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Sample records for abeta oligomers show

  1. Alzheimer's-associated Abeta oligomers show altered structure, immunoreactivity and synaptotoxicity with low doses of oleocanthal.

    PubMed

    Pitt, Jason; Roth, William; Lacor, Pascale; Smith, Amos B; Blankenship, Matthew; Velasco, Pauline; De Felice, Fernanda; Breslin, Paul; Klein, William L

    2009-10-15

    It now appears likely that soluble oligomers of amyloid-beta1-42 peptide, rather than insoluble fibrils, act as the primary neurotoxin in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Consequently, compounds capable of altering the assembly state of these oligomers (referred to as ADDLs) may have potential for AD therapeutics. Phenolic compounds are of particular interest for their ability to disrupt Abeta oligomerization and reduce pathogenicity. This study has focused on oleocanthal (OC), a naturally-occurring phenolic compound found in extra-virgin olive oil. OC increased the immunoreactivity of soluble Abeta species, when assayed with both sequence- and conformation-specific Abeta antibodies, indicating changes in oligomer structure. Analysis of oligomers in the presence of OC showed an upward shift in MW and a ladder-like distribution of SDS-stable ADDL subspecies. In comparison with control ADDLs, oligomers formed in the presence of OC (Abeta-OC) showed equivalent colocalization at synapses but exhibited greater immunofluorescence as a result of increased antibody recognition. The enhanced signal at synapses was not due to increased synaptic binding, as direct detection of fluorescently-labeled ADDLs showed an overall reduction in ADDL signal in the presence of OC. Decreased binding to synapses was accompanied by significantly less synaptic deterioration assayed by drebrin loss. Additionally, treatment with OC improved antibody clearance of ADDLs. These results indicate oleocanthal is capable of altering the oligomerization state of ADDLs while protecting neurons from the synaptopathological effects of ADDLs and suggest OC as a lead compound for development in AD therapeutics.

  2. Alzheimer's-associated A{beta} oligomers show altered structure, immunoreactivity and synaptotoxicity with low doses of oleocanthal

    SciTech Connect

    Pitt, Jason Roth, William; Lacor, Pascale; Smith, Amos B.; Blankenship, Matthew; Velasco, Pauline; De Felice, Fernanda; Breslin, Paul Klein, William L.

    2009-10-15

    It now appears likely that soluble oligomers of amyloid-{beta}{sub 1-42} peptide, rather than insoluble fibrils, act as the primary neurotoxin in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Consequently, compounds capable of altering the assembly state of these oligomers (referred to as ADDLs) may have potential for AD therapeutics. Phenolic compounds are of particular interest for their ability to disrupt A{beta} oligomerization and reduce pathogenicity. This study has focused on oleocanthal (OC), a naturally-occurring phenolic compound found in extra-virgin olive oil. OC increased the immunoreactivity of soluble A{beta} species, when assayed with both sequence- and conformation-specific A{beta} antibodies, indicating changes in oligomer structure. Analysis of oligomers in the presence of OC showed an upward shift in MW and a ladder-like distribution of SDS-stable ADDL subspecies. In comparison with control ADDLs, oligomers formed in the presence of OC (A{beta}-OC) showed equivalent colocalization at synapses but exhibited greater immunofluorescence as a result of increased antibody recognition. The enhanced signal at synapses was not due to increased synaptic binding, as direct detection of fluorescently-labeled ADDLs showed an overall reduction in ADDL signal in the presence of OC. Decreased binding to synapses was accompanied by significantly less synaptic deterioration assayed by drebrin loss. Additionally, treatment with OC improved antibody clearance of ADDLs. These results indicate oleocanthal is capable of altering the oligomerization state of ADDLs while protecting neurons from the synaptopathological effects of ADDLs and suggest OC as a lead compound for development in AD therapeutics.

  3. Pathogenesis of Abeta oligomers in synaptic failure.

    PubMed

    Sivanesan, Senthilkumar; Tan, Aaron; Rajadas, Jayakumar

    2013-03-01

    The soluble Abeta oligomers in brain are highly correlated with memory related synaptic dysfunctions in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, more recent studies implicate the involvement of Abeta dimers and trimers in memory related AD pathology. Apparently, Abeta oligomers can bind with cellular prion protein at the membrane receptors, forming annular amyloid pores and membrane ion channels to induce aberrant spine cytoskeletal changes. Hence synapse targeting of Abeta oligomers involves activation of many receptors such as N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), alpha-amino-3- hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA), nicotinic acetylcholine (nAChRs), p75 neurotrophin (p75NTR) following aberrant clustering of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR5) leading to neuronal loss and LTP failure. In particular, NMDA and AMPA receptor activation by soluble amyloid oligomers involves calcium mediated mitochondrial dysfunction, decreased Ca((2+))/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) levels at the synapses accompanying dramatic loss of synaptic proteins such as postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95), dynamin-1 and synaptophysin. This kind of receptor-Abeta oligomer interaction might eventually affect the neuronal membrane integrity by altering dielectric barrier, various synaptic proteins, spine morphology and density and P/Q calcium currents that might provoke a cascade of events leading to neuronal loss and memory failure. In this review, we try to explain in detail the various possible mechanisms that connect Abeta oligomers with synapse damage and memory failure.

  4. High-resolution atomic force microscopy of soluble Abeta42 oligomers.

    PubMed

    Mastrangelo, Iris A; Ahmed, Mahiuddin; Sato, Takeshi; Liu, Wei; Wang, Chengpu; Hough, Paul; Smith, Steven O

    2006-04-21

    Soluble oligomers and protofibrils are widely thought to be the toxic forms of the Abeta42 peptide associated with Alzheimer's disease. We have investigated the structure and formation of these assemblies using a new approach in atomic force microscopy (AFM) that yields high-resolution images of hydrated proteins and allows the structure of the smallest molecular weight (MW) oligomers to be observed and characterized. AFM images of monomers, dimers and other low MW oligomers at early incubation times (< 1h) are consistent with a hairpin structure for the monomeric Abeta42 peptide. The low MW oligomers are relatively compact and have significant order. The most constant dimension of these oligomers is their height (approximately 1-3 nm) above the mica surface; their lateral dimensions (width and length) vary between 5 nm and 10nm. Flat nascent protofibrils with lengths of over 40 nm are observed at short incubation times (< or = 3h); their lateral dimensions of 6-8 nm are consistent with a mass-per-length of 9 kDa/nm previously predicted for the elementary fibril subunit. High MW oligomers with lateral dimensions of 15-25 nm and heights ranging from 2-8 nm are common at high concentrations of Abeta. We show that an inhibitor designed to block the sheet-to-sheet packing in Abeta fibrils is able to cap the heights of these oligomers at approximately 4 nm. The observation of fine structure in the high MW oligomers suggests that they are able to nucleate fibril formation. AFM images obtained as a function of incubation time reveal a sequence of assembly from monomers to soluble oligomers and protofibrils.

  5. Wnt-5a occludes Abeta oligomer-induced depression of glutamatergic transmission in hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Cerpa, Waldo; Farías, Ginny G; Godoy, Juan A; Fuenzalida, Marco; Bonansco, Christian; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2010-01-18

    Soluble amyloid-beta (Abeta;) oligomers have been recognized to be early and key intermediates in Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related synaptic dysfunction. Abeta oligomers block hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and impair rodent spatial memory. Wnt signaling plays an important role in neural development, including synaptic differentiation. We report here that the Wnt signaling activation prevents the synaptic damage triggered by Abeta oligomers. Electrophysiological analysis of Schaffer collaterals-CA1 glutamatergic synaptic transmission in hippocampal slices indicates that Wnt-5a increases the amplitude of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSP) and both AMPA and NMDA components of the excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs), without modifying the paired pulse facilitation (PPF). Conversely, in the presence of Abeta oligomers the fEPSP and EPSCs amplitude decreased without modification of the PPF, while the postsynaptic scaffold protein (PSD-95) decreased as well. Co-perfusion of hippocampal slices with Wnt-5a and Abeta oligomers occludes against the synaptic depression of EPSCs as well as the reduction of PSD-95 clusters induced by Abeta oligomers in neuronal cultures. Taken together these results indicate that Wnt-5a and Abeta oligomers inversely modulate postsynaptic components. These results indicate that post-synaptic damage induced by Abeta oligomers in hippocampal neurons is prevented by non-canonical Wnt pathway activation.

  6. Structural differences between Abeta(1-40) intermediate oligomers and fibrils elucidated by proteolytic fragmentation and hydrogen/deuterium exchange.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Aming; Qi, Wei; Good, Theresa A; Fernandez, Erik J

    2009-02-01

    The aggregation of amyloid-beta protein (Abeta) in vivo is a critical pathological event in Alzheimer's disease. Although more and more evidence shows that the intermediate oligomers are the primary neurotoxic species in Alzheimer's disease, the particular structural features responsible for the toxicity of these intermediates are poorly understood. We measured the peptide level solvent accessibility of multiple Abeta(1-40) aggregated states using hydrogen exchange detected by mass spectrometry. A gradual reduction in solvent accessibility, spreading from the C-terminal region to the N-terminal region was observed with ever more aggregated states of Abeta peptide. The observed hydrogen exchange protection begins with reporter peptides 20-34 and 35-40 in low molecular weight oligomers found in fresh samples and culminates with increasing solvent protection of reporter peptide 1-16 in long time aged fibrillar species. The more solvent exposed structure of intermediate oligomers in the N-termini relative to well-developed fibrils provides a novel explanation for the structure-dependent neurotoxicity of soluble oligomers reported previously.

  7. Monomer adds to preformed structured oligomers of Abeta-peptides by a two-stage dock-lock mechanism.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phuong H; Li, Mai Suan; Stock, Gerhard; Straub, John E; Thirumalai, D

    2007-01-02

    Nonfibrillar soluble oligomers, which are intermediates in the transition from monomers to amyloid fibrils, may be the toxic species in Alzheimer's disease. To monitor the early events that direct assembly of amyloidogenic peptides we probe the dynamics of formation of (Abeta(16-22))(n) by adding a monomer to a preformed (Abeta(16-22))(n-1) (n = 4-6) oligomer in which the peptides are arranged in an antiparallel beta-sheet conformation. All atom molecular dynamics simulations in water and multiple long trajectories, for a cumulative time of 6.9 mus, show that the oligomer grows by a two-stage dock-lock mechanism. The largest conformational change in the added disordered monomer occurs during the rapid ( approximately 50 ns) first dock stage in which the beta-strand content of the monomer increases substantially from a low initial value. In the second slow-lock phase, the monomer rearranges to form in register antiparallel structures. Surprisingly, the mobile structured oligomers undergo large conformational changes in order to accommodate the added monomer. The time needed to incorporate the monomer into the fluid-like oligomer grows even when n = 6, which suggests that the critical nucleus size must exceed six. Stable antiparallel structure formation exceeds hundreds of nanoseconds even though frequent interpeptide collisions occur at elevated monomer concentrations used in the simulations. The dock-lock mechanism should be a generic mechanism for growth of oligomers of amyloidogenic peptides.

  8. Alzheimer's therapeutics targeting amyloid beta 1-42 oligomers II: Sigma-2/PGRMC1 receptors mediate Abeta 42 oligomer binding and synaptotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Izzo, Nicholas J; Xu, Jinbin; Zeng, Chenbo; Kirk, Molly J; Mozzoni, Kelsie; Silky, Colleen; Rehak, Courtney; Yurko, Raymond; Look, Gary; Rishton, Gilbert; Safferstein, Hank; Cruchaga, Carlos; Goate, Alison; Cahill, Michael A; Arancio, Ottavio; Mach, Robert H; Craven, Rolf; Head, Elizabeth; LeVine, Harry; Spires-Jones, Tara L; Catalano, Susan M

    2014-01-01

    Amyloid beta (Abeta) 1-42 oligomers accumulate in brains of patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and disrupt synaptic plasticity processes that underlie memory formation. Synaptic binding of Abeta oligomers to several putative receptor proteins is reported to inhibit long-term potentiation, affect membrane trafficking and induce reversible spine loss in neurons, leading to impaired cognitive performance and ultimately to anterograde amnesia in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have identified a receptor not previously associated with AD that mediates the binding of Abeta oligomers to neurons, and describe novel therapeutic antagonists of this receptor capable of blocking Abeta toxic effects on synapses in vitro and cognitive deficits in vivo. Knockdown of sigma-2/PGRMC1 (progesterone receptor membrane component 1) protein expression in vitro using siRNA results in a highly correlated reduction in binding of exogenous Abeta oligomers to neurons of more than 90%. Expression of sigma-2/PGRMC1 is upregulated in vitro by treatment with Abeta oligomers, and is dysregulated in Alzheimer's disease patients' brain compared to age-matched, normal individuals. Specific, high affinity small molecule receptor antagonists and antibodies raised against specific regions on this receptor can displace synthetic Abeta oligomer binding to synaptic puncta in vitro and displace endogenous human AD patient oligomers from brain tissue sections in a dose-dependent manner. These receptor antagonists prevent and reverse the effects of Abeta oligomers on membrane trafficking and synapse loss in vitro and cognitive deficits in AD mouse models. These findings suggest sigma-2/PGRMC1 receptors mediate saturable oligomer binding to synaptic puncta on neurons and that brain penetrant, small molecules can displace endogenous and synthetic oligomers and improve cognitive deficits in AD models. We propose that sigma-2/PGRMC1 is a key mediator of the pathological effects of

  9. Alzheimer's Therapeutics Targeting Amyloid Beta 1–42 Oligomers II: Sigma-2/PGRMC1 Receptors Mediate Abeta 42 Oligomer Binding and Synaptotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Izzo, Nicholas J.; Xu, Jinbin; Zeng, Chenbo; Kirk, Molly J.; Mozzoni, Kelsie; Silky, Colleen; Rehak, Courtney; Yurko, Raymond; Look, Gary; Rishton, Gilbert; Safferstein, Hank; Cruchaga, Carlos; Goate, Alison; Cahill, Michael A.; Arancio, Ottavio; Mach, Robert H.; Craven, Rolf; Head, Elizabeth; LeVine, Harry; Spires-Jones, Tara L.; Catalano, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Amyloid beta (Abeta) 1–42 oligomers accumulate in brains of patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and disrupt synaptic plasticity processes that underlie memory formation. Synaptic binding of Abeta oligomers to several putative receptor proteins is reported to inhibit long-term potentiation, affect membrane trafficking and induce reversible spine loss in neurons, leading to impaired cognitive performance and ultimately to anterograde amnesia in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have identified a receptor not previously associated with AD that mediates the binding of Abeta oligomers to neurons, and describe novel therapeutic antagonists of this receptor capable of blocking Abeta toxic effects on synapses in vitro and cognitive deficits in vivo. Knockdown of sigma-2/PGRMC1 (progesterone receptor membrane component 1) protein expression in vitro using siRNA results in a highly correlated reduction in binding of exogenous Abeta oligomers to neurons of more than 90%. Expression of sigma-2/PGRMC1 is upregulated in vitro by treatment with Abeta oligomers, and is dysregulated in Alzheimer's disease patients' brain compared to age-matched, normal individuals. Specific, high affinity small molecule receptor antagonists and antibodies raised against specific regions on this receptor can displace synthetic Abeta oligomer binding to synaptic puncta in vitro and displace endogenous human AD patient oligomers from brain tissue sections in a dose-dependent manner. These receptor antagonists prevent and reverse the effects of Abeta oligomers on membrane trafficking and synapse loss in vitro and cognitive deficits in AD mouse models. These findings suggest sigma-2/PGRMC1 receptors mediate saturable oligomer binding to synaptic puncta on neurons and that brain penetrant, small molecules can displace endogenous and synthetic oligomers and improve cognitive deficits in AD models. We propose that sigma-2/PGRMC1 is a key mediator of the pathological effects of

  10. Combining the rapid MTT formazan exocytosis assay and the MC65 protection assay led to the discovery of carbazole analogs as small molecule inhibitors of Abeta oligomer-induced cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hyun-Seok; Maezawa, Izumi; Yao, Nianhuan; Xu, Bailing; Diaz-Avalos, Ruben; Rana, Sandeep; Hua, Duy H; Cheng, R Holland; Lam, Kit S; Jin, Lee-Way

    2007-01-26

    The discovery of small molecule inhibitors of cytotoxicity induced by amyloid-beta (Abeta) oligomers, either applied extracellularly or accumulated intraneuronally, is an important goal of drug development for Alzheimer's disease (AD), but has been limited by the lack of efficient screening methods. Here we describe our approach using two cell-based methods. The first method takes advantage of the unique ability of extracellularly applied Abeta oligomers to rapidly induce the exocytosis of formazan formed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT). We employed a short protocol to quantify this toxicity, and quickly identified two novel inhibitors, code-named CP2 and A5, from two compound libraries. A second independent screen of the same libraries using our previously published MC65 protection assay, which identifies inhibitors of toxicity related to intracellular Abeta oligomers, also selected the same two leads, suggesting that both assays select for the same anti-Abeta oligomer properties displayed by these compounds. We further demonstrated that A5 attenuated the progressive aggregation of existing Abeta oligomers, reduced the level of intracellular Abeta oligomers, and prevented the Abeta oligomer-induced death of primary cortical neurons, effects similar to those demonstrated by CP2. Our results suggest that, when combined, the two methods would generate fewer false results and give a high likelihood of identifying leads that show promises in ameliorating Abeta oligomer-induced toxicities within both intraneuronal and extracellular sites. Both assays are simple, suitable for rapid screening of a large number of medicinal libraries, and amenable for automation.

  11. Polymorphism of Alzheimer's Abeta17-42 (p3) oligomers: the importance of the turn location and its conformation.

    PubMed

    Miller, Yifat; Ma, Buyong; Nussinov, Ruth

    2009-08-19

    Abeta(17-42) (so-called p3) amyloid is detected in vivo in the brains of individuals with Alzheimer's disease or Down's syndrome. We investigated the polymorphism of Abeta(17-42) oligomers based on experimental data from steady-state NMR measurements, electron microscopy, two-dimensional hydrogen exchange, and mutational studies, using all-atom molecular-dynamics simulation with explicit solvent. We assessed the structural stability and the populations. Our results suggest that conformational differences in the U-turn of Abeta(17-42) lead to polymorphism in beta-sheet registration and retention of an ordered beta-strand organization at the termini. Further, although the parallel Abeta(17-42) oligomer organization is the most stable of the conformers investigated here, different antiparallel Abeta(17-42) organizations are also stable and compete with the parallel architectures, presenting a polymorphic population. In this study we propose that 1), the U-turn conformation is the primary factor leading to polymorphism in the assembly of Abeta(17-42) oligomers, and is also coupled to oligomer growth; and 2), both parallel Abeta(17-42) oligomers and an assembly of Abeta(17-42) oligomers that includes both parallel and antiparallel organizations contribute to amyloid fibril formation. Finally, since a U-turn motif generally appears in amyloids formed by full proteins or long fragments, and since to date these have been shown to exist only in parallel architectures, our results apply to a broad range of oligomers and fibrils.

  12. Alzheimer's Therapeutics Targeting Amyloid Beta 1–42 Oligomers I: Abeta 42 Oligomer Binding to Specific Neuronal Receptors Is Displaced by Drug Candidates That Improve Cognitive Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Izzo, Nicholas J.; Staniszewski, Agnes; To, Lillian; Fa, Mauro; Teich, Andrew F.; Saeed, Faisal; Wostein, Harrison; Walko, Thomas; Vaswani, Anisha; Wardius, Meghan; Syed, Zanobia; Ravenscroft, Jessica; Mozzoni, Kelsie; Silky, Colleen; Rehak, Courtney; Yurko, Raymond; Finn, Patricia; Look, Gary; Rishton, Gilbert; Safferstein, Hank; Miller, Miles; Johanson, Conrad; Stopa, Edward; Windisch, Manfred; Hutter-Paier, Birgit; Shamloo, Mehrdad; Arancio, Ottavio; LeVine, Harry; Catalano, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Synaptic dysfunction and loss caused by age-dependent accumulation of synaptotoxic beta amyloid (Abeta) 1–42 oligomers is proposed to underlie cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Alterations in membrane trafficking induced by Abeta oligomers mediates reduction in neuronal surface receptor expression that is the basis for inhibition of electrophysiological measures of synaptic plasticity and thus learning and memory. We have utilized phenotypic screens in mature, in vitro cultures of rat brain cells to identify small molecules which block or prevent the binding and effects of Abeta oligomers. Synthetic Abeta oligomers bind saturably to a single site on neuronal synapses and induce deficits in membrane trafficking in neuronal cultures with an EC50 that corresponds to its binding affinity. The therapeutic lead compounds we have found are pharmacological antagonists of Abeta oligomers, reducing the binding of Abeta oligomers to neurons in vitro, preventing spine loss in neurons and preventing and treating oligomer-induced deficits in membrane trafficking. These molecules are highly brain penetrant and prevent and restore cognitive deficits in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease. Counter-screening these compounds against a broad panel of potential CNS targets revealed they are highly potent and specific ligands of the sigma-2/PGRMC1 receptor. Brain concentrations of the compounds corresponding to greater than 80% receptor occupancy at the sigma-2/PGRMC1 receptor restore cognitive function in transgenic hAPP Swe/Ldn mice. These studies demonstrate that synthetic and human-derived Abeta oligomers act as pharmacologically-behaved ligands at neuronal receptors - i.e. they exhibit saturable binding to a target, they exert a functional effect related to their binding and their displacement by small molecule antagonists blocks their functional effect. The first-in-class small molecule receptor antagonists described here restore memory to normal in multiple AD

  13. Alzheimer's therapeutics targeting amyloid beta 1-42 oligomers I: Abeta 42 oligomer binding to specific neuronal receptors is displaced by drug candidates that improve cognitive deficits.

    PubMed

    Izzo, Nicholas J; Staniszewski, Agnes; To, Lillian; Fa, Mauro; Teich, Andrew F; Saeed, Faisal; Wostein, Harrison; Walko, Thomas; Vaswani, Anisha; Wardius, Meghan; Syed, Zanobia; Ravenscroft, Jessica; Mozzoni, Kelsie; Silky, Colleen; Rehak, Courtney; Yurko, Raymond; Finn, Patricia; Look, Gary; Rishton, Gilbert; Safferstein, Hank; Miller, Miles; Johanson, Conrad; Stopa, Edward; Windisch, Manfred; Hutter-Paier, Birgit; Shamloo, Mehrdad; Arancio, Ottavio; LeVine, Harry; Catalano, Susan M

    2014-01-01

    Synaptic dysfunction and loss caused by age-dependent accumulation of synaptotoxic beta amyloid (Abeta) 1-42 oligomers is proposed to underlie cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Alterations in membrane trafficking induced by Abeta oligomers mediates reduction in neuronal surface receptor expression that is the basis for inhibition of electrophysiological measures of synaptic plasticity and thus learning and memory. We have utilized phenotypic screens in mature, in vitro cultures of rat brain cells to identify small molecules which block or prevent the binding and effects of Abeta oligomers. Synthetic Abeta oligomers bind saturably to a single site on neuronal synapses and induce deficits in membrane trafficking in neuronal cultures with an EC50 that corresponds to its binding affinity. The therapeutic lead compounds we have found are pharmacological antagonists of Abeta oligomers, reducing the binding of Abeta oligomers to neurons in vitro, preventing spine loss in neurons and preventing and treating oligomer-induced deficits in membrane trafficking. These molecules are highly brain penetrant and prevent and restore cognitive deficits in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease. Counter-screening these compounds against a broad panel of potential CNS targets revealed they are highly potent and specific ligands of the sigma-2/PGRMC1 receptor. Brain concentrations of the compounds corresponding to greater than 80% receptor occupancy at the sigma-2/PGRMC1 receptor restore cognitive function in transgenic hAPP Swe/Ldn mice. These studies demonstrate that synthetic and human-derived Abeta oligomers act as pharmacologically-behaved ligands at neuronal receptors--i.e. they exhibit saturable binding to a target, they exert a functional effect related to their binding and their displacement by small molecule antagonists blocks their functional effect. The first-in-class small molecule receptor antagonists described here restore memory to normal in multiple AD models

  14. Polyalanine and Abeta Aggregation Kinetics: Probing Intermediate Oligomer Formation and Structure Using Computer Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelps, Erin Melissa

    2011-12-01

    The aggregation of proteins into stable, well-ordered structures known as amyloid fibrils has been associated with many neurodegenerative diseases. Amyloid fibrils are long straight, and un-branched structures containing several proto-filaments, each of which exhibits "cross beta structure," -- ribbon-like layers of large beta sheets whose strands run perpendicular to the fibril axis. It has been suggested in the literature that the pathway to fibril formation has the following steps: unfolded monomers associate into transient unstable oligomers, the oligomers undergo a rearrangement into the cross-beta structure and form into proto-filaments, these proto-filaments then associate and grow into fully formed fibrils. Recent experimental studies have determined that the unstable intermediate structures are toxic to cells and that their presence may play a key role in the pathogenesis of the amyloid diseases. Many efforts have been made to determine the structure of intermediate oligomer aggregates that form during the fibrillization process. The goal of this work is to provide details about the structure and formation kinetics of the unstable oligomers that appear in the fibril formation pathway. The specific aims of this work are to determine the steps in the fibril formation pathway and how the kinetics of fibrillization changes with variations in temperature and concentration. The method used is the application of discontinuous molecular dynamics to large systems of peptides represented with an intermediate resolution model, PRIME, that was previously developed in our group. Three different peptide sequences are simulated: polyalanine (KA14K), Abeta17-40, and Abeta17-42; the latter two are truncated sequences of the Alzheimer's peptide. We simulate the spontaneous assembly of these peptide chains from a random initial configuration of random coils. We investigate aggregation kinetics and oligomer formation of a system of 192 polyalanine (KA14K) chains over a

  15. Ellagic acid promotes A{beta}42 fibrillization and inhibits A{beta}42-induced neurotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Ying; Yang, Shi-gao; Du, Xue-ting; Zhang, Xi; Sun, Xiao-xia; Zhao, Min; Sun, Gui-yuan; Liu, Rui-tian

    2009-12-25

    Smaller, soluble oligomers of {beta}-amyloid (A{beta}) play a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Selective inhibition of A{beta} oligomer formation provides an optimum target for AD therapy. Some polyphenols have potent anti-amyloidogenic activities and protect against A{beta} neurotoxicity. Here, we tested the effects of ellagic acid (EA), a polyphenolic compound, on A{beta}42 aggregation and neurotoxicity in vitro. EA promoted A{beta} fibril formation and significant oligomer loss, contrary to previous results that polyphenols inhibited A{beta} aggregation. The results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Western blot displayed more fibrils in A{beta}42 samples co-incubated with EA in earlier phases of aggregation. Consistent with the hypothesis that plaque formation may represent a protective mechanism in which the body sequesters toxic A{beta} aggregates to render them harmless, our MTT results showed that EA could significantly reduce A{beta}42-induced neurotoxicity toward SH-SY5Y cells. Taken together, our results suggest that EA, an active ingredient in many fruits and nuts, may have therapeutic potential in AD.

