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Sample records for aberration-corrected scanning transmission

  1. The Three-Dimensional Point Spread Function of Aberration-Corrected Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Lupini, A.R.; de Jonge, N.

    2012-01-01

    Aberration-correction reduces the depth of field in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and thus allows three-dimensional imaging by depth-sectioning. This imaging mode offers the potential for sub-Ångstrom lateral resolution and nanometer-scale depth sensitivity. For biological samples, which may be many microns across and where high lateral resolution may not always be needed, optimizing the depth resolution even at the expense of lateral resolution may be desired, aiming to image through thick specimens. Although there has been extensive work examining and optimizing the probe formation in two-dimensions, there is less known about the probe shape along the optical axis. Here the probe shape is examined in three-dimensions in an attempt to better understand the depth-resolution in this mode. Examples are presented of how aberrations change the probe shape in three-dimensions, and it is found that off-axial aberrations may need to be considered for focal series of large areas. It is shown that oversized or annular apertures theoretically improve the vertical resolution for 3D imaging of nanoparticles. When imaging nanoparticles of several nanometer size, regular STEM can thereby be optimized such that the vertical full width at half maximum approaches that of the aberration corrected STEM with a standard aperture. PMID:21878149

  2. Morphology of the ferritin iron core by aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Nan; Dowle, Miriam; Horniblow, Richard D.; Tselepis, Chris; Palmer, Richard E.

    2016-11-01

    As the major iron storage protein, ferritin stores and releases iron for maintaining the balance of iron in fauna, flora, and bacteria. We present an investigation of the morphology and iron loading of ferritin (from equine spleen) using aberration-corrected high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy. Atom counting method, with size selected Au clusters as mass standards, was employed to determine the number of iron atoms in the nanoparticle core of each ferritin protein. Quantitative analysis shows that the nuclearity of iron atoms in the mineral core varies from a few hundred iron atoms to around 5000 atoms. Moreover, a relationship between the iron loading and iron core morphology is established, in which mineral core nucleates from a single nanoparticle, then grows along the protein shell before finally forming either a solid or hollow core structure.

  3. Identification of light elements in silicon nitride by aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Idrobo, Juan C; Walkosz, Weronika; Klie, Robert F; Oğüt, Serdar

    2012-12-01

    In silicon nitride structural ceramics, the overall mechanical and thermal properties are controlled by the atomic and electronic structures at the interface between the ceramic grains and the amorphous intergranular films (IGFs) formed by various sintering additives. In the last ten years the atomic arrangements of heavy elements (rare-earths) at the Si(3)N(4)/IGF interfaces have been resolved. However, the atomic position of light elements, without which it is not possible to obtain a complete description of the interfaces, has been lacking. This review article details the authors' efforts to identify the atomic arrangement of light elements such as nitrogen and oxygen at the Si(3)N(4)/SiO(2) interface and in bulk Si(3)N(4) using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Bright-field scanning confocal electron microscopy using a double aberration-corrected transmission electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Behan, Gavin; Kirkland, Angus I; Nellist, Peter D; Cosgriff, Eireann C; D'Alfonso, Adrian J; Morgan, Andrew J; Allen, Leslie J; Hashimoto, Ayako; Takeguchi, Masaki; Mitsuishi, Kazutaka; Shimojo, Masayuki

    2011-06-01

    Scanning confocal electron microscopy (SCEM) offers a mechanism for three-dimensional imaging of materials, which makes use of the reduced depth of field in an aberration-corrected transmission electron microscope. The simplest configuration of SCEM is the bright-field mode. In this paper we present experimental data and simulations showing the form of bright-field SCEM images. We show that the depth dependence of the three-dimensional image can be explained in terms of two-dimensional images formed in the detector plane. For a crystalline sample, this so-called probe image is shown to be similar to a conventional diffraction pattern. Experimental results and simulations show how the diffracted probes in this image are elongated in thicker crystals and the use of this elongation to estimate sample thickness is explored. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. New insights on ion track morphology in pyrochlores by aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Sachan, Ritesh; Zhang, Yanwen; Ou, Xin

    Here we demonstrate the enhanced imaging capabilities of an aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscope to advance the understanding of ion track structure in pyrochlore structured materials (i.e., Gd 2Ti 2O 7 and Gd 2TiZrO 7). Track formation occurs due to the inelastic transfer of energy from incident ions to electrons, and atomic-level details of track morphology as a function of energy-loss are revealed in the present work. A comparison of imaging details obtained by varying collection angles of detectors is discussed in the present work. A quantitative analysis of phase identification using high-angle annular dark field imaging is performedmore » on the ion tracks. Finally, a novel 3-dimensional track reconstruction method is provided that is based on depth dependent imaging of the ion tracks. The technique is used in extracting the atomic-level details of nanoscale features, such as the disordered ion tracks, which are embedded in relatively thicker matrix. Another relevance of the method is shown by measuring the tilt of the ion tracks relative to the electron beam incidence that helps in knowing the structure and geometry of ion tracks quantitatively.« less

  6. New insights on ion track morphology in pyrochlores by aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Sachan, Ritesh; Zhang, Yanwen; Ou, Xin; ...

    2016-12-13

    Here we demonstrate the enhanced imaging capabilities of an aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscope to advance the understanding of ion track structure in pyrochlore structured materials (i.e., Gd 2Ti 2O 7 and Gd 2TiZrO 7). Track formation occurs due to the inelastic transfer of energy from incident ions to electrons, and atomic-level details of track morphology as a function of energy-loss are revealed in the present work. A comparison of imaging details obtained by varying collection angles of detectors is discussed in the present work. A quantitative analysis of phase identification using high-angle annular dark field imaging is performedmore » on the ion tracks. Finally, a novel 3-dimensional track reconstruction method is provided that is based on depth dependent imaging of the ion tracks. The technique is used in extracting the atomic-level details of nanoscale features, such as the disordered ion tracks, which are embedded in relatively thicker matrix. Another relevance of the method is shown by measuring the tilt of the ion tracks relative to the electron beam incidence that helps in knowing the structure and geometry of ion tracks quantitatively.« less

  7. Spherical aberration correction in a scanning transmission electron microscope using a sculpted thin film.

    PubMed

    Shiloh, Roy; Remez, Roei; Lu, Peng-Han; Jin, Lei; Lereah, Yossi; Tavabi, Amir H; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E; Arie, Ady

    2018-06-01

    Nearly eighty years ago, Scherzer showed that rotationally symmetric, charge-free, static electron lenses are limited by an unavoidable, positive spherical aberration. Following a long struggle, a major breakthrough in the spatial resolution of electron microscopes was reached two decades ago by abandoning the first of these conditions, with the successful development of multipole aberration correctors. Here, we use a refractive silicon nitride thin film to tackle the second of Scherzer's constraints and demonstrate an alternative method for correcting spherical aberration in a scanning transmission electron microscope. We reveal features in Si and Cu samples that cannot be resolved in an uncorrected microscope. Our thin film corrector can be implemented as an immediate low cost upgrade to existing electron microscopes without re-engineering of the electron column or complicated operation protocols and can be extended to the correction of additional aberrations. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Atomic resolution elemental mapping using energy-filtered imaging scanning transmission electron microscopy with chromatic aberration correction.

    PubMed

    Krause, F F; Rosenauer, A; Barthel, J; Mayer, J; Urban, K; Dunin-Borkowski, R E; Brown, H G; Forbes, B D; Allen, L J

    2017-10-01

    This paper addresses a novel approach to atomic resolution elemental mapping, demonstrating a method that produces elemental maps with a similar resolution to the established method of electron energy-loss spectroscopy in scanning transmission electron microscopy. Dubbed energy-filtered imaging scanning transmission electron microscopy (EFISTEM) this mode of imaging is, by the quantum mechanical principle of reciprocity, equivalent to tilting the probe in energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) through a cone and incoherently averaging the results. In this paper we present a proof-of-principle EFISTEM experimental study on strontium titanate. The present approach, made possible by chromatic aberration correction, has the advantage that it provides elemental maps which are immune to spatial incoherence in the electron source, coherent aberrations in the probe-forming lens and probe jitter. The veracity of the experiment is supported by quantum mechanical image simulations, which provide an insight into the image-forming process. Elemental maps obtained in EFTEM suffer from the effect known as preservation of elastic contrast, which, for example, can lead to a given atomic species appearing to be in atomic columns where it is not to be found. EFISTEM very substantially reduces the preservation of elastic contrast and yields images which show stability of contrast with changing thickness. The experimental application is demonstrated in a proof-of-principle study on strontium titanate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Structural defects in cubic semiconductors characterized by aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Arroyo Rojas Dasilva, Yadira; Kozak, Roksolana; Erni, Rolf; Rossell, Marta D

    2017-05-01

    The development of new electro-optical devices and the realization of novel types of transistors require a profound understanding of the structural characteristics of new semiconductor heterostructures. This article provides a concise review about structural defects which occur in semiconductor heterostructures on the basis of micro-patterned Si substrates. In particular, one- and two-dimensional crystal defects are being discussed which are due to the plastic relaxation of epitaxial strain caused by the misfit of crystal lattices. Besides a few selected examples from literature, we treat in particular crystal defects occurring in GaAs/Si, Ge/Si and β-SiC/Si structures which are studied by high-resolution annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy. The relevance of this article is twofold; firstly, it should provide a collection of data which are of help for the identification and characterization of defects in cubic semiconductors by means of atomic-resolution imaging, and secondly, the experimental data shall provide a basis for advancing the understanding of device characteristics with the aid of theoretical modelling by considering the defective nature of strained semiconductor heterostructures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy for complex transition metal oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qing-Hua, Zhang; Dong-Dong, Xiao; Lin, Gu

    2016-06-01

    Lattice, charge, orbital, and spin are the four fundamental degrees of freedom in condensed matter, of which the interactive coupling derives tremendous novel physical phenomena, such as high-temperature superconductivity (high-T c SC) and colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) in strongly correlated electronic system. Direct experimental observation of these freedoms is essential to understanding the structure-property relationship and the physics behind it, and also indispensable for designing new materials and devices. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) integrating multiple techniques of structure imaging and spectrum analysis, is a comprehensive platform for providing structural, chemical and electronic information of materials with a high spatial resolution. Benefiting from the development of aberration correctors, STEM has taken a big breakthrough towards sub-angstrom resolution in last decade and always steps forward to improve the capability of material characterization; many improvements have been achieved in recent years, thereby giving an in-depth insight into material research. Here, we present a brief review of the recent advances of STEM by some representative examples of perovskite transition metal oxides; atomic-scale mapping of ferroelectric polarization, octahedral distortions and rotations, valence state, coordination and spin ordering are presented. We expect that this brief introduction about the current capability of STEM could facilitate the understanding of the relationship between functional properties and these fundamental degrees of freedom in complex oxides. Project supported by the National Key Basic Research Project, China (Grant No. 2014CB921002), the Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDB07030200), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51522212 and 51421002).

  11. Optimized Deconvolution for Maximum Axial Resolution in Three-Dimensional Aberration-Corrected Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandra, Ranjan; de Jonge, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) data sets were recorded of gold nanoparticles placed on both sides of silicon nitride membranes using focal series aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). The deconvolution of the 3D datasets was optimized to obtain the highest possible axial resolution. The deconvolution involved two different point spread function (PSF)s, each calculated iteratively via blind deconvolution.. Supporting membranes of different thicknesses were tested to study the effect of beam broadening on the deconvolution. It was found that several iterations of deconvolution was efficient in reducing the imaging noise. With an increasing number of iterations, the axial resolution was increased, and most of the structural information was preserved. Additional iterations improved the axial resolution by maximal a factor of 4 to 6, depending on the particular dataset, and up to 8 nm maximal, but at the cost of a reduction of the lateral size of the nanoparticles in the image. Thus, the deconvolution procedure optimized for highest axial resolution is best suited for applications where one is interested in the 3D locations of nanoparticles only. PMID:22152090

  12. Towards atomic scale engineering of rare-earth-doped SiAlON ceramics through aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yurdakul, Hilmi; Idrobo Tapia, Juan C; Pennycook, Stephen J

    2011-01-01

    Direct visualization of rare earths in {alpha}- and {beta}-SiAlON unit-cells is performed through Z-contrast imaging technique in an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope. The preferential occupation of Yb and Ce atoms in different interstitial locations of {beta}-SiAlON lattice is demonstrated, yielding higher solubility for Yb than Ce. The triangular-like host sites in {alpha}-SiAlON unit cell accommodate more Ce atoms than hexagonal sites in {beta}-SiAlON. We think that our results will be applicable as guidelines for many kinds of rare-earth-doped materials.

  13. Three-dimensional locations of gold-labeled proteins in a whole mount eukaryotic cell obtained with 3nm precision using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Dukes, Madeline J; Ramachandra, Ranjan; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Gray Jerome, W; de Jonge, Niels

    2011-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) maps of proteins within the context of whole cells are important for investigating cellular function. However, 3D reconstructions of whole cells are challenging to obtain using conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We describe a methodology to determine the 3D locations of proteins labeled with gold nanoparticles on whole eukaryotic cells. The epidermal growth factor receptors on COS7 cells were labeled with gold nanoparticles, and critical-point dried whole-mount cell samples were prepared. 3D focal series were obtained with aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), without tilting the specimen. The axial resolution was improved with deconvolution. The vertical locations of the nanoparticles in a whole-mount cell were determined with a precision of 3nm. From the analysis of the variation of the axial positions of the labels we concluded that the cellular surface was ruffled. To achieve sufficient stability of the sample under electron beam irradiation during the recording of the focal series, the sample was carbon coated. A quantitative method was developed to analyze the stability of the ultrastructure after electron beam irradiation using TEM. The results of this study demonstrate the feasibility of using aberration-corrected STEM to study the 3D nanoparticle distribution in whole cells. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Three-dimensional locations of gold-labeled proteins in a whole mount eukaryotic cell obtained with 3 nm precision using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Dukes, Madeline J.; Ramachandra, Ranjan; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Jerome, W. Gray; de Jonge, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) maps of proteins within the context of whole cells are important for investigating cellular function. However, 3D reconstructions of whole cells are challenging to obtain using conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We describe a methodology to determine the 3D locations of proteins labeled with gold nanoparticles on whole eukaryotic cells. The epidermal growth factor receptors on COS7 cells were labeled with gold nanoparticles, and critical-point dried whole-mount cell samples were prepared. 3D focal series were obtained with aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), without tilting the specimen. The axial resolution was improved with deconvolution. The vertical locations of the nanoparticles in a whole-mount cell were determined with a precision of 3 nm. From the analysis of the variation of the axial positions of the labels we concluded that the cellular surface was ruffled. To achieve sufficient stability of the sample under the electron beam irradiation during the recording of the focal series, the sample was carbon coated. A quantitative method was developed to analyze the stability of the ultrastructure after electron beam irradiation using TEM. The results of this study demonstrate the feasibility of using aberration-corrected STEM to study the 3D nanoparticle distribution in whole cells. PMID:21440635

  15. Puzzling Intergrowth in Cerium Nitridophosphate Unraveled by Joint Venture of Aberration-Corrected Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy and Synchrotron Diffraction.

    PubMed

    Kloß, Simon D; Neudert, Lukas; Döblinger, Markus; Nentwig, Markus; Oeckler, Oliver; Schnick, Wolfgang

    2017-09-13

    Thorough investigation of nitridophosphates has rapidly accelerated through development of new synthesis strategies. Here we used the recently developed high-pressure metathesis to prepare the first rare-earth metal nitridophosphate, Ce 4 Li 3 P 18 N 35 , with a high degree of condensation >1/2. Ce 4 Li 3 P 18 N 35 consists of an unprecedented hexagonal framework of PN 4 tetrahedra and exhibits blue luminescence peaking at 455 nm. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed two intergrown domains with slight structural and compositional variations. One domain type shows extremely weak superstructure phenomena revealed by atomic-resolution scanning TEM (STEM) and single-crystal diffraction using synchrotron radiation. The corresponding superstructure involves a modulated displacement of Ce atoms in channels of tetrahedra 6-rings. The displacement model was refined in a supercell as well as in an equivalent commensurate (3 + 2)-dimensional description in superspace group P6 3 (α, β, 0)0(-α - β, α, 0)0. In the second domain type, STEM revealed disordered vacancies of the same Ce atoms that were modulated in the first domain type, leading to sum formula Ce 4-0.5x Li 3 P 18 N 35-1.5x O 1.5x (x ≈ 0.72) of the average structure. The examination of these structural intricacies may indicate the detection limit of synchrotron diffraction and TEM. We discuss the occurrence of either Ce displacements or Ce vacancies that induce the incorporation of O as necessary stabilization of the crystal structure.

  16. Fine structural features of nanoscale zero-valent iron characterized by spherical aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (Cs-STEM).

    PubMed

    Liu, Airong; Zhang, Wei-xian

    2014-09-21

    An angstrom-resolution physical model of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) is generated with a combination of spherical aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (Cs-STEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) on the Fe L-edge. Bright-field (BF), high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) and secondary electron (SE) imaging of nZVI acquired by a Hitachi HD-2700 STEM show near atomic resolution images and detailed morphological and structural information of nZVI. The STEM-EDS technique confirms that the fresh nZVI comprises of a metallic iron core encapsulated with a thin layer of iron oxides or oxyhydroxides. SAED patterns of the Fe core suggest the polycrystalline structure in the metallic core and amorphous nature of the oxide layer. Furthermore, Fe L-edge of EELS shows varied structural features from the innermost Fe core to the outer oxide shell. A qualitative analysis of the Fe L(2,3) edge fine structures reveals that the shell of nZVI consists of a mixed Fe(II)/Fe(III) phase close to the Fe (0) interface and a predominantly Fe(III) at the outer surface of nZVI.

  17. Direct atomic-scale imaging of hydrogen and oxygen interstitials in pure niobium using atom-probe tomography and aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoon-Jun; Tao, Runzhe; Klie, Robert F; Seidman, David N

    2013-01-22

    Imaging the three-dimensional atomic-scale structure of complex interfaces has been the goal of many recent studies, due to its importance to technologically relevant areas. Combining atom-probe tomography and aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), we present an atomic-scale study of ultrathin (~5 nm) native oxide layers on niobium (Nb) and the formation of ordered niobium hydride phases near the oxide/Nb interface. Nb, an elemental type-II superconductor with the highest critical temperature (T(c) = 9.2 K), is the preferred material for superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities in next-generation particle accelerators. Nb exhibits high solubilities for oxygen and hydrogen, especially within the RF-field penetration depth, which is believed to result in SRF quality factor losses. STEM imaging and electron energy-loss spectroscopy followed by ultraviolet laser-assisted local-electrode atom-probe tomography on the same needle-like sample reveals the NbO(2), Nb(2)O(5), NbO, Nb stacking sequence; annular bright-field imaging is used to visualize directly hydrogen atoms in bulk β-NbH.

  18. Nanowire growth kinetics in aberration corrected environmental transmission electron microscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Chou, Yi -Chia; Panciera, Federico; Reuter, Mark C.; ...

    2016-03-15

    Here, we visualize atomic level dynamics during Si nanowire growth using aberration corrected environmental transmission electron microscopy, and compare with lower pressure results from ultra-high vacuum microscopy. We discuss the importance of higher pressure observations for understanding growth mechanisms and describe protocols to minimize effects of the higher pressure background gas.

  19. Structural Channels and Atomic-Cluster Insertion in CsxBi4Te6 (1 ≤ x ≤ 1.25) As Observed by Aberration-Corrected Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruixin; Yang, Huaixin; Guo, Cong; Tian, Huanfang; Shi, Honglong; Chen, Genfu; Li, Jianqi

    2016-12-19

    Microstructural analyses based on aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) observations demonstrate that low-dimensional Cs x Bi 4 Te 6 materials, known to be a novel thermoelectric and superconducting system, contain notable structural channels that go directly along the b axis, which can be partially filled by atom clusters depending on the thermal treatment process. We successfully prepared two series of Cs x Bi 4 Te 6 single-crystalline samples using two different sintering processes. The Cs x Bi 4 Te 6 samples prepared using an air-quenching method show superconductivity at approximately 4 K, while the Cs x Bi 4 Te 6 with the same nominal compositions prepared by slowly cooling are nonsuperconductors. Moreover, atomic structural investigations of typical samples reveal that the structural channels are often empty in superconducting materials; thus, we can represent the superconducting phase as Cs 1-y Bi 4 Te 6 with considering the point defects in the Cs layers. In addition, the channels in the nonsuperconducting crystals are commonly partially occupied by triplet Bi clusters. Moreover, the average structures for these two phases are also different in their monoclinic angles (β), which are estimated to be 102.3° for superconductors and 100.5° for nonsuperconductors.

  20. Design for an aberration corrected scanning electron microscope using miniature electron mirrors.

    PubMed

    Dohi, Hideto; Kruit, Pieter

    2018-06-01

    corrector system will be a promising candidate for simple and low-cost aberration correction in low-voltage SEMs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Interaction between single gold atom and the graphene edge: A study via aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongtao; Li, Kun; Cheng, Yingchun; Wang, Qingxiao; Yao, Yingbang; Schwingenschlögl, Udo; Zhang, Xixiang; Yang, Wei

    2012-04-01

    Interaction between single noble metal atoms and graphene edges has been investigated via aberration-corrected and monochromated transmission electron microscopy. A collective motion of the Au atom and the nearby carbon atoms is observed in transition between energy-favorable configurations. Most trapping and detrapping processes are assisted by the dangling carbon atoms, which are more susceptible to knock-on displacements by electron irradiation. Thermal energy is lower than the activation barriers in transition among different energy-favorable configurations, which suggests electron-beam irradiation can be an efficient way of engineering the graphene edge with metal atoms.Interaction between single noble metal atoms and graphene edges has been investigated via aberration-corrected and monochromated transmission electron microscopy. A collective motion of the Au atom and the nearby carbon atoms is observed in transition between energy-favorable configurations. Most trapping and detrapping processes are assisted by the dangling carbon atoms, which are more susceptible to knock-on displacements by electron irradiation. Thermal energy is lower than the activation barriers in transition among different energy-favorable configurations, which suggests electron-beam irradiation can be an efficient way of engineering the graphene edge with metal atoms. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional Figures for characterization of mono-layer CVD graphene samples with free edges and Pt atoms decorations and analysis of the effect of electron irradiation; supporting movie on edge evolution. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr00059h

  2. The Stanford Nanocharacterization Laboratory (SNL) and Recent Applications of an Aberration-Corrected Environmental Transmission Electron Microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Zschech, Ehrenfried; Sinclair, Robert; Kempen, Paul Joseph

    2014-04-30

    Here, this article describes the establishment, over a period of 10 years or so, of a multi-user, institution-wide facility for the characterization of materials and devices at the nanoscale. Emphasis is placed on the type of equipment that we have found to be most useful for our users, and the business strategy that maintains its operations. A central component of our facility is an aberration-corrected environmental transmission electron microscope and its application is summarized in the studies of plasmon energies of silver nanoparticles, the band gap of PbS quantum dots, atomic site occupancy near grain boundaries in yttria stabilized zirconia,more » the lithiation of silicon nanoparticles, in situ observations on carbon nanotube oxidation and the electron tomography of varicella zoster virus nucleocapsids.« less

  3. Aberration corrected 1.2-MV cold field-emission transmission electron microscope with a sub-50-pm resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Akashi, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Yoshio; Tanigaki, Toshiaki, E-mail: toshiaki.tanigaki.mv@hitachi.com

    2015-02-16

    Atomic-resolution electromagnetic field observation is critical to the development of advanced materials and to the unveiling of their fundamental physics. For this purpose, a spherical-aberration corrected 1.2-MV cold field-emission transmission electron microscope has been developed. The microscope has the following superior properties: stabilized accelerating voltage, minimized electrical and mechanical fluctuation, and coherent electron emission. These properties have enabled to obtain 43-pm information transfer. On the bases of these performances, a 43-pm resolution has been obtained by correcting lens aberrations up to the third order. Observations of GaN [411] thin crystal showed a projected atomic locations with a separation of 44 pm.

  4. Non-common path aberration correction in an adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope.

    PubMed

    Sulai, Yusufu N; Dubra, Alfredo

    2014-09-01

    The correction of non-common path aberrations (NCPAs) between the imaging and wavefront sensing channel in a confocal scanning adaptive optics ophthalmoscope is demonstrated. NCPA correction is achieved by maximizing an image sharpness metric while the confocal detection aperture is temporarily removed, effectively minimizing the monochromatic aberrations in the illumination path of the imaging channel. Comparison of NCPA estimated using zonal and modal orthogonal wavefront corrector bases provided wavefronts that differ by ~λ/20 in root-mean-squared (~λ/30 standard deviation). Sequential insertion of a cylindrical lens in the illumination and light collection paths of the imaging channel was used to compare image resolution after changing the wavefront correction to maximize image sharpness and intensity metrics. Finally, the NCPA correction was incorporated into the closed-loop adaptive optics control by biasing the wavefront sensor signals without reducing its bandwidth.

  5. Non-common path aberration correction in an adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope

    PubMed Central

    Sulai, Yusufu N.; Dubra, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    The correction of non-common path aberrations (NCPAs) between the imaging and wavefront sensing channel in a confocal scanning adaptive optics ophthalmoscope is demonstrated. NCPA correction is achieved by maximizing an image sharpness metric while the confocal detection aperture is temporarily removed, effectively minimizing the monochromatic aberrations in the illumination path of the imaging channel. Comparison of NCPA estimated using zonal and modal orthogonal wavefront corrector bases provided wavefronts that differ by ~λ/20 in root-mean-squared (~λ/30 standard deviation). Sequential insertion of a cylindrical lens in the illumination and light collection paths of the imaging channel was used to compare image resolution after changing the wavefront correction to maximize image sharpness and intensity metrics. Finally, the NCPA correction was incorporated into the closed-loop adaptive optics control by biasing the wavefront sensor signals without reducing its bandwidth. PMID:25401020

  6. Separating strain from composition in unit cell parameter maps obtained from aberration corrected high resolution transmission electron microscopy imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, T.; Remmele, T.; Korytov, M.

    2014-01-21

    Based on the evaluation of lattice parameter maps in aberration corrected high resolution transmission electron microscopy images, we propose a simple method that allows quantifying the composition and disorder of a semiconductor alloy at the unit cell scale with high accuracy. This is realized by considering, next to the out-of-plane, also the in-plane lattice parameter component allowing to separate the chemical composition from the strain field. Considering only the out-of-plane lattice parameter component not only yields large deviations from the true local alloy content but also carries the risk of identifying false ordering phenomena like formations of chains or platelets.more » Our method is demonstrated on image simulations of relaxed supercells, as well as on experimental images of an In{sub 0.20}Ga{sub 0.80}N quantum well. Principally, our approach is applicable to all epitaxially strained compounds in the form of quantum wells, free standing islands, quantum dots, or wires.« less

  7. Restoring defect structures in 3C-SiC/Si (001) from spherical aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscope images by means of deconvolution processing.

    PubMed

    Wen, C; Wan, W; Li, F H; Tang, D

    2015-04-01

    The [110] cross-sectional samples of 3C-SiC/Si (001) were observed with a spherical aberration-corrected 300 kV high-resolution transmission electron microscope. Two images taken not close to the Scherzer focus condition and not representing the projected structures intuitively were utilized for performing the deconvolution. The principle and procedure of image deconvolution and atomic sort recognition are summarized. The defect structure restoration together with the recognition of Si and C atoms from the experimental images has been illustrated. The structure maps of an intrinsic stacking fault in the area of SiC, and of Lomer and 60° shuffle dislocations at the interface have been obtained at atomic level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of stacking faults and associated partial dislocations in AlSb/GaAs (001) interface by aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, C.; Ge, B. H.; Cui, Y. X.; Li, F. H.; Zhu, J.; Yu, R.; Cheng, Z. Y.

    2014-11-01

    The stacking faults (SFs) in an AlSb/GaAs (001) interface were investigated using a 300 kV spherical aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). The structure and strain distribution of the single and intersecting (V-shaped) SFs associated with partial dislocations (PDs) were characterized by the [110] HRTEM images and geometric phase analysis, respectively. In the biaxial strain maps ɛxx and ɛyy, a SF can be divided into several sections under different strain states (positive or negative strain values). Furthermore, the strain state for the same section of a SF is in contrast to each other in ɛxx and ɛyy strain maps. The modification in the strain states was attributed to the variation in the local atomic displacements for the SF in the AlSb film on the GaAs substrate recorded in the lattice image. Finally, the single SF was found to be bounded by two 30° PDs. A pair of 30° PDs near the heteroepitaxial interface reacted to form a Lomer-Cottrell sessile dislocation located at the vertices of V-shaped SFs with opposite screw components. The roles of misfit dislocations, such as the PDs, in strain relaxation were also discussed.

  9. Aberration corrected STEM by means of diffraction gratings

    SciTech Connect

    Linck, Martin; Ercius, Peter A.; Pierce, Jordan S.

    In the past 15 years, the advent of aberration correction technology in electron microscopy has enabled materials analysis on the atomic scale. This is made possible by precise arrangements of multipole electrodes and magnetic solenoids to compensate the aberrations inherent to any focusing element of an electron microscope. In this paper, we describe an alternative method to correct for the spherical aberration of the objective lens in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) using a passive, nanofabricated diffractive optical element. This holographic device is installed in the probe forming aperture of a conventional electron microscope and can be designed to removemore » arbitrarily complex aberrations from the electron's wave front. In this work, we show a proof-of-principle experiment that demonstrates successful correction of the spherical aberration in STEM by means of such a grating corrector (GCOR). Our GCOR enables us to record aberration-corrected high-resolution high-angle annular dark field (HAADF-) STEM images, although yet without advancement in probe current and resolution. Finally, improvements in this technology could provide an economical solution for aberration-corrected high-resolution STEM in certain use scenarios.« less

  10. Aberration corrected STEM by means of diffraction gratings

    DOE PAGES

    Linck, Martin; Ercius, Peter A.; Pierce, Jordan S.; ...

    2017-06-12

    In the past 15 years, the advent of aberration correction technology in electron microscopy has enabled materials analysis on the atomic scale. This is made possible by precise arrangements of multipole electrodes and magnetic solenoids to compensate the aberrations inherent to any focusing element of an electron microscope. In this paper, we describe an alternative method to correct for the spherical aberration of the objective lens in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) using a passive, nanofabricated diffractive optical element. This holographic device is installed in the probe forming aperture of a conventional electron microscope and can be designed to removemore » arbitrarily complex aberrations from the electron's wave front. In this work, we show a proof-of-principle experiment that demonstrates successful correction of the spherical aberration in STEM by means of such a grating corrector (GCOR). Our GCOR enables us to record aberration-corrected high-resolution high-angle annular dark field (HAADF-) STEM images, although yet without advancement in probe current and resolution. Finally, improvements in this technology could provide an economical solution for aberration-corrected high-resolution STEM in certain use scenarios.« less

  11. An electron microscope for the aberration-corrected era.

    PubMed

    Krivanek, O L; Corbin, G J; Dellby, N; Elston, B F; Keyse, R J; Murfitt, M F; Own, C S; Szilagyi, Z S; Woodruff, J W

    2008-02-01

    Improved resolution made possible by aberration correction has greatly increased the demands on the performance of all parts of high-end electron microscopes. In order to meet these demands, we have designed and built an entirely new scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). The microscope includes a flexible illumination system that allows the properties of its probe to be changed on-the-fly, a third-generation aberration corrector which corrects all geometric aberrations up to fifth order, an ultra-responsive yet stable five-axis sample stage, and a flexible configuration of optimized detectors. The microscope features many innovations, such as a modular column assembled from building blocks that can be stacked in almost any order, in situ storage and cleaning facilities for up to five samples, computer-controlled loading of samples into the column, and self-diagnosing electronics. The microscope construction is described, and examples of its capabilities are shown.

  12. Keggin-type polyoxometalate nanosheets: synthesis and characterization via scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Hiyoshi, Norihito

    2018-05-17

    Polyoxometalate nanosheets were synthesized at the gas/liquid interface of an aqueous solution of Keggin-type silicotungstic acid, cesium chloride, and n-octylamine. The structure of the nanosheets was elucidated via aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy at the atomic and molecular levels.

  13. Imaging single atoms using secondary electrons with an aberration-corrected electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y; Inada, H; Nakamura, K; Wall, J

    2009-10-01

    Aberration correction has embarked on a new frontier in electron microscopy by overcoming the limitations of conventional round lenses, providing sub-angstrom-sized probes. However, improvement of spatial resolution using aberration correction so far has been limited to the use of transmitted electrons both in scanning and stationary mode, with an improvement of 20-40% (refs 3-8). In contrast, advances in the spatial resolution of scanning electron microscopes (SEMs), which are by far the most widely used instrument for surface imaging at the micrometre-nanometre scale, have been stagnant, despite several recent efforts. Here, we report a new SEM, with aberration correction, able to image single atoms by detecting electrons emerging from its surface as a result of interaction with the small probe. The spatial resolution achieved represents a fourfold improvement over the best-reported resolution in any SEM (refs 10-12). Furthermore, we can simultaneously probe the sample through its entire thickness with transmitted electrons. This ability is significant because it permits the selective visualization of bulk atoms and surface ones, beyond a traditional two-dimensional projection in transmission electron microscopy. It has the potential to revolutionize the field of microscopy and imaging, thereby opening the door to a wide range of applications, especially when combined with simultaneous nanoprobe spectroscopy.

  14. Aberration-Corrected Electron Beam Lithography at the One Nanometer Length Scale

    DOE PAGES

    Manfrinato, Vitor R.; Stein, Aaron; Zhang, Lihua; ...

    2017-04-18

    Patterning materials efficiently at the smallest length scales has been a longstanding challenge in nanotechnology. Electron-beam lithography (EBL) is the primary method for patterning arbitrary features, but EBL has not reliably provided sub-4 nm patterns. The few competing techniques that have achieved this resolution are orders of magnitude slower than EBL. In this work, we employed an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope for lithography to achieve unprecedented resolution. Here we show aberration-corrected EBL at the one nanometer length scale using poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and have produced both the smallest isolated feature in any conventional resist (1.7 ± 0.5 nm) andmore » the highest density patterns in PMMA (10.7 nm pitch for negative-tone and 17.5 nm pitch for positive-tone PMMA). We also demonstrate pattern transfer from the resist to semiconductor and metallic materials at the sub-5 nm scale. These results indicate that polymer-based nanofabrication can achieve feature sizes comparable to the Kuhn length of PMMA and ten times smaller than its radius of gyration. Use of aberration-corrected EBL will increase the resolution, speed, and complexity in nanomaterial fabrication.« less

  15. Precision controlled atomic resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy using spiral scan pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, Xiahan; Lupini, Andrew R.; Ding, Jilai; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Jesse, Stephen; Unocic, Raymond R.

    2017-03-01

    Atomic-resolution imaging in an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) can enable direct correlation between atomic structure and materials functionality. The fast and precise control of the STEM probe is, however, challenging because the true beam location deviates from the assigned location depending on the properties of the deflectors. To reduce these deviations, i.e. image distortions, we use spiral scanning paths, allowing precise control of a sub-Å sized electron probe within an aberration-corrected STEM. Although spiral scanning avoids the sudden changes in the beam location (fly-back distortion) present in conventional raster scans, it is not distortion-free. “Archimedean” spirals, with a constant angular frequency within each scan, are used to determine the characteristic response at different frequencies. We then show that such characteristic functions can be used to correct image distortions present in more complicated constant linear velocity spirals, where the frequency varies within each scan. Through the combined application of constant linear velocity scanning and beam path corrections, spiral scan images are shown to exhibit less scan distortion than conventional raster scan images. The methodology presented here will be useful for in situ STEM imaging at higher temporal resolution and for imaging beam sensitive materials.

  16. Precision controlled atomic resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy using spiral scan pathways.

    PubMed

    Sang, Xiahan; Lupini, Andrew R; Ding, Jilai; Kalinin, Sergei V; Jesse, Stephen; Unocic, Raymond R

    2017-03-08

    Atomic-resolution imaging in an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) can enable direct correlation between atomic structure and materials functionality. The fast and precise control of the STEM probe is, however, challenging because the true beam location deviates from the assigned location depending on the properties of the deflectors. To reduce these deviations, i.e. image distortions, we use spiral scanning paths, allowing precise control of a sub-Å sized electron probe within an aberration-corrected STEM. Although spiral scanning avoids the sudden changes in the beam location (fly-back distortion) present in conventional raster scans, it is not distortion-free. "Archimedean" spirals, with a constant angular frequency within each scan, are used to determine the characteristic response at different frequencies. We then show that such characteristic functions can be used to correct image distortions present in more complicated constant linear velocity spirals, where the frequency varies within each scan. Through the combined application of constant linear velocity scanning and beam path corrections, spiral scan images are shown to exhibit less scan distortion than conventional raster scan images. The methodology presented here will be useful for in situ STEM imaging at higher temporal resolution and for imaging beam sensitive materials.

  17. Precision controlled atomic resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy using spiral scan pathways

    DOE PAGES

    Sang, Xiahan; Lupini, Andrew R.; Ding, Jilai; ...

    2017-03-08

    Atomic-resolution imaging in an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) can enable direct correlation between atomic structure and materials functionality. The fast and precise control of the STEM probe is, however, challenging because the true beam location deviates from the assigned location depending on the properties of the deflectors. To reduce these deviations, i.e. image distortions, we use spiral scanning paths, allowing precise control of a sub-Å sized electron probe within an aberration-corrected STEM. Although spiral scanning avoids the sudden changes in the beam location (fly-back distortion) present in conventional raster scans, it is not distortion-free. “Archimedean” spirals, with amore » constant angular frequency within each scan, are used to determine the characteristic response at different frequencies. We then show that such characteristic functions can be used to correct image distortions present in more complicated constant linear velocity spirals, where the frequency varies within each scan. Through the combined application of constant linear velocity scanning and beam path corrections, spiral scan images are shown to exhibit less scan distortion than conventional raster scan images. The methodology presented here will be useful for in situ STEM imaging at higher temporal resolution and for imaging beam sensitive materials.« less

  18. Precision controlled atomic resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy using spiral scan pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Sang, Xiahan; Lupini, Andrew R.; Ding, Jilai

    Atomic-resolution imaging in an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) can enable direct correlation between atomic structure and materials functionality. The fast and precise control of the STEM probe is, however, challenging because the true beam location deviates from the assigned location depending on the properties of the deflectors. To reduce these deviations, i.e. image distortions, we use spiral scanning paths, allowing precise control of a sub-Å sized electron probe within an aberration-corrected STEM. Although spiral scanning avoids the sudden changes in the beam location (fly-back distortion) present in conventional raster scans, it is not distortion-free. “Archimedean” spirals, with amore » constant angular frequency within each scan, are used to determine the characteristic response at different frequencies. We then show that such characteristic functions can be used to correct image distortions present in more complicated constant linear velocity spirals, where the frequency varies within each scan. Through the combined application of constant linear velocity scanning and beam path corrections, spiral scan images are shown to exhibit less scan distortion than conventional raster scan images. The methodology presented here will be useful for in situ STEM imaging at higher temporal resolution and for imaging beam sensitive materials.« less

  19. Brief history of the Cambridge STEM aberration correction project and its progeny.

    PubMed

    Brown, L Michael; Batson, Philip E; Dellby, Niklas; Krivanek, Ondrej L

    2015-10-01

    We provide a brief history of the project to correct the spherical aberration of the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) that started in Cambridge (UK) and continued in Kirkland (WA, USA), Yorktown Heights (NY, USA), and other places. We describe the project in the full context of other aberration correction research and related work, partly in response to the incomplete context presented in the paper "In quest of perfection in electron optics: A biographical sketch of Harald Rose on the occasion of his 80th birthday", recently published in Ultramicroscopy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Optical advantages of astigmatic aberration corrected heliostats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rooyen, De Wet; Schöttl, Peter; Bern, Gregor; Heimsath, Anna; Nitz, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Astigmatic aberration corrected heliostats adapt their shape in dependence of the incidence angle of the sun on the heliostat. Simulations show that this optical correction leads to a higher concentration ratio at the target and thus in a decrease in required receiver aperture in particular for smaller heliostat fields.

  1. Pulse compressor with aberration correction

    SciTech Connect

    Mankos, Marian

    In this SBIR project, Electron Optica, Inc. (EOI) is developing an electron mirror-based pulse compressor attachment to new and retrofitted dynamic transmission electron microscopes (DTEMs) and ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) cameras for improving the temporal resolution of these instruments from the characteristic range of a few picoseconds to a few nanoseconds and beyond, into the sub-100 femtosecond range. The improvement will enable electron microscopes and diffraction cameras to better resolve the dynamics of reactions in the areas of solid state physics, chemistry, and biology. EOI’s pulse compressor technology utilizes the combination of electron mirror optics and a magnetic beam separatormore » to compress the electron pulse. The design exploits the symmetry inherent in reversing the electron trajectory in the mirror in order to compress the temporally broadened beam. This system also simultaneously corrects the chromatic and spherical aberration of the objective lens for improved spatial resolution. This correction will be found valuable as the source size is reduced with laser-triggered point source emitters. With such emitters, it might be possible to significantly reduce the illuminated area and carry out ultrafast diffraction experiments from small regions of the sample, e.g. from individual grains or nanoparticles. During phase I, EOI drafted a set of candidate pulse compressor architectures and evaluated the trade-offs between temporal resolution and electron bunch size to achieve the optimum design for two particular applications with market potential: increasing the temporal and spatial resolution of UEDs, and increasing the temporal and spatial resolution of DTEMs. Specialized software packages that have been developed by MEBS, Ltd. were used to calculate the electron optical properties of the key pulse compressor components: namely, the magnetic prism, the electron mirror, and the electron lenses. In the final step, these results were

  2. Iteration of ultrasound aberration correction methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maasoey, Svein-Erik; Angelsen, Bjoern; Varslot, Trond

    2004-05-01

    Aberration in ultrasound medical imaging is usually modeled by time-delay and amplitude variations concentrated on the transmitting/receiving array. This filter process is here denoted a TDA filter. The TDA filter is an approximation to the physical aberration process, which occurs over an extended part of the human body wall. Estimation of the TDA filter, and performing correction on transmit and receive, has proven difficult. It has yet to be shown that this method works adequately for severe aberration. Estimation of the TDA filter can be iterated by retransmitting a corrected signal and re-estimate until a convergence criterion is fulfilled (adaptive imaging). Two methods for estimating time-delay and amplitude variations in receive signals from random scatterers have been developed. One method correlates each element signal with a reference signal. The other method use eigenvalue decomposition of the receive cross-spectrum matrix, based upon a receive energy-maximizing criterion. Simulations of iterating aberration correction with a TDA filter have been investigated to study its convergence properties. A weak and strong human-body wall model generated aberration. Both emulated the human abdominal wall. Results after iteration improve aberration correction substantially, and both estimation methods converge, even for the case of strong aberration.

  3. Determination of aberration center of Ronchigram for automated aberration correctors in scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sannomiya, Takumi; Sawada, Hidetaka; Nakamichi, Tomohiro; Hosokawa, Fumio; Nakamura, Yoshio; Tanishiro, Yasumasa; Takayanagi, Kunio

    2013-12-01

    A generic method to determine the aberration center is established, which can be utilized for aberration calculation and axis alignment for aberration corrected electron microscopes. In this method, decentering induced secondary aberrations from inherent primary aberrations are minimized to find the appropriate axis center. The fitness function to find the optimal decentering vector for the axis was defined as a sum of decentering induced secondary aberrations with properly distributed weight values according to the aberration order. Since the appropriate decentering vector is determined from the aberration values calculated at an arbitrary center axis, only one aberration measurement is in principle required to find the center, resulting in /very fast center search. This approach was tested for the Ronchigram based aberration calculation method for aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy. Both in simulation and in experiments, the center search was confirmed to work well although the convergence to find the best axis becomes slower with larger primary aberrations. Such aberration center determination is expected to fully automatize the aberration correction procedures, which used to require pre-alignment of experienced users. This approach is also applicable to automated aperture positioning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The influence of C s/C c correction in analytical imaging and spectroscopy in scanning and transmission electron microscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Zaluzec, Nestor J.

    2014-11-11

    Aberration correction in scanning/transmission electron microscopy (S/TEM) owes much to the efforts of a small dedicated group of innovators. Leading that frontier has been Prof. Harald Rose. To date his leadership and dynamic personality has spearheaded our ability to leave behind many of the limitations imposed by spherical aberration (C s) in high resolution phase contrast imaging. Following shortly behind, has been the development of chromatic aberration correction (C c) which augments those accomplishments. In this study we will review and summarize how the combination of C s/C c technology enhances our ability to conduct hyperspectral imaging and spectroscopy inmore » today's and future computationally mediated experiments in both thin as well as realistic specimens in vacuo and during in-situ/environmental experiments.« less

  5. The influence of C s/C c correction in analytical imaging and spectroscopy in scanning and transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Zaluzec, Nestor J.

    Aberration correction in scanning/transmission electron microscopy (S/TEM) owes much to the efforts of a small dedicated group of innovators. Leading that frontier has been Prof. Harald Rose. To date his leadership and dynamic personality has spearheaded our ability to leave behind many of the limitations imposed by spherical aberration (C s) in high resolution phase contrast imaging. Following shortly behind, has been the development of chromatic aberration correction (C c) which augments those accomplishments. In this study we will review and summarize how the combination of C s/C c technology enhances our ability to conduct hyperspectral imaging and spectroscopy inmore » today's and future computationally mediated experiments in both thin as well as realistic specimens in vacuo and during in-situ/environmental experiments.« less

  6. Three-dimensional scanning transmission electron microscopy of biological specimens.

    PubMed

    de Jonge, Niels; Sougrat, Rachid; Northan, Brian M; Pennycook, Stephen J

    2010-02-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the cytoskeleton and a clathrin-coated pit in mammalian cells has been achieved from a focal-series of images recorded in an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). The specimen was a metallic replica of the biological structure comprising Pt nanoparticles 2-3 nm in diameter, with a high stability under electron beam radiation. The 3D dataset was processed by an automated deconvolution procedure. The lateral resolution was 1.1 nm, set by pixel size. Particles differing by only 10 nm in vertical position were identified as separate objects with greater than 20% dip in contrast between them. We refer to this value as the axial resolution of the deconvolution or reconstruction, the ability to recognize two objects, which were unresolved in the original dataset. The resolution of the reconstruction is comparable to that achieved by tilt-series transmission electron microscopy. However, the focal-series method does not require mechanical tilting and is therefore much faster. 3D STEM images were also recorded of the Golgi ribbon in conventional thin sections containing 3T3 cells with a comparable axial resolution in the deconvolved dataset.

  7. Three-Dimensional Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy of Biological Specimens

    PubMed Central

    de Jonge, Niels; Sougrat, Rachid; Northan, Brian M.; Pennycook, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the cytoskeleton and a clathrin-coated pit in mammalian cells has been achieved from a focal-series of images recorded in an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). The specimen was a metallic replica of the biological structure comprising Pt nanoparticles 2–3 nm in diameter, with a high stability under electron beam radiation. The 3D dataset was processed by an automated deconvolution procedure. The lateral resolution was 1.1 nm, set by pixel size. Particles differing by only 10 nm in vertical position were identified as separate objects with greater than 20% dip in contrast between them. We refer to this value as the axial resolution of the deconvolution or reconstruction, the ability to recognize two objects, which were unresolved in the original dataset. The resolution of the reconstruction is comparable to that achieved by tilt-series transmission electron microscopy. However, the focal-series method does not require mechanical tilting and is therefore much faster. 3D STEM images were also recorded of the Golgi ribbon in conventional thin sections containing 3T3 cells with a comparable axial resolution in the deconvolved dataset. PMID:20082729

  8. Aberration correction results in the IBM STEM instrument.

    PubMed

    Batson, P E

    2003-09-01

    Results from the installation of aberration correction in the IBM 120 kV STEM argue that a sub-angstrom probe size has been achieved. Results and the experimental methods used to obtain them are described here. Some post-experiment processing is necessary to demonstrate the probe size of about 0.078 nm. While the promise of aberration correction is demonstrated, we remain at the very threshold of practicality, given the very stringent stability requirements.

  9. Hartmann characterization of the PEEM-3 aberration-corrected X-ray photoemission electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Scholl, A; Marcus, M A; Doran, A; Nasiatka, J R; Young, A T; MacDowell, A A; Streubel, R; Kent, N; Feng, J; Wan, W; Padmore, H A

    2018-05-01

    Aberration correction by an electron mirror dramatically improves the spatial resolution and transmission of photoemission electron microscopes. We will review the performance of the recently installed aberration corrector of the X-ray Photoemission Electron Microscope PEEM-3 and show a large improvement in the efficiency of the electron optics. Hartmann testing is introduced as a quantitative method to measure the geometrical aberrations of a cathode lens electron microscope. We find that aberration correction leads to an order of magnitude reduction of the spherical aberrations, suggesting that a spatial resolution of below 100 nm is possible at 100% transmission of the optics when using x-rays. We demonstrate this improved performance by imaging test patterns employing element and magnetic contrast. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Contamination mitigation strategies for scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, D R G

    2015-06-01

    Modern scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) enables imaging and microanalysis at very high magnification. In the case of aberration-corrected STEM, atomic resolution is readily achieved. However, the electron fluxes used may be up to three orders of magnitude greater than those typically employed in conventional STEM. Since specimen contamination often increases with electron flux, specimen cleanliness is a critical factor in obtaining meaningful data when carrying out high magnification STEM. A range of different specimen cleaning methods have been applied to a variety of specimen types. The contamination rate has been measured quantitatively to assess the effectiveness of cleaning. The methods studied include: baking, cooling, plasma cleaning, beam showering and UV/ozone exposure. Of the methods tested, beam showering is rapid, experimentally convenient and very effective on a wide range of specimens. Oxidative plasma cleaning is also very effective and can be applied to specimens on carbon support films, albeit with some care. For electron beam-sensitive materials, cooling may be the method of choice. In most cases, preliminary removal of the bulk of the contamination by methods such as baking or plasma cleaning, followed by beam showering, where necessary, can result in a contamination-free specimen suitable for extended atomic scale imaging and analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Studies of local polarization in complex oxide multiferroic interfaces by aberration corrected STEM-EELS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Santolino, Gabriel; Tornos, Javier; Leon, Carlos; Varela, María; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Santamaría, Jacobo

    2014-03-01

    Interfaces in complex oxide heterostructures are responsible for exciting new physics, which is directly related to the chemical, structural and electronic properties at the atomic scale. Here, we study artificial multiferroic heterostructures combining ferromagnetic La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 with ferroelectric BaTiO3 by atomic resolution aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy. Measurements of the atomic positions in the STEM images permit calculating relative displacements and hence, local polarization. Polarization gradients can be observed in annular bright field images which seem to be correlated to strain gradients associated with the large lattice mismatch between barriers and electrodes. Spectroscopic measurements suggest the presence of O vacancies through the ferroelectric layers. Understanding the effect of the charge carriers associated with the oxygen vacancies may be the key to control the dynamics of domain walls in these heterostructures. Acknowledgements ORNL: U.S. DOE-BES, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division. UCM: ERC Starting Investigator Award, Spanish MICINN MAT2011-27470-C02 and Consolider Ingenio 2010 - CSD2009-00013 (Imagine), CAM S2009/MAT-1756 (Phama).

  12. Correlating Atom Probe Tomography with Atomic-Resolved Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy: Example of Segregation at Silicon Grain Boundaries.

    PubMed

    Stoffers, Andreas; Barthel, Juri; Liebscher, Christian H; Gault, Baptiste; Cojocaru-Mirédin, Oana; Scheu, Christina; Raabe, Dierk

    2017-04-01

    In the course of a thorough investigation of the performance-structure-chemistry interdependency at silicon grain boundaries, we successfully developed a method to systematically correlate aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography. The correlative approach is conducted on individual APT and TEM specimens, with the option to perform both investigations on the same specimen in the future. In the present case of a Σ9 grain boundary, joint mapping of the atomistic details of the grain boundary topology, in conjunction with chemical decoration, enables a deeper understanding of the segregation of impurities observed at such grain boundaries.

  13. Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy | Materials Science | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    mode by collecting the EDS and EELS signals point-by-point as one scans the electron probe across the . Examples of Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Capabilities Z-contrast image microphoto taken by

  14. The application of aberration-corrected electron microscopy to the characterization of gold-based catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzing, Andrew A.

    Electron microscopy has long been used to study the morphology of heterogeneous catalysts. Recent advances in electron optics now allow for the correction of the inherent spherical aberration (Cs) produced by the objective lens in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM, resulting in a significantly improved spatial resolution as well as the ability to use a much larger probe-current than was previously possible. In this thesis, the combination of high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) imaging and microanalysis by x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS) in an aberration-corrected STEM has been applied for the first time to the characterization of gold-based heterogeneous catalysts. Multi-variate statistical analysis (MSA) has been employed in order to further improve the STEM-XEDS spectrum image data acquired with this technique. In addition, supplemental analysis using electron-energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) in an aberration-corrected instrument has also been attempted. These techniques have proven extremely valuable in providing complimentary information to more traditional catalyst characterization techniques such as x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction in four specific problems relating to catalysis. Firstly, the atomic-scale resolution of Cs-corrected HAADF imaging has been utilized to study Au/FeOx catalysts in order to determine the size and structure of the Au clusters present on the support surface. It was discovered that, while both inactive and active catalysts for low-temperature CO oxidation contained large Au particles (> 5 nm) and individual Au atoms, the active catalyst also contained sub-nm clusters comprised of only a few Au atoms. Secondly, novel CeO2 support materials for Au and Au-Pd catalysts were synthesized by precipitation with supercritical CO2. These supports were found to produce significantly more active catalysts than those based on CeO2

  15. Characterization of LiBC by phase-contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Krumeich, Frank; Wörle, Michael; Reibisch, Philipp; Nesper, Reinhard

    2014-08-01

    LiBC was used as a model compound for probing the applicability of phase-contrast (PC) imaging in an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) to visualize lithium distributions. In the LiBC structure, boron and carbon are arranged to hetero graphite layers between which lithium is incorporated. The crystal structure is reflected in the PC-STEM images recorded perpendicular to the layers. The experimental images and their defocus dependence match with multi-slice simulations calculated utilizing the reciprocity principle. The observation that a part of the Li positions is not occupied is likely an effect of the intense electron beam triggering Li displacement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Lesion Generation Through Ribs Using Histotripsy Therapy Without Aberration Correction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yohan; Wang, Tzu-Yin; Xu, Zhen; Cain, Charles A.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the feasibility of using high-intensity pulsed therapeutic ultrasound, or histotripsy, to non-invasively generate lesions through the ribs. Histotripsy therapy mechanically ablates tissue through the generation of a cavitation bubble cloud, which occurs when the focal pressure exceeds a certain threshold. We hypothesize that histotripsy can generate precise lesions through the ribs without aberration correction if the main lobe retains its shape and exceeds the cavitation initiation threshold and the secondary lobes remain below the threshold. To test this hypothesis, a 750-kHz focused transducer was used to generate lesions in tissue-mimicking phantoms with and without the presence of rib aberrators. In all cases, 8000 pulses with 16 to 18 MPa peak rarefactional pressure at a repetition frequency of 100 Hz were applied without aberration correction. Despite the high secondary lobes introduced by the aberrators, high-speed imaging showed that bubble clouds were generated exclusively at the focus, resulting in well-confined lesions with comparable dimensions. Collateral damage from secondary lobes was negligible, caused by single bubbles that failed to form a cloud. These results support our hypothesis, suggesting that histotripsy has a high tolerance for aberrated fields and can generate confined focal lesions through rib obstacles without aberration correction. PMID:22083767

  17. Lesion generation through ribs using histotripsy therapy without aberration correction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yohan; Wang, Tzu-Yin; Xu, Zhen; Cain, Charles A

    2011-11-01

    This study investigates the feasibility of using high-intensity pulsed therapeutic ultrasound, or histotripsy, to non-invasively generate lesions through the ribs. Histotripsy therapy mechanically ablates tissue through the generation of a cavitation bubble cloud, which occurs when the focal pressure exceeds a certain threshold. We hypothesize that histotripsy can generate precise lesions through the ribs without aberration correction if the main lobe retains its shape and exceeds the cavitation initiation threshold and the secondary lobes remain below the threshold. To test this hypothesis, a 750-kHz focused transducer was used to generate lesions in tissue-mimicking phantoms with and without the presence of rib aberrators. In all cases, 8000 pulses with 16 to 18 MPa peak rarefactional pressure at a repetition frequency of 100 Hz were applied without aberration correction. Despite the high secondary lobes introduced by the aberrators, high-speed imaging showed that bubble clouds were generated exclusively at the focus, resulting in well-confined lesions with comparable dimensions. Collateral damage from secondary lobes was negligible, caused by single bubbles that failed to form a cloud. These results support our hypothesis, suggesting that histotripsy has a high tolerance for aberrated fields and can generate confined focal lesions through rib obstacles without aberration correction.

  18. Scanning transmission electron microscopy methods for the analysis of nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ponce, Arturo; Mejía-Rosales, Sergio; José-Yacamán, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Here we review the scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) characterization technique and STEM imaging methods. We describe applications of STEM for studying inorganic nanoparticles, and other uses of STEM in biological and health sciences and discuss how to interpret STEM results. The STEM imaging mode has certain benefits compared with the broad-beam illumination mode; the main advantage is the collection of the information about the specimen using a high angular annular dark field (HAADF) detector, in which the images registered have different levels of contrast related to the chemical composition of the sample. Another advantage of its use in the analysis of biological samples is its contrast for thick stained sections, since HAADF images of samples with thickness of 100-120 nm have notoriously better contrast than those obtained by other techniques. Combining the HAADF-STEM imaging with the new aberration correction era, the STEM technique reaches a direct way to imaging the atomistic structure and composition of nanostructures at a sub-angstrom resolution. Thus, alloying in metallic nanoparticles is directly resolved at atomic scale by the HAADF-STEM imaging, and the comparison of the STEM images with results from simulations gives a very powerful way of analysis of structure and composition. The use of X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy attached to the electron microscope for STEM mode is also described. In issues where characterization at the atomic scale of the interaction between metallic nanoparticles and biological systems is needed, all the associated techniques to STEM become powerful tools for the best understanding on how to use these particles in biomedical applications.

  19. Real-time 3-D contrast-enhanced transcranial ultrasound and aberration correction.

    PubMed

    Ivancevich, Nikolas M; Pinton, Gianmarco F; Nicoletto, Heather A; Bennett, Ellen; Laskowitz, Daniel T; Smith, Stephen W

    2008-09-01

    Contrast-enhanced (CE) transcranial ultrasound (US) and reconstructed 3-D transcranial ultrasound have shown advantages over traditional methods in a variety of cerebrovascular diseases. We present the results from a novel ultrasound technique, namely real-time 3-D contrast-enhanced transcranial ultrasound. Using real-time 3-D (RT3D) ultrasound and microbubble contrast agent, we scanned 17 healthy volunteers via a single temporal window and nine via the suboccipital window and report our detection rates for the major cerebral vessels. In 71% of subjects, both of our observers identified the ipsilateral circle of Willis from the temporal window, and in 59% we imaged the entire circle of Willis. From the suboccipital window, both observers detected the entire vertebrobasilar circulation in 22% of subjects, and in 44%, the basilar artery. After performing phase aberration correction on one subject, we were able to increase the diagnostic value of the scan, detecting a vessel not present in the uncorrected scan. These preliminary results suggest that RT3D CE transcranial US and RT3D CE transcranial US with phase aberration correction have the potential to greatly impact the field of neurosonology.

  20. Real-Time 3D Contrast-Enhanced Transcranial Ultrasound and Aberration Correction

    PubMed Central

    Ivancevich, Nikolas M.; Pinton, Gianmarco F.; Nicoletto, Heather A.; Bennett, Ellen; Laskowitz, Daniel T.; Smith, Stephen W.

    2008-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced (CE) transcranial ultrasound (US) and reconstructed 3D transcranial ultrasound have shown advantages over traditional methods in a variety of cerebrovascular diseases. We present the results from a novel ultrasound technique, namely real-time 3D contrast-enhanced transcranial ultrasound. Using real-time 3D (RT3D) ultrasound and micro-bubble contrast agent, we scanned 17 healthy volunteers via a single temporal window and 9 via the sub-occipital window and report our detection rates for the major cerebral vessels. In 71% of subjects, both of our observers identified the ipsilateral circle of Willis from the temporal window, and in 59% we imaged the entire circle of Willis. From the sub-occipital window, both observers detected the entire vertebrobasilar circulation in 22% of subjects, and in 44% the basilar artery. After performing phase aberration correction on one subject, we were able to increase the diagnostic value of the scan, detecting a vessel not present in the uncorrected scan. These preliminary results suggest that RT3D CE transcranial US and RT3D CE transcranial US with phase aberration correction have the potential to greatly impact the field of neurosonology. PMID:18395321

  1. Intrinsic instability of aberration-corrected electron microscopes.

    PubMed

    Schramm, S M; van der Molen, S J; Tromp, R M

    2012-10-19

    Aberration-corrected microscopes with subatomic resolution will impact broad areas of science and technology. However, the experimentally observed lifetime of the corrected state is just a few minutes. Here we show that the corrected state is intrinsically unstable; the higher its quality, the more unstable it is. Analyzing the contrast transfer function near optimum correction, we define an "instability budget" which allows a rational trade-off between resolution and stability. Unless control systems are developed to overcome these challenges, intrinsic instability poses a fundamental limit to the resolution practically achievable in the electron microscope.

  2. Imaging the Atomic Position of Light Cations in a Porous Network and the Europium(III) Ion Exchange Capability by Aberration-Corrected Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Mayoral, Alvaro; Hall, Reece M; Jackowska, Roksana; Readman, Jennifer E

    2016-12-23

    In the present work, ETS-10 microporous titanosilicate has been synthesized and its structure characterized by means of powder XRD and aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (C s -corrected STEM). For the first time, sodium ions have been imaged sitting inside the 7-membered rings. The ion-exchange capability has been tested by the inclusion of rare earth metals (Eu, Tb and Gd) to produce a luminescent material which has been studied by atomic-resolution C s -corrected STEM. The data produced has allowed unambiguous imaging of light atoms in a microporous framework as well as determining the cationic metal positions for the first time, providing evidence of the importance of advanced electron microscopy methods for the study of the local environment of metals within zeolitic supports providing unique information of both systems (guest and support) at the same time. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Direct Visualization of Local Electromagnetic Field Structures by Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Naoya; Findlay, Scott D; Matsumoto, Takao; Kohno, Yuji; Seki, Takehito; Sánchez-Santolino, Gabriel; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2017-07-18

    The functional properties of materials and devices are critically determined by the electromagnetic field structures formed inside them, especially at nanointerface and surface regions, because such structures are strongly associated with the dynamics of electrons, holes and ions. To understand the fundamental origin of many exotic properties in modern materials and devices, it is essential to directly characterize local electromagnetic field structures at such defect regions, even down to atomic dimensions. In recent years, rapid progress in the development of high-speed area detectors for aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) with sub-angstrom spatial resolution has opened new possibilities to directly image such electromagnetic field structures at very high-resolution. In this Account, we give an overview of our recent development of differential phase contrast (DPC) microscopy for aberration-corrected STEM and its application to many materials problems. In recent years, we have developed segmented-type STEM detectors which divide the detector plane into 16 segments and enable simultaneous imaging of 16 STEM images which are sensitive to the positions and angles of transmitted/scattered electrons on the detector plane. These detectors also have atomic-resolution imaging capability. Using these segmented-type STEM detectors, we show DPC STEM imaging to be a very powerful tool for directly imaging local electromagnetic field structures in materials and devices in real space. For example, DPC STEM can clearly visualize the local electric field variation due to the abrupt potential change across a p-n junction in a GaAs semiconductor, which cannot be observed by normal in-focus bright-field or annular type dark-field STEM imaging modes. DPC STEM is also very effective for imaging magnetic field structures in magnetic materials, such as magnetic domains and skyrmions. Moreover, real-time imaging of electromagnetic field structures can

  4. Exploring the atomic structure of 1.8nm monolayer-protected gold clusters with aberration-corrected STEM.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian; Jian, Nan; Ornelas, Isabel; Pattison, Alexander J; Lahtinen, Tanja; Salorinne, Kirsi; Häkkinen, Hannu; Palmer, Richard E

    2017-05-01

    Monolayer-protected (MP) Au clusters present attractive quantum systems with a range of potential applications e.g. in catalysis. Knowledge of the atomic structure is needed to obtain a full understanding of their intriguing physical and chemical properties. Here we employed aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (ac-STEM), combined with multislice simulations, to make a round-robin investigation of the atomic structure of chemically synthesised clusters with nominal composition Au 144 (SCH 2 CH 2 Ph) 60 provided by two different research groups. The MP Au clusters were "weighed" by the atom counting method, based on their integrated intensities in the high angle annular dark field (HAADF) regime and calibrated exponent of the Z dependence. For atomic structure analysis, we compared experimental images of hundreds of clusters, with atomic resolution, against a variety of structural models. Across the size range 123-151 atoms, only 3% of clusters matched the theoretically predicted Au 144 (SR) 60 structure, while a large proportion of the clusters were amorphous (i.e. did not match any model structure). However, a distinct ring-dot feature, characteristic of local icosahedral symmetry, was observed in about 20% of the clusters. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Analysis of Bi Distribution in Epitaxial GaAsBi by Aberration-Corrected HAADF-STEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baladés, N.; Sales, D. L.; Herrera, M.; Tan, C. H.; Liu, Y.; Richards, R. D.; Molina, S. I.

    2018-04-01

    The Bi content in GaAs/GaAs1 - x Bi x /GaAs heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy at a substrate temperature close to 340 °C is investigated by aberration-corrected high-angle annular dark-field techniques. The analysis at low magnification of high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy images, corroborated by EDX analysis, revealed planar defect-free layers and a non-homogeneous Bi distribution at the interfaces and within the GaAsBi layer. At high magnification, the qHAADF analysis confirmed the inhomogeneous distribution and Bi segregation at the GaAsBi/GaAs interface at low Bi flux and distorted dumbbell shape in areas with higher Bi content. At higher Bi flux, the size of the Bi gathering increases leading to roughly equiaxial Bi-rich particles faceted along zinc blende {111} and uniformly dispersed around the matrix and interfaces. FFT analysis checks the coexistence of two phases in some clusters: a rhombohedral pure Bi (rh-Bi) one surrounded by a zinc blende GaAs1 - x Bi x matrix. Clusters may be affecting to the local lattice relaxation and leading to a partially relaxed GaAsBi/GaAs system, in good agreement with XRD analysis.

  6. Holographic optical system for aberration corrections in laser Doppler velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, R. C.; Case, S. K.; Schock, H. J.

    1985-01-01

    An optical system containing multifaceted holographic optical elements (HOEs) has been developed to correct for aberrations introduced by nonflat windows in laser Doppler velocimetry. The multifacet aberration correction approach makes it possible to record on one plate many sets of adjacent HOEs that address different measurement volume locations. By using 5-mm-diameter facets, it is practical to place 10-20 sets of holograms on one 10 x 12.5-cm plate, so that the procedure of moving the entire optical system to examine different locations may not be necessary. The holograms are recorded in dichromated gelatin and therefore are nonabsorptive and suitable for use with high-power argon laser beams. Low f-number optics coupled with a 90-percent efficient distortion-correcting hologram in the collection side of the system yield high optical efficiency.

