; Steussloff, Gudrun; Koehler, Christian; Burghartz, Marc; Scherzed, Agmal; Hackenberg, Stephan; Hagen, Rudolf; Kleinsasser, Norbert H

    2014-08-01

    Genotoxic effects of nicotine were described in different human cells including salivary gland cells. Based on the high nicotine concentration in saliva of smokers or patients using therapeutic nicotine patches, the current study was performed to evaluate the genotoxic potential of nicotine in human salivary gland cells. Therefore, primary salivary gland cells from 10 patients undergoing parotid gland surgery were exposed to nicotine concentrations between 1 μM and 1000 μM for 1 h in the absence of exogenous metabolic activation. The acinar phenotype was proven by immunofluorescent staining of alpha-amylase. Genotoxic effects were evaluated using the Comet assay, the micronucleus test and the chromosome aberration test. Cytotoxicity and apoptosis were determined by trypan blue exclusion test and Caspase-3 assay. Nicotine was able to induce genotoxic effects in all three assays. The chromosome aberration test was the most sensitive and increases in numerical and structural (chromatid-type and chromosome-type) aberrations were seen at ≥1 μM, whereas increases in micronuclei frequency were detected at 10 μM and DNA damage as measured in the Comet assay was noted at >100 μM. No cytotoxic damage or influence of apoptosis could be demonstrated. Nicotine as a possible risk factor for tumor initiation in salivary glands is still discussed controversially. Our results demonstrated the potential of nicotine to induce genotoxic effects in salivary gland cells. These results were observed at saliva nicotine levels similar to those found after oral or transdermal exposure to nicotine and suggest the necessity of careful monitoring of the use of nicotine in humans.

  4. A Panel of CA19-9, Ca125, and Ca15-3 as the Enhanced Test for the Differential Diagnosis of the Pancreatic Lesion

    PubMed Central

    Skulimowski, Aleksander; Durczyński, Adam; Kumor, Anna; Poznańska, Grażyna; Oleśna, Aleksandra; Rut, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    Background. Proper diagnosis of pancreatic lesion etiology is a challenging clinical dilemma. Studies suggest that surgery for suspected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) reveals a benign lesion in 5% to 13% of cases. The aim of our study was to assess whether routinely used biomarkers such as CA19-9, Ca125, Ca15-3, and CEA, when combined, can potentially yield an accurate test predicting pancreatic lesion etiology. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed data of 326 patients who underwent a diagnostic process due to pancreatic lesions of unknown etiology. Results. We found statistically significant differences in mean levels of all biomarkers. In logistic regression model, we applied levels CA19-9, Ca125, and Ca15-3 as variables. Two validation methods were used, namely, random data split into training and validation groups and bootstrapping. Afterward, we built ROC curve using the model that we had created, reaching AUC = 0,801. With an optimal cut-off point, it achieved specificity of 81,2% and sensitivity of 63,10%. Our proposed model has superior diagnostic accuracy to both CA19-9 (p = 0,0194) and CA125 (p = 0,0026). Conclusion. We propose a test that is superior to CA19-9 in a differential diagnosis of pancreatic lesion etiology. Although our test fails to reach exceptionally high accuracy, its feasibility and cost-effectiveness make it clinically useful. PMID:28356610

  5. Polarization Aberrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguire, James P., Jr.; Chipman, Russell A.

    1990-01-01

    The analysis of the polarization characteristics displayed by optical systems can be divided into two categories: geometrical and physical. Geometrical analysis calculates the change in polarization of a wavefront between pupils in an optical instrument. Physical analysis propagates the polarized fields wherever the geometrical analysis is not valid, i.e., near the edges of stops, near images, in anisotropic media, etc. Polarization aberration theory provides a starting point for geometrical design and facilitates subsequent optimization. The polarization aberrations described arise from differences in the transmitted (or reflected) amplitudes and phases at interfaces. The polarization aberration matrix (PAM) is calculated for isotropic rotationally symmetric systems through fourth order and includes the interface phase, amplitude, linear diattenuation, and linear retardance aberrations. The exponential form of Jones matrices used are discussed. The PAM in Jones matrix is introduced. The exact calculation of polarization aberrations through polarization ray tracing is described. The report is divided into three sections: I. Rotationally Symmetric Optical Systems; II. Tilted and Decentered Optical Systems; and Polarization Analysis of LIDARs.

  6. 40 CFR 799.9538 - TSCA mammalian bone marrow chromosomal aberration test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... Chromosome mutations and related events are the cause of many human genetic diseases and there is substantial... genes are involved in cancer in humans and experimental systems. (b) Source. The source material used in..., then testing in a single sex will be sufficient. Where human exposure to chemicals may be...

  7. 40 CFR 799.9538 - TSCA mammalian bone marrow chromosomal aberration test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Chromosome mutations and related events are the cause of many human genetic diseases and there is substantial... genes are involved in cancer in humans and experimental systems. (b) Source. The source material used in..., then testing in a single sex will be sufficient. Where human exposure to chemicals may be...

  8. 40 CFR 799.9538 - TSCA mammalian bone marrow chromosomal aberration test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Chromosome mutations and related events are the cause of many human genetic diseases and there is substantial... genes are involved in cancer in humans and experimental systems. (b) Source. The source material used in..., then testing in a single sex will be sufficient. Where human exposure to chemicals may be...

  9. 40 CFR 799.9537 - TSCA in vitro mammalian chromosome aberration test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... if contaminated. The normal cell-cycle time for the cells and culture conditions used should be known... wherever possible, the use of an aqueous solvent/vehicle be considered first. When testing water-unstable substances, the organic solvents used should be free of water. Water can be removed by adding a...

  10. The Effect of Test and Examinee Characteristics on the Occurrence of Aberrant Response Patterns in a Computerized Adaptive Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizavi, Saba; Hariharan, Swaminathan

    2001-01-01

    The advantages that computer adaptive testing offers over linear tests have been well documented. The Computer Adaptive Test (CAT) design is more efficient than the Linear test design as fewer items are needed to estimate an examinee's proficiency to a desired level of precision. In the ideal situation, a CAT will result in examinees answering…

  11. Genotoxicity of o-aminoazotoluene (AAT) determined by the Ames test, the in vitro chromosomal aberration test, and the transgenic mouse gene mutation assay.

    PubMed

    Ohsawa, K; Hirano, N; Sugiura, M; Nakagawa, S; Kimura, M

    2000-11-20

    o-Aminoazotoluene (AAT) has been evaluated as a possible human carcinogen (Class 2B) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). The Ames test found it to be mutagenic in the presence of a metabolic activation system, whereas it has little clastogenicity either in vitro or in vivo in the chromosomal aberration assay. AAT is also carcinogenic in the lung or liver of mice and rats given long-term administrations. Therefore, metabolites generated in the liver etc. may have gene mutation activity, and carcinogenesis would occur. We examined the mutagenicity of AAT in a gene mutation assay, using lacZ transgenic mice (MutaMice) and a positive selection method. AAT showed positive results for organs with metabolic functions, such as liver and colon and other organs. Positive results were also seen in an Ames test in the presence of metabolic activation and negative results seen in a chromosomal aberration test. Therefore, AAT had the potential to cause gene mutation in the presence of metabolic activation systems in vitro and the same reaction was confirmed in vivo with organs with metabolic function, such as liver and colon, but little clastogenicity in vitro or in vivo. Thus, metabolites with gene mutation activity may be responsible for the carcinogenicity of AAT. The transgenic mouse mutation assay proved to be useful for concurrent assessment of in vivo mutagenicity in multiple organs and to supplement the standard in vivo genotoxicity tests, such as the micronucleus assay which is limited to bone marrow as the only target organ.

  12. The Great Spherical Aberration Fiasco of 1902 and Its Aftermath: Testing a New Big Telescope in San Diego

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterbrock, D. E.

    1998-05-01

    In 1901, W. W. Campbell, the new director of Lick Observatory, planned to build a "big" (0.9-m) new reflecting telescope, to be erected in the Southern Hemisphere. His aim was complete sky coverage for statistical studies of stellar radial velocities. Campbell designed it as a reflector rather than a refractor to save money; when completed it would be the largest professional-quality silver-on-glass reflector in the world. It would be more effective in collecting light, especially photographic light, than any of the big refractors of that era. The 37-inch primary mirror, when delivered on Mount Hamilton, proved to be afflicted with severe spherical aberration. Like the HST nine decades later, it was not usable. How this happened will be described. Unlike the HST, this "Mills reflector" was still on the ground in America. The optics were returned to the maker, John A. Brashear, in Allegheny, Pa., and were refigured there. To save time, the final testing and touch-ups of the figure, in January 1903, were moved to San Diego, the clearest accessible site in the United States. The dome, mounting, and other equipment were waiting in a warehouse near the pier in San Francisco, boxed for shipment to Chile. Campbell was badly injured during the testing process, but his assistant, William H. Wright, completed it. James McDowell of the Brashear firm did the final figuring at San Diego, and in February 1903, Wright and Harold K. Palmer (who passed his final Ph.D. oral exam the afternoon before their ship sailed) took the telescope to Santiago and put it into operation there. It proved higly successful for a quarter of a century, in obtaining the observational data for which it was designed.

  13. [239Pu and chromosomal aberrations in human peripheral blood lymphocytes].

    PubMed

    Okladnikova, N D; Osovets, S V; Kudriavtseva, T I

    2009-01-01

    The genome status in somatic cells was assessed using the chromosomal aberration (CA) test in peripheral blood lymphocytes from 194 plutonium workers exposed to occupational radiation mainly from low-transportable compounds of airborne 230Pu. Pu body burden at the time of cytogenetic study varied from values close to the method sensitivity to values multiply exceeding the permissible level. Standard (routine) methods of peripheral blood lymphocytes cultivation were applied. Chromatid- and chromosomal-type structural changes were estimated. Aberrations were estimated per 100 examined metaphase cells. The quantitative relationship between the CA frequency and Pu body burden and the absorbed dose to the lung was found. Mathematical processing of results was carried out based on the phenomenological model. The results were shown as theoretical and experimental curves. The threshold of the CA yield was 0.43 +/- 0.03 kBq (Pu body burden) and 6.12 +/- 1.20 cGy (absorbed dose to the lung).

  14. Fetal hippocampal CA3 cell grafts enriched with FGF-2 and BDNF exhibit robust long-term survival and integration and suppress aberrant mossy fiber sprouting in the injured middle-aged hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Rao, Muddanna S; Hattiangady, Bharathi; Shetty, Ashok K

    2006-02-01

    Cell transplants that successfully replace the lost neurons and facilitate the reconstruction of the disrupted circuitry in the injured aging hippocampus are invaluable for treating acute head injury, stroke and status epilepticus in the elderly. This is because apt graft integration has the potential to prevent the progression of the acute injury into chronic epilepsy in the elderly. However, neural transplants into the injured middle-aged or aged hippocampus exhibit poor cell survival, suggesting that apt graft augmentation strategies are critical for robust integration of grafted cells into the injured aging hippocampus. We examined the efficacy of pre-treatment and grafting of donor fetal CA3 cells with a blend of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) for lasting survival and integration of grafted cells in the injured middle-aged (12 months old) hippocampus of F344 rats. Grafts were placed at 4 days after the kainic-acid-induced hippocampal injury and were analyzed at 6 months post-grafting. We demonstrate that 80% of grafted cells exhibit prolonged survival and 71% of grafted cells differentiate into CA3 pyramidal neurons. Grafts also receive a robust afferent input from the host mossy fibers and project efferent axons into the denervated zones of the dentate gyrus and the CA1 subfield. Consequently, the aberrant sprouting of the dentate mossy fibers, an epileptogenic change that typically ensues after the hippocampal injury, was suppressed. Thus, grafts of fetal CA3 cells enriched with FGF-2 and BDNF exhibit robust integration and dampen the abnormal mossy fiber sprouting in the injured middle-aged hippocampus. Because the aberrantly sprouted mossy fibers contribute to the generation of seizures, the results suggest that the grafting intervention using FGF-2 and BDNF is efficacious for suppressing epileptogenesis in the injured middle-aged hippocampus.

  15. Theoretical and experimental tests of a chromosomal fingerprint for densely ionizing radiation based on F ratios calculated from stable and unstable chromosome aberrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucas, J. N.; Deng, W.; Oram, S. W.; Hill, F. S.; Durante, M.; George, K.; Wu, H.; Owens, C. L.; Yang, T.

    1999-01-01

    In the present study, F ratios for both stable chromosome aberrations, i.e. ratios of translocations to pericentric inversions, and unstable aberrations, i.e. dicentrics and centric rings, were measured using fluorescence in situ hybridization. F ratios for stable aberrations measured after exposure to low (2.89 Gy 60Co gamma rays) and high-LET (0.25 Gy 56Fe ions; 1.25 Gy 56Fe ions; 3.0 Gy 12C ions) radiation were 6.5 +/- 1.5, 4.7 +/- 1.6, 9.3 +/- 2.5 and 10.4 +/- 3.0, respectively. F ratios for unstable aberrations measured after low (2.89 Gy 60Co gamma rays) and high-LET (0.25 Gy 56Fe ions; 3.0 Gy 12C ions) radiations were 6.5 +/- 1.6, 6.3 +/- 2.3 and 11.1 +/- 3.7, respectively. No significant difference between the F ratios for low- and high-LET radiation was found. Further tests on the models for calculation of the F ratio proposed by Brenner and Sachs (Radiat. Res. 140, 134-142, 1994) showed that the F ratio may not be straightforward as a practical fingerprint for densely ionizing radiation.

  16. Genotoxic effects of the alkaloids harman and harmine assessed by comet assay and chromosome aberration test in mammalian cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Boeira, J M; da Silva, J; Erdtmann, B; Henriques, J A

    2001-12-01

    Harman and harmine are beta-carboline alkaloids which are present in plants widely used in medical practice, in beverages used for religious purposes in Brazil, as well as in tobacco smoke and over cooked food. In view of the controversial results observed in the literature about the mutagenic effects of these alkaloids, we studied their cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in V79 Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts in vitro using single-cell gel assay, Comet assay, either in the presence or in absence of an exogenous metabolic activation system (S9-mix), and by the chromosome aberration test without S9-mix. Harmine was more cytotoxic than harman. Both harman and harmine increased aberrant cell frequency and induced DNA damage by the Comet assay. These results suggest that harman and harmine are genotoxic in V79 cells, probably as a consequence of their ability to induce DNA strand breaks.

  17. Skew aberration: a form of polarization aberration.

    PubMed

    Yun, Garam; Crabtree, Karlton; Chipman, Russell A

    2011-10-15

    We define a new class of aberration, skew aberration, which is a component of polarization aberration. Skew aberration is an intrinsic rotation of polarization states due to the geometric transformation of local coordinates, independent of coatings and interface polarization. Skew aberration in a radially symmetric system has the form of a circular retardance tilt plus coma aberration. Skew aberration causes undesired polarization distribution in the exit pupil. We demonstrate statistics on skew aberration of 2383 optical systems described in Code V's U.S. patent library [Code V Version 10.3 (Synopsys, 2011), pp. 22-24]; the mean skew aberration is 0.89° and the standard deviation is 1.37°. The maximum skew aberration found is 17.45° and the minimum is -11.33°. U.S. patent 2,896,506, which has ±7.01° of skew aberration, is analyzed in detail. Skew aberration should be of concern in microlithography optics and other high NA and large field of view optical systems.

  18. Use of CA-125 Tests and CT Scans for Surveillance in Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Esselen, Katharine M.; Cronin, Angel M.; Bixel, Kristin; Bookman, Michael A.; Burger, Robert A.; Cohn, David E.; Cristea, Mihaela; Griggs, Jennifer J.; Levenback, Charles F.; Mantia-Smaldone, Gina; Meyer, Larissa A.; Matulonis, Ursula A.; Niland, Joyce C.; Sun, Charlotte; O’Malley, David M.; Wright, Alexi A.

    2016-01-01

    Importance A 2009 randomized clinical trial (RCT) demonstrated that using CA-125 tests for routine surveillance in ovarian cancer increases chemotherapy use and decreases patients’ quality of life without improving survival, compared with clinical observation. The Society of Gynecologic Oncology guidelines categorize CA-125 testing as “optional” and discourage the use of radiographic imaging for routine surveillance. To date, few studies have examined their use in clinical practice. Objective To examine the use of CA-125 tests and CT scans in clinical practice before and after the 2009 RCT and estimate the economic impact of surveillance testing. Design Prospective cohort of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer between 2004-2011 and followed through 2012. Setting Six National Cancer Institute-Designated Cancer Centers. Participants 1,241 women with ovarian cancer in clinical remission after completion of primary cytoreductive surgery and chemotherapy. Main Outcome Measures Use of CA-125 tests and CT scans before and after 2009 (n=1,241). Secondary outcomes included: the time from CA-125 doubling to retreatment among women who experienced a rise in CA-125 (n=511) before and after 2009, and the costs associated with surveillance testing using 2016 Medicare reimbursement rates. Results Use of CA-125 testing and CT scans was very similar over the study period. During 12 months of surveillance, the cumulative incidence of 3 or more CA-125 tests was 86% in 2004-2009 versus 91% in 2010-2012 (P=.95), and the cumulative incidence of more than 1 CT scan was 81% (2004-2009) versus 78% (2010-2012) (P=.50). Among women who experienced a CA-125 doubling (n=511), there was no significant difference in the time to retreatment with chemotherapy before and after 2009 (median: 2.8 months vs. 3.5 months, P=.40). Over a 12-month period, there were a mean of 4.6 CA-125 tests and 1.7 CT scans per patient, resulting in a United States population surveillance cost estimate of $1

  19. Beta/gamma oscillatory activity in the CA3 hippocampal area is depressed by aberrant GABAergic transmission from the dentate gyrus after seizures.

    PubMed

    Treviño, Mario; Vivar, Carmen; Gutiérrez, Rafael

    2007-01-03

    Oscillatory activity in the CA3 region is thought to be involved in the encoding and retrieval of information. These oscillations originate from the recurrent excitation between pyramidal cells that are entrained by the synchronous rhythmic inhibition of local interneurons. We show here that, after seizures, the dentate gyrus (DG) tonically inhibits beta/gamma (20-24 Hz) field oscillations in the CA3 area through GABA-mediated signaling. These oscillations originate in the interneuron network because they are maintained in the presence of ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists, and they can be blocked by GABA(A) receptor antagonists or by perfusion of a calcium-free extracellular medium. Inhibition of this oscillatory activity requires intact DG-to-CA3 connections, and it is suppressed by the activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR). The influence of mGluR activation was reflected in the spontaneous subthreshold membrane oscillations of CA3 interneurons after one seizure but could also be observed in pyramidal cells after several seizures. Coincident stimulation of the DG at and beta/gamma frequencies produced a frequency-dependent excitation of interneurons and the inhibition of pyramidal cells. Indeed, these effects were maximal at the frequency that matched the mGluR-sensitive spontaneous field oscillations, suggesting a resonance phenomenon. Our results shed light on the mechanisms that may underlie the deficits in memory and cognition observed after epileptic seizures.

  20. Determination of aberration center of Ronchigram for automated aberration correctors in scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sannomiya, Takumi; Sawada, Hidetaka; Nakamichi, Tomohiro; Hosokawa, Fumio; Nakamura, Yoshio; Tanishiro, Yasumasa; Takayanagi, Kunio

    2013-12-01

    A generic method to determine the aberration center is established, which can be utilized for aberration calculation and axis alignment for aberration corrected electron microscopes. In this method, decentering induced secondary aberrations from inherent primary aberrations are minimized to find the appropriate axis center. The fitness function to find the optimal decentering vector for the axis was defined as a sum of decentering induced secondary aberrations with properly distributed weight values according to the aberration order. Since the appropriate decentering vector is determined from the aberration values calculated at an arbitrary center axis, only one aberration measurement is in principle required to find the center, resulting in /very fast center search. This approach was tested for the Ronchigram based aberration calculation method for aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy. Both in simulation and in experiments, the center search was confirmed to work well although the convergence to find the best axis becomes slower with larger primary aberrations. Such aberration center determination is expected to fully automatize the aberration correction procedures, which used to require pre-alignment of experienced users. This approach is also applicable to automated aperture positioning.

  1. Neural compensation for the eye's optical aberrations.

    PubMed

    Artal, Pablo; Chen, Li; Fernández, Enrique J; Singer, Ben; Manzanera, Silvestre; Williams, David R

    2004-04-16

    A fundamental problem facing sensory systems is to recover useful information about the external world from signals that are corrupted by the sensory process itself. Retinal images in the human eye are affected by optical aberrations that cannot be corrected with ordinary spectacles or contact lenses, and the specific pattern of these aberrations is different in every eye. Though these aberrations always blur the retinal image, our subjective impression is that the visual world is sharp and clear, suggesting that the brain might compensate for their subjective influence. The recent introduction of adaptive optics to control the eye's aberrations now makes it possible to directly test this idea. If the brain compensates for the eye's aberrations, vision should be clearest with the eye's own aberrations rather than with unfamiliar ones. We asked subjects to view a stimulus through an adaptive optics system that either recreated their own aberrations or a rotated version of them. For all five subjects tested, the stimulus seen with the subject's own aberrations was always sharper than when seen through the rotated version. This supports the hypothesis that the neural visual system is adapted to the eye's aberrations, thereby removing somehow the effects of blur generated by the sensory apparatus from visual experience. This result could have important implications for methods to correct higher order aberrations with customized refractive surgery because some benefits of optimizing the correction optically might be undone by the nervous system's compensation for the old aberrations.

  2. Cypermethrin induces astrocyte damage: role of aberrant Ca(2+), ROS, JNK, P38, matrix metalloproteinase 2 and migration related reelin protein.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Shailendra Kumar; Mishra, Juhi; Tripathi, Vinay Kumar; Sharma, Rolee; Siddiqui, Mohammed Haris

    2014-05-01

    Cypermethrin is a synthetic type II pyrethroid, derived from a natural pyrethrin of the chrysanthemum plant. Cypermethrin-mediated neurotoxicity is well studied; however, relatively less is known of its effect on astrocyte development and migration. Astrocytes are the major components of blood brain barrier (BBB), and astrocyte damage along with BBB dysfunction impair the tight junction (TJ) proteins resulting in altered cell migration and neurodegeneration. Here, we studied the mechanism of cypermethin mediated rat astrocyte damage and BBB disruption, and determined any change in expression of proteins associated with cell migration. Through MTT assay we found that cypermethrin reduced viability of cultured rat astrocytes. Immunolabelling with astrocyte marker, glial fibrillary acidic protein, revealed alteration in astrocyte morphology. The astrocytes demonstrated an enhanced release of intracellular Ca(++) and ROS, and up-regulation in p-JNK and p-P38 levels in a time-dependent manner. Cypermethrin disrupted the BBB (in vivo) in developing rats and attenuated the expression of the extracellular matrix molecule (ECM) and claudin-5 in cultured astrocytes. We further observed an augmentation in the levels of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2), known to modulate cellular migration and disrupt the developmental ECM and BBB. We observed an increase in the levels of reelin, involved in cell migration, in cultured rat astrocytes. The reelin receptor, α3β1integrin, and a mammalian cytosolic protein Disabled1 (Dab1) were also up-regulated. Overall, our study demonstrates that cypermethrin induces astrocyte injury via modulation in Ca(++), ROS, JNK and P38 pathways, which may alter MMP expression and reelin dependent astrocyte migration during brain development.

  3. Aberrant Cytokeratin Expression During Arsenic-induced Acquired Malignant Phenotype in Human HaCaT Keratinocytes Consistent with Epidermal Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yang; Pi, Jingbo; Wang, Xueqian; Tokar, Erik J.; Liu, Jie; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic is a known human skin carcinogen. Chronic arsenic exposure results in various human skin lesions, including hyperkeratosis and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), both characterized by distorted cytokeratin (CK) production. Prior work shows the human skin keratinocyte HaCaT cell line, when exposed chronically for >25 weeks to a low level of inorganic arsenite (100 nM) results in cells able to produce aggressive SCC upon inoculation into nude mice. In the present study, CK expression analysis was performed in arsenic-exposed HaCaT cells during the progressive acquisition of this malignant phenotype (0 to 20 weeks) to further validate this model as relevant to epidermal carcinogenesis induced by arsenic in humans. Indeed, we observed clear evidence of acquired cancer phenotype by 20 weeks of arsenite exposure including the formation of giant cells, a >4-fold increase in colony formation in soft agar and a ∼2.5-fold increase in matrix metalloproteinase-9 secretion, an enzyme often secreted by cancer cells to help invade through the local extra-cellular matrix. During this acquired malignant phenotype, various CK genes showed markedly altered expression at the transcript and protein levels in a time-dependent manner. For example, CK1, a marker of hyperkeratosis, increased up to 34-fold during arsenic-induced transformation, while CK13, a marker for dermal cancer progression, increased up to 45-fold. The stem cell marker, CK15, increased up to 7-fold, particularly during the later stages of arsenic exposure, indicating a potential emergence of cancer stem-like cells with arsenic-induced acquired malignant phenotype. The expression of involucrin and loricrin, markers for keratinocyte differentiation, increased up to 9-fold. Thus, during arsenic-induced acquired cancer phenotype in human keratinocytes, dramatic and dynamic alterations in CK expression occur which are consistent with the process of epidermal carcinogenesis helping validate this as an

  4. Aberrant cytokeratin expression during arsenic-induced acquired malignant phenotype in human HaCaT keratinocytes consistent with epidermal carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yang; Pi, Jingbo; Wang, Xueqian; Tokar, Erik J; Liu, Jie; Waalkes, Michael P

    2009-08-03

    Inorganic arsenic is a known human skin carcinogen. Chronic arsenic exposure results in various human skin lesions, including hyperkeratosis and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), both characterized by distorted cytokeratin (CK) production. Prior work shows the human skin keratinocyte HaCaT cell line, when exposed chronically for >25 weeks to a low level of inorganic arsenite (100nM) results in cells able to produce aggressive SCC upon inoculation into nude mice. In the present study, CK expression analysis was performed in arsenic-exposed HaCaT cells during the progressive acquisition of this malignant phenotype (0-20 weeks) to further validate this model as relevant to epidermal carcinogenesis induced by arsenic in humans. Indeed, we observed clear evidence of acquired cancer phenotype by 20 weeks of arsenite exposure including the formation of giant cells, a >4-fold increase in colony formation in soft agar and a approximately 2.5-fold increase in matrix metalloproteinase-9 secretion, an enzyme often secreted by cancer cells to help invade through the local extra-cellular matrix. During this acquired malignant phenotype, various CK genes showed markedly altered expression at the transcript and protein levels in a time-dependent manner. For example, CK1, a marker of hyperkeratosis, increased up to 34-fold during arsenic-induced transformation, while CK13, a marker for dermal cancer progression, increased up to 45-fold. The stem cell marker, CK15, increased up to 7-fold, particularly during the later stages of arsenic exposure, indicating a potential emergence of cancer stem-like cells with arsenic-induced acquired malignant phenotype. The expression of involucrin and loricrin, markers for keratinocyte differentiation, increased up to 9-fold. Thus, during arsenic-induced acquired cancer phenotype in human keratinocytes, dramatic and dynamic alterations in CK expression occur which are consistent with the process of epidermal carcinogenesis helping validate this as an

  5. Chicago aberration correction work.

    PubMed

    Beck, V D

    2012-12-01

    The author describes from his personal involvement the many improvements to electron microscopy Albert Crewe and his group brought by minimizing the effects of aberrations. The Butler gun was developed to minimize aperture aberrations in a field emission electron gun. In the 1960s, Crewe anticipated using a spherical aberration corrector based on Scherzer's design. Since the tolerances could not be met mechanically, a method of moving the center of the octopoles electrically was developed by adding lower order multipole fields. Because the corrector was located about 15 cm ahead of the objective lens, combination aberrations would arise with the objective lens. This fifth order aberration would then limit the aperture of the microscope. The transformation of the off axis aberration coefficients of a round lens was developed and a means to cancel anisotropic coma was developed. A new method of generating negative spherical aberration was invented using the combination aberrations of hexapoles. Extensions of this technique to higher order aberrations were developed. An electrostatic electron mirror was invented, which allows the cancellation of primary spherical aberration and first order chromatic aberration. A reduction of chromatic aberration by two orders of magnitude was demonstrated using such a system.

  6. Induction of chromosome aberrations in the Allium cepa test system caused by the exposure of cells to benzo(a) pyrene.

    PubMed

    Cabaravdic, Mirsad

    2010-01-01

    Higher plants have been proposed as test organisms for the detection of genotoxic substances in the environment. Several plant test systems are already in use and are found to be as sensitive and reliable as other short-term tests. Allium cepa is one of these plants, which has been used in different studies to detect chromosome aberrations induced by chemicals. The use of non-animal test methods, including in vitro studies, provides importent tools to enhance our understanding of hazardous effect of chemicals, and for predicting these effects in humans. In vitro systems are used principally for screening purposes, and for generating toxicological profiles. Numerous chemicals can generate the breakage or interchange of DNA segments between chromosomal structures. Allium test is used as a screening method for genotoxicity evaluation of different chemical substances, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), as representative member of PAHs, were investigated of genotoxicity by using Allium roote chromosomes assay. The treatment with different series of concentrations of BaP, ranging from 1.0-50.0 microg/ml respectively. Used BaP caused decreased in the Mitotic index (MI) and increase frequency of abnormal mitosis when compared with the control.

  7. Multi-Column Experimental Test Bed Using CaSDB MOF for Xe/Kr Separation

    SciTech Connect

    Welty, Amy Keil; Greenhalgh, Mitchell Randy; Garn, Troy Gerry

    2016-03-01

    Processing of spent nuclear fuel produces off-gas from which several volatile radioactive components must be separated for further treatment or storage. As part of the Off-gas Sigma Team, parallel research at INL and PNNL has produced several promising sorbents for the selective capture of xenon and krypton from these off-gas streams. In order to design full-scale treatment systems, sorbents that are promising on a laboratory scale must be proven under process conditions to be considered for pilot and then full-scale use. To that end, a bench-scale multi-column system with capability to test multiple sorbents was designed and constructed at INL. This report details bench-scale testing of CaSDB MOF, produced at PNNL, and compares the results to those reported last year using INL engineered sorbents. Two multi-column tests were performed with the CaSDB MOF installed in the first column, followed with HZ-PAN installed in the second column. The CaSDB MOF column was placed in a Stirling cryocooler while the cryostat was employed for the HZ-PAN column. Test temperatures of 253 K and 191 K were selected for the first column while the second column was held at 191 K for both tests. Calibrated volume sample bombs were utilized for gas stream analyses. At the conclusion of each test, samples were collected from each column and analyzed for gas composition. While CaSDB MOF does appear to have good capacity for Xe, the short time to initial breakthrough would make design of a continuous adsorption/desorption cycle difficult, requiring either very large columns or a large number of smaller columns. Because of the tenacity with which Xe and Kr adhere to the material once adsorbed, this CaSDB MOF may be more suitable for use as a long-term storage solution. Further testing is recommended to determine if CaSDB MOF is suitable for this purpose.

  8. How To Measure Gravitational Aberration?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krizek, M.; Solcova, A.

    2007-08-01

    In 1905, Henri Poincaré predicted the existence of gravitational waves and assumed that their speed c[g] would be that of the speed of light c. If the gravitational aberration would also have the same magnitude as the aberration of light, we would observe several paradoxical phenomena. For instance, the orbit of two bodies of equal mass would be unstable, since two attractive forces arise that are not in line and hence form a couple. This tends to increase the angular momentum, period, and total energy of the system. This can be modelled by a system of ordinary differential equations with delay. A big advantage of computer simulation is that we can easily perform many test for various possible values of the speed of gravity [1]. In [2], Carlip showed that gravitational aberration in general relativity is almost cancelled out by velocity-dependent interactions. This means that rays of sunlight are not parallel to the attractive gravitational force of the Sun, i.e., we do not see the Sun in the direction of its attractive force, but slightly shifted about an angle less than 20``. We show how the actual value of the gravitational aberration can be obtained by measurement of a single angle at a suitable time instant T corresponding to the perihelion of an elliptic orbit. We also derive an a priori error estimate that expresses how acurately T has to be determined to attain the gravitational aberration to a prescribed tolerance. [1] M. Křížek: Numerical experience with the finite speed of gravitational interaction, Math. Comput. Simulation 50 (1999), 237-245. [2] S. Carlip: Aberration and the speed of gravity, Phys. Lett. A 267 (2000), 81-87.

  9. Interpreting Chromosome Aberration Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, Dan; Reeder, Christopher; Loucas, Bradford; Hlatky, Lynn; Chen, Allen; Cornforth, Michael; Sachs, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can damage cells by breaking both strands of DNA in multiple locations, essentially cutting chromosomes into pieces. The cell has enzymatic mechanisms to repair such breaks; however, these mechanisms are imperfect and, in an exchange process, may produce a large-scale rearrangement of the genome, called a chromosome aberration. Chromosome aberrations are important in killing cells, during carcinogenesis, in characterizing repair/misrepair pathways, in retrospective radiation biodosimetry, and in a number of other ways. DNA staining techniques such as mFISH ( multicolor fluorescent in situ hybridization) provide a means for analyzing aberration spectra by examining observed final patterns. Unfortunately, an mFISH observed final pattern often does not uniquely determine the underlying exchange process. Further, resolution limitations in the painting protocol sometimes lead to apparently incomplete final patterns. We here describe an algorithm for systematically finding exchange processes consistent with any observed final pattern. This algorithm uses aberration multigraphs, a mathematical formalism that links the various aspects of aberration formation. By applying a measure to the space of consistent multigraphs, we will show how to generate model-specific distributions of aberration processes from mFISH experimental data. The approach is implemented by software freely available over the internet. As a sample application, we apply these algorithms to an aberration data set, obtaining a distribution of exchange cycle sizes, which serves to measure aberration complexity. Estimating complexity, in turn, helps indicate how damaging the aberrations are and may facilitate identification of radiation type in retrospective biodosimetry.

  10. Test for Chemical Induction of Chromosome Aberrations in Cultured Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) Cells with and without Metabolic Activation, Test Article: 3-Nitro-1,2,4-Triazol-5-one (NTO)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-30

    Dilutious of the sample S9, ranging from 0.2· 10% in S9 mix, were tested for their ability to activate benzo ( a ) pyrene (BP) and 2·aminoanthracene (2-AA...of law, no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB...found negative at concentrations of 5, 50, 100, 500, 1000, 2500, and 5000 ?g/mL in both with and without activation. A confirmatory chromosome aberration

  11. Chromosomal aberrations in onion (Allium cepa) induced by water chlorination by-products

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Sabti, K.; Kurelec, B.

    1985-01-01

    It has recently come to light that water chlorination generates mutagens and carcinogens. The mutagenicity of nonvolatile mutagenic by-products of water chlorination has been demonstrated in short-term biological testings. The predictive value of short-term tests is considerably enhanced by the use of more than one test system. A scientifically stringent approach in formulating a testing program for the assessment of genotoxins is to rely on tests that directly measure gene mutations and chromosome alterations. Chromosome aberrations (CA) become such a relevant bioassay. The CA measurement in the allium test is suitable for measuring the cytogenotoxic potential of chemicals present in water; it is simple, cheap, sensitive, and it does not require a generally undefined step of concentrating chemicals present in polluted waters. In the present investigation CA in Allium were chosen for the detection of mutagenic potential of a polluted river waters before and after the under-breakpoint chlorination.

  12. Line of Sight of an Aberrated Optical System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-24

    8217 4. TITLE (and &"do) TYEO’lEOTAeEID)OEE LIME OF SIGHT OF AN ABERRATED _____________ OPTICAL SYTE S. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(&) I...aberration across its interior regardless of Q shape. Next, an optical system with aberrated but uniformly illuminated annular pupil is considered. The...and R a 21! [sn Mwh, Q ; C) +cosO _9W(h,6; C) 1 id ~ 2b111J J (h) sin h h d8, (2b where E -R2W! I(h) hdh de (30) Ca -15- We now expand the aberration

  13. Validation of US3D for Capsule Aerodynamics using 05-CA Wind Tunnel Test Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwing, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Several comparisons of computational fluid dynamics to wind tunnel test data are shown for the purpose of code validation. The wind tunnel test, 05-CA, uses a 7.66% model of NASA's Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle in the 11-foot test section of the Ames Unitary Plan Wind tunnel. A variety of freestream conditions over four Mach numbers and three angles of attack are considered. Test data comparisons include time-averaged integrated forces and moments, time-averaged static pressure ports on the surface, and Strouhal Number. The applicability of the US3D code to subsonic and transonic flow over a bluff body is assessed on a comprehensive data set. With close comparison, this work validates US3D for highly separated flows similar to those examined here.

  14. Accommodative lag and fluctuations when optical aberrations are manipulated.

    PubMed

    Gambra, Enrique; Sawides, Lucie; Dorronsoro, Carlos; Marcos, Susana

    2009-06-09

    We evaluated the accommodative response to a stimulus moving from 0 to 6 D following a staircase function under natural, corrected, and induced optical aberrations, using an adaptive-optics (AO) electromagnetic deformable mirror. The accommodative response of the eye (through the mirror) and the change of aberrations were measured on 5 subjects using a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor operating at 12.8 Hz. Five conditions were tested: (1) natural aberrations, (2) AO correction of the unaccommodated state and induction (over 6-mm pupils) of (3) +1 microm and (4) -1 microm of spherical aberration and (5) -2 microm of vertical coma. Four subjects showed a better accommodative response with AO correction than with their natural aberrations. The induction of negative spherical aberration also produced a better accommodative response in the same subjects. Accommodative lag increased in all subjects when positive spherical aberration and coma were induced. Fluctuations of the accommodative response (computed during each 1-D period of steady accommodation) increased with accommodative response when high-order aberrations were induced. The largest fluctuations occurred for induced negative spherical aberration and the smallest for natural and corrected aberrations. The study demonstrates that aberrations influence accommodative lag and fluctuations of accommodation and that correcting aberrations improves rather than compromises the accommodative response.

  15. Prediction of Visual Acuity from Wavefront Aberrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B. (Inventor); Ahumada, Albert J. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method for generating a visual acuity metric, based on wavefront aberrations (WFAs), associated with a test subject and representing classes of imperfections, such as defocus, astigmatism, coma and spherical aberrations, of the subject's visual system. The metric allows choices of different image template, can predict acuity for different target probabilities, can incorporate different and possibly subject-specific neural transfer functions, can predict acuity for different subject templates, and incorporates a model of the optotype identification task.

  16. Atmospheric measurement analysis for the Radiometric Calibration Test Site (RadCaTS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czapla-Myers, Jeffrey

    2015-09-01

    The Radiometric Calibration Test Site (RadCaTS) was developed by the University of Arizona in the early 2000s to collect ground-based data in support of the calibration and validation of Earth-observing sensors. It uses the reflectance-based approach, which requires measurements of the atmosphere and surface reflectance. The measurements are used in MODTRAN to determine the at-sensor radiance for a given time and date. In the traditional reflectance-based approach, on-site personnel use an automated solar radiometer (ASR) to measure the atmospheric attenuation, but in the case of RadCaTS, an AERONET Cimel sun photometer is used to make atmospheric measurements. This work presents a comparison between the Cimel-derived atmospheric characteristics such as aerosol optical depth, the Angstrom exponent, and the columnar water vapor, to those derived using a traditional solar radiometer. The top-of-atmosphere radiance derived using the Cimel and ASR measurements are compared using Landsat 8 OLI bands as a test case for the period 2012-2014 to determine if any biases exist between the two methodologies.

  17. Chromosome aberrations in Japanese fishermen exposed to fallout radiation 420-1200 km distant from the nuclear explosion test site at Bikini Atoll: report 60 years after the incident.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kimio; Ohtaki, Megu; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2016-08-01

    During the period from March to May, 1954, the USA conducted six nuclear weapon tests at the "Bravo" detonation sites at the Bikini and Enewetak Atolls, Marshall Islands. At that time, the crew of tuna fishing boats and cargo ships that were operating approximately 150-1200 km away from the test sites were exposed to radioactive fallout. The crew of the fishing boats and those on cargo ships except the "5th Fukuryu-maru" did not undergo any health examinations at the time of the incident. In the present study, chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes were examined in detail by the G-banding method in 17 crew members from 8 fishing boats and 2 from one cargo ship, 60 years after the tests. None of the subjects examined had suffered from cancer. The percentages of both stable-type aberrations such as translocation, inversion and deletion, and unstable-type aberrations such as dicentric and centric ring in the study group were significantly higher (1.4- and 2.3-fold, respectively) than those in nine age-matched controls. In the exposed and control groups, the percentages of stable-type aberrations were 3.35 % and 2.45 %, respectively, and the numbers of dicentric and centric ring chromosomes per 100 cells were 0.35 and 0.15, respectively. Small clones were observed in three members of the exposed group. These results suggest that the crews were exposed to slightly higher levels of fallout than had hitherto been assumed.

  18. Test for Chemical Induction of Chromosome Aberrations in Cultured Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) Cells With and Without Metabolic Activation. Test Article: Dimethylamine-2-2ethyl azide (DMAZ)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-26

    01’ per mg CPA Dilutions of the sample S9, ranging from 0.2 - 10% in S9 mix, were tested for their ability to activate benzo ( a ) pyrene (BP) and 2...be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1...concentrations of 10, 50, 100, 500, 1000, 2500, and 5000 ?g/mL in both with and without activation and was found negative for clastogenic potential. A

  19. Genetic toxicity assessment: employing the best science for human safety evaluation. Part II: Performances of the in vitro micronucleus test compared to the mouse lymphoma assay and the in vitro chromosome aberration assay.

    PubMed

    Lorge, Elisabeth; Lambert, Carine; Gervais, Véronique; Becourt-Lhote, Nathalie; Delongeas, Jean-Luc; Claude, Nancy

    2007-04-01

    The in vitro micronucleus test is commonly used in the early stages of pharmaceutical development as a predictive tool for the regulatory mouse lymphoma assay or in vitro chromosome aberration test. The accumulated data from this assay leads to the suggestion that it could be used as an alternative to the chromosome aberration test or the mouse lymphoma assay in the regulatory genotoxicity battery. In this paper, we present the results of the in vitro micronucleus test on L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells with 25 compounds from Servier research and have compared these results to those obtained in the genotoxicity regulatory battery. All the negative compounds were also negative in the in vitro micronucleus assay. Among the 14 positive compounds, two of them, positive in the mouse lymphoma assay, were found negative in the in vitro micronucleus test. However, this apparent discordance was likely to be due to cytotoxicity- or high concentration-related false positive responses in the mouse lymphoma assay. In addition, we confirmed that the in vitro micronucleus assay is useful for detecting aneugens, especially, when cells in metaphasis and multinucleated cells are also scored and when cells are allowed to recover after the long treatment. On this series of compounds, the in vitro micronucleus assay showed high sensitivity and possibly a better specificity than the mouse lymphoma assay. Thus, the in vitro micronucleus assay was shown to be at least as adequate as the mouse lymphoma assay or the in vitro chromosome aberration test to be used in the standard genotoxicity battery.

  20. Optical aberrations of intraocular lenses measured in vivo and in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbero, Sergio; Marcos, Susana; Jiménez-Alfaro, Ignacio

    2003-10-01

    Corneal and ocular aberrations were measured in a group of eyes before and after cataract surgery with spherical intraocular lens (IOL) implantation by use of well-tested techniques developed in our laboratory. By subtraction of corneal from total aberration maps, we also estimated the optical quality of the intraocular lens in vivo. We found that aberrations in pseudophakic eyes are not significantly different from aberrations in eyes before cataract surgery or from previously reported aberrations in healthy eyes of the same age. However, aberrations in pseudophakic eyes are significantly higher than in young eyes. We found a slight increase of corneal aberrations after surgery. The aberrations of the IOL and the lack of balance of the corneal spherical aberrations by the spherical aberrations of the intraocular lens also degraded the optical quality in pseudophakic eyes. We also measured the aberrations of the IOL in vitro, using an eye cell model, and simulated the aberrations of the IOL on the basis of the IOL's physical parameters. We found a good agreement among in vivo, in vitro, and simulated measures of spherical aberration: Unlike the spherical aberration of the young crystalline lens, which tends to be negative, the spherical aberration of the IOL is positive and increases with lens power. Computer simulations and in vitro measurements show that tilts and decentrations might be contributors to the increased third-order aberrations in vivo in comparison with in vitro measurements.

  1. Wavefront aberrations of x-ray dynamical diffraction beams.

    PubMed

    Liao, Keliang; Hong, Youli; Sheng, Weifan

    2014-10-01

    The effects of dynamical diffraction in x-ray diffractive optics with large numerical aperture render the wavefront aberrations difficult to describe using the aberration polynomials, yet knowledge of them plays an important role in a vast variety of scientific problems ranging from optical testing to adaptive optics. Although the diffraction theory of optical aberrations was established decades ago, its application in the area of x-ray dynamical diffraction theory (DDT) is still lacking. Here, we conduct a theoretical study on the aberration properties of x-ray dynamical diffraction beams. By treating the modulus of the complex envelope as the amplitude weight function in the orthogonalization procedure, we generalize the nonrecursive matrix method for the determination of orthonormal aberration polynomials, wherein Zernike DDT and Legendre DDT polynomials are proposed. As an example, we investigate the aberration evolution inside a tilted multilayer Laue lens. The corresponding Legendre DDT polynomials are obtained numerically, which represent balanced aberrations yielding minimum variance of the classical aberrations of an anamorphic optical system. The balancing of classical aberrations and their standard deviations are discussed. We also present the Strehl ratio of the primary and secondary balanced aberrations.

  2. Benzene-induced chromosome aberrations: A follow-up study

    SciTech Connect

    Forni, A.

    1996-12-01

    To study the evolution of cytogenetic damage from past exposure to high concentrations of benzene and its health significance, chromosome aberrations (CA) in lymphocytes were reinvestigated after approximately 20 years in four subjects with past severe hemopathy and in seven controls studied in the late 1960s. Increased chromosome-type aberrations were still present up to 30 years after benzene toxicity, but blood counts were normal. The vital status at the end of 1993 was ascertained for 32 subjects with a history of benzene toxicity and for 31 controls studied for CA from 1965 to 1970, who differed significantly for CA rates. Of the 32 benzene-exposed subjects, 1 was lost to follow-up, 20 were still alive, and 11 had died at ages 36 to 83, between 1 and 20 years after the last CA study. Five deaths were from neoplasia (acute erythroleukemia, brain tumor, cancer of lung, paranasal cavity, esophagus). The deceased subjects had significantly higher rates of chromosome-type aberrations than those alive, and those who died of neoplasia had the highest rates of these aberrations in the last study before death or diagnosis of cancer. Out of the 31 controls, 12 had died from 4 to 23 years after the CA study. Three deaths were from neoplasia (two lung cancer, one brain tumor). Even if this is a small sample, the results suggest a higher risk of cancer for the benzene-exposed cohort, who had persistently high CA rates in lymphocytes. 10 refs., 4 tabs.

  3. Chromosome aberrations in a large series of spontaneous miscarriages in the German population and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In a review of the literature in 2000 the different cytogenetic aspects of spontaneous miscarriages were well documented. This review also included the spontaneous miscarriage results of one large German study published in 1990. However, to our knowledge there are no new data on spontaneous miscarriages in the German population. Therefore, the aim of the present retrospective large study was to find out the incidence and types of chromosome aberrations in an unselected series of spontaneous miscarriages in the German population, and whether our more recent results were different to data published previously. In case of culture failure we implemented a quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) for chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X and Y. Results In the present German retrospective study cytogenetic analysis (CA) was attempted on 534 spontaneous miscarriages between weeks 7 and 34 of gestation, being successful in 73% (390/534) of them. Two hundred and thirty-seven of the cases (61%, 237/390) were chromosomally abnormal. Trisomy was the most common chromosome aberration and accounted for 53% (125/237) of the aberrant karyotypes. A multiple aneuploidy was observed in 7% (17/237) of the aberrant karyotypes. Chromosomes 16, 22, 15 and 21 were found most frequently involved in aneuploidies. Fifty-four cases (23%, 54/237) with a polyploidy were found in the present study. Single unbalanced structural chromosome aberrations accounted for 4% (10/237) of the aberrant karyotypes. Eleven samples (5%, 11/237) displayed a variety of numerical and/or structural chromosome aberrations. One hundred and forty-four spontaneous miscarriages (27%, 144/534) failed to grow in culture. A total of 27 cases were analysed by QF-PCR for chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X and Y, being informative in all cases. Conclusion In our German retrospective large study of spontaneous miscarriages, the incidence and types of chromosome aberrations by CA are within the reported range of other

  4. The Extent of Mismeasurement for Aberrant Examinees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petridou, Alexandra; Williams, Julian

    2010-01-01

    The person-fit literature assumes that aberrant response patterns could be a sign of person mismeasurement, but this assumption has rarely, if ever, been empirically investigated before. We explore the validity of test responses and measures of 10-year-old examinees whose response patterns on a commercial standardized paper-and-pencil mathematics…

  5. Relationships between chromosome structure and chromosomal aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eidelman, Yuri; Andreev, Sergey

    An interphase nucleus of human lymphocyte was simulated by the novel Monte Carlo tech-nique. The main features of interphase chromosome structure and packaging were taken into account: different levels of chromatin organisation; nonrandom localisation of chromosomes within a nucleus; chromosome loci dynamics. All chromosomes in a nucleus were modelled as polymer globules. A dynamic pattern of intra/interchromosomal contacts was simulated. The detailed information about chromosomal contacts, such as distribution of intrachromoso-mal contacts over the length of each chromosome and dependence of contact probability on genomic separation between chromosome loci, were calculated and compared to the new exper-imental data obtained by the Hi-C technique. Types and frequencies of simple and complex radiation-induced chromosomal exchange aberrations (CA) induced by X-rays were predicted with taking formation and decay of chromosomal contacts into account. Distance dependence of exchange formation probability was calculated directly. mFISH data for human lymphocytes were analysed. The calculated frequencies of simple CA agreed with the experimental data. Complex CA were underestimated despite the dense packaging of chromosome territories within a nucleus. Possible influence of chromosome-nucleus structural organisation on the frequency and spectrum of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations is discussed.

  6. Thiocyclam does not induce structural chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Celikler, Serap; Saleh, Kamel; Sarhan, Mohammed A.A.

    2010-01-01

    Thiocyclam (trade name Evisect) is a broad-spectrum nereistoxin analogue insecticide used widely for agricultural applications. The aim of this investigation was to determine its genotoxic effects in the chromosome aberration (CA) test and determining of mitotic index (MI), using lymphocytes from peripheral blood samples of healthy human donors. A negative and a positive control (MMC) were also included. Chromosomal analyses of the metaphase plates of the samples treated with 14 different concentrations (from 0.1 to 120 μg/ml) of thiocyclam, indicating the lack effect on chromosomes. Thus thiocyclam is not genotoxic but highly toxic on cell proliferation in human lymphocytes. PMID:23961080

  7. The application of information fusion in human eye aberration measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peiming; Chen, Jiabi; Cao, Liang; Zhuang, Songlin

    2008-12-01

    A novel human eye aberration measurement method based on information fusion is presented here. We built a combined subjective and objective human eye aberration measurement system which is composed by an objective measurement part which measure human eye aberration by using Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor and a subjective view test part through which can test the subject's vision. The deformable mirror can compensate the high order aberrations of human eye, and thus, can improve the visual acuity of human eye. We had weighting process on Zernike coefficients of both psychology stimulated results and objective results by the method of information fusion, and got combined Zernike coefficients, and finally the combined wavefront aberrations. The result shows that information fusion can combine advantages of both subjective and objective measurement, can have more comprehensive to characterized human eye visual performance, thus providing a more detailed advice for ideal individual human eye.

  8. Testing the cation-hydration effect on the crystallization of Ca-Mg-CO3 systems.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jie; Yan, Chao; Zhang, Fangfu; Konishi, Hiromi; Xu, Huifang; Teng, H Henry

    2013-10-29

    Dolomite and magnesite are simple anhydrous calcium and/or magnesium carbonate minerals occurring mostly at Earth surfaces. However, laboratory synthesis of neither species at ambient temperature and pressure conditions has been proven practically possible, and the lack of success was assumed to be related to the strong solvation shells of magnesium ions in aqueous media. Here, we report the synthesis of MgCO3 and MgxCa(1-x)CO3 (0 < x < 1) solid phases at ambient conditions in the absence of water. Experiments were carried out in dry organic solvent, and the results showed that, although anhydrous phases were readily precipitated in the water-free environment, the precipitates' crystallinity was highly dependent on the Mg molar percentage content in the solution. In specific, magnesian calcite dominated in low [Mg(2+)]/[Ca(2+)] solutions but gave way to exclusive formation of amorphous MgxCa(1-x)CO3 and MgCO3 in high-[Mg(2+)]/[Ca(2+)] and pure-Mg solutions. At conditions of [Mg(2+)]/[Ca(2+)] = 1, both nanocrystals of Ca-rich protodolomite and amorphous phase of Mg-rich MgxCa(1-x)CO3 were formed. These findings exposed a previously unrecognized intrinsic barrier for Mg(2+) and CO3(2-) to develop long-range orders at ambient conditions and suggested that the long-held belief of cation-hydration inhibition on dolomite and magnesite mineralization needed to be reevaluated. Our study provides significant insight into the long-standing "dolomite problem" in geochemistry and mineralogy and may promote a better understanding of the fundamental chemistry in biomineralization and mineral-carbonation processes.

  9. Do voltage-dependent K+ channels require Ca2+? A critical test employing a heterologous expression system.

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, C M; Miller, C

    1990-01-01

    Removal of Ca2+ from the solution bathing neurons is known in many cases to alter the gating properties of voltage-dependent K+ channels and to induce a large, nonselective "leak" conductance. We used a heterologous expression system to test whether the leak conductance observed in neurons is mediated by voltage-dependent K+ channels in an altered, debased conformation. Voltage-dependent K+ channels were expressed in an insect cell line infected with a recombinant baculovirus carrying the cDNA for Drosophila Shaker "A-type" K+ channels. These expressed channels respond to low Ca2+ identically to voltage-dependent K+ channels in native neuronal membranes; upon removal of external Ca2+, Shaker K+ currents disappear and are replaced by a steady, nonselective leak conductance. However, control cells devoid of Shaker channels were free of any voltage-dependent conductances and did not generate a leak when external Ca2+ was removed. These results show that Ca2+ is essential for proper function of voltage-dependent K+ channels and is required to stabilize the native conformations of these membrane proteins. PMID:2217187

  10. Aberration Compensation Using Nematic Liquid Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somalingam, S.; Hain, M.; Tschudi, T.; Knittel, J.; Richter, H.

    We have developed a novel transmissive nematic liquid crystal device which is capable of compensating spherical wavefront aberration that occurs during the operation of optical pickup systems. In order to increase the storage capacity, next generation optical data storage systems beyond CD and DVD will use according to the Blu-Ray specification (BD) blue laser light and an objective lens with high numerical aperture (N.A.) of 0.85. However, such high N.A. systems have an inherent higher sensitivity on aberrations. For example spherical aberration is inversely proportional to the wavelength and grows with the fourth power of N.A. of the objective lens. In an optical pickup system there are two sources for spherical aberration: The first one is the variation of the substrate thickness due to manufacturing tolerances under mass production conditions. The second one concerns disks with multiple data-layers, which cause spherical aberration when layers are switched, as the objective lens can only be optimized for a single layer thickness. We report a method for effective compensation of spherical aberration by utilizing a novel liquid crystal device, which generates a parabolic wavefront profile. This particular shape makes the device highly tolerant against lateral movement. A sophisticated electrode design allows us to reduce the number of driving electrodes down to two by using the method of conductive ladder mashing. Further evaluation in a blue-DVD test drive has been carried out with good results. By placing the device into an optical pick-up we were able to readout a dual-layer ROM disk with a total capacity of 50 gigabytes (GB). A data-to-clock jitter of 6.9% for the 80 μm and of 8.0% for the 100 μm cover layer could be realized.

  11. Aberration correction of unstable resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Robert J. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Construction of aspheric reflectors for unstable resonator lasers to provide an arbitrary laser mode inside the resonator to correct aberrations of an output beam by the construction of the shape of an end reflector opposite the output reflector of the resonator cavity, such as aberrations resulting from refraction of a beam exiting the solid of the resonator having an index of refraction greater than 1 or to produce an aberration in the output beam that will precisely compensate for the aberration of an optical train into which the resonator beam is coupled.

  12. Calculating carbon mass balance from unsaturated soil columns treated with CaSO₄₋minerals: test of soil carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Han, Young-Soo; Tokunaga, Tetsu K

    2014-12-01

    Renewed interest in managing C balance in soils is motivated by increasing atmospheric concentrations of CO2 and consequent climate change. Here, experiments were conducted in soil columns to determine C mass balances with and without addition of CaSO4-minerals (anhydrite and gypsum), which were hypothesized to promote soil organic carbon (SOC) retention and soil inorganic carbon (SIC) precipitation as calcite under slightly alkaline conditions. Changes in C contents in three phases (gas, liquid and solid) were measured in unsaturated soil columns tested for one year and comprehensive C mass balances were determined. The tested soil columns had no C inputs, and only C utilization by microbial activity and C transformations were assumed in the C chemistry. The measurements showed that changes in C inventories occurred through two processes, SOC loss and SIC gain. However, the measured SOC losses in the treated columns were lower than their corresponding control columns, indicating that the amendments promoted SOC retention. The SOC losses resulted mostly from microbial respiration and loss of CO2 to the atmosphere rather than from chemical leaching. Microbial oxidation of SOC appears to have been suppressed by increased Ca(2+) and SO4(2)(-) from dissolution of CaSO4 minerals. For the conditions tested, SIC accumulation per m(2) soil area under CaSO4-treatment ranged from 130 to 260 g C m(-1) infiltrated water (20-120 g C m(-1) infiltrated water as net C benefit). These results demonstrate the potential for increasing C sequestration in slightly alkaline soils via CaSO4-treatment.

  13. PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum (PROS): diagnostic and testing eligibility criteria, differential diagnosis, and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Keppler-Noreuil, Kim M; Rios, Jonathan J; Parker, Victoria E R; Semple, Robert K; Lindhurst, Marjorie J; Sapp, Julie C; Alomari, Ahmad; Ezaki, Marybeth; Dobyns, William; Biesecker, Leslie G

    2015-02-01

    Somatic activating mutations in the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/AKT/mTOR pathway underlie heterogeneous segmental overgrowth phenotypes. Because of the extreme differences among patients, we sought to characterize the phenotypic spectrum associated with different genotypes and mutation burdens, including a better understanding of associated complications and natural history. Historically, the clinical diagnoses in patients with PIK3CA activating mutations have included Fibroadipose hyperplasia or Overgrowth (FAO), Hemihyperplasia Multiple Lipomatosis (HHML), Congenital Lipomatous Overgrowth, Vascular Malformations, Epidermal Nevi, Scoliosis/Skeletal and Spinal (CLOVES) syndrome, macrodactyly, Fibroadipose Infiltrating Lipomatosis, and the related megalencephaly syndromes, Megalencephaly-Capillary Malformation (MCAP or M-CM) and Dysplastic Megalencephaly (DMEG). A workshop was convened at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to discuss and develop a consensus document regarding diagnosis and treatment of patients with PIK3CA-associated somatic overgrowth disorders. Participants in the workshop included a group of researchers from several institutions who have been studying these disorders and have published their findings, as well as representatives from patient-advocacy and support groups. The umbrella term of "PIK3CA-Related Overgrowth Spectrum (PROS)" was agreed upon to encompass both the known and emerging clinical entities associated with somatic PIK3CA mutations including, macrodactyly, FAO, HHML, CLOVES, and related megalencephaly conditions. Key clinical diagnostic features and criteria for testing were proposed, and testing approaches summarized. Preliminary recommendations for a uniform approach to assessment of overgrowth and molecular diagnostic testing were determined. Future areas to address include the surgical management of overgrowth tissue and vascular anomalies, the optimal approach to thrombosis risk, and the testing of potential

  14. Assessing the construct validity of aberrant salience.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Kristin; Roiser, Jonathan P

    2009-01-01

    We sought to validate the psychometric properties of a recently developed paradigm that aims to measure salience attribution processes proposed to contribute to positive psychotic symptoms, the Salience Attribution Test (SAT). The "aberrant salience" measure from the SAT showed good face validity in previous results, with elevated scores both in high-schizotypy individuals, and in patients with schizophrenia suffering from delusions. Exploring the construct validity of salience attribution variables derived from the SAT is important, since other factors, including latent inhibition/learned irrelevance (LIrr), attention, probabilistic reward learning, sensitivity to probability, general cognitive ability and working memory could influence these measures. Fifty healthy participants completed schizotypy scales, the SAT, a LIrr task, and a number of other cognitive tasks tapping into potentially confounding processes. Behavioural measures of interest from each task were entered into a principal components analysis, which yielded a five-factor structure accounting for approximately 75% of the variance in behaviour. Implicit aberrant salience was found to load onto its own factor, which was associated with elevated "Introvertive Anhedonia" schizotypy, replicating our previous finding. LIrr loaded onto a separate factor, which also included implicit adaptive salience, but was not associated with schizotypy. Explicit adaptive and aberrant salience, along with a measure of probabilistic learning, loaded onto a further factor, though this also did not correlate with schizotypy. These results suggest that the measures of LIrr and implicit adaptive salience might be based on similar underlying processes, which are dissociable both from implicit aberrant salience and explicit measures of salience.

  15. Camera processing with chromatic aberration.

    PubMed

    Korneliussen, Jan Tore; Hirakawa, Keigo

    2014-10-01

    Since the refractive index of materials commonly used for lens depends on the wavelengths of light, practical camera optics fail to converge light to a single point on an image plane. Known as chromatic aberration, this phenomenon distorts image details by introducing magnification error, defocus blur, and color fringes. Though achromatic and apochromatic lens designs reduce chromatic aberration to a degree, they are complex and expensive and they do not offer a perfect correction. In this paper, we propose a new postcapture processing scheme designed to overcome these problems computationally. Specifically, the proposed solution is comprised of chromatic aberration-tolerant demosaicking algorithm and post-demosaicking chromatic aberration correction. Experiments with simulated and real sensor data verify that the chromatic aberration is effectively corrected.

  16. Aerospace Testing Seminar, 13th, Manhattan Beach, CA, Oct. 8-10, 1991, Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The papers presented in this volume focus on the currently used aerospace test techniques, with attention given to the management of risk, cost, and problems encountered in attaining effective test methods. Topics discussed include a software environment for satellite environmental testing, modeling, and simulation; TQM as an operational process in testing; low-earth orbit global cellular communications network; and in place assembly and testing of satellites. Papers are also presented on lessons learned from modal testing of aerospace structures; the testability of software for the Space Station Freedom program; vibration testing of large structures; and solar probe shield development testing.

  17. Chromosome Aberrations in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Kerry A.; Durante, M.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    A review of currently available data on in vivo induced chromosome damage in the blood lymphocytes of astronauts proves that, after protracted exposure of a few months or more to space radiation, cytogenetic biodosimetry analyses of blood collected within a week or two of return from space provides a reliable estimate of equivalent radiation dose and risk. Recent studies indicate that biodosimetry estimates from single spaceflights lie within the range expected from physical dosimetry and biophysical models, but very large uncertainties are associated with single individual measurements and the total sample population remains low. Retrospective doses may be more difficult to estimate because of the fairly rapid time-dependent loss of "stable" aberrations in blood lymphocytes. Also, biodosimetry estimates from individuals who participate in multiple missions, or very long (interplanetary) missions, may be complicated by an adaptive response to space radiation and/or changes in lymphocyte survival and repopulation. A discussion of published data is presented and specific issues related to space radiation biodosimetry protocols are discussed.

  18. Correction of Distributed Optical Aberrations

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, K; Olivier, S; Carrano, C; Phillion, D

    2006-02-12

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate the use of multiple distributed deformable mirrors (DMs) to improve the performance of optical systems with distributed aberrations. This concept is expected to provide dramatic improvement in the optical performance of systems in applications where the aberrations are distributed along the optical path or within the instrument itself. Our approach used multiple actuated DMs distributed to match the aberration distribution. The project developed the algorithms necessary to determine the required corrections and simulate the performance of these multiple DM systems.

  19. Wide-angle chromatic aberration corrector for the human eye.

    PubMed

    Benny, Yael; Manzanera, Silvestre; Prieto, Pedro M; Ribak, Erez N; Artal, Pablo

    2007-06-01

    The human eye is affected by large chromatic aberration. This may limit vision and makes it difficult to see fine retinal details in ophthalmoscopy. We designed and built a two-triplet system for correcting the average longitudinal chromatic aberration of the eye while keeping a reasonably wide field of view. Measurements in real eyes were conducted to examine the level and optical quality of the correction. We also performed some tests to evaluate the effect of the corrector on visual performance.

  20. Chromosomal aberrations in a fish, Channa punctata after in vivo exposure to three heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Kamlesh K; Trivedi, Sunil P

    2009-08-01

    The studies were designed to assess the extent of chromosomal aberrations (CA) under the exposure of three common heavy metalic compounds, viz. mercuric chloride, arsenic trioxide and copper sulphate pentahydrate, in vivo using fish, Channa punctata (2n=32), as a test model. Prior acclimatized fishes were divided into five groups. Group I and II served as negative and positive control, respectively. An intramuscular injection of Mitomycin-C (@ 1mg/kg body wt.) was administered to group II only. Fishes of groups III, IV and V were subjected to sublethal concentrations (10% of 96h LC(50)), of HgCl(2) (0.081mg/L), As(2)O(3) (6.936mg/L) and CuSO(4)x5H(2)O (0.407mg/L). Fishes of all the groups were exposed uninterrupted for 24, 48, 72, 96 and 168h. Observations of kidney cells of exposed fishes revealed chromatid and chromosome breaks, chromatid and chromosome gaps along with ring and di-centric chromosomes. A significant increase over negative control in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations (CA) was observed in fish exposed to Mitomycin-C, Hg(II), As(III) and Cu(II). As the average + or - SE total number of CA, average number of CA per metaphase and %incidence of aberrant cells in Hg(II) was 104.40 + or - 8.189, 0.347 + or - 0.027 and 10.220 + or - 0.842, respectively; in As(III) 109.20 + or - 8.309, 0.363 + or - 0.027 and 10.820 + or - 2.347, respectively and in Cu(II) 89.00 + or - 19.066, 0.297 + or - 0.028 and 8.900 + or - 0.853, respectively. Hence, it reveals that the order of induction of frequency of CA was Cu

  1. Elastic and inelastic scattering of 240-MeV {sup 6}Li ions from {sup 40}Ca and {sup 48}Ca and tests of a systematic optical potential

    SciTech Connect

    Krishichayan,; Chen, X.; Lui, Y.-W.; Button, J.; Youngblood, D. H.