  16. Spontaneous Formation of Oligomers and Fibrils in Large-Scale Molecular Dynamics Simulations of A-beta Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Carol

    2013-03-01

    Protein aggregation is associated with serious and eventually-fatal neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. While atomic resolution molecular dynamics simulations have been useful in this regard, they are limited to examination of either oligomer formation by a small number of peptides or analysis of the stability of a moderate number of peptides placed in trial or known experimental structures. We describe large scale intermediate-resolution molecular dynamics simulations of the spontaneous formation of fibrils by systems containing large numbers (48) of peptides including A-beta (16-22), and A-beta (17-42) peptides. We trace out the aggregation process from an initial configuration of random coils to proto-filaments with cross- β structures and demonstrate how kinetics dictates the structural details of the fully formed fibril. Fibrillization kinetics depends strongly on the temperature. Nucleation and templated growth via monomer addition occur at and near a transition temperature above which fibrils are unlikely to form. Oligomeric merging and structural rearrangement are observed at lower temperatures. In collaboration with Mookyung Cheon, Iksoo Chang, Pusan University; and David Latshaw, North Carolina State University.

  17. Monoclonal antibodies that target pathological assemblies of Abeta.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Mary P; Velasco, Pauline T; Chang, Lei; Viola, Kirsten L; Fernandez, Sara; Lacor, Pascale N; Khuon, Daliya; Gong, Yuesong; Bigio, Eileen H; Shaw, Pamela; De Felice, Fernanda G; Krafft, Grant A; Klein, William L

    2007-01-01

    Amyloid beta (Abeta) immunotherapy for Alzheimer's disease has shown initial success in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease and in human patients. However, because of meningoencephalitis in clinical trials of active vaccination, approaches using therapeutic antibodies may be preferred. As a novel antigen to generate monoclonal antibodies, the current study has used Abeta oligomers (amyloid beta-derived diffusible ligands, ADDLs), pathological assemblies known to accumulate in Alzheimer's disease brain. Clones were selected for the ability to discriminate Alzheimer's disease from control brains in extracts and tissue sections. These antibodies recognized Abeta oligomers and fibrils but not the physiologically prevalent Abeta monomer. Discrimination derived from an epitope found in assemblies of Abeta1-28 and ADDLs but not in other sequences, including Abeta1-40. Immunoneutralization experiments showed that toxicity and attachment of ADDLs to synapses in culture could be prevented. ADDL-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was also inhibited, establishing this response to be oligomer-dependent. Inhibition occurred whether ADDLs were prepared in vitro or obtained from Alzheimer's disease brain. As conformationally sensitive monoclonal antibodies that selectively immunoneutralize binding and function of pathological Abeta assemblies, these antibodies provide tools by which pathological Abeta assemblies from Alzheimer's disease brain might be isolated and evaluated, as well as offering a valuable prototype for new antibodies useful for Alzheimer's disease therapeutics.

  18. Key residues for the oligomerization of A{beta}42 protein in Alzheimer's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Ngo, Sam; Guo, Zhefeng

    2011-10-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A{beta} oligomers are neurotoxins and likely the causing agents for Alzheimer's disease. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A{beta}42 fusion protein form globular oligomers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A{beta}42 fusion protein oligomers contain SDS-resistant tetramers and hexamers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cysteine substitutions at residues 31, 32, 34, 39-41 disrupt A{beta}42 oligomerization. -- Abstract: Deposition of amyloid fibrils consisting of amyloid {beta} (A{beta}) protein as senile plaques in the brain is a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. However, a growing body of evidence shows that soluble A{beta} oligomers correlate better with dementia than fibrils, suggesting that A{beta} oligomers may be the primary toxic species. The structure and oligomerization mechanism of these A{beta} oligomers are crucial for developing effective therapeutics. Here we investigated the oligomerization of A{beta}42 in the context of a fusion protein containing GroES and ubiquitin fused to the N-terminus of A{beta} sequence. The presence of fusion protein partners, in combination with a denaturing buffer containing 8 M urea at pH 10, is unfavorable for A{beta}42 aggregation, thus allowing only the most stable structures to be observed. Transmission electron microscopy showed that A{beta}42 fusion protein formed globular oligomers, which bound weakly to thioflavin T and Congo red. SDS-PAGE shows that A{beta}42 fusion protein formed SDS-resistant hexamers and tetramers. In contrast, A{beta}40 fusion protein remained as monomers on SDS gel, suggesting that the oligomerization of A{beta}42 fusion protein is not due to the fusion protein partners. Cysteine scanning mutagenesis at 22 residue positions further revealed that single cysteine substitutions of the C-terminal hydrophobic residues (I31, I32, L34, V39, V40, and I41) led to disruption of hexamer and tetramer formation, suggesting that hydrophobic interactions between these

  19. Oral vaccination with a viral vector containing Abeta cDNA attenuates age-related Abeta accumulation and memory deficits without causing inflammation in a mouse Alzheimer model.

    PubMed

    Mouri, Akihiro; Noda, Yukihiro; Hara, Hideo; Mizoguchi, Hiroyuki; Tabira, Takeshi; Nabeshima, Toshitaka

    2007-07-01

    Immunotherapy with Abeta is expected to bring great improvement for Alzheimer disease (AD). However, clinical trials have been suspended because of meningoencephalitics, which accompanied lymphocytic infiltration. We have developed an oral vaccine for AD with a recombinant adeno-associated viral vector carrying Abeta cDNA (AAV/Abeta). The vaccine reduces the amount of Abeta deposited without lymphocytic infiltration in APP transgenic (Tg2576) mice. In the present study, Tg2576 mice showed progressive cognitive impairments in the novel object recognition test, Y-maze test, water maze test, and contextual conditioned fear learning test. A single oral administration of AAV/Abeta to Tg2576 mice at the age of 10 months alleviated progressive cognitive impairment with decreased Abeta deposition, insoluble Abeta, soluble Abeta oligomer (Abeta*56), microglial attraction, and synaptic degeneration induced in the brain regions at the age of 13 months. A histological analysis with hematoxylin and eosin and an immunohistochemical analysis with antibodies against CD3, CD4, CD8, and CD19 suggested there was no lymphocytic infiltration or microhemorrhage in the brain of AAV/Abeta-vaccinated Tg2576 mice at 13 months of age. Taken together, these results suggest that immunotherapy with AAV/Abeta is a safe and effective treatment for AD.

  20. Identification of low molecular weight pyroglutamate A{beta} oligomers in Alzheimer disease: a novel tool for therapy and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Wirths, Oliver; Erck, Christian; Martens, Henrik; Harmeier, Anja; Geumann, Constanze; Jawhar, Sadim; Kumar, Sathish; Multhaup, Gerd; Walter, Jochen; Ingelsson, Martin; Degerman-Gunnarsson, Malin; Kalimo, Hannu; Huitinga, Inge; Lannfelt, Lars; Bayer, Thomas A

    2010-12-31

    N-terminally truncated Aβ peptides starting with pyroglutamate (AβpE3) represent a major fraction of all Aβ peptides in the brain of Alzheimer disease (AD) patients. AβpE3 has a higher aggregation propensity and stability and shows increased toxicity compared with full-length Aβ. In the present work, we generated a novel monoclonal antibody (9D5) that selectively recognizes oligomeric assemblies of AβpE3 and studied the potential involvement of oligomeric AβpE3 in vivo using transgenic mouse models as well as human brains from sporadic and familial AD cases. 9D5 showed an unusual staining pattern with almost nondetectable plaques in sporadic AD patients and non-demented controls. Interestingly, in sporadic and familial AD cases prominent intraneuronal and blood vessel staining was observed. Using a novel sandwich ELISA significantly decreased levels of oligomers in plasma samples from patients with AD compared with healthy controls were identified. Moreover, passive immunization of 5XFAD mice with 9D5 significantly reduced overall Aβ plaque load and AβpE3 levels, and normalized behavioral deficits. These data indicate that 9D5 is a therapeutically and diagnostically effective monoclonal antibody targeting low molecular weight AβpE3 oligomers.

  1. Comparative molecular dynamics study of Abeta adsorption on the self-assembled monolayers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiuming; Zhao, Chao; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Jingdai; Yang, Jui-Chen; Yu, Xiang; Zheng, Jie

    2010-03-02

    The adsorption and aggregation of the amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptides on the cell membrane plays a causal role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Here, we report all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study the interactions of Abeta oligomer with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) terminated with hydrophobic CH(3) and hydrophilic OH functional groups, with particular interests in how surface chemistry and Abeta orientation affect the adsorption behavior of Abeta. Simulation results show that the CH(3)-SAM has a stronger binding affinity to Abeta than the OH-SAM does, although both surfaces can induce Abeta adsorption. Regardless of the characteristics of the surface, the hydrophobic C-terminal region is more likely to be adsorbed on the SAMs, indicating a preferential orientation and interface for Abeta adsorption. Structural and energetic comparison among six Abeta-SAM systems further reveals that Abeta orientation, SAM surface hydrophobicity, and interfacial waters all determine Abeta adsorption behavior on the surface, highlighting the importance of hydrophobic interactions at the interface. This work may provide parallel insights into the interactions of Abeta with lipid bilayers.

  2. Sedimentation studies on human amylin fail to detect low-molecular-weight oligomers.

    PubMed

    Vaiana, Sara M; Ghirlando, Rodolfo; Yau, Wai-Ming; Eaton, William A; Hofrichter, James

    2008-04-01

    Sedimentation velocity experiments show that only monomers coexist with amyloid fibrils of human islet amyloid-polypeptide. No oligomers containing <100 monomers could be detected, suggesting that the putative toxic oligomers are much larger than those found for the Alzheimer's peptide, Abeta(1-42).

  3. Alternative Abeta immunotherapy approaches for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Town, Terrence

    2009-04-01

    In a seminal report in 1999, Schenk and colleagues demonstrated that vaccination of a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) with amyloid-beta(1-42) peptide (Abeta(1-42)) and adjuvant resulted in striking mitigation of AD-like pathology - giving rise to the field of AD immunotherapy. Later studies confirmed this result in other mouse models of AD and additionally showed cognitive improvement after Abeta vaccination. Based on these results, early developmental clinical trials ensued to immunize AD patients with Abeta(1-42) plus adjuvant (so-called "active" Abeta immunotherapy; trade name AN-1792; Elan Pharmaceuticals, Dublin, Ireland). However, the phase IIa trial was halted after 6 % of patients developed aseptic meningoencephalitis. Despite occurrence of this adverse event, many individuals demonstrated high serum antibody titres to Abeta and histological evidence of clearance of the hallmark AD pathology, beta-amyloid plaques. While raising justifiable safety concerns, these important results nonetheless demonstrated the feasibility of the active Abeta immunotherapy approach. This review focuses on alternative approaches to active Abeta vaccination that are currently in various stages of development - from pre-clinical studies in animal models to current clinical trials. Specifically, the focus is on those strategies that target inflammatory and immune aspects of AD, and can therefore be classified as immunotherapeutic in a broad sense.

  4. Human plasma contains cross-reactive Abeta conformer-specific IgG antibodies.

    PubMed

    O'Nuallain, Brian; Acero, Luis; Williams, Angela D; Koeppen, Helen P McWilliams; Weber, Alfred; Schwarz, Hans P; Wall, Jonathan S; Weiss, Deborah T; Solomon, Alan

    2008-11-25

    Two conformers of aggregated Abeta, i.e., fibrils and oligomers, have been deemed important in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. We now report that intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) derived from pools of human plasma contains IgGs that recognize conformational epitopes present on fibrils and oligomers, but not their soluble monomeric precursor. We have used affinity chromatography to isolate these antibodies and have shown that they cross-reacted with comparable nanomolar avidity with both types of Abeta aggregates; notably, binding was not inhibited by soluble Abeta monomers. Our studies provide further support for investigating the therapeutic use of IVIG in Alzheimer's disease.

  5. Characterisation of two antibodies to oligomeric Abeta and their use in ELISAs on human brain tissue homogenates.

    PubMed

    van Helmond, Zoë; Heesom, Kate; Love, Seth

    2009-01-30

    Oligomeric forms of Abeta are believed to be the major toxic species of this peptide in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although the characterisation of oligomer-specific antibodies has been reported, these have not been successfully incorporated into an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and measurement of the levels of oligomeric Abeta in brain tissue has remained problematic. We have examined the specificity of two monoclonal antibodies, 7 A1a and 1G5, for synthetic oligomers of Abeta(1-42) and for oligomeric Abeta(1-42) in human brain homogenates, and the utility of these two antibodies for measuring oligomeric Abeta(1-42) by sandwich ELISA. Both antibodies were found to recognise a range of synthetic oligomers of Abeta(1-42) but to cross-react in Western blots with a 34 kDa protein, shown by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to be tropomyosin. However, by using 7A1a and 1 G5 in combination with an Abeta(1-42) capture antibody, we were able specifically to detect and to measure the levels of oligomeric Abeta(1-42) in brain homogenates by ELISA. The development of a simple ELISA for measurement of oligomeric Abeta should facilitate further studies of the role of oligomeric species of Abeta in AD.

  6. Annular structures as intermediates in fibril formation of Alzheimer Abeta17-42.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jie; Jang, Hyunbum; Ma, Buyong; Nussinov, Ruth

    2008-06-05

    We report all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of annular beta-amyloid (17-42) structures, single- and double-layered, in solution. We assess the structural stability and association force of Abeta annular oligomers associated through different interfaces, with a mutated sequence (M35A), and with the oxidation state (M35O). Simulation results show that single-layered annular models display inherent structural instability: one is broken down into linear-like oligomers, and the other collapses. On the other hand, a double-layered annular structure where the two layers interact through their C-termini to form an NC-CN interface (where N and C are the N and C termini, respectively) exhibits high structural stability over the simulation time due to strong hydrophobic interactions and geometrical constraints induced by the closed circular shape. The observed dimensions and molecular weight of the oligomers from atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments are found to correspond well to our stable double-layered model with the NC-CN interface. Comparison with K3 annular structures derived from the beta 2-microglobulin suggests that the driving force for amyloid formation is sequence specific, strongly dependent on side-chain packing arrangements, structural morphologies, sequence composition, and residue positions. Combined with our previous simulations of linear-like Abeta, K3 peptide, and sup35-derived GNNQQNY peptide, the annular structures provide useful insight into oligomeric structures and driving forces that are critical in amyloid fibril formation.

  7. A two-year study with fibrillar beta-amyloid (Abeta) immunization in aged canines: effects on cognitive function and brain Abeta.

    PubMed

    Head, Elizabeth; Pop, Viorela; Vasilevko, Vitaly; Hill, MaryAnn; Saing, Tommy; Sarsoza, Floyd; Nistor, Michaela; Christie, Lori-Ann; Milton, Saskia; Glabe, Charles; Barrett, Edward; Cribbs, David

    2008-04-02

    Aged canines (dogs) accumulate human-type beta-amyloid (Abeta) in diffuse plaques in the brain with parallel declines in cognitive function. We hypothesized that reducing Abeta in a therapeutic treatment study of aged dogs with preexisting Abeta pathology and cognitive deficits would lead to cognitive improvements. To test this hypothesis, we immunized aged beagles (8.4-12.4 years) with fibrillar Abeta(1-42) formulated with aluminum salt (Alum) for 2.4 years (25 vaccinations). Cognitive testing during this time revealed no improvement in measures of learning, spatial attention, or spatial memory. After extended treatment (22 vaccinations), we observed maintenance of prefrontal-dependent reversal learning ability. In the brain, levels of soluble and insoluble Abeta(1-40) and Abeta(1-42) and the extent of diffuse plaque accumulation was significantly decreased in several cortical regions, with preferential reductions in the prefrontal cortex, which is associated with a maintenance of cognition. However, the amount of soluble oligomers remained unchanged. The extent of prefrontal Abeta was correlated with frontal function and serum anti-Abeta antibody titers. Thus, reducing total Abeta may be of limited therapeutic benefit to recovery of cognitive decline in a higher mammalian model of human brain aging and disease. Immunizing animals before extensive Abeta deposition and cognitive decline to prevent oligomeric or fibrillar Abeta formation may have a greater impact on cognition and also more directly evaluate the role of Abeta on cognition in canines. Alternatively, clearing preexisting Abeta from the brain in a treatment study may be more efficacious for cognition if combined with a second intervention that restores neuron health.

  8. Intraneuronal Abeta, non-amyloid aggregates and neurodegeneration in a Drosophila model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Crowther, D C; Kinghorn, K J; Miranda, E; Page, R; Curry, J A; Duthie, F A I; Gubb, D C; Lomas, D A

    2005-01-01

    We have developed models of Alzheimer's disease in Drosophila melanogaster by expressing the Abeta peptides that accumulate in human disease. Expression of wild-type and Arctic mutant (Glu22Gly) Abeta(1-42) peptides in Drosophila neural tissue results in intracellular Abeta accumulation followed by non-amyloid aggregates that resemble diffuse plaques. These histological changes are associated with progressive locomotor deficits and vacuolation of the brain and premature death of the flies. The severity of the neurodegeneration is proportional to the propensity of the expressed Abeta peptide to form oligomers. The fly phenotype is rescued by treatment with Congo Red that reduces Abeta aggregation in vitro. Our model demonstrates that intracellular accumulation and non-amyloid aggregates of Abeta are sufficient to cause the neurodegeneration of Alzheimer's disease. Moreover it provides a platform to dissect the pathways of neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease and to develop novel therapeutic interventions.

  9. Dopamine-induced α-synuclein oligomers show self- and cross-propagation properties.

    PubMed

    Planchard, Matthew S; Exley, Sarah E; Morgan, Sarah E; Rangachari, Vijayaraghavan

    2014-10-01

    Amyloid aggregates of α-synuclein (αS) protein are the predominant species present within the intracellular inclusions called Lewy bodies in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Among various aggregates, the low-molecular weight ones broadly ranging between 2 and 30 mers are known to be the primary neurotoxic agents responsible for the impairment of neuronal function. Recent research has indicated that the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) is one of the key physiological agents promoting and augmenting αS aggregation, which is thought to be a significant event in PD pathologenesis. Specifically, DA is known to induce the formation of soluble oligomers of αS, which in turn are responsible for inducing several important cellular changes leading to cellular toxicity. In this report, we present the generation, isolation, and biophysical characterization of five different dopamine-derived αS oligomers (DSOs) ranging between 3 and 15 mers, corroborating previously published reports. More importantly, we establish that these DSOs are also capable of replication by self-propagation, which leads to the replication of DSOs upon interaction with αS monomers, a process similar to that observed in mammilian prions. In addition, DSOs are also able to cross-propagate amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregates involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Interestingly, while self-propagation of DSOs occur with no net gain in protein structure, cross-propagation proceeds with an overall gain in β-sheet conformation. These results implicate the involvement of DSOs in the progression of PD, and, in part, provide a molecular basis for the observed co-existence of AD-like pathology among PD patients.

  10. Dopamine-induced α-synuclein oligomers show self- and cross-propagation properties

    PubMed Central

    Planchard, Matthew S; Exley, Sarah E; Morgan, Sarah E; Rangachari, Vijayaraghavan

    2014-01-01

    Amyloid aggregates of α-synuclein (αS) protein are the predominant species present within the intracellular inclusions called Lewy bodies in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients. Among various aggregates, the low-molecular weight ones broadly ranging between 2 and 30 mers are known to be the primary neurotoxic agents responsible for the impairment of neuronal function. Recent research has indicated that the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) is one of the key physiological agents promoting and augmenting αS aggregation, which is thought to be a significant event in PD pathologenesis. Specifically, DA is known to induce the formation of soluble oligomers of αS, which in turn are responsible for inducing several important cellular changes leading to cellular toxicity. In this report, we present the generation, isolation, and biophysical characterization of five different dopamine-derived αS oligomers (DSOs) ranging between 3 and 15 mers, corroborating previously published reports. More importantly, we establish that these DSOs are also capable of replication by self-propagation, which leads to the replication of DSOs upon interaction with αS monomers, a process similar to that observed in mammilian prions. In addition, DSOs are also able to cross-propagate amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregates involved in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Interestingly, while self-propagation of DSOs occur with no net gain in protein structure, cross-propagation proceeds with an overall gain in β-sheet conformation. These results implicate the involvement of DSOs in the progression of PD, and, in part, provide a molecular basis for the observed co-existence of AD-like pathology among PD patients. PMID:25044276

  11. Association thermodynamics and conformational stability of beta-sheet amyloid beta(17-42) oligomers: effects of E22Q (Dutch) mutation and charge neutralization.