  7. Integral image rendering procedure for aberration correction and size measurement.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Holger; Ihrig, Andreas; Ebenau, Melanie; Flühs, Dirk; Spaan, Bernhard; Eichmann, Marion

    2014-05-20

    The challenge in rendering integral images is to use as much information preserved by the light field as possible to reconstruct a captured scene in a three-dimensional way. We propose a rendering algorithm based on the projection of rays through a detailed simulation of the optical path, considering all the physical properties and locations of the optical elements. The rendered images contain information about the correct size of imaged objects without the need to calibrate the imaging device. Additionally, aberrations of the optical system may be corrected, depending on the setup of the integral imaging device. We show simulation data that illustrates the aberration correction ability and experimental data from our plenoptic camera, which illustrates the capability of our proposed algorithm to measure size and distance. We believe this rendering procedure will be useful in the future for three-dimensional ophthalmic imaging of the human retina.

  8. Weak-beam scanning transmission electron microscopy for quantitative dislocation density measurement in steels.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kenta; Shimodaira, Masaki; Toyama, Takeshi; Shimizu, Yasuo; Inoue, Koji; Yoshiie, Toshimasa; Milan, Konstantinovic J; Gerard, Robert; Nagai, Yasuyoshi

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate dislocations induced by neutron irradiation, we developed a weak-beam scanning transmission electron microscopy (WB-STEM) system by installing a novel beam selector, an annular detector, a high-speed CCD camera and an imaging filter in the camera chamber of a spherical aberration-corrected transmission electron microscope. The capabilities of the WB-STEM with respect to wide-view imaging, real-time diffraction monitoring and multi-contrast imaging are demonstrated using typical reactor pressure vessel steel that had been used in an European nuclear reactor for 30 years as a surveillance test piece with a fluence of 1.09 × 1020 neutrons cm-2. The quantitatively measured size distribution (average loop size = 3.6 ± 2.1 nm), number density of the dislocation loops (3.6 × 1022 m-3) and dislocation density (7.8 × 1013 m m-3) were carefully compared with the values obtained via conventional weak-beam transmission electron microscopy studies. In addition, cluster analysis using atom probe tomography (APT) further demonstrated the potential of the WB-STEM for correlative electron tomography/APT experiments. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. A short story of imaging and spectroscopy of two-dimensional materials by scanning transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Idrobo Tapia, Juan Carlos; Zhou, Wu

    Here we present a short historical account of when single adatom impurities where first identified in two-dimensional materials by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). We also present a study of the graphene low-loss (below 50 eV) response as a function of number of layers using electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). The study shows that as few as three layers of graphene behave as bulk graphite for losses above 10 eV We also show examples of how point and extended defects can easily be resolved and structural dynamics can be readily capture by using aberration-corrected STEM imaging. Lastly, we show that themore » new generation of monochromators has opened up possibilities to explore new physics with an electron microscope. All these capabilities were enabled by the development of spherical aberration correctors and monochromators, where Ondrej Krivanek has played a key role.« less

  10. A short story of imaging and spectroscopy of two-dimensional materials by scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Idrobo, Juan C; Zhou, Wu

    2017-09-01

    Here we present a short historical account of when single adatom impurities where first identified in two-dimensional materials by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). We also present a study of the graphene low-loss (below 50eV) response as a function of number of layers using electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). The study shows that as few as three layers of graphene behave as bulk graphite for losses above 10eV We also show examples of how point and extended defects can easily be resolved and structural dynamics can be readily capture by using aberration-corrected STEM imaging. Finally, we show that the new generation of monochromators has opened up possibilities to explore new physics with an electron microscope. All these capabilities were enabled by the development of spherical aberration correctors and monochromators, where Ondrej Krivanek has played a key role. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. A short story of imaging and spectroscopy of two-dimensional materials by scanning transmission electron microscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Idrobo Tapia, Juan Carlos; Zhou, Wu

    2017-03-01

    Here we present a short historical account of when single adatom impurities where first identified in two-dimensional materials by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). We also present a study of the graphene low-loss (below 50 eV) response as a function of number of layers using electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). The study shows that as few as three layers of graphene behave as bulk graphite for losses above 10 eV We also show examples of how point and extended defects can easily be resolved and structural dynamics can be readily capture by using aberration-corrected STEM imaging. Lastly, we show that themore » new generation of monochromators has opened up possibilities to explore new physics with an electron microscope. All these capabilities were enabled by the development of spherical aberration correctors and monochromators, where Ondrej Krivanek has played a key role.« less

  12. Column-by-column observation of dislocation motion in CdTe: Dynamic scanning transmission electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chen; Zhang, Yu-Yang; Pennycook, Timothy J.; Wu, Yelong; Lupini, Andrew R.; Paudel, Naba; Pantelides, Sokrates T.; Yan, Yanfa; Pennycook, Stephen J.

    2016-10-01

    The dynamics of partial dislocations in CdTe have been observed at the atomic scale using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), allowing the mobility of different dislocations to be directly compared: Cd-core Shockley partial dislocations are more mobile than Te-core partials, and dislocation cores with unpaired columns have higher mobility than those without unpaired columns. The dynamic imaging also provides insight into the process by which the dislocations glide. Dislocations with dangling bonds on unpaired columns are found to be more mobile because the dangling bonds mediate the bond exchanges required for the dislocations to move. Furthermore, a screw dislocation has been resolved to dissociate into a Shockley partial-dislocation pair along two different directions, revealing a way for the screw dislocation to glide in the material. The results show that dynamic STEM imaging has the potential to uncover the details of dislocation motion not easily accessible by other means.

  13. Joint denoising, demosaicing, and chromatic aberration correction for UHD video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanov, Ljubomir; Philips, Wilfried; Damstra, Klaas Jan; Ellenbroek, Frank

    2017-09-01

    High-resolution video capture is crucial for numerous applications such as surveillance, security, industrial inspection, medical imaging and digital entertainment. In the last two decades, we are witnessing a dramatic increase of the spatial resolution and the maximal frame rate of video capturing devices. In order to achieve further resolution increase, numerous challenges will be facing us. Due to the reduced size of the pixel, the amount of light also reduces, leading to the increased noise level. Moreover, the reduced pixel size makes the lens imprecisions more pronounced, which especially applies to chromatic aberrations. Even in the case when high quality lenses are used some chromatic aberration artefacts will remain. Next, noise level additionally increases due to the higher frame rates. To reduce the complexity and the price of the camera, one sensor captures all three colors, by relying on Color Filter Arrays. In order to obtain full resolution color image, missing color components have to be interpolated, i.e. demosaicked, which is more challenging than in the case of lower resolution, due to the increased noise and aberrations. In this paper, we propose a new method, which jointly performs chromatic aberration correction, denoising and demosaicking. By jointly performing the reduction of all artefacts, we are reducing the overall complexity of the system and the introduction of new artefacts. In order to reduce possible flicker we also perform temporal video enhancement. We evaluate the proposed method on a number of publicly available UHD sequences and on sequences recorded in our studio.

  14. Synthesis and Cs-Corrected Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Characterization of Multimetallic Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanal, Subarna; Bhattarai, Nabraj; Velázquez-Salazar, Jesus; Jose-Yacaman, Miguel; Subarna Khanal Team

    2014-03-01

    Multimetallic nanoparticles have been attracted greater attention both in materials science and nanotechnology due to its unique electronic, optical, biological, and catalytic properties lead by physiochemical interactions among different atoms and phases. The distinct features of multimetallic nanoparticles enhanced synergetic properties, large surface to volume ratio and quantum size effects ultimately lead to novel and wide range of possibilities for different applications than monometallic counterparts. For instance, PtPd, Pt/Cu, Au-Au3Cu, AgPd/Pt, AuCu/Pt and many other multimetallic nanoparticles have raised interest for their various applications in fuel cells, ethanol and methanol oxidation reactions, hydrogen storage, and so on. The nanostructures were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and by aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (Cs-corrected STEM), in combination with high angle annular dark field (HAADF), bright field (BF), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) detectors. These techniques allowed us to probe the structure at the atomic level of the nanoparticles revealing new structural information and elemental composition of the nanoparticles. The authors would like to acknowledge NSF grants DMR-1103730, ``Alloys at the Nanoscale: The Case of Nanoparticles Second Phase'' and NSF PREM Grant # DMR 0934218.

  15. Theory of the spatial resolution of (scanning) transmission electron microscopy in liquid water or ice layers.

    PubMed

    de Jonge, Niels

    2018-04-01

    The sample dependent spatial resolution was calculated for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning TEM (STEM) of objects (e.g., nanoparticles, proteins) embedded in a layer of liquid water or amorphous ice. The theoretical model includes elastic- and inelastic scattering, beam broadening, and chromatic aberration. Different contrast mechanisms were evaluated as function of the electron dose, the detection angle, and the sample configuration. It was found that the spatial resolution scales with the electron dose to the -1/4th power. Gold- and carbon nanoparticles were examined in the middle of water layers ranging from 0.01--10 µm thickness representing relevant classes of experiments in both materials science and biology. The optimal microscope settings differ between experimental configurations. STEM performs the best for gold nanoparticles for all layer thicknesses, while carbon is best imaged with phase-contrast TEM for thin layers but bright field STEM is preferred for thicker layers. The resolution was also calculated for a water layer enclosed between thin membranes. The influence of chromatic aberration correction for TEM was examined as well. The theory is broadly applicable to other types of materials and sample configurations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Local sample thickness determination via scanning transmission electron microscopy defocus series.

    PubMed

    Beyer, A; Straubinger, R; Belz, J; Volz, K

    2016-05-01

    The usable aperture sizes in (scanning) transmission electron microscopy ((S)TEM) have significantly increased in the past decade due to the introduction of aberration correction. In parallel with the consequent increase of convergence angle the depth of focus has decreased severely and optical sectioning in the STEM became feasible. Here we apply STEM defocus series to derive the local sample thickness of a TEM sample. To this end experimental as well as simulated defocus series of thin Si foils were acquired. The systematic blurring of high resolution high angle annular dark field images is quantified by evaluating the standard deviation of the image intensity for each image of a defocus series. The derived dependencies exhibit a pronounced maximum at the optimum defocus and drop to a background value for higher or lower values. The full width half maximum (FWHM) of the curve is equal to the sample thickness above a minimum thickness given by the size of the used aperture and the chromatic aberration of the microscope. The thicknesses obtained from experimental defocus series applying the proposed method are in good agreement with the values derived from other established methods. The key advantages of this method compared to others are its high spatial resolution and that it does not involve any time consuming simulations. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  17. Atmospheric pressure scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    de Jonge, Niels; Bigelow, Wilbur C; Veith, Gabriel M

    2010-03-10

    Scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) images of gold nanoparticles at atmospheric pressure have been recorded through a 0.36 mm thick mixture of CO, O2, and He. This was accomplished using a reaction cell consisting of two electron-transparent silicon nitride membranes. Gold nanoparticles of a full width at half-maximum diameter of 1.0 nm were visible above the background noise, and the achieved edge resolution was 0.4 nm in accordance with calculations of the beam broadening.

  18. Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy at High Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Wall, J.; Langmore, J.; Isaacson, M.; Crewe, A. V.

    1974-01-01

    We have shown that a scanning transmission electron microscope with a high brightness field emission source is capable of obtaining better than 3 Å resolution using 30 to 40 keV electrons. Elastic dark field images of single atoms of uranium and mercury are shown which demonstrate this fact as determined by a modified Rayleigh criterion. Point-to-point micrograph resolution between 2.5 and 3.0 Å is found in dark field images of micro-crystallites of uranium and thorium compounds. Furthermore, adequate contrast is available to observe single atoms as light as silver. Images PMID:4521050

  19. Ultrashort echo-time MRI versus CT for skull aberration correction in MR-guided transcranial focused ultrasound: In vitro comparison on human calvaria.

    PubMed

    Miller, G Wilson; Eames, Matthew; Snell, John; Aubry, Jean-François

    2015-05-01

    Transcranial magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (TcMRgFUS) brain treatment systems compensate for skull-induced beam aberrations by adjusting the phase and amplitude of individual ultrasound transducer elements. These corrections are currently calculated based on a preacquired computed tomography (CT) scan of the patient's head. The purpose of the work presented here is to demonstrate the feasibility of using ultrashort echo-time magnetic resonance imaging (UTE MRI) instead of CT to calculate and apply aberration corrections on a clinical TcMRgFUS system. Phantom experiments were performed in three ex-vivo human skulls filled with tissue-mimicking hydrogel. Each skull phantom was imaged with both CT and UTE MRI. The MR images were then segmented into "skull" and "not-skull" pixels using a computationally efficient, threshold-based algorithm, and the resulting 3D binary skull map was converted into a series of 2D virtual CT images. Each skull was mounted in the head transducer of a clinical TcMRgFUS system (ExAblate Neuro, Insightec, Israel), and transcranial sonications were performed using a power setting of approximately 750 acoustic watts at several different target locations within the electronic steering range of the transducer. Each target location was sonicated three times: once using aberration corrections calculated from the actual CT scan, once using corrections calculated from the MRI-derived virtual CT scan, and once without applying any aberration correction. MR thermometry was performed in conjunction with each 10-s sonication, and the highest single-pixel temperature rise and surrounding-pixel mean were recorded for each sonication. The measured temperature rises were ∼ 45% larger for aberration-corrected sonications than for noncorrected sonications. This improvement was highly significant (p < 10(-4)). The difference between the single-pixel peak temperature rise and the surrounding-pixel mean, which reflects the sharpness of the

  20. Direct-write liquid phase transformations with a scanning transmission electron microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Unocic, Raymond R.; Lupini, Andrew R.; Borisevich, Albina Y.

    The highly energetic electron beam from a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) can induce local changes in the state of matter, ranging from local knock-out and atomic movement, to amorphization/crystallization, and chemical/electrochemical reactions occuring at localized liquid-solid and gas-solid interfaces. To date, fundamental studies of e-beam induced phenomena and practical applications have been limited by conventional e-beam rastering modes that allow only for uniform e-beam exposures. Here we develop an automated liquid phase nanolithography method that is capable of directly writing nanometer scaled features within silicon nitride encapsulated liquid cells. An external beam control system, connected to the scan coilsmore » of an aberration-corrected STEM, is used to precisely control the position, dwell time, and scan velocity of a sub-nanometer STEM probe. Site-specific locations in a sealed liquid cell containing an aqueous solution of H 2PdCl 4 are irradiated to controllably deposit palladium onto silicon nitride membranes. We determine the threshold electron dose required for the radiolytic deposition of metallic palladium, explore the influence of electron dose on the feature size and morphology of nanolithographically patterned nanostructures, and propose a feedback-controlled monitoring method for active control of the nanofabricated structures through STEM detector signal monitoring. As a result, this approach enables both fundamental studies of electron beam induced interactions with matter, as well as opens a pathway to fabricate nanostructures with tailored architectures and chemistries via shape-controlled nanolithographic patterning from liquid phase precursors.« less

  1. Direct-write liquid phase transformations with a scanning transmission electron microscope

    DOE PAGES

    Unocic, Raymond R.; Lupini, Andrew R.; Borisevich, Albina Y.; ...

    2016-08-03

    The highly energetic electron beam from a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) can induce local changes in the state of matter, ranging from local knock-out and atomic movement, to amorphization/crystallization, and chemical/electrochemical reactions occuring at localized liquid-solid and gas-solid interfaces. To date, fundamental studies of e-beam induced phenomena and practical applications have been limited by conventional e-beam rastering modes that allow only for uniform e-beam exposures. Here we develop an automated liquid phase nanolithography method that is capable of directly writing nanometer scaled features within silicon nitride encapsulated liquid cells. An external beam control system, connected to the scan coilsmore » of an aberration-corrected STEM, is used to precisely control the position, dwell time, and scan velocity of a sub-nanometer STEM probe. Site-specific locations in a sealed liquid cell containing an aqueous solution of H 2PdCl 4 are irradiated to controllably deposit palladium onto silicon nitride membranes. We determine the threshold electron dose required for the radiolytic deposition of metallic palladium, explore the influence of electron dose on the feature size and morphology of nanolithographically patterned nanostructures, and propose a feedback-controlled monitoring method for active control of the nanofabricated structures through STEM detector signal monitoring. As a result, this approach enables both fundamental studies of electron beam induced interactions with matter, as well as opens a pathway to fabricate nanostructures with tailored architectures and chemistries via shape-controlled nanolithographic patterning from liquid phase precursors.« less

  2. Phase-contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Minoda, Hiroki; Tamai, Takayuki; Iijima, Hirofumi; Hosokawa, Fumio; Kondo, Yukihito

    2015-06-01

    This report introduces the first results obtained using phase-contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy (P-STEM). A carbon-film phase plate (PP) with a small center hole is placed in the condenser aperture plane so that a phase shift is introduced in the incident electron waves except those passing through the center hole. A cosine-type phase-contrast transfer function emerges when the phase-shifted scattered waves interfere with the non-phase-shifted unscattered waves, which passed through the center hole before incidence onto the specimen. The phase contrast resulting in P-STEM is optically identical to that in phase-contrast transmission electron microscopy that is used to provide high contrast for weak phase objects. Therefore, the use of PPs can enhance the phase contrast of the STEM images of specimens in principle. The phase shift resulting from the PP, whose thickness corresponds to a phase shift of π, has been confirmed using interference fringes displayed in the Ronchigram of a silicon single crystal specimen. The interference fringes were found to abruptly shift at the edge of the PP hole by π. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Cathodoluminescence in the scanning transmission electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Kociak, M; Zagonel, L F

    2017-05-01

    Cathodoluminescence (CL) is a powerful tool for the investigation of optical properties of materials. In recent years, its combination with scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) has demonstrated great success in unveiling new physics in the field of plasmonics and quantum emitters. Most of these results were not imaginable even twenty years ago, due to conceptual and technical limitations. The purpose of this review is to present the recent advances that broke these limitations, and the new possibilities offered by the modern STEM-CL technique. We first introduce the different STEM-CL operating modes and the technical specificities in STEM-CL instrumentation. Two main classes of optical excitations, namely the coherent one (typically plasmons) and the incoherent one (typically light emission from quantum emitters) are investigated with STEM-CL. For these two main classes, we describe both the physics of light production under electron beam irradiation and the physical basis for interpreting STEM-CL experiments. We then compare STEM-CL with its better known sister techniques: scanning electron microscope CL, photoluminescence, and electron energy-loss spectroscopy. We finish by comprehensively reviewing recent STEM-CL applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Cathodoluminescence in the scanning transmission electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Kociak, M; Zagonel, L F

    2016-12-19

    Cathodoluminescence (CL) is a powerful tool for the investigation of optical properties of materials. In recent years, its combination with scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) has demonstrated great success in unveiling new physics in the field of plasmonics and quantum emitters. Most of these results were not imaginable even twenty years ago, due to conceptual and technical limitations. The purpose of this review is to present the recent advances that broke these limitations, and the new possibilities offered by the modern STEM-CL technique. We first introduce the different STEM-CL operating modes and the technical specificities in STEM-CL instrumentation. Two main classes of optical excitations, namely the coherent one (typically plasmons) and the incoherent one (typically light emission from quantum emitters) are investigated with STEM-CL. For these two main classes, we describe both the physics of light production under electron beam irradiation and the physical basis for interpreting STEM-CL experiments. We then compare STEM-CL with its better known sister techniques: scanning electron microscope CL, photoluminescence, and electron energy-loss spectroscopy. We finish by comprehensively reviewing recent STEM-CL applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The Influence of Beam Broadening on the Spatial Resolution of Annular Dark Field Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    de Jonge, Niels; Verch, Andreas; Demers, Hendrix

    2018-02-01

    The spatial resolution of aberration-corrected annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy was studied as function of the vertical position z within a sample. The samples consisted of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) positioned in different horizontal layers within aluminum matrices of 0.6 and 1.0 µm thickness. The highest resolution was achieved in the top layer, whereas the resolution was reduced by beam broadening for AuNPs deeper in the sample. To examine the influence of the beam broadening, the intensity profiles of line scans over nanoparticles at a certain vertical location were analyzed. The experimental data were compared with Monte Carlo simulations that accurately matched the data. The spatial resolution was also calculated using three different theoretical models of the beam blurring as function of the vertical position within the sample. One model considered beam blurring to occur as a single scattering event but was found to be inaccurate for larger depths of the AuNPs in the sample. Two models were adapted and evaluated that include estimates for multiple scattering, and these described the data with sufficient accuracy to be able to predict the resolution. The beam broadening depended on z 1.5 in all three models.

  6. Transcranial phase aberration correction using beam simulations and MR-ARFI

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, Urvi, E-mail: urvi.vyas@gmail.com; Kaye, Elena; Pauly, Kim Butts

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: Transcranial magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery is a noninvasive technique for causing selective tissue necrosis. Variations in density, thickness, and shape of the skull cause aberrations in the location and shape of the focal zone. In this paper, the authors propose a hybrid simulation-MR-ARFI technique to achieve aberration correction for transcranial MR-guided focused ultrasound surgery. The technique uses ultrasound beam propagation simulations with MR Acoustic Radiation Force Imaging (MR-ARFI) to correct skull-caused phase aberrations. Methods: Skull-based numerical aberrations were obtained from a MR-guided focused ultrasound patient treatment and were added to all elements of the InSightec conformal bone focusedmore » ultrasound surgery transducer during transmission. In the first experiment, the 1024 aberrations derived from a human skull were condensed into 16 aberrations by averaging over the transducer area of 64 elements. In the second experiment, all 1024 aberrations were applied to the transducer. The aberrated MR-ARFI images were used in the hybrid simulation-MR-ARFI technique to find 16 estimated aberrations. These estimated aberrations were subtracted from the original aberrations to result in the corrected images. Each aberration experiment (16-aberration and 1024-aberration) was repeated three times. Results: The corrected MR-ARFI image was compared to the aberrated image and the ideal image (image with zero aberrations) for each experiment. The hybrid simulation-MR-ARFI technique resulted in an average increase in focal MR-ARFI phase of 44% for the 16-aberration case and 52% for the 1024-aberration case, and recovered 83% and 39% of the ideal MR-ARFI phase for the 16-aberrations and 1024-aberration case, respectively. Conclusions: Using one MR-ARFI image and noa priori information about the applied phase aberrations, the hybrid simulation-MR-ARFI technique improved the maximum MR-ARFI phase of the beam's focus.« less

  7. Adaptive Optics Analysis of Visual Benefit with Higher-order Aberrations Correction of Human Eye - Poster Paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Lixia; Dai, Yun; Rao, Xuejun; Wang, Cheng; Hu, Yiyun; Liu, Qian; Jiang, Wenhan

    2008-01-01

    Higher-order aberrations correction can improve visual performance of human eye to some extent. To evaluate how much visual benefit can be obtained with higher-order aberrations correction we developed an adaptive optics vision simulator (AOVS). Dynamic real time optimized modal compensation was used to implement various customized higher-order ocular aberrations correction strategies. The experimental results indicate that higher-order aberrations correction can improve visual performance of human eye comparing with only lower-order aberration correction but the improvement degree and higher-order aberration correction strategy are different from each individual. Some subjects can acquire great visual benefit when higher-order aberrations were corrected but some subjects acquire little visual benefit even though all higher-order aberrations were corrected. Therefore, relative to general lower-order aberrations correction strategy, customized higher-order aberrations correction strategy is needed to obtain optimal visual improvement for each individual. AOVS provides an effective tool for higher-order ocular aberrations optometry for customized ocular aberrations correction.

  8. Nonlinear adaptive optics: aberration correction in three photon fluorescence microscopy for mouse brain imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinefeld, David; Paudel, Hari P.; Wang, Tianyu; Wang, Mengran; Ouzounov, Dimitre G.; Bifano, Thomas G.; Xu, Chris

    2017-02-01

    Multiphoton fluorescence microscopy is a well-established technique for deep-tissue imaging with subcellular resolution. Three-photon microscopy (3PM) when combined with long wavelength excitation was shown to allow deeper imaging than two-photon microscopy (2PM) in biological tissues, such as mouse brain, because out-of-focus background light can be further reduced due to the higher order nonlinear excitation. As was demonstrated in 2PM systems, imaging depth and resolution can be improved by aberration correction using adaptive optics (AO) techniques which are based on shaping the scanning beam using a spatial light modulator (SLM). In this way, it is possible to compensate for tissue low order aberration and to some extent, to compensate for tissue scattering. Here, we present a 3PM AO microscopy system for brain imaging. Soliton self-frequency shift is used to create a femtosecond source at 1675 nm and a microelectromechanical (MEMS) SLM serves as the wavefront shaping device. We perturb the 1020 segment SLM using a modified nonlinear version of three-point phase shifting interferometry. The nonlinearity of the fluorescence signal used for feedback ensures that the signal is increasing when the spot size decreases, allowing compensation of phase errors in an iterative optimization process without direct phase measurement. We compare the performance for different orders of nonlinear feedback, showing an exponential growth in signal improvement as the nonlinear order increases. We demonstrate the impact of the method by applying the 3PM AO system for in-vivo mouse brain imaging, showing improvement in signal at 1-mm depth inside the brain.

  9. Statistical estimation of ultrasonic propagation path parameters for aberration correction.

    PubMed

    Waag, Robert C; Astheimer, Jeffrey P

    2005-05-01

    Parameters in a linear filter model for ultrasonic propagation are found using statistical estimation. The model uses an inhomogeneous-medium Green's function that is decomposed into a homogeneous-transmission term and a path-dependent aberration term. Power and cross-power spectra of random-medium scattering are estimated over the frequency band of the transmit-receive system by using closely situated scattering volumes. The frequency-domain magnitude of the aberration is obtained from a normalization of the power spectrum. The corresponding phase is reconstructed from cross-power spectra of subaperture signals at adjacent receive positions by a recursion. The subapertures constrain the receive sensitivity pattern to eliminate measurement system phase contributions. The recursion uses a Laplacian-based algorithm to obtain phase from phase differences. Pulse-echo waveforms were acquired from a point reflector and a tissue-like scattering phantom through a tissue-mimicking aberration path from neighboring volumes having essentially the same aberration path. Propagation path aberration parameters calculated from the measurements of random scattering through the aberration phantom agree with corresponding parameters calculated for the same aberrator and array position by using echoes from the point reflector. The results indicate the approach describes, in addition to time shifts, waveform amplitude and shape changes produced by propagation through distributed aberration under realistic conditions.

  10. Aberration-Corrected Stem of Q-Rich Separates from the Saratov (L4) Meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroud, R. M.; Chisholm, M. F.; Amari, A.; Matsuda, J.

    2012-09-01

    TEM and aberration-corrected STEM analysis of two nanodiamond- and SiC-free Saratov (L4) separates, AJ (most Q-rich) and AI (Q-rich), show that the carrier is porous carbon consisting of nanoscale graphene platelets.

  11. 3-D transcranial ultrasound imaging with bilateral phase aberration correction of multiple isoplanatic patches: a pilot human study with microbubble contrast enhancement.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Brooks D; Nicoletto, Heather A; Bennett, Ellen R; Laskowitz, Daniel T; Smith, Stephen W

    2014-01-01

    With stroke currently the second-leading cause of death globally, and 87% of all strokes classified as ischemic, the development of a fast, accessible, cost-effective approach for imaging occlusive stroke could have a significant impact on health care outcomes and costs. Although clinical examination and standard computed tomography alone do not provide adequate information for understanding the complex temporal events that occur during an ischemic stroke, ultrasound imaging is well suited to the task of examining blood flow dynamics in real time and may allow for localization of a clot. A prototype bilateral 3-D ultrasound imaging system using two matrix array probes on either side of the head allows for correction of skull-induced aberration throughout two entire phased array imaging volumes. We investigated the feasibility of applying this custom correction technique in five healthy volunteers with Definity microbubble contrast enhancement. Subjects were scanned simultaneously via both temporal acoustic windows in 3-D color flow mode. The number of color flow voxels above a common threshold increased as a result of aberration correction in five of five subjects, with a mean increase of 33.9%. The percentage of large arteries visualized by 3-D color Doppler imaging increased from 46% without aberration correction to 60% with aberration correction. Copyright © 2014 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Transmission/Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy | Materials Science

    Science.gov Websites

    imaging such as high resolution TEM. Transmission electron diffraction patterns help to determine the microstructure of a material and its defects. Phase-contrast imaging or high-resolution (HR) TEM imaging gives high scattering angle can be collected to form high-resolution, chemically sensitive, atomic number (Z

  13. Temporal integration property of stereopsis after higher-order aberration correction

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jian; Dai, Yun; Zhang, Yudong

    2015-01-01

    Based on a binocular adaptive optics visual simulator, we investigated the effect of higher-order aberration correction on the temporal integration property of stereopsis. Stereo threshold for line stimuli, viewed in 550nm monochromatic light, was measured as a function of exposure duration, with higher-order aberrations uncorrected, binocularly corrected or monocularly corrected. Under all optical conditions, stereo threshold decreased with increasing exposure duration until a steady-state threshold was reached. The critical duration was determined by a quadratic summation model and the high goodness of fit suggested this model was reasonable. For normal subjects, the slope for stereo threshold versus exposure duration was about −0.5 on logarithmic coordinates, and the critical duration was about 200 ms. Both the slope and the critical duration were independent of the optical condition of the eye, showing no significant effect of higher-order aberration correction on the temporal integration property of stereopsis. PMID:26601010

  14. Aberration-Corrected STEM Imaging Through Off-Site Remote Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvis, Karalee; Allard Jr, Lawrence Frederick; Jerome, Timothy Y

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in aberration-corrected electron microscopy have allowed researchers to image materials at sub- ngstr m resolution. Many of these modern instruments are designed to be operated from separate 'control' rooms, removing the effect of the operator on the instrument s physical environment. This capability also allows operation from suitable workstations, over internet connections, from literally anywhere in the world [1]. Researchers at the University of Texas at Austin (UTA) have collaborated with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and JEOL Ltd. to routinely conduct research sessions in which high-resolution images and X-ray microanalytical data are acquired during after-hours research sessions,more » utilizing the JEOL 2200FS aberration-corrected STEM/TEM at ORNL from their lab in Austin. Details of the remote operation are presented here.« less

  15. Nanofocusing with aberration-corrected rotationally parabolic refractive X-ray lenses

    DOE PAGES

    Seiboth, Frank; Wittwer, Felix; Scholz, Maria; ...

    2018-01-01

    Wavefront errors of rotationally parabolic refractive X-ray lenses made of beryllium (Be CRLs) have been recovered for various lens sets and X-ray beam configurations. Due to manufacturing via an embossing process, aberrations of individual lenses within the investigated ensemble are very similar. By deriving a mean single-lens deformation for the ensemble, aberrations of any arbitrary lens stack can be predicted from the ensemble with σ¯ = 0.034λ. Using these findings the expected focusing performance of current Be CRLs are modeled for relevant X-ray energies and bandwidths and it is shown that a correction of aberrations can be realised without priormore » lens characterization but simply based on the derived lens deformation. As a result, the performance of aberration-corrected Be CRLs is discussed and the applicability of aberration-correction demonstrated over wide X-ray energy ranges.« less

  16. Design and fabrication of a freeform phase plate for high-order ocular aberration correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Allen Y.; Raasch, Thomas W.

    2005-11-01

    In recent years it has become possible to measure and in some instances to correct the high-order aberrations of human eyes. We have investigated the correction of wavefront error of human eyes by using phase plates designed to compensate for that error. The wavefront aberrations of the four eyes of two subjects were experimentally determined, and compensating phase plates were machined with an ultraprecision diamond-turning machine equipped with four independent axes. A slow-tool servo freeform trajectory was developed for the machine tool path. The machined phase-correction plates were measured and compared with the original design values to validate the process. The position of the phase-plate relative to the pupil is discussed. The practical utility of this mode of aberration correction was investigated with visual acuity testing. The results are consistent with the potential benefit of aberration correction but also underscore the critical positioning requirements of this mode of aberration correction. This process is described in detail from optical measurements, through machining process design and development, to final results.

  17. Atomic resolved phase map of monolayer MoS2 retrieved by spherical aberration-corrected transport of intensity equation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaobin; Oshima, Yoshifumi

    2016-10-01

    An atomic resolution phase map, which enables us to observe charge distribution or magnetic properties at an atomic scale, has been pointed out to be retrieved by transport of intensity equation (TIE) when taking two atomic-resolved transmission electron microscope (TEM) images of small defocus difference. In this work, we firstly obtained the atomic-resolved phase maps of an exfoliated molybdenum disulfide sheet using spherical aberration-corrected transmission electron microscope. We successfully observed 60° grain boundary of mechanically exfoliated monolayer molybdenum disulfide sheet. The relative phase shift of a single molybdenum atomic column to the column consisting of two sulfur atoms was obtained to be about 0.01 rad on average, which was about half lower than the simulated TIE phase map, indicating that the individual atomic sites can be distinguished qualitatively. The appropriate condition for retrieving atomic-resolved TIE phase maps was briefly discussed. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Dynamic Aberration Correction for Conformal Window of High-Speed Aircraft Using Optimized Model-Based Wavefront Sensorless Adaptive Optics.

    PubMed

    Dong, Bing; Li, Yan; Han, Xin-Li; Hu, Bin

    2016-09-02

    For high-speed aircraft, a conformal window is used to optimize the aerodynamic performance. However, the local shape of the conformal window leads to large amounts of dynamic aberrations varying with look angle. In this paper, deformable mirror (DM) and model-based wavefront sensorless adaptive optics (WSLAO) are used for dynamic aberration correction of an infrared remote sensor equipped with a conformal window and scanning mirror. In model-based WSLAO, aberration is captured using Lukosz mode, and we use the low spatial frequency content of the image spectral density as the metric function. Simulations show that aberrations induced by the conformal window are dominated by some low-order Lukosz modes. To optimize the dynamic correction, we can only correct dominant Lukosz modes and the image size can be minimized to reduce the time required to compute the metric function. In our experiment, a 37-channel DM is used to mimic the dynamic aberration of conformal window with scanning rate of 10 degrees per second. A 52-channel DM is used for correction. For a 128 × 128 image, the mean value of image sharpness during dynamic correction is 1.436 × 10(-5) in optimized correction and is 1.427 × 10(-5) in un-optimized correction. We also demonstrated that model-based WSLAO can achieve convergence two times faster than traditional stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) method.

  19. Dynamic Aberration Correction for Conformal Window of High-Speed Aircraft Using Optimized Model-Based Wavefront Sensorless Adaptive Optics

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Bing; Li, Yan; Han, Xin-li; Hu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    For high-speed aircraft, a conformal window is used to optimize the aerodynamic performance. However, the local shape of the conformal window leads to large amounts of dynamic aberrations varying with look angle. In this paper, deformable mirror (DM) and model-based wavefront sensorless adaptive optics (WSLAO) are used for dynamic aberration correction of an infrared remote sensor equipped with a conformal window and scanning mirror. In model-based WSLAO, aberration is captured using Lukosz mode, and we use the low spatial frequency content of the image spectral density as the metric function. Simulations show that aberrations induced by the conformal window are dominated by some low-order Lukosz modes. To optimize the dynamic correction, we can only correct dominant Lukosz modes and the image size can be minimized to reduce the time required to compute the metric function. In our experiment, a 37-channel DM is used to mimic the dynamic aberration of conformal window with scanning rate of 10 degrees per second. A 52-channel DM is used for correction. For a 128 × 128 image, the mean value of image sharpness during dynamic correction is 1.436 × 10−5 in optimized correction and is 1.427 × 10−5 in un-optimized correction. We also demonstrated that model-based WSLAO can achieve convergence two times faster than traditional stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) method. PMID:27598161

  20. Angularly-selective transmission imaging in a scanning electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Holm, Jason; Keller, Robert R

    2016-08-01

    This work presents recent advances in transmission scanning electron microscopy (t-SEM) imaging control capabilities. A modular aperture system and a cantilever-style sample holder that enable comprehensive angular selectivity of forward-scattered electrons are described. When combined with a commercially available solid-state transmission detector having only basic bright-field and dark-field imaging capabilities, the advances described here enable numerous transmission imaging modes. Several examples are provided that demonstrate how contrast arising from diffraction to mass-thickness can be obtained. Unanticipated image contrast at some imaging conditions is also observed and addressed. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Chromatic aberrations correction for imaging spectrometer based on acousto-optic tunable filter with two transducers.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huijie; Wang, Ziye; Jia, Guorui; Zhang, Ying; Xu, Zefu

    2017-10-02

    The acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) with wide wavelength range and high spectral resolution has long crystal and two transducers. A longer crystal length leads to a bigger chromatic focal shift and the double-transducer arrangement induces angular mutation in diffracted beam, which increase difficulty in longitudinal and lateral chromatic aberration correction respectively. In this study, the two chromatic aberrations are analyzed quantitatively based on an AOTF optical model and a novel catadioptric dual-path configuration is proposed to correct both the chromatic aberrations. The test results exhibit effectiveness of the optical configuration for this type of AOTF-based imaging spectrometer.

  2. Quantification by aberration corrected (S)TEM of boundaries formed by symmetry breaking phase transformations.

    PubMed

    Schryvers, D; Salje, E K H; Nishida, M; De Backer, A; Idrissi, H; Van Aert, S

    2017-05-01

    The present contribution gives a review of recent quantification work of atom displacements, atom site occupations and level of crystallinity in various systems and based on aberration corrected HR(S)TEM images. Depending on the case studied, picometer range precisions for individual distances can be obtained, boundary widths at the unit cell level determined or statistical evolutions of fractions of the ordered areas calculated. In all of these cases, these quantitative measures imply new routes for the applications of the respective materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Electron-beam-induced-current and active secondary-electron voltage-contrast with aberration-corrected electron probes

    DOE PAGES

    Han, Myung-Geun; Garlow, Joseph A.; Marshall, Matthew S. J.; ...

    2017-03-23

    The ability to map out electrostatic potentials in materials is critical for the development and the design of nanoscale electronic and spintronic devices in modern industry. Electron holography has been an important tool for revealing electric and magnetic field distributions in microelectronics and magnetic-based memory devices, however, its utility is hindered by several practical constraints, such as charging artifacts and limitations in sensitivity and in field of view. In this article, we report electron-beam-induced-current (EBIC) and secondary-electron voltage-contrast (SE-VC) with an aberration-corrected electron probe in a transmission electron microscope (TEM), as complementary techniques to electron holography, to measure electric fieldsmore » and surface potentials, respectively. These two techniques were applied to ferroelectric thin films, multiferroic nanowires, and single crystals. Electrostatic potential maps obtained by off-axis electron holography were compared with EBIC and SE-VC to show that these techniques can be used as a complementary approach to validate quantitative results obtained from electron holography analysis.« less

  4. Influence of Misalignment on High-Order Aberration Correction for Normal Human Eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hao-Xin; Xu, Bing; Xue, Li-Xia; Dai, Yun; Liu, Qian; Rao, Xue-Jun

    2008-04-01

    Although a compensation device can correct aberrations of human eyes, the effect will be degraded by its misalignment, especially for high-order aberration correction. We calculate the positioning tolerance of correction device for high-order aberrations, and within what degree the correcting effect is better than low-order aberration (defocus and astigmatism) correction. With fixed certain misalignment within the positioning tolerance, we calculate the residual wavefront rms aberration of the first-6 to first-35 terms along with the 3rd-5th terms of aberrations corrected, and the combined first-13 terms of aberrations are also studied under the same quantity of misalignment. However, the correction effect of high-order aberrations does not meliorate along with the increase of the high-order terms under some misalignment, moreover, some simple combined terms correction can achieve similar result as complex combinations. These results suggest that it is unnecessary to correct too much the terms of high-order aberrations which are difficult to accomplish in practice, and gives confidence to correct high-order aberrations out of the laboratory.

  5. Correcting nonlinear drift distortion of scanning probe and scanning transmission electron microscopies from image pairs with orthogonal scan directions

    DOE PAGES

    Ophus, Colin; Ciston, Jim; Nelson, Chris T.

    2015-12-10

    Unwanted motion of the probe with respect to the sample is a ubiquitous problem in scanning probe and scanning transmission electron microscopies, causing both linear and nonlinear artifacts in experimental images. We have designed a procedure to correct these artifacts by using orthogonal scan pairs to align each measurement line-by-line along the slow scan direction, by fitting contrast variation along the lines. We demonstrate the accuracy of our algorithm on both synthetic and experimental data and provide an implementation of our method.

  6. Correcting nonlinear drift distortion of scanning probe and scanning transmission electron microscopies from image pairs with orthogonal scan directions

    SciTech Connect

    Ophus, Colin; Ciston, Jim; Nelson, Chris T.

    Unwanted motion of the probe with respect to the sample is a ubiquitous problem in scanning probe and scanning transmission electron microscopies, causing both linear and nonlinear artifacts in experimental images. We have designed a procedure to correct these artifacts by using orthogonal scan pairs to align each measurement line-by-line along the slow scan direction, by fitting contrast variation along the lines. We demonstrate the accuracy of our algorithm on both synthetic and experimental data and provide an implementation of our method.

  7. Studies of local structural distortions in strained ultrathin BaTiO3 films using scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Park, Daesung; Herpers, Anja; Menke, Tobias; Heidelmann, Markus; Houben, Lothar; Dittmann, Regina; Mayer, Joachim

    2014-06-01

    Ultrathin ferroelectric heterostructures (SrTiO3/BaTiO3/BaRuO3/SrRuO3) were studied by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) in terms of structural distortions and atomic displacements. The TiO2-termination at the top interface of the BaTiO3 layer was changed into a BaO-termination by adding an additional BaRuO3 layer. High-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) imaging by aberration-corrected STEM revealed that an artificially introduced BaO-termination can be achieved by this interface engineering. By using fast sequential imaging and frame-by-frame drift correction, the effect of the specimen drift was significantly reduced and the signal-to-noise ratio of the HAADF images was improved. Thus, a quantitative analysis of the HAADF images was feasible, and an in-plane and out-of-plane lattice spacing of the BaTiO3 layer of 3.90 and 4.22 Å were determined. A 25 pm shift of the Ti columns from the center of the unit cell of BaTiO3 along the c-axis was observed. By spatially resolved electron energy-loss spectroscopy studies, a reduction of the crystal field splitting (CFS, ΔL3=1.93 eV) and an asymmetric broadening of the eg peak were observed in the BaTiO3 film. These results verify the presence of a ferroelectric polarization in the ultrathin BaTiO3 film.

  8. Accurate Virus Quantitation Using a Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) Detector in a Scanning Electron Microscope

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-29

    Accurate Virus Quantitation Using a Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) Detector in a Scanning Electron Microscope Candace D Blancett1...L Norris2, Cynthia A Rossi4 , Pamela J Glass3, Mei G Sun1,* 1 Pathology Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious...Diseases (USAMRIID), 1425 Porter Street, Fort Detrick, Maryland, 21702 2Biostatistics Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of

  9. A fast image simulation algorithm for scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ophus, Colin

    2017-01-01

    Image simulation for scanning transmission electron microscopy at atomic resolution for samples with realistic dimensions can require very large computation times using existing simulation algorithms. We present a new algorithm named PRISM that combines features of the two most commonly used algorithms, namely the Bloch wave and multislice methods. PRISM uses a Fourier interpolation factor f that has typical values of 4-20 for atomic resolution simulations. We show that in many cases PRISM can provide a speedup that scales with f 4 compared to multislice simulations, with a negligible loss of accuracy. We demonstrate the usefulness of this method with large-scale scanning transmission electron microscopy image simulations of a crystalline nanoparticle on an amorphous carbon substrate.

  10. Transmission environmental scanning electron microscope with scintillation gaseous detection device.

    PubMed

    Danilatos, Gerasimos; Kollia, Mary; Dracopoulos, Vassileios

    2015-03-01

    A transmission environmental scanning electron microscope with use of a scintillation gaseous detection device has been implemented. This corresponds to a transmission scanning electron microscope but with addition of a gaseous environment acting both as environmental and detection medium. A commercial type of low vacuum machine has been employed together with appropriate modifications to the detection configuration. This involves controlled screening of various emitted signals in conjunction with a scintillation gaseous detection device already provided with the machine for regular surface imaging. Dark field and bright field imaging has been obtained along with other detection conditions. With a progressive series of modifications and tests, the theory and practice of a novel type of microscopy is briefly shown now ushering further significant improvements and developments in electron microscopy as a whole. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A fast image simulation algorithm for scanning transmission electron microscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Ophus, Colin

    2017-05-10

    Image simulation for scanning transmission electron microscopy at atomic resolution for samples with realistic dimensions can require very large computation times using existing simulation algorithms. Here, we present a new algorithm named PRISM that combines features of the two most commonly used algorithms, namely the Bloch wave and multislice methods. PRISM uses a Fourier interpolation factor f that has typical values of 4-20 for atomic resolution simulations. We show that in many cases PRISM can provide a speedup that scales with f 4 compared to multislice simulations, with a negligible loss of accuracy. We demonstrate the usefulness of this methodmore » with large-scale scanning transmission electron microscopy image simulations of a crystalline nanoparticle on an amorphous carbon substrate.« less

  12. Progress on PEEM3 -- An Aberration Corrected X-Ray Photoemission Electron Microscope at the ALS

    SciTech Connect

    MacDowell, A. A.; Feng, J.; DeMello, A.

    2007-01-19

    A new ultrahigh-resolution photoemission electron microscope called PEEM3 is being developed and built at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). An electron mirror combined with a much-simplified magnetic dipole separator is to be used to provide simultaneous correction of spherical and chromatic aberrations. It is installed on an elliptically polarized undulator (EPU) beamline, and will be operated with very high spatial resolution and high flux to study the composition, structure, electric and magnetic properties of complex materials. The instrument has been designed and is described. The instrumental hardware is being deployed in 2 phases. The first phase is the deployment ofmore » a standard PEEM type microscope consisting of the standard linear array of electrostatic electron lenses. The second phase will be the installation of the aberration corrected upgrade to improve resolution and throughput. This paper describes progress as the instrument enters the commissioning part of the first phase.« less

  13. Numerical analysis of wavefront aberration correction using multielectrode electrowetting-based devices.

    PubMed

    Zohrabi, Mo; Cormack, Robert H; Mccullough, Connor; Supekar, Omkar D; Gibson, Emily A; Bright, Victor M; Gopinath, Juliet T

    2017-12-11

    We present numerical simulations of multielectrode electrowetting devices used in a novel optical design to correct wavefront aberration. Our optical system consists of two multielectrode devices, preceded by a single fixed lens. The multielectrode elements function as adaptive optical devices that can be used to correct aberrations inherent in many imaging setups, biological samples, and the atmosphere. We are able to accurately simulate the liquid-liquid interface shape using computational fluid dynamics. Ray tracing analysis of these surfaces shows clear evidence of aberration correction. To demonstrate the strength of our design, we studied three different input aberrations mixtures that include astigmatism, coma, trefoil, and additional higher order aberration terms, with amplitudes as large as one wave at 633 nm.

  14. Spherical aberration correction with an in-lens N-fold symmetric line currents model.

    PubMed

    Hoque, Shahedul; Ito, Hiroyuki; Nishi, Ryuji

    2018-04-01

    In our previous works, we have proposed N-SYLC (N-fold symmetric line currents) models for aberration correction. In this paper, we propose "in-lens N-SYLC" model, where N-SYLC overlaps rotationally symmetric lens. Such overlap is possible because N-SYLC is free of magnetic materials. We analytically prove that, if certain parameters of the model are optimized, an in-lens 3-SYLC (N = 3) doublet can correct 3rd order spherical aberration. By computer simulation, we show that the required excitation current for correction is less than 0.25 AT for beam energy 5 keV, and the beam size after correction is smaller than 1 nm at the corrector image plane for initial slope less than 4 mrad. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Model-based sensor-less wavefront aberration correction in optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Verstraete, Hans R G W; Wahls, Sander; Kalkman, Jeroen; Verhaegen, Michel

    2015-12-15

    Several sensor-less wavefront aberration correction methods that correct nonlinear wavefront aberrations by maximizing the optical coherence tomography (OCT) signal are tested on an OCT setup. A conventional coordinate search method is compared to two model-based optimization methods. The first model-based method takes advantage of the well-known optimization algorithm (NEWUOA) and utilizes a quadratic model. The second model-based method (DONE) is new and utilizes a random multidimensional Fourier-basis expansion. The model-based algorithms achieve lower wavefront errors with up to ten times fewer measurements. Furthermore, the newly proposed DONE method outperforms the NEWUOA method significantly. The DONE algorithm is tested on OCT images and shows a significantly improved image quality.

  16. Aberration corrections for free-space optical communications in atmosphere turbulence using orbital angular momentum states.

    PubMed

    Zhao, S M; Leach, J; Gong, L Y; Ding, J; Zheng, B Y

    2012-01-02

    The effect of atmosphere turbulence on light's spatial structure compromises the information capacity of photons carrying the Orbital Angular Momentum (OAM) in free-space optical (FSO) communications. In this paper, we study two aberration correction methods to mitigate this effect. The first one is the Shack-Hartmann wavefront correction method, which is based on the Zernike polynomials, and the second is a phase correction method specific to OAM states. Our numerical results show that the phase correction method for OAM states outperforms the Shark-Hartmann wavefront correction method, although both methods improve significantly purity of a single OAM state and the channel capacities of FSO communication link. At the same time, our experimental results show that the values of participation functions go down at the phase correction method for OAM states, i.e., the correction method ameliorates effectively the bad effect of atmosphere turbulence.

  17. [Lateral chromatic aberrations correction for AOTF imaging spectrometer based on doublet prism].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui-Jie; Zhou, Peng-Wei; Zhang, Ying; Li, Chong-Chong

    2013-10-01

    An user defined surface function method was proposed to model the acousto-optic interaction of AOTF based on wave-vector match principle. Assessment experiment result shows that this model can achieve accurate ray trace of AOTF diffracted beam. In addition, AOTF imaging spectrometer presents large residual lateral color when traditional chromatic aberrations correcting method is adopted. In order to reduce lateral chromatic aberrations, a method based on doublet prism is proposed. The optical material and angle of the prism are optimized automatically using global optimization with the help of user defined AOTF surface. Simulation result shows that the proposed method provides AOTF imaging spectrometer with great conveniences, which reduces the lateral chromatic aberration to less than 0.000 3 degrees and improves by one order of magnitude, with spectral image shift effectively corrected.

  18. Operando characterization of cathodic reactions in a liquid-state lithium-oxygen micro-battery by scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pan; Han, Jiuhui; Guo, Xianwei; Ito, Yoshikazu; Yang, Chuchu; Ning, Shoucong; Fujita, Takeshi; Hirata, Akihiko; Chen, Mingwei

    2018-02-16

    Rechargeable non-aqueous lithium-oxygen batteries with a large theoretical capacity are emerging as a high-energy electrochemical device for sustainable energy strategy. Despite many efforts made to understand the fundamental Li-O 2 electrochemistry, the kinetic process of cathodic reactions, associated with the formation and decomposition of a solid Li 2 O 2 phase during charging and discharging, remains debate. Here we report direct visualization of the charge/discharge reactions on a gold cathode in a non-aqueous lithium-oxygen micro-battery using liquid-cell aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) combining with synchronized electrochemical measurements. The real-time and real-space characterization by time-resolved STEM reveals the electrochemical correspondence of discharge/charge overpotentials to the nucleation, growth and decomposition of Li 2 O 2 at a constant current density. The nano-scale operando observations would enrich our knowledge on the underlying reaction mechanisms of lithium-oxygen batteries during round-trip discharging and charging and shed lights on the strategies in improving the performances of lithium-oxygen batteries by tailoring the cathodic reactions.

  19. Cryo-scanning transmission electron tomography of vitrified cells.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Sharon Grayer; Houben, Lothar; Elbaum, Michael

    2014-04-01

    Cryo-electron tomography (CET) of fully hydrated, vitrified biological specimens has emerged as a vital tool for biological research. For cellular studies, the conventional imaging modality of transmission electron microscopy places stringent constraints on sample thickness because of its dependence on phase coherence for contrast generation. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of using scanning transmission electron microscopy for cryo-tomography of unstained vitrified specimens (CSTET). We compare CSTET and CET for the imaging of whole bacteria and human tissue culture cells, finding favorable contrast and detail in the CSTET reconstructions. Particularly at high sample tilts, the CSTET signals contain more informative data than energy-filtered CET phase contrast images, resulting in improved depth resolution. Careful control over dose delivery permits relatively high cumulative exposures before the onset of observable beam damage. The increase in acceptable specimen thickness broadens the applicability of electron cryo-tomography.

  20. Writing silica structures in liquid with scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    van de Put, Marcel W P; Carcouët, Camille C M C; Bomans, Paul H H; Friedrich, Heiner; de Jonge, Niels; Sommerdijk, Nico A J M

    2015-02-04

    Silica nanoparticles are imaged in solution with scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) using a liquid cell with silicon nitride (SiN) membrane windows. The STEM images reveal that silica structures are deposited in well-defined patches on the upper SiN membranes upon electron beam irradiation. The thickness of the deposits is linear with the applied electron dose. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) demonstrate that the deposited patches are a result of the merging of the original 20 nm-diameter nanoparticles, and that the related surface roughness depends on the electron dose rate used. Using this approach, sub-micrometer scale structures are written on the SiN in liquid by controlling the electron exposure as function of the lateral position. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. High-resolution low-dose scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Buban, James P; Ramasse, Quentin; Gipson, Bryant; Browning, Nigel D; Stahlberg, Henning

    2010-01-01

    During the past two decades instrumentation in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) has pushed toward higher intensity electron probes to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of recorded images. While this is suitable for robust specimens, biological specimens require a much reduced electron dose for high-resolution imaging. We describe here protocols for low-dose STEM image recording with a conventional field-emission gun STEM, while maintaining the high-resolution capability of the instrument. Our findings show that a combination of reduced pixel dwell time and reduced gun current can achieve radiation doses comparable to low-dose TEM.

  2. Scanning transmission electron microscopy: Albert Crewe's vision and beyond.

    PubMed

    Krivanek, Ondrej L; Chisholm, Matthew F; Murfitt, Matthew F; Dellby, Niklas

    2012-12-01

    Some four decades were needed to catch up with the vision that Albert Crewe and his group had for the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) in the nineteen sixties and seventies: attaining 0.5Å resolution, and identifying single atoms spectroscopically. With these goals now attained, STEM developments are turning toward new directions, such as rapid atomic resolution imaging and exploring atomic bonding and electronic properties of samples at atomic resolution. The accomplishments and the future challenges are reviewed and illustrated with practical examples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A broadband toolbox for scanning microwave microscopy transmission measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucibello, Andrea; Sardi, Giovanni Maria; Capoccia, Giovanni; Proietti, Emanuela; Marcelli, Romolo; Kasper, Manuel; Gramse, Georg; Kienberger, Ferry

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we present in detail the design, both electromagnetic and mechanical, the fabrication, and the test of the first prototype of a Scanning Microwave Microscope (SMM) suitable for a two-port transmission measurement, recording, and processing the high frequency transmission scattering parameter S21 passing through the investigated sample. The S21 toolbox is composed by a microwave emitter, placed below the sample, which excites an electromagnetic wave passing through the sample under test, and is collected by the cantilever used as the detector, electrically matched for high frequency measurements. This prototype enhances the actual capability of the instrument for a sub-surface imaging at the nanoscale. Moreover, it allows the study of the electromagnetic properties of the material under test obtained through the measurement of the reflection (S11) and transmission (S21) parameters at the same time. The SMM operates between 1 GHz and 20 GHz, current limit for the microwave matching of the cantilever, and the high frequency signal is recorded by means of a two-port Vector Network Analyzer, using both contact and no-contact modes of operation, the latter, especially minded for a fully nondestructive and topography-free characterization. This tool is an upgrade of the already established setup for the reflection mode S11 measurement. Actually, the proposed setup is able to give richer information in terms of scattering parameters, including amplitude and phase measurements, by means of the two-port arrangement.

  4. Phase-aberration correction with a 3-D ultrasound scanner: feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Ivancevich, Nikolas M; Dahl, Jeremy J; Trahey, Gregg E; Smith, Stephen W

    2006-08-01

    We tested the feasibility of using adaptive imaging, namely phase-aberration correction, with two-dimensional (2-D) arrays and real-time, 3-D ultrasound. Because of the high spatial frequency content of aberrators, 2-D arrays, which generally have smaller pitch and thus higher spatial sampling frequency, and 3-D imaging show potential to improve the performance of adaptive imaging. Phase-correction algorithms improve image quality by compensating for tissue-induced errors in beamforming. Using the illustrative example of transcranial ultrasound, we have evaluated our ability to perform adaptive imaging with a real-time, 3-D scanner. We have used a polymer casting of a human temporal bone, root-mean-square (RMS) phase variation of 45.0 ns, full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) correlation length of 3.35 mm, and an electronic aberrator, 100 ns RMS, 3.76 mm correlation, with tissue phantoms as illustrative examples of near-field, phase-screen aberrators. Using the multilag, least-squares, cross-correlation method, we have shown the ability of 3-D adaptive imaging to increase anechoic cyst identification, image brightness, contrast-to-speckle ratio (CSR), and, in 3-D color Doppler experiments, the ability to visualize flow. For a physical aberrator skull casting we saw CSR increase by 13% from 1.01 to 1.14, while the number of detectable cysts increased from 4.3 to 7.7.

  5. In vivo droplet vaporization for occlusion therapy and phase aberration correction.

    PubMed

    Kripfgans, Oliver D; Fowlkes, J Brian; Woydt, Michael; Eldevik, Odd P; Carson, Paul L

    2002-06-01

    The objective was to determine whether a transpulmonary droplet emulsion (90%, <6 microm diameter) could be used to form large gas bubbles (>30 microm) temporarily in vivo. Such bubbles could occlude a targeted capillary bed when used in a large number density. Alternatively, for a very sparse population of droplets, the resulting gas bubbles could serve as point beacons for phase aberration corrections in ultrasonic imaging. Gas bubbles can be made in vivo by acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) of injected, superheated, dodecafluoropentane droplets. Droplets vaporize in an acoustic field whose peak rarefactional pressure exceeds a well-defined threshold. In this new work, it has been found that intraarterial and intravenous injections can be used to introduce the emulsion into the blood stream for subsequent ADV (B- and M-mode on a clinical scanner) in situ. Intravenous administration results in a lower gas bubble yield, possibly because of filtering in the lung, dilution in the blood volume, or other circulatory effects. Results show that for occlusion purposes, a reduction in regional blood flow of 34% can be achieved. Individual point beacons with a +24 dB backscatter amplitude relative to white matter were created by intravenous injection and ADV.

  6. Chromatic-aberration-corrected diffractive lenses for ultra-broadband focusing

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Peng; Mohammad, Nabil; Menon, Rajesh

    2016-02-12

    We exploit the inherent dispersion in diffractive optics to demonstrate planar chromatic-aberration-corrected lenses. Specifically, we designed, fabricated and characterized cylindrical diffractive lenses that efficiently focus the entire visible band (450 nm to 700 nm) onto a single line. These devices are essentially pixelated, multi-level microstructures. Experiments confirm an average optical efficiency of 25% for a three-wavelength apochromatic lens whose chromatic focus shift is only 1.3 μm and 25 μm in the lateral and axial directions, respectively. Super-achromatic performance over the continuous visible band is also demonstrated with averaged lateral and axial focus shifts of only 1.65 μm and 73.6 μm,more » respectively. These lenses are easy to fabricate using single-step grayscale lithography and can be inexpensively replicated. Furthermore, these devices are thin (<3 μm), error tolerant, has low aspect ratio (<1:1) and offer polarization-insensitive focusing, all significant advantages compared to alternatives that rely on metasurfaces. Lastly, our design methodology offers high design flexibility in numerical aperture and focal length, and is readily extended to 2D.« less

  7. Scanning transmission X-ray, laser scanning, and transmission electron microscopy mapping of the exopolymeric matrix of microbial biofilms.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, J R; Swerhone, G D W; Leppard, G G; Araki, T; Zhang, X; West, M M; Hitchcock, A P

    2003-09-01

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and soft X-ray scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) were used to map the distribution of macromolecular subcomponents (e.g., polysaccharides, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids) of biofilm cells and matrix. The biofilms were developed from river water supplemented with methanol, and although they comprised a complex microbial community, the biofilms were dominated by heterotrophic bacteria. TEM provided the highest-resolution structural imaging, CLSM provided detailed compositional information when used in conjunction with molecular probes, and STXM provided compositional mapping of macromolecule distributions without the addition of probes. By examining exactly the same region of a sample with combinations of these techniques (STXM with CLSM and STXM with TEM), we demonstrate that this combination of multimicroscopy analysis can be used to create a detailed correlative map of biofilm structure and composition. We are using these correlative techniques to improve our understanding of the biochemical basis for biofilm organization and to assist studies intended to investigate and optimize biofilms for environmental remediation applications.

  8. On the Progress of Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) Imaging in a Scanning Electron Microscope.

    PubMed

    Sun, Cheng; Müller, Erich; Meffert, Matthias; Gerthsen, Dagmar

    2018-04-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with low-energy electrons has been recognized as an important addition to the family of electron microscopies as it may avoid knock-on damage and increase the contrast of weakly scattering objects. Scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) are well suited for low-energy electron microscopy with maximum electron energies of 30 keV, but they are mainly used for topography imaging of bulk samples. Implementation of a scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) detector and a charge-coupled-device camera for the acquisition of on-axis transmission electron diffraction (TED) patterns, in combination with recent resolution improvements, make SEMs highly interesting for structure analysis of some electron-transparent specimens which are traditionally investigated by TEM. A new aspect is correlative SEM, STEM, and TED imaging from the same specimen region in a SEM which leads to a wealth of information. Simultaneous image acquisition gives information on surface topography, inner structure including crystal defects and qualitative material contrast. Lattice-fringe resolution is obtained in bright-field STEM imaging. The benefits of correlative SEM/STEM/TED imaging in a SEM are exemplified by structure analyses from representative sample classes such as nanoparticulates and bulk materials.

  9. Effects of instrument imperfections on quantitative scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Krause, Florian F; Schowalter, Marco; Grieb, Tim; Müller-Caspary, Knut; Mehrtens, Thorsten; Rosenauer, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    Several instrumental imperfections of transmission electron microscopes are characterized and their effects on the results of quantitative scanning electron microscopy (STEM) are investigated and quantified using simulations. Methods to either avoid influences of these imperfections during acquisition or to include them in reference calculations are proposed. Particularly, distortions inflicted on the diffraction pattern by an image-aberration corrector can cause severe errors of more than 20% if not accounted for. A procedure for their measurement is proposed here. Furthermore, afterglow phenomena and nonlinear behavior of the detector itself can lead to incorrect normalization of measured intensities. Single electrons accidentally impinging on the detector are another source of error but can also be exploited for threshold-less calibration of STEM images to absolute dose, incident beam current determination and measurement of the detector sensitivity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Visualization of bacterial polysaccharides by scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Wolanski, B S; McAleer, W J; Hilleman, M R

    1983-04-01

    Highly purified capsular polysaccharides of Neisseria meningitidis groups A, B, and C have been visualized by high resolution Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM). Spheroidal macromolecules approximately 200 A in diameter are characteristic of the Meningococcus A and C polysaccharides whereas filaments that are 400-600 A in length are found in Meningococcus B polysaccharide preparations. Filaments are occasionally found associated with the spheroidal Meningococcus A and C polysaccharides and it is proposed that these structures are composed of a long (1-4 microns) filament or filaments that are arranged in spheroidal molecules or micelles of high molecular weight. The Meningococcus B polysaccharide, by contrast, is a short flexuous filament or strand of relatively low molecular weight. A relationship between morphology and antigenicity is proposed.

  11. Atomic imaging using secondary electrons in a scanning transmission electron microscope: experimental observations and possible mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Inada, H; Su, D; Egerton, R F; Konno, M; Wu, L; Ciston, J; Wall, J; Zhu, Y

    2011-06-01

    We report detailed investigation of high-resolution imaging using secondary electrons (SE) with a sub-nanometer probe in an aberration-corrected transmission electron microscope, Hitachi HD2700C. This instrument also allows us to acquire the corresponding annular dark-field (ADF) images both simultaneously and separately. We demonstrate that atomic SE imaging is achievable for a wide range of elements, from uranium to carbon. Using the ADF images as a reference, we studied the SE image intensity and contrast as functions of applied bias, atomic number, crystal tilt, and thickness to shed light on the origin of the unexpected ultrahigh resolution in SE imaging. We have also demonstrated that the SE signal is sensitive to the terminating species at a crystal surface. A possible mechanism for atomic-scale SE imaging is proposed. The ability to image both the surface and bulk of a sample at atomic-scale is unprecedented, and can have important applications in the field of electron microscopy and materials characterization. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Quantitative Cryo-Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy of Biological Materials.

    PubMed

    Elbaum, Michael

    2018-05-11

    Electron tomography provides a detailed view into the 3D structure of biological cells and tissues. Physical fixation by vitrification of the aqueous medium provides the most faithful preservation of biological specimens in the native, fully hydrated state. Cryo-microscopy is challenging, however, because of the sensitivity to electron irradiation and due to the weak electron scattering of organic material. Tomography is even more challenging because of the dependence on multiple exposures of the same area. Tomographic imaging is typically performed in wide-field transmission electron microscopy (TEM) mode with phase contrast generated by defocus. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) is an alternative mode based on detection of scattering from a focused probe beam, without imaging optics following the specimen. While careful configuration of the illumination and detectors is required to generate useful contrast, STEM circumvents the major restrictions of phase contrast TEM to very thin specimens and provides a signal that is more simply interpreted in terms of local composition and density. STEM has gained popularity in recent years for materials science. The extension of STEM to cryomicroscopy and tomography of cells and macromolecules is summarized herein. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Catheter Hydrophone Aberration Correction for Transcranial Histotripsy Treatment of Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Proof-of-Concept.

    PubMed

    Gerhardson, Tyler; Sukovich, Jonathan R; Pandey, Aditya S; Hall, Timothy L; Cain, Charles A; Xu, Zhen

    2017-11-01

    Histotripsy is a minimally invasive ultrasound therapy that has shown rapid liquefaction of blood clots through human skullcaps in an in vitro intracerebral hemorrhage model. However, the efficiency of these treatments can be compromised if the skull-induced aberrations are uncorrected. We have developed a catheter hydrophone which can perform aberration correction (AC) and drain the liquefied clot following histotripsy treatment. Histotripsy pulses were delivered through an excised human skullcap using a 256-element, 500-kHz hemisphere array transducer with a 15-cm focal distance. A custom hydrophone was fabricated using a mm PZT-5h crystal interfaced to a coaxial cable and integrated into a drainage catheter. An AC algorithm was developed to correct the aberrations introduced between histotripsy pulses from each array element. An increase in focal pressure of up to 60% was achieved at the geometric focus and 27%-62% across a range of electronic steering locations. The sagittal and axial -6-dB beam widths decreased from 4.6 to 2.2 mm in the sagittal direction and 8 to 4.4 mm in the axial direction, compared to 1.5 and 3 mm in the absence of aberration. After performing AC, lesions with diameters ranging from 0.24 to 1.35 mm were generated using electronic steering over a mm grid in a tissue-mimicking phantom. An average volume of 4.07 ± 0.91 mL was liquefied and drained after using electronic steering to treat a 4.2-mL spherical volume in in vitro bovine clots through the skullcap.