    2010-04-15

    Elastic and inelastic scattering of 240-MeV {sup 6}Li particles from {sup 40}Ca and {sup 48}Ca were measured with the multipole-dipole-multipole spectrometer from 4 deg. <=theta{sub c.m.}<=40 deg. Optical potential parameters were obtained by fitting the elastic-scattering data with the double-folding model using the density-dependent M3Y NN effective interaction and B(E2) and B(E3) values obtained for low-lying 2{sup +} and 3{sup -} states agreed with the adopted values. The results are compared with those obtained using potentials derived from the systematics of potentials previously obtained for {sup 24}Mg, {sup 28}Si, {sup 58}Ni, and {sup 90}Zr. Cross sections for excitation of giant resonances were also calculated with the potentials obtained.

  2. Lesion generation through ribs using histotripsy therapy without aberration correction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yohan; Wang, Tzu-Yin; Xu, Zhen; Cain, Charles A

    2011-11-01

    This study investigates the feasibility of using high-intensity pulsed therapeutic ultrasound, or histotripsy, to non-invasively generate lesions through the ribs. Histotripsy therapy mechanically ablates tissue through the generation of a cavitation bubble cloud, which occurs when the focal pressure exceeds a certain threshold. We hypothesize that histotripsy can generate precise lesions through the ribs without aberration correction if the main lobe retains its shape and exceeds the cavitation initiation threshold and the secondary lobes remain below the threshold. To test this hypothesis, a 750-kHz focused transducer was used to generate lesions in tissue-mimicking phantoms with and without the presence of rib aberrators. In all cases, 8000 pulses with 16 to 18 MPa peak rarefactional pressure at a repetition frequency of 100 Hz were applied without aberration correction. Despite the high secondary lobes introduced by the aberrators, high-speed imaging showed that bubble clouds were generated exclusively at the focus, resulting in well-confined lesions with comparable dimensions. Collateral damage from secondary lobes was negligible, caused by single bubbles that failed to form a cloud. These results support our hypothesis, suggesting that histotripsy has a high tolerance for aberrated fields and can generate confined focal lesions through rib obstacles without aberration correction.

  3. Lesion Generation Through Ribs Using Histotripsy Therapy Without Aberration Correction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yohan; Wang, Tzu-Yin; Xu, Zhen; Cain, Charles A.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the feasibility of using high-intensity pulsed therapeutic ultrasound, or histotripsy, to non-invasively generate lesions through the ribs. Histotripsy therapy mechanically ablates tissue through the generation of a cavitation bubble cloud, which occurs when the focal pressure exceeds a certain threshold. We hypothesize that histotripsy can generate precise lesions through the ribs without aberration correction if the main lobe retains its shape and exceeds the cavitation initiation threshold and the secondary lobes remain below the threshold. To test this hypothesis, a 750-kHz focused transducer was used to generate lesions in tissue-mimicking phantoms with and without the presence of rib aberrators. In all cases, 8000 pulses with 16 to 18 MPa peak rarefactional pressure at a repetition frequency of 100 Hz were applied without aberration correction. Despite the high secondary lobes introduced by the aberrators, high-speed imaging showed that bubble clouds were generated exclusively at the focus, resulting in well-confined lesions with comparable dimensions. Collateral damage from secondary lobes was negligible, caused by single bubbles that failed to form a cloud. These results support our hypothesis, suggesting that histotripsy has a high tolerance for aberrated fields and can generate confined focal lesions through rib obstacles without aberration correction. PMID:22083767

  4. [Influence of reagent storage in Sysmex CA7000 for different time on 4 test RESULTS: of the plasma coagulation].

    PubMed

    Chen, Tong-Qing; Li, Zhen-Xing

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of blood coagulation reagents stored for different time on test results of the specimens prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT) and fibrinogen (Fib). A total of 21 patient plasma specimens was taken and measured for homeostasis by Sysmex CA7000 automated blood coagulation analyzer and supporting reagent. The PT, APTT, TT and Fib of specimens were measured with the reagents stored in Sysmex CA7000 for different time. The differences of PT, APTT, TT and Fib were analyzed between values measured of the reagents stored for 0 hour and different time (TS:12, 24, 36,48, 60, 72 h; DA:24, 48, 72, 96, 120 h; TT:2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 h; TR:4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24 h; OVB:1, 2, 3, 4, 5 ,6 h), respectively. The results showed that when coagulation reagent TS were stored for more than 48 h , DA 96 h, TT 10 h, TR 16 h and OVB 4 h, the values of PT, APTT, TT and Fib of samples were statistically different from the values measured with fresh coagulation reagent (P < 0.01), respectively. Compared 0 h with TS stored for 48-72, DA 96-120, TT 10-12, TR 16-24 and OVB 4-6 h, the percentage difference of PT, APTT, TT and Fib is in -2.6% ∼ 10.8%, -3.44% ∼ 4.8%, -3.9% ∼ 5.52%, -10.8% ∼ 3.3% and -17.2% ∼ 0.5%, the PT and Fib changes were more significant. Accordingly, the result of PT, APTT and TT had a uptrend as the reagent stored in Sysmex CA7000 analyzer for a long time, while Fib downtrend. It is concluded that the reagents showed be timely replaced when the plasma coagulation test is performed so as to obtain accurate results of examination.

  5. Evaluation of large aberrations using a lateral-shear interferometer having variable shear.

    PubMed

    Rimmer, M P; Wyant, J C

    1975-01-01

    A variable shear lateral shearing interferometer consisting of two holographically produced crossed diffraction gratings is used to test nonrotationally symmetric wavefronts having aberrations greater than 100 wavelengths and slope variations of more than 400 wavelengths/diameter. Comparisons are made with results of Twyman-Green interferometric tests for wavefront aberrations of up to thirty wavelengths. The results indicate that small wavefront aberrations can be measured as accurately with the lateral-shear interferometer as with the Twyman-Green interferometer and that aberrations that cannot be measured at all with a Twyman-Green interferometer can be measured to about 1% accuracy or better.

  6. A CA-repeat polymorphism close to the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene offers improved diagnostic testing for familial APC

    SciTech Connect

    Spirio, L.; Nelson, L.; Ward, K.; Burt, R.; White, R.; Leppert, M. )

    1993-02-01

    Presymptomatic genetic testing for the presence of a mutant allele causing familial adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) has been difficult to perform effectively in the past because DNA markers surrounding the APC gene on chromosome 5q have not been very informative. The authors report results of genetic linkage studies on both research families and clinical families by using D5S346, a highly polymorphic dinucleotide (CA)-repeat locus 30-70 kb from the APC gene. Linkage analysis with this marker in a large APC pedigree showed an increase of at least 9.0 LOD units, in likelihood of linkage of the disease-causing allele to the APC locus, when compared with the highest LOD score attained with any other closely linked marker. When the first 14 APC families that requested genotypic analysis by the DNA Diagnostic Laboratory at the University of Utah were tested with D5S346, 20 of the 31 at-risk individuals were identified as either carriers or noncarriers of an APC-predisposing allele. The authors see this marker as an important tool for research studies and for the presymptomatic diagnosis of APC. 28 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Wave aberration function and its definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zverev, V. A.; Rytova, E. S.; Timoshchuk, I. N.

    2011-06-01

    A definition of a wave aberration as a phase shift upon composition of light waves in the image of a point is given using the concept of point eikonal. An expression that determines the total differential of a wave aberration function is obtained and the condition of its integrability is determined. The sequence of the wave aberration function definition at the known functions of the meridional and sagittal components of lateral aberration is presented.

  8. Using geometric algebra to study optical aberrations

    SciTech Connect

    Hanlon, J.; Ziock, H.

    1997-05-01

    This paper uses Geometric Algebra (GA) to study vector aberrations in optical systems with square and round pupils. GA is a new way to produce the classical optical aberration spot diagrams on the Gaussian image plane and surfaces near the Gaussian image plane. Spot diagrams of the third, fifth and seventh order aberrations for square and round pupils are developed to illustrate the theory.

  9. Testing the versatility of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase reaction cycle when p-nitrophenyl phosphate is the substrate.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Belda, F; Fortea, M I; Soler, F

    2001-03-16

    A detailed characterization of p-nitrophenyl phosphate as energy-donor substrate for the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase was undertaken in this study. The fact that p-nitrophenyl phosphate can be hydrolyzed in the presence or absence of Ca(2+) by the purified enzyme is consistent with the observed phenomenon of intramolecular uncoupling. Under the most favorable conditions, which include neutral pH, intact microsomal vesicles, and low free Ca(2+) in the lumen, the Ca(2+)/P(i) coupling ratio was 0.6. A rise or decrease in pH, high free Ca(2+) in the lumenal space, or the addition of dimethyl sulfoxide increase the intramolecular uncoupling. Alkaline pH and/or high free Ca(2+) in the lumen potentiate the accumulation of enzyme conformations with high Ca(2+) affinity. Acidic pH and/or dimethyl sulfoxide favor the accumulation of enzyme conformations with low Ca(2+) affinity. Under standard assay conditions, two uncoupled routes, together with a coupled route, are operative during the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate in the presence of Ca(2+). The prevalence of any one of the uncoupled catalytic cycles is dependent on the working conditions. The proposed reaction scheme constitutes a general model for understanding the mechanism of intramolecular energy uncoupling.

  10. Charge balancing of trivalent trace elements in olivine and low-Ca pyroxene - A test using experimental partitioning data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colson, R. O.; Taylor, L. A.; Mckay, G. A.

    1989-01-01

    Charge-balancing substitution mechanisms are determined for the incorporation of the trivalent cations Al and Sc in low-Ca pyroxene and Al, Sc, Yb, and Cr in olivine. In low-Ca pyroxene, the substitution mechanism is determined by evaluating covariations of trivalent trace cations with Si, Mg, Fe, and Ca. In olivine, substitution mechanisms are determined by comparing the observed compositional dependence of partitioning to the compositional dependence theoretically expected for each substitution reaction. A realistic equilibrium constant is formulated for trace element exchanges between olivines, low-Ca pyroxenes, and melt, making possible improved modeling of the variations of trace element partitioning with temperature and phase composition.

  11. Phase Aberrations in Diffraction Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Marchesini, S; Chapman, H N; Barty, A; Howells, M R; Spence, J H; Cui, C; Weierstall, U; Minor, A M

    2005-09-29

    In coherent X-ray diffraction microscopy the diffraction pattern generated by a sample illuminated with coherent x-rays is recorded, and a computer algorithm recovers the unmeasured phases to synthesize an image. By avoiding the use of a lens the resolution is limited, in principle, only by the largest scattering angles recorded. However, the imaging task is shifted from the experiment to the computer, and the algorithm's ability to recover meaningful images in the presence of noise and limited prior knowledge may produce aberrations in the reconstructed image. We analyze the low order aberrations produced by our phase retrieval algorithms. We present two methods to improve the accuracy and stability of reconstructions.

  12. Pathophysiology of MDS: genomic aberrations.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Motoshi

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are characterized by clonal proliferation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells and their apoptosis, and show a propensity to progress to acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Although MDS are recognized as neoplastic diseases caused by genomic aberrations of hematopoietic cells, the details of the genetic abnormalities underlying disease development have not as yet been fully elucidated due to difficulties in analyzing chromosomal abnormalities. Recent advances in comprehensive analyses of disease genomes including whole-genome sequencing technologies have revealed the genomic abnormalities in MDS. Surprisingly, gene mutations were found in approximately 80-90% of cases with MDS, and the novel mutations discovered with these technologies included previously unknown, MDS-specific, mutations such as those of the genes in the RNA-splicing machinery. It is anticipated that these recent studies will shed new light on the pathophysiology of MDS due to genomic aberrations.

  13. Seidel aberrations of the Gabor superlens.

    PubMed

    Hamilton Shepard, R

    2014-02-10

    Equations are presented for the third-order Seidel aberrations of the Gabor superlens (GSL) as a function of microtelescope channel position within the aperture array. To reveal the origin and form of increasing aberration with channel height, Seidel coefficients are derived as a function of the accumulating pitch difference between the lens arrays and the aberrations present in the centered channel. Two- and three-element Gabor lenses are investigated and their aberrations are expressed as a function of first-order design parameters. The derived theory is then compared to a real ray trace simulation to demonstrate the accuracy of third-order aberration theory to predict GSL image quality.

  14. Perceived no reference image quality measurement for chromatic aberration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, Anupama B.; Khambete, Madhuri

    2016-03-01

    Today there is need for no reference (NR) objective perceived image quality measurement techniques as conducting subjective experiments and making reference image available is a very difficult task. Very few NR perceived image quality measurement algorithms are available for color distortions like chromatic aberration (CA), color quantization with dither, and color saturation. We proposed NR image quality assessment (NR-IQA) algorithms for images distorted with CA. CA is mostly observed in images taken with digital cameras, having higher sensor resolution with inexpensive lenses. We compared our metric performance with two state-of-the-art NR blur techniques, one full reference IQA technique and three general-purpose NR-IQA techniques, although they are not tailored for CA. We used a CA dataset in the TID-2013 color image database to evaluate performance. Proposed algorithms give comparable performance with state-of-the-art techniques in terms of performance parameters and outperform them in terms of monotonicity and computational complexity. We have also discovered that the proposed CA algorithm best predicts perceived image quality of images distorted with realistic CA.

  15. Testing the Deglacial Global Ocean Alkalization Hypothesis Using Foraminifer-based Mg/Ca, Shell Weight, and MFI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, B. M.; Mekik, F.; Pourmand, A.

    2015-12-01

    In light of evidence for extensive modern ocean acidification, it has become imperative to better understand the global carbon cycle by reconstructing past ocean acidification/alkalization events. Our goal is to test the deglacial global alkalization hypothesis using a multi-proxy approach by reconstructing the pH, temperature, and [CO32-] of thermocline waters and the dissolution in deep sea sediments over the last 25,000 years in core ME-27 from the eastern equatorial Pacific. Our specific research questions are: Is there unequivocal evidence for a deglacial ocean alkalization event? If yes, what was the magnitude of the alkalization event? If no, how can we explain why evidence of this event is missing from our core? We inferred temperature from Mg/Ca, and habitat water [CO32-] from sized-normalized shell weight in Neogloboquadrina dutertrei. Dissolution in sediments was estimated using the Globorotalia menardii Fragmentation Index (MFI). We see no clear indication of a deglacial ocean alkalization event with our proxies. Neither our shell weight, nor MFI data show a more alkaline deglacial ocean compared to the Last Glacial Maximum and the modern Interglacial. Instead, we observe a steady decrease in thermocline [CO32-], and increase in deep sea calcite preservation since the LGM. Our results may indicate that the global alkalization event was obscured in ME-27 due to higher organic carbon fluxes during the deglacial, and/or due to yet undetermined effects of temperature on the foraminifer shell weight proxy.

  16. Aberration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    (1) The apparent displacement of a star from its mean position on the celestial sphere due to the velocity of the Earth in its orbit around the Sun. The phenomenon was discovered in 1729 by James Bradley (1693-1762) who was, in fact, trying to measure stellar parallax. The displacement is caused by the combination of the velocity of the Earth and the velocity of light approaching from the source. ...

  17. Correlations between corneal and total wavefront aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrochen, Michael; Jankov, Mirko; Bueeler, Michael; Seiler, Theo

    2002-06-01

    Purpose: Corneal topography data expressed as corneal aberrations are frequently used to report corneal laser surgery results. However, the optical image quality at the retina depends on all optical elements of the eye such as the human lens. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the correlations between the corneal and total wavefront aberrations and to discuss the importance of corneal aberrations for representing corneal laser surgery results. Methods: Thirty three eyes of 22 myopic subjects were measured with a corneal topography system and a Tschernig-type wavefront analyzer after the pupils were dilated to at least 6 mm in diameter. All measurements were centered with respect to the line of sight. Corneal and total wavefront aberrations were calculated up to the 6th Zernike order in the same reference plane. Results: Statistically significant correlations (p < 0.05) between the corneal and total wavefront aberrations were found for the astigmatism (C3,C5) and all 3rd Zernike order coefficients such as coma (C7,C8). No statistically significant correlations were found for all 4th to 6th order Zernike coefficients except for the 5th order horizontal coma C18 (p equals 0.003). On average, all Zernike coefficients for the corneal aberrations were found to be larger compared to Zernike coefficients for the total wavefront aberrations. Conclusions: Corneal aberrations are only of limited use for representing the optical quality of the human eye after corneal laser surgery. This is due to the lack of correlation between corneal and total wavefront aberrations in most of the higher order aberrations. Besides this, the data present in this study yield towards an aberration balancing between corneal aberrations and the optical elements within the eye that reduces the aberration from the cornea by a certain degree. Consequently, ideal customized ablations have to take both, corneal and total wavefront aberrations, into consideration.

  18. Antimutagenic potential of curcumin on chromosomal aberrations in Allium cepa *

    PubMed Central

    Ragunathan, Irulappan; Panneerselvam, Natarajan

    2007-01-01

    Turmeric has long been used as a spice and food colouring agent in Asia. In the present investigation, the antimutagenic potential of curcumin was evaluated in Allium cepa root meristem cells. So far there is no report on the biological properties of curcumin in plant test systems. The root tip cells were treated with sodium azide at 200 and 300 µg/ml for 3 h and curcumin was given at 5, 10 and 20 µg/ml for 16 h, prior to sodium azide treatment. The tips were squashed after colchicine treatment and the cells were analyzed for chromosome aberration and mitotic index. Curcumin induces chromosomal aberration in Allium cepa root tip cells in an insignificant manner, when compared with untreated control. Sodium azide alone induces chromosomal aberrations significantly with increasing concentrations. The total number of aberrations was significantly reduced in root tip cells pretreated with curcumin. The study reveals that curcumin has antimutagenic potential against sodium azide induced chromosomal aberrations in Allium cepa root meristem cells. In addition, it showed mild cytotoxicity by reducing the percentage of mitotic index in all curcumin treated groups, but the mechanism of action remains unknown. The antimutagenic potential of curcumin is effective at 5 µg/ml in Allium cepa root meristem cells. PMID:17610326

  19. Aberrant DNA Methylation and Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Majumdar, Sunipa; Buckles, Eric; Estrada, John; Koochekpour, Shahriar

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most prevalent cancer, a significant contributor to morbidity and a leading cause of cancer-related death in men in Western industrialized countries. In contrast to genetic changes that vary among individual cases, somatic epigenetic alterations are early and highly consistent events. Epigenetics encompasses several different phenomena, such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, RNA interference, and genomic imprinting. Epigenetic processes regulate gene expression and can change malignancy-associated phenotypes such as growth, migration, invasion, or angiogenesis. Methylations of certain genes are associated with PCa progression. Compared to normal prostate tissues, several hypermethylated genes have also been identified in benign prostate hyperplasia, which suggests a role for aberrant methylation in this growth dysfunction. Global and gene-specific DNA methylation could be affected by environmental and dietary factors. Among other epigenetic changes, aberrant DNA methylation might have a great potential as diagnostic or prognostic marker for PCa and could be tested in tumor tissues and various body fluids (e.g., serum, urine). The DNA methylation markers are simple in nature, have high sensitivity, and could be detected either quantitatively or qualitatively. Availability of genome-wide screening methodologies also allows the identification of epigenetic signatures in high throughput population studies. Unlike irreversible genetic changes, epigenetic alterations are reversible and could be used for PCa targeted therapies. PMID:22547956

  20. Aberrant Behaviour of Persons with Developmental Disabilities as a Function of the Characteristics of Training Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vause, Tricia; Martin, Garry L.; Yu, Dickie

    1999-01-01

    A study used the Assessment of Basic Learning Abilities to assess the abilities of three adults with mental retardation in order to reduce aberrant behavior. There was a higher frequency of aberrant responses during training sessions with training tasks above or below a participant's assessment level on the test. (Contains references.) (CR)

  1. Fabrication and performance testing of CaO insulator coatings on V-5%Cr-5%Ti in liquid lithium

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.H.; Dragel, G.

    1995-04-01

    Corrosion resistance of structural materials, and the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) force and its influence on thermal hydraulics and corrosion, are major concerns in the design of liquid-metal blankets for magnetic fusion reactors (MFRs). The objective of this study is to develop in-situ stable coatings at the liquid-metal/structural-material interface, with emphasis on coatings that can be converted to an electrically insulating film to prevent adverse currents that are generated by the MHD force from passing through the structural walls. The electrical resistance of CaO coatings produced on V-5Cr-5Ti by exposure of the alloy to liquid Li that contained 0.5 - 8.5 wt.% dissolved Ca was measured as a function of time at temperatures between 250 and 600{degree}C. The solute element, Ca in liquid Li, reacted with the alloy substrate at 400-420{degree}C to produce a CaO coating.

  2. Aberrations for Grazing Incidence Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Timo T.

    2008-01-01

    Large number of grazing incidence telescope configurations have been designed and studied. Wolte1 telescopes are commonly used in astronomical applications. Wolter telescopes consist of a paraboloidal primary mirror and a hyperboloidal or an ellipsoidal secondary mirror. There are 8 possible combinations of Wolter telescopes. Out of these possible designs only type 1 and type 2 telescopes are widely used. Type 1 telescope is typically used for x-ray applications and type 2 telescopes are used for EUV applications. Wolter-Schwarzshild (WS) telescopes offer improved image quality over a small field of view. The WS designs are stigmatic and free of third order coma and, therefore, the PSF is significantly better over a small field of view. Typically the image is more symmetric about its centroid. As for the Wolter telescopes there are 8 possible combinations of WS telescopes. These designs have not been widely used because the surface equations are complex parametric equations complicating the analysis and typically the resolution requirements are too low to take full advantage of the WS designs. There are several other design options. Most notable are wide field x-ray telescope designs. Polynomial designs were originally suggested by Burrows4 and hyperboloid-hyperboloid designs for solar physics applications were designed by Harvey5. No general aberration theory exists for grazing incidence telescopes that would cover all the design options. Several authors have studied the aberrations of grazing incidence telescopes. A comprehensive theory of Wolter type 1 and 2 telescopes has been developed. Later this theory was expanded to include all possible combinations of grazing incidence and also normal incidence paraboloid-hyperboloid and paraboloid-ellipsoid telescopes. In this article the aberration theory of Wolter type telescopes is briefly reviewed.

  3. Automation of the in vitro micronucleus and chromosome aberration assay for the assessment of the genotoxicity of the particulate and gas-vapor phase of cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Roemer, Ewald; Zenzen, Volker; Conroy, Lynda L; Luedemann, Kathrin; Dempsey, Ruth; Schunck, Christian; Sticken, Edgar Trelles

    2015-01-01

    Total particulate matter (TPM) and the gas-vapor phase (GVP) of mainstream smoke from the Reference Cigarette 3R4F were assayed in the cytokinesis-block in vitro micronucleus (MN) assay and the in vitro chromosome aberration (CA) assay, both using V79-4 Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts exposed for up to 24 h. The Metafer image analysis platform was adapted resulting in a fully automated evaluation system of the MN assay for the detection, identification and reporting of cells with micronuclei together with the determination of the cytokinesis-block proliferation index (CBPI) to quantify the treatment-related cytotoxicity. In the CA assay, the same platform was used to identify, map and retrieve metaphases for a subsequent CA evaluation by a trained evaluator. In both the assays, TPM and GVP provoked a significant genotoxic effect: up to 6-fold more micronucleated target cells than in the negative control and up to 10-fold increases in aberrant metaphases. Data variability was lower in the automated version of the MN assay than in the non-automated. It can be estimated that two test substances that differ in their genotoxicity by approximately 30% can statistically be distinguished in the automated MN and CA assays. Time savings, based on man hours, due to the automation were approximately 70% in the MN and 25% in the CA assays. The turn-around time of the evaluation phase could be shortened by 35 and 50%, respectively. Although only cigarette smoke-derived test material has been applied, the technical improvements should be of value for other test substances.

  4. An integrative characterization of recurrent molecular aberrations in glioblastoma genomes.

    PubMed

    Sintupisut, Nardnisa; Liu, Pei-Ling; Yeang, Chen-Hsiang

    2013-10-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and malignant primary brain tumor in adults. Decades of investigations and the recent effort of the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project have mapped many molecular alterations in GBM cells. Alterations on DNAs may dysregulate gene expressions and drive malignancy of tumors. It is thus important to uncover causal and statistical dependency between 'effector' molecular aberrations and 'target' gene expressions in GBMs. A rich collection of prior studies attempted to combine copy number variation (CNV) and mRNA expression data. However, systematic methods to integrate multiple types of cancer genomic data-gene mutations, single nucleotide polymorphisms, CNVs, DNA methylations, mRNA and microRNA expressions and clinical information-are relatively scarce. We proposed an algorithm to build 'association modules' linking effector molecular aberrations and target gene expressions and applied the module-finding algorithm to the integrated TCGA GBM data sets. The inferred association modules were validated by six tests using external information and datasets of central nervous system tumors: (i) indication of prognostic effects among patients; (ii) coherence of target gene expressions; (iii) retention of effector-target associations in external data sets; (iv) recurrence of effector molecular aberrations in GBM; (v) functional enrichment of target genes; and (vi) co-citations between effectors and targets. Modules associated with well-known molecular aberrations of GBM-such as chromosome 7 amplifications, chromosome 10 deletions, EGFR and NF1 mutations-passed the majority of the validation tests. Furthermore, several modules associated with less well-reported molecular aberrations-such as chromosome 11 CNVs, CD40, PLXNB1 and GSTM1 methylations, and mir-21 expressions-were also validated by external information. In particular, modules constituting trans-acting effects with chromosome 11 CNVs and cis-acting effects with chromosome

  5. The misalignment induced aberrations of TMA telescopes.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Kevin P; Schmid, Tobias; Rolland, Jannick P

    2008-12-08

    The next major space-borne observatory, the James Webb Space Telescope, will be a 6.6M field-biased, obscured, three-mirror anastigmat (TMA). Over the used field of view, the performance of TMA telescopes is dominated by 3(rd) order misalignment aberrations. Here it is shown that two dominant 3(rd) order misalignment aberrations arise for any TMA telescope. One aberration, field constant 3(rd) order coma is a well known misalignment aberration commonly seen in two-mirror Ritchey Chretien telescopes. The second aberration, field-asymmetric, field-linear, 3(rd) order astigmatism is a new and unique image orientation dependence with field derived here for the first time using nodal aberration theory.

  6. Phase and birefringence aberration correction

    DOEpatents

    Bowers, Mark; Hankla, Allen

    1996-01-01

    A Brillouin enhanced four wave mixing phase conjugate mirror corrects phase aberrations of a coherent electromagnetic beam and birefringence induced upon that beam. The stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugation technique is augmented to include Brillouin enhanced four wave mixing (BEFWM). A seed beam is generated by a main oscillator which arrives at the phase conjugate cell before the signal beams in order to initiate the Brillouin effect. The signal beam which is being amplified through the amplifier chain is split into two perpendicularly polarized beams. One of the two beams is chosen to be the same polarization as some component of the seed beam, the other orthogonal to the first. The polarization of the orthogonal beam is then rotated 90.degree. such that it is parallel to the other signal beam. The three beams are then focused into cell containing a medium capable of Brillouin excitation. The two signal beams are focused such that they cross the seed beam path before their respective beam waists in order to achieve BEFWM or the two signal beams are focused to a point or points contained within the focused cone angle of the seed beam to achieve seeded SBS, and thus negate the effects of all birefringent and material aberrations in the system.

  7. Phase and birefringence aberration correction

    DOEpatents

    Bowers, M.; Hankla, A.

    1996-07-09

    A Brillouin enhanced four wave mixing phase conjugate mirror corrects phase aberrations of a coherent electromagnetic beam and birefringence induced upon that beam. The stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugation technique is augmented to include Brillouin enhanced four wave mixing (BEFWM). A seed beam is generated by a main oscillator which arrives at the phase conjugate cell before the signal beams in order to initiate the Brillouin effect. The signal beam which is being amplified through the amplifier chain is split into two perpendicularly polarized beams. One of the two beams is chosen to be the same polarization as some component of the seed beam, the other orthogonal to the first. The polarization of the orthogonal beam is then rotated 90{degree} such that it is parallel to the other signal beam. The three beams are then focused into cell containing a medium capable of Brillouin excitation. The two signal beams are focused such that they cross the seed beam path before their respective beam waists in order to achieve BEFWM or the two signal beams are focused to a point or points contained within the focused cone angle of the seed beam to achieve seeded SBS, and thus negate the effects of all birefringent and material aberrations in the system. 5 figs.

  8. Aberrations of ellipsoidal reflectors for unit magnification.

    PubMed

    Mielenz, K D

    1974-12-01

    Ellipsoidal reflectors are useful for the 1:1 imaging of small objects without spherical and chromatic aberration. The magnitude of the off-axis aberrations of such reflectors is computed by application of Fermat's principle to the Hamiltonian point characteristic. The limiting form of the mirror aperture for which these aberrations do not exceed a set tolerance is an ellipse whose semiaxes depend on object size and angle of incidence.

  9. Monochromatic ocular wave aberrations in young monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Ramamirtham, Ramkumar; Kee, Chea-su; Hung, Li-Fang; Qiao-Grider, Ying; Roorda, Austin; Smith, Earl L.

    2006-01-01

    High-order monochromatic aberrations could potentially influence vision-dependent refractive development in a variety of ways. As a first step in understanding the effects of wave aberration on refractive development, we characterized the maturational changes that take place in the high-order aberrations of infant rhesus monkey eyes. Specifically, we compared the monochromatic wave aberrations of infant and adolescent animals and measured the longitudinal changes in the high-order aberrations of infant monkeys during the early period when emmetropization takes place. Our main findings were that (1) adolescent monkey eyes have excellent optical quality, exhibiting total RMS errors that were slightly better than those for adult human eyes that have the same numerical aperture and (2) shortly after birth, infant rhesus monkeys exhibited relatively larger magnitudes of high-order aberrations predominately spherical aberration, coma, and trefoil, which decreased rapidly to assume adolescent values by about 200 days of age. The results demonstrate that rhesus monkey eyes are a good model for studying the contribution of individual ocular components to the eye’s overall aberration structure, the mechanisms responsible for the improvements in optical quality that occur during early ocular development, and the effects of high-order aberrations on ocular growth and emmetropization. PMID:16750549

  10. Test for Chemical Induction of Chromosome Aberration in Cultured Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) Cells With and Without Metabolic Activation. Test Article: N,N,N’,N’-tetramethyl Ethanediamine (TMEDA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-13

    ability to activate benzo ( a ) pyrene (BP) and 2 .. aminoanthracene (2 .. AA) to intermediates mutagenic to TAlOO. Assays were conducted using...no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control...Practice. TMEDA was tested at concentrations of 500, 1000, 2500 and 5000 ?g/mL in both with and without activation. It produced a positive response in

  11. Neutron beam tests of CsI(Na) and CaF2(Eu) crystals for dark matter direct search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, C.; Ma, X. H.; Wang, Z. M.; Bao, J.; Dai, C. J.; Guan, M. Y.; Liu, J. C.; Li, Z. H.; Ren, J.; Ruan, X. C.; Yang, C. G.; Yu, Z. Y.; Zhong, W. L.; Huerta, C.

    2016-05-01

    In recent decades, inorganic crystals have been widely used in dark matter direct search experiments. To contribute to the understanding of the capabilities of CsI(Na) and CaF2(Eu) crystals, a mono-energetic neutron beam is utilized to study the properties of nuclear recoils, which are expected to be similar to signals of dark matter direct detection. The quenching factor of nuclear recoils in CsI(Na) and CaF2Eu, as well as an improved discrimination factor between nuclear recoils and γ backgrounds in CsI(Na), are reported.

  12. Testing the CaR-FA-X Model: Investigating the Mechanisms Underlying Reduced Autobiographical Memory Specificity in Individuals With and Without a History of Depression

    PubMed Central

    Sumner, Jennifer A.; Mineka, Susan; Adam, Emma K.; Craske, Michelle G.; Vrshek-Schallhorn, Suzanne; Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate; Zinbarg, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    Reduced autobiographical memory specificity (AMS) is an important cognitive phenomenon in major depressive disorder (MDD), but knowledge is lacking about its mechanisms. The CaR-FA-X model of Williams and colleagues proposed that three processes contribute to reduced AMS, alone or in interaction: capture and rumination (CaR), functional avoidance (FA), and impaired executive control (X). However, the entire CaR-FA-X model has not been tested. We addressed this gap in the literature by investigating contributions of the CaR-FA-X mechanisms to reduced AMS, alone or in interaction, in a subset of young adults (N=439) from the Northwestern-UCLA Youth Emotion Project. Participants were classified as those with (n=164) and without (n=275) a history of MDD at AMS assessment. They completed measures of: AMS; rumination (the brooding factor; CaR); childhood, adolescent, and early adulthood adversity (FA); avoidant coping (FA); and verbal fluency (X). Using structural equation modeling, we found greatest support for associations between reduced AMS and the capture and rumination, and impaired executive control mechanisms. In those with and without a history of MDD, brooding and verbal fluency interacted to contribute to reduced AMS. For participants without a history of MDD, lower verbal fluency (indicating impaired executive control) was associated with reduced AMS among those high on brooding. For participants with a history of MDD, lower verbal fluency was associated with reduced AMS among those low on brooding. The first finding was consistent with predictions from the CaR-FA-X model but the latter was not. Implications for conceptualizations of reduced AMS and its mechanisms are discussed. PMID:24978693

  13. Testing the CaR-FA-X model: investigating the mechanisms underlying reduced autobiographical memory specificity in individuals with and without a history of depression.

    PubMed

    Sumner, Jennifer A; Mineka, Susan; Adam, Emma K; Craske, Michelle G; Vrshek-Schallhorn, Suzanne; Wolitzky-Taylor, Kate; Zinbarg, Richard E

    2014-08-01

    Reduced autobiographical memory specificity (AMS) is an important cognitive phenomenon in major depressive disorder (MDD), but knowledge about mechanisms is lacking. The CaR-FA-X model of Williams and colleagues (2007) proposed that 3 processes contributed to reduce AMS: capture and rumination (CaR), functional avoidance (FA), and impaired executive control (X). However, the entire CaR-FA-X model has not been tested. We addressed this gap in the literature by investigating contributions of the CaR-FA-X mechanisms to reduced AMS, alone or in interaction, in a subset of young adults (N = 439) from the Northwestern-UCLA Youth Emotion Project. Participants were classified as those with (n = 164) and without (n = 275) a history of MDD at AMS assessment. They completed measures of: AMS; rumination (the brooding factor; CaR); childhood, adolescent, and early adulthood adversity (FA); avoidant coping (FA); and verbal fluency (X). Using structural equation modeling, we found greatest support for associations between reduced AMS and the capture and rumination, and impaired executive control mechanisms. In those with and without a history of MDD, brooding and verbal fluency interacted to contribute to reduced AMS. For participants without a history of MDD, lower verbal fluency (indicating impaired executive control) was associated with reduced AMS among those high on brooding. For participants with a history of MDD, lower verbal fluency was associated with reduced AMS among those low on brooding. The first finding was consistent with the CaR-FA-X model but the latter was not. Implications for conceptualizations of reduced AMS and its mechanisms are discussed.

  14. Congenital Aberrant Tearing: A Re-Look

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Marilyn T.; Strömland, Kerstin; Ventura, Liana

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Congenital aberrant tearing is characterized by tearing when eating (“crocodile tears”), lack of emotional tearing, or both. Most reported cases are associated with Duane syndrome. In our previous studies we observed aberrant tearing in individuals with thalidomide embryopathy and Möbius sequence. This report summarizes the literature on the subject and adds 3 new studies that give information on this unusual condition. Methods Twenty-eight individuals with Möbius sequence were interviewed about tearing symptoms at a support group meeting in Italy. In Sweden 30 adults primarily from the original thalidomide series were reexamined. In this latter study, a Schirmer test was done at baseline and repeated 5 minutes after eating. Twenty families in Brazil who have children with Möbius sequence were questioned about tearing symptoms and exposure to misoprostol during pregnancy. Results In the 28 Italian individuals, either “crocodile tears” or lack of emotional tearing was noted in 7 cases. In the thalidomide study, 10 of 30 patients had tearing when eating and 7 had no emotional tearing. Low Schirmer scores or increased tearing after eating was noted in a few asymptomatic individuals. Among the 20 Brazilian children with Möbius sequence, 10 had some tearing abnormality. Conclusion Congenital anomalous lacrimation is rare but usually associated with Duane syndrome or abduction deficits, as in Möbius sequence and, less frequently, facial nerve palsy. Studies implicate an early insult in development at 4 to 6 weeks. At that time the facial nerve, sixth nerve, and lacrimal nucleus are in close proximity in the embryo. PMID:19277226

  15. Learning Disorders and Sex Chromosome Aberrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hier, D. B.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    In a prospective study of 20 adult dyslexic men, no sex chromosome aberrations were detected. A retrospective study of 89 Ss with known sex chromosome aberrations revealed 20 of them to be mentally retarded. Among the 69 Ss of normal intelligence, learning, speech, and attention disorders were frequent. (Author/DLS)

  16. Validation of Medi·Ca EC Method for AOAC Research Institute Performance Tested Methods(SM) Certification.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Mai; Saito, Fumihiko; Takenaka, Kentaro; Kimura, Narumi; Suzuki, Takeo; Iwase, Tatsuhiko; Kyotani, Hitoshi

    2017-03-01

    A ready-made dry medium method for Escherichia coli and coliform count, the Medi·Ca EC method, was compared with the most probable number (MPN) method using Brilliant Green Lactose Bile broth and E. coli broth (AOAC INTERNATIONAL Official MethodSM 966.24) for seven food matrixes: raw beef, raw pork, raw frozen pork, raw lamb, raw salmon, frankfurter sausage, and cooked ham. The mean difference between the two methods at each contamination level for each matrix was <0.5 log10, and the 95% confidence intervals for the mean differences fell within the range of -0.5 to 0.5, with the exception of a few cases in the independent laboratory study. sr and RSDr values of the Medi·Ca EC method were generally lower than those of the MPN method, and r2 ranged from 0.91 to 0.99. Product consistency and stability studies showed little variability between production lots and the shelf-life of 20 months. An incubation time within the range of 22-26 h did not adversely affect the results; however, variations in sample volume did affect final counts. These results showed that the Medi·Ca EC method is a reasonable alternative to the reference method for the selected food matrixes and makes it possible to simultaneously detect and enumerate E. coli and coliform in only 24 h.

  17. Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase pathway aberrations in gastric and colorectal cancer: meta-analysis, co-occurrence and ethnic variation.

    PubMed

    Chong, Mei-Ling; Loh, Marie; Thakkar, Bhavin; Pang, Brendan; Iacopetta, Barry; Soong, Richie

    2014-03-01

    Inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway is a cancer treatment strategy that has entered into clinical trials. We performed a meta-analysis on the frequency of prominent genetic (PIK3CA mutation, PIK3CA amplification and PTEN deletion) and protein expression (high PI3K, PTEN loss and high pAkt) aberrations in the PI3K pathway in gastric cancer (GC) and colorectal cancer (CRC). We also performed laboratory analysis to investigate the co-occurrence of these aberrations. The meta-analysis indicated that East Asian and Caucasian GC patients differ significantly for the frequencies of PIK3CA Exon 9 and 20 mutations (7% vs. 15%, respectively), PTEN deletion (21% vs. 4%) and PTEN loss (47% vs. 78%), while CRC patients differed for PTEN loss (57% vs. 26%). High study heterogeneity (I(2) > 80) was observed for all aberrations except PIK3CA mutations. Laboratory analysis of tumors from East Asian patients revealed significant differences between GC (n = 79) and CRC (n = 116) for the frequencies of PIK3CA amplification (46% vs. 4%) and PTEN loss (54% vs. 78%). The incidence of GC cases with 0, 1, 2 and 3 concurrent aberrations was 14%, 52%, 27% and 8%, respectively, while for CRC it was 10%, 60%, 25% and 4%, respectively. Our study consolidates knowledge on the frequency, co-occurrence and clinical relevance of PI3K pathway aberrations in GC and CRC. Up to 86% of GC and 90% of CRC have at least one aberration in the PI3K pathway, and there are significant differences in the frequencies of these aberrations according to cancer type and ethnicity.

  18. The chronic treatment in vivo of salicylate or morphine alters excitatory effects of subsequent salicylate or morphine tests in vitro in hippocampus area CA1.

    PubMed

    Sadegh, Mehdi; Fathollahi, Yaghoub; Semnanian, Saeed

    2013-12-05

    The current practical tests were designed to study in vitro interactions in the field potential between salicylate and morphine analgesics in the hippocampus area CA1 taken from morphine-(7 days) or salicylate (6 days)-treated rats. For this, morphine or salicylate was applied in vitro to the hippocampal slices derived from chronically drug-treated or saline-injected rats and drug-induced changes in evoked field potentials of area CA1 were evaluated. Chronic treatment in vivo of morphine or salicylate had no impact on baseline field EPSP and population spikes (PS) but a leftward shift in fEPSP/PS (E/S) curves and an increase in paired pulse ratio at 10 ms IPI were seen. Acute in vitro salicylate produced a durable PS potentiation in morphine-treated group, whereas an increase in PS of all groups was observed after long-term exposure to in vitro salicylate. Acute in vitro morphine caused a stable PS potentiation in control and salicylate treated groups, but not in morphine treated group. A potentiated fEPSP and a greater PS potentiation in salicylate treated group were observed after long-term exposure to in vitro morphine. It is concluded that the chronic treatment in vivo of salicylate or morphine incites lasting changes in the CA1 circuitry, which alters excitatory effects of subsequent salicylate or morphine tests in vitro in a way that an increase in reactivity or tolerance to the acute salicylate or morphine administration was observed.

  19. Iteration of ultrasound aberration correction methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maasoey, Svein-Erik; Angelsen, Bjoern; Varslot, Trond

    2004-05-01

    Aberration in ultrasound medical imaging is usually modeled by time-delay and amplitude variations concentrated on the transmitting/receiving array. This filter process is here denoted a TDA filter. The TDA filter is an approximation to the physical aberration process, which occurs over an extended part of the human body wall. Estimation of the TDA filter, and performing correction on transmit and receive, has proven difficult. It has yet to be shown that this method works adequately for severe aberration. Estimation of the TDA filter can be iterated by retransmitting a corrected signal and re-estimate until a convergence criterion is fulfilled (adaptive imaging). Two methods for estimating time-delay and amplitude variations in receive signals from random scatterers have been developed. One method correlates each element signal with a reference signal. The other method use eigenvalue decomposition of the receive cross-spectrum matrix, based upon a receive energy-maximizing criterion. Simulations of iterating aberration correction with a TDA filter have been investigated to study its convergence properties. A weak and strong human-body wall model generated aberration. Both emulated the human abdominal wall. Results after iteration improve aberration correction substantially, and both estimation methods converge, even for the case of strong aberration.

  20. Polarization aberrations of crossed folding mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crandall, David G.; Chipman, Russell A.

    1995-08-01

    Polarization aberrations due to varying polarization state across the field of view (FOV) are investigated for crossed folding mirrors. We define crossed mirrors as oriented in space such that s-polarized light incident on the first mirror is p-polarized at the second mirror. This completely compensates for polarization state changes at one point in the field of view. The resulting polarization aberrations are explored across the FOV using the example of aluminum mirrors overcoated with a 12 layer, highly reflective, dielectric stack. The polarization aberration is very low along a band across the field of view. For arbitrary points in the FOV, the retardance and diattenuation are slightly elliptical.

  1. Temporal Dependence of Chromosomal Aberration on Radiation Quality and Cellular Genetic Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Tao; Zhang, Ye; Krieger, Stephanie; Yeshitla, Samrawit; Goss, Rosalin; Bowler, Deborah; Kadhim, Munira; Wilson, Bobby; Wu, Honglu

    2017-01-01

    Radiation induced cancer risks are driven by genetic instability. It is not well understood how different radiation sources induce genetic instability in cells with different genetic background. Here we report our studies on genetic instability, particularly chromosome instability using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), in human primary lymphocytes, normal human fibroblasts, and transformed human mammary epithelial cells in a temporal manner after exposure to high energy protons and Fe ions. The chromosome spread was prepared 48 hours, 1 week, 2 week, and 1 month after radiation exposure. Chromosome aberrations were analyzed with whole chromosome specific probes (chr. 3 and chr. 6). After exposure to protons and Fe ions of similar cumulative energy (??), Fe ions induced more chromosomal aberrations at early time point (48 hours) in all three types of cells. Over time (after 1 month), more chromosome aberrations were observed in cells exposed to Fe ions than in the same type of cells exposed to protons. While the mammary epithelial cells have higher intrinsic genetic instability and higher rate of initial chromosome aberrations than the fibroblasts, the fibroblasts retained more chromosomal aberration after long term cell culture (1 month) in comparison to their initial frequency of chromosome aberration. In lymphocytes, the chromosome aberration frequency at 1 month after exposure to Fe ions was close to unexposed background, and the chromosome aberration frequency at 1 month after exposure to proton was much higher. In addition to human cells, mouse bone marrow cells isolated from strains CBA/CaH and C57BL/6 were irradiated with proton or Fe ions and were analyzed for chromosome aberration at different time points. Cells from CBA mice showed similar frequency of chromosome aberration at early and late time points, while cells from C57 mice showed very different chromosome aberration rate at early and late time points. Our results suggest that relative

  2. Image Ellipticity from Atmospheric Aberrations

    SciTech Connect

    de Vries, W H; Olivier, S S; Asztalos, S J; Rosenberg, L J; Baker, K L

    2007-03-06

    We investigate the ellipticity of the point-spread function (PSF) produced by imaging an unresolved source with a telescope, subject to the effects of atmospheric turbulence. It is important to quantify these effects in order to understand the errors in shape measurements of astronomical objects, such as those used to study weak gravitational lensing of field galaxies. The PSF modeling involves either a Fourier transform of the phase information in the pupil plane or a ray-tracing approach, which has the advantage of requiring fewer computations than the Fourier transform. Using a standard method, involving the Gaussian weighted second moments of intensity, we then calculate the ellipticity of the PSF patterns. We find significant ellipticity for the instantaneous patterns (up to more than 10%). Longer exposures, which we approximate by combining multiple (N) images from uncorrelated atmospheric realizations, yield progressively lower ellipticity (as 1/{radical}N). We also verify that the measured ellipticity does not depend on the sampling interval in the pupil plane using the Fourier method. However, we find that the results using the ray-tracing technique do depend on the pupil sampling interval, representing a gradual breakdown of the geometric approximation at high spatial frequencies. Therefore, ray tracing is generally not an accurate method of modeling PSF ellipticity induced by atmospheric turbulence unless some additional procedure is implemented to correctly account for the effects of high spatial frequency aberrations. The Fourier method, however, can be used directly to accurately model PSF ellipticity, which can give insights into errors in the statistics of field galaxy shapes used in studies of weak gravitational lensing.

  3. Somatic mutations in PIK3CA and activation of AKT in intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasms of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Kuboki, Yuko; Hatori, Takashi; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Shiratori, Keiko; Kawamura, Shunji; Kobayashi, Makio; Shimizu, Michio; Ban, Shinichi; Koyama, Isamu; Higashi, Morihiro; Shin, Nobuhiro; Ishida, Kazuyuki; Morikawa, Takanori; Motoi, Fuyuhiko; Unno, Michiaki; Kanno, Atsushi; Satoh, Kennichi; Shimosegawa, Tooru; Orikasa, Hideki; Watanabe, Tomoo; Nishimura, Kazuhiko; Harada, Youji; Furukawa, Toru

    2011-12-01

    Intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasm (ITPN) is a recently recognized rare variant of intraductal neoplasms of the pancreas. Molecular aberrations underlying the neoplasm remain unknown. We investigated somatic mutations in PIK3CA, PTEN, AKT1, KRAS, and BRAF. We also investigated aberrant expressions of phosphorylated AKT, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), tumor protein 53 (TP53), SMAD4, and CTNNB1 in 11 cases of ITPNs and compared these data with those of 50 cases of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN), another distinct variant of pancreatic intraductal neoplasms. Mutations in PIK3CA were found in 3 of 11 ITPNs but not in IPMNs (P = 0.005; Fisher exact test). In contrast, mutations in KRAS were found in none of the ITPNs but were found in 26 of the 50 IPMNs (P = 0.001; Fisher exact test). PIK3CA mutations were associated with strong expression of phosphorylated AKT (P < 0.001; the Mann-Whitney U test). Moreover, the expression of phosphorylated AKT was apparent in most ITPNs but only in a few IPMNs (P < 0.001; the Mann-Whitney U test). Aberrant expressions of TP53, SMAD4, and CTNNB1 were not statistically different between these neoplasms. Mutations in PIK3CA and the expression of phosphorylated AKT were not associated with age, sex, tissue invasion, and patients' prognosis in ITPNs. These results indicate that activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway may play a crucial role in ITPNs but not in IPMNs. In contrast, the mutation in KRAS seems to play a major role in IPMNs but not in ITPNs. The activated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway may be a potential target for molecular diagnosis and therapy of ITPNs.

  4. Enzyme-linked PNA lectin binding assay compared with CA19-9 and CEA radioimmunoassay as a diagnostic blood test for pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Ching, C. K.; Rhodes, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that sera from patients with pancreatic cancer often contain a mucus glycoprotein that expresses the oncofetal antigen galactose 1-3, N-acetyl galactosamine, which is the T blood group antigen and the binding site for the lectin peanut agglutinin (PNA). An enzyme-linked lectin assay has been developed to quantify PNA-binding glycoproteins in serum and has been evaluated as a serological test for pancreatic cancer. Sera were studied from 53 patients with pancreatic cancer and 154 controls, including benign obstructive jaundice, acute and chronic pancreatitis, chronic liver disease and inflammatory bowel disease. The enzyme-linked peanut lectin assay proved highly reproducible and has 77% sensitivity and 83% specificity for pancreatic cancer, results that are very similar to those achieved in the same sera by CA19-9 radioimmunoassay (75% sensitivity, 82% specificity with the upper limit of normal set at 37 u ml-1). CEA assay proved less useful (60% sensitivity, 47% specificity). In this study better results were obtained if an upper limit of normal of 50 u ml-1 was used for CA19-9 (75% sensitivity, 92% specificity). Combination of CA19-9 assay with the upper limit set at 50 u ml-1 and the peanut lectin assay improved the sensitivity to 85% with only a slight fall in specificity (85%). These results compare well with published results for ultrasound and CT scanning. PMID:2736232

  5. Sensing Phase Aberrations behind Lyot Coronagraphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Soummer, Rémi; Pueyo, Laurent; Wallace, J. Kent; Shao, Michael

    2008-11-01

    Direct detection of young extrasolar planets orbiting nearby stars can be accomplished from the ground with extreme adaptive optics and coronagraphy in the near-infrared, as long as this combination can provide an image with a dynamic range of 107 after the data are processed. Slowly varying speckles due to residual phase aberrations that are not measured by the primary wave-front sensor are the primary obstacle to achieving such a dynamic range. In particular, non-common optical path aberrations occurring between the wave-front sensor and the coronagraphic occulting spot degrade performance the most. We analyze the passage of both low and high spatial frequency phase ripples, as well as low-order Zernike aberrations, through an apodized pupil Lyot coronagraph in order to demonstrate the way coronagraphic filtering affects various aberrations. We derive the coronagraphically induced cutoff frequency of the filtering and estimate coronagraphic contrast losses due to low-order Zernike aberrations: tilt, astigmatism, defocus, coma, and spherical aberration. Such slowly varying path errors can be measured behind a coronagraph and corrected by a slowly updated optical path delay precompensation or offset asserted on the wave front by the adaptive optics (AO) system. We suggest ways of measuring and correcting all but the lowest spatial frequency aberrations using Lyot plane wave-front data, in spite of the complex interaction between the coronagraph and those mid-spatial frequency aberrations that cause image plane speckles near the coronagraphic focal plane mask occulter's edge. This investigation provides guidance for next-generation coronagraphic instruments currently under construction.

  6. Chromosome aberrations in decondensed sperm DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    Factors that could influence the chromosomal aberration frequency observed at first cleavage following in vivo exposure of germ cells to chemical mutagens are discussed. The techniques of chromosome aberration analysis following sperm DNA condensation by in vitro fertilization or fusion seem to be viable research areas for providing information of human germ cell exposures. However, the potential sensitivity of the assay needs to be better understood, and factors that can influence this sensitivity require a great deal of further study using animal models.

  7. Individual eye model based on wavefront aberration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Huanqing; Wang, Zhaoqi; Zhao, Qiuling; Quan, Wei; Wang, Yan

    2005-03-01

    Based on the widely used Gullstrand-Le Grand eye model, the individual human eye model has been established here, which has individual corneal data, anterior chamber depth and the eyeball depth. Furthermore, the foremost thing is that the wavefront aberration calculated from the individual eye model is equal to the eye's wavefront aberration measured with the Hartmann-shack wavefront sensor. There are four main steps to build the model. Firstly, the corneal topography instrument was used to measure the corneal surfaces and depth. And in order to input cornea into the optical model, high-order aspheric surface-Zernike Fringe Sag surface was chosen to fit the corneal surfaces. Secondly, the Hartmann-shack wavefront sensor, which can offer the Zernike polynomials to describe the wavefront aberration, was built to measure the wavefront aberration of the eye. Thirdly, the eye's axial lengths among every part were measured with A-ultrasonic technology. Then the data were input into the optical design software-ZEMAX and the crystalline lens's shapes were optimized with the aberration as the merit function. The individual eye model, which has the same wavefront aberrations with the real eye, is established.

  8. Filtering chromatic aberration for wide acceptance angle electrostatic lenses.

    PubMed

    Fazekas, Ádám; Tóth, László

    2014-07-01

    Chromatic aberration is a major issue for imaging mainly with large acceptance angle electrostatic lenses. Its correction is necessary to take advantage of the outstanding spatial and angular resolution that these lenses provide. We propose a method to eliminate the effect of chromatic aberration on the measured images by determining the impact resulting from higher and lower kinetic energies. Based on a spectral image sequence and a matrix, which describes the transmission function of the lens, a system of linear equations is solved to approximate the 2D spectral intensity distribution of the sample surface. We present the description of our method and preliminary test results, which show significant contrast and image quality improvement. The presented algorithm can also be applied as a software-based energy analyzer.

  9. Chromosomal aberrations induced by the restriction endonucleases EcoR I, Pst I, Sal I and Bam HI in CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S Z; Dong, W F

    1987-09-01

    4 widely used cohesive end-producing restriction endonucleases (REs), EcoR I, Pst I, Sal I and Bam HI were tested in CHO cells for their aberration-inducing effects. It was demonstrated that all these REs significantly increased the frequencies of aberrant cells, the aberration frequencies per cell and the aberration frequencies per chromosome. The effects of REs on chromosomal aberrations are similar to ionizing radiation, but more minutes and interchange figures are observed. Polyploid cells are more susceptible to RE treatment, an interesting finding which may be explained by the mechanisms leading to the formation of polyploid cells.

  10. Pulse compressor with aberration correction

    SciTech Connect

    Mankos, Marian

    2015-11-30

    In this SBIR project, Electron Optica, Inc. (EOI) is developing an electron mirror-based pulse compressor attachment to new and retrofitted dynamic transmission electron microscopes (DTEMs) and ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) cameras for improving the temporal resolution of these instruments from the characteristic range of a few picoseconds to a few nanoseconds and beyond, into the sub-100 femtosecond range. The improvement will enable electron microscopes and diffraction cameras to better resolve the dynamics of reactions in the areas of solid state physics, chemistry, and biology. EOI’s pulse compressor technology utilizes the combination of electron mirror optics and a magnetic beam separator to compress the electron pulse. The design exploits the symmetry inherent in reversing the electron trajectory in the mirror in order to compress the temporally broadened beam. This system also simultaneously corrects the chromatic and spherical aberration of the objective lens for improved spatial resolution. This correction will be found valuable as the source size is reduced with laser-triggered point source emitters. With such emitters, it might be possible to significantly reduce the illuminated area and carry out ultrafast diffraction experiments from small regions of the sample, e.g. from individual grains or nanoparticles. During phase I, EOI drafted a set of candidate pulse compressor architectures and evaluated the trade-offs between temporal resolution and electron bunch size to achieve the optimum design for two particular applications with market potential: increasing the temporal and spatial resolution of UEDs, and increasing the temporal and spatial resolution of DTEMs. Specialized software packages that have been developed by MEBS, Ltd. were used to calculate the electron optical properties of the key pulse compressor components: namely, the magnetic prism, the electron mirror, and the electron lenses. In the final step, these results were folded

  11. Comparative testing of various flow-cell detectors fabricated using CaF{sub 2} solid scintillator

    SciTech Connect

    Kawano, T.; Ohashi, H.; Hamada, Y.; Jamsranjav, E.

    2015-03-15

    A monitoring system based on a flow-cell detector was developed for measuring the tritium concentration in water. The flow-cell detector was fabricated using a granular CaF{sub 2} solid scintillator. This system does not use a liquid scintillation counting system and does not generate radioactive organic liquid waste. Moreover, continuous real-time measurements are possible, in contrast to a liquid scintillation counting system, which requires batch measurements. For further development of the system, four flow-cell detectors were fabricated. They included a single 3-mm-diameter cell, three 3-mm-diameter cells in series, a single 5-mm-diameter cell, and three 5-mm-diameter cells in series. Continuously flowing water containing tritium at various concentrations was passed through the flow cells, and tritium count were measured for 600 and 10000 s. Investigating the relation between the count rate and concentration, the three 5-mm-diameter cells were most sensitive, with a linear relation maintained down to approximately 2 Bq/ml and 10 Bq/ml for 10000- and 600-s measurements, respectively. (authors)

  12. Concurrent Sr/Ca Ratios and Bomb Test 14C Records from a Porites evermanni Colony on Kure Atoll: SST, Climate Change, Ocean Circulation and Management Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covarrubias, S.; Potts, D.; Siciliano, D.; Andrews, A.; Franks, R.

    2013-12-01

    Coral reefs near their latitudinal and ecological limits may be affected disproportionately by global climate changes, especially by changing sea surface temperatures (SST's). One such reef is Kure Atoll, the northernmost reef in the Hawaiian chain. Kure Atoll experiences dramatic temperature and seasonal differences throughout the year. Tracking these fluctuations is important for understanding recent physical forces affecting coral growth in such marginal reefs, and for predicting likely responses to future climate and oceanic changes. We used Sr/Ca ratios of a 50cm Porites evermanni coral core collected in Kure (September 2002) as a SST proxy for reconstructing a temperature timescale spanning the length of the core (~62 years). After cutting a 5 mm thick slab through the center growth axis and X-raying it to identify annual density banding, we extracted 4 equally-spaced samples from each annual increment to quantify, seasonal, inter-annual, and decadal SST patterns. We measured Sr and Ca concentrations by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). We then converted Sr/Ca ratios (mmol/mol) to SST using published equations, and calibrated the more recent SST estimates against satellite-based SST imagery and instrumental records from Midway Atoll (ca. 90 km to SE). We coupled the ICP-OES data with Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) scans along the core to provide higher temporal resolution for interpreting intra-seasonal and inter-seasonal trends. Higher resolution of temperature dating can help us interpret strong inter-seasonal changes not readily seen with low resolution measurements, giving us the ability to track temperature anomalies at interannual and decadal timescales, such as El Niño/Southern Oscillation or La Niña/North Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Further, the SST signature from the Sr/Ca analyses are being used in conjunction with bomb radiocarbon signals in order to establish a complete

  13. Synthesis of SiO₂ and CaO rich calcium silicate systems via sol-gel process: bioactivity, biocompatibility, and drug delivery tests.

    PubMed

    Catauro, M; Papale, F; Roviello, G; Ferone, C; Bollino, F; Trifuoggi, M; Aurilio, C

    2014-09-01

    Silica and calcium silicate amorphous materials, mixed with sodium ampicillin, a broad-spectrum antibiotic, have been synthesized by sol-gel method. The amorphous nature of the gels was ascertained by X-ray diffraction analysis. The bioactivity of the synthesized materials has been put into evidence by the appearance of a crystal of hydroxyapatite on the surface of the samples soaked in a fluid simulating the composition of the human blood plasma, as detected through FTIR measurements and SEM micrographs. The present work refers to a series of in-vitro biocompatibility tests, which has been performed on silicate and CaO rich calcium silicate gel-glasses, to study the cell behavior when seeded on 1 cm(2) material fragments, introduced into an in-vitro culture system. 3T3 cell lines have been used and the viability has been evaluated by WST-8 test. The composition of the adopted glasses can be expressed by the following general formula: x CaO• (1 - x) SiO2 with x = 0.00; 0.30; 0.40; 0.50; 0.60. Subsequently, release kinetics in a simulate body fluid (SBF) has been investigated. The amount of sodium ampicillin released has been detected by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The release kinetics has appeared to occur in more than one stage. All data have shown that those materials could be used as drug delivery bioactive systems.

  14. Frequency of Early and Late Chromosome Aberrations in Different Types of Cells After Proton and Fe Ion Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Tao; Wu, Honglu; Zhang, Ye; Yeshitla, Samrawit; Kadhim, Munira; Wilson, Bobby; Bowler, Deborah

    2016-07-01

    DNA damages induced by space radiation, consisting of protons and high-LET charged particles, can be complex in nature, which are often left unrepaired and cause chromosomal aberrations. Increased level of genomic instability is attributed to tumorigenesis and increased cancer risks. To investigate genomic instability induced by charged particles, human lymphocytes ex vivo, human fibroblasts, and human mammary epithelial cells, as well as mouse bone marrow stem cells isolated from CBA/CaH and C57BL/6 strains were exposed to high energy protons and Fe ions. Metaphase chromosome spreads at different cell divisions after radiation exposure were collected and, chromosome aberrations were analyzed with fluorescence in situ hybridization with whole chromosome-specific probes for human cells. With proton irradiation, levels of chromosome aberrations decreased by about 50% in both lymphocytes and epithelial cells after multiple cell divisions, compared to initial chromosome aberrations at 48 hours post irradiation in both cell types. With Fe ion irradiation, however, the frequency of chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes after multiple cell divisions was significantly lower than that in epithelial cells at comparable cell divisions, while their initial chromosome aberrations were at similar levels. Similar to the human cells, after Fe ion irradiation, the frequency of late chromosome aberrations was similar to that of the early damages for radio-sensitive CBA cells, but different for radio-resistant C57 cells. Our results suggest that relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values are dependent not only on radiation sources, but also on cell types and cell divisions.

  15. Measurement of optical system aberrations based on randomly encoded hybrid grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jiabin; Ling, Tong; Yang, Yongying; Zhang, Rui

    2016-10-01

    A lateral shearing interferometer based on randomly encoded hybrid grating (REHG) is proposed to measure the optical system aberrations. According to the theory of Fraunhofer diffraction, the REHG is designed to be a combination of a randomly encoded binary amplitude grating and a phase chessboard. Compared with the conventional cross-grating lateral shearing interferometer, the REHG is more suitable for the general aberration testing since no order selection mask is needed. Collimated beam for aberration measurement will converge after passing through the optics system under test. Then the quadriwave lateral shearing interferogram containing the wave-front aberration information is then recorded by the CCD. By selecting its +1 order of the Fourier spectrum in both X and Y directions, the shearing wavefronts in both two orthogonal directions can be obtained employing phase unwarping algorithm. Zernike polynomials are used as basic functions for the original wave-front, and the coefficients of Zernike polynomials can be obtained with shearing wave-fronts. In the experiment, we employed a REHG with a grating pitch of 240μm to test a cemented doublet optics with an aperture of 50mm and a focal lengths of 90mm. The test results showed the peak-to-valley (PTV) aberration is 0.242λ while the root-mean-square (RMS) is 0.064λ. The test results by the REHG are very close to the results by the ZYGO GPI interferometer while the error of PTV is 0.003λ and the error of RMS is 0.007λ. The measurement of optical system aberrations by REHG can reach high precision and exhibit good immunity to environmental disturbance. The REHG can be applied to the optical testing of beam quality, optical system aberration and biomedical research.

  16. Mutational consequences of aberrant ion channels in neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dhiraj; Ambasta, Rashmi K; Kumar, Pravir

    2014-11-01

    Neurological channelopathies are attributed to aberrant ion channels affecting CNS, PNS, cardiac, and skeletal muscles. To maintain the homeostasis of excitable tissues, functional ion channels are necessary to rely electrical signals, whereas any malfunctioning serves as an intrinsic factor to develop neurological channelopathies. Molecular basis of these disease is studied based on genetic and biophysical approaches, e.g., loci positional cloning, whereas pathogenesis and bio-behavioral analysis revealed the dependency on genetic mutations and inter-current triggering factors. Although electrophysiological studies revealed the possible mechanisms of diseases, analytical study of ion channels remained unsettled and therefore underlying mechanism in channelopathies is necessary for better clinical application. Herein, we demonstrated (i) structural and functional role of various ion channels (Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+),Cl(-)), (ii) pathophysiology involved in the onset of their associated channelopathies, and (iii) comparative sequence and phylogenetic analysis of diversified sodium, potassium, calcium, and chloride ion channel subtypes.

  17. Test Review: Colarusso, R. P., & Hammill, D. D. (2003). "Motor-Free Visual Perception Test."(3rd ed.). Novata, CA: Academic Therapy Publications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCane, Sara Jean

    2006-01-01

    The Motor-Free Visual Perception Test: Third edition (MVPT-3; Colarusso & Hammill, 2003) purports to measure overall visual perceptual ability. Task responses require no motor ability, eliminating the effect of motor performance on the overall visual perception score. The test authors suggested that this MVPT-3 characteristic allows for its…

  18. Influence of design on bioactivity of novel CaSiO3-CaMg(SiO3)2 bioceramics: in vitro simulated body fluid test and thermodynamic simulation.