    PubMed

    Blinov, Nikolay; Dorosh, Lyudmyla; Wishart, David; Kovalenko, Andriy

    2010-01-20

    Amyloid fibrils are associated with many neurodegenerative diseases. It was found that amyloidogenic oligomers, not mature fibrils, are neurotoxic agents related to these diseases. Molecular mechanisms of infectivity, pathways of aggregation, and molecular structure of these oligomers remain elusive. Here, we use all-atom molecular dynamics, molecular mechanics combined with solvation analysis by statistical-mechanical, three-dimensional molecular theory of solvation (also known as 3D-RISM-KH) in a new MM-3D-RISM-KH method to study conformational stability, and association thermodynamics of small wild-type Abeta(17-42) oligomers with different protonation states of Glu(22), as well the E22Q (Dutch) mutants. The association free energy of small beta-sheet oligomers shows near-linear trend with the dimers being thermodynamically more stable relative to the larger constructs. The linear (within statistical uncertainty) dependence of the association free energy on complex size is a consequence of the unilateral stacking of monomers in the beta-sheet oligomers. The charge reduction of the wild-type Abeta(17-42) oligomers upon protonation of the solvent-exposed Glu(22) at acidic conditions results in lowering the association free energy compared to the wild-type oligomers at neutral pH and the E22Q mutants. The neutralization of the peptides because of the E22Q mutation only marginally affects the association free energy, with the reduction of the direct electrostatic interactions mostly compensated by the unfavorable electrostatic solvation effects. For the wild-type oligomers at acidic conditions such compensation is not complete, and the electrostatic interactions, along with the gas-phase nonpolar energetic and the overall entropic effects, contribute to the lowering of the association free energy. The differences in the association thermodynamics between the wild-type Abeta(17-42) oligomers at neutral pH and the Dutch mutants, on the one hand, and the Abeta(17

  12. Immunodominant epitope and properties of pyroglutamate-modified Abeta-specific antibodies produced in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Acero, G; Manoutcharian, K; Vasilevko, V; Munguia, M E; Govezensky, T; Coronas, G; Luz-Madrigal, A; Cribbs, D H; Gevorkian, G

    2009-08-18

    N-truncated and N-modified forms of amyloid beta (Abeta) peptide are found in diffused and dense core plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Down's syndrome patients as well as transgenic mouse models of AD. Although the pathological significance of these shortened forms Abeta is not completely understood, previous studies have demonstrated that these peptides are significantly more resistant to degradation, aggregate more rapidly in vitro and exhibit similar or, in some cases, increased toxicity in hippocampal neuronal cultures compared to the full length peptides. In the present study we further investigated the mechanisms of toxicity of one of the most abundant N-truncated/modified Abeta peptide bearing amino-terminal pyroglutamate at position 3 (AbetaN3(pE)). We demonstrated that AbetaN3(pE) oligomers induce phosphatidyl serine externalization and membrane damage in SH-SY5Y cells. Also, we produced AbetaN3(pE)-specific polyclonal antibodies in rabbit and identified an immunodominant epitope recognized by anti-AbetaN3(pE) antibodies. Our results are important for developing new immunotherapeutic compounds specifically targeting AbetaN3(pE) aggregates since the most commonly used immunogens in the majority of vaccines for AD have been shown to induce antibodies that recognize the N-terminal immunodominant epitope (EFRH) of the full length Abeta, which is absent in N-amino truncated peptides.

  13. Prion protein and Abeta-related synaptic toxicity impairment.

    PubMed

    Calella, Anna Maria; Farinelli, Mélissa; Nuvolone, Mario; Mirante, Osvaldo; Moos, Rita; Falsig, Jeppe; Mansuy, Isabelle M; Aguzzi, Adriano

    2010-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common neurodegenerative disorder, goes along with extracellular amyloid-beta (Abeta) deposits. The cognitive decline observed during AD progression correlates with damaged spines, dendrites and synapses in hippocampus and cortex. Numerous studies have shown that Abeta oligomers, both synthetic and derived from cultures and AD brains, potently impair synaptic structure and functions. The cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) was proposed to mediate this effect. We report that ablation or overexpression of PrP(C) had no effect on the impairment of hippocampal synaptic plasticity in a transgenic model of AD. These findings challenge the role of PrP(C) as a mediator of Abeta toxicity.

  14. Alzheimer's Disease Beyond Abeta.

    PubMed

    Town, Terrence

    2010-05-01

    Many of the Alzheimer's disease (AD) clinical trials have made it far enough down the pipeline to allow conclusions about targeting the amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) as a therapeutic approach. Based on these results, it is becoming clear that a multifocal approach to AD treatment is probably necessary. However, critical discussion beyond Abeta is necessary to enable the next wave of AD therapeutic targets. For this reason, the 2010 Keystone Symposium, 'Alzheimer's Disease Beyond Abeta', was organized by JoAnne McLaurin and Tony Wyss-Coray to spark topical discussion and debate. While researchers struggled to get beyond that ever-present pathognomonic feature of AD, new and exciting evidence was presented that raised our awareness of what is around the corner for next-generation AD therapeutics beyond Abeta. This report will describe some of the highlights from Copper Mountain Resort throughout the meeting period of 10-15 January 2010 in Colorado (USA). Despite illuminating scientific presentations and intense discussions, a number of important questions remain concerning the best biomarkers and targets to focus on, and when and how to therapeutically intervene.

  15. Oligomerization and toxicity of A{beta} fusion proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Caine, Joanne M.; Bharadwaj, Prashant R.; Sankovich, Sonia E.; Ciccotosto, Giuseppe D.; Streltsov, Victor A.; Varghese, Jose

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} We expressed amyloid-{beta} (A{beta}) peptide as a soluble maltose binding protein fusion (MBP-A{beta}42 and MBP-A{beta}16). {yields} The full length A{beta} peptide fusion, MBP-A{beta}42, forms oligomeric species as determined by SDS-PAGE gels, gel filtration and DLS. {yields} The MBP-A{beta}42, but not MBP-A{beta}16 or MBP alone, is toxic to both yeast and mammalian cells as determined by toxicity assays. -- Abstract: This study has found that the Maltose binding protein A{beta}42 fusion protein (MBP-A{beta}42) forms soluble oligomers while the shorter MBP-A{beta}16 fusion and control MBP did not. MBP-A{beta}42, but neither MBP-A{beta}16 nor control MBP, was toxic in a dose-dependent manner in both yeast and primary cortical neuronal cells. This study demonstrates the potential utility of MBP-A{beta}42 as a reagent for drug screening assays in yeast and neuronal cell cultures and as a candidate for further A{beta}42 characterization.

  16. Both the D-(+) and L-(-) enantiomers of nicotine inhibit Abeta aggregation and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Moore, Susan A; Huckerby, Thomas N; Gibson, Gillian L; Fullwood, Nigel J; Turnbull, Stuart; Tabner, Brian J; El-Agnaf, Omar M A; Allsop, David

    2004-01-27

    The underlying cause of Alzheimer's disease is thought to be the aggregation of monomeric beta-amyloid (Abeta), through a series of toxic oligomers, which forms the mature amyloid fibrils that accumulate at the center of senile plaques. It has been reported that L-(-)-nicotine prevents Abeta aggregation and toxicity, and inhibits senile plaque formation. Previous NMR studies have suggested that this could be due to the specific binding of L-(-)-nicotine to histidine residues (His6, His13, and His14) in the peptide. Here, we have looked at the effects of both of the L-(-) and D-(+) optical enantiomers of nicotine on the aggregation and cytotoxicity of Abeta(1-40). Surprisingly, both enantiomers inhibited aggregation of the peptide and reduced the toxic effects of the peptide on cells. In NMR studies with Abeta(1-40), both enantiomers of nicotine were seen to interact with the three histidine residues. Overall, our data indicate that nicotine can delay Abeta fibril formation and maintain a population of less toxic Abeta species. This effect cannot be due to a highly specific binding interaction between nicotine and Abeta, as previously thought, but could be due instead to weaker, relatively nonspecific binding, or to the antioxidant or metal chelating properties of nicotine. D-(+)-nicotine, being biologically much less active than L-(-)-nicotine, might be a useful therapeutic agent.

  17. Pyroglutamate Abeta pathology in APP/PS1KI mice, sporadic and familial Alzheimer's disease cases.

    PubMed

    Wirths, Oliver; Bethge, Tobias; Marcello, Andrea; Harmeier, Anja; Jawhar, Sadim; Lucassen, Paul J; Multhaup, Gerd; Brody, David L; Esparza, Thomas; Ingelsson, Martin; Kalimo, Hannu; Lannfelt, Lars; Bayer, Thomas A

    2010-01-01

    The presence of Abeta(pE3) (N-terminal truncated Abeta starting with pyroglutamate) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) has received considerable attention since the discovery that this peptide represents a dominant fraction of Abeta peptides in senile plaques of AD brains. This was later confirmed by other reports investigating AD and Down's syndrome postmortem brain tissue. Importantly, Abeta(pE3) has a higher aggregation propensity, and stability, and shows an increased toxicity compared to full-length Abeta. We have recently shown that intraneuronal accumulation of Abeta(pE3) peptides induces a severe neuron loss and an associated neurological phenotype in the TBA2 mouse model for AD. Given the increasing interest in Abeta(pE3), we have generated two novel monoclonal antibodies which were characterized as highly specific for Abeta(pE3) peptides and herein used to analyze plaque deposition in APP/PS1KI mice, an AD model with severe neuron loss and learning deficits. This was compared with the plaque pattern present in brain tissue from sporadic and familial AD cases. Abundant plaques positive for Abeta(pE3) were present in patients with sporadic AD and familial AD including those carrying mutations in APP (arctic and Swedish) and PS1. Interestingly, in APP/PS1KI mice we observed a continuous increase in Abeta(pE3) plaque load with increasing age, while the density for Abeta(1-x ) plaques declined with aging. We therefore assume that, in particular, the peptides starting with position 1 of Abeta are N-truncated as disease progresses, and that, Abeta(pE3) positive plaques are resistant to age-dependent degradation likely due to their high stability and propensity to aggregate.

  18. LRP-mediated clearance of Abeta is inhibited by KPI-containing isoforms of APP.

    PubMed

    Moir, Robert D; Tanzi, Rudolph E

    2005-04-01

    The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) involves the abnormal accumulation and deposition of beta-amyloid in cerebral blood vessels and in the brain parenchyma. Critical in modulating beta-amyloid deposition in brain is the flux of Abeta across the blood brain barrier. The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP), is a large endocytic receptor that mediates the efflux of Abeta out of brain and into the periphery. The first step in the LRP-mediated clearance of Abeta involves the formation of a complex between Abeta and the LRP ligands apolipoprotein E (apoE) or alpha(2)-macroglobulin (alpha(2)M). The Abeta/chaperone complexes then bind to LRP via binding sites on apoE or alpha(2)M. The efflux of Abeta/chaperone complexes out of the neuropil and into the periphery may be attenuated by LRP-ligands that compete with apoE or alpha(2)M for LRP binding. LRP is also the cell surface receptor for Kunitz Protease Inhibitor (KPI) containing isoforms of Abeta's parent protein, the amyloid protein precursor (APP). Protein and mRNA levels of KPI-containing APP isoforms (APP-KPI) are elevated in AD brain and are associated with increased Abeta production. In this study we show that soluble non-amyloidogenic APP-KPI can also inhibit the uptake of Abeta/alpha(2)M in a cell culture model of LRP mediated Abeta clearance. Clearance of Abeta/apoE complexes was not inhibited by APP-KPI. Our findings are consistent with studies showing that apoE and alpha(2)M have discrete binding sites on LRP. Most significantly, our data suggests that the elevated levels of APP-KPI in AD brain may attenuate the clearance of Abeta, the proteins own amyloidogenic catabolic product.

  19. AbetaPP/APLP2 family of Kunitz serine proteinase inhibitors regulate cerebral thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Feng; Previti, Mary Lou; Nieman, Marvin T; Davis, Judianne; Schmaier, Alvin H; Van Nostrand, William E

    2009-04-29

    The amyloid beta-protein precursor (AbetaPP) is best recognized as the precursor to the Abeta peptide that accumulates in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease, but less is known about its physiological functions. Isoforms of AbetaPP that contain a Kunitz-type serine proteinase inhibitor (KPI) domain are expressed in brain and, outside the CNS, in circulating blood platelets. Recently, we showed that KPI-containing forms of AbetaPP regulates cerebral thrombosis in vivo (Xu et al., 2005, 2007). Amyloid precursor like protein-2 (APLP2), a closely related homolog to AbetaPP, also possesses a highly conserved KPI domain. Virtually nothing is known of its function. Here, we show that APLP2 also regulates cerebral thrombosis risk. Recombinant purified KPI domains of AbetaPP and APLP2 both inhibit the plasma clotting in vitro. In a carotid artery thrombosis model, both AbetaPP(-/-) and APLP2(-/-) mice exhibit similar significantly shorter times to vessel occlusion compared with wild-type mice indicating a prothrombotic phenotype. Similarly, in an experimental model of intracerebral hemorrhage, both AbetaPP(-/-) and APLP2(-/-) mice produce significantly smaller hematomas with reduced brain hemoglobin content compared with wild-type mice. Together, these results indicate that AbetaPP and APLP2 share overlapping anticoagulant functions with regard to regulating thrombosis after cerebral vascular injury.

  20. Independent generation of Abeta42 and Abeta38 peptide species by gamma-secretase.

    PubMed

    Czirr, Eva; Cottrell, Barbara A; Leuchtenberger, Stefanie; Kukar, Thomas; Ladd, Thomas B; Esselmann, Hermann; Paul, Sabine; Schubenel, Robert; Torpey, Justin W; Pietrzik, Claus U; Golde, Todd E; Wiltfang, Jens; Baumann, Karlheinz; Koo, Edward H; Weggen, Sascha

    2008-06-20

    Proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein by beta- and gamma-secretase generates the amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptides, which are principal drug targets in Alzheimer disease therapeutics. gamma-Secretase has imprecise cleavage specificity and generates the most abundant Abeta40 and Abeta42 species together with longer and shorter peptides such as Abeta38. Several mechanisms could explain the production of multiple Abeta peptides by gamma-secretase, including sequential processing of longer into shorter Abeta peptides. A novel class of gamma-secretase modulators (GSMs) that includes some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has been shown to selectively lower Abeta42 levels without a change in Abeta40 levels. A signature of GSMs is the concomitant increase in shorter Abeta peptides, such as Abeta38, leading to the suggestion that generation of Abeta42 and Abeta38 peptide species by gamma-secretase is coordinately regulated. However, no evidence for or against such a precursor-product relationship has been provided. We have previously shown that stable overexpression of aggressive presenilin-1 (PS1) mutations associated with early-onset familial Alzheimer disease attenuated the cellular response to GSMs, resulting in greatly diminished Abeta42 reductions as compared with wild type PS1. We have now used this model system to investigate whether Abeta38 production would be similarly affected indicating coupled generation of Abeta42 and Abeta38 peptides. Surprisingly, treatment with the GSM sulindac sulfide increased Abeta38 production to similar levels in four different PS1 mutant cell lines as compared with wild type PS1 cells. This was confirmed with the structurally divergent GSMs ibuprofen and indomethacin. Mass spectrometry analysis and high resolution urea gel electrophoresis further demonstrated that sulindac sulfide did not induce detectable compensatory changes in levels of other Abeta peptide species. These data provide evidence that Abeta42 and

  1. Comparative studies on peptides representing the so-called tachykinin-like region of the Alzheimer Abeta peptide [Abeta(25-35)].

    PubMed Central

    El-Agnaf, O M; Irvine, G B; Fitzpatrick, G; Glass, W K; Guthrie, D J

    1998-01-01

    In an attempt to answer the question of whether or not the so-called tachykinin-like region of the Alzheimer beta-amyloid protein [Abeta(25-35)] can act as a tachykinin, the sequences Abeta(25-35), Abeta(25-35)amide and their norleucine-35 and phenylalanine-31 analogues were synthesized. These peptides were examined with ligand binding studies, electron microscopy, CD and NMR. In all cases some differences were found between the Abeta(25-35) analogue and the corresponding Phe31 peptide. In addition, in ligand displacement studies on tachykinin NK1 receptors, only the Phe31 analogue showed activity comparable to that of genuine tachykinins. We conclude that peptides based on Abeta(25-35) but with a Phe residue at position 31 do display properties typical of a tachykinin, but that peptides with Ile at this position do not. PMID:9820820

  2. Physicochemical characteristics of soluble oligomeric Abeta and their pathologic role in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Watson, Desiree; Castaño, Eduardo; Kokjohn, Tyler A; Kuo, Yu-Min; Lyubchenko, Yuri; Pinsky, David; Connolly, E Sander; Esh, Chera; Luehrs, Dean C; Stine, W Blaine; Rowse, Linda M; Emmerling, Mark R; Roher, Alex E

    2005-12-01

    Extracellular fibrillar amyloid deposits are prominent and universal Alzheimer's disease (AD) features, but senile plaque abundance does not always correlate directly with the degree of dementia exhibited by AD patients. The mechanism(s) and dynamics of Abeta fibril genesis and deposition remain obscure. Enhanced Abeta synthesis rates coupled with decreased degradative enzyme production and accumulating physical modifications that dampen proteolysis may all enhance amyloid deposit formation. Amyloid accumulation may indirectly exert the greatest pathologic effect on the brain vasculature by destroying smooth muscle cells and creating a cascade of negative impacts on cerebral blood flow. The most visible manifestation of amyloid dis-equilibrium could actually be a defense mechanism employed to avoid serious vascular wall degradation while the major toxic effects to the gray and white matter neurons are mediated by soluble oligomeric Abeta peptides with high beta-sheet content. The recognition that dynamic soluble oligomeric Abeta pools exist in AD and are correlated to disease severity led to neurotoxicity and physical conformation studies. It is now recognized that the most basic soluble Abeta peptides are stable dimers with hydrophobic regions sequestered from the aqueous environment and are capable of higher order aggregations. Time course experiments employing a modified ELISA method able to detect Abeta oligomers revealed dynamic intermolecular interactions and additional experiments physically confirmed the presence of stable amyloid multimers. Amyloid peptides that are rich in beta-sheet structure are capable of creating toxic membrane ion channels and a capacity to self-assemble as annular structures was confirmed in vitro using atomic force microscopy. Biochemical studies have established that soluble Abeta peptides perturb metabolic processes, provoke release of deleterious reactive compounds, reduce blood flow, induce mitochondrial apoptotic toxicity and

  3. Size-dependent neurotoxicity of beta-amyloid oligomers.

    PubMed

    Cizas, Paulius; Budvytyte, Rima; Morkuniene, Ramune; Moldovan, Radu; Broccio, Matteo; Lösche, Mathias; Niaura, Gediminas; Valincius, Gintaras; Borutaite, Vilmante

    2010-04-15

    The link between the size of soluble amyloid beta (Abeta) oligomers and their toxicity to rat cerebellar granule cells (CGC) was investigated. Variation in conditions during in vitro oligomerization of Abeta(1-42) resulted in peptide assemblies with different particle size as measured by atomic force microscopy and confirmed by dynamic light scattering and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Small oligomers of Abeta(1-42) with a mean particle z-height of 1-2 nm exhibited propensity to bind to phospholipid vesicles and they were the most toxic species that induced rapid neuronal necrosis at submicromolar concentrations whereas the bigger aggregates (z-height above 4-5 nm) did not bind vesicles and did not cause detectable neuronal death. A similar neurotoxic pattern was also observed in primary cultures of cortex neurons whereas Abeta(1-42) oligomers, monomers and fibrils were non-toxic to glial cells in CGC cultures or macrophage J774 cells. However, both oligomeric forms of Abeta(1-42) induced reduction of neuronal cell densities in the CGC cultures.

  4. Intrinsic thermal expansivity and hydrational properties of amyloid peptide Abeta42 in liquid water.

    PubMed

    Brovchenko, I; Burri, R R; Krukau, A; Oleinikova, A; Winter, R

    2008-11-21

    Volumetric and conformational properties of the amyloid beta(1-42) peptide (Abeta(42)) are studied in relation to the properties of hydration water in a wide temperature range by computer simulations. The apparent volume of Abeta(42), which is the change in the total volume of the solution due to the presence of Abeta(42), shows a quite different temperature dependence below and above T approximately 320 K. The apparent thermal expansion coefficient alpha(app)(Abeta(42)) is about 1.5x10(-3) K(-1) at T320 K. By evaluation of the thermal expansivity of hydration water, the intrinsic expansivity of the biomolecule in liquid water was determined for the first time. The intrinsic thermal expansion coefficient of Abeta(42) is found to be negative: alpha(int)(Abeta(42)) approximately -0.8x10(-3) K(-1). The negative thermal expansion coefficient of Abeta(42) can be attributed to its rubberlike (entropic) elasticity and/or to a decreasing number of intrapeptide hydrogen bonds. Upon heating, Abeta(42) transforms from an extended chain with a significant content of alpha-helices to a compact coil with noticeable content of beta-structures. A hydrogen-bonded spanning network of hydration water envelops Abeta(42) homogeneously at low temperatures but breaks into an ensemble of small water clusters upon heating via a percolation transition, whose midpoint is close to the temperature, where the apparent volume of Abeta(42) changes its temperature behavior. The mutual relation between the volumetric properties of Abeta(42), its conformational properties, and the properties of the hydration water is discussed.

  5. Subcellular and metabolic examination of amyloid-beta peptides in Alzheimer disease pathogenesis: evidence for Abeta(25-35).

    PubMed

    Kaminsky, Yury G; Marlatt, Michael W; Smith, Mark A; Kosenko, Elena A

    2010-01-01

    Amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) is a central player in the pathogenesis and diagnosis of Alzheimer disease. It aggregates to form the core of Alzheimer disease-associated plaques found in coordination with tau deposits in diseased individuals. Despite this clinical relevance, no single hypothesis satisfies and explicates the role of Abeta in toxicity and progression of the disease. To explore this area, investigators have focused on mechanisms of cellular dysfunction, aggregation, and maladaptive responses. Extensive research has been conducted using various methodologies to investigate Abeta peptides and oligomers, and these multiple facets have provided a wealth of data from specific models. Notably, the utility of each experiment must be considered in regards to the brain environment. The use of Abeta(25-35) in studies of cellular dysfunction has provided data indicating that the peptide is indeed responsible for multiple disturbances to cellular integrity. We will review how Abeta peptide induces oxidative stress and calcium homeostasis, and how multiple enzymes are deleteriously impacted by Abeta(25-35). Understanding and discussing the origin and properties of Abeta peptides is essential to evaluating their effects on various intracellular metabolic processes. Attention will also be specifically directed to metabolic compartmentation in affected brain cells, including mitochondrial, cytosolic, nuclear, and lysosomal enzymes.

  6. Natural Amyloid-Beta Oligomers Acutely Impair the Formation of a Contextual Fear Memory in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kittelberger, Kara A.; Piazza, Fabrizio; Tesco, Giuseppina; Reijmers, Leon G.

    2012-01-01

    Memory loss is one of the hallmark symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). It has been proposed that soluble amyloid-beta (Abeta) oligomers acutely impair neuronal function and thereby memory. We here report that natural Abeta oligomers acutely impair contextual fear memory in mice. A natural Abeta oligomer solution containing Abeta monomers, dimers, trimers, and tetramers was derived from the conditioned medium of 7PA2 cells, a cell line that expresses human amyloid precursor protein containing the Val717Phe familial AD mutation. As a control we used 7PA2 conditioned medium from which Abeta oligomers were removed through immunodepletion. Separate groups of mice were injected with Abeta and control solutions through a cannula into the lateral brain ventricle, and subjected to fear conditioning using two tone-shock pairings. One day after fear conditioning, mice were tested for contextual fear memory and tone fear memory in separate retrieval trials. Three experiments were performed. For experiment 1, mice were injected three times: 1 hour before and 3 hours after fear conditioning, and 1 hour before context retrieval. For experiments 2 and 3, mice were injected a single time at 1 hour and 2 hours before fear conditioning respectively. In all three experiments there was no effect on tone fear memory. Injection of Abeta 1 hour before fear conditioning, but not 2 hours before fear conditioning, impaired the formation of a contextual fear memory. In future studies, the acute effect of natural Abeta oligomers on contextual fear memory can be used to identify potential mechanisms and treatments of AD associated memory loss. PMID:22238679

  7. Lipofuscin and Abeta42 exhibit distinct distribution patterns in normal and Alzheimer's disease brains.

    PubMed

    D'Andrea, Michael R; Nagele, Robert G; Gumula, Norah A; Reiser, Patti A; Polkovitch, Deborah A; Hertzog, Brenda M; Andrade-Gordon, Patricia

    2002-04-19

    Our recent study has provided evidence that Abeta42, a 42 amino acid fragment of the amyloid precursor protein, accumulates intracellularly in vulnerable neurons. This study appears to show that neurons lyse and form dense-core amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD) entorhinal cortex. Previous studies have suggested that intracellular Abeta42 co-localizes with lipofuscin in neurons and those increased levels of lipofuscin and Abeta42 are associated with AD. Other studies have questioned this relationship and suggested that beta-amyloid and lipofuscin are not co-localized and that their levels are independent of one another in AD and age-matched control tissues. In an effort to resolve this controversy, we investigated the relative spatial relationship of intracellular Abeta42 and lipofuscin in AD brains tissue using a novel combined immunohistochemical:histochemical staining protocol. Our results show separate and distinct localization patterns of Abeta42 and lipofuscin in neurons and amyloid plaques.