  14. A Monochromatic, Aberration-Corrected, Dual-Beam Low Energy Electron Microscope

    PubMed Central

    Mankos, Marian; Shadman, Khashayar

    2013-01-01

    The monochromatic, aberration-corrected, dual-beam low energy electron microscope (MAD-LEEM) is a novel instrument aimed at imaging of nanostructures and surfaces at sub-nanometer resolution that includes a monochromator, aberration corrector and dual beam illumination. The monochromator reduces the energy spread of the illuminating electron beam, which significantly improves spectroscopic and spatial resolution. The aberration corrector utilizes an electron mirror with negative aberrations that can be used to compensate the aberrations of the LEEM objective lens for a range of electron energies. Dual flood illumination eliminates charging generated when a conventional LEEM is used to image insulating specimens. MAD-LEEM is designed for the purpose of imaging biological and insulating specimens, which are difficult to image with conventional LEEM, Low-Voltage SEM, and TEM instruments. The MAD-LEEM instrument can also be used as a general purpose LEEM with significantly improved resolution. The low impact energy of the electrons is critical for avoiding beam damage, as high energy electrons with keV kinetic energies used in SEMs and TEMs cause irreversible change to many specimens, in particular biological materials. A potential application for MAD-LEEM is in DNA sequencing, which demands imaging techniques that enable DNA sequencing at high resolution and speed, and at low cost. The key advantages of the MAD-LEEM approach for this application are the low electron impact energies, the long read lengths, and the absence of heavy-atom DNA labeling. Image contrast simulations of the detectability of individual nucleotides in a DNA strand have been developed in order to refine the optics blur and DNA base contrast requirements for this application. PMID:23582636

  15. A monochromatic, aberration-corrected, dual-beam low energy electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Mankos, Marian; Shadman, Khashayar

    2013-07-01

    The monochromatic, aberration-corrected, dual-beam low energy electron microscope (MAD-LEEM) is a novel instrument aimed at imaging of nanostructures and surfaces at sub-nanometer resolution that includes a monochromator, aberration corrector and dual beam illumination. The monochromator reduces the energy spread of the illuminating electron beam, which significantly improves spectroscopic and spatial resolution. The aberration corrector utilizes an electron mirror with negative aberrations that can be used to compensate the aberrations of the LEEM objective lens for a range of electron energies. Dual flood illumination eliminates charging generated when a conventional LEEM is used to image insulating specimens. MAD-LEEM is designed for the purpose of imaging biological and insulating specimens, which are difficult to image with conventional LEEM, Low-Voltage SEM, and TEM instruments. The MAD-LEEM instrument can also be used as a general purpose LEEM with significantly improved resolution. The low impact energy of the electrons is critical for avoiding beam damage, as high energy electrons with keV kinetic energies used in SEMs and TEMs cause irreversible change to many specimens, in particular biological materials. A potential application for MAD-LEEM is in DNA sequencing, which demands imaging techniques that enable DNA sequencing at high resolution and speed, and at low cost. The key advantages of the MAD-LEEM approach for this application are the low electron impact energies, the long read lengths, and the absence of heavy-atom DNA labeling. Image contrast simulations of the detectability of individual nucleotides in a DNA strand have been developed in order to refine the optics blur and DNA base contrast requirements for this application. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. High order aberration and straylight evaluation after cataract surgery with implantation of an aspheric, aberration correcting monofocal intraocular lens

    PubMed Central

    Kretz, Florian T A; Tandogan, Tamer; Khoramnia, Ramin; Auffarth, Gerd U

    2015-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the quality of vision in respect to high order aberrations and straylight perception after implantation of an aspheric, aberration correcting, monofocal intraocular lens (IOL). METHODS Twenty-one patients (34 eyes) aged 50 to 83y underwent cataract surgery with implantation of an aspheric, aberration correcting IOL (Tecnis ZCB00, Abbott Medical Optics). Three months after surgery they were examined for uncorrected (UDVA) and corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), contrast sensitivity (CS) under photopic and mesopic conditions with and without glare source, ocular high order aberrations (HOA, Zywave II) and retinal straylight (C-Quant). RESULTS Postoperatively, patients achieved a postoperative CDVA of 0.0 logMAR or better in 97.1% of eyes. Mean values of high order abberations were +0.02±0.27 (primary coma components) and -0.04±0.16 (spherical aberration term). Straylight values of the C-Quant were 1.35±0.44 log which is within normal range of age matched phakic patients. The CS measurements under mesopic and photopic conditions in combination with and without glare did not show any statistical significance in the patient group observed (P≥0.28). CONCLUSION The implantation of an aspherical aberration correcting monofocal IOL after cataract surgery resulted in very low residual higher order aberration (HOA) and normal straylight. PMID:26309872

  17. Spatial Resolution in Scanning Electron Microscopy and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Without a Specimen Vacuum Chamber.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Kayla X; Holtz, Megan E; Richmond-Decker, Justin; Muller, David A

    2016-08-01

    A long-standing goal of electron microscopy has been the high-resolution characterization of specimens in their native environment. However, electron optics require high vacuum to maintain an unscattered and focused probe, a challenge for specimens requiring atmospheric or liquid environments. Here, we use an electron-transparent window at the base of a scanning electron microscope's objective lens to separate column vacuum from the specimen, enabling imaging under ambient conditions, without a specimen vacuum chamber. We demonstrate in-air imaging of specimens at nanoscale resolution using backscattered scanning electron microscopy (airSEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy. We explore resolution and contrast using Monte Carlo simulations and analytical models. We find that nanometer-scale resolution can be obtained at gas path lengths up to 400 μm, although contrast drops with increasing gas path length. As the electron-transparent window scatters considerably more than gas at our operating conditions, we observe that the densities and thicknesses of the electron-transparent window are the dominant limiting factors for image contrast at lower operating voltages. By enabling a variety of detector configurations, the airSEM is applicable to a wide range of environmental experiments including the imaging of hydrated biological specimens and in situ chemical and electrochemical processes.

  18. Spatial Resolution in Scanning Electron Microscopy and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Without a Specimen Vacuum Chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Kayla X.; Holtz, Megan E.; Richmond-Decker, Justin

    2016-07-25

    Abstract A long-standing goal of electron microscopy has been the high-resolution characterization of specimens in their native environment. However, electron optics require high vacuum to maintain an unscattered and focused probe, a challenge for specimens requiring atmospheric or liquid environments. Here, we use an electron-transparent window at the base of a scanning electron microscope’s objective lens to separate column vacuum from the specimen, enabling imaging under ambient conditions, without a specimen vacuum chamber. We demonstrate in-air imaging of specimens at nanoscale resolution using backscattered scanning electron microscopy (airSEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy. We explore resolution and contrast using Montemore » Carlo simulations and analytical models. We find that nanometer-scale resolution can be obtained at gas path lengths up to 400μm, although contrast drops with increasing gas path length. As the electron-transparent window scatters considerably more than gas at our operating conditions, we observe that the densities and thicknesses of the electron-transparent window are the dominant limiting factors for image contrast at lower operating voltages. By enabling a variety of detector configurations, the airSEM is applicable to a wide range of environmental experiments including the imaging of hydrated biological specimens andin situchemical and electrochemical processes.« less

  19. Energy-based adaptive focusing of waves: application to noninvasive aberration correction of ultrasonic wavefields

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Eric; Pernot, Mathieu; Montaldo, Gabriel; Fink, Mathias; Tanter, Mickael

    2009-01-01

    An aberration correction method based on the maximization of the wave intensity at the focus of an emitting array is presented. The potential of this new adaptive focusing technique is investigated for ultrasonic focusing in biological tissues. The acoustic intensity is maximized non invasively through the direct measurement or indirect estimation of the beam energy at the focus for a series of spatially coded emissions. For ultrasonic waves, the acoustic energy at the desired focus can be indirectly estimated from the local displacements induced in tissues by the ultrasonic radiation force of the beam. Based on the measurement of these displacements, this method allows the precise estimation of the phase and amplitude aberrations and consequently the correction of aberrations along the beam travel path. The proof of concept is first performed experimentally using a large therapeutic array with strong electronic phase aberrations (up to 2π). Displacements induced by the ultrasonic radiation force at the desired focus are indirectly estimated using the time shift of backscattered echoes recorded on the array. The phase estimation is deduced accurately using a direct inversion algorithm which reduces the standard deviation of the phase distribution from σ = 1.89 before correction to σ = 0.53 following correction. The corrected beam focusing quality is verified using a needle hydrophone. The peak intensity obtained through the aberrator is found to be −7.69 dB below the reference intensity obtained without any aberration. Using the phase correction, a sharp focus is restored through the aberrator with a relative peak intensity of −0.89 dB. The technique is tested experimentally using a linear transmit/receive array through a real aberrating layer. The array is used to automatically correct its beam quality, as it both generates the radiation force with coded excitations and indirectly estimates the acoustic intensity at the focus with speckle tracking. This

  20. Progress toward an aberration-corrected low energy electron microscope for DNA sequencing and surface analysis.

    PubMed

    Mankos, Marian; Shadman, Khashayar; N'diaye, Alpha T; Schmid, Andreas K; Persson, Henrik H J; Davis, Ronald W

    2012-11-01

    Monochromatic, aberration-corrected, dual-beam low energy electron microscopy (MAD-LEEM) is a novel imaging technique aimed at high resolution imaging of macromolecules, nanoparticles, and surfaces. MAD-LEEM combines three innovative electron-optical concepts in a single tool: a monochromator, a mirror aberration corrector, and dual electron beam illumination. The monochromator reduces the energy spread of the illuminating electron beam, which significantly improves spectroscopic and spatial resolution. The aberration corrector is needed to achieve subnanometer resolution at landing energies of a few hundred electronvolts. The dual flood illumination approach eliminates charging effects generated when a conventional, single-beam LEEM is used to image insulating specimens. The low landing energy of electrons in the range of 0 to a few hundred electronvolts is also critical for avoiding radiation damage, as high energy electrons with kilo-electron-volt kinetic energies cause irreversible damage to many specimens, in particular biological molecules. The performance of the key electron-optical components of MAD-LEEM, the aberration corrector combined with the objective lens and a magnetic beam separator, was simulated. Initial results indicate that an electrostatic electron mirror has negative spherical and chromatic aberration coefficients that can be tuned over a large parameter range. The negative aberrations generated by the electron mirror can be used to compensate the aberrations of the LEEM objective lens for a range of electron energies and provide a path to achieving subnanometer spatial resolution. First experimental results on characterizing DNA molecules immobilized on Au substrates in a LEEM are presented. Images obtained in a spin-polarized LEEM demonstrate that high contrast is achievable at low electron energies in the range of 1-10 eV and show that small changes in landing energy have a strong impact on the achievable contrast. The MAD-LEEM approach

  1. Progress toward an aberration-corrected low energy electron microscope for DNA sequencing and surface analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mankos, Marian; Shadman, Khashayar; N'Diaye, Alpha T.; Schmid, Andreas K.; Persson, Henrik H. J.; Davis, Ronald W.

    2012-01-01

    Monochromatic, aberration-corrected, dual-beam low energy electron microscopy (MAD-LEEM) is a novel imaging technique aimed at high resolution imaging of macromolecules, nanoparticles, and surfaces. MAD-LEEM combines three innovative electron–optical concepts in a single tool: a monochromator, a mirror aberration corrector, and dual electron beam illumination. The monochromator reduces the energy spread of the illuminating electron beam, which significantly improves spectroscopic and spatial resolution. The aberration corrector is needed to achieve subnanometer resolution at landing energies of a few hundred electronvolts. The dual flood illumination approach eliminates charging effects generated when a conventional, single-beam LEEM is used to image insulating specimens. The low landing energy of electrons in the range of 0 to a few hundred electronvolts is also critical for avoiding radiation damage, as high energy electrons with kilo-electron-volt kinetic energies cause irreversible damage to many specimens, in particular biological molecules. The performance of the key electron–optical components of MAD-LEEM, the aberration corrector combined with the objective lens and a magnetic beam separator, was simulated. Initial results indicate that an electrostatic electron mirror has negative spherical and chromatic aberration coefficients that can be tuned over a large parameter range. The negative aberrations generated by the electron mirror can be used to compensate the aberrations of the LEEM objective lens for a range of electron energies and provide a path to achieving subnanometer spatial resolution. First experimental results on characterizing DNA molecules immobilized on Au substrates in a LEEM are presented. Images obtained in a spin-polarized LEEM demonstrate that high contrast is achievable at low electron energies in the range of 1–10 eV and show that small changes in landing energy have a strong impact on the achievable contrast. The MAD

  2. Characterization of paired helical filaments by scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ksiezak-Reding, Hanna; Wall, Joseph S

    2005-07-01

    Paired helical filaments (PHFs) are abnormal twisted filaments composed of hyperphosphorylated tau protein. They are found in Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders designated as tauopathies. They are a major component of intracellular inclusions known as neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). The objective of this review is to summarize various structural studies of PHFs in which using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) has been particularly informative. STEM provides shape and mass per unit length measurements important for studying ultrastructural aspects of filaments. These include quantitative comparisons between dispersed and aggregated populations of PHFs as well as comparative studies of PHFs in Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. Other approaches are also discussed if relevant or complementary to studies using STEM, e.g., application of a novel staining reagent, Nanovan. Our understanding of the PHF structure and the development of PHFs into NFTs is presented from a historical perspective. Others goals are to describe the biochemical and ultrastructural complexity of authentic PHFs, to assess similarities between authentic and synthetic PHFs, and to discuss recent advances in PHF modeling.

  3. Combined scanning transmission electron microscopy tilt- and focal series.

    PubMed

    Dahmen, Tim; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre; Lupini, Andrew R; Kübel, Christian; Slusallek, Philipp; de Jonge, Niels

    2014-04-01

    In this study, a combined tilt- and focal series is proposed as a new recording scheme for high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) tomography. Three-dimensional (3D) data were acquired by mechanically tilting the specimen, and recording a through-focal series at each tilt direction. The sample was a whole-mount macrophage cell with embedded gold nanoparticles. The tilt-focal algebraic reconstruction technique (TF-ART) is introduced as a new algorithm to reconstruct tomograms from such combined tilt- and focal series. The feasibility of TF-ART was demonstrated by 3D reconstruction of the experimental 3D data. The results were compared with a conventional STEM tilt series of a similar sample. The combined tilt- and focal series led to smaller "missing wedge" artifacts, and a higher axial resolution than obtained for the STEM tilt series, thus improving on one of the main issues of tilt series-based electron tomography.

  4. Nanomaterial datasets to advance tomography in scanning transmission electron microscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Levin, Barnaby D. A.; Padgett, Elliot; Chen, Chien-Chun; ...

    2016-06-07

    Electron tomography in materials science has flourished with the demand to characterize nanoscale materials in three dimensions (3D). Access to experimental data is vital for developing and validating reconstruction methods that improve resolution and reduce radiation dose requirements. This work presents five high-quality scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) tomography datasets in order to address the critical need for open access data in this field. The datasets represent the current limits of experimental technique, are of high quality, and contain materials with structural complexity. Included are tomographic series of a hyperbranched Co 2 P nanocrystal, platinum nanoparticles on a carbonmore » nanofibre imaged over the complete 180° tilt range, a platinum nanoparticle and a tungsten needle both imaged at atomic resolution by equal slope tomography, and a through-focal tilt series of PtCu nanoparticles. A volumetric reconstruction from every dataset is provided for comparison and development of post-processing and visualization techniques. Researchers interested in creating novel data processing and reconstruction algorithms will now have access to state of the art experimental test data.« less

  5. Simplifying Electron Beam Channeling in Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM).

    PubMed

    Wu, Ryan J; Mittal, Anudha; Odlyzko, Michael L; Mkhoyan, K Andre

    2017-08-01

    Sub-angstrom scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) allows quantitative column-by-column analysis of crystalline specimens via annular dark-field images. The intensity of electrons scattered from a particular location in an atomic column depends on the intensity of the electron probe at that location. Electron beam channeling causes oscillations in the STEM probe intensity during specimen propagation, which leads to differences in the beam intensity incident at different depths. Understanding the parameters that control this complex behavior is critical for interpreting experimental STEM results. In this work, theoretical analysis of the STEM probe intensity reveals that intensity oscillations during specimen propagation are regulated by changes in the beam's angular distribution. Three distinct regimes of channeling behavior are observed: the high-atomic-number (Z) regime, in which atomic scattering leads to significant angular redistribution of the beam; the low-Z regime, in which the probe's initial angular distribution controls intensity oscillations; and the intermediate-Z regime, in which the behavior is mixed. These contrasting regimes are shown to exist for a wide range of probe parameters. These results provide a new understanding of the occurrence and consequences of channeling phenomena and conditions under which their influence is strengthened or weakened by characteristics of the electron probe and sample.

  6. Nanomaterial datasets to advance tomography in scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Levin, Barnaby D A; Padgett, Elliot; Chen, Chien-Chun; Scott, M C; Xu, Rui; Theis, Wolfgang; Jiang, Yi; Yang, Yongsoo; Ophus, Colin; Zhang, Haitao; Ha, Don-Hyung; Wang, Deli; Yu, Yingchao; Abruña, Hector D; Robinson, Richard D; Ercius, Peter; Kourkoutis, Lena F; Miao, Jianwei; Muller, David A; Hovden, Robert

    2016-06-07

    Electron tomography in materials science has flourished with the demand to characterize nanoscale materials in three dimensions (3D). Access to experimental data is vital for developing and validating reconstruction methods that improve resolution and reduce radiation dose requirements. This work presents five high-quality scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) tomography datasets in order to address the critical need for open access data in this field. The datasets represent the current limits of experimental technique, are of high quality, and contain materials with structural complexity. Included are tomographic series of a hyperbranched Co2P nanocrystal, platinum nanoparticles on a carbon nanofibre imaged over the complete 180° tilt range, a platinum nanoparticle and a tungsten needle both imaged at atomic resolution by equal slope tomography, and a through-focal tilt series of PtCu nanoparticles. A volumetric reconstruction from every dataset is provided for comparison and development of post-processing and visualization techniques. Researchers interested in creating novel data processing and reconstruction algorithms will now have access to state of the art experimental test data.

  7. Materials characterisation by angle-resolved scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Müller-Caspary, Knut; Oppermann, Oliver; Grieb, Tim; Krause, Florian F; Rosenauer, Andreas; Schowalter, Marco; Mehrtens, Thorsten; Beyer, Andreas; Volz, Kerstin; Potapov, Pavel

    2016-11-16

    Solid-state properties such as strain or chemical composition often leave characteristic fingerprints in the angular dependence of electron scattering. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) is dedicated to probe scattered intensity with atomic resolution, but it drastically lacks angular resolution. Here we report both a setup to exploit the explicit angular dependence of scattered intensity and applications of angle-resolved STEM to semiconductor nanostructures. Our method is applied to measure nitrogen content and specimen thickness in a GaN x As 1-x layer independently at atomic resolution by evaluating two dedicated angular intervals. We demonstrate contrast formation due to strain and composition in a Si- based metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) with Ge x Si 1-x stressors as a function of the angles used for imaging. To shed light on the validity of current theoretical approaches this data is compared with theory, namely the Rutherford approach and contemporary multislice simulations. Inconsistency is found for the Rutherford model in the whole angular range of 16-255 mrad. Contrary, the multislice simulations are applicable for angles larger than 35 mrad whereas a significant mismatch is observed at lower angles. This limitation of established simulations is discussed particularly on the basis of inelastic scattering.

  8. Nanomaterial datasets to advance tomography in scanning transmission electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Barnaby D.A.; Padgett, Elliot; Chen, Chien-Chun; Scott, M.C.; Xu, Rui; Theis, Wolfgang; Jiang, Yi; Yang, Yongsoo; Ophus, Colin; Zhang, Haitao; Ha, Don-Hyung; Wang, Deli; Yu, Yingchao; Abruña, Hector D.; Robinson, Richard D.; Ercius, Peter; Kourkoutis, Lena F.; Miao, Jianwei; Muller, David A.; Hovden, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Electron tomography in materials science has flourished with the demand to characterize nanoscale materials in three dimensions (3D). Access to experimental data is vital for developing and validating reconstruction methods that improve resolution and reduce radiation dose requirements. This work presents five high-quality scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) tomography datasets in order to address the critical need for open access data in this field. The datasets represent the current limits of experimental technique, are of high quality, and contain materials with structural complexity. Included are tomographic series of a hyperbranched Co2P nanocrystal, platinum nanoparticles on a carbon nanofibre imaged over the complete 180° tilt range, a platinum nanoparticle and a tungsten needle both imaged at atomic resolution by equal slope tomography, and a through-focal tilt series of PtCu nanoparticles. A volumetric reconstruction from every dataset is provided for comparison and development of post-processing and visualization techniques. Researchers interested in creating novel data processing and reconstruction algorithms will now have access to state of the art experimental test data. PMID:27272459

  9. Amyloid Structure and Assembly: Insights from Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Goldsbury, Claire; Baxa, Ulrich; Simon, Martha N.; Steven, Alasdair C.; Engel, Andreas; Wall, Joseph S.; Aebi, Ueli; Müller, Shirley A.

    2010-01-01

    Amyloid fibrils are filamentous protein aggregates implicated in several common diseases like Alzheimer’s disease and type II diabetes. Similar structures are also the molecular principle of the infectious spongiform encephalopathies like Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, scrapie in sheep, and of the so-called yeast prions, inherited non-chromosomal elements found in yeast and fungi. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) is often used to delineate the assembly mechanism and structural properties of amyloid aggregates. In this review we consider specifically contributions and limitations of STEM for the investigation of amyloid assembly pathways, fibril polymorphisms and structural models of amyloid fibrils. This type of microscopy provides the only method to directly measure the mass-per-length (MPL) of individual filaments. Made on both in vitro assembled and ex vivo samples, STEM mass measurements have illuminated the hierarchical relationships between amyloid fibrils and revealed that polymorphic fibrils and various globular oligomers can assemble simultaneously from a single polypeptide. The MPLs also impose strong constraints on possible packing schemes, assisting in molecular model building when combined with high-resolution methods like solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). PMID:20868754

  10. Accurate virus quantitation using a Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) detector in a scanning electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Blancett, Candace D; Fetterer, David P; Koistinen, Keith A; Morazzani, Elaine M; Monninger, Mitchell K; Piper, Ashley E; Kuehl, Kathleen A; Kearney, Brian J; Norris, Sarah L; Rossi, Cynthia A; Glass, Pamela J; Sun, Mei G

    2017-10-01

    A method for accurate quantitation of virus particles has long been sought, but a perfect method still eludes the scientific community. Electron Microscopy (EM) quantitation is a valuable technique because it provides direct morphology information and counts of all viral particles, whether or not they are infectious. In the past, EM negative stain quantitation methods have been cited as inaccurate, non-reproducible, and with detection limits that were too high to be useful. To improve accuracy and reproducibility, we have developed a method termed Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy - Virus Quantitation (STEM-VQ), which simplifies sample preparation and uses a high throughput STEM detector in a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) coupled with commercially available software. In this paper, we demonstrate STEM-VQ with an alphavirus stock preparation to present the method's accuracy and reproducibility, including a comparison of STEM-VQ to viral plaque assay and the ViroCyt Virus Counter. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A high-resolution analytical scanning transmission electron microscopy study of the early stages of spinodal decomposition in binary Fe–Cr

    SciTech Connect

    Westraadt, J.E., E-mail: johan.westraadt@nmmu.ac.za; Olivier, E.J.; Neethling, J.H.

    2015-11-15

    Spinodal decomposition (SD) is an important phenomenon in materials science and engineering. For example, it is considered to be responsible for the 475 °C embrittlement of stainless steels comprising the bcc (ferrite) or bct (martensite) phases. Structural characterization of the evolving minute nano-scale concentration fluctuations during SD in the Fe–Cr system is, however, a notable challenge, and has mainly been considered accessible via atom probe tomography (APT) and small-angle neutron scattering. The standard tool for nanostructure characterization, viz. transmission electron microscopy (TEM), has only been successfully applied to late stages of SD when embrittlement is already severe. However, we heremore » demonstrate that the structural evolution in the early stages of SD in binary Fe–Cr, and alloys based on the binary, are accessible via analytical scanning TEM. An Fe–36 wt% Cr alloy aged at 500 °C for 1, 10 and 100 h is investigated using an aberration-corrected microscope and it is found that highly coherent and interconnected Cr-rich regions develop. The wavelength of decomposition is rather insensitive to the sample thickness and it is quantified to 2, 3 and 6 nm after ageing for 1, 10 and 100 h, which is in reasonable agreement with prior APT analysis. The concentration amplitude is more sensitive to the sample thickness and acquisition parameters but the TEM analysis is in good agreement with APT analysis for the longest ageing time. These findings open up for combinatorial TEM studies where both local crystallography and chemistry is required. - Highlights: • STEM-EELS analysis was successfully applied to resolve early stage SD in Fe–Cr. • Compositional wavelength measured with STEM-EELS compares well to previous ATP studies. • Compositional amplitude measured with STEM-EELS is a function of experimental parameters. • STEM-EELS allows for combinatorial studies of SD using complementary techniques.« less

  12. Quantitative Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy of Electronic and Nanostructured Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yankovich, Andrew B.

    Electronic and nanostructured materials have been investigated using advanced scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) techniques. The first topic is the microstructure of Ga and Sb-doped ZnO. Ga-doped ZnO is a candidate transparent conducting oxide material. The microstructure of GZO thin films grown by MBE under different growth conditions and different substrates were examined using various electron microscopy (EM) techniques. The microstructure, prevalent defects, and polarity in these films strongly depend on the growth conditions and substrate. Sb-doped ZnO nanowires have been shown to be the first route to stable p-type ZnO. Using Z-contrast STEM, I have showed that an unusual microstructure of Sb-decorated head-to-head inversion domain boundaries and internal voids contain all the Sb in the nanowires and cause the p-type conduction. InGaN thin films and InGaN / GaN quantum wells (QW) for light emitting diodes are the second topic. Low-dose Z-contrast STEM, PACBED, and EDS on InGaN QW LED structures grown by MOCVD show no evidence for nanoscale composition variations, contradicting previous reports. In addition, a new extended defect in GaN and InGaN was discovered. The defect consists of a faceted pyramid-shaped void that produces a threading dislocation along the [0001] growth direction, and is likely caused by carbon contamination during growth. Non-rigid registration (NRR) and high-precision STEM of nanoparticles is the final topic. NRR is a new image processing technique that corrects distortions arising from the serial nature of STEM acquisition that previously limited the precision of locating atomic columns and counting the number of atoms in images. NRR was used to demonstrate sub-picometer precision in STEM images of single crystal Si and GaN, the best achieved in EM. NRR was used to measure the atomic surface structure of Pt nanoacatalysts and Au nanoparticles, which revealed new bond length variation phenomenon of surface atoms. In

  13. Software electron counting for low-dose scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Mittelberger, Andreas; Kramberger, Christian; Meyer, Jannik C

    2018-05-01

    The performance of the detector is of key importance for low-dose imaging in transmission electron microscopy, and counting every single electron can be considered as the ultimate goal. In scanning transmission electron microscopy, low-dose imaging can be realized by very fast scanning, however, this also introduces artifacts and a loss of resolution in the scan direction. We have developed a software approach to correct for artifacts introduced by fast scans, making use of a scintillator and photomultiplier response that extends over several pixels. The parameters for this correction can be directly extracted from the raw image. Finally, the images can be converted into electron counts. This approach enables low-dose imaging in the scanning transmission electron microscope via high scan speeds while retaining the image quality of artifact-free slower scans. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Model-based aberration correction in a closed-loop wavefront-sensor-less adaptive optics system.

    PubMed

    Song, H; Fraanje, R; Schitter, G; Kroese, H; Vdovin, G; Verhaegen, M

    2010-11-08

    In many scientific and medical applications, such as laser systems and microscopes, wavefront-sensor-less (WFSless) adaptive optics (AO) systems are used to improve the laser beam quality or the image resolution by correcting the wavefront aberration in the optical path. The lack of direct wavefront measurement in WFSless AO systems imposes a challenge to achieve efficient aberration correction. This paper presents an aberration correction approach for WFSlss AO systems based on the model of the WFSless AO system and a small number of intensity measurements, where the model is identified from the input-output data of the WFSless AO system by black-box identification. This approach is validated in an experimental setup with 20 static aberrations having Kolmogorov spatial distributions. By correcting N=9 Zernike modes (N is the number of aberration modes), an intensity improvement from 49% of the maximum value to 89% has been achieved in average based on N+5=14 intensity measurements. With the worst initial intensity, an improvement from 17% of the maximum value to 86% has been achieved based on N+4=13 intensity measurements.

  15. Design and commissioning of an aberration-corrected ultrafast spin-polarized low energy electron microscope with multiple electron sources.

    PubMed

    Wan, Weishi; Yu, Lei; Zhu, Lin; Yang, Xiaodong; Wei, Zheng; Liu, Jefferson Zhe; Feng, Jun; Kunze, Kai; Schaff, Oliver; Tromp, Ruud; Tang, Wen-Xin

    2017-03-01

    We describe the design and commissioning of a novel aberration-corrected low energy electron microscope (AC-LEEM). A third magnetic prism array (MPA) is added to the standard AC-LEEM with two prism arrays, allowing the incorporation of an ultrafast spin-polarized electron source alongside the standard cold field emission electron source, without degrading spatial resolution. The high degree of symmetries of the AC-LEEM are utilized while we design the electron optics of the ultrafast spin-polarized electron source, so as to minimize the deleterious effect of time broadening, while maintaining full control of electron spin. A spatial resolution of 2nm and temporal resolution of 10ps (ps) are expected in the future time resolved aberration-corrected spin-polarized LEEM (TR-AC-SPLEEM). The commissioning of the three-prism AC-LEEM has been successfully finished with the cold field emission source, with a spatial resolution below 2nm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Transcranial passive acoustic mapping with hemispherical sparse arrays using CT-based skull-specific aberration corrections: a simulation study

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Ryan M.; O’Reilly, Meaghan A.; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2013-01-01

    The feasibility of transcranial passive acoustic mapping with hemispherical sparse arrays (30 cm diameter, 16 to 1372 elements, 2.48 mm receiver diameter) using CT-based aberration corrections was investigated via numerical simulations. A multi-layered ray acoustic transcranial ultrasound propagation model based on CT-derived skull morphology was developed. By incorporating skull-specific aberration corrections into a conventional passive beamforming algorithm (Norton and Won 2000 IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 38 1337–43), simulated acoustic source fields representing the emissions from acoustically-stimulated microbubbles were spatially mapped through three digitized human skulls, with the transskull reconstructions closely matching the water-path control images. Image quality was quantified based on main lobe beamwidths, peak sidelobe ratio, and image signal-to-noise ratio. The effects on the resulting image quality of the source’s emission frequency and location within the skull cavity, the array sparsity and element configuration, the receiver element sensitivity, and the specific skull morphology were all investigated. The system’s resolution capabilities were also estimated for various degrees of array sparsity. Passive imaging of acoustic sources through an intact skull was shown possible with sparse hemispherical imaging arrays. This technique may be useful for the monitoring and control of transcranial focused ultrasound (FUS) treatments, particularly non-thermal, cavitation-mediated applications such as FUS-induced blood-brain barrier disruption or sonothrombolysis, for which no real-time monitoring technique currently exists. PMID:23807573

  17. Comparison of analytical and numerical approaches for CT-based aberration correction in transcranial passive acoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Ryan M.; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2016-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT)-based aberration corrections are employed in transcranial ultrasound both for therapy and imaging. In this study, analytical and numerical approaches for calculating aberration corrections based on CT data were compared, with a particular focus on their application to transcranial passive imaging. Two models were investigated: a three-dimensional full-wave numerical model (Connor and Hynynen 2004 IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 51 1693-706) based on the Westervelt equation, and an analytical method (Clement and Hynynen 2002 Ultrasound Med. Biol. 28 617-24) similar to that currently employed by commercial brain therapy systems. Trans-skull time delay corrections calculated from each model were applied to data acquired by a sparse hemispherical (30 cm diameter) receiver array (128 piezoceramic discs: 2.5 mm diameter, 612 kHz center frequency) passively listening through ex vivo human skullcaps (n  =  4) to emissions from a narrow-band, fixed source emitter (1 mm diameter, 516 kHz center frequency). Measurements were taken at various locations within the cranial cavity by moving the source around the field using a three-axis positioning system. Images generated through passive beamforming using CT-based skull corrections were compared with those obtained through an invasive source-based approach, as well as images formed without skull corrections, using the main lobe volume, positional shift, peak sidelobe ratio, and image signal-to-noise ratio as metrics for image quality. For each CT-based model, corrections achieved by allowing for heterogeneous skull acoustical parameters in simulation outperformed the corresponding case where homogeneous parameters were assumed. Of the CT-based methods investigated, the full-wave model provided the best imaging results at the cost of computational complexity. These results highlight the importance of accurately modeling trans-skull propagation when calculating CT-based aberration corrections

  18. Progress on PEEM3 - An Aberration Corrected X-Ray PhotoemissionElectron Microscope at the ALS

    SciTech Connect

    MacDowell, Alastair A.; Feng, J.; DeMello, A.

    2006-05-20

    A new ultrahigh-resolution photoemission electron microscope called PEEM3 is being developed and built at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). An electron mirror combined with a much-simplified magnetic dipole separator is to be used to provide simultaneous correction of spherical and chromatic aberrations. It is installed on an elliptically polarized undulator (EPU) beamline, and will be operated with very high spatial resolution and high flux to study the composition, structure, electric and magnetic properties of complex materials. The instrument has been designed and is described. The instrumental hardware is being deployed in 2 phases. The first phase is the deployment ofmore » a standard PEEM type microscope consisting of the standard linear array of electrostatic electron lenses. The second phase will be the installation of the aberration corrected upgrade to improve resolution and throughput. This paper describes progress as the instrument enters the commissioning part of the first phase.« less

  19. Visual simulation through an aspheric aberration-correcting intraocular lens in subjects with different corneal profiles using adaptive optics.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Alcocer, Javier; Madrid-Costa, David; García-Lázaro, Santiago; Albarrán-Diego, César; Ferrer-Blasco, Teresa

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the visual quality of the AcrySof IQ SN60WF(®) intraocular lens (IOL) when combined with different corneal profiles. Ten eyes of 10 participants with no prior history of refractive or cataract surgery were evaluated. An adaptive optics visual simulator was used to simulate the wavefront aberration pattern of an aspheric aberration-correcting IOL (AcrySof IQ SN60WF(®)). Normal corneas (group A), low and high myopic corneal ablations (groups B and C, respectively) and low and high hyperopic corneal ablations (groups D and E, respectively) were also simulated. Monocular distance visual acuities at 100, 50 and 10 per cent of contrast were measured. At 100, 50 and 10 per cent contrast, no differences were found between groups A and B (p > 0.06 for all contrasts). Group A obtained better values than groups C, D and E for all contrasts (p = 0.031, p = 0.038, p = 0.032 at 100, 50 and 10 per cent of contrast, respectively). At the same time, group B obtained better values than groups C, D and E (p = 0.041, p = 0.042, p = 0.036 at 100, 50 and 10 per cent of contrast, respectively). Within the five groups, the worst results were always obtained for group E (p = 0.017, p = 0.021 and p = 0.025 at 100, 50 and 10 per cent of contrast, respectively). The results suggest that the aspheric aberration-correcting IOL studied provides comparable results, when it is combined with normal corneas and with corneas with simulated low myopic ablations. When negative amounts of residual spherical aberration after cataract surgery are expected to be achieved, IOLs with more positive spherical aberration should be considered. © 2013 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2013 Optometrists Association Australia.

  20. Chromatic Aberration Correction for Atomic Resolution TEM Imaging from 20 to 80 kV.

    PubMed

    Linck, Martin; Hartel, Peter; Uhlemann, Stephan; Kahl, Frank; Müller, Heiko; Zach, Joachim; Haider, Max; Niestadt, Marcel; Bischoff, Maarten; Biskupek, Johannes; Lee, Zhongbo; Lehnert, Tibor; Börrnert, Felix; Rose, Harald; Kaiser, Ute

    2016-08-12

    Atomic resolution in transmission electron microscopy of thin and light-atom materials requires a rigorous reduction of the beam energy to reduce knockon damage. However, at the same time, the chromatic aberration deteriorates the resolution of the TEM image dramatically. Within the framework of the SALVE project, we introduce a newly developed C_{c}/C_{s} corrector that is capable of correcting both the chromatic and the spherical aberration in the range of accelerating voltages from 20 to 80 kV. The corrector allows correcting axial aberrations up to fifth order as well as the dominating off-axial aberrations. Over the entire voltage range, optimum phase-contrast imaging conditions for weak signals from light atoms can be adjusted for an optical aperture of at least 55 mrad. The information transfer within this aperture is no longer limited by chromatic aberrations. We demonstrate the performance of the microscope using the examples of 30 kV phase-contrast TEM images of graphene and molybdenum disulfide, showing unprecedented contrast and resolution that matches image calculations.

  1. Comparison of 3-D multi-lag cross- correlation and speckle brightness aberration correction algorithms on static and moving targets.

    PubMed

    Ivancevich, Nikolas M; Dahl, Jeremy J; Smith, Stephen W

    2009-10-01

    Phase correction has the potential to increase the image quality of 3-D ultrasound, especially transcranial ultrasound. We implemented and compared 2 algorithms for aberration correction, multi-lag cross-correlation and speckle brightness, using static and moving targets. We corrected three 75-ns rms electronic aberrators with full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) auto-correlation lengths of 1.35, 2.7, and 5.4 mm. Cross-correlation proved the better algorithm at 2.7 and 5.4 mm correlation lengths (P < 0.05). Static cross-correlation performed better than moving-target cross-correlation at the 2.7 mm correlation length (P < 0.05). Finally, we compared the static and moving-target cross-correlation on a flow phantom with a skull casting aberrator. Using signal from static targets, the correction resulted in an average contrast increase of 22.2%, compared with 13.2% using signal from moving targets. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) increased by 20.5% and 12.8% using static and moving targets, respectively. Doppler signal strength increased by 5.6% and 4.9% for the static and moving-targets methods, respectively.

  2. Double-aberration corrected TEM/STEM of solid acid nanocatalysts in the development of pharmaceutical NSAIDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, K.; Shiju, N.; Brown, R.; Wright, I.; Boyes, E. D.; Gai, P. L.

    2012-07-01

    We report nanostructural and physico-chemical studies in the development of an efficient low temperature heterogeneous catalytic process for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) such as N-acetyl-p-aminophenol (paracetamol or acetaminophen) on tungstated zirconia nanocatalysts. Using a double-aberration corrected TEM/STEM, modified in-house for in-situ studies at the sub-Angstrom level, we directly observed in real-time, the dynamic precursor transformation to the active catalyst. We quantified the observations with catalytic activity studies for the NSAIDS. The studies have provided the direct evidence for single tungsten promoter atoms and surface WOx species of <= 0.35 nm, with nanoclusters of WOx (0.6 to 1nm), located at grain boundaries on the surface of the zirconia nanoparticles. The correlation between the nanostructure and catalytic activity indicates that the species create Brønsted acid sites highly active for the low temperature process. The results open up opportunities for developing green heterogeneous methods for pharmaceuticals.

  3. A Scan through the History of STEM

    SciTech Connect

    Pennycook, Stephen J

    2011-01-01

    The development of Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) is outlined from the first developments by Baron Manfred von Ardenne, through the first successful field emission gun STEM by Albert Crewe and his collaborators, to its widespread application today in the era of aberration correction. The review focuses on the development and understanding of incoherent imaging and electron energy loss spectroscopy at atomic resolution and will not include details on microanalysis, low loss imaging, or specialized modes such as cathodoluminescence. Although it attempts to cover all the major advances in approximately chronological order, undoubtedly there are omissions and an overemphasis onmore » developments that the author is most familiar with from his own history.« less

  4. STEM VQ Method, Using Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) for Accurate Virus Quantification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-02-02

    Corresponding Author Abstract Accurate virus quantification is sought, but a perfect method still eludes the scientific community. Electron...unlimited. UNCLASSIFIED 2 provides morphology data and counts all viral particles, including partial or noninfectious particles; however, EM methods ...consistent, reproducible virus quantification method called Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy – Virus Quantification (STEM-VQ) which simplifies

  5. Reply to L.M. Brown et al. "Brief history of the Cambridge STEM aberration correction project and its progeny" in Ultramicroscopy 157, 88 (2015).

    PubMed

    Urban, K W; Rose, H

    2016-02-01

    We comment on a Short Communication recently published in Ultramicroscopy in which Brown et al. criticize our description of the time sequence of events in the development of aberration correction systems in electron optics during the 1990s put forward in the introduction to the Ultramicroscopy April 2015 Special Issue. We present an analysis of the published literature furnishing evidence that our description is correct. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Experimental demonstration of passive acoustic imaging in the human skull cavity using CT-based aberration corrections.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ryan M; O'Reilly, Meaghan A; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2015-07-01

    Experimentally verify a previously described technique for performing passive acoustic imaging through an intact human skull using noninvasive, computed tomography (CT)-based aberration corrections Jones et al. [Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 4981-5005 (2013)]. A sparse hemispherical receiver array (30 cm diameter) consisting of 128 piezoceramic discs (2.5 mm diameter, 612 kHz center frequency) was used to passively listen through ex vivo human skullcaps (n = 4) to acoustic emissions from a narrow-band fixed source (1 mm diameter, 516 kHz center frequency) and from ultrasound-stimulated (5 cycle bursts, 1 Hz pulse repetition frequency, estimated in situ peak negative pressure 0.11-0.33 MPa, 306 kHz driving frequency) Definity™ microbubbles flowing through a thin-walled tube phantom. Initial in vivo feasibility testing of the method was performed. The performance of the method was assessed through comparisons to images generated without skull corrections, with invasive source-based corrections, and with water-path control images. For source locations at least 25 mm from the inner skull surface, the modified reconstruction algorithm successfully restored a single focus within the skull cavity at a location within 1.25 mm from the true position of the narrow-band source. The results obtained from imaging single bubbles are in good agreement with numerical simulations of point source emitters and the authors' previous experimental measurements using source-based skull corrections O'Reilly et al. [IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 61, 1285-1294 (2014)]. In a rat model, microbubble activity was mapped through an intact human skull at pressure levels below and above the threshold for focused ultrasound-induced blood-brain barrier opening. During bursts that led to coherent bubble activity, the location of maximum intensity in images generated with CT-based skull corrections was found to deviate by less than 1 mm, on average, from the position obtained using source-based corrections. Taken

  7. Experimental demonstration of passive acoustic imaging in the human skull cavity using CT-based aberration corrections

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Ryan M.; O’Reilly, Meaghan A.; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Experimentally verify a previously described technique for performing passive acoustic imaging through an intact human skull using noninvasive, computed tomography (CT)-based aberration corrections Jones et al. [Phys. Med. Biol. 58, 4981–5005 (2013)]. Methods: A sparse hemispherical receiver array (30 cm diameter) consisting of 128 piezoceramic discs (2.5 mm diameter, 612 kHz center frequency) was used to passively listen through ex vivo human skullcaps (n = 4) to acoustic emissions from a narrow-band fixed source (1 mm diameter, 516 kHz center frequency) and from ultrasound-stimulated (5 cycle bursts, 1 Hz pulse repetition frequency, estimated in situ peak negative pressure 0.11–0.33 MPa, 306 kHz driving frequency) Definity™ microbubbles flowing through a thin-walled tube phantom. Initial in vivo feasibility testing of the method was performed. The performance of the method was assessed through comparisons to images generated without skull corrections, with invasive source-based corrections, and with water-path control images. Results: For source locations at least 25 mm from the inner skull surface, the modified reconstruction algorithm successfully restored a single focus within the skull cavity at a location within 1.25 mm from the true position of the narrow-band source. The results obtained from imaging single bubbles are in good agreement with numerical simulations of point source emitters and the authors’ previous experimental measurements using source-based skull corrections O’Reilly et al. [IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 61, 1285–1294 (2014)]. In a rat model, microbubble activity was mapped through an intact human skull at pressure levels below and above the threshold for focused ultrasound-induced blood–brain barrier opening. During bursts that led to coherent bubble activity, the location of maximum intensity in images generated with CT-based skull corrections was found to deviate by less than 1 mm, on average, from the position

  8. Characterization of Si p-i-n diode for scanning transmission ion microanalysis of biological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devès, G.; Matsuyama, S.; Barbotteau, Y.; Ishii, K.; Ortega, R.

    2006-05-01

    The performance of a silicon p-i-n diode (Hamamatsu S1223-01) for the detection of charged particles was investigated and compared with the response of a standard passivated implanted planar silicon (PIPS) detector. The photodiode was characterized by ion beam induced charge collection with a micrometer spatial resolution using proton and alpha particle beams in the 1-3MeV energy range. Results indicate that homogeneity, energy resolution, and reproducibility of detection of charged particles enable the use of the low cost silicon p-i-n device as a replacement of conventional PIPS detector during scanning transmission ion microanalysis experiments. The Si p-i-n diode detection setup was successfully applied to scanning transmission ion microscopy determination of subcellular compartments on human cancer cultured cells.

  9. The spatial coherence function in scanning transmission electron microscopy and spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, D T; Findlay, S D; Etheridge, J

    2014-11-01

    We investigate the implications of the form of the spatial coherence function, also referred to as the effective source distribution, for quantitative analysis in scanning transmission electron microscopy, and in particular for interpreting the spatial origin of imaging and spectroscopy signals. These questions are explored using three different source distribution models applied to a GaAs crystal case study. The shape of the effective source distribution was found to have a strong influence not only on the scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) image contrast, but also on the distribution of the scattered electron wavefield and hence on the spatial origin of the detected electron intensities. The implications this has for measuring structure, composition and bonding at atomic resolution via annular dark field, X-ray and electron energy loss STEM imaging are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Preparation and Observation of Thick Biological Samples by Scanning Transmission Electron Tomography.

    PubMed

    Trépout, Sylvain; Bastin, Philippe; Marco, Sergio

    2017-03-12

    This report describes a protocol for preparing thick biological specimens for further observation using a scanning transmission electron microscope. It also describes an imaging method for studying the 3D structure of thick biological specimens by scanning transmission electron tomography. The sample preparation protocol is based on conventional methods in which the sample is fixed using chemical agents, treated with a heavy atom salt contrasting agent, dehydrated in a series of ethanol baths, and embedded in resin. The specific imaging conditions for observing thick samples by scanning transmission electron microscopy are then described. Sections of the sample are observed using a through-focus method involving the collection of several images at various focal planes. This enables the recovery of in-focus information at various heights throughout the sample. This particular collection pattern is performed at each tilt angle during tomography data collection. A single image is then generated, merging the in-focus information from all the different focal planes. A classic tilt-series dataset is then generated. The advantage of the method is that the tilt-series alignment and reconstruction can be performed using standard tools. The collection of through-focal images allows the reconstruction of a 3D volume that contains all of the structural details of the sample in focus.

  11. Electron tomography of HEK293T cells using scanning electron microscope-based scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    You, Yun-Wen; Chang, Hsun-Yun; Liao, Hua-Yang; Kao, Wei-Lun; Yen, Guo-Ji; Chang, Chi-Jen; Tsai, Meng-Hung; Shyue, Jing-Jong

    2012-10-01

    Based on a scanning electron microscope operated at 30 kV with a homemade specimen holder and a multiangle solid-state detector behind the sample, low-kV scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) is presented with subsequent electron tomography for three-dimensional (3D) volume structure. Because of the low acceleration voltage, the stronger electron-atom scattering leads to a stronger contrast in the resulting image than standard TEM, especially for light elements. Furthermore, the low-kV STEM yields less radiation damage to the specimen, hence the structure can be preserved. In this work, two-dimensional STEM images of a 1-μm-thick cell section with projection angles between ±50° were collected, and the 3D volume structure was reconstructed using the simultaneous iterative reconstructive technique algorithm with the TomoJ plugin for ImageJ, which are both public domain software. Furthermore, the cross-sectional structure was obtained with the Volume Viewer plugin in ImageJ. Although the tilting angle is constrained and limits the resulting structural resolution, slicing the reconstructed volume generated the depth profile of the thick specimen with sufficient resolution to examine cellular uptake of Au nanoparticles, and the final position of these nanoparticles inside the cell was imaged.

  12. Carbon contamination in scanning transmission electron microscopy and its impact on phase-plate applications.

    PubMed

    Hettler, Simon; Dries, Manuel; Hermann, Peter; Obermair, Martin; Gerthsen, Dagmar; Malac, Marek

    2017-05-01

    We analyze electron-beam induced carbon contamination in a transmission electron microscope. The study is performed on thin films potentially suitable as phase plates for phase-contrast transmission electron microscopy. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy and phase-plate imaging is utilized to analyze the contamination. The deposited contamination layer is identified as a graphitic carbon layer which is not prone to electrostatic charging whereas a non-conductive underlying substrate charges. Several methods that inhibit contamination are evaluated and the impact of carbon contamination on phase-plate imaging is discussed. The findings are in general interesting for scanning transmission electron microscopy applications. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Chemical mapping and quantification at the atomic scale by scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chu, Ming-Wen; Chen, Cheng Hsuan

    2013-06-25

    With innovative modern material-growth methods, a broad spectrum of fascinating materials with reduced dimensions-ranging from single-atom catalysts, nanoplasmonic and nanophotonic materials to two-dimensional heterostructural interfaces-is continually emerging and extending the new frontiers of materials research. A persistent central challenge in this grand scientific context has been the detailed characterization of the individual objects in these materials with the highest spatial resolution, a problem prompting the need for experimental techniques that integrate both microscopic and spectroscopic capabilities. To date, several representative microscopy-spectroscopy combinations have become available, such as scanning tunneling microscopy, tip-enhanced scanning optical microscopy, atom probe tomography, scanning transmission X-ray microscopy, and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Among these tools, STEM boasts unique chemical and electronic sensitivity at unparalleled resolution. In this Perspective, we elucidate the advances in STEM and chemical mapping applications at the atomic scale by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy with a focus on the ultimate challenge of chemical quantification with atomic accuracy.

  14. Method and apparatus for a high-resolution three dimensional confocal scanning transmission electron microscope

    DOEpatents

    de Jonge, Niels [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-08-17

    A confocal scanning transmission electron microscope which includes an electron illumination device providing an incident electron beam propagating in a direction defining a propagation axis, and a precision specimen scanning stage positioned along the propagation axis and movable in at least one direction transverse to the propagation axis. The precision specimen scanning stage is configured for positioning a specimen relative to the incident electron beam. A projector lens receives a transmitted electron beam transmitted through at least part of the specimen and focuses this transmitted beam onto an image plane, where the transmitted beam results from the specimen being illuminated by the incident electron beam. A detection system is placed approximately in the image plane.

  15. Scanning transmission ion micro-tomography (STIM-T) of biological specimens.

    PubMed

    Schwertner, Micheal; Sakellariou, Arthur; Reinert, Tilo; Butz, Tilman

    2006-05-01

    Computed tomography (CT) was applied to sets of Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM) projections recorded at the LIPSION ion beam laboratory (Leipzig) in order to visualize the 3D-mass distribution in several specimens. Examples for a test structure (copper grid) and for biological specimens (cartilage cells, cygospore) are shown. Scanning Transmission Micro-Tomography (STIM-T) at a resolution of 260 nm was demonstrated for the first time. Sub-micron features of the Cu-grid specimen were verified by scanning electron microscopy. The ion energy loss measured during a STIM-T experiment is related to the mass density of the specimen. Typically, biological specimens can be analysed without staining. Only shock freezing and freeze-drying is required to preserve the ultra-structure of the specimen. The radiation damage to the specimen during the experiment can be neglected. This is an advantage compared to other techniques like X-ray micro-tomography. At present, the spatial resolution is limited by beam position fluctuations and specimen vibrations.

  16. Full-wave acoustic and thermal modeling of transcranial ultrasound propagation and investigation of skull-induced aberration correction techniques: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Kyriakou, Adamos; Neufeld, Esra; Werner, Beat; Székely, Gábor; Kuster, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial focused ultrasound (tcFUS) is an attractive noninvasive modality for neurosurgical interventions. The presence of the skull, however, compromises the efficiency of tcFUS therapy, as its heterogeneous nature and acoustic characteristics induce significant distortion of the acoustic energy deposition, focal shifts, and thermal gain decrease. Phased-array transducers allow for partial compensation of skull-induced aberrations by application of precalculated phase and amplitude corrections. An integrated numerical framework allowing for 3D full-wave, nonlinear acoustic and thermal simulations has been developed and applied to tcFUS. Simulations were performed to investigate the impact of skull aberrations, the possibility of extending the treatment envelope, and adverse secondary effects. The simulated setup comprised an idealized model of the ExAblate Neuro and a detailed MR-based anatomical head model. Four different approaches were employed to calculate aberration corrections (analytical calculation of the aberration corrections disregarding tissue heterogeneities; a semi-analytical ray-tracing approach compensating for the presence of the skull; two simulation-based time-reversal approaches with and without pressure amplitude corrections which account for the entire anatomy). These impact of these approaches on the pressure and temperature distributions were evaluated for 22 brain-targets. While (semi-)analytical approaches failed to induced high pressure or ablative temperatures in any but the targets in the close vicinity of the geometric focus, simulation-based approaches indicate the possibility of considerably extending the treatment envelope (including targets below the transducer level and locations several centimeters off the geometric focus), generation of sharper foci, and increased targeting accuracy. While the prediction of achievable aberration correction appears to be unaffected by the detailed bone-structure, proper consideration of

  17. Numerical Studies of Optimization and Aberration Correction Methods for the Preliminary Demonstration of the Parametric Ionization Cooling (PIC) Principle in the Twin Helix Muon Cooling Channel

    SciTech Connect

    Maloney, J. A.; Morozov, V. S.; Derbenev, Ya. S.

    Muon colliders have been proposed for the next generation of particle accelerators that study high-energy physics at the energy and intensity frontiers. In this paper we study a possible implementation of muon ionization cooling, Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling (PIC), in the twin helix channel. The resonant cooling method of PIC offers the potential to reduce emittance beyond that achievable with ionization cooling with ordinary magnetic focusing. We examine optimization of a variety of parameters, study the nonlinear dynamics in the twin helix channel and consider possible methods of aberration correction.

  18. Specimen-thickness effects on transmission Kikuchi patterns in the scanning electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Rice, K P; Keller, R R; Stoykovich, M P

    2014-06-01

    We report the effects of varying specimen thickness on the generation of transmission Kikuchi patterns in the scanning electron microscope. Diffraction patterns sufficient for automated indexing were observed from films spanning nearly three orders of magnitude in thickness in several materials, from 5 nm of hafnium dioxide to 3 μm of aluminum, corresponding to a mass-thickness range of ~5 to 810 μg cm(-2) . The scattering events that are most likely to be detected in transmission are shown to be very near the exit surface of the films. The energies, spatial distribution and trajectories of the electrons that are transmitted through the film and are collected by the detector are predicted using Monte Carlo simulations. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  19. Efficient linear phase contrast in scanning transmission electron microscopy with matched illumination and detector interferometry

    PubMed Central

    Ophus, Colin; Ciston, Jim; Pierce, Jordan; Harvey, Tyler R.; Chess, Jordan; McMorran, Benjamin J.; Czarnik, Cory; Rose, Harald H.; Ercius, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The ability to image light elements in soft matter at atomic resolution enables unprecedented insight into the structure and properties of molecular heterostructures and beam-sensitive nanomaterials. In this study, we introduce a scanning transmission electron microscopy technique combining a pre-specimen phase plate designed to produce a probe with structured phase with a high-speed direct electron detector to generate nearly linear contrast images with high efficiency. We demonstrate this method by using both experiment and simulation to simultaneously image the atomic-scale structure of weakly scattering amorphous carbon and strongly scattering gold nanoparticles. Our method demonstrates strong contrast for both materials, making it a promising candidate for structural determination of heterogeneous soft/hard matter samples even at low electron doses comparable to traditional phase-contrast transmission electron microscopy. Simulated images demonstrate the extension of this technique to the challenging problem of structural determination of biological material at the surface of inorganic crystals. PMID:26923483

  20. High-pressure freezing for scanning transmission electron tomography analysis of cellular organelles.

    PubMed

    Walther, Paul; Schmid, Eberhard; Höhn, Katharina

    2013-01-01

    Using an electron microscope's scanning transmission mode (STEM) for collection of tomographic datasets is advantageous compared to bright field transmission electron microscopic (TEM). For image formation, inelastic scattering does not cause chromatic aberration, since in STEM mode no image forming lenses are used after the beam has passed the sample, in contrast to regular TEM. Therefore, thicker samples can be imaged. It has been experimentally demonstrated that STEM is superior to TEM and energy filtered TEM for tomography of samples as thick as 1 μm. Even when using the best electron microscope, adequate sample preparation is the key for interpretable results. We adapted protocols for high-pressure freezing of cultivated cells from a physiological state. In this chapter, we describe optimized high-pressure freezing and freeze substitution protocols for STEM tomography in order to obtain high membrane contrast.

  1. Efficient linear phase contrast in scanning transmission electron microscopy with matched illumination and detector interferometry.

    PubMed

    Ophus, Colin; Ciston, Jim; Pierce, Jordan; Harvey, Tyler R; Chess, Jordan; McMorran, Benjamin J; Czarnik, Cory; Rose, Harald H; Ercius, Peter

    2016-02-29

    The ability to image light elements in soft matter at atomic resolution enables unprecedented insight into the structure and properties of molecular heterostructures and beam-sensitive nanomaterials. In this study, we introduce a scanning transmission electron microscopy technique combining a pre-specimen phase plate designed to produce a probe with structured phase with a high-speed direct electron detector to generate nearly linear contrast images with high efficiency. We demonstrate this method by using both experiment and simulation to simultaneously image the atomic-scale structure of weakly scattering amorphous carbon and strongly scattering gold nanoparticles. Our method demonstrates strong contrast for both materials, making it a promising candidate for structural determination of heterogeneous soft/hard matter samples even at low electron doses comparable to traditional phase-contrast transmission electron microscopy. Simulated images demonstrate the extension of this technique to the challenging problem of structural determination of biological material at the surface of inorganic crystals.

  2. A simple way to obtain backscattered electron images in a scanning transmission electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Tsuruta, Hiroki; Tanaka, Shigeyasu; Tanji, Takayoshi; Morita, Chiaki

    2014-08-01

    We have fabricated a simple detector for backscattered electrons (BSEs) and incorporated the detector into a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) sample holder. Our detector was made from a 4-mm(2) Si chip. The fabrication procedure was easy, and similar to a standard transmission electron microscopy (TEM) sample thinning process based on ion milling. A TEM grid containing particle objects was fixed to the detector with a silver paste. Observations were carried out using samples of Au and latex particles at 75 and 200 kV. Such a detector provides an easy way to obtain BSE images in an STEM. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Accurate Nanoscale Crystallography in Real-Space Using Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Dycus, J Houston; Harris, Joshua S; Sang, Xiahan; Fancher, Chris M; Findlay, Scott D; Oni, Adedapo A; Chan, Tsung-Ta E; Koch, Carl C; Jones, Jacob L; Allen, Leslie J; Irving, Douglas L; LeBeau, James M

    2015-08-01

    Here, we report reproducible and accurate measurement of crystallographic parameters using scanning transmission electron microscopy. This is made possible by removing drift and residual scan distortion. We demonstrate real-space lattice parameter measurements with <0.1% error for complex-layered chalcogenides Bi2Te3, Bi2Se3, and a Bi2Te2.7Se0.3 nanostructured alloy. Pairing the technique with atomic resolution spectroscopy, we connect local structure with chemistry and bonding. Combining these results with density functional theory, we show that the incorporation of Se into Bi2Te3 causes charge redistribution that anomalously increases the van der Waals gap between building blocks of the layered structure. The results show that atomic resolution imaging with electrons can accurately and robustly quantify crystallography at the nanoscale.

  4. Visualizing gold nanoparticle uptake in live cells with liquid scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Peckys, Diana B; de Jonge, Niels

    2011-04-13

    The intracellular uptake of 30 nm diameter gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) was studied at the nanoscale in pristine eukaryotic cells. Live COS-7 cells were maintained in a microfluidic chamber and imaged using scanning transmission electron microscopy. A quantitative image analysis showed that Au-NPs bound to the membranes of vesicles, possibly lysosomes, and occupied 67% of the available surface area. The vesicles accumulated to form a micrometer-sized cluster after 24 h of incubation. Two clusters were analyzed and found to consist of 117 ± 9 and 164 ± 4 NP-filled vesicles.

  5. Direct visualization of lithium via annular bright field scanning transmission electron microscopy: a review.

    PubMed

    Findlay, Scott David; Huang, Rong; Ishikawa, Ryo; Shibata, Naoya; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2017-02-08

    Annular bright field (ABF) scanning transmission electron microscopy has proven able to directly image lithium columns within crystalline environments, offering much insight into the structure and properties of lithium-ion battery materials. We summarize the image formation mechanisms underpinning ABF imaging, review the experimental application of this technique to imaging lithium in materials and overview the conditions that help maximize the visibility of lithium columns. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Compact scanning transmission x-ray microscope at the photon factory

    SciTech Connect

    Takeichi, Yasuo, E-mail: yasuo.takeichi@kek.jp; Inami, Nobuhito; Ono, Kanta

    We report the design and performance of a compact scanning transmission X-ray microscope developed at the Photon Factory. Piezo-driven linear stages are used as coarse stages of the microscope to realize excellent compactness, mobility, and vibrational and thermal stability. An X-ray beam with an intensity of ∼10{sup 7} photons/s was focused to a diameter of ∼40 nm at the sample. At the soft X-ray undulator beamline used with the microscope, a wide range of photon energies (250–1600 eV) is available. The microscope has been used to research energy materials and in environmental sciences.

  7. High-resolution mapping of molecules in an ionic liquid via scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Tomohiro; Mizoguchi, Teruyasu

    2018-03-01

    Understanding structures and spatial distributions of molecules in liquid phases is crucial for the control of liquid properties and to develop efficient liquid-phase processes. Here, real-space mapping of molecular distributions in a liquid was performed. Specifically, the ionic liquid 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (C2mimTFSI) was imaged using atomic-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy. Simulations revealed network-like bright regions in the images that were attributed to the TFSI- anion, with minimal contributions from the C2mim+ cation. Simple visualization of the TFSI- distribution in the liquid sample was achieved by binarizing the experimental image.

  8. Quantitative study of mammalian cells by scanning transmission soft X-ray microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinohara, K.; Ohigashi, T.; Toné, S.; Kado, M.; Ito, A.

    2017-06-01

    Molecular distribution in mammalian cells was studied by soft X-ray scanning transmission microscopy with respect to the quantitative aspect of analysis. NEXAFS profiles at the C, N and O K-absorption edges were combined and used for the analysis. For the estimation of quantity for nucleic acids and proteins, NEXAFS profiles of DNA and bovine serum albumin (BSA) at the N K-absorption edge were applied assuming that those were their representatives. The method has a potential to explore the other molecular components than nucleic acids and proteins.

  9. Scanning transmission x-ray microscope for materials science spectromicroscopy at the ALS

    SciTech Connect

    Warwick, T.; Seal, S.; Shin, H.

    1997-04-01

    The brightness of the Advanced Light Source will be exploited by several new instruments for materials science spectromicroscopy over the next year or so. The first of these to become operational is a scanning transmission x-ray microscope with which near edge x-ray absorption spectra (NEXAFS) can be measured on spatial features of sub-micron size. Here the authors describe the instrument as it is presently implemented, its capabilities, some studies made to date and the developments to come. The Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscope makes use of a zone plate lens to produce a small x-ray spot with which to perform absorptionmore » spectroscopy through thin samples. The x-ray beam from ALS undulator beamline 7.0 emerges into the microscope vessel through a silicon nitride vacuum window 160nm thick and 300{mu}m square. The vessel is filled with helium at atmospheric pressure. The zone plate lens is illuminated 1mm downstream from the vacuum window and forms an image in first order of a pinhole which is 3m upstream in the beamline. An order sorting aperture passes the first order converging light and blocks the unfocused zero order. The sample is at the focus a few mm downstream of the zone plate and mounted from a scanning piezo stage which rasters in x and y so that an image is formed, pixel by pixel, by an intensity detector behind the sample. Absorption spectra are measured point-by-point as the photon energy is scanned by rotating the diffraction grating in the monochromator and changing the undulator gap.« less

  10. Optimization of transmission scan duration for 15O PET study with sequential dual tracer administration using N-index.

    PubMed

    Kudomi, Nobuyuki; Watabe, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Takuya; Oka, Hisashi; Miyake, Yoshinori; Iida, Hidehiro

    2010-06-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral metabolic rate of O(2) (CMRO(2)) can be quantified by PET with the administration of H (2) (15) O and (15)O(2). Recently, a shortening in the duration of these measurements was achieved by the sequential administration of dual tracers of (15)O(2) and H (2) (15) O with PET acquisition and integration method (DARG method). A transmission scan is generally required for correcting photon attenuation in advance of PET scan. Although the DARG method can shorten the total study duration to around 30 min, the transmission scan duration has not been optimized and has possibility to shorten its duration. Our aim of this study was to determine the optimal duration for the transmission scan. We introduced 'N-index', which estimates the noise level on an image obtained by subtracting two statistically independent and physiologically equivalent images. The relationship between noise on functional images and duration of the transmission scan was investigated by N-index. We performed phantom studies to test whether the N-index reflects the pixel noise in a PET image. We also estimated the noise level by the N-index on CBF, OEF and CMRO(2) images from DARG method in clinical patients, and investigated an optimal true count of the transmission scan. We found tight correlation between pixel noise and N-index in the phantom study. By investigating relationship between the transmission scan duration and N-index value for the functional images by DARG method, we revealed that the transmission data with true counts of more than 40 Mcounts results in CBF, OEF, and CMRO(2) images of reasonable quantitative accuracy and quality. The present study suggests that further shortening of DARG measurement is possible by abridging the transmission scan. The N-index could be used to determine the optimal measurement condition when examining the quality of image.

  11. Preparation of cryofixed cells for improved 3D ultrastructure with scanning transmission electron tomography.

    PubMed

    Höhn, Katharina; Sailer, Michaela; Wang, Li; Lorenz, Myriam; Schneider, Marion E; Walther, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Scanning transmission electron tomography offers enhanced contrast compared to regular transmission electron microscopy, and thicker samples, up to 1 μm or more, can be analyzed, since the depth of focus and inelastic scattering are not limitations. In this study, we combine this novel imaging approach with state of the art specimen preparation by using novel light transparent sapphire specimen carrier for high-pressure freezing and a freeze substitution protocol for better contrast of membranes. This combination allows for imaging membranes and other subcellular structures with unsurpassed quality. This is demonstrated with mitochondria, where the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes as well as the membranes in the cristae appear in very close apposition with a minimal intermembrane space. These findings correspond well with old observations using freeze fracturing. In 880-nm thick sections of hemophagocytes, the three-dimensional structure of membrane sheets could be observed in the virtual sections of the tomogram. Microtubules, actin and intermediate filaments could be visualized within one sample. Intermediate filaments, however, could even be better observed in 3D using surface scanning electron tomography.

  12. A streaming multi-GPU implementation of image simulation algorithms for scanning transmission electron microscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Pryor, Alan; Ophus, Colin; Miao, Jianwei

    2017-10-25

    Simulation of atomic-resolution image formation in scanning transmission electron microscopy can require significant computation times using traditional methods. A recently developed method, termed plane-wave reciprocal-space interpolated scattering matrix (PRISM), demonstrates potential for significant acceleration of such simulations with negligible loss of accuracy. In this paper, we present a software package called Prismatic for parallelized simulation of image formation in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) using both the PRISM and multislice methods. By distributing the workload between multiple CUDA-enabled GPUs and multicore processors, accelerations as high as 1000 × for PRISM and 15 × for multislice are achieved relative to traditionalmore » multislice implementations using a single 4-GPU machine. We demonstrate a potentially important application of Prismatic, using it to compute images for atomic electron tomography at sufficient speeds to include in the reconstruction pipeline. Prismatic is freely available both as an open-source CUDA/C++ package with a graphical user interface and as a Python package, PyPrismatic.« less

  13. Liquid scanning transmission electron microscopy: imaging protein complexes in their native environment in whole eukaryotic cells.