    PubMed

    Sainz, M A; Pena, P; Serena, S; Caballero, A

    2010-07-01

    A new type of bioactive ceramic has been designed and obtained from high-temperature phase information from the wollastonite (CaSiO(3))-diopside (CaMg(SiO(3))(2)) phase equilibrium diagram. The selected composition was that corresponding to the eutectic point of the pseudobinary CaSiO(3)-CaMg(SiO(3))(2) system. The sintering behaviour, phase evolution, microstructural changes and in vitro bioactivity of CaSiO(3)-CaMg(SiO(3))(2) eutectic bioceramics were analysed by differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and image analysis. A simulation of the dissolution properties of the different materials studied, in water as well as in simulated body fluid (SBF), was also carried out by thermodynamic calculations, with the purpose of understanding the in vitro results obtained. The results demonstrate that the CaMg(SiO(3))(2) is significantly less soluble than CaSiO(3), developing an in situ porous structure (biomimetic porous bone material) with adequate biodegradation rate and stability strength when immersed in SBF. The influence of the microstructure (porosity, grain size and phase composition) on the in vitro bioactivity of the obtained bioceramics was also examined.

  19. Safety evaluation of a triazine compound nitromezuril by assessing bacterial reverse mutation, sperm abnormalities, micronucleus and chromosomal aberration.

    PubMed

    Fei, Chenzhong; Zhang, Jie; Lin, Yang; Wang, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Keyu; Zhang, Lifang; Zheng, Wenli; Wang, Mi; Li, Tao; Xiao, Sui; Xue, Feiqun; Wang, Chunmei

    2015-04-01

    Nitromezuril (NZL) is a novel triazine compound that exhibits remarkable anticoccidial activity. However, mutagenicity and genotoxicity of NZL have not been evaluated to date. This study evaluated the potential risks of NZL by testing for bacterial reverse mutation (Ames), mouse sperm abnormality (SA), bone marrow micronucleus (MN) and chromosomal aberration (CA). Mice were orally administered with NZL at 385, 192 and 96 mg/kg, corresponding to 0.5 ×, 0.25 × and 0.125 × the LD50 of NZL, respectively. No significant increases in SA and CA were found in mice treated with NZL for 5d and 3d, respectively (P>0.05). NZL at 96-385 mg/kg did not have significant influence on micronucleated polychromatic erythrocyte counts (P>0.05). These results suggest that NZL is not genotoxic. However, Ames test results were positive both with and without the S9 system for Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100, suggesting that NZL may be mutagenic. The mutagenic effects of NZL were different in in vitro and in vivo assays. Further studies should be conducted to confirm the safety of using and developing NZL as a novel anticoccidial drug.

  20. Pilot Tests of Satellite Snowcover/Runoff Forecasting Systems. [Arizona, Sierra Nevada Mountains (Ca), Colorado, Rocky Mountains (North America)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, A.

    1978-01-01

    Major snow zones of the western U.S. were selected to test the capability of satellite systems for mapping snowcover in various snow, cloud, climatic, and vegetation regimes. Different satellite snowcover analysis methods used in each area are described along with results.

  1. Gene Targets in Prostate Tumor Cells that Mediate Aberrant Growth and Invasiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    Craig A. Hauser , Ph.D. Gabriele Foos, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: The Burnham Institute La Jolla, California 92037 REPORT DATE: February 2005 TYPE...NUMBERS Gene Targets in Prostate Tumor Cells that Mediate DAMD17-02-1-0019 Aberrant Growth and Invasiveness 6. AUTHOR(S) Craig A. Hauser , Ph.D. Gabriele...REPORTABLE OUTCOMES Foos G, Hauser CA (2004) The role of Ets transcription factors in mediating cellular transformation. In: Handbook of Experimental

  2. Environmental Impact Analysis Process, Environmental Assessment Space Test Experiments Platform Mission 1, Vandenberg Air Force Base, CA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    ASSESSMENT SPACE TEST EXPERIMENTS PLATFORM MISSION 1 VANDENBERG AIR FORCE BASE, CALIFORNIA AGENCY: United States Air Force (USAF...ACTION: The DOD STP proposes to launch the STEP M1 spacecraft from Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB), California . STP is procuring a space vehicle...An F- 16 chase aircraft, originating from Edwards Air Force Base, California , will be used for visual observations to improve flight safety. 2 It

  3. Aberration corrected Lorentz scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    McVitie, S; McGrouther, D; McFadzean, S; MacLaren, D A; O'Shea, K J; Benitez, M J

    2015-05-01

    We present results from an aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscope which has been customised for high resolution quantitative Lorentz microscopy with the sample located in a magnetic field free or low field environment. We discuss the innovations in microscope instrumentation and additional hardware that underpin the imaging improvements in resolution and detection with a focus on developments in differential phase contrast microscopy. Examples from materials possessing nanometre scale variations in magnetisation illustrate the potential for aberration corrected Lorentz imaging as a tool to further our understanding of magnetism on this lengthscale.

  4. Misalignment induced aberration off-axis optical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Zhihai; Fan, Xuewu; Ma, Zhen; Zou, Gangyi

    2016-10-01

    Through introducing transformed pupil vector and shifted center of aberration fields vector into the nodal aberration expansions of an axially symmetric optical system, the aberration expression in third order of an off-axis optical system and misaligned off-axis optical system are detailed. Nodal aberration characteristics of misaligned off-axis optical system are revealed only by analyzing the pupil decentration vector, aberration fields shifted vector and the aberration coefficients of the axially symmetric optical system. Actually, it is well demonstrated that the 3rd spherical aberration, 3rd coma, 3rd astigmatism in a misalignment off-axis system are comparable to the aberrations in a misalignment axially symmetric system. Otherwise it will not only induced constant 3rd spherical aberration but also constant 3rd coma and 3rd astigmatism over the field of view, when aligned an off-axis optical system elements with error axial spacing.

  5. Holographically Correcting Synthetic Aperture Aberrations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    Malacara (20:105-148). The synthetic aperture was aligned in accordance with the synthetic-aperture alignment technique of Gill (8:61-64). The...1987. 20. Malacara , Daniel, ed. Optical Shop Testing. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1978. 21. Marciniak, Capt Michael. Tutorial Presentation of mV

  6. A correction method for the axial maladjustment of transmission-type optical system based on aberration theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chunmei; Huang, Fu-yu; Yin, Jian-ling; Chen, Yu-dan; Mao, Shao-juan

    2016-10-01

    The influence of aberration on misalignment of optical system is considered fully, the deficiencies of Gauss optical correction method is pointed, and a correction method for transmission-type misalignment optical system is proposed based on aberration theory. The variation regularity of single lens aberration caused by axial displacement is analyzed, and the aberration effect is defined. On this basis, through calculating the size of lens adjustment induced by the image position error and the magnifying rate error, the misalignment correction formula based on the constraints of the aberration is deduced mathematically. Taking the three lens collimation system for an example, the test is carried out to validate this method, and its superiority is proved.

  7. Testing for the Influence of Light Availability on Tree-Ring Reconstructed Temperature at Sonora Pass, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, L.; Stine, A.

    2015-12-01

    Tree-ring width and density near treeline tend to covary with local interannual temperature, motivating the use of such records to reconstruct past temperature variability. However, recent work has introduced the possibility of multiple environmental factors contributing to tree growth in cold environments. We investigate the influence of small-scale light variability on tree-ring based temperature reconstructions from a treeline ecotone. We establish an experimental plot near Sonora Pass in the California Sierra Nevada (38.32N, 119.64W; elev. 3130 m). This treeline environment is dominated by whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) growing as individuals and in stands, providing an opportunity to test the sensitivity of mean growth rate and interannual variability to light availability. For each tree we quantify the local light environment using three approaches: (i.) geometrical estimates of shading from neighboring trees, (ii.) photographic estimates of shading from neighboring trees, and (iii.) geometric estimates of direct light availability resulting from aspect and local topography. Geometrical estimates of shading are made by mapping the relative position and crown dimensions of each tree in the plot in order to calculate a shading index that will be used to test hypotheses about the influence of shading on tree growth. Photographic estimates of tree-level shading are created by taking hemispheric photographs at the crown edge of each tree and calculating the effects of neighboring trees on direct and diffuse light availability using the Gap Light Analyzer software. To quantify tree growth, increment cores are collected from all trees in the plot to develop sub-chronologies of ring records grouped by different light environments. We hypothesize that trees growing in open areas or at edge of stands, which experience little inter-tree competition, would likely produce ring records more closely correlated with the temperature record; whereas trees growing in middle

  8. Aberrations of diffracted wave fields. II. Diffraction gratings.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, V N

    2000-12-01

    The Rayleigh-Sommerfeld theory is applied to diffraction of a spherical wave by a grating. The grating equation is obtained from the aberration-free diffraction pattern, and its aberrations are shown to be the same as the conventional aberrations obtained by using Fermat's principle. These aberrations are shown to be not associated with the diffraction process. Moreover, it is shown that the irradiance distribution of a certain diffraction order is the Fraunhofer diffraction pattern of the grating aperture as a whole aberrated by the aberration of that order.

  9. Removing lateral chromatic aberration in bright field optical microscopy.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Altamirano, Miguel; Gutiérrez-Medina, Braulio

    2015-06-01

    We present an efficient alternative to remove lateral chromatic aberration (LCA) in bright field light microscopy images. Our procedure is based on error calibration using time-sequential acquisition at different wavelengths, and error correction through digital image warping. Measurement of the displacements of fiducial marks in the red and green images relative to blue provide calibration factors that are subsequently used in test images to realign color channels digitally. We demonstrate quantitative improvement in the position and boundaries of objects in target slides and in the color content and morphology of specimens in stained biological samples. Our results show a reduction of LCA content below the 0.1% level.

  10. Miniaturized modules for light sheet microscopy with low chromatic aberration.

    PubMed

    Bruns, T; Bauer, M; Bruns, S; Meyer, H; Kubin, D; Schneckenburger, H

    2016-12-01

    Two miniaturized fibre-coupled modules for light sheet-based microscopy are described and compared with respect to image quality, chromatic aberration and beam alignment. Whereas in one module the light sheet is created by an achromatic cylindrical lens, reflection by a spherical mirror and concomitant astigmatic distortion are used to create the light sheet in the second module. Test experiments with fluorescent dyes in solution and multicellular tumour spheroids are reported, and some details on construction are given for both systems. Both modules are optimized for imaging individual cell layers of 3D biological samples and can be adapted to fit commercial microscopes.

  11. Cosmological parameter estimation: impact of CMB aberration

    SciTech Connect

    Catena, Riccardo; Notari, Alessio E-mail: notari@ffn.ub.es

    2013-04-01

    The peculiar motion of an observer with respect to the CMB rest frame induces an apparent deflection of the observed CMB photons, i.e. aberration, and a shift in their frequency, i.e. Doppler effect. Both effects distort the temperature multipoles a{sub lm}'s via a mixing matrix at any l. The common lore when performing a CMB based cosmological parameter estimation is to consider that Doppler affects only the l = 1 multipole, and neglect any other corrections. In this paper we reconsider the validity of this assumption, showing that it is actually not robust when sky cuts are included to model CMB foreground contaminations. Assuming a simple fiducial cosmological model with five parameters, we simulated CMB temperature maps of the sky in a WMAP-like and in a Planck-like experiment and added aberration and Doppler effects to the maps. We then analyzed with a MCMC in a Bayesian framework the maps with and without aberration and Doppler effects in order to assess the ability of reconstructing the parameters of the fiducial model. We find that, depending on the specific realization of the simulated data, the parameters can be biased up to one standard deviation for WMAP and almost two standard deviations for Planck. Therefore we conclude that in general it is not a solid assumption to neglect aberration in a CMB based cosmological parameter estimation.

  12. Anti-forensics of chromatic aberration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Owen; Stamm, Matthew C.

    2015-03-01

    Over the past decade, a number of information forensic techniques have been developed to identify digital image manipulation and falsification. Recent research has shown, however, that an intelligent forger can use anti-forensic countermeasures to disguise their forgeries. In this paper, an anti-forensic technique is proposed to falsify the lateral chromatic aberration present in a digital image. Lateral chromatic aberration corresponds to the relative contraction or expansion between an image's color channels that occurs due to a lens's inability to focus all wavelengths of light on the same point. Previous work has used localized inconsistencies in an image's chromatic aberration to expose cut-and-paste image forgeries. The anti-forensic technique presented in this paper operates by estimating the expected lateral chromatic aberration at an image location, then removing deviations from this estimate caused by tampering or falsification. Experimental results are presented that demonstrate that our anti-forensic technique can be used to effectively disguise evidence of an image forgery.

  13. Optical advantages of astigmatic aberration corrected heliostats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rooyen, De Wet; Schöttl, Peter; Bern, Gregor; Heimsath, Anna; Nitz, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Astigmatic aberration corrected heliostats adapt their shape in dependence of the incidence angle of the sun on the heliostat. Simulations show that this optical correction leads to a higher concentration ratio at the target and thus in a decrease in required receiver aperture in particular for smaller heliostat fields.

  14. Aberration features in directional dark matter detection

    SciTech Connect

    Bozorgnia, Nassim; Gelmini, Graciela B.; Gondolo, Paolo E-mail: gelmini@physics.ucla.edu

    2012-08-01

    The motion of the Earth around the Sun causes an annual change in the magnitude and direction of the arrival velocity of dark matter particles on Earth, in a way analogous to aberration of stellar light. In directional detectors, aberration of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) modulates the pattern of nuclear recoil directions in a way that depends on the orbital velocity of the Earth and the local galactic distribution of WIMP velocities. Knowing the former, WIMP aberration can give information on the latter, besides being a curious way of confirming the revolution of the Earth and the extraterrestrial provenance of WIMPs. While observing the full aberration pattern requires extremely large exposures, we claim that the annual variation of the mean recoil direction or of the event counts over specific solid angles may be detectable with moderately large exposures. For example, integrated counts over Galactic hemispheres separated by planes perpendicular to Earth's orbit would modulate annually, resulting in Galactic Hemisphere Annual Modulations (GHAM) with amplitudes larger than the usual non-directional annual modulation.

  15. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Aberrant Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mace, F. Charles; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This article reviews general classes of variables which help to maintain aberrant behavior including attention seeking, sensory and perceptual consequences, and access to materials or activities. Suggestions for a methodology providing a comprehensive functional analysis are offered which include descriptive analysis, hypothesis forming,…

  16. Increased excitatory synaptic input to granule cells from hilar and CA3 regions in a rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Huguenard, John R.; Buckmaster, Paul S.

    2012-01-01

    One potential mechanism of temporal lobe epilepsy is recurrent excitation of dentate granule cells through aberrant sprouting of their axons (mossy fibers), which is found in many patients and animal models. However, correlations between the extent of mossy fiber sprouting and seizure frequency are weak. Additional potential sources of granule cell recurrent excitation that would not have been detected by markers of mossy fiber sprouting in previous studies include surviving mossy cells and proximal CA3 pyramidal cells. To test those possibilities in hippocampal slices from epileptic pilocarpine-treated rats, laser scanning glutamate uncaging was used to randomly and focally activate neurons in the granule cell layer, hilus, and proximal CA3 pyramidal cell layer while measuring evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in normotopic granule cells. Consistent with mossy fiber sprouting, a higher proportion of glutamate-uncaging spots in the granule cell layer evoked EPSCs in epileptic rats compared to controls. In addition, stimulation spots in the hilus and proximal CA3 pyramidal cell layer were more likely to evoke EPSCs in epileptic rats, despite significant neuron loss in those regions. Furthermore, synaptic strength of recurrent excitatory inputs to granule cells from CA3 pyramidal cells and other granule cells was increased in epileptic rats. These findings reveal substantial levels of excessive, recurrent, excitatory synaptic input to granule cells from neurons in the hilus and proximal CA3 field. The aberrant development of these additional positive-feedback circuits might contribute to epileptogenesis in temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:22279204

  17. Measurement of CA1P and CA in leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, B.d.; Kobza, J.; Seemann, J.R. )

    1990-05-01

    Carboxyarabinitol-1-phosphate (CA1P) and carboxyarabinitol (CA) were assayed in leaves by isotope dilution. {sup 14}C-labeled standards were synthesized from (2-{sup 14}C) CABP using acid (CA1P) or alkaline (CA) phosphatase. Either was added to boiling 80% EtOH along with liquid N{sub 2}-killed leaves. Each was largely purified by anion exchange chromatography. CA1P samples were subjected to 2D-TLE/TLC. The specific activity of the {sup 14}C-containing spot was measured using alkaline phosphatase. CA samples were run on an HPLC and the specific activity was determined using a UV monitor and a flow-through radioisotope detector. In 3 of the tested species, light/dark amount of CA1P (nmol/mg Chl) were kidney bean, 0.7/67; sugar beet, 0.8/33; and Alocasia, 0/3.4. Light/dark CA levels (nmol/mg Chl) in these respective species were 897/653, 3.2/3.5, and 5.7/4.6. These results support the hypothesis that CA is a product of CA1P metabolism in vivo under high light, but also indicate that CA is not the only intermediate involved in CA1P synthesis under low light/dark conditions.

  18. Aberrant promoter hypermethylation in serum DNA from patients with silicosis.

    PubMed

    Umemura, Shigeki; Fujimoto, Nobukazu; Hiraki, Akio; Gemba, Kenichi; Takigawa, Nagio; Fujiwara, Keiichi; Fujii, Masanori; Umemura, Hiroshi; Satoh, Mamoru; Tabata, Masahiro; Ueoka, Hiroshi; Kiura, Katsuyuki; Kishimoto, Takumi; Tanimoto, Mitsune

    2008-09-01

    It is well established that patients with silicosis are at high risk for lung cancer; however, it is difficult to detect lung cancer by chest radiography during follow-up treatment of patients with silicosis because of preexisting diffuse pulmonary shadows. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of detection of serum DNA methylation for early detection of lung cancer in silicosis. Serum samples from healthy controls (n = 20) and silicosis patients with (n = 11) and without (n = 67) lung cancer were tested for aberrant hypermethylation at the promoters of the DNA repair gene O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), p16(INK4a), ras association domain family 1A (RASSF1A), the apoptosis-related gene death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) and retinoic acid receptor beta (RARbeta) by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. Aberrant promoter methylation in at least one of five tumor suppressor genes was detected more frequently in the serum DNA of silicosis patients with lung cancer than in that of patients without it (P = 0.006). Furthermore, the odds ratio of having lung cancer was 9.77 (P = 0.009) for those silicosis patients with methylation of at least one gene. Extended exposure to silica (>30 years) was correlated with an increased methylation frequency (P = 0.017); however, methylation status did not correlate with age, smoking history or radiographic findings of silicosis. These results suggest that testing for aberrant promoter methylation of tumor suppressor genes using serum DNA may facilitate early detection of lung cancer in patients with silicosis.

  19. Hormone dependency of chromosome aberrations induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene in rat bone marrow cells: site-specific increase by erythropoietin

    SciTech Connect

    Ueda, N.; Suglyama, T.; Chattopadhyay, S.C.; Goto-Mimura, K.; Maeda, S.

    1981-08-01

    The frequency of chromosome aberrations (CA) 6 hours after iv injection of 50 mg 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA0/kg was studied in bone marrow cells of the noninbred Long-Evans rat under various hematopoietic conditions. The percentage of metaphase cells with CA was enhanced by anemia and suppressed by polycythemia. The low incidence of CA in polycythemic rats was reversed by 6 U of sheep erythropoietin (EP) injected at the time of DMBA treatment. The interchromosomal and intrachromosomal distribution of CA indicated that hematopoietic stimuli, more specifically EP, greatly enhanced DMBA-induced CA in specific chromosomal regions.

  20. Effects of interactions among wave aberrations on optical image quality.

    PubMed

    McLellan, J S; Prieto, P M; Marcos, S; Burns, S A

    2006-09-01

    Wave aberrations degrade the optical quality of the eye relative to the diffraction limit, but there are situations in which having slightly aberrated optics can provide some relative visual benefits. This fact led us to consider whether interactions among aberrations in the eye's wavefront produce an advantage for image quality relative to wavefronts with randomized combinations of aberrations with the same total RMS error. Total ocular wave aberrations from two experimental groups and corneal wave aberrations from one group were measured and expressed as Zernike polynomial expansions through the seventh-order. In a series of Monte Carlo simulations, modulation transfer functions (MTFs) for the measured wave aberrations were compared to distributions of artificial MTFs for wavefronts created by randomizing the sign or orientation of the aberrations, while maintaining the RMS error within each Zernike order. In a control condition, "synthetic" model eyes were produced by choosing each individual aberration term at random from individuals in the experimental group, and again MTFs were compared for original and randomized signs. Results were summarized by the MTF ratio: real MTF/mean simulated MTF, as a function of spatial frequency. For a 6mm pupil, the mean MTF ratio for total ocular aberrations was greater than 1.0 up to 60 cycles per degree, suggesting that the eye's aberrations are not independent and that there may be a positive functional consequences to their interrelations. This positive relation did not hold for corneal aberrations alone, or for the synthetic eyes.

  1. Aberration measurement based on principal component analysis of aerial images of optimized marks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Guanyong; Wang, Xiangzhao; Li, Sikun; Yang, Jishuo; Xu, Dongbo

    2014-10-01

    We propose an aberration measurement technique based on principal component analysis of aerial images of optimized marks (AMAI-OM). Zernike aberrations are retrieved using a linear relationship between the aerial image and Zernike coefficients. The linear relationship is composed of the principal components (PCs) and regression matrix. A centering process is introduced to compensate position offsets of the measured aerial image. A new test mark is designed in order to improve the centering accuracy and theoretical accuracy of aberration measurement together. The new test marks are composed of three spaces with different widths, and their parameters are optimized by using an accuracy evaluation function. The offsets of the measured aerial image are compensated in the centering process and the adjusted PC coefficients are obtained. Then the Zernike coefficients are calculated according to these PC coefficients using a least square method. The simulations using the lithography simulators PROLITH and Dr.LiTHO validate the accuracy of our method. Compared with the previous aberration measurement technique based on principal component analysis of aerial image (AMAI-PCA), the measurement accuracy of Zernike aberrations under the real measurement condition of the aerial image is improved by about 50%.

  2. Assessing the significance of conserved genomic aberrations using high resolution genomic microarrays.

    PubMed

    Guttman, Mitchell; Mies, Carolyn; Dudycz-Sulicz, Katarzyna; Diskin, Sharon J; Baldwin, Don A; Stoeckert, Christian J; Grant, Gregory R

    2007-08-01

    using an amplification protocol. We demonstrate the accurate detection on simulated data, and on real datasets involving known regions of aberration within subtypes of breast cancer at a resolution consistent with that of the array. Similarly, we apply our method to previously published datasets, including a 250K SNP array, and verify known results as well as detect novel regions of concordant aberration. The algorithm has been fully implemented and tested and is freely available as a Java application at http://www.cbil.upenn.edu/MSA.

  3. Wide-field aberration corrector for spherical gossamer primary mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beach, David A.

    2000-10-01

    If gossamer primary mirrors were to be constructed in a spherical form, it would be possible to arrange a simple null- test in situ. However, spherical mirrors would require correction of the large amount of spherical aberration created in pupils that generally will be greater than 2 m diameter. The design requirement is for diffraction-limited performance over a useful angular field. The otherwise excellent wide- field design solutions of the classical Schmidt and Maksutov are inapplicable in gossamer structures because of the mass and size penalty of large refractive components. However, it is possible for this mode of correction to be achieved near the prime focus by means of pupil transfer optics that minify the large entrance pupil down to more acceptable dimensions. A problem with these solutions is constraint of field coverage due to pupil aberrations created by the large spherical aberration of the primary mirror. This leads the designer towards slower primaries and the penalty of larger, heavier structures. A solution is presented here for spherical primaries with speeds up to f/4. This is based on the 'KiwiStar' principle presented here in 1997, in which a large spherical catoptric is combined by pupil-transfer with a smaller spherical catadioptric to give well corrected wide field images of high speed. This system is well suited to correction at the prime focus of large spherical mirrors, and has only one relatively small weak aspheric surface to provide zonal correction, all other surfaces being spherical. An example is presented of a 4 m diameter, f/2.5 system that is diffraction-limited over the whole of a 0.25 degree field (43 mm diameter), for a bandpass of 486 - 850 nm.

  4. Aberrations of diffracted wave fields: distortion.

    PubMed

    Harvey, James E; Bogunovic, Dijana; Krywonos, Andrey

    2003-03-01

    Near-field diffraction patterns are merely aberrated Fraunhofer diffraction patterns. These aberrations, inherent to the diffraction process, provide insight and understanding into wide-angle diffraction phenomena. Nonparaxial patterns of diffracted orders produced by a laser beam passing through a grating and projected upon a plane screen exhibit severe distortion (W311). This distortion is an artifact of the configuration chosen to observe diffraction patterns. Grating behavior expressed in terms of the direction cosines of the propagation vectors of the incident and diffracted orders exhibits no distortion. Use of a simple direction cosine diagram provides an elegant way to deal with nonparaxial diffraction patterns, particularly when large obliquely incident beams produce conical diffraction.

  5. [A rare observation of intralaryngeal aberrant goiter].

    PubMed

    Gadzhimirzaev, G A; Shakhnazarov, A M; Gadzhimirzaeva, R G

    This paper was designed to report a rare observation of intralaryngeal aberrant goiter associated with goiter of the main thyroid tissue and chronic suppurative otitis media complicated by the polyp that causes occlusion of the auditory passage. The histomorphological investigation of the material harvested intraoperatively following rehabilitation of the purulent focus in the middle ear and the removal of the tumour from the inside of the right vestibular fold confirmed the diagnosis of colloid goiter.

  6. The aberrant retroesophageal right subclavian artery.

    PubMed

    Seres-Sturm, M; Maros, T N; Seres-Sturm, L

    1985-01-01

    Two cases with arteria lusoria were found at 278 routine dissections. These arteria arise as the last branches of the aortic arch and have a retroesophageal position. At the crossing point, the esophagus narrows due to the groove caused by the artery. The appearance of this malposition is the consequence of the perturbation in the organo-genesis of the right dorsal aorta and fourth branchial artery. The aberration can lead to disphagia lusoria.

  7. [Familial, structural aberration of the Y chromosome with fertility disorders].

    PubMed

    Gall, H; Schmid, M; Schmidtke, J; Schempp, W; Weber, L

    1985-11-01

    Cytogenetic studies on a patient with Klinefelter's syndrome revealed an inherited, structural aberration of the Y-chromosome which has not been described before. The aberrant Y-chromosome was characterized by eight different banding methods. The value of individual staining techniques in studies on Y-heterochromatin aberrations is emphasized. Analysis of the cytogenetic studies (banding methods, restriction endonuclease of DNA, and measurement of the length of the Y-chromosome) permits an interpretation to be made on how the aberrant Y-chromosome originated. The functions of the Y-chromosome are discussed. The decrease in fertility (cryptozoospermia) in the two brothers with the same aberrant Y-chromosome was striking.

  8. DNA Repair Defects and Chromosomal Aberrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hada, Megumi; George, K. A.; Huff, J. L.; Pluth, J. M.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2009-01-01

    Yields of chromosome aberrations were assessed in cells deficient in DNA doublestrand break (DSB) repair, after exposure to acute or to low-dose-rate (0.018 Gy/hr) gamma rays or acute high LET iron nuclei. We studied several cell lines including fibroblasts deficient in ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated; product of the gene that is mutated in ataxia telangiectasia patients) or NBS (nibrin; product of the gene mutated in the Nijmegen breakage syndrome), and gliomablastoma cells that are proficient or lacking in DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) activity. Chromosomes were analyzed using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) chromosome painting method in cells at the first division post irradiation, and chromosome aberrations were identified as either simple exchanges (translocations and dicentrics) or complex exchanges (involving >2 breaks in 2 or more chromosomes). Gamma irradiation induced greater yields of both simple and complex exchanges in the DSB repair-defective cells than in the normal cells. The quadratic dose-response terms for both simple and complex chromosome exchanges were significantly higher for the ATM- and NBS-deficient lines than for normal fibroblasts. However, in the NBS cells the linear dose-response term was significantly higher only for simple exchanges. The large increases in the quadratic dose-response terms in these repair-defective cell lines points the importance of the functions of ATM and NBS in chromatin modifications to facilitate correct DSB repair and minimize the formation of aberrations. The differences found between ATM- and NBS-deficient cells at low doses suggest that important questions should with regard to applying observations of radiation sensitivity at high dose to low-dose exposures. For aberrations induced by iron nuclei, regression models preferred purely linear dose responses for simple exchanges and quadratic dose responses for complex exchanges. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) factors of all of

  9. Chromatic variation of aberration: the role of induced aberrations and raytrace direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berner, A.; Nobis, T.; Shafer, D.; Gross, H.

    2015-09-01

    The design and optimization process of an optical system contains several first order steps. The definition of the appropriate lens type and the fixation of the raytrace direction are some of them. The latter can be understood as a hidden assumption rather than an aware design step. This is usually followed by the determination of the paraxial lens layout calculated for the primary wavelength. It is obvious, that for this primary wavelength the paraxial calculations are independent of raytrace direction. Today, most of the lens designs are specified not to work only for one wavelength, but in a certain wavelength range. Considering such rays of other wavelengths, one can observe that depending on the direction there will already occur differences in the first order chromatic aberrations and additionally in the chromatic variation of the third-order aberrations. The reason for this effect are induced aberrations emerging from one surface to the following surfaces by perturbed ray heights and ray angles. It can be shown, that the total amount of surface-resolved first order chromatic aberrations and the chromatic variation of the five primary aberrations can be split into an intrinsic part and an induced part. The intrinsic part is independent of the raytrace direction whereas the induced part is not.

  10. Effect of Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Sr(2+) and Ba(2+) metal ions on the antifungal activity of ZnO nanoparticles tested against Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Haja Hameed, Abdulrahman Syedahamed; Karthikeyan, Chandrasekaran; Senthil Kumar, Venugopal; Kumaresan, Subramanian; Sasikumar, Seemaisamy

    2015-01-01

    The antifungal ability of pure and alkaline metal ion (Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Sr(2+) and Ba(2+)) doped ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) prepared by the co-precipitation method was tested against the pathogenic yeast, Candida albicans (C. albicans), and the results showed that the Mg-doped ZnO NPs possessed greater effect than the other alkaline metal ion doped ZnO NPs. The impact of the concentration of Mg doped ZnO sample on the growth of C. albicans was also studied. The Minimal Fungicidal Concentration (MFC) of the Mg doped ZnO NPs was found to be 2000 μg/ml for which the growth of C. albicans was completely inhibited. The ZnO:Mg sample (1.5mg/ml) with various concentrations of histidine reduced the fungicidal effect of the nanoparticles against C. albicans, which was deliberately explained by the role of ROS. The ZnO:Mg sample added with 5mM of histidine scavenged the ample amount of generated ROS effectively. The binding of the NPs with fungi was observed by their FESEM images and their electrostatic attraction is confirmed by the zeta potential measurement.

  11. The absolute radiometric calibration of the Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager using the reflectance-based approach and the Radiometric Calibration Test Site (RadCaTS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czapla-Myers, Jeffrey; Anderson, Nikolaus; Thome, Kurtis; Biggar, Stuart

    2014-10-01

    Landsat 8 was launched on 11 February 2013 as the newest platform in the Landsat program. It contains two Earthobserving instruments, one of which is the Operational Land Imager (OLI). OLI includes an onboard radiometric calibration system that is used to monitor changes in its responsivity throughout the mission lifetime, and it consists of Spectralon solar diffuser panels as well as tungsten lamp assemblies. External techniques are used to monitor both OLI and its calibration system, and they include lunar views, side slither maneuvers of the satellite, and ground-based vicarious calibration. This work presents the absolute radiometric calibration results for Landsat 8 OLI that were obtained using two ground-based measurement techniques. The first is the reflectance-based approach, where measurements of atmospheric and surface properties are made during a Landsat 8 overpass, and it requires personnel to be on site during the time of measurement. The second uses the Radiometric Calibration Test Site (RadCaTS), which was developed by the Remote Sensing Group in the College of Optical Sciences at the University of Arizona so that radiometric calibration data can be collected without the requirement of on-site personnel. It allows more data to be collected annually, which increases the temporal sampling of trending results.

  12. Nodal aberration theory for wild-filed asymmetric optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yang; Cheng, Xuemin; Hao, Qun

    2016-10-01

    Nodal Aberration Theory (NAT) was used to calculate the zero field position in Full Field Display (FFD) for the given aberration term. Aiming at wide-filed non-rotational symmetric decentered optical systems, we have presented the nodal geography behavior of the family of third-order and fifth-order aberrations. Meanwhile, we have calculated the wavefront aberration expressions when one optical element in the system is tilted, which was not at the entrance pupil. By using a three-piece-cellphone lens example in optical design software CodeV, the nodal geography is testified under several situations; and the wavefront aberrations are calculated when the optical element is tilted. The properties of the nodal aberrations are analyzed by using Fringe Zernike coefficients, which are directly related with the wavefront aberration terms and usually obtained by real ray trace and wavefront surface fitting.

  13. Global methylation status of sperm DNA in carriers of chromosome structural aberrations

    PubMed Central

    Olszewska, Marta; Barciszewska, Miroslawa Z; Fraczek, Monika; Huleyuk, Nataliya; Chernykh, Vyacheslav B; Zastavna, Danuta; Barciszewski, Jan; Kurpisz, Maciej

    2017-01-01

    Male infertility might be clearly associated with aberrant DNA methylation patterns in human spermatozoa. An association between oxidative stress and the global methylation status of the sperm genome has also been suggested. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the global sperm DNA methylation status was affected in the spermatozoa of carriers of chromosome structural aberrations. The relationships between the 5-methylcytosine (m5C) levels in spermatozoa and chromatin integrity status were evaluated. The study patients comprised male carriers of chromosome structural aberrations with reproductive failure (n = 24), and the controls comprised normozoospermic sperm volunteers (n = 23). The global m5C level was measured using thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and immunofluorescence (IF) techniques. The sperm chromatin integrity was assessed using aniline blue (AB) staining and TUNEL assay. The mean m5C levels were similar between the investigated chromosome structural aberrations carriers (P) and controls (K). However, sperm chromatin integrity tests revealed significantly higher values in chromosomal rearrangement carriers than in controls (P < 0.05). Although the potential relationship between sperm chromatin integrity status and sperm DNA fragmentation and the m5C level juxtaposed in both analyzed groups (P vs K) was represented in a clearly opposite manner, the low chromatin integrity might be associated with the high hypomethylation status of the sperm DNA observed in carriers of chromosome structural aberrations. PMID:26908061

  14. Chromosomal aberrations in idiopathic polyhydramnios: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sagi-Dain, Lena; Sagi, Shlomi

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this meta-analysis was to summarize the existing literature examining the risk of chromosomal aberrations in idiopathic polyhydramnios. Search was conducted by a research librarian in five databases. Language and time restrictions were not applied. By independent screening of titles and abstracts, two investigators selected original researches examining the risk of chromosomal aberrations in idiopathic polyhydramnios. Twenty articles were included, encompassing a total of 1729 pregnancies with idiopathic polyhydramnios. The average rate of chromosomal aberrations in these cases was 2.8 ± 3.7%, ranging between 0% and 13.8%. No studies were found examining the relative risk for chromosomal abnormalities in low-risk women with idiopathic polyhydramnios. An analysis of seven case-control trials, including women at high risk for aneuploidy, yielded a relative risk of 3.09 (95% confidence interval 1.92-4.97) for chromosomal aberration. Overall quality of evidence was rated as very low using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation criteria. In conclusion, the suboptimal quality of the evidence precludes from drawing any solid recommendations regarding routine karyotype testing in idiopathic polyhydramnios cases, especially in women at low risk for chromosomal aberrations. Future high-quality trials addressing the discussed methodological shortcomings should be conducted to assess this important issue.

  15. Aberration estimation from single point image in a simulated adaptive optics system.

    PubMed

    Grisan, Enrico; Frassetto, Fabio; Da Deppo, Vania; Naletto, Giampiero; Ruggeri, Alfredo

    2005-01-01

    Adaptive optics has been recently applied for the development of ophthalmic devices, with the main objective of obtaining higher resolution images for diagnostic purposes or ideally correcting high-order eye aberrations. The core of every adaptive optics systems is an optical device that is able to modify the wavefront shape of the light entering a system: once the shape of the incoming wavefront has been estimated, by means of this device it is possible to correct the aberrations introduced along the optical path. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility, although in a simulated system, of estimating and correcting the wavefront shape simply by means of an iterative software analysis of a single point source image, thus avoiding expensive wavefront sensors or the burdensome computation of the PSF of the optical system. To test the proposed algorithm, a simple optical system has been simulated with a ray-tracing software and a program to estimate the Zernike coefficients of the simulated aberration from the analysis of the source image has been developed. Numerical indexes were used to evaluate the capability of the software of correctly estimating the Zernike coefficients. Even if only defocus, astigmatism and coma were considered, the very satisfactory results obtained confirm the soundness of this new approach and encourage further work in this direction, in order to develop a system able to estimate also spherical aberration, tilt and field curvature. An implementation of this aberration estimation in a real AO system is also currently in progress.

  16. High-resolution adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope with dual deformable mirrors for large aberration correction

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, D; Jones, S M; Silva, D A; Olivier, S S

    2007-01-25

    Scanning laser ophthalmoscopes with adaptive optics (AOSLO) have been shown previously to provide a noninvasive, cellular-scale view of the living human retina. However, the clinical utility of these systems has been limited by the available deformable mirror technology. In this paper, we demonstrate that the use of dual deformable mirrors can effectively compensate large aberrations in the human retina, making the AOSLO system a viable, non-invasive, high-resolution imaging tool for clinical diagnostics. We used a bimorph deformable mirror to correct low-order aberrations with relatively large amplitudes. The bimorph mirror is manufactured by Aoptix, Inc. with 37 elements and 18 {micro}m stroke in a 10 mm aperture. We used a MEMS deformable mirror to correct high-order aberrations with lower amplitudes. The MEMS mirror is manufactured by Boston Micromachine, Inc with 144 elements and 1.5 {micro}m stroke in a 3 mm aperture. We have achieved near diffraction-limited retina images using the dual deformable mirrors to correct large aberrations up to {+-} 3D of defocus and {+-} 3D of cylindrical aberrations with test subjects. This increases the range of spectacle corrections by the AO systems by a factor of 10, which is crucial for use in the clinical environment. This ability for large phase compensation can eliminate accurate refractive error fitting for the patients, which greatly improves the system ease of use and efficiency in the clinical environment.

  17. Aberrant DNA methylation imprints in aborted bovine clones.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing-He; Yin, Shen; Xiong, Bo; Hou, Yi; Chen, Da-Yuan; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2008-04-01

    Genomic imprinting plays a very important role during development and its abnormality may heavily undermine the developmental potential of bovine embryos. Because of limited resources of the cow genome, bovine genomic imprinting, both in normal development and in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) cloning, is not well documented. DNA methylation is thought to be a major factor for the establishment of genomic imprinting. In our study, we determined the methylation status of differential methylated regions (DMRs) of four imprinted genes in four spontaneously aborted SCNT-cloned fetuses (AF). Firstly, abnormal methylation imprints were observed in each individual to different extents. In particular, Peg3 and MAOA were either seriously demethylated or showed aberrant methylation patterns in four aborted clones we tested, but Xist and Peg10 exhibited relatively better maintained methylation status in AF1 and AF4. Secondly, two aborted fetuses, AF2 and AF3 exhibited severe aberrant methylation imprints of four imprinted genes. Finally, MAOA showed strong heterogeneous methylation patterns of its DMR in normal somatic adult tissue, but largely variable methylation levels and relatively homogeneous methylation patterns in aborted cloned fetuses. Our data indicate that the aborted cloned fetuses exhibited abnormal methylation imprints, to different extent, in aborted clones, which partially account for the higher abortion and developmental abnormalities during bovine cloning.

  18. RBE of Energetic Iron Ions for the Induction of Early and Late Chromosome Aberrations in Different Cell Types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ye; Yeshitla, Samrawit; Hada, Megumi; Kadhim, Munira; Wilson, Bobby; Wu, Honglu

    2015-01-01

    Numerous published studies have reported the Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE) values for chromosome aberrations induced by charged particles of different LET. The RBE for chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes exposed ex vivo has been suggested to show a similar relationship as the quality factor for cancer induction. Therefore, increased chromosome aberrations in the astronauts' white blood cells post long-duration missions are used to determine the biological doses from exposures to space radiation. However, the RBE value is known to be very different for different types of cancer. Previously, we reported that, even though the RBE for initial chromosome damages was high in human lymphocytes exposed to Fe ions, the RBE was significantly reduced after multiple cell divisions post irradiation. To test the hypothesis that RBE values for chromosome aberrations are cell type dependent, and different between early and late damages, we exposed human lymphocytes ex vivo, and human mammary epithelial cells in vitro to various charged particles. Chromosome aberrations were quantified using the samples collected at first mitosis post irradiation for initial damages, and the samples collected after multiple generations for the remaining or late arising aberrations. Results of the study suggested that the effectiveness of high-LET charged particles for late chromosome aberrations may be cell type dependent, even though the RBE values are similar for early damages.

  19. A Power-Generation Test for Oxide-Based Thermoelectric Modules Using p-Type Ca3Co4O9 and n-Type Ca0.9Nd0.1MnO3 Legs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Chang-Hyun; Choi, Soon-Mok; Seo, Won-Seon; Park, Hyung-Ho

    2012-06-01

    Metal oxides are considered to be promising thermoelectric (TE) materials, especially for high-temperature power-generation applications, because they have many advantages such as low price, light weight, thermal stability, nontoxicity, and high oxidation resistance. For these reasons, oxide-based TE modules were fabricated using p-type pure Ca3Co4O9 and n-type Ca0.9Nd0.1MnO3 legs for power generation at temperatures in excess of 1000 K. This study involved the use of Ag sheets with a Ag paste as electrode materials and alumina plates as a substrate for the modules. The p-type pure Ca3Co4O9 legs were manufactured by spark plasma sintering, and the n-type Ca0.9Nd0.1MnO3 legs were sintered by a conventional process at atmospheric pressure. From a unicouple, a power density as high as 93.2 mW/cm2 under a temperature condition of Δ T = 727 K ( T hot = 1175 K) was obtained. This high power density is believed to be a result of the modified contact of the electrode (notch process) and the optimized material properties (the SPS process and a dopant effect) along with the high Δ T obtained in this study (reduced thermal losses because of good packing of thermal insulation). Areas of concern for future research include the following: (1) the measured open-circuit voltage from the present unicouples was only 94.3% of the theoretical voltage, and (2) the internal resistance value was as high as 490% of the theoretical resistance.

  20. Relations between Neurological Aberrations and Psychological Dysfunctions in Children with Serious Language Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bo, Ola O.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Relationships between neuropsychological aberrations and psychological dysfunction were studied for 20 Swedish children (average age around 10 years at first testing) with serious language problems through (1) electroencephalography; (2) brain stem response audiometry; (3) magnetic resonance imaging; and (4) brain electric activity mapping by…

  1. [Chromosomal aberrations upon isolated and combined exposures to chemical substances and ionizing irradiation].

    PubMed

    Barantseva, M Iu; Mukhamedieva, L N; Fedorenko, B S; Vorozhtsova, S V

    2009-01-01

    The partial summation of biological effects evaluated by the anaphasic chromosomal aberration test in the bone marrow karyocytes of mice was determined when the animals were concurrently exposed to chemical substances (acetone, acetaldehyde, ammonia, and ethanol) at low concentrations and gamma-irradiation in a total dose of 30 Gy. Qualitative analysis of chromosomal aberrations in the karyocytes of the bone marrow (ponses, fragments) has indicated that upon combined exposure of the animals to the chemical substances and gamma-irradiation, the chemical factor is dominant since upon combined radiochemical exposure, the number of chromosomal aberration increases mainly at the expense of fragments (91.2%), as does upon isolated exposure to chemical substances (96.4%).

  2. Influence of spherical aberration, stimulus spatial frequency, and pupil apodisation on subjective refractions

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Arthur; Xu, Renfeng; Thibos, Larry; Marin, Gildas; Hernandez, Martha

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To test competing hypotheses (Stiles Crawford pupil apodising or superior imaging of high spatial frequencies by the central pupil) for the pupil size independence of subjective refractions in the presence of primary spherical aberration. Methods Subjective refractions were obtained with a variety of test stimuli (high contrast letters, urban cityscape, high and low spatial frequency gratings) while modulating pupil diameter, levels of primary spherical aberration and pupil apodisation. Subjective refractions were also obtained with low-pass and high-pass stimuli and using “darker” and “sharper” subjective criteria. Results Subjective refractions for stimuli containing high spatial frequencies focus a near paraxial region of the pupil and are affected only slightly by level of Seidel spherical aberration, degree of pupil apodisation and pupil diameter, and generally focused a radius of about 1 to 1.5 mm from the pupil centre. Low spatial frequency refractions focus a marginal region of the pupil, and are significantly affected by level of spherical aberration, amount of pupil apodisation, and pupil size. Clinical refractions that employ the “darker” or “sharper” subjective criteria bias the patient to use lower or higher spatial frequencies respectively. Conclusions In the presence of significant levels of spherical aberration, the pupil size independence of subjective refractions occurs with or without Stiles Crawford apodisation for refractions that optimise high spatial frequency content in the image. If low spatial frequencies are optimised by a subjective refraction, spherical refractive error varies with spherical aberration, pupil size, and level of apodisation. As light levels drop from photopic to scotopic, therefore, we expect a shift from pupil size independent to pupil size dependent subjective refractions. Emphasising a “sharper” criterion during subjective refractions will improve image quality for high spatial frequencies

  3. Chromosomal aberrations in ISS crew members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johannes, Christian; Goedecke, Wolfgang; Antonopoulos, Alexandra

    2012-07-01

    High energy radiation is a major risk factor in manned space missions. Astronauts and cosmonauts are exposed to ionising radiations of cosmic and solar origin, while on the Earth's surface people are well protected by the atmosphere and a deflecting magnetic field. There are now data available describing the dose and the quality of ionising radiation on-board of the International Space Station (ISS). Nonetheless, the effect of increased radiation dose on mutation rates of ISS crew members are hard to predict. Therefore, direct measurements of mutation rates are required in order to better estimate the radiation risk for longer duration missions. The analysis of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes is a well established method to measure radiation-induced mutations. We present data of chromosome aberration analyses from lymphocyte metaphase spreads of ISS crew members participating in short term (10-14 days) or long term (around 6 months) missions. From each subject we received two blood samples. The first sample was drawn about 10 days before launch and a second one within 3 days after return from flight. From lymphocyte cultures metaphase plates were prepared on glass slides. Giemsa stained and in situ hybridised metaphases were scored for chromosome changes in pre-flight and post-flight blood samples and the mutation rates were compared. Results obtained in chromosomal studies on long-term flight crew members showed pronounced inter-individual differences in the response to elevated radiation levels. Overall slight but significant elevations of typical radiation induced aberrations, i.e., dicentric chromosomes and reciprocal translocations have been observed. Our data indicate no elevation of mutation rates due to short term stays on-board the ISS.

  4. Peripheral Aberrations and Image Quality for Contact Lens Correction

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jie; Thibos, Larry N.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Contact lenses reduced the degree of hyperopic field curvature present in myopic eyes and rigid contact lenses reduced sphero-cylindrical image blur on the peripheral retina, but their effect on higher order aberrations and overall optical quality of the eye in the peripheral visual field is still unknown. The purpose of our study was to evaluate peripheral wavefront aberrations and image quality across the visual field before and after contact lens correction. Methods A commercial Hartmann-Shack aberrometer was used to measure ocular wavefront errors in 5° steps out to 30° of eccentricity along the horizontal meridian in uncorrected eyes and when the same eyes are corrected with soft or rigid contact lenses. Wavefront aberrations and image quality were determined for the full elliptical pupil encountered in off-axis measurements. Results Ocular higher-order aberrations increase away from fovea in the uncorrected eye. Third-order aberrations are larger and increase faster with eccentricity compared to the other higher-order aberrations. Contact lenses increase all higher-order aberrations except 3rd-order Zernike terms. Nevertheless, a net increase in image quality across the horizontal visual field for objects located at the foveal far point is achieved with rigid lenses, whereas soft contact lenses reduce image quality. Conclusions Second order aberrations limit image quality more than higher-order aberrations in the periphery. Although second-order aberrations are reduced by contact lenses, the resulting gain in image quality is partially offset by increased amounts of higher-order aberrations. To fully realize the benefits of correcting higher-order aberrations in the peripheral field requires improved correction of second-order aberrations as well. PMID:21873925

  5. Aberrations in Fresnel Lenses and Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Don

    1999-01-01

    The NASA/MSFC Shooting Star program revealed a number of technical problems that must be solved before solar thermal propulsion can become a reality. The fundamental problem of interest here is the collection of solar energy. This is the first step in the propulsion process and indeed the most important. Everything else depends on the efficiency and focusing ability of the collection lens or mirror. An initial model of Fresnel lens behavior using a wave optics approach has been completed and the results were encouraging enough to warrant an experimental investigation. This experimental investigation confirmed some of the effects predicted and produced invaluable photographic evidence of coherence based diffraction and aberration.

  6. Microcollimated laser diode with low wavefront aberration

    SciTech Connect

    Ogata, S.; Sekii, H.; Maeda, T.; Goto, H.; Yamashita, T.; Imanaka, K. )

    1989-11-01

    The authors developed microcollimated laser diode( MCLD) utilizing a 1 mm short focal length, phi, lc 0.5 mm small diameter micro Fresnel lens (MFL) for the first time as the collimating lens. The MCLD is assembled with a 780 nm quantum-well laser diode dice and an MFL in the smallest commercial available laser package. The radiated laser beam form the MCLD has higher than 2mW power at 50 mA driving current, narrow enough as a phi 2 mm beam diameter with nearly Gaussian intensity profile, and low wavefront aberration less than {lambda}14 (rms value) measured at 1 m distance.

  7. Induction of chromosome aberrations in cultured human lymphocytes treated with sand dust storm fine particles (PM2.5).

    PubMed

    Wei, Aili; Meng, Ziqiang

    2006-09-30

    The clastogenic activity of airborne air fine particulate matter (PM2.5, particulates with an aerodynamic diameter < or =2.5 microm) has already been demonstrated. However little is known about the health risks associated with sand dust storm PM2.5 and its extract. In order to investigate the clastogenic activity of sand dust storm PM2.5 (include its organic and inorganic extract) on human lymphocytes, the normal PM2.5 and sand dust storm PM2.5 samples were collected in Wuwei city (Gansu Province) and Baotou city (Inner Mongolia), China. The chromosomal aberration (CA) test was employed and the cells were treated with 0, 33, 100, 300 microg ml(-1) sand dust storm or normal ambient air PM2.5 suspension (physiological saline as solvent control), or inorganic extract (0, 75, 150, 300 microg ml(-1), physiological saline as solvent control) or organic extract (0, 20, 40, 80 microg ml(-1), DMSO as solvent control) at the beginning of the cell culture. The results indicated that sand dust storm PM2.5 and its extract as well as normal samples can induce increase in CA frequency. With the increase of treatment concentrations the CA frequency increased and the mitotic index (MI) values declined in a dose-response manner. In the same concentrates, the CA frequency of normal ambient air PM2.5 and its extract were significant higher than those of sand dust storm PM2.5 (P<0.05 or 0.01) except the treatment of Wuwei sample at higher doses (100, 300 microg ml(-1)), the treatment of inorganic extract of PM2.5 at the highest dose (300 microg ml(-1)) and the treatment of organic extract of PM2.5 at the higher dose (40 and 80 microg ml(-1)) either in Baotou or in Wuwei (P>0.05). The toxicity of sand dust storm PM2.5 and its extract at high dose is very potent. CA frequency of normal PM2.5 (include its organic extract) from Baotou were higher than those of Wuwei especially in low and middle dose (P<0.05), but the treatment results of sand dust storm PM2.5 (include its all extract) was

  8. L-line x-ray fluorescence of cortical bone lead compared with the CaNa/sub 2/EDTA test in lead-toxic children: public health implications

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, J.F.; Markowitz, M.E.; Bijur, P.E.; Jenks, S.T.; Wielopolski, L.; Kalef-Ezra, J.A.; Slatkin, D.N.

    1989-01-01

    Mild to moderate lead toxicity (blood lead, 25-55 micrograms/dl) is a preventable pediatric illness affecting several million preschool children (lead-toxic children) in the United States. In-hospital lead-chelation treatment is predicated upon a positive CaNa/sub 2/EDTA test, which is difficult to perform and impractical in large populations. After the development of an L-line x-ray fluorescence technique (LXRF) that measures cortical bone lead content safely, rapidly, and noninvasively, this study was initiated in lead-toxic children to compare LXRF with the CaNa/sub 2/EDTA test. Moreover, LXRF provided the opportunity to quantify bone lead content. From blood lead and LXRF alone, 90% of lead-toxic children were correctly classified as being CaNa/sub 2/EDTA-positive or -negative. In 76% of 59 lead-toxic children, bone lead values measured by LXRF were equal to or greater than those measured in normal and industrially exposed adults. These results indicate that LXRF may be capable of replacing the CaNa/sub 2/EDTA test. When considered with the known neurotoxic effects on children of low levels of exposure to lead, these results also suggest that either an excessively narrow margin of safety or insufficient safety is provided by present U.S. guidelines, which classify an elevated blood lead concentration as 25 micrograms/dl or greater.

  9. Lymphocyte chromosomal aberration assay in radiation biodosimetry

    PubMed Central

    Agrawala, Paban K.; Adhikari, J. S.; Chaudhury, N. K.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiations, whether medical, occupational or accidental, leads to deleterious biological consequences like mortality or carcinogenesis. It is considered that no dose of ionizing radiation exposure is safe. However, once the accurate absorbed dose is estimated, one can be given appropriate medical care and the severe consequences can be minimized. Though several accurate physical dose estimation modalities exist, it is essential to estimate the absorbed dose in biological system taking into account the individual variation in radiation response, so as to plan suitable medical care. Over the last several decades, lots of efforts have been taken to design a rapid and easy biological dosimeter requiring minimum invasive procedures. The metaphase chromosomal aberration assay in human lymphocytes, though is labor intensive and requires skilled individuals, still remains the gold standard for radiation biodosimetry. The current review aims at discussing the human lymphocyte metaphase chromosomal aberration assay and recent developments involving the application of molecular cytogenetic approaches and other technological advancements to make the assay more authentic and simple to use even in the events of mass radiation casualties. PMID:21829315

  10. Imaging System Using Shared Optics and Aberration Exploitation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-11

    the past it has generally been accepted that the resolution of lenses with geometric aberrations cannot be increased beyond a certain threshold. In...this work we aim to overcome this limitation and demonstrate very high resolution imagery for aberrated lenses through the use of hybrid optical and...of any camera is fundamentally limited by geometric aberrations. In the past it has generally been accepted that the resolution of lenses with

  11. Spherical aberration and diffraction derived via Fourier optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geary, J.; Peterson, P.

    1984-02-01

    Noting that third-order spherical aberration is usually derived by way of classical geometric wavefront aberration theory, an alternative derivation is demonstrated with Fourier optics. The quadratic phase factor introduced by a lens (Goodman, 1968) is taken as the point of departure. It is shown that by extending this technique, it is possible to pick up the effect of spherical aberration, as manifested in a Fourier-optics-defined structural aberration coefficient. This coefficient is compared with the classical structural coefficient for a planoconvex lens. This difference is also demonstrated through Fresnel propagation. The effects of these differences on diffraction are investigated in the maximum Strehl planes.

  12. Aberration design of zoom lens systems using thick lens modules.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinkai; Chen, Xiaobo; Xi, Juntong; Wu, Zhuoqi

    2014-12-20

    A systematic approach for the aberration design of a zoom lens system using a thick lens module is presented. Each component is treated as a thick lens module at the beginning of the design. A thick lens module refers to a thick lens component with a real lens structure, like lens materials, lens curvatures, lens thicknesses, and lens interval distances. All nine third-order aberrations of a thick lens component are considered during the design. The relationship of component aberrations in different zoom positions can be approximated from the aberration shift. After minimizing the aberrations of the zoom lens system, the nine third-order aberrations of every lens component can be determined. Then the thick lens structure of every lens component can be determined after optimization according to their first-order properties and third-order aberration targets. After a third optimization for minimum practical third-order aberrations of a zoom lens system, the aberration design using the thick lens module is complete, which provides a practical zoom lens system with thick lens structures. A double-sided telecentric zoom lens system is designed using the thick lens module in this paper, which shows that this method is practical for zoom lens design.

  13. The site of net absorption of Ca from the intestinal tract of growing pigs and effect of phytic acid, Ca level and Ca source on Ca digestibility.

    PubMed

    González-Vega, J Caroline; Walk, Carrie L; Liu, Yanhong; Stein, Hans H

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that the standardised digestibility of Ca in calcium carbonate and Lithothamnium calcareum Ca is not different regardless of the level of dietary Ca, and that phytic acid affects the digestibility of Ca in these two ingredients to the same degree. The objectives were to determine where in the intestinal tract Ca absorption takes place and if there are measurable quantities of basal endogenous Ca fluxes in the stomach, small intestine or large intestine. Diets contained calcium carbonate or L. calcareum Ca as the sole source of Ca, 0% or 1% phytic acid and 0.4% or 0.8% Ca. A Ca-free diet was also formulated and used to measure endogenous fluxes and losses of Ca. Nine growing pigs (initial body weight 23.8 ± 1.3 kg) were cannulated in the duodenum and in the distal ileum, and faecal, ileal and duodenal samples were collected. Duodenal endogenous fluxes of Ca were greater (p < 0.05) than ileal endogenous fluxes and total tract endogenous losses of Ca, but ileal endogenous fluxes were less (p < 0.05) than total tract endogenous losses. Standardised digestibility of Ca was not affected by the level of phytic acid, but decreased (p < 0.05) as Ca level increased in L. calcareum Ca diets, but that was not the case if calcium carbonate was the source of Ca (interaction, p < 0.05). The standardised duodenal digestibility (SDD), standardised ileal digestibility (SID) and standardised total tract digestibility (STTD) of Ca were not different if calcium carbonate was the source of dietary Ca. However, the STTD of Ca in L. calcareum Ca was greater (p < 0.05) than the SID and SDD of Ca. The SDD, SID and STTD of Ca in calcium carbonate were greater (p < 0.05) than those of L. calcareum Ca. In conclusion, under the conditions of this experiment, standardised digestibility of Ca is not affected by the level of phytic acid, but may be affected by dietary Ca level depending on the Ca source. Calcium from calcium carbonate is mostly

  14. Chromosome aberrations and cell death by ionizing radiation: Evolution of a biophysical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballarini, Francesca; Carante, Mario P.

    2016-11-01

    The manuscript summarizes and discusses the various versions of a radiation damage biophysical model, implemented as a Monte Carlo simulation code, originally developed for chromosome aberrations and subsequently extended to cell death. This extended version has been called BIANCA (BIophysical ANalysis of Cell death and chromosome Aberrations). According to the basic assumptions, complex double-strand breaks (called ;Cluster Lesions;, or CLs) produce independent chromosome free-ends, mis-rejoining within a threshold distance d (or un-rejoining) leads to chromosome aberrations, and ;lethal aberrations; (i.e., dicentrics plus rings plus large deletions) lead to clonogenic cell death. The mean number of CLs per Gy and per cell is an adjustable parameter. While in BIANCA the threshold distance d was the second parameter, in a subsequent version, called BIANCA II, d has been fixed as the mean distance between two adjacent interphase chromosome territories, and a new parameter, f, has been introduced to represent the chromosome free-end un-rejoining probability. Simulated dose-response curves for chromosome aberrations and cell survival obtained by the various model versions were compared with literature experimental data. Such comparisons provided indications on some open questions, including the role of energy deposition clustering at the nm and the μm level, the probability for a chromosome free-end to remain un-rejoined, and the relationship between chromosome aberrations and cell death. Although both BIANCA and BIANCA II provided cell survival curves in general agreement with human and hamster fibroblast survival data, BIANCA II allowed for a better reproduction of dicentrics, rings and deletions considered separately. Furthermore, the approach adopted in BIANCA II for d is more consistent with estimates reported in the literature. After testing against aberration and survival data, BIANCA II was applied to investigate the depth-dependence of the radiation

  15. Energy-based adaptive focusing of waves: application to noninvasive aberration correction of ultrasonic wavefields.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Eric; Pernot, Mathieu; Montaldo, Gabriel; Fink, Mathias; Tanter, Mickael

    2009-11-01

    An aberration correction method based on the maximization of the wave intensity at the focus of an emitting array is presented. The potential of this new adaptive focusing technique is investigated for ultrasonic focusing in biological tissues. The acoustic intensity is maximized noninvasively through direct measurement or indirect estimation of the beam energy at the focus for a series of spatially coded emissions. For ultrasonic waves, the acoustic energy at the desired focus can be indirectly estimated from the local displacements induced in tissues by the ultrasonic radiation force of the beam. Based on the measurement of these displacements, this method allows determination of the precise estimation of the phase and amplitude aberrations, and consequently the correction of aberrations along the beam travel path. The proof of concept is first performed experimentally using a large therapeutic array with strong electronic phase aberrations (up to 2pi). Displacements induced by the ultrasonic radiation force at the desired focus are indirectly estimated using the time shift of backscattered echoes recorded on the array. The phase estimation is deduced accurately using a direct inversion algorithm which reduces the standard deviation of the phase distribution from sigma = 1.89 radian before correction to sigma = 0.53 radian following correction. The corrected beam focusing quality is verified using a needle hydrophone. The peak intensity obtained through the aberrator is found to be -7.69 dB below the reference intensity obtained without any aberration. Using the phase correction, a sharp focus is restored through the aberrator with a relative peak intensity of -0.89 dB. The technique is tested experimentally using a linear transmit/receive array through a real aberrating layer. The array is used to automatically correct its beam quality, as it both generates the radiation force with coded excitations and indirectly estimates the acoustic intensity at the focus

  16. Overlapped Fourier coding for optical aberration removal

    PubMed Central

    Horstmeyer, Roarke; Ou, Xiaoze; Chung, Jaebum; Zheng, Guoan; Yang, Changhuei

    2014-01-01

    We present an imaging procedure that simultaneously optimizes a camera’s resolution and retrieves a sample’s phase over a sequence of snapshots. The technique, termed overlapped Fourier coding (OFC), first digitally pans a small aperture across a camera’s pupil plane with a spatial light modulator. At each aperture location, a unique image is acquired. The OFC algorithm then fuses these low-resolution images into a full-resolution estimate of the complex optical field incident upon the detector. Simultaneously, the algorithm utilizes redundancies within the acquired dataset to computationally estimate and remove unknown optical aberrations and system misalignments via simulated annealing. The result is an imaging system that can computationally overcome its optical imperfections to offer enhanced resolution, at the expense of taking multiple snapshots over time. PMID:25321982

  17. Structural aberrations in group A Staphylococcus bacteriophages.

    PubMed Central

    Ackermann, H W; Berthiaume, L; Sonea, S; Kasatiya, S S

    1976-01-01

    Six related Staphylococcus phages spontaneously produced various abnormal head and tail structures: (i) giant capsids which were tailed and apparently contained nucleic acid; (ii) regular and irregular smooth polyheads; (iii) heads and polyheads with wavy outlines; (iv) mottled heads and polyheads; (v) abnormally long and short tails; and (vi) "double capsids" connected by a small bridge. Some of these structures are rare, or have not yet been reported. The frequency os specific aberrant particles varied from one phage to another. Length distribution of smooth irregular polyheads and of abnormal tails indicated that these structures assemble at random from protein synthesized in excess. These phages represent an interesting model for genetic and morphogentic studies. Images PMID:131865

  18. Patterns of Chromosomal Aberrations in Solid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Grade, Marian; Difilippantonio, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities are a defining feature of solid tumors. Such cytogenetic alterations are mainly classified into structural chromosomal aberrations and copy number alterations, giving rise to aneuploid karyotypes. The increasing detection of these genetic changes allowed the description of specific tumor entities and the associated patterns of gene expression. In fact, tumor-specific landscapes of gross genomic copy number changes, including aneuploidies of entire chromosome arms and chromosomes result in a global deregulation of the transcriptome of cancer cells. Furthermore, the molecular characterization of cytogenetic abnormalities has provided insights into the mechanisms of tumorigenesis and has, in a few instances, led to the clinical implementation of effective diagnostic and prognostic tools, as well as treatment strategies that target a specific genetic abnormality. PMID:26376875

  19. The influence of Ca²⁺ buffers on free [Ca²⁺] fluctuations and the effective volume of Ca²⁺ microdomains.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Seth H; Smith, Gregory D

    2014-06-17

    Intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) plays a significant role in many cell signaling pathways, some of which are localized to spatially restricted microdomains. Ca(2+) binding proteins (Ca(2+) buffers) play an important role in regulating Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]). Buffers typically slow [Ca(2+)] temporal dynamics and increase the effective volume of Ca(2+) domains. Because fluctuations in [Ca(2+)] decrease in proportion to the square-root of a domain's physical volume, one might conjecture that buffers decrease [Ca(2+)] fluctuations and, consequently, mitigate the significance of small domain volume concerning Ca(2+) signaling. We test this hypothesis through mathematical and computational analysis of idealized buffer-containing domains and their stochastic dynamics during free Ca(2+) influx with passive exchange of both Ca(2+) and buffer with bulk concentrations. We derive Langevin equations for the fluctuating dynamics of Ca(2+) and buffer and use these stochastic differential equations to determine the magnitude of [Ca(2+)] fluctuations for different buffer parameters (e.g., dissociation constant and concentration). In marked contrast to expectations based on a naive application of the principle of effective volume as employed in deterministic models of Ca(2+) signaling, we find that mobile and rapid buffers typically increase the magnitude of domain [Ca(2+)] fluctuations during periods of Ca(2+) influx, whereas stationary (immobile) Ca(2+) buffers do not. Also contrary to expectations, we find that in the absence of Ca(2+) influx, buffers influence the temporal characteristics, but not the magnitude, of [Ca(2+)] fluctuations. We derive an analytical formula describing the influence of rapid Ca(2+) buffers on [Ca(2+)] fluctuations and, importantly, identify the stochastic analog of (deterministic) effective domain volume. Our results demonstrate that Ca(2+) buffers alter the dynamics of [Ca(2+)] fluctuations in a nonintuitive manner. The finding that Ca(2

  20. Correction of axial and lateral chromatic aberration with false color filtering.

    PubMed

    Chang, Joonyoung; Kang, Hee; Kang, Moon Gi

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a chromatic aberration (CA) correction algorithm based on a false color filtering technique. In general, CA produces color distortions called color fringes near the contrasting edges of captured images, and these distortions cause false color artifacts. In the proposed method, a false color filtering technique is used to filter out the false color components from the chroma-signals of the input image. The filtering process is performed with the adaptive weights obtained from both the gradient and color differences, and the weights are designed to reduce the various types of color fringes regardless of the colors of the artifacts. Moreover, as preprocessors of the filtering process, a transient improvement (TI) technique is applied to enhance the slow transitions of the red and blue channels that are blurred by the CA. The TI process improves the filtering performance by narrowing the false color regions before the filtering process when severe color fringes (typically purple fringes) occur widely. Last, the CA-corrected chroma-signal is combined with the TI chroma-signal to avoid incorrect color adjustment. The experimental results show that the proposed method substantially reduces the CA artifacts and provides natural-looking replacement colors, while it avoids incorrect color adjustment.