  8. Geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate stimulates gamma-secretase to increase the generation of Abeta and APP-CTFgamma.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan; Suram, Anitha; Venugopal, Chitra; Prakasam, Annamalai; Lin, Suizhen; Su, Yuan; Li, Baolin; Paul, Steven M; Sambamurti, Kumar

    2008-01-01

    Cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by beta- and gamma-secretases results in generation of the amyloid-beta protein (Abeta), which is characteristically deposited in the brain of Alzheimer's disease patients. Inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl (HMG)-CoA reductase (the statins) reduce levels of cholesterol and isoprenoids such as geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP). Previous studies have demonstrated that cholesterol increases and statins reduce Abeta levels mostly by regulating beta-secretase activity. In this study, we focused on the role of geranylgeranyl isoprenoids GGPP and geranylgeraniol (GGOH) in regulating Abeta production. Our data show that the inhibition of GGPP synthesis by statins plays an important role in statin-mediated reduction of Abeta secretion. Consistent with this finding, the geranylgeranyl isoprenoids preferentially increase the yield of Abeta of 42 residues (Abeta42) in a dose-dependent manner. Our studies further demonstrated that geranylgeranyl isoprenoids increase the yield of APP-CTFgamma (a.k.a. AICD) as well as Abeta by stimulating gamma-secretase-mediated cleavage of APP-CTFalpha and APP-CTFbeta in vitro. Furthermore, GGOH increases the levels of the active gamma-secretase complex in the detergent-insoluble membrane fraction along with its substrates, APP-CTFalpha and APP-CTFbeta. Our results indicate that geranylgeranyl isoprenoids may be an important physiological facilitator of gamma-secretase activity that can foster production of the pathologically important Abeta42.

  9. Induction of cerebral beta-amyloidosis: intracerebral versus systemic Abeta inoculation.

    PubMed

    Eisele, Yvonne S; Bolmont, Tristan; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Langer, Franziska; Jacobson, Laura H; Yan, Zheng-Xin; Roth, Klaus; Aguzzi, Adriano; Staufenbiel, Matthias; Walker, Lary C; Jucker, Mathias

    2009-08-04

    Despite the importance of the aberrant polymerization of Abeta in the early pathogenic cascade of Alzheimer's disease, little is known about the induction of Abeta aggregation in vivo. Here we show that induction of cerebral beta-amyloidosis can be achieved in many different brain areas of APP23 transgenic mice through the injection of dilute Abeta-containing brain extracts. Once the amyloidogenic process has been exogenously induced, the nature of the induced Abeta-deposition is determined by the brain region of the host. Because these observations are reminiscent of a prion-like mechanism, we then investigated whether cerebral beta-amyloidosis also can be induced by peripheral and systemic inoculations or by the intracerebral implantation of stainless steel wires previously coated with minute amounts of Abeta-containing brain extract. Results reveal that oral, intravenous, intraocular, and intranasal inoculations yielded no detectable induction of cerebral beta-amyloidosis in APP23 transgenic mice. In contrast, transmission of cerebral beta-amyloidosis through the Abeta-contaminated steel wires was demonstrated. Notably, plasma sterilization, but not boiling of the wires before implantation, prevented the induction of beta-amyloidosis. Our results suggest that minute amounts of Abeta-containing brain material in direct contact with the CNS can induce cerebral beta-amyloidosis, but that systemic cellular mechanisms of prion uptake and transport to the CNS may not apply to Abeta.

  10. Plasma antibodies to Abeta40 and Abeta42 in patients with Alzheimer's disease and normal controls.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wuhua; Kawarabayashi, Takeshi; Matsubara, Etsuro; Deguchi, Kentaro; Murakami, Tetsuro; Harigaya, Yasuo; Ikeda, Masaki; Amari, Masakuni; Kuwano, Ryozo; Abe, Koji; Shoji, Mikio

    2008-07-11

    Antibodies to amyloid beta protein (Abeta) are present naturally or after Abeta vaccine therapy in human plasma. To clarify their clinical role, we examined plasma samples from 113 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 205 normal controls using the tissue amyloid plaque immunoreactivity (TAPIR) assay. A high positive rate of TAPIR was revealed in AD (45.1%) and age-matched controls (41.2%), however, no significance was observed. No significant difference was observed in the MMS score or disease duration between TAPIR-positive and negative samples. TAPIR-positive plasma reacted with the Abeta40 monomer and dimer, and the Abeta42 monomer weakly, but not with the Abeta42 dimer. TAPIR was even detected in samples from young normal subjects and young Tg2576 transgenic mice. Although the Abeta40 level and Abeta40/42 ratio increased, and Abeta42 was significantly decreased in plasma from AD groups when compared to controls, no significant correlations were revealed between plasma Abeta levels and TAPIR grading. Thus an immune response to Abeta40 and immune tolerance to Abeta42 occurred naturally in humans without a close relationship to the Abeta burden in the brain. Clarification of the mechanism of the immune response to Abeta42 is necessary for realization of an immunotherapy for AD.

  11. Conversion of non-fibrillar beta-sheet oligomers into amyloid fibrils in Alzheimer's disease amyloid peptide aggregation.

    PubMed

    Benseny-Cases, Núria; Cócera, Mercedes; Cladera, Josep

    2007-10-05

    Abeta(1-40) is one of the main components of the fibrils found in amyloid plaques, a hallmark of brains affected by Alzheimer's disease. It is known that prior to the formation of amyloid fibrils in which the peptide adopts a well-ordered intermolecular beta-sheet structure, peptide monomers associate forming low and high molecular weight oligomers. These oligomers have been previously described in electron microscopy, AFM, and exclusion chromatography studies. Their specific secondary structures however, have not yet been well established. A major problem when comparing aggregation and secondary structure determinations in concentration-dependent processes such as amyloid aggregation is the different concentration range required in each type of experiment. In the present study we used the dye Thioflavin T (ThT), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and electron microscopy in order to structurally characterize the different aggregated species which form during the Abeta(1-40) fibril formation process. A unique sample containing 90microM peptide was used. The results show that oligomeric species which form during the lag phase of the aggregation kinetics are a mixture of unordered, helical, and intermolecular non-fibrillar beta-structures. The number of oligomers and the amount of non-fibrillar beta-structures grows throughout the lag phase and during the elongation phase these non-fibrillar beta-structures are transformed into fibrillar (amyloid) beta-structures, formed by association of high molecular weight intermediates.

  12. Conversion of non-fibrillar {beta}-sheet oligomers into amyloid fibrils in Alzheimer's disease amyloid peptide aggregation

    SciTech Connect

    Benseny-Cases, Nuria; Cocera, Mercedes; Cladera, Josep

    2007-10-05

    A{beta}(1-40) is one of the main components of the fibrils found in amyloid plaques, a hallmark of brains affected by Alzheimer's disease. It is known that prior to the formation of amyloid fibrils in which the peptide adopts a well-ordered intermolecular {beta}-sheet structure, peptide monomers associate forming low and high molecular weight oligomers. These oligomers have been previously described in electron microscopy, AFM, and exclusion chromatography studies. Their specific secondary structures however, have not yet been well established. A major problem when comparing aggregation and secondary structure determinations in concentration-dependent processes such as amyloid aggregation is the different concentration range required in each type of experiment. In the present study we used the dye Thioflavin T (ThT), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and electron microscopy in order to structurally characterize the different aggregated species which form during the A{beta}(1-40) fibril formation process. A unique sample containing 90 {mu}M peptide was used. The results show that oligomeric species which form during the lag phase of the aggregation kinetics are a mixture of unordered, helical, and intermolecular non-fibrillar {beta}-structures. The number of oligomers and the amount of non-fibrillar {beta}-structures grows throughout the lag phase and during the elongation phase these non-fibrillar {beta}-structures are transformed into fibrillar (amyloid) {beta}-structures, formed by association of high molecular weight intermediates.

  13. Heat shock treatment reduces beta amyloid toxicity in vivo by diminishing oligomers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanjue; Cao, Zhiming; Klein, William L; Luo, Yuan

    2010-06-01

    Heat shock response, mediated by heat shock proteins, is a highly conserved physiological process in multicellular organisms for reestablishment of cellular homeostasis. Expression of heat shock factors and subsequent heat shock protein plays a role in protection against proteotoxicity in invertebrate and vertebrate models. Proteotoxicity due to beta-amyloid peptide (Abeta) oligomerization has been linked to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Previously, we demonstrated that progressive paralysis induced by expression of human Abeta(1-42) in transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans was alleviated by Abeta oligomer inhibitors Ginkgo biloba extract and its constituents [Wu, Y., Wu, Z., Butko, P., Christen, Y., Lambert, M.P., Klein, W.L., Link, C.D., Luo, Y., 2006. Amyloid-beta-induced pathological behaviors are suppressed by Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 and ginkgolides in transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans. J. Neurosci. 26(50): 13102-13113]. In this study, we apply a protective heat shock to the transgenic C. elegans and demonstrate: (1) a delay in paralysis, (2) increased expression of small heat shock protein HSP16.2, and (3) significant reduction of Abeta oligomers in a heat shock time-dependent manner. These results suggest that transient heat shock lessens Abeta toxicity by diminishing Abeta oligomerization, which provides a link between up regulation of endogenous chaperone proteins and protection against Abeta proteotoxicity in vivo.

  14. The granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) regulates amyloid beta (Abeta) production.

    PubMed

    Volmar, Claude-Henry; Ait-Ghezala, Ghania; Frieling, Jeremy; Paris, Daniel; Mullan, Michael J

    2008-06-01

    One of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the accumulation of amyloid beta (Abeta) plaques in the brain parenchyma. An inflammatory component to AD has been suggested in association with increased cytokine release. We have previously shown that CD40L stimulation of microglia induces increases in pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, IL-8 and GM-CSF. We have also shown that CD40L stimulation increases Abeta levels in HEK-293 cells over-expressing both the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and CD40 (HEK/APPsw/CD40). In this study, we show that GM-CSF neutralizing antibodies mitigate the CD40L-induced production of Abeta in HEK/APPsw/CD40 cells. In addition, we demonstrate that treatment of these cells with recombinant GM-CSF significantly increases Abeta levels. Furthermore, we show that shRNA silencing of the GM-CSF receptor gene significantly reduces Abeta levels to below base line in non-stimulated HEK/APPsw/CD40 cells. Analysis of cell surface proteins revealed that silencing of the GM-CSF receptor also decreases APP endocytosis (therefore reducing the availability of APP to be cleaved in the endosomes). Taken together, our results suggest that GM-CSF operates downstream of CD40/CD40L interaction and that GM-CSF modulates Abeta production by influencing APP trafficking. GM-CSF signaling may be a suitable therapeutic target against Abeta production in AD.

  15. Low molecular weight Abeta induces collapse of endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Lai, Cora Sau-Wan; Preisler, Julie; Baum, Larry; Lee, Daniel Hong-Seng; Ng, Ho-Keung; Hugon, Jacques; So, Kwok-Fai; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung

    2009-05-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a dynamic multifunction organelle that is responsible for Ca(2+) homeostasis, protein folding, post-translational modification, protein degradation, and transportation of nascent proteins. Disruption of ER architecture might affect the normal physiology of the cell. In yeast, expansion of the ER is observed under unfolded protein response (UPR) and subsequently induces autophagy initiated from the ER. Here, we found that soluble low molecular weight of Abeta disrupted the anchoring between ER and microtubules (MT) and induced collapse of ER. In addition, it decreased the stability of MT. Subsequently, low molecular weight Abeta triggered autophagy and enhanced lysosomal degradation, as shown by electron microscopy and live-cell imaging. Dysfunction of ER can be further proved in postmortem AD brain and transgenic mice bearing APP Swedish mutation by immunohistochemical analysis of calreticulin. Treatment with Taxol, a MT-stabilizing agent, could partially inhibit collapse of the ER and induction of autophagy. The results show that Abeta-induced disruption of MT can affect the architecture of the ER. Collapse/aggregation of the ER may play an important role in Abeta peptide-triggered neurodegenerative processes.

  16. Intracellular sAPP retention in response to Abeta is mapped to cytoskeleton-associated structures.

    PubMed

    Henriques, Ana Gabriela; Vieira, Sandra Isabel; Crespo-López, Maria Elena; Guiomar de Oliveira, Márcio A; da Cruz e Silva, Edgar F; da Cruz e Silva, Odete A B

    2009-05-01

    Amyloid beta (Abeta) contributes to neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease and provides a close association between molecular events and pathology, although the underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. In the work described here, Abeta did not induce amyloid precursor protein (APP) expression, but APP processing/trafficking was markedly affected. In COS-7 cells, Abeta provokes retention of intracellular sAPPalpha (isAPPalpha). Intracellular holo-APP levels remain unchanged, and extracellular total sAPP increases, although extracellular sAPPalpha alone was not altered significantly. In primary neuronal cultures and PC12 cells, isAPP also increased, but this was mirrored by a decrease in extracellular total sAPP. The isAPP retention was particularly associated with the cytoskeletal fraction. The retention "per se" occurred in vesicular-like densities, negative for a C-terminal antibody and strongly positive for the 6E10 antibody, clearly showing abnormal intracellular accumulation of sAPPalpha in response to Abeta. Our data support a dynamic model for intracellular retention of sAPPalpha as an early response to Abeta exposure. Particularly noteworthy was the observation that removal of Abeta reversed the isAPP accumulation. Mechanistically, these findings disclose an attractive physiological response, revealing the capacity of cells to deal with adverse effects induced by Abeta.

  17. A[Beta] Deposits in Older Non-Demented Individuals with Cognitive Decline Are Indicative of Preclinical Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villemagne, V. L.; Pike, K. E.; Darby, D.; Maruff, P.; Savage, G.; Ng, S.; Ackermann, U.; Cowie, T. F.; Currie, J.; Chan, S. G.; Jones, G.; Tochon-Danguy, H.; O'Keefe, G.; Masters, C. L.; Rowe, C. C.

    2008-01-01

    Approximately 30% of healthy persons aged over 75 years show A[beta] deposition at autopsy. It is postulated that this represents preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD). We evaluated the relationship between A[beta] burden as assessed by PiB PET and cognitive decline in a well-characterized, non-demented, elderly cohort. PiB PET studies and…

  18. A[Beta] Deposits in Older Non-Demented Individuals with Cognitive Decline Are Indicative of Preclinical Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villemagne, V. L.; Pike, K. E.; Darby, D.; Maruff, P.; Savage, G.; Ng, S.; Ackermann, U.; Cowie, T. F.; Currie, J.; Chan, S. G.; Jones, G.; Tochon-Danguy, H.; O'Keefe, G.; Masters, C. L.; Rowe, C. C.

    2008-01-01

    Approximately 30% of healthy persons aged over 75 years show A[beta] deposition at autopsy. It is postulated that this represents preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD). We evaluated the relationship between A[beta] burden as assessed by PiB PET and cognitive decline in a well-characterized, non-demented, elderly cohort. PiB PET studies and…

  19. Abeta-afferents activate neurokinin-1 receptor in dorsal horn neurons after nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ji-Hong; Song, Xue-Jun

    2005-05-12

    We provide new evidence demonstrating that peripheral nerve injury produces profound alterations in synaptic input to dorsal horn neurons mediated by non-nociceptive sensory neurons, and activation of neurokinin-1 receptor may be involved in the enhanced synaptic response and thus contribute to the tactile allodynia. Our results show that Abeta-fiber-evoked field potential significantly increased in the first postoperative week and decreased thereafter while maximal mechanical allodynia was exhibited. The neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist L703,606 significantly reduced Abeta-fiber-evoked field potential in nerve-injured but not in sham-operated animals. The non-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist CNQX inhibited Abeta-fiber-evoked field potential in both nerve-injured and sham-operated rats, while the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist MK-801 did not affect Abeta-fiber-evoked field potential in either CCI or sham-operated animals.

  20. Grape-derived polyphenolics prevent Abeta oligomerization and attenuate cognitive deterioration in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Ho, Lap; Zhao, Wei; Ono, Kenjiro; Rosensweig, Clark; Chen, Linghong; Humala, Nelson; Teplow, David B; Pasinetti, Giulio M

    2008-06-18

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive impairments in memory and cognition. Extracellular accumulation of soluble high-molecular-weight (HMW) Abeta oligomers has been proposed to be largely responsible for AD dementia and memory deficits in the Tg2576 mice, a model of AD. In this study, we found that a naturally derived grape seed polyphenolic extract can significantly inhibit amyloid beta-protein aggregation into high-molecular-weight oligomers in vitro. When orally administered to Tg2576 mice, this polyphenolic preparation significantly attenuates AD-type cognitive deterioration coincidentally with reduced HMW soluble oligomeric Abeta in the brain. Our study suggests that grape seed-derived polyphenolics may be useful agents to prevent or treat AD.

  1. Disruption of Amyloid Plaques Integrity Affects the Soluble Oligomers Content from Alzheimer Disease Brains

    PubMed Central

    Moyano, Javier; Sanchez-Mico, María; Torres, Manuel; Davila, Jose Carlos; Vizuete, Marisa; Gutierrez, Antonia; Vitorica, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The implication of soluble Abeta in the Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology is currently accepted. In fact, the content of soluble extracellular Abeta species, such as monomeric and/or oligomeric Abeta, seems to correlate with the clinico-pathological dysfunction observed in AD patients. However, the nature (monomeric, dimeric or other oligomers), the relative abundance, and the origin (extra-/intraneuronal or plaque-associated), of these soluble species are actually under debate. In this work we have characterized the soluble (defined as soluble in Tris-buffered saline after ultracentrifugation) Abeta, obtained from hippocampal samples of Braak II, Braak III–IV and Braak V–VI patients. Although the content of both Abeta40 and Abeta42 peptides displayed significant increase with pathology progression, our results demonstrated the presence of low, pg/µg protein, amount of both peptides. This low content could explain the absence (or below detection limits) of soluble Abeta peptides detected by western blots or by immunoprecipitation-western blot analysis. These data were in clear contrast to those published recently by different groups. Aiming to explain the reasons that determine these substantial differences, we also investigated whether the initial homogenization could mobilize Abeta from plaques, using 12-month-old PS1xAPP cortical samples. Our data demonstrated that manual homogenization (using Dounce) preserved the integrity of Abeta plaques whereas strong homogenization procedures (such as sonication) produced a vast redistribution of the Abeta species in all soluble and insoluble fractions. This artifact could explain the dissimilar and somehow controversial data between different groups analyzing human AD samples. PMID:25485545

  2. Identification of distinct physiochemical properties of toxic prefibrillar species formed by A{beta} peptide variants

    SciTech Connect

    Goeransson, Anna-Lena; Nilsson, K. Peter R.; Kagedal, Katarina; Brorsson, Ann-Christin

    2012-04-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identification of toxic prefibrillar A{beta} species. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fluorescence measurements using a combined set of fluorophores. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Morphology studies using transmission electron microscopy. -- Abstract: The formation of amyloid-{beta} peptide (A{beta}) aggregates at an early stage during the self-assembly process is an important factor in the development of Alzheimer's disease. The toxic effect is believed to be exerted by prefibrillar species of A{beta}. It is therefore important to identify which prefibrillar species are toxic and characterize their distinct properties. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro aggregation behavior of A{beta}-derived peptides possessing different levels of neurotoxic activity, using fluorescence spectroscopy in combination with transmission electron microscopy. The toxicity of various A{beta} aggregates was assessed by using cultures of human neuroblastoma cells. Through combined use of the fluorescence probe 8-anilino-1-napthalenesulfonate (ANS) and the novel luminescent probe pentamer formyl thiophene acetic acid (p-FTAA), we were able to identify those A{beta} peptide-derived prefibrillar species which exhibited cellular toxicity. In particular, species, which formed early during the aggregation process and showed strong p-FTAA and ANS fluorescence, were the species that possessed toxic activities. Moreover, by manipulating the aggregation conditions, it was possible to change the capacity of the A{beta} peptide to form nontoxic versus toxic species.

  3. Intraneuronal pyroglutamate-Abeta 3-42 triggers neurodegeneration and lethal neurological deficits in a transgenic mouse model.

    PubMed

    Wirths, Oliver; Breyhan, Henning; Cynis, Holger; Schilling, Stephan; Demuth, Hans-Ulrich; Bayer, Thomas A

    2009-10-01

    It is well established that only a fraction of Abeta peptides in the brain of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients start with N-terminal aspartate (Abeta(1D)) which is generated by proteolytic processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by BACE. N-terminally truncated and pyroglutamate modified Abeta starting at position 3 and ending with amino acid 42 [Abeta(3(pE)-42)] have been previously shown to represent a major species in the brain of AD patients. When compared with Abeta(1-42), this peptide has stronger aggregation propensity and increased toxicity in vitro. Although it is unknown which peptidases remove the first two N-terminal amino acids, the cyclization of Abeta at N-terminal glutamate can be catalyzed in vitro. Here, we show that Abeta(3(pE)-42) induces neurodegeneration and concomitant neurological deficits in a novel mouse model (TBA2 transgenic mice). Although TBA2 transgenic mice exhibit a strong neuronal expression of Abeta(3-42) predominantly in hippocampus and cerebellum, few plaques were found in the cortex, cerebellum, brain stem and thalamus. The levels of converted Abeta(3(pE)-42) in TBA2 mice were comparable to the APP/PS1KI mouse model with robust neuron loss and associated behavioral deficits. Eight weeks after birth TBA2 mice developed massive neurological impairments together with abundant loss of Purkinje cells. Although the TBA2 model lacks important AD-typical neuropathological features like tangles and hippocampal degeneration, it clearly demonstrates that intraneuronal Abeta(3(pE)-42) is neurotoxic in vivo.

  4. Intracellular and extracellular Abeta, a tale of two neuropathologies.

    PubMed

    Cuello, A Claudio

    2005-01-01

    The central pathological cause of Alzheimer disease (AD) is hypothesized to be an excess of beta-amyloid (Abeta) which accumulates into toxic fibrillar deposits within extracellular areas of the brain. These deposits disrupt neural and synaptic function and ultimately lead to neuronal degeneration and dementia. In addition to the pathological roles attributed to Abeta, evidence from our laboratory would suggest that Abeta serves a physiological role in the modulation of CRE-directed gene expression. This commentary also highlights some of the pathological consequences of the accumulation of intracellular Abeta. Finally it discusses the impact of cortical Abeta burden on transmitter-specific synaptic numbers as well as the generation of dystrophic neurites. The fundamental thesis of my proposal is that the Abeta pathology seen in AD is a continuous process from an initial abnormal Abeta intracellular accumulation to the well-established extracellular Abeta aggregation, culminating in the formation of amyloid plaques and dystrophic neurites.

  5. Energy landscapes of the monomer and dimer of the Alzheimer's peptide Abeta(1-28).

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiao; Chen, Wei; Mousseau, Normand; Derreumaux, Philippe

    2008-03-28

    The cytotoxicity of Alzheimer's disease has been linked to the self-assembly of the 4042 amino acid of the amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptide into oligomers. To understand the assembly process, it is important to characterize the very first steps of aggregation at an atomic level of detail. Here, we focus on the N-terminal fragment 1-28, known to form fibrils in vitro. Circular dichroism and NMR experiments indicate that the monomer of Abeta(1-28) is alpha-helical in a membranelike environment and random coil in aqueous solution. Using the activation-relaxation technique coupled with the OPEP coarse grained force field, we determine the structures of the monomer and of the dimer of Abeta(1-28). In agreement with experiments, we find that the monomer is predominantly random coil in character, but displays a non-negligible beta-strand probability in the N-terminal region. Dimerization impacts the structure of each chain and leads to an ensemble of intertwined conformations with little beta-strand content in the region Leu17-Ala21. All these structural characteristics are inconsistent with the amyloid fibril structure and indicate that the dimer has to undergo significant rearrangement en route to fibril formation.

  6. Biophysical analyses of synthetic amyloid-beta(1-42) aggregates before and after covalent cross-linking. Implications for deducing the structure of endogenous amyloid-beta oligomers.