    PubMed

    Peckys, Diana B; de Jonge, Niels

    2014-04-01

    Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) of specimens in liquid, so-called Liquid STEM, is capable of imaging the individual subunits of macromolecular complexes in whole eukaryotic cells in liquid. This paper discusses this new microscopy modality within the context of state-of-the-art microscopy of cells. The principle of operation and equations for the resolution are described. The obtained images are different from those acquired with standard transmission electron microscopy showing the cellular ultrastructure. Instead, contrast is obtained on specific labels. Images can be recorded in two ways, either via STEM at 200 keV electron beam energy using a microfluidic chamber enclosing the cells, or via environmental scanning electron microscopy at 30 keV of cells in a wet environment. The first series of experiments involved the epidermal growth factor receptor labeled with gold nanoparticles. The labels were imaged in whole fixed cells with nanometer resolution. Since the cells can be kept alive in the microfluidic chamber, it is also feasible to detect the labels in unfixed, live cells. The rapid sample preparation and imaging allows studies of multiple whole cells.

  14. Combined scanning transmission X-ray and electron microscopy for the characterization of bacterial endospores.

    PubMed

    Jamroskovic, Jan; Shao, Paul P; Suvorova, Elena; Barak, Imrich; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan

    2014-09-01

    Endospores (also referred to as bacterial spores) are bacterial structures formed by several bacterial species of the phylum Firmicutes. Spores form as a response to environmental stress. These structures exhibit remarkable resistance to harsh environmental conditions such as exposure to heat, desiccation, and chemical oxidants. The spores include several layers of protein and peptidoglycan that surround a core harboring DNA as well as high concentrations of calcium and dipicolinic acid (DPA). A combination of scanning transmission X-ray microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy was used for the direct quantitative characterization of bacterial spores. The concentration and localization of DPA, Ca(2+) , and other elements were determined and compared for the core and cortex of spores from two distinct genera: Bacillus subtilis and Desulfotomaculum reducens. This micro-spectroscopic approach is uniquely suited for the direct study of individual bacterial spores, while classical molecular and biochemical methods access only bulk characteristics. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A streaming multi-GPU implementation of image simulation algorithms for scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Pryor, Alan; Ophus, Colin; Miao, Jianwei

    2017-01-01

    Simulation of atomic-resolution image formation in scanning transmission electron microscopy can require significant computation times using traditional methods. A recently developed method, termed plane-wave reciprocal-space interpolated scattering matrix (PRISM), demonstrates potential for significant acceleration of such simulations with negligible loss of accuracy. Here, we present a software package called Prismatic for parallelized simulation of image formation in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) using both the PRISM and multislice methods. By distributing the workload between multiple CUDA-enabled GPUs and multicore processors, accelerations as high as 1000 × for PRISM and 15 × for multislice are achieved relative to traditional multislice implementations using a single 4-GPU machine. We demonstrate a potentially important application of Prismatic , using it to compute images for atomic electron tomography at sufficient speeds to include in the reconstruction pipeline. Prismatic is freely available both as an open-source CUDA/C++ package with a graphical user interface and as a Python package, PyPrismatic .

  16. Scanning and transmission electron microscopic analysis of ampullary segment of oviduct during estrous cycle in caprines.

    PubMed

    Sharma, R K; Singh, R; Bhardwaj, J K

    2015-01-01

    The ampullary segment of the mammalian oviduct provides suitable milieu for fertilization and development of zygote before implantation into uterus. It is, therefore, in the present study, the cyclic changes in the morphology of ampullary segment of goat oviduct were studied during follicular and luteal phases using scanning and transmission electron microscopy techniques. Topographical analysis revealed the presence of uniformly ciliated ampullary epithelia, concealing apical processes of non-ciliated cells along with bulbous secretory cells during follicular phase. The luteal phase was marked with decline in number of ciliated cells with increased occurrence of secretory cells. The ultrastructure analysis has demonstrated the presence of indented nuclear membrane, supranuclear cytoplasm, secretory granules, rough endoplasmic reticulum, large lipid droplets, apically located glycogen masses, oval shaped mitochondria in the secretory cells. The ciliated cells were characterized by the presence of elongated nuclei, abundant smooth endoplasmic reticulum, oval or spherical shaped mitochondria with crecentric cristae during follicular phase. However, in the luteal phase, secretory cells were possessing highly indented nucleus with diffused electron dense chromatin, hyaline nucleosol, increased number of lipid droplets. The ciliated cells had numerous fibrous granules and basal bodies. The parallel use of scanning and transmission electron microscopy techniques has enabled us to examine the cyclic and hormone dependent changes occurring in the topography and fine structure of epithelium of ampullary segment and its cells during different reproductive phases that will be great help in understanding major bottle neck that limits success rate in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer technology. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. A streaming multi-GPU implementation of image simulation algorithms for scanning transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Pryor, Alan; Ophus, Colin; Miao, Jianwei

    Simulation of atomic-resolution image formation in scanning transmission electron microscopy can require significant computation times using traditional methods. A recently developed method, termed plane-wave reciprocal-space interpolated scattering matrix (PRISM), demonstrates potential for significant acceleration of such simulations with negligible loss of accuracy. In this paper, we present a software package called Prismatic for parallelized simulation of image formation in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) using both the PRISM and multislice methods. By distributing the workload between multiple CUDA-enabled GPUs and multicore processors, accelerations as high as 1000 × for PRISM and 15 × for multislice are achieved relative to traditionalmore » multislice implementations using a single 4-GPU machine. We demonstrate a potentially important application of Prismatic, using it to compute images for atomic electron tomography at sufficient speeds to include in the reconstruction pipeline. Prismatic is freely available both as an open-source CUDA/C++ package with a graphical user interface and as a Python package, PyPrismatic.« less

  18. Electron probe X-ray microanalysis of cultured myogenic C2C12 cells with scanning and scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Tylko, G; Karasiński, J; Wróblewski, R; Roomans, G M; Kilarski, W M

    2000-01-01

    Heterogeneity of the elemental content of myogenic C2C12 cultured cells was studied by electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPXMA) with scanning (SEM EPXMA) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM EPXMA). The best plastic substrate for growing cells was Thermanox. For STEM EPXMA, a Formvar film coated with carbon was found to be suitable substrate. The cells examined by scanning transmission electron microscopy showed great heterogeneity in their elemental content in comparison with the cells examined in the scanning electron microscope despite of an almost identical preparation procedure for EPXMA. Nevertheless the K/Na ratios obtained from both methods of EPXMA were very close (4.1 and 4.3). We conclude that the observed discrepancy in the elemental content obtained by the two methods may be due to differences in instrumentation and this must be taken into account when planning a comparative study.

  19. Investigating the use of in situ liquid cell scanning transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Nguy, Amanda

    2016-02-19

    Engineering nanoparticles with desired shape-dependent properties is the key to many applications in nanotechnology. Although many synthetic procedures exist to produce anisotropic gold nanoparticles, the dynamics of growth are typically unknown or hypothetical. In the case of seed-mediated growth in the presence of DNA into anisotropic nanoparticles, it is not known exactly how DNA directs growth into specific morphologies. A series of preliminary experiments were carried out to contribute to the investigation of the possible mechanism of DNA-mediated growth of gold nanoprisms into gold nanostars using liquid cell scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Imaging in the liquid phase was achievedmore » through the use of a liquid cell platform and liquid cell holder that allow the sample to be contained within a “chip sandwich” between two electron transparent windows. Ex situ growth experiments were performed using Au-T30 NPrisms (30-base thymine oligonucleotide-coated gold nanoprisms) that are expected to grow into gold nanostars. Growth to form these nanostars were imaged using TEM (transmission electron microscopy) and liquid cell STEM (scanning transmission electron microscopy). An attempt to perform in situ growth experiments with the same Au-T30 nanoprisms revealed challenges in obtaining desired morphology results due to the environmental differences within the liquid cell compared to the ex situ environment. Different parameters in the experimental method were explored including fluid line set up, simultaneous and alternating reagent addition, and the effect of different liquid cell volumes to ensure adequate flow of reagents into the liquid cell. Lastly, the binding affinities were compared for T30 and A30 DNA incubated with gold nanoparticles using zeta potential measurements, absorption spectroscopy, and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). It was previously reported thymine bases have a lower binding affinity to gold surfaces than

  20. Transmissive liquid-crystal device correcting primary coma aberration and astigmatism in laser scanning microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanabe, Ayano; Hibi, Terumasa; Ipponjima, Sari; Matsumoto, Kenji; Yokoyama, Masafumi; Kurihara, Makoto; Hashimoto, Nobuyuki; Nemoto, Tomomi

    2016-03-01

    Laser scanning microscopy allows 3D cross-sectional imaging inside biospecimens. However, certain aberrations produced can degrade the quality of the resulting images. We previously reported a transmissive liquid-crystal device that could compensate for the predominant spherical aberrations during the observations, particularly in deep regions of the samples. The device, inserted between the objective lens and the microscope revolver, improved the image quality of fixed-mouse-brain slices that were observed using two-photon excitation laser scanning microscopy, which was originally degraded by spherical aberration. In this study, we developed a transmissive device that corrects primary coma aberration and astigmatism, motivated by the fact that these asymmetric aberrations can also often considerably deteriorate image quality, even near the sample surface. The device's performance was evaluated by observing fluorescent beads using single-photon excitation laser scanning microscopy. The fluorescence intensity in the image of the bead under a cover slip tilted in the y-direction was increased by 1.5 times after correction by the device. Furthermore, the y- and z-widths of the imaged bead were reduced to 66% and 65%, respectively. On the other hand, for the imaged bead sucked into a glass capillary in the longitudinal x-direction, correction with the device increased the fluorescence intensity by 2.2 times compared to that of the aberrated image. In addition, the x-, y-, and z-widths of the bead image were reduced to 75%, 53%, and 40%, respectively. Our device successfully corrected several asymmetric aberrations to improve the fluorescent signal and spatial resolution, and might be useful for observing various biospecimens.

  1. Anisotropic Shape Changes of Silica Nanoparticles Induced in Liquid with Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Zečević, Jovana; Hermannsdörfer, Justus; Schuh, Tobias; de Jong, Krijn P; de Jonge, Niels

    2017-01-01

    Liquid-phase transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is used for in-situ imaging of nanoscale processes taking place in liquid, such as the evolution of nanoparticles during synthesis or structural changes of nanomaterials in liquid environment. Here, it is shown that the focused electron beam of scanning TEM (STEM) brings about the dissolution of silica nanoparticles in water by a gradual reduction of their sizes, and that silica redeposites at the sides of the nanoparticles in the scanning direction of the electron beam, such that elongated nanoparticles are formed. Nanoparticles with an elongation in a different direction are obtained simply by changing the scan direction. Material is expelled from the center of the nanoparticles at higher electron dose, leading to the formation of doughnut-shaped objects. Nanoparticles assembled in an aggregate gradually fuse, and the electron beam exposed section of the aggregate reduces in size and is elongated. Under TEM conditions with a stationary electron beam, the nanoparticles dissolve but do not elongate. The observed phenomena are important to consider when conducting liquid-phase STEM experiments on silica-based materials and may find future application for controlled anisotropic manipulation of the size and the shape of nanoparticles in liquid. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. High Dynamic Range Pixel Array Detector for Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Tate, Mark W; Purohit, Prafull; Chamberlain, Darol; Nguyen, Kayla X; Hovden, Robert; Chang, Celesta S; Deb, Pratiti; Turgut, Emrah; Heron, John T; Schlom, Darrell G; Ralph, Daniel C; Fuchs, Gregory D; Shanks, Katherine S; Philipp, Hugh T; Muller, David A; Gruner, Sol M

    2016-02-01

    We describe a hybrid pixel array detector (electron microscope pixel array detector, or EMPAD) adapted for use in electron microscope applications, especially as a universal detector for scanning transmission electron microscopy. The 128×128 pixel detector consists of a 500 µm thick silicon diode array bump-bonded pixel-by-pixel to an application-specific integrated circuit. The in-pixel circuitry provides a 1,000,000:1 dynamic range within a single frame, allowing the direct electron beam to be imaged while still maintaining single electron sensitivity. A 1.1 kHz framing rate enables rapid data collection and minimizes sample drift distortions while scanning. By capturing the entire unsaturated diffraction pattern in scanning mode, one can simultaneously capture bright field, dark field, and phase contrast information, as well as being able to analyze the full scattering distribution, allowing true center of mass imaging. The scattering is recorded on an absolute scale, so that information such as local sample thickness can be directly determined. This paper describes the detector architecture, data acquisition system, and preliminary results from experiments with 80-200 keV electron beams.

  3. Quasi-parallel precession diffraction: Alignment method for scanning transmission electron microscopes.

    PubMed

    Plana-Ruiz, S; Portillo, J; Estradé, S; Peiró, F; Kolb, Ute; Nicolopoulos, S

    2018-06-06

    A general method to set illuminating conditions for selectable beam convergence and probe size is presented in this work for Transmission Electron Microscopes (TEM) fitted with µs/pixel fast beam scanning control, (S)TEM, and an annular dark field detector. The case of interest of beam convergence and probe size, which enables diffraction pattern indexation, is then used as a starting point in this work to add 100 Hz precession to the beam while imaging the specimen at a fast rate and keeping the projector system in diffraction mode. The described systematic alignment method for the adjustment of beam precession on the specimen plane while scanning at fast rates is mainly based on the sharpness of the precessed STEM image. The complete alignment method for parallel condition and precession, Quasi-Parallel PED-STEM, is presented in block diagram scheme, as it has been tested on a variety of instruments. The immediate application of this methodology is that it renders the TEM column ready for the acquisition of Precessed Electron Diffraction Tomographies (EDT) as well as for the acquisition of slow Precessed Scanning Nanometer Electron Diffraction (SNED). Examples of the quality of the Precessed Electron Diffraction (PED) patterns and PED-STEM alignment images are presented with corresponding probe sizes and convergence angles. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Large-scale Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (Nanotomy) of Healthy and Injured Zebrafish Brain

    PubMed Central

    Kuipers, Jeroen; Kalicharan, Ruby D.; Wolters, Anouk H. G.

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale 2D electron microscopy (EM), or nanotomy, is the tissue-wide application of nanoscale resolution electron microscopy. Others and we previously applied large scale EM to human skin pancreatic islets, tissue culture and whole zebrafish larvae1-7. Here we describe a universally applicable method for tissue-scale scanning EM for unbiased detection of sub-cellular and molecular features. Nanotomy was applied to investigate the healthy and a neurodegenerative zebrafish brain. Our method is based on standardized EM sample preparation protocols: Fixation with glutaraldehyde and osmium, followed by epoxy-resin embedding, ultrathin sectioning and mounting of ultrathin-sections on one-hole grids, followed by post staining with uranyl and lead. Large-scale 2D EM mosaic images are acquired using a scanning EM connected to an external large area scan generator using scanning transmission EM (STEM). Large scale EM images are typically ~ 5 - 50 G pixels in size, and best viewed using zoomable HTML files, which can be opened in any web browser, similar to online geographical HTML maps. This method can be applied to (human) tissue, cross sections of whole animals as well as tissue culture1-5. Here, zebrafish brains were analyzed in a non-invasive neuronal ablation model. We visualize within a single dataset tissue, cellular and subcellular changes which can be quantified in various cell types including neurons and microglia, the brain's macrophages. In addition, nanotomy facilitates the correlation of EM with light microscopy (CLEM)8 on the same tissue, as large surface areas previously imaged using fluorescent microscopy, can subsequently be subjected to large area EM, resulting in the nano-anatomy (nanotomy) of tissues. In all, nanotomy allows unbiased detection of features at EM level in a tissue-wide quantifiable manner. PMID:27285162

  5. Large-scale Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (Nanotomy) of Healthy and Injured Zebrafish Brain.

    PubMed

    Kuipers, Jeroen; Kalicharan, Ruby D; Wolters, Anouk H G; van Ham, Tjakko J; Giepmans, Ben N G

    2016-05-25

    Large-scale 2D electron microscopy (EM), or nanotomy, is the tissue-wide application of nanoscale resolution electron microscopy. Others and we previously applied large scale EM to human skin pancreatic islets, tissue culture and whole zebrafish larvae(1-7). Here we describe a universally applicable method for tissue-scale scanning EM for unbiased detection of sub-cellular and molecular features. Nanotomy was applied to investigate the healthy and a neurodegenerative zebrafish brain. Our method is based on standardized EM sample preparation protocols: Fixation with glutaraldehyde and osmium, followed by epoxy-resin embedding, ultrathin sectioning and mounting of ultrathin-sections on one-hole grids, followed by post staining with uranyl and lead. Large-scale 2D EM mosaic images are acquired using a scanning EM connected to an external large area scan generator using scanning transmission EM (STEM). Large scale EM images are typically ~ 5 - 50 G pixels in size, and best viewed using zoomable HTML files, which can be opened in any web browser, similar to online geographical HTML maps. This method can be applied to (human) tissue, cross sections of whole animals as well as tissue culture(1-5). Here, zebrafish brains were analyzed in a non-invasive neuronal ablation model. We visualize within a single dataset tissue, cellular and subcellular changes which can be quantified in various cell types including neurons and microglia, the brain's macrophages. In addition, nanotomy facilitates the correlation of EM with light microscopy (CLEM)(8) on the same tissue, as large surface areas previously imaged using fluorescent microscopy, can subsequently be subjected to large area EM, resulting in the nano-anatomy (nanotomy) of tissues. In all, nanotomy allows unbiased detection of features at EM level in a tissue-wide quantifiable manner.

  6. Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy: Applications in Atmospheric Aerosol Research

    SciTech Connect

    Moffet, Ryan C.; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Gilles, Mary K.

    Scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) combines x-ray microscopy and near edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS). This combination provides spatially resolved bonding and oxidation state information. While there are reviews relevant to STXM/NEXAFS applications in other environmental fields (and magnetic materials) this chapter focuses on atmospheric aerosols. It provides an introduction to this technique in a manner approachable to non-experts. It begins with relevant background information on synchrotron radiation sources and a description of NEXAFS spectroscopy. The bulk of the chapter provides a survey of STXM/NEXAFS aerosol studies and is organized according to the type of aerosol investigated. Themore » purpose is to illustrate the current range and recent growth of scientific investigations employing STXM-NEXAFS to probe atmospheric aerosol morphology, surface coatings, mixing states, and atmospheric processing.« less

  7. Quantitative Description of Crystal Nucleation and Growth from in Situ Liquid Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ievlev, Anton V; Jesse, Stephen; Cochell, Thomas J; Unocic, Raymond R; Protopopescu, Vladimir A; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2015-12-22

    Recent advances in liquid cell (scanning) transmission electron microscopy (S)TEM has enabled in situ nanoscale investigations of controlled nanocrystal growth mechanisms. Here, we experimentally and quantitatively investigated the nucleation and growth mechanisms of Pt nanostructures from an aqueous solution of K2PtCl6. Averaged statistical, network, and local approaches have been used for the data analysis and the description of both collective particles dynamics and local growth features. In particular, interaction between neighboring particles has been revealed and attributed to reduction of the platinum concentration in the vicinity of the particle boundary. The local approach for solving the inverse problem showed that particles dynamics can be simulated by a stationary diffusional model. The obtained results are important for understanding nanocrystal formation and growth processes and for optimization of synthesis conditions.

  8. Note on in situ (scanning) transmission electron microscopy study of liquid samples.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Nan

    2017-08-01

    Liquid cell (scanning) transmission electron microscopy has been developed rapidly, using amorphous SiN x membranes as electron transparent windows. The current interpretations of electron beam effects are mainly based on radiolytic processes. In this note, additional effects of the electric field due to electron-beam irradiation are discussed. The electric field can be produced by the charge accumulation due to the emission of secondary and Auger electrons. Besides various beam-induced phenomena, such as nanoparticle precipitation and gas bubble formation and motion, two other effects need to be considered; one is the change of Gibbs free energy of nucleation and the other is the violation of Brownian motion due to ion drifting driven by the electric field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Instrumentation for in situ flow electrochemical Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabu, Vinod; Obst, Martin; Hosseinkhannazer, Hooman; Reynolds, Matthew; Rosendahl, Scott; Wang, Jian; Hitchcock, Adam P.

    2018-06-01

    We report the design and performance of a 3-electrode device for real time in situ scanning transmission X-ray microscopy studies of electrochemical processes under both static (sealed, non-flow) conditions and with a continuous flow of electrolytes. The device was made using a combination of silicon microfabrication and 3D printing technologies. The performance is illustrated by results of a study of copper deposition and stripping at a gold working electrode. X-ray absorption spectromicroscopy at the Cu 2p edge was used to follow the evolution as a function of potential and time of the spatial distributions of Cu(0) and Cu(i) species electro-deposited from an aqueous solution of copper sulphate. The results are interpreted in terms of competing mechanisms for the reduction of Cu(ii).

  10. Measuring nanometre-scale electric fields in scanning transmission electron microscopy using segmented detectors.

    PubMed

    Brown, H G; Shibata, N; Sasaki, H; Petersen, T C; Paganin, D M; Morgan, M J; Findlay, S D

    2017-11-01

    Electric field mapping using segmented detectors in the scanning transmission electron microscope has recently been achieved at the nanometre scale. However, converting these results to quantitative field measurements involves assumptions whose validity is unclear for thick specimens. We consider three approaches to quantitative reconstruction of the projected electric potential using segmented detectors: a segmented detector approximation to differential phase contrast and two variants on ptychographical reconstruction. Limitations to these approaches are also studied, particularly errors arising from detector segment size, inelastic scattering, and non-periodic boundary conditions. A simple calibration experiment is described which corrects the differential phase contrast reconstruction to give reliable quantitative results despite the finite detector segment size and the effects of plasmon scattering in thick specimens. A plasmon scattering correction to the segmented detector ptychography approaches is also given. Avoiding the imposition of periodic boundary conditions on the reconstructed projected electric potential leads to more realistic reconstructions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Thickness dependence of scattering cross-sections in quantitative scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Martinez, G T; van den Bos, K H W; Alania, M; Nellist, P D; Van Aert, S

    2018-04-01

    In quantitative scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), scattering cross-sections have been shown to be very sensitive to the number of atoms in a column and its composition. They correspond to the integrated intensity over the atomic column and they outperform other measures. As compared to atomic column peak intensities, which saturate at a given thickness, scattering cross-sections increase monotonically. A study of the electron wave propagation is presented to explain the sensitivity of the scattering cross-sections. Based on the multislice algorithm, we analyse the wave propagation inside the crystal and its link to the scattered signal for the different probe positions contained in the scattering cross-section for detector collection in the low-, middle- and high-angle regimes. The influence to the signal from scattering of neighbouring columns is also discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Matched Backprojection Operator for Combined Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Tilt- and Focal Series.

    PubMed

    Dahmen, Tim; Kohr, Holger; de Jonge, Niels; Slusallek, Philipp

    2015-06-01

    Combined tilt- and focal series scanning transmission electron microscopy is a recently developed method to obtain nanoscale three-dimensional (3D) information of thin specimens. In this study, we formulate the forward projection in this acquisition scheme as a linear operator and prove that it is a generalization of the Ray transform for parallel illumination. We analytically derive the corresponding backprojection operator as the adjoint of the forward projection. We further demonstrate that the matched backprojection operator drastically improves the convergence rate of iterative 3D reconstruction compared to the case where a backprojection based on heuristic weighting is used. In addition, we show that the 3D reconstruction is of better quality.

  13. Enhanced light element imaging in atomic resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Findlay, S D; Kohno, Y; Cardamone, L A; Ikuhara, Y; Shibata, N

    2014-01-01

    We show that an imaging mode based on taking the difference between signals recorded from the bright field (forward scattering region) in atomic resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy provides an enhancement of the detectability of light elements over existing techniques. In some instances this is an enhancement of the visibility of the light element columns relative to heavy element columns. In all cases explored it is an enhancement in the signal-to-noise ratio of the image at the light column site. The image formation mechanisms are explained and the technique is compared with earlier approaches. Experimental data, supported by simulation, are presented for imaging the oxygen columns in LaAlO₃. Case studies looking at imaging hydrogen columns in YH₂ and lithium columns in Al₃Li are also explored through simulation, particularly with respect to the dependence on defocus, probe-forming aperture angle and detector collection aperture angles. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Dark-field imaging with the scanning transmission x-ray microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, G. R.; Browne, M. T.

    1992-01-01

    The King's College London scanning transmission x-ray microscope in use on beam line 5U2 at the SRS, SERC Daresbury Laboratory, has been modified to allow dark-field images to be formed using only the x rays scattered by the specimen. Experiments have been performed with a number of different detector geometries, and this has confirmed that the strongest scattering arises from edges or thickness gradients in the specimen. Although the dark-field signal is only a small fraction of the normal transmitted bright-field signal, features can be revealed with high contrast, and it has proved possible to detect the presence of features that are below the resolution limit of the microscope.

  15. Atomic bonding effects in annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy. II. Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Odlyzko, Michael L.; Held, Jacob T.; Mkhoyan, K. Andre, E-mail: mkhoyan@umn.edu

    2016-07-15

    Quantitatively calibrated annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (ADF-STEM) imaging experiments were compared to frozen phonon multislice simulations adapted to include chemical bonding effects. Having carefully matched simulation parameters to experimental conditions, a depth-dependent bonding effect was observed for high-angle ADF-STEM imaging of aluminum nitride. This result is explained by computational predictions, systematically examined in the preceding portion of this study, showing the propagation of the converged STEM beam to be highly sensitive to net interatomic charge transfer. Thus, although uncertainties in experimental conditions and simulation accuracy remain, the computationally predicted experimental bonding effect withstands the experimental testing reportedmore » here.« less

  16. Atomic bonding effects in annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy. I. Computational predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Odlyzko, Michael L.; Mkhoyan, K. Andre, E-mail: mkhoyan@umn.edu; Himmetoglu, Burak

    2016-07-15

    Annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (ADF-STEM) image simulations were performed for zone-axis-oriented light-element single crystals, using a multislice method adapted to include charge redistribution due to chemical bonding. Examination of these image simulations alongside calculations of the propagation of the focused electron probe reveal that the evolution of the probe intensity with thickness exhibits significant sensitivity to interatomic charge transfer, accounting for observed thickness-dependent bonding sensitivity of contrast in all ADF-STEM imaging conditions. Because changes in image contrast relative to conventional neutral atom simulations scale directly with the net interatomic charge transfer, the strongest effects are seen inmore » crystals with highly polar bonding, while no effects are seen for nonpolar bonding. Although the bonding dependence of ADF-STEM image contrast varies with detector geometry, imaging parameters, and material temperature, these simulations predict the bonding effects to be experimentally measureable.« less

  17. Probing plasmons in three dimensions by combining complementary spectroscopies in a scanning transmission electron microscope

    DOE PAGES

    Hachtel, Jordan A.; Marvinney, Claire; Mouti, Anas; ...

    2016-03-02

    The nanoscale optical response of surface plasmons in three-dimensional metallic nanostructures plays an important role in many nanotechnology applications, where precise spatial and spectral characteristics of plasmonic elements control device performance. Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and cathodoluminescence (CL) within a scanning transmission electron microscope have proven to be valuable tools for studying plasmonics at the nanoscale. Each technique has been used separately, producing three-dimensional reconstructions through tomography, often aided by simulations for complete characterization. Here we demonstrate that the complementary nature of the two techniques, namely that EELS probes beam-induced electronic excitations while CL probes radiative decay, allows usmore » to directly obtain a spatially- and spectrally-resolved picture of the plasmonic characteristics of nanostructures in three dimensions. Furthermore, the approach enables nanoparticle-by-nanoparticle plasmonic analysis in three dimensions to aid in the design of diverse nanoplasmonic applications.« less

  18. Stainless Steel Vacuum Chamber for Scanning Transmission X-ray Microsopy

    SciTech Connect

    Kilcoyne, Arthur L.

    The stainless steel chamber was specifically conceived and designed for housing an interferometer controlled scanning transmission x-ray microscope (STXM). The construction of the chamber is such that internal components of the microscope rest within the chamber and are fixed to a 4 inch stainless steel belly band. The integral and most important part of the chamber is the belly band, which serves to isolate high frequency vibrations (e.g., floor surroundings, people traffic) from the sensitive measurements performed using the microscope. In addition, the chamber effectively acts as a sound barrier to the nanometer measurements conducted within. The assembled chamber (andmore » microscope) are readily adjustable at the micron level using strut members external to the chamber but fixed to the belly band and a stand made of polymer concreate.« less

  19. Atomic-Scale Characterization of Oxide Interfaces and Superlattices Using Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Spurgeon, Steven R.; Chambers, Scott A.

    Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) has become one of the fundamental tools to characterize oxide interfaces and superlattices. Atomic-scale structure, chemistry, and composition mapping can now be conducted on a wide variety of materials systems thanks to the development of aberration-correctors and advanced detectors. STEM imaging and diffraction, coupled with electron energy loss (EELS) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDS) spectroscopies, offer unparalleled, high-resolution analysis of structure-property relationships. In this chapter we highlight investigations into key phenomena, including interfacial conductivity in oxide superlattices, charge screening effects in magnetoelectric heterostructures, the design of high-quality iron oxide interfaces, and the complex physics governing atomic-scalemore » chemical mapping. These studies illustrate how unique insights from STEM characterization can be integrated with other techniques and first-principles calculations to develop better models for the behavior of functional oxides.« less

  20. Atomically resolved structure of ligand-protected Au{sub 9} clusters on TiO{sub 2} nanosheets using aberration-corrected STEM

    SciTech Connect

    Al Qahtani, Hassan S.; Andersson, Gunther G., E-mail: gunther.andersson@flinders.edu.au, E-mail: nakayama.tomonobu@nims.go.jp; Kimoto, Koji

    2016-03-21

    Triphenylphosphine ligand-protected Au{sub 9} clusters deposited onto titania nanosheets show three different atomic configurations as observed by scanning transmission electron microscopy. The configurations observed are a 3-dimensional structure, corresponding to the previously proposed Au{sub 9} core of the clusters, and two pseudo-2-dimensional (pseudo-2D) structures, newly found by this work. With the help of density functional theory (DFT) calculations, the observed pseudo-2D structures are attributed to the low energy, de-ligated structures formed through interaction with the substrate. The combination of scanning transmission electron microscopy with DFT calculations thus allows identifying whether or not the deposited Au{sub 9} clusters have been de-ligatedmore » in the deposition process.« less

  1. Novel edge treatment method for improving the transmission reconstruction quality in Tomographic Gamma Scanning.

    PubMed

    Han, Miaomiao; Guo, Zhirong; Liu, Haifeng; Li, Qinghua

    2018-05-01

    Tomographic Gamma Scanning (TGS) is a method used for the nondestructive assay of radioactive wastes. In TGS, the actual irregular edge voxels are regarded as regular cubic voxels in the traditional treatment method. In this study, in order to improve the performance of TGS, a novel edge treatment method is proposed that considers the actual shapes of these voxels. The two different edge voxel treatment methods were compared by computing the pixel-level relative errors and normalized mean square errors (NMSEs) between the reconstructed transmission images and the ideal images. Both methods were coupled with two different interative algorithms comprising Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (ART) with a non-negativity constraint and Maximum Likelihood Expectation Maximization (MLEM). The results demonstrated that the traditional method for edge voxel treatment can introduce significant error and that the real irregular edge voxel treatment method can improve the performance of TGS by obtaining better transmission reconstruction images. With the real irregular edge voxel treatment method, MLEM algorithm and ART algorithm can be comparable when assaying homogenous matrices, but MLEM algorithm is superior to ART algorithm when assaying heterogeneous matrices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Simultaneous emission and transmission scanning in PET oncology: the effect on parameter estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meikle, S. R.; Eberl, S.; Hooper, P. K.; Fulham, M. J.

    1997-02-01

    The authors investigated potential sources of bias due to simultaneous emission and transmission (SET) scanning and their effect on parameter estimation in dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) oncology studies. The sources of bias considered include: i) variation in transmission spillover (into the emission window) throughout the field of view, ii) increased scatter arising from rod sources, and iii) inaccurate deadtime correction. Net bias was calculated as a function of the emission count rate and used to predict distortion in [/sup 18/F]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) and [/sup 11/C]thymidine tissue curves simulating the normal liver and metastatic involvement of the liver. The effect on parameter estimates was assessed by spectral analysis and compartmental modeling. The various sources of bias approximately cancel during the early part of the study when count rate is maximal. Scatter dominates in the latter part of the study, causing apparently decreased tracer clearance which is more marked for thymidine than for FDG. The irreversible disposal rate constant, K/sub i/, was overestimated by <10% for FDG and >30% for thymidine. The authors conclude that SET has a potential role in dynamic FDG PET but is not suitable for /sup 11/C-labeled compounds.

  3. Efficient linear phase contrast in scanning transmission electron microscopy with matched illumination and detector interferometry

    DOE PAGES

    Ophus, Colin; Ciston, Jim; Pierce, Jordan; ...

    2016-02-29

    The ability to image light elements in soft matter at atomic resolution enables unprecedented insight into the structure and properties of molecular heterostructures and beam-sensitive nanomaterials. In this study, we introduce a scanning transmission electron microscopy technique combining a pre-specimen phase plate designed to produce a probe with structured phase with a high-speed direct electron detector to generate nearly linear contrast images with high efficiency. We demonstrate this method by using both experiment and simulation to simultaneously image the atomic-scale structure of weakly scattering amorphous carbon and strongly scattering gold nanoparticles. Our method demonstrates strong contrast for both materials, makingmore » it a promising candidate for structural determination of heterogeneous soft/hard matter samples even at low electron doses comparable to traditional phase-contrast transmission electron microscopy. Ultimately, simulated images demonstrate the extension of this technique to the challenging problem of structural determination of biological material at the surface of inorganic crystals.« less

  4. Dose-rate-dependent damage of cerium dioxide in the scanning transmission electron microscope

    PubMed Central

    Johnston-Peck, Aaron C.; DuChene, Joseph S.; Roberts, Alan D.; Wei, Wei David; Herzing, Andrew A.

    2016-01-01

    Beam damage caused by energetic electrons in the transmission electron microscope is a fundamental constraint limiting the collection of artifact-free information. Through understanding the influence of the electron beam, experimental routines may be adjusted to improve the data collection process. Investigations of CeO2 indicate that there is not a critical dose required for the accumulation of electron beam damage. Instead, measurements using annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy demonstrate that the onset of measurable damage occurs when a critical dose rate is exceeded. The mechanism behind this phenomenon is that oxygen vacancies created by exposure to a 300 keV electron beam are actively annihilated as the sample re-oxidizes in the microscope environment. As a result, only when the rate of vacancy creation exceeds the recovery rate will beam damage begin to accumulate. This observation suggests that dose-intensive experiments can be accomplished without disrupting the native structure of the sample when executed using dose rates below the appropriate threshold. Furthermore, the presence of an encapsulating carbonaceous layer inhibits processes that cause beam damage, markedly increasing the dose rate threshold for the accumulation of damage. PMID:27469265

  5. A scanning transmission electron microscopy approach to analyzing large volumes of tissue to detect nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kempen, Paul J; Thakor, Avnesh S; Zavaleta, Cristina; Gambhir, Sanjiv S; Sinclair, Robert

    2013-10-01

    The use of nanoparticles for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer requires the complete characterization of their toxicity, including accurately locating them within biological tissues. Owing to their size, traditional light microscopy techniques are unable to resolve them. Transmission electron microscopy provides the necessary spatial resolution to image individual nanoparticles in tissue, but is severely limited by the very small analysis volume, usually on the order of tens of cubic microns. In this work, we developed a scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) approach to analyze large volumes of tissue for the presence of polyethylene glycol-coated Raman-active-silica-gold-nanoparticles (PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs). This approach utilizes the simultaneous bright and dark field imaging capabilities of STEM along with careful control of the image contrast settings to readily identify PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs in mouse liver tissue without the need for additional time-consuming analytical characterization. We utilized this technique to analyze 243,000 mm³ of mouse liver tissue for the presence of PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs. Nanoparticles injected into the mice intravenously via the tail vein accumulated in the liver, whereas those injected intrarectally did not, indicating that they remain in the colon and do not pass through the colon wall into the systemic circulation.

  6. Studying Dynamic Processes of Nano-sized Objects in Liquid using Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Hermannsdörfer, Justus; de Jonge, Niels

    2017-02-05

    Samples fully embedded in liquid can be studied at a nanoscale spatial resolution with Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) using a microfluidic chamber assembled in the specimen holder for Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and STEM. The microfluidic system consists of two silicon microchips supporting thin Silicon Nitride (SiN) membrane windows. This article describes the basic steps of sample loading and data acquisition. Most important of all is to ensure that the liquid compartment is correctly assembled, thus providing a thin liquid layer and a vacuum seal. This protocol also includes a number of tests necessary to perform during sample loading in order to ensure correct assembly. Once the sample is loaded in the electron microscope, the liquid thickness needs to be measured. Incorrect assembly may result in a too-thick liquid, while a too-thin liquid may indicate the absence of liquid, such as when a bubble is formed. Finally, the protocol explains how images are taken and how dynamic processes can be studied. A sample containing AuNPs is imaged both in pure water and in saline.

  7. A Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) Approach to Analyzing Large Volumes of Tissue to Detect Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Kempen, Paul J.; Thakor, Avnesh S.; Zavaleta, Cristina; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.; Sinclair, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The use of nanoparticles for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer requires the complete characterization of their toxicity, including accurately locating them within biological tissues. Owing to their size, traditional light microscopy techniques are unable to resolve them. Transmission electron microscopy provides the necessary spatial resolution to image individual nanoparticles in tissue but is severely limited by the very small analysis volume, usually on the order of tens of cubic microns. In this work we developed a scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) approach to analyze large volumes of tissue for the presence of polyethylene glycol coated Raman-active-silica-gold-nanoparticles (PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs). This approach utilizes the simultaneous bright and dark field imaging capabilities of STEM along with careful control of the image contrast settings to readily identify PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs in mouse liver tissue without the need for additional time consuming analytical characterization. We utilized this technique to analyze 243,000 µm3 of mouse liver tissue for the presence of PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs. Nanoparticles injected into the mice intravenously via the tail-vein accumulated in the liver while those injected intrarectally did not, indicating that they remain in the colon and do not pass through the colon wall into the systemic circulation. PMID:23803218

  8. Studying Dynamic Processes of Nano-sized Objects in Liquid using Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hermannsdörfer, Justus; de Jonge, Niels

    2017-01-01

    Samples fully embedded in liquid can be studied at a nanoscale spatial resolution with Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) using a microfluidic chamber assembled in the specimen holder for Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and STEM. The microfluidic system consists of two silicon microchips supporting thin Silicon Nitride (SiN) membrane windows. This article describes the basic steps of sample loading and data acquisition. Most important of all is to ensure that the liquid compartment is correctly assembled, thus providing a thin liquid layer and a vacuum seal. This protocol also includes a number of tests necessary to perform during sample loading in order to ensure correct assembly. Once the sample is loaded in the electron microscope, the liquid thickness needs to be measured. Incorrect assembly may result in a too-thick liquid, while a too-thin liquid may indicate the absence of liquid, such as when a bubble is formed. Finally, the protocol explains how images are taken and how dynamic processes can be studied. A sample containing AuNPs is imaged both in pure water and in saline. PMID:28190028

  9. Dose-rate-dependent damage of cerium dioxide in the scanning transmission electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Johnston-Peck, Aaron C; DuChene, Joseph S; Roberts, Alan D; Wei, Wei David; Herzing, Andrew A

    2016-11-01

    Beam damage caused by energetic electrons in the transmission electron microscope is a fundamental constraint limiting the collection of artifact-free information. Through understanding the influence of the electron beam, experimental routines may be adjusted to improve the data collection process. Investigations of CeO 2 indicate that there is not a critical dose required for the accumulation of electron beam damage. Instead, measurements using annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy demonstrate that the onset of measurable damage occurs when a critical dose rate is exceeded. The mechanism behind this phenomenon is that oxygen vacancies created by exposure to a 300keV electron beam are actively annihilated as the sample re-oxidizes in the microscope environment. As a result, only when the rate of vacancy creation exceeds the recovery rate will beam damage begin to accumulate. This observation suggests that dose-intensive experiments can be accomplished without disrupting the native structure of the sample when executed using dose rates below the appropriate threshold. Furthermore, the presence of an encapsulating carbonaceous layer inhibits processes that cause beam damage, markedly increasing the dose rate threshold for the accumulation of damage. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Deep Learning of Atomically Resolved Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Images: Chemical Identification and Tracking Local Transformations

    SciTech Connect

    Ziatdinov, Maxim; Dyck, Ondrej; Maksov, Artem

    Recent advances in scanning transmission electron and scanning probe microscopies have opened unprecedented opportunities in probing the materials structural parameters and various functional properties in real space with an angstrom-level precision. This progress has been accompanied by exponential increase in the size and quality of datasets produced by microscopic and spectroscopic experimental techniques. These developments necessitate adequate methods for extracting relevant physical and chemical information from the large datasets, for which a priori information on the structures of various atomic configurations and lattice defects is limited or absent. Here we demonstrate an application of deep neural networks to extracting informationmore » from atomically resolved images including location of the atomic species and type of defects. We develop a “weakly-supervised” approach that uses information on the coordinates of all atomic species in the image, extracted via a deep neural network, to identify a rich variety of defects that are not part of an initial training set. We further apply our approach to interpret complex atomic and defect transformation, including switching between different coordination of silicon dopants in graphene as a function of time, formation of peculiar silicon dimer with mixed 3-fold and 4-fold coordination, and the motion of molecular “rotor”. In conclusion, this deep learning based approach resembles logic of a human operator, but can be scaled leading to significant shift in the way of extracting and analyzing information from raw experimental data.« less

  11. Deep Learning of Atomically Resolved Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Images: Chemical Identification and Tracking Local Transformations

    DOE PAGES

    Ziatdinov, Maxim; Dyck, Ondrej; Maksov, Artem; ...

    2017-12-07

    Recent advances in scanning transmission electron and scanning probe microscopies have opened unprecedented opportunities in probing the materials structural parameters and various functional properties in real space with an angstrom-level precision. This progress has been accompanied by exponential increase in the size and quality of datasets produced by microscopic and spectroscopic experimental techniques. These developments necessitate adequate methods for extracting relevant physical and chemical information from the large datasets, for which a priori information on the structures of various atomic configurations and lattice defects is limited or absent. Here we demonstrate an application of deep neural networks to extracting informationmore » from atomically resolved images including location of the atomic species and type of defects. We develop a “weakly-supervised” approach that uses information on the coordinates of all atomic species in the image, extracted via a deep neural network, to identify a rich variety of defects that are not part of an initial training set. We further apply our approach to interpret complex atomic and defect transformation, including switching between different coordination of silicon dopants in graphene as a function of time, formation of peculiar silicon dimer with mixed 3-fold and 4-fold coordination, and the motion of molecular “rotor”. In conclusion, this deep learning based approach resembles logic of a human operator, but can be scaled leading to significant shift in the way of extracting and analyzing information from raw experimental data.« less

  12. Deep Learning of Atomically Resolved Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Images: Chemical Identification and Tracking Local Transformations.

    PubMed

    Ziatdinov, Maxim; Dyck, Ondrej; Maksov, Artem; Li, Xufan; Sang, Xiahan; Xiao, Kai; Unocic, Raymond R; Vasudevan, Rama; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2017-12-26

    Recent advances in scanning transmission electron and scanning probe microscopies have opened exciting opportunities in probing the materials structural parameters and various functional properties in real space with angstrom-level precision. This progress has been accompanied by an exponential increase in the size and quality of data sets produced by microscopic and spectroscopic experimental techniques. These developments necessitate adequate methods for extracting relevant physical and chemical information from the large data sets, for which a priori information on the structures of various atomic configurations and lattice defects is limited or absent. Here we demonstrate an application of deep neural networks to extract information from atomically resolved images including location of the atomic species and type of defects. We develop a "weakly supervised" approach that uses information on the coordinates of all atomic species in the image, extracted via a deep neural network, to identify a rich variety of defects that are not part of an initial training set. We further apply our approach to interpret complex atomic and defect transformation, including switching between different coordination of silicon dopants in graphene as a function of time, formation of peculiar silicon dimer with mixed 3-fold and 4-fold coordination, and the motion of molecular "rotor". This deep learning-based approach resembles logic of a human operator, but can be scaled leading to significant shift in the way of extracting and analyzing information from raw experimental data.

  13. Revolving scanning transmission electron microscopy: correcting sample drift distortion without prior knowledge.

    PubMed

    Sang, Xiahan; LeBeau, James M

    2014-03-01

    We report the development of revolving scanning transmission electron microscopy--RevSTEM--a technique that enables characterization and removal of sample drift distortion from atomic resolution images without the need for a priori crystal structure information. To measure and correct the distortion, we acquire an image series while rotating the scan coordinate system between successive frames. Through theory and experiment, we show that the revolving image series captures the information necessary to analyze sample drift rate and direction. At atomic resolution, we quantify the image distortion using the projective standard deviation, a rapid, real-space method to directly measure lattice vector angles. By fitting these angles to a physical model, we show that the refined drift parameters provide the input needed to correct distortion across the series. We demonstrate that RevSTEM simultaneously removes the need for a priori structure information to correct distortion, leads to a dramatically improved signal-to-noise ratio, and enables picometer precision and accuracy regardless of drift rate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Probe Profile and Lateral Resolution of Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy of Thick Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Demers, Hendrix; Ramachandra, Ranjan; Drouin, Dominique; de Jonge, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Lateral profiles of the electron probe of scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) were simulated at different vertical positions in a micrometers-thick carbon sample. The simulations were carried out using the Monte Carlo method in the CASINO software. A model was developed to fit the probe profiles. The model consisted of the sum of a Gaussian function describing the central peak of the profile, and two exponential decay functions describing the tail of the profile. Calculations were performed to investigate the fraction of unscattered electrons as function of the vertical position of the probe in the sample. Line scans were also simulated over gold nanoparticles at the bottom of a carbon film to calculate the achievable resolution as function of the sample thickness and the number of electrons. The resolution was shown to be noise limited for film thicknesses less than 1 μm. Probe broadening limited the resolution for thicker films. The validity of the simulation method was verified by comparing simulated data with experimental data. The simulation method can be used as quantitative method to predict STEM performance or to interpret STEM images of thick specimens. PMID:22564444

  15. Path-separated electron interferometry in a scanning transmission electron microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasin, Fehmi S.; Harvey, Tyler R.; Chess, Jordan J.; Pierce, Jordan S.; McMorran, Benjamin J.

    2018-05-01

    We report a path-separated electron interferometer within a scanning transmission electron microscope. In this setup, we use a nanofabricated grating as an amplitude-division beamsplitter to prepare multiple spatially separated, coherent electron probe beams. We achieve path separations of 30 nm. We pass the  +1 diffraction order probe through amorphous carbon while passing the 0th and  ‑1 orders through vacuum. The probes are then made to interfere via imaging optics, and we observe an interference pattern at the CCD detector with up to 39.7% fringe visibility. We show preliminary experimental results in which the interference pattern was recorded during a 1D scan of the diffracted probes across a test phase object. These results qualitatively agree with a modeled interference predicted by an independent measurement of the specimen thickness. This experimental design can potentially be applied to phase contrast imaging and fundamental physics experiments, such as an exploration of electron wave packet coherence length.

  16. [Accuracy of attenuation coefficient obtained by 137Cs single-transmission scanning in PET: comparison with conventional germanium line source].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Keiichi; Kitamura, Keishi; Mizuta, Tetsuro; Shimizu, Keiji; Murase, Kenya; Senda, Michio

    2006-02-20

    Transmission scanning can be successfully performed with a Cs-137 single-photon-emitting point source for three-dimensional PET imaging. This method was effective for postinjection transmission scanning because of differences in physical energy. However, scatter contamination in the transmission data lowers measured attenuation coefficients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy of the influence of object scattering by measuring the attenuation coefficients on the transmission images. We also compared the results with the conventional germanium line source method. Two different types of PET scanner, the SET-3000 G/X (Shimadzu Corp.) and ECAT EXACT HR(+) (Siemens/CTI) , were used. For the transmission scanning, the SET-3000 G/X and ECAT HR(+) were the Cs-137 point source and Ge-68/Ga-68 line source, respectively. With the SET-3000 G/X, we performed transmission measurement at two energy gate settings, the standard 600-800 keV as well as 500-800 keV. The energy gate setting of the ECAT HR(+) was 350-650 keV. The effects of scattering in a uniform phantom with different cross-sectional areas ranging from 201 cm(2) to 314 cm(2) to 628 cm(2) (apposition of the two 20 cm diameter phantoms) and 943 cm(2) (stacking of the three 20 cm diameter phantoms) were acquired without emission activity. First, we evaluated the attenuation coefficients of the two different types of transmission scanning using region of interest (ROI) analysis. In addition, we evaluated the attenuation coefficients with and without segmentation for Cs-137 transmission images using the same analysis. The segmentation method was a histogram-based soft-tissue segmentation process that can also be applied to reconstructed transmission images. In the Cs-137 experiment, the maximum underestimation was 3% without segmentation, which was reduced to less than 1% with segmentation at the center of the largest phantom. In the Ge-68/Ga-68 experiment, the difference in mean attenuation

  17. Development of a scanning transmission x-ray microscope for the beamline P04 at PETRA III DESY

    SciTech Connect

    Andrianov, Konstantin; Ewald, Johannes; Nisius, Thomas

    We present a scanning transmission x-ray microscope (STXM) built on top of our existing modular platform for high resolution imaging experiments. This platform consists of up to three separate vacuum chambers and custom designed piezo stages. These piezo stages are able to move precisely in x-, y- and z-direction, this makes it possible to adjust the components for different imaging modes. During recent experiments the endstation was operated mainly as a transmission x-ray microscope (TXM) [1, 2].

  18. SCAN+

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth Krebs, John Svoboda

    2009-11-01

    SCAN+ is a software application specifically designed to control the positioning of a gamma spectrometer by a two dimensional translation system above spent fuel bundles located in a sealed spent fuel cask. The gamma spectrometer collects gamma spectrum information for the purpose of spent fuel cask fuel loading verification. SCAN+ performs manual and automatic gamma spectrometer positioning functions as-well-as exercising control of the gamma spectrometer data acquisitioning functions. Cask configuration files are used to determine the positions of spent fuel bundles. Cask scanning files are used to determine the desired scan paths for scanning a spent fuel cask allowing formore » automatic unattended cask scanning that may take several hours.« less

  19. STEMsalabim: A high-performance computing cluster friendly code for scanning transmission electron microscopy image simulations of thin specimens.

    PubMed

    Oelerich, Jan Oliver; Duschek, Lennart; Belz, Jürgen; Beyer, Andreas; Baranovskii, Sergei D; Volz, Kerstin

    2017-06-01

    We present a new multislice code for the computer simulation of scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) images based on the frozen lattice approximation. Unlike existing software packages, the code is optimized to perform well on highly parallelized computing clusters, combining distributed and shared memory architectures. This enables efficient calculation of large lateral scanning areas of the specimen within the frozen lattice approximation and fine-grained sweeps of parameter space. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Mass and molecular composition of vesicular stomatitis virus: a scanning transmission electron microscopy analysis.

    PubMed

    Thomas, D; Newcomb, W W; Brown, J C; Wall, J S; Hainfeld, J F; Trus, B L; Steven, A C

    1985-05-01

    Dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy was used to perform mass analyses of purified vesicular stomatitis virions, pronase-treated virions, and nucleocapsids, leading to a complete self-consistent account of the molecular composition of vesicular stomatitis virus. The masses obtained were 265.6 +/- 13.3 megadaltons (MDa) for the native virion, 197.5 +/- 8.4 MDa for the pronase-treated virion, and 69.4 +/- 4.9 MDa for the nucleocapsid. The reduction in mass effected by pronase treatment, which corresponds to excision of the external domains (spikes) of G protein, leads to an average of 1,205 molecules of G protein per virion. The nucleocapsid mass, after compensation for the RNA (3.7 MDa) and residual amounts of other proteins, yielded a complement of 1,258 copies of N protein. Calibration of the amounts of M, NS, and L proteins relative to N protein by biochemical quantitation yielded values of 1,826, 466, and 50 molecules, respectively, per virion. Assuming that the remaining virion mass is contributed by lipids in the viral envelope, we obtained a value of 56.1 MDa for its lipid content. In addition, four different electron microscopy procedures were applied to determine the nucleocapsid length, which we conclude to be 3.5 to 3.7 micron. The nucleocapsid comprises a strand of repeating units which have a center-to-center spacing of 3.3 nm as measured along the middle of the strand. We show that these repeating units represent monomers of N protein, each of which is associated with 9 +/- 1 bases of single-stranded RNA. From scanning transmission electron microscopy images of negatively stained nucleocapsids, we inferred that N protein has a wedge-shaped, bilobed structure with dimensions of approximately 9.0 nm (length), approximately 5.0 nm (depth), and approximately 3.3 nm (width, at the midpoint of its long axis). In the coiled configuration of the in situ nucleocapsid, the long axis of N protein is directed radially, and its depth corresponds to

  1. Mass and molecular composition of vesicular stomatitis virus: a scanning transmission electron microscopy analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, D; Newcomb, W W; Brown, J C; Wall, J S; Hainfeld, J F; Trus, B L; Steven, A C

    1985-01-01

    Dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy was used to perform mass analyses of purified vesicular stomatitis virions, pronase-treated virions, and nucleocapsids, leading to a complete self-consistent account of the molecular composition of vesicular stomatitis virus. The masses obtained were 265.6 +/- 13.3 megadaltons (MDa) for the native virion, 197.5 +/- 8.4 MDa for the pronase-treated virion, and 69.4 +/- 4.9 MDa for the nucleocapsid. The reduction in mass effected by pronase treatment, which corresponds to excision of the external domains (spikes) of G protein, leads to an average of 1,205 molecules of G protein per virion. The nucleocapsid mass, after compensation for the RNA (3.7 MDa) and residual amounts of other proteins, yielded a complement of 1,258 copies of N protein. Calibration of the amounts of M, NS, and L proteins relative to N protein by biochemical quantitation yielded values of 1,826, 466, and 50 molecules, respectively, per virion. Assuming that the remaining virion mass is contributed by lipids in the viral envelope, we obtained a value of 56.1 MDa for its lipid content. In addition, four different electron microscopy procedures were applied to determine the nucleocapsid length, which we conclude to be 3.5 to 3.7 micron. The nucleocapsid comprises a strand of repeating units which have a center-to-center spacing of 3.3 nm as measured along the middle of the strand. We show that these repeating units represent monomers of N protein, each of which is associated with 9 +/- 1 bases of single-stranded RNA. From scanning transmission electron microscopy images of negatively stained nucleocapsids, we inferred that N protein has a wedge-shaped, bilobed structure with dimensions of approximately 9.0 nm (length), approximately 5.0 nm (depth), and approximately 3.3 nm (width, at the midpoint of its long axis). In the coiled configuration of the in situ nucleocapsid, the long axis of N protein is directed radially, and its depth corresponds to

  2. Characterizing automotive fuel cell materials by soft x-ray scanning transmission x-ray microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitchcock, A. P.; Lee, V.; Wu, J.; West, M. M.; Cooper, G.; Berejnov, V.; Soboleva, T.; Susac, D.; Stumper, J.

    2016-01-01

    Proton-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEM-FC) based engines are being developed rapidly for near-term implementation in hydrogen fueled, mass production, personal automobiles. Research is focused on understanding and controlling various degradation processes (carbon corrosion, Pt migration, cold start), and reducing cost by reducing or eliminating Pt catalyst. We are using soft X-ray scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) at the S 2p, C 1s, O 1s and F 1s edges to study a variety of issues related to optimization of PEM-FC materials for automotive applications. A method to efficiently and accurately measure perfluorosulfonic acid distributions was developed and is being used to better understand how different loadings and preparation methods affect the ionomer distribution in the cathode. Progress towards an environmental cell capable of controlling the temperature and humidity of a PEM-FC sample in the STXM is described. Methods for studying the 3D chemical structure of PEM-FC are outlined.

  3. Joint denoising and distortion correction of atomic scale scanning transmission electron microscopy images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkels, Benjamin; Wirth, Benedikt

    2017-09-01

    Nowadays, modern electron microscopes deliver images at atomic scale. The precise atomic structure encodes information about material properties. Thus, an important ingredient in the image analysis is to locate the centers of the atoms shown in micrographs as precisely as possible. Here, we consider scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), which acquires data in a rastering pattern, pixel by pixel. Due to this rastering combined with the magnification to atomic scale, movements of the specimen even at the nanometer scale lead to random image distortions that make precise atom localization difficult. Given a series of STEM images, we derive a Bayesian method that jointly estimates the distortion in each image and reconstructs the underlying atomic grid of the material by fitting the atom bumps with suitable bump functions. The resulting highly non-convex minimization problems are solved numerically with a trust region approach. Existence of minimizers and the model behavior for faster and faster rastering are investigated using variational techniques. The performance of the method is finally evaluated on both synthetic and real experimental data.

  4. Characterizing automotive fuel cell materials by soft x-ray scanning transmission x-ray microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Hitchcock, A. P., E-mail: aph@mcmaster.ca; Lee, V.; Wu, J.

    Proton-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEM-FC) based engines are being developed rapidly for near-term implementation in hydrogen fueled, mass production, personal automobiles. Research is focused on understanding and controlling various degradation processes (carbon corrosion, Pt migration, cold start), and reducing cost by reducing or eliminating Pt catalyst. We are using soft X-ray scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) at the S 2p, C 1s, O 1s and F 1s edges to study a variety of issues related to optimization of PEM-FC materials for automotive applications. A method to efficiently and accurately measure perfluorosulfonic acid distributions was developed and is being used tomore » better understand how different loadings and preparation methods affect the ionomer distribution in the cathode. Progress towards an environmental cell capable of controlling the temperature and humidity of a PEM-FC sample in the STXM is described. Methods for studying the 3D chemical structure of PEM-FC are outlined.« less

  5. Ultrastructural analysis of testicular tissue and sperm by transmission and scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chemes, Hector E

    2013-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies have provided the basis for an in-depth understanding of the cell biology and normal functioning of the testis and male gametes and have opened the way to characterize the functional role played by specific organelles in spermatogenesis and sperm function. The development of the scanning electron microscope (SEM) extended these boundaries to the recognition of cell and organ surface features and the architectural array of cells and tissues. The merging of immunocytochemical and histochemical approaches with electron microscopy has completed a series of technical improvements that integrate structural and functional features to provide a broad understanding of cell biology in health and disease. With these advances the detailed study of the intricate structural and molecular organization as well as the chemical composition of cellular organelles is now possible. Immunocytochemistry is used to identify proteins or other components and localize them in specific cells or organelles with high specificity and sensitivity, and histochemistry can be used to understand their function (i.e., enzyme activity). When these techniques are used in conjunction with electron microscopy their resolving power is further increased to subcellular levels. In the present chapter we will describe in detail various ultrastructural techniques that are now available for basic or translational research in reproductive biology and reproductive medicine. These include TEM, ultrastructural immunocytochemistry, ultrastructural histochemistry, and SEM.

  6. Nanoscale imaging of whole cells using a liquid enclosure and a scanning transmission electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Peckys, Diana B; Veith, Gabriel M; Joy, David C; de Jonge, Niels

    2009-12-14

    Nanoscale imaging techniques are needed to investigate cellular function at the level of individual proteins and to study the interaction of nanomaterials with biological systems. We imaged whole fixed cells in liquid state with a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) using a micrometer-sized liquid enclosure with electron transparent windows providing a wet specimen environment. Wet-STEM images were obtained of fixed E. coli bacteria labeled with gold nanoparticles attached to surface membrane proteins. Mammalian cells (COS7) were incubated with gold-tagged epidermal growth factor and fixed. STEM imaging of these cells resulted in a resolution of 3 nm for the gold nanoparticles. The wet-STEM method has several advantages over conventional imaging techniques. Most important is the capability to image whole fixed cells in a wet environment with nanometer resolution, which can be used, e.g., to map individual protein distributions in/on whole cells. The sample preparation is compatible with that used for fluorescent microscopy on fixed cells for experiments involving nanoparticles. Thirdly, the system is rather simple and involves only minimal new equipment in an electron microscopy (EM) laboratory.

  7. Live Bacterial Physiology Visualized with 5 nm Resolution Using Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Eamonn; Nelson, Edward M; Tanaka, Tetsuya; Damiano, John; Timp, Gregory

    2016-02-23

    It is now possible to visualize at nanometer resolution the infection of a living biological cell with virus without compromising cell viability using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). To provide contrast while preserving viability, Escherichia coli and P1 bacteriophages were first positively stained with a very low concentration of uranyl acetate in minimal phosphate medium and then imaged with low-dose STEM in a microfluidic liquid flow cell. Under these conditions, it was established that the median lethal dose of electrons required to kill half the tested population was LD50 = 30 e(-)/nm(2), which coincides with the disruption of a wet biological membrane, according to prior reports. Consistent with the lateral resolution and high-contrast signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) inferred from Monte Carlo simulations, images of the E. coli membrane, flagella, and the bacteriophages were acquired with 5 nm resolution, but the cumulative dose exceeded LD50. On the other hand, with a cumulative dose below LD50 (and lower SNR), it was still possible to visualize the infection of E. coli by P1, showing the insertion of viral DNA within 3 s, with 5 nm resolution.

  8. Rare-earth-doped nanophosphors for multicolor cathodoluminescence nanobioimaging using scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Taichi; Fukushima, Shoichiro; Niioka, Hirohiko; Yamamoto, Naoki; Miyake, Jun; Araki, Tsutomu; Hashimoto, Mamoru

    2015-05-01

    We describe rare-earth-doped nanophosphors (RE-NPs) for biological imaging using cathodoluminescence(CL) microscopy based on scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). We report the first demonstration of multicolor CL nanobioimaging using STEM with nanophosphors. The CL spectra of the synthesized nanophosphors (Y2O3∶Eu, Y2O3∶Tb) were sufficiently narrow to be distinguished. From CL images of RE-NPs on an elastic carbon-coated copper grid, the spatial resolution was beyond the diffraction limit of light.Y2O3∶Tb and Y2O3∶Eu RE-NPs showed a remarkable resistance against electron beam exposure even at high acceleration voltage (80 kV) and retained a CL intensity of more than 97% compared with the initial intensity for 1 min. In biological CL imaging with STEM, heavy-metal-stained cell sections containing the RE-NPs were prepared,and both the CL images of RE-NPs and cellular structures, such as mitochondria, were clearly observed from STEM images with high contrast. The cellular CL imaging using RE-NPs also had high spatial resolution even though heavy-metal-stained cells are normally regarded as highly scattering media. Moreover, since theRE-NPs exhibit photoluminescence (PL) excited by UV light, they are useful for multimodal correlative imaging using CL and PL.

  9. Anterior lens epithelium in intumescent white cataracts - scanning and transmission electron microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Andjelic, Sofija; Drašlar, Kazimir; Hvala, Anastazija; Hawlina, Marko

    2016-02-01

    Our purpose was to study the structure of the lens epithelial cells (LECs) of intumescent white cataracts (IC) in comparison with nuclear cataracts (NC) in order to investigate possible structural reasons for development of IC. The anterior lens capsule (aLC: basement membrane and associated LECs) were obtained from cataract surgery and prepared for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We observed by SEM that in IC, LEC swelling was pronounced with the clefts surrounding the groups of LECs. Another structural feature was spherical formations, that were observed on the apical side of LEC's, towards the fibre cell layer, both by SEM and TEM. Development of these structures, bulging out from the apical cell membrane of the LEC's and disrupting it, could be followed in steps towards the sphere formation. The degeneration of the lens epithelium and the structures of the aLC in IC similar to Morgagnian globules were also observed. None of these structural changes were observed in NC. We show by SEM and TEM that, in IC, LECs have pronounced structural features not observed in NC. This supports the hypothesis that the disturbed structure of LECs plays a role in water accumulation in the IC lens. We also suggest that, in IC, LECs produce bulging spheres that represent unique structures of degenerated material, extruded from the LEC.

  10. Anterior lens epithelium in cataract patients with retinitis pigmentosa - scanning and transmission electron microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Andjelic, Sofija; Drašlar, Kazimir; Hvala, Anastazija; Hawlina, Marko

    2017-05-01

    In retinitis pigmentosa (RP) patients, relatively minor lens opacity in central part of posterior pole of the lens may cause disproportionate functional symptoms requiring cataract operation. To investigate the possible structural reasons for this opacity development, we studied the structure of the lens epithelium of patients with RP. The anterior lens capsule (aLC: basement membrane and associated lens epithelial cells, LECs) was obtained from cataract surgery and prepared for scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). Both SEM and TEM show a number of abnormal features in the anterior lens epithelium of cataract patients with RP. The abnormalities appear mainly as holes, thinning and degradation of the epithelium, with the dimensions from <1 μm to more than 50 μm. Other types of holes in size up to 20 μm were seen that may be formed by gradual stretching of the lens epithelium. Another type of abnormalities was cracks that were seen between adjacent LECs, with dimensions 0.1-2 μm × up to 10 μm. Abnormal structural features were observed in the anterior lens epithelium that may cause water influx into the lens. This may lead to clouding along the water clefts leading towards the posterior pole in the RP cataractous lens. We suggest that the lens epithelium has a role in the development of the cataract in patients with RP. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Scanning transmission electron microscopy through-focal tilt-series on biological specimens.

    PubMed

    Trepout, Sylvain; Messaoudi, Cédric; Perrot, Sylvie; Bastin, Philippe; Marco, Sergio

    2015-10-01

    Since scanning transmission electron microscopy can produce high signal-to-noise ratio bright-field images of thick (≥500 nm) specimens, this tool is emerging as the method of choice to study thick biological samples via tomographic approaches. However, in a convergent-beam configuration, the depth of field is limited because only a thin portion of the specimen (from a few nanometres to tens of nanometres depending on the convergence angle) can be imaged in focus. A method known as through-focal imaging enables recovery of the full depth of information by combining images acquired at different levels of focus. In this work, we compare tomographic reconstruction with the through-focal tilt-series approach (a multifocal series of images per tilt angle) with reconstruction with the classic tilt-series acquisition scheme (one single-focus image per tilt angle). We visualised the base of the flagellum in the protist Trypanosoma brucei via an acquisition and image-processing method tailored to obtain quantitative and qualitative descriptors of reconstruction volumes. Reconstructions using through-focal imaging contained more contrast and more details for thick (≥500 nm) biological samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Nature and evolution of incommensurate charge order in manganites visualized with cryogenic scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    El Baggari, Ismail; Savitzky, Benjamin H; Admasu, Alemayehu S; Kim, Jaewook; Cheong, Sang-Wook; Hovden, Robert; Kourkoutis, Lena F

    2018-02-13

    Incommensurate charge order in hole-doped oxides is intertwined with exotic phenomena such as colossal magnetoresistance, high-temperature superconductivity, and electronic nematicity. Here, we map, at atomic resolution, the nature of incommensurate charge-lattice order in a manganite using scanning transmission electron microscopy at room temperature and cryogenic temperature ([Formula: see text]93 K). In diffraction, the ordering wave vector changes upon cooling, a behavior typically associated with incommensurate order. However, using real space measurements, we discover that the ordered state forms lattice-locked regions over a few wavelengths interspersed with phase defects and changing periodicity. The cations undergo picometer-scale ([Formula: see text]6 pm to 11 pm) transverse displacements, suggesting that charge-lattice coupling is strong. We further unearth phase inhomogeneity in the periodic lattice displacements at room temperature, and emergent phase coherence at 93 K. Such local phase variations govern the long-range correlations of the charge-ordered state and locally change the periodicity of the modulations, resulting in wave vector shifts in reciprocal space. These atomically resolved observations underscore the importance of lattice coupling and phase inhomogeneity, and provide a microscopic explanation for putative "incommensurate" order in hole-doped oxides. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  13. Electron-beam broadening in amorphous carbon films in low-energy scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Drees, H; Müller, E; Dries, M; Gerthsen, D

    2018-02-01

    Resolution in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) is ultimately limited by the diameter of the electron beam. The electron beam diameter is not only determined by the properties of the condenser lens system but also by electron scattering in the specimen which leads to electron-beam broadening and degradation of the resolution with increasing specimen thickness. In this work we introduce a new method to measure electron-beam broadening which is based on STEM imaging with a multi-segmented STEM detector. We focus on STEM at low electron energies between 10 and 30 keV and use an amorphous carbon film with known thickness as test object. The experimental results are compared with calculated beam diameters using different analytical models and Monte-Carlo simulations. We find excellent agreement of the experimental data with the recently published model by Gauvin and Rudinsky [1] for small t/λ el (thickness to elastic mean free path) values which are considered in our study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Nature and evolution of incommensurate charge order in manganites visualized with cryogenic scanning transmission electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Savitzky, Benjamin H.; Admasu, Alemayehu S.; Kim, Jaewook; Cheong, Sang-Wook; Hovden, Robert; Kourkoutis, Lena F.