  1. Effect of chromatic aberration on atomic-resolved spherical aberration corrected STEM images.

    PubMed

    Kuramochi, Koji; Yamazaki, Takashi; Kotaka, Yasutoshi; Ohtsuka, Masahiro; Hashimoto, Iwao; Watanabe, Kazuto

    2009-12-01

    The effect of the chromatic aberration (C(c)) coefficient in a spherical aberration (C(s))- corrected electromagnetic lens on high-resolution high-angle annular dark field (HAADF) scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) images is explored in detail. A new method for precise determination of the C(c) coefficient is demonstrated, requiring measurement of an atomic-resolution one-frame through-focal HAADF STEM image. This method is robust with respect to instrumental drift, sample thickness, all lens parameters except C(c), and experimental noise. It is also demonstrated that semi-quantitative structural analysis on the nanometer scale can be achieved by comparing experimental C(s)- corrected HAADF STEM images with their corresponding simulated images when the effects of the C(c) coefficient and spatial incoherence are included.

  2. Using Brief Assessments to Evaluate Aberrant Behavior Maintained by Attention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; King, Lisa; Lally, Grainne; Dhomhnaill, Orla Nic

    2000-01-01

    Functional assessments were conducted for two Irish individuals with severe disabilities and aberrant behavior. A modified attention condition was introduced, which involved both parents interacting with a third person. Aberrant behavior occurred only in the modified attention condition. Successful treatment consisted of delivery of attention on a…

  3. Sextupole system for the correction of spherical aberration

    DOEpatents

    Crewe, A.V.; Kopf, D.A.

    In an electron beam device in which an electron beam is developed and then focused by a lens to a particular spot, there is provided a means for eliminating spherical aberration. A sextupole electromagnetic lens is positioned between two focusing lenses. The interaction of the sextupole with the beam compensates for spherical aberration. (GHT)

  4. Adaptive aberration correction using a triode hyperbolic electron mirror.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, J P S; Word, R C; Könenkamp, R

    2011-01-01

    A converging electron mirror can be used to compensate spherical and chromatic aberrations in an electron microscope. This paper presents an analytical solution to a novel triode (three electrode) hyperbolic mirror as an improvement to the well-known diode (two electrode) hyperbolic mirror for aberration correction. A weakness of the diode mirror is a lack of flexibility in changing the chromatic and spherical aberration coefficients independently without changes in the mirror geometry. In order to remove this limitation, a third electrode can be added. We calculate the optical properties of the resulting triode mirror analytically on the basis of a simple model field distribution. We present the optical properties-the object/image distance, z(0), and the coefficients of spherical and chromatic aberration, C(s) and C(c), of both mirror types from an analysis of electron trajectories in the mirror field. From this analysis, we demonstrate that while the properties of both designs are similar, the additional parameters in the triode mirror improve the range of aberration that can be corrected. The triode mirror is also able to provide a dynamic adjustment range of chromatic aberration for fixed spherical aberration and focal length, or any permutation of these three parameters. While the dynamic range depends on the values of aberration correction needed, a nominal 10% tuning range is possible for most configurations accompanied by less than 1% change in the other two properties.

  5. Optical aberrations measurement with a low cost optometric instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furlan, Walter D.; Muñoz-Escrivá, L.; Pons, A.; Martínez-Corral, M.

    2002-08-01

    A simple experimental method for measuring optical aberrations of a single lens is proposed. The technique is based on the use of an optometric instrument employed for the assessment of the refractive state of the eye: the retinoscope. Experimental results for spherical aberration and astigmatism are obtained.

  6. Extending nodal aberration theory to include mount-induced aberrations with application to freeform surfaces.

    PubMed

    Fuerschbach, Kyle; Rolland, Jannick P; Thompson, Kevin P

    2012-08-27

    This paper introduces the path forward for the integration of freeform optical surfaces, particularly those related to φ-polynomial surfaces, including Zernike polynomial surfaces, with nodal aberration theory. With this formalism, the performance of an optical system throughout the field of view can be anticipated analytically accounting for figure error, mount-induced errors, and misalignment. Previously, only misalignments had been described by nodal aberration theory, with the exception of one special case for figure error. As an example of these new results, three point mounting error that results in a Zernike trefoil deformation is studied for the secondary mirror of a two mirror and three mirror telescope. It is demonstrated that for the case of trefoil deformation applied to a surface not at the stop, there is the anticipated field constant contribution to elliptical coma (also called trefoil) as well as a newly identified field dependent contribution to astigmatism: field linear, field conjugate astigmatism. The magnitude of this astigmatic contribution varies linearly with the field of view; however, it has a unique variation in orientation with field that is described mathematically by a concept that is unique to nodal aberration theory known as the field conjugate vector.

  7. Quantifying the role of aberrant somatic hypermutation in transformation of follicular lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Halldórsdóttir, Anna Margrét; Frühwirth, Margareta; Deutsch, Alexander; Aigelsreiter, Ariane; Beham-Schmid, Christine; Agnarsson, Bjarni A; Neumeister, Peter; Richard Burack, W

    2008-07-01

    Somatic hypermutation (SHM) aberrantly targets proto-oncogenes in various non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. To test the association of SHM with transformation of follicular lymphoma (FL), we sequenced mutational hot spots in five proto-oncogenes (BCL6, PAX5, RHOH, MYC and PIM1) in 32 low-grade FL (lgFL) with follicular histology and 26 transformed FL (tFL) with diffuse large cell histology. No difference was detected in the fraction of specimens mutated (75% of lgFL and 77% of tFL) or in the mutation load (0.08 for lgFL vs. 0.06 mutations/100 bp/allele for tFL). Serial specimens were examined from 25 patients showing stable low-grade FL (slgFL; n=6) or a low-grade FL that later transformed into diffuse large cell lymphoma (tFL; n=19). slgFL and tFL patients accumulated similar numbers of mutations in the interval between biopsies. These data indicate that mutations attributable to aberrant SHM occur with similar frequency in low-grade and transformed FL; transformation is not associated with a higher rate of aberrant SHM. Moreover, the frequency of mutations attributable to aberrant SHM in tFL was significantly lower than that reported for de novo diffuse large B cell lymphoma, suggesting differing oncogenic mechanisms in transformed follicular lymphoma and de novo diffuse large B cell lymphoma.

  8. Binocular adaptive optics visual simulator: understanding the impact of aberrations on actual vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Enrique J.; Prieto, Pedro M.; Artal, Pablo

    2010-02-01

    A novel adaptive optics system is presented for the study of vision. The apparatus is capable for binocular operation. The binocular adaptive optics visual simulator permits measuring and manipulating ocular aberrations of the two eyes simultaneously. Aberrations can be corrected, or modified, while the subject performs visual testing under binocular vision. One of the most remarkable features of the apparatus consists on the use of a single correcting device, and a single wavefront sensor (Hartmann-Shack). Both the operation and the total cost of the instrument largely benefit from this attribute. The correcting device is a liquid-crystal-on-silicon (LCOS) spatial light modulator. The basic performance of the visual simulator consists in the simultaneous projection of the two eyes' pupils onto both the corrector and sensor. Examples of the potential of the apparatus for the study of the impact of the aberrations under binocular vision are presented. Measurements of contrast sensitivity with modified combinations of spherical aberration through focus are shown. Special attention was paid on the simulation of monovision, where one eye is corrected for far vision while the other is focused at near distance. The results suggest complex binocular interactions. The apparatus can be dedicated to the better understanding of the vision mechanism, which might have an important impact in developing new protocols and treatments for presbyopia. The technique and the instrument might contribute to search optimized ophthalmic corrections.

  9. Altered Insular Function during Aberrant Salience Processing in Relation to the Severity of Psychotic Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Anna; Suenderhauf, Claudia; Smieskova, Renata; Lenz, Claudia; Harrisberger, Fabienne; Schmidt, André; Vogel, Tobias; Lang, Undine E.; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Eckert, Anne; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    There is strong evidence for abnormal salience processing in patients with psychotic experiences. In particular, there are indications that the degree of aberrant salience processing increases with the severity of positive symptoms. The aim of the present study was to elucidate this relationship by means of brain imaging. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was acquired to assess hemodynamic responses during the Salience Attribution Test, a paradigm for reaction time that measures aberrant salience to irrelevant stimulus features. We included 42 patients who were diagnosed as having a psychotic disorder and divided them into two groups according to the severity of their positive symptoms. Whole brain analysis was performed using Statistical Parametric Mapping. We found no significant behavioral differences with respect to task performance. Patients with more positive symptoms showed increased hemodynamic responses in the left insula corresponding to aberrant salience than in patients with less positive symptoms. In addition, left insula activation correlated negatively with cumulative antipsychotic medication. Aberrant salience processing in the insula may be increased in psychosis, depending on the severity of positive symptoms. This study indicates that clinically similar psychosis manifestations share the same functional characteristics. In addition, our results suggest that antipsychotic medication can modulate insular function. PMID:27933003

  10. Effects of aberrations in spatiotemporal focusing of ultrashort laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bangshan; Salter, Patrick S; Booth, Martin J

    2014-04-01

    Spatiotemporal focusing, or simultaneous spatial and temporal focusing (SSTF), has already been adopted for various applications in microscopy, photoactivation for biological studies, and laser fabrication. We investigate the effects of aberrations on focus formation in SSTF, in particular, the effects of phase aberrations related to low-order Zernike modes and a refractive index mismatch between the immersion medium and sample. By considering a line focus, we are able to draw direct comparison between the performance of SSTF and conventional spatial focusing (SF). Wide-field SSTF is also investigated and is found to be much more robust to aberrations than either line SSTF or SF. These results show the sensitivity of certain focusing methods to specific aberrations, and can inform on the necessity and benefit of aberration correction.

  11. Chaos in ocular aberration dynamics of the human eye

    PubMed Central

    Hampson, Karen M.; Mallen, Edward A. H.

    2012-01-01

    Since the characterization of the eye’s monochromatic aberration fluctuations in 2001, the power spectrum has remained the most widely used method for analyzing their dynamics. However, the power spectrum does not capture the complexities of the fluctuations. We measured the monochromatic aberration dynamics of six subjects using a Shack-Hartmann sensor sampling at 21 Hz. We characterized the dynamics using techniques from chaos theory. We found that the attractor embedding dimension for all aberrations, for all subjects, was equal to three. The embedding lag averaged across aberrations and subjects was 0.31 ± 0.07 s. The Lyapunov exponent of the rms wavefront error was positive for each subject, with an average value of 0.44 ± 0.15 µm/s. This indicates that the aberration dynamics are chaotic. Implications for future modeling are discussed. PMID:22567581

  12. A new momenclature for structural aberrations detected by chromosome painting

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, J.D.; Morgan, W.F.; Awa, A.A.; Bauchinger, M.; Blakey, D.; Cornforth, N.N.; Littlefield, L.G.; Natarajan, A.T.; Shasserre, C.

    1994-12-31

    The advent of chromosome painting has brought the realization that structural aberrations can be far more complex than previously imagined. Different laboratories have devised their own nomenclature systems to deal with this complexity, with the result that the terminology has become inconsistent and confusing. Recently, an international group of cytogeneticists experienced with chromosome painting convened to address this issue. The result is a systematic nomenclature capable of describing chromosome aberrations occurring between painted and unpainted chromosomes, as well as aberrations involving only painted chromosomes. The nomenclature is flexible enough to describe accurately even the most extensively rearranged chromosomes. As a consequence of this flexibility, the scheme upon which the nomenclature is based differs substantially from other systems of aberration classification. We call this system the Protocol for Aberration Identification and Nomenclature Terminology (PAINT).

  13. Aberrant NMDA-dependent LTD after perinatal ethanol exposure in young adult rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Kervern, Myriam; Silvestre de Ferron, Benoît; Alaux-Cantin, Stéphanie; Fedorenko, Olena; Antol, Johann; Naassila, Mickael; Pierrefiche, Olivier

    2015-08-01

    Irreversible cognitive deficits induced by ethanol exposure during fetal life have been ascribed to a lower NMDA-dependent synaptic long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus. Whether NMDA-dependent long-term depression (LTD) may also play a critical role in those deficits remains unknown. Here, we show that in vitro LTD induced with paired-pulse low frequency stimulation is enhanced in CA1 hippocampus field of young adult rats exposed to ethanol during brain development. Furthermore, single pulse low frequency stimulation, ineffective at this age (LFS600), induced LTD after ethanol exposure accompanied with a stronger response than controls during LFS600, thus revealing an aberrant form of activity-dependent plasticity at this age. Blocking NMDA receptor or GluN2B containing NMDA receptor prevented both the stronger response during LFS600 and LTD whereas Zinc, an antagonist of GluN2A containing NMDA receptor, was ineffective on both responses. In addition, LFS600-induced LTD was revealed in controls only with a reduced-Mg(2+) medium. In whole dissected hippocampus CA1 field, perinatal ethanol exposure increased GluN2B subunit expression in the synaptic compartment whereas GluN2A was unaltered. Using pharmacological tools, we suggest that LFS600 LTD was of synaptic origin. Altogether, we describe a new mechanism by which ethanol exposure during fetal life induces a long-term alteration of synaptic plasticity involving NMDA receptors, leading to an aberrant LTD. We suggest this effect of ethanol may reflect a delayed maturation of the synapse and that aberrant LTD may also participates to long-lasting cognitive deficits in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

  14. Detergent-insoluble EAAC1/EAAT3 aberrantly accumulates in hippocampal neurons of Alzheimer's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Duerson, Kevin; Woltjer, Randall L; Mookherjee, Paramita; Leverenz, James B; Montine, Thomas J; Bird, Thomas D; Pow, David V; Rauen, Thomas; Cook, David G

    2009-04-01

    Disturbed glutamate homeostasis may contribute to the pathological processes involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Once glutamate is released from synapses or from other intracellular sources, it is rapidly cleared by glutamate transporters. EAAC1 (also called EAAT3 or SLC1A1) is the primary glutamate transporter in forebrain neurons. In addition to transporting glutamate, EAAC1 plays other roles in regulating GABA synthesis, reducing oxidative stress in neurons, and is important in supporting neuron viability. Currently, little is known about EAAC1 in AD. To address whether EAAC1 is disturbed in AD, immunohistochemistry was performed on tissue from hippocampus and frontal cortex of AD and normal control subjects matched for age and gender. While EAAC1 immunostaining in cortex appeared comparable to controls, in the hippocampus, EAAC1 aberrantly accumulated in the cell bodies and proximal neuritic processes of CA2-CA3 pyramidal neurons in AD patients. Biochemical analyses showed that Triton X-100-insoluble EAAC1 was significantly increased in the hippocampus of AD patients compared to both controls and Parkinson's disease patients. These findings suggest that aberrant glutamate transporter expression is associated with AD-related neuropathology and that intracellular accumulation of detergent-insoluble EAAC1 is a feature of the complex biochemical lesions in AD that include altered protein solubility.

  15. Wave aberrations in rhesus monkeys with vision-induced ametropias.

    PubMed

    Ramamirtham, Ramkumar; Kee, Chea-Su; Hung, Li-Fang; Qiao-Grider, Ying; Huang, Juan; Roorda, Austin; Smith, Earl L

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between refractive errors and high-order aberrations in infant rhesus monkeys. Specifically, we compared the monochromatic wave aberrations measured with a Shack-Hartman wavefront sensor between normal monkeys and monkeys with vision-induced refractive errors. Shortly after birth, both normal monkeys and treated monkeys reared with optically induced defocus or form deprivation showed a decrease in the magnitude of high-order aberrations with age. However, the decrease in aberrations was typically smaller in the treated animals. Thus, at the end of the lens-rearing period, higher than normal amounts of aberrations were observed in treated eyes, both hyperopic and myopic eyes and treated eyes that developed astigmatism, but not spherical ametropias. The total RMS wavefront error increased with the degree of spherical refractive error, but was not correlated with the degree of astigmatism. Both myopic and hyperopic treated eyes showed elevated amounts of coma and trefoil and the degree of trefoil increased with the degree of spherical ametropia. Myopic eyes also exhibited a much higher prevalence of positive spherical aberration than normal or treated hyperopic eyes. Following the onset of unrestricted vision, the amount of high-order aberrations decreased in the treated monkeys that also recovered from the experimentally induced refractive errors. Our results demonstrate that high-order aberrations are influenced by visual experience in young primates and that the increase in high-order aberrations in our treated monkeys appears to be an optical byproduct of the vision-induced alterations in ocular growth that underlie changes in refractive error. The results from our study suggest that the higher amounts of wave aberrations observed in ametropic humans are likely to be a consequence, rather than a cause, of abnormal refractive development.

  16. Amyloid Beta (Aβ) Induces the Morphological Neurodegenerative Triad of Spine Loss, Dendritic Simplification, and Neuritic Dystrophies through Calcineurin (CaN) Activation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hai-Yan; Hudry, Eloise; Hashimoto, Tadafumi; Kuchibhotla, Kishore; Rozkalne, Anete; Fan, Zhanyun; Spires-Jones, Tara; Xie, Hong; Arbel-Ornath, Michal; Grosskreutz, Cynthia L.; Bacskai, Brian J.; Hyman, Bradley T

    2010-01-01

    Amyloid beta containing plaques are surrounded by dystrophic neurites in the Alzheimer disease (AD) brain, but whether and how plaques induce these neuritic abnormalities remain unknown. We tested the hypothesis that soluble oligomeric assemblies of Aβ, which surround plaques, induce calcium mediated secondary cascades that lead to dystrophic changes in local neurites. We show that soluble Aβ oligomers lead to activation of the calcium-dependent phosphatase CaN (PP2B) which in turn activates the transcriptional factor nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT). Activation of these signaling pathways, even in the absence of Aβ, is sufficient to produce a virtual phenocopy of Aβ induced dystrophic neurites, dendritic simplification, and dendritic spine loss in both neurons in culture and in the adult mouse brain. Importantly, the morphological deficits in the vicinity of Aβ deposits in a mouse model of AD are ameliorated by CaN inhibition, supporting the hypothesis that CaN/NFAT are aberrantly activated by Aβ, and that CaN/NFAT activation is responsible for disruption of neuronal structure near plaques. In accord with this, we also detect increased levels of an active form of CaN and NFATc4 in the nuclear fraction from the cortex of patients with AD. Thus, Aβ appears to mediate the neurodegeneration of AD, at least in part, by activation of CaN and subsequent NFAT-mediated downstream cascades. PMID:20164348

  17. Schizotypal perceptual aberrations of time: correlation between score, behavior and brain activity.

    PubMed

    Arzy, Shahar; Mohr, Christine; Molnar-Szakacs, Istvan; Blanke, Olaf

    2011-01-18

    A fundamental trait of the human self is its continuum experience of space and time. Perceptual aberrations of this spatial and temporal continuity is a major characteristic of schizophrenia spectrum disturbances--including schizophrenia, schizotypal personality disorder and schizotypy. We have previously found the classical Perceptual Aberration Scale (PAS) scores, related to body and space, to be positively correlated with both behavior and temporo-parietal activation in healthy participants performing a task involving self-projection in space. However, not much is known about the relationship between temporal perceptual aberration, behavior and brain activity. To this aim, we composed a temporal Perceptual Aberration Scale (tPAS) similar to the traditional PAS. Testing on 170 participants suggested similar performance for PAS and tPAS. We then correlated tPAS and PAS scores to participants' performance and neural activity in a task of self-projection in time. tPAS scores correlated positively with reaction times across task conditions, as did PAS scores. Evoked potential mapping and electrical neuroimaging showed self-projection in time to recruit a network of brain regions at the left anterior temporal cortex, right temporo-parietal junction, and occipito-temporal cortex, and duration of activation in this network positively correlated with tPAS and PAS scores. These data demonstrate that schizotypal perceptual aberrations of both time and space, as reflected by tPAS and PAS scores, are positively correlated with performance and brain activation during self-projection in time in healthy individuals along the schizophrenia spectrum.

  18. Schizotypal Perceptual Aberrations of Time: Correlation between Score, Behavior and Brain Activity

    PubMed Central

    Arzy, Shahar; Mohr, Christine; Molnar-Szakacs, Istvan; Blanke, Olaf

    2011-01-01

    A fundamental trait of the human self is its continuum experience of space and time. Perceptual aberrations of this spatial and temporal continuity is a major characteristic of schizophrenia spectrum disturbances – including schizophrenia, schizotypal personality disorder and schizotypy. We have previously found the classical Perceptual Aberration Scale (PAS) scores, related to body and space, to be positively correlated with both behavior and temporo-parietal activation in healthy participants performing a task involving self-projection in space. However, not much is known about the relationship between temporal perceptual aberration, behavior and brain activity. To this aim, we composed a temporal Perceptual Aberration Scale (tPAS) similar to the traditional PAS. Testing on 170 participants suggested similar performance for PAS and tPAS. We then correlated tPAS and PAS scores to participants' performance and neural activity in a task of self-projection in time. tPAS scores correlated positively with reaction times across task conditions, as did PAS scores. Evoked potential mapping and electrical neuroimaging showed self-projection in time to recruit a network of brain regions at the left anterior temporal cortex, right temporo-parietal junction, and occipito-temporal cortex, and duration of activation in this network positively correlated with tPAS and PAS scores. These data demonstrate that schizotypal perceptual aberrations of both time and space, as reflected by tPAS and PAS scores, are positively correlated with performance and brain activation during self-projection in time in healthy individuals along the schizophrenia spectrum. PMID:21267456

  19. Optical aberrations of the cornea and the crystalline lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Zhao-Qi; Wang, Yan; Zuo, Tong

    2006-09-01

    The wave-front aberrations of the anterior corneal surface, the posterior corneal surface and the complete eye have been measured by a corneal topographic system (Orbscan II) and a Hartmann-Shack wave-front sensor. We have calculated the aberrations for both the corneal surfaces with the discrete set of corneal elevation data, and with which to acquire the aberrations of the whole cornea. The aberrations of the crystalline lens are calculated by subtracting the aberrations of the cornea from that of the complete eye. The aberration combination between the anterior and the posterior corneal surface, between the cornea and the crystalline lens is complicated, either compensation or addition. For individual Zernike terms, astigmatism and quatrefoil in the anterior corneal surface are added by the posterior corneal surface, while some other terms show compensation between the two surfacesE And for complete eye, astigmatism and spherical aberrations in the cornea are partially compensated by the crystalline lens, and other terms show addition between the two parts. Individual eye shows different combinations of compensation and addition across different Zernike terms.

  20. Aberration correction of zoom lenses using evolutionary programming.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sourav

    2013-08-10

    A systematic approach for the aberration correction of zoom systems is presented. It is assumed that the powers and movements of the components of the zoom systems are known. Each component is considered as a system of thin lenses in contact. An evolutionary algorithm is developed to explore the multivariate hyperspace of design variables formed by spherical aberration, central coma, and longitudinal chromatic aberration of each component for infinite conjugate. The primary aberrations for each component at any zoom position are deduced from three central aberration coefficients of the component for infinite conjugate using conjugate shift formulas. Overall system aberrations of the zoom systems are determined by using stop shift formulas. In most of the zoom lens systems it is important to achieve stability in the primary aberrations of the system over the zoom range. This is facilitated by proper formulation of the merit function for the optimization process. Investigations have been carried out on four-component zoom lenses, and an ab initio structure of a four-component zoom lens is presented.

  1. The Mechanisms of Aberrant Protein Aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Samuel; Vendruscolo, Michele; Dobson, Chris; Knowles, Tuomas

    2012-02-01

    We discuss the development of a kinetic theory for understanding the aberrant loss of solubility of proteins. The failure to maintain protein solubility results often in the assembly of organized linear structures, commonly known as amyloid fibrils, the formation of which is associated with over 50 clinical disorders including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. A true microscopic understanding of the mechanisms that drive these aggregation processes has proved difficult to achieve. To address this challenge, we apply the methodologies of chemical kinetics to the biomolecular self-assembly pathways related to protein aggregation. We discuss the relevant master equation and analytical approaches to studying it. In particular, we derive the underlying rate laws in closed-form using a self-consistent solution scheme; the solutions that we obtain reveal scaling behaviors that are very generally present in systems of growing linear aggregates, and, moreover, provide a general route through which to relate experimental measurements to mechanistic information. We conclude by outlining a study of the aggregation of the Alzheimer's amyloid-beta peptide. The study identifies the dominant microscopic mechanism of aggregation and reveals previously unidentified therapeutic strategies.

  2. Full-field calibration and compensation of lateral chromatic aberration based on unwrapped phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaohong; Huang, Shujun; Zhang, Zonghua; Gao, Feng; Jiang, Xiangqian

    2016-10-01

    Lateral chromatic aberration (CA) of color cameras has great effects on the imaging quality. This paper presents a novel method to full-field calibrate lateral CA between color channels by using unwrapped phase data. Closed circle sinusoidal fringe patterns having the optimum three-fringe numbers are generated and displayed on a liquid crystal screen consecutively through red, green and blue channels. These closed fringe patterns are captured by a color camera. The wrapped phase and unwrapped phase of each pixel can be calculated by using four-step phase shifting algorithm and optimum three-fringe number method, respectively. The pixel deviations produced by lateral CA are computed by comparing the obtained absolute phase data between red, blue, and green channels in polar coordinate system and calibration is accomplished in Cartesian coordinate system. Lateral CA between color channels of the color camera can be compensated by using the calibrated data. Simulated and experimental results show the validity of the proposed calibration and compensation method.

  3. Off-axis variable focus and aberration control mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Himmer, Phillip A.; Dickensheets, David L.

    2003-01-01

    Elliptical-boundary deformable mirrors have been developed for focus control of an optical beam incident at forty-five degrees with respect to the surface normal. The mirrors are silicon nitride membranes 1.4×1 mm in size, designed to accommodate a 1 mm diameter beam. Two electrostatic actuation zones provide control over spherical aberration. Focal lengths ranging from infinity to 36 mm have been achieved, and the mirror surface figure has been characterized to quantify aberration. Residual aberrations have been observed to be less than λ/5 (peak to peak) measured at λ = 660 nm.

  4. Malignant hyperthermia susceptibility arising from altered resting coupling between the skeletal muscle L-type Ca2+ channel and the type 1 ryanodine receptor

    PubMed Central

    Eltit, Jose Miguel; Bannister, Roger A.; Moua, Ong; Altamirano, Francisco; Hopkins, Philip M.; Pessah, Isaac N.; Molinski, Tadeusz F.; López, Jose R.; Beam, Kurt G.; Allen, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) susceptibility is a dominantly inherited disorder in which volatile anesthetics trigger aberrant Ca2+ release in skeletal muscle and a potentially fatal rise in perioperative body temperature. Mutations causing MH susceptibility have been identified in two proteins critical for excitation–contraction (EC) coupling, the type 1 ryanodine receptor (RyR1) and CaV1.1, the principal subunit of the L-type Ca2+ channel. All of the mutations that have been characterized previously augment EC coupling and/or increase the rate of L-type Ca2+ entry. The CaV1.1 mutation R174W associated with MH susceptibility occurs at the innermost basic residue of the IS4 voltage-sensing helix, a residue conserved among all CaV channels [Carpenter D, et al. (2009) BMC Med Genet 10:104–115.]. To define the functional consequences of this mutation, we expressed it in dysgenic (CaV1.1 null) myotubes. Unlike previously described MH-linked mutations in CaV1.1, R174W ablated the L-type current and had no effect on EC coupling. Nonetheless, R174W increased sensitivity of Ca2+ release to caffeine (used for MH diagnostic in vitro testing) and to volatile anesthetics. Moreover, in CaV1.1 R174W-expressing myotubes, resting myoplasmic Ca2+ levels were elevated, and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) stores were partially depleted, compared with myotubes expressing wild-type CaV1.1. Our results indicate that CaV1.1 functions not only to activate RyR1 during EC coupling, but also to suppress resting RyR1-mediated Ca2+ leak from the SR, and that perturbation of CaV1.1 negative regulation of RyR1 leak identifies a unique mechanism that can sensitize muscle cells to MH triggers. PMID:22547813

  5. Neural and Behavioral Correlates of Aberrant Salience in Individuals at Risk for Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Roiser, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    The “aberrant salience” model proposes that psychotic symptoms first emerge when chaotic brain dopamine transmission leads to the attribution of significance to stimuli that would normally be considered irrelevant. This is thought to occur during the prodromal phase of psychotic disorders, but this prediction has not been tested previously. In the present study, we tested this model in 18 healthy volunteers and 18 unmedicated individuals at ultra-high risk of psychosis. Subjects performed the Salience Attribution Test, which provides behavioral measures of adaptive and aberrant motivational salience, during functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess neural responses to relevant and irrelevant stimulus features. On a separate occasion, the same subjects were also studied with [18F]fluorodopa positron emission tomography to measure dopamine synthesis capacity. Individuals at ultra-high risk of psychosis were more likely to attribute motivational salience to irrelevant stimulus features (t(26.7) = 2.8, P = .008), and this bias was related to the severity of their delusion-like symptoms (r = .62, P = .008). Ventral striatal responses to irrelevant stimulus features were also correlated with delusion-like symptoms in the ultra-high risk group (r = .59, P = .017). Striatal dopamine synthesis capacity correlated negatively with hippocampal responses to irrelevant stimulus features in ultra-high risk individuals, but this relationship was positive in controls. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that aberrant salience processing underlies psychotic symptoms and involves functional alterations in the striatum, hippocampus, and the subcortical dopamine system. PMID:23236077

  6. High order aberration and straylight evaluation after cataract surgery with implantation of an aspheric, aberration correcting monofocal intraocular lens

    PubMed Central

    Kretz, Florian T A; Tandogan, Tamer; Khoramnia, Ramin; Auffarth, Gerd U

    2015-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the quality of vision in respect to high order aberrations and straylight perception after implantation of an aspheric, aberration correcting, monofocal intraocular lens (IOL). METHODS Twenty-one patients (34 eyes) aged 50 to 83y underwent cataract surgery with implantation of an aspheric, aberration correcting IOL (Tecnis ZCB00, Abbott Medical Optics). Three months after surgery they were examined for uncorrected (UDVA) and corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), contrast sensitivity (CS) under photopic and mesopic conditions with and without glare source, ocular high order aberrations (HOA, Zywave II) and retinal straylight (C-Quant). RESULTS Postoperatively, patients achieved a postoperative CDVA of 0.0 logMAR or better in 97.1% of eyes. Mean values of high order abberations were +0.02±0.27 (primary coma components) and -0.04±0.16 (spherical aberration term). Straylight values of the C-Quant were 1.35±0.44 log which is within normal range of age matched phakic patients. The CS measurements under mesopic and photopic conditions in combination with and without glare did not show any statistical significance in the patient group observed (P≥0.28). CONCLUSION The implantation of an aspherical aberration correcting monofocal IOL after cataract surgery resulted in very low residual higher order aberration (HOA) and normal straylight. PMID:26309872

  7. Impact of Primary Spherical Aberration, Spatial Frequency and Stiles Crawford Apodization on Wavefront determined Refractive Error: A Computational Study

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Renfeng; Bradley, Arthur; Thibos, Larry N.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We tested the hypothesis that pupil apodization is the basis for central pupil bias of spherical refractions in eyes with spherical aberration. Methods We employed Fourier computational optics in which we vary spherical aberration levels, pupil size, and pupil apodization (Stiles Crawford Effect) within the pupil function, from which point spread functions and optical transfer functions were computed. Through-focus analysis determined the refractive correction that optimized retinal image quality. Results For a large pupil (7 mm), as spherical aberration levels increase, refractions that optimize the visual Strehl ratio mirror refractions that maximize high spatial frequency modulation in the image and both focus a near paraxial region of the pupil. These refractions are not affected by Stiles Crawford Effect apodization. Refractions that optimize low spatial frequency modulation come close to minimizing wavefront RMS, and vary with level of spherical aberration and Stiles Crawford Effect. In the presence of significant levels of spherical aberration (e.g. C40 = 0.4 µm, 7mm pupil), low spatial frequency refractions can induce −0.7D myopic shift compared to high SF refraction, and refractions that maximize image contrast of a 3 cycle per degree square-wave grating can cause −0.75D myopic drift relative to refractions that maximize image sharpness. Discussion Because of small depth of focus associated with high spatial frequency stimuli, the large change in dioptric power across the pupil caused by spherical aberration limits the effective aperture contributing to the image of high spatial frequencies. Thus, when imaging high spatial frequencies, spherical aberration effectively induces an annular aperture defining that portion of the pupil contributing to a well-focused image. As spherical focus is manipulated during the refraction procedure, the dimensions of the annular aperture change. Image quality is maximized when the inner radius of the induced

  8. Testing the Itinerancy of Spin Dynamics in Superconducting Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8C+δ

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, G.; Gu, G.D.; Hücker, M.; Fauqué, B.; Perring, T.G.; Regnault, L.P.; Tranquada, J.M.

    2009-09-01

    Much of what we know about the electronic states of high-temperature superconductors is due to photoemission and scanning tunnelling spectroscopy studies of the compound Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}}. The demonstration of well-defined quasiparticles in the superconducting state has encouraged many theorists to apply the conventional theory of metals, Fermi-liquid theory, to the cuprates. In particular, the spin excitations observed by neutron scattering at energies below twice the superconducting gap energy are commonly believed to correspond to an excitonic state involving itinerant electrons. Here, we present the first measurements of the magnetic spectral weight of optimally doped Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{delta}} in absolute units. The lack of temperature dependence of the local spin susceptibility across the superconducting transition temperature, T{sub c}, is incompatible with the itinerant calculations. Alternatively, the magnetic excitations could be due to local moments, as the magnetic spectrum is similar to that in La{sub 1.875}Ba{sub 0.125}CuO{sub 4}, where quasiparticles and local moments coexist.

  9. VLBI measurement of the secular aberration drift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, O.; Lambert, S. B.; Gontier, A.-M.

    2011-05-01

    Aims: While analyzing decades of very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) data, we detected the secular aberration drift of the extragalatic radio source proper motions caused by the rotation of the Solar System barycenter around the Galactic center. Our results agree with the predicted estimate to be 4-6 micro arcseconds per year (μas/yr) towards α = 266° and δ = -29°. In addition, we tried to detect the quadrupole systematics of the velocity field. Methods: The analysis method consisted of three steps. First, we analyzed geodetic and astrometric VLBI data to produce radio source coordinate time series. Second, we fitted proper motions of 555 sources with long observational histories over the period 1990-2010 to their respective coordinate time series. Finally, we fitted vector spherical harmonic components of degrees 1 and 2 to the proper motion field. Results: Within the error bars, the magnitude and the direction of the dipole component agree with predictions. The dipole vector has an amplitude of 6.4 ± 1.5 μas/yr and is directed towards equatorial coordinates α = 263° and δ = -20°. The quadrupole component has not been detected. The primordial gravitational wave density, integrated over a range of frequencies less than 10-9 Hz, has a limit of 0.0042h-2 where h is the normalized Hubble constant is H0/(100 km s-1). We dedicate this work to the memory of Anne-Marie Gontier, our colleague and personal friend, and a widely recognized specialist of VLBI. She passed away shortly after this paper was submitted.Proper motion data is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/529/A91

  10. Focusing Diffraction Grating Element with Aberration Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iazikov, Dmitri; Mossberg, Thomas W.; Greiner, Christoph M.

    2010-01-01

    Diffraction gratings are optical components with regular patterns of grooves, which angularly disperse incoming light by wavelength in a single plane, called dispersion plane. Traditional gratings on flat substrates do not perform wavefront transformation in the plane perpendicular to the dispersion plane. The device proposed here exhibits regular diffraction grating behavior, dispersing light. In addition, it performs wavelength transformation (focusing or defocusing) of diffracted light in a direction perpendicular to the dispersion plane (called sagittal plane). The device is composed of a diffraction grating with the grooves in the form of equidistant arcs. It may be formed by defining a single arc or an arc approximation, then translating it along a certain direction by a distance equal to a multiple of a fixed distance ("grating period") to obtain other groove positions. Such groove layout is nearly impossible to obtain using traditional ruling methods, such as mechanical ruling or holographic scribing, but is trivial for lithographically scribed gratings. Lithographic scribing is the newly developed method first commercially introduced by LightSmyth Technologies, which produces gratings with the highest performance and arbitrary groove shape/spacing for advanced aberration control. Unlike other types of focusing gratings, the grating is formed on a flat substrate. In a plane perpendicular to the substrate and parallel to the translation direction, the period of the grating and, therefore, the projection of its k-vector onto the plane is the same for any location on the grating surface. In that plane, no waveform transformation by the grating k-vector occurs, except of simple redirection.

  11. MORPHOLOGICAL ABERRATION OF ARTHROBACTER GLOBIFORMIS CELLS DUE TO BIOTIN DEFICIENCY.

    PubMed

    CHAN, E C

    1964-03-01

    Chan, E. C. S. (University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada). Morphological aberration of Arthrobacter globiformis cells due to biotin deficiency. J. Bacteriol. 87:641-651. 1964.-Morphological aberration of Arthrobacter globiformis strain 425 was shown to occur during growth in a chemically defined medium without added biotin. Such aberrant cells could revert back to normal coccoid forms upon inoculation into fresh medium supplemented with the vitamin. This abnormal cellular development occurred even when there was good growth (turbidity) or increase in total cell mass. Light photomicrographs of negative and cell-wall stains of the organism at different times of the morphological growth cycle are presented in support of these observations. The relationship between cellular aberration and the biochemical role of biotin is briefly discussed.

  12. Multiple imaging with an aberration optimized hololens array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthil Kumar, A.; Vasu, R. M.

    1989-08-01

    The imaging performance of hololenses formed with four different geometries were studied through an analysis of their third-order aberration coefficients. It is found that the geometry proposed by Brandt (1969) gives the least residual aberration with minimum variation of this aberration with the reconstruction angle. When the ideal position of one of the construction beams is changed in order to generate a hololens array, the residual aberration is found to increase sharply, which in turn affects the image resolution among the multiplied images in the output. A hololens array was generated using Brandt's geometry with the help of a one-dimensional sinusoidal grating. The results of multiple imaging with the hololens array are presented. The image resolution is reasonably high and can be further improved by reducing the f-number of the hololenses.

  13. Multiple Imaging With An Aberration Optimized Hololens Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, A. Senthil; Vasu, R. M.

    1989-08-01

    We study the imaging performance of hololenses formed with four different geometries through an analysis of their third-order aberration coefficients. It is found that the geometry proposed by Brandt [Appl. Opt. 8(7), 1421-1429 (1969)] gives the least residual aberration with minimum variation of this aberration with the reconstruction angle. When the ideal position of one of the construction beams is changed in order to generate a hololens array, the residual aberration is found to increase sharply, which in turn affects the image resolution among the multiplied images in the output. We have generated a hololens array using Brandt's geometry with the help of a 1-D sinusoidal grating. The results of multiple imaging with the hololens array are presented. The image resolution is reasonably high and can be further improved by reducing the f-number of the hololenses.

  14. Task difficulty and aberrant behavior in severely handicapped students.

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, M; Gaylord-Ross, R

    1981-01-01

    The influence of task difficulty on aberrant behavior was investigated with three severely handicapped students. Noticeably higher rates of problem behavior occurred in demand compared to no-demand conditions. In addition, there were higher rates of problem behaviors on difficult versus easy tasks. Both these findings were validated with visual discrimination and perceptual motor tasks. An errorless learning procedure effectively minimized errors and aberrant behavior in visual discrimination tasks but not in perceptual motor tasks. It was conceptualized that aberrant behavior was maintained by negative reinforcement contingencies. Difficult tasks were aversive to the children, who emitted aberrant responses to escape or avoid such tasks. By contrast, conditions in which no demands were made, easy tasks, and, in visual discrimination learning, errorless tasks, were less aversive and resulted in little or no problem behavior. Implications for reducing maladaptive behaviors through curricular modifications are discussed and contrasted to more traditional consequence manipulation approaches. PMID:7328069

  15. Early Development of Children with Sex Chromosome Aberrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haka-Ilse, Katerina; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Arthur Retlaw and Associates, Inc., Suite 2080, 1603 Orrington Avenue, Evanston, Illinois 60201. A prospective study was made of the early development of 42 children with sex chromosome aberrations. (Author)

  16. Task difficulty and aberrant behavior in severely handicapped students.

    PubMed

    Weeks, M; Gaylord-Ross, R

    1981-01-01

    The influence of task difficulty on aberrant behavior was investigated with three severely handicapped students. Noticeably higher rates of problem behavior occurred in demand compared to no-demand conditions. In addition, there were higher rates of problem behaviors on difficult versus easy tasks. Both these findings were validated with visual discrimination and perceptual motor tasks. An errorless learning procedure effectively minimized errors and aberrant behavior in visual discrimination tasks but not in perceptual motor tasks. It was conceptualized that aberrant behavior was maintained by negative reinforcement contingencies. Difficult tasks were aversive to the children, who emitted aberrant responses to escape or avoid such tasks. By contrast, conditions in which no demands were made, easy tasks, and, in visual discrimination learning, errorless tasks, were less aversive and resulted in little or no problem behavior. Implications for reducing maladaptive behaviors through curricular modifications are discussed and contrasted to more traditional consequence manipulation approaches.

  17. [Distribution and compensation mechanism of aberrations between anterior and posterior surface of the cornea in myopia and myopic astigmatism eyes].

    PubMed

    Li, X J; Wang, Y; Wu, Y N; Wu, W J; Yu, C J; Xu, L L

    2016-11-11

    Objective: To study the compensation mechanism of aberrations between anterior and posterior corneal surface, and to investigate the correlations between corneal aberrations and K values, intraocular pressure and central corneal thickness. Methods: One hundred and sixty-one subjects (300 eyes) with myopia and myopic astigmatism were recruited randomly. Corneal aberrations (anterior, posterior and total) in three different optical zones (2 mm, 4 mm, and 6 mm) centered on the corneal vertex were assessed with a corneal topographer (Sirius). We also calculated compensation factors (CFs) as a measure of the relative efficiency of the aberration compensation mechanism. Astigmatism was divided into corneal astigmatism and non-corneal astigmatism. Mann-Whitney U test was utilized for the comparison of different aberrations and CFs between the two astigmatism groups. Spearman correlation was applied to analyze the correlations between corneal aberrations and K values, intraocular pressure and central corneal thickness. Results: As the order of the aberrations elevated from the second to the seventh, the RMS values decreased significantly. The larger the optical zone, the greater the values of aberrations and the lower the percentage of the compensation mechanism among all the Zernike terms. At the same time, as the order of the aberrations increased, the predominance of the compensation mechanism was increasingly obvious. Slight compensation of spherical aberration (Z4(0)) was observed in the peripheral. In the center of the analyzing zones (2 mm), compensation mechanism represented in coma (Z3(±1)), and it disappeared in the peripheral. We detected slight compensation of the corneal astigmatism (Z2(±2)) in the surrounding zone, although the compensation factors were closed to zero in diverse optical zones. Superposition was found in trefoil (Z3(±3)) straightly. Nevertheless, a tendency towards compensation was discovered with the enlargement of the optical zones. And

  18. Aberration vignetting phenomena and its visualization in wide angular objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livshits, Irina; Letunovskaya, Marina; Potemin, Igor; Okishev, Sergey; Zhdanov, Dmitry

    2016-11-01

    Aberration vignetting phenomena changes light distribution in the image plane. A method of physically accurate simulation of this effect in optical devices is presented. We modified a stochastic ray tracing technique to use it for the analysis and visualization of the aberration vignetting. Some useful illustrations with a number of visual examples of these phenomena for different optical systems are given: bi-concentric lens, wide-angle lens, fish-eye lenses, etc.

  19. Multiplexed aberration measurement for deep tissue imaging in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chen; Liu, Rui; Milkie, Daniel E.; Sun, Wenzhi; Tan, Zhongchao; Kerlin, Aaron; Chen, Tsai-Wen; Kim, Douglas S.; Ji, Na

    2014-01-01

    We describe a multiplexed aberration measurement method that modulates the intensity or phase of light rays at multiple pupil segments in parallel to determine their phase gradients. Applicable to fluorescent-protein-labeled structures of arbitrary complexity, it allows us to obtain diffraction-limited resolution in various samples in vivo. For the strongly scattering mouse brain, a single aberration correction improves structural and functional imaging of fine neuronal processes over a large imaging volume. PMID:25128976

  20. Optical aberration compensation in a multiplexed optical trapping system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čižmár, T.; Dalgarno, H. I. C.; Ashok, P. C.; Gunn-Moore, F. J.; Dholakia, K.

    2011-04-01

    In this paper we discuss optical aberrations within a multiplexed optical trapping system. We analyze two of the most powerful methods for optical trap multiplexing: time-shared beam steering and holographic beam shaping in a tandem system with an acousto-optic deflector and spatial light modulator. We show how to isolate and correct for the aberrations introduced by these individual optical components using the spatial light modulator and demonstrate the enhancement this provides to optical trapping.

  1. Aberrant Alternative Splicing Is Another Hallmark of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ladomery, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The vast majority of human genes are alternatively spliced. Not surprisingly, aberrant alternative splicing is increasingly linked to cancer. Splice isoforms often encode proteins that have distinct and even antagonistic properties. The abnormal expression of splice factors and splice factor kinases in cancer changes the alternative splicing of critically important pre-mRNAs. Aberrant alternative splicing should be added to the growing list of cancer hallmarks. PMID:24101931

  2. Aberrant Salience Is Related to Reduced Reinforcement Learning Signals and Elevated Dopamine Synthesis Capacity in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Boehme, Rebecca; Deserno, Lorenz; Gleich, Tobias; Katthagen, Teresa; Pankow, Anne; Behr, Joachim; Buchert, Ralph; Roiser, Jonathan P; Heinz, Andreas; Schlagenhauf, Florian

    2015-07-15

    The striatum is known to play a key role in reinforcement learning, specifically in the encoding of teaching signals such as reward prediction errors (RPEs). It has been proposed that aberrant salience attribution is associated with impaired coding of RPE and heightened dopamine turnover in the striatum, and might be linked to the development of psychotic symptoms. However, the relationship of aberrant salience attribution, RPE coding, and dopamine synthesis capacity has not been directly investigated. Here we assessed the association between a behavioral measure of aberrant salience attribution, the salience attribution test, to neural correlates of RPEs measured via functional magnetic resonance imaging while healthy participants (n = 58) performed an instrumental learning task. A subset of participants (n = 27) also underwent positron emission tomography with the radiotracer [(18)F]fluoro-l-DOPA to quantify striatal presynaptic dopamine synthesis capacity. Individual variability in aberrant salience measures related negatively to ventral striatal and prefrontal RPE signals and in an exploratory analysis was found to be positively associated with ventral striatal presynaptic dopamine levels. These data provide the first evidence for a specific link between the constructs of aberrant salience attribution, reduced RPE processing, and potentially increased presynaptic dopamine function.

  3. RBE of Energetic Iron Ions for the Induction of Early and Late Chromosome Aberrations in Different Cell Types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ye; Yeshitla, Samrawit; Hada, Megumi; Kadhim, Munira; Wilson, Bobby; Wu, Honglu

    2014-01-01

    Numerous published studies have reported the RBE values for chromosome chromosomes induced by charged particles of different LET. The RBE for chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes exposed ex vivo showed a similar relationship as the quality factor for cancer induction. Consequently, increased chromosome aberrations in the astronauts' white blood cells post long-duration missions are used to determine the biological doses from exposures to space radiation. The RBE value is known to be very different for different types of cancer. Previously, we reported that the RBE for initial chromosome damages was high in human lymphocytes exposed to Fe ions. After multiple cell divisions post irradiation, the RBE was significantly smaller. To test the hypothesis that the RBE values for chromosome aberrations are different between early and late damages and also different between different cell types, we exposed human lymphocytes ex vivo, and human fibroblast cells and human mammary epithelial cells in vitro to 600 MeV/u Fe ions. Post irradiation, the cells were collected at first mitosis, or cultured for multiple generations for collections of remaining or late arising chromosome aberrations. The chromosome aberrations were quantified using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with whole chromosome specific probes. This study attempts to offer an explanation for the varying RBE values for different cancer types.

  4. Wave-front aberration measurements on GRIN-rod lenses.

    PubMed

    Cline, T W; Jander, R B

    1982-03-15

    A survey of the optical quality of commercial and experimental Selfoc GRIN-rod lenses was made using a digital Twyman-Green wave-front interferometer. The technique provides an accurate and reproducible method for predicting lens performance in microoptic devices. Wave-front aberrations are reported for (1/4) pitch lenses measured in a double-pass configuration. It was found that spherical aberration is dominant in commercial lenses. SLW (1/4) pitch lenses have lower aberrations than SLS lenses and are quite suitable for microoptic devices based on fiber-to-fiber coupling. Measured multimode coupling efficiency under steady-state modal propagation is compared to measured spherical aberration for a number of lenses. The slope of the coupling dependence on spherical aberration was found to be -0.1 dB/wave. Effects due to mechanical alignment and the modal distribution in the fibers had a greater influence on the measured coupling efficiency than the contribution due the intrinsic lens aberrations, especially for the SLW lenses. Comparison of this empirical dependence with theoretical predictions for a uniform distribution, which suggests a stronger dependence, is discussed. This work suggests that commercially available GRIN-rod lenses are suitable for use in microoptic components.

  5. Generalized Alvarez lens for correction of laser aberrations

    SciTech Connect

    LaFortune, K N

    2004-12-02

    The Alvarez lens (US Patent No. 3,305,294 [1]) is a compact aberration corrector. The original design emphasized in the patent consists of a pair of adjacent optical elements that provide a variable focus. A lens system with a variable effective focal length is nothing new. Such systems are widely used in cameras, for example. It is the compactness and simplicity of operation that is the key advantage of the Alvarez lens. All of the complexity is folded into the design and fabrication of the optical elements. As mentioned in the Alvarez patent [1] and elaborated upon in Palusinski et al. [2], if one is willing to fold even more complexity into the optical elements, it is possible to correct higher-order aberrations as well. There is no theoretical limit to the number or degree of wavefront distortions that can be corrected. The only limitation is that there must be a fixed relative magnitude of the aberrations. Independent correction of each component of the higher-order aberrations can not be performed without additional elements and degrees of freedom [3]. Under some circumstances, coupling may be observed between different aberrations. This can be mitigated with the appropriate choice of design parameters. New methods are available today that increase the practicality of making higher-order aberration correctors [4,5,6].

  6. Induction of chromosome aberrations in human cells by charged particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, H.; Durante, M.; George, K.; Yang, T. C.

    1997-01-01

    Chromosome aberrations induced by high-energy charged particles in normal human lymphocytes and human fibroblasts have been investigated. The charged particles included 250 MeV/nucleon protons, 290 MeV/nucleon carbon ions and 1 GeV/nucleon iron ions. The energies of the charged particles were higher than in most of the studies reported in the literature. Lymphocytes were stimulated to grow immediately after irradiation, while fibroblasts were incubated at 37 degrees C for 24 h for repair. Chromosomes were collected at the first mitosis after irradiation and chromosome aberrations were scored using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique with a whole-chromosome 4 probe. Chromosome aberrations were classified as reciprocal exchanges, incomplete exchanges, deletions and complex exchanges. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for each type of aberration was calculated by dividing a dose of 4 Gy by the dose of the charged particles producing the same effect as 4 Gy of gamma rays. Results of this study showed that complex aberrations have the highest RBE for radiation of high linear energy transfer (LET) for human lymphocytes, but for fibroblasts, the greatest effect was for incomplete exchanges. For both lymphocytes and fibroblasts, iron ions induced a similar fraction of aberrant cells.

  7. Photolithography for the static compensation of human eye aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bara, Salvador; Jaroszewicz, Zbigniew

    2004-08-01

    Recent developments in human eye aberration measurements allow to design and fabricate compensating elements aiming to achieve aberration-limited imaging. This is important not merely from a subject's viewpoint (improving the sharpness of the outer world images formed at the retina) but mainly for clinical instrumentation purposes, especially those dealing with high-resolution retinal imaging (eye fundus cameras, scanning laser ophtlalmosopes, etc.). Here we report recent developments in the correction of the static component of the eye aberrations. Aberration data of several subjects were used for manufacturing personally customized phase plates designed to compensate for the wave aberration in the human eye. These plates were made by gray-level single-mask photosculpture in photoresist and then placed in front of the eye. The effects of misalignments as well as the strategy to design wide-field correcting elements are briefly revised. Applications include improving images in scanning laser ophtalmoscopes. The future plans of research including application of axicons for compensation of the lack of accommodation and kinoforms cancelling high amounts of eye's aberrations in monochromatic illumination are also sketched.

  8. Aberrant Glycosylation as Biomarker for Cancer: Focus on CD43

    PubMed Central

    de Laurentiis, Annamaria; Fiume, Giuseppe; Borrelli, Antonella; Tassone, Pierfrancesco; Scala, Iris; Buonaguro, Franco Maria; Quinto, Ileana; Scala, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Glycosylation is a posttranslational modification of proteins playing a major role in cell signalling, immune recognition, and cell-cell interaction because of their glycan branches conferring structure variability and binding specificity to lectin ligands. Aberrant expression of glycan structures as well as occurrence of truncated structures, precursors, or novel structures of glycan may affect ligand-receptor interactions and thus interfere with regulation of cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation. Indeed, aberrant glycosylation represents a hallmark of cancer, reflecting cancer-specific changes in glycan biosynthesis pathways such as the altered expression of glycosyltransferases and glycosidases. Most studies have been carried out to identify changes in serum glycan structures. In most cancers, fucosylation and sialylation are significantly modified. Thus, aberrations in glycan structures can be used as targets to improve existing serum cancer biomarkers. The ability to distinguish differences in the glycosylation of proteins between cancer and control patients emphasizes glycobiology as a promising field for potential biomarker identification. In this review, we discuss the aberrant protein glycosylation associated with human cancer and the identification of protein glycoforms as cancer biomarkers. In particular, we will focus on the aberrant CD43 glycosylation as cancer biomarker and the potential to exploit the UN1 monoclonal antibody (UN1 mAb) to identify aberrant CD43 glycoforms. PMID:24689054

  9. Impact of Genetic Variation on Human CaMKK2 Regulation by Ca2+-Calmodulin and Multisite Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Matthew T.; Oakhill, Jonathan S.; Ling, Naomi X. Y.; Langendorf, Christopher G.; Hoque, Ashfaqul; Dite, Toby A.; Means, Anthony R.; Kemp, Bruce E.; Scott, John W.

    2017-01-01

    The Ca2+-calmodulin dependent protein kinase kinase-2 (CaMKK2) is a key regulator of neuronal function and whole-body energy metabolism. Elevated CaMKK2 activity is strongly associated with prostate and hepatic cancers, whereas reduced CaMKK2 activity has been linked to schizophrenia and bipolar disease in humans. Here we report the functional effects of nine rare-variant point mutations that were detected in large-scale human genetic studies and cancer tissues, all of which occur close to two regulatory phosphorylation sites and the catalytic site on human CaMKK2. Four mutations (G87R, R139W, R142W and E268K) cause a marked decrease in Ca2+-independent autonomous activity, however S137L and P138S mutants displayed increased autonomous and Ca2+-CaM stimulated activities. Furthermore, the G87R mutant is defective in Thr85-autophosphorylation dependent autonomous activity, whereas the A329T mutation rendered CaMKK2 virtually insensitive to Ca2+-CaM stimulation. The G87R and R139W mutants behave as dominant-negative inhibitors of CaMKK2 signaling in cells as they block phosphorylation of the downstream substrate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in response to ionomycin. Our study provides insight into functionally disruptive, rare-variant mutations in human CaMKK2, which have the potential to influence risk and burden of disease associated with aberrant CaMKK2 activity in human populations carrying these variants. PMID:28230171

  10. Chromosomal aberrations, reproductive success, life span, and mortality in irradiated Neanthes arenaceodentata (polychaeta)

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, S.L.; Harrison, F.L.; Chan, G.; Moore, D.H. II

    1987-10-01

    The polychaete worm Neanthes arenaceodentata ws used in experiments to determine possible relationships between short-term genotoxicity tests and reproductive and lethal consequences of exposure to ionizing radiation. Groups of juvenile N. arenaceodentata received one of four different radiation doses (2, 4, 8, and 16 Gy) to determine dose-effect estimates for chromosomal aberration induction, and groups of both adult and juveniles received one of seven different radiation doses (1, 4, 8.4, 46, 102, 500, and 1000 Gy) to determine dose-effect estimates for reproduction, mortality, and life span. Effects on reproduction and genetic material were observed at the lowest doses and in the same range; detrimental reproductive effects were observed at 1 to 4 Gy, and the frequency of chromosomal aberrations were significantly increased at 2 Gy. Only high doses resulted in acute mortality (>500 Gy) and decreased life span (>100 Gy). Dose-effect estimates for chromosomal aberration induction were dependant on radiation dose and on the stage of the cell cycle at the time of irradiation. Dose-effect estimates for reproduction were dependant on dose and the potential for repopulation of gonadal tissue. Such knowledge is required because factors, such as cell-cycle effects, may modify dose-effect estimates. It is concluded that short-term genotoxicity tests can be predictive of detrimental reproductive effects in those model systems for which basic cell kinetics and reproductive parameters are well known. 4 refs., 11 figs., 13 tabs.

  11. High order aberrations calculation of a hexapole corrector using a differential algebra method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Yongfeng; Liu, Xing; Zhao, Jingyi; Tang, Tiantong

    2017-02-01

    A differential algebraic (DA) method is proved as an unusual and effective tool in numerical analysis. It implements conveniently differentiation up to arbitrary high order, based on the nonstandard analysis. In this paper, the differential algebra (DA) method has been employed to compute the high order aberrations up to the fifth order of a practical hexapole corrector including round lenses and hexapole lenses. The program has been developed and tested as well. The electro-magnetic fields of arbitrary point are obtained by local analytic expressions, then field potentials are transformed into new forms which can be operated in the DA calculation. In this paper, the geometric and chromatic aberrations up to fifth order of a practical hexapole corrector system are calculated by the developed program.

  12. Criterion of phasing in the presence of segment aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shanshan; Zhu, Qiudong; Cao, Genrui; Wang, Xiao

    2008-03-01

    In order to achieve a spatial resolution comparable to a monolithic telescope of the same diameter, the segmented mirror surface must be phased with an accuracy about λ/20 wavefront rms, which is comparable with the accuracy of the segment figure. During the phasing procedure, piston, tip-tilt are controlled to achieve the best image quality of the telescope. The residual rms wavefront error of whole aperture taken as the merit function reaches minimum analytically when the least-square-fit plane of tested segment meets together with that of reference mirror, which means that "phasing" is a statistical mood of the whole aperture, not to match some small areas of the segments. The impact of segment aberration on the whole aperture residual rms wavefront error is simulated using the whole segment aperture sensing and edge sensing respectively. By the analytical and numerical simulation, it is demonstrated that the whole segment aperture phase sensing can make a better image quality than the edge sensing.

  13. Aberrant CpG Islands Hypermethylation Profiles in Malignant Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwang Ryeol; Kim, Ealmaan

    2014-01-01

    Background The authors analyzed whether the promoter hypermethylation of cancer-related genes was involved in the tumorigenesis of malignant gliomas. Methods A total of 29 patients received surgery and histologically confirmed to have malignant gliomas from January 2000 to December 2006. The promoter methylation status of several genes, which were reported to be frequently methylated in malignant gliomas, was investigated using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. Results All cases of malignant gliomas represented the promoter hypermethylation in at least 2 or more genes tested. Of 29 tumors, 28 (96.55%) showed concurrent hypermethylation of 3 or more genes. Ras association domain family member 1, epithelial cadherin, O-6 methyl guanine DNA methyltransferase, thrombospondin 1, p14 and adenomatous polyposis coli were frequently methylated in high grade gliomas including glioblastomas, anaplastic astrocytomas, and anaplastic oligodendrogliomas. Conclusion Aberrant hypermethylation profile was closely related with malignant gliomas suggesting that epigenetic change may play a role in the development of malignant gliomas. Two or three target genes may provide useful clues to the development of the useful prognostic as well as diagnostic assays for malignant gliomas. PMID:24926469

  14. Fortilin binds Ca2+ and blocks Ca2+-dependent apoptosis in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Graidist, Potchanapond; Yazawa, Michio; Tonganunt, Moltira; Nakatomi, Akiko; Lin, Curtis Chun-Jen; Chang, Jui-Yoa; Phongdara, Amornrat; Fujise, Ken

    2007-01-01

    Fortilin, a 172-amino-acid polypeptide present both in the cytosol and nucleus, possesses potent anti-apoptotic activity. Although fortilin is known to bind Ca2+, the biochemistry and biological significance of such an interaction remains unknown. In the present study we report that fortilin must bind Ca2+ in order to protect cells against Ca2+-dependent apoptosis. Using a standard Ca2+-overlay assay, we first validated that full-length fortilin binds Ca2+ and showed that the N-terminus (amino acids 1–72) is required for its Ca2+-binding. We then used flow dialysis and CD spectropolarimetry assays to demonstrate that fortilin binds Ca2+ with a dissociation constant (Kd) of approx. 10 μM and that the binding of fortilin to Ca2+ induces a significant change in the secondary structure of fortilin. In order to evaluate the impact of the binding of fortilin to Ca2+ in vivo, we measured intracellular Ca2+ levels upon thapsigargin challenge and found that the lack of fortilin in the cell results in the exaggerated elevation of intracellular Ca2+ in the cell. We then tested various point mutants of fortilin for their Ca2+ binding and identified fortilin(E58A/E60A) to be a double-point mutant of fortilin lacking the ability of Ca2+-binding. We then found that wild-type fortilin, but not fortilin(E58A/E60A), protected cells against thapsigargin-induced apoptosis, suggesting that the binding of fortilin to Ca2+ is required for fortilin to protect cells against Ca2+-dependent apoptosis. Together, these results suggest that fortilin is an intracellular Ca2+ scavenger, protecting cells against Ca2+-dependent apoptosis by binding and sequestering Ca2+ from the downstream Ca2+-dependent apoptotic pathways. PMID:17705784

  15. Thin-film optical pass band filters based on new photo-lithographic process for CaSSIS FPA detector on Exomars TGO mission: development, integration, and test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambicorti, L.; Piazza, D.; Gerber, M.; Pommerol, A.; Roloff, V.; Ziethe, R.; Zimmermann, C.; Da Deppo, V.; Cremonese, G.; Ficai Veltroni, I.; Marinai, M.; Di Carmine, E.; Bauer, T.; Moebius, P.; Thomas, N.

    2016-08-01

    A new technique based on photolithographic processes of thin-film optical pass band coatings on a monolithic substrate has been applied to the filters of the Focal Plane Assembly (FPA) of the Colour and Stereo Surface Imaging System (CaSSIS) that will fly onboard of the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter to be launched in March 2016 by ESA. The FPA including is one of the spare components of the Simbio-Sys instrument of the Italian Space Agency (ASI) that will fly on ESA's Bepi Colombo mission to Mercury. The detector, developed by Raytheon Vision Systems, is a 2kx2k hybrid Si-PIN array with a 10 μm pixel. The detector is housed within a block and has filters deposited directly on the entrance window. The window is a 1 mm thick monolithic plate of fused silica. The Filter Strip Assembly (FSA) is produced by Optics Balzers Jena GmbH and integrated on the focal plane by Leonardo-Finmeccanica SpA (under TAS-I responsibility). It is based on dielectric multilayer interference coatings, 4 colour bands selected with average in-band transmission greater than 95 percent within wavelength range (400-1100 nm), giving multispectral images on the same detector and thus allows CaSSIS to operate in push-frame mode. The Field of View (FOV) of each colour band on the detector is surrounded by a mask of low reflective chromium (LRC), which also provides with the straylight suppression required (an out-of-band transmission of less than 10-5/nm). The mask has been shown to deal effectively with cross-talk from multiple reflections between the detector surface and the filter. This paper shows the manufacturing and optical properties of the FSA filters and the FPA preliminary on-ground calibration results.

  16. Genotoxicity assessment of cobalt chloride in Eisenia hortensis earthworms coelomocytes by comet assay and micronucleus test.

    PubMed

    Ciğerci, İbrahim Hakkı; Ali, Muhammad Muddassir; Kaygısız, Şöhret Yüksek; Liman, Recep

    2016-02-01

    Cobalt and its different compounds are extensively used worldwide and considered as possible environmental pollutant. Earthworms are useful model organism and its different species are used to monitor soil pollution. No study has been found to detect cobalt chloride (CoCl2) genotoxicity in earthworms. So, current study aimed to evaluate CoCl2 induced genotoxicity in Eisenia hortensis earthworms coelomocytes by alkaline comet assay (CA) and micronucleus (MN) test. The earthworms (n = 10 for each group) were exposed to different series of CoCl2 concentrations (100 ppm, 200 ppm, 300 ppm, 400 ppm, 500 ppm, 600 ppm) to find LD50. The LD50 for CoCl2 was found at 226 ppm. Then, doses of LD50/2, LD50 and 2XLD50 for 48 h were used. CA and MN demonstrated the significant increase (P < 0.05) in DNA damage and chromosomal aberrations. Dose dependent relationship was found. Highest DNA damage and chromosomal aberrations were noticed at 2XLD50. The results concluded that CoCl2 induced DNA damage, cytokinesis failure and chromosomal aberrations in E. hortensis earthworms.

  17. Chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of peripheral blood among Mayak facility workers who inhaled insoluble forms of 239PU.