    PubMed

    Moore, Brenda D; Rangachari, Vijayaraghavan; Tay, William M; Milkovic, Nicole M; Rosenberry, Terrone L

    2009-12-15

    A neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the presence of large numbers of senile plaques in the brain. These deposits are rich in fibrils that are composed of 40- and 42-residue amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptides. Several lines of evidence indicate that soluble Abeta aggregates as well as fibrils are important in the etiology of AD. Low levels of endogenous soluble Abeta aggregates make them difficult to characterize, but several species in extracts of AD brains have been detected by gel electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and immunoblotting. Individual Abeta oligomers ranging in size from dimers through dodecamers of 4 kDa monomeric Abeta have been resolved in other laboratories as discrete species by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). In an effort to reconstitute soluble Abeta aggregates in vitro that resemble the endogenous soluble Abeta aggregates, we previously found that monomeric Abeta(1-42) rapidly forms soluble oligomers in the presence of dilute SDS micelles. Here we extend this work in two directions. First, we contrast the size and secondary structure of these oligomers with those of synthetic Abeta(1-42) fibrils. SEC and multiangle light scattering were used to obtain a molecular mass of 150 kDa for the isolated oligomers. The oligomers partially dissociated to monomers through nonamers when incubated with SDS, but in contrast to endogenous oligomers, we saw no evidence of these discrete species prior to SDS treatment. One hypothesis to explain this difference is that endogenous oligomers are stabilized by covalent cross-linking induced by unknown cellular agents. To explore this hypothesis, optimal mass spectrometry (MS) analysis procedures need to be developed for Abeta cross-linked in vitro. In our second series of studies, we began this process by treating monomeric and aggregated Abeta(1-42) with three cross-linking agents: transglutaminase, glutaraldehyde, and Cu(II) with peroxide. We compared the efficiency of

  7. Relationship between the tautomeric structures of curcumin derivatives and their Abeta-binding activities in the context of therapies for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, Daijiro; Shirai, Nobuaki; Amatsubo, Tomone; Taguchi, Hiroyasu; Hirao, Koichi; Urushitani, Makoto; Morikawa, Shigehiro; Inubushi, Toshiro; Kato, Masanari; Kato, Fuminori; Morino, Kyuya; Kimura, Hirohiko; Nakano, Ichiro; Yoshida, Chikako; Okada, Takashi; Sano, Mitsuo; Wada, Yoshiko; Wada, Ken-nosuke; Yamamoto, Akitsugu; Tooyama, Ikuo

    2010-05-01

    Curcumin, which can exist in an equilibrium between keto and enol tautomers, binds to beta-amyloid (Abeta) fibrils/aggregates. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the tautomeric structures of curcumin derivatives and their Abeta-binding activities. Curcumin derivatives with keto-enol tautomerism showed high levels of binding to Abeta aggregates but not to Abeta monomers. The binding activity of the keto form analogue of curcumin to Abeta aggregates was found to be much weaker than that of curcumin derivatives with keto-enol tautomerism. The color of a curcumin derivative with keto-enol tautomerism, which was substituted at the C-4 position, changed from yellow to orange within 30 min of being combined with Abeta aggregates in physiological buffer. This resulted from a remarkable increase in the enol form with extended conjugation of double bonds upon binding. These findings suggest that curcumin derivatives exist predominantly in the enol form during binding to Abeta aggregates, and that the enolization of curcumin derivatives is crucial for binding to Abeta aggregates. The keto-enol tautomerism of curcumin derivatives may be a novel target for the design of amyloid-binding agents that can be used both for therapy and for amyloid detection in Alzheimer's disease.

  8. Age-dependent accumulation of soluble amyloid beta (Abeta) oligomers reverses the neuroprotective effect of soluble amyloid precursor protein-alpha (sAPP(alpha)) by modulating phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt-GSK-3beta pathway in Alzheimer mouse model.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Sebastian; Torres, Manuel; Vizuete, Marisa; Sanchez-Varo, Raquel; Sanchez-Mejias, Elisabeth; Trujillo-Estrada, Laura; Carmona-Cuenca, Irene; Caballero, Cristina; Ruano, Diego; Gutierrez, Antonia; Vitorica, Javier

    2011-05-27

    Neurotrophins, activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, control neuronal survival and plasticity. Alterations in NGF, BDNF, IGF-1, or insulin signaling are implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. We have previously characterized a bigenic PS1×APP transgenic mouse displaying early hippocampal Aβ deposition (3 to 4 months) but late (17 to 18 months) neurodegeneration of pyramidal cells, paralleled to the accumulation of soluble Aβ oligomers. We hypothesized that PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β signaling pathway could be involved in this apparent age-dependent neuroprotective/neurodegenerative status. In fact, our data demonstrated that, as compared with age-matched nontransgenic controls, the Ser-9 phosphorylation of GSK-3β was increased in the 6-month PS1×APP hippocampus, whereas in aged PS1×APP animals (18 months), GSK-3β phosphorylation levels displayed a marked decrease. Using N2a and primary neuronal cell cultures, we demonstrated that soluble amyloid precursor protein-α (sAPPα), the predominant APP-derived fragment in young PS1×APP mice, acting through IGF-1 and/or insulin receptors, activated the PI3K/Akt pathway, phosphorylated the GSK-3β activity, and in consequence, exerted a neuroprotective action. On the contrary, several oligomeric Aβ forms, present in the soluble fractions of aged PS1×APP mice, inhibited the induced phosphorylation of Akt/GSK-3β and decreased the neuronal survival. Furthermore, synthetic Aβ oligomers blocked the effect mediated by different neurotrophins (NGF, BDNF, insulin, and IGF-1) and sAPPα, displaying high selectivity for NGF. In conclusion, the age-dependent appearance of APP-derived soluble factors modulated the PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β signaling pathway through the major neurotrophin receptors. sAPPα stimulated and Aβ oligomers blocked the prosurvival signaling. Our data might provide insights into the selective vulnerability of specific neuronal groups in Alzheimer disease.

  9. Amyloid beta oligomers induce impairment of neuronal insulin receptors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei-Qin; De Felice, Fernanda G; Fernandez, Sara; Chen, Hui; Lambert, Mary P; Quon, Michael J; Krafft, Grant A; Klein, William L

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated an association between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and central nervous system (CNS) insulin resistance. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying the link between these two pathologies have not been elucidated. Here we show that signal transduction by neuronal insulin receptors (IR) is strikingly sensitive to disruption by soluble Abeta oligomers (also known as ADDLs). ADDLs are known to accumulate in AD brain and have recently been implicated as primary candidates for initiating deterioration of synapse function, composition, and structure. Using mature cultures of hippocampal neurons, a preferred model for studies of synaptic cell biology, we found that ADDLs caused a rapid and substantial loss of neuronal surface IRs specifically on dendrites bound by ADDLs. Removal of dendritic IRs was associated with increased receptor immunoreactivity in the cell body, indicating redistribution of the receptors. The neuronal response to insulin, measured by evoked IR tyrosine autophosphorylation, was greatly inhibited by ADDLs. Inhibition also was seen with added glutamate or potassium-induced depolarization. The effects on IR function were completely blocked by NMDA receptor antagonists, tetrodotoxin, and calcium chelator BAPTA-AM. Downstream from the IR, ADDLs induced a phosphorylation of Akt at serine473, a modification associated with neurodegenerative and insulin resistance diseases. These results identify novel factors that affect neuronal IR signaling and suggest that insulin resistance in AD brain is a response to ADDLs, which disrupt insulin signaling and may cause a brain-specific form of diabetes as part of an overall pathogenic impact on CNS synapses.

  10. Oligomer-oligomer versus oligomer-monomer C(2)-C(2)' coupling reactions in polypyrrole growth.

    PubMed

    Lacroix, J C; Maurel, F; Lacaze, P C

    2001-03-07

    The C(2)-C(2)' coupling reactions of oligopyrrole radical-cations of increasing length generated by electrochemical oxidation have been modeled by transition state calculations. The modeling approach takes into account solvent effects and (i) shows that the coupling distance in the transition state decreases with oligomer length, (ii) demonstrates that dimerization rates in the gas phase decrease with oligomer length but increase in water, (iii) suggests that in a less solvating medium the dimerization rates could be equivalent, (iv) indicates that in all solvents quaterpyrrole and sexipyrrole formation is faster through a coupling reaction between oligomer and monomer radical-cations than two oligomer radical-cations, and (v) suggests that for the formation of a long oligopyrrole from oligopyrrole-pyrrole reactions the mechanism might involve the coupling of the oligopyrrole dication with a non-oxidized pyrrole unit instead of the coupling of two radical-cations or that of the oligopyrrole dication with a pyrrole radical-cation.

  11. Long-term soluble Abeta1-40 activates CaM kinase II in organotypic hippocampal cultures.

    PubMed

    Tardito, Daniela; Gennarelli, Massimo; Musazzi, Laura; Gesuete, Raffaella; Chiarini, Stefania; Barbiero, Valentina Sara; Rydel, Russell E; Racagni, Giorgio; Popoli, Maurizio

    2007-09-01

    Recent findings suggested a role for soluble amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptides in Alzheimer's disease associated cognitive decline. We investigated the action of soluble, monomeric Abeta(1-40) on CaM kinase II, a kinase involved in neuroplasticity and cognition. We treated organotypic hippocampal cultures short-term (up to 4h) and long-term (5 days) with Abeta(1-40) (1nM-5microM). Abeta did not induce cell damage, apoptosis or synaptic loss. Short-term treatment down-regulated enzymatic activity of the kinase, by reducing its Thr(286) phosphorylation. In contrast, long-term treatment (1nM-microM) markedly and significantly up-regulated enzymatic activity, with peak stimulation at 10nM (three-fold). Up-regulation of activity was associated with increased expression of the alpha-isoform of CaM kinase II, increased phosphorylation at Thr(286) (activator residue) and decreased phosphorylation at Thr(305-306) (inhibitory residues). We investigated the effect of glutamate on CaM kinase II following exposure to 1 or 10nM Abeta(1-40). As previously reported, glutamate increased CaM kinase II activity. However, the glutamate effect was not altered by pretreatment of slices with Abeta. Short- and long-term Abeta treatment showed opposite effects on CaM kinase II, suggesting that long-term changes are an adaptation to the kinase early down-regulation. The marked effect of Abeta(1-40) on the kinase suggests that semi-physiological and slowly raising peptide concentrations may have a significant impact on synaptic plasticity in the absence of synaptic loss or neuronal cell death.

  12. Phosphate and HEPES buffers potently affect the fibrillation and oligomerization mechanism of Alzheimer's A{beta} peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Garvey, Megan; Tepper, Katharina; Haupt, Caroline; Knuepfer, Uwe; Klement, Karolin; Meinhardt, Jessica; Horn, Uwe; Balbach, Jochen; Faendrich, Marcus

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} Sodium phosphate buffer accelerated A{beta}(1-40) nucleation relative to HEPES. {yields} A{beta}(1-40) fibrils formed in the two buffers show only minor structural differences. {yields} NMR revealed that A{beta}(1-40) histidine residues mediate buffer dependent changes. -- Abstract: The oligomerization of A{beta} peptide into amyloid fibrils is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. Due to its biological relevance, phosphate is the most commonly used buffer system for studying the formation of A{beta} and other amyloid fibrils. Investigation into the characteristics and formation of amyloid fibrils frequently relies upon material formed in vitro, predominantly in phosphate buffers. Herein, we examine the effects on the fibrillation and oligomerization mechanism of A{beta} peptide that occur due solely to the influence of phosphate buffer. We reveal that significant differences in amyloid fibrillation are observed due to fibrillation being initiated in phosphate or HEPES buffer (at physiological pH and temperature). Except for the differing buffer ions, all experimental parameters were kept constant. Fibril formation was assessed using fluorescently monitored kinetic studies, microscopy, X-ray fiber diffraction and infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies. Based on this set up, we herein reveal profound effects on the mechanism and speed of A{beta} fibrillation. The three histidine residues at positions 6, 13 and 14 of A{beta}(1-40) are instrumental in these mechanistic changes. We conclude that buffer plays a more significant role in fibril formation than has been generally acknowledged.

  13. Secondary structure conversions of Alzheimer's Abeta(1-40) peptide induced by membrane-mimicking detergents.

    PubMed

    Wahlström, Anna; Hugonin, Loïc; Perálvarez-Marín, Alex; Jarvet, Jüri; Gräslund, Astrid

    2008-10-01

    The amyloid beta peptide (Abeta) with 39-42 residues is the major component of amyloid plaques found in brains of Alzheimer's disease patients, and soluble oligomeric peptide aggregates mediate toxic effects on neurons. The Abeta aggregation involves a conformational change of the peptide structure to beta-sheet. In the present study, we report on the effect of detergents on the structure transitions of Abeta, to mimic the effects that biomembranes may have. In vitro, monomeric Abeta(1-40) in a dilute aqueous solution is weakly structured. By gradually adding small amounts of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or lithium dodecyl sulfate to a dilute aqueous solution, Abeta(1-40) is converted to beta-sheet, as observed by CD at 3 degrees C and 20 degrees C. The transition is mainly a two-state process, as revealed by approximately isodichroic points in the titrations. Abeta(1-40) loses almost all NMR signals at dodecyl sulfate concentrations giving rise to the optimal beta-sheet content (approximate detergent/peptide ratio = 20). Under these conditions, thioflavin T fluorescence measurements indicate a maximum of aggregated amyloid-like structures. The loss of NMR signals suggests that these are also involved in intermediate chemical exchange. Transverse relaxation optimized spectroscopy NMR spectra indicate that the C-terminal residues are more dynamic than the others. By further addition of SDS or lithium dodecyl sulfate reaching concentrations close to the critical micellar concentration, CD, NMR and FTIR spectra show that the peptide rearranges to form a micelle-bound structure with alpha-helical segments, similar to the secondary structures formed when a high concentration of detergent is added directly to the peptide solution.

  14. Isolation and characterization of patient-derived, toxic, high mass amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) assembly from Alzheimer disease brains.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Akihiko; Matsumura, Satoko; Dezawa, Mari; Tada, Mari; Yanazawa, Masako; Ito, Akane; Akioka, Manami; Kikuchi, Satoru; Sato, Michio; Ideno, Shouji; Noda, Munehiro; Fukunari, Atsushi; Muramatsu, Shin-ichi; Itokazu, Yutaka; Sato, Kazuki; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Teplow, David B; Nabeshima, Yo-ichi; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Imahori, Kazutomo; Hoshi, Minako

    2009-11-20

    Amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) assemblies are thought to play primary roles in Alzheimer disease (AD). They are considered to acquire surface tertiary structures, not present in physiologic monomers, that are responsible for exerting toxicity, probably through abnormal interactions with their target(s). Therefore, Abeta assemblies having distinct surface tertiary structures should cause neurotoxicity through distinct mechanisms. Aiming to clarify the molecular basis of neuronal loss, which is a central phenotype in neurodegenerative diseases such as AD, we report here the selective immunoisolation of neurotoxic 10-15-nm spherical Abeta assemblies termed native amylospheroids (native ASPDs) from AD and dementia with Lewy bodies brains, using ASPD tertiary structure-dependent antibodies. In AD patients, the amount of native ASPDs was correlated with the pathologic severity of disease. Native ASPDs are anti-pan oligomer A11 antibody-negative, high mass (>100 kDa) assemblies that induce degeneration particularly of mature neurons, including those of human origin, in vitro. Importantly, their immunospecificity strongly suggests that native ASPDs have a distinct surface tertiary structure from other reported assemblies such as dimers, Abeta-derived diffusible ligands, and A11-positive assemblies. Only ASPD tertiary structure-dependent antibodies could block ASPD-induced neurodegeneration. ASPDs bind presynaptic target(s) on mature neurons and have a mode of toxicity different from those of other assemblies, which have been reported to exert their toxicity through binding postsynaptic targets and probably perturbing glutamatergic synaptic transmission. Thus, our findings indicate that native ASPDs with a distinct toxic surface induce neuronal loss through a different mechanism from other Abeta assemblies.

  15. The tissue plasminogen activator-plasminogen proteolytic cascade accelerates amyloid-beta (Abeta) degradation and inhibits Abeta-induced neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Melchor, Jerry P; Pawlak, Robert; Strickland, Sidney

    2003-10-01

    Accumulation of the amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptide depends on both its generation and clearance. To better define clearance pathways, we have evaluated the role of the tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)-plasmin system in Abeta degradation in vivo. In two different mouse models of Alzheimer's disease, chronically elevated Abeta peptide in the brain correlates with the upregulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and inhibition of the tPA-plasmin system. In addition, Abeta injected into the hippocampus of mice lacking either tPA or plasminogen persists, inducing PAI-1 expression and causing activation of microglial cells and neuronal damage. Conversely, Abeta injected into wild-type mice is rapidly cleared and does not cause neuronal degeneration. Thus, the tPA-plasmin proteolytic cascade aids in the clearance of Abeta, and reduced activity of this system may contribute to the progression of Alzheimer's disease.

  16. Phenylethynyl terminated imide oligomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor); Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor); Havens, Stephen J. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Four phenylethynyl amine compounds - 3 and 4-aminophenoxy-4'-phenylethynylbenzophenone, and 3 and 4-amino-4'-phenylethynylbenzophenone - were readily prepared and were used to endcap imide oligomers. Phenylethynyl-terminated amide acid oligomers and phenylethynyl-terminated imide oligomers with various molecular weights and compositions were prepared and characterized. These oligomers were cured at 300 to 400 C to provide crosslinked polyimides with excellent solvent resistance, high strength and modulus, and good high temperature properties. Adhesive panels, composites, films, and moldings from these phenylethynyl terminated imide oligomers gave excellent mechanical performance.

  17. Lipid-induced conformational transition of the amyloid core fragment Abeta(28-35) and its A30G and A30I mutants.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Sureshbabu; Ramalingam, Kirubagaran; Neelakanta Reddy, P; Cereghetti, Damiano M; Padma Malar, E J; Rajadas, Jayakumar

    2008-05-01

    The interaction of the beta-amyloid peptide (Abeta) with neuronal membranes could play a key role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Recent studies have focused on the interactions of Abeta oligomers to explain the neuronal toxicity accompanying Alzheimer's disease. In our study, we have investigated the role of lipid interactions with soluble Abeta(28-35) (wild-type) and its mutants A30G and A30I in their aggregation and conformational preferences. CD and Trp fluorescence spectroscopic studies indicated that, immediately on dissolution, these peptides adopted a random coil structure. Upon addition of negatively charged 1,2-dipalmitoyl-syn-glycero-3-phospho-rac-(glycerol) sodium salt (PG) lipid, the wild-type and A30I mutant underwent reorganization into a predominant beta-sheet structure. However, no conformational changes were observed in the A30G mutant on interaction with PG. In contrast, the presence of zwitterionic 1,2-dipalmitoyl-syn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipid had no effect on the conformation of these three peptides. These observations were also confirmed with atomic force microscopy and the thioflavin-T assay. In the presence of PG vesicles, both the wild-type and A30I mutant formed fibrillar structures within 2 days of incubation in NaCl/P(i), but not in their absence. Again, no oligomerization was observed with PC vesicles. The Trp studies also revealed that both ends of the three peptides are not buried deep in the vesicle membrane. Furthermore, fluorescence spectroscopy using the environment-sensitive probe 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene showed an increase in the membrane fluidity upon exposure of the vesicles to the peptides. The latter effect may result from the lipid head group interactions with the peptides. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer experiments revealed that these peptides undergo a random coil-to-sheet conversion in solution on aging and that this process is accelerated by negatively charged lipid vesicles

  18. Binding of an oxindole alkaloid from Uncaria tomentosa to amyloid protein (Abeta1-40).

    PubMed

    Frackowiak, Teresa; Baczek, Tomasz; Roman, Kaliszana; Zbikowska, Beata; Gleńsk, Michał; Fecka, Izabela; Cisowski, Wojciech

    2006-01-01

    The primary aim of this work was to determine the interactions of an oxindole alkaloid (mitraphylline) isolated from Uncaria tomentosa with beta-amyloid 1-40 (Abeta1-40 protein) applying the capillary electrophoresis (CE) method. Specifically the Hummel-Dreyer method and Scatchard analysis were performed to study the binding of oxindole alkaloids with Abeta1-40 protein. Prior to these studies extraction of the alkaloid of interest was carried out. Identification of the isolated alkaloid was performed by the use of thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The proposed approach was proved to be an efficient and accurate method for specific compound isolation and identification purposes. Moreover, analytical information from the CE approach can be considered as the valuable tool for binding constant determination. The binding constant of mitraphylline with Abeta1-40 protein determined by the Hummel-Dreyer method and Scatchard analysis equals K = 9.95 x 10(5) M(-1). The results obtained showed the significant binding of the tested compound with Abeta1-40 protein. These results are discussed and interpreted in the view of developing a strategy for identification of novel compounds of great importance in Alzheimer disease therapy.

  19. Moderate consumption of Cabernet Sauvignon attenuates Abeta neuropathology in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Ho, Lap; Zhao, Zhong; Seror, Ilana; Humala, Nelson; Dickstein, Dara L; Thiyagarajan, Meenakshisundaram; Percival, Susan S; Talcott, Stephen T; Pasinetti, Giulio Maria

    2006-11-01

    Recent studies suggest that moderate red wine consumption reduces the incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) clinical dementia. Using Tg2576 mice, which model AD-type amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) neuropathology, we tested whether moderate consumption of the red wine Cabernet Sauvignon modulates AD-type neuropathology and cognitive deterioration. The wine used in the study was generated using Cabernet Sauvignon grapes from Fresno, California, and was delivered to Tg2576 in a final concentration of approximately 6% ethanol. We found that Cabernet Sauvignon significantly attenuated AD-type deterioration of spatial memory function and Abeta neuropathology in Tg2576 mice relative to control Tg2576 mice that were treated with either a comparable amount of ethanol or water alone. Chemical analysis showed the Cabernet Sauvignon used in this study contains a very low content of resveratrol (0.2 mg/L), 10-fold lower than the minimal effective concentration shown to promote Abeta clearance in vitro. Our studies suggest Cabernet Sauvignon exerts a beneficial effect by promoting nonamyloidogenic processing of amyloid precursor protein, which ultimately prevents the generation of Abeta peptides. This study supports epidemiological evidence indicating that moderate wine consumption, within the range recommended by the FDA dietary guidelines of one drink per day for women and two for men, may help reduce the relative risk for AD clinical dementia.

  20. Counterion condensation on ionic oligomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, Gerald S.; Mohanty, Udayan

    1997-02-01

    The Ramanathan-Woodbury formulas representing the charge density critical for the onset of counterion condensation on finite-length polymers are derived by three alternate methods, an extension of Debye-Huckel theory, a theory of end effects, and by density functional theory. For charged oligomers with length of the same order as the Debye length, the threshold for condensation is the same as for polymers of length much greater than the Debye lenght. However, the threshold depends both on length and salt concentration if the oligomer is shorter than the Debye length, in such a way as to recede to infinity as the ratio of oligomer length to Debye length tends to zero (i.e., condensation vanishes in this limit). The extended Debye-Huckel theory additionally provides a new result for the partition function of the condensed layer, showing that the free energy of the condensed counterions is different on an oligomer and a polymer, even when the fractional extent of condensation is the same. The end effect theory discloses a hitherto unnoticed connection between the number of counterions condensed at the ends of a long polymer and the number condensed on a short oligomer.

  1. Cu K-edge X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Reveals Differential Copper Coordimation Within Amyloid-beta Oligomers Compared to Amyloid-beta Monomers

    SciTech Connect

    J Shearer; P Callan; T Tran; V Szalai

    2011-12-31

    The fatal neurodegenerative disorder Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been linked to the formation of soluble neurotoxic oligomers of amyloid-{beta} (A{beta}) peptides. These peptides have high affinities for copper cations. Despite their potential importance in AD neurodegeneration few studies have focused on probing the Cu{sup 2+/1+} coordination environment within A{beta} oligomers. Herein we present a Cu K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopic study probing the copper-coordination environment within oligomers of A{beta}(42) (sequence: DAEFRHDSGYEVHHQKLVFFAEDVGSNKGAIIGLMVGGVVIA). We find that the Cu{sup 2+} cation is contained within a square planar mixed N/O ligand environment within A{beta}(42) oligomers, which is similar to the copper coordination environment of the monomeric forms of {l_brace}Cu{sup II}A{beta}(40){r_brace} and {l_brace}Cu{sup II}A{beta}(16){r_brace}. Reduction of the Cu{sup 2+} cation within the A{beta}(42) oligomers to Cu{sup 1+} yields a highly dioxygen sensitive copper-species that contains Cu{sup 1+} in a tetrahedral coordination geometry. This can be contrasted with monomers of {l_brace}Cu{sup I}A{beta}(40){r_brace} and {l_brace}Cu{sup I}A{beta}(16){r_brace}, which contain copper in a dioxygen inert linear bis-histidine ligand environment [Shearer and Szalai, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2008, 130, 17826]. The biological implications of these findings are discussed.

  2. Does Abeta 42 have a function related to blood homeostasis?

    PubMed

    Hardy, John

    2007-01-01

    In this review, I discuss the possibility that Abeta42 has a physiologic function in blood vessel homeostasis and the consequences that this might have for theories concerning the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and for treatment.