    2018-01-01

    Incommensurate charge order in hole-doped oxides is intertwined with exotic phenomena such as colossal magnetoresistance, high-temperature superconductivity, and electronic nematicity. Here, we map, at atomic resolution, the nature of incommensurate charge–lattice order in a manganite using scanning transmission electron microscopy at room temperature and cryogenic temperature (∼93 K). In diffraction, the ordering wave vector changes upon cooling, a behavior typically associated with incommensurate order. However, using real space measurements, we discover that the ordered state forms lattice-locked regions over a few wavelengths interspersed with phase defects and changing periodicity. The cations undergo picometer-scale (∼6 pm to 11 pm) transverse displacements, suggesting that charge–lattice coupling is strong. We further unearth phase inhomogeneity in the periodic lattice displacements at room temperature, and emergent phase coherence at 93 K. Such local phase variations govern the long-range correlations of the charge-ordered state and locally change the periodicity of the modulations, resulting in wave vector shifts in reciprocal space. These atomically resolved observations underscore the importance of lattice coupling and phase inhomogeneity, and provide a microscopic explanation for putative “incommensurate” order in hole-doped oxides. PMID:29382750

  15. Nanoscale Imaging of Whole Cells Using a Liquid Enclosure and a Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope

    PubMed Central

    Peckys, Diana B.; Veith, Gabriel M.; Joy, David C.; de Jonge, Niels

    2009-01-01

    Nanoscale imaging techniques are needed to investigate cellular function at the level of individual proteins and to study the interaction of nanomaterials with biological systems. We imaged whole fixed cells in liquid state with a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) using a micrometer-sized liquid enclosure with electron transparent windows providing a wet specimen environment. Wet-STEM images were obtained of fixed E. coli bacteria labeled with gold nanoparticles attached to surface membrane proteins. Mammalian cells (COS7) were incubated with gold-tagged epidermal growth factor and fixed. STEM imaging of these cells resulted in a resolution of 3 nm for the gold nanoparticles. The wet-STEM method has several advantages over conventional imaging techniques. Most important is the capability to image whole fixed cells in a wet environment with nanometer resolution, which can be used, e.g., to map individual protein distributions in/on whole cells. The sample preparation is compatible with that used for fluorescent microscopy on fixed cells for experiments involving nanoparticles. Thirdly, the system is rather simple and involves only minimal new equipment in an electron microscopy (EM) laboratory. PMID:20020038

  16. Effects of Microtubule and Actin Inhibitors on Cryptococcus neoformans Examined by Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kopecká, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is one of the most important human fungal pathogens. Its cells contain rich microtubules required for nuclear division and rich F-actin cytoskeletons for cell division. Disruption of microtubules by a microtubule inhibitor should block nuclear division, and disruption of F-actin by an actin inhibitor should block cell division. We investigated the effects of microtubule and actin inhibitors to find out whether the cytoskeletons of C. neoformans can become a new anti-fungal target for the inhibition of cell division, when examined at the ultrastructural level. Cells treated with the microtubule inhibitors vincristine (VIN) and methyl benzimidazole-2-ylcarbamate (BCM) and the actin inhibitor latrunculin A (LA), in yeast extract peptone dextrose medium, were examined by scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the cell number was counted using a Bürker chamber. After 2 days of inhibition with VIN, BCM or LA, the cells did not divide, but later, resistant, proliferating cells appeared in all samples. With combined microtubule and actin inhibitors (VIN + LA or BCM + LA), cells did not divide during 6 or even 14 days, and no resistant cells originated. TEM showed that the inhibited cells were without cytoplasm and were dead; only empty cell walls persisted with reduced capsules, shown on SEM. Combined microtubule and actin inhibitors (VIN + LA or BCM + LA), have lethal effects on C. neoformans cells and no resistant cells originate. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel

  17. Mass Determination of Rous Sarcoma Virus Virions by Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Volker M.; Simon, Martha N.

    1999-01-01

    The internal structural protein of retroviruses, Gag, comprises most of the mass of the virion, and Gag itself can give rise to virus-like particles when expressed in appropriate cells. Previously the stoichiometry of Gag in virions was inferred from indirect measurements carried out 2 decades ago. We now have directly determined the masses of individual particles of the prototypic avian retrovirus, Rous sarcoma virus (RSV), by using scanning transmission electron microscopy. In this technique, the number of scattered electrons in the dark-field image integrated over an individual freeze-dried virus particle on a grid is directly proportional to its mass. The RSV virions had a mean mass of 2.5 × 108 Da, corresponding to about 1,500 Gag molecules per virion. The population of virions was not homogeneous, with about one-third to two-thirds of the virions deviating from the mean by more than 10% of the mass in two respective preparations. The mean masses for virions carrying genomes of 7.4 or 9.3 kb were indistinguishable, suggesting that mass variability is not due to differences in RNA incorporation. PMID:10400808

  18. A transmission and scanning electron microscopic study of the saccule in five species of catfishes.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, D B

    1979-01-01

    The sacculi of five species of catfishes were studied by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. In four species, the sagitta exhibited a multifluted anterior part and a tapered posterior part; in Corydoras aeneus, however, the fluted part was absent, and a vertical component extended dorsally to terminate near the opening of the transverse canal. In all species, the otoliths had a laminar structure. An otolithic membrane was present, and hair cell bundles projected into cavities on the macular surface of the membrane. Attachments of the otolithic membrane to the neuroepithelium included short extensions of the membrane to the tallest components of the hair cell bundles of the peripheral cells and more delicate connections to the kinocilium and taller stereocilia of central cells; in addition, attachments to the microvilli of supporting cells were present. In both hair cells and supporting cells single microtubules and bundles of microtubules were present; the bundles had an orderly arrangement and were associated with cytoplasmic densities surrounding the desmosomes. The hair cells were innervated by both afferent and efferent nerve endings. Studies of the polarization of the hair cells in all species (except C. aeneus) showed that there was a single longitudinal axis that divided dorsally polarized cells from those oriented ventrally. In Doras spinosissimus and Bunocephalus bicolor, an additional line of polarization was evident in a small area in the anterior part of the macula; therefore, in these forms there was a double bipolar orientation.

  19. Scanning transmission electron microscopy and its application to the study of nanoparticles and nanoparticle systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingyue

    2005-06-01

    Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) techniques can provide imaging, diffraction and spectroscopic information, either simultaneously or in a serial manner, of the specimen with an atomic or a sub-nanometer spatial resolution. High-resolution STEM imaging, when combined with nanodiffraction, atomic resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy and nanometer resolution X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy techniques, is critical to the fundamental studies of importance to nanoscience and nanotechnology. The availability of sub-nanometer or sub-angstrom electron probes in a STEM instrument, due to the use of a field emission gun and aberration correctors, ensures the greatest capabilities for studies of sizes, shapes, defects, crystal and surface structures, and compositions and electronic states of nanometer-size regions of thin films, nanoparticles and nanoparticle systems. The various imaging, diffraction and spectroscopy modes available in a dedicated STEM or a field emission TEM/STEM instrument are reviewed and the application of these techniques to the study of nanoparticles and nanostructured catalysts is used as an example to illustrate the critical role of the various STEM techniques in nanotechnology and nanoscience research.

  20. Scanning laser reflection tool for alignment and period measurement of critical-angle transmission gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jungki; Heilmann, Ralf K.; Bruccoleri, Alexander R.; Hertz, Edward; Schatternburg, Mark L.

    2017-08-01

    We report progress toward developing a scanning laser reflection (LR) tool for alignment and period measurement of critical-angle transmission (CAT) gratings. It operates on a similar measurement principle as a tool built in 1994 which characterized period variations of grating facets for the Chandra X-ray Observatory. A specularly reflected beam and a first-order diffracted beam were used to record local period variations, surface slope variations, and grating line orientation. In this work, a normal-incidence beam was added to measure slope variations (instead of the angled-incidence beam). Since normal incidence reflection is not coupled with surface height change, it enables measurement of slope variations more accurately and, along with the angled-incidence beam, helps to reconstruct the surface figure (or tilt) map. The measurement capability of in-grating period variations was demonstrated by measuring test reflection grating (RG) samples that show only intrinsic period variations of the interference lithography process. Experimental demonstration for angular alignment of CAT gratings is also presented along with a custom-designed grating alignment assembly (GAA) testbed. All three angles were aligned to satisfy requirements for the proposed Arcus mission. The final measurement of roll misalignment agrees with the roll measurements performed at the PANTER x-ray test facility.

  1. Algorithms and applications of aberration correction and American standard-based digital evaluation in surface defects evaluating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Fan; Cao, Pin; Yang, Yongying; Li, Chen; Chai, Huiting; Zhang, Yihui; Xiong, Haoliang; Xu, Wenlin; Yan, Kai; Zhou, Lin; Liu, Dong; Bai, Jian; Shen, Yibing

    2016-11-01

    The inspection of surface defects is one of significant sections of optical surface quality evaluation. Based on microscopic scattering dark-field imaging, sub-aperture scanning and stitching, the Surface Defects Evaluating System (SDES) can acquire full-aperture image of defects on optical elements surface and then extract geometric size and position information of defects with image processing such as feature recognization. However, optical distortion existing in the SDES badly affects the inspection precision of surface defects. In this paper, a distortion correction algorithm based on standard lattice pattern is proposed. Feature extraction, polynomial fitting and bilinear interpolation techniques in combination with adjacent sub-aperture stitching are employed to correct the optical distortion of the SDES automatically in high accuracy. Subsequently, in order to digitally evaluate surface defects with American standard by using American military standards MIL-PRF-13830B to judge the surface defects information obtained from the SDES, an American standard-based digital evaluation algorithm is proposed, which mainly includes a judgment method of surface defects concentration. The judgment method establishes weight region for each defect and adopts the method of overlap of weight region to calculate defects concentration. This algorithm takes full advantage of convenience of matrix operations and has merits of low complexity and fast in running, which makes itself suitable very well for highefficiency inspection of surface defects. Finally, various experiments are conducted and the correctness of these algorithms are verified. At present, these algorithms have been used in SDES.

  2. Soft x-ray spectromicroscopy using compact scanning transmission x-ray microscope at the photon factory

    SciTech Connect

    Takeichi, Yasuo, E-mail: yasuo.takeichi@kek.jp; Inami, Nobuhito; Ono, Kanta

    We report the stability and recent performances of a new type of scanning transmission X-ray microscopy. The optics and compact design of the microscope realized mobility and robust performance. Detailed consideration to the vibration control will be described. The insertion device upgraded to elliptical polarization undulator enabled linear dichroism and circular dichroism experiments.

  3. Impact of membrane-induced particle immobilization on seeded growth monitored by in situ liquid scanning transmission electron microscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Weiner, Rebecca G.; Chen, Dennis P.; Unocic, Raymond R.; ...

    2016-04-01

    In situ liquid cell scanning transmission electron microscopy probes seeded growth in real time. The growth of Pd on Au nanocubes is monitored as a model system to compare growth within a liquid cell and traditional colloidal synthesis. Furthermore, different growth patterns are observed due to seed immobilization and the highly reducing environment within the liquid cell.

  4. Dislocation imaging for orthopyroxene using an atom-resolved scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kumamoto, Akihito; Kogure, Toshihiro; Raimbourg, Hugues; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2014-11-01

    Dislocations, one-dimensional lattice defects, appear as a microscopic phenomenon while they are formed in silicate minerals by macroscopic dynamics of the earth crust such as shear stress. To understand ductile deformation mechanisms of silicates, atomic structures of the dislocations have been examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Among them, it has been proposed that {100}<001> primary slip system of orthopyroxene (Opx) is dissociated into partial dislocations, and a stacking fault with the clinopyroxene (Cpx) structure is formed between the dislocations. This model, however, has not been determined completely due to the complex structures of silicates. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) has a potential to determine the structure of dislocations with single-atomic column sensitivity, particularly by using high-angle annular dark field (HAADF) and annular bright field (ABF) imaging with a probing aberration corrector.[1] Furthermore, successive analyses from light microscopy to atom-resolved STEM have been achieved by focused ion beam (FIB) sampling techniques.[2] In this study, we examined dislocation arrays at a low-angle grain boundary of ∼1° rotation about the b-axis in natural deformed Opx using a simultaneous acquisition of HAADF/ABF (JEM-ARM200F, JEOL) equipped with 100 mm2 silicon drift detector (SDD) for energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Figure 1 shows averaged STEM images viewed along the b- axis of Opx extracted from repeating units. HAADF provides the cation-site arrangement, and ABF distinguishes the difference of slightly rotated SiO4 tetrahedron around the a- axis. This is useful to distinguish the change of stacking sequence between the partial dislocations. Two types of stacking faults with Cpx and protopyroxene (Ppx) structures were identified between three partial dislocations. Furthermore, Ca accumulation in M2 (Fe) site around the stacking faults was detected by STEM-EDS. Interestingly, Ca is

  5. Ultrastructural instability of paired helical filaments from corticobasal degeneration as examined by scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Ksiezak-Reding, H.; Tracz, E.; Yang, L. S.; Dickson, D. W.; Simon, M.; Wall, J. S.

    1996-01-01

    Paired helical filaments (PHFs) accumulate in the brains of subjects affected with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and certain other neurodegenerative disorders, including corticobasal degeneration (CBD). Electron microscope studies have shown that PHFs from CBD differ from those of AD by being wider and having a longer periodicity of the helical twist. Moreover, PHFs from CBD have been shown to be primarily composed of two rather than three highly phosphorylated polypeptides of tau (PHF-tau), with these polypeptides expressing no exons 3 and 10. To further explore the relationship between the heterogeneity of PHF-tau and the appearance of abnormal filaments, the ultrastructure and physical parameters such as mass per unit length and dimensions were compared in filaments from CBD and AD using high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Filament-enriched fractions were isolated as Sarcosyl-insoluble pellets and for STEM studies, samples were freeze-dried without prior fixation or staining. Ultrastructurally, PHFs from CBD were shown to be a heterogeneous population as double- and single-stranded filaments could be identified based on their width and physical mass per unit length expressed in kilodaltons (kd) per nanometer (nm). Less abundant, double-stranded filaments had a maximal width of 29 nm and a mass per unit length of 133 kd/nm, whereas three times more abundant single-stranded filaments were 15 nm wide and bad a mass per unit length of 62 kd/nm. Double-stranded filaments also displayed a distinct axial region of less dense mass, which appeared to divide the PHFs into two protofilament-like strands. Furthermore, these filaments were frequently observed to physically separate along the long axis into two single strands or to break longitudinally. In contrast, PHFs from AD were ultrastructurally stable and uniform both in their width (22 nm) and physical mass per unit length (104 kd/nm). The ultrastructural features indicate that filaments of

  6. Application of high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, and energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy to the characterization of nanoparticles in the environment.

    PubMed

    Utsunomiya, Satoshi; Ewing, Rodney C

    2003-02-15

    A major challenge to the development of a fundamental understanding of transport and retardation mechanisms of trace metal contaminants (<10 ppm) is their identification and characterization at the nanoscale. Atomic-scale techniques, such as conventional transmission electron microscopy, although powerful, are limited by the extremely small amounts of material that are examined. However, recent advances in electron microscopy provide a number of new analytical techniques that expand its application in environmental studies, particularly those concerning heavy metals on airborne particulates or water-borne colloids. High-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM), STEM-energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), and energy-filtered TEM (EFTEM) can be effectively used to identify and characterize nanoparticles. The image contrast in HAADF-STEM is strongly correlated to the atomic mass: heavier elements contribute to brighter contrast. Gold nanocrystals in pyrite and uranium nanocrystals in atmospheric aerosols have been identified by HAADF-STEM and STEM-EDX mapping and subsequently characterized by high-resolution TEM (HRTEM). EFTEM was used to identify U and Fe nanocrystals embedded in an aluminosilicate. A rare, As-bearing nanophase, westerveldite (FeAs), was identified by STEM-EDX and HRTEM. The combined use of these techniques greatly expands the effective application of electron microscopy in environmental studies, especially when applied to metals of very low concentrations. This paper describes examples of how these electron microbeam techniques can be used in combination to characterize a low concentration of heavy metals (a few ppm) on nanoscale particles.

  7. Morphology and ultrastructure of Brachymystax lenok tsinlingensis spermatozoa by scanning and transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei; Shao, Jian; Li, Ping; Wu, Jinming; Wei, Qiwei

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to investigate Brachymystax lenok tsinlingensis spermatozoa cell morphology and ultrastructure through scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Findings revealed that the spermatozoa can be differentiated into three major parts: a spherical head without an acrosome, a short mid-piece, and a long, cylindrical flagellum. The mean length of the spermatozoa was 36.11±2.84μm, with a spherical head length of 2.78±0.31μm. The mean anterior and posterior head widths were 2.20±0.42μm and 2.55±0.53μm, respectively. The nuclear fossa was positioned at the base of the nucleus that contained the anterior portion of flagellum and a centriolar complex (proximal and distal centrioles). The short mid-piece was located laterally to the nucleus and possessed just one spherical mitochondrion with a mean diameter of 0.65±0.14μm. The spermatozoa flagellum was long and cylindrical, and could be separated into two parts: a long main-piece and a short end-piece. The main piece of the flagellum had short irregular side-fins. The axoneme composed the typical '9+2' microtubular doublet structure and was enclosed by the cell membran e. This study confirmed that B. lenok tsinlingensis spermatozoa can be categorized as teleostean "Type I" spermatozoa; 'primitive' or 'ect-aquasperm type' spermatozoa. To the best of the authers knowledge, this was the first study conducted on the morphology and ultrastructure of B. lenok tsinlingensis spermatozoa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Three-dimensional bright-field scanning transmission electron microscopy elucidate novel nanostructure in microbial biofilms.

    PubMed

    Hickey, William J; Shetty, Ameesha R; Massey, Randall J; Toso, Daniel B; Austin, Jotham

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms play key roles in environmental and biomedical processes, and understanding their activities requires comprehension of their nanoarchitectural characteristics. Electron microscopy (EM) is an essential tool for nanostructural analysis, but conventional EM methods are limited in that they either provide topographical information alone, or are suitable for imaging only relatively thin (<300 nm) sample volumes. For biofilm investigations, these are significant restrictions. Understanding structural relations between cells requires imaging of a sample volume sufficiently large to encompass multiple cells and the capture of both external and internal details of cell structure. An emerging EM technique with such capabilities is bright-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (BF-STEM) and in the present report BF-STEM was coupled with tomography to elucidate nanostructure in biofilms formed by the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading soil bacterium, Delftia acidovorans Cs1-4. Dual-axis BF-STEM enabled high-resolution 3-D tomographic recontructions (6-10 nm) visualization of thick (1250 and 1500 nm) sections. The 3-D data revealed that novel extracellular structures, termed nanopods, were polymorphic and formed complex networks within cell clusters. BF-STEM tomography enabled visualization of conduits formed by nanopods that could enable intercellular movement of outer membrane vesicles, and thereby enable direct communication between cells. This report is the first to document application of dual-axis BF-STEM tomography to obtain high-resolution 3-D images of novel nanostructures in bacterial biofilms. Future work with dual-axis BF-STEM tomography combined with correlative light electron microscopy may provide deeper insights into physiological functions associated with nanopods as well as other nanostructures. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2016 Royal Microscopical Society.

  9. Ultrastructure of spermatozoa of tench Tinca tinca observed by means of scanning and transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Psenicka, M; Rodina, M; Nebesarova, J; Linhart, O

    2006-09-15

    Structure of tench (Tinca tinca L.) spermatozoa was investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Spermatozoa of 26.1+/-3.8 microm total length possessed typical primitive simple structure, called "aqua sperm", without acrosomal head structures. It was probably the smallest spermatozoon described among cyprinid fishes. Heads were mostly composed of dense and slightly granular material, which appeared to be fairly homogeneous except for the occasional appearance of vacuoles. The midpiece remained separated from the flagellum by the cytoplasmic channel; it was cylindric/cone-shaped, 0.86+/-0.27 microm in length and 1.17+/-0.24 microm in width at proximal part. The proximal centriole was located in the "implantation fossa". The distal centriole appeared almost tangential to the nucleus and it functioned as a basal body for the flagellum. It had an orientation of 140 degrees with respect to the distal centriole. The sperm flagellum with 25.45+/-2.47 microm of total length had no any fin. The diameter of the flagellum perpendicular to the plane of the doublet of central microtubules was 173.67+/-20.45 nm and horizontal plane of the central microtubules was 200.71+/-20.45 nm. Peripheral doublets and the central doublet of microtubules measured 23.39+/-3.18 and 35.88+/-4.44 nm in width, respectively. The diameter of a microtubule was only 9.14+/-2.97 nm. A vesicle was attached to the most basal region of the flagellum and located just under plasma membrane of the flagellum.

  10. Soft X-ray scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) of actinide particles.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Hans J; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Wilson, Richard E; Werme, Lars; Shuh, David K

    2005-09-01

    A descriptive account is given of our most recent research on the actinide dioxides with the Advanced Light Source Molecular Environmental Science (ALS-MES) Beamline 11.0.2 soft X-ray scanning transmission X-ray microscope (STXM) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The ALS-MES STXM permits near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) and imaging with 30-nm spatial resolution. The first STXM spectromicroscopy NEXAFS spectra at the actinide 4d5/2 edges of the imaged transuranic particles, NpO2 and PuO2, have been obtained. Radiation damage induced by the STXM was observed in the investigation of a mixed oxidation state particle (Np(V,VI)) and was minimized during collection of the actual spectra at the 4d5/2 edge of the Np(V,VI) solid. A plutonium elemental map was obtained from an irregular PuO2 particle with the dimensions of 650 x 650 nm. The Pu 4d5/2 NEXAFS spectra were collected at several different locations from the PuO2 particle and were identical. A representative oxygen K-edge spectrum from UO2 was collected and resembles the oxygen K-edge from the bulk material. The unique and current performance of the ALS-MES STXM at extremely low energies (ca. 100 eV) that may permit the successful measurement of the actinide 5d edge is documented. Finally, the potential of STXM as a tool for actinide investigations is briefly discussed.

  11. Ultrastructure of the Odontocete organ of Corti: scanning and transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Morell, Maria; Lenoir, Marc; Shadwick, Robert E; Jauniaux, Thierry; Dabin, Willy; Begeman, Lineke; Ferreira, Marisa; Maestre, Iranzu; Degollada, Eduard; Hernandez-Milian, Gema; Cazevieille, Chantal; Fortuño, José-Manuel; Vogl, Wayne; Puel, Jean-Luc; André, Michel

    2015-02-15

    The morphological study of the Odontocete organ of Corti, together with possible alterations associated with damage from sound exposure, represents a key conservation approach to assess the effects of acoustic pollution on marine ecosystems. By collaborating with stranding networks from several European countries, 150 ears from 13 species of Odontocetes were collected and analyzed by scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy. Based on our analyses, we first describe and compare Odontocete cochlear structures and then propose a diagnostic method to identify inner ear alterations in stranded individuals. The two species analyzed by TEM (Phocoena phocoena and Stenella coeruleoalba) showed morphological characteristics in the lower basal turn of high-frequency hearing species. Among other striking features, outer hair cell bodies were extremely small and were strongly attached to Deiters cells. Such morphological characteristics, shared with horseshoe bats, suggest that there has been convergent evolution of sound reception mechanisms among echolocating species. Despite possible autolytic artifacts due to technical and experimental constraints, the SEM analysis allowed us to detect the presence of scarring processes resulting from the disappearance of outer hair cells from the epithelium. In addition, in contrast to the rapid decomposition process of the sensory epithelium after death (especially of the inner hair cells), the tectorial membrane appeared to be more resistant to postmortem autolysis effects. Analysis of the stereocilia imprint pattern at the undersurface of the tectorial membrane may provide a way to detect possible ultrastructural alterations of the hair cell stereocilia by mirroring them on the tectorial membrane. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Comparison of 3-D Multi-Lag Cross-Correlation and Speckle Brightness Aberration Correction Algorithms on Static and Moving Targets

    PubMed Central

    Ivancevich, Nikolas M.; Dahl, Jeremy J.; Smith, Stephen W.

    2010-01-01

    Phase correction has the potential to increase the image quality of 3-D ultrasound, especially transcranial ultrasound. We implemented and compared 2 algorithms for aberration correction, multi-lag cross-correlation and speckle brightness, using static and moving targets. We corrected three 75-ns rms electronic aberrators with full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) auto-correlation lengths of 1.35, 2.7, and 5.4 mm. Cross-correlation proved the better algorithm at 2.7 and 5.4 mm correlation lengths (P < 0.05). Static cross-correlation performed better than moving-target cross-correlation at the 2.7 mm correlation length (P < 0.05). Finally, we compared the static and moving-target cross-correlation on a flow phantom with a skull casting aberrator. Using signal from static targets, the correction resulted in an average contrast increase of 22.2%, compared with 13.2% using signal from moving targets. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) increased by 20.5% and 12.8% using static and moving targets, respectively. Doppler signal strength increased by 5.6% and 4.9% for the static and moving-targets methods, respectively. PMID:19942503

  13. Improving imaging of the air-liquid interface in living mice by aberration-corrected optical coherence tomography (mOCT) (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz-Hildebrandt, Hinnerk; Sauer, Benjamin; Reinholz, Fred; Pieper, Mario; Mall, Markus; König, Peter; Huettmann, Gereon

    2017-04-01

    Failure in mucociliary clearance is responsible for severe diseases like cystic fibroses, primary ciliary dyskinesia or asthma. Visualizing the mucous transport in-vivo will help to understanding transport mechanisms as well as developing and validating new therapeutic intervention. However, in-vivo imaging is complicated by the need of high spatial and temporal resolution. Recently, we developed microscopy optical coherence tomography (mOCT) for non-invasive imaging of the liquid-air interface in intact murine trachea from its outside. Whereas axial resolution of 1.5 µm is achieved by the spectral width of supercontinuum light source, lateral resolution is limited by aberrations caused by the cylindric shape of the trachea and optical inhomogenities of the tissue. Therefore, we extended our mOCT by a deformable mirror for compensation of the probe induced aberrations. Instead of using a wavefront sensor for measuring aberrations, we harnessed optimization of the image quality to determine the correction parameter. With the aberration corrected mOCT ciliary function and mucus transport was measured in wild type and βENaC overexpressing mice, which served as a model for cystic fibrosis.

  14. [Impact of an Aspherical Aberration Correcting Monofocal Intraocular Lens on Patient Satisfaction for Daily Life Activities: The Heidelberg Daily Task Evaluation (DATE) Questionnaire].

    PubMed

    Kretz, F T A; Son, H; Liebing, S; Tandogan, T; Auffarth, G U

    2015-08-01

    A clinical evaluation of the functional results and its impact on daily activities of an aspherical, aberration correcting intraocular lens (IOL) was undertaken. Twenty-one patients aged from 50 to 83 years underwent cataract surgery with implantation of the aspheric IOL (Tecnis ZCB00, Abbott Medical Optics). They were evaluated 2 to 4 months after surgery for their subjective satisfaction of vision quality and its impact on performance of daily activities as well as functional results and refractive outcome. Patients were asked to fill out a questionnaire - the Heidelberg DATE (DAily Tasks Evaluation) questionnaire. Significant changes from pre- to postoperative results were found in refraction (p ≤ 0.03), with a mean prediction error of + 0.21 ± 0.43 D. UDVA and CDVA improved significantly (p < 0.01), with a postoperative CDVA of 0.0 logMAR or better in 97.1 % of eyes. All patients would recommend the procedure to a relative or a friend and 93.8 % of patients reported to be satisfied with the outcome. The implantation of the aspheric IOL Tecnis ZCB00 after cataract surgery allows the restoration of visual function, providing an optimised optical quality and a high level of patient satisfaction. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Multivariate statistical characterization of charged and uncharged domain walls in multiferroic hexagonal YMnO3 single crystal visualized by a spherical aberration-corrected STEM.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takao; Ishikawa, Ryo; Tohei, Tetsuya; Kimura, Hideo; Yao, Qiwen; Zhao, Hongyang; Wang, Xiaolin; Chen, Dapeng; Cheng, Zhenxiang; Shibata, Naoya; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2013-10-09

    A state-of-the-art spherical aberration-corrected STEM was fully utilized to directly visualize the multiferroic domain structure in a hexagonal YMnO3 single crystal at atomic scale. With the aid of multivariate statistical analysis (MSA), we obtained unbiased and quantitative maps of ferroelectric domain structures with atomic resolution. Such a statistical image analysis of the transition region between opposite polarizations has confirmed atomically sharp transitions of ferroelectric polarization both in antiparallel (uncharged) and tail-to-tail 180° (charged) domain boundaries. Through the analysis, a correlated subatomic image shift of Mn-O layers with that of Y layers, exhibiting a double-arc shape of reversed curvatures, have been elucidated. The amount of image shift in Mn-O layers along the c-axis is statistically significant as small as 0.016 nm, roughly one-third of the evident image shift of 0.048 nm in Y layers. Interestingly, a careful analysis has shown that such a subatomic image shift in Mn-O layers vanishes at the tail-to-tail 180° domain boundaries. Furthermore, taking advantage of the annular bright field (ABF) imaging technique combined with MSA, the tilting of MnO5 bipyramids, the very core mechanism of multiferroicity of the material, is evaluated.

  16. Phase and birefringence aberration correction

    DOEpatents

    Bowers, M.; Hankla, A.

    1996-07-09

    A Brillouin enhanced four wave mixing phase conjugate mirror corrects phase aberrations of a coherent electromagnetic beam and birefringence induced upon that beam. The stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugation technique is augmented to include Brillouin enhanced four wave mixing (BEFWM). A seed beam is generated by a main oscillator which arrives at the phase conjugate cell before the signal beams in order to initiate the Brillouin effect. The signal beam which is being amplified through the amplifier chain is split into two perpendicularly polarized beams. One of the two beams is chosen to be the same polarization as some component of the seed beam, the other orthogonal to the first. The polarization of the orthogonal beam is then rotated 90{degree} such that it is parallel to the other signal beam. The three beams are then focused into cell containing a medium capable of Brillouin excitation. The two signal beams are focused such that they cross the seed beam path before their respective beam waists in order to achieve BEFWM or the two signal beams are focused to a point or points contained within the focused cone angle of the seed beam to achieve seeded SBS, and thus negate the effects of all birefringent and material aberrations in the system. 5 figs.

  17. Phase and birefringence aberration correction

    DOEpatents

    Bowers, Mark; Hankla, Allen

    1996-01-01

    A Brillouin enhanced four wave mixing phase conjugate mirror corrects phase aberrations of a coherent electromagnetic beam and birefringence induced upon that beam. The stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugation technique is augmented to include Brillouin enhanced four wave mixing (BEFWM). A seed beam is generated by a main oscillator which arrives at the phase conjugate cell before the signal beams in order to initiate the Brillouin effect. The signal beam which is being amplified through the amplifier chain is split into two perpendicularly polarized beams. One of the two beams is chosen to be the same polarization as some component of the seed beam, the other orthogonal to the first. The polarization of the orthogonal beam is then rotated 90.degree. such that it is parallel to the other signal beam. The three beams are then focused into cell containing a medium capable of Brillouin excitation. The two signal beams are focused such that they cross the seed beam path before their respective beam waists in order to achieve BEFWM or the two signal beams are focused to a point or points contained within the focused cone angle of the seed beam to achieve seeded SBS, and thus negate the effects of all birefringent and material aberrations in the system.

  18. Correlative scanning-transmission electron microscopy reveals that a chimeric flavivirus is released as individual particles in secretory vesicles.

    PubMed

    Burlaud-Gaillard, Julien; Sellin, Caroline; Georgeault, Sonia; Uzbekov, Rustem; Lebos, Claude; Guillaume, Jean-Marc; Roingeard, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The intracellular morphogenesis of flaviviruses has been well described, but flavivirus release from the host cell remains poorly documented. We took advantage of the optimized production of an attenuated chimeric yellow fever/dengue virus for vaccine purposes to study this phenomenon by microscopic approaches. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed the release of numerous viral particles at the cell surface through a short-lived process. For transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies of the intracellular ultrastructure of the small number of cells releasing viral particles at a given time, we developed a new correlative microscopy method: CSEMTEM (for correlative scanning electron microscopy - transmission electron microscopy). CSEMTEM analysis suggested that chimeric flavivirus particles were released as individual particles, in small exocytosis vesicles, via a regulated secretory pathway. Our morphological findings provide new insight into interactions between flaviviruses and cells and demonstrate that CSEMTEM is a useful new method, complementary to SEM observations of biological events by intracellular TEM investigations.

  19. Correlative Scanning-Transmission Electron Microscopy Reveals that a Chimeric Flavivirus Is Released as Individual Particles in Secretory Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Burlaud-Gaillard, Julien; Sellin, Caroline; Georgeault, Sonia; Uzbekov, Rustem; Lebos, Claude; Guillaume, Jean-Marc; Roingeard, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The intracellular morphogenesis of flaviviruses has been well described, but flavivirus release from the host cell remains poorly documented. We took advantage of the optimized production of an attenuated chimeric yellow fever/dengue virus for vaccine purposes to study this phenomenon by microscopic approaches. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed the release of numerous viral particles at the cell surface through a short-lived process. For transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies of the intracellular ultrastructure of the small number of cells releasing viral particles at a given time, we developed a new correlative microscopy method: CSEMTEM (for correlative scanning electron microscopy - transmission electron microscopy). CSEMTEM analysis suggested that chimeric flavivirus particles were released as individual particles, in small exocytosis vesicles, via a regulated secretory pathway. Our morphological findings provide new insight into interactions between flaviviruses and cells and demonstrate that CSEMTEM is a useful new method, complementary to SEM observations of biological events by intracellular TEM investigations. PMID:24681578

  20. Impact of Membrane-Induced Particle Immobilization on Seeded Growth Monitored by In Situ Liquid Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Rebecca G; Chen, Dennis P; Unocic, Raymond R; Skrabalak, Sara E

    2016-05-01

    In situ liquid cell scanning transmission electron microscopy probes seeded growth in real time. The growth of Pd on Au nanocubes is monitored as a model system to compare growth within a liquid cell and traditional colloidal synthesis. Different growth patterns are observed due to seed immobilization and the highly reducing environment within the liquid cell. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. A pulsated weak-resonant-cavity laser diode with transient wavelength scanning and tracking for injection-locked RZ transmission.

    PubMed

    Lin, Gong-Ru; Chi, Yu-Chieh; Liao, Yu-Sheng; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Liao, Zhi-Wang; Wang, Hai-Lin; Lin, Gong-Cheng

    2012-06-18

    By spectrally slicing a single longitudinal-mode from a master weak-resonant-cavity Fabry-Perot laser diode with transient wavelength scanning and tracking functions, the broadened self-injection-locking of a slave weak-resonant-cavity Fabry-Perot laser diode is demonstrated to achieve bi-directional transmission in a 200-GHz array-waveguide-grating channelized dense-wavelength-division-multiplexing passive optical network system. Both the down- and up-stream slave weak-resonant-cavity Fabry-Perot laser diodes are non-return-to-zero modulated below threshold and coherently injection-locked to deliver the pulsed carrier for 25-km bi-directional 2.5 Gbits/s return-to-zero transmission. The master weak-resonant-cavity Fabry-Perot laser diode is gain-switched at near threshold condition and delivers an optical coherent pulse-train with its mode linewidth broadened from 0.2 to 0.8 nm by transient wavelength scanning, which facilitates the broadband injection-locking of the slave weak-resonant-cavity Fabry-Perot laser diodes with a threshold current reducing by 10 mA. Such a transient wavelength scanning induced spectral broadening greatly releases the limitation on wavelength injection-locking range required for the slave weak-resonant-cavity Fabry-Perot laser diode. The theoretical modeling and numerical simulation on the wavelength scanning and tracking effects of the master and slave weak-resonant-cavity Fabry-Perot laser diodes are performed. The receiving power sensitivity for back-to-back transmission at bit-error-rate <10(-10) is -25.6 dBm, and the power penalty added after 25-km transmission is less than 2 dB for all 16 channels.

  2. An inexpensive approach for bright-field and dark-field imaging by scanning transmission electron microscopy in scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Patel, Binay; Watanabe, Masashi

    2014-02-01

    Scanning transmission electron microscopy in scanning electron microscopy (STEM-in-SEM) is a convenient technique for soft materials characterization. Various specimen-holder geometries and detector arrangements have been used for bright-field (BF) STEM-in-SEM imaging. In this study, to further the characterization potential of STEM-IN-SEM, a new specimen holder has been developed to facilitate direct detection of BF signals and indirect detection of dark-field (DF) signals without the need for substantial instrument modification. DF imaging is conducted with the use of a gold (Au)-coated copper (Cu) plate attached to the specimen holder which directs highly scattered transmitted electrons to an off-axis yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG) detector. A hole in the copper plate allows for BF imaging with a transmission electron (TE) detector. The inclusion of an Au-coated Cu plate enhanced DF signal intensity. Experiments validating the acquisition of true DF signals revealed that atomic number (Z) contrast may be achieved for materials with large lattice spacing. However, materials with small lattice spacing still exhibit diffraction contrast effects in this approach. The calculated theoretical fine probe size is 1.8 nm. At 30 kV, in this indirect approach, DF spatial resolution is limited to 3.2 nm as confirmed experimentally.

  3. Nanometres-resolution Kikuchi patterns from materials science specimens with transmission electron forward scatter diffraction in the scanning electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Brodusch, N; Demers, H; Gauvin, R

    2013-04-01

    A charge-coupled device camera of an electron backscattered diffraction system in a scanning electron microscope was positioned below a thin specimen and transmission Kikuchi patterns were collected. Contrary to electron backscattered diffraction, transmission electron forward scatter diffraction provides phase identification and orientation mapping at the nanoscale. The minimum Pd particle size for which a Kikuchi diffraction pattern was detected and indexed reliably was 5.6 nm. An orientation mapping resolution of 5 nm was measured at 30 kV. The resolution obtained with transmission electron forward scatter diffraction was of the same order of magnitude than that reported in electron nanodiffraction in the transmission electron microscope. An energy dispersive spectrometer X-ray map and a transmission electron forward scatter diffraction orientation map were acquired simultaneously. The high-resolution chemical, phase and orientation maps provided at once information on the chemical form, orientation and coherency of precipitates in an aluminium-lithium 2099 alloy. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2013 Royal Microscopical Society.

  4. Fast two-dimensional grid and transmission X-ray microscopy scanning methods for visualizing and characterizing protein crystals

    PubMed Central

    Wojdyla, Justyna Aleksandra; Panepucci, Ezequiel; Martiel, Isabelle; Ebner, Simon; Huang, Chia-Ying; Caffrey, Martin; Bunk, Oliver; Wang, Meitian

    2016-01-01

    A fast continuous grid scan protocol has been incorporated into the Swiss Light Source (SLS) data acquisition and analysis software suite on the macromolecular crystallography (MX) beamlines. Its combination with fast readout single-photon counting hybrid pixel array detectors (PILATUS and EIGER) allows for diffraction-based identification of crystal diffraction hotspots and the location and centering of membrane protein microcrystals in the lipid cubic phase (LCP) in in meso in situ serial crystallography plates and silicon nitride supports. Diffraction-based continuous grid scans with both still and oscillation images are supported. Examples that include a grid scan of a large (50 nl) LCP bolus and analysis of the resulting diffraction images are presented. Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) complements and benefits from fast grid scanning. STXM has been demonstrated at the SLS beamline X06SA for near-zero-dose detection of protein crystals mounted on different types of sample supports at room and cryogenic temperatures. Flash-cooled crystals in nylon loops were successfully identified in differential and integrated phase images. Crystals of just 10 µm thickness were visible in integrated phase images using data collected with the EIGER detector. STXM offers a truly low-dose method for locating crystals on solid supports prior to diffraction data collection at both synchrotron microfocusing and free-electron laser X-ray facilities. PMID:27275141

  5. High-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy on carbon-based functional polymer systems.

    PubMed

    Sourty, Erwan; van Bavel, Svetlana; Lu, Kangbo; Guerra, Ralph; Bar, Georg; Loos, Joachim

    2009-06-01

    Two purely carbon-based functional polymer systems were investigated by bright-field conventional transmission electron microscopy (CTEM) and high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM). For a carbon black (CB) filled polymer system, HAADF-STEM provides high contrast between the CB agglomerates and the polymer matrix so that details of the interface organization easily can be revealed and assignment of the CB phase is straightforward. For a second system, the functional polymer blend representing the photoactive layer of a polymer solar cell, details of its nanoscale organization could be observed that were not accessible with CTEM. By varying the camera length in HAADF-STEM imaging, the contrast can be enhanced between crystalline and amorphous compounds due to diffraction contrast so that nanoscale interconnections between domains are identified. In general, due to its incoherent imaging characteristics HAADF-STEM allows for reliable interpretation of the data obtained.

  6. Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus during Computed Tomography Scanning with Contrast

    PubMed Central

    Rius, Cristina; Caylà, Joan A.

    2008-01-01

    Six cases of acute hepatitis C related to computed tomography scanning with contrast were identified in 3 hospitals. A patient with chronic hepatitis C had been subjected to the same procedure immediately before each patient who developed acute infection. Viral molecular analysis showed identity between isolates from cases with acute and chronic hepatitis C. PMID:18258135

  7. Direct observation of a stacking fault in Si(1 - x)Ge(x) semiconductors by spherical aberration-corrected TEM and conventional ADF-STEM.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Jun; Kawai, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Nobuo

    2004-01-01

    Spherical aberration (C(S))-corrected transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and annular dark-field scanning TEM (ADF-STEM) are applied to high-resolution observation of stacking faults in Si(1 - x)Ge(x) alloy films prepared on a Si(100) buffer layer by the chemical vapor deposition method. Both of the images clarify the individual nature of stacking faults from their directly interpretable image contrast and also by using image simulation in the case of the C(S)-corrected TEM. Positions of the atomic columns obtained in the ADF-STEM images almost agree with a projection of the theoretical model studied by Chou et al. (Phys. Rev. B 32(1985): 7979). Comparison between the C(S)-corrected TEM and ADF-STEM images shows that their resolution is at a similar level, but directly interpretable image contrast is obtained in ultrathin samples for C(S)-corrected TEM and in slightly thicker samples for ADF-STEM.

  8. 3D chemical mapping: application of scanning transmission (soft) X-ray microscopy (STXM) in combination with angle-scan tomography in bio-, geo-, and environmental sciences.

    PubMed

    Obst, Martin; Schmid, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    The identification of environmental processes and mechanisms often requires information on the organochemical and inorganic composition of specimens at high spatial resolution. X-ray spectroscopy (XAS) performed in the soft X-ray range (100-2,200 eV) provides chemical speciation information for elements that are of high biogeochemical relevance such as carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen but also includes transition metals such as iron, manganese, or nickel. Synchrotron-based scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) combines XAS with high resolution mapping on the 20-nm scale. This provides two-dimensional (2D) quantitative information about the distribution of chemical species such as organic macromolecules, metals, or mineral phases within environmental samples. Furthermore, the combination of STXM with angle-scan tomography allows for three-dimensional (3D) spectromicroscopic analysis of bio-, geo-, or environmental samples. For the acquisition of STXM tomography data, the sample is rotated around an axis perpendicular to the X-ray beam. Various sample preparation approaches such as stripes cut from TEM grids or the preparation of wet cells allow for preparing environmentally relevant specimens in a dry or in a fully hydrated state for 2D and 3D STXM measurements. In this chapter we give a short overview about the principles of STXM, its application to environmental sciences, different preparation techniques, and the analysis and 3D reconstruction of STXM tomography data.

  9. Correlative fluorescence and scanning transmission electron microscopy of quantum dot-labeled proteins on whole cells in liquid.

    PubMed

    Peckys, Diana B; Bandmann, Vera; de Jonge, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Correlative fluorescence microscopy combined with scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) of cells fully immersed in liquid is a new methodology with many application areas. Proteins, in live cells immobilized on microchips, are labeled with fluorescent quantum dot nanoparticles. In this protocol, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is labeled. The cells are fixed after a selected labeling time, for example, 5 min as needed to form EGFR dimers. The microchip with cells is then imaged with fluorescence microscopy. Thereafter, STEM can be accomplished in two ways. The microchip with the labeled cells and one microchip with a spacer are assembled into a special microfluidic device and imaged with dedicated high-voltage STEM. Alternatively, thin edges of cells can be studied with environmental scanning electron microscopy with a STEM detector, by placing a microchip with cells in a cooled wet environment. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Analysis of Multilayer Devices for Superconducting Electronics by High-Resolution Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Missert, Nancy; Kotula, Paul G.; Rye, Michael; ...

    2017-02-15

    We used a focused ion beam to obtain cross-sectional specimens from both magnetic multilayer and Nb/Al-AlOx/Nb Josephson junction devices for characterization by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). An automated multivariate statistical analysis of the EDX spectral images produced chemically unique component images of individual layers within the multilayer structures. STEM imaging elucidated distinct variations in film morphology, interface quality, and/or etch artifacts that could be correlated to magnetic and/or electrical properties measured on the same devices.

  11. Phase contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging of light and heavy atoms at the limit of contrast and resolution.

    PubMed

    Yücelen, Emrah; Lazić, Ivan; Bosch, Eric G T

    2018-02-08

    Using state of the art scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) it is nowadays possible to directly image single atomic columns at sub-Å resolution. In standard (high angle) annular dark field STEM ((HA)ADF-STEM), however, light elements are usually invisible when imaged together with heavier elements in one image. Here we demonstrate the capability of the recently introduced Integrated Differential Phase Contrast STEM (iDPC-STEM) technique to image both light and heavy atoms in a thin sample at sub-Å resolution. We use the technique to resolve both the Gallium and Nitrogen dumbbells in a GaN crystal in [[Formula: see text

  12. Whole-cell imaging of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by high-voltage scanning transmission electron tomography.

    PubMed

    Murata, Kazuyoshi; Esaki, Masatoshi; Ogura, Teru; Arai, Shigeo; Yamamoto, Yuta; Tanaka, Nobuo

    2014-11-01

    Electron tomography using a high-voltage electron microscope (HVEM) provides three-dimensional information about cellular components in sections thicker than 1 μm, although in bright-field mode image degradation caused by multiple inelastic scattering of transmitted electrons limit the attainable resolution. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) is believed to give enhanced contrast and resolution compared to conventional transmission electron microscopy (CTEM). Samples up to 1 μm in thickness have been analyzed with an intermediate-voltage electron microscope because inelastic scattering is not a critical limitation, and probe broadening can be minimized. Here, we employed STEM at 1 MeV high-voltage to extend the useful specimen thickness for electron tomography, which we demonstrate by a seamless tomographic reconstruction of a whole, budding Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cell, which is ~3 μm in thickness. High-voltage STEM tomography, especially in the bright-field mode, demonstrated sufficiently enhanced contrast and intensity, compared to CTEM tomography, to permit segmentation of major organelles in the whole cell. STEM imaging also reduced specimen shrinkage during tilt-series acquisition. The fidelity of structural preservation was limited by cytoplasmic extraction, and the spatial resolution was limited by the relatively large convergence angle of the scanning probe. However, the new technique has potential to solve longstanding problems of image blurring in biological specimens beyond 1 μm in thickness, and may facilitate new research in cellular structural biology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Consecutive light microscopy, scanning-transmission electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy of traumatic human brain oedema and ischaemic brain damage.

    PubMed

    Castejon, O J; Castejon, H V; Diaz, M; Castellano, A

    2001-10-01

    Cortical biopsies of 11 patients with traumatic brain oedema were consecutively studied by light microscopy (LM) using thick plastic sections, scanning-transmission electron microscopy ((S)TEM) using semithin plastic sections and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) using ultrathin sections. Samples were glutaraldehyde-osmium fixed and embedded in Araldite or Epon. Thick sections were stained with toluidine-blue for light microscopy. Semithin sections were examined unstained and uncoated for (S)TEM. Ultrathin sections were stained with uranyl and lead. Perivascular haemorrhages and perivascular extravasation of proteinaceous oedema fluid were observed in both moderate and severe oedema. Ischaemic pyramidal and non-pyramidal nerve cells appeared shrunken, electron dense and with enlargement of intracytoplasmic membrane compartment. Notably swollen astrocytes were observed in all samples examined. Glycogen-rich and glycogen-depleted astrocytes were identified in anoxic-ischaemic regions. Dark and hydropic satellite, interfascicular and perivascular oligodendrocytes were also found. The status spongiosus of severely oedematous brain parenchyma observed by LM and (S)TEM was correlated with the enlarged extracellular space and disrupted neuropil observed by TEM. The (S)TEM is recommended as a suitable technique for studying pathological processes in the central nervous system and as an informative adjunct to LM and TEM.

  14. Possibilities and limitations of advanced transmission electron microscopy for carbon-based nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Bittencourt, Carla; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf

    2015-01-01

    Summary A major revolution for electron microscopy in the past decade is the introduction of aberration correction, which enables one to increase both the spatial resolution and the energy resolution to the optical limit. Aberration correction has contributed significantly to the imaging at low operating voltages. This is crucial for carbon-based nanomaterials which are sensitive to electron irradiation. The research of carbon nanomaterials and nanohybrids, in particular the fundamental understanding of defects and interfaces, can now be carried out in unprecedented detail by aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (AC-TEM). This review discusses new possibilities and limits of AC-TEM at low voltage, including the structural imaging at atomic resolution, in three dimensions and spectroscopic investigation of chemistry and bonding. In situ TEM of carbon-based nanomaterials is discussed and illustrated through recent reports with particular emphasis on the underlying physics of interactions between electrons and carbon atoms. PMID:26425406

  15. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis on an absolute scale in scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Z; D'Alfonso, A J; Weyland, M; Taplin, D J; Allen, L J; Findlay, S D

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate absolute scale agreement between the number of X-ray counts in energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy using an atomic-scale coherent electron probe and first-principles simulations. Scan-averaged spectra were collected across a range of thicknesses with precisely determined and controlled microscope parameters. Ionization cross-sections were calculated using the quantum excitation of phonons model, incorporating dynamical (multiple) electron scattering, which is seen to be important even for very thin specimens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Investigating the use of in situ liquid cell scanning transmission electron microscopy to explore DNA-mediated gold nanoparticle growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguy, Amanda

    Engineering nanoparticles with desired shape-dependent properties is the key to many applications in nanotechnology. Although many synthetic procedures exist to produce anisotropic gold nanoparticles, the dynamics of growth are typically unknown or hypothetical. In the case of seed-mediated growth in the presence of DNA into anisotropic nanoparticles, it is not known exactly how DNA directs growth into specific morphologies. A series of preliminary experiments were carried out to contribute to the investigation of the possible mechanism of DNA-mediated growth of gold nanoprisms into gold nanostars using liquid cell scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Imaging in the liquid phase was achieved through the use of a liquid cell platform and liquid cell holder that allow the sample to be contained within a “chip sandwich” between two electron transparent windows. Ex situ growth experiments were performed using Au-T30 NPrisms (30-base thymine oligonucleotide-coated gold nanoprisms) that are expected to grow into gold nanostars. Growth to form these nanostars were imaged using TEM (transmission electron microscopy) and liquid cell STEM (scanning transmission electron microscopy). An attempt to perform in situ growth experiments with the same Au-T30 nanoprisms revealed challenges in obtaining desired morphology results due to the environmental differences within the liquid cell compared to the ex situ environment. Different parameters in the experimental method were explored including fluid line set up, simultaneous and alternating reagent addition, and the effect of different liquid cell volumes to ensure adequate flow of reagents into the liquid cell. Lastly, the binding affinities were compared for T30 and A30 DNA incubated with gold nanoparticles using zeta potential measurements, absorption spectroscopy, and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). It was previously reported thymine bases have a lower binding affinity to gold surfaces than

  17. Automated Transmission-Mode Scanning Electron Microscopy (tSEM) for Large Volume Analysis at Nanoscale Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Kuwajima, Masaaki; Mendenhall, John M.; Lindsey, Laurence F.; Harris, Kristen M.

    2013-01-01

    Transmission-mode scanning electron microscopy (tSEM) on a field emission SEM platform was developed for efficient and cost-effective imaging of circuit-scale volumes from brain at nanoscale resolution. Image area was maximized while optimizing the resolution and dynamic range necessary for discriminating key subcellular structures, such as small axonal, dendritic and glial processes, synapses, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, vesicles, microtubules, polyribosomes, and endosomes which are critical for neuronal function. Individual image fields from the tSEM system were up to 4,295 µm2 (65.54 µm per side) at 2 nm pixel size, contrasting with image fields from a modern transmission electron microscope (TEM) system, which were only 66.59 µm2 (8.160 µm per side) at the same pixel size. The tSEM produced outstanding images and had reduced distortion and drift relative to TEM. Automated stage and scan control in tSEM easily provided unattended serial section imaging and montaging. Lens and scan properties on both TEM and SEM platforms revealed no significant nonlinear distortions within a central field of ∼100 µm2 and produced near-perfect image registration across serial sections using the computational elastic alignment tool in Fiji/TrakEM2 software, and reliable geometric measurements from RECONSTRUCT™ or Fiji/TrakEM2 software. Axial resolution limits the analysis of small structures contained within a section (∼45 nm). Since this new tSEM is non-destructive, objects within a section can be explored at finer axial resolution in TEM tomography with current methods. Future development of tSEM tomography promises thinner axial resolution producing nearly isotropic voxels and should provide within-section analyses of structures without changing platforms. Brain was the test system given our interest in synaptic connectivity and plasticity; however, the new tSEM system is readily applicable to other biological systems. PMID:23555711

  18. Improvement of the repeatability of parallel transmission at 7T using interleaved acquisition in the calibration scan.

    PubMed

    Kameda, Hiroyuki; Kudo, Kohsuke; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Harada, Taisuke; Iwadate, Yuji; Uwano, Ikuko; Yamashita, Fumio; Yoshioka, Kunihiro; Sasaki, Makoto; Shirato, Hiroki

    2017-12-04

    Respiration-induced phase shift affects B 0 /B 1 + mapping repeatability in parallel transmission (pTx) calibration for 7T brain MRI, but is improved by breath-holding (BH). However, BH cannot be applied during long scans. To examine whether interleaved acquisition during calibration scanning could improve pTx repeatability and image homogeneity. Prospective. Nine healthy subjects. 7T MRI with a two-channel RF transmission system was used. Calibration scanning for B 0 /B 1 + mapping was performed under sequential acquisition/free-breathing (Seq-FB), Seq-BH, and interleaved acquisition/FB (Int-FB) conditions. The B 0 map was calculated with two echo times, and the B 1 + map was obtained using the Bloch-Siegert method. Actual flip-angle imaging (AFI) and gradient echo (GRE) imaging were performed using pTx and quadrature-Tx (qTx). All scans were acquired in five sessions. Repeatability was evaluated using intersession standard deviation (SD) or coefficient of variance (CV), and in-plane homogeneity was evaluated using in-plane CV. A paired t-test with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons was used. The intersession CV/SDs for the B 0 /B 1 + maps were significantly smaller in Int-FB than in Seq-FB (Bonferroni-corrected P < 0.05 for all). The intersession CVs for the AFI and GRE images were also significantly smaller in Int-FB, Seq-BH, and qTx than in Seq-FB (Bonferroni-corrected P < 0.05 for all). The in-plane CVs for the AFI and GRE images in Seq-FB, Int-FB, and Seq-BH were significantly smaller than in qTx (Bonferroni-corrected P < 0.01 for all). Using interleaved acquisition during calibration scans of pTx for 7T brain MRI improved the repeatability of B 0 /B 1 + mapping, AFI, and GRE images, without BH. 1 Technical Efficacy Stage 1 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  19. Confocal laser scanning, scanning electron, and transmission electron microscopy investigation of Enterococcus faecalis biofilm degradation using passive and active sodium hypochlorite irrigation within a simulated root canal model.

    PubMed

    Mohmmed, Saifalarab A; Vianna, Morgana E; Penny, Matthew R; Hilton, Stephen T; Mordan, Nicola; Knowles, Jonathan C

    2017-08-01

    Root canal irrigation is an important adjunct to control microbial infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 2.5% (wt/vol) sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) agitation on the removal, killing, and degradation of Enterococcus faecalis biofilm. A total of 45 root canal models were manufactured using 3D printing with each model comprising an 18 mm length simulated root canal of apical size 30 and taper 0.06. E. faecalis biofilms were grown on the apical 3 mm of the models for 10 days. A total of 60 s of 9 ml of 2.5% NaOCl irrigation using syringe and needle was performed, the irrigant was either left stagnant in the canal or agitated using manual (Gutta-percha), sonic, and ultrasonic methods for 30 s. Following irrigation, the residual biofilms were observed using confocal laser scanning, scanning electron, and transmission electron microscopy. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA with Dunnett post hoc tests at a level of significance p ≤ .05. Consequence of root canal irrigation indicate that the reduction in the amount of biofilm achieved with the active irrigation groups (manual, sonic, and ultrasonic) was significantly greater when compared with the passive and untreated groups (p < .05). Collectively, finding indicate that passive irrigation exhibited more residual biofilm on the model surface than irrigant agitated by manual or automated (sonic, ultrasonic) methods. Total biofilm degradation and nonviable cells were associated with the ultrasonic group. © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Cryo-Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM)-in-SEM for Bio- and Organo-Mineral Interface Characterization in the Environment.

    PubMed

    Wille, Guillaume; Hellal, Jennifer; Ollivier, Patrick; Richard, Annie; Burel, Agnes; Jolly, Louis; Crampon, Marc; Michel, Caroline

    2017-12-01

    Understanding biofilm interactions with surrounding substratum and pollutants/particles can benefit from the application of existing microscopy tools. Using the example of biofilm interactions with zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI), this study aims to apply various approaches in biofilm preparation and labeling for fluorescent or electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) microanalysis for accurate observations. According to the targeted microscopy method, biofilms were sampled as flocs or attached biofilm, submitted to labeling using 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindol, lectins PNA and ConA coupled to fluorescent dye or gold nanoparticles, and prepared for observation (fixation, cross-section, freezing, ultramicrotomy). Fluorescent microscopy revealed that nZVI were embedded in the biofilm structure as aggregates but the resolution was insufficient to observe individual nZVI. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations showed nZVI aggregates close to bacteria, but it was not possible to confirm direct interactions between nZVI and cell membranes. Scanning transmission electron microscopy in the SEM (STEM-in-SEM) showed that nZVI aggregates could enter the biofilm to a depth of 7-11 µm. Bacteria were surrounded by a ring of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) preventing direct nZVI/membrane interactions. STEM/EDS mapping revealed a co-localization of nZVI aggregates with lectins suggesting a potential role of EPS in nZVI embedding. Thus, the combination of divergent microscopy approaches is a good approach to better understand and characterize biofilm/metal interactions.

  1. The structure of Escherichia coli signal recognition particle revealed by scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Mainprize, Iain L; Beniac, Daniel R; Falkovskaia, Elena; Cleverley, Robert M; Gierasch, Lila M; Ottensmeyer, F Peter; Andrews, David W

    2006-12-01

    Structural studies on various domains of the ribonucleoprotein signal recognition particle (SRP) have not converged on a single complete structure of bacterial SRP consistent with the biochemistry of the particle. We obtained a three-dimensional structure for Escherichia coli SRP by cryoscanning transmission electron microscopy and mapped the internal RNA by electron spectroscopic imaging. Crystallographic data were fit into the SRP reconstruction, and although the resulting model differed from previous models, they could be rationalized by movement through an interdomain linker of Ffh, the protein component of SRP. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer experiments determined interdomain distances that were consistent with our model of SRP. Docking our model onto the bacterial ribosome suggests a mechanism for signal recognition involving interdomain movement of Ffh into and out of the nascent chain exit site and suggests how SRP could interact and/or compete with the ribosome-bound chaperone, trigger factor, for a nascent chain during translation.

  2. Balamuthia mandrillaris: Further morphological observations of trophozoites by light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    González-Robles, Arturo; Lares-Villa, Fernando; Lares-Jiménez, Luis Fernando; Omaña-Molina, Maritza; Salazar-Villatoro, Lizbeth; Martínez-Palomo, Adolfo

    2015-10-01

    Additional morphological features of Balamuthia mandrillaris observed by light and electron microscopy are reported. Trophozoites were extremely pleomorphic: their cell shapes ranged from rounded to elongated and sometimes they appeared exceptionally stretched out and branched. By transmission electron microscopy it was possible to observe two different cytoplasmic areas, the ectoplasm and the endoplasm and often sections of rough endoplasmic reticulum were found in the transition zone. The cytoplasm was very fibrogranular and most of the organelles typically found in eukaryotic cells were observed. A particular finding was the presence of numerous mitochondria with a different structure from those of other free-living amoebae. The observations reported here may reinforce the morphological knowledge of this amoeba and provide a background for further analyses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Ultrasonic probe deployment device for increased wave transmission and rapid area scan inspections

    DOEpatents

    DiMambro, Joseph; Roach, Dennis P; Rackow, Kirk A; Nelson, Ciji L; Dasch, Cameron J; Moore, David G

    2013-02-12

    An ultrasonic probe deployment device in which an ultrasound-transmitting liquid forms the portion of the ultrasonic wave path in contact with the surface being inspected (i.e., the inspection surface). A seal constrains flow of the liquid, for example preventing the liquid from surging out and flooding the inspection surface. The seal is not rigid and conforms to variations in the shape and unevenness of the inspection surface, thus forming a seal (although possibly a leaky seal) around the liquid. The probe preferably is held in place to produce optimum ultrasonic focus on the area of interest. Use of encoders can facilitate the production of C-scan area maps of the material being inspected.

  4. Ultrasonic probe deployment device for increased wave transmission and rapid area scan inspections

    DOEpatents

    DiMambro, Joseph [Placitas, NM; Roach, Dennis P [Albuquerque, NM; Rackow, Kirk A [Albuquerque, NM; Nelson, Ciji L [Albuquerque, NM; Dasch, Cameron J [Boomfield Hills, MI; Moore, David G [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-01-03

    An ultrasonic probe deployment device in which an ultrasound-transmitting liquid forms the portion of the ultrasonic wave path in contact with the surface being inspected (i.e., the inspection surface). A seal constrains flow of the liquid, for example preventing the liquid from surging out and flooding the inspection surface. The seal is not rigid and conforms to variations in the shape and unevenness of the inspection surface, thus forming a seal (although possibly a leaky seal) around the liquid. The probe preferably is held in place to produce optimum ultrasonic focus on the area of interest. Use of encoders can facilitate the production of C-scan area maps of the material being inspected.

  5. Atomic level characterization of cadmium selenide nanocrystal systems using atomic number contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, James R.

    This project involved the characterization of CdSe nanocrystals. Through the use of Atomic Number Contrast Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (Z-STEM) and Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS), atomic level structure and chemical information was obtained. Specifically, CdSe nanocrystals produced using a mixture of hexadecylamine (HDA) and trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) were determined to be spherical compared to nanocrystals produced in TOPO only, which had elongated (101) facets. Additionally, the first Z-STEM images of CdSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals were obtained. From these images, the growth mechanism of the ZnS shell was determined and the existence of non-fluorescent ZnS particles was confirmed. Through collaboration with Quantum Dot Corp., core/shell nanocrystals with near unity quantum yield were developed. These core/shell nanocrystals included a US intermediate layer to improve shell coverage.

  6. A new FIB fabrication method for micropillar specimens for three-dimensional observation using scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Muneyuki; Tomimatsu, Satoshi; Nakamura, Kuniyasu; Koguchi, Masanari; Shichi, Hiroyasu; Umemura, Kaoru

    2004-01-01

    A new method to prepare micropillar specimens with a high aspect ratio that is suitable for three-dimensional scanning transmission electron microscopy (3D-STEM) was developed. The key features of the micropillar fabrication are: first, microsampling to extract a small piece including the structure of interest in an IC chip, and second, an ion-beam with an incident direction of 60 degrees to the pillar's axis that enables the parallel sidewalls of the pillar to be produced with a high aspect ratio. A memory-cell structure (length: 6 microm; width: 300 x 500 nm) was fabricated in the micropillar and observed from various directions with a 3D-STEM. A planiform capacitor covered with granular surfaces and a solid crossing gate and metal lines was successfully observed threedimensionally at a resolution of approximately 5 nm.

  7. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy of the damage to small intestinal mucosa following X irradiation or hyperthermia

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, K.E.; Hume, S.P.; Marigold, J.C.

    Scanning and transmission electron microscopy (S.E.M. and T.E.M.) and resin histology have been used to investigate the effects on mouse small intestinal villi of heating at 43 degrees C for 20 minutes and of irradiation with 10 Gy X-rays. Damage after irradiation included conical villi and giant cells. Damage after heating included the production of conical and rudimentary villi and the stacking of enterocytes. Individual cells showed signs of abnormalities in their cell membranes, nuclei and cytoplasmic components. The differences in the response after irradiation and hyperthermia are linked to the fact that heating has a primary effect on villousmore » structure, whereas irradiation mainly affects the proliferative pool of crypt cells.« less

  8. Composition measurement in substitutionally disordered materials by atomic resolution energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Z; Taplin, D J; Weyland, M; Allen, L J; Findlay, S D

    2017-05-01

    The increasing use of energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in atomic resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy invites the question of whether its success in precision composition determination at lower magnifications can be replicated in the atomic resolution regime. In this paper, we explore, through simulation, the prospects for composition measurement via the model system of Al x Ga 1-x As, discussing the approximations used in the modelling, the variability in the signal due to changes in configuration at constant composition, and the ability to distinguish between different compositions. Results are presented in such a way that the number of X-ray counts, and thus the expected variation due to counting statistics, can be gauged for a range of operating conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Magnified pseudo-elemental map of atomic column obtained by Moiré method in scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Yukihito; Okunishi, Eiji

    2014-10-01

    Moiré method in scanning transmission electron microscopy allows observing a magnified two-dimensional atomic column elemental map of a higher pixel resolution with a lower electron dose unlike conventional atomic column mapping. The magnification of the map is determined by the ratio between the pixel size and the lattice spacing. With proper ratios for the x and y directions, we could observe magnified elemental maps, homothetic to the atomic arrangement in the sample of SrTiO3 [0 0 1]. The map showed peaks at all expected oxygen sites in SrTiO3 [0 0 1]. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Dose limited reliability of quantitative annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy for nano-particle atom-counting.