    PubMed

    Okladnikova, N D; Scott, B R; Tokarskaya, Z B; Zhuntova, G V; Khokhryakov, V F; Syrchikov, V A; Grigoryeva, E S

    2005-01-01

    A cytogenetic study was performed on 79 plutonium (Pu) workers chronically exposed to alpha radiation from inhaled, low-transportable (insoluble) compounds of airborne 239Pu and to external gamma rays. Body burden estimates for 239Pu ranged from 0 to 15.5 kBq. Chromosomal aberrations (CAs) (stable and unstable) among peripheral blood lymphocytes and cumulative alpha radiation doses were evaluated approximately 25 y after first contact with 239Pu. For the cytogenetic analyses, a standard two-day peripheral blood lymphocyte culture technique was applied. While alpha radiation doses continually increase up to the time of cytogenetic measurements, significant gamma ray exposures essentially ceased long before the time of measurement, so that alpha and gamma doses were not correlated. For the exposed workers, the mean 239Pu body burden (estimate), evaluated at the time of the cytogenetic measurement, was 1.23 +/- 0.26 kBq and the corresponding mean absorbed external gamma ray dose (estimate) to the total body was 0.076 +/- 0.009 Gy. Single and multivariate regression analyses were performed on the CA data. Stable, unstable and total aberrations increased as the 239Pu body burden increased over the range 0-4.5 kBq. However, above this range little additional increase was observed. CAs were weakly correlated with time since the first intake of 239Pu. No relationship between chromatid aberrations and 239Pu incorporation was found. Unstable (but not stable) aberrations were correlated with gamma radiation dose. No significant relationship of CA and smoking was found.

  18. Transcranial phase aberration correction using beam simulations and MR-ARFI

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, Urvi Kaye, Elena; Pauly, Kim Butts

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: Transcranial magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery is a noninvasive technique for causing selective tissue necrosis. Variations in density, thickness, and shape of the skull cause aberrations in the location and shape of the focal zone. In this paper, the authors propose a hybrid simulation-MR-ARFI technique to achieve aberration correction for transcranial MR-guided focused ultrasound surgery. The technique uses ultrasound beam propagation simulations with MR Acoustic Radiation Force Imaging (MR-ARFI) to correct skull-caused phase aberrations. Methods: Skull-based numerical aberrations were obtained from a MR-guided focused ultrasound patient treatment and were added to all elements of the InSightec conformal bone focused ultrasound surgery transducer during transmission. In the first experiment, the 1024 aberrations derived from a human skull were condensed into 16 aberrations by averaging over the transducer area of 64 elements. In the second experiment, all 1024 aberrations were applied to the transducer. The aberrated MR-ARFI images were used in the hybrid simulation-MR-ARFI technique to find 16 estimated aberrations. These estimated aberrations were subtracted from the original aberrations to result in the corrected images. Each aberration experiment (16-aberration and 1024-aberration) was repeated three times. Results: The corrected MR-ARFI image was compared to the aberrated image and the ideal image (image with zero aberrations) for each experiment. The hybrid simulation-MR-ARFI technique resulted in an average increase in focal MR-ARFI phase of 44% for the 16-aberration case and 52% for the 1024-aberration case, and recovered 83% and 39% of the ideal MR-ARFI phase for the 16-aberrations and 1024-aberration case, respectively. Conclusions: Using one MR-ARFI image and noa priori information about the applied phase aberrations, the hybrid simulation-MR-ARFI technique improved the maximum MR-ARFI phase of the beam's focus.

  19. Chromosome aberrations in human fibroblasts induced by monoenergetic neutrons. I. Relative biological effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Pandita, T K; Geard, C R

    1996-06-01

    The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons for many biological end points varies with neutron energy. To test the hypothesis that the RBE of neutrons varies with respect to their energy for chromosome aberrations in a cell system that does not face interphase death, we studied the yield of chromosome aberrations induced by monoenergetic neutrons in normal human fibroblasts at the first mitosis postirradiation. Monoenergetic neutrons at 0.22, 0.34, 0.43, 1, 5.9 and 13.6 MeV were generated at the Accelerator Facility of the Center for Radiological Research, Columbia University, and were used to irradiate plateau-phase fibroblasts at low absorbed doses from 0.3 to 1.2 Gy at a low dose rate. The reference low-LET, low-dose-rate radiation was 137Cs-gamma rays (0.66 MeV). A linear dose response (Y = alphaD) for chromosome aberrations was obtained for all monoenergetic neutrons and for the gamma rays. The yield of chromosome aberrations per unit dose was high at low neutron energies (0.22, 0.34 and 0.43 MeV) with a gradual decline with the increase in neutron energy. Maximum RBE (RBEm) values varied for the different types of chromosome aberrations. The highest RBE (24.3) for 0.22 and 0.43 MeV neutrons was observed for intrachromosomal deletions, a category of chromosomal change common in solid tumors. Even for the 13.6 MeV neutrons the RBEm (11.1) exceeded 10. These results show that the RBE of neutrons varies with neutron energy and that RBEs are dissimilar between different types of asymmetric chromosome aberrations and suggest that the radiation weighting factors applicable to low-energy neutrons need firmer delineation. This latter may best be attained with neutrons of well-defined energies. This would enable integrations of appropriate quality factors with measured radiation fields, such as those in high-altitude Earth atmosphere. The introduction of commercial flights at high altitude could result in many more individuals being exposed to neutrons than

  20. Identification of aberrant gene expression associated with aberrant promoter methylation in primordial germ cells between E13 and E16 rat F3 generation vinclozolin lineage

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Transgenerational epigenetics (TGE) are currently considered important in disease, but the mechanisms involved are not yet fully understood. TGE abnormalities expected to cause disease are likely to be initiated during development and to be mediated by aberrant gene expression associated with aberrant promoter methylation that is heritable between generations. However, because methylation is removed and then re-established during development, it is not easy to identify promoter methylation abnormalities by comparing normal lineages with those expected to exhibit TGE abnormalities. Methods This study applied the recently proposed principal component analysis (PCA)-based unsupervised feature extraction to previously reported and publically available gene expression/promoter methylation profiles of rat primordial germ cells, between E13 and E16 of the F3 generation vinclozolin lineage that are expected to exhibit TGE abnormalities, to identify multiple genes that exhibited aberrant gene expression/promoter methylation during development. Results The biological feasibility of the identified genes were tested via enrichment analyses of various biological concepts including pathway analysis, gene ontology terms and protein-protein interactions. All validations suggested superiority of the proposed method over three conventional and popular supervised methods that employed t test, limma and significance analysis of microarrays, respectively. The identified genes were globally related to tumors, the prostate, kidney, testis and the immune system and were previously reported to be related to various diseases caused by TGE. Conclusions Among the genes reported by PCA-based unsupervised feature extraction, we propose that chemokine signaling pathways and leucine rich repeat proteins are key factors that initiate transgenerational epigenetic-mediated diseases, because multiple genes included in these two categories were identified in this study. PMID:26677731

  1. Tuning fifth-order aberrations in a Quadrupole-Octupole Corrector

    SciTech Connect

    Lupini, Andrew R; Pennycook, Stephen J

    2012-01-01

    The resolution of conventional electron microscopes is usually limited by spherical aberration. Microscopes equipped with aberration-correctors are then primarily limited by higher-order, chromatic, and misalignment aberrations. In particular the Nion third-order aberration correctors installed on machines with a low energy spread and possessing sophisticated alignment software were limited by the uncorrected fifth-order aberrations. Here we show how the Nion fifth-order aberration corrector can be used to adjust and reduce some of the fourth and fifth-order aberrations in a probe-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope.

  2. Analytical approach to the impact of polarization aberration on lithographic imaging.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yuanying; Wang, Xiangzhao; Li, Sikun; Cao, Yuting

    2012-06-01

    An analytical approach to the impact of polarization aberration on lithographic imaging is proposed. The linear relationship between image placement error (IPE) of alternating phase-shifting mask (Alt-PSM) and odd aberration items of polarization aberrations, as well as that between best focus shift (BFS) of Alt-PSM and even aberration items of polarization aberrations are established by analytical equations, respectively. The validity of the linear relationships is demonstrated by numerical results. The differences and connections between scalar aberration and polarization aberration are briefly discussed based on these linear relationships.

  3. Construction of special eye models for investigation of chromatic and higher-order aberrations of eyes.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yi; Wang, Yan; Wang, Zhaoqi; Liu, Yongji; Zhang, Lin; He, Yuanqing; Chang, Shengjiang

    2014-01-01

    An achromatic element eliminating only longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) while maintaining transverse chromatic aberration (TCA) is established for the eye model, which involves the angle formed by the visual and optical axis. To investigate the impacts of higher-order aberrations on vision, the actual data of higher-order aberrations of human eyes with three typical levels are introduced into the eye model along visual axis. Moreover, three kinds of individual eye models are established to investigate the impacts of higher-order aberrations, chromatic aberration (LCA+TCA), LCA and TCA on vision under the photopic condition, respectively. Results show that for most human eyes, the impact of chromatic aberration on vision is much stronger than that of higher-order aberrations, and the impact of LCA in chromatic aberration dominates. The impact of TCA is approximately equal to that of normal level higher-order aberrations and it can be ignored when LCA exists.

  4. Dependence of Early and Late Chromosomal Aberrations on Radiation Quality and Cell Types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Tao; Zhang, Ye; Krieger, Stephanie; Yeshitla, Samrawit; Goss, Rosalin; Bowler, Deborah; Kadhim, Munira; Wilson, Bobby; Rohde, Larry; Wu, Honglu

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to radiation induces different types of DNA damage, increases mutation and chromosome aberration rates, and increases cellular transformation in vitro and in vivo. The susceptibility of cells to radiation depends on genetic background and growth condition of cells, as well as types of radiation. Mammalian cells of different tissue types and with different genetic background are known to have different survival rate and different mutation rate after cytogenetic insults. Genomic instability, induced by various genetic, metabolic, and environmental factors including radiation, is the driving force of tumorigenesis. Accurate measurements of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) is important for estimating radiation-related risks. To further understand genomic instability induced by charged particles and their RBE, we exposed human lymphocytes ex vivo, human fibroblast AG1522, human mammary epithelial cells (CH184B5F5/M10), and bone marrow cells isolated from CBA/CaH(CBA) and C57BL/6 (C57) mice to high energy protons and Fe ions. Normal human fibroblasts AG1522 have apparently normal DNA damage response and repair mechanisms, while mammary epithelial cells (M10) are deficient in the repair of DNA DSBs. Mouse strain CBA is radio-sensitive while C57 is radio-resistant. Metaphase chromosomes at different cell divisions after radiation exposure were collected and chromosome aberrations were analyzed as RBE for different cell lines exposed to different radiations at various time points up to one month post irradiation.

  5. Determination of the relationship between genotypes and chromosomal aberration frequencies in a normal population

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, M.; Tucker, J.

    1997-10-01

    Individual differences in cancer susceptibility may be attributed in part to genetic differences in the genes which code for enzymes involved in metabolic activation and detoxification of environmental procarcinogens. Polymorphisms of certain genes functioning in this manner (CYP2D6, CYP1A1, CYP2E1, NAT1, NAT2, GSTT1, GSTM1) have been linked to an increased risk of some cancers. An increased level of genomic instability, often reflected as an increase in chromosomal aberrations (CA), has also been associated with an elevated risk of cancer. Accurate polymorphism frequency determinations for these genes in a normal population is needed to establish whether these frequencies are different in a diseased population. In this work, analyses are being performed on over 100 normal individuals, ranging from 0 to 80 years of age, to determine CA frequency and genotypes. Individual exposure and health data have also been obtained from all individuals in the study. These analyses will provide a baseline frequency for the various gene polymorphisms in a normal (mainly Caucasian) population, and will determine whether a relationship between the CA frequency and certain polymorphisms and or genotypes exists. In addition the interaction between environmental exposures (such as smoking), genotypes and CA frequencies are being examined. At present 24 individuals have been genotyped for GSTT1, GSTM1 and CYP2D6(T) and their CA frequencies determined. Genotype frequencies of 21% for GSTM1 B, 4% for GSTM1 null, 29% for GSTM1 A, 21% for GSTM1 B, 4% for GSTM1 A,B, and 0% for CYP2D6(T) have been determined from the small sample analyzed to date. We plan to extend our genotype analysis to include the remaining CYP2D6 polymorphisms, CYP2E1, CYP1A1, NAT1 and NAT2.

  6. Implementation of the near-field signal redundancy phase-aberration correction algorithm on two-dimensional arrays.

    PubMed

    Li, Yue; Robinson, Brent

    2007-01-01

    Near-field signal-redundancy (NFSR) algorithms for phase-aberration correction have been proposed and experimentally tested for linear and phased one-dimensional arrays. In this paper the performance of an all-row-plus-two-column, two-dimensional algorithm has been analyzed and tested with simulated data sets. This algorithm applies the NFSR algorithm for one-dimensional arrays to all the rows as well as the first and last columns of the array. The results from the two column measurements are used to derive a linear term for each row measurement result. These linear terms then are incorporated into the row results to obtain a two-dimensional phase aberration profile. The ambiguity phase aberration profile, which is the difference between the true and the derived phase aberration profiles, of this algorithm is not linear. Two methods, a trial-and-error method and a diagonal-measurement method, are proposed to linearize the ambiguity profile. The performance of these algorithms is analyzed and tested with simulated data sets.

  7. [A modification factor of spontaneous chromosomal aberrations in miner's towns and settlements].

    PubMed

    Volkov, A V; Golovina, T A; Minina, V I; Mokrushina, N V; Druzhinin, V G; Glushkov, A N; Shabaldin, A V

    2006-01-01

    The level and qualitative spectrum of spontaneous chromosomal aberrations (CA) were comparatively analyzed in the lymphocytes of 655 children and adolescents from the Kemerovo Region. The presented sample was divided into 3 groups according to the type of an inhabited locality: 1) small miner's towns; 2) large industrial towns; and 3) rural localities. The maximum frequency of CA (3.77 +/- 0.22%) was noted in a group of dwellers in the miner's towns; its minimum frequency (2.68 +/- 0.17%) among the rural inhabitants. The significant clastogenic effects (including the markers of radiation exposure) were detected in the miner's towns located in the southern part of the region, which represented mountain and submountain areas. At the same time, in the northern and western parts of the Kemerovo Region, the average frequencies of CA in children and adolescents did not exceed the control background values. Thus, the residence in the inhabited localities specializing in mining is not a factor of absolute toxicogenetic risk.

  8. Optical testing and metrology III: Recent advances in industrial optical inspection; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, July 8-13, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Grover, C.P.

    1990-01-01

    Various papers on recent advances in industrial optical inspection are presented. Individual topics addressed include: high-precision interferometric testing of spherical mirrors with long radius of curvature, aspheric surface testing techniques, apsheric testing using null mirrors, TV holography and image processing in practical use, holographic instrumentation for monitoring crystal growth in space, holography with a single picosecond pulse, phase-conjugate interferometry using dye-doped polymer films, phase-conjugate Twyman-Green interferometer for testing conicoidal surfaces. Also discussed are: new stereo laser triangulation device for specular surface inspection, fiber optical smart structures, near real-time operation of a centimeter-scale distributed fiber sensing sytem, interferometric fiber optic sensors for use with composite materials, fiber optic damage detection for an aircraft leading edge, low-cost fiber optic sensing systems using spatial division multiplexing, laser ultrasonics generation and detection considerations for improved SNR.

  9. 78 FR 63868 - Amendment of Restricted Area R-2515; Muroc Lake, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... Wing (412 TW) Edwards AFB, CA'' due to Department of the Air Force organizational realignments. There... Test Center, Edwards AFB, CA'' to ``Commander, 412th Test Wing (412 TW), Edwards AFB, CA.'' As part of..., Air Force Flight Test Center, Edwards AFB, CA'' and insert ``Commander, 412 Test Wing (412...

  10. Beta/Gamma Oscillations and Event-Related Potentials Indicate Aberrant Multisensory Processing in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Balz, Johanna; Roa Romero, Yadira; Keil, Julian; Krebber, Martin; Niedeggen, Michael; Gallinat, Jürgen; Senkowski, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Recent behavioral and neuroimaging studies have suggested multisensory processing deficits in patients with schizophrenia (SCZ). Thus far, the neural mechanisms underlying these deficits are not well understood. Previous studies with unisensory stimulation have shown altered neural oscillations in SCZ. As such, altered oscillations could contribute to aberrant multisensory processing in this patient group. To test this assumption, we conducted an electroencephalography (EEG) study in 15 SCZ and 15 control participants in whom we examined neural oscillations and event-related potentials (ERPs) in the sound-induced flash illusion (SIFI). In the SIFI multiple auditory stimuli that are presented alongside a single visual stimulus can induce the illusory percept of multiple visual stimuli. In SCZ and control participants we compared ERPs and neural oscillations between trials that induced an illusion and trials that did not induce an illusion. On the behavioral level, SCZ (55.7%) and control participants (55.4%) did not significantly differ in illusion rates. The analysis of ERPs revealed diminished amplitudes and altered multisensory processing in SCZ compared to controls around 135 ms after stimulus onset. Moreover, the analysis of neural oscillations revealed altered 25–35 Hz power after 100 to 150 ms over occipital scalp for SCZ compared to controls. Our findings extend previous observations of aberrant neural oscillations in unisensory perception paradigms. They suggest that altered ERPs and altered occipital beta/gamma band power reflect aberrant multisensory processing in SCZ. PMID:27999553

  11. Aberration-free superresolution imaging via binary speckle pattern encoding and processing.

    PubMed

    Ben-Eliezer, Eyal; Marom, Emanuel

    2007-04-01

    We present an approach that provides superresolution beyond the classical limit as well as image restoration in the presence of aberrations; in particular, the ability to obtain superresolution while extending the depth of field (DOF) simultaneously is tested experimentally. It is based on an approach, recently proposed, shown to increase the resolution significantly for in-focus images by speckle encoding and decoding. In our approach, an object multiplied by a fine binary speckle pattern may be located anywhere along an extended DOF region. Since the exact magnification is not known in the presence of defocus aberration, the acquired low-resolution image is electronically processed via a parallel-branch decoding scheme, where in each branch the image is multiplied by the same high-resolution synchronized time-varying binary speckle but with different magnification. Finally, a hard-decision algorithm chooses the branch that provides the highest-resolution output image, thus achieving insensitivity to aberrations as well as DOF variations. Simulation as well as experimental results are presented, exhibiting significant resolution improvement factors.

  12. Beta/Gamma Oscillations and Event-Related Potentials Indicate Aberrant Multisensory Processing in Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Balz, Johanna; Roa Romero, Yadira; Keil, Julian; Krebber, Martin; Niedeggen, Michael; Gallinat, Jürgen; Senkowski, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Recent behavioral and neuroimaging studies have suggested multisensory processing deficits in patients with schizophrenia (SCZ). Thus far, the neural mechanisms underlying these deficits are not well understood. Previous studies with unisensory stimulation have shown altered neural oscillations in SCZ. As such, altered oscillations could contribute to aberrant multisensory processing in this patient group. To test this assumption, we conducted an electroencephalography (EEG) study in 15 SCZ and 15 control participants in whom we examined neural oscillations and event-related potentials (ERPs) in the sound-induced flash illusion (SIFI). In the SIFI multiple auditory stimuli that are presented alongside a single visual stimulus can induce the illusory percept of multiple visual stimuli. In SCZ and control participants we compared ERPs and neural oscillations between trials that induced an illusion and trials that did not induce an illusion. On the behavioral level, SCZ (55.7%) and control participants (55.4%) did not significantly differ in illusion rates. The analysis of ERPs revealed diminished amplitudes and altered multisensory processing in SCZ compared to controls around 135 ms after stimulus onset. Moreover, the analysis of neural oscillations revealed altered 25-35 Hz power after 100 to 150 ms over occipital scalp for SCZ compared to controls. Our findings extend previous observations of aberrant neural oscillations in unisensory perception paradigms. They suggest that altered ERPs and altered occipital beta/gamma band power reflect aberrant multisensory processing in SCZ.

  13. Brahmarasayana protects against Ethyl methanesulfonate or Methyl methanesulfonate induced chromosomal aberrations in mouse bone marrow cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ayurveda, the traditional Indian system of medicine has given great emphasis to the promotion of health. Rasayana is one of the eight branches of Ayurveda which refers to rejuvenant therapy. It has been reported that rasayanas have immuno-modulatory, antioxidant and antitumor functions, however, the genotoxic potential and modulation of DNA repair of many rasayanas have not been evaluated. Methods The present study assessed the role of Brahmarasayana (BR) on Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-and Methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)-induced genotoxicity and DNA repair in in vivo mouse test system. The mice were orally fed with BR (5 g or 8 mg / day) for two months and 24 h later EMS or MMS was given intraperitoneally. The genotoxicity was analyzed by chromosomal aberrations, sperm count, and sperm abnormalities. Results The results have revealed that BR did not induce significant chromosomal aberrations when compared to that of the control animals (p >0.05). On the other hand, the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations induced by EMS (240 mg / kg body weight) or MMS (125 mg / kg body weight) were significantly higher (p<0.05) to that of the control group. The treatment of BR for 60 days and single dose of EMS or MMS on day 61, resulted in significant (p <0.05) reduction in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in comparison to EMS or MMS treatment alone, indicating a protective effect of BR. Constitutive base excision repair capacity was also increased in BR treated animals. Conclusion The effect of BR, as it relates to antioxidant activity was not evident in liver tissue however rasayana treatment was observed to increase constitutive DNA base excision repair and reduce clastogenicity. Whilst, the molecular mechanisms of such repair need further exploration, this is the first report to demonstrate these effects and provides further evidence for the role of brahmarasayana in the possible improvement of quality of life. PMID:22853637

  14. Primary chromatic aberration elimination via optimization work with genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bo-Wen; Liu, Tung-Kuan; Fang, Yi-Chin; Chou, Jyh-Horng; Tsai, Hsien-Lin; Chang, En-Hao

    2008-09-01

    Chromatic Aberration plays a part in modern optical systems, especially in digitalized and smart optical systems. Much effort has been devoted to eliminating specific chromatic aberration in order to match the demand for advanced digitalized optical products. Basically, the elimination of axial chromatic and lateral color aberration of an optical lens and system depends on the selection of optical glass. According to reports from glass companies all over the world, the number of various newly developed optical glasses in the market exceeds three hundred. However, due to the complexity of a practical optical system, optical designers have so far had difficulty in finding the right solution to eliminate small axial and lateral chromatic aberration except by the Damped Least Squares (DLS) method, which is limited in so far as the DLS method has not yet managed to find a better optical system configuration. In the present research, genetic algorithms are used to replace traditional DLS so as to eliminate axial and lateral chromatic, by combining the theories of geometric optics in Tessar type lenses and a technique involving Binary/Real Encoding, Multiple Dynamic Crossover and Random Gene Mutation to find a much better configuration for optical glasses. By implementing the algorithms outlined in this paper, satisfactory results can be achieved in eliminating axial and lateral color aberration.

  15. Time sequence of events leading to chromosomal aberration formation

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, R.C. ); Bender, M.A. )

    1993-01-01

    Investigations have been carried out on the influence of the repair polymerases on the yield of different types of chromosomal aberrations. The studies were mainly concerned with the effect of inhibiting the polymerases on the yield of aberrations. The polymerases fill in single-strand regions, and the fact that their inhibition affects the yield of aberrations suggests that single-strand lesions are influential in aberration formation. The results indicate that there are two actions of polymerases in clastogenesis. One is in their involvement in a G[sub 2] repair system, in which either of the two chromatids is concerned, and which does not yield aberrations unless the inhibition is still operating when the cells enter mitosis. The second is such that when repair is inhibited, further damage accrues. The second action is affected by inhibiting polymerase repair, but also operates even when the repair enzymes are active. The production of chromosomal exchanges involves a series of reactions, some of which are reversible. The time span over which the reactions occur is much longer than has been envisaged previously.

  16. Time sequence of events leading to chromosomal aberration formation

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, R.C.; Bender, M.A.

    1993-05-01

    Investigations have been carried out on the influence of the repair polymerases on the yield of different types of chromosomal aberrations. The studies were mainly concerned with the effect of inhibiting the polymerases on the yield of aberrations. The polymerases fill in single-strand regions, and the fact that their inhibition affects the yield of aberrations suggests that single-strand lesions are influential in aberration formation. The results indicate that there are two actions of polymerases in clastogenesis. One is in their involvement in a G{sub 2} repair system, in which either of the two chromatids is concerned, and which does not yield aberrations unless the inhibition is still operating when the cells enter mitosis. The second is such that when repair is inhibited, further damage accrues. The second action is affected by inhibiting polymerase repair, but also operates even when the repair enzymes are active. The production of chromosomal exchanges involves a series of reactions, some of which are reversible. The time span over which the reactions occur is much longer than has been envisaged previously.

  17. Focusing of an elliptical mirror based system with aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian; Ai, Min; Zhang, He; Wang, Chao; Tan, Jiubin

    2013-10-01

    The effect of primary aberrations on the focusing of an elliptical mirror based system is studied by using the Debye integral. Specifically, the apodization function for elliptical mirror is derived and expressed by the eccentricity of the elliptical mirror. For the elliptical mirror with low aperture, intensity distributions in the presence of aberrations near focus are presented based on the derived scalar theory, while for the high-aperture condition, vectorial theory is used to describe the electric field in the focal region. In particular, the effect of aberrations is studied under radially polarized illumination. Moreover, tolerance conditions are given based on the knowledge of focusing with aberrations. It is found that the elliptical mirror based system shares a similar level of tolerance conditions with that of the single lens, while both of them are more sensitive to the presence of astigmatism than other aberrations. It is believed that the results will theoretically support the application of the high-aperture elliptical mirror in scanning microscopy.

  18. Sub-ångstrom resolution using aberration corrected electron optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batson, P. E.; Dellby, N.; Krivanek, O. L.

    2002-08-01

    Following the invention of electron optics during the 1930s, lens aberrations have limited the achievable spatial resolution to about 50 times the wavelength of the imaging electrons. This situation is similar to that faced by Leeuwenhoek in the seventeenth century, whose work to improve the quality of glass lenses led directly to his discovery of the ubiquitous ``animalcules'' in canal water, the first hints of the cellular basis of life. The electron optical aberration problem was well understood from the start, but more than 60 years elapsed before a practical correction scheme for electron microscopy was demonstrated, and even then the remaining chromatic aberrations still limited the resolution. We report here the implementation of a computer-controlled aberration correction system in a scanning transmission electron microscope, which is less sensitive to chromatic aberration. Using this approach, we achieve an electron probe smaller than 1Å. This performance, about 20 times the electron wavelength at 120keV energy, allows dynamic imaging of single atoms, clusters of a few atoms, and single atomic layer `rafts' of atoms coexisting with Au islands on a carbon substrate. This technique should also allow atomic column imaging of semiconductors, for detection of single dopant atoms, using an electron beam with energy below the damage threshold for silicon.

  19. Minimum change in spherical aberration that can be perceived

    PubMed Central

    Manzanera, Silvestre; Artal, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    It is important to know the visual sensitivity to optical blur from both a basic science perspective and a practical point of view. Of particular interest is the sensitivity to blur induced by spherical aberration because it is being used to increase depth of focus as a component of a presbyopic solution. Using a flicker detection-based procedure implemented on an adaptive optics visual simulator, we measured the spherical aberration thresholds that produce just-noticeable differences in perceived image quality. The thresholds were measured for positive and negative values of spherical aberration, for best focus and + 0.5 D and + 1.0 D of defocus. At best focus, the SA thresholds were 0.20 ± 0.01 µm and −0.17 ± 0.03 µm for positive and negative spherical aberration respectively (referred to a 6-mm pupil). These experimental values may be useful in setting spherical aberration permissible levels in different ophthalmic techniques. PMID:27699113

  20. Chromosome aberrations as biomarkers of radiation exposure: Modelling basic mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballarini, F.; Ottolenghi, A.

    The space radiation environment is a mixed field consisting of different particles having different energies, including high charge and energy (HZE) ions. Conventional measurements of absorbed doses may not be sufficient to completely characterise the radiation field and perform reliable estimates of health risks. Biological dosimetry, based on the observation of specific radiation-induced endpoints (typically chromosome aberrations), can be a helpful approach in case of monitored exposure to space radiation or other mixed fields, as well as in case of accidental exposure. Furthermore, various ratios of aberrations (e.g. dicentric chromosomes to centric rings and complex exchanges to simple exchanges) have been suggested as possible fingerprints of radiation quality, although all of them have been subjected to some criticisms. In this context a mechanistic model and a Monte Carlo code for the simulation of chromosome aberration induction were developed. The model, able to provide dose-responses for different aberrations (e.g. dicentrics, rings, fragments, translocations, insertions and other complex exchanges), was further developed to assess the dependence of various ratios of aberrations on radiation quality. The predictions of the model were compared with available data, whose experimental conditions were faithfully reproduced. Particular attention was devoted to the scoring criteria adopted in different laboratories and to possible biases introduced by interphase death and mitotic delay. This latter aspect was investigated by taking into account both metaphase data and data obtained with Premature Chromosome Condensation (PCC).

  1. Risk estimation based on chromosomal aberrations induced by radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durante, M.; Bonassi, S.; George, K.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2001-01-01

    The presence of a causal association between the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes and the risk of cancer has been substantiated recently by epidemiological studies. Cytogenetic analyses of crew members of the Mir Space Station have shown that a significant increase in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations can be detected after flight, and that such an increase is likely to be attributed to the radiation exposure. The risk of cancer can be estimated directly from the yields of chromosomal aberrations, taking into account some aspects of individual susceptibility and other factors unrelated to radiation. However, the use of an appropriate technique for the collection and analysis of chromosomes and the choice of the structural aberrations to be measured are crucial in providing sound results. Based on the fraction of aberrant lymphocytes detected before and after flight, the relative risk after a long-term Mir mission is estimated to be about 1.2-1.3. The new technique of mFISH can provide useful insights into the quantification of risk on an individual basis.

  2. Chromosome aberrations as biomarkers of radiation quality: modelling basic mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottolenghi, A.; Ballarini, F.

    Since space radiation consists of a mixed field of different particles having different energies, including HZE ions, conventional measurements of absorbed doses are not sufficient to completely characterise the radiation field and perform reliable estimates of health risks. Biological dosimetry, based on the observation of specific radiation-induced endpoints (typically chromosome aberrations) after exposure, can be a helpful approach in case of monitored exposure to space radiation or other mixed fields, as well as in case of accidental exposure. Although various ratios of aberrations (e.g. dicentrics to centric rings and complex exchanges to simple exchanges) have been suggested as possible biomarkers both in theoretical and in experimental studies, all of them have been subjected to some criticisms. In this context a mechanistic model and a Monte Carlo code for the simulation of chromosome aberrations was developed. The model, able to provide dose-responses for different aberrations (e.g. dicentrics, rings, translocations, insertions and other complex exchanges), was further developed to assess the dependence of various ratios of aberrations on radiation quality. The predictions of the model were compared with available data, whose experimental conditions were faithfully reproduced. Particular attention was devoted to the scoring criteria adopted in different laboratories and to possible biases introduced by interphase death and mitotic delay; this latter aspect was investigated by taking into account both metaphase data and data obtained with PCC (Premature Chromosome Condensation).

  3. Effects of contrast medium on radiation-induced chromosome aberrations

    SciTech Connect

    Matsubara, S.; Suzuki, S.; Suzuki, H.; Kuwabara, Y.; Okano, T.

    1982-07-01

    The effects of contrast material (meglumine iothalamate) on radiation-induced chromosome aberrations were investigated in studies on the lymphocytes of patients who had undergone diagnostic radiography and in in vitro experiments with diagnostic x rays and /sup 60/Co gamma rays. Chromosome and chromatid aberrations were found to increase significantly with increasing concentrations of contrast material that were added at irradiation. However, the aberrations were not associated with elevation of the ratio of dicentric and ring chromosomes to the number of cells with unstable chromosome aberrations at the first mitosis. Lymphocytes irradiated in the absence of contrast material did not show an increase in chromosome-type aberrations when the agent was given in increasing concentrations during subsequent incubation, but there were greater numbers of chromatid gaps and breaks. When lymphocytes were exposed to 400 R (103.2 mC/kg) of /sup 60/Co gamma rays, the presence of contrast agent did not increase the yield of dicentric and ring chromosomes, but induced a marked delay in cell proliferation, especially in lymphocytes with more heavily damaged chromosomes. In additional examination, the contrast agent itself induced sister chromatid exchanges in lymphocytes.

  4. ISTFA 1986 - International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis; Proceedings of the Symposium, Los Angeles, CA, Oct. 20-24, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The conference presents papers on the analysis of electronic materials, problems with electronic materials, EOS/ESD, new techniques, failure analysis results, test methods, failure modes and mechanisms, and the effect of microstructure on properties. Topics include the analysis of on-line organic microcontaminants in semiconductor assembly plants, the role of surface chemistry in packaging failures, the testing and analysis of photovoltaic modules for electrochemical corrosion, the reliability improvement and evaluation of TWTs for communications satellites, and the analysis of adhesive bond joint fractures by scanning electron fractography and X-ray emission spectroscopy. Consideration is also given to observers for failure detection of actuation systems, mechanisms governing the high strain fracture behavior of Al-Li-X alloys, and the effect of nonmetallic inclusions and test temperature on the fatigue life of cast C355, 354, and A206 aluminum.

  5. Differential aberration correction (DAC) microscopy: a new molecular ruler.

    PubMed

    Vallotton, P

    2008-11-01

    Considerable efforts have been deployed towards measuring molecular range distances in fluorescence microscopy. In the 1-10 nm range, Förster energy transfer microscopy is difficult to beat. Above 300 nm, conventional diffraction limited microscopy is suitable. We introduce a simple experimental technique that allows bridging the gap between those two resolution scales in both 2D and 3D with a resolution of about 20 nm. The method relies on a computational approach to accurately correct optical aberrations over the whole field of view. The method is differential because the probes of interest are affected in exactly the same manner by aberrations as are the reference probes used to construct the aberration deformation field. We expect that this technique will have significant implications for investigating structural and functional questions in bio-molecular sciences.

  6. Conformal dome aberration correction by designing the inner surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wang; Chen, Shouqian; Fan, Zhigang

    2016-12-01

    The ray transmission models of optical domes were established, and the characteristics of the rays while passing through a hemispherical dome and a conformal dome were comparatively analysed. Acquiring the minimum deviated angles from the inner surface of the conformal dome was then determined to be the designing goal for reducing the dynamic aberrations. Based on this, the inner surface of the conformal dome was optimized and thus, the dynamic aberrations were reduced. Finally, a completely cooled conformal optical system was designed. The results show that the optical system have produced good imaging quality within all the fields of regard, which further illustrates that designing the inner surface of a conformal dome is an effective method for aberration correction.

  7. [Chromosome aberrations in workers in a printing press].

    PubMed

    Pelclová, D; Rössner, P; Pícková, J; Hykes, P

    1990-08-10

    Using cytogenetic analysis of peripheral lymphocytes the authors examined three groups of subjects: 42 rotogravure printers exposed to toluene in concentrations of 400-4400 mg.m-3 for a mean period of 13 years, 28 administrative employees of the printing plant exposed to low concentrations of toluene (8-16 mg.m-3) in their offices, whereby more than half of them spent on average two hours in the photogravure workshop, and 32 control subjects. In the printers 3.64% subjects, in the office staff 3.32% aberrant cells were found. The difference between the control group and the two groups from the printing plant was highly significant as regards the number of aberrant cells (P less than 0.005) and chromatid breaks and number of breaks per cell. The higher frequency of aberrant cells in probably associated with exposure to toluene, gravure printing dyes and in all three groups also with the highly contaminated communal atmosphere.

  8. Adaptive phase aberration correction based on imperialist competitive algorithm.

    PubMed

    Yazdani, R; Hajimahmoodzadeh, M; Fallah, H R

    2014-01-01

    We investigate numerically the feasibility of phase aberration correction in a wavefront sensorless adaptive optical system, based on the imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA). Considering a 61-element deformable mirror (DM) and the Strehl ratio as the cost function of ICA, this algorithm is employed to search the optimum surface profile of DM for correcting the phase aberrations in a solid-state laser system. The correction results show that ICA is a powerful correction algorithm for static or slowly changing phase aberrations in optical systems, such as solid-state lasers. The correction capability and the convergence speed of this algorithm are compared with those of the genetic algorithm (GA) and stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) algorithm. The results indicate that these algorithms have almost the same correction capability. Also, ICA and GA are almost the same in convergence speed and SPGD is the fastest of these algorithms.

  9. Aberrant Protein S-Nitrosylation in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Tomohiro; Tu, Shichun; Akhtar, Mohd Waseem; Sunico, Carmen R.; Okamoto, Shu-ichi; Lipton, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    S-Nitrosylation is a redox-mediated posttranslational modification that regulates protein function via covalent reaction of nitric oxide (NO)-related species with a cysteine thiol group on the target protein. Under physiological conditions, S-nitrosylation can be an important modulator of signal transduction pathways, akin to phosphorylation. However, with aging or environmental toxins that generate excessive NO, aberrant S-nitrosylation reactions can occur and affect protein misfolding, mitochondrial fragmentation, synaptic function, apoptosis or autophagy. Here, we discuss how aberrantly S-nitrosylated proteins (SNO-proteins) play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. Insight into the pathophysiological role of aberrant S-nitrosylation pathways will enhance our understanding of molecular mechanisms leading to neurodegenerative diseases and point to potential therapeutic interventions. PMID:23719160

  10. Ischemic Stroke Injury Is Mediated by Aberrant Cdk5

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Douglas A.; Torres-Altoro, Melissa I.; Tan, Zhenjun; Tozzi, Alessandro; Di Filippo, Massimiliano; DiNapoli, Vincent; Plattner, Florian; Kansy, Janice W.; Benkovic, Stanley A.; Huber, Jason D.; Miller, Diane B.; Greengard, Paul; Calabresi, Paolo; Rosen, Charles L.

    2014-01-01

    Ischemic stroke is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Treatment options are limited and only a minority of patients receive acute interventions. Understanding the mechanisms that mediate neuronal injury and death may identify targets for neuroprotective treatments. Here we show that the aberrant activity of the protein kinase Cdk5 is a principal cause of neuronal death in rodents during stroke. Ischemia induced either by embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in vivo or by oxygen and glucose deprivation in brain slices caused calpain-dependent conversion of the Cdk5-activating cofactor p35 to p25. Inhibition of aberrant Cdk5 during ischemia protected dopamine neurotransmission, maintained field potentials, and blocked excitotoxicity. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition or conditional knock-out (CKO) of Cdk5 prevented neuronal death in response to ischemia. Moreover, Cdk5 CKO dramatically reduced infarctions following MCAO. Thus, targeting aberrant Cdk5 activity may serve as an effective treatment for stroke. PMID:24920629

  11. Low chromatic aberration hexapole for molecular state selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Yi; Deng, Xiao-Bing; Hu, Zhong-Kun

    2016-01-01

    In molecular beam state-selection experiments, the electrostatic hexapole acts as an optical lens, imaging molecules from the source to the focus. The molecular longitudinal velocity spread induces the phenomenon of chromatic aberration, which will reduce the state-selection purity. We propose a scheme which can effectively reduce the chromatic aberration by changing the hexapole voltage operating manner. The hexapole is already charged before molecules arrive at the entrance of the hexapole. When molecules are completely inside the hexapole, the voltage is switched off rapidly at an appropriate time. In this manner, faster molecules travel a longer hexapole focusing region than slower molecules. Therefore the focusing positions of molecules with different velocities become close. Numerical trajectory simulations of molecular state selection are carried out, and the results show that this low chromatic aberration hexapole can significantly improve the state purity from 46.2% to 87.0%.

  12. Dynamic compensation of chromatic aberration in a programmable diffractive lens.

    PubMed

    Millán, María S; Otón, Joaquín; Pérez-Cabré, Elisabet

    2006-10-02

    A proposal to dynamically compensate chromatic aberration of a programmable phase Fresnel lens displayed on a liquid crystal device and working under broadband illumination is presented. It is based on time multiplexing a set of lenses, designed with a common focal length for different wavelengths, and a tunable spectral filter that makes each sublens work almost monochromatically. Both the tunable filter and the sublens displayed by the spatial light modulator are synchronized. The whole set of sublenses are displayed within the integration time of the sensor. As a result the central order focalization has a unique location at the focal plane and it is common for all selected wavelengths. Transversal chromatic aberration of the polychromatic point spread function is reduced by properly adjusting the pupil size of each sublens. Longitudinal chromatic aberration is compensated by making depth of focus curves coincident for the selected wavelengths. Experimental results are in very good agreement with theory.

  13. Measuring chromatic aberrations in imaging systems using plasmonic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gennaro, Sylvain D.; Roschuk, Tyler R.; Maier, Stefan A.; Oulton, Rupert F.

    2016-04-01

    Chromatic aberration in optical systems arises from the wavelength dependence of a glass's refractive index. Polychromatic rays incident upon an optical surface are refracted at slightly different angles and in traversing an optical system follow distinct paths creating images displaced according to color. Although arising from dispersion, it manifests as a spatial distortion correctable only with compound lenses with multiple glasses and accumulates in complicated imaging systems. While chromatic aberration is measured with interferometry, simple methods are attractive for their ease of use and low cost. In this letter we retrieve the longitudinal chromatic focal shift of high numerical aperture (NA) microscope objectives from the extinction spectra of metallic nanoparticles within the focal plane. The method is accurate for high NA objectives with apochromatic correction, and enables rapid assessment of the chromatic aberration of any complete microscopy systems, since it is straightforward to implement

  14. Aberrant hepatic arteries running through pancreatic parenchyma encountered during pancreatoduodenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Xu, Jianwei; Sun, Dong; Zhang, Zongli

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Aberrant hepatic arteries (HAs) encountered during pancreatoduodenectomy are difficult to manage. Mehtods: Two cases with rare types of aberrant HA running through the pancreatic parenchyma were reviewed. Results: The first case, a 68-year-old man, was admitted with obstructive jaundice. A tumor of the pancreatic head and aberrant HAs were suspected on computed tomography (CT) scan. At laparotomy, a new variation was identified; namely, 2 aberrant arteries—a right replaced HA and middle HA (RMHA) that both originated from the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and ran via intrapancreatic paths posterior and anterior to the pancreatic head, respectively. Branches of the RMHA to the pancreas were ligated and severed and the trunk preserved. The RMHA was mistakenly identified as an aberrant left HA (RLHA), whereas the RLHA was overlooked and not dissected intraoperatively. CT angiography performed 11 days postoperatively identified that the RLHA originated from the left gastric artery (LGA). The second case had a variation of Michels IX. A 58-year-old woman presented with obstructive jaundice and a distal cholangiocarcinoma was suspected on the basis of enhanced CT scan. At laparotomy, the common hepatic artery (CHA) was found to originate entirely from the SMA and run posterior to the pancreatic head via an intrapancreatic path. The segment of CHA in the pancreatic parenchyma was removed and reconstructed with the LGA. Conclusions: Preoperative identification of aberrant HAs helps in planning appropriate operative procedures and minimizing unnecessary complications. Both preservation and reconstruction of these arteries are technically safe and feasible; however, preservation is preferable. PMID:27930504

  15. The transglutaminase 2 gene is aberrantly hypermethylated in glioma

    PubMed Central

    Dyer, Lisa M.; Schooler, Kevin P.; Ai, Lingbao; Klop, Corinne; Qiu, Jingxin; Robertson, Keith D.

    2010-01-01

    Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is a ubiquitously expressed protein that catalyzes protein/protein crosslinking. Because extracellular TG2 crosslinks components of the extracellular matrix, TG2 is thought to function as a suppressor of cellular invasion. We have recently uncovered that the TG2 gene (TGM2) is a target for epigenetic silencing in breast cancer, highlighting a molecular mechanism that drives reduced TG2 expression, and this aberrant molecular event may contribute to invasiveness in this tumor type. Because tumor invasiveness is a primary determinant of brain tumor aggressiveness, we sought to determine if TGM2 is targeted for epigenetic silencing in glioma. Analysis of TGM2 gene methylation in a panel of cultured human glioma cells indicated that the 5′ flanking region of the TGM2 gene is hypermethylated and that this feature is associated with reduced TG2 expression as judged by immunoblotting. Further, culturing glioma cells in the presence of the global DNA demethylating agent 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine and the histone deacetylase inhibitor Trichostatin A resulted in re-expression of TG2 in these lines. In primary brain tumors we observed that the TGM2 promoter is commonly hypermethylated and that this feature is a cancer-associated phenomenon. Using publically available databases, TG2 expression in gliomas was found to vary widely, with many tumors showing overexpression or underexpression of this gene. Since overexpression of TG2 leads to resistance to doxorubicin through the ectopic activation of NFκB, we sought to examine the effects of recombinant TG2 expression in glioma cells treated with commonly used brain tumor therapeutics. We observed that in addition to doxorubicin, TG2 expression drove resistance to CCNU; however, TG2 expression did not alter sensitivity to other drugs tested. Finally, a catalytically null mutant of TG2 was also able to support doxorubicin resistance in glioma cells indicating that transglutaminase activity is not necessary

  16. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: in vitro inhibition of α isoforms (hCA I, hCA II, bCA III, hCA IV) by flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Ekinci, Derya; Karagoz, Lutfi; Ekinci, Deniz; Senturk, Murat; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2013-04-01

    A series of flavonoids, such as quercetin, catechin, apigenin, luteolin, morin, were investigated for their inhibitory effects against the metalloenzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA). The compounds were tested against four α-CA isozymes purified from human and bovine (hCA I, hCA II, bCA III, hCA IV) tissues. The four isozymes showed quite diverse inhibition profiles with these compounds. The flavonoids inhibited hCA I with K(I)-s in the range of 2.2-12.8 μM, hCA II with K(I)-s in the range of 0.74-6.2 μM, bCA III with K(I)-s in the range of 2.2-21.3 μM, and hCA IV with inhibition constants in the range of 4.4-15.7, with an esterase assay using 4-nitrophenyl acetate as substrate. Some simple phenols/sulfonamides were also investigated as standard inhibitors. The flavonoids incorporate phenol moieties which inhibit these CAs through a diverse, not yet determined inhibition mechanism, compared to classic inhibitors such as the sulfonamide/sulfamate ones.

  17. Measurement of eye aberrations in a speckle field

    SciTech Connect

    Larichev, A V; Ivanov, P V; Iroshnikov, N G; Shmalgauzen, V I

    2001-12-31

    The influence of speckles on the performance of a Shark-Hartmann wavefront sensor is investigated in the eye aberration studies. The dependence of the phase distortion measurement error on the characteristic speckle size is determined experimentally. Scanning of the reference source was used to suppress the speckle structure of the laser beam scattered by the retina. The technique developed by us made it possible to study the time dependence of the human eye aberrations with a resolution of 30 ms. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  18. Chromatic aberration effect on solar energy systems using Fresnel lenses

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenzo, E.

    1981-11-01

    In concentration systems using Fresnel lenses the effect of the chromatic aberration can become important. In this paper we propose a method to take this effect into account for designing purposes. Also we define a parameter that allows one to estimate the degradation of the thermodynamic quality of the concentrator due to this effect. This parameter follows a hyperbolic law, with the acceptance angle showing that it is important to consider chromatic aberration when modeling concentrators with a high concentration factor. However, this complexity is unnecessary for moderate or low concentration factors.

  19. A study on optical aberrations in parabolic neutron guides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Wang, Hongli; Liu, Yuntao; Zu, Yong; He, Linfeng; Wei, Guohai; Sun, Kai; Han, Songbai; Chen, Dongfeng

    2015-06-01

    It is widely believed that a neutron beam can be focused to a small spot using a parabolic guide, which will significantly improve the flux. However, researchers have also noted challenges for the neutron inhomogeneous phase space distribution in parabolic focusing guide systems. In this paper, the sources of most prominent optical aberrations, such as an inhomogeneous phase space distribution and irregular divergence distribution, are discussed, and an optimization solution is also proposed. We indicate that optimizing the parabolic guide geometrical configuration removes almost all of the aberrations and yields a considerable intensity gain factor.

  20. Description of optical aberrations in dynamic Fresnel dish concentrators

    SciTech Connect

    Borton, D.N.; Borton, C.J.

    1995-10-01

    Tracking solar dish concentrators have the highest efficiencies of solar devices. Traditional paraboloidal dish systems have the best optics, but are limited in size by mechanical constraints. Fresnel dishes can be made larger and are cheaper than paraboloidal dishes, but have optical imperfections. This paper describes a mathematical model of a dynamic Fresnel dish concentrator, and examines its optics. Optical aberrations of any design can be described for any day of the year. In general, the aberrations are small and the benefits of a Fresnel design outweigh the loss in optical performance. The model can be used to design concentrators for any application including distributed dish electric power generating systems.

  1. Aberration Theory - A Spectrum Of Design Techniques For The Perplexed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafer, David

    1986-10-01

    The early medieval scholar Maimonides wrote a famous book called "Guide for the Perplexed", which explained various thorny philosophical and religious questions for the benefit of the puzzled novice. I wish I had had such a person to guide me when I first started a career in lens design. There the novice is often struck by how much of an "art" this endeavor is. The best bet, for a beginner with no experience, should be to turn to optical aberration theory - which, in principle, should explain much of what goes into designing an optical system. Unfortunately, this subject is usually presented in the form of proofs and derivations, with little time spent on the practical implications of aberration theory. Furthermore, a new generation of lens designers, who grew up with the computer, often consider aberration theory as an unnecessary relic from the past. My career, by contrast, is based on the conviction that using the results of aberration theory is the only intelligent way to design optical systems. Computers are an invaluable aide, but we must, ultimately, bite the bullet and think. Along these lines, I have given several papers over the last few years which deal directly with the philosophy of lens design; the kind of guides for the perplexed that I wished I had had from the start. These papers include: "Lens design on a desert island - A simple method of optical design", "A modular method of optical design", "Optical design with air lenses", "Optical design with 'phantom' aspherics", "Optical design methods: your head as a personal computer", "Aberration theory and the meaning of life", and a paper at Innsbruck - "Some interesting correspondences in aberration theory". In all cases, the emphasis is on using your head to think, and the computer to help you out with the numerical work and the "fine-tuning" of a design. To hope that the computer will do the thinking for you is folly. Solutions gained by this route rarely equal the results of an experienced and

  2. Increased frequency of chromosomal aberrations in railroad car painters.

    PubMed

    Piña-Calva, A; Madrigal-Bujaidar, E; Fuentes, M V; Neria, P; Pérez-Lucio, C; Vélez-Zamora, N M

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if exposure to paints and solvents contributes to chromosomal alterations in occupationally exposed individuals. A total of 25 male railroad and underground railroad car painters were studied. This group had a mean age of 32.7 y and a mean exposure time of 5.2 y. The results were compared with those obtained for 25 healthy (unexposed) males. The scoring of structural chromosome aberrations clearly revealed an increase in the number of all types of aberrations considered in the population of painters. This suggests that exposure to a combination of chemicals may increase genotoxicity in industrial workers.

  3. Papillary Carcinoma in Median Aberrant Thyroid (Ectopic) - Case Report

    PubMed Central

    K, Shashidhar; Deshmane, Vijaya Laxmi; Kumar, Veerendra; Arjunan, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Median ectopic thyroid may be encountered anywhere from the foramen caecum to the diaphragm. Non lingual median aberrant thyroid (incomplete descent) usually found in the infrahyoid region and malignant transformation in this ectopic thyroid tissue is very rare. We report an extremely rare case of papillary carcinoma in non lingual median aberrant thyroid in a 25-year-old female. The differentiation between a carcinoma arising in the median ectopic thyroid tissue and a metastatic papillary carcinoma from an occult primary in the main thyroid gland is also discussed. PMID:25121039

  4. Aberration compensation and resolution improvement of focus modulation microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Juanjuan; Gao, Peng; Shao, Xiaopeng

    2017-01-01

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) has wide applications in biological research and medical diagnosis. However, the spatial resolution and signal to noise ratio (SNR) of CLSM is reduced in the presence of an aberration. Here we improve the pupil-segmentation method to measure and compensate for aberrations in focus modulation CLSM (FM-CLSM), which uses Gaussian-type and doughnut-like foci to scan a sample in sequence. As a result, FM-CLSM can provide images with a high resolution and a high SNR for biomedical or industrial applications.

  5. Aberration changes of the corneal anterior surface following discontinued use of rigid gas permeable contact lenses1

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Qing; Wu, Jiang-Xiu; Zhang, He-Ning; Ye, Sheng; Dong, Shi-Qi; Zhang, Chen-Hao

    2013-01-01

    AIM To record aberrations with a corneal topographic device on the anterior surface of the cornea at different time-points prior to wearing and following discontinued use of rigid gas permeable (RGP) contact lenses. The effect of wearing RGP on the anterior surface of the cornea was discussed to provide guidance for clinical refractive error correction. METHODS The study objects were 24 eyes from 24 patients. All patients underwent identical examination procedures prior to lens use, as well as afterwards, including slit-lamp examination, non-contact tonometer measurement, computer optometry and corneal curvature measurement, subjective refraction test, and corneal topography analysis. The patients wore contact lenses everyday for 1 month and then discontinued. Corneal topographies were recorded at certain time points of 30 minutes, 1 day, 3, 7 and 14 days following use. RESULTS Total corneal aberration at each time point following discontinued use of RGP contact lenses was less than the time point prior to use. Detailed results were as follows: root mean square (RMS) (pre)=(1.438±0.328)µm, RMS (30 minutes)=(1.076±0.355)µm, RMS (1 day)=(1.362±0.402)µm, RMS (3 days)=(1.373±0.398)µm, RMS (7 days)=(1.387±0.415)µm, and RMS (14 days)=(1.430±0.423)µm. Results showed that at 30 minutes after discontinued use of RGP contact lenses, almost all 2nd- and 3rd-order aberrations change. Quadrafoil Z10 and spherical Z12 of the 4th-order were also changed. Alterations to Z5, Z6, and Z12 at 1 day after discontinued use were significant differences compared with the time period prior to RGP use: Z5 and Z6 decreased, and Z12 increased slightly. Z5 and Z6 remained decreased at 3 days after discontinued use, but Z9 and Z10 continued to increase and Z12 returned to levels prior to RGP use. At 14 days after discontinued use, all aberrations were not significantly different from the values prior to use. CONCLUSION The use RGP contact lenses greatly reduced total aberration of

  6. Correcting Aberrated Wavefronts from Synthetic Apertures Holographically.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    subject and reference legs was proven to be planar through both shear-plate interferometric analysis ( Malacara , pp 105-48) and by observing the...London: Cam- bridge University Press, 1969 Malacara . Daniel, ed. Optical Shop Testing. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1978. Marathay, Arvind S

  7. Modulation of Ca(2+) release and Ca(2+) oscillations in HeLa cells and fibroblasts by mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter stimulation.

    PubMed

    Vay, Laura; Hernández-Sanmiguel, Esther; Santo-Domingo, Jaime; Lobatón, Carmen D; Moreno, Alfredo; Montero, Mayte; Alvarez, Javier

    2007-04-01

    The recent availability of activators of the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter allows direct testing of the influence of mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake on the overall Ca(2+) homeostasis of the cell. We show here that activation of mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake by 4,4',4''-(4-propyl-[1H]-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl)trisphenol (PPT) or kaempferol stimulates histamine-induced Ca(2+) release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and that this effect is enhanced if the mitochondrial Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger is simultaneously inhibited with CGP37157. This suggests that both Ca(2+) uptake and release from mitochondria control the ability of local Ca(2+) microdomains to produce feedback inhibition of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (InsP(3)Rs). In addition, the ability of mitochondria to control Ca(2+) release from the ER allows them to modulate cytosolic Ca(2+) oscillations. In histamine stimulated HeLa cells and human fibroblasts, both PPT and kaempferol initially stimulated and later inhibited oscillations, although kaempferol usually induced a more prolonged period of stimulation. Both compounds were also able to induce the generation of Ca(2+) oscillations in previously silent fibroblasts. Our data suggest that cytosolic Ca(2+) oscillations are exquisitely sensitive to the rates of mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake and release, which precisely control the size of the local Ca(2+) microdomains around InsP(3)Rs and thus the ability to produce feedback activation or inhibition of Ca(2+) release.

  8. Modulation of Ca2+ release and Ca2+ oscillations in HeLa cells and fibroblasts by mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Vay, Laura; Hernández-SanMiguel, Esther; Santo-Domingo, Jaime; Lobatón, Carmen D; Moreno, Alfredo; Montero, Mayte; Alvarez, Javier

    2007-01-01

    The recent availability of activators of the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter allows direct testing of the influence of mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake on the overall Ca2+ homeostasis of the cell. We show here that activation of mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake by 4,4′,4″-(4-propyl-[1H]-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl)trisphenol (PPT) or kaempferol stimulates histamine-induced Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and that this effect is enhanced if the mitochondrial Na+–Ca2+ exchanger is simultaneously inhibited with CGP37157. This suggests that both Ca2+ uptake and release from mitochondria control the ability of local Ca2+ microdomains to produce feedback inhibition of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (InsP3Rs). In addition, the ability of mitochondria to control Ca2+ release from the ER allows them to modulate cytosolic Ca2+ oscillations. In histamine stimulated HeLa cells and human fibroblasts, both PPT and kaempferol initially stimulated and later inhibited oscillations, although kaempferol usually induced a more prolonged period of stimulation. Both compounds were also able to induce the generation of Ca2+ oscillations in previously silent fibroblasts. Our data suggest that cytosolic Ca2+ oscillations are exquisitely sensitive to the rates of mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake and release, which precisely control the size of the local Ca2+ microdomains around InsP3Rs and thus the ability to produce feedback activation or inhibition of Ca2+ release. PMID:17234694

  9. Remodelling of Ca2+ transport in cancer: how it contributes to cancer hallmarks?

    PubMed

    Prevarskaya, Natalia; Ouadid-Ahidouch, Halima; Skryma, Roman; Shuba, Yaroslav

    2014-03-19

    Cancer involves defects in the mechanisms underlying cell proliferation, death and migration. Calcium ions are central to these phenomena, serving as major signalling agents with spatial localization, magnitude and temporal characteristics of calcium signals ultimately determining cell's fate. Cellular Ca(2+) signalling is determined by the concerted action of a molecular Ca(2+)-handling toolkit which includes: active energy-dependent Ca(2+) transporters, Ca(2+)-permeable ion channels, Ca(2+)-binding and storage proteins, Ca(2+)-dependent effectors. In cancer, because of mutations, aberrant expression, regulation and/or subcellular targeting of Ca(2+)-handling/transport protein(s) normal relationships among extracellular, cytosolic, endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial Ca(2+) concentrations or spatio-temporal patterns of Ca(2+) signalling become distorted. This causes deregulation of Ca(2+)-dependent effectors that control signalling pathways determining cell's behaviour in a way to promote pathophysiological cancer hallmarks such as enhanced proliferation, survival and invasion. Despite the progress in our understanding of Ca(2+) homeostasis remodelling in cancer cells as well as in identification of the key Ca(2+)-transport molecules promoting certain malignant phenotypes, there is still a lot of work to be done to transform fundamental findings and concepts into new Ca(2+) transport-targeting tools for cancer diagnosis and treatment.

  10. Measurement of large low-order aberrations by using a series of through-focus Ronchigrams.

    PubMed

    Akima, Hisanao; Yoshida, Takaho

    2014-08-01

    A method for measuring large aberrations up to second order (defocus, 2-fold astigmatism and axial coma), which uses a through-focus series of Ronchigrams, is proposed. The method is based on the principle that line-focus conditions in Ronchigrams can be locally detected and low-order aberrations can thereby be measured. The proposed method provides auto-tuning of large low-order aberration; in particular, iterative aberration measurement and correction reduce low-order aberrations from several thousand nanometers to less than a few hundred nanometers, which can be handled by conventional fine-aberration tuning methods.

  11. The spherical aberration of the crystalline lens of the human eye.

    PubMed

    Smith, G; Cox, M J; Calver, R; Garner, L F

    2001-01-15

    The in vivo spherical aberration of the lenses of 26 subjects was estimated from the measured total aberration of the eye and that predicted from the measured shape of the anterior corneal surface. Since it was only possible to estimate the aberration contribution from the posterior corneal surface, its value led to an uncertainty in the final aberration level of the lens. For all the subjects and for a wide range of possible aberration levels at the posterior corneal surface, the spherical aberration of the relaxed lens was found to be negative.

  12. Light Aberration, Deflection and Frequency Shift in Einstein-aether Gravity Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Kai

    2009-05-01

    Einstein-Aether gravity theory has been proven successful in passing experiments of different scales. Especially its Eddington parameters γand βhave the same numerical values as those in general relativity. Recently Xie and Huang (2008) have advanced this theory to a second post-Newtonian approximation for an N-body model and obtained a explicit metric when the bodies are point-like masses. This research considers light propagation in the above gravitational field, explore the light aberration, deflection, time delay, frequency shift etc. The results will provide for future experiments in testing gravity theories.

  13. ISTFA 1987 - International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis: Advanced materials; Proceedings of the Symposium, Los Angeles, CA, Nov. 9-13, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The present conference discusses topics in the failure analysis of metallic materials, metal-matrix composites (MMCs), environmental effects on metallics materials, the failure analysis of polymers and ceramics and of resin-based composites, case histories in metal-failure analysis, failure-mechanisms in resin-based composites, innovations in test methodologies, and failures in weldments. Attention is given to fatigue cracking in Al-Li alloys, flow and fracture in discontinuous MMCs with high ductility, the service failure of a 7049 T73 Al alloy aircraft forging, the fracture behavior of electronic ceramics, microscopy of composite delamination, a helicopter crew-seat failure analysis, cracking in marine composites, quantitative fractography, and the significance of repair welds in service failures.

  14. Space and Ground observations of Pre-earthquake Anomalies.Prospective/Retrospective Testing for M6.0 August 24, 2014 South Napa, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouzounov, D.; Kafatos, M.; Petrov, L.; Pulinets, S. A.; Liu, J. Y.; Su, Y. C.; Chen, S.

    2014-12-01

    We integrate multiple geo-space and ground sensors for monitoring pre-earthquake geophysical anomalies that can provide significant early notification for earthquakes higher than M5.5 in California. The latest M6.0 event of August 24 in South Napa, generated a pre-earthquake signature during our prospective tests for California, and an experimental warning was documented about 17 days in advance. We process in controlled environment different satellite and ground data for California and several other test areas by using: A.) TIR (thermal infrared) data from the NPOES recording long-wavelength radiation (OLR) and; B.) 2/GNSS, FORMOSAT (GPS/TEC); 3) Earth Observing System assimilation models from NASA and 4) ground-based gas observations and meteorological data. On Aug 4th, we detected (prospectively) a large anomaly of OLR transient field in the atmosphere over Northern California. The location was shifted in the northeast direction about 150 km from the Aug 23rd epicentral area. Compared to the reference field of August 2004 to 2014, a rapid change in the thermals anomalous flux rate, of >1.6 W/m2 at 7:00AM LT been observed on Aug 4. The hotspot anomaly was the largest energy flux anomaly over the entire continental United States at this time. Based on the temporal and spatial estimates of the anomaly, on August 4th we issued an internal warning for a M5.5+ earthquake in Northern California within the next 1-4 weeks. Our approach needs additional continuous validation. The results could be explained within the framework of a model of Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere Coupling between the crust and the atmosphere/ionosphere.

  15. Aberrant Pattern of Scanning in Prosopagnosia Reflects Impaired Face Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephan, Blossom Christa Maree; Caine, Diana

    2009-01-01

    Visual scanpath recording was used to investigate the information processing strategies used by a prosopagnosic patient, SC, when viewing faces. Compared to controls, SC showed an aberrant pattern of scanning, directing attention away from the internal configuration of facial features (eyes, nose) towards peripheral regions (hair, forehead) of the…

  16. Using Aberrant Behaviors as Reinforcers for Autistic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlop, Marjorie H.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Three experiments assessed the efficacy of various reinforcers to increase correct task responding in a total of 10 autistic children, aged 6-9. Of the reinforcers used (stereotypy, delayed echolalia, perseverative behavior, and food), task performance was highest with opportunities to engage in aberrant behaviors, and lowest with edible…

  17. The Aberrant Salience Inventory: A New Measure of Psychosis Proneness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cicero, David C.; Kerns, John G.; McCarthy, Denis M.

    2010-01-01

    Aberrant salience is the unusual or incorrect assignment of salience, significance, or importance to otherwise innocuous stimuli and has been hypothesized to be important for psychosis and psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. Despite the importance of this concept in psychosis research, no questionnaire measures are available to assess…

  18. Chromosome aberrations in plants as a monitoring system.

    PubMed Central

    Grant, W F

    1978-01-01

    The potential of higher plants as a first-tier assay system for detecting chemical mutagens is evaluated. The use of plant tissue (primarily root tips and pollen mother cells) for studying the induction of chromosomal aberrations is one of the oldest, simplest, most reliable, and inexpensive methods available. Specific types of abnormalities have been induced by different classes of pesticides. Chromosome clumping, contraction, stickiness, paling, fragmentation, dissolution, chromosome and chromatid bridges, C-mitosis, and endoploidy have been reported in the literature. Examples of cytogenetic studies with pesticides demonstrating the usefulness of higher plants as a monitoring system are reviewed. Pesticides which cause chromosome aberrations in plant cells also produce chromosome aberrations in cultured animal cells. Frequently, the aberrations are identical. For example, studies have shown that compounds which have a C-mitotic effect on plant cells have the same effect on animal cells. It is recommended that plant systems be accepted as a first-tier assay system for the detection of possible genetic damage by environmental chemicals. PMID:367773

  19. [Cytogenetic aberrations in histologically benign infiltratively growing sphenoid wing meningiomas].

    PubMed

    Korshunov, A G; Cherekaev, V A; Bekiashev, A Kh; Sycheva, R V

    2007-01-01

    Meningiomas of the sphenoid wing (SW) frequently show an invasive pattern of growth and cause destruction of the adjacent structures. As a result, the rate of recurrent SW meningiomas is as high as 30%. Cytogenetic investigations showed no aberrations specific to invasively growing meningiomas. During this study, the authors evaluated 10 invasive and 5 non-invasive SW meningiomas via comparative genome hybridization (CGH) (matrix CGH), by using the gene chips of GenoSensor Array micromatrixes. The mean number of aberrations in the tumor cells was much greater in case of invasive meningiomas (67.4 versus 40.5 in case of non-invasive SW meningiomas. Furthermore, in invasive SW meningiomas, there were frequently losses in loci 1p, 6q, and 14q and gains in loci 15q and 10, which had been predetermined as molecular markers of stepwise progression of meningioma. Thus, the presence of a complex cytogenetic profile and progression-associated chromosome aberrations in benign SW meningiomas is linked with the increase of their invasive potential. Due to the fact that there are no well-defined adjuvant therapy regimens for recurring meningiomas at present, the revealed genomic aberrations may become potential targets for searching for drugs and a therapeutic intervention in future.