  3. Microtubular interactions of presenilin direct kinesis of Abeta peptide and its precursors.

    PubMed

    Tezapsidis, Nikolaos; Merz, Patricia A; Merz, George; Hong, Heni

    2003-07-01

    In our previous study we demonstrated that presenilin 1 (PS1) interacts with cytoplasmic linker protein 170/Restin (CLIP-170/Restin). Herein we show that disruption of the interaction of these proteins within neuronal cell-lines (SY5Y and N2a) can be accomplished by the transfection of vectors that drive the expression of peptide fragments corresponding to their binding domains (BDPs). Interestingly, the disruption of the PS1/CLIP-170 complex is associated with both decreased secretion of endogenous Abeta and decreased uptake of exogenous Abeta from the medium. BDP-expressing cells were also more resistant to surges of Abeta secretion induced by thapsigargin and ionomycin (that elevate intracellular calcium concentrations) and mutations in PS1 linked to familial Alzheimer's disease. Uptake of Abeta by SY5Y cells was amplified when preincubated with ApoE and was mediated through lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP). BDP-expressing cells or cells treated with PS1 anti-sense oligonucleotides were less capable of taking up Abeta from the medium compared with controls, indicating that the PS1/CLIP-170 interaction is involved and that PS1 cannot be substituted. In this study, we also mapped the minimum binding domains (mBDPs) of PS1 and CLIP-70 to regions corresponding to the N-terminal end of the large cytoplasmic loop of PS1 and the metal binding motif-containing C-terminal end of CLIP-170. Further, our data obtained from experiments involving in vitro taxol-polymerization of tubulin and confocal immunofluorescence suggest that PS1, via CLIP-170, may serve as an anchor to the microtubules for specific subcellular fractions containing amyloidogenic fragments. Interestingly, Notch is absent from this population of microtubule binding subcellular fractions and its cleavage was unaffected in cells transfected with the PS1-based BDP. This raises the possibility that the interaction of PS1 with CLIP-170 could provide the conceptual basis for anti

  4. Nicotinic receptor agonists and antagonists increase sAPPalpha secretion and decrease Abeta levels in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, M; Hellström-Lindahl, E

    2009-01-01

    We have earlier reported that Abeta were significantly reduced in brains of smoking Alzheimer patients and control subjects compared with non-smokers, as well as in nicotine treated APPsw transgenic mice. To examine the mechanisms by which nicotine modulates APP processing we here measured levels of secreted amyloid precursor protein (sAPPalpha), total sAPP, Abeta40 and Abeta42 in different cell lines expressing different nicotinic receptor (nAChR) subtypes or no nAChRs. Treatment with nicotine increased release of sAPPalpha and at the same time lowered Abeta levels in both SH-SY5Y and SH-SY5Y/APPsw cells expressing alpha3 and alpha7 nAChR subtypes. These effects could also be evoked by co-treatment with the competitive alpha7 nAChR antagonists alpha-bungarotoxin and methyllycaconitine (MLA), and by these antagonists alone, suggesting that binding to the agonist binding site, rather than activation of the receptor, may be sufficient to trigger changes in APP processing. The nicotine-induced increase in sAPPalpha could only be blocked by co-treatment with the open channel blocker mecamylamine. In addition to nicotine, the agonists epibatidine and cytisine both significantly increased the release of sAPP in M10 cells expressing the alpha4/beta2 nAChR subtype, and this effect was blocked by co-treatment with mecamylamine but not by the alpha4/beta2 competitive antagonist dihydro-beta-erythroidine. The lack of effect of nicotine on sAPPalpha and Abeta levels in HEK 293/APPsw cells, which do not express any nAChRs, demonstrates that the nicotine-induced attenuation of beta-amyloidosis is mediated by nAChRs and not by a direct effect of nicotine. Our data show that nicotinic compounds stimulate the non-amyloidogenic pathway and that alpha4 and alpha7 nAChRs play a major role in modulating this process. Nicotinic drugs directed towards specific nAChR subtypes might therefore be beneficial for the treatment of AD not only by lowering Abeta production but also by enhance

  5. Capping of Aβ42 Oligomers by Small Molecule Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Aβ42 peptides associate into soluble oligomers and protofibrils in the process of forming the amyloid fibrils associated with Alzheimer’s disease. The oligomers have been reported to be more toxic to neurons than fibrils, and have been targeted by a wide range of small molecule and peptide inhibitors. With single touch atomic force microscopy (AFM), we show that monomeric Aβ42 forms two distinct types of oligomers, low molecular weight (MW) oligomers with heights of 1–2 nm and high MW oligomers with heights of 3–5 nm. In both cases, the oligomers are disc-shaped with diameters of ∼10–15 nm. The similar diameters suggest that the low MW species stack to form the high MW oligomers. The ability of Aβ42 inhibitors to interact with these oligomers is probed using atomic force microscopy and NMR spectroscopy. We show that curcumin and resveratrol bind to the N-terminus (residues 5–20) of Aβ42 monomers and cap the height of the oligomers that are formed at 1–2 nm. A second class of inhibitors, which includes sulindac sulfide and indomethacin, exhibit very weak interactions across the Aβ42 sequence and do not block the formation of the high MW oligomers. The correlation between N-terminal interactions and capping of the height of the Aβ oligomers provides insights into the mechanism of inhibition and the pathway of Aβ aggregation. PMID:25422864

  6. Transnasal delivery of human A-beta peptides elicits impaired learning and memory performance in wild type mice.

    PubMed

    Endres, Kristina; Reinhardt, Sven; Geladaris, Anastasia; Knies, Julia; Grimm, Marcus; Hartmann, Tobias; Schmitt, Ulrich

    2016-07-04

    Murine models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are mainly based on overexpression of pathologic amyloid precursor protein and/or presenilins. Those genes resemble underlying cause of early onset type of AD while about 99 % of all human cases are to be characterized as sporadic, late onset. Appropriate animal models for this type of AD are still missing. We here investigated, if transnasal delivery of A-beta 42 peptides might serve to mimic pathological effects in mice. A-beta 42 peptides, used for the behavioral study, showed the expected dose-dependent toxicity in neur oblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y and were able to form higher molecular weight species in vitro. Upon delivery into nostrils of wild type mice, protein bands that might represent aggregation products of the exogenously applied human A-beta 42 were only observed in total brain homogenates from mice pre-treated with mannitol. By using TAMRA-labeled A-beta 42 peptides we demonstrated, that transport throughout the brain was achieved already 1 h after administration. FVB/N mice treated with A-beta 42 for 3 days were significantly impaired in the cue-retention condition of the fear conditioning task as compared to controls whereas A-beta-treated C57B6/J mice were impaired in the context condition. In the Morris water maze test, these mice also displayed a delayed learning performance, indicated by significantly longer time to find the platform. Those deficits were also seen for memory performance in the probe trial as measured by number of crossings of the former platform position and time spent in the goal quadrant. Existing AD mouse models are of genetic origin and need prolonged housing time before onset of pathology. Our short-term treatment induced learning and memory deficits via exogenous application of A-beta peptides comparable to those observed for the transgenic animals. With the transnasal A-beta 42 treatment we present an approach to investigate purely A-beta related changes suitable as a model for

  7. Stabilization, Characterization, and Selective Removal of Cystatin C Amyloid Oligomers*

    PubMed Central

    Östner, Gustav; Lindström, Veronica; Hjort Christensen, Per; Kozak, Maciej; Abrahamson, Magnus; Grubb, Anders

    2013-01-01

    The pathophysiological process in amyloid disorders usually involves the transformation of a functional monomeric protein via potentially toxic oligomers into amyloid fibrils. The structure and properties of the intermediary oligomers have been difficult to study due to their instability and dynamic equilibrium with smaller and larger species. In hereditary cystatin C amyloid angiopathy, a cystatin C variant is deposited in arterial walls and cause brain hemorrhage in young adults. In the present investigation, we use redox experiments of monomeric cystatin C, stabilized against domain swapping by an intramolecular disulfide bond, to generate stable oligomers (dimers, trimers, tetramers, decamers, and high molecular weight oligomers). These oligomers were characterized concerning size by gel filtration, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry, shape by electron and atomic force microscopy, and, function by assays of their capacity to inhibit proteases. The results showed the oligomers to be highly ordered, domain-swapped assemblies of cystatin C and that the oligomers could not build larger oligomers, or fibrils, without domain swapping. The stabilized oligomers were used to induce antibody formation in rabbits. After immunosorption, using immobilized monomeric cystatin C, and elution from columns with immobilized cystatin C oligomers, oligomer-specific antibodies were obtained. These could be used to selectively remove cystatin C dimers from biological fluids containing both dimers and monomers. PMID:23629649

  8. Targeting Cancer with Antisense Oligomers

    SciTech Connect

    Hnatowich, DJ

    2008-10-28

    With financial assistance from the Department of Energy, we have shown definitively that radiolabeled antisense DNAs and other oligomers will accumulate in target cancer cells in vitro and in vivo by an antisense mechanism. We have also shown that the number of mRNA targets for our antisense oligomers in the cancer cell types that we have investigated so far is sufficient to provide and antisense image and/or radiotherapy of cancer in mice. These studies have been reported in about 10 publications. However our observation over the past several years has shown that radiolabeled antisense oligomers administered intravenously in their native and naked form will accumulate and be retained in target xenografts by an antisense mechanism but will also accumulate at high levels in normal organs such as liver, spleen and kidneys. We have investigated unsuccessfully several commercially available vectors. Thus the use of radiolabeled antisense oligomers for the imaging of cancer must await novel approaches to delivery. This laboratory has therefore pursued two new paths, optical imaging of tumor and Auger radiotherapy. We are developing a novel method of optical imaging tumor using antisense oligomers with a fluorophore is administered while hybridized with a shorter complementary oligomer with an inhibitor. In culture and in tumored mice that the duplex remains intact and thus nonfluorescent until it encounters its target mRNA at which time it dissociates and the antisense oligomer binds along with its fluorophore to the target. Simultaneous with the above, we have also observed, as have others, that antisense oligomers migrate rapidly and quantitatively to the nucleus upon crossing cell membranes. The Auger electron radiotherapy path results from this observation since the nuclear migration properties could be used effectively to bring and to retain in the nucleus an Auger emitting radionuclide such as 111In or 125I bound to the antisense oligomer. Since the object becomes

  9. Intraneuronal Abeta immunoreactivity is not a predictor of brain amyloidosis-beta or neurofibrillary degeneration.

    PubMed

    Wegiel, Jerzy; Kuchna, Izabela; Nowicki, Krzysztof; Frackowiak, Janusz; Mazur-Kolecka, Bozena; Imaki, Humi; Wegiel, Jarek; Mehta, Pankaj D; Silverman, Wayne P; Reisberg, Barry; Deleon, Mony; Wisniewski, Thomas; Pirttilla, Tuula; Frey, Harry; Lehtimäki, Terho; Kivimäki, Tarmo; Visser, Frank E; Kamphorst, Wouter; Potempska, Anna; Bolton, David; Currie, Julia R; Miller, David L

    2007-04-01

    Amyloid beta (Abeta) immunoreactivity in neurons was examined in brains of 32 control subjects, 31 people with Down syndrome, and 36 patients with sporadic Alzheimer's disease to determine if intraneuronal Abeta immunoreactivity is an early manifestation of Alzheimer-type pathology leading to fibrillar plaque formation and/or neurofibrillary degeneration. The appearance of Abeta immunoreactivity in neurons in infants and stable neuron-type specific Abeta immunoreactivity in a majority of brain structures during late childhood, adulthood, and normal aging does not support this hypothesis. The absence or detection of only traces of reaction with antibodies against 4-13 aa and 8-17 aa of Abeta in neurons indicated that intraneuronal Abeta was mainly a product of alpha- and gamma-secretases (Abeta(17-40/42)). The presence of N-terminally truncated Abeta(17-40) and Abeta(17-42) in the control brains was confirmed by Western blotting and the identity of Abeta(17-40) was confirmed by mass spectrometry. The prevalence of products of alpha- and gamma -secretases in neurons and beta- and gamma-secretases in plaques argues against major contribution of Abeta-immunopositive material detected in neuronal soma to amyloid deposit in plaques. The strongest intraneuronal Abeta(17-42) immunoreactivity was observed in structures with low susceptibility to fibrillar Abeta deposition, neurofibrillary degeneration, and neuronal loss compared to areas more vulnerable to Alzheimer-type pathology. These observations indicate that the intraneuronal Abeta immunoreactivity detected in this study is not a predictor of brain amyloidosis or neurofibrillary degeneration. The constant level of Abeta immunoreactivity in structures free from neuronal pathology during essentially the entire life span suggests that intraneuronal amino-terminally truncated Abeta represents a product of normal neuronal metabolism.

  10. Novel N-terminal cleavage of APP precludes Abeta generation in ACAT-defective AC29 cells.

    PubMed

    Huttunen, Henri J; Puglielli, Luigi; Ellis, Blake C; MacKenzie Ingano, Laura A; Kovacs, Dora M

    2009-01-01

    A common pathogenic event that occurs in all forms of Alzheimer's disease is the progressive accumulation of amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta) in brain regions responsible for higher cognitive functions. Inhibition of acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT), which generates intracellular cholesteryl esters from free cholesterol and fatty acids, reduces the biogenesis of the Abeta from the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Here we have used AC29 cells, defective in ACAT activity, to show that ACAT activity steers APP either toward or away from a novel proteolytic pathway that replaces both alpha and the amyloidogenic beta cleavages of APP. This alternative pathway involves a novel cleavage of APP holoprotein at Glu281, which correlates with reduced ACAT activity and Abeta generation in AC29 cells. This sterol-dependent cleavage of APP occurs in the endosomal compartment after internalization of cell surface APP. The resulting novel C-terminal fragment APP-C470 is destined to proteasomal degradation limiting the availability of APP for the Abeta generating system. The proportion of APP molecules that are directed to the novel cleavage pathway is regulated by the ratio of free cholesterol and cholesteryl esters in cells. These results suggest that subcellular cholesterol distribution may be an important regulator of the cellular fate of APP holoprotein and that there may exist several competing proteolytic systems responsible for APP processing within the endosomal compartment.

  11. The role of seladin-1/DHCR24 in cholesterol biosynthesis, APP processing and Abeta generation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Crameri, Arames; Biondi, Elisa; Kuehnle, Katrin; Lütjohann, Dieter; Thelen, Karin M; Perga, Simona; Dotti, Carlos G; Nitsch, Roger M; Ledesma, Maria Dolores; Mohajeri, M Hasan

    2006-01-25

    The cholesterol-synthesizing enzyme seladin-1, encoded by the Dhcr24 gene, is a flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent oxidoreductase and regulates responses to oncogenic and oxidative stimuli. It has a role in neuroprotection and is downregulated in affected neurons in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we show that seladin-1-deficient mouse brains had reduced levels of cholesterol and disorganized cholesterol-rich detergent-resistant membrane domains (DRMs). This was associated with inefficient plasminogen binding and plasmin activation, the displacement of beta-secretase (BACE) from DRMs to APP-containing membrane fractions, increased beta-cleavage of APP and high levels of Abeta peptides. In contrast, overexpression of seladin-1 increased both cholesterol and the recruitment of DRM components into DRM fractions, induced plasmin activation and reduced both BACE processing of APP and Abeta formation. These results establish a role of seladin-1 in the formation of DRMs and suggest that seladin-1-dependent cholesterol synthesis is involved in lowering Abeta levels. Pharmacological enhancement of seladin-1 activity may be a novel Abeta-lowering approach for the treatment of AD.

  12. Monofunctional hyperbranched ethylene oligomers.

    PubMed

    Wiedemann, Thomas; Voit, Gregor; Tchernook, Alexandra; Roesle, Philipp; Göttker-Schnetmann, Inigo; Mecking, Stefan

    2014-02-05

    The neutral κ(2)N,O-salicylaldiminato Ni(II) complexes [κ(2)N,O-{(2,6-(3',5'-R2C6H3)2C6H3-N═C(H)-(3,5-I2-2-O-C6H2)}]NiCH3(pyridine)] (1a-pyr, R = Me; 1b-pyr, R = Et; 1c-pyr, R = iPr) convert ethylene to hyperbranched low-molecular-weight oligomers (Mn ca. 1000 g mol(-1)) with high productivities. While all three catalysts are capable of generating hyperbranched structures, branching densities decrease significantly with the nature of the remote substituent along Me > Et > iPr and oligomer molecular weights increase. Consequently, only 1a-pyr forms hyperbranched structures over a wide range of reaction conditions (ethylene pressure 5-30 atm and 20-70 °C). An in situ catalyst system achieves similar activities and identical highly branched oligomer microstructures, eliminating the bottleneck given by the preparation and isolation of Ni-Me catalyst precursor species. Selective introduction of one primary carboxylic acid ester functional group per highly branched oligoethylene molecule was achieved by isomerizing ethoxycarbonylation and alternatively cross metathesis with ethyl acrylate followed by hydrogenation. The latter approach results in complete functionalization and no essential loss of branched oligomer material and molecular weight, as the reacting double bonds are close to a chain end. Reduction yielded a monoalcohol-functionalized oligomer. Introduction of one reactive epoxide group per branched oligomer occurs completely and selectively under mild conditions. All reaction steps involved in oligomerization and monofunctionalization are efficient and readily scalable.

  13. The protective role of DL-alpha-lipoic acid in the oxidative vulnerability triggered by Abeta-amyloid vaccination in mice.

    PubMed

    Jesudason, E Philip; Masilamoni, J Gunasingh; Jesudoss, K Samuel; Jayakumar, R

    2005-02-01

    Recent reports indicate that beta-amyloid peptide (Abeta) vaccine based therapy for Alzheimer's disease (AD) may be on the horizon. There are however, concerns about the safety of this approach. Immunization with Abeta has several disadvantages, because it crosses the blood brain barrier and cause inflammation and neurotoxicity. The present work is aimed to study the protective effective of alpha-lipoic acid (LA) in the oxidative vulnerability of beta-amyloid in plasma, liver, spleen and brain, when Abeta fibrils are given intraperitoneally in inflammation induced mice. Result shows that reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the astrocytes of inflammation induced mice along with Abeta (IA) has shown 2.5-fold increase when compared with LA treated mice. The increased level of lipid peroxidase (LPO) (p < 0.05) and decreased antioxidant status (p < 0.05) were observed in the plasma, liver, spleen and brain of LA induced mice when compared with LA treated mice. Data shows that there were no significant changes observed between the control and LA treated mice. Our biochemical and histological results highlight that significant oxidative vulnerability was observed in IA treated mice, which was prevented by LA therapy. Our findings suggest that the antioxidant effect of LA when induced with Abeta may serve as a potent therapeutic tool for inflammatory AD models.

  14. Reviewing reasons for the decreased CSF Abeta42 concentration in Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Spies, Petra E; Verbeek, Marcel M; van Groen, Thomas; Claassen, Jurgen A H R

    2012-06-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) amyloid beta42 (Abeta42) concentrations are decreased in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD). Consequently, low Abeta42 is considered a positive biomarker for AD. Surprisingly, the mechanisms that underlie the decrease in CSF Abeta42 remain speculative. Better understanding of this biomarker is an essential step to unravel AD pathophysiology and to develop and evaluate treatment. Therefore, we systematically examined the possible reasons for the decreased CSF Abeta42 concentration in AD. Under normal conditions, Abeta42 can be degraded by proteases, taken up by microglia, or cleared from the brain interstitial fluid across the blood brain barrier. Alternatively, it can be transported to the CSF and be cleared from there. Aggregation of Abeta42 appears the most likely cause for the decreased CSF Abeta42 concentration in AD: the aggregated state inhibits Abeta42 from being transported from the ISF to the CSF. Evidence for other possibilities such as a decreased production of Abeta42, an increased proteolytic breakdown or microglial uptake of Abeta42, or an increased clearance of Abeta42 to the blood, is - at best - scarce or even absent.

  15. Pathogenesis of A-beta+ ketosis-prone diabetes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A-beta+ ketosis-prone diabetes (KPD) is an emerging syndrome of obesity, unprovoked ketoacidosis, reversible beta-cell dysfunction, and near-normoglycemic remission. We combined metabolomics with targeted kinetic measurements to investigate its pathophysiology. Fasting plasma fatty acids, acylcarnit...

  16. Computational selection of inhibitors of Abeta aggregation and neuronal toxicity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Deliang; Martin, Zane S; Soto, Claudio; Schein, Catherine H

    2009-07-15

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the cerebral accumulation of misfolded and aggregated amyloid-beta protein (Abeta). Disease symptoms can be alleviated, in vitro and in vivo, by 'beta-sheet breaker' pentapeptides that reduce plaque load. However the peptide nature of these compounds, made them biologically unstable and unable to penetrate membranes with high efficiency. The main goal of this study was to use computational methods to identify small molecule mimetics with better drug-like properties. For this purpose, the docked conformations of the active peptides were used to identify compounds with similar activities. A series of related beta-sheet breaker peptides were docked to solid state NMR structures of a fibrillar form of Abeta. The lowest energy conformations of the active peptides were used to design three dimensional (3D)-pharmacophores, suitable for screening the NCI database with Unity. Small molecular weight compounds with physicochemical features and a conformation similar to the active peptides were selected, ranked by docking and biochemical parameters. Of 16 diverse compounds selected for experimental screening, 2 prevented and reversed Abeta aggregation at 2-3microM concentration, as measured by Thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence and ELISA assays. They also prevented the toxic effects of aggregated Abeta on neuroblastoma cells. Their low molecular weight and aqueous solubility makes them promising lead compounds for treating AD.

  17. Adeno-associated viral (AAV) serotype 5 vector mediated gene delivery of endothelin-converting enzyme reduces Abeta deposits in APP + PS1 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Carty, Niki C; Nash, Kevin; Lee, Daniel; Mercer, Mary; Gottschall, Paul E; Meyers, Craig; Muzyczka, Nicholas; Gordon, Marcia N; Morgan, Dave

    2008-09-01

    Reduction of Abeta deposition is a major therapeutic strategy in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The concentration of Abeta in the brain is modulated not only by Abeta production but also by its degradation. One of the proteases involved in the degradation of Abeta peptides is endothelin-converting enzyme (ECE). In this study, we investigated the effects of an intracranial administration of a seroptype 5 recombinant adeno-associated viral vector (rAAV) containing the ECE-1 synthetic gene on amyloid deposition in amyloid precursor protein (APP) plus presenilin-1 (PS1) transgenic mice. The rAAV vector was injected unilaterally into the right anterior cortex and hippocampus of 6-month-old mice, while control mice received an AAV vector expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP). Immunohistochemical testing for the hemagglutinin (HA) tag appended to ECE revealed strong expression in areas surrounding the injection sites but minimal expression in the contralateral regions. Immunohistochemical tests showed that Abeta decreases in the anterior cortex and hippocampus in mice receiving the ECE synthetic gene. Further, decreases in Congo red positive deposits were also observed in both regions. These results indicate that increasing the expression of beta-amyloid degrading enzymes through gene therapy is a promising approach to the treatment of AD.

  18. Long-term neprilysin gene transfer is associated with reduced levels of intracellular Abeta and behavioral improvement in APP transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Brian; Marr, Robert A; Rockenstein, Edward; Crews, Leslie; Adame, Anthony; Potkar, Rewati; Patrick, Christina; Gage, Fred H; Verma, Inder M; Masliah, Eliezer

    2008-11-12

    Proteolytic degradation has emerged as a key pathway involved in controlling levels of the Alzheimer's disease (AD)-associated amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptide in the brain. The endopeptidase, neprilysin, has been implicated as a major Abeta degrading enzyme in mice and humans. Previous short and intermediate term studies have shown the potential therapeutic application of neprilysin by delivering this enzyme into the brain of APP transgenic mice using gene transfer with viral vectors. However the effects of long-term neprilysin gene transfer on other aspects of Abeta associated pathology have not been explored yet in APP transgenic mice. We show that the sustained expression of neprilysin for up to 6 months lowered not only the amyloid plaque load but also reduced the levels of intracellular Abeta immunoreactivity. This was associated with improved behavioral performance in the water maze and ameliorated the dendritic and synaptic pathology in the APP transgenic mice. These data support the possibility that long-term neprilysin gene therapy improves behavioral and neurodegenerative pathology by reducing intracellular Abeta.