    PubMed

    De Backer, A; Martinez, G T; MacArthur, K E; Jones, L; Béché, A; Nellist, P D; Van Aert, S

    2015-04-01

    Quantitative annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (ADF STEM) has become a powerful technique to characterise nano-particles on an atomic scale. Because of their limited size and beam sensitivity, the atomic structure of such particles may become extremely challenging to determine. Therefore keeping the incoming electron dose to a minimum is important. However, this may reduce the reliability of quantitative ADF STEM which will here be demonstrated for nano-particle atom-counting. Based on experimental ADF STEM images of a real industrial catalyst, we discuss the limits for counting the number of atoms in a projected atomic column with single atom sensitivity. We diagnose these limits by combining a thorough statistical method and detailed image simulations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Scanning and transmission electron microscopic observation of the parasitic form of Trichophyton violaceum in the infected hair from tinea capitis.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Kaiwen; Ran, Xin; Lei, Song; Zhang, Chaoliang; Lama, Jebina; Ran, Yuping

    2014-01-01

    Trichophyton violaceum is a pathogen of tinea capitis and usually cause infection of scalp and hair in children. To investigate the parasitic form of T. violaceum in the human hair tissue, the infected hair strands were collected from a 9-year-old boy with tinea capitis due to T. violaceum and observed under both the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The SEM and TEM findings revealed that T. violaceum parasitically lives in the hair shaft in various forms and the morphological transformation of the fungus from hyphae into arthrospores was noted. The involved hair shaft was damaged to the great extent and its ultrastructural changes were evident. Those morphological characteristics of T. violaceum and the three-dimensional ultastructure changes of infected hairs give a better knowledge about the host-fungus relationship in tinea capitis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Direct observation of Sr vacancies in SrTiO 3 by quantitative scanning transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Honggyu; Zhang, Jack Y.; Raghavan, Santosh

    Unveiling the identity, spatial configuration, and microscopic structure of point defects is one of the key challenges in materials science. Here, we demonstrate that quantitative scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) can be used to directly observe Sr vacancies in SrTiO 3 and to determine the atom column relaxations around them. By combining recent advances in quantitative STEM, including variableangle, high-angle annular dark-field imaging and rigid registration methods, with frozen phonon multislice image simulations, we identify which Sr columns contain vacancies and quantify the number of vacancies in them. Here, picometer precision measurements of the surrounding atom column positions show thatmore » the nearest-neighbor Ti atoms are displaced away from the Sr vacancies. The results open up a new methodology for studying the microscopic mechanisms by which point defects control materials properties.« less

  13. Imaging and elemental mapping of biological specimens with a dual-EDS dedicated scanning transmission electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Wu, J S; Kim, A M; Bleher, R; Myers, B D; Marvin, R G; Inada, H; Nakamura, K; Zhang, X F; Roth, E; Li, S Y; Woodruff, T K; O'Halloran, T V; Dravid, Vinayak P

    2013-05-01

    A dedicated analytical scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) with dual energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) detectors has been designed for complementary high performance imaging as well as high sensitivity elemental analysis and mapping of biological structures. The performance of this new design, based on a Hitachi HD-2300A model, was evaluated using a variety of biological specimens. With three imaging detectors, both the surface and internal structure of cells can be examined simultaneously. The whole-cell elemental mapping, especially of heavier metal species that have low cross-section for electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), can be faithfully obtained. Optimization of STEM imaging conditions is applied to thick sections as well as thin sections of biological cells under low-dose conditions at room and cryogenic temperatures. Such multimodal capabilities applied to soft/biological structures usher a new era for analytical studies in biological systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Imaging and elemental mapping of biological specimens with a dual-EDS dedicated scanning transmission electron microscope

    PubMed Central

    Wu, J.S.; Kim, A. M.; Bleher, R.; Myers, B.D.; Marvin, R. G.; Inada, H.; Nakamura, K.; Zhang, X.F.; Roth, E.; Li, S.Y.; Woodruff, T. K.; O'Halloran, T. V.; Dravid, Vinayak P.

    2013-01-01

    A dedicated analytical scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) with dual energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) detectors has been designed for complementary high performance imaging as well as high sensitivity elemental analysis and mapping of biological structures. The performance of this new design, based on a Hitachi HD-2300A model, was evaluated using a variety of biological specimens. With three imaging detectors, both the surface and internal structure of cells can be examined simultaneously. The whole-cell elemental mapping, especially of heavier metal species that have low cross-section for electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), can be faithfully obtained. Optimization of STEM imaging conditions is applied to thick sections as well as thin sections of biological cells under low-dose conditions at room- and cryogenic temperatures. Such multimodal capabilities applied to soft/biological structures usher a new era for analytical studies in biological systems. PMID:23500508

  15. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes decorated by platinum catalyst nanoparticles--examination and microanalysis using scanning and transmission electron microscopies.

    PubMed

    Guinel, M J-F; Brodusch, N; Verde-Gómez, Y; Escobar-Morales, B; Gauvin, R

    2013-10-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) decorated with platinum (Pt) nanoparticles (NPs) have been characterized using a cold field-emission scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a high resolution field-emission transmission electron microscope (TEM). With this particular composite material, the complementary nature of the two instruments was demonstrated. Although the long CNTs were found to be mostly bent and defective in some parts, the nucleation of Pt occurred randomly and uniformly covered the CNTs. The NPs displayed a large variation in size, were sometimes defective with twins and stacking faults, and were found to be faceted with the presence of surface steps. The shape and size of the NPs and the presence of defects may have significant consequences on the activity of the Pt catalyst material. Also, thin layers of platinum oxide were identified on the surface of some NPs. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2013 Royal Microscopical Society.

  16. Direct observation of Sr vacancies in SrTiO 3 by quantitative scanning transmission electron microscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Honggyu; Zhang, Jack Y.; Raghavan, Santosh; ...

    2016-12-22

    Unveiling the identity, spatial configuration, and microscopic structure of point defects is one of the key challenges in materials science. Here, we demonstrate that quantitative scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) can be used to directly observe Sr vacancies in SrTiO 3 and to determine the atom column relaxations around them. By combining recent advances in quantitative STEM, including variableangle, high-angle annular dark-field imaging and rigid registration methods, with frozen phonon multislice image simulations, we identify which Sr columns contain vacancies and quantify the number of vacancies in them. Here, picometer precision measurements of the surrounding atom column positions show thatmore » the nearest-neighbor Ti atoms are displaced away from the Sr vacancies. The results open up a new methodology for studying the microscopic mechanisms by which point defects control materials properties.« less

  17. Correlative fluorescence microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy of quantum-dot-labeled proteins in whole cells in liquid.

    PubMed

    Dukes, Madeline J; Peckys, Diana B; de Jonge, Niels

    2010-07-27

    Correlative fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a state-of-the-art microscopy methodology to study cellular function, combining the functionality of light microscopy with the high resolution of electron microscopy. However, this technique involves complex sample preparation procedures due to its need for either thin sections or frozen samples for TEM imaging. Here, we introduce a novel correlative approach capable of imaging whole eukaryotic cells in liquid with fluorescence microscopy and with scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM); there is no additional sample preparation necessary for the electron microscopy. Quantum dots (QDs) were bound to epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors of COS7 fibroblast cells. Fixed whole cells in saline water were imaged with fluorescence microscopy and subsequently with STEM. The STEM images were correlated with fluorescence images of the same cellular regions. QDs of dimensions 7x12 nm were visible in a 5 microm thick layer of saline water, consistent with calculations. A spatial resolution of 3 nm was achieved on the QDs.

  18. Impulse radio ultra wideband wireless transmission of dopamine concentration levels recorded by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Ebrazeh, Ali; Bozorgzadeh, Bardia; Mohseni, Pedram

    2015-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the feasibility of utilizing impulse radio ultra wideband (IR-UWB) signaling technique for reliable, wireless transmission of dopamine concentration levels recorded by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) at a carbon-fiber microelectrode (CFM) to address the problem of elevated data rates in high-channel-count neurochemical monitoring. Utilizing an FSCV-sensing chip fabricated in AMS 0.35μm 2P/4M CMOS, a 3-5-GHz, IR-UWB transceiver (TRX) chip fabricated in TSMC 90nm 1P/9M RF CMOS, and two off-chip, miniature, UWB antennae, wireless transfer of pseudo-random binary sequence (PRBS) data at 50Mbps over a distance of <;1m is first shown with bit-error rates (BER) <; 10(-3). Further, IR-UWB wireless transmission of dopamine concentration levels prerecorded with FSCV at a CFM during flow injection analysis (FIA) is also demonstrated with transmitter (TX) power dissipation of only ~4.4μW from 1.2V, representing two orders of magnitude reduction in TX power consumption compared to that of a conventional frequency-shift-keyed (FSK) link operating at ~433MHz.

  19. Correlative Fluorescence Microscopy and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy of Quantum Dot Labeled Proteins in Whole Cells in Liquid

    PubMed Central

    Dukes, Madeline J.; Peckys, Diana B.; de Jonge, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Correlative fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a state-of-the-art microscopy methodology to study cellular function, combining the functionality of light microscopy with the high resolution of electron microscopy. However, this technique involves complex sample preparation procedures due to its need for either thin sections or frozen samples for TEM imaging. Here, we introduce a novel correlative approach capable of imaging whole eukaryotic cells in liquid with fluorescence microscopy and with scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM); there is no additional sample preparation necessary for the electron microscopy. Quantum dots (QDs) were bound to epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors of COS7 fibroblast cells. Fixed whole cells in saline water were imaged with fluorescence microscopy and subsequently with STEM. The STEM images were correlated with fluorescence images of the same cellular regions. QDs of dimensions 7 × 12 nm were visible in a 5 μm thick layer of saline water, consistent with calculations. A spatial resolution of 3 nm was achieved on the QDs. PMID:20550177

  20. The Effect of Electron Beam Irradiation in Environmental Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy of Whole Cells in Liquid.

    PubMed

    Hermannsdörfer, Justus; Tinnemann, Verena; Peckys, Diana B; de Jonge, Niels

    2016-06-01

    Whole cells can be studied in their native liquid environment using electron microscopy, and unique information about the locations and stoichiometry of individual membrane proteins can be obtained from many cells thus taking cell heterogeneity into account. Of key importance for the further development of this microscopy technology is knowledge about the effect of electron beam radiation on the samples under investigation. We used environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) with scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) detection to examine the effect of radiation for whole fixed COS7 fibroblasts in liquid. The main observation was the localization of nanoparticle labels attached to epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs). It was found that the relative distances between the labels remained mostly unchanged (<1.5%) for electron doses ranging from the undamaged native state at 10 e-/Å2 toward 103 e-/Å2. This dose range was sufficient to determine the EGFR locations with nanometer resolution and to distinguish between monomers and dimers. Various different forms of radiation damage became visible at higher doses, including severe dislocation, and the dissolution of labels.

  1. 2D strain mapping using scanning transmission electron microscopy Moiré interferometry and geometrical phase analysis.

    PubMed

    Pofelski, A; Woo, S Y; Le, B H; Liu, X; Zhao, S; Mi, Z; Löffler, S; Botton, G A

    2018-04-01

    A strain characterization technique based on Moiré interferometry in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) and geometrical phase analysis (GPA) method is demonstrated. The deformation field is first captured in a single STEM Moiré hologram composed of multiple sets of periodic fringes (Moiré patterns) generated from the interference between the periodic scanning grating, fixing the positions of the electron probe on the sample, and the crystal structure. Applying basic principles from sampling theory, the Moiré patterns arrangement is then simulated using a STEM electron micrograph reference to convert the experimental STEM Moiré hologram into information related to the crystal lattice periodicities. The GPA method is finally applied to extract the 2D relative strain and rotation fields. The STEM Moiré interferometry enables the local information to be de-magnified to a large length scale, comparable to what can be achieved in dark-field electron holography. The STEM Moiré GPA method thus extends the conventional high-resolution STEM GPA capabilities by providing comparable quantitative 2D strain mapping with a larger field of view (up to a few microns). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Transmission Electron Microscopy and Scanning Transmission X-Ray Microscopy Studies on the Bioaccumulation and Tissue Level Absorption of TiO2 Nanoparticles in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Dongwook; Nho, Hyun Woo; Yoon, Tae Hyun

    2015-06-01

    In this study, bioaccumulation and tissue-level absorption of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) in freshwater invertebrates were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM). The TiO2 NPs were used to test impacts of core sizes (i.e., 5 ± 2 nm and 23 ± 7 nm for TiO2(SYN) and TiO2(P25), respectively) and agglomerations (i.e., well dispersed vs. highly agglomerated) on the uptake of TiO2 NPs in Daphnia magna (D. magna). Highly agglomerated TiO2 NPs, regardless of their core sizes, were heavily taken up into the digestive tract of D. magna and no detectable penetration of both TiO2 NPs into the gut epithelial cells of D. magna was observed in TEM and STXM images. However, significant damages involving morphological changes in the microvilli and gut epithelial cells (e.g., irregular shaped microvilli, epithelial cell protrusion, and dilatation of cytoplasmic inclusion) were observed only with the commercial TiO2 NPs (TiO2(P25)) with larger core size and mixed crystalline phase, while the laboratory synthesized TiO2 NPs (TiO2(Syn)) with smaller core size and single crystalline phase showed slight morphological changes in the gut microvilli and epithelial cells. In the case of D. magna exposed to the well dispersed synthetic TiO2 NP ((Cit)TiO2(Syn)), only a negligible amount of TiO2 NPs were found within the digestive tract of the D. magna without any significant damages in the gut microvilli and epithelial cells and any detectable penetrations of TiO2 NPs into epithelial cells of D. magna gut. These TEM and STXM observations confirmed us that uptake of NP into D. magna are strongly dependent on their agglomeration (i.e., hydrodynamic sizes), rather than their core sizes, while direct penetration of NPs into tissues of digestive tract seems unlikely without significant morphological changes (e.g., collapse of the epithelial tissue) caused by high toxicity of NPs or released metal ions.

  3. Lithium Self-Discharge and Its Prevention: Direct Visualization through In Situ Electrochemical Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Katharine L; Zavadil, Kevin R; Hahn, Nathan T; Meng, Xiangbo; Elam, Jeffrey W; Leenheer, Andrew; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Jungjohann, Katherine L

    2017-11-28

    To understand the mechanism that controls low-aspect-ratio lithium deposition morphologies for Li-metal anodes in batteries, we conducted direct visualization of Li-metal deposition and stripping behavior through nanoscale in situ electrochemical scanning transmission electron microscopy (EC-STEM) and macroscale-cell electrochemistry experiments in a recently developed and promising solvate electrolyte, 4 M lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide in 1,2-dimethoxyethane. In contrast to published coin cell studies in the same electrolyte, our experiments revealed low Coulombic efficiencies and inhomogeneous Li morphology during in situ observation. We conclude that this discrepancy in Coulombic efficiency and morphology of the Li deposits was dependent on the presence of a compressed lithium separator interface, as we have confirmed through macroscale (not in the transmission electron microscope) electrochemical experiments. Our data suggests that cell compression changed how the solid-electrolyte interphase formed, which is likely responsible for improved morphology and Coulombic efficiency with compression. Furthermore, during the in situ EC-STEM experiments, we observed direct evidence of nanoscale self-discharge in the solvate electrolyte (in the state of electrical isolation). This self-discharge was duplicated in the macroscale, but it was less severe with electrode compression, likely due to a more passivating and corrosion-resistant solid-electrolyte interphase formed in the presence of compression. By combining the solvate electrolyte with a protective LiAl 0.3 S coating, we show that the Li nucleation density increased during deposition, leading to improved morphological uniformity. Furthermore, self-discharge was suppressed during rest periods in the cycling profile with coatings present, as evidenced through EC-STEM and confirmed with coin cell data.

  4. Lithium Self-Discharge and Its Prevention: Direct Visualization through In Situ Electrochemical Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Harrison, Katharine L.; Zavadil, Kevin R.; Hahn, Nathan T.; ...

    2017-11-07

    To understand the mechanism that controls low-aspect-ratio lithium deposition morphologies for Li-metal anodes in batteries, we conducted direct visualization of Li-metal deposition and stripping behavior through nanoscale in situ electrochemical scanning transmission electron microscopy (EC-STEM) and macroscale-cell electrochemistry experiments in a recently developed and promising solvate electrolyte, 4 M lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide in 1,2-dimethoxyethane. In contrast to published coin cell studies in the same electrolyte, our experiments revealed low Coulombic efficiencies and inhomogeneous Li morphology during in situ observation. In addition, we conclude that this discrepancy in Coulombic efficiency and morphology of the Li deposits was dependent on the presence ofmore » a compressed lithium separator interface, as we have confirmed through macroscale (not in the transmission electron microscope) electrochemical experiments. Our data suggests that cell compression changed how the solid-electrolyte interphase formed, which is likely responsible for improved morphology and Coulombic efficiency with compression. Furthermore, during the in situ EC-STEM experiments, we observed direct evidence of nanoscale self-discharge in the solvate electrolyte (in the state of electrical isolation). This self-discharge was duplicated in the macroscale, but it was less severe with electrode compression, likely due to a more passivating and corrosion-resistant solid-electrolyte interphase formed in the presence of compression. By combining the solvate electrolyte with a protective LiAl 0.3S coating, we show that the Li nucleation density increased during deposition, leading to improved morphological uniformity. In conclusion, self-discharge was suppressed during rest periods in the cycling profile with coatings present, as evidenced through EC-STEM and confirmed with coin cell data.« less

  5. Lithium Self-Discharge and Its Prevention: Direct Visualization through In Situ Electrochemical Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Katharine L.; Zavadil, Kevin R.; Hahn, Nathan T.

    To understand the mechanism that controls low-aspect-ratio lithium deposition morphologies for Li-metal anodes in batteries, we conducted direct visualization of Li-metal deposition and stripping behavior through nanoscale in situ electrochemical scanning transmission electron microscopy (EC-STEM) and macroscale-cell electrochemistry experiments in a recently developed and promising solvate electrolyte, 4 M lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide in 1,2-dimethoxyethane. In contrast to published coin cell studies in the same electrolyte, our experiments revealed low Coulombic efficiencies and inhomogeneous Li morphology during in situ observation. In addition, we conclude that this discrepancy in Coulombic efficiency and morphology of the Li deposits was dependent on the presence ofmore » a compressed lithium separator interface, as we have confirmed through macroscale (not in the transmission electron microscope) electrochemical experiments. Our data suggests that cell compression changed how the solid-electrolyte interphase formed, which is likely responsible for improved morphology and Coulombic efficiency with compression. Furthermore, during the in situ EC-STEM experiments, we observed direct evidence of nanoscale self-discharge in the solvate electrolyte (in the state of electrical isolation). This self-discharge was duplicated in the macroscale, but it was less severe with electrode compression, likely due to a more passivating and corrosion-resistant solid-electrolyte interphase formed in the presence of compression. By combining the solvate electrolyte with a protective LiAl 0.3S coating, we show that the Li nucleation density increased during deposition, leading to improved morphological uniformity. In conclusion, self-discharge was suppressed during rest periods in the cycling profile with coatings present, as evidenced through EC-STEM and confirmed with coin cell data.« less

  6. EPS composition and calcification potential of tufa-dominating cyanobacteria investigated by Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM) and Laser Scanning Microscopy (LSM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zippel, Barbara; Dynes, James J.; Obst, Martin; Lawrence, John R.; Neu, Thomas R.

    2010-05-01

    Tufa deposits in freshwater habitats are the result of calcium carbonate precipitation within interfacial microbial ecosystems. Calcite precipitation is influenced by the saturation index and the occurrence of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) which are produced by a variety of microorganisms. In theory, the first important step of biologically induced calcification processes is the adsorption of calcium ions by extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) produced by cyanobacteria. In the present study we take advantage of Laser Scanning Microscopy (LSM) and combine it with Synchrotron imaging using Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM). STXM represents a technique that allows simultaneous analysis of inorganic and organic constituents as a scale of 50 nm. By means of STXM it is possible to differentiate between calcium carbonate phases at the Ca L-edge. Furthermore, STXM has also been used at the C K-edge to map the major biomolecules (proteins, lipids, and polysaccharides). The purpose of this study is to find out if there are differences in calcium adsorption depending on specific composition of the EPS produced by filamentous cyanobacteria isolated from a German hard water creek (Westerhöfer Bach, Harz Mountains). The goal was to elucidate the potential of biofilms constituents, including microbial cell surfaces as well as extracellular polymeric substances, in triggering the formation of calcium carbonate in tufa systems. For this purpose three filamentous cyanobacteria (Pseudanabaena sp., Leptolyngbya sp. and Nostoc sp.) were cultivated in creek-adapted as well as standard media (BG11) on polycarbonate slides. In situ EPS composition was detected by means of fluorescence lectin-binding approach (FLBA) using 23 commercially available lectins with different specificities for mono- and disaccharides and amino sugars. For CaCO3 nucleation experiments cyanobacterial biofilms grown on polycarbonate slides were deposited in NaHCO3/CaCl2 solutions

  7. Measurement of atomic electric fields and charge densities from average momentum transfers using scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Müller-Caspary, Knut; Krause, Florian F; Grieb, Tim; Löffler, Stefan; Schowalter, Marco; Béché, Armand; Galioit, Vincent; Marquardt, Dennis; Zweck, Josef; Schattschneider, Peter; Verbeeck, Johan; Rosenauer, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    This study sheds light on the prerequisites, possibilities, limitations and interpretation of high-resolution differential phase contrast (DPC) imaging in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). We draw particular attention to the well-established DPC technique based on segmented annular detectors and its relation to recent developments based on pixelated detectors. These employ the expectation value of the momentum transfer as a reliable measure of the angular deflection of the STEM beam induced by an electric field in the specimen. The influence of scattering and propagation of electrons within the specimen is initially discussed separately and then treated in terms of a two-state channeling theory. A detailed simulation study of GaN is presented as a function of specimen thickness and bonding. It is found that bonding effects are rather detectable implicitly, e.g., by characteristics of the momentum flux in areas between the atoms than by directly mapping electric fields and charge densities. For strontium titanate, experimental charge densities are compared with simulations and discussed with respect to experimental artifacts such as scan noise. Finally, we consider practical issues such as figures of merit for spatial and momentum resolution, minimum electron dose, and the mapping of larger-scale, built-in electric fields by virtue of data averaged over a crystal unit cell. We find that the latter is possible for crystals with an inversion center. Concerning the optimal detector design, this study indicates that a sampling of 5mrad per pixel is sufficient in typical applications, corresponding to approximately 10×10 available pixels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Ordering in bio-inorganic hybrid nanomaterials probed by in situ scanning transmission X-ray microscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, Jonathan R. I.; Bagge-Hansen, Michael; Tunuguntla, Ramya; ...

    2015-04-15

    Here, phospholipid bilayer coated Si nanowires are one-dimensional (1D) composites that provide versatile bio-nanoelectronic functionality via incorporation of a wide variety of biomolecules into the phospholipid matrix. The physiochemical behaviour of the phospholipid bilayer is strongly dependent on its structure and, as a consequence, substantial modelling and experimental efforts have been directed at the structural characterization of supported bilayers and unsupported phospholipid vesicles; nonetheless, the experimental studies conducted to date have exclusively involved volume-averaged techniques, which do not allow for the assignment of spatially resolved structural variations that could critically impact the performance of the 1D phospholipid-Si NW composites. Inmore » this manuscript, we use scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) to probe bond orientation and bilayer thickness as a function of position with a spatial resolution of ~30 nm for Δ9-cis 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine layers prepared Si NWs. When coupled with small angle X-ray scattering measurements, the STXM data reveal structural motifs of the Si NWs that give rise to multi-bilayer formation and enable assignment of the orientation of specific bonds known to affect the order and rigidity of phospholipid bilayers.« less

  9. Analysis of Mesa Dislocation Gettering in HgCdTe/CdTe/Si(211) by Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, R. N.; Stoltz, A. J.; Benson, J. D.; Smith, P.; Lennon, C. M.; Almeida, L. A.; Farrell, S.; Wijewarnasuriya, P. S.; Brill, G.; Chen, Y.; Salmon, M.; Zu, J.

    2013-11-01

    Due to its strong infrared absorption and variable band-gap, HgCdTe is the ideal detector material for high-performance infrared focal-plane arrays (IRFPAs). Next-generation IRFPAs will utilize dual-color high-definition formats on large-area substrates such as Si or GaAs. However, heteroepitaxial growth on these substrates is plagued by high densities of lattice-mismatch-induced threading dislocations (TDs) that ultimately reduce IRFPA operability. Previously we demonstrated a postgrowth technique with the potential to eliminate or move TDs such that they have less impact on detector operability. In this technique, highly reticulated mesa structures are produced in as-grown HgCdTe epilayers, and then subjected to thermal cycle annealing. To fully exploit this technique, better understanding of the inherent mechanism is required. In this work, we employ scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) analysis of HgCdTe/CdTe/Si(211) samples prepared by focused ion beam milling. A key factor is the use of defect-decorated samples, which allows for a correlation of etch pits observed on the surface with underlying dislocation segments viewed in cross-section STEM images. We perform an analysis of these dislocations in terms of the general distribution, density, and mobility at various locations within the mesa structures. Based on our observations, we suggest factors that contribute to the underlying mechanism for dislocation gettering.

  10. Three-dimensional imaging of individual point defects using selective detection angles in annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jared M; Im, Soohyun; Windl, Wolfgang; Hwang, Jinwoo

    2017-01-01

    We propose a new scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) technique that can realize the three-dimensional (3D) characterization of vacancies, lighter and heavier dopants with high precision. Using multislice STEM imaging and diffraction simulations of β-Ga 2 O 3 and SrTiO 3 , we show that selecting a small range of low scattering angles can make the contrast of the defect-containing atomic columns substantially more depth-dependent. The origin of the depth-dependence is the de-channeling of electrons due to the existence of a point defect in the atomic column, which creates extra "ripples" at low scattering angles. The highest contrast of the point defect can be achieved when the de-channeling signal is captured using the 20-40mrad detection angle range. The effect of sample thickness, crystal orientation, local strain, probe convergence angle, and experimental uncertainty to the depth-dependent contrast of the point defect will also be discussed. The proposed technique therefore opens new possibilities for highly precise 3D structural characterization of individual point defects in functional materials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The nanometre-scale physiology of bone: steric modelling and scanning transmission electron microscopy of collagen–mineral structure

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Benjamin; Daulton, Tyrone L.; Genin, Guy M.; Lipner, Justin; Pasteris, Jill D.; Wopenka, Brigitte; Thomopoulos, Stavros

    2012-01-01

    The nanometre-scale structure of collagen and bioapatite within bone establishes bone's physical properties, including strength and toughness. However, the nanostructural organization within bone is not well known and is debated. Widely accepted models hypothesize that apatite mineral (‘bioapatite’) is present predominantly inside collagen fibrils: in ‘gap channels’ between abutting collagen molecules, and in ‘intermolecular spaces’ between adjacent collagen molecules. However, recent studies report evidence of substantial extrafibrillar bioapatite, challenging this hypothesis. We studied the nanostructure of bioapatite and collagen in mouse bones by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) using electron energy loss spectroscopy and high-angle annular dark-field imaging. Additionally, we developed a steric model to estimate the packing density of bioapatite within gap channels. Our steric model and STEM results constrain the fraction of total bioapatite in bone that is distributed within fibrils at less than or equal to 0.42 inside gap channels and less than or equal to 0.28 inside intermolecular overlap regions. Therefore, a significant fraction of bone's bioapatite (greater than or equal to 0.3) must be external to the fibrils. Furthermore, we observe extrafibrillar bioapatite between non-mineralized collagen fibrils, suggesting that initial bioapatite nucleation and growth are not confined to the gap channels as hypothesized in some models. These results have important implications for the mechanics of partially mineralized and developing tissues. PMID:22345156

  12. Scanning and transmission electron microscope of suspended lead-rich particles in the air of San Luis Potosi, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piña, A. Aragón; Villaseñor, G. Torres; Jacinto, P. Santiago; Fernández, M. Monroy

    In the city of San Luis Potosi exists an important metallurgical plant and is known that in the adjacent urban zone, there is a high concentration of lead in the air, it is also supposed that most of the particles with lead have an anthropogenic origin because these particles show morphological characteristics and chemical composition very different in comparison with common lead minerals. In this work it was proved that most of the airborne particles with lead present in this urban zone, effectively came from the copper smelter. The airborne particles with lead were compared with particles with lead obtained starting from samples of slag and lead calcine of the copper smelter. To perform the comparative study, these particles were studied with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDS) in conjunction with scanning electron microscope to obtain chemical composition and associated morphological characteristics. Results suggest that these particles, composed of only one phase, are chemically distinct from any crustal lead mineral. Because of the complexity of the chemical composition of these particles (Pb, S, Cu, As, Fe, Zn, Cd, Sb, O), some of the airborne particles were analyzed by transmission microscopy in order to associate crystalline structure with any particular chemical phase.

  13. Exceptionally Slow Movement of Gold Nanoparticles at a Solid/Liquid Interface Investigated by Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Verch, Andreas; Pfaff, Marina; de Jonge, Niels

    2015-06-30

    Gold nanoparticles were observed to move at a liquid/solid interface 3 orders of magnitude slower than expected for the movement in a bulk liquid by Brownian motion. The nanoscale movement was studied with scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) using a liquid enclosure consisting of microchips with silicon nitride windows. The experiments involved a variation of the electron dose, the coating of the nanoparticles, the surface charge of the enclosing membrane, the viscosity, and the liquid thickness. The observed slow movement was not a result of hydrodynamic hindrance near a wall but instead explained by the presence of a layer of ordered liquid exhibiting a viscosity 5 orders of magnitude larger than a bulk liquid. The increased viscosity presumably led to a dramatic slowdown of the movement. The layer was formed as a result of the surface charge of the silicon nitride windows. The exceptionally slow motion is a crucial aspect of electron microscopy of specimens in liquid, enabling a direct observation of the movement and agglomeration of nanoscale objects in liquid.

  14. The role of gas in determining image quality and resolution during in situ scanning transmission electron microscopy experiments

    DOE PAGES

    Zhu, Yuanyuan; Browning, Nigel D.

    2017-05-24

    As gas-solid heterogeneous catalytic reactions are molecular in nature, a full mechanistic understanding of the process requires atomic scale characterization under realistic operating conditions. While atomic resolution imaging has become a routine in modern high-vacuum (scanning) transmission electron microscopy ((S)TEM), both image quality and resolution nominally degrade when reaction gases are introduced. In this work, we systematically assess the effects of different gases at various pressures on the quality and resolution of images obtained at room temperature in the annular dark field STEM imaging mode using a differentially pumped (DP) gas cell. This imaging mode is largely free from inelasticmore » scattering effects induced by the presence of gases and retains good imaging properties over a wide range of gas mass/pressures. Furthermore, we demonstrate the application of the ESTEM with atomic resolution images of a complex oxide alkane oxidation catalyst MoVNbTeOx (M1) immersed in light and heavy gas environments.« less

  15. Control and acquisition systems for new scanning transmission x-ray microscopes at Advanced Light Source (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyliszczak, T.; Hitchcock, P.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Ade, H.; Hitchcock, A. P.; Fakra, S.; Steele, W. F.; Warwick, T.

    2002-03-01

    Two new scanning x-ray transmission microscopes are being built at beamline 5.3.2 and beamline 7.0 of the Advanced Light Source that have novel aspects in their control and acquisition systems. Both microscopes use multiaxis laser interferometry to improve the precision of pixel location during imaging and energy scans as well as to remove image distortions. Beam line 5.3.2 is a new beam line where the new microscope will be dedicated to studies of polymers in the 250-600 eV energy range. Since this is a bending magnet beam line with lower x-ray brightness than undulator beam lines, special attention is given to the design not only to minimize distortions and vibrations but also to optimize the controls and acquisition to improve data collection efficiency. 5.3.2 microscope control and acquisition is based on a PC computer running WINDOWS 2000. All mechanical stages are moved by stepper motors with rack mounted controllers. A dedicated counter board is used for counting and timing and a multi-input/output board is used for analog acquisition and control of the focusing mirror. A three axis differential laser interferometer is being used to improve stability and precision by careful tracking of the relative positions of the sample and zone plate. Each axis measures the relative distance between a mirror placed on the sample stage and a mirror attached to the zone plate holder. Agilent Technologies HP 10889A servo-axis interferometer boards are used. While they were designed to control servo motors, our tests show that they can be used to directly control the piezo stage. The use of the interferometer servo-axis boards provides excellent point stability for spectral measurements. The interferometric feedback also provides active vibration isolation which reduces deleterious impact of mechanical vibrations up to 20-30 Hz. It also can improve the speed and precision of image scans. Custom C++ software has been written to provide user friendly control of the microscope

  16. Dark-field image contrast in transmission scanning electron microscopy: Effects of substrate thickness and detector collection angle.

    PubMed

    Woehl, Taylor; Keller, Robert

    2016-12-01

    An annular dark field (ADF) detector was placed beneath a specimen in a field emission scanning electron microscope operated at 30kV to calibrate detector response to incident beam current, and to create transmission images of gold nanoparticles on silicon nitride (SiN) substrates of various thicknesses. Based on the linear response of the ADF detector diodes to beam current, we developed a method that allowed for direct determination of the percentage of that beam current forward scattered to the ADF detector from the sample, i.e. the transmitted electron (TE) yield. Collection angles for the ADF detector region were defined using a masking aperture above the detector and were systematically varied by changing the sample to detector distance. We found the contrast of the nanoparticles, relative to the SiN substrate, decreased monotonically with decreasing inner exclusion angle and increasing substrate thickness. We also performed Monte Carlo electron scattering simulations, which showed quantitative agreement with experimental contrast associated with the nanoparticles. Together, the experiments and Monte Carlo simulations revealed that the decrease in contrast with decreasing inner exclusion angle was due to a rapid increase in the TE yield of the low atomic number substrate. Nanoparticles imaged at low inner exclusion angles (<150mrad) and on thick substrates (>50nm) showed low image contrast in their centers surrounded by a bright high-contrast halo on their edges. This complex image contrast was predicted by Monte Carlo simulations, which we interpreted in terms of mixing of the nominally bright field (BF) and ADF electron signals. Our systematic investigation of inner exclusion angle and substrate thickness effects on ADF t-SEM imaging provides fundamental understanding of the contrast mechanisms for image formation, which in turn suggest practical limitations and optimal imaging conditions for different substrate thicknesses. Copyright © 2016. Published by

  17. Characterizing the Three-Dimensional Structure of Block Copolymers via Sequential Infiltration Synthesis and Scanning Transmission Electron Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Segal-Peretz, Tamar; Winterstein, Jonathan; Doxastakis, Manolis

    Understanding and controlling the three-dimensional structure of block copolymer (BCP) thin films is critical for utilizing these materials for sub-20 nm nanopatterning in semiconductor devices, as well as in membranes and solar cell applications. Combining an atomic layer deposition (ALD) based technique for enhancing the contrast of BCPs in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) together with scanning TEM (STEM) tomography reveals and characterizes the three-dimensional structures of poly(styrene-block-methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) thin films with great clarity. Sequential infiltration synthesis (SIS), a block-selective technique for growing inorganic materials in BCPs films in ALD, and an emerging tool for enhancing the etch contrast ofmore » BCPs, was harnessed to significantly enhance the high-angle scattering from the polar domains of BCP films in the TEM. The power of combining SIS and STEM tomography for three dimensional (3D) characterization of BCPs films was demonstrated with the following cases: self-assembled cylindrical, lamellar, and spherical PS-PMMA thin films. In all cases, STEM tomography has revealed 3D structures that were hidden underneath the surface, including: 1) the 3D structure of defects in cylindrical and lamellar phases, 2) non-perpendicular 3D surface of grain boundaries in the cylindrical phase, and 3) the 3D arrangement of spheres in body centered cubic (BCC) and hexagonal closed pack (HCP) morphologies in the spherical phase. The 3D data of the spherical morphologies was compared to coarse-grained simulations and assisted in validating the simulations’ parameters. STEM tomography of SIS-treated BCP films enables the characterization of the exact structure used for pattern transfer, and can lead to better understating of the physics which is utilized in BCP lithography.« less

  18. The core of tau-paired helical filaments studied by scanning transmission electron microscopy and limited proteolysis.

    PubMed

    von Bergen, Martin; Barghorn, Stefan; Müller, Shirley A; Pickhardt, Marcus; Biernat, Jacek; Mandelkow, Eva-Maria; Davies, Peter; Aebi, Ueli; Mandelkow, Eckhard

    2006-05-23

    In Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementias the microtubule-associated protein tau forms intracellular paired helical filaments (PHFs). The filaments formed in vivo consist mainly of full-length molecules of the six different isoforms present in adult brain. The substructure of the PHF core is still elusive. Here we applied scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and limited proteolysis to probe the mass distribution of PHFs and their surface exposure. Tau filaments assembled from the three repeat domain have a mass per length (MPL) of approximately 60 kDa/nm and filaments from full-length tau (htau40DeltaK280 mutant) have approximately 160 kDa/nm, compared with approximately 130 kDa/nm for PHFs from Alzheimer's brain. Polyanionic cofactors such as heparin accelerate assembly but are not incorporated into PHFs. Limited proteolysis combined with N-terminal sequencing and mass spectrometry of fragments reveals a protease-sensitive N-terminal half and semiresistant PHF core starting in the first repeat and reaching to the C-terminus of tau. Continued proteolysis leads to a fragment starting at the end of the first repeat and ending in the fourth repeat. PHFs from tau isoforms with four repeats revealed an additional cleavage site within the middle of the second repeat. Probing the PHFs with antibodies detecting epitopes either over longer stretches in the C-terminal half of tau or in the fourth repeat revealed that they grow in a polar manner. These data describe the physical parameters of the PHFs and enabled us to build a model of the molecular arrangement within the filamentous structures.

  19. A new method to detect and correct sample tilt in scanning transmission electron microscopy bright-field imaging.

    PubMed

    Brown, H G; Ishikawa, R; Sánchez-Santolino, G; Lugg, N R; Ikuhara, Y; Allen, L J; Shibata, N

    2017-02-01

    Important properties of functional materials, such as ferroelectric shifts and octahedral distortions, are associated with displacements of the positions of lighter atoms in the unit cell. Annular bright-field scanning transmission electron microscopy is a good experimental method for investigating such phenomena due to its ability to image light and heavy atoms simultaneously. To map atomic positions at the required accuracy precise angular alignment of the sample with the microscope optical axis is necessary, since misalignment (tilt) of the specimen contributes to errors in position measurements of lighter elements in annular bright-field imaging. In this paper it is shown that it is possible to detect tilt with the aid of images recorded using a central bright-field detector placed within the inner radius of the annular bright-field detector. For a probe focus near the middle of the specimen the central bright-field image becomes especially sensitive to tilt and we demonstrate experimentally that misalignment can be detected with a precision of less than a milliradian, as we also confirm in simulation. Coma in the probe, an aberration that can be misidentified as tilt of the specimen, is also investigated and it is shown how the effects of coma and tilt can be differentiated. The effects of tilt may be offset to a large extent by shifting the diffraction plane detector an amount equivalent to the specimen tilt and we provide an experimental proof of principle of this using a segmented detector system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Organization of olfactory system of the Indian major carp Labeo rohita (Ham.): a study using scanning and transmission microscopy].

    PubMed

    Bhute, Y V; Baile, V V

    2007-01-01

    Catla catla, Labeo rohita, and Cirrhinus mrigala are important alimentary fish in India. Their reproduction (breeding) depends on season. The fish perceive external factors-stimuli and chemical signals through the olfactory system that plays the key role in the central regulation of reproduction. However, in the available literature, any electron microscopy data on organization of olfactory elements in these fish are absent. We have studied ultrastructure of the olfactory organ in male L. rohita by using scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The olfactory organ consists of olfactory epithelium, a short nerve, and olfactory bulb. The organ has oval shape and consists of approximately 47-52 lamellae in adult fish and of 14-20 lamellae in fish at the stage of fingerling. These lamellae originate from the midline raphe. By using SEM, the presence of microvillar sensory and ciliated non-sensory cells in these lamellae is shown. By using TEM, a microvillar receptor cell is revealed, which has rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus towards the apical end. Basal cells are found at the base of the receptor cell; supporting cells are located adjacent to olfactory receptor neurons, while epithelial cells--in the non-sensory part of olfactory epithelium. Mast, blastema and macrophages cells are also found in the basal lamina. This work is the first publication on structural organization of olfactory system of the Indian major carp, which provides information about morphological and ultrastructural organization of olfactory system and opens new opportunities for study of chemical neuroanatomy, sensory signal processing, and nervous regulation of reproduction of the Indian major carp.

  1. Carbon corrosion of proton exchange membrane fuel cell catalyst layers studied by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitchcock, Adam P.; Berejnov, Viatcheslav; Lee, Vincent; West, Marcia; Colbow, Vesna; Dutta, Monica; Wessel, Silvia

    2014-11-01

    Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM) at the C 1s, F 1s and S 2p edges has been used to investigate degradation of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEM-FC) membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) subjected to accelerated testing protocols. Quantitative chemical maps of the catalyst, carbon support and ionomer in the cathode layer are reported for beginning-of-test (BOT), and end-of-test (EOT) samples for two types of carbon support, low surface area carbon (LSAC) and medium surface area carbon (MSAC), that were exposed to accelerated stress testing with upper potentials (UPL) of 1.0, 1.2, and 1.3 V. The results are compared in order to characterize catalyst layer degradation in terms of the amounts and spatial distributions of these species. Pt agglomeration, Pt migration and corrosion of the carbon support are all visualized, and contribute to differing degrees in these samples. It is found that there is formation of a distinct Pt-in-membrane (PTIM) band for all EOT samples. The cathode thickness shrinks due to loss of the carbon support for all MSAC samples that were exposed to the different upper potentials, but only for the most aggressive testing protocol for the LSAC support. The amount of ionomer per unit volume significantly increases indicating it is being concentrated in the cathode as the carbon corrosion takes place. S 2p spectra and mapping of the cathode catalyst layer indicates there are still sulfonate groups present, even in the most damaged material.

  2. Visualizing the Cu/Cu2(O) Interface Transition in Nanoparticles with Environmental Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    LaGrow, Alec P; Ward, Michael R; Lloyd, David C; Gai, Pratibha L; Boyes, Edward D

    2017-01-11

    Understanding the oxidation and reduction mechanisms of catalytically active transition metal nanoparticles is important to improve their application in a variety of chemical processes. In nanocatalysis the nanoparticles can undergo oxidation or reduction in situ, and thus the redox species are not what are observed before and after reactions. We have used the novel environmental scanning transmission electron microscope (ESTEM) with 0.1 nm resolution in systematic studies of complex dynamic oxidation and reduction mechanisms of copper nanoparticles. The oxidation of copper has previously been reported to be dependent on its crystallography and its interaction with the substrate. By following the dynamic oxidation process in situ in real time with high-angle annular dark-field imaging in the ESTEM, we use conditions ideal to track the oxidation front as it progresses across a copper nanoparticle by following the changes in the atomic number (Z) contrast with time. The oxidation occurs via the nucleation of the oxide phase (Cu 2 O) from one area of the nanoparticle which then progresses unidirectionally across the particle, with the Cu-to-Cu 2 O interface having a relationship of Cu{111}//Cu 2 O{111}. The oxidation kinetics are related to the temperature and oxygen pressure. When the process is reversed in hydrogen, the reduction process is observed to be similar to the oxidation, with the same crystallographic relationship between the two phases. The dynamic observations provide unique insights into redox mechanisms which are important to understanding and controlling the oxidation and reduction of copper-based nanoparticles.

  3. A Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Method for Determining Manganese Composition in Welding Fume as a Function of Primary Particle Size.

    PubMed

    Richman, Julie D; Livi, Kenneth J T; Geyh, Alison S

    2011-06-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that the physicochemical properties of inhaled nanoparticles influence the resulting toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics. This report presents a method using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) to measure the Mn content throughout the primary particle size distribution of welding fume particle samples collected on filters for application in exposure and health research. Dark field images were collected to assess the primary particle size distribution and energy-dispersive X-ray and electron energy loss spectroscopy were performed for measurement of Mn composition as a function of primary particle size. A manual method incorporating imaging software was used to measure the primary particle diameter and to select an integration region for compositional analysis within primary particles throughout the size range. To explore the variation in the developed metric, the method was applied to 10 gas metal arc welding (GMAW) fume particle samples of mild steel that were collected under a variety of conditions. The range of Mn composition by particle size was -0.10 to 0.19 %/nm, where a positive estimate indicates greater relative abundance of Mn increasing with primary particle size and a negative estimate conversely indicates decreasing Mn content with size. However, the estimate was only statistically significant (p<0.05) in half of the samples (n=5), which all had a positive estimate. In the remaining samples, no significant trend was measured. Our findings indicate that the method is reproducible and that differences in the abundance of Mn by primary particle size among welding fume samples can be detected.

  4. A Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Method for Determining Manganese Composition in Welding Fume as a Function of Primary Particle Size

    PubMed Central

    Richman, Julie D.; Livi, Kenneth J.T.; Geyh, Alison S.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that the physicochemical properties of inhaled nanoparticles influence the resulting toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics. This report presents a method using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) to measure the Mn content throughout the primary particle size distribution of welding fume particle samples collected on filters for application in exposure and health research. Dark field images were collected to assess the primary particle size distribution and energy-dispersive X-ray and electron energy loss spectroscopy were performed for measurement of Mn composition as a function of primary particle size. A manual method incorporating imaging software was used to measure the primary particle diameter and to select an integration region for compositional analysis within primary particles throughout the size range. To explore the variation in the developed metric, the method was applied to 10 gas metal arc welding (GMAW) fume particle samples of mild steel that were collected under a variety of conditions. The range of Mn composition by particle size was −0.10 to 0.19 %/nm, where a positive estimate indicates greater relative abundance of Mn increasing with primary particle size and a negative estimate conversely indicates decreasing Mn content with size. However, the estimate was only statistically significant (p<0.05) in half of the samples (n=5), which all had a positive estimate. In the remaining samples, no significant trend was measured. Our findings indicate that the method is reproducible and that differences in the abundance of Mn by primary particle size among welding fume samples can be detected. PMID:21625364

  5. Comparison of 133 xenon ventilation equilibrium scan (XV) and 99m technetium transmission (TT) scan for use in regional lung analysis by 2D gamma scintigraphy in healthy and cystic fibrosis lungs.

    PubMed

    Zeman, Kirby L; Wu, Jihong; Donaldson, Scott H; Bennett, William D

    2013-04-01

    Quantification of particle deposition in the lung by gamma scintigraphy requires a reference image for location of regions of interest (ROIs) and normalization to lung thickness. In various laboratories, the reference image is made by a transmission scan ((57)Co or (99m)Tc) or gas ventilation scan ((133)Xe or (81)Kr). There has not been a direct comparison of measures from the two methods. We compared (99m)Tc transmission scans to (133)Xe equilibrium ventilation scans as reference images for 38 healthy subjects and 14 cystic fibrosis (CF) patients for their effects on measures of regional particle deposition: the central-to-peripheral ratio of lung counts (C/P); and ROI area versus forced vital capacity. Whole right lung ROI was based on either an isocontour threshold of three times the soft tissue transmission (TT) or a threshold of 20% of peak xenon ventilation counts (XV). We used a central ROI drawn to 50% of height and of width of the whole right lung ROI and placed along the left lung margin and centered vertically. In general, the correlation of normalized C/P (nC/P) between the two methods was strong. However, the value of nC/P was significantly smaller for the XV method than the TT method. Regression equations for the relationship of nC/P between the two methods were, for healthy subjects, y=0.75x+0.61, R(2)=0.64 using rectangular ROIs and y=0.76x+0.45, R(2)=0.66 using isocontour ROIs; and for CF patients, y=0.94x+0.46, R(2)=0.43 and y=0.85x+0.42, R(2)=0.41, respectively. (1) A transmission scan with an isocontour outline in combination with a rectangular central region to define the lung borders may be more useful than a ventilation scan. (2) Close correlation of nC/Ps measured by transmission or gas ventilation should allow confident comparison of values determined by the two methods.

  6. Imaging of high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy and observations of GaN-based violet laser diodes.

    PubMed

    Shiojiri, M; Saijo, H

    2006-09-01

    The first part of this paper is devoted to physics, to explain high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) imaging and to interpret why HAADF-STEM imaging is incoherent, instructing a strict definition of interference and coherence of electron waves. Next, we present our recent investigations of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells and AlGaN/GaN strained-layer superlattice claddings in GaN-based violet laser diodes, which have been performed by HAADF-STEM and high-resolution field-emission gun scanning electron microscopy.

  7. Morphology and ultrastructure of the freshwater rotifer Brachionus bidentatus (Monogononta: Brachionidae) using scanning and transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Jiménez, Gerardo; Zavala-Padilla, Guadalupe; Silva-Briano, Marcelo; Rico-Martínez, Roberto

    2013-12-01

    The study of sexual reproductive behavior supported by ultrastructural evidence is important in rotifers to describe differences among potential cryptic species. In this research, the morphology of the rotifer Brachionus bidentatus is described at the ultrastructural level, using electronic microscopy, together with a brief description and discussion of its sexual reproductive behavior. The characteristics of the (a) male, (b) the female, (c) the sexual egg or cyst, (d) the partenogenic egg, (e) the no-fecundated sexual egg (male egg), and (f) the trophi, were described. Another part of this research is dedicated to the ultrastructure of the sex cells of the male rotifer B. bidentatus. Samples were obtained from La Punta pond in Cosio, Aguascalientes, Mexico (22 degrees 08' N - 102 degrees 24' W), and a culture was maintained in the laboratory. Fifty organisms, from different stages of the rotifer Brachionus bidentatus, were fixed in Formol at 4% and then prepared; besides, for the trophi, 25 female rotifer Brachionus bidentatus were prepared for observation in a JEOL 5900 LV scanning electronic microscope. In addition, for the observation of male sex cells, 500 males of Brachionus bidentatus were isolated, fixed and observed in a JEOL 1010 transmission microscope. Females of B. bidentatus in laboratory cultures had a lifespan of five days (mean+one SD = 4.69 +/- 0.48; N=13), and produced 4.5 +/- 3.67 (N=6) parthenogenetic eggs during such lifespan. In the case of non-fertilized sexual eggs, they produced up to 18 eggs (mean+one SD = 13 +/- 4.93; N=7). Sexual females produced a single cyst on average (mean +/- one SD = I +/- 0; N=20). For the sexual cycle, the time of copulation between male and female ranged from 10 to 40 seconds (mean +/- one SD = 17.33 +/- 10.55, N=7). The spermatozoa are composed of a celular body and a flagellum, the size of the body is of 300 nm while the flagellum measures 1 700nm. The rods have a double membrane. Their mean length is almost

  8. Attainment of 40.5 pm spatial resolution using 300 kV scanning transmission electron microscope equipped with fifth-order aberration corrector.

    PubMed

    Morishita, Shigeyuki; Ishikawa, Ryo; Kohno, Yuji; Sawada, Hidetaka; Shibata, Naoya; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2018-02-01

    The achievement of a fine electron probe for high-resolution imaging in scanning transmission electron microscopy requires technological developments, especially in electron optics. For this purpose, we developed a microscope with a fifth-order aberration corrector that operates at 300 kV. The contrast flat region in an experimental Ronchigram, which indicates the aberration-free angle, was expanded to 70 mrad. By using a probe with convergence angle of 40 mrad in the scanning transmission electron microscope at 300 kV, we attained the spatial resolution of 40.5 pm, which is the projected interatomic distance between Ga-Ga atomic columns of GaN observed along [212] direction.

  9. Lowered threshold energy for femtosecond laser induced optical breakdown in a water based eye model by aberration correction with adaptive optics.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Anja; Géneaux, Romain; Günther, Axel; Krüger, Alexander; Ripken, Tammo

    2013-06-01

    In femtosecond laser ophthalmic surgery tissue dissection is achieved by photodisruption based on laser induced optical breakdown. In order to minimize collateral damage to the eye laser surgery systems should be optimized towards the lowest possible energy threshold for photodisruption. However, optical aberrations of the eye and the laser system distort the irradiance distribution from an ideal profile which causes a rise in breakdown threshold energy even if great care is taken to minimize the aberrations of the system during design and alignment. In this study we used a water chamber with an achromatic focusing lens and a scattering sample as eye model and determined breakdown threshold in single pulse plasma transmission loss measurements. Due to aberrations, the precise lower limit for breakdown threshold irradiance in water is still unknown. Here we show that the threshold energy can be substantially reduced when using adaptive optics to improve the irradiance distribution by spatial beam shaping. We found that for initial aberrations with a root-mean-square wave front error of only one third of the wavelength the threshold energy can still be reduced by a factor of three if the aberrations are corrected to the diffraction limit by adaptive optics. The transmitted pulse energy is reduced by 17% at twice the threshold. Furthermore, the gas bubble motions after breakdown for pulse trains at 5 kilohertz repetition rate show a more transverse direction in the corrected case compared to the more spherical distribution without correction. Our results demonstrate how both applied and transmitted pulse energy could be reduced during ophthalmic surgery when correcting for aberrations. As a consequence, the risk of retinal damage by transmitted energy and the extent of collateral damage to the focal volume could be minimized accordingly when using adaptive optics in fs-laser surgery.

  10. Lowered threshold energy for femtosecond laser induced optical breakdown in a water based eye model by aberration correction with adaptive optics

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Anja; Géneaux, Romain; Günther, Axel; Krüger, Alexander; Ripken, Tammo

    2013-01-01

    In femtosecond laser ophthalmic surgery tissue dissection is achieved by photodisruption based on laser induced optical breakdown. In order to minimize collateral damage to the eye laser surgery systems should be optimized towards the lowest possible energy threshold for photodisruption. However, optical aberrations of the eye and the laser system distort the irradiance distribution from an ideal profile which causes a rise in breakdown threshold energy even if great care is taken to minimize the aberrations of the system during design and alignment. In this study we used a water chamber with an achromatic focusing lens and a scattering sample as eye model and determined breakdown threshold in single pulse plasma transmission loss measurements. Due to aberrations, the precise lower limit for breakdown threshold irradiance in water is still unknown. Here we show that the threshold energy can be substantially reduced when using adaptive optics to improve the irradiance distribution by spatial beam shaping. We found that for initial aberrations with a root-mean-square wave front error of only one third of the wavelength the threshold energy can still be reduced by a factor of three if the aberrations are corrected to the diffraction limit by adaptive optics. The transmitted pulse energy is reduced by 17% at twice the threshold. Furthermore, the gas bubble motions after breakdown for pulse trains at 5 kilohertz repetition rate show a more transverse direction in the corrected case compared to the more spherical distribution without correction. Our results demonstrate how both applied and transmitted pulse energy could be reduced during ophthalmic surgery when correcting for aberrations. As a consequence, the risk of retinal damage by transmitted energy and the extent of collateral damage to the focal volume could be minimized accordingly when using adaptive optics in fs-laser surgery. PMID:23761849

  11. Phantom evaluation of a cardiac SPECT/VCT system that uses a common set of solid-state detectors for both emission and transmission scans.

    PubMed

    Bai, Chuanyong; Conwell, Richard; Kindem, Joel; Babla, Hetal; Gurley, Mike; De Los Santos, Romer; Old, Rex; Weatherhead, Randy; Arram, Samia; Maddahi, Jamshid

    2010-06-01

    We developed a cardiac SPECT system (X-ACT) with low dose volume CT transmission-based attenuation correction (AC). Three solid-state detectors are configured to form a triple-head system for emission scans and reconfigured to form a 69-cm field-of-view detector arc for transmission scans. A near mono-energetic transmission line source is produced from the collimated fluorescence x-ray emitted from a lead target when the target is illuminated by a narrow polychromatic x-ray beam from an x-ray tube. Transmission scans can be completed in 1 min with insignificant patient dose (deep dose equivalent <5 muSv). We used phantom studies to evaluate (1) the accuracy of the reconstructed attenuation maps, (2) the effect of AC on image uniformity, and (3) the effect of AC on defect contrast (DC). The phantoms we used included an ACR phantom, an anthropomorphic phantom with a uniform cardiac insert, and an anthropomorphic phantom with two defects in the cardiac insert. The reconstructed attenuation coefficient of water at 140 keV was .150 +/- .003/cm in the uniform region of the ACR phantom, .151 +/- .003/cm and .151 +/- .002/cm in the liver and cardiac regions of the anthropomorphic phantom. The ACR phantom images with AC showed correction of the bowing effect due to attenuation in the images without AC (NC). The 17-segment scores of the images of the uniform cardiac insert were 78.3 +/- 6.5 before and 87.9 +/- 3.3 after AC (average +/- standard deviation). The inferior-to-anterior wall ratio and the septal-to-lateral wall ratio were .99 and 1.16 before and 1.02 and 1.00 after AC. The DC of the two defects was .528 and .156 before and .628 and .173 after AC. The X-ACT system generated accurate attenuation maps with 1-minute transmission scans. AC improved image quality and uniformity over NC.

  12. Phantom evaluation of a cardiac SPECT/VCT system that uses a common set of solid-state detectors for both emission and transmission scans

    PubMed Central

    Conwell, Richard; Kindem, Joel; Babla, Hetal; Gurley, Mike; De Los Santos, Romer; Old, Rex; Weatherhead, Randy; Arram, Samia; Maddahi, Jamshid

    2010-01-01

    Background We developed a cardiac SPECT system (X-ACT) with low dose volume CT transmission-based attenuation correction (AC). Three solid-state detectors are configured to form a triple-head system for emission scans and reconfigured to form a 69-cm field-of-view detector arc for transmission scans. A near mono-energetic transmission line source is produced from the collimated fluorescence x-ray emitted from a lead target when the target is illuminated by a narrow polychromatic x-ray beam from an x-ray tube. Transmission scans can be completed in 1 min with insignificant patient dose (deep dose equivalent <5 μSv). Methods We used phantom studies to evaluate (1) the accuracy of the reconstructed attenuation maps, (2) the effect of AC on image uniformity, and (3) the effect of AC on defect contrast (DC). The phantoms we used included an ACR phantom, an anthropomorphic phantom with a uniform cardiac insert, and an anthropomorphic phantom with two defects in the cardiac insert. Results The reconstructed attenuation coefficient of water at 140 keV was .150 ± .003/cm in the uniform region of the ACR phantom, .151 ± .003/cm and .151 ± .002/cm in the liver and cardiac regions of the anthropomorphic phantom. The ACR phantom images with AC showed correction of the bowing effect due to attenuation in the images without AC (NC). The 17-segment scores of the images of the uniform cardiac insert were 78.3 ± 6.5 before and 87.9 ± 3.3 after AC (average ± standard deviation). The inferior-to-anterior wall ratio and the septal-to-lateral wall ratio were .99 and 1.16 before and 1.02 and 1.00 after AC. The DC of the two defects was .528 and .156 before and .628 and .173 after AC. Conclusion The X-ACT system generated accurate attenuation maps with 1-minute transmission scans. AC improved image quality and uniformity over NC. PMID:20169476

  13. Analysis of liquid suspensions using scanning electron microscopy in transmission: estimation of the water film thickness using Monte-Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Xiao, J; Foray, G; Masenelli-Varlot, K

    2018-02-01

    Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) allows the observation of liquids under specific conditions of pressure and temperature. Moreover, when working in the transmission mode, that is in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), nano-objects can be analysed inside a liquid. The contrast in the images is mass-thickness dependent as in STEM-in-TEM (transmission electron microscopy) using closed cells. However, in STEM-in-ESEM, as the liquid-vapour equilibrium is kept dynamically, the thickness of the water droplet remains unknown. In this paper, the contrasts measured in the experimental images are compared with calculations using Monte-Carlo simulations in order to estimate the thickness of water. Two examples are given. On gold nanoparticles, the thickness of a thick film can be estimated thanks to a contrast inversion. On core-shell latex particles, the grey level of the shell compared with those of the core and of the water film gives a relatively precise measurement of the water film thickness. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  14. Insights into radiation damage from atomic resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging of mono-layer CuPcCl16 films on graphene.

    PubMed

    Mittelberger, Andreas; Kramberger, Christian; Meyer, Jannik C

    2018-03-19

    Atomically resolved images of monolayer organic crystals have only been obtained with scanning probe methods so far. On the one hand, they are usually prepared on surfaces of bulk materials, which are not accessible by (scanning) transmission electron microscopy. On the other hand, the critical electron dose of a monolayer organic crystal is orders of magnitudes lower than the one for bulk crystals, making (scanning) transmission electron microscopy characterization very challenging. In this work we present an atomically resolved study on the dynamics of a monolayer CuPcCl 16 crystal under the electron beam as well as an image of the undamaged molecules obtained by low-dose electron microscopy. The results show the dynamics and the radiation damage mechanisms in the 2D layer of this material, complementing what has been found for bulk crystals in earlier studies. Furthermore, being able to image the undamaged molecular crystal allows the characterization of new composites consisting of 2D materials and organic molecules.

  15. High yield production of long branched Au nanoparticles characterized by atomic resolution transmission electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Mayoral, Alvaro; Magen, Cesar; Jose-Yacaman, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Long multi-branched gold nanoparticles have been synthesized in a very high yield through a facile synthesis combining two different capping agents. The stability of these materials with the time has been tested and their characterization have been performed by diverse advanced electron microscopy techniques, paying special attention to aberration corrected transmission electron microscopy in order to unambiguously analyze the surface structure of the branches and provide insights for the formation of stellated gold nanoparticles. PMID:22125420

  16. Aberration correction for charged particle lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munro, Eric; Zhu, Xieqing; Rouse, John A.; Liu, Haoning

    2001-12-01

    At present, the throughput of projection-type charge particle lithography systems, such as PREVAIL and SCALPEL, is limited primarily by the combined effects of field curvature in the projection lenses and Coulomb interaction in the particle beam. These are fundamental physical limitations, inherent in charged particle optics, so there seems little scope for significantly improving the design of such systems, using conventional rotationally symmetric electron lenses. This paper explores the possibility of overcoming the field aberrations of round electron lense, by using a novel aberration corrector, proposed by Professor H. Rose of University of Darmstadt, called a hexapole planator. In this scheme, a set of round lenses is first used to simultaneously correct distortion and coma. The hexapole planator is then used to correct the field curvature and astigmatism, and to create a negative spherical aberration. The size of the transfer lenses around the planator can then be adjusted to zero the residual spherical aberration. In a way, an electron optical projection system is obtained that is free of all primary geometrical aberrations. In this paper, the feasibility of this concept has been studied with a computer simulation. The simulations verify that this scheme can indeed work, for both electrostatic and magnetic projection systems. Two design studies have been carried out. The first is for an electrostatic system that could be used for ion beam lithography, and the second is for a magnetic projection system for electron beam lithography. In both cases, designs have been achieved in which all primary third-order geometrical aberrations are totally eliminated.

  17. Composition analysis of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell microporous layer using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Michael G.; Wang, Jian; Banerjee, Rupak; Bazylak, Aimy

    2016-03-01

    The novel application of scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) to the microporous layer (MPL) of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell is investigated. A spatially resolved chemical component distribution map is obtained for the MPL of a commercially available SGL 25 BC sample. This is achieved with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopic analysis. Prior to analysis the sample is embedded in non-reactive epoxy and ultra-microtomed to a thickness of 100 nm. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), carbon particle agglomerates, and supporting epoxy resin distributions are identified and reconstructed for a scanning area of 6 μm × 6 μm. It is observed that the spatial distribution of PTFE is strongly correlated to the carbon particle agglomerations. Additionally, agglomerate structures of PTFE are identified, possibly indicating the presence of a unique mesostructure in the MPL. STXM analysis is presented as a useful technique for the investigation of chemical species distributions in the MPL.

  18. Morphological Effect of the New Antifungal Agent ME1111 on Hyphal Growth of Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Determined by Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Yayoi; Takahata, Sho; Abe, Shigeru

    2017-01-01

    The effects of ME1111, a novel antifungal agent, on the hyphal morphology and ultrastructure of Trichophyton mentagrophytes were investigated by using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Structural changes, such as pit formation and/or depression of the cell surface, and degeneration of intracellular organelles and plasmolysis were observed after treatment with ME1111. Our results suggest that the inhibition of energy production by ME1111 affects the integrity and function of cellular membranes, leading to fungal cell death. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.

  19. Nano-scale luminescence characterization of individual InGaN/GaN quantum wells stacked in a microcavity using scanning transmission electron microscope cathodoluminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Gordon, E-mail: Gordon.Schmidt@ovgu.de; Müller, Marcus; Veit, Peter

    2014-07-21

    Using cathodoluminescence spectroscopy directly performed in a scanning transmission electron microscope at liquid helium temperatures, the optical and structural properties of a 62 InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well embedded in an AlInN/GaN based microcavity are investigated at the nanometer scale. We are able to spatially resolve a spectral redshift between the individual quantum wells towards the surface. Cathodoluminescence spectral linescans allow directly visualizing the critical layer thickness in the quantum well stack resulting in the onset of plastic relaxation of the strained InGaN/GaN system.

  20. Determining oxygen relaxations at an interface: A comparative study between transmission electron microscopy techniques.

    PubMed

    Gauquelin, N; van den Bos, K H W; Béché, A; Krause, F F; Lobato, I; Lazar, S; Rosenauer, A; Van Aert, S; Verbeeck, J

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays, aberration corrected transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a popular method to characterise nanomaterials at the atomic scale. Here, atomically resolved images of nanomaterials are acquired, where the contrast depends on the illumination, imaging and detector conditions of the microscope. Visualization of light elements is possible when using low angle annular dark field (LAADF) STEM, annular bright field (ABF) STEM, integrated differential phase contrast (iDPC) STEM, negative spherical aberration imaging (NCSI) and imaging STEM (ISTEM). In this work, images of a NdGaO 3 -La 0.67 Sr 0.33 MnO 3 (NGO-LSMO) interface are quantitatively evaluated by using statistical parameter estimation theory. For imaging light elements, all techniques are providing reliable results, while the techniques based on interference contrast, NCSI and ISTEM, are less robust in terms of accuracy for extracting heavy column locations. In term of precision, sample drift and scan distortions mainly limits the STEM based techniques as compared to NCSI. Post processing techniques can, however, partially compensate for this. In order to provide an outlook to the future, simulated images of NGO, in which the unavoidable presence of Poisson noise is taken into account, are used to determine the ultimate precision. In this future counting noise limited scenario, NCSI and ISTEM imaging will provide more precise values as compared to the other techniques, which can be related to the mechanisms behind the image recording. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Nanomorphology of P3HT:PCBM-based absorber layers of organic solar cells after different processing conditions analyzed by low-energy scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Pfaff, Marina; Klein, Michael F G; Müller, Erich; Müller, Philipp; Colsmann, Alexander; Lemmer, Uli; Gerthsen, Dagmar

    2012-12-01

    In this study the nanomorphology of P3HT:PC61BM absorber layers of organic solar cells was studied as a function of the processing parameters and for P3HT with different molecular weight. For this purpose we apply scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) at low electron energies in a scanning electron microscope. This method exhibits sensitive material contrast in the high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) mode, which is well suited to distinguish materials with similar densities and mean atomic numbers. The images taken with low-energy HAADF STEM are compared with conventional transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy images to illustrate the capabilities of the different techniques. For the interpretation of the low-energy HAADF STEM images, a semiempirical equation is used to calculate the image intensities. The experiments show that the nanomorphology of the P3HT:PC61BM blends depends strongly on the molecular weight of the P3HT. Low-molecular-weight P3HT forms rod-like domains during annealing. In contrast, only small globular features are visible in samples containing high-molecular-weight P3HT, which do not change significantly after annealing at 150°C up to 30 min.