  20. Aberrant nerve fibres within the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Moffie, D

    1992-01-01

    Three cases of aberrant nerve fibres in the spinal cord and medulla oblongata are described. The literature on these fibres is discussed and their possible role in regeneration. Different views on the possibility of regeneration or functional recovery of the central nervous system are mentioned in the light of recent publications, which are more optimistic than before.

  1. Mapping magnetism with atomic resolution using aberrated electron probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idrobo, Juan; Rusz, Ján; McGuire, Michael A.; Symons, Christopher T.; Vatsavai, Ranga Raju; Lupini, Andrew R.

    2015-03-01

    In this talk, we report a direct experimental real-space mapping of magnetic circular dichroism with atomic resolution in aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Using an aberrated electron probe with customized phase distribution, we reveal with electron energy-loss (EEL) spectroscopy the checkerboard antiferromagnetic ordering of Mn moments in LaMnAsO by observing a dichroic signal in the Mn L-edge. The aberrated probes allow the collection of EEL spectra using the transmitted beam, which results in a magnetic circular dichroic signal with intrinsically larger signal-to-noise ratios than those obtained via nanodiffraction techniques (where most of the transmitted electrons are discarded). The novel experimental setup presented here, which can easily be implemented in aberration-corrected STEM, opens new paths for probing dichroic signals in materials with unprecedented spatial resolution. This research was supported by DOE SUFD MSED, by UT-Battelle, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the US DOE, and by the Swedish Research Council and Swedish National Infrastructure for Computing (NSC center)

  2. Nanowire growth kinetics in aberration corrected environmental transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Yi -Chia; Panciera, Federico; Reuter, Mark C.; Stach, Eric A.; Ross, Frances M.

    2016-03-15

    Here, we visualize atomic level dynamics during Si nanowire growth using aberration corrected environmental transmission electron microscopy, and compare with lower pressure results from ultra-high vacuum microscopy. We discuss the importance of higher pressure observations for understanding growth mechanisms and describe protocols to minimize effects of the higher pressure background gas.

  3. The pterygo-spinous muscle--an aberrant (atavic) remnant.

    PubMed

    Nathan, H

    1989-01-01

    We report here on an aberrant pterygoid muscle found during a dissection of the infratemporal fossa. We have not noted such a muscle in hundreds of dissections in the area. A few anatomical texts (Piersol, 1911; Testut, Latarjet, 1931) have referred to its possible existence as the pterygo-spinous muscle.

  4. Induction of colonic aberrant crypts in mice by feeding apparent N-nitroso compounds derived from hot dogs

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Michael E; Lisowyj, Michal P; Zhou, Lin; Wisecarver, James L; Gulizia, James M; Shostrom, Valerie K; Naud, Nathalie; Corpet, Denis E; Mirvish, Sidney S

    2012-01-01

    Nitrite-preserved meats (e.g., hot dogs) may help cause colon cancer because they contain N-nitroso compounds. We tested whether purified hot-dog-derived total apparent N-nitroso compounds (ANC) could induce colonic aberrant crypts, which are putative precursors of colon cancer. We purified ANC precursors in hot dogs and nitrosated them to produce ANC. In preliminary tests, CF1 mice received 1 or 3 i.p. injections of 5mg azoxymethane (AOM)/kg. In Experiments 1 and 2, female A/J mice received ANC in diet. In Experiment 1, ANC dose initially dropped sharply because the ANC precursors had mostly decomposed but, later in Experiment 1 and throughout Experiment 2, ANC remained at 85 nmol/g diet. Mice were killed after 8 (AOM tests) or 17–34 (ANC tests) wk. Median numbers of aberrant crypts in the distal 2 cm of the colon for 1 and 3 AOM injections, CF1 controls, ANC (Experiment 1), ANC (Experiment 2),and untreated A/J mice were 31, 74, 12, 20, 12, and 5–6, with P < 0.01 for both ANC tests. Experiment 2 showed somewhat increased numbers of colonic mucin-depleted foci in the ANC-treated group. We conclude that hot-dog-derived ANC induced significant numbers of aberrant crypts in the mouse colon. PMID:22293095

  5. Induction of colonic aberrant crypts in mice by feeding apparent N-nitroso compounds derived from hot dogs.

    PubMed

    Davis, Michael E; Lisowyj, Michal P; Zhou, Lin; Wisecarver, James L; Gulizia, James M; Shostrom, Valerie K; Naud, Nathalie; Corpet, Denis E; Mirvish, Sidney S

    2012-01-01

    Nitrite-preserved meats (e.g., hot dogs) may help cause colon cancer because they contain N-nitroso compounds. We tested whether purified hot-dog-derived total apparent N-nitroso compounds (ANC) could induce colonic aberrant crypts, which are putative precursors of colon cancer. We purified ANC precursors in hot dogs and nitrosated them to produce ANC. In preliminary tests, CF1 mice received 1 or 3 i.p. injections of 5 mg azoxymethane (AOM)/kg. In Experiments 1 and 2, female A/J mice received ANC in diet. In Experiment 1, ANC dose initially dropped sharply because the ANC precursors had mostly decomposed but, later in Experiment 1 and throughout Experiment 2, ANC remained at 85 nmol/g diet. Mice were killed after 8 (AOM tests) or 17-34 (ANC tests) wk. Median numbers of aberrant crypts in the distal 2 cm of the colon for 1 and 3 AOM injections, CF1 controls, ANC (Experiment 1), ANC (Experiment 2),and untreated A/J mice were 31, 74, 12, 20, 12, and 5-6, with P < 0.01 for both ANC tests. Experiment 2 showed somewhat increased numbers of colonic mucin-depleted foci in the ANC-treated group. We conclude that hot-dog-derived ANC induced significant numbers of aberrant crypts in the mouse colon.

  6. General measurement of optical system aberrations with a continuously variable lateral shear ratio by a randomly encoded hybrid grating.

    PubMed

    Ling, Tong; Yang, Yongying; Liu, Dong; Yue, Xiumei; Jiang, Jiabin; Bai, Jian; Shen, Yibing

    2015-10-20

    A general lateral shearing interferometry method to measure the wavefront aberrations with a continuously variable shear ratio by the randomly encoded hybrid grating (REHG) is proposed. The REHG consists of a randomly encoded binary amplitude grating and a phase chessboard. Its Fraunhofer diffractions contain only four orders which are the ±1 orders in two orthogonal directions due to the combined modulation of the amplitude and phase. As a result, no orders selection mask is needed for the REHG and the shear ratio is continuously variable, which is beneficial to the variation of sensitivity and testing range for different requirements. To determine the fabrication tolerance of this hybrid grating, the analysis of the effects of different errors on the diffraction intensity distributions is carried out. Experiments have shown that the testing method can achieve a continuously variable shear ratio with the same REHG, and the comparison with a ZYGO GPI interferometer exhibits that the aberration testing method by the REHG is highly precise and also has a good repeatability. This testing method by the REHG is available for general use in testing the aberrations of different optical systems in situ.

  7. Closed-loop adaptive optics using a spatial light modulator for sensing and compensating of optical aberrations in ophthalmic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akondi, Vyas; Jewel, Md. Atikur Rahman; Vohnsen, Brian

    2014-09-01

    Sensing and compensating of optical aberrations in closed-loop mode using a single spatial light modulator (SLM) for ophthalmic applications is demonstrated. Notwithstanding the disadvantages of the SLM, in certain cases, this multitasking capability of the device makes it advantageous over existing deformable mirrors (DMs), which are expensive and in general used for aberration compensation alone. A closed-loop adaptive optics (AO) system based on a single SLM was built. Beam resizing optics were used to utilize the large active area of the device and hence make it feasible to generate 137 active subapertures for wavefront sensing. While correcting Zernike aberrations up to fourth order introduced with the help of a DM (for testing purposes), diffraction-limited resolution was achieved. It is shown that matched filter and intensity-weighted centroiding techniques stand out among others. Closed-loop wavefront correction of aberrations in backscattered light from the eyes of three healthy human subjects was demonstrated after satisfactory results were obtained using an artificial eye, which was simulated with a short focal length lens and a sheet of white paper as diffuser. It is shown that the closed-loop AO system based on a single SLM is capable of diffraction-limited correction for ophthalmic applications.

  8. Chromatin structure and ionizing-radiation-induced chromosome aberrations

    SciTech Connect

    Muehlmann-Diaz, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    The possible influence of chromatic structure or activity on chromosomal radiosensitivity was studied. A cell line was isolated which contained some 10[sup 5] copies of an amplified plasmid in a single large mosquito artificial chromosome (MAC). This chromosome was hypersensitive to DNase I. Its radiosensitivity was some three fold greater than normal mosquito chromosomes in the same cell. In cultured human cells irradiated during G[sub 0], the initial breakage frequency in chromosome 4, 19 and the euchromatic and heterochromatic portions of the Y chromosome were measured over a wide range of doses by inducing Premature Chromosome Condensation (PCC) immediately after irradiation with Cs-137 gamma rays. No evidence was seen that Y heterochromatin or large fragments of it remained unbroken. The only significant deviation from the expected initial breakage frequency per Gy per unit length of chromosome was that observed for the euchromatic portion of the Y chromosome, with breakage nearly twice that expected. The development of aberrations involving X and Y chromosomes at the first mitosis after irradation was also studied. Normal female cells sustained about twice the frequency of aberrations involving X chromosomes for a dose of 7.3 Gy than the corresponding male cells. Fibroblasts from individuals with supernumerary X chromosomes did not show any further increase in X aberrations for this dos. The frequency of aberrations involving the heterochromatic portion of the long arm of the Y chromosome was about what would be expected for a similar length of autosome, but the euchromatic portion of the Y was about 3 times more radiosensitive per unit length. 5-Azacytidine treatment of cultured human female fibroblasts or fibroblasts from a 49,XXXXY individual, reduced the methylation of cytosine residues in DNA, and resulted in an increased chromosomal radiosensitivity in general, but it did not increase the frequency of aberrations involving the X chromosomes.

  9. Non-Gaussianity and CMB aberration and Doppler

    SciTech Connect

    Catena, Riccardo; Liguori, Michele; Renzi, Alessandro; Notari, Alessio E-mail: michele.liguori@pd.infn.it E-mail: arenzi@pd.infn.it

    2013-09-01

    The peculiar motion of an observer with respect to the CMB rest frame induces a deflection in the arrival direction of the observed photons (also known as CMB aberration) and a Doppler shift in the measured photon frequencies. As a consequence, aberration and Doppler effects induce non trivial correlations between the harmonic coefficients of the observed CMB temperature maps. In this paper we investigate whether these correlations generate a bias on non-Gaussianity estimators f{sub NL}. We perform this analysis simulating a large number of temperature maps with Planck-like resolution (lmax = 2000) as different realizations of the same cosmological fiducial model (WMAP7yr). We then add to these maps aberration and Doppler effects employing a modified version of the HEALPix code. We finally evaluate a generalization of the Komatsu, Spergel and Wandelt non-Gaussianity estimator for all the simulated maps, both when peculiar velocity effects have been considered and when these phenomena have been neglected. Using the value v/c = 1.23 × 10{sup −3} for our peculiar velocity, we found that the aberration/Doppler induced non-Gaussian signal is at most of about half of the cosmic variance σ for f{sub NL} both in a full-sky and in a cut-sky experimental configuration, for local, equilateral and orthogonal estimators. We conclude therefore that when estimating f{sub NL} it is safe to ignore aberration and Doppler effects if the primordial map is already Gaussian. More work is necessary however to assess whether a map which contains non-Gaussianity can be significantly distorted by a peculiar velocity.

  10. Canine urothelial carcinoma: genomically aberrant and comparatively relevant

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, S. G.; Raghunath, S.; Williams, C.; Motsinger-Reif, A. A.; Cullen, J. M.; Liu, T.; Albertson, D.; Ruvolo, M.; Lucas, A. Bergstrom; Jin, J.; Knapp, D. W.; Schiffman, J. D.

    2015-01-01

    Urothelial carcinoma (UC), also referred to as transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), is the most common bladder malignancy in both human and canine populations. In human UC, numerous studies have demonstrated the prevalence of chromosomal imbalances. Although the histopathology of the disease is similar in both species, studies evaluating the genomic profile of canine UC are lacking, limiting the discovery of key comparative molecular markers associated with driving UC pathogenesis. In the present study, we evaluated 31 primary canine UC biopsies by oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization (oaCGH). Results highlighted the presence of three highly recurrent numerical aberrations: gain of dog chromosome (CFA) 13 and 36 and loss of CFA 19. Regional gains of CFA 13 and 36 were present in 97% and 84% of cases, respectively, and losses on CFA 19 were present in 77% of cases. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), using targeted bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones and custom Agilent SureFISH probes, was performed to detect and quantify these regions in paraffin-embedded biopsy sections and urine-derived urothelial cells. The data indicate that these three aberrations are potentially diagnostic of UC. Comparison of our canine oaCGH data with that of 285 human cases identified a series of shared copy number aberrations. Using an informatics approach to interrogate the frequency of copy number aberrations across both species, we identified those that had the highest joint probability of association with UC. The most significant joint region contained the gene PABPC1, which should be considered further for its role in UC progression. In addition, cross-species filtering of genome-wide copy number data highlighted several genes as high-profile candidates for further analysis, including CDKN2A, S100A8/9, and LRP1B. We propose that these common aberrations are indicative of an evolutionarily conserved mechanism of pathogenesis and harbor genes key to

  11. Assessment of oxidative stress and chromosomal aberration inducing potential of three medical grade silicone polymer materials.

    PubMed

    Vijayalakshmi, P; Geetha, C S; Mohanan, P V

    2013-02-01

    Medical expenditures for devices are increasing along with the ageing of human population and the synthesis of materials such as silicone polymers is on upsurge for manufacturing these devices. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) emphasizes a battery of tests for preclinical assessment of biocompatibility of medical devices. Genotoxicity assays have become an integral component of these test procedures and it employs a set of in vitro and in vivo experiments to detect mutagens. Hence, this study was performed with an intention to investigate the genotoxic potential of the physiological saline extracts of three medical grade silicone polymer materials by the in vitro chromosomal aberration assay using human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Further, the oxidative stress inducing potential of the material extracts was investigated in vivo in mice liver homogenates using cyclophosphamide as positive control. The investigation revealed that none of the three materials were able to produce marked human lymphocyte chromosomal aberration, suggesting the absence of mutagens. The materials also showed negative results in their oxidative stress inducing potential, which was revealed by the normal levels of lipid peroxidation and unaltered levels of glutathione and its metabolizing enzymes in the mice liver tissue homogenates. It was interesting to observe a significant correlation between the genotoxic and antioxidant parameters investigated. Hence, it is suggested that the estimation of antioxidant status would serve as a better preliminary testing procedure prior to evaluating the genetic and molecular toxicity mechanisms of medical devices and/or materials intended for manufacture of such devices.

  12. Proton and Fe Ion-Induced Early and Late Chromosome Aberrations in Different Cell Types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Honglu; Lu, Tao; Yeshitla, Samrawit; Zhang, Ye; Kadhim, Munira

    2016-01-01

    An early stage of cancer development is believed to be genomic instability (GI) which accelerates the mutation rate in the descendants of the cells surviving radiation exposure. To investigate GI induced by charged particles, we exposed human lymphocytes, human fibroblast cells, and human mammary epithelial cells to high energy protons and Fe ions. In addition, we also investigated GI in bone marrow cells isolated from CBA/CaH (CBA) and C57BL/6 (C57) mice, by analyzing cell survival and chromosome aberrations in the cells after multiple cell divisions. Results analyzed so far from the experiments indicated different sensitivities to charged particles between CBA/CaH (CBA) and C57BL/6 (C57) mouse strains, suggesting that there are two main types of response to irradiation: 1) responses associated with survival of damaged cells and 2) responses associated with the induction of non-clonal chromosomal instability in the surviving progeny of stem cells. Previously, we reported that the RBE for initial chromosome damages was high in human lymphocytes exposed to Fe ions. Our results with different cell types demonstrated different RBE values between different cell types and between early and late chromosomal damages. This study also attempts to offer an explanation for the varying RBE values for different cancer types.

  13. A comparison of fluorescent Ca2+ indicators for imaging local Ca2+ signals in cultured cells

    PubMed Central

    Lock, Jeffrey T.; Parker, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Localized subcellular changes in Ca2+ serve as important cellular signaling elements, regulating processes as diverse as neuronal excitability and gene expression. Studies of cellular Ca2+ signaling have been greatly facilitated by the availability of fluorescent Ca2+ indicators. The respective merits of different indicators to monitor bulk changes in cellular Ca2+ levels have been widely evaluated, but a comprehensive comparison for their use in detecting and analyzing local, subcellular Ca2+ signals is lacking. Here, we evaluated several fluorescent Ca2+ indicators in the context of local Ca2+ signals (puffs) evoked by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) in cultured human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, using high-speed video-microscopy. Altogether, nine synthetic Ca2+ dyes (Fluo-4, Fluo-8, Fluo-8 high affinity, Fluo-8 low affinity, Oregon Green BAPTA-1, Cal-520, Rhod-4, Asante Calcium Red, and X-Rhod-1) and three genetically-encoded Ca2+-indicators (GCaMP6-slow, -medium and -fast variants) were tested; criteria include the magnitude, kinetics, signal-to-noise ratio and detection efficiency of local Ca2+ puffs. Among these, we conclude that Cal-520 is the optimal indicator for detecting and faithfully tracking local events; that Rhod-4 is the red-emitting indicator of choice; and that none of the GCaMP6 variants are well suited for imaging subcellular Ca2+ signals. PMID:26572560

  14. Plasma DNA aberrations in systemic lupus erythematosus revealed by genomic and methylomic sequencing.

    PubMed

    Chan, Rebecca W Y; Jiang, Peiyong; Peng, Xianlu; Tam, Lai-Shan; Liao, Gary J W; Li, Edmund K M; Wong, Priscilla C H; Sun, Hao; Chan, K C Allen; Chiu, Rossa W K; Lo, Y M Dennis

    2014-12-09

    We performed a high-resolution analysis of the biological characteristics of plasma DNA in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients using massively parallel genomic and methylomic sequencing. A number of plasma DNA abnormalities were found. First, aberrations in measured genomic representations (MGRs) were identified in the plasma DNA of SLE patients. The extent of the aberrations in MGRs correlated with anti-double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) antibody level. Second, the plasma DNA of active SLE patients exhibited skewed molecular size-distribution profiles with a significantly increased proportion of short DNA fragments. The extent of plasma DNA shortening in SLE patients correlated with the SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) and anti-dsDNA antibody level. Third, the plasma DNA of active SLE patients showed decreased methylation densities. The extent of hypomethylation correlated with SLEDAI and anti-dsDNA antibody level. To explore the impact of anti-dsDNA antibody on plasma DNA in SLE, a column-based protein G capture approach was used to fractionate the IgG-bound and non-IgG-bound DNA in plasma. Compared with healthy individuals, SLE patients had higher concentrations of IgG-bound DNA in plasma. More IgG binding occurs at genomic locations showing increased MGRs. Furthermore, the IgG-bound plasma DNA was shorter in size and more hypomethylated than the non-IgG-bound plasma DNA. These observations have enhanced our understanding of the spectrum of plasma DNA aberrations in SLE and may provide new molecular markers for SLE. Our results also suggest that caution should be exercised when interpreting plasma DNA-based noninvasive prenatal testing and cancer testing conducted for SLE patients.

  15. Effects of the removal of extracellular Ca2+ on [Ca2+]i responses to FCCP and acetate in carotid body glomus cells of adult rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sato, M

    1997-09-12

    The effects of the removal of extracellular Ca2+ on the responses of cytosolic concentrations of Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) to acidic stimuli, a protonophore carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP) and an organic acid acetate, were examined in clusters of cultured carotid body glomus cells of adult rabbits using fura-2 microfluorometry. Application of FCCP (1 microM) induced an increase in [Ca2+]i (mean +/- S.E.M., 108 +/- 14%). After withdrawal of the protonophore the increased [Ca2+]i returned slowly to a resting level. The [Ca2+]i response was attenuated by an inorganic Ca2+ channel antagonist Ni2+ (2 mM) by 81 +/- 4%, and by an L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channel antagonist D600 (10 microM) by 53 +/- 13%. The removal of extracellular Ca2+ eliminated the [Ca2+]i response in 71% of the tested cells (n = 17), and depressed it by 68 +/- 6% in the rest. Recovery following stimulation with FCCP in the absence of Ca2+ reversibly produced a rapid and large rise in [Ca2+]i, referred to as a [Ca2+]i rise after Ca2+-free/FCCP. The magnitude of a [Ca2+]i rise after Ca2+-free/FCCP (285 +/- 28%, P < 0.05) was larger than that of an increase in [Ca2+]i induced by FCCP in the presence of Ca2+ and had a correlation with the intensity of the suppression of the [Ca2+]i response by Ca2+ removal. A [Ca2+]i rise after Ca2+-free/FCCP was inhibited mostly by D600. Similarly, recovery following exposure to acetate in the absence of Ca2+ caused a rise in [Ca2+]i, referred to as a [Ca2+]i rise after Ca2+-free/acetate which was sensitive to D600. The magnitude of the [Ca2+]i rise was larger than that of a change in [Ca2+]i caused by acetate in the presence of Ca2+. These results suggest that FCCP-induced increase in [Ca2+]i was, in most cells, due to Ca2+ influx via L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels and, in some cells, due to both Ca2+ influx and Ca2+ release from internal Ca2+ pool. The removal of extracellular Ca2+ might modify [Ca2+]i responses to acidic stimuli, causing [Ca2+]i

  16. Neurotransmitter release evoked by nerve impulses without Ca2+ entry through Ca2+ channels in frog motor nerve endings.

    PubMed Central

    Silinsky, E M; Watanabe, M; Redman, R S; Qiu, R; Hirsh, J K; Hunt, J M; Solsona, C S; Alford, S; MacDonald, R C

    1995-01-01

    1. The requirement for extracellular Ca2+ in the process of evoked acetylcholine (ACh) release by nerve impulses was tested at endplates in frog skeletal muscle. Ca(2+)-containing lipid vesicles (Ca2+ liposomes) were used to elevate cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentrations under conditions in which Ca2+ entry from the extracellular fluid was prevented. 2. In an extracellular solution containing no added Ca2+ and 1 mM Mg2+ ('Ca(2+)-free' solution), Ca2+ liposomes promoted the synchronous release of ACh quanta, reflected electrophysiologically as endplate potentials (EPPs), in response to temporally isolated nerve impulses. 3. Motor nerve stimulation generated EPPs during superfusion with Ca2+ liposomes in Ca(2+)-free solutions containing the Ca2+ channel blocker Co2+ (1 mM), and the Ca2+ chelator EGTA (2 mM). As a physiological control for Ca2+ leakage from the liposomes to the extracellular fluid, the effect of Ca2+ liposomes on asynchronous evoked ACh release mediated by Ba2+ was examined. In contrast to the effects of 0.2-0.3 mM extracellular Ca2+, which generated EPPs but antagonized Ba(2+)-mediated asynchronous ACh release, Ca2+ liposomes generated EPPs but did not reduce asynchronous release mediated by Ba2+. The effects of Ca2+ liposomes were thus not due to leakage of Ca2+ from the liposome to the extracellular fluid. 4. Morphological studies using fluorescently labelled liposomes in conjunction with a confocal microscope demonstrate that lipid is transferred from the liposomes to nerve endings and liposomal contents are delivered to the nerve terminal cytoplasm. 5. The results suggest that when intracellular Ca2+ is elevated using liposomes as a vehicle, evoked ACh release can occur in the absence of Ca2+ entry via Ca2+ channels. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7738845

  17. Na-Ca exchange and the trigger for sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca release: studies in adult rabbit ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Litwin, S E; Li, J; Bridge, J H

    1998-01-01

    The importance of Na-Ca exchange as a trigger for sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca release remains controversial. Therefore, we measured whole-cell Ca currents (ICa), Na-Ca exchange currents (INaCa), cellular contractions, and intracellular Ca transients in adult rabbit cardiac myocytes. We found that changing pipette Na concentration markedly affected the relationship between cell shortening (or Ca transients) and voltage, but did not affect the Ca current-voltage relationship. We then inhibited Na-Ca exchange and varied SR content (by changing the number of conditioning pulses before each test pulse). Regardless of SR Ca content, the relationship between contraction and voltage was bell-shaped in the absence of Na-Ca exchange. Next, we rapidly and completely blocked ICa by applying nifedipine to cells. Cellular shortening was variably reduced in the presence of nifedipine. The component of shortening blocked by nifedipine had a bell-shaped relationship with voltage, whereas the "nifedipine-insensitive" component of contraction increased with voltage. With the SR disabled (ryanodine and thapsigargin pretreatment), ICa could initiate late-peaking contractions that were approximately 70% of control amplitude. In contrast, nifedipine-insensitive contractions could not be elicited in the presence of ryanodine and thapsigargin. Finally, we recorded reverse Na-Ca exchange currents that were activated by membrane depolarization. The estimated sarcolemmal Ca flux occurring by Na-Ca exchange (during voltage clamp steps to +30 mV) was approximately 10-fold less than that occurring by ICa. Therefore, Na-Ca exchange alone is unlikely to raise cytosolic Ca concentration enough to directly activate the myofilaments. We conclude that reverse Na-Ca exchange can trigger SR Ca release. Because of the sigmoidal relationship between the open probability of the SR Ca release channel and pCa, the effects of ICa and INaCa may not sum in a linear fashion. Rather, the two triggers may act

  18. Image transfer with spatial coherence for aberration corrected transmission electron microscopes.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, Fumio; Sawada, Hidetaka; Shinkawa, Takao; Sannomiya, Takumi

    2016-08-01

    The formula of spatial coherence involving an aberration up to six-fold astigmatism is derived for aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy. Transfer functions for linear imaging are calculated using the newly derived formula with several residual aberrations. Depending on the symmetry and origin of an aberration, the calculated transfer function shows characteristic symmetries. The aberrations that originate from the field's components, having uniformity along the z direction, namely, the n-fold astigmatism, show rotational symmetric damping of the coherence. The aberrations that originate from the field's derivatives with respect to z, such as coma, star, and three lobe, show non-rotational symmetric damping. It is confirmed that the odd-symmetric wave aberrations have influences on the attenuation of an image via spatial coherence. Examples of image simulations of haemoglobin and Si [211] are shown by using the spatial coherence for an aberration-corrected electron microscope.

  19. Optimal principal component analysis-based numerical phase aberration compensation method for digital holography.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiasong; Chen, Qian; Zhang, Yuzhen; Zuo, Chao

    2016-03-15

    In this Letter, an accurate and highly efficient numerical phase aberration compensation method is proposed for digital holographic microscopy. Considering that most parts of the phase aberration resides in the low spatial frequency domain, a Fourier-domain mask is introduced to extract the aberrated frequency components, while rejecting components that are unrelated to the phase aberration estimation. Principal component analysis (PCA) is then performed only on the reduced-sized spectrum, and the aberration terms can be extracted from the first principal component obtained. Finally, by oversampling the reduced-sized aberration terms, the precise phase aberration map is obtained and thus can be compensated by multiplying with its conjugation. Because the phase aberration is estimated from the limited but more relevant raw data, the compensation precision is improved and meanwhile the computation time can be significantly reduced. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed technique could achieve both high compensating accuracy and robustness compared with other developed compensation methods.

  20. Third-order aberration analysis of an off-axial optical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakazono, Tsuyoshi; Yatagai, Toyohiko; Araki, Keisuke

    2016-02-01

    The aberration theory applied to co-axial optical systems is extended to off-axial systems, for which third-order aberration coefficients are considered. The derived aberrations are analyzed using three-dimensional ray bundles, spot diagrams, and image charts, and classified in relation to the system symmetry. This theory is very useful for optical designers, allowing them to clarify the relationship between the structures of off-axial optical systems and the corresponding off-axial aberrations.

  1. [Aberrations of the alarm call of the steppe marmot, Marmota bobak (Rodentia, Sciuridae)].

    PubMed

    Nikol'skiĭ, A A

    2008-01-01

    Aberrations, or deviations from the normal type of alarm call have been studied in the steppe marmot. One regular and several rare aberrations have been identified. The regular aberration manifests itself in all six populations studied, from the Kharkov Region in the west to the eastern border of the Orenburg Region in the east, with its frequency in the populations varying in different years from 10 to 66%. Rare aberrations occur sporadically and not in all populations.

  2. The BHVI-EyeMapper: Peripheral Refraction and Aberration Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Fedtke, Cathleen; Ehrmann, Klaus; Falk, Darrin; Bakaraju, Ravi C.; Holden, Brien A.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose The aim of this article was to present the optical design of a new instrument (BHVI-EyeMapper, EM), which is dedicated to rapid peripheral wavefront measurements across the visual field for distance and near, and to compare the peripheral refraction and higher-order aberration profiles obtained in myopic eyes with and without accommodation. Methods Central and peripheral refractive errors (M, J180, and J45) and higher-order aberrations (C[3, 1], C[3, 3], and C[4, 0]) were measured in 26 myopic participants (mean [±SD] age, 20.9 [±2.0] years; mean [±SD] spherical equivalent, −3.00 [±0.90] diopters [D]) corrected for distance. Measurements were performed along the horizontal visual field with (−2.00 to −5.00 D) and without (+1.00 D fogging) accommodation. Changes as a function of accommodation were compared using tilt and curvature coefficients of peripheral refraction and aberration profiles. Results As accommodation increased, the relative peripheral refraction profiles of M and J180 became significantly (p < 0.05) more negative and the profile of M became significantly (p < 0.05) more asymmetric. No significant differences were found for the J45 profiles (p > 0.05). The peripheral aberration profiles of C[3, 1], C[3, 3], and C[4, 0] became significantly (p < 0.05) less asymmetric as accommodation increased, but no differences were found in the curvature. Conclusions The current study showed that significant changes in peripheral refraction and higher-order aberration profiles occurred during accommodation in myopic eyes. With its extended measurement capabilities, that is, permitting rapid peripheral refraction and higher-order aberration measurements up to visual field angles of ±50 degrees for distance and near (up to −5.00 D), the EM is a new advanced instrument that may provide additional insights in the ongoing quest to understand and monitor myopia development. PMID:25105690

  3. Soluble Endoglin Modulates Aberrant Cerebral Vascular Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yongmei; Hao, Qi; Kim, Helen; Su, Hua; Letarte, Michelle; Karumanchi, S. Ananth; Lawton, Michael T.; Barbaro, Nicholas M.; Yang, Guo-Yuan; Young, William L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are an important cause of neurological morbidity in young adults. The pathophysiology of these lesions is poorly understood. A soluble form of endoglin (sEng) has been shown to cause endothelial dysfunction and induce preeclampsia. We tested if sEng would be elevated in brain AVM tissues relative to epilepsy brain tissues, and also investigated whether sEng overexpression via gene transfer in the mouse brain would induce vascular dysplasia and associated changes in downstream signaling pathways. Methods Expression levels of sEng in surgical specimens were determined by Western blot assay and ELISA. Vascular dysplasia, levels of MMP and oxidative stress were determined by immunohistochemistry and gelatin zymography. Results Brain AVMs (n=33) had higher mean sEng levels (245 ± 175 vs 100 ± 60, % of control, P=0.04) compared with controls (n=8), as determined by Western blot. In contrast, membrane-bound Eng was not significantly different (108 ± 79 vs 100 ± 63, % of control, P=0.95). sEng gene transduction in the mouse brain induced abnormal vascular structures. It also increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity by 490 ± 30% (MMP-9), 220 ± 30% (MMP-2), and oxidants by 260 ± 20% (4-hydroxy-2-nonenal) at 2 weeks after injection, suggesting that MMPs and oxidative radicals may mediate sEng-induced pathological vascular remodeling. Interpretation The results suggest that elevated sEng may play a role in the generation of sporadic brain AVMs. Our findings may provide new targets for therapeutic intervention for patients with brain AVMs. PMID:19670444

  4. Astrocyte Reactivity Following Blast Exposure Involves Aberrant Histone Acetylation.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Zachary S; Grinter, Michael B; VandeVord, Pamela J

    2016-01-01

    Blast induced neurotrauma (BINT) is a prevalent injury within military and civilian populations. The injury is characterized by persistent inflammation at the cellular level which manifests as a multitude of cognitive and functional impairments. Epigenetic regulation of transcription offers an important control mechanism for gene expression and cellular function which may underlie chronic inflammation and result in neurodegeneration. We hypothesize that altered histone acetylation patterns may be involved in blast induced inflammation and the chronic activation of glial cells. This study aimed to elucidate changes to histone acetylation occurring following injury and the roles these changes may have within the pathology. Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to either a 10 or 17 psi blast overpressure within an Advanced Blast Simulator (ABS). Sham animals underwent the same procedures without blast exposure. Memory impairments were measured using the Novel Object Recognition (NOR) test at 2 and 7 days post-injury. Tissues were collected at 7 days for Western blot and immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis. Sham animals showed intact memory at each time point. The novel object discrimination decreased significantly between two and 7 days for each injury group (p < 0.05). This is indicative of the onset of memory impairment. Western blot analysis showed glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a known marker of activated astrocytes, was elevated in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) following blast exposure for both injury groups. Analysis of histone protein extract showed no changes in the level of any total histone proteins within the PFC. However, acetylation levels of histone H2b, H3, and H4 were decreased in both groups (p < 0.05). Co-localization immunofluorescence was used to further investigate any potential correlation between decreased histone acetylation and astrocyte activation. These experiments showed a similar decrease in H3 acetylation in astrocytes exposed to a 17

  5. Astrocyte Reactivity Following Blast Exposure Involves Aberrant Histone Acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Zachary S.; Grinter, Michael B.; VandeVord, Pamela J.

    2016-01-01

    Blast induced neurotrauma (BINT) is a prevalent injury within military and civilian populations. The injury is characterized by persistent inflammation at the cellular level which manifests as a multitude of cognitive and functional impairments. Epigenetic regulation of transcription offers an important control mechanism for gene expression and cellular function which may underlie chronic inflammation and result in neurodegeneration. We hypothesize that altered histone acetylation patterns may be involved in blast induced inflammation and the chronic activation of glial cells. This study aimed to elucidate changes to histone acetylation occurring following injury and the roles these changes may have within the pathology. Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to either a 10 or 17 psi blast overpressure within an Advanced Blast Simulator (ABS). Sham animals underwent the same procedures without blast exposure. Memory impairments were measured using the Novel Object Recognition (NOR) test at 2 and 7 days post-injury. Tissues were collected at 7 days for Western blot and immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis. Sham animals showed intact memory at each time point. The novel object discrimination decreased significantly between two and 7 days for each injury group (p < 0.05). This is indicative of the onset of memory impairment. Western blot analysis showed glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a known marker of activated astrocytes, was elevated in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) following blast exposure for both injury groups. Analysis of histone protein extract showed no changes in the level of any total histone proteins within the PFC. However, acetylation levels of histone H2b, H3, and H4 were decreased in both groups (p < 0.05). Co-localization immunofluorescence was used to further investigate any potential correlation between decreased histone acetylation and astrocyte activation. These experiments showed a similar decrease in H3 acetylation in astrocytes exposed to a 17

  6. Dependence of the wave-front aberration on the radius of the reference sphere.

    PubMed

    Miks, Antonín

    2002-06-01

    Wave-front aberration is a basic characteristic of the imaging properties of optical systems. The value of the wave-front aberration is obtained by calculating the difference between the optical path lengths of the real wave front and the reference sphere. The general relations for calculated dependence of the wave-front aberration on the radius of the reference sphere are given.

  7. Contribution of the cornea and internal surfaces to the change of ocular aberrations with age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artal, Pablo; Berrio, Esther; Guirao, Antonio; Piers, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    We studied the age dependence of the relative contributions of the aberrations of the cornea and the internal ocular surfaces to the total aberrations of the eye. We measured the wave-front aberration of the eye with a Hartmann-Shack sensor and the aberrations of the anterior corneal surface from the elevation data provided by a corneal topography system. The aberrations of the internal surfaces were obtained by direct subtraction of the ocular and corneal wave-front data. Measurements were obtained for normal healthy subjects with ages ranging from 20 to 70 years. The magnitude of the RMS wave-front aberration (excluding defocus and astigmatism) of the eye increases more than threefold within the age range considered. However, the aberrations of the anterior corneal surface increase only slightly with age. In most of the younger subjects, total ocular aberrations are lower than corneal aberrations, while in the older subjects the reverse condition occurs. Astigmatism, coma, and spherical aberration of the cornea are larger than in the complete eye in younger subjects, whereas the contrary is true for the older subjects. The internal ocular surfaces compensate, at least in part, for the aberrations associated with the cornea in most younger subjects, but this compensation is not present in the older subjects. These results suggest that the degradation of the ocular optics with age can be explained largely by the loss of the balance between the aberrations of the corneal and the internal surfaces.

  8. Persistence of Early Emerging Aberrant Behavior in Children with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Vanessa A.; O'Reilly, Mark; Itchon, Jonathan; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the persistence of early emerging aberrant behavior in 13 preschool children with developmental disabilities. The severity of aberrant behavior was assessed every 6 months over a 3-year period. Teachers completed the assessments using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist [Aman, M. G., & Singh, N. N. (1986). "Aberrant…

  9. Direct ray aberration estimation in Hartmanngrams by use of a regularized phase-tracking system.

    PubMed

    Servin, M; Cuevas, F J; Malacara, D; Marroquin, J L

    1999-05-01

    The Hartmann test is a well-known technique for testing large telescope mirrors. The Hartmann technique samples the wave front under analysis by use of a screen of uniformly spaced array of holes located at the pupil plane. The traditional technique used to gather quantitative data requires the measurement of the centroid of these holes as imaged near the paraxial focus. The deviation from its unaberrated uniform position is proportional to the slope of the wave-front asphericity. The centroid estimation is normally done manually with the aid of a microscope or a densitometer; however, newer automatic fringe-processing techniques that use the synchronous detection technique or the Fourier phase-estimation method may also be used. Here we propose a new technique based on a regularized phase-tracking (RPT) system to detect the transverse aberration in Hartmanngrams in a direct way. That is, it takes the dotted pattern of the Hartmanngram as input, and as output the RPT system gives the unwrapped transverse ray aberration in just one step. Our RPT is compared with the synchronous and the Fourier methods, which may be regarded as its closest competitors.

  10. Correlation among auto-refractor, wavefront aberration, and subjective manual refraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qi; Ren, Qiushi

    2005-01-01

    Three optometry methods which include auto-refractor, wavefront aberrometer and subjective manual refraction were studied and compared in measuring low order aberrations of 60 people"s 117 normal eyes. Paired t-test and linear regression were used to study these three methods" relationship when measuring myopia with astigmatism. In order to make the analysis more clear, we divided the 117 normal eyes into different groups according to their subjective manual refraction and redid the statistical analysis. Correlations among three methods show significant in sphere, cylinder and axis in all groups, with sphere"s correlation coefficients largest(R>0.98, P<0.01) and cylinder"s smallest (0.90test before grouping showed the difference of three optometry methods in measuring sphere was significant (P<0.01) while axis"s difference was not significant (P>0.01). Auto-refractor had significant change from the other two methods when measuring cylinder (P<0.01). The results after grouping differed a little from the analysis among total people. Although three methods showed significant change from each other in certain parameters, the amplitude of these differences were not large, which indicated that the coherence of auto-refractor, wavefront aberrometer and subjective refraction is good. However, we suggested that wavefront aberration measurement could be a good starting point of optometry, subjective refraction is still necessary for refinement.

  11. Nuclear anomalies, chromosomal aberrations and proliferation rates in cultured lymphocytes of head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    George, Alex; Dey, Rupraj; Bhuria, Vikas; Banerjee, Shouvik; Ethirajan, Sivakumar; Siluvaimuthu, Ashok; Saraswathy, Radha

    2014-01-01

    Head and neck cancers (HNC) are extremely complex disease types and it is likely that chromosomal instability is involved in the genetic mechanisms of its genesis. However, there is little information regarding the background levels of chromosome instability in these patients. In this pilot study, we examined spontaneous chromosome instability in short-term lymphocyte cultures (72 hours) from 72 study subjects - 36 newly diagnosed HNC squamous cell carcinoma patients and 36 healthy ethnic controls. We estimated chromosome instability (CIN) using chromosomal aberration (CA) analysis and nuclear level anomalies using the Cytokinesis Block Micronucleus Cytome Assay (CBMN Cyt Assay). The proliferation rates in cultures of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) were assessed by calculating the Cytokinesis Block Proliferation Index (CBPI). Our results showed a significantly higher mean level of spontaneous chromosome type aberrations (CSAs), chromatid type aberration (CTAs) dicentric chromosomes (DIC) and chromosome aneuploidy (CANEUP) in patients (CSAs, 0.0294±0.0038; CTAs, 0.0925±0.0060; DICs, 0.0213±0.0028; and CANEUPs, 0.0308±0.0035) compared to controls (CSAs, 0.0005±0.0003; CTAs, 0.0058±0.0015; DICs, 0.0005±0.0003; and CANEUPs, 0.0052±0.0013) where p<0.001. Similarly, spontaneous nuclear anomalies showed significantly higher mean level of micronuclei (MNi), nucleoplasmic bridges (NPBs) and nuclear buds (NBUDs) among cases (MNi, 0.01867±0.00108; NPBs, 0.01561±0.00234; NBUDs, 0.00658±0.00068) compared with controls (MNi, 0.00027±0.00009; NPBs, 0.00002±0.00002; NBUDs, 0.00011±0.00007).The evaluation of CBPI supported genomic instability in the peripheral blood lymphocytes showing a significantly lower proliferation rate in HNC patients (1.525±0.005552) compared to healthy subjects (1.686±0.009520 ) (p<0.0001). In conclusion, our preliminary results showed that visible spontaneous genomic instability and low rate proliferation in the cultured peripheral

  12. Assessing the Feasibility of In-Situ Aerobic Cometabolism of Chlorinated Solvents by a Single-Well Push-Pull and Natural Gradient Drift Tests in McClellan AFB, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Istok, J. D.; Semprini, L.

    2001-12-01

    A single-well push-pull test has been developed to evaluate in-situ aerobic cometabolic treatment of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs), such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and cis-1,2-dichloroethylene (c-DCE). A series of single-well natural gradient drift and push-pull tests were conducted in two monitoring wells at the McClellan Air Force Base, CA, where aquifer is contaminated mainly with c-DCE and TCE. Transport characteristics of dissolved solutes [bromide (tracer), propane (growth substrate), ethylene, propylene (nontoxic surrogates to probe for CAH transformation activity), DO and nitrate (nutrient)] were evaluated in push-pull transport tests by injecting 200-L of groundwater containing the solutes into the aquifer (Push), providing a rest period of 18 hours (Reaction), and then extracting 400-L of the test solution/groundwater mixtures (Pull). Mass balances showed over 95% of the injected bromide was recovered, and the recoveries of the other solutes were comparable with bromide. The dispersion of all the solutes was similar indicating sorption or other partitioning processes were minimal. These results indicate that bromide could be used as a conservative tracer for biological activity tests and that little loss of the dissolved gaseous substrates occurred prior to biostimulation of the aquifer. A series of biostimulation tests were performed by injecting 500 L-groundwater containing propane (6 mg/L), DO (25 mg/L), nitrate (9 mg/L as N) and bromide (100 mg/L) into the aquifer. Temporal groundwater samples were obtained from the injection well under natural gradient drift conditions. With repeating biostimulation tests the rates of both propane and DO utilization were increased significantly. The results demonstrated that the progress of biostimulation could be assessed by injecting and monitoring under natural gradient drift conditions. Successive push-pull activity tests were performed after biostimulation was achieved using the same procedures as

  13. Glucocorticoid Administration Improves Aberrant Fear-Processing Networks in Spider Phobia.

    PubMed

    Nakataki, Masahito; Soravia, Leila M; Schwab, Simon; Horn, Helge; Dierks, Thomas; Strik, Werner; Wiest, Roland; Heinrichs, Markus; de Quervain, Dominique J-F; Federspiel, Andrea; Morishima, Yosuke

    2017-01-01

    Glucocorticoids reduce phobic fear in patients with anxiety disorders. Previous studies have shown that fear-related activation of the amygdala can be mediated through the visual cortical pathway, which includes the fusiform gyrus, or through other pathways. However, it is not clear which of the pathways that activate the amygdala is responsible for the pathophysiology of a specific phobia and how glucocorticoid treatment alleviates fear processing in these neural networks. We recorded the brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging in patients with spider phobia, who received either 20 mg of cortisol or a placebo while viewing pictures of spiders. We also tested healthy participants who did not receive any medication during the same task. We performed dynamic causal modelling (DCM), a connectivity analysis, to examine the effects of cortisol on the networks involved in processing fear and to examine if there was an association between these networks and the symptoms of the phobia. Cortisol administration suppressed the phobic stimuli-related amygdala activity to levels comparable to the healthy participants and reduced subjective phobic fear. The DCM analysis revealed that cortisol administration suppressed the aberrant inputs into the amygdala that did not originate from the visual cortical pathway, but rather from a fast subcortical pathway mediated by the pulvinar nucleus, and suppressed the interactions between the amygdala and fusiform gyrus. This network changes were distinguishable from healthy participants and considered the residual changes under cortisol administration. We also found that the strengths of the aberrant inputs into the amygdala were positively correlated with the severity of spider phobia. This study demonstrates that patients with spider phobia show an aberrant functional connectivity of the amygdala when they are exposed to phobia-related stimuli and that cortisol administration can alleviate this fear-specific neural

  14. Aberrant methylation of imprinted genes is associated with negative hormone receptor status in invasive breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Barrow, Timothy M; Barault, Ludovic; Ellsworth, Rachel E; Harris, Holly R; Binder, Alexandra M; Valente, Allyson L; Shriver, Craig D; Michels, Karin B

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation of imprinted genes enables monoallelic expression according to parental origin, and its disruption is implicated in many cancers and developmental disorders. The expression of hormone receptors is significant in breast cancer as they are indicators of cancer cell growth rate and determine response to endocrine therapies. We investigated the frequency of aberrant events and variation in DNA methylation at nine imprinted sites in invasive breast cancer and examined the association with estrogen and progesterone receptor status. Breast tissue and blood from patients with invasive breast cancer (n=38) and benign breast disease (n=30) were compared to those from healthy individuals (n=36), matched to the cancer patients by age at diagnosis, ethnicity, BMI, menopausal status, and familial history of cancer. DNA methylation and allele-specific expression were analyzed by pyrosequencing. Tumor-specific methylation changes at IGF2 DMR2 were observed in 59% of cancer patients, IGF2 DMR0 in 38%, DIRAS3 DMR in 36%, GRB10 ICR in 23%, PEG3 DMR in 21%, MEST ICR in 19%, H19 ICR in 18%, KvDMR in 8%, and SNRPN/SNURF ICR in 4%. Variation of methylation was significantly greater in breast tissue from cancer patients than healthy individuals and benign breast disease. Aberrant methylation of three or more sites was significantly associated with negative estrogen-alpha (Fisher’s Exact Test, p=0.02) and progesterone-A (p=0.02) receptor status. Aberrant events and increased variation of imprinted gene DNA methylation therefore appear to be frequent in invasive breast cancer and are associated with negative estrogen and progesterone receptor status, without loss of monoallelic expression. PMID:25560175

  15. Electromagnetic Induction Aberration: The Possible Mechanism of Tic Douloureux

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A theory based on the principles of electromagnetic induction aberration is presented as the possible mechanism of classic trigeminal neuralgia, tic douloureux. The anatomy of the dorsal root entry zone of the trigeminal nerve at the pons in the proximity of the superior cerebellar artery presents a scenario conducive to the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction. When the action potentials traversing the axons in this zone of the compromised myelin come into juxtaposition with the vascular structure, the criteria for electromagnetic induction are satisfied. The laws of physics governing the phenomenon indicate that a new current, an aberration, would be produced. This could be responsible for the clinical symptoms of tic douloureux. Other clinical situations with similar features could share this mechanism. This proposed theory, a merger of anatomy, neurophysiology, and the physics of electromagnetic induction, extends the established concept of vascular compression as the etiology of tic douloureux. PMID:26180679

  16. Electromagnetic Induction Aberration: The Possible Mechanism of Tic Douloureux.

    PubMed

    Rish, Berkley

    2015-03-01

    A theory based on the principles of electromagnetic induction aberration is presented as the possible mechanism of classic trigeminal neuralgia, tic douloureux. The anatomy of the dorsal root entry zone of the trigeminal nerve at the pons in the proximity of the superior cerebellar artery presents a scenario conducive to the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction. When the action potentials traversing the axons in this zone of the compromised myelin come into juxtaposition with the vascular structure, the criteria for electromagnetic induction are satisfied. The laws of physics governing the phenomenon indicate that a new current, an aberration, would be produced. This could be responsible for the clinical symptoms of tic douloureux. Other clinical situations with similar features could share this mechanism. This proposed theory, a merger of anatomy, neurophysiology, and the physics of electromagnetic induction, extends the established concept of vascular compression as the etiology of tic douloureux.

  17. Aberrations and adaptive optics in super-resolution microscopy.

    PubMed

    Booth, Martin; Andrade, Débora; Burke, Daniel; Patton, Brian; Zurauskas, Mantas

    2015-08-01

    As one of the most powerful tools in the biological investigation of cellular structures and dynamic processes, fluorescence microscopy has undergone extraordinary developments in the past decades. The advent of super-resolution techniques has enabled fluorescence microscopy - or rather nanoscopy - to achieve nanoscale resolution in living specimens and unravelled the interior of cells with unprecedented detail. The methods employed in this expanding field of microscopy, however, are especially prone to the detrimental effects of optical aberrations. In this review, we discuss how super-resolution microscopy techniques based upon single-molecule switching, stimulated emission depletion and structured illumination each suffer from aberrations in different ways that are dependent upon intrinsic technical aspects. We discuss the use of adaptive optics as an effective means to overcome this problem.

  18. [Aluminum induces chromosome aberrations in wheat root meristem cells].

    PubMed

    Bulanova, N V; Synzynys, B I; Koz'min, G V

    2001-12-01

    The yield and pattern of chromosome structure aberrations in wheat seedlings treated with aluminum nitrate and aluminum sulfate at various concentrations have been determined by the anaphase method. Aluminum has a genotoxic effect causing genome, chromatid, and chromosome aberrations in apical root meristem cells. The relationship between the total yield of structural mutations and the aluminum concentration follows a bell-shaped curve. The mutagenic activity of aluminum nitrate peaks at 10(-3) mg/ml, which is twice as high as the permissible concentration limit (PCL) of aluminum in potable water. The maximum of the mutagenic activity of aluminum sulfate is observed at 5 x 10(-4) mg/ml, i.e., one PCL. Tap water boiled for 2 h in an aluminum vessel has virtually no genotoxic effect on wheat cells.

  19. Aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis contributes to epilepsy and associated cognitive decline

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kyung-Ok; Lybrand, Zane R.; Ito, Naoki; Brulet, Rebecca; Tafacory, Farrah; Zhang, Ling; Good, Levi; Ure, Kerstin; Kernie, Steven G.; Birnbaum, Shari G.; Scharfman, Helen E.; Eisch, Amelia J.; Hsieh, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Acute seizures after a severe brain insult can often lead to epilepsy and cognitive impairment. Aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis follows the insult but the role of adult-generated neurons in the development of chronic seizures or associated cognitive deficits remains to be determined. Here we show that the ablation of adult neurogenesis before pilocarpine-induced acute seizures in mice leads to a reduction in chronic seizure frequency. We also show that ablation of neurogenesis normalizes epilepsy-associated cognitive deficits. Remarkably, the effect of ablating adult neurogenesis before acute seizures is long lasting as it suppresses chronic seizure frequency for nearly 1 year. These findings establish a key role of neurogenesis in chronic seizure development and associated memory impairment and suggest that targeting aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis may reduce recurrent seizures and restore cognitive function following a pro-epileptic brain insult. PMID:25808087

  20. The Sensitivity of Shaped Pupil Coronagraphs to Optical Aberrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Joseph J.; Shaklan, Stuart B.; Vanderbei, Robert J.; Kasdin, N. Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    Unlike focal-plane coronagraphs that use occulting spots and Lyot stops to eliminate diffraction, pupil-plane coronagraphs operate by shaping the pupil to redirect the diffracted stellar light into a tight core. As in focal-plane coronagraphs, the optical aberrations in the telescope must be sufficiently corrected to enable high contrast imaging. However, in shaped-pupil coronagraphs, the low-order aberrations resulting from misalignment and optical figure drift have a much smaller influence upon the contrast at at the inner working angle. These weaker sensitivities greatly relax the strict low-order wavefront stability required for high-contrast imaging the cost of some throughput. In this paper, we present the simulated performance of the concentric ring shaped pupil concepts comparing them to focal-plane coronagraphs that are optimized for the same inner working angles.

  1. Detection of epigenetic aberrations in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yujing

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third most common cause of cancer death worldwide. Hepatocarcinogenesis is a complex, multistep process. It is now recognized that HCC is a both genetic and epigenetic disease; genetic and epigenetic components cooperate at all stages of hepatocarcinogenesis. Epigenetic changes involve aberrant DNA methylation, posttranslational histone modifications and aberrant expression of microRNAs all of which can affect the expression of oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes and other tumor-related genes and alter the pathways in cancer development. Several risk factors for HCC, including hepatitis B and C virus infections and exposure to the chemical carcinogen aflatoxin B1 have been found to influence epigenetic changes. Their interactions could play an important role in the initiation and progression of HCC. Discovery and detection of biomarkers for epigenetic changes is a promising area for early diagnosis and risk prediction of HCC.

  2. Functional annotation of rare gene aberration drivers of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Yiu Huen; Dogruluk, Turgut; Tedeschi, Philip M.; Wardwell-Ozgo, Joanna; Lu, Hengyu; Espitia, Maribel; Nair, Nikitha; Minelli, Rosalba; Chong, Zechen; Chen, Fengju; Chang, Qing Edward; Dennison, Jennifer B.; Dogruluk, Armel; Li, Min; Ying, Haoqiang; Bertino, Joseph R.; Gingras, Marie-Claude; Ittmann, Michael; Kerrigan, John; Chen, Ken; Creighton, Chad J.; Eterovic, Karina; Mills, Gordon B.; Scott, Kenneth L.

    2016-01-01

    As we enter the era of precision medicine, characterization of cancer genomes will directly influence therapeutic decisions in the clinic. Here we describe a platform enabling functionalization of rare gene mutations through their high-throughput construction, molecular barcoding and delivery to cancer models for in vivo tumour driver screens. We apply these technologies to identify oncogenic drivers of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). This approach reveals oncogenic activity for rare gene aberrations in genes including NAD Kinase (NADK), which regulates NADP(H) homeostasis and cellular redox state. We further validate mutant NADK, whose expression provides gain-of-function enzymatic activity leading to a reduction in cellular reactive oxygen species and tumorigenesis, and show that depletion of wild-type NADK in PDAC cell lines attenuates cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. These data indicate that annotating rare aberrations can reveal important cancer signalling pathways representing additional therapeutic targets. PMID:26806015

  3. Holographic optical system for aberration corrections in laser Doppler velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, R. C.; Case, S. K.; Schock, H. J.

    1985-01-01

    An optical system containing multifaceted holographic optical elements (HOEs) has been developed to correct for aberrations introduced by nonflat windows in laser Doppler velocimetry. The multifacet aberration correction approach makes it possible to record on one plate many sets of adjacent HOEs that address different measurement volume locations. By using 5-mm-diameter facets, it is practical to place 10-20 sets of holograms on one 10 x 12.5-cm plate, so that the procedure of moving the entire optical system to examine different locations may not be necessary. The holograms are recorded in dichromated gelatin and therefore are nonabsorptive and suitable for use with high-power argon laser beams. Low f-number optics coupled with a 90-percent efficient distortion-correcting hologram in the collection side of the system yield high optical efficiency.

  4. Are aberrant phase transitions a driver of cellular aging?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Why do cells age? Recent advances show that the cytoplasm is organized into many membrane‐less compartments via a process known as phase separation, which ensures spatiotemporal control over diffusion‐limited biochemical reactions. Although phase separation is a powerful mechanism to organize biochemical reactions, it comes with the trade‐off that it is extremely sensitive to changes in physical‐chemical parameters, such as protein concentration, pH, or cellular energy levels. Here, we highlight recent findings showing that age‐related neurodegenerative diseases are linked to aberrant phase transitions in neurons. We discuss how these aberrant phase transitions could be tied to a failure to maintain physiological physical‐chemical conditions. We generalize this idea to suggest that the process of cellular aging involves a progressive loss of the organization of phase‐separated compartments in the cytoplasm. PMID:27554449

  5. Evaluation of an automated karyotyping system for chromosome aberration analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prichard, Howard M.

    1987-01-01

    Chromosome aberration analysis is a promising complement to conventional radiation dosimetry, particularly in the complex radiation fields encountered in the space environment. The capabilities of a recently developed automated karyotyping system were evaluated both to determine current capabilities and limitations and to suggest areas where future development should be emphasized. Cells exposed to radiometric chemicals and to photon and particulate radiation were evaluated by manual inspection and by automated karyotyping. It was demonstrated that the evaluated programs were appropriate for image digitization, storage, and transmission. However, automated and semi-automated scoring techniques must be advanced significantly if in-flight chromosome aberration analysis is to be practical. A degree of artificial intelligence may be necessary to realize this goal.

  6. Quantitative characterization of aberrations in x-ray optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiboth, Frank; Kahnt, Maik; Scholz, Maria; Seyrich, Martin; Wittwer, Felix; Garrevoet, Jan; Falkenberg, Gerald; Schropp, Andreas; Schroer, Christian G.

    2016-09-01

    Due to the weak interaction of X-rays with matter and their small wavelength on the atomic scale, stringent requirements are put on X-ray optics manufacturing and metrology. As a result, these optics often suffer from aberrations. Until now, X-ray optics were mainly characterized by their focal spot size and efficiency. How- ever, both measures provide only insufficient information about optics quality. Here, we present a quantitative analysis of residual aberrations in current beryllium compound refractive lenses using ptychography followed by a determination of the wavefront error and subsequent Zernike polynomial decomposition. Known from visible light optics, we show that these measures can provide an adequate tool to determine and compare the quality of various X-ray optics.

  7. Hotspots of aberrant enhancer activity punctuate the colorectal cancer epigenome

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Andrea J.; Saiakhova, Alina; Corradin, Olivia; Luppino, Jennifer M.; Lovrenert, Katreya; Bartels, Cynthia F.; Morrow, James J.; Mack, Stephen C.; Dhillon, Gursimran; Beard, Lydia; Myeroff, Lois; Kalady, Matthew F.; Willis, Joseph; Bradner, James E.; Keri, Ruth A.; Berger, Nathan A.; Pruett-Miller, Shondra M.; Markowitz, Sanford D.; Scacheri, Peter C.

    2017-01-01

    In addition to mutations in genes, aberrant enhancer element activity at non-coding regions of the genome is a key driver of tumorigenesis. Here, we perform epigenomic enhancer profiling of a cohort of more than forty genetically diverse human colorectal cancer (CRC) specimens. Using normal colonic crypt epithelium as a comparator, we identify enhancers with recurrently gained or lost activity across CRC specimens. Of the enhancers highly recurrently activated in CRC, most are constituents of super enhancers, are occupied by AP-1 and cohesin complex members, and originate from primed chromatin. Many activate known oncogenes, and CRC growth can be mitigated through pharmacologic inhibition or genome editing of these loci. Nearly half of all GWAS CRC risk loci co-localize to recurrently activated enhancers. These findings indicate that the CRC epigenome is defined by highly recurrent epigenetic alterations at enhancers which activate a common, aberrant transcriptional programme critical for CRC growth and survival. PMID:28169291

  8. Aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis contributes to epilepsy and associated cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kyung-Ok; Lybrand, Zane R; Ito, Naoki; Brulet, Rebecca; Tafacory, Farrah; Zhang, Ling; Good, Levi; Ure, Kerstin; Kernie, Steven G; Birnbaum, Shari G; Scharfman, Helen E; Eisch, Amelia J; Hsieh, Jenny

    2015-03-26

    Acute seizures after a severe brain insult can often lead to epilepsy and cognitive impairment. Aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis follows the insult but the role of adult-generated neurons in the development of chronic seizures or associated cognitive deficits remains to be determined. Here we show that the ablation of adult neurogenesis before pilocarpine-induced acute seizures in mice leads to a reduction in chronic seizure frequency. We also show that ablation of neurogenesis normalizes epilepsy-associated cognitive deficits. Remarkably, the effect of ablating adult neurogenesis before acute seizures is long lasting as it suppresses chronic seizure frequency for nearly 1 year. These findings establish a key role of neurogenesis in chronic seizure development and associated memory impairment and suggest that targeting aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis may reduce recurrent seizures and restore cognitive function following a pro-epileptic brain insult.

  9. Chromatic aberration control for tunable all-silicone membrane microlenses.

    PubMed

    Waibel, Philipp; Mader, Daniel; Liebetraut, Peter; Zappe, Hans; Seifert, Andreas

    2011-09-12

    Tunable multi-chamber microfluidic membrane microlenses with achromaticity over a given focal length range are demonstrated. In analogy to a fixed-focus achromatic doublet lens, the multi-lens system is based on a stack of microfluidic cavities filled with optically optimized liquids with precisely defined refractive index and Abbe number, and these are independently pneumatically actuated. The membranes separating the cavities form the refractive optical surfaces, and the curvatures as a function of pressure are calculated using a mechanical model for deformation of flexible plates. The results are combined with optical ray tracing simulations of the multi-lens system to yield chromatic aberration behavior, which is verified experimentally. A focal length tuning range of 5-40 mm and reduction in chromatic aberration of over 30% is demonstrated, limited by the availability of optical fluids.

  10. Telomere dysfunction drives aberrant hematopoietic differentiation and myelodysplastic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Colla, Simona; Ong, Derrick Sek Tong; Ogoti, Yamini; Marchesini, Matteo; Mistry, Nipun A; Clise-Dwyer, Karen; Ang, Sonny A; Storti, Paola; Viale, Andrea; Giuliani, Nicola; Ruisaard, Kathryn; Ganan Gomez, Irene; Bristow, Christopher A; Estecio, Marcos; Weksberg, David C; Ho, Yan Wing; Hu, Baoli; Genovese, Giannicola; Pettazzoni, Piergiorgio; Multani, Asha S; Jiang, Shan; Hua, Sujun; Ryan, Michael C; Carugo, Alessandro; Nezi, Luigi; Wei, Yue; Yang, Hui; D'Anca, Marianna; Zhang, Li; Gaddis, Sarah; Gong, Ting; Horner, James W; Heffernan, Timothy P; Jones, Philip; Cooper, Laurence J N; Liang, Han; Kantarjian, Hagop; Wang, Y Alan; Chin, Lynda; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; DePinho, Ronald A

    2015-05-11

    Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) risk correlates with advancing age, therapy-induced DNA damage, and/or shorter telomeres, but whether telomere erosion directly induces MDS is unknown. Here, we provide the genetic evidence that telomere dysfunction-induced DNA damage drives classical MDS phenotypes and alters common myeloid progenitor (CMP) differentiation by repressing the expression of mRNA splicing/processing genes, including SRSF2. RNA-seq analyses of telomere dysfunctional CMP identified aberrantly spliced transcripts linked to pathways relevant to MDS pathogenesis such as genome stability, DNA repair, chromatin remodeling, and histone modification, which are also enriched in mouse CMP haploinsufficient for SRSF2 and in CD34(+) CMML patient cells harboring SRSF2 mutation. Together, our studies establish an intimate link across telomere biology, aberrant RNA splicing, and myeloid progenitor differentiation.

  11. Method for identifying and quantifying nucleic acid sequence aberrations

    DOEpatents

    Lucas, J.N.; Straume, T.; Bogen, K.T.

    1998-07-21

    A method is disclosed for detecting nucleic acid sequence aberrations by detecting nucleic acid sequences having both a first and a second nucleic acid sequence type, the presence of the first and second sequence type on the same nucleic acid sequence indicating the presence of a nucleic acid sequence aberration. The method uses a first hybridization probe which includes a nucleic acid sequence that is complementary to a first sequence type and a first complexing agent capable of attaching to a second complexing agent and a second hybridization probe which includes a nucleic acid sequence that selectively hybridizes to the second nucleic acid sequence type over the first sequence type and includes a detectable marker for detecting the second hybridization probe. 11 figs.

  12. Method for identifying and quantifying nucleic acid sequence aberrations

    DOEpatents

    Lucas, Joe N.; Straume, Tore; Bogen, Kenneth T.

    1998-01-01

    A method for detecting nucleic acid sequence aberrations by detecting nucleic acid sequences having both a first and a second nucleic acid sequence type, the presence of the first and second sequence type on the same nucleic acid sequence indicating the presence of a nucleic acid sequence aberration. The method uses a first hybridization probe which includes a nucleic acid sequence that is complementary to a first sequence type and a first complexing agent capable of attaching to a second complexing agent and a second hybridization probe which includes a nucleic acid sequence that selectively hybridizes to the second nucleic acid sequence type over the first sequence type and includes a detectable marker for detecting the second hybridization probe.

  13. Manipulation of spatiotemporal photon distribution via chromatic aberration.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuelin; Chemerisov, Sergey

    2008-09-01

    We demonstrate a spatiotemporal laser-pulse-shaping scheme that exploits the chromatic aberration in a dispersive lens. This normally harmful effect transforms the phase modulation into a beam-size modulation at the focal plane. In combination with the intricate diffraction effect via beam apodization, this method provides a spatiotemporal control of photon distribution with an accuracy of diffraction limit on a time scale of femtoseconds.