  19. Multifunctional liposomes interact with Abeta in human biological fluids: Therapeutic implications for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Conti, Elisa; Gregori, Maria; Radice, Isabella; Da Re, Fulvio; Grana, Denise; Re, Francesca; Salvati, Elisa; Masserini, Massimo; Ferrarese, Carlo; Zoia, Chiara Paola; Tremolizzo, Lucio

    2017-02-23

    The accumulation of extracellular amyloid beta (Abeta42) both in brain and in cerebral vessels characterizes Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Recently, the possibility to functionalize nanoparticles (NPs) surface with Abeta42 binding molecules, making them suitable tools for reducing Abeta42 burden has been shown effective in models of AD. Aim of this work consisted in proving that NPs might be effective in sequestering Abeta42 in biological fluids, such as CSF and plasma. This demonstration is extremely important considering that these Abeta42 pools are in continuum with the brain parenchyma with drainage of Abeta from interstitial brain tissue to blood vessel and plasma. In this work, liposomes (LIP) were functionalized as previously shown in order to promote high-affinity Abeta binding, i.e., either with, phosphatidic acid (PA), or a modified Apolipoprotein E-derived peptide (mApo), or with a curcumin derivative (TREG); Abeta42 levels were determined by ELISA in CSF and plasma samples. mApo-PA-LIP (25 and 250 μM) mildly albeit significantly sequestered Abeta42 proteins in CSF samples obtained from healthy subjects (p < 0.01). Analogously a significant binding (∼20%) of Abeta42 (p < 0.001) was demonstrated following exposure to all functionalized liposomes in plasma samples obtained from selected AD or Down's syndrome patients expressing high levels of Abeta42. The same results were obtained by quantifying Abeta42 content after removal of liposome-bound Abeta by using gel filtration chromatography or ultracentrifugation on a discontinuous sucrose density gradient. In conclusion, we demonstrate that functionalized liposomes significantly sequester Abeta42 in human biological fluids. These data may be critical for future in vivo administration tests using NPs for promoting sink effect.

  20. Counterion condensation on heparin oligomers.

    PubMed

    Minsky, Burcu Baykal; Atmuri, Anand; Kaltashov, Igor A; Dubin, Paul L

    2013-04-08

    The electropherogram of native heparin shows a broad distribution of mobilities μ, which truncates abruptly at a notably high μ = 4.7 × 10(-4) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). This highly skewed mobility distribution is also found for the 20-saccharide chain, which shows from mass spectrometry a more uniform (symmetrical) with respect to sulfation level. Since a partially degraded heparin exhibits oligomer peaks with μ> 5 × 10(-4) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) (appearing to escape the limitation of the mobility value for native heparin), we examined the electrophoretic behavior of chain-length monodisperse heparin oligomers. Their mobilities varied inversely with the logarithm of the contour length, L, for L from 3 to 10 nm and reached an asymptotic limit for L > 20 nm. The generality of this effect was indicated by similar behavior for oligomers of poly(styrene sulfonate). A recent theory of polyelectrolyte end effects (Manning, G. S. Macromolecules2008, 41, 6217-6227), in which chain termini exhibit reduced counterion condensation was found to quantitatively account for these results. A qualitative explanation for the anomalously high value of μ of native heparin, 10-20% higher than those seen for synthetic polyelectrolytes of higher linear charge density, is suggested on the basis of similar junction effects (Manning, G. S. Macromolecules2008, 41, 6217-6227), which reduce counterion condensation at the interfaces of regions of high and low sulfation. We suggest that these effects should be considered in models for the biofunctionality of the regulated high and low sulfation (NS/NA) domains of heparan sulfate.

  1. Ferulic acid inhibits oxidative stress and cell death induced by Ab oligomers: improved delivery by solid lipid nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Picone, Pasquale; Bondi, Maria L; Montana, Giovanna; Bruno, Andreina; Pitarresi, Giovanna; Giammona, Gaetano; Di Carlo, Marta

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress and dysfunctional mitochondria are among the earliest events in AD, triggering neurodegeneration. The use of natural antioxidants could be a neuroprotective strategy for blocking cell death. Here, the antioxidant action of ferulic acid (FA) on different paths leading to degeneration of recombinant beta-amyloid peptide (rAbeta42) treated cells was investigated. Further, to improve its delivery, a novel drug delivery system (DDS) was used. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs), empty or containing ferulic acid (FA-SNL), were developed as DDS. The resulting particles had small colloidal size and highly negative surface charge in water. Using neuroblastoma cells and rAbeta42 oligomers, it was demonstrated that free and SLNs-loaded FA recover cell viability. FA treatment, in particular if loaded into SLNs, decreased ROS generation, restored mitochondrial membrane potential (Deltapsi(m)) and reduced cytochrome c release and intrinsic pathway apoptosis activation. Further, FA modulated the expression of Peroxiredoxin, an anti-oxidative protein, and attenuated phosphorylation of ERK1/2 activated by Abeta oligomers.

  2. Phenylethynyl terminated reactive oligomer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor); Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A composition of matter having the general structure: ##STR1## (wherein X is F, Cl, or NO.sub.2, and Y is CO, SO.sub.2 or C(CF.sub.3).sub.2) is employed to terminate a nucleophilic reagent, resulting in the exclusive production of phenylethynyl terminated reactive oligomers which display unique thermal characteristics. A reactive diluent having the general structure: ##STR2## (wherein R is any aliphatic or aromatic moiety) is employed to decrease the melt viscosity of a phenylethynyl terminated reactive oligomer and to subsequently react therewith to provide a thermosetting material of enhanced density. These materials have features which make them attractive candidates for use as composite matrices and adhesives.

  3. Benzofuran-based hybrid compounds for the inhibition of cholinesterase activity, beta amyloid aggregation, and abeta neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Stefano; Rivière, Céline; Piazzi, Lorna; Bisi, Alessandra; Gobbi, Silvia; Bartolini, Manuela; Andrisano, Vincenza; Morroni, Fabiana; Tarozzi, Andrea; Monti, Jean-Pierre; Rampa, Angela

    2008-05-22

    The complex etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) prompts scientists to develop multitarget strategies to combat causes and symptoms. We therefore designed, synthesized, and tested new hybrid molecules linking a benzofuran ring to a N-methyl- N-benzylamine through a heptyloxy chain, affording a series of potential multifunctional drugs for AD. The cholinesterase inhibitory activity was extended to the inhibition of Abeta fibril formation for 1, 3, and 5. Compound 3 showed an additional neuroprotective effect.

  4. Binding of Abeta to alpha- and beta-synucleins: identification of segments in alpha-synuclein/NAC precursor that bind Abeta and NAC.

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, P H; Hojrup, P; Hager, H; Nielsen, M S; Jacobsen, L; Olesen, O F; Gliemann, J; Jakes, R

    1997-01-01

    NAC, a 35-residue peptide derived from the neuronal protein alpha-synuclein/NAC precursor, is tightly associated with Abeta fibrils in Alzheimer's disease amyloid, and alpha-synuclein has recently been shown to bind Abeta in vitro. We have studied the interaction between Abeta and synucleins, aiming at determining segments in alpha-synuclein that can account for the binding, as well as identifying a possible interaction between Abeta and the beta-type synuclein. We report that Abeta binds to native and recombinant alpha-synuclein, and to beta-synuclein in an SDS-sensitive interaction (IC50 approx. 20 microM), as determined by chemical cross-linking and solid-phase binding assays. alpha-Synuclein and beta-synuclein were found to stimulate Abeta-aggregation in vitro to the same extent. The synucleins also displayed Abeta-inhibitable binding of NAC and they were capable of forming dimers. Using proteolytic fragmentation of alpha-synuclein and cross-linking to 125I-Abeta, we identified two consecutive binding domains (residues 1-56 and 57-97) by Edman degradation and mass spectrometric analysis, and a synthetic peptide comprising residues 32-57 possessed Abeta-binding activity. To test further the possible significance in pathology, alpha-synuclein was biotinylated and shown to bind specifically to amyloid plaques in a brain with Alzheimer's disease. It is proposed that the multiple Abeta-binding sites in alpha-synuclein are involved in the development of amyloid plaques. PMID:9163350

  5. Computing highly specific and mismatch tolerant oligomers efficiently.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Tomoyuki; Morishita, Shinichi

    2003-01-01

    The sequencing of the genomes of a variety of species and the growing databases containing expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and complementary DNAs (cDNAs) facilitate the design of highly specific oligomers for use as genomic markers, PCR primers, or DNA oligo microarrays. The first step in evaluating the specificity of short oligomers of about twenty units in length is to determine the frequencies at which the oligomers occur. However, for oligomers longer than about fifty units this is not efficient, as they usually have a frequency of only 1. A more suitable procedure is to consider the mismatch tolerance of an oligomer, that is, the minimum number of mismatches that allows a given oligomer to match a sub-sequence other than the target sequence anywhere in the genome or the EST database. However, calculating the exact value of mismatch tolerance is computationally costly and impractical. Therefore, we studied the problem of checking whether an oligomer meets the constraint that its mismatch tolerance is no less than a given threshold. Here, we present an efficient dynamic programming algorithm solution that utilizes suffix and height arrays. We demonstrated the effectiveness of this algorithm by efficiently computing a dense list of oligo-markers applicable to the human genome. Experimental results show that the algorithm runs faster than well-known Abrahamson's algorithm by orders of magnitude and is able to enumerate 63% to approximately 79% of qualified oligomers.

  6. Computing highly specific and noise-tolerant oligomers efficiently.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Tomoyuki; Morishita, Shinichi

    2004-03-01

    The sequencing of the genomes of a variety of species and the growing databases containing expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and complementary DNAs (cDNAs) facilitate the design of highly specific oligomers for use as genomic markers, PCR primers, or DNA oligo microarrays. The first step in evaluating the specificity of short oligomers of about 20 units in length is to determine the frequencies at which the oligomers occur. However, for oligomers longer than about fifty units this is not efficient, as they usually have a frequency of only 1. A more suitable procedure is to consider the mismatch tolerance of an oligomer, that is, the minimum number of mismatches that allows a given oligomer to match a substring other than the target sequence anywhere in the genome or the EST database. However, calculating the exact value of mismatch tolerance is computationally costly and impractical. Therefore, we studied the problem of checking whether an oligomer meets the constraint that its mismatch tolerance is no less than a given threshold. Here, we present an efficient dynamic programming algorithm solution that utilizes suffix and height arrays. We demonstrated the effectiveness of this algorithm by efficiently computing a dense list of numerous oligo-markers applicable to the human genome. Experimental results show that the algorithm runs faster than well-known Abrahamson's algorithm by orders of magnitude and is able to enumerate 65% approximately 76% of qualified oligomers.

  7. Mitochondria dysfunction of Alzheimer's disease cybrids enhances Abeta toxicity.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Sandra M; Santana, Isabel; Swerdlow, Russell H; Oliveira, Catarina R

    2004-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain reveals high rates of oxygen consumption and oxidative stress, altered antioxidant defences, increased oxidized polyunsaturated fatty acids, and elevated transition metal ions. Mitochondrial dysfunction in AD is perhaps relevant to these observations, as such may contribute to neurodegenerative cell death through the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the release of molecules that initiate programmed cell death pathways. In this study, we analyzed the effects of beta-amyloid peptide (Abeta) on human teratocarcinoma (NT2) cells expressing endogenous mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), mtDNA from AD subjects (AD cybrids), and mtDNA from age-matched control subjects (control cybrids). In addition to finding reduced cytochrome oxidase activity, elevated ROS, and reduced ATP levels in the AD cybrids, when these cell lines were exposed to Abeta 1-40 we observed excessive mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization, increased cytoplasmic cytochrome c, and elevated caspase-3 activity. When exposed to Abeta, events associated with programmed cell death are activated in AD NT2 cybrids to a greater extent than they are in control cybrids or the native NT2 cell line, suggesting a role for mtDNA-derived mitochondrial dysfunction in AD degeneration.

  8. Short-term treatment with rivastigmine and plasma levels of Abeta peptides in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Sobow, Tomasz; Kloszewska, Iwona

    2005-01-01

    Deregulation of APP metabolism is considered to be a key pathogenic event in Alzheimer's disease. Data from cell cultures indicate that the secretion of Abeta1-42 might be inhibited by cholinesterase inhibitors, possibly via M1 receptors stimulation. Treatment with tacrine, a dual acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitor, had no significant effect on mean plasma Abeta species concentrations. However, a correlation was observed between higher drug concentrations and lower Abeta levels that might indicate an effect on APP metabolism with an increased alpha-cleavage. Abeta1-40 and Abeta1-42 levels were measured in the plasma of 28 AD subjects by means of a commercially available ELISA before rivastigmine treatment and at week 2 after the first dose of the drug (3 mg/day) had been administered. Treatment with rivastigmine exhibited a significant effect on mean plasma concentrations of Abeta1-42 (mean difference 7.8+/-8.4, t=-4.9, pmean difference 7.8+/-8.4, t=-4.9, p<0.001) with a negative correlation with the patients age (Pearson's R=-0.40, p=0.035). No significant effect on plasma Abeta1-40 was observed. The observed increase of mean levels of plasma Abeta1-42 after rivastigmine treatment might indicate an effect of the drug on Abeta metabolism, mobilization of Abeta1-42 from deposits in the affected brain areas and a consecutive Ab1-42 brain-to-plasma efflux. The negative correlation between Abeta1-42 plasma levels changes and age may be a sign of impairment of this process in the older patients. A large individual variation of the observed response, however, excludes drawing definite conclusions. Whether those subjects who respond to rivastigmine in terms of Abeta1-42 plasma levels changes also respond clinically needs to be established.

  9. Oxidation of cholesterol catalyzed by amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta)-Cu complex on lipid membrane.

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, Noriko; Tasaki, Makoto; Shimanouchi, Toshinori; Umakoshi, Hiroshi; Kuboi, Ryoichi

    2005-10-01

    A catalytic reaction of H2O2 production by an amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta)-Cu complex with cholesterol incorporated in a liposome was kinetically analyzed. The Michaelis-Menten model was applied to the H2O2 production reaction using cholesterol as the substrate catalyzed by the Abeta-Cu complex. The Km value for the Abeta-Cu complex catalytic reaction with cholesterol-containing 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) liposomes (Km=0.436 microM for Abeta(1-40); Km=0.641 microM for Abeta(1-42)) was found to be smaller than that with cholesterol-containing 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) liposomes (Km=0.585 microM for Abeta(1-40), Km=0.890 microM for Abeta(1-42)). The results imply that membrane properties could play an important role in the interactions of the Abeta-Cu complex with cholesterol in these liposomes. Considering the physical states of the cholesterol/POPC (liquid disordered phase) and cholesterol/DPPC (liquid ordered phase) liposomes in the present reaction conditions, the data obtained suggests that the H2O2-generating activity of the Abeta-Cu complex, accompanied by oxidation of membrane-incorporated cholesterol, could be effected by the phase of the liposome membranes.

  10. A molecular pathway of neurodegeneration linking alpha-synuclein to ApoE and Abeta peptides.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Gilbert; Schlüter, Oliver M; Südhof, Thomas C

    2008-03-01

    Pathogenic aggregates of alpha-synuclein are thought to contribute to the development of Parkinson's disease. Inclusion bodies containing alpha-synuclein are present in Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. Moreover, alpha-synuclein mutations are found in cases of familial Parkinson's disease, and transgenic overexpression of alpha-synuclein causes neurodegeneration in mice. The molecular mechanisms involved, however, remain incompletely understood. Here we show that, in transgenic mice, alpha-synuclein induced neurodegeneration involves activation of the ubiquitin/proteasome system, a massive increase in apolipoprotein E (ApoE) levels and accumulation of insoluble mouse Abeta. ApoE was not protective, but was injurious, as deletion of ApoE delayed the neurodegeneration caused by alpha-synuclein and suppressed the accumulation of Abeta. Our data reveal a molecular link between central pathogenic mechanisms implicated in Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease and suggest that intracellular alpha-synuclein is pathogenic, at least in part, by activation of extracellular signaling pathways involving ApoE.

  11. Altered emotionality leads to increased pain tolerance in amyloid beta (Abeta1-40) peptide-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Pamplona, Fabrício A; Pandolfo, Pablo; Duarte, Filipe S; Takahashi, Reinaldo N; Prediger, Rui D S

    2010-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the decline in cognitive functions, but it is also related to emotional disturbances. Since pain experience results from a complex integration of sensory, cognitive and affective processes, it is not surprising that AD patients display a distinct pattern of pain responsivity. We evaluated whether mice treated with amyloid beta (Abeta) peptide-thought to be critical in the pathogenesis of AD-exhibit altered pain responses and its relation to altered emotionality. Mice received a single i.c.v. injection of vehicle (PBS) or Abeta fragment (1-40) (400pmol/mice) and after 30 days, they were evaluated in tests of pain (hotplate, footshock-sensitivity), learning/memory (water-maze), emotionality (elevated plus-maze, forced swim) and locomotion (open-field). Abeta(1-40)-treated mice presented similar latencies to the control group in the hotplate test and similar nociceptive flinch threshold in the footshock-sensitivity test. However, they presented an increased jump threshold in footshock-sensitivity, suggesting increased pain tolerance. Altered emotionality was observed in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and forced-swim tests (FST), suggesting anxiogenic-like and depressive-like states, respectively. A multifactorial principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that jump threshold of the footshock-sensitivity test falls within 'Emotionality' and 'Pain', showing moderate correlation with each one of the components of behavior. Acute treatment with the antidepressant desipramine (10mg/kg, i.p.) reduced the jump threshold (i.e. pain tolerance) and time of immobility in FST (i.e. depressive-like state). Flinch threshold (i.e. pain sensitivity), locomotion and anxiety were not altered with desipramine treatment. These results suggest that Abeta(1-40) peptide increases pain tolerance, but not pain sensitivity in mice, which seems to be linked to alterations in cognitive/emotional components of pain

  12. The iA{beta}5p {beta}-breaker peptide regulates the A{beta}(25-35) interaction with lipid bilayers through a cholesterol-mediated mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Vitiello, Giuseppe; Grimaldi, Manuela; D'Ursi, Anna Maria; D'Errico, Gerardino

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer iA{beta}5p shows a significant tendency to deeply penetrates the hydrophobic core of lipid membrane. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A{beta}(25-35) locates in the external region of the membrane causing a re-positioning of CHOL. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer iA{beta}5p withholds cholesterol in the inner hydrophobic core of the lipid membrane. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer iA{beta}5p prevents the A{beta}(25-35) release from the lipid membrane. -- Abstract: Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the deposition of aggregates of the {beta}-amyloid peptide (A{beta}) in the brain. A potential therapeutic strategy for Alzheimer's disease is the use of synthetic {beta}-sheet breaker peptides, which are capable of binding A{beta} but unable to become part of a {beta}-sheet structure, thus inhibiting the peptide aggregation. Many studies suggest that membranes play a key role in the A{beta} aggregation; consequently, it is strategic to investigate the interplay between {beta}-sheet breaker peptides and A{beta} in the presence of lipid bilayers. In this work, we focused on the effect of the {beta}-sheet breaker peptide acetyl-LPFFD-amide, iA{beta}5p, on the interaction of the A{beta}(25-35) fragment with lipid membranes, studied by Electron Spin Resonance spectroscopy, using spin-labeled membrane components (either phospholipids or cholesterol). The ESR results show that iA{beta}5p influences the A{beta}(25-35) interaction with the bilayer through a cholesterol-mediated mechanism: iA{beta}5p withholds cholesterol in the inner hydrophobic core of the bilayer, making the interfacial region more fluid and capable to accommodate A{beta}(25-35). As a consequence, iA{beta}5p prevents the A{beta}(25-35) release from the lipid membrane, which is the first step of the {beta}-amyloid aggregation process.

  13. Capping of aβ42 oligomers by small molecule inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ziao; Aucoin, Darryl; Ahmed, Mahiuddin; Ziliox, Martine; Van Nostrand, William E; Smith, Steven O

    2014-12-23

    Aβ42 peptides associate into soluble oligomers and protofibrils in the process of forming the amyloid fibrils associated with Alzheimer's disease. The oligomers have been reported to be more toxic to neurons than fibrils, and have been targeted by a wide range of small molecule and peptide inhibitors. With single touch atomic force microscopy (AFM), we show that monomeric Aβ42 forms two distinct types of oligomers, low molecular weight (MW) oligomers with heights of 1-2 nm and high MW oligomers with heights of 3-5 nm. In both cases, the oligomers are disc-shaped with diameters of ~10-15 nm. The similar diameters suggest that the low MW species stack to form the high MW oligomers. The ability of Aβ42 inhibitors to interact with these oligomers is probed using atomic force microscopy and NMR spectroscopy. We show that curcumin and resveratrol bind to the N-terminus (residues 5-20) of Aβ42 monomers and cap the height of the oligomers that are formed at 1-2 nm. A second class of inhibitors, which includes sulindac sulfide and indomethacin, exhibit very weak interactions across the Aβ42 sequence and do not block the formation of the high MW oligomers. The correlation between N-terminal interactions and capping of the height of the Aβ oligomers provides insights into the mechanism of inhibition and the pathway of Aβ aggregation.

  14. Structural and functional properties of prefibrillar α-synuclein oligomers.

    PubMed

    Pieri, Laura; Madiona, Karine; Melki, Ronald

    2016-04-14

    The deposition of fibrillar alpha-synuclein (α-syn) within inclusions (Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites) in neurons and glial cells is a hallmark of synucleinopathies. α-syn populates a variety of assemblies ranging from prefibrillar oligomeric species to fibrils whose specific contribution to neurodegeneration is still unclear. Here, we compare the specific structural and biological properties of distinct soluble prefibrillar α-syn oligomers formed either spontaneously or in the presence of dopamine and glutaraldehyde. We show that both on-fibrillar assembly pathway and distinct dopamine-mediated and glutaraldehyde-cross-linked α-syn oligomers are only slightly effective in perturbing cell membrane integrity and inducing cytotoxicity, while mature fibrils exhibit the highest toxicity. In contrast to low-molecular weight and unstable oligomers, large stable α-syn oligomers seed the aggregation of soluble α-syn within reporter cells although to a lesser extent than mature α-syn fibrils. These oligomers appear elongated in shape. Our findings suggest that α-syn oligomers represent a continuum of species ranging from unstable low molecular weight particles to mature fibrils via stable elongated oligomers composed of more than 15 α-syn monomers that possess seeding capacity.