  2. Tackling the Challenges of Dynamic Experiments Using Liquid-Cell Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Parent, Lucas R; Bakalis, Evangelos; Proetto, Maria; Li, Yiwen; Park, Chiwoo; Zerbetto, Francesco; Gianneschi, Nathan C

    2018-01-16

    Revolutions in science and engineering frequently result from the development, and wide adoption, of a new, powerful characterization or imaging technique. Beginning with the first glass lenses and telescopes in astronomy, to the development of visual-light microscopy, staining techniques, confocal microscopy, and fluorescence super-resolution microscopy in biology, and most recently aberration-corrected, cryogenic, and ultrafast (4D) electron microscopy, X-ray microscopy, and scanning probe microscopy in nanoscience. Through these developments, our perception and understanding of the physical nature of matter at length-scales beyond ordinary perception have been fundamentally transformed. Despite this progression in microscopy, techniques for observing nanoscale chemical processes and solvated/hydrated systems are limited, as the necessary spatial and temporal resolution presents significant technical challenges. However, the standard reliance on indirect or bulk phase characterization of nanoscale samples in liquids is undergoing a shift in recent times with the realization ( Williamson et al. Nat. Mater . 2003 , 2 , 532 - 536 ) of liquid-cell (scanning) transmission electron microscopy, LC(S)TEM, where picoliters of solution are hermetically sealed between electron-transparent "windows," which can be directly imaged or videoed at the nanoscale using conventional transmission electron microscopes. This Account seeks to open a discussion on the topic of standardizing strategies for conducting imaging experiments with a view to characterizing dynamics and motion of nanoscale materials. This is a challenge that could be described by critics and proponents alike, as analogous to doing chemistry in a lightning storm; where the nature of the solution, the nanomaterial, and the dynamic behaviors are all potentially subject to artifactual influence by the very act of our observation.

  3. Fine structures and ion images on fresh frozen dried ultrathin sections by transmission electron and scanning ion microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaya, K.; Okabe, M.; Sawataishi, M.; Takashima, H.; Yoshida, T.

    2003-01-01

    Ion microscopy (IM) of air-dried or freeze-dried cryostat and semi-thin cryosections has provided ion images of elements and organic substances in wide areas of the tissue. For reproducible ion images by a shorter time of exposure to the primary ion beam, fresh frozen dried ultrathin sections were prepared by freezing the tissue in propane chilled with liquid nitrogen, cryocut at 60 nm, mounted on grids and silicon wafer pieces, and freeze-dried. Rat Cowper gland and sciatic nerve, bone marrow of the rat administered of lithium carbonate, tree frog and African toad spleen and buffy coat of atopic dermatitis patients were examined. Fine structures and ion images of the corresponding areas in the same or neighboring sections were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) followed by sector type and time-of-flight type IM. Cells in the buffy coat contained larger amounts of potassium and magnesium while plasma had larger amounts of sodium and calcium. However, in the tissues, lithium, sodium, magnesium, calcium and potassium were distributed in the cell and calcium showed a granular appearance. A granular cell of the tree frog spleen contained sodium and potassium over the cell and magnesium and calcium were confined to granules.

  4. Study of the surfactant role in latex-aerogel systems by scanning transmission electron microscopy on aqueous suspensions.

    PubMed

    Perret, A; Foray, G; Masenelli-Varlot, K; Maire, E; Yrieix, B

    2018-01-01

    For insulation applications, boards thinner than 2 cm are under design with specific thermal conductivities lower than 15 mW m -1  K -1 . This requires binding slightly hydrophobic aerogels which are highly nanoporous granular materials. To reach this step and ensure insulation board durability at the building scale, it is compulsory to design, characterise and analyse the microstructure at the nanoscale. It is indeed necessary to understand how the solid material is formed from a liquid suspension. This issue is addressed in this paper through wet-STEM experiments carried out in an Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM). Latex-surfactant binary blends and latex-surfactant-aerogel ternary systems are studied, with two different surfactants of very different chemical structures. Image analysis is used to distinguish the different components and get quantitative morphological parameters which describe the sample architecture. The evolution of such morphological parameters during water evaporation permits a good understanding of the role of the surfactant. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  5. Quantitative composition determination at the atomic level using model-based high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Martinez, G T; Rosenauer, A; De Backer, A; Verbeeck, J; Van Aert, S

    2014-02-01

    High angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF STEM) images provide sample information which is sensitive to the chemical composition. The image intensities indeed scale with the mean atomic number Z. To some extent, chemically different atomic column types can therefore be visually distinguished. However, in order to quantify the atomic column composition with high accuracy and precision, model-based methods are necessary. Therefore, an empirical incoherent parametric imaging model can be used of which the unknown parameters are determined using statistical parameter estimation theory (Van Aert et al., 2009, [1]). In this paper, it will be shown how this method can be combined with frozen lattice multislice simulations in order to evolve from a relative toward an absolute quantification of the composition of single atomic columns with mixed atom types. Furthermore, the validity of the model assumptions are explored and discussed. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Ultra-structural study of insulin granules in pancreatic β-cells of db/db mouse by scanning transmission electron microscopy tomography.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yanhong; Zhao, Wei; Du, Wen; Zhang, Xiang; Ji, Gang; Ying, Wang; Xu, Tao

    2012-07-01

    Insulin granule trafficking is a key step in the secretion of glucose-stimulated insulin from pancreatic β-cells. The main feature of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is the failure of pancreatic β-cells to secrete sufficient amounts of insulin to maintain normal blood glucose levels. In this work, we developed and applied tomography based on scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) to image intact insulin granules in the β-cells of mouse pancreatic islets. Using three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction, we found decreases in both the number and the grey level of insulin granules in db/db mouse pancreatic β-cells. Moreover, insulin granules were closer to the plasma membrane in diabetic β-cells than in control cells. Thus, 3D ultra-structural tomography may provide new insights into the pathology of insulin secretion in T2D.

  7. Scanning and transmission electron microscopic observations of the acute morphological response of the mouse urinary bladder to 4-ethylsulfonylnaphthalene-1-sulfonamide.

    PubMed

    Frith, C H; Ayres, P H; Shinohara, Y; West, R

    1986-01-01

    A total of 75 BALB/cStCrlfC3H/Nctr male weanling mice were administered either 0 or 250 ppm of 4 ethylsulfonylnaphthalene-1-sulfonamide (ENS) in the diet for periods up to 14 days to evaluate the early morphological changes of the transitional epithelium of the urinary bladder with scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy. Primary TEM changes included hyperplasia of the epithelium, loosening of the intercellular junctions, autophagic vacuoles and electron dense granules in the mitochondria. Primary SEM changes included sloughing of epithelial cells, irregularity in the size and shape of the transitional epithelial cells and the presence of microvilli. Although pleomorphic microvilli were present after only three days of treatment with ENS, it appears that they are a transient observation in a series of morphological changes. The reversibility or transient nature of the pleomorphic microvilli may indicate that they are an acute toxic response and may not necessarily indicate a preneoplastic change.

  8. How precise can atoms of a nanocluster be located in 3D using a tilt series of scanning transmission electron microscopy images?

    PubMed

    Alania, M; De Backer, A; Lobato, I; Krause, F F; Van Dyck, D; Rosenauer, A; Van Aert, S

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate how precise atoms of a small nanocluster can ultimately be located in three dimensions (3D) from a tilt series of images acquired using annular dark field (ADF) scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Therefore, we derive an expression for the statistical precision with which the 3D atomic position coordinates can be estimated in a quantitative analysis. Evaluating this statistical precision as a function of the microscope settings also allows us to derive the optimal experimental design. In this manner, the optimal angular tilt range, required electron dose, optimal detector angles, and number of projection images can be determined. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The temperature-dependency of the optical band gap of ZnO measured by electron energy-loss spectroscopy in a scanning transmission electron microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granerød, Cecilie S.; Galeckas, Augustinas; Johansen, Klaus Magnus; Vines, Lasse; Prytz, Øystein

    2018-04-01

    The optical band gap of ZnO has been measured as a function of temperature using Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) in a (Scanning) Transmission Electron Microscope ((S)TEM) from approximately 100 K up towards 1000 K. The band gap narrowing shows a close to linear dependency for temperatures above 250 K and is accurately described by Varshni, Bose-Einstein, Pässler and Manoogian-Woolley models. Additionally, the measured band gap is compared with both optical absorption measurements and photoluminescence data. STEM-EELS is here shown to be a viable technique to measure optical band gaps at elevated temperatures, with an available temperature range up to 1500 K and the benefit of superior spatial resolution.

  10. Oxidation-state sensitive imaging of cerium dioxide by atomic-resolution low-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Johnston-Peck, Aaron C; Winterstein, Jonathan P; Roberts, Alan D; DuChene, Joseph S; Qian, Kun; Sweeny, Brendan C; Wei, Wei David; Sharma, Renu; Stach, Eric A; Herzing, Andrew A

    2016-03-01

    Low-angle annular dark field (LAADF) scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) imaging is presented as a method that is sensitive to the oxidation state of cerium ions in CeO2 nanoparticles. This relationship was validated through electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), in situ measurements, as well as multislice image simulations. Static displacements caused by the increased ionic radius of Ce(3+) influence the electron channeling process and increase electron scattering to low angles while reducing scatter to high angles. This process manifests itself by reducing the high-angle annular dark field (HAADF) signal intensity while increasing the LAADF signal intensity in close proximity to Ce(3+) ions. This technique can supplement STEM-EELS and in so doing, relax the experimental challenges associated with acquiring oxidation state information at high spatial resolutions. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Revealing the synergetic effects in Ni nanoparticle-carbon nanotube hybrids by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and their application in the hydrolysis of ammonia borane.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guanqi; Zhong, Jun; Wang, Jian; Sham, Tsun-Kong; Sun, Xuhui; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2015-06-07

    The hybrids of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and the supported Ni nanoparticles (NPs) have been studied by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and tested by the hydrolysis reaction of ammonia borane (AB, NH3BH3). Data clearly showed the existence of a strong interaction between Ni NPs and thin CNTs (C-O-Ni bonds), which favored the tunable (buffer) electronic structure of Ni NPs facilitating the catalytic process. The hydrolysis process of AB confirmed the hypothesis that the hybrids with a strong interfacial interaction would show superior catalytic performance, while the hybrids with a weak interfacial interaction show poor performance. Our results provide a wealth of detailed information regarding the electronic structure of the NP-CNT hybrids and provide guidance towards the rational design of high-performance catalysts for energy applications.

  12. In situ observation of the impact of surface oxidation on the crystallization mechanism of GeTe phase-change thin films by scanning transmission electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthier, R.; Bernier, N.; Cooper, D.; Sabbione, C.; Hippert, F.; Noé, P.

    2017-09-01

    The crystallization mechanisms of prototypical GeTe phase-change material thin films have been investigated by in situ scanning transmission electron microscopy annealing experiments. A novel sample preparation method has been developed to improve sample quality and stability during in situ annealing, enabling quantitative analysis and live recording of phase change events. Results show that for an uncapped 100 nm thick GeTe layer, exposure to air after fabrication leads to composition changes which promote heterogeneous nucleation at the oxidized surface. We also demonstrate that protecting the GeTe layer with a 10 nm SiN capping layer prevents nucleation at the surface and allows volume nucleation at a temperature 50 °C higher than the onset of crystallization in the oxidized sample. Our results have important implications regarding the integration of these materials in confined memory cells.

  13. Preparation and Loading Process of Single Crystalline Samples into a Gas Environmental Cell Holder for In Situ Atomic Resolution Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopic Observation.

    PubMed

    Straubinger, Rainer; Beyer, Andreas; Volz, Kerstin

    2016-06-01

    A reproducible way to transfer a single crystalline sample into a gas environmental cell holder for in situ transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analysis is shown in this study. As in situ holders have only single-tilt capability, it is necessary to prepare the sample precisely along a specific zone axis. This can be achieved by a very accurate focused ion beam lift-out preparation. We show a step-by-step procedure to prepare the sample and transfer it into the gas environmental cell. The sample material is a GaP/Ga(NAsP)/GaP multi-quantum well structure on Si. Scanning TEM observations prove that it is possible to achieve atomic resolution at very high temperatures in a nitrogen environment of 100,000 Pa.

  14. Visualising reacting single atoms under controlled conditions: Advances in atomic resolution in situ Environmental (Scanning) Transmission Electron Microscopy (E(S)TEM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyes, Edward D.; Gai, Pratibha L.

    2014-02-01

    Advances in atomic resolution Environmental (Scanning) Transmission Electron Microscopy (E(S)TEM) for probing gas-solid catalyst reactions in situ at the atomic level under controlled reaction conditions of gas environment and temperature are described. The recent development of the ESTEM extends the capability of the ETEM by providing the direct visualisation of single atoms and the atomic structure of selected solid state heterogeneous catalysts in their working states in real-time. Atomic resolution E(S)TEM provides a deeper understanding of the dynamic atomic processes at the surface of solids and their mechanisms of operation. The benefits of atomic resolution-E(S)TEM to science and technology include new knowledge leading to improved technological processes with substantial economic benefits, improved healthcare, reductions in energy needs and the management of environmental waste generation. xml:lang="fr"

  15. Revealing the synergetic effects in Ni nanoparticle-carbon nanotube hybrids by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy and their application in the hydrolysis of ammonia borane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Guanqi; Zhong, Jun; Wang, Jian; Sham, Tsun-Kong; Sun, Xuhui; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2015-05-01

    The hybrids of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and the supported Ni nanoparticles (NPs) have been studied by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and tested by the hydrolysis reaction of ammonia borane (AB, NH3BH3). Data clearly showed the existence of a strong interaction between Ni NPs and thin CNTs (C-O-Ni bonds), which favored the tunable (buffer) electronic structure of Ni NPs facilitating the catalytic process. The hydrolysis process of AB confirmed the hypothesis that the hybrids with a strong interfacial interaction would show superior catalytic performance, while the hybrids with a weak interfacial interaction show poor performance. Our results provide a wealth of detailed information regarding the electronic structure of the NP-CNT hybrids and provide guidance towards the rational design of high-performance catalysts for energy applications.The hybrids of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and the supported Ni nanoparticles (NPs) have been studied by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and tested by the hydrolysis reaction of ammonia borane (AB, NH3BH3). Data clearly showed the existence of a strong interaction between Ni NPs and thin CNTs (C-O-Ni bonds), which favored the tunable (buffer) electronic structure of Ni NPs facilitating the catalytic process. The hydrolysis process of AB confirmed the hypothesis that the hybrids with a strong interfacial interaction would show superior catalytic performance, while the hybrids with a weak interfacial interaction show poor performance. Our results provide a wealth of detailed information regarding the electronic structure of the NP-CNT hybrids and provide guidance towards the rational design of high-performance catalysts for energy applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Magnified TEM images, high resolution TEM images and the particle size distributions of the samples, the STXM results of a thick tube at different positions, XPS results, stability test. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01168j

  16. Elemental analysis of sunflower cataract in Wilson's disease: a study using scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyo Ju; Kim, Joon Mo; Choi, Chul Young

    2014-04-01

    Signature ophthalmic characteristics of Wilson's disease (WD) are regarded as diagnostically important manifestations of the disease. Previous studies have proved the common occurrence of copper accumulation in the liver of patients with WD. However, in the case of sunflower cataracts, one of the rare diagnostic signs of WD, no study has demonstrated copper accumulation in the lens capsules of sunflower cataracts in WD patients. To investigate the nanostructure and elemental composition of sunflower cataracts in WD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was done on the capsulorhexised anterior lens capsule of sunflower cataracts in WD in order to evaluate anatomical variation and elemental changes. We utilized energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) to investigate the elemental composition of the lens capsule using both point and mapping spectroscopy. Quantitative analysis was performed for relative comparison of the elements. TEM showed the presence of granular deposits of varying size (20-350 nm), appearing mainly in the posterior one third of the anterior capsule. The deposits appeared in linear patterns with scattered dots. There were no electron-dense particles in the epithelial cell layer of the lens. Copper and sulfur peaks were consistently revealed in electron-dense granular deposits. In contrast, copper and sulfur peaks were absent in other tissues, including granule-free lens capsules and epithelial tissue. Most copper was exclusively located in clusters of electron-dense particles, and the copper distribution overlapped with sulfur on mapping spectroscopy. Quantitative analysis presented inconsistent ratios of copper to sulfur in each electron-dense granule. The mean ratio of copper to sulfur was about 3.25 (with a range of 2.39-3.78). This is the first elemental analysis of single electron particles in sunflower cataracts using EDS in the ophthalmic area. Sunflower cataracts with WD are assumed to be the result of accumulation of heterogeneous

  17. Submicron mass spectrometry imaging of single cells by combined use of mega electron volt time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and scanning transmission ion microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Siketić, Zdravko; Bogdanović Radović, Ivančica; Jakšić, Milko

    In order to better understand biochemical processes inside an individual cell, it is important to measure the molecular composition at the submicron level. One of the promising mass spectrometry imaging techniques that may be used to accomplish this is Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), using MeV energy heavy ions for excitation. MeV ions have the ability to desorb large intact molecules with a yield that is several orders of magnitude higher than conventional SIMS using keV ions. In order to increase the spatial resolution of the MeV TOF-SIMS system, we propose an independent TOF trigger using a STIM (scanningmore » transmission ion microscopy) detector that is placed just behind the thin transmission target. This arrangement is suitable for biological samples in which the STIM detector simultaneously measures the mass distribution in scanned samples. The capability of the MeV TOF-SIMS setup was demonstrated by imaging the chemical composition of CaCo-2 cells.« less

  18. Transmissive liquid-crystal device for correcting primary coma aberration and astigmatism in biospecimen in two-photon excitation laser scanning microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanabe, Ayano; Hibi, Terumasa; Ipponjima, Sari; Matsumoto, Kenji; Yokoyama, Masafumi; Kurihara, Makoto; Hashimoto, Nobuyuki; Nemoto, Tomomi

    2016-12-01

    All aberrations produced inside a biospecimen can degrade the quality of a three-dimensional image in two-photon excitation laser scanning microscopy. Previously, we developed a transmissive liquid-crystal device to correct spherical aberrations that improved the image quality of a fixed-mouse-brain slice treated with an optical clearing reagent. In this study, we developed a transmissive device that corrects primary coma aberration and astigmatism. The motivation for this study is that asymmetric aberration can be induced by the shape of a biospecimen and/or by a complicated refractive-index distribution in a sample; this can considerably degrade optical performance even near the sample surface. The device's performance was evaluated by observing fluorescence beads. The device was inserted between the objective lens and microscope revolver and succeeded in improving the spatial resolution and fluorescence signal of a bead image that was originally degraded by asymmetric aberration. Finally, we implemented the device for observing a fixed whole mouse brain with a sloping surface shape and complicated internal refractive-index distribution. The correction with the device improved the spatial resolution and increased the fluorescence signal by ˜2.4×. The device can provide a simple approach to acquiring higher-quality images of biospecimens.

  19. Scanning transmission X-ray microscopy probe for in situ mechanism study of graphene-oxide-based resistive random access memory.

    PubMed

    Nho, Hyun Woo; Kim, Jong Yun; Wang, Jian; Shin, Hyun-Joon; Choi, Sung-Yool; Yoon, Tae Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Here, an in situ probe for scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) has been developed and applied to the study of the bipolar resistive switching (BRS) mechanism in an Al/graphene oxide (GO)/Al resistive random access memory (RRAM) device. To perform in situ STXM studies at the C K- and O K-edges, both the RRAM junctions and the I0 junction were fabricated on a single Si3N4 membrane to obtain local XANES spectra at these absorption edges with more delicate I0 normalization. Using this probe combined with the synchrotron-based STXM technique, it was possible to observe unique chemical changes involved in the BRS process of the Al/GO/Al RRAM device. Reversible oxidation and reduction of GO induced by the externally applied bias voltages were observed at the O K-edge XANES feature located at 538.2 eV, which strongly supported the oxygen ion drift model that was recently proposed from ex situ transmission electron microscope studies.

  20. Detection of local chemical states of lithium and their spatial mapping by scanning transmission electron microscopy, electron energy-loss spectroscopy and hyperspectral image analysis.

    PubMed

    Muto, Shunsuke; Tatsumi, Kazuyoshi

    2017-02-08

    Advancements in the field of renewable energy resources have led to a growing demand for the analysis of light elements at the nanometer scale. Detection of lithium is one of the key issues to be resolved for providing guiding principles for the synthesis of cathode active materials, and degradation analysis after repeated use of those materials. We have reviewed the different techniques currently used for the characterization of light elements such as high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). In the present study, we have introduced a methodology to detect lithium in solid materials, particularly for cathode active materials used in lithium-ion battery. The chemical states of lithium were isolated and analyzed from the overlapping multiple spectral profiles, using a suite of STEM, EELS and hyperspectral image analysis. The method was successfully applied in the chemical state analyses of hetero-phases near the surface and grain boundary regions of the active material particles formed by chemical reactions between the electrolyte and the active materials. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Multispecies Biofilms Transform Selenium Oxyanions into Elemental Selenium Particles: Studies Using Combined Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence Imaging and Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Soo In; George, Graham N; Lawrence, John R; Kaminskyj, Susan G W; Dynes, James J; Lai, Barry; Pickering, Ingrid J

    2016-10-04

    Selenium (Se) is an element of growing environmental concern, because low aqueous concentrations can lead to biomagnification through the aquatic food web. Biofilms, naturally occurring microbial consortia, play numerous important roles in the environment, especially in biogeochemical cycling of toxic elements in aquatic systems. The complexity of naturally forming multispecies biofilms presents challenges for characterization because conventional microscopic techniques require chemical and physical modifications of the sample. Here, multispecies biofilms biotransforming selenium oxyanions were characterized using X-ray fluorescence imaging (XFI) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM). These complementary synchrotron techniques required minimal sample preparation and were applied correlatively to the same biofilm areas. Sub-micrometer XFI showed distributions of Se and endogenous metals, while Se K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy indicated the presence of elemental Se (Se 0 ). Nanoscale carbon K-edge STXM revealed the distributions of microbial cells, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), and lipids using the protein, saccharide, and lipid signatures, respectively, together with highly localized Se 0 using the Se L III edge. Transmission electron microscopy showed the electron-dense particle diameter to be 50-700 nm, suggesting Se 0 nanoparticles. The intimate association of Se 0 particles with protein and polysaccharide biofilm components has implications for the bioavailability of selenium in the environment.

  2. Multispecies Biofilms Transform Selenium Oxyanions into Elemental Selenium Particles: Studies Using Combined Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence Imaging and Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Soo In; George, Graham N.; Lawrence, John R.

    2016-10-04

    Selenium (Se) is an element of growing environmental concern, because low aqueous concentrations can lead to biomagnification through the aquatic food web. Biofilms, naturally occurring microbial consortia, play numerous important roles in the environment, especially in biogeochemical cycling of toxic elements in aquatic systems. The complexity of naturally forming multispecies biofilms presents challenges for characterization because conventional microscopic techniques require chemical and physical modifications of the sample. Here, multispecies biofilms biotransforming selenium oxyanions were characterized using X-ray fluorescence imaging (XFI) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM). These complementary synchrotron techniques required minimal sample preparation and were applied correlatively to themore » same biofilm areas. Sub-micrometer XFI showed distributions of Se and endogenous metals, while Se K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy indicated the presence of elemental Se (Se0). Nanoscale carbon K-edge STXM revealed the distributions of microbial cells, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), and lipids using the protein, saccharide, and lipid signatures, respectively, together with highly localized Se0 using the Se LIII edge. Transmission electron microscopy showed the electron-dense particle diameter to be 50–700 nm, suggesting Se0 nanoparticles. The intimate association of Se0 particles with protein and polysaccharide biofilm components has implications for the bioavailability of selenium in the environment.« less

  3. Application of low-energy scanning transmission electron microscopy for the study of Pt-nanoparticle uptake in human colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Blank, Holger; Schneider, Reinhard; Gerthsen, Dagmar; Gehrke, Helge; Jarolim, Katharina; Marko, Doris

    2014-06-01

    High-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF STEM) in a scanning electron microscope facilitates the acquisition of images with high chemical sensitivity and high resolution. HAADF STEM at low electron energies is particularly suited to image nanoparticles (NPs) in thin cell sections which are not subjected to poststaining procedures as demonstrated by comparison with bright-field TEM. High membrane contrast is achieved and distinction of NPs with different chemical composition is possible at first sight. Low-energy HAADF STEM was applied to systematically study the uptake of Pt-NPs with a broad size distribution in HT29 colon carcinoma cells as a function of incubation time and incubation temperature. The cellular dose was quantified, that is, the amount and number density of NPs taken up by the cells, as well as the particle-size distribution. The results show a strong dependence of the amount of incubated NPs on the exposure time which can be understood by considering size-dependent diffusion and gravitational settling of the NPs in the cell culture medium.

  4. Acquisition parameters optimization of a transmission electron forward scatter diffraction system in a cold-field emission scanning electron microscope for nanomaterials characterization.

    PubMed

    Brodusch, Nicolas; Demers, Hendrix; Trudeau, Michel; Gauvin, Raynald

    2013-01-01

    Transmission electron forward scatter diffraction (t-EFSD) is a new technique providing crystallographic information with high resolution on thin specimens by using a conventional electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) system in a scanning electron microscope. In this study, the impact of tilt angle, working distance, and detector distance on the Kikuchi pattern quality were investigated in a cold-field emission scanning electron microscope (CFE-SEM). We demonstrated that t-EFSD is applicable for tilt angles ranging from -20° to -40°. Working distance (WD) should be optimized for each material by choosing the WD for which the EBSD camera screen illumination is the highest, as the number of detected electrons on the screen is directly dependent on the scattering angle. To take advantage of the best performances of the CFE-SEM, the EBSD camera should be close to the sample and oriented towards the bottom to increase forward scattered electron collection efficiency. However, specimen chamber cluttering and beam/mechanical drift are important limitations in the CFE-SEM used in this work. Finally, the importance of t-EFSD in materials science characterization was illustrated through three examples of phase identification and orientation mapping. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Towards the low-dose characterization of beam sensitive nanostructures via implementation of sparse image acquisition in scanning transmission electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Sunghwan; Han, Chang Wan; Venkatakrishnan, Singanallur V.; Bouman, Charles A.; Ortalan, Volkan

    2017-04-01

    Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) has been successfully utilized to investigate atomic structure and chemistry of materials with atomic resolution. However, STEM’s focused electron probe with a high current density causes the electron beam damages including radiolysis and knock-on damage when the focused probe is exposed onto the electron-beam sensitive materials. Therefore, it is highly desirable to decrease the electron dose used in STEM for the investigation of biological/organic molecules, soft materials and nanomaterials in general. With the recent emergence of novel sparse signal processing theories, such as compressive sensing and model-based iterative reconstruction, possibilities of operating STEM under a sparse acquisition scheme to reduce the electron dose have been opened up. In this paper, we report our recent approach to implement a sparse acquisition in STEM mode executed by a random sparse-scan and a signal processing algorithm called model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR). In this method, a small portion, such as 5% of randomly chosen unit sampling areas (i.e. electron probe positions), which corresponds to pixels of a STEM image, within the region of interest (ROI) of the specimen are scanned with an electron probe to obtain a sparse image. Sparse images are then reconstructed using the MBIR inpainting algorithm to produce an image of the specimen at the original resolution that is consistent with an image obtained using conventional scanning methods. Experimental results for down to 5% sampling show consistency with the full STEM image acquired by the conventional scanning method. Although, practical limitations of the conventional STEM instruments, such as internal delays of the STEM control electronics and the continuous electron gun emission, currently hinder to achieve the full potential of the sparse acquisition STEM in realizing the low dose imaging condition required for the investigation of beam-sensitive materials

  6. An in-situ analytical scanning and transmission electron microscopy investigation of structure-property relationships in electronic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Andrew James

    As electronic and mechanical devices are scaled downward in size and upward in complexity, macroscopic principles no longer apply. Synthesis of three-dimensionally confined structures exhibit quantum confinement effects allowing, for example, silicon nanoparticles to luminesce. The reduction in size of classically brittle materials reveals a ductile-to-brittle transition. Such a transition, attributed to a reduction in defects, increases elasticity. In the case of silicon, elastic deformation can improve electronic carrier mobility by over 50%, a vital attribute of modern integrated circuits. The scalability of such principles and the changing atomistic processes which contribute to them presents a vitally important field of research. Beginning with the direct observation of dislocations and lattice planes in the 1950s, the transmission electron microscope has been a powerful tool in materials science. More recently, as nanoscale technologies have proliferated modern life, their unique ability to spatially resolve nano- and atomic-scale structures has become a critical component of materials research and characterization. Signals produced by an incident beam of high-energy electrons enables researchers to both image and chemically analyze materials at the atomic scale. Coherently and elastically-scattered electrons can be collected to produce atomic-scale images of a crystalline sample. New specimen stages have enabled routine investigation of samples heated up to 1000 °C and cooled to liquid nitrogen temperatures. MEMS-based transducers allow for sub-nm scale mechanical testing and ultrathin membranes allow study of liquids and gases. Investigation of a myriad of previously "unseeable" processes can now be observed within the TEM, and sometimes something new is found within the old. High-temperature annealing of pure a Si:H films leads to crystallization of the film. Such films provide higher carrier mobility compared to amorphous films, offering improved

  7. Detailed characterisation of focused ion beam induced lateral damage on silicon carbide samples by electrical scanning probe microscopy and transmission electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stumpf, F.; Abu Quba, A. A.; Singer, P.; Rumler, M.; Cherkashin, N.; Schamm-Chardon, S.; Cours, R.; Rommel, M.

    2018-03-01

    The lateral damage induced by focused ion beam on silicon carbide was characterized using electrical scanning probe microscopy (SPM), namely, scanning spreading resistance microscopy and conductive atomic force microscopy (c-AFM). It is shown that the damage exceeds the purposely irradiated circles with a radius of 0.5 μm by several micrometres, up to 8 μm for the maximum applied ion dose of 1018 cm-2. Obtained SPM results are critically compared with earlier findings on silicon. For doses above the amorphization threshold, in both cases, three different areas can be distinguished. The purposely irradiated area exhibits resistances smaller than the non-affected substrate. A second region with strongly increasing resistance and a maximum saturation value surrounds it. The third region shows the transition from maximum resistance to the base resistance of the unaffected substrate. It correlates to the transition from amorphized to defect-rich to pristine crystalline substrate. Additionally, conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and annular dark-field STEM were used to complement and explain the SPM results and get a further understanding of the defect spreading underneath the surface. Those measurements also show three different regions that correlate well with the regions observed from electrical SPM. TEM results further allow to explain observed differences in the electrical results for silicon and silicon carbide which are most prominent for ion doses above 3 × 1016 cm-2. Furthermore, the conventional approach to perform current-voltage measurements by c-AFM was critically reviewed and several improvements for measurement and analysis process were suggested that result in more reliable and impactful c-AFM data.

  8. Surface morphology and dislocation characteristics near the surface of 4H-SiC wafer using multi-directional scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sato, Takahiro; Orai, Yoshihisa; Suzuki, Yuya; Ito, Hiroyuki; Isshiki, Toshiyuki; Fukui, Munetoshi; Nakamura, Kuniyasu; Schamp, C T

    2017-10-01

    To improve the reliability of silicon carbide (SiC) electronic power devices, the characteristics of various kinds of crystal defects should be precisely understood. Of particular importance is understanding the correlation between the surface morphology and the near surface dislocations. In order to analyze the dislocations near the surface of 4H-SiC wafers, a dislocation analysis protocol has been developed. This protocol consists of the following process: (1) inspection of surface defects using low energy scanning electron microscopy (LESEM), (2) identification of small and shallow etch pits using KOH low temperature etching, (3) classification of etch pits using LESEM, (4) specimen preparation of several hundred nanometer thick sample using the in-situ focused ion beam micro-sampling® technique, (5) crystallographic analysis using the selected diffraction mode of the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM), and (6) determination of the Burgers vector using multi-directional STEM (MD-STEM). The results show a correlation between the triangular terrace shaped surface defects and an hexagonal etch pit arising from threading dislocations, linear shaped surface defects and elliptical shaped etch pits arising from basal plane dislocations. Through the observation of the sample from two orthogonal directions via the MD-STEM technique, a basal plane dislocation is found to dissociate into an extended dislocation bound by two partial dislocations. A protocol developed and presented in this paper enables one to correlate near surface defects of a 4H-SiC wafer with the root cause dislocations giving rise to those surface defects. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Deciphering the physics and chemistry of perovskites with transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Polking, Mark J

    2016-03-28

    Perovskite oxides exhibit rich structural complexity and a broad range of functional properties, including ferroelectricity, ferromagnetism, and superconductivity. The development of aberration correction for the transmission electron microscope and concurrent progress in electron spectroscopy, electron holography, and other techniques has fueled rapid progress in the understanding of the physics and chemistry of these materials. New techniques based on the transmission electron microscope are first surveyed, and the applications of these techniques for the study of the structure, chemistry, electrostatics, and dynamics of perovskite oxides are then explored in detail, with a particular focus on ferroelectric materials.

  10. Direct Investigation of Mg Intercalation into the Orthorhombic V 2O 5 Cathode Using Atomic-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy [Direct Investigation of Mg intercalation into orthorhombic V 2O 5 cathode using Atomic Resolution Electron Microscopy Methods

    DOE PAGES

    Mukherjee, Arijita; Sa, Niya; Phillips, Patrick J.; ...

    2017-02-13

    Batteries based on Mg metal anode can promise much higher specific volumetric capacity and energy density compared to Li-ion systems and are, at the same time, safer and more cost-effective. While previous experimental reports have claimed reversible Mg intercalation into beyond Chevrel phase cathodes, they provide limited evidence of true Mg intercalation other than electrochemical data. Transmission electron microscopy techniques provide unique capabilities to directly image Mg intercalation and quantify the redox reaction within the cathode material. Here, we present a systematic study of Mg insertion into orthorhombic V 2O 5, combining aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) imaging, electronmore » energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis. We compare the results from an electrochemically cycled V 2O 5 cathode in a prospective full cell with Mg metal anode with a chemically synthesized MgV 2O 5 sample. Results suggest that the electrochemically cycled orthorhombic V 2O 5 cathode shows a local formation of the theoretically predicted ϵ-Mg0.5V2O5 phase; however, the intercalation levels of Mg are lower than predicted. Lastly, this phase is different from the chemically synthesized sample, which is found to represent the δ-MgV 2O 5 phase.« less

  11. Scanning transmission ion microscopy mass measurements for quantitative trace element analysis within biological samples and validation using atomic force microscopy thickness measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devès, Guillaume; Cohen-Bouhacina, Touria; Ortega, Richard

    2004-10-01

    We used the nuclear microprobe techniques, micro-PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission), micro-RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) and scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM) in order to perform the characterization of trace element content and spatial distribution within biological samples (dehydrated cultured cells, tissues). The normalization of PIXE results was usually expressed in terms of sample dry mass as determined by micro-RBS recorded simultaneously to micro-PIXE. However, the main limit of RBS mass measurement is the sample mass loss occurring during irradiation and which could be up to 30% of the initial sample mass. We present here a new methodology for PIXE normalization and quantitative analysis of trace element within biological samples based on dry mass measurement performed by mean of STIM. The validation of STIM cell mass measurements was obtained in comparison with AFM sample thickness measurements. Results indicated the reliability of STIM mass measurement performed on biological samples and suggested that STIM should be performed for PIXE normalization. Further information deriving from direct confrontation of AFM and STIM analysis could as well be obtained, like in situ measurements of cell specific gravity within cells compartment (nucleolus and cytoplasm).

  12. Cardiac myocyte diversity and a fibroblast network in the junctional region of the zebrafish heart revealed by transmission and serial block-face scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lafontant, Pascal J; Behzad, Ali R; Brown, Evelyn; Landry, Paul; Hu, Norman; Burns, Alan R

    2013-01-01

    The zebrafish has emerged as an important model of heart development and regeneration. While the structural characteristics of the developing and adult zebrafish ventricle have been previously studied, little attention has been paid to the nature of the interface between the compact and spongy myocardium. Here we describe how these two distinct layers are structurally and functionally integrated. We demonstrate by transmission electron microscopy that this interface is complex and composed primarily of a junctional region occupied by collagen, as well as a population of fibroblasts that form a highly complex network. We also describe a continuum of uniquely flattened transitional cardiac myocytes that form a circumferential plate upon which the radially-oriented luminal trabeculae are anchored. In addition, we have uncovered within the transitional ring a subpopulation of markedly electron dense cardiac myocytes. At discrete intervals the transitional cardiac myocytes form contact bridges across the junctional space that are stabilized through localized desmosomes and fascia adherentes junctions with adjacent compact cardiac myocytes. Finally using serial block-face scanning electron microscopy, segmentation and volume reconstruction, we confirm the three-dimensional nature of the junctional region as well as the presence of the sheet-like fibroblast network. These ultrastructural studies demonstrate the previously unrecognized complexity with which the compact and spongy layers are structurally integrated, and provide a new basis for understanding development and regeneration in the zebrafish heart.

  13. Comparison of Cliff-Lorimer-Based Methods of Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) Quantitative X-Ray Microanalysis for Application to Silicon Oxycarbides Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Parisini, Andrea; Frabboni, Stefano; Gazzadi, Gian Carlo; Rosa, Rodolfo; Armigliato, Aldo

    2018-06-01

    In this work, we compare the results of different Cliff-Lorimer (Cliff & Lorimer 1975) based methods in the case of a quantitative energy dispersive spectrometry investigation of light elements in ternary C-O-Si thin films. To determine the Cliff-Lorimer (C-L) k-factors, we fabricated, by focused ion beam, a standard consisting of a wedge lamella with a truncated tip, composed of two parallel SiO2 and 4H-SiC stripes. In 4H-SiC, it was not possible to obtain reliable k-factors from standard extrapolation methods owing to the strong CK-photon absorption. To overcome this problem, an extrapolation method exploiting the shape of the truncated tip of the lamella is proposed herein. The k-factors thus determined, were then used in an application of the C-L quantification procedure to a defect found at the SiO2/4H-SiC interface in the channel region of a metal-oxide field-effect-transistor device. As in this procedure, the sample thickness is required, a method to determine this quantity from the averaged and normalized scanning transmission electron microscopy intensity is also detailed. Monte Carlo simulations were used to investigate the discrepancy between experimental and theoretical k-factors and to bridge the gap between the k-factor and the Watanabe and Williams ζ-factor methods (Watanabe & Williams, 2006).

  14. Measuring the Autocorrelation Function of Nanoscale Three-Dimensional Density Distribution in Individual Cells Using Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy, and a New Deconvolution Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Li, Yue; Zhang, Di; Capoglu, Ilker; Hujsak, Karl A; Damania, Dhwanil; Cherkezyan, Lusik; Roth, Eric; Bleher, Reiner; Wu, Jinsong S; Subramanian, Hariharan; Dravid, Vinayak P; Backman, Vadim

    2017-06-01

    Essentially all biological processes are highly dependent on the nanoscale architecture of the cellular components where these processes take place. Statistical measures, such as the autocorrelation function (ACF) of the three-dimensional (3D) mass-density distribution, are widely used to characterize cellular nanostructure. However, conventional methods of reconstruction of the deterministic 3D mass-density distribution, from which these statistical measures can be calculated, have been inadequate for thick biological structures, such as whole cells, due to the conflict between the need for nanoscale resolution and its inverse relationship with thickness after conventional tomographic reconstruction. To tackle the problem, we have developed a robust method to calculate the ACF of the 3D mass-density distribution without tomography. Assuming the biological mass distribution is isotropic, our method allows for accurate statistical characterization of the 3D mass-density distribution by ACF with two data sets: a single projection image by scanning transmission electron microscopy and a thickness map by atomic force microscopy. Here we present validation of the ACF reconstruction algorithm, as well as its application to calculate the statistics of the 3D distribution of mass-density in a region containing the nucleus of an entire mammalian cell. This method may provide important insights into architectural changes that accompany cellular processes.

  15. A microscopy method for scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging of the antibacterial activity of polymeric nanoparticles on a biofilm with an ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Chisato; Muto, Shunsuke; Yamamoto, Hiromitsu

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we developed a scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) method for imaging the antibacterial activity of organic polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) toward biofilms formed by Staphylococcus epidermidis bacterial cells, for optimizing NPs to treat biofilm infections. The combination of sample preparation method using a hydrophilic ionic liquid (IL) and STEM observation using the cooling holder eliminates the need for specialized equipment and techniques for biological sample preparation. The annular dark-field STEM results indicated that the two types of biodegradable poly-(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) NPs: PLGA modified with chitosan (CS), and clarithromycin (CAM)-loaded + CS-modified PLGA, prepared by emulsion solvent diffusion exhibited different antibacterial activities in nanoscale. To confirm damage to the sample during STEM observation, we observed the PLGA NPs and the biofilm treated with PLGA NPs by both the conventional method and the newly developed method. The optimized method allows microstructure of the biofilm treated with PLGA NPs to be maintained for 25 min at a current flow of 40 pA. The developed simple sample preparation method would be helpful to understand the interaction of drugs with target materials. In addition, this technique could contribute to the visualization of other deformable composite materials at the nanoscale level. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 1432-1437, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Periodic cation segregation in Cs0.44[Nb2.54W2.46O14] quantified by high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Heidelmann, Markus; Barthel, Juri; Cox, Gerhard; Weirich, Thomas E

    2014-10-01

    The atomic structure of Cs0.44[Nb2.54W2.46O14] closely resembles the structure of the most active catalyst for the synthesis of acrylic acid, the M1 phase of Mo10V2(4+)Nb2TeO42-x. Consistently with observations made for the latter compound, the high-angle electron scattering signal recorded by scanning transmission electron microscopy shows a significant intensity variation, which repeats periodically with the projected crystallographic unit cell. The occupation factors for the individual mixed Nb/W atomic columns are extracted from the observed intensity variations. For this purpose, experimental images and simulated images are compared on an identical intensity scale, which enables a quantification of the cation distribution. According to our analysis specific sites possess low tungsten concentrations of 25%, whereas other sites have tungsten concentrations above 70%. These findings allow us to refine the existing structure model of the target compound, which has until now described a uniform distribution of the niobium and tungsten atoms in the unit cell, showing that the similarity between Cs0.44[Nb2.54W2.46O14] and the related catalytic compounds also extends to the level of the cation segregation.

  17. Structure refinement of the δ1p phase in the Fe-Zn system by single-crystal X-ray diffraction combined with scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Norihiko L; Tanaka, Katsushi; Yasuhara, Akira; Inui, Haruyuki

    2014-04-01

    The structure of the δ1p phase in the iron-zinc system has been refined by single-crystal synchrotron X-ray diffraction combined with scanning transmission electron microscopy. The large hexagonal unit cell of the δ1p phase with the space group of P63/mmc comprises more or less regular (normal) Zn12 icosahedra, disordered Zn12 icosahedra, Zn16 icosioctahedra and dangling Zn atoms that do not constitute any polyhedra. The unit cell contains 52 Fe and 504 Zn atoms so that the compound is expressed with the chemical formula of Fe13Zn126. All Fe atoms exclusively occupy the centre of normal and disordered icosahedra. Iron-centred normal icosahedra are linked to one another by face- and vertex-sharing forming two types of basal slabs, which are bridged with each other by face-sharing with icosioctahedra, whereas disordered icosahedra with positional disorder at their vertex sites are isolated from other polyhedra. The bonding features in the δ1p phase are discussed in comparison with those in the Γ and ζ phases in the iron-zinc system.

  18. Measurement Error in Atomic-Scale Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy-Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (STEM-EDS) Mapping of a Model Oxide Interface.

    PubMed

    Spurgeon, Steven R; Du, Yingge; Chambers, Scott A

    2017-06-01

    With the development of affordable aberration correctors, analytical scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) studies of complex interfaces can now be conducted at high spatial resolution at laboratories worldwide. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) in particular has grown in popularity, as it enables elemental mapping over a wide range of ionization energies. However, the interpretation of atomically resolved data is greatly complicated by beam-sample interactions that are often overlooked by novice users. Here we describe the practical factors-namely, sample thickness and the choice of ionization edge-that affect the quantification of a model perovskite oxide interface. Our measurements of the same sample, in regions of different thickness, indicate that interface profiles can vary by as much as 2-5 unit cells, depending on the spectral feature. This finding is supported by multislice simulations, which reveal that on-axis maps of even perfectly abrupt interfaces exhibit significant delocalization. Quantification of thicker samples is further complicated by channeling to heavier sites across the interface, as well as an increased signal background. We show that extreme care must be taken to prepare samples to minimize channeling effects and argue that it may not be possible to extract atomically resolved information from many chemical maps.

  19. Structure and Composition of Isolated Core-Shell (In ,Ga )N /GaN Rods Based on Nanofocus X-Ray Diffraction and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Thilo; Hanke, Michael; Nicolai, Lars; Cheng, Zongzhe; Niehle, Michael; Trampert, Achim; Kahnt, Maik; Falkenberg, Gerald; Schroer, Christian G.; Hartmann, Jana; Zhou, Hao; Wehmann, Hergo-Heinrich; Waag, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    Nanofocus x-ray diffraction is used to investigate the structure and local strain field of an isolated (In ,Ga )N /GaN core-shell microrod. Because the high spatial resolution of the x-ray beam is only 80 ×90 nm2, we are able to investigate several distinct volumes on one individual side facet. Here, we find a drastic increase in thickness of the outer GaN shell along the rod height. Additionally, we performed high-angle annular dark-field scanning-transmission-electron-microscopy measurements on several rods from the same sample showing that (In,Ga)N double-quantum-well and GaN barrier thicknesses also increase strongly along the height. Moreover, plastic relaxation is observed in the top part of the rod. Based on the experimentally obtained structural parameters, we simulate the strain-induced deformation using the finite-element method, which serves as the input for subsequent kinematic scattering simulations. The simulations reveal a significant increase of elastic in-plane relaxation along the rod height. However, at a certain height, the occurrence of plastic relaxation yields a decrease of the elastic strain. Because of the experimentally obtained structural input for the finite-element simulations, we can exclude unknown structural influences on the strain distribution, and we are able to translate the elastic relaxation into an indium concentration which increases by a factor of 4 from the bottom to the height where plastic relaxation occurs.

  20. Independent trafficking of flavocytochrome b558 and myeloperoxidase to phagosomes during phagocytosis visualised by energy-filtering and energy-dispersive spectroscopy-scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Moriguchi, Keiichi

    2018-03-01

    When polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) phagocytose opsonised zymosan particles (OPZ), free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are formed in the phagosomes. ROS production is mediated by NADPH oxidase (Nox), which transfers electrons in converting oxygen to superoxide (O 2 - ). Nox-generated O 2 - is rapidly converted to other ROS. Free radical-forming secretory vesicles containing the Nox redox center flavocytochrome b558, a membrane protein, and azurophil granules with packaged myeloperoxidase (MPO) have been described. Presuming the probable fusion of these vesicular and granular organelles with phagosomes, the translation process of the enzymes was investigated using energy-filtering and energy-dispersive spectroscopy-scanning transmission electron microscopy. In this work, the primary method for imaging cerium (Ce) ions demonstrated the localisation of H 2 O 2 generated by phagocytosing PMNs. The MPO activity of the same PMNs was continuously monitored using 0.1% 3,3'-diaminobenzidine-tetrahydrochloride (DAB) and 0.01% H 2 O 2 . A detailed view of these vesicular and granular structures was created by overlaying each electron micrograph with pseudocolors: blue for Ce and green for nitrogen (N). © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  1. Evaluation of crystallographic strain, rotation and defects in functional oxides by the moiré effect in scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Naden, A B; O'Shea, K J; MacLaren, D A

    2018-04-20

    Moiré patterns in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) images of epitaxial perovskite oxides are used to assess strain and defect densities over fields of view extending over several hundred nanometers. The patterns arise from the geometric overlap of the rastered STEM electron beam and the samples' crystal periodicities and we explore the emergence and application of these moiré fringes for rapid strain analysis. Using the epitaxial functional oxide perovskites BiFeO 3 and Pr 1-x Ca x MnO 3 , we discuss the impact of large degrees of strain on the quantification of STEM moiré patterns, identify defects in the fringe patterns and quantify strain and lattice rotation. Such a wide-area analysis of crystallographic strain and defects is crucial for developing structure-function relations of functional oxides and we find the STEM moiré technique to be an attractive means of structural assessment that can be readily applied to low dose studies of damage sensitive crystalline materials.

  2. Evaluation of crystallographic strain, rotation and defects in functional oxides by the moiré effect in scanning transmission electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naden, A. B.; O'Shea, K. J.; MacLaren, D. A.

    2018-04-01

    Moiré patterns in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) images of epitaxial perovskite oxides are used to assess strain and defect densities over fields of view extending over several hundred nanometers. The patterns arise from the geometric overlap of the rastered STEM electron beam and the samples’ crystal periodicities and we explore the emergence and application of these moiré fringes for rapid strain analysis. Using the epitaxial functional oxide perovskites BiFeO3 and Pr1-x Ca x MnO3, we discuss the impact of large degrees of strain on the quantification of STEM moiré patterns, identify defects in the fringe patterns and quantify strain and lattice rotation. Such a wide-area analysis of crystallographic strain and defects is crucial for developing structure-function relations of functional oxides and we find the STEM moiré technique to be an attractive means of structural assessment that can be readily applied to low dose studies of damage sensitive crystalline materials.

  3. In Situ Industrial Bimetallic Catalyst Characterization using Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy at One Atmosphere and Elevated Temperature.

    PubMed

    Prestat, Eric; Kulzick, Matthew A; Dietrich, Paul J; Smith, Mr Matthew; Tien, Mr Eu-Pin; Burke, M Grace; Haigh, Sarah J; Zaluzec, Nestor J

    2017-08-18

    We have developed a new experimental platform for in situ scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) which allows real time, nanoscale, elemental and structural changes to be studied at elevated temperature (up to 1000 °C) and pressure (up to 1 atm). Here we demonstrate the first application of this approach to understand complex structural changes occurring during reduction of a bimetallic catalyst, PdCu supported on TiO 2 , synthesized by wet impregnation. We reveal a heterogeneous evolution of nanoparticle size, distribution, and composition with large differences in reduction behavior for the two metals. We show that the data obtained is complementary to in situ STEM electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and when combined with in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) allows correlation of bulk chemical state with nanoscale changes in elemental distribution during reduction, facilitating new understanding of the catalytic behavior for this important class of materials. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  4. Frozen lattice and absorptive model for high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy: A comparison study in terms of integrated intensity and atomic column position measurement.

    PubMed

    Alania, M; Lobato, I; Van Aert, S

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, both the frozen lattice (FL) and the absorptive potential (AP) approximation models are compared in terms of the integrated intensity and the precision with which atomic columns can be located from an image acquired using high angle annular dark field (HAADF) scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). The comparison is made for atoms of Cu, Ag, and Au. The integrated intensity is computed for both an isolated atomic column and an atomic column inside an FCC structure. The precision has been computed using the so-called Cramér-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB), which provides a theoretical lower bound on the variance with which parameters can be estimated. It is shown that the AP model results into accurate measurements for the integrated intensity only for small detector ranges under relatively low angles and for small thicknesses. In terms of the attainable precision, both methods show similar results indicating picometer range precision under realistic experimental conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Measuring the Autocorrelation Function of Nanoscale Three-Dimensional Density Distribution in Individual Cells Using Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy, and a New Deconvolution Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yue; Zhang, Di; Capoglu, Ilker; Hujsak, Karl A.; Damania, Dhwanil; Cherkezyan, Lusik; Roth, Eric; Bleher, Reiner; Wu, Jinsong S.; Subramanian, Hariharan; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Backman, Vadim

    2018-01-01

    Essentially all biological processes are highly dependent on the nanoscale architecture of the cellular components where these processes take place. Statistical measures, such as the autocorrelation function (ACF) of the three-dimensional (3D) mass–density distribution, are widely used to characterize cellular nanostructure. However, conventional methods of reconstruction of the deterministic 3D mass–density distribution, from which these statistical measures can be calculated, have been inadequate for thick biological structures, such as whole cells, due to the conflict between the need for nanoscale resolution and its inverse relationship with thickness after conventional tomographic reconstruction. To tackle the problem, we have developed a robust method to calculate the ACF of the 3D mass–density distribution without tomography. Assuming the biological mass distribution is isotropic, our method allows for accurate statistical characterization of the 3D mass–density distribution by ACF with two data sets: a single projection image by scanning transmission electron microscopy and a thickness map by atomic force microscopy. Here we present validation of the ACF reconstruction algorithm, as well as its application to calculate the statistics of the 3D distribution of mass–density in a region containing the nucleus of an entire mammalian cell. This method may provide important insights into architectural changes that accompany cellular processes. PMID:28416035

  6. Investigation of nanoparticulate silicon as printed layers using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Unuigbe, David M.; Harting, Margit; Jonah, Emmanuel O.; ...

    2017-08-21

    The presence of native oxide on the surface of silicon nanoparticles is known to inhibit charge transport on the surfaces. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies reveal that the particles in the printed silicon network have a wide range of sizes and shapes. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveals that the particle surfaces have mainly the (111)- and (100)-oriented planes which stabilizes against further oxidation of the particles. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XANES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements at the O 1s-edge have been utilized to study the oxidation and local atomic structure of printed layers of silicon nanoparticles which were milledmore » for different times. XANES results reveal the presence of the +4 (SiO 2) oxidation state which tends towards the +2 (SiO) state for higher milling times. Si 2pXPS results indicate that the surfaces of the silicon nanoparticles in the printed layers are only partially oxidized and that all three sub-oxide, +1 (Si 2O), +2 (SiO) and +3 (Si 2O 3), states are present. The analysis of the change in the sub-oxide peaks of the silicon nanoparticles shows the dominance of the +4 state only for lower milling times.« less

  7. Measurement Error in Atomic-Scale Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy—Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (STEM-EDS) Mapping of a Model Oxide Interface

    SciTech Connect

    Spurgeon, Steven R.; Du, Yingge; Chambers, Scott A.

    Abstract With the development of affordable aberration correctors, analytical scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) studies of complex interfaces can now be conducted at high spatial resolution at laboratories worldwide. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) in particular has grown in popularity, as it enables elemental mapping over a wide range of ionization energies. However, the interpretation of atomically resolved data is greatly complicated by beam–sample interactions that are often overlooked by novice users. Here we describe the practical factors—namely, sample thickness and the choice of ionization edge—that affect the quantification of a model perovskite oxide interface. Our measurements of the same sample,more » in regions of different thickness, indicate that interface profiles can vary by as much as 2–5 unit cells, depending on the spectral feature. This finding is supported by multislice simulations, which reveal that on-axis maps of even perfectly abrupt interfaces exhibit significant delocalization. Quantification of thicker samples is further complicated by channeling to heavier sites across the interface, as well as an increased signal background. We show that extreme care must be taken to prepare samples to minimize channeling effects and argue that it may not be possible to extract atomically resolved information from many chemical maps.« less

  8. Measurement Error in Atomic-Scale Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy—Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (STEM-EDS) Mapping of a Model Oxide Interface

    DOE PAGES

    Spurgeon, Steven R.; Du, Yingge; Chambers, Scott A.

    2017-04-05

    Abstract With the development of affordable aberration correctors, analytical scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) studies of complex interfaces can now be conducted at high spatial resolution at laboratories worldwide. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) in particular has grown in popularity, as it enables elemental mapping over a wide range of ionization energies. However, the interpretation of atomically resolved data is greatly complicated by beam–sample interactions that are often overlooked by novice users. Here we describe the practical factors—namely, sample thickness and the choice of ionization edge—that affect the quantification of a model perovskite oxide interface. Our measurements of the same sample,more » in regions of different thickness, indicate that interface profiles can vary by as much as 2–5 unit cells, depending on the spectral feature. This finding is supported by multislice simulations, which reveal that on-axis maps of even perfectly abrupt interfaces exhibit significant delocalization. Quantification of thicker samples is further complicated by channeling to heavier sites across the interface, as well as an increased signal background. We show that extreme care must be taken to prepare samples to minimize channeling effects and argue that it may not be possible to extract atomically resolved information from many chemical maps.« less

  9. The Potential Protective Effects of 2-aminoethyl Diphenylborinate against Inner Ear Acoustic Trauma: Experimental Study Using Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kaymakçı, Mustafa; Acar, Mustafa; Burukoglu, Dilek; Kutlu, Hatice Mehtap; Shojaolsadati, Paria; Cingi, Cemal; Bayar Muluk, Nuray

    2015-04-01

    In this prospective experimental study, we investigated the preventive effects of 2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate (2-APB) in rats exposed to acoustic trauma (AT). Light microscopic, transmission electron microscopic (TEM), and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) examinations were performed. Eighteen healthy Wistar albino rats were divided into the following three groups: groups 1 (control), 2 (AT), and 3 (AT+APB). The rats in groups 2 and 3 were exposed to AT; in group 3 rats, 2-APB at 2 mg/kg was also administered, initially transperitoneally, after 10 min. During the light microscopic, TEM, and SEM examinations, the structures of the cochlear hair cells, stereocilia, and Deiter's cells were normal in the control group. In the AT group, the organ of Corti and proximate structures were damaged according to the light microscopic examination. During the TEM examination, intense cellular damage and stereocilia loss were detected, while during the SEM examination, extensive damage and stereocilia loss were observed. Decreased damage with preserved cochlear structure was detected during the light microscopic examination in the AT+APB group than in the AT group. During the TEM and SEM examinations, although stereocilia loss occurred in the AT+APB group, near-normal cell, cilia, and tectorial membrane structures were also observed in the AT+APB group compared with the AT group. 2-APB may have protective effects against AT damage of the cochlea. The main mechanism underlying this effect is the inhibition of the vasoconstriction of the cochlear spiral modiolar artery, thereby improving cochlear blood flow. We conclude that 2-APB may also be effective if used immediately following AT.

  10. Morphometric, quantitative, and three-dimensional analysis of the heart muscle fibers of old rats: transmission electron microscopy and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy methods.

    PubMed

    Cury, Diego Pulzatto; Dias, Fernando José; Sosthenes, Marcia Consentino Kronka; Dos Santos Haemmerle, Carlos Alexandre; Ogawa, Koichi; Da Silva, Marcelo Cavenaghi Pereira; Mardegan Issa, João Paulo; Iyomasa, Mamie Mizusaki; Watanabe, Ii-Sei

    2013-02-01

    This research investigated the morphological, morphometric, and ultrastructural cardiomyocyte characteristics of male Wistar rats at 18 months of age. The animals were euthanized using an overdose of anesthesia (ketamine and xylazine, 150/10 mg/kg) and perfused transcardially, after which samples were collected for light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that cardiomyocyte arrangement was disposed parallel between the mitochondria and the A-, I-, and H-bands and their M- and Z-lines from the sarcomere. The sarcomere junction areas had intercalated disks, a specific structure of heart muscle. The ultrastructural analysis revealed several mitochondria of various sizes and shapes intermingled between the blood capillaries and their endothelial cells; some red cells inside vessels are noted. The muscle cell sarcolemma could be observed associated with the described structures. The cardiomyocytes of old rats presented an average sarcomere length of 2.071 ± 0.09 μm, a mitochondrial volume density (Vv) of 0.3383, a mitochondrial average area of 0.537 ± 0.278 μm(2), a mitochondrial average length of 1.024 ± 0.352 μm, an average mitochondrial cristae thickness of 0.038 ± 0.09 μm and a ratio of mitochondrial greater length/lesser length of 1.929 ± 0.965. Of the observed mitochondrial shapes, 23.4% were rounded, 45.3% were elongated, and 31.1% had irregular profiles. In this study, we analyzed the morphology and morphometry of cardiomyocytes in old rats, focusing on mitochondria. These data are important for researchers who focus the changes in cardiac tissue, especially changes owing to pathologies and drug administration that may or may not be correlated with aging. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Distribution patterns and morphology of sensilla on the antennae of Plutella xylostella (L.)-A scanning and transmission electron microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xi-Zhong; Deng, Cai-Ping; Xie, Jiao-Xin; Wu, Lan-Jun; Sun, Xue-Jun; Hao, Chi

    2017-12-01

    The antennal morphology, types of antennal sensilla, fine structures and distributions of the sensilla in Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) were studied by scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy. The antenna, scape, pedicel and flagellum were all longer in males than in females. A total of seventeen types of sensilla were identified on the antennae: trichodea (two subtypes), basiconica, coeloconica (three subtypes), Böhm's bristles (two subtypes), styloconica (two subtypes), squamiformia, auricillica, furcatea (three subtypes), cupuliform organs and terminal sensory pegs. Their numbers and distributions were studied in both male and female, and we found some of the sensilla exhibited various degrees of sexual dimorphisms. Sensilla trichodea were the most abundant of all sensillum types whereas terminal peg was present only once per antenna. Sensilla trichodea in males were bigger (subtype I) and more abundant than in females, however, sensilla basiconica and squamiformia were significantly smaller and less abundant in males than in females. Sensilla styloconica II was only found in females. Seven common sensillum types were studied with TEM to reveal its fine internal structure providing morphological evidences of their sensory functions. Sensilla trichodea I, basiconica and coeloconica III have porous walls suggesting olfactory functions. Combined with the sexual dimorphism, sensilla trichodea male P. xylostella might be involved in detecting sexual pheromones and sensilla basiconica of female might respond to host plant volatiles. Whereas sensilla coeloconica (subtype I and II) and Böhm's bristles have nonporous walls suggesting non-olfactory functions. The study presented a thorough inventory of sensilla on the antennae and laid a solid foundation for future functional studies of these sensilla in this important economical pest. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy study of the microstructural changes occurring in aluminium matrix composites reinforced with SiC particles during casting and welding: interface reactions

    PubMed

    Urena; Gomez De Salazar JM; Gil; Escalera; Baldonedo

    1999-11-01

    Processing of aluminium matrix composites (AMCs), especially those constituted by a reactive system such as Al-SiC, presents great difficulties which limit their potential applications. The interface reactivity between SiC and molten Al generates an aluminium carbide which degrades the composite properties. Scanning and transmission electron microscopes equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopes are essential tools for determining the structure and chemistry of the Al-SiC interfaces in AMCs and changes occurring during casting and arc welding. In the present work, an aluminium-copper alloy (AA2014) reinforced with three different percentages of SiC particles was subjected to controlled remelting tests, at temperatures in the range 750-900 degrees C for 10 and 30 min. Arc welding tests using a tungsten intert gas with power inputs in the range 850-2000 W were also carried out. The results of these studies showed that during remelting there is preferential SiC particle consumption with formation of Al4C3 by interface reaction between the solid SiC particle and the molten aluminium matrix. The formation of Al4C3 by the same mechanism has also been detected in molten pools of arc welded composites. However, in this case there was formation of an almost continuous layer of Al4C3, which protects the particle against further consumption, and formation of aciculate aluminium carbide on the top weld. Both are formed by fusion and dissolution of the SiC in molten aluminium followed by reaction and precipitation of the Al4C3 during cooling.

  13. Mass analysis by scanning transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction validate predictions of stacked beta-solenoid model of HET-s prion fibrils.

    PubMed

    Sen, Anindito; Baxa, Ulrich; Simon, Martha N; Wall, Joseph S; Sabate, Raimon; Saupe, Sven J; Steven, Alasdair C

    2007-02-23

    Fungal prions are infectious filamentous polymers of proteins that are soluble in uninfected cells. In its prion form, the HET-s protein of Podospora anserina participates in a fungal self/non-self recognition phenomenon called heterokaryon incompatibility. Like other prion proteins, HET-s has a so-called "prion domain" (its C-terminal region, HET-s-(218-289)) that is responsible for induction and propagation of the prion in vivo and for fibril formation in vitro. Prion fibrils are thought to have amyloid backbones of polymerized prion domains. A relatively detailed model has been proposed for prion domain fibrils of HET-s based on a variety of experimental constraints (Ritter, C., Maddelein, M. L., Siemer, A. B., Luhrs, T., Ernst, M., Meier, B. H., Saupe, S. J., and Riek, R. (2005) Nature 435, 844-848). To test specific predictions of this model, which envisages axial stacking of beta-solenoids with two coils per subunit, we examined fibrils by electron microscopy. Electron diffraction gave a prominent meridional reflection at (0.47 nm)(-1), indicative of cross-beta structure, as predicted. STEM (scanning transmission electron microscopy) mass-per-unit-length measurements yielded 1.02 +/- 0.16 subunits per 0.94 nm, in agreement with the model prediction (1 subunit per 0.94 nm). This is half the packing density of approximately 1 subunit per 0.47 nm previously obtained for fibrils of the yeast prion proteins, Ure2p and Sup35p, whence it follows that the respective amyloid architectures are basically different.

  14. Development of the areola in the early placenta of the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius): a light, scanning and transmission electron microscopical study.

    PubMed

    Abd-Elnaeim, M M M; Saber, A; Hassan, A; Abou-Elmagd, A; Klisch, K; Jones, C J P; Leiser, R

    2003-12-01

    This study aimed to elucidate development of the areola in the early dromedary placenta in comparison with that of the pig and mare. Placental tissues from 25 pregnant camels were obtained from Cairo abattoir and prepared for light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy by routine methods. Vascular casts were made by injection of 4 : 1 liquid plastic mixture of mercox and methylmethacrylate. Areolar formation was first observed at 4.5 cm curved-crown-rump CVR length, while by 5-9 cm CVR length, the endometrial surface was uneven and studded with numerous uterine gland openings, where corresponding foetal areolae were barely detectable and the foetal areolar cells were of variable appearance and covered with long microvilli. At 10-13 cm CVR length the uterine gland openings developed irregular folds and the maternal areolar cells showed numerous apical blebs. At 14-29 cm CVR length the foetal areolae showed a great increase in height at the expense of their width. At 30-34 cm (CVR) length the maternal areolae appeared discoid and sharply demarcated from the surrounding inter-areolar tissues and the foetal areolae were rounded to irregular in shape with well-developed areolar rims. The vascular casts showed a widely meshed capillary network on the maternal areola, connecting with the pre- and post-capillary vessels, whereas the foetal side showed a relatively dense capillary meshwork. These studies indicate that the areola in the placenta of the one-humped camel is of the regular type like in the pig, and is poorly vascularized.

  15. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy and X-ray analysisof leaf salt glands of Limoniastrum guyonianum Boiss. under NaCl salinity.