  14. The Ca(2+)/Calmodulin/CaMKK2 Axis: Nature's Metabolic CaMshaft.

    PubMed

    Marcelo, Kathrina L; Means, Anthony R; York, Brian

    2016-10-01

    Calcium (Ca(2+)) is an essential ligand that binds its primary intracellular receptor calmodulin (CaM) to trigger a variety of downstream processes and pathways. Central to the actions of Ca(2+)/CaM is the activation of a highly conserved Ca(2+)/CaM kinase (CaMK) cascade that amplifies Ca(2+) signals through a series of subsequent phosphorylation events. Proper regulation of Ca(2+) flux is necessary for whole-body metabolism and disruption of Ca(2+) homeostasis has been linked to various metabolic diseases. Here we provide a synthesis of recent advances that highlight the roles of the Ca(2+)/CaMK axis in key metabolic tissues. An appreciation of this information is critical to understanding the mechanisms by which Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent signaling contributes to metabolic homeostasis and disease.

  15. Pancreatic cancer genomes reveal aberrations in axon guidance pathway genes

    PubMed Central

    Biankin, Andrew V.; Waddell, Nicola; Kassahn, Karin S.; Gingras, Marie-Claude; Muthuswamy, Lakshmi B.; Johns, Amber L.; Miller, David K.; Wilson, Peter J.; Patch, Ann-Marie; Wu, Jianmin; Chang, David K.; Cowley, Mark J.; Gardiner, Brooke B.; Song, Sarah; Harliwong, Ivon; Idrisoglu, Senel; Nourse, Craig; Nourbakhsh, Ehsan; Manning, Suzanne; Wani, Shivangi; Gongora, Milena; Pajic, Marina; Scarlett, Christopher J.; Gill, Anthony J.; Pinho, Andreia V.; Rooman, Ilse; Anderson, Matthew; Holmes, Oliver; Leonard, Conrad; Taylor, Darrin; Wood, Scott; Xu, Qinying; Nones, Katia; Fink, J. Lynn; Christ, Angelika; Bruxner, Tim; Cloonan, Nicole; Kolle, Gabriel; Newell, Felicity; Pinese, Mark; Mead, R. Scott; Humphris, Jeremy L.; Kaplan, Warren; Jones, Marc D.; Colvin, Emily K.; Nagrial, Adnan M.; Humphrey, Emily S.; Chou, Angela; Chin, Venessa T.; Chantrill, Lorraine A.; Mawson, Amanda; Samra, Jaswinder S.; Kench, James G.; Lovell, Jessica A.; Daly, Roger J.; Merrett, Neil D.; Toon, Christopher; Epari, Krishna; Nguyen, Nam Q.; Barbour, Andrew; Zeps, Nikolajs; Kakkar, Nipun; Zhao, Fengmei; Wu, Yuan Qing; Wang, Min; Muzny, Donna M.; Fisher, William E.; Brunicardi, F. Charles; Hodges, Sally E.; Reid, Jeffrey G.; Drummond, Jennifer; Chang, Kyle; Han, Yi; Lewis, Lora R.; Dinh, Huyen; Buhay, Christian J.; Beck, Timothy; Timms, Lee; Sam, Michelle; Begley, Kimberly; Brown, Andrew; Pai, Deepa; Panchal, Ami; Buchner, Nicholas; De Borja, Richard; Denroche, Robert E.; Yung, Christina K.; Serra, Stefano; Onetto, Nicole; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Shaw, Patricia A.; Petersen, Gloria M.; Gallinger, Steven; Hruban, Ralph H.; Maitra, Anirban; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A.; Schulick, Richard D.; Wolfgang, Christopher L.; Morgan, Richard A.; Lawlor, Rita T.; Capelli, Paola; Corbo, Vincenzo; Scardoni, Maria; Tortora, Giampaolo; Tempero, Margaret A.; Mann, Karen M.; Jenkins, Nancy A.; Perez-Mancera, Pedro A.; Adams, David J.; Largaespada, David A.; Wessels, Lodewyk F. A.; Rust, Alistair G.; Stein, Lincoln D.; Tuveson, David A.; Copeland, Neal G.; Musgrove, Elizabeth A.; Scarpa, Aldo; Eshleman, James R.; Hudson, Thomas J.; Sutherland, Robert L.; Wheeler, David A.; Pearson, John V.; McPherson, John D.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Grimmond, Sean M.

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a highly lethal malignancy with few effective therapies. We performed exome sequencing and copy number analysis to define genomic aberrations in a prospectively accrued clinical cohort (n = 142) of early (stage I and II) sporadic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Detailed analysis of 99 informative tumours identified substantial heterogeneity with 2,016 non-silent mutations and 1,628 copy-number variations. We define 16 significantly mutated genes, reaffirming known mutations (KRAS, TP53, CDKN2A, SMAD4, MLL3, TGFBR2, ARID1A and SF3B1), and uncover novel mutated genes including additional genes involved in chromatin modification (EPC1 and ARID2), DNA damage repair (ATM) and other mechanisms (ZIM2, MAP2K4, NALCN, SLC16A4 and MAGEA6). Integrative analysis with in vitro functional data and animal models provided supportive evidence for potential roles for these genetic aberrations in carcinogenesis. Pathway-based analysis of recurrently mutated genes recapitulated clustering in core signalling pathways in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, and identified new mutated genes in each pathway. We also identified frequent and diverse somatic aberrations in genes described traditionally as embryonic regulators of axon guidance, particularly SLIT/ROBO signalling, which was also evident in murine Sleeping Beauty transposon-mediated somatic mutagenesis models of pancreatic cancer, providing further supportive evidence for the potential involvement of axon guidance genes in pancreatic carcinogenesis. PMID:23103869

  16. Chromosomal aberrations of cancer-testis antigens in myeloma patients.

    PubMed

    Curioni-Fontecedro, Alessandra; Martin, Vittoria; Vogetseder, Alexander; Knuth, Alexander; Moch, Holger; Soldini, Davide; Tinguely, Marianne

    2015-09-01

    Cancer-testis antigens (CTAgs) play a major role in the immune response against cancer, but their biological functions in germ and cancer cells is still unclear. MAGE-C1 and MAGE-C2 are two CTAgs located at the Xq27 region of chromosome X and frequently expressed in multiple myeloma. Chromosomal rearrangements often occur in myeloma. We therefore investigated whether numerical and structural chromosomal aberrations correlate with their protein expression in primary multiple myelomas. To this aim, we designed new fluorescence in situ hybridization probes specific for the MAGE region in the Xq27 region and evaluated simultaneously aberrations of the X chromosome centromere. The comparison of MAGE copy number and chromosome X status revealed that MAGE copy number changes occurred in 6/43 (14%) cases, independent of concomitant X chromosome alterations. These numerical aberrations are less frequent than the expression of MAGE-C1 and MAGE-C2 (63% and 27% of patients, respectively) and do not always correlate with MAGE-C1 and MAGE-C2 expressions, suggesting alternative regulatory mechanisms in the expression of these genes.

  17. Pancreatic cancer genomes reveal aberrations in axon guidance pathway genes.

    PubMed

    Biankin, Andrew V; Waddell, Nicola; Kassahn, Karin S; Gingras, Marie-Claude; Muthuswamy, Lakshmi B; Johns, Amber L; Miller, David K; Wilson, Peter J; Patch, Ann-Marie; Wu, Jianmin; Chang, David K; Cowley, Mark J; Gardiner, Brooke B; Song, Sarah; Harliwong, Ivon; Idrisoglu, Senel; Nourse, Craig; Nourbakhsh, Ehsan; Manning, Suzanne; Wani, Shivangi; Gongora, Milena; Pajic, Marina; Scarlett, Christopher J; Gill, Anthony J; Pinho, Andreia V; Rooman, Ilse; Anderson, Matthew; Holmes, Oliver; Leonard, Conrad; Taylor, Darrin; Wood, Scott; Xu, Qinying; Nones, Katia; Fink, J Lynn; Christ, Angelika; Bruxner, Tim; Cloonan, Nicole; Kolle, Gabriel; Newell, Felicity; Pinese, Mark; Mead, R Scott; Humphris, Jeremy L; Kaplan, Warren; Jones, Marc D; Colvin, Emily K; Nagrial, Adnan M; Humphrey, Emily S; Chou, Angela; Chin, Venessa T; Chantrill, Lorraine A; Mawson, Amanda; Samra, Jaswinder S; Kench, James G; Lovell, Jessica A; Daly, Roger J; Merrett, Neil D; Toon, Christopher; Epari, Krishna; Nguyen, Nam Q; Barbour, Andrew; Zeps, Nikolajs; Kakkar, Nipun; Zhao, Fengmei; Wu, Yuan Qing; Wang, Min; Muzny, Donna M; Fisher, William E; Brunicardi, F Charles; Hodges, Sally E; Reid, Jeffrey G; Drummond, Jennifer; Chang, Kyle; Han, Yi; Lewis, Lora R; Dinh, Huyen; Buhay, Christian J; Beck, Timothy; Timms, Lee; Sam, Michelle; Begley, Kimberly; Brown, Andrew; Pai, Deepa; Panchal, Ami; Buchner, Nicholas; De Borja, Richard; Denroche, Robert E; Yung, Christina K; Serra, Stefano; Onetto, Nicole; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Shaw, Patricia A; Petersen, Gloria M; Gallinger, Steven; Hruban, Ralph H; Maitra, Anirban; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A; Schulick, Richard D; Wolfgang, Christopher L; Morgan, Richard A; Lawlor, Rita T; Capelli, Paola; Corbo, Vincenzo; Scardoni, Maria; Tortora, Giampaolo; Tempero, Margaret A; Mann, Karen M; Jenkins, Nancy A; Perez-Mancera, Pedro A; Adams, David J; Largaespada, David A; Wessels, Lodewyk F A; Rust, Alistair G; Stein, Lincoln D; Tuveson, David A; Copeland, Neal G; Musgrove, Elizabeth A; Scarpa, Aldo; Eshleman, James R; Hudson, Thomas J; Sutherland, Robert L; Wheeler, David A; Pearson, John V; McPherson, John D; Gibbs, Richard A; Grimmond, Sean M

    2012-11-15

    Pancreatic cancer is a highly lethal malignancy with few effective therapies. We performed exome sequencing and copy number analysis to define genomic aberrations in a prospectively accrued clinical cohort (n = 142) of early (stage I and II) sporadic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Detailed analysis of 99 informative tumours identified substantial heterogeneity with 2,016 non-silent mutations and 1,628 copy-number variations. We define 16 significantly mutated genes, reaffirming known mutations (KRAS, TP53, CDKN2A, SMAD4, MLL3, TGFBR2, ARID1A and SF3B1), and uncover novel mutated genes including additional genes involved in chromatin modification (EPC1 and ARID2), DNA damage repair (ATM) and other mechanisms (ZIM2, MAP2K4, NALCN, SLC16A4 and MAGEA6). Integrative analysis with in vitro functional data and animal models provided supportive evidence for potential roles for these genetic aberrations in carcinogenesis. Pathway-based analysis of recurrently mutated genes recapitulated clustering in core signalling pathways in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, and identified new mutated genes in each pathway. We also identified frequent and diverse somatic aberrations in genes described traditionally as embryonic regulators of axon guidance, particularly SLIT/ROBO signalling, which was also evident in murine Sleeping Beauty transposon-mediated somatic mutagenesis models of pancreatic cancer, providing further supportive evidence for the potential involvement of axon guidance genes in pancreatic carcinogenesis.

  18. Alignment induced aberration fields of next generation telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, Tobias; Thompson, Kevin; Rolland, Jannick

    2008-08-01

    There is a long list of new ground-based optical telescopes being considered around the world. While many are conventional Cassegrain and Ritchey-Chretien designs, some are from a family of three mirror anastigmatic (TMA) telescopes that are configured with an offset field (but still obscured) that trace back to designs developed in the 1970s for military applications. The nodal theory of aberrations, developed in the late 1970s, provides valuable insights into the response of TMA telescopes to alignment errors. Here it is shown for the first time that the alignment limiting aberration in any TMA telescope is a 3rd order astigmatism term with a new field dependence, termed field-asymmetric, field-linear 3rd order astigmatism. It is also shown that a TMA telescope under assembly that is only measured to have excellent/perfect performance onaxis is not aligned in any significant way. This is because the new astigmatic term is always zero on-axis, even though it is large over the field of view. Knowledge of this intrinsic misalignment aberration field for any TMA telescope aids greatly in ensuring it can be aligned successfully. The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), is used an example of a relevant TMA system.

  19. Genomic aberrations of BRCA1-mutated fallopian tube carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Sally M; Ryland, Georgina L; Moss, Phillip; Gorringe, Kylie L; Campbell, Ian G

    2014-06-01

    Intraepithelial carcinomas of the fallopian tube are putative precursors to high-grade serous carcinomas of the ovary and peritoneum. Molecular characterization of these early precursors is limited but could be the key to identifying tumor biomarkers for early detection. This study presents a genome-wide copy number analysis of occult fallopian tube carcinomas identified through risk-reducing prophylactic oophorectomy from three women with germline BRCA1 mutations, demonstrating that extensive genomic aberrations are already established at this early stage. We found no indication of a difference in the level of genomic aberration observed in fallopian tube carcinomas compared with high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas. These findings suggest that spread to the peritoneal cavity may require no or very little further tumor evolution, which raises the question of what is the real window of opportunity to detect high-grade serous peritoneal carcinoma arising from the fallopian tube before it spreads. Nonetheless, the similarity of the genomic aberrations to those observed in high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas suggests that genetic biomarkers identified in late-stage disease may be relevant for early detection.

  20. Phase aberration correction by correlation in digital holographic adaptive optics

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Changgeng; Yu, Xiao; Kim, Myung K.

    2013-01-01

    We present a phase aberration correction method based on the correlation between the complex full-field and guide-star holograms in the context of digital holographic adaptive optics (DHAO). Removal of a global quadratic phase term before the correlation operation plays an important role in the correction. Correlation operation can remove the phase aberration at the entrance pupil plane and automatically refocus the corrected optical field. Except for the assumption that most aberrations lie at or close to the entrance pupil, the presented method does not impose any other constraints on the optical systems. Thus, it greatly enhances the flexibility of the optical design for DHAO systems in vision science and microscopy. Theoretical studies show that the previously proposed Fourier transform DHAO (FTDHAO) is just a special case of this general correction method, where the global quadratic phase term and a defocus term disappear. Hence, this correction method realizes the generalization of FTDHAO into arbitrary DHAO systems. The effectiveness and robustness of this method are demonstrated by simulations and experiments. PMID:23669707

  1. Chromosome aberrations in ataxia telangiectasia cells exposed to heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, T.; Cucinotta, F.; George, K.; Wu, H.; Shigematsu, N.; Furusawa, Y.; Uno, T.; Isobe, K.; Ito, H.

    Understanding of biological effects of heavy ions is important to assess healt h risk in space. One of the most important issues may be to take into account individual susceptibility. Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) cells are known to exhibit abnormal responses to radiations but the mechanism of hyper radiosensitivity of A-T still remains unknown. We report chromosome aberrations in normal human fibroblasts and AT fibroblasts exposed to low- and high-LET radiations. A chemical-induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) technique combined with chromosome- painting technique was applied to score chromosome aberrations in G2/M-phase cells. Following gamma irradiation, GM02052 cells were approximately 5 times more sensitive to g-rays than AG1522 cells. GM02052 cells had a much higher frequency of deletions and misrejoining than AG1522 cells. When the frequency of complex type aberrations was compared, GM02052 cells showed more than 10 times higher frequency than AG1522 cells. The results will be compared with those obtained from high-LET irradiations.

  2. Aberration correction for time-domain ultrasound diffraction tomography.

    PubMed

    Mast, T Douglas

    2002-07-01

    Extensions of a time-domain diffraction tomography method, which reconstructs spatially dependent sound speed variations from far-field time-domain acoustic scattering measurements, are presented and analyzed. The resulting reconstructions are quantitative images with applications including ultrasonic mammography, and can also be considered candidate solutions to the time-domain inverse scattering problem. Here, the linearized time-domain inverse scattering problem is shown to have no general solution for finite signal bandwidth. However, an approximate solution to the linearized problem is constructed using a simple delay-and-sum method analogous to "gold standard" ultrasonic beamforming. The form of this solution suggests that the full nonlinear inverse scattering problem can be approximated by applying appropriate angle- and space-dependent time shifts to the time-domain scattering data; this analogy leads to a general approach to aberration correction. Two related methods for aberration correction are presented: one in which delays are computed from estimates of the medium using an efficient straight-ray approximation, and one in which delays are applied directly to a time-dependent linearized reconstruction. Numerical results indicate that these correction methods achieve substantial quality improvements for imaging of large scatterers. The parametric range of applicability for the time-domain diffraction tomography method is increased by about a factor of 2 by aberration correction.

  3. The Arrhythmogenic Calmodulin p.Phe142Leu Mutation Impairs C-domain Ca2+ Binding but Not Calmodulin-dependent Inhibition of the Cardiac Ryanodine Receptor*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yingjie; Larsen, Kamilla Taunsig; Nani, Alma; Tian, Xixi; Holt, Christian; Wang, Ruiwu; Fill, Michael

    2017-01-01

    A number of point mutations in the intracellular Ca2+-sensing protein calmodulin (CaM) are arrhythmogenic, yet their underlying mechanisms are not clear. These mutations generally decrease Ca2+ binding to CaM and impair inhibition of CaM-regulated Ca2+ channels like the cardiac Ca2+ release channel (ryanodine receptor, RyR2), and it appears that attenuated CaM Ca2+ binding correlates with impaired CaM-dependent RyR2 inhibition. Here, we investigated the RyR2 inhibitory action of the CaM p.Phe142Leu mutation (F142L; numbered including the start-Met), which markedly reduces CaM Ca2+ binding. Surprisingly, CaM-F142L had little to no aberrant effect on RyR2-mediated store overload-induced Ca2+ release in HEK293 cells compared with CaM-WT. Furthermore, CaM-F142L enhanced CaM-dependent RyR2 inhibition at the single channel level compared with CaM-WT. This is in stark contrast to the actions of arrhythmogenic CaM mutations N54I, D96V, N98S, and D130G, which all diminish CaM-dependent RyR2 inhibition. Thermodynamic analysis showed that apoCaM-F142L converts an endothermal interaction between CaM and the CaM-binding domain (CaMBD) of RyR2 into an exothermal one. Moreover, NMR spectra revealed that the CaM-F142L-CaMBD interaction is structurally different from that of CaM-WT at low Ca2+. These data indicate a distinct interaction between CaM-F142L and the RyR2 CaMBD, which may explain the stronger CaM-dependent RyR2 inhibition by CaM-F142L, despite its reduced Ca2+ binding. Collectively, these results add to our understanding of CaM-dependent regulation of RyR2 as well as the mechanistic effects of arrhythmogenic CaM mutations. The unique properties of the CaM-F142L mutation may provide novel clues on how to suppress excessive RyR2 Ca2+ release by manipulating the CaM-RyR2 interaction. PMID:27927985

  4. Desulfurizing Ability of the CaOsatd.-CaCl2-CaF2 Slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiazhan; Kobayashi, Yoshinao

    2017-04-01

    Desulfurizing ability of the CaO-CaCl2-CaF2 slags saturated with CaO has been investigated from the viewpoint of the sulfide capacity and CaO solubility. The CaO-CaCl2-CaF2 slags containing small amounts of Cu2O and CaS were inserted in a CaO crucible with metallic copper. The CaO crucible was sealed in a nickel holder to prevent the evaporation of CaCl2, then heated up and kept at temperatures from 1573 K (1300 °C) to 1673 K (1400 °C) for 24 hours, which enabled the system inside the CaO crucible to reach the equilibrium. As expected, the sulfide capacity derived from the data obtained as well as CaO solubility of the slag increase with an increase in temperature at a constant ratio of CaCl2/CaF2. The solubility of CaO increases by the replacement of CaF2 with CaCl2, whereas the sulfide capacity slightly decreases and the activity coefficient of CaS ( γ CaS) increases. This suggests that CaF2 has stronger interaction with CaS than CaCl2. The sulfur distribution ratio between carbon-saturated iron melts and the CaO-CaCl2 slag has been calculated to be about 10 000 at 1573 K (1300 °C) using the sulfide capacity obtained, which value is still large enough even with the replacement of CaF2 by CaCl2.

  5. Desulfurizing Ability of the CaOsatd.-CaCl2-CaF2 Slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiazhan; Kobayashi, Yoshinao

    2016-12-01

    Desulfurizing ability of the CaO-CaCl2-CaF2 slags saturated with CaO has been investigated from the viewpoint of the sulfide capacity and CaO solubility. The CaO-CaCl2-CaF2 slags containing small amounts of Cu2O and CaS were inserted in a CaO crucible with metallic copper. The CaO crucible was sealed in a nickel holder to prevent the evaporation of CaCl2, then heated up and kept at temperatures from 1573 K (1300 °C) to 1673 K (1400 °C) for 24 hours, which enabled the system inside the CaO crucible to reach the equilibrium. As expected, the sulfide capacity derived from the data obtained as well as CaO solubility of the slag increase with an increase in temperature at a constant ratio of CaCl2/CaF2. The solubility of CaO increases by the replacement of CaF2 with CaCl2, whereas the sulfide capacity slightly decreases and the activity coefficient of CaS (γ CaS) increases. This suggests that CaF2 has stronger interaction with CaS than CaCl2. The sulfur distribution ratio between carbon-saturated iron melts and the CaO-CaCl2 slag has been calculated to be about 10 000 at 1573 K (1300 °C) using the sulfide capacity obtained, which value is still large enough even with the replacement of CaF2 by CaCl2.

  6. Aberrant luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone-stimulated adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion in a patient with pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Ban, Y; Ban, Y; Taniyama, M; Hara, H; Abe, T; Katagiri, T

    2000-08-01

    We report a patient with primary hypothyroidism associated with an aberrant ACTH response to the LH-RH test. A 40-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital displaying headache, nausea, and numbness on the left side of her face, upper limbs, and tips of her toes. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass-like lesion in the pituitary. A high serum TSH concentration with concomitant low thyroid hormone concentrations resulted in a diagnosis of primary hypothyroidism. To exclude the possibility of a coexisting pituitary tumor including a TSH-secreting tumor, we performed dynamic TSH secretion tests. TRH testing showed an excessive, delayed TSH response, typical of primary hypothyroidism. Serum TSH decreased not only after administration of CRH, octreotide, or L-DOPA, but also after administration of LH-RH. In this case, LH-RH testing induced ACTH secretion. To determine if aberrant ACTH secretion in response to LH-RH loading is a common phenomenon in severe primary hypothyroidism, we performed the LH-RH test on 4 additional patients with pituitary enlargement due to primary hypothyroidism. Two patients demonstrated aberrant ACTH secretion in response to LH-RH loading, but the others did not. To our knowledge, this is the first report of aberrant LH-RH-stimulated ACTH secretion in primary hypothyroidism.

  7. Aberration and the Fundamental Speed of Gravity in the Jovian Deflection Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopeikin, S. M.; Fomalont, E. B.

    2006-08-01

    reason, the "speed of light" interpretations are not entirely consistent with a retarded Liénard-Wiechert solution of the Einstein equations, and do not properly incorporate how the phase of the radio waves from the quasar is perturbed by the retarded gravitational field of Jupiter. Although all of the formulations predict the same deflection to the order of v/c, our formulation shows that the underlying cause of this deflection term is associated with the aberration of gravity and not of light, and that the interpretations predict different deflections at higher orders of v/c beyond the Shapiro delay, thus, making their measurement highly desirable for deeper testing of general relativity in future astrometric experiments like Gaia, SIM, and SKA.

  8. Aberrant muscle syndrome: hypertrophy of the hand and arm due to aberrant muscles with or without hypertrophy of the muscles.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Toshihiko; Satake, Hiroshi; Takahara, Masatoshi; Kikuchi, Noriaki; Watanabe, Tadayosi; Iba, Kousuke; Ishii, Seiichi

    2010-06-01

    Five patients were reported in our congenital anomaly registry who had six hands in total with muscular hyperplasia, aberrant muscles, ulnar drift of the fingers in the metacarpophalangeal (MP) joints, flexion contractures of the MP joints, and enlargement of the metacarpal spaces. Thirty patients with unilateral involvement of this condition have been reported previously. We reviewed these cases and found that the condition varied in severity and that it was reported using different names. However, this condition seems different from true macrodactyly and multiple camptodactyly, including windblown hand, and seems to be an isolated entity of congenital upper limb anomaly. The authors recommend 'aberrant muscle syndrome' or 'accessory muscle syndrome' as a diagnostic name, because this seems to be the most common pathological finding in this condition.

  9. Statistical interpretation of the overdispersed distribution of radiation-induced dicentric chromosome aberrations at high LET

    SciTech Connect

    Virsik, R.P.; Harder, D.

    1981-01-01

    The hypothesis that overdispersion of the chromosome aberration number per cell results from multiple aberrations per particle traversal is investigated in mathematical terms. At a given absorbed dose, Poisson distributions are assumed both for the number of ionizing particles traversing a cell nucleus and for the number of aberrations induced by a single particle traversal. The resulting distribution of the number of aberrations per cell is the Neyman type A distribution, a special case of the generalized Poisson distribution. This function is generally overdispersed, its relative variance 1 + lambda being determined by the expectation value lambda of aberrations per particle traversal. Data from experiments with neutrons and ..cap alpha.. particles are found to agree with this theory. The developed formalism provides a method to determine the efficiency of aberration induction per particle traversal, lambda, from the frequency distribution of aberrations.

  10. Involvement of PKA, CaMKII, PKC, MAPK/ERK and PI3K in the acute antidepressant-like effect of ferulic acid in the tail suspension test.

    PubMed

    Zeni, Ana Lúcia Bertarello; Zomkowski, Andréa Dias Elpo; Maraschin, Marcelo; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia Severo; Tasca, Carla Inês

    2012-12-01

    Ferulic acid (FA, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid) is a phytochemical compound naturally present in several plants and foods that is approved as an antioxidant additive and food preservative. It exerts a beneficial action in chronic mild stress-induced depressive-like behavior and produces an acute antidepressant-like effect in the tail suspension test (TST) through the activation of the serotonergic system. This study was aimed at investigating the possible involvement of signaling pathways in the antidepressant-like effect of acute and oral administration of FA, in the TST in mice. The anti-immobility effect of orally administered FA (0.01mg/kg, p.o.) was prevented by pretreatment of mice with H-89 (1μg/site, i.c.v., an inhibitor of PKA), KN-62 (1μg/site, i.c.v., an inhibitor of CaMKII), GF109203X (5ng/site, i.c.v., an inhibitor of PKC), U0126 (5μg/site, i.c.v., an inhibitor of MAPK/ERK) or LY294002 (10nmol/site, i.c.v., an inhibitor of PI3K), all involved with neurotrophic signaling pathways. The results demonstrated that FA exerts antidepressant-like effect in the TST in mice, through the activation of signaling pathways related to neuroplasticity, neurogenesis and cell survival.

  11. Ag-Al-Ca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carow-Watamura, U.; Louzguine, D. V.; Takeuchi, A.

    This document is part of Part 1 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/97.etType="URL"/> 'Systems from Ag-Al-Ca to Au-Pd-Si' of Subvolume B 'Physical Properties of Ternary Amorphous Alloys' of Volume 37 'Phase Diagrams and Physical Properties of Nonequilibrium Alloys' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains the Chapter 'Ag-Al-Ca' with the content:

  12. Electroacupuncture Treatment Alleviates Central Poststroke Pain by Inhibiting Brain Neuronal Apoptosis and Aberrant Astrocyte Activation

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Gui-Hua; Tao, Shan-Shan; Chen, Man-Tang; Li, Yu-Sang; Shang, Hong-Cai; Tang, Xiao-Yi; Chen, Jian-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Electroacupuncture (EA) is reported to effectively relieve the central poststroke pain (CPSP). However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The present study investigated the detailed mechanisms of action of EA treatment at different frequencies for CPSP. A CPSP model was established with a single collagenase injection to the left ventral posterolateral nucleus of the thalamus. The EA-treated groups then received EA treatment at frequency of 2, 2/15, or 15 Hz for 30 min daily for five days. The pain-related behavioral responses, neuronal apoptosis, glial activation, and the expression of pain signal transmission-related factors (β-catenin, COX-2, and NK-1R) were assessed using behavioral tests, Nissl staining, TUNEL staining, and immunohistochemical staining, respectively. The low-frequency EA treatment significantly (1) reduced brain tissue damage and hematoma sizes and (2) inhibited neuronal apoptosis, thereby exerting abirritative effects. Meanwhile, the high-frequency EA treatment induced a greater inhibition of the aberrant astrocyte activation, accompanied by the downregulation of the expressions of COX-2, β-catenin, and subsequently NK-1R, thereby alleviating inflammation and producing strong analgesic effects. Together, these findings suggest that CPSP is closely related to pathological changes of the neocortex and hippocampus. EA treatments at different frequencies may exert abirritative effects by inhibiting brain neuronal apoptosis and aberrant astrocyte activation in the brain. PMID:27774321

  13. p53 loss promotes acute myeloid leukemia by enabling aberrant self-renewal

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhen; Zuber, Johannes; Diaz-Flores, Ernesto; Lintault, Laura; Kogan, Scott C.; Shannon, Kevin; Lowe, Scott W.

    2010-01-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor limits proliferation in response to cellular stress through several mechanisms. Here, we test whether the recently described ability of p53 to limit stem cell self-renewal suppresses tumorigenesis in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), an aggressive cancer in which p53 mutations are associated with drug resistance and adverse outcome. Our approach combined mosaic mouse models, Cre-lox technology, and in vivo RNAi to disable p53 and simultaneously activate endogenous KrasG12D—a common AML lesion that promotes proliferation but not self-renewal. We show that p53 inactivation strongly cooperates with oncogenic KrasG12D to induce aggressive AML, while both lesions on their own induce T-cell malignancies with long latency. This synergy is based on a pivotal role of p53 in limiting aberrant self-renewal of myeloid progenitor cells, such that loss of p53 counters the deleterious effects of oncogenic Kras on these cells and enables them to self-renew indefinitely. Consequently, myeloid progenitor cells expressing oncogenic Kras and lacking p53 become leukemia-initiating cells, resembling cancer stem cells capable of maintaining AML in vivo. Our results establish an efficient new strategy for interrogating oncogene cooperation, and provide strong evidence that the ability of p53 to limit aberrant self-renewal contributes to its tumor suppressor activity. PMID:20595231

  14. Effect of aspirin on chromosome aberration and DNA damage induced by X-rays in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niikawa, M.; Chuuriki, K.; Shibuya, K.; Seo, M.; Nagase, H.

    In order to reveal the anticlastogenic potency of aspirin, we evaluated the suppressive ability of aspirin on chromosome aberrations induced by X-ray. Aspirin at doses of 0.5, 5 and 50 mg/kg was administrated intraperitoneally or orally at 0.5 h after or before the X-ray irradiation. The anticlastogenic activity of aspirin on chromosome aberrations induced by X-ray was determined in the mouse micronucleus test and alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (SCG) assay in vivo. The frequency by polychromatic erythrocytes with micronuclei (MNPCEs) was decreased by about 19-61% at 0.5 h after and about 23-62% at 0.5 h before the X-ray irradiation. DNA damage by X-ray was significantly decreased by oral administration of aspirin at 0.5 h after or before the X-ray irradiation for the SCG assay. We consider aspirin can be used as preventive agents against exposure of X-ray.

  15. Anticlastogenic effects of galangin against bleomycin-induced chromosomal aberrations in mouse spleen lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Heo, M Y; Lee, S J; Kwon, C H; Kim, S W; Sohn, D H; Au, W W

    1994-12-01

    Galangin, a flavonoid derivative, was tested for its anticlastogenic effect against the induction of chromosome aberrations by bleomycin. For an in vitro assay, galangin (0, 2 x 10(-8), 2 x 10(-7), and 2 x 10(-6) M) was added to mouse spleen lymphocyte cultures together with bleomycin (3 microgram/ml) at 24 h after Con A initiation of cultures. In an in vivo/in vitro experiment, galangin (0, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 mg/kg) was administered to mice orally twice with a 24-h interval. Mice were killed 8 h later. Spleen lymphocytes were isolated and cultures were made. Bleomycin (3 microgram/ml) was added to the mouse spleen lymphocyte cultures at 24 h after Con A initiation. Both in vitro and in vivo/in vitro cultures were harvested at 42 h after initiation. The harvested cells were used for cytogenetic analyses. The results showed that in vitro or in vivo treatment of lymphocytes with galangin suppressed the induction of chromosome aberrations by bleomycin in a galangin dose-dependent manner. The galangin doses used were non-clastogenic to cells. The data from our in vitro and in vivo/in vitro studies confirmed each other and indicate that galangin is an anticlastogenic agent. The in vivo/in vitro protocol may be a useful means to assay the chemoprotective effects of chemicals in humans.

  16. The effects of aberrations (low order and quilting) on the performance of the all-composite design for the Herschel Space Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catanzaro, B.; Thomas, James A.; Backovsky, S.; Barber, D.; Small, D.; Johnston, R.; Cohen, E. J.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of specific aberrations on the optical performance of the all-composite design for the Herschel Space Observatory are examined. A review of the all-composite design for the large aperture (3.5 m) telescope that satisfies the target specifications is presented. Cryogenic experiments with carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) 2 m demonstration mirror have yielded empirical bounds on the high-and low-order spatial frequency aberrations that will be anticipated in the full 3.5 m Ritchey-Chretien telescope design. Detailed analysis is presented on the effect of the low order aberrations of the primary mirror on the system wavefront error and encircled energy. Predictable limits of correction via low order shaping of the secondary mirror are described. The impact of higher order surface errors on the encircled energy and the stray light will also be presented. Comments are made regarding the impact of the optical prescription and CRFP design on flight telescope testing.

  17. Analysis of Chromosomal Aberrations after Low and High Dose Rate Gamma Irradiation in ATM or NBS Suppressed Human Fibroblast Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hada, M.; Huff, J. L.; Patel, Z.; Pluth, J. M.; George, K. A.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2009-01-01

    A detailed understanding of the biological effects of heavy nuclei is needed for space radiation protection and for cancer therapy. High-LET radiation produces more complex DNA lesions that may be non-repairable or that may require additional processing steps compared to endogenous DSBs, increasing the possibility of misrepair. Interplay between radiation sensitivity, dose, and radiation quality has not been studied extensively. Previously we studied chromosome aberrations induced by low- and high- LET radiation in several cell lines deficient in ATM (ataxia telangactasia mutated; product of the gene that is mutated in ataxia telangiectasia patients) or NBS (nibrin; product of the gene mutated in the Nijmegen breakage syndrome), and gliomablastoma cells that are proficient or lacking in DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) activity. We found that the yields of both simple and complex chromosomal aberrations were significantly increased in the DSB repair defective cells compared to normal cells. The increased aberrations observed for the ATM and NBS defective lines was due to a significantly larger quadratic dose-response term compared to normal fibroblasts for both simple and complex aberrations, while the linear dose-response term was significantly higher in NBS cells only for simple exchanges. These results point to the importance of the functions of ATM and NBS in chromatin modifications that function to facilitate correct DSB repair and minimize aberration formation. To further understand the sensitivity differences that were observed in ATM and NBS deficient cells, in this study, chromosomal aberration analysis was performed in normal lung fibroblast cells treated with KU-55933, a specific ATM kinase inhibitor, or Mirin, an MRN complex inhibitor involved in activation of ATM. We are also testing siRNA knockdown of these proteins. Normal and ATM or NBS suppressed cells were irradiated with gamma-rays and chromosomes were collected with a premature chromosome

  18. Aberration-Coreected Electron Microscopy at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu,Y.; Wall, J.

    2008-04-01

    The last decade witnessed the rapid development and implementation of aberration correction in electron optics, realizing a more-than-70-year-old dream of aberration-free electron microscopy with a spatial resolution below one angstrom [1-9]. With sophisticated aberration correctors, modern electron microscopes now can reveal local structural information unavailable with neutrons and x-rays, such as the local arrangement of atoms, order/disorder, electronic inhomogeneity, bonding states, spin configuration, quantum confinement, and symmetry breaking [10-17]. Aberration correction through multipole-based correctors, as well as the associated improved stability in accelerating voltage, lens supplies, and goniometers in electron microscopes now enables medium-voltage (200-300kV) microscopes to achieve image resolution at or below 0.1nm. Aberration correction not only improves the instrument's spatial resolution but, equally importantly, allows larger objective lens pole-piece gaps to be employed thus realizing the potential of the instrument as a nanoscale property-measurement tool. That is, while retaining high spatial resolution, we can use various sample stages to observe the materials response under various temperature, electric- and magnetic- fields, and atmospheric environments. Such capabilities afford tremendous opportunities to tackle challenging science and technology issues in physics, chemistry, materials science, and biology. The research goal of the electron microscopy group at the Dept. of Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science and the Center for Functional Nanomaterials, as well as the Institute for Advanced Electron Microscopy, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), is to elucidate the microscopic origin of the physical- and chemical-behavior of materials, and the role of individual, or groups of atoms, especially in their native functional environments. We plan to accomplish this by developing and implementing various quantitative electron

  19. Phase aberration simulation study of MRgFUS breast treatments

    PubMed Central

    Farrer, Alexis I.; Almquist, Scott; Dillon, Christopher R.; Neumayer, Leigh A.; Parker, Dennis L.; Christensen, Douglas A.; Payne, Allison

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This simulation study evaluates the effects of phase aberration in breast MR-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) ablation treatments performed with a phased-array transducer positioned laterally to the breast. A quantification of these effects in terms of thermal dose delivery and the potential benefits of phase correction is demonstrated in four heterogeneous breast numerical models. Methods: To evaluate the effects of varying breast tissue properties on the quality of the focus, four female volunteers with confirmed benign fibroadenomas were imaged using 3T MRI. These images were segmented into numerical models with six tissue types, with each tissue type assigned standard acoustic properties from the literature. Simulations for a single-plane 16-point raster-scan treatment trajectory centered in a fibroadenoma in each modeled breast were performed for a breast-specific MRgFUS system. At each of the 16 points, pressure patterns both with and without applying a phase correction technique were determined with the hybrid-angular spectrum method. Corrected phase patterns were obtained using a simulation-based phase aberration correction technique to adjust each element’s transmit phase to obtain maximized constructive interference at the desired focus. Thermal simulations were performed for both the corrected and uncorrected pressure patterns using a finite-difference implementation of the Pennes bioheat equation. The effect of phase correction was evaluated through comparison of thermal dose accumulation both within and outside a defined treatment volume. Treatment results using corrected and uncorrected phase aberration simulations were compared by evaluating the power required to achieve a 20 °C temperature rise at the first treatment location. The extent of the volumes that received a minimum thermal dose of 240 CEM at 43 °C inside the intended treatment volume as well as the volume in the remaining breast tissues was also evaluated in the form of

  20. Analysing force-pCa curves.

    PubMed

    Walker, John S; Li, Xiaotao; Buttrick, Peter M

    2010-07-01

    We investigated three forms of the Hill equation used to fit force-calcium data from skinned muscle experiments; Two hyperbolic forms that relate force to calcium concentration directly, and a sigmoid form that relates force to the -log(10) of the calcium concentration (pCa). The equations were fit to force-calcium data from 39 cardiac myocytes (up to five myocytes from each of nine mice) and the Hill coefficient and the calcium required for half maximal activation, expressed as a concentration (EC(50)) and as a pCa value (pCa(50)) were obtained. The pCa(50) values were normally distributed and the EC(50) values were found to approximate a log-normal distribution. Monte Carlo simulations confirmed that these distributions were intrinsic to the Hill equation. Statistical tests such as the t-test are robust to moderate levels of departure from normality as seen here, and either EC(50) or pCa(50) may be used to test for significant differences so long as it is kept in mind that ΔEC₅₀ is an additive measure of change and that ΔpCa₅₀ is a ratiometric measure of change. The Hill coefficient was found to be sufficiently log-normally distributed that log-transformed values should be used to test for statistically significant differences.

  1. Anterior corneal and internal contributions to peripheral aberrations of human eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atchison, David A.

    2004-03-01

    Anterior corneal and internal component contributions to overall peripheral aberrations of five human eyes were determined, based on corneal topography and overall aberration measurements. Anterior corneal position and orientation (tilt) were referenced to the line of sight. Ray tracing was performed through the anterior cornea for 6-mm-diameter pupils at angles out to 40° in both the temporal and the nasal visual fields. In general, both component and overall Zernike aberrations were greater for the nasal than for the temporal visual field. In general, the anterior corneal aberration components were considerably higher than the overall aberrations across the visual field and were balanced to a considerable degree by the internal ocular aberration components. The component and overall levels of Zernike third-order aberrations showed linear trends away from the fixation axis, and the component levels of Zernike fourth-order aberrations showed quadratic trends away from the fixation axis. The second-order, but not higher-order, aberration components were susceptible to the choice of image radius of curvature, while disregarding corneal position and orientation affected second- and higher-order aberration components.

  2. Routes of Ca2+ Shuttling during Ca2+ Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Pecze, László; Blum, Walter; Schwaller, Beat

    2015-01-01

    In some cell types, Ca2+ oscillations are strictly dependent on Ca2+ influx across the plasma membrane, whereas in others, oscillations also persist in the absence of Ca2+ influx. We observed that, in primary mesothelial cells, the plasmalemmal Ca2+ influx played a pivotal role. However, when the Ca2+ transport across the plasma membrane by the “lanthanum insulation method” was blocked prior to the induction of the serum-induced Ca2+ oscillations, mitochondrial Ca2+ transport was found to be able to substitute for the plasmalemmal Ca2+ exchange function, thus rendering the oscillations independent of extracellular Ca2+. However, in a physiological situation, the Ca2+-buffering capacity of mitochondria was found not to be essential for Ca2+ oscillations. Moreover, brief spontaneous Ca2+ changes were observed in the mitochondrial Ca2+ concentration without apparent changes in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, indicating the presence of a mitochondrial autonomous Ca2+ signaling mechanism. In the presence of calretinin, a Ca2+-buffering protein, the amplitude of cytosolic spikes during oscillations was decreased, and the amount of Ca2+ ions taken up by mitochondria was reduced. Thus, the increased calretinin expression observed in mesothelioma cells and in certain colon cancer might be correlated to the increased resistance of these tumor cells to proapoptotic/pronecrotic signals. We identified and characterized (experimentally and by modeling) three Ca2+ shuttling pathways in primary mesothelial cells during Ca2+ oscillations: Ca2+ shuttled between (i) the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria, (ii) the ER and the extracellular space, and (iii) the ER and cytoplasmic Ca2+ buffers. PMID:26396196

  3. Aberrant Crossed Corticospinal Facilitation in Muscles Distant from a Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Bunday, Karen L.; Oudega, Martin; Perez, Monica A.

    2013-01-01

    Crossed facilitatory interactions in the corticospinal pathway are impaired in humans with chronic incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI). The extent to which crossed facilitation is affected in muscles above and below the injury remains unknown. To address this question we tested 51 patients with neurological injuries between C2-T12 and 17 age-matched healthy controls. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation we elicited motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in the resting first dorsal interosseous, biceps brachii, and tibialis anterior muscles when the contralateral side remained at rest or performed 70% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) into index finger abduction, elbow flexion, and ankle dorsiflexion, respectively. By testing MEPs in muscles with motoneurons located at different spinal cord segments we were able to relate the neurological level of injury to be above, at, or below the location of the motoneurons of the muscle tested. We demonstrate that in patients the size of MEPs was increased to a similar extent as in controls in muscles above the injury during 70% of MVC compared to rest. MEPs remained unchanged in muscles at and within 5 segments below the injury during 70% of MVC compared to rest. However, in muscles beyond 5 segments below the injury the size of MEPs increased similar to controls and was aberrantly high, 2-fold above controls, in muscles distant (>15 segments) from the injury. These aberrantly large MEPs were accompanied by larger F-wave amplitudes compared to controls. Thus, our findings support the view that corticospinal degeneration does not spread rostral to the lesion, and highlights the potential of caudal regions distant from an injury to facilitate residual corticospinal output after SCI. PMID:24146921

  4. Intrinsic instability of aberration-corrected electron microscopes.

    PubMed

    Schramm, S M; van der Molen, S J; Tromp, R M

    2012-10-19

    Aberration-corrected microscopes with subatomic resolution will impact broad areas of science and technology. However, the experimentally observed lifetime of the corrected state is just a few minutes. Here we show that the corrected state is intrinsically unstable; the higher its quality, the more unstable it is. Analyzing the contrast transfer function near optimum correction, we define an "instability budget" which allows a rational trade-off between resolution and stability. Unless control systems are developed to overcome these challenges, intrinsic instability poses a fundamental limit to the resolution practically achievable in the electron microscope.

  5. FISH and FICTION to detect chromosomal aberrations in lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Giefing, Maciej; Siebert, Reiner

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) is a powerful and robust technique allowing the visualization of target sequences like genes in interphase nuclei. It is widely used in routine diagnostics to identify cancer specific aberrations including lymphoma associated translocations or gene copy number changes in single tumor cells. By combining FISH with immunophenotyping-a technique called Fluorescence Immunophenotyping and Interphase Cytogenetic as a Tool for Investigation Of Neoplasia (FICTION)-it is moreover possible to identify a cell population of interest. Here we describe standard protocols for FISH and FICTION as used in our laboratory in diagnosis and research.

  6. Correcting for Beam Aberrations in a Beam-Waveguide Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franco, Manuel; Slobin, Stephen; Veruttipong, Watt

    2003-01-01

    A method for correcting the aim of a beam-waveguide microwave antenna compensates for the beam aberration that occurs during radio tracking of a target that has a component of velocity transverse to the line of sight from the tracking station. The method was devised primarily for use in tracking of distant target spacecraft by large terrestrial beam-waveguide antennas of NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN). The method should also be adaptable to tracking, by other beam-waveguide antennas, of targets that move with large transverse velocities at large distances from the antennas.

  7. Active Correction of Aberrations of Low-Quality Telescope Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, Hamid; Chen, Yijian

    2007-01-01

    A system of active optics that includes a wavefront sensor and a deformable mirror has been demonstrated to be an effective means of partly correcting wavefront aberrations introduced by fixed optics (lenses and mirrors) in telescopes. It is envisioned that after further development, active optics would be used to reduce wavefront aberrations of about one wave or less in telescopes having aperture diameters of the order of meters or tens of meters. Although this remaining amount of aberration would be considered excessive in scientific applications in which diffraction-limited performance is required, it would be acceptable for free-space optical- communication applications at wavelengths of the order of 1 m. To prevent misunderstanding, it is important to state the following: The technological discipline of active optics, in which the primary or secondary mirror of a telescope is directly and dynamically tilted, distorted, and/or otherwise varied to reduce wavefront aberrations, has existed for decades. The term active optics does not necessarily mean the same thing as does adaptive optics, even though active optics and adaptive optics are related. The term "adaptive optics" is often used to refer to wavefront correction at speeds characterized by frequencies ranging up to between hundreds of hertz and several kilohertz high enough to enable mitigation of adverse effects of fluctuations in atmospheric refraction upon propagation of light beams. The term active optics usually appears in reference to wavefront correction at significantly lower speeds, characterized by times ranging from about 1 second to as long as minutes. Hence, the novelty of the present development lies, not in the basic concept of active or adaptive optics, but in the envisioned application of active optics in conjunction with a deformable mirror to achieve acceptably small wavefront errors in free-space optical communication systems that include multi-meter-diameter telescope mirrors that are

  8. Coherence and aberration effects in surface plasmon polariton imaging.

    PubMed

    Berthel, Martin; Jiang, Quanbo; Chartrand, Camille; Bellessa, Joel; Huant, Serge; Genet, Cyriaque; Drezet, Aurélien

    2015-09-01

    We study theoretically and experimentally coherent imaging of surface plasmon polaritons using either leakage radiation microscopy through a thin metal film or interference microscopy through a thick metal film. Using a rigorous modal formalism based on scalar Whittaker potentials, we develop a systematic analytical and vectorial method adapted to the analysis of coherent imaging involving surface plasmon polaritons. The study includes geometrical aberrations due index mismatch which played an important role in the interpretation of recent experiments using leakage radiation microscopy. We compare our theory with experiments using classical or quantum near-field scanning optical microscopy probes and show that the approach leads to a full interpretation of the recorded optical images.

  9. Coherence and aberration effects in surface plasmon polariton imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthel, Martin; Jiang, Quanbo; Chartrand, Camille; Bellessa, Joel; Huant, Serge; Genet, Cyriaque; Drezet, Aurélien

    2015-09-01

    We study theoretically and experimentally coherent imaging of surface plasmon polaritons using either leakage radiation microscopy through a thin metal film or interference microscopy through a thick metal film. Using a rigorous modal formalism based on scalar Whittaker potentials, we develop a systematic analytical and vectorial method adapted to the analysis of coherent imaging involving surface plasmon polaritons. The study includes geometrical aberrations due index mismatch which played an important role in the interpretation of recent experiments using leakage radiation microscopy. We compare our theory with experiments using classical or quantum near-field scanning optical microscopy probes and show that the approach leads to a full interpretation of the recorded optical images.

  10. Adaptive dispersion formula for index interpolation and chromatic aberration correction.

    PubMed

    Li, Chia-Ling; Sasián, José

    2014-01-13

    This paper defines and discusses a glass dispersion formula that is adaptive. The formula exhibits superior convergence with a minimum number of coefficients. Using this formula we rationalize the correction of chromatic aberration per spectrum order. We compare the formula with the Sellmeier and Buchdahl formulas for glasses in the Schott catalogue. The six coefficient adaptive formula is found to be the most accurate with an average maximum index of refraction error of 2.91 × 10(-6) within the visible band.

  11. Intrinsic Instability of Aberration-Corrected Electron Microscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schramm, S. M.; van der Molen, S. J.; Tromp, R. M.

    2012-10-01

    Aberration-corrected microscopes with subatomic resolution will impact broad areas of science and technology. However, the experimentally observed lifetime of the corrected state is just a few minutes. Here we show that the corrected state is intrinsically unstable; the higher its quality, the more unstable it is. Analyzing the contrast transfer function near optimum correction, we define an “instability budget” which allows a rational trade-off between resolution and stability. Unless control systems are developed to overcome these challenges, intrinsic instability poses a fundamental limit to the resolution practically achievable in the electron microscope.

  12. [The aberrant parasitism of horse botflies (Diptera: Gasterophilidae)].

    PubMed

    Rastegaev, Iu M

    1990-01-01

    Alongside with a high intensity of infection of horses with botfly larvae there was observed mass aberrant parasitism of horse botflies in farms of Astrakhan, Guryev and Uralsk Provinces, and in the Kalmyk ASSR in 1980-1981 and 1987. As a result of extremely high aggregation of horse botfly larvae in their usual localization places, Gasterophilus pecorum larvae remained, due to interspecific competition, in nonspecific places (oral cavity, pharynx), adapted to new habitats and normally developed. Their number varied from 260 to 750 specimens. Localization of G. pecorum larvae in the mentioned departments of the alimentary canal results in serious morbidity of horses.

  13. Three-dimensional polarization aberration functions in optical system based on three-dimensional polarization ray-tracing calculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Wenjun; Fu, Yuegang; Liu, Zhiying; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Jiake; Zheng, Yang; Li, Yahong

    2017-03-01

    The polarization aberrations of a complex optical system with multi-element lens have been investigated using a 3D polarization aberration function. The 3D polarization ray-tracing matrix has been combined with the optical path difference to obtain a 3D polarization aberration function, which avoids the need for a complicated phase unwrapping process. The polarization aberrations of a microscope objective have been analyzed to include, the distributions of 3D polarization aberration functions, diattenuation aberration, retardance aberration, and polarization-dependent intensity on the exit pupil. Further, the aberrations created by the field of view and the coating on the distribution rules of 3D polarization aberration functions are discussed in detail. Finally a novel appropriate field of view and wavelength correction is proposed for a polarization aberration function which optimizes the image quality of a multi-element optical system.

  14. Analysis of Terminal Deletions using a Generalized Time-Dependent Model of Radiation-Induced Formation of Chromosomal Aberrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponomarev, Artem L.; George, K.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a model that can simulate different types of radiation induced chromosomal aberrations (CA's) and can provide predictions on the frequency and size of chromosomes with terminal deletions. Chromosomes with terminal deletions lack telomeres and this can elicit sister chromatid unions and the prolonged breakage/fusion/bridge (B/F/B) cycles that have been observed in mammalian tumors. The loss of a single telomere has been shown to cause extensive genomic instability through the B/F/B cycle process. Our model uses a stochastic process of DNA broken end joining, in which a realistic spectrum of CA's is created from improperly joined DNA free ends formed by DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). The distribution of the DNA free ends is given by a mechanistic model that takes into account the chromatin structure and track structure for high-LET radiation. The model allows for DSB clustering from high-LET radiation and simulates the formation of CA's in stages that correspond to the actual time after radiation exposure. The time scale for CA formation is derived from experimental data on DSB repair kinetics. At any given time a nucleus may have intact chromosomes, CA's, and/or unrepaired fragments, some of which are defined as terminal deletions, if they are capped by one telomere. The model produces a spectrum of terminal deletions with their corresponding probabilities and size distributions for different heavy ions exposures for the first division after exposure. This data provides valuable information because there is limited experimental data available in the literature on the on the actual size of terminal deletions. We compare our model output to the available experimental data and make a reasonable extrapolation on the number of chromosomes lacking telomeres in human lymphocytes exposed to heavy ions. This model generates data which may lead to predictions on the rate of genomic instability in cells after exposure to high charge and energy nuclei

  15. Chaetophractus villosus as a sentinel organism: Baseline values of mitotic index, chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Luis Francisco; Luaces, Juan Pablo; Browne, Melanie; Chirino, Mónica Gabriela; Merani, María Susana; Mudry, Marta Dolores

    2016-01-15

    Sentinel species are useful tools for studying the deleterious effects of xenobiotics on wildlife. The large hairy armadillo (Chaetophractus villosus) is the most abundant and widely distributed mammal in Argentina. It is a long-lived, omnivorous, burrowing species, with fairly restricted home ranges. To evaluate the level of spontaneous genetic damage in this mammal, we determined the baseline values of several genotoxicity biomarkers. The study included 20 C. villosus adults of both sexes from eight pristine localities within its geographic distribution range. Genotoxicity analysis was performed on 72-h lymphocyte cultures, using mitomycin C as positive control. We obtained the baseline values of mitotic index (MI=10.52±0.30 metaphases/total cells, n=20), chromosome aberrations (CA=0.13±0.22, n=20), sister chromatid exchanges (SCE)=6.55±0.26, n=6) and replication index (RI=1.66, n=6). MI and CA did not show significant differences (P>0.05) among localities or between sexes. No significant differences in MI, CA, SCE, and RI (P>0.05) were found between values from the pristine localities and historical data. There were significant differences in CA, SCE, and RI (P<0.05) between lymphocyte cultures from pristine localities and those exposed to mitomycin C. We propose the large hairy armadillo as a sentinel organism for environmental biomonitoring of genotoxic chemicals due to its abundance, easy manipulation, well-known biology, the fact that it is usually exposed to different mixtures and concentrations of environmental contaminants, and the baseline values of genetic damage characterized by MI, CA, SCE and RI as biomarkers.

  16. Influence of retinol on carcinogen-induced sister chromatid exchangers and chromosome aberrations in V79 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, S.; Batt, T.; Huang, C.C.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of retinol (Rol) on sister chromatid exchangers (SCE) in V79 cells induced by six indirect and two direct carcinogens, and on chromosome aberration (CA) in V79 cells induced by four indirect carcinogens were studied. The indirect carcinogens used were aflatoxin B/sub 1/ (AFB), cyclophosphamide (CPP), benzo(a)anthracene (BA), benzo(a)pyrene (BP), 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benz(a)anthracene (DMBA), and 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA). The two direct carcinogens were ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG). Rol effectively inhibited SCE and CA induced by AFB and CPP in a dose-dependent manner, but it had no effect on SCE induced by BA, BP, DMBA, MCA, EMS, and MNNG. To the contrary, Rol had an enhancing effect on CA induced by BP and DMBA. The possibility that Rol exerts its anticarcinogenic effects by inhibiting certain forms of the cytochrome P-450 isoenzymes required for activation of precarcinogens, such as AFB and CPP but not those enzymes required by BA, BP, DMBA, and MCA, is discussed.

  17. Aberrant Expression and Secretion of Heat Shock Protein 90 in Patients with Bullous Pemphigoid

    PubMed Central

    Tukaj, Stefan; Kleszczyński, Konrad; Vafia, Katerina; Groth, Stephanie; Meyersburg, Damian; Trzonkowski, Piotr; Ludwig, Ralf J.; Zillikens, Detlef; Schmidt, Enno; Fischer, Tobias W.; Kasperkiewicz, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The cell stress chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) has been implicated in inflammatory responses and its inhibition has proven successful in different mouse models of autoimmune diseases, including epidermolysis bullosa acquisita. Here, we investigated expression levels and secretory responses of Hsp90 in patients with bullous pemphigoid (BP), the most common subepidermal autoimmune blistering skin disease. In comparison to healthy controls, the following observations were made: (i) Hsp90 was highly expressed in the skin of BP patients, whereas its serum levels were decreased and inversely associated with IgG autoantibody levels against the NC16A immunodominant region of the BP180 autoantigen, (ii) in contrast, neither aberrant levels of circulating Hsp90 nor any correlation of this protein with serum autoantibodies was found in a control cohort of autoimmune bullous disease patients with pemphigus vulgaris, (iii) Hsp90 was highly expressed in and restrictedly released from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of BP patients, and (iv) Hsp90 was potently induced in and restrictedly secreted from human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells by BP serum and isolated anti-BP180 NC16A IgG autoantibodies, respectively. Our results reveal an upregulated Hsp90 expression at the site of inflammation and an autoantibody-mediated dysregulation of the intracellular and extracellular distribution of this chaperone in BP patients. These findings suggest that Hsp90 may play a pathophysiological role and represent a novel potential treatment target in BP. PMID:23936217

  18. MicroRNA-145 suppresses ROS-induced Ca{sup 2+} overload of cardiomyocytes by targeting CaMKIIδ

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, Min-Ji; Jang, Jin-Kyung; Ham, Onju; Song, Byeong-Wook; Lee, Se-Yeon; Lee, Chang Yeon; Park, Jun-Hee; Lee, Jiyun; Seo, Hyang-Hee; Choi, Eunhyun; Jeon, Woo-min; Hwang, Hye Jin; Shin, Hyun-Taek; and others

    2013-06-14

    Highlights: •CaMKIIδ mediates H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced Ca{sup 2+} overload in cardiomyocytes. •miR-145 can inhibit Ca{sup 2+} overload. •A luciferase assay confirms that miR-145 functions as a CaMKIIδ-targeting miRNA. •Overexpression of miR-145 regulates CaMKIIδ-related genes and ameliorates apoptosis. -- Abstract: A change in intracellular free calcium (Ca{sup 2+}) is a common signaling mechanism of reperfusion-induced cardiomyocyte death. Calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a critical regulator of Ca{sup 2+} signaling and mediates signaling pathways responsible for functions in the heart including hypertrophy, apoptosis, arrhythmia, and heart disease. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are involved in the regulation of cell response, including survival, proliferation, apoptosis, and development. However, the roles of miRNAs in Ca{sup 2+}-mediated apoptosis of cardiomyocytes are uncertain. Here, we determined the potential role of miRNA in the regulation of CaMKII dependent apoptosis and explored its underlying mechanism. To determine the potential roles of miRNAs in H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-mediated Ca{sup 2+} overload, we selected and tested 6 putative miRNAs that targeted CaMKIIδ, and showed that miR-145 represses CaMKIIδ protein expression and Ca{sup 2+} overload. We confirmed CaMKIIδ as a direct downstream target of miR-145. Furthermore, miR-145 regulates Ca{sup 2+}-related signals and ameliorates apoptosis. This study demonstrates that miR-145 regulates reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced Ca{sup 2+} overload in cardiomyocytes. Thus, miR-145 affects ROS-mediated gene regulation and cellular injury responses.

  19. Genotoxicity Assessment of Water Samples from the Sungai Dua River in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, Using the Allium cepa Test.

    PubMed

    Akinboro, Akeem; Mohammed, Kamaruzaman; Rathnasamy, Selestin; Muniandy, Vijay Raj

    2011-12-01

    Unwanted side effects from a polluted water body may not be limited to the flora and fauna, they may also be transferred to the organisms along the food chain. Four water samples collected immediately and five days after rainfall from two locations inside the polluted Sungai Dua River (SGD) were tested for toxicity using the Allium cepa assay. The samples were analysed for metal content and were both macroscopically and microscopically evaluated. The water samples contained more sodium (Na(+)) and calcium (Ca(2+)) than the control tap water, and they showed root growth and mitotic inhibitions (MI) in A. cepa. However, the inhibitory effects were not dose-dependent. No chromosomal aberration (CA) was induced at 100.00% (undiluted water sample). These results suggest the water samples from SGD had weak mitodepressive and genotoxic effects on the A. cepa cells.

  20. Genotoxicity Assessment of Water Samples from the Sungai Dua River in Pulau Pinang, Malaysia, Using the Allium cepa Test

    PubMed Central

    Akinboro, Akeem; Mohammed, Kamaruzaman; Rathnasamy, Selestin; Muniandy, Vijay Raj

    2011-01-01

    Unwanted side effects from a polluted water body may not be limited to the flora and fauna, they may also be transferred to the organisms along the food chain. Four water samples collected immediately and five days after rainfall from two locations inside the polluted Sungai Dua River (SGD) were tested for toxicity using the Allium cepa assay. The samples were analysed for metal content and were both macroscopically and microscopically evaluated. The water samples contained more sodium (Na+) and calcium (Ca2+) than the control tap water, and they showed root growth and mitotic inhibitions (MI) in A. cepa. However, the inhibitory effects were not dose-dependent. No chromosomal aberration (CA) was induced at 100.00% (undiluted water sample). These results suggest the water samples from SGD had weak mitodepressive and genotoxic effects on the A. cepa cells. PMID:24575215

  1. Autistic-like phenotypes in Cadps2-knockout mice and aberrant CADPS2 splicing in autistic patients

    PubMed Central

    Sadakata, Tetsushi; Washida, Miwa; Iwayama, Yoshimi; Shoji, Satoshi; Sato, Yumi; Ohkura, Takeshi; Katoh-Semba, Ritsuko; Nakajima, Mizuho; Sekine, Yukiko; Tanaka, Mika; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Iwata, Yasuhide; Tsuchiya, Kenji J.; Mori, Norio; Detera-Wadleigh, Sevilla D.; Ichikawa, Hironobu; Itohara, Shigeyoshi; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Furuichi, Teiichi

    2007-01-01

    Autism, characterized by profound impairment in social interactions and communicative skills, is the most common neurodevelopmental disorder, and its underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Ca2+-dependent activator protein for secretion 2 (CADPS2; also known as CAPS2) mediates the exocytosis of dense-core vesicles, and the human CADPS2 is located within the autism susceptibility locus 1 on chromosome 7q. Here we show that Cadps2-knockout mice not only have impaired brain-derived neurotrophic factor release but also show autistic-like cellular and behavioral phenotypes. Moreover, we found an aberrant alternatively spliced CADPS2 mRNA that lacks exon 3 in some autistic patients. Exon 3 was shown to encode the dynactin 1–binding domain and affect axonal CADPS2 protein distribution. Our results suggest that a disturbance in CADPS2-mediated neurotrophin release contributes to autism susceptibility. PMID:17380209

  2. Interferometric Lens Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-09-01

    present tests was inspected with a Twyman -Green interferometer and found to give wavefront deviations (peak to valley) no greater than about Ü.10 X...The retro-reflecting plane mirror w&s tested on a Twyman -Green interferometer and found to give wavefront deviations (peak to valley) no greater...Interferogram scanning, lens aberrations, lens testing, optical transfer function, wavefront shearing interferometer . 10. ABSTRACT (Conllnum on

  3. CaMKII inhibition in type II pneumocytes protects from bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis by preventing Ca2+-dependent apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Winters, Christopher J; Koval, Olha; Murthy, Shubha; Allamargot, Chantal; Sebag, Sara C; Paschke, John D; Jaffer, Omar A; Carter, A Brent; Grumbach, Isabella M

    2016-01-01

    The calcium and calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) translates increases in intracellular Ca(2+) into downstream signaling events. Its function in pulmonary pathologies remains largely unknown. CaMKII is a well-known mediator of apoptosis and regulator of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+). ER stress and apoptosis of type II pneumocytes lead to aberrant tissue repair and progressive collagen deposition in pulmonary fibrosis. Thus we hypothesized that CaMKII inhibition alleviates fibrosis in response to bleomycin by attenuating apoptosis and ER stress of type II pneumocytes. We first established that CaMKII was strongly expressed in the distal respiratory epithelium, in particular in surfactant protein-C-positive type II pneumocytes, and activated after bleomycin instillation. We generated a novel transgenic model of inducible expression of the CaMKII inhibitor peptide AC3-I limited to type II pneumocytes (Tg SPC-AC3-I). Tg SPC-AC3-I mice were protected from development of pulmonary fibrosis after bleomycin exposure compared with wild-type mice. CaMKII inhibition also provided protection from apoptosis in type II pneumocytes in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, intracellular Ca(2+) levels and ER stress were increased by bleomycin and significantly blunted with CaMKII inhibition in vitro. These data demonstrate that CaMKII inhibition prevents type II pneumocyte apoptosis and development of pulmonary fibrosis in response to bleomycin. CaMKII inhibition may therefore be a promising approach to prevent or ameliorate the progression of pulmonary fibrosis.

  4. Assessment of contrast sensitivity and aberrations after photorefractive keratectomy in patients with myopia greater than 5 diopters.

    PubMed

    Fahim, Alireza; Rezvan, Bijan; Hashemi, Hassan

    2013-09-09

    This study aimed to assess changes in contrast sensitivity and aberrations in cases of myopia greater than 5.0 diopter (D) who had photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). In this semi-experimental study, 20 eyes of ten patients were studied. Inclusion criteria were at least 5.0 D of myopia, stable refraction in the past year, no history of refractive surgery, a minimum corneal thickness of 480 μm, and having surgery in both eyes. Exclusion criteria were the presence of any corneal condition. In addition to the routine tests, aberrometry and assessment of contrast sensitivity was done using the WaveLight Allegro Analyzer and the VectorVision CSV-1000. After PRK using the Concerto Excimer Laser (WaveLight, Alcon), patients were scheduled to have follow-up visits at 1 month, 3 months, and 1 year after surgery. Contrast sensitivity with glare showed an increasing trend only at the spatial frequency of 3 cycles per degree (cpd) (P=0.013). Contrast sensitivity without glared increased postoperatively at special frequencies of 3, 6, and 18 cpd (P<0.05). The preoperative level of higher order aberrations root mean square (HOA RMS) of 0.24±0.08 reached 0.71±0.25 at 12 months after surgery. Assessment of comma and trefoil showed no significant difference between preoperative and postoperative values, but the amount of spherical aberration changed from a mean preoperative value of 0.0±0.09 to 0.27±0.15 at 12 months after surgery. In the treatment of myopia greater than 5.0 D, PRK with the Concerto Excimer Laser can improve contrast sensitivity in certain spatial frequencies. This is while HOA RMS and spherical aberration increase.

  5. Protein expression profile of celiac disease patient with aberrant T cell by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    De Re, Valli; Simula, Maria Paola; Caggiari, Laura; Ortz, Nicoletta; Spina, Michele; Da Ponte, Alessandro; De Appolonia, Leandro; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Canzonieri, Vincenzo; Cannizzaro, Renato

    2007-08-01

    One complication of celiac disease (CD) is refractory CD. These patients frequently show aberrant intraepithelial T cell clones and an increasing risk of evolution into enteropathy-associated T cell lymphoma (EATL). There is debate in the literature whether these cases are actually a smoldering lymphoma from the outset. The mechanism inducing T cell proliferation and prognosis remains unknown. Recently, alemtuzumab has been proposed as a promising new approach to treat these patients. Only few single cases have been tested presently, nevertheless, in all of them a clinical improvement has been observed, while intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) effectively targeted by alemtuzumab are still a debated issue. Using 2D-DIGE, we found hyperexpressed proteins specifically associated with aberrant T cell in a patient with CD by comparing the protein expression with that of patients with CD and polyclonal T cell or with that of control subjects (patients with polyclonal T cell and no CD). Proteins with a higher expression in duodenal biopsy of the patient with aberrant T cell were identified as IgM, apolipoprotein C-III, and Charcot-Leyden crystal proteins. These preliminary data allow hypothesizing different clinical effects of alemtuzumab in patients with CD, since besides the probable effect of alemtuzumab on T cell, it could effect inflammatory-associated CD52(+) IgM(+)B cell and eosinophils cells, known to produce IgM and Charcot-Leyden crystal proteins, which we demonstrated to be altered in this patient. Results also emphasize the possible association of apolipoprotein with aberrant T cell proliferation.

  6. Weak correlation between the aberration dynamics of the human eye and the cardiopulmonary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampson, Karen M.; Munro, Ian; Paterson, Carl; Dainty, Christopher

    2005-07-01

    It is fairly well established that the higher-order aberrations of the eye fluctuate over relatively short time periods, but as yet there is no conclusive evidence regarding the origin of these fluctuations. We measured the aberrations and the pulse pressure wave simultaneously for five subjects. The aberrations were measured by using a Shack-Hartmann sensor sampling at 21.2 Hz. We decomposed the aberration data into Zernike coefficients up to and including fifth order and also calculated the rms wave-front error. From the pulse data the heart rate variability signal was also derived. Coherence function analysis showed that for all subjects there was a weak correlation between many of the aberrations and the pulse and the derived heart rate variability. The pulse and the heart rate variability can account for only 11%+/-2% and 20%+/-2%, respectively, of the aberration dynamics.

  7. Performance of Dispersed Fringe Sensor in the Presence of Segmented Mirror Aberrations - Modeling and Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, Fang; Basinger, Scott A.; Redding, David C.

    2006-01-01

    Wavefront aberrations will lower the DFS fringe visibility and DFS signal SNR. The specific effect of wavefront aberration on DFS depends on the aberration type. Due to the "pixel spatial filter" effect the extracted DFS signal can tolerate moderate amount of wavefront aberrations..By averaging piston detection results from multiple traces extracted from fringe images DFS can further increase its robustness against wavefront aberration. Line-of-sight jitter can cause significant loss of fringe visibility will affect more on the aberrated system..Modeling results have shown that gravity sag on the JWST segment mirror during I&T will lower the DHS fringe visibility by factor of 2-3X and lower the DHS signal intensity by factor of approx.5X. Under gravity sag the RMS DHS detection error approx. 100 nm.

  8. Analytical analysis for impact of polarization aberration of projection lens on lithographic imaging quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Lina; Li, Sikun; Wang, Xiangzhao; Yan, Guanyong

    2015-03-01

    In high-NA and hyper-NA lithography systems, the polarization aberration of projection lens leads to imaging degradations. Typically, numerical simulations are used to explore the relationship. In this paper, analytical analysis for the impact of polarization aberration of projection lens on the aerial image of alternating phase-shift mask (Alt-PSM) is realized. The analytical expressions of image placement error (IPE) and best focus shift (BFS) caused by polarization aberration are derived from the intensity of aerial image. The derived expressions match simulation results extremely well, and can be used to understand more fully the detrimental impact of polarization aberration on lithographic imaging quality. The linear relationships between IPE and odd items of Pauli-Zernike polarization aberrations, as well as that between BFS and even items of Pauli-Zernike polarization aberrations are established, using linear polarization illumination. The accuracy of the linear relationships is assessed by the least square method.

  9. Study of cenesthesias and body image aberration in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Rajender, Gaurav; Kanwal, Krishna; Rathore, Dinesh M.; Chaudhary, Deepa

    2009-01-01

    Background: Abnormal body sensations are reported frequently by schizophrenic patients. Cenesthesias are infrequently recognized and diagnosis of cenesthopathic schizophrenia is rarely made. There are very few studies regarding the same. Aims and Objectives: To assess cenesthesias and different aspects of body image aberration and their relationship with psychopathology in patients with paranoid schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: Seventy patients of paranoid schizophrenia meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria were assessed with Positive and Negative Symptom Scale(PANSS) for psychopathology, Bonn Scale for Assessment of Basic Symptoms/Category D ‘Cenesthesias’ (BSABS), Image-Marking Procedure(IMP), alteration of body size and body cathexis. Assessments were made at baseline and after two weeks and assessed with SPSS 12.0. Results: The most commonly endorsed items on BSABS were depersonalization, motor weakness, abnormal pain, numbness and stiffness. Patients underestimated lower extremities and feelings of body size change which was positively correlated with PANSS-scores and improved on reassessment. Cenesthesias were positively correlated with disturbances of body concept and were present at onset in 40% and change form in 75.7%. Conclusions: Cenesthesias and body image aberrations are common in paranoid schizophrenia. They are present from onset in few, change form and improve on treatment. Cenesthesias and disturbances of body concept are correlated and body size is associated with other psychopathology. PMID:19881047

  10. Biclonal chromosomal aberrations in a child with myelodysplastic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jakab, Z; Balogh, E; Kiss, C; Pajor, L; Oláh, E

    1999-01-01

    Hematological malignancies and premalignant diseases are generally of monoclonal origin. The prognostic and therapeutic significance of finding two genetically independent clones remains to be determined. We followed a case of childhood myelodysplastic syndrome showing biclonal chromosomal abnormalities (+8, -7) by conventional cytogenetic examination and double target fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). A 7-year-old girl presented with Plaut-Vincent angina and leukopenia. The cytogenetic aberration of +8 was the first sign to suggest MDS. Serial bone marrow controls, prompted by a progressive clinical course detected myelodysplastic changes and a new clonal aberration (-7). The presence of -7 and +8 in two independent clones was verified by double-target FISH. While at diagnosis and during cytokine treatment more cells showed +8, after successful all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) therapy, the clone with -7 predominated. Following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation the patient displayed donor-derived hematopoesis. Our data stress the significance of cytogenetic and FISH examinations in detecting specific genetic abnormalities and progressive clonal changes as an indicator and guideline for therapy. Different cell clones characterized by different genetic changes might be associated with different biologic features reflected in their response to treatment.

  11. Exercise protects against methamphetamine-induced aberrant neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Park, Minseon; Levine, Harry; Toborek, Michal

    2016-09-28

    While no effective therapy is available for the treatment of methamphetamine (METH)-induced neurotoxicity, aerobic exercise is being proposed to improve depressive symptoms and substance abuse outcomes. The present study focuses on the effect of exercise on METH-induced aberrant neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus in the context of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) pathology. Mice were administered with METH or saline by i.p. injections for 5 days with an escalating dose regimen. One set of mice was sacrificed 24 h post last injection of METH, and the remaining animals were either subjected to voluntary wheel running (exercised mice) or remained in sedentary housing (sedentary mice). METH administration decreased expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins and increased BBB permeability in the hippocampus. These changes were preserved post METH administration in sedentary mice and were associated with the development of significant aberrations of neural differentiation. Exercise protected against these effects by enhancing the protein expression of TJ proteins, stabilizing the BBB integrity, and enhancing the neural differentiation. In addition, exercise protected against METH-induced systemic increase in inflammatory cytokine levels. These results suggest that exercise can attenuate METH-induced neurotoxicity by protecting against the BBB disruption and related microenvironmental changes in the hippocampus.

  12. Mechanistic modeling of aberrant energy metabolism in human disease

    PubMed Central

    Sangar, Vineet; Eddy, James A.; Simeonidis, Evangelos; Price, Nathan D.

    2012-01-01

    Dysfunction in energy metabolism—including in pathways localized to the mitochondria—has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide array of disorders, ranging from cancer to neurodegenerative diseases to type II diabetes. The inherent complexities of energy and mitochondrial metabolism present a significant obstacle in the effort to understand the role that these molecular processes play in the development of disease. To help unravel these complexities, systems biology methods have been applied to develop an array of computational metabolic models, ranging from mitochondria-specific processes to genome-scale cellular networks. These constraint-based (CB) models can efficiently simulate aspects of normal and aberrant metabolism in various genetic and environmental conditions. Development of these models leverages—and also provides a powerful means to integrate and interpret—information from a wide range of sources including genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and enzyme kinetics. Here, we review a variety of mechanistic modeling studies that explore metabolic functions, deficiency disorders, and aberrant biochemical pathways in mitochondria and related regions in the cell. PMID:23112774

  13. Exaggerated translation causes synaptic and behavioural aberrations associated with autism.

    PubMed

    Santini, Emanuela; Huynh, Thu N; MacAskill, Andrew F; Carter, Adam G; Pierre, Philippe; Ruggero, Davide; Kaphzan, Hanoch; Klann, Eric

    2013-01-17

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are an early onset, heterogeneous group of heritable neuropsychiatric disorders with symptoms that include deficits in social interaction skills, impaired communication abilities, and ritualistic-like repetitive behaviours. One of the hypotheses for a common molecular mechanism underlying ASDs is altered translational control resulting in exaggerated protein synthesis. Genetic variants in chromosome 4q, which contains the EIF4E locus, have been described in patients with autism. Importantly, a rare single nucleotide polymorphism has been identified in autism that is associated with increased promoter activity in the EIF4E gene. Here we show that genetically increasing the levels of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) in mice results in exaggerated cap-dependent translation and aberrant behaviours reminiscent of autism, including repetitive and perseverative behaviours and social interaction deficits. Moreover, these autistic-like behaviours are accompanied by synaptic pathophysiology in the medial prefrontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus. The autistic-like behaviours displayed by the eIF4E-transgenic mice are corrected by intracerebroventricular infusions of the cap-dependent translation inhibitor 4EGI-1. Our findings demonstrate a causal relationship between exaggerated cap-dependent translation, synaptic dysfunction and aberrant behaviours associated with autism.

  14. HER2 aberrations in cancer: implications for therapy.

    PubMed

    Yan, Min; Parker, Barbara A; Schwab, Richard; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2014-07-01

    Although anti-HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) therapy is currently approved for breast, gastric, and gastroesophageal cancers overexpressing the HER2 protein or amplified for the HER2 gene, HER2 aberrations (gene amplification, gene mutations, and protein overexpression) are reported in other diverse malignancies. Indeed, about 1-37% of tumors of the following types harbor HER2 aberrations: bladder, cervix, colon, endometrium, germ cell, glioblastoma, head and neck, liver, lung, ovarian, pancreas, and salivary duct. Four HER2-targeted therapies have been approved for HER2-positive breast cancer: two antibodies (trastuzumab and pertuzumab), an antibody-drug conjugate (ado-trastuzumab emtansine), and a small molecule kinase inhibitor (lapatinib). In addition, afatinib, a small molecule kinase inhibitor that causes irreversible inhibition of EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) and HER2, was recently approved for EGFR-mutated non-small cell lung cancer. A large number of novel HER2-targeted agents are also in clinical trials. Herein we discuss the state of the art in understanding and targeting HER2 across anatomic tumor types.

  15. Aberrant functional brain connectome in people with antisocial personality disorder

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yan; Long, Jun; Wang, Wei; Liao, Jian; Xie, Hua; Zhao, Guihu; Zhang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is characterised by a disregard for social obligations and callous unconcern for the feelings of others. Studies have demonstrated that ASPD is associated with abnormalities in brain regions and aberrant functional connectivity. In this paper, topological organisation was examined in resting-state fMRI data obtained from 32 ASPD patients and 32 non-ASPD controls. The frequency-dependent functional networks were constructed using wavelet-based correlations over 90 brain regions. The topology of the functional networks of ASPD subjects was analysed via graph theoretical analysis. Furthermore, the abnormal functional connectivity was determined with a network-based statistic (NBS) approach. Our results revealed that, compared with the controls, the ASPD patients exhibited altered topological configuration of the functional connectome in the frequency interval of 0.016–0.031 Hz, as indicated by the increased clustering coefficient and decreased betweenness centrality in the medial superior frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, Rolandic operculum, superior parietal gyrus, angular gyrus, and middle temporal pole. In addition, the ASPD patients showed increased functional connectivity mainly located in the default-mode network. The present study reveals an aberrant topological organisation of the functional brain network in individuals with ASPD. Our findings provide novel insight into the neuropathological mechanisms of ASPD. PMID:27257047

  16. Exercise protects against methamphetamine-induced aberrant neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Minseon; Levine, Harry; Toborek, Michal

    2016-01-01

    While no effective therapy is available for the treatment of methamphetamine (METH)-induced neurotoxicity, aerobic exercise is being proposed to improve depressive symptoms and substance abuse outcomes. The present study focuses on the effect of exercise on METH-induced aberrant neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus in the context of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) pathology. Mice were administered with METH or saline by i.p. injections for 5 days with an escalating dose regimen. One set of mice was sacrificed 24 h post last injection of METH, and the remaining animals were either subjected to voluntary wheel running (exercised mice) or remained in sedentary housing (sedentary mice). METH administration decreased expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins and increased BBB permeability in the hippocampus. These changes were preserved post METH administration in sedentary mice and were associated with the development of significant aberrations of neural differentiation. Exercise protected against these effects by enhancing the protein expression of TJ proteins, stabilizing the BBB integrity, and enhancing the neural differentiation. In addition, exercise protected against METH-induced systemic increase in inflammatory cytokine levels. These results suggest that exercise can attenuate METH-induced neurotoxicity by protecting against the BBB disruption and related microenvironmental changes in the hippocampus. PMID:27677455

  17. Active optics concept for hypertelescope aberration control and pupil densification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dohlen, Kjetil; Dargent, Pascal; Ferrari, Marc; Lemaitre, Gerard R.

    2003-02-01

    One of the instrumental concepts under study for large baseline interferometers for high resolution astronomical imaging, in particular applied to exoplanet search and characterisation, is the hypertelescope (HT). Mainly considered for space deployment, this sparse array of mirror segments supported either by a struss structure or by free-flying micro satellites form a giant, diluted primary mirror. The focal plane instrumentation, including pupil densification optics, is located in the primary focus instrument space craft (ISC). Baselines considered for first-generation HTs are of the order of 100 m, but one can envisage kilometric arrays capable of unprecedented angular resolution. Pointing with such a telescope poses orbital navigation problems. Letting the entire array perform a slow sky-scanning motion and navigating the ISC within the primary focal plane in order to follow the image of the object may solve these problems. The ISC must therefore be equipped with aberration correction optics capable of covering a sufficiently large primary field of view, of the order of a few degrees. In this paper we present optical and mechanical concepts for combined aberration correction and pupil densification using multimode deformable mirror (MDM) and mechanically amplified piezo actuator technologies. Among the advantages of such a system over large monolithic corrector optics is the relaxation of piston alignment requirements for primary segments.

  18. Velocity aberration and atmospheric refraction in satellite laser communication experiments.

    PubMed

    Nugent, L J; Condon, R J

    1966-11-01

    The effects of satellite velocity aberration and atmospheric refraction on the direction of propagation of lagser radiation reflected from a satellite back to an observer on the earth are examined. A velocity aberration analysis for the two-dimensional case where the satellite passes directly overhead at velocity v is presented to first order in v/c in order to illustrate the method. The equations for the more general threedimensional case are then given to first order in v/c, and it is indicated that higher order treatments are normally unnecessary in typical experimental considerations. Following this, a simple approximate equation giving the atmospheric refraction to an accuracy of a few microradians is developed; it is indicated that greater accuracy is not important because of laser pointing limitations imposed by atmospheric scattering and turbulence. The atmospheric refraction equation depends only on the apparent zenith angle of the satellite reflector relative to the earth-based laser, on the satelli-te altitude, and on the index of refraction of the laser radiation in the atmosphere at the earth's surface. Both of these developments should be useful in the design and interpretation of satellite laser-communication experiments.

  19. Effect of induced transverse chromatic aberration on peripheral vision.

    PubMed

    Winter, Simon; Fathi, Mohammad Taghi; Venkataraman, Abinaya Priya; Rosén, Robert; Seidemann, Anne; Esser, Gregor; Lundström, Linda; Unsbo, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Transverse chromatic aberration (TCA) is one of the largest optical errors affecting the peripheral image quality in the human eye. However, the effect of chromatic aberrations on our peripheral vision is largely unknown. This study investigates the effect of prism-induced horizontal TCA on vision, in the central as well as in the 20° nasal visual field, for four subjects. Additionally, the magnitude of induced TCA (in minutes of arc) was measured subjectively in the fovea with a Vernier alignment method. During all measurements, the monochromatic optical errors of the eye were compensated for by adaptive optics. The average reduction in foveal grating resolution was about 0.032 ± 0.005  logMAR/arcmin of TCA (mean ± std). For peripheral grating detection, the reduction was 0.057 ± 0.012  logMAR/arcmin. This means that the prismatic effect of highly dispersive spectacles may reduce the ability to detect objects in the peripheral visual field.

  20. Effect of sampling on real ocular aberration measurements

    PubMed Central

    Llorente, Lourdes; Marcos, Susana; Dorronsoro, Carlos; Burns, Stephen A.

    2008-01-01

    The minimum number of samples necessary to fully characterize the aberration pattern of the eye is a question under debate in the clinical as well as the scientific community. We performed repeated measurements of ocular aberrations in 12 healthy nonsurgical human eyes and in 3 artificial eyes, using different sampling patterns (hexagonal, circular, and rectangular with 19 to 177 samples, and 3 radial patterns with 49 sample coordinates corresponding to zeros of the Albrecht, Jacobi, and Legendre functions). For each measurement set we computed two different metrics based on the root-mean-square (RMS) of difference maps (RMS_Diff) and the proportional change in the wavefront (W%). These metrics are used to compare wavefront estimates as well as to summarize results across eyes. We used computer simulations to extend our results to “abnormal eyes” (keratoconic, post-LASIK, and post-radial keratotomy eyes). We found that the spatial distribution of the samples can be more important than the number of samples for both our measured as well as our simulated “abnormal” eyes. Experimentally, we did not find large differences across patterns except, as expected, for undersampled patterns. PMID:17767247

  1. Diverticula of Kommerell and Aberrant Subclavian Arteries Complicated by Aneurysms

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, R. G. Whigham, C. J.; Trinh, C.

    2005-06-15

    This is a retrospective evaluation of the incidence of aberrant subclavian arteries (ASAs) and diverticula of Kommerell, as well as the occurrence and significance of associated aneurysms. Thoracic aortograms obtained during a 12.5-year period were reviewed, seeking the presence of aberrant right and left subclavian arteries (ARSAs/ALSAs), diverticula of Kommerell, and the incidence of associated aortic aneurysms. Several cases were evaluated with computed tomography concomitantly. Results were correlated with a literature review. Twenty-two ASAs were identified. Nineteen were on the right (ARSAs) and three were on the left (ALSAs). A diverticulum of Kommerell (DOK) was also present on the right in seven and on the left in three. Five of these patients had complicating aneurysms. Four of these were associated with ARSAs and their diverticula. Two were atherosclerotic; one was a limited dissection and one of uncertain etiology was ruptured. One additional aneurysm (atherosclerotic) involved an ALSA/DOK. The patient with the ruptured aneurysm died in surgery; three were managed conservatively because of concomitant disease; and one is being followed because of the small size (2.5 cm) of the aneurysm. ARSAs are relatively uncommon and ALSAs are rare. Both ARSA and ALSA are frequently associated with a DOK. Aneurysms rarely involve ASAs (with or without a DOK), but they are associated with a high mortality rate if they are not discovered before rupture. Early diagnosis plus surgical and/or endovascular management can be lifesaving.

  2. The Distribution of Chromosomal Aberrations in Human Cells Predicted by a Generalized Time-Dependent Model of Radiation-Induced Formation of Aberrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponomarev, Artem L.; George, K.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2011-01-01

    New experimental data show how chromosomal aberrations for low- and high-LET radiation are dependent on DSB repair deficiencies in wild-type, AT and NBS cells. We simulated the development of chromosomal aberrations in these cells lines in a stochastic track-structure-dependent model, in which different cells have different kinetics of DSB repair. We updated a previously formulated model of chromosomal aberrations, which was based on a stochastic Monte Carlo approach, to consider the time-dependence of DSB rejoining. The previous version of the model had an assumption that all DSBs would rejoin, and therefore we called it a time-independent model. The chromosomal-aberrations model takes into account the DNA and track structure for low- and high-LET radiations, and provides an explanation and prediction of the statistics of rare and more complex aberrations. We compared the program-simulated kinetics of DSB rejoining to the experimentally-derived bimodal exponential curves of the DSB kinetics. We scored the formation of translocations, dicentrics, acentric and centric rings, deletions, and inversions. The fraction of DSBs participating in aberrations was studied in relation to the rejoining time. Comparisons of simulated dose dependence for simple aberrations to the experimental dose-dependence for HF19, AT and NBS cells will be made.

  3. Method for measuring ocular aberrations induced by thermal lensing in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincelette, Rebecca; Oliver, Jeff; Noojin, Gary; Schuster, Kurt; Shingledecker, Aurora; Welch, Ashley J.

    2010-02-01

    An adaptive optics imaging system was used to qualitatively observe the types of aberrations induced by an infrared laser in a rhesus eye. Thermal lensing was induced with an infrared laser radiation wavelength of 1150-nm. The adaptive optics system tracked the temporal response of the aberrations at a frequency of 30 Hz for continuous-wave exposures. Results are compared against thermal lensing aberrations induced in an artificial eye.

  4. Effects of the cornea and the crystalline lens on the aberrations of the complete eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Zhaoqi; Wang, Yan; Zuo, Tong

    2005-12-01

    In order to understand the relative contribution of the wave-front aberrations of the cornea and the crystalline lens to the retinal image quality in the human eye, we have measured the wave-front aberrations of the anterior corneal surface, the posterior corneal surface and the complete eye with a corneal topographic system (Orbscan) and a Hartmann-Shack wave-front sensor. The 20 subjects selected to participate in the study are all no eye diseases, covering a range of age from 18 to 25. All the subjects have refractive errors of defocus varying from 0.5 D to 5 D and astigmatism varying from 0.1 D to 1.5D. Using the Orbscan, we obtained the discrete set of corneal elevation data in radial distribution over the pupil plane for the anterior and the posterior corneal surfaces directly, and the data are then transformed into wave-front aberrations of both the corneal surfaces. The wave-front aberrations of the two surfaces are then used to acquire the aberrations in whole cornea. The aberration contribution of the crystalline lens is obtained by subtracting the aberrations in the cornea from that in the complete eye. It is shown that the combination of the aberrations between the crystalline lens and the cornea could be either a compensatory or an additive process. The effect of the combination between the anterior and the posterior corneal surface is also complicated, and the aberration compensation, as well as aberration addition can be observed. It is shown from statistics point of view that the anterior corneal surface contributes more lower-order aberrations (astigmatism) to the complete eye, while the posterior corneal surface and the crystalline lens play a more important role in contributing higher-order aberrations.

  5. A model of field and spherical aberration in soft/hard edge solenoid magnets.

    PubMed

    Biswas, B

    2013-10-01

    A solenoid magnetic field model is presented that describes the on axis field by a parameter of its hard edginess and axial half-width at half-maximum field, which universally define its spherical aberration without solving the ray equation. The model shows an increase in spherical aberration from real soft edge fields to hard edge models, as used in beam tracking. It compares well with existing field models. It simply and accurately finds the spherical aberration in many types of solenoids.

  6. A method of dynamic chromatic aberration correction in low-voltage scanning electron microscopes.

    PubMed

    Khursheed, Anjam

    2005-07-01

    A time-of-flight concept that dynamically corrects for chromatic aberration effects in scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) is presented. The method is predicted to reduce the microscope's chromatic aberration by an order of magnitude. The scheme should significantly improve the spatial resolution of low-voltage scanning electron microscopes (LVSEMs). The dynamic means of correcting for chromatic aberration also allows for the possibility of obtaining high image resolution from electron guns that have relatively large energy spreads.

  7. The definition of optical systems aberrations to secondary school students regarding their knowledge of mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordek, David

    2017-01-01

    The problematics of optical systems aberrations that is described in my article is beyond mathematical knowledge of secondary school students, especially the problematics of simulations of these aberrations. In my contribution the problematics of optical systems aberrations will be described using higher level-mathematics. Then it will be presented to secondary school students regarding their theoretical knowledge of mathematics. Even though i&tacute;s necessary to include mathematics into clearly physics problem.

  8. Nuclear aberrations in hair follicle cells of patients receiving cyclophosphamide. A possible in vivo assay for human exposure to genotoxic agents.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, M T; Tackaberry, L E; Hardy, M H; Noseworthy, J H

    1990-01-01

    The toxic effect of cyclophosphamide on the proliferative cell population of hair follicles plucked from the human scalp was examined by the in vivo nuclear aberration assay. Patients participating in an independent clinical trial received oral low dose cyclophosphamide, intravenous high dose cyclophosphamide or oral placebo treatment. The percent of cells with nuclear aberrations (indicating apoptosis, a special form of cell death) and the percent of mitotic cells, in the hair matrix, were calculated for each patient before treatment and at several time points following cyclophosphamide or placebo treatment. The mean percentages of nuclear aberrations in both the treated Low dose and High dose cyclophosphamide patients were significantly higher than those for the pre-treatment and Placebo patients. The nuclear aberrations in hair follicle cells increased from pre-treatment (and Placebo) to treated Low dose and finally to treated High dose patients. The average percentage for pre-treatment samples from all patients was 0.06 +/- 0.03 SE. For 1 week and 1 month samples from Low dose patients it was 0.35 +/- 0.08 SE, and for combined 2,3 and 4 day samples from High dose patients it was 1.08 +/- 0.12 SE. Cyclophosphamide also had a significant effect on mitosis. A decrease in mitotic activity was observed at 1 month following the initial low dose cyclophosphamide treatment and at 24 +/- 2 h following each of the first two high dose cyclophosphamide treatments. The observed increase in nuclear aberrations following low dose as well as high dose cyclophosphamide suggests that it is feasible to use the nuclear aberration assay for in vivo human genotoxicity testing, using proliferating hair follicle cells.

  9. Ca2+ signaling and intracellular Ca2+ binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Niki, I; Yokokura, H; Sudo, T; Kato, M; Hidaka, H

    1996-10-01

    Changes in cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations evoke a wide range of cellular responses and intracellular Ca(2+)-binding proteins are the key molecules to transduce Ca2+ signaling via enzymatic reactions or modulation of protein/protein interations (Fig.1). The EF hand proteins, like calmodulin and S100 proteins, are considered to exert Ca(2+)-dependent actions in the nucleus or the cytoplasm. The Ca2+/phospholipid binding proteins are classified into two groups, the annexins and the C2 region proteins. These proteins, distributed mainly in the cytoplasm, translocate to the plasma membrane in response to an increase in cytosolic Ca2+ and function in the vicinity of the membrane. Ca2+ storage proteins in the endoplasmic or sarcoplasmic reticulum provide the high Ca2+ capacity of the Ca2+ store sites, which regulate intracellular Ca2+ distribution. The variety and complexity of Ca2+ signaling result from the cooperative actions of specific Ca(2+)-binding proteins. This review describes biochemical properties of intracellular Ca(2+)-binding proteins and their proposed roles in mediating Ca2+ signaling.

  10. Effect of temperature gradients on the wave aberration in athermal optical glasses.

    PubMed

    Reitmayer, F; Schroeder, H

    1975-03-01

    Temperature gradients that are caused by partial heating in optical elements may result in wave aberrations. The athermal glasses developed within the past two years exhibit considerably reduced thermal wave aberrations compared to the classical optical glasses. Evidence is given that the total wave aberration is due not only to the change of optical path DeltaW(Gamma) computed from a, n, and dn/dT, but also that, upon the occurrence of thermal stresses, an additional wave aberration DeltaW(s) must be taken into consideration.

  11. Aberration fields of off-axis two-mirror astronomical telescopes induced by lateral misalignments.

    PubMed

    Ju, Guohao; Yan, Changxiang; Gu, Zhiyuan; Ma, Hongcai

    2016-10-17

    This paper presents a systematic and in-depth discussion for the aberration fields of off-axis two-mirror astronomical telescopes with an offset pupil that is induced by lateral misalignment. Based on the framework of nodal aberration theory and a system level pupil coordinate transformation, the aberration function for misaligned off-axis telescopes is derived. Some general descriptions for the misalignment-induced aberrations are presented. The specific astigmatic and coma aberration field characteristics in off-axis two-mirror telescopes are then discussed. The precision of the presented aberration expressions is demonstrated. The discrepancies between the ray tracing data and aberration expressions are explicated. Then the inherent relationships between the astigmatism and coma aberration fields are revealed and explicated. Based on this knowledge, some quantitative discussions are further presented for determining the misalignments used to compensate for the effects of primary mirror astigmatic figure errors as well as separating these two effects when coupled. Other effects of lateral misalignments are also presented, especially the field-constant focal shift, which is only sensitive to the lateral misalignments in the symmetry plane of the nominal off-axis system. A quantitative discussion is also presented which explains the reason why trefoil aberration in off-axis telescopes is more sensitive to lateral misalignments. Most of the results presented in this paper can be extended to the other off-axis astronomical telescopes with more freedoms.

  12. Efficient estimation and large-scale evaluation of lateral chromatic aberration for digital image forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gloe, Thomas; Borowka, Karsten; Winkler, Antje

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of lateral chromatic aberration forms another ingredient for a well equipped toolbox of an image forensic investigator. Previous work proposed its application to forgery detection1 and image source identification.2 This paper takes a closer look on the current state-of-the-art method to analyse lateral chromatic aberration and presents a new approach to estimate lateral chromatic aberration in a runtime-efficient way. Employing a set of 11 different camera models including 43 devices, the characteristic of lateral chromatic aberration is investigated in a large-scale. The reported results point to general difficulties that have to be considered in real world investigations.

  13. Measurement of chromatic aberration in STEM and SCEM by coherent convergent beam electron diffraction.

    PubMed

    Zheng, C L; Etheridge, J

    2013-02-01

    A simple method is described for the accurate and precise measurement of chromatic aberration under electron-optical conditions pertinent to scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and scanning confocal electron microscopy (SCEM). The method requires only the measurement of distances in a coherent CBED pattern and knowledge of the electron wavelength and the lattice spacing of a calibration specimen. The chromatic aberration of a spherical-aberration corrected 300 kV thermal field emission TEM is measured in STEM and SCEM operating modes and under different condenser lens settings. The effect of the measured chromatic aberrations on the 3 dimensional intensity distribution of the electron probe is also considered.

  14. Influence of ocular longitudinal chromatic aberration on the selection of aspheric intraocular lenses.

    PubMed

    Hong, Xin; Choi, Myoung

    2010-12-06

    Polychromatic defocus could affect the optimal residual spherical aberration that could yield the best image quality for patients with intraocular lenses (IOLs). Modulation transfer functions (MTFs) were generated using a model that included polychromatic defocus. The maximum MTF volume occurred at + 0.05 μm of overall ocular spherical aberration. For 3 case studies, the optimal overall ocular spherical aberration was ~0.05 μm more positive with the contribution of polychromatic defocus than without it. Overall, the model indicated that image quality was usually best when IOLs allowed overall ocular spherical aberration that was slightly positive, rather than strongly positive, zero, or negative.

  15. Theoretical estimates of spherical and chromatic aberration in photoemission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, J P S; Word, R C; Könenkamp, R

    2016-01-01

    We present theoretical estimates of the mean coefficients of spherical and chromatic aberration for low energy photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM). Using simple analytic models, we find that the aberration coefficients depend primarily on the difference between the photon energy and the photoemission threshold, as expected. However, the shape of the photoelectron spectral distribution impacts the coefficients by up to 30%. These estimates should allow more precise correction of aberration in PEEM in experimental situations where the aberration coefficients and precise electron energy distribution cannot be readily measured.

  16. Primary wavefront aberrations calculation from a defocused image or a Hartmanngram.

    PubMed

    Malacara-Doblado, Daniel; Malacara-Hernández, Zacarias; Gómez-Vieyra, Armando

    2010-04-20

    A wavefront aberration can be retrieved from a defocused image or a Hartmanngram by several different methods using diffraction theory and Fourier transforms. In this manuscript, we describe an alternate method for wavefront aberration determination from a defocused image or a Hartmanngram using a geometric l approximation. The main assumption is that the image is defocused, with the observation plane outside the caustic limits. The result will be applied to the retrieval of a wavefront with primary aberrations from a Hartmanngram or defocused image without the need for any transversal aberration integration.

  17. The Allium Test--A Simple, Eukaryote Genotoxicity Assay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babich, H.; Segall, M. A.; Fox, K. D.

    1997-01-01

    Explains the allium test in which roots are excised from onion bulblets grown in aqueous solutions of a test agent. Root tips are then isolated and stained with aceto-orcein, and chromosomal aberrations are microscopically observed. (Author/AIM)

  18. Encoding, consolidation, and retrieval of contextual memory: Differential involvement of dorsal CA3 and CA1 hippocampal subregions

    PubMed Central

    Daumas, Stéphanie; Halley, Hélène; Francés, Bernard; Lassalle, Jean-Michel

    2005-01-01

    Studies on human and animals shed light on the unique hippocampus contributions to relational memory. However, the particular role of each hippocampal subregion in memory processing is still not clear. Hippocampal computational models and theories have emphasized a unique function in memory for each hippocampal subregion, with the CA3 area acting as an autoassociative memory network and the CA1 area as a critical output structure. In order to understand the respective roles of the CA3- and CA1-hippocampal areas in the formation of contextual memory, we studied the effects of the reversible inactivation by lidocaine of the CA3 or CA1 areas of the dorsal hippocampus on acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval of a contextual fear conditioning. Whereas infusions of lidocaine never impaired elementary tone conditioning, their effects on contextual conditioning provided interesting clues about the role of these two hippocampal regions. They demonstrated first that the CA3 area is necessary for the rapid elaboration of a unified representation of the context. Secondly, they suggested that the CA1 area is rather involved in the consolidation process of contextual memory. Third, they showed that CA1 or CA3 inactivation during retention test has no effect on contextual fear retrieval when a recognition memory procedure is used. In conclusion, our findings point as evidence that CA1 and CA3 subregions of the dorsal hippocampus play important and different roles in the acquisition and consolidation of contextual fear memory, whereas they are not required for context recognition. PMID:16027176

  19. Using Ca isotopes to constrain source of streamwater Ca following clear-cutting of a New England watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, K.; Kurtz, A. C.; Bailey, S. W.

    2011-12-01

    Stable Ca isotopes have been used in applications ranging from use as a paleooceanographic temperature proxy to tracing continental weathering fluxes to the oceans. One of the most important applications has been in understanding Ca cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. Major land use disturbance such as forest harvesting results in increased hydrologic export of cations but the mechanisms that lead to increased Ca export and the sources of streamwater Ca following disturbance remain uncertain. Ca isotope ratios may allow us to determine the internal Ca pools that contribute to increased export. We measured stable Ca isotopes on archived streamwater samples from Hubbard Brook Watershed 5 before and after a 1983 whole-watershed harvest experiment to test the following hypothesis: following harvest, the Ca isotopic value of streamwater will shift towards an isotopically light composition reflecting loss of biologically cycled Ca from soil pools. Ca concentrations measured on archived samples correspond exactly to values measured at the time of collection indicating adequate sample preservation over several decades of storage. Preliminary stable Ca isotopic results on these streamwater samples indicate a robust shift in δ40Ca from a pre-harvest value of -0.95% (vs. seawater) to a post-harvest value of -1.45%. We developed a box model of Ca cycling in forested ecosystems that includes Ca isotopes as tracer in order to model the δ40Ca of the various soil and vegetation pools. Steady-state model results indicate that vegetation is isotopically light relative to the B-horizon and forest floor soil pools and the forest floor soil pool is isotopically light relative to the B-horizon soil pool. We used modeled δ40Ca values of B-horizon and forest floor soil pools in a two end-member mixing analysis to evaluate changes in streamwater δ40Ca following harvesting. Our mixing analysis indicates that the observed decrease in the δ40Ca of streamwater following harvest requires an

  20. An integrative genomic and proteomic analysis of PIK3CA, PTEN and AKT mutations in breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Stemke-Hale, Katherine; Gonzalez-Angulo, Ana Maria; Lluch, Ana; Neve, Richard M.; Kuo, Wen-Lin; Davies, Michael; Carey, Mark; Hu, Zhi; Guan, Yinghui; Sahin, Aysegul; Symmans, W. Fraser; Pusztai, Lajos; Nolden, Laura K.; Horlings, Hugo; Berns, Katrien; Hung, Mien-Chie; van de Vijver, Marc J.; Valero, Vicente; Gray, Joe W.; Bernards, Rene; Mills, Gordon B.; Hennessy, Bryan T.

    2008-05-06

    Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway aberrations are common in cancer. By applying mass spectroscopy-based sequencing and reverse phase protein arrays to 547 human breast cancers and 41 cell lines, we determined the subtype specificity and signaling effects of PIK3CA, AKT and PTEN mutations, and the effects of PIK3CA mutations on responsiveness to PI3K inhibition in-vitro and on outcome after adjuvant tamoxifen. PIK3CA mutations were more common in hormone receptor positive (33.8%) and HER2-positive (24.6%) than in basal-like tumors (8.3%). AKT1 (1.4%) and PTEN (2.3%) mutations were restricted to hormone receptor-positive cancers with PTEN protein levels also being significantly lower in hormone receptor-positive cancers. Unlike AKT1 mutations, PIK3CA (39%) and PTEN (20%) mutations were more common in cell lines than tumors, suggesting a selection for these but not AKT1 mutations during adaptation to culture. PIK3CA mutations did not have a significant impact on outcome in 166 hormone receptor-positive breast cancer patients after adjuvant tamoxifen. PIK3CA mutations, in comparison with PTEN loss and AKT1 mutations, were associated with significantly less and indeed inconsistent activation of AKT and of downstream PI3K/AKT signaling in tumors and cell lines, and PTEN loss and PIK3CA mutation were frequently concordant, suggesting different contributions to pathophysiology. PTEN loss but not PIK3CA mutations rendered cells sensitive to growth inhibition by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. Thus, PI3K pathway aberrations likely play a distinct role in the pathogenesis of different breast cancer subtypes. The specific aberration may have implications for the selection of PI3K-targeted therapies in hormone receptor-positive breast cancer.

  1. Association of aberrations in one-carbon metabolism with molecular phenotype and grade of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Naushad, Shaik Mohammad; Pavani, Addepalli; Rupasree, Yedluri; Divyya, Shree; Deepti, Sripurna; Digumarti, Raghunadha Rao; Gottumukkala, Suryanarayana Raju; Prayaga, Aruna; Kutala, Vijay Kumar

    2012-10-01

    We have earlier demonstrated the role of aberrant one-carbon metabolism in the etiology of breast cancer. In the current study, we examine the clinical utility of these factors in predicting the subtype of breast cancer and as indicators of disease progression. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and PCR-amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) approaches were used for genetic analysis. Plasma folate and homocysteine were measured using Axsym folate kit and reverse phase HPLC, respectively. Multiple linear regression models were used to test the predictability of disease progression. Luminal A subtype was associated with late age of onset, higher body mass index and lack of family history of breast cancer. Thymidylate synthase (TYMS) 5'-UTR 28 bp tandem repeat (OR: 2.09, 95% CI: 1.05-4.16) and methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T (OR: 4.10, 95% CI: 1.40-11.95) were strongly associated with Luminal B. Reduced folate carrier (RFC1) G80A (OR: 2.92, 95% CI: 1.22-6.97) and methionine synthase (MTR) A2756G (OR: 4.71, 95% CI: 1.66-13.31) polymorphisms were associated with LuminA-HH subtype while MTHFR C677T showed association with HER-enriched (OR: 30.41, 95% CI: 6.47-142.91). Cytosolic serine hydroxymethyltransferase (cSHMT) conferred protection against basal-like breast cancer (OR: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.22-0.98). HER-enriched and basal-like subtypes showed positive association with familial breast cancer and inverse association with plasma folate. Hyperhomocysteinemia was observed in Luminal B and basal-like subtypes. Multiple linear regression models of aberrant one-carbon metabolism were found to be moderate predictors of breast cancer grade (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, C = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.58-0.87, P = 0.008). To conclude, aberrations in one-carbon metabolism predict the subtype of breast cancer and disease progression.

  2. Growth rate effects on Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios constrained by belemnite calcite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinzenz Ullmann, Clemens

    2016-04-01

    Multiple temperature proxies from single species are important to achieve robust palaeotemperature estimates. Besides the commonly employed oxygen isotope thermometer, also Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios perform well as proxies for calcification temperature in the shells of some species. While salinity changes affect the ratios of earth alkaline elements much less than the δ18O thermometer, metabolic effects may exert a strong control on the expression of element ratios. Such effects are hard to study because biomineralization experiments have to overcome large intraspecific variability and can hardly ever isolate the controls of a single parameter on shell geochemistry. The unique geometry of the belemnite rostrum constitutes an exception to this rule. Its shape, large size, and the visibility of growth increments as bands enable the analysis of multiple, correlatable, high resolution geochemical profiles in a single fossil. The effects of the growth rate variability amongst these profiles on Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios has been tested here. Within a specimen of Passaloteuthis bisulcata (Early Toarcian, Cleveland Basin, UK), Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca data were obtained from four profiles. With respect to growth rate in the first profile, which was taken as a reference, the relative growth rates in the remaining three profiles varied by a factor of 0.9 to 2.7. Results suggest that relative growth rate is linearly correlated with Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca, with a decrease of Mg/Ca by 8 % and increase of Sr/Ca by 6 % per 100 % increase in relative growth rate. The observed trends are consistent with abiogenic precipitation experiments and suggest that crystal precipitation rate exerts a significant, predictable control on the element distribution in biogenic calcite.

  3. Ocular wavefront aberrations in the common marmoset Callithrix jacchus: effects of age and refractive error.

    PubMed

    Coletta, Nancy J; Marcos, Susana; Troilo, David

    2010-11-23

    The common marmoset, Callithrix jacchus, is a primate model for emmetropization studies. The refractive development of the marmoset eye depends on visual experience, so knowledge of the optical quality of the eye is valuable. We report on the wavefront aberrations of the marmoset eye, measured with a clinical Hartmann-Shack aberrometer (COAS, AMO Wavefront Sciences). Aberrations were measured on both eyes of 23 marmosets whose ages ranged from 18 to 452 days. Twenty-one of the subjects were members of studies of emmetropization and accommodation, and two were untreated normal subjects. Eleven of the 21 experimental subjects had worn monocular diffusers and 10 had worn binocular spectacle lenses of equal power. Monocular deprivation or lens rearing began at about 45 days of age and ended at about 108 days of age. All refractions and aberration measures were performed while the eyes were cyclopleged; most aberration measures were made while subjects were awake, but some control measurements were performed under anesthesia. Wavefront error was expressed as a seventh-order Zernike polynomial expansion, using the Optical Society of America's naming convention. Aberrations in young marmosets decreased up to about 100 days of age, after which the higher-order RMS aberration leveled off to about 0.10 μm over a 3 mm diameter pupil. Higher-order aberrations were 1.8 times greater when the subjects were under general anesthesia than when they were awake. Young marmoset eyes were characterized by negative spherical aberration. Form-deprived eyes of the monocular deprivation animals had greater wavefront aberrations than their fellow untreated eyes, particularly for asymmetric aberrations in the odd-numbered Zernike orders. Both lens-treated and form-deprived eyes showed similar significant increases in Z3(-3) trefoil aberration, suggesting the increase in trefoil may be related to factors that do not involve visual feedback.

  4. Aberration-free, all-reflective laser pulse stretcher

    DOEpatents

    Perry, Michael D.; Banks, Paul S.; Stuart, Brent C.; Fochs, Scott N.

    1999-09-28

    An all-reflective pulse stretcher for laser systems employing chirped-pulse amplification enables on-axis use of the focusing mirror which results in ease of use, significantly decreased sensitivity to alignment and near aberration-free performance. By using a new type of diffraction grating which contains a mirror incorporated into the grating, the stretcher contains only three elements: 1) the grating, 2) a spherical or parabolic focusing mirror, and 3) a flat mirror. Addition of a fourth component, a retro-reflector, enables multiple passes of the same stretcher resulting in stretching ratios beyond the current state of the art in a simple and compact design. The pulse stretcher has been used to stretch pulses from 20 fsec to over 600 psec (a stretching ratio in excess of 30,000).

  5. Catadioptric lens with aberrations balanced by aspherizing one surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bystricky, K. M.; Yoder, P. R., Jr.

    1985-04-01

    In this paper a description is provided of an optical system with one surface aspherized to give a specific level of performance and to equalize the intensity profiles of star images over the field. The system was a 25.4-cm EFL, 5.8 deg field, f/1.53 catadioptric Cassegrain. It was designed to determine the attitude of a space platform by detecting and mapping the geometric pattern of stars observed to ninth visual magnitude. Aberrations were controlled over a 0.5-1.1-micron spectral region. A comparison is conducted of the polychromatic performance of the design to one conventionally optimized. How the spherical substrate base radius was chosen to minimize glass removal is also described.

  6. Geometrical Aberration Suppression for Large Aperture Sub-THz Lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachon, M.; Liebert, K.; Siemion, A.; Bomba, J.; Sobczyk, A.; Knap, W.; Coquillat, D.; Suszek, J.; Sypek, M.

    2017-03-01

    Advanced THz setups require high performance optical elements with large numerical apertures and small focal lengths. This is due to the high absorption of humid air and relatively low efficiency of commercially available detectors. Here, we propose a new type of double-sided sub-THz diffractive optical element with suppressed geometrical aberration for narrowband applications (0.3 THz). One side of the element is designed as thin structure in non-paraxial approach which is the exact method, but only for ideally flat elements. The second side will compensate phase distribution differences between ideal thin structure and real volume one. The computer-aided optimization algorithm is performed to design an additional phase distribution of correcting layer assuming volume designing of the first side of the element. The experimental evaluation of the proposed diffractive component created by 3D printing technique shows almost two times larger performance in comparison with uncorrected basic diffractive lens.

  7. Geometrical Aberration Suppression for Large Aperture Sub-THz Lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachon, M.; Liebert, K.; Siemion, A.; Bomba, J.; Sobczyk, A.; Knap, W.; Coquillat, D.; Suszek, J.; Sypek, M.

    2016-11-01

    Advanced THz setups require high performance optical elements with large numerical apertures and small focal lengths. This is due to the high absorption of humid air and relatively low efficiency of commercially available detectors. Here, we propose a new type of double-sided sub-THz diffractive optical element with suppressed geometrical aberration for narrowband applications (0.3 THz). One side of the element is designed as thin structure in non-paraxial approach which is the exact method, but only for ideally flat elements. The second side will compensate phase distribution differences between ideal thin structure and real volume one. The computer-aided optimization algorithm is performed to design an additional phase distribution of correcting layer assuming volume designing of the first side of the element. The experimental evaluation of the proposed diffractive component created by 3D printing technique shows almost two times larger performance in comparison with uncorrected basic diffractive lens.

  8. The Oncoprotein BRD4-NUT Generates Aberrant Histone Modification Patterns.

    PubMed

    Zee, Barry M; Dibona, Amy B; Alekseyenko, Artyom A; French, Christopher A; Kuroda, Mitzi I

    2016-01-01

    Defects in chromatin proteins frequently manifest in diseases. A striking case of a chromatin-centric disease is NUT-midline carcinoma (NMC), which is characterized by expression of NUT as a fusion partner most frequently with BRD4. ChIP-sequencing studies from NMC patients revealed that BRD4-NUT (B4N) covers large genomic regions and elevates transcription within these domains. To investigate how B4N modulates chromatin, we performed affinity purification of B4N when ectopically expressed in 293-TREx cells and quantified the associated histone posttranslational modifications (PTM) using proteomics. We observed significant enrichment of acetylation particularly on H3 K18 and of combinatorial patterns such as H3 K27 acetylation paired with K36 methylation. We postulate that B4N complexes override the preexisting histone code with new PTM patterns that reflect aberrant transcription and that epigenetically modulate the nucleosome environment toward the NMC state.

  9. The Oncoprotein BRD4-NUT Generates Aberrant Histone Modification Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Zee, Barry M.; Dibona, Amy B.; Alekseyenko, Artyom A.; French, Christopher A.; Kuroda, Mitzi I.

    2016-01-01

    Defects in chromatin proteins frequently manifest in diseases. A striking case of a chromatin-centric disease is NUT-midline carcinoma (NMC), which is characterized by expression of NUT as a fusion partner most frequently with BRD4. ChIP-sequencing studies from NMC patients revealed that BRD4-NUT (B4N) covers large genomic regions and elevates transcription within these domains. To investigate how B4N modulates chromatin, we performed affinity purification of B4N when ectopically expressed in 293-TREx cells and quantified the associated histone posttranslational modifications (PTM) using proteomics. We observed significant enrichment of acetylation particularly on H3 K18 and of combinatorial patterns such as H3 K27 acetylation paired with K36 methylation. We postulate that B4N complexes override the preexisting histone code with new PTM patterns that reflect aberrant transcription and that epigenetically modulate the nucleosome environment toward the NMC state. PMID:27698495

  10. Chromosome Aberrations and Fertility Disorders in Domestic Animals.

    PubMed

    Raudsepp, Terje; Chowdhary, Bhanu P

    2016-01-01

    The association between chromosomal abnormalities and reduced fertility in domestic animals is well recorded and has been studied for decades. Chromosome aberrations directly affect meiosis, gametogenesis, and the viability of zygotes and embryos. In some instances, balanced structural rearrangements can be transmitted, causing fertility problems in subsequent generations. Here, we aim to give a comprehensive overview of the current status and future prospects of clinical cytogenetics of animal reproduction by focusing on the advances in molecular cytogenetics during the genomics era. We describe how advancing knowledge about animal genomes has improved our understanding of connections between gross structural or molecular chromosome variations and reproductive disorders. Further, we expand on a key area of reproduction genetics: cytogenetics of animal gametes and embryos. Finally, we describe how traditional cytogenetics is interfacing with advanced genomics approaches, such as array technologies and next-generation sequencing, and speculate about the future prospects.

  11. Longitudinal chromatic aberration of the human infant eye.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyun; Candy, T Rowan; Teel, Danielle F W; Jacobs, Robert J

    2008-09-01

    Although the longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) of the adult eye has been studied, there are no data collected from the human infant eye. A chromatic retinoscope was used to measure cyclopleged infant and adult refractions with four pseudomonochromatic sources (centered at 472, 538, 589, and 652 nm) and with polychromatic light. The LCA of the infant eyes between 472 and 652 nm was a factor of 1.7 greater than the LCA found in the adult group: infant mean=1.62 D, SD+/- 0.14 D; adult mean=0.96 D, SD+/- 0.17 D. The elevated level of LCA in infant eyes is consistent with the greater optical power of the immature eye and indicates similar chromatic dispersion in infant and adult eyes. The implications for visual performance, defocus detection, and measurement of refraction are discussed.

  12. Fast and robust estimation of ophthalmic wavefront aberrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillon, Keith

    2016-12-01

    Rapidly rising levels of myopia, particularly in the developing world, have led to an increased need for inexpensive and automated approaches to optometry. A simple and robust technique is provided for estimating major ophthalmic aberrations using a gradient-based wavefront sensor. The approach is based on the use of numerical calculations to produce diverse combinations of phase components, followed by Fourier transforms to calculate the coefficients. The approach does not utilize phase unwrapping nor iterative solution of inverse problems. This makes the method very fast and tolerant to image artifacts, which do not need to be detected and masked or interpolated as is needed in other techniques. These features make it a promising algorithm on which to base low-cost devices for applications that may have limited access to expert maintenance and operation.

  13. Evaluation of chromosome aberration and micronucleus frequencies in blood lymphocytes of workers exposed to low concentrations of benzene.

    PubMed

    Lovreglio, Piero; Maffei, Francesca; Carrieri, Mariella; D'Errico, Maria N; Drago, Ignazio; Hrelia, Patrizia; Bartolucci, Giovanni B; Soleo, Leonardo

    2014-08-01

    The frequency of chromosome aberrations (CA) and micronuclei (MN) was investigated in the peripheral lymphocytes of workers occupationally exposed to low or very low concentrations of benzene. The study included 43 exposed workers (all males), namely 19 fuel-tanker drivers and 24 filling-station attendants, and 31 male subjects with no occupational exposure to the toxicant (controls). Benzene exposure was verified by means of environmental monitoring with passive personal samplers (Radiello(®)), and through biological monitoring, i.e. by measurement of urinary trans,trans-muconic acid, S-phenylmercapturic acid and benzene. The frequency of CA and MN in peripheral lymphocytes was determined according to standard procedures. Exposure to benzene was found to be significantly higher for fuel-tanker drivers (median 246.6 μg/m(3)) than for filling-station attendants (median 19.9 μg/m(3)). Both groups had significantly higher exposure than controls (median 4.3 μg/m(3)). No increased frequency of CA and MN was observed in either fuel-tanker drivers or filling-station attendants compared with controls. In all subjects examined as a single group, the frequency of MN was significantly dependent on age. Only in the fuel-tanker drivers was the frequency of MN found to depend not only on age, but also on exposure to benzene. In conclusion, the frequency of MN, but not of CA, could be influenced by exposure to benzene concentrations of up to one order of magnitude lower than the threshold limit value (time-weighted average).

  14. Epigenetic upregulation of large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel expression in uterine vascular adaptation to pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Man; Dasgupta, Chiranjib; Xiong, Fuxia; Zhang, Lubo

    2014-09-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that pregnancy increased large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium channel β1 subunit (BKβ1) expression and large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium channel activity in uterine arteries, which were abrogated by chronic hypoxia. The present study tested the hypothesis that promoter methylation/demethylation is a key mechanism in epigenetic reprogramming of BKβ1 expression patterns in uterine arteries. Ovine BKβ1 promoter of 2315 bp spanning from -2211 to +104 of the transcription start site was cloned, and an Sp1-380 binding site that contains CpG dinucleotide in its core binding sequences was identified. Site-directed deletion of the Sp1 site significantly decreased the BKβ1 promoter activity. Estrogen receptor-α bound to the Sp1 site through tethering to Sp1 and upregulated the expression of BKβ1. The Sp1 binding site at BKβ1 promoter was highly methylated in uterine arteries of nonpregnant sheep, and methylation inhibited transcription factor binding and BKβ1 promoter activity. Pregnancy caused a significant decrease in CpG methylation at the Sp1 binding site and increased Sp1 binding to the BKβ1 promoter and BKβ1 mRNA abundance. Chronic hypoxia during gestation abrogated this pregnancy-induced demethylation and upregulation of BKβ1 expression. The results provide evidence of a novel mechanism of promoter demethylation in pregnancy-induced reprogramming of large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium channel expression and function in uterine arteries and suggest new insights of epigenetic mechanisms linking gestational hypoxia to aberrant uteroplacental circulation and increased risk of preeclampsia.

  15. Aberrant meiotic behavior in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul

    PubMed Central

    Ruvalcaba-Ruiz, Domingo; Rodríguez-Garay, Benjamin

    2002-01-01

    Background Agave tequilana Weber var. azul, is the only one variety permitted by federal law in México to be used for tequila production which is the most popular contemporary alcoholic beverage made from agave and recognized worldwide. Despite the economic, genetic, and ornamental value of the plant, it has not been subjected to detailed cytogenetic research, which could lead to a better understanding of its reproduction for future genetic improvement. The objective of this work was to study the meiotic behavior in pollen mother cells and its implications on the pollen viability in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul. Results The analysis of Pollen Mother Cells in anaphase I (A-I) showed 82.56% of cells with a normal anaphase and, 17.44% with an irregular anaphase. In which 5.28% corresponded to cells with side arm bridges (SAB); 3.68% cells with one bridge and one fragment; 2.58% of irregular anaphase showed cells with one or two lagging chromosomes and 2.95% showed one acentric fragment; cells with two bridges and cells with two bridges and one acentric fragment were observed in frequencies of 1.60% and 1.35% respectively. In anaphase II some cells showed bridges and fragments too. Aberrant A-I cells had many shrunken or empty pollen grains (42.00%) and 58.00 % viable pollen. Conclusion The observed meiotic irregularities suggest that structural chromosome aberrations have occurred, such as heterozygous inversions, sister chromatid exchanges, deletions and duplications which in turn are reflected in a low pollen viability. PMID:12396234

  16. Genomic Aberrations Frequently Alter Chromatin Regulatory Genes in Chordoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lu; Zehir, Ahmet; Nafa, Khedoudja; Zhou, Nengyi; Berger, Michael F.; Casanova, Jacklyn; Sadowska, Justyna; Lu, Chao; Allis, C. David; Gounder, Mrinal; Chandhanayingyong, Chandhanarat; Ladanyi, Marc; Boland, Patrick J; Hameed, Meera

    2016-01-01

    Chordoma is a rare primary bone neoplasm that is resistant to standard chemotherapies. Despite aggressive surgical management, local recurrence and metastasis is not uncommon. To identify the specific genetic aberrations that play key roles in chordoma pathogenesis, we utilized a genome-wide high-resolution SNP-array and next generation sequencing (NGS)-based molecular profiling platform to study 24 patient samples with typical histopathologic features of chordoma. Matching normal tissues were available for 16 samples. SNP-array analysis revealed nonrandom copy number losses across the genome, frequently involving 3, 9p, 1p, 14, 10, and 13. In contrast, copy number gain is uncommon in chordomas. Two minimum deleted regions were observed on 3p within a ~8 Mb segment at 3p21.1–p21.31, which overlaps SETD2, BAP1 and PBRM1. The minimum deleted region on 9p was mapped to CDKN2A locus at 9p21.3, and homozygous deletion of CDKN2A was detected in 5/22 chordomas (~23%). NGS-based molecular profiling demonstrated an extremely low level of mutation rate in chordomas, with an average of 0.5 mutations per sample for the 16 cases with matched normal. When the mutated genes were grouped based on molecular functions, many of the mutation events (~40%) were found in chromatin regulatory genes. The combined copy number and mutation profiling revealed that SETD2 is the single gene affected most frequently in chordomas, either by deletion or by mutations. Our study demonstrated that chordoma belongs to the C-class (copy number changes) tumors whose oncogenic signature is non-random multiple copy number losses across the genome and genomic aberrations frequently alter chromatin regulatory genes. PMID:27072194

  17. Low incidence of chromosome aberrations in spermatozoa of fertile boars.

    PubMed

    Orsztynowicz, Maciej; Pawlak, Piotr; Oleś, Dominika; Kubickova, Svatava; Lechniak, Dorota

    2011-11-01

    Chromosomal imbalance in gametes and embryos is one of the factors contributing to early embryonic mortality. Although the rate of chromosomally abnormal sperm cells is low and usually does not exceed 1%, there is no clear indication of fertilizing potential of such gametes. The aim of the experiment was to investigate the type and incidence of numerical chromosomal aberrations in spermatozoa produced by fertile boars used in artificial insemination (AI). We used the protocol of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) on sperm interphase nuclei with molecular probes for porcine chromosome pairs 1 and 10. Altogether 12 348 sperm cells were examined. Disomy was observed in spermatozoa of all seven AI boars whereas only one diploid cell was identified in all screened sperm cells. The average rate of chromosomally unbalanced sperm was 0.105% (13/12 348) with an inter-individual variation from 0.048% to 0.194%. Among abnormal sperm cells, both disomy (0.097%) and diploidy (0.008%) were detected. Nullisomy was not included into calculations. The estimated aneuploidy rate calculated by doubling the number of disomic cells was 0.194%. Chromosome pair 10 was significantly more often involved in non-disjunction (75%, 9/12 aneuploid sperm cells) than chromosome pair 1 (25%, 3/12). We have shown for the pig that the rate of disomic cells falls into a range presented by other authors, whereas that of diploid spermatozoa appeared to be lower in the present study. In conclusion, numerical chromosome aberrations were present in spermatozoa of all AI boars analyzed in this study. Therefore, it can be assumed that the presence of unbalanced spermatozoa at the level observed in fertile males does not significantly affect their reproductive potential.

  18. Chromosome aberration and lipid peroxidation in chromium-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Maeng, S H; Chung, H W; Kim, K J; Lee, B M; Shin, Y C; Kim, S J; Yu, I J

    2004-01-01

    Chromosome aberration frequency and lipid peroxidation levels were analyzed to investigate their efficacy as biological markers for monitoring the genotoxicity and oxidative damage in Korean chromium (Cr)-exposed workers. Fifty-one Cr-exposed workers and 31 age-matched controls in ten chrome-plating plants were sampled. The Cr level was measured in the workers' blood and urine, and in the ambient air at the workplaces. The conventional Giemsa staining method and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique were used for chromosome aberration analysis. Spectrum green whole chromosome paint specific for chromosome 4 was used in the FISH procedure. As for lipid peroxidation, malondialdehyde (MDA) was measured in the blood plasma as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). The blood Cr concentration was statistically correlated with both the frequency of chromatid exchange and the total frequency of chromosome/chromatid breaks and exchanges, as detected by the Giemsa staining. Meanwhile, the frequency of translocation, as detected by the FISH technique, was significantly higher in the Cr-exposed workers than in the controls and it correlated with the blood Cr concentration. Although the concentration of MDA, the metabolite of lipid peroxidation, in the exposed workers was higher than that of the controls, no statistically significant correlation between the MDA level and the blood or urine Cr levels was observed. Accordingly, the genotoxicity and oxidative damage (plasma lipid peroxidation) in the Korean Cr-exposed workers were consequential at quite low exposure levels, plus chromosome rearrangement, especially translocation, was clearly evident as a biological response marker for Cr exposure based on a significant positive correlation between the translocations detected by FISH and the Cr in the blood.

  19. Regional Specificity of Aberrant Thalamocortical Connectivity in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Aarti; Carper, Ruth A.; Abbott, Angela E.; Chen, Colleen P.; Solders, Seraphina; Nakutin, Sarah; Datko, Michael C.; Fishman, Inna; Müller, Ralph-Axel

    2016-01-01

    Preliminary evidence suggests aberrant (mostly reduced) thalamocortical (TC) connectivity in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but despite the crucial role of thalamus in sensorimotor functions and its extensive connectivity with cerebral cortex, relevant evidence remains limited. We performed a comprehensive investigation of region-specific TC connectivity in ASD. Resting-state functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data were acquired for 60 children and adolescents with ASD (ages 7–17 years) and 45 age, sex, and IQ-matched typically developing (TD) participants. We examined intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) and anatomical connectivity (probabilistic tractography) with thalamus, using 68 unilateral cerebral cortical regions of interest (ROIs). For frontal and parietal lobes, iFC was atypically reduced in the ASD group for supramodal association cortices, but was increased for cingulate gyri and motor cortex. Temporal iFC was characterized by overconnectivity for auditory cortices, but underconnectivity for amygdalae. Occipital iFC was broadly reduced in the ASD group. DTI indices (such as increased radial diffusion) for regions with group differences in iFC further indicated compromised anatomical connectivity, especially for frontal ROIs, in the ASD group. Our findings highlight the regional specificity of aberrant TC connectivity in ASD. Their overall pattern can be largely accounted for by functional overconnectivity with limbic and sensorimotor regions, but underconnectivity with supramodal association cortices. This could be related to comparatively early maturation of limbic and sensorimotor regions in the context of early overgrowth in ASD, at the expense of TC connectivity with later maturing cortical regions. PMID:26493162

  20. Longitudinal Trajectories of Aberrant Behavior in Fragile X Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hustyi, Kristin M.; Hall, Scott S.; Jo, Booil; Lightbody, Amy A.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2016-01-01

    The Aberrant Behavior Checklist—Community (ABC-C; Aman, Burrow, & Wolford, 1995) has been increasingly adopted as a primary tool for measuring behavioral change in clinical trials for individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS). To our knowledge, however, no study has documented the longitudinal trajectory of aberrant behaviors in individuals with FXS using the ABC-C. As part of a larger longitudinal study, we examined scores obtained on the ABC-C subscales for 124 children and adolescents (64 males, 60 females) with FXS who had two or more assessments (average interval between assessments was approximately 4 years). Concomitant changes in age-equivalent scores on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) were also examined. As expected for an X-linked genetic disorder, males with FXS obtained significantly higher scores on all subscales of the ABC-C and significantly lower age-equivalent scores on the VABS than females with FXS. In both males and females with FXS, scores on the Irritability/Agitation and Hyperactivity/Noncompliance subscales of the ABC-C decreased significantly with age, with little to no change occurring over time on the Lethargy/Social Withdrawal, Stereotypic Behavior, and Inappropriate Speech subscales. The decrease in scores on the Hyperactivity/Noncompliance domain was significantly greater for males than for females. In both males and females, age-equivalent scores on the VABS increased significantly over this developmental period. These results establish a basis upon which to evaluate long-term outcomes from intervention-based research. However, longitudinal direct observational studies are needed to establish whether the severity of problem behavior actually decreases over time in this population. PMID:25129200