    PubMed

    Zouhaier, Barhoumi; Abdallah, Atia; Najla, Trabelsi; Wahbi, Djebali; Wided, Chaïbi; Aouatef, Ben Ammar; Chedly, Abdelly; Abderazzak, Smaoui

    2015-11-01

    Leaf salt glands of Limoniastrum guyonianum were examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopes and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) system, after growing for three months on sandy soil with or without 300 mM NaCl. Results showed that salt glands were irregularly scattered on both leaf sides and sunk under the epidermal level. Salt excretion occurred in both conditions and is mainly composed of calcium and magnesium in control plants, and essentially sodium and chloride in plants subjected to salt treatment. A salt gland is comprised of collecting, accumulating, and central compartments, and is made up of total thirty-two cells. The collecting cells were characterized by large central vacuoles. Accumulating cells contain numerous, large, and unshaped vacuoles and rudimentary chloroplasts. The central compartment was comprised of four basal cells and each one is surmounted by an apical cell. The basal cells are granulated, containing large nucleus, numerous mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, polyribosomes, and small vacuoles or vesicles. Equally, the apical cells are rich in organelles. Application of 300 mM NaCl to the culture medium increased vacuoles number and size, and organelles density especially the mitochondria which suggests energy requirement for ions transport. The reduction in size and number of vacuoles toward the interior of salt glands of treated plants and the fusion of the smallest ones with the plasma membrane substantiate the implication of such vacuoles in salt excretion process. The current study which is the first report on L. guyonianum salt gland has provided an in-depth understanding on structure-function relationship in the multicellular salt glands. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Microstructure characterization of Al matrix composite reinforced with Ti-6Al-4V meshes after compression by scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Guo, Q; Sun, D L; Han, X L; Cheng, S R; Chen, G Q; Jiang, L T; Wu, G H

    2012-02-01

    Compressive properties of Al matrix composite reinforced with Ti-6Al-4V meshes (TC4(m)/5A06 Al composite) under the strain rates of 10(-3)S(-1) and 1S(-1) at different temperature were measured and microstructure of composites after compression was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Compressive strength decreased with the test temperature increased and the strain-rate sensitivity (R) of composite increased with the increasing temperature. SEM observations showed that grains of Al matrix were elongated severely along 45° direction (angle between axis direction and fracture surface) and TC4 fibres were sheared into several parts in composite compressed under the strain rate of 10(-3)S(-1) at 25°C and 250°C. Besides, amounts of cracks were produced at the interfacial layer between TC4 fibre and Al matrix and in (Fe, Mn)Al(6) phases. With the compressive temperature increasing to 400°C, there was no damage at the interfacial layer between TC4 fibre and Al matrix and in (Fe, Mn)Al(6) phases, while equiaxed recrystal grains with sizes about 10 μm at the original grain boundaries of Al matrix were observed. However, interface separation of TC4 fibres and Al matrix occurred in composite compressed under the strain rate of 1S(-1) at 250°C and 400°C. With the compressive temperature increasing from 25°C to 100°C under the strain rate of 10(-3) S(-1), TEM microstructure in Al matrix exhibited high density dislocations and slipping bands (25°C), polygonized dislocations and dynamic recovery (100°C), equiaxed recrystals with sizes below 500 μm (250°C) and growth of equiaxed recrystals (400°C), respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Structure Study of Magnetic Thin Films for Voltage Controlled Spintronics by Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Experiment and Density Functional Theory Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Congli

    We have studied magnetic thin films for voltage controlled magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) by advanced scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and density functional theory (DFT) simulations. MTJs are the prototypical spintronic device and manipulation of magnetism by electrical means is among the most promising approaches to novel voltage-controlled spin electronics. The voltage controlled magnetic effect can be achieved across many different materials systems, all of which depend on high-quality thin films with minimum crystallographic defects. Cr2O3 is antiferromagnetic in bulk but ferromagnetic on the (0001) surface. Bulk Cr2O3 has two degenerate antiferromagnetic states with opposite (0001) surface spin polarization. As Cr2O3 is also magnetoelectric, the degenerate antiferromagnetic states can be lifted by manipulating the free-energy gain DeltaF = aEH. Therefore, the surface ferromagnetism can be controlled by applied electric field. We have observed vertical grain boundaries in Cr2O 3/Al2O3 systems that are related with a 60° in-plane rotation by diffraction contrast TEM image. STEM as a function of scattering angle points out a simultaneous ⅓[101¯0] basal plane shift. Local boundary electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) shows a pre-peak on the O K-edge, indicating a reduced bandgap along the boundary that provides potential breakdown paths in Cr2O3 thin films. B doping of Cr2O3 is known to increase the Neel temperature. B was found to form either BCr4 tetrahedra or BO 3 triangles in the Cr2O3 lattice, with sigma * and pi* bonds exhibiting different energy loss features. Modeling the experimental spectra as a linear combination of simulated B K edges reproduces the experimental pi* / sigma * ratios for 12 to 43 % of the B in the sample occupying BCr 4 sites. Simulated BCr4 fraction / total B as a function of oxygen partial pressures supports the EELS results and indicates further increase of Neel temperature can be achieved by optimizing

  18. Defects in paramagnetic Co-doped ZnO films studied by transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Kovacs, Andras; Ney, A.; Duchamp, Martial

    2013-12-23

    We have studied planar defects in epitaxial Co:ZnO dilute magnetic semiconductor thin films deposited on c-plane sapphire (Al2O3) and the Co:ZnO/Al2O3 interface structure at atomic resolution using aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). Comparing Co:ZnO samples deposited by pulsed laser deposition and reactive magnetron sputtering, both exhibit extrinsic stacking faults, incoherent interface structures, and compositional variations within the first 3-4 Co:ZnO layers at the interface.. In addition, we have measured the local strain which reveals the lattice distortion around the stacking faults.

  19. Dynamic scan control in STEM: Spiral scans

    DOE PAGES

    Lupini, Andrew R.; Borisevich, Albina Y.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; ...

    2016-06-13

    Here, scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) has emerged as one of the foremost techniques to analyze materials at atomic resolution. However, two practical difficulties inherent to STEM imaging are: radiation damage imparted by the electron beam, which can potentially damage or otherwise modify the specimen and slow-scan image acquisition, which limits the ability to capture dynamic changes at high temporal resolution. Furthermore, due in part to scan flyback corrections, typical raster scan methods result in an uneven distribution of dose across the scanned area. A method to allow extremely fast scanning with a uniform residence time would enable imaging atmore » low electron doses, ameliorating radiation damage and at the same time permitting image acquisition at higher frame-rates while maintaining atomic resolution. The practical complication is that rastering the STEM probe at higher speeds causes significant image distortions. Non-square scan patterns provide a solution to this dilemma and can be tailored for low dose imaging conditions. Here, we develop a method for imaging with alternative scan patterns and investigate their performance at very high scan speeds. A general analysis for spiral scanning is presented here for the following spiral scan functions: Archimedean, Fermat, and constant linear velocity spirals, which were tested for STEM imaging. The quality of spiral scan STEM images is generally comparable with STEM images from conventional raster scans, and the dose uniformity can be improved.« less

  20. Dynamic scan control in STEM: Spiral scans

    SciTech Connect

    Lupini, Andrew R.; Borisevich, Albina Y.; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    Here, scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) has emerged as one of the foremost techniques to analyze materials at atomic resolution. However, two practical difficulties inherent to STEM imaging are: radiation damage imparted by the electron beam, which can potentially damage or otherwise modify the specimen and slow-scan image acquisition, which limits the ability to capture dynamic changes at high temporal resolution. Furthermore, due in part to scan flyback corrections, typical raster scan methods result in an uneven distribution of dose across the scanned area. A method to allow extremely fast scanning with a uniform residence time would enable imaging atmore » low electron doses, ameliorating radiation damage and at the same time permitting image acquisition at higher frame-rates while maintaining atomic resolution. The practical complication is that rastering the STEM probe at higher speeds causes significant image distortions. Non-square scan patterns provide a solution to this dilemma and can be tailored for low dose imaging conditions. Here, we develop a method for imaging with alternative scan patterns and investigate their performance at very high scan speeds. A general analysis for spiral scanning is presented here for the following spiral scan functions: Archimedean, Fermat, and constant linear velocity spirals, which were tested for STEM imaging. The quality of spiral scan STEM images is generally comparable with STEM images from conventional raster scans, and the dose uniformity can be improved.« less

  1. Electron Energy Loss Spectral Imaging of TiC Formed by Supernovae: A Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Study of Grain Formation and Alteration Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daulton, T. L.; Bernatowicz, T. J.; Croat, T. K.

    2012-03-01

    Micrometer-sized spherules of graphite formed by supernovae contain numerous TiC and Fe-Ni subgrains. These subgrains often have disordered surface rims. The mechanism(s) of rim formation on these subgrains is studied by transmission electron microscopy.

  2. Two-dimensional mapping of polarizations of rhombohedral nanostructures in the orthorhombic phase of KNbO3 by the combined use of scanning transmission electron microscopy and convergent-beam electron diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuda, Kenji; Tanaka, Michiyoshi

    2015-08-01

    Rhombohedral nanostructures previously found in the orthorhombic phase of KNbO3, by convergent-beam electron diffraction [Tsuda et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 051913 (2013)], have been investigated by the combined use of scanning transmission electron microscopy and convergent-beam electron diffraction. Two-dimensional distributions of the rhombohedral nanostructures, or nanometer-scale spatial fluctuations of polarization clusters, have been successfully visualized. The correlation length of the observed spatial fluctuations of local polarizations is related to the cpc/apc ratio and the transition entropy.

  3. Advances in the detection of as in environmental samples using low energy X-ray fluorescence in a scanning transmission X-ray microscope: arsenic immobilization by an Fe(II)-oxidizing freshwater bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hitchcock, A P; Obst, M; Wang, J; Lu, Y S; Tyliszczak, T

    2012-03-06

    Speciation and quantitative mapping of elements, organic and inorganic compounds, and mineral phases in environmental samples at high spatial resolution is needed in many areas of geobiochemistry and environmental science. Scanning transmission X-ray microscopes (STXMs) provide a focused beam which can interrogate samples at a fine spatial scale. Quantitative chemical information can be extracted using the transmitted and energy-resolved X-ray fluorescence channels simultaneously. Here we compare the relative merits of transmission and low-energy X-ray fluorescence detection of X-ray absorption for speciation and quantitative analysis of the spatial distribution of arsenic(V) within cell-mineral aggregates formed by Acidovorax sp. strain BoFeN1, an anaerobic nitrate-reducing Fe(II)-oxidizing β-proteobacteria isolated from the sediments of Lake Constance. This species is noted to be highly tolerant to high levels of As(V). Related, As-tolerant Acidovorax-strains have been found in As-contaminated groundwater wells in Bangladesh and Cambodia wherein they might influence the mobility of As by providing sorption sites which might have different properties as compared to chemically formed Fe-minerals. In addition to demonstrating the lower detection limits that are achieved with X-ray fluorescence relative to transmission detection in STXM, this study helps to gain insights into the mechanisms of As immobilization by biogenic Fe-mineral formation and to further the understanding of As-resistance of anaerobic Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria.

  4. Extrusion of amyloid fibrils to the extracellular space in experimental mesangial AL-amyloidosis: transmission and scanning electron microscopy studies and correlation with renal biopsy observations.

    PubMed

    Teng, Jiamin; Turbat-Herrera, Elba A; Herrera, Guillermo A

    2014-04-01

    In vitro studies have provided much information regarding the process of glomerular AL-amyloidogenesis. Research efforts have been successful in deciphering how glomerulopathic light chains interact with mesangial cells. The sequential steps involved in the genesis of amyloid fibrils include interactions with surface caveolae in mesangial cells and internalization of the monoclonal light chains through a clathrin-mediated process followed by trafficking in the mesangial cells to the mature lysosomal compartment where fibrils are formed. This manuscript focuses on how mesangial cells, once amyloid has been formed, deliver the fibrils to the extracellular matrix. The delivery of amyloid fibrils to the outside of the cells is carried out by lysosomes, which abut the mesangial cell membranes and extrude their contents into the extracellular space. This final step responsible for the fibrils to be present predominantly in the extracellular space is well demonstrated with scanning electron microscopy.

  5. Depth Resolution Dependence on Sample Thickness and Incident Energy in On-Axis Transmission Kikuchi Diffraction in Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM).

    PubMed

    Brodu, Etienne; Bouzy, Emmanuel

    2017-12-01

    Transmission Kikuchi diffraction is an emerging technique aimed at producing orientation maps of the structure of materials with a nanometric lateral resolution. This study investigates experimentally the depth resolution of the on-axis configuration, via a twinned silicon bi-crystal sample specifically designed and fabricated. The measured depth resolution varies from 30 to 65 nm in the range 10-30 keV, with a close to linear dependence with incident energy and no dependence with the total sample thickness. The depth resolution is explained in terms of two mechanisms acting concomitantly: generation of Kikuchi diffraction all along the thickness of the sample, associated with continuous absorption on the way out. A model based on the electron mean free path is used to account for the dependence with incident energy of the depth resolution. In addition, based on the results in silicon, the use of the mean absorption coefficient is proposed to predict the depth resolution for any atomic number and incident energy.

  6. Slow Scan Telemedicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Originally developed under contract for NASA by Ball Bros. Research Corporation for acquiring visual information from lunar and planetary spacecraft, system uses standard closed circuit camera connected to a device called a scan converter, which slows the stream of images to match an audio circuit, such as a telephone line. Transmitted to its destination, the image is reconverted by another scan converter and displayed on a monitor. In addition to assist scans, technique allows transmission of x-rays, nuclear scans, ultrasonic imagery, thermograms, electrocardiograms or live views of patient. Also allows conferencing and consultation among medical centers, general practitioners, specialists and disease control centers. Commercialized by Colorado Video, Inc., major employment is in business and industry for teleconferencing, cable TV news, transmission of scientific/engineering data, security, information retrieval, insurance claim adjustment, instructional programs, and remote viewing of advertising layouts, real estate, construction sites or products.

  7. Characterizing probe performance in the aberration corrected STEM.

    PubMed

    Batson, P E

    2006-01-01

    Sub-Angstrom imaging using the 120 kV IBM STEM is now routine if the probe optics is carefully controlled and fully characterized. However, multislice simulation using at least a frozen phonon approximation is required to understand the Annular Dark Field image contrast. Analysis of silicon dumbbell structures in the [110] and [211] projections illustrate this finding. Using fast image acquisition, atomic movement appears ubiquitous under the electron beam, and may be useful to illuminate atomic level processes.

  8. Spherical aberration correction with threefold symmetric line currents.

    PubMed

    Hoque, Shahedul; Ito, Hiroyuki; Nishi, Ryuji; Takaoka, Akio; Munro, Eric

    2016-02-01

    It has been shown that N-fold symmetric line current (henceforth denoted as N-SYLC) produces 2N-pole magnetic fields. In this paper, a threefold symmetric line current (N3-SYLC in short) is proposed for correcting 3rd order spherical aberration of round lenses. N3-SYLC can be realized without using magnetic materials, which makes it free of the problems of hysteresis, inhomogeneity and saturation. We investigate theoretically the basic properties of an N3-SYLC configuration which can in principle be realized by simple wires. By optimizing the parameters of a system with beam energy of 5.5keV, the required excitation current for correcting 3rd order spherical aberration coefficient of 400 mm is less than 1AT, and the residual higher order aberrations can be kept sufficiently small to obtain beam size of less than 1 nm for initial slopes up to 5 mrad. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Harmonic source wavefront aberration correction for ultrasound imaging

    PubMed Central

    Dianis, Scott W.; von Ramm, Olaf T.

    2011-01-01

    A method is proposed which uses a lower-frequency transmit to create a known harmonic acoustical source in tissue suitable for wavefront correction without a priori assumptions of the target or requiring a transponder. The measurement and imaging steps of this method were implemented on the Duke phased array system with a two-dimensional (2-D) array. The method was tested with multiple electronic aberrators [0.39π to 1.16π radians root-mean-square (rms) at 4.17 MHz] and with a physical aberrator 0.17π radians rms at 4.17 MHz) in a variety of imaging situations. Corrections were quantified in terms of peak beam amplitude compared to the unaberrated case, with restoration between 0.6 and 36.6 dB of peak amplitude with a single correction. Standard phantom images before and after correction were obtained and showed both visible improvement and 14 dB contrast improvement after correction. This method, when combined with previous phase correction methods, may be an important step that leads to improved clinical images. PMID:21303031

  10. Non-iterative Aberration Correction of a Multiple Transmitter System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    corresponds to the object being moved closer, the third and fourth rows are again at best focus with astigmatism added by rotating a pair of cylindrical...rotation within a matched pair of cylindrical lenses. While the data collect for Fig. 7 was designed to isolate defocus (a) and astigmatism (b) there...was always some combination of both present, and the algorithm is always solving for both defocus and astigmatism . This is evident from the best

  11. Aberration corrected STEM to study an ancient hair dyeing formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patriarche, G.; Van Elslande, E.; Castaing, J.; Walter, P.

    2014-05-01

    Lead-based chemistry was initiated in ancient Egypt for cosmetic preparation more than 4000 years ago. Here, we study a hair-dyeing recipe using lead salts described in text since Greco-Roman times. We report direct evidence about the shape and distribution of PbS nanocrystals that form within the hair during blackening.

  12. Holographic Adaptive Laser Optics System (HALOS): Fast, Autonomous Aberration Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, G.; MacDonald, K.; Gelsinger-Austin, P.

    2013-09-01

    We present an adaptive optics system which uses a multiplexed hologram to deconvolve the phase aberrations in an input beam. This wavefront characterization is extremely fast as it is based on simple measurements of the intensity of focal spots and does not require any computations. Furthermore, the system does not require a computer in the loop and is thus much cheaper, less complex and more robust as well. A fully functional, closed-loop prototype incorporating a 32-element MEMS mirror has been constructed. The unit has a footprint no larger than a laptop but runs at a bandwidth of 100kHz over an order of magnitude faster than comparable, conventional systems occupying a significantly larger volume. Additionally, since the sensing is based on parallel, all-optical processing, the speed is independent of actuator number running at the same bandwidth for one actuator as for a million. We are developing the HALOS technology with a view towards next-generation surveillance systems for extreme adaptive optics applications. These include imaging, lidar and free-space optical communications for unmanned aerial vehicles and SSA. The small volume is ideal for UAVs, while the high speed and high resolution will be of great benefit to the ground-based observation of space-based objects.

  13. High resolution imaging and wavefront aberration correction in plenoptic systems.

    PubMed

    Trujillo-Sevilla, J M; Rodríguez-Ramos, L F; Montilla, I; Rodríguez-Ramos, J M

    2014-09-01

    Plenoptic imaging systems are becoming more common since they provide capabilities unattainable in conventional imaging systems, but one of their main limitations is the poor bidimensional resolution. Combining the wavefront phase measurement and the plenoptic image deconvolution, we propose a system capable of improving the resolution when a wavefront aberration is present and the image is blurred. In this work, a plenoptic system is simulated using Fourier optics, and the results show that an improved resolution is achieved, even in the presence of strong wavefront aberrations.

  14. Optical aberration correction for simple lenses via sparse representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Jinlin; Huang, Wei

    2018-04-01

    Simple lenses with spherical surfaces are lightweight, inexpensive, highly flexible, and can be easily processed. However, they suffer from optical aberrations that lead to limitations in high-quality photography. In this study, we propose a set of computational photography techniques based on sparse signal representation to remove optical aberrations, thereby allowing the recovery of images captured through a single-lens camera. The primary advantage of the proposed method is that many prior point spread functions calibrated at different depths are successfully used for restoring visual images in a short time, which can be generally applied to nonblind deconvolution methods for solving the problem of the excessive processing time caused by the number of point spread functions. The optical software CODE V is applied for examining the reliability of the proposed method by simulation. The simulation results reveal that the suggested method outperforms the traditional methods. Moreover, the performance of a single-lens camera is significantly enhanced both qualitatively and perceptually. Particularly, the prior information obtained by CODE V can be used for processing the real images of a single-lens camera, which provides an alternative approach to conveniently and accurately obtain point spread functions of single-lens cameras.

  15. Nuclear Scans

    MedlinePlus

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  16. Thyroid scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... thyroid; Radioactive iodine uptake and scan test - thyroid; Nuclear scan - thyroid ... the test. Ask your provider or the radiology/nuclear medicine team performing the scan about taking precautions.

  17. Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopy of the Accessory Cells and Chorion During Development of Ciona intestinalis Type B Embryos and the Impact of Their Removal on Cell Morphology.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Helen; Shimeld, Sebastian M

    2015-06-01

    Spawned ascidian oocytes are surrounded by a membrane called the chorion (or vitelline coat) and associated with two populations of maternally-supplied cells. Outside the chorion are follicle cells, which may affect the buoyancy of eggs. Inside the chorion are test cells, which during oogenesis provision the egg and which after fertilisation contribute to the larval tunic. The structure of maternal cells may vary between species. The model ascidian Ciona intestinalis has been recently split into two species, currently named type A and type B. The ultrastructure of extraembryonic cells and structures from type A embryos has been reported. Here we describe the ultrastructure of follicle and test cells from C. intestinalis type B embryos. Test cells are about 5 µm in diameter and line the inside of the chorion of developing embryos in a dense sheet. Follicle cells are large (> 100 µm long) and spike-shaped, with many large vesicles. Terminal electron dense granules are found towards the tips of spikes, adjacent to cytoplasm containing numerous small electron dense bodies connected by filaments. These are probably vesicles containing material for the terminal granules. Removal of maternal structures and cells just after fertilisation, as commonly used in many experiments manipulating C. intestinalis development, has been reported to affect embryonic patterning. We examined the impact of this on embryonic ectoderm cells by scanning electron microscopy. Cells of embryos that developed without maternal structures still developed cilia, but had indistinct cell boundaries and a more flattened appearance than those that developed within the chorion.

  18. Influence of panel fastening on the acoustic performance of light-weight building elements: Study by sound transmission and laser scanning vibrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roozen, N. B.; Muellner, H.; Labelle, L.; Rychtáriková, M.; Glorieux, C.

    2015-06-01

    Structural details and workmanship can cause considerable differences in sound insulation properties of timber frame partitions. In this study, the influence of panel fastening is investigated experimentally by means of standardized sound reduction index measurements, supported by detailed scanning laser Doppler vibrometry. In particular the effect of the number of screws used to fasten the panels to the studs, and the tightness of the screws, is studied using seven different configurations of lightweight timber frame building elements. In the frequency range from 300 to 4000 Hz, differences in the weighted sound reduction index RW as large as 10 dB were measured, suggesting that the method of fastening can have a large impact on the acoustic performance of building elements. Using the measured vibrational responses of the element, its acoustic radiation efficiency was computed numerically by means of a Rayleigh integral. The increased radiation efficiency partly explains the reduced sound reduction index. Loosening the screws, or reducing the number of screws, lowers the radiation efficiency, and significantly increases the sound reduction index of the partition.

  19. Degradation analysis of a Ni-based layered positive-electrode active material cycled at elevated temperatures studied by scanning transmission electron microscopy and electron energy-loss spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Y.; Muto, S.; Tatsumi, K.; Kondo, H.; Oka, H.; Horibuchi, K.; Ukyo, Y.

    We investigate the local structural changes in a positive electrode of a lithium ion secondary battery (LiNi 0.8Co 0.15Al 0.05O 2 (NCA) as the active material) associated with charge-discharge cycling at elevated temperatures by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). STEM-EELS spectral imaging reveals the evolution of a NiO-like phase localized near the surface and grain boundary regions after many cycles. The amounts of capacity fading and resistance increase are discussed based on the results of the semiquantitative estimation of NiO-like and other product phases. We also identify the chemical state of lithium in the NiO-like phase substituting for Ni.

  20. Evidence of sharp and diffuse domain walls in BiFeO3 by means of unit-cell-wise strain and polarization maps obtained with high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lubk, A; Rossell, M D; Seidel, J; He, Q; Yang, S Y; Chu, Y H; Ramesh, R; Hÿtch, M J; Snoeck, E

    2012-07-27

    Domain walls (DWs) substantially influence a large number of applications involving ferroelectric materials due to their limited mobility when shifted during polarization switching. The discovery of greatly enhanced conduction at BiFeO(3) DWs has highlighted yet another role of DWs as a local material state with unique properties. However, the lack of precise information on the local atomic structure is still hampering microscopical understanding of DW properties. Here, we examine the atomic structure of BiFeO(3) 109° DWs with pm precision by a combination of high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy and a dedicated structural analysis. By measuring simultaneously local polarization and strain, we provide direct experimental proof for the straight DW structure predicted by ab initio calculations as well as the recently proposed theory of diffuse DWs, thus resolving a long-standing discrepancy between experimentally measured and theoretically predicted DW mobilities.

  1. Correlation of microphotoluminescence spectroscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and atom probe tomography on a single nano-object containing an InGaN/GaN multiquantum well system.

    PubMed

    Rigutti, Lorenzo; Blum, Ivan; Shinde, Deodatta; Hernández-Maldonado, David; Lefebvre, Williams; Houard, Jonathan; Vurpillot, François; Vella, Angela; Tchernycheva, Maria; Durand, Christophe; Eymery, Joël; Deconihout, Bernard

    2014-01-08

    A single nanoscale object containing a set of InGaN/GaN nonpolar multiple-quantum wells has been analyzed by microphotoluminescence spectroscopy (μPL), high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (HR-STEM) and atom probe tomography (APT). The correlated measurements constitute a rich and coherent set of data supporting the interpretation that the observed μPL narrow emission lines, polarized perpendicularly to the crystal c-axis and with energies in the interval 2.9-3.3 eV, are related to exciton states localized in potential minima induced by the irregular 3D In distribution within the quantum well (QW) planes. This novel method opens up interesting perspectives, as it will be possible to apply it on a wide class of quantum confining emitters and nano-objects.

  2. Imaging the surface morphology, chemistry and conductivity of LiNi 1/3 Fe 1/3 Mn 4/3 O 4 crystalline facets using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Zhou, Jigang; Wang, Jian; Cutler, Jeffrey; ...

    2016-07-26

    We have employed scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) using the X-ray fluorescence mode in order to elucidate the chemical structures at Ni, Fe, Mn and O sites from the (111) and (100) facets of micron-sized LiNi 1/3Fe 1/3Mn 4/3O 4 energy material particles. Furthermore, STXM imaging using electron yield mode has mapped out the surface conductivity of the crystalline particles. Our study presents a novel approach that visualizes local element segregation, chemistry and conductivity variation among different crystal facets, which will assist further tailoring of the morphology and surface structure of this high voltage spinel lithium ion battery cathode material.

  3. Morphological and ultrastructural characterization of ionoregulatory cells in the teleost Oreochromis niloticus following salinity challenge combining complementary confocal scanning laser microscopy and transmission electron microscopy using a novel prefixation immunogold labeling technique.

    PubMed

    Fridman, Sophie; Rana, Krishen J; Bron, James E

    2013-10-01

    Aspects of ionoregulatory or mitochondria-rich cell (MRC) differentiation and adaptation in Nile tilapia yolk-sac larvae following transfer from freshwater to elevated salinities, that is, 12.5 and 20 ppt are described. Investigations using immunohistochemistry on whole-mount Nile tilapia larvae using anti- Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase as a primary antibody and Fluoronanogold™ (Nanoprobes) as a secondary immunoprobe allowed fluorescent labeling with the high resolution of confocal scanning laser microscopy combined with the detection of immunolabeled target molecules at an ultrastructural level using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It reports, for the first time, various developmental stages of MRCs within the epithelial layer of the tail of yolk-sac larvae, corresponding to immature, developing, and mature MRCs, identifiable by their own characteristic ultrastructure and form. Following transfer to hyperosmotic salinities the density of immunogold particles and well as the intricacy of the tubular system appeared to increase. In addition, complementary confocal scanning laser microscopy allowed identification of immunopositive ramifying extensions that appeared to emanate from the basolateral portion of the cell that appeared to be correlated with the localization of subsurface tubular areas displaying immunogold labeled Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase. This integrated approach describes a reliable and repeatable prefixation immunogold labeling technique allowing precise visualization of NaK within target cells combined with a 3D imaging that offers valuable insights into MRC dynamics at an ultrastructural level. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. CT Scans

    MedlinePlus

    ... cross-sectional pictures of your body. Doctors use CT scans to look for Broken bones Cancers Blood clots Signs of heart disease Internal bleeding During a CT scan, you lie still on a table. The table ...

  5. CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003330.htm CT scan To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A computed tomography (CT) scan is an imaging method that uses x- ...

  6. Bone scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... scan is an imaging test used to diagnose bone diseases and find out how severe they are. How ... a 3-phase bone scan. To evaluate metastatic bone disease, images are taken only after the 3- to ...

  7. The qualitative f-ratio method applied to electron channelling-induced x-ray imaging with an annular silicon drift detector in a scanning electron microscope in the transmission mode.

    PubMed

    Brodusch, Nicolas; Gauvin, Raynald

    2017-09-01

    Electron channelling is known to affect the x-ray production when an accelerated electron beam is applied to a crystalline material and is highly dependent on the local crystal orientation. This effect, unless very long counting time are used, is barely noticeable on x-ray energy spectra recorded with conventional silicon drift detectors (SDD) located at a small elevation angle. However, the very high count rates provided by the new commercially available annular SDDs permit now to observe this effect routinely and may, in some circumstances, hide the true elemental x-ray variations due to the local true specimen composition. To circumvent this issue, the recently developed f-ratio method was applied to display qualitatively the true net intensity x-ray variations in a thin specimen of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy in a scanning electron microscope in transmission mode. The diffraction contrast observed in the x-ray images was successfully cancelled through the use of f-ratios and the true composition variations at the grain boundaries could be observed in relation to the dislocation alignment prior to the β-phase nucleation. The qualitative effectiveness in removing channelling effects demonstrated in this work makes the f-ratio, in its quantitative form, a possible alternative to the ZAF method in channelling conditions. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  8. Direct Observations of the Formation and Redox-Mediator-Assisted Decomposition of Li2 O2 in a Liquid-Cell Li-O2 Microbattery by Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chuchu; Han, Jiuhui; Liu, Pan; Hou, Chen; Huang, Gang; Fujita, Takeshi; Hirata, Akihiko; Chen, Mingwei

    2017-11-01

    Operando scanning transmission electron microscopy observations of cathodic reactions in a liquid-cell Li-O 2 microbattery in the presence of the redox mediator tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) in 1.0 m LiClO 4 dissolved dimethyl sulfoxide electrolyte are reported. It is found that the TTF addition does not obviously affect the discharge reaction for the formation of a solid Li 2 O 2 phase. The coarsening of Li 2 O 2 nanoparticles occurs via both conventional Ostwald ripening and nonclassical crystallization by particle attachment. During charging, the oxidation reaction at significantly reduced charge potentials mainly takes place at Li 2 O 2 /electrolyte interfaces and has obvious correspondence with the oxidized TTF + distributions in the electric fields of the charged electrode. This study provides direct evidence that TTF truly plays a role in promoting the decomposition of Li 2 O 2 as a soluble charge-transfer agent between the electrode and the Li 2 O 2 . © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy study of the characteristics and morphology of pericytes and novel desmin-immunopositive perivascular cells before and after castration in rat anterior pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Jindatip, Depicha; Fujiwara, Ken; Kouki, Tom; Yashiro, Takashi

    2012-09-01

    Pericytes are perivascular cells associated with microcirculation. Typically, they are localized close to the capillary wall, underneath the basement membrane, and have sparse cytoplasm and poorly developed cell organelles. However, the specific properties of pericytes vary by organ and the conditions within organs. We recently demonstrated that pericytes in rat anterior pituitary gland produce type I and III collagens. The present study attempted to determine the morphological characteristics of these pituitary pericytes. Castrated rats were used as a model of hormonal and vascular changes in the gland. Pericytes, as determined by desmin immunohistochemistry, were more numerous and stained more intensely in castrated rats. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that pituitary pericytes displayed the typical characteristics of pericytes. In pituitary sections from castrated rats, the Golgi apparatus of pericytes was well developed and the rough endoplasmic reticulum was elongated. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy revealed four pericyte shapes: oval, elongate, triangular, and multiangular. As compared with normal rats, the proportion of oval pericytes was lower, and the proportions of the other three shapes were higher, in castrated rats. These results suggest that pericytes change their fine structure and cell shape in response to hormonal and vascular changes in the anterior pituitary gland. In addition, a novel type of perivascular cell was found by desmin immunoelectron microscopy. The morphological properties of these cells were dissimilar to those of pericytes. The cells were localized in the perivascular space, had no basement membrane, and contained dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum. This new cell type will require further study of its origin and characteristics.

  10. Linking environmental processes to the in situ functioning of microorganisms by high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM).

    PubMed

    Behrens, Sebastian; Kappler, Andreas; Obst, Martin

    2012-11-01

    Environmental microbiology research increasingly focuses on the single microbial cell as the defining entity that drives environmental processes. The interactions of individual microbial cells with each other, the environment and with higher organisms shape microbial communities and control the functioning of whole ecosystems. A single-cell view of microorganisms in their natural environment requires analytical tools that measure both cell function and chemical speciation at the submicrometre scale. Here we review the technical capabilities and limitations of high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) and scanning transmission (soft) X-ray microscopy (STXM) and give examples of their applications. Whereas NanoSIMS can be combined with isotope-labelling, thereby localizing the distribution of cellular activities (e.g. carbon/nitrogen fixation/turnover), STXM provides information on the location and chemical speciation of metabolites and products of redox reactions. We propose the combined use of both techniques and discuss the technical challenges of their joint application. Both techniques have the potential to enhance our understanding of cellular mechanisms and activities that contribute to microbially mediated processes, such as the biogeochemical cycling of elements, the transformation of contaminants and the precipitation of mineral phases. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Functionalization of a nanostructured hydroxyapatite with Cu(II) compounds as a pesticide: in situ transmission electron microscopy and environmental scanning electron microscopy observations of treated Vitis vinifera L. leaves.

    PubMed

    Battiston, Enrico; Salvatici, Maria C; Lavacchi, Alessandro; Gatti, Antonietta; Di Marco, Stefano; Mugnai, Laura

    2018-02-19

    The present study evaluated a biocompatible material for plant protection with the aim of reducing the amount of active substance applied. We used a synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) that has been studied extensively as a consequence of its bioactivity and biocompatibility. An aggregation between HA nanoparticles and four Cu(II) compounds applied to Vitis vinifera L. leaves as a pesticide was studied. Formulations were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and electron microscopy and applied in planta to verify particle aggregation and efficiency in controlling the pathogen Plasmopara viticola. The XRD patterns showed different crystalline phases dependig on the Cu(II) compound formulated with HA particles, DLS showed that nanostructured particles are stable as aggregates out of the nanometer range and, in all formulations, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) microscopy showed large aggregates which were partially nanostructured and were recognized as stable in their micrometric dimensions. Such particles did not show phytotoxic effects after their application in planta. A formulation based on HA and a soluble Cu(II) compound showed promising results in the control of the fungal pathogen, confirming the potential role of HA as an innovative delivery system of Cu(II) ions. The present work indicates the possibility of improving the biological activity of a bioactive substance by modifying its structure through an achievable formulation with a biocompatible material. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Scanning computed confocal imager

    DOEpatents

    George, John S.

    2000-03-14

    There is provided a confocal imager comprising a light source emitting a light, with a light modulator in optical communication with the light source for varying the spatial and temporal pattern of the light. A beam splitter receives the scanned light and direct the scanned light onto a target and pass light reflected from the target to a video capturing device for receiving the reflected light and transferring a digital image of the reflected light to a computer for creating a virtual aperture and outputting the digital image. In a transmissive mode of operation the invention omits the beam splitter means and captures light passed through the target.

  13. eV-TEM: Transmission electron microscopy in a low energy cathode lens instrument.

    PubMed

    Geelen, Daniël; Thete, Aniket; Schaff, Oliver; Kaiser, Alexander; van der Molen, Sense Jan; Tromp, Rudolf

    2015-12-01

    We are developing a transmission electron microscope that operates at extremely low electron energies, 0-40 eV. We call this technique eV-TEM. Its feasibility is based on the fact that at very low electron energies the number of energy loss pathways decreases. Hence, the electron inelastic mean free path increases dramatically. eV-TEM will enable us to study elastic and inelastic interactions of electrons with thin samples. With the recent development of aberration correction in cathode lens instruments, a spatial resolution of a few nm appears within range, even for these very low electron energies. Such resolution will be highly relevant to study biological samples such as proteins and cell membranes. The low electron energies minimize adverse effects due to radiation damage. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Bone Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... your doctor might order additional imaging called single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT). This imaging can help ... radioactivity from the tracers is usually completely eliminated two days after the scan. Results A doctor who ...

  15. Gallium scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... material called gallium and is a type of nuclear medicine exam. A related test is gallium scan ... Brown ML, Forstrom LA, et al. Society of nuclear medicine procedure guideline for gallium scintigraphy in inflammation. ...

  16. MRI Scans

    MedlinePlus

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses a large magnet and radio waves to look at organs and structures inside your body. Health care professionals use MRI scans to diagnose a variety of conditions, from torn ...

  17. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) study on surface modified CVD diamond/Si(111) film post implanted Fe-B and NiFe-B related to GMR properties

    SciTech Connect

    Purwanto, Setyo, E-mail: setyo-p@batan.go.id, E-mail: purwantosetyo@yahoo.com; Dimyati, A., E-mail: arbi-dimyati@hotmail.com; Iskandar, R.

    Nanostructure investigation on the post implantation by Fe-B and NiFe-B on CVD diamond/Si(111) film have been studied by means of STEM related to their GMR phenomena. Two samples were investigated carefully, firstly sample is post NiFe-B at E=70keV and dose= 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2} (denoted as A-E3D1). Secondly, is post FeB at E=20 keV and dose= 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2} (denoted as B-E1D1). Based on FPP measurement at room temperature (RT) and H{sub applied} = 8 kOe, A-E3D1 sample has MR ratio almost 80% and MR ratio in B-E1D1 sample is 45%. Based on STEM-EDX investigation, there are two aspectsmore » of how MR ratio of A-E3D1 more higher than those of B-E1D1. Firstly, surface nanostructure on the top of A-E3D1 film is more grazing than on the top of B-E1D1. Analysis with Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope (STEM) equipped with Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) the growth of amorphous carbon layer on top of the implanted diamond film with thickness around 100 nm and only 20 nm on the no implanted sample have observed. Boron atoms were found inside the carbon amorphous layer distributed homogenously. Secondly, oxygen content at the interface between diamond film and silicon substrate in sample A-E3D1 was lower than those in B-E1D1 sample. This condition gives the resistance value in A-E3D1 lower than value in B-E1D1. This result is close to the Raman Spectroscopy data measurement which obviously suggests changes on the Raman spectrum due to implantation related to Oxygen excitation from B-E1D1 sample.« less

  18. Infrared Scanning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    United Scanning Technologies, Inc.'s Infrared thermography is a relatively new noncontact, nondestructive inspection and testing tool which makes temperatures visible to the human eye. Infrared scanning devices produce images that show, by color or black and white shading differences, heat losses through damaged or inadequately insulated walls or roofs. The MISS Aeroscan services are designed to take the guesswork out of industrial roof maintenance and provide companies big savings by identifying the location of moisture damage from roof leaks, effectively targeting maintenance attention.

  19. CT Scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... people who may have internal injuries from car accidents or other types of trauma. A CT scan can be used to visualize nearly all parts of the body and is used to diagnose disease or injury as well as to plan medical, surgical or radiation treatment. Why it's done Your doctor may recommend ...

  20. 47 CFR 15.121 - Scanning receivers and frequency converters used with scanning receivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... transmissions to analog voice audio. (2) Be designed so that the tuning, control and filtering circuitry is inaccessible. The design must be such that any attempts to modify the equipment to receive transmissions from... Radiotelephone Service transmissions. (e) Scanning receivers and frequency converters designed for use with...

  1. 47 CFR 15.121 - Scanning receivers and frequency converters used with scanning receivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... transmissions to analog voice audio. (2) Be designed so that the tuning, control and filtering circuitry is inaccessible. The design must be such that any attempts to modify the equipment to receive transmissions from... Radiotelephone Service transmissions. (e) Scanning receivers and frequency converters designed for use with...

  2. 47 CFR 15.121 - Scanning receivers and frequency converters used with scanning receivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... transmissions to analog voice audio. (2) Be designed so that the tuning, control and filtering circuitry is inaccessible. The design must be such that any attempts to modify the equipment to receive transmissions from... Radiotelephone Service transmissions. (e) Scanning receivers and frequency converters designed for use with...

  3. 47 CFR 15.121 - Scanning receivers and frequency converters used with scanning receivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... transmissions to analog voice audio. (2) Be designed so that the tuning, control and filtering circuitry is inaccessible. The design must be such that any attempts to modify the equipment to receive transmissions from... Radiotelephone Service transmissions. (e) Scanning receivers and frequency converters designed for use with...

  4. Sinus CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - sinus; Computed axial tomography scan - sinus; Computed tomography scan - sinus; CT scan - sinus ... Risks for a CT scan includes: Being exposed to radiation Allergic reaction to contrast dye CT scans expose you to more radiation than regular ...

  5. Pelvic CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - pelvis; Computed axial tomography scan - pelvis; Computed tomography scan - pelvis; CT scan - pelvis ... Risks of CT scans include: Being exposed to radiation Allergic reaction to contrast dye CT scans do expose you to more radiation ...

  6. Shoulder CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - shoulder; Computed axial tomography scan - shoulder; Computed tomography scan - shoulder; CT scan - shoulder ... Risks of CT scans include: Being exposed to radiation Allergic reaction to contrast dye Birth defect if done during pregnancy CT scans ...

  7. Large-aperture space optical system testing based on the scanning Hartmann.

    PubMed

    Wei, Haisong; Yan, Feng; Chen, Xindong; Zhang, Hao; Cheng, Qiang; Xue, Donglin; Zeng, Xuefeng; Zhang, Xuejun

    2017-03-10

    Based on the Hartmann testing principle, this paper proposes a novel image quality testing technology which applies to a large-aperture space optical system. Compared with the traditional testing method through a large-aperture collimator, the scanning Hartmann testing technology has great advantages due to its simple structure, low cost, and ability to perform wavefront measurement of an optical system. The basic testing principle of the scanning Hartmann testing technology, data processing method, and simulation process are presented in this paper. Certain simulation results are also given to verify the feasibility of this technology. Furthermore, a measuring system is developed to conduct a wavefront measurement experiment for a 200 mm aperture optical system. The small deviation (6.3%) of root mean square (RMS) between experimental results and interferometric results indicates that the testing system can measure low-order aberration correctly, which means that the scanning Hartmann testing technology has the ability to test the imaging quality of a large-aperture space optical system.

  8. Precision targeting with a tracking adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Daniel X.; Ferguson, R. Daniel; Bigelow, Chad E.; Iftimia, Nicusor V.; Ustun, Teoman E.; Noojin, Gary D.; Stolarski, David J.; Hodnett, Harvey M.; Imholte, Michelle L.; Kumru, Semih S.; McCall, Michelle N.; Toth, Cynthia A.; Rockwell, Benjamin A.

    2006-02-01

    Precise targeting of retinal structures including retinal pigment epithelial cells, feeder vessels, ganglion cells, photoreceptors, and other cells important for light transduction may enable earlier disease intervention with laser therapies and advanced methods for vision studies. A novel imaging system based upon scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) with adaptive optics (AO) and active image stabilization was designed, developed, and tested in humans and animals. An additional port allows delivery of aberration-corrected therapeutic/stimulus laser sources. The system design includes simultaneous presentation of non-AO, wide-field (~40 deg) and AO, high-magnification (1-2 deg) retinal scans easily positioned anywhere on the retina in a drag-and-drop manner. The AO optical design achieves an error of <0.45 waves (at 800 nm) over +/-6 deg on the retina. A MEMS-based deformable mirror (Boston Micromachines Inc.) is used for wave-front correction. The third generation retinal tracking system achieves a bandwidth of greater than 1 kHz allowing acquisition of stabilized AO images with an accuracy of ~10 μm. Normal adult human volunteers and animals with previously-placed lesions (cynomolgus monkeys) were tested to optimize the tracking instrumentation and to characterize AO imaging performance. Ultrafast laser pulses were delivered to monkeys to characterize the ability to precisely place lesions and stimulus beams. Other advanced features such as real-time image averaging, automatic highresolution mosaic generation, and automatic blink detection and tracking re-lock were also tested. The system has the potential to become an important tool to clinicians and researchers for early detection and treatment of retinal diseases.

  9. Holographic Optical Elements as Scanning Lidar Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwemmer, Geary K.; Rallison, Richard D.; Wilkerson, Thomas D.; Guerra, David V.

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated and developed the use of holographic optical elements (HOE) and holographic transmission gratings for scanning lidar telescopes. By rotating a flat HOE in its own plane with the focal spot on the rotation axis, a very simple and compact conical scanning telescope is possible. We developed and tested transmission and reflection HOES for use with the first three harmonics of Nd:YAG lasers, and designed, built, and tested two lidar systems based on this technology.

  10. Transmission eigenvalues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakoni, Fioralba; Haddar, Houssem

    2013-10-01

    In inverse scattering theory, transmission eigenvalues can be seen as the extension of the notion of resonant frequencies for impenetrable objects to the case of penetrable dielectrics. The transmission eigenvalue problem is a relatively late arrival to the spectral theory of partial differential equations. Its first appearance was in 1986 in a paper by Kirsch who was investigating the denseness of far-field patterns for scattering solutions of the Helmholtz equation or, in more modern terminology, the injectivity of the far-field operator [1]. The paper of Kirsch was soon followed by a more systematic study by Colton and Monk in the context of developing the dual space method for solving the inverse scattering problem for acoustic waves in an inhomogeneous medium [2]. In this paper they showed that for a spherically stratified media transmission eigenvalues existed and formed a discrete set. Numerical examples were also given showing that in principle transmission eigenvalues could be determined from the far-field data. This first period of interest in transmission eigenvalues was concluded with papers by Colton et al in 1989 [3] and Rynne and Sleeman in 1991 [4] showing that for an inhomogeneous medium (not necessarily spherically stratified) transmission eigenvalues, if they existed, formed a discrete set. For the next seventeen years transmission eigenvalues were ignored. This was mainly due to the fact that, with the introduction of various sampling methods to determine the shape of an inhomogeneous medium from far-field data, transmission eigenvalues were something to be avoided and hence the fact that transmission eigenvalues formed at most a discrete set was deemed to be sufficient. In addition, questions related to the existence of transmission eigenvalues or the structure of associated eigenvectors were recognized as being particularly difficult due to the nonlinearity of the eigenvalue problem and the special structure of the associated transmission

  11. AQUIFER TRANSMISSIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of groundwater resources requires the knowledge of the capacity of aquifers to store and transmit ground water. This requires estimates of key hydraulic parameters, such as the transmissivity, among others. The transmissivity T (m2/sec) is a hydrauli...

  12. HIV Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, George M.; Hunter, Eric

    2012-01-01

    HIV-1 is transmitted by sexual contact across mucosal surfaces, by maternal-infant exposure, and by percutaneous inoculation. For reasons that are still incompletely understood, CCR5-tropic viruses (R5 viruses) are preferentially transmitted by all routes. Transmission is followed by an orderly appearance of viral and host markers of infection in the blood plasma. In the acute phase of infection, HIV-1 replicates exponentially and diversifies randomly, allowing for an unambiguous molecular identification of transmitted/founder virus genomes and a precise characterization of the population bottleneck to virus transmission. Sexual transmission of HIV-1 most often results in productive clinical infection arising from a single virus, highlighting the extreme bottleneck and inherent inefficiency in virus transmission. It remains to be determined if HIV-1 transmission is largely a stochastic process whereby any reasonably fit R5 virus can be transmitted or if there are features of transmitted/founder viruses that facilitate their transmission in a biologically meaningful way. Human tissue explant models of HIV-1 infection and animal models of SIV/SHIV/HIV-1 transmission, coupled with new challenge virus strains that more closely reflect transmitted/founder viruses, have the potential to elucidate fundamental mechanisms in HIV-1 transmission relevant to vaccine design and other prevention strategies. PMID:23043157

  13. Leg CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - leg; Computed axial tomography scan - leg; Computed tomography scan - leg; CT scan - leg ... CT scan makes detailed pictures of the body very quickly. The test may help look for: An abscess ...

  14. Arm CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - arm; Computed axial tomography scan - arm; Computed tomography scan - arm; CT scan - arm ... Healing problems or scar tissue following surgery A CT scan may also be used to guide a surgeon ...

  15. Head CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    Brain CT; Cranial CT; CT scan - skull; CT scan - head; CT scan - orbits; CT scan - sinuses; Computed tomography - cranial; CAT scan - brain ... conditions: Birth (congenital) defect of the head or brain Brain infection Brain tumor Buildup of fluid inside ...

  16. Scanning ultrafast electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ding-Shyue; Mohammed, Omar F; Zewail, Ahmed H

    2010-08-24

    Progress has been made in the development of four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy, which enables space-time imaging of structural dynamics in the condensed phase. In ultrafast electron microscopy, the electrons are accelerated, typically to 200 keV, and the microscope operates in the transmission mode. Here, we report the development of scanning ultrafast electron microscopy using a field-emission-source configuration. Scanning of pulses is made in the single-electron mode, for which the pulse contains at most one or a few electrons, thus achieving imaging without the space-charge effect between electrons, and still in ten(s) of seconds. For imaging, the secondary electrons from surface structures are detected, as demonstrated here for material surfaces and biological specimens. By recording backscattered electrons, diffraction patterns from single crystals were also obtained. Scanning pulsed-electron microscopy with the acquired spatiotemporal resolutions, and its efficient heat-dissipation feature, is now poised to provide in situ 4D imaging and with environmental capability.

  17. Scanning ultrafast electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ding-Shyue; Mohammed, Omar F.; Zewail, Ahmed H.

    2010-01-01

    Progress has been made in the development of four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy, which enables space-time imaging of structural dynamics in the condensed phase. In ultrafast electron microscopy, the electrons are accelerated, typically to 200 keV, and the microscope operates in the transmission mode. Here, we report the development of scanning ultrafast electron microscopy using a field-emission-source configuration. Scanning of pulses is made in the single-electron mode, for which the pulse contains at most one or a few electrons, thus achieving imaging without the space-charge effect between electrons, and still in ten(s) of seconds. For imaging, the secondary electrons from surface structures are detected, as demonstrated here for material surfaces and biological specimens. By recording backscattered electrons, diffraction patterns from single crystals were also obtained. Scanning pulsed-electron microscopy with the acquired spatiotemporal resolutions, and its efficient heat-dissipation feature, is now poised to provide in situ 4D imaging and with environmental capability. PMID:20696933

  18. Quantifying Transmission.

    PubMed

    Woolhouse, Mark

    2017-07-01

    Transmissibility is the defining characteristic of infectious diseases. Quantifying transmission matters for understanding infectious disease epidemiology and designing evidence-based disease control programs. Tracing individual transmission events can be achieved by epidemiological investigation coupled with pathogen typing or genome sequencing. Individual infectiousness can be estimated by measuring pathogen loads, but few studies have directly estimated the ability of infected hosts to transmit to uninfected hosts. Individuals' opportunities to transmit infection are dependent on behavioral and other risk factors relevant given the transmission route of the pathogen concerned. Transmission at the population level can be quantified through knowledge of risk factors in the population or phylogeographic analysis of pathogen sequence data. Mathematical model-based approaches require estimation of the per capita transmission rate and basic reproduction number, obtained by fitting models to case data and/or analysis of pathogen sequence data. Heterogeneities in infectiousness, contact behavior, and susceptibility can have substantial effects on the epidemiology of an infectious disease, so estimates of only mean values may be insufficient. For some pathogens, super-shedders (infected individuals who are highly infectious) and super-spreaders (individuals with more opportunities to transmit infection) may be important. Future work on quantifying transmission should involve integrated analyses of multiple data sources.

  19. Force transmissibility versus displacement transmissibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lage, Y. E.; Neves, M. M.; Maia, N. M. M.; Tcherniak, D.

    2014-10-01

    It is well-known that when a single-degree-of-freedom (sdof) system is excited by a continuous motion of the foundation, the force transmissibility, relating the force transmitted to the foundation to the applied force, equals the displacement transmissibility. Recent developments in the generalization of the transmissibility to multiple-degree-of-freedom (mdof) systems have shown that similar simple and direct relations between both types of transmissibility do not appear naturally from the definitions, as happens in the sdof case. In this paper, the authors present their studies on the conditions under which it is possible to establish a relation between force transmissibility and displacement transmissibility for mdof systems. As far as the authors are aware, such a relation is not currently found in the literature, which is justified by being based on recent developments in the transmissibility concept for mdof systems. Indeed, it does not appear naturally, but the authors observed that the needed link is present when the displacement transmissibility is obtained between the same coordinates where the applied and reaction forces are considered in the force transmissibility case; this implies that the boundary conditions are not exactly the same and instead follow some rules. This work presents a formal derivation of the explicit relation between the force and displacement transmissibilities for mdof systems, and discusses its potential and limitations. The authors show that it is possible to obtain the displacement transmissibility from measured forces, and the force transmissibility from measured displacements, opening new perspectives, for example, in the identification of applied or transmitted forces. With this novel relation, it becomes possible, for example, to estimate the force transmissibility matrix with the structure off its supports, in free boundary conditions, and without measuring the forces. As far as force identification is concerned, this

  20. Gallbladder radionuclide scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gallbladder scan; Biliary scan; Cholescintigraphy; HIDA; Hepatobiliary nuclear imaging scan ... test results. This test is combined with other imaging (such as CT or ultrasound). After the gallbladder ...

  1. Transmission Electron Microscope Studies of Martian 'Iddingsite' in the Nakhlite Meteorite MIL 090032

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallis, L.; Ishii, H.; Bradley, J. P.; Taylor, J.

    2012-12-01

    As with the other nakhlites, MIL 090032 contains iddingsite-like alteration veins in the olivine phenocrysts that reportedly originated on Mars[1]. These 'iddingsite' veins have been analysed in a number of the nakhlite meteorites[2], and the presence of hydrous silicate gel, smectite clays, siderite, Fe-oxides, gypsum and carbonate have been reported. The presence and proportion of these phases in the different nakhlites appears to relate to the composition and concentration of the martian brine that flowed through each, thus supporting the theory that the nakhlite secondary alteration phases were produced by an evaporation sequence on the surface of Mars[3]. We analyzed these martian 'iddingsite' veins in MIL 090032 with the aim of placing it and its three paired meteorites within the nakhlite alteration sequence. By expanding our knowledge of this alteration sequence, we will gain extra insight into the conditions on the martian surface at the time these 'iddingsite' veins formed (<1.3 Ga). We utilized the 80-300 kV aberration-corrected FEI Titan (Scanning) Transmission Electron Microscope (S-TEM) system at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to analyse a ~15×8μm Focused Ion Beam (FIB) section of an 'iddingsite' vein in MIL 090032. To allow the electrons to be transmitted through the FIB section, it was milled down to ~150 nm thickness. Our initial TEM data indicate this FIB section contains hydrous amorphous silicate gel towards the center, with areas of phyllosilicate (possibly nontronite) interspersed within this central zone. Towards the outer edge of the vein jarosite and then gypsum sulfates were present. At the very edge only partially broken down olivine was observed. The presence of phyllosilicate and silicate gel in this vein suggests the 'iddingsite' in MIL 090032 was produced by water-rich brine, and the abundance of sulfates suggests the brine was enriched in sulfur. This assemblage of minerals is most in line with that of the 'iddingsite

  2. Lumbar spine CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - lumbar spine; Computed axial tomography scan - lumbar spine; Computed tomography scan - lumbar spine; CT - lower back ... CT scans rapidly makes detailed pictures of the lower back. The test may be used to look for: ...

  3. Scanning Terahertz Heterodyne Imaging Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, Peter; Dengler, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Scanning terahertz heterodyne imaging systems are now at an early stage of development. In a basic scanning terahertz heterodyne imaging system, (see Figure 1) two far-infrared lasers generate beams denoted the local-oscillator (LO) and signal that differ in frequency by an amount, denoted the intermediate frequency (IF), chosen to suit the application. The LO beam is sent directly to a mixer as one of two inputs. The signal beam is focused to a spot on or in the specimen. After transmission through or reflection from the specimen, the beams are focused to a spot on a terahertz mixer, which extracts the IF outputs. The specimen is mounted on a translation stage, by means of which the focal spot is scanned across the specimen to build up an image.

  4. Improving Signal-to-Noise Ratio in Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Energy-Dispersive X-Ray (STEM-EDX) Spectrum Images Using Single-Atomic-Column Cross-Correlation Averaging.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jong Seok; Mkhoyan, K Andre

    2016-06-01

    Acquiring an atomic-resolution compositional map of crystalline specimens has become routine practice, thus opening possibilities for extracting subatomic information from such maps. A key challenge for achieving subatomic precision is the improvement of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of compositional maps. Here, we report a simple and reliable solution for achieving high-SNR energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy spectrum images for individual atomic columns. The method is based on standard cross-correlation aided by averaging of single-column EDX maps with modifications in the reference image. It produces EDX maps with minimal specimen drift, beam drift, and scan distortions. Step-by-step procedures to determine a self-consistent reference map with a discussion on the reliability, stability, and limitations of the method are presented here.

  5. Cellular lining of the sheep pineal recess studied by light-, transmission-, and scanning electron microscopy: morphologic indications for a direct secretion of melatonin from the pineal gland to the cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Tricoire, Hélène; Malpaux, Benoit; Møller, Morten

    2003-01-27

    In the sheep, the pineal hormone melatonin displays nocturnal levels 20 times as high in the cerebrospinal fluid of the third ventricle as in the jugular blood. Moreover, in the pineal recess, the evagination of the third ventricle into the pineal stalk, the levels of melatonin in the cerebrospinal fluid are even higher than in the ventral part of the third ventricle. This finding suggests melatonin to be secreted directly from the pineal gland to the ventricular lumen of the pineal recess of this species. We have, therefore, studied the interface between the sheep pineal gland and the cerebrospinal fluid by light-, scanning-, and electron microscopy of the pineal recess, as well as the permeability of the interface by tracer injections into the third ventricle. First, we show that the classic ependymal lining of the third ventricle disappears in the superior part of the recess. In this area, bulging pinealocytes, displaying immunoreactivity for serotonin, directly appose the cerebrospinal fluid. This pineal-cerebrospinal fluid interface of the sheep is large compared with other species, especially rodent species. Intraventricular injections of horseradish peroxidase and fluorescein isothiocyanate showed that both these tracers could permeate from the pineal recess into the sheep pineal parenchyma. This permeation was due to the presence of gap and intermediate junctions connecting the pinealocytes apposing the ventricular lumen. Thus, our results show that endocrine cells in this specialized area of the ventricular system are in direct contact with the cerebrospinal fluid. This finding supports the physiological concept of a direct secretion of melatonin into the cerebrospinal fluid of the sheep pineal recess. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Abdominal CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    Computed tomography scan - abdomen; CT scan - abdomen; CT abdomen and pelvis ... An abdominal CT scan makes detailed pictures of the structures inside your belly very quickly. This test may be used to look ...

  7. Cervical spine CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... cervical spine; Computed tomography scan of cervical spine; CT scan of cervical spine; Neck CT scan ... table that slides into the center of the CT scanner. Once you are inside the scanner, the ...

  8. LANL Robotic Vessel Scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Webber, Nels W.

    Los Alamos National Laboratory in J-1 DARHT Operations Group uses 6ft spherical vessels to contain hazardous materials produced in a hydrodynamic experiment. These contaminated vessels must be analyzed by means of a worker entering the vessel to locate, measure, and document every penetration mark on the vessel. If the worker can be replaced by a highly automated robotic system with a high precision scanner, it will eliminate the risks to the worker and provide management with an accurate 3D model of the vessel presenting the existing damage with the flexibility to manipulate the model for better and more in-depth assessment.Themore » project was successful in meeting the primary goal of installing an automated system which scanned a 6ft vessel with an elapsed time of 45 minutes. This robotic system reduces the total time for the original scope of work by 75 minutes and results in excellent data accumulation and transmission to the 3D model imaging program.« less

  9. Excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging microscope

    PubMed Central

    Favreau, Peter F.; Hernandez, Clarissa; Heaster, Tiffany; Alvarez, Diego F.; Rich, Thomas C.; Prabhat, Prashant; Leavesley, Silas J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Hyperspectral imaging is a versatile tool that has recently been applied to a variety of biomedical applications, notably live-cell and whole-tissue signaling. Traditional hyperspectral imaging approaches filter the fluorescence emission over a broad wavelength range while exciting at a single band. However, these emission-scanning approaches have shown reduced sensitivity due to light attenuation from spectral filtering. Consequently, emission scanning has limited applicability for time-sensitive studies and photosensitive applications. In this work, we have developed an excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging microscope that overcomes these limitations by providing high transmission with short acquisition times. This is achieved by filtering the fluorescence excitation rather than the emission. We tested the efficacy of the excitation-scanning microscope in a side-by-side comparison with emission scanning for detection of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing endothelial cells in highly autofluorescent lung tissue. Excitation scanning provided higher signal-to-noise characteristics, as well as shorter acquisition times (300  ms/wavelength band with excitation scanning versus 3  s/wavelength band with emission scanning). Excitation scanning also provided higher delineation of nuclear and cell borders, and increased identification of GFP regions in highly autofluorescent tissue. These results demonstrate excitation scanning has utility in a wide range of time-dependent and photosensitive applications. PMID:24727909

  10. Excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging microscope.

    PubMed

    Favreau, Peter F; Hernandez, Clarissa; Heaster, Tiffany; Alvarez, Diego F; Rich, Thomas C; Prabhat, Prashant; Leavesley, Silas J

    2014-04-01

    Hyperspectral imaging is a versatile tool that has recently been applied to a variety of biomedical applications, notably live-cell and whole-tissue signaling. Traditional hyperspectral imaging approaches filter the fluorescence emission over a broad wavelength range while exciting at a single band. However, these emission-scanning approaches have shown reduced sensitivity due to light attenuation from spectral filtering. Consequently, emission scanning has limited applicability for time-sensitive studies and photosensitive applications. In this work, we have developed an excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging microscope that overcomes these limitations by providing high transmission with short acquisition times. This is achieved by filtering the fluorescence excitation rather than the emission. We tested the efficacy of the excitation-scanning microscope in a side-by-side comparison with emission scanning for detection of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing endothelial cells in highly autofluorescent lung tissue. Excitation scanning provided higher signal-to-noise characteristics, as well as shorter acquisition times (300  ms/wavelength band with excitation scanning versus 3  s/wavelength band with emission scanning). Excitation scanning also provided higher delineation of nuclear and cell borders, and increased identification of GFP regions in highly autofluorescent tissue. These results demonstrate excitation scanning has utility in a wide range of time-dependent and photosensitive applications.

  11. Comparison between diffuse infrared and acoustic transmission over the human skull.

    PubMed

    Wang, Q; Reganti, N; Yoshioka, Y; Howell, M; Clement, G T

    2015-01-01

    Skull-induced distortion and attenuation present a challenge to both transcranial imaging and therapy. Whereas therapeutic procedures have been successful in offsetting aberration using from prior CTs, this approach impractical for imaging. In effort to provide a simplified means for aberration correction, we have been investigating the use of diffuse infrared light as an indicator of acoustic properties. Infrared wavelengths were specifically selected for tissue penetration; however this preliminary study was performed through bone alone via a transmission mode to facilitate comparison with acoustic measurements. The inner surface of a half human skull, cut along the sagittal midline, was illuminated using an infrared heat lamp and images of the outer surface were acquired with an IR-sensitive camera. A range of source angles were acquired and averaged to eliminate source bias. Acoustic measurement were likewise obtained over the surface with a source (1MHz, 12.7mm-diam) oriented parallel to the skull surface and hydrophone receiver (1mm PVDF). Preliminary results reveal a positive correlation between sound speed and optical intensity, whereas poor correlation is observed between acoustic amplitude and optical intensity.

  12. Scanning probe recognition microscopy investigation of tissue scaffold properties

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yuan; Chen, Qian; Ayres, Virginia M; Baczewski, Andrew D; Udpa, Lalita; Kumar, Shiva

    2007-01-01

    Scanning probe recognition microscopy is a new scanning probe microscopy technique which enables selective scanning along individual nanofibers within a tissue scaffold. Statistically significant data for multiple properties can be collected by repetitively fine-scanning an identical region of interest. The results of a scanning probe recognition microscopy investigation of the surface roughness and elasticity of a series of tissue scaffolds are presented. Deconvolution and statistical methods were developed and used for data accuracy along curved nanofiber surfaces. Nanofiber features were also independently analyzed using transmission electron microscopy, with results that supported the scanning probe recognition microscopy-based analysis. PMID:18203431

  13. Scanning probe recognition microscopy investigation of tissue scaffold properties.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yuan; Chen, Qian; Ayres, Virginia M; Baczewski, Andrew D; Udpa, Lalita; Kumar, Shiva

    2007-01-01

    Scanning probe recognition microscopy is a new scanning probe microscopy technique which enables selective scanning along individual nanofibers within a tissue scaffold. Statistically significant data for multiple properties can be collected by repetitively fine-scanning an identical region of interest. The results of a scanning probe recognition microscopy investigation of the surface roughness and elasticity of a series of tissue scaffolds are presented. Deconvolution and statistical methods were developed and used for data accuracy along curved nanofiber surfaces. Nanofiber features were also independently analyzed using transmission electron microscopy, with results that supported the scanning probe recognition microscopy-based analysis.

  14. Medical tomograph system using ultrasonic transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyser, Richard C. (Inventor); Nathan, Robert (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Ultrasonic energy transmission in rectilinear array scanning patterns of soft tissue provides projection density values of the tissue which are recorded as a function of scanning position and angular relationship, .theta., of the subject with a fixed coordinate system. A plurality of rectilinear scan arrays in the same plane for different angular relationships .theta..sub.1 . . . .theta..sub.n thus recorded are superimposed. The superimposition of intensity values thus yields a tomographic image of an internal section of the tissue in the scanning plane.

  15. Hydromechanical transmission

    DOEpatents

    Orshansky, Jr. deceased, Elias; Weseloh, William E.

    1978-01-01

    A power transmission having three planetary assemblies, each having its own carrier and its own planet, sun, and ring gears. A speed-varying module is connected in driving relation to the input shaft and in driving relationship to the three sun gears, all of which are connected together. The speed-varying means may comprise a pair of hydraulic units hydraulically interconnected so that one serves as a pump while the other serves as a motor and vice versa, one of the units having a variable stroke and being connected in driving relation to the input shaft, the other unit, which may have a fixed stroke, being connected in driving relation to the sun gears. The input shaft also drives the carrier of the third planetary assembly. A brake grounds the first carrier in the first range and in reverse and causes drive to be delivered to the output through the first ring gear in a hydrostatic mode. The carrier of the third planetary assembly drives the ring gear of the second planetary assembly, and a first clutching means connects the second carrier with the output in a second range, the brake for grounding the first carrier then being released. A second clutching means enables the third ring gear to drive the output shaft in a third range.

  16. RBC nuclear scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003835.htm RBC nuclear scan To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An RBC nuclear scan uses small amounts of radioactive material to ...

  17. Heart CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Computed tomography scan - heart; Calcium scoring; Multi-detector CT scan - heart; Electron beam computed tomography - heart; Agatston ... table that slides into the center of the CT scanner. You will lie on your back with ...

  18. Body CT (CAT Scan)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Body Computed tomography (CT) of the body uses ... of CT Scanning of the Body? What is CT Scanning of the Body? Computed tomography, more commonly ...

  19. Lung PET scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... PET - chest; PET - lung; PET - tumor imaging; PET/CT - lung; Solitary pulmonary nodule - PET ... minutes. PET scans are performed along with a CT scan. This is because the combined information from ...

  20. Big Data Analytics for Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Ptychography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jesse, S.; Chi, M.; Belianinov, A.; Beekman, C.; Kalinin, S. V.; Borisevich, A. Y.; Lupini, A. R.

    2016-05-01

    Electron microscopy is undergoing a transition; from the model of producing only a few micrographs, through the current state where many images and spectra can be digitally recorded, to a new mode where very large volumes of data (movies, ptychographic and multi-dimensional series) can be rapidly obtained. Here, we discuss the application of so-called “big-data” methods to high dimensional microscopy data, using unsupervised multivariate statistical techniques, in order to explore salient image features in a specific example of BiFeO3 domains. Remarkably, k-means clustering reveals domain differentiation despite the fact that the algorithm is purely statistical in nature and does not require any prior information regarding the material, any coexisting phases, or any differentiating structures. While this is a somewhat trivial case, this example signifies the extraction of useful physical and structural information without any prior bias regarding the sample or the instrumental modality. Further interpretation of these types of results may still require human intervention. However, the open nature of this algorithm and its wide availability, enable broad collaborations and exploratory work necessary to enable efficient data analysis in electron microscopy.