  15. A Generic Method for Design of Oligomer-Specific Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Brännström, Kristoffer; Lindhagen-Persson, Malin; Gharibyan, Anna L.; Iakovleva, Irina; Vestling, Monika; Sellin, Mikael E.; Brännström, Thomas; Morozova-Roche, Ludmilla; Forsgren, Lars; Olofsson, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Antibodies that preferentially and specifically target pathological oligomeric protein and peptide assemblies, as opposed to their monomeric and amyloid counterparts, provide therapeutic and diagnostic opportunities for protein misfolding diseases. Unfortunately, the molecular properties associated with oligomer-specific antibodies are not well understood, and this limits targeted design and development. We present here a generic method that enables the design and optimisation of oligomer-specific antibodies. The method takes a two-step approach where discrimination between oligomers and fibrils is first accomplished through identification of cryptic epitopes exclusively buried within the structure of the fibrillar form. The second step discriminates between monomers and oligomers based on differences in avidity. We show here that a simple divalent mode of interaction, as within e.g. the IgG isotype, can increase the binding strength of the antibody up to 1500 times compared to its monovalent counterpart. We expose how the ability to bind oligomers is affected by the monovalent affinity and the turnover rate of the binding and, importantly, also how oligomer specificity is only valid within a specific concentration range. We provide an example of the method by creating and characterising a spectrum of different monoclonal antibodies against both the Aβ peptide and α-synuclein that are associated with Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, respectively. The approach is however generic, does not require identification of oligomer-specific architectures, and is, in essence, applicable to all polypeptides that form oligomeric and fibrillar assemblies. PMID:24618582

  16. Antiparallel Triple-strand Architecture for Prefibrillar Aβ42 Oligomers*

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Lei; Liu, Cong; Stroud, James C.; Ngo, Sam; Jiang, Lin; Guo, Zhefeng

    2014-01-01

    Aβ42 oligomers play key roles in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease, but their structures remain elusive partly due to their transient nature. Here, we show that Aβ42 in a fusion construct can be trapped in a stable oligomer state, which recapitulates characteristics of prefibrillar Aβ42 oligomers and enables us to establish their detailed structures. Site-directed spin labeling and electron paramagnetic resonance studies provide structural restraints in terms of side chain mobility and intermolecular distances at all 42 residue positions. Using these restraints and other biophysical data, we present a novel atomic-level oligomer model. In our model, each Aβ42 protein forms a single β-sheet with three β-strands in an antiparallel arrangement. Each β-sheet consists of four Aβ42 molecules in a head-to-tail arrangement. Four β-sheets are packed together in a face-to-back fashion. The stacking of identical segments between different β-sheets within an oligomer suggests that prefibrillar oligomers may interconvert with fibrils via strand rotation, wherein β-strands undergo an ∼90° rotation along the strand direction. This work provides insights into rational design of therapeutics targeting the process of interconversion between toxic oligomers and non-toxic fibrils. PMID:25118290

  17. Structural and functional properties of prefibrillar α-synuclein oligomers

    PubMed Central

    Pieri, Laura; Madiona, Karine; Melki, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    The deposition of fibrillar alpha-synuclein (α-syn) within inclusions (Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites) in neurons and glial cells is a hallmark of synucleinopathies. α-syn populates a variety of assemblies ranging from prefibrillar oligomeric species to fibrils whose specific contribution to neurodegeneration is still unclear. Here, we compare the specific structural and biological properties of distinct soluble prefibrillar α-syn oligomers formed either spontaneously or in the presence of dopamine and glutaraldehyde. We show that both on-fibrillar assembly pathway and distinct dopamine-mediated and glutaraldehyde-cross-linked α-syn oligomers are only slightly effective in perturbing cell membrane integrity and inducing cytotoxicity, while mature fibrils exhibit the highest toxicity. In contrast to low-molecular weight and unstable oligomers, large stable α-syn oligomers seed the aggregation of soluble α-syn within reporter cells although to a lesser extent than mature α-syn fibrils. These oligomers appear elongated in shape. Our findings suggest that α-syn oligomers represent a continuum of species ranging from unstable low molecular weight particles to mature fibrils via stable elongated oligomers composed of more than 15 α-syn monomers that possess seeding capacity. PMID:27075649

  18. Toxic species in amyloid disorders: Oligomers or mature fibrils

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Meenakshi; Vats, Abhishek; Taneja, Vibha

    2015-01-01

    Protein aggregation is the hallmark of several neurodegenerative disorders. These protein aggregation (fibrillization) disorders are also known as amyloid disorders. The mechanism of protein aggregation involves conformation switch of the native protein, oligomer formation leading to protofibrils and finally mature fibrils. Mature fibrils have long been considered as the cause of disease pathogenesis; however, recent evidences suggest oligomeric intermediates formed during fibrillization to be toxic. In this review, we have tried to address the ongoing debate for these toxic amyloid species. We did an extensive literature search and collated information from Pubmed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) and Google search using various permutations and combinations of the following keywords: Neurodegeneration, amyloid disorders, protein aggregation, fibrils, oligomers, toxicity, Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease. We describe different instances showing the toxicity of mature fibrils as well as oligomers in Alzheimer's Disease and Parkinson's Disease. Distinct structural framework and morphology of amyloid oligomers suggests difference in toxic effect between oligomers and fibrils. We highlight the difference in structure and proposed toxicity pathways for fibrils and oligomers. We also highlight the evidences indicating that intermediary oligomeric species can act as potential diagnostic biomarker. Since the formation of these toxic species follow a common structural switch among various amyloid disorders, the protein aggregation events can be targeted for developing broad-range therapeutics. The therapeutic trials based on the understanding of different protein conformers (monomers, oligomers, protofibrils and fibrils) in amyloid cascade are also described. PMID:26019408

  19. Elucidating molecular mass and shape of a neurotoxic Aβ oligomer.

    PubMed

    Sebollela, Adriano; Mustata, Gina-Mirela; Luo, Kevin; Velasco, Pauline T; Viola, Kirsten L; Cline, Erika N; Shekhawat, Gajendra S; Wilcox, Kyle C; Dravid, Vinayak P; Klein, William L

    2014-12-17

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most prevalent type of dementia, has been associated with the accumulation of amyloid β oligomers (AβOs) in the central nervous system. AβOs vary widely in size, ranging from dimers to larger than 100 kDa. Evidence indicates that not all oligomers are toxic, and there is yet no consensus on the size of the actual toxic oligomer. Here we used NU4, a conformation-dependent anti-AβO monoclonal antibody, to investigate size and shape of a toxic AβO assembly. By using size-exclusion chromatography and immuno-based detection, we isolated an AβO-NU4 complex amenable for biochemical and morphological studies. The apparent molecular mass of the NU4-targeted oligomer was 80 kDa. Atomic force microscopy imaging of the AβO-NU4 complex showed a size distribution centered at 5.37 nm, an increment of 1.5 nm compared to the size of AβOs (3.85 nm). This increment was compatible with the size of NU4 (1.3 nm), suggesting a 1:1 oligomer to NU4 ratio. NU4-reactive oligomers extracted from AD human brain concentrated in a molecular mass range similar to that found for in vitro prepared oligomers, supporting the relevance of the species herein studied. These results represent an important step toward understanding the connection between AβO size and toxicity.

  20. Immunotherapy against APP beta-secretase cleavage site improves cognitive function and reduces neuroinflammation in Tg2576 mice without a significant effect on brain abeta levels.

    PubMed

    Rakover, Idan; Arbel, Michal; Solomon, Beka

    2007-01-01

    Active and passive immunization methodologies against amyloid-beta (Abeta) are employed to clear and reduce cerebral Abetatowards treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. The therapeutic potential of these antibodies in AD patients is limited because of adverse inflammatory reactions and cerebral hemorrhage, which are associated with the treatment. We propose a novel approach to inhibit Abeta production via antibodies against the beta-secretase cleavage site of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Such an approach limits APP processing by beta-secretase, mainly through the endocytic pathway, and overcomes some of the limitations of BACE inhibition. Anti-APP beta-site antibodies, tested in a cellular model expressing wild-type APP, were found to bind full-length APP, internalize into the cells and interfere with BACE activity, inhibiting both intra- and extracellular Abeta peptide formation. We investigated the effect of anti-beta-site antibodies in an AD animal model regarding antibody efficacy, as well as possible adverse effects in the brain and periphery that may result from antibody treatment. Here, we show that long-term systemic administration of anti-APP beta-site antibodies to Tg2576 transgenic mice improved mouse cognitive functions associated with a reduction in both brain inflammation and the incidence of microhemorrhage. Furthermore, antibody treatment did not induce any peripheral autoimmunity responses. In spite of the beneficial effects observed in antibody-treated mice, brain Abeta levels were not altered as a result of antibody treatment. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Zinc-induced Alzheimer's Abeta1-40 aggregation is mediated by conformational factors.

    PubMed

    Huang, X; Atwood, C S; Moir, R D; Hartshorn, M A; Vonsattel, J P; Tanzi, R E; Bush, A I

    1997-10-17

    The heterogeneous precipitates of Abeta that accumulate in the brain cortex in Alzheimer's disease possess varying degrees of resistance to resolubilization. We previously found that Abeta1-40 is rapidly precipitated in vitro by physiological concentrations of zinc, a neurochemical that is highly abundant in brain compartments where Abeta is most likely to precipitate. We now present evidence that the zinc-induced precipitation of Abeta is mediated by a peptide dimer and favored by conditions that promote alpha-helical and diminish beta-sheet conformations. The manner in which the synthetic peptide is solubilized was critical to its behavior in vitro. Zinc-induced Abeta aggregation was dependent upon the presence of NaCl, was enhanced by alpha-helical-promoting solvents, but was abolished when the peptide stock solution was stored frozen. The Abeta aggregates induced by zinc were reversible by chelation, but could then be reprecipitated by zinc for several cycles, indicating that the peptide's conformation is probably preserved in the zinc-mediated assembly. In contrast, Abeta aggregates induced by low pH (5.5) were not resolubilized by returning the pH milieu to 7.4. The zinc-Abeta interaction exhibits features resembling the gelation process of zinc-mediated fibrin assembly, suggesting that, in events such as clot formation or injury, reversible Abeta assembly could be physiologically purposive. Such a mechanism is contemplated in the early evolution of diffuse plaques in Alzheimer's disease and suggests a possible therapeutic strategy for the resolubilization of some forms of Abeta deposit in the disease.

  2. Design, synthesis, and biophysical properties of a helical Abeta1-42 analog: Inhibition of fibrillogenesis and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Katsumi; Okada, Takuma; Tsukuda, Miho; Ikeda, Keisuke; Sohma, Youhei; Chiyomori, Yousuke; Taniguchi, Atsuhiko; Nakamura, Setsuko; Ito, Nui; Hayashi, Yoshio; Kiso, Yoshiaki

    2008-07-11

    The aggregation of amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta) into beta-sheet-rich aggregates is a crucial step in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease. Helical forms of Abeta have been suggested to be intermediates in the aggregation process of the peptide in aqueous phase, micelles and membranes. A stable helical Abeta analog would be useful to investigate the role of helical intermediates in fibrillization by Abeta. Here we designed a helical analog by simply cross-linking the Cys residues of A30C, G37C-Abeta1-42 with 1,6-bismaleimidohexane. The analog assumed a weak alpha-helical conformation in model membranes mimicking lipid raft microdomains of neuronal membranes under conditions in which the wild-type Abeta1-42 formed a beta-sheet, indicating the cross-linking locally induced a helical conformation. Furthermore, addition of equimolar helical Abeta analog significantly reduced the amyloid formation and cytotoxicity by Abeta1-42. Thus, our helical Abeta1-42 is not only a model peptide to investigate the role of helical intermediates in fibrillization by Abeta, but also an inhibitor of Abeta-induced cytotoxicity.

  3. Interaction of arginine oligomer with model membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, Dandan . E-mail: yi_dandan@yahoo.com.cn; Guoming, Li; Gao, Li; Wei, Liang

    2007-08-10

    Short oligomers of arginine (R8) have been shown to cross readily a variety of biological barriers. A hypothesis was put forward that inverted micelles form in biological membranes in the presence of arginine oligomer peptides, facilitating their transfer through the membranes. In order to define the role of peptide-lipid interaction in this mechanism, we prepared liposomes as the model membrane to study the ability of R8 inducing calcein release from liposomes, the fusion of liposomes, R8 binding to liposomes and membrane disturbing activity of the bound R8. The results show that R8 binding to liposome membrane depends on lipid compositions, negative surface charge density and interior water phase pH values of liposomes. R8 has no activity to induce the leakage of calcein from liposomes or improve liposome fusion. R8 does not permeabilize through the membrane spontaneously. These peptides delivering drugs through membranes may depend on receptors and energy.

  4. Production of IL-6 by human myoblasts stimulated with Abeta: relevance in the pathogenesis of IBM.

    PubMed

    Baron, P; Galimberti, D; Meda, L; Scarpini, E; Conti, G; Cogiamanian, F; Scarlato, G

    2001-11-13

    To determine whether amyloid-beta protein (Abeta) can induce the production of proinflammatory cytokines by cultured normal muscle cells. Sporadic inclusion body myositis (IBM) is characterized by the presence of rimmed vacuoles and fibrillary inclusions of Abeta in muscle fibers, and often inflammatory cells. Endomysial expression of proinflammatory molecules has suggested an ongoing immune process, but the site of sensitization and the mechanisms that trigger an inflammatory reaction is unknown. The authors used Northern blot analysis and specific immunoassays to study the expression and secretion in cell-free supernatants of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) by purified human myoblasts and C2C12 mouse skeletal muscle cells incubated with Abeta[1-42] or Abeta[25-35] peptides. Nonstimulated muscle cells produced detectable IL-6, whereas secretion of IL-1beta and TNFalpha was absent. Incubation with Abeta peptides increased IL-6 production, whereas TNFalpha and IL-1beta levels remained undetectable. Northern blot analysis of Abeta-stimulated human myoblasts revealed an increase in IL-6 mRNA expression. Cultured muscle cells increase the constitutive production of IL-6 in response to local deposition of Abeta in sporadic IBM. IL-6 could be a CD8(+) proliferation and differentiation agent, an autocrine proteolysis-inducing factor of damaged myotubes, and a proliferation-stimulating agent for satellite cells to replace the destroyed myofibers in IBM.

  5. Mutations in APP have independent effects on Abeta and CTFgamma generation.

    PubMed

    Hecimovic, Silva; Wang, Jun; Dolios, Georgia; Martinez, Maribel; Wang, Rong; Goate, Alison M

    2004-11-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanism of beta-amyloid (Abeta) generation is crucial for Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis as well as for normal APP function. The transmembrane domain (TM) of APP appears to undergo presenilin-dependent gamma-secretase cleavage at two topologically distinct sites: a site in the middle of the TM domain that is crucial for the generation of Abeta-peptides, and a site close to the cytoplasmic border (S3-like/epsilon site) of the TM domain that leads to production of the APP intracellular domain (CTFgamma/AICD). We demonstrate that, in contrast to the unique effect of familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) mutations in APP on Abeta42 production, some but not all FAD mutations also affect CTFgamma generation. Furthermore, changes in total CTFgamma levels do not correlate with either an increase or a decrease of any Abeta species, and inhibition of Abeta-peptide formation starting from position +1 (Abeta1-x) does not affect CTFgamma production. These results suggest that cleavage at the gamma40/42- and the S3-like sites can be dissociated, and that APP signaling and Abeta production are not tightly linked.

  6. Minocycline affects microglia activation, Abeta deposition, and behavior in APP-tg mice.

    PubMed

    Seabrook, Timothy J; Jiang, Liying; Maier, Marcel; Lemere, Cynthia A

    2006-05-01

    Activated microglia and reactive astrocytes invade and surround cerebral beta amyloid (Abeta) plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the role of microglia in plaque development is still unclear. In this study, minocycline was administered for 3 months, prior to and early in Abeta plaque formation in amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice (APP-tg). When minocycline was given to younger mice, there was a small but significant increase in Abeta deposition in the hippocampus, concurrent with improved cognitive performance relative to vehicle treated mice. If APP-tg mice received minocycline after Abeta deposition had begun, microglial activation was suppressed but this did not affect Abeta deposition or improve cognitive performance. In vitro studies demonstrated that minocycline suppressed microglial production of IL-1beta, IL-6, TNF, and NGF. Thus, minocycline has different effects on Abeta plaque deposition and microglia activation depending on the age of administration. Our data suggest that this may be due to the effects of minocycline on microglial function. Therefore, anti-inflammatory therapies to suppress microglial activation or function may reduce cytokine production but enhance Abeta plaque formation early in AD. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Effects of Abeta1-42 fibrils and of the tetrapeptide Pr-IIGL on the phosphorylation state of the tau-protein and on the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lain, Enzo; Penke, Botond; Delacourte, André; Gündisch, Daniela; Schröder, Hannsjörg; Witter, Brigitte

    2005-02-01

    In order to investigate the possible links connecting beta-amyloid (Abeta) accumulation, tau-hyperphosphorylation and nicotinic receptor expression, rat embryonic primary hippocampal cultures were incubated with amyloidogenic peptides. Exposure to 0.5 microm fibrillar Abeta(1-42) for 3 days caused retraction of dendrites, shrinkage of cell bodies and a decrease in the expression of microtubule-associated proteins 2b (MAP2b), without affecting the total number of neurons and their viability. No impact on the tau-phosphorylation sites Ser-202, Thr231/Ser235, Ser262 and Ser396/Ser404 was found. The total number of homomeric alpha7-nicotinic receptors (alpha7-nAChRs) and their affinity for [(125)I]alpha-bungarotoxin remained unaltered. Upon incubation with the putatively protective tetrapeptide propionyl-isoleucine-isoleucine-glycine-leucine (Pr-IIGL), an analogue of the region [31-34] of Abeta, cell bodies were swollen in the region of the apical dendrite. These morphological alterations, different from those elicited by Abeta(1-42), did not involve MAP2 expression changes. In contrast to Abeta(1-42), Pr-IIGL caused a massive hyperphosphorylation of the tau-protein at Ser-202 and at Ser396/Ser404. The total number of homomeric alpha7-nAChRs and their affinity for [(125)I]alpha-bungarotoxin were unaffected. In conclusion, the present results show a toxic effect of Abeta(1-42) on the cytoskeletal structure at concentrations normally present in the brains of Alzheimer's disease patients, but raise some doubts about the role of Abeta(1-42) fibrils as a direct trigger of tau-hyperphosphorylation. The tetrapeptide Pr-IIGL cannot be considered protective with regard to cell morphology. Although it prevents the Abeta(1-42)-induced retraction of dendrites, it exhibits other toxic properties. The homomeric alpha7-nAChRs were not affected either by Abeta(1-42) incubation or by Pr-IIGL-induced tau-hyperphosphorylation.

  8. One-Step Synthesis of Precursor Oligomers for Organic Photovoltaics: A Comparative Study between Polymers and Small Molecules.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Wang, Daojuan; Wang, Suhao; Ma, Wei; Hedström, Svante; James, David Ian; Xu, Xiaofeng; Persson, Petter; Fabiano, Simone; Berggren, Magnus; Inganäs, Olle; Huang, Fei; Wang, Ergang

    2015-12-16

    Two series of oligomers TQ and rhodanine end-capped TQ-DR were synthesized using a facile one-step method. Their optical, electrical, and thermal properties and photovoltaic performances were systematically investigated and compared. The TQ series of oligomers were found to be amorphous, whereas the TQ-DR series are semicrystalline. For the TQ oligomers, the results obtained in solar cells show that as the chain length of the oligomers increases, an increase in power conversion efficiency (PCE) is obtained. However, when introducing 3-ethylrhodanine into the TQ oligomers as end groups, the PCE of the TQ-DR series of oligomers decreases as the chain length increases. Moreover, the TQ-DR series of oligomers give much higher performances compared to the original amorphous TQ series of oligomers owing to the improved extinction coefficient (ε) and crystallinity afforded by the rhodanine. In particular, the highly crystalline oligomer TQ5-DR, which has the shortest conjugation length shows a high hole mobility of 0.034 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and a high PCE of 3.14%, which is the highest efficiency out of all of the six oligomers. The structure-property correlations for all of the oligomers and the TQ1 polymer demonstrate that structural control of enhanced intermolecular interactions and crystallinity is a key for small molecules/oligomers to achieve high mobilities, which is an essential requirement for use in OPVs.

  9. Optimized Ultrasonic Irradiation Finds Out Ultrastable Aβ1-40 Oligomers.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Kichitaro; So, Masatomo; Takahashi, Kazuma; Tagawa, Yoh-Ichi; Hirao, Masahiko; Goto, Yuji; Ogi, Hirotsugu

    2017-03-30

    Oligomer species of amyloid β (Aβ) peptides are intensively investigated because of their relevance to Alzheimer's disease (AD), and a stable oligomer will be a cause of AD. In this article, we investigate the structural stability of two representative Aβ1-40 oligomers, which are with and without the β-sheet structure, denoted by β and non-β oligomers, respectively, using optimized ultrasonic irradiation (OUI). Recent studies reveal that OUI significantly accelerates the fibril formation in Aβ1-40 monomers; it is capable of transforming any unstable oligomers into fibrils (the dead-end products) in a short time. First, we find that β oligomers can be produced under high-speed stirring agitation; their β-sheet structures are evaluated by the circular-dichroism spectrum measurement, by the immunoassay using the fibril-specific OC antibody, and by the seeding experiment, showing identical characteristics to those formed in previous reports. Second, we form non-β oligomers in a high-concentration NaCl solution and confirm that they include no β-sheet structure, and they are recognized by the oligomer-specific A11 antibody. Furthermore, we confirm the neurotoxicity of the two types of oligomers using the neural tissue derived from mouse embryonic stem cells. We apply the OUI agitation to the β and non-β oligomers. The non-β oligomers are transformed into the fibrils, indicating that they are intermediate species in the fibrillation pathway. However, the β oligomers are surprisingly unaffected by OUI, indicating their high thermodynamic stability. We conclude that the β oligomers should be the independent dead-end products of another pathway, different from the fibrillation pathway.

  10. PI3 kinase signaling is involved in Abeta-induced memory loss in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Hsueh-Cheng; Wang, Lei; Xie, Zuolei; Yau, Alice; Zhong, Yi

    2010-04-13

    Multiple intracellular signals are altered in Alzheimer's disease brain tissues, including the PI3K/Akt pathway. However, the pathological relevance of such alterations is poorly understood. In vitro studies yield results that seem to be consistent with the conventional perception in which an up-regulation of the cell survival pathway, PI3K pathway, is protective in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. The current in vivo genetic approach, however, reveals that inhibition of the PI3K pathway leads to rescuing of the beta-amyloid peptide (Abeta)-induced memory loss in the Drosophila brain. We began our inquiry into the molecular basis of this memory loss by studying Abeta42-induced enhancement of long-term depression. We found that long-term depression is restored to a normal level through inhibition of PI3K activity. Abeta42-induced PI3K hyperactivity is directly confirmed by immunostaining of the PI3K phosphorylation targets, phospholipids. Such observations lead to the following demonstration that Abeta42-induced memory loss can be rescued through genetic silencing or pharmacological inhibition of PI3K functions. Our data suggest that Abeta42 stimulates PI3K, which in turn causes memory loss in association with an increase in accumulation of Abeta42 aggregates.

  11. Cholesterol inhibits the insertion of the Alzheimer's peptide Abeta(25-35) in lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Dante, Silvia; Hauss, Thomas; Dencher, Norbert A

    2006-08-01

    The physiological relationship between brain cholesterol content and the action of amyloid beta (Abeta) peptide in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a highly controversially discussed topic. Evidences for modulations of the Abeta/membrane interaction induced by plasma membrane cholesterol have already been observed. We have recently reported that Abeta(25-35) is capable of inserting in lipid membranes and perturbing their structure. Applying neutron diffraction and selective deuteration, we now demonstrate that cholesterol alters, at the molecular level, the capability of Abeta(25-35) to penetrate into the lipid bilayers; in particular, a molar weight content of 20% of cholesterol hinders the intercalation of monomeric Abeta(25-35) completely. At very low cholesterol content (about 1% molar weight) the location of the C-terminal part of Abeta(25-35) has been unequivocally established in the hydrocarbon region of the membrane, in agreement with our previous results on pure phospholipids membrane. These results link a structural property to a physiological and functional behavior and point to a therapeutical approach to prevent the AD by modulation of membrane properties.

  12. Independent effects of intra- and extracellular Abeta on learning-related gene expression.

    PubMed

    Wegenast-Braun, Bettina M; Fulgencio Maisch, Ana; Eicke, Daniel; Radde, Rebecca; Herzig, Martin C; Staufenbiel, Matthias; Jucker, Mathias; Calhoun, Michael E

    2009-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease is characterized by numerous pathological abnormalities, including amyloid beta (Abeta) deposition in the brain parenchyma and vasculature. In addition, intracellular Abeta accumulation may affect neuronal viability and function. In this study, we evaluated the effects of different forms of Abeta on cognitive decline by analyzing the behavioral induction of the learning-related gene Arc/Arg3.1 in three different transgenic mouse models of cerebral amyloidosis (APPPS1, APPDutch, and APP23). Following a controlled spatial exploration paradigm, reductions in both the number of Arc-activated neurons and the levels of Arc mRNA were seen in the neocortices of depositing mice from all transgenic lines (deficits ranging from 14 to 26%), indicating an impairment in neuronal encoding and network activation. Young APPDutch and APP23 mice exhibited intracellular, granular Abeta staining that was most prominent in the large pyramidal cells of cortical layer V; these animals also had reductions in levels of Arc. In the dentate gyrus, striking reductions (up to 58% in aged APPPS1 mice) in the number of Arc-activated cells were found. Single-cell analyses revealed both the proximity to fibrillar amyloid in aged mice, and the transient presence of intracellular granular Abeta in young mice, as independent factors that contribute to reduced Arc levels. These results provide evidence that two independent Abeta pathologies converge in their impact on cognitive function in Alzheimer's disease.

  13. NGF and BDNF signaling control amyloidogenic route and Abeta production in hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Matrone, Carmela; Ciotti, Maria Teresa; Mercanti, Delio; Marolda, Roberta; Calissano, Pietro

    2008-09-02

    Here, we report that interruption of NGF or BDNF signaling in hippocampal neurons rapidly activates the amyloidogenic pathway and causes neuronal apoptotic death. These events are associated with an early intracellular accumulation of PS1 N-terminal catalytic subunits and of APP C-terminal fragments and a progressive accumulation of intra- and extracellular Abeta aggregates partly released into the culture medium. The released pool of Abeta induces an increase of APP and PS1 holoprotein levels, creating a feed-forward toxic loop that might also cause the death of healthy neurons. These events are mimicked by exogenously added Abeta and are prevented by exposure to beta- and gamma-secretase inhibitors and by antibodies directed against Abeta peptides. The same cultured neurons deprived of serum die, but APP and PS1 overexpression does not occur, Abeta production is undetectable, and cell death is not inhibited by anti-Abeta antibodies, suggesting that hippocampal amyloidogenesis is not a simple consequence of an apoptotic trigger but is due to interruption of neurotrophic signaling.

  14. Panaxydol and panaxynol protect cultured cortical neurons against Abeta25-35-induced toxicity.

    PubMed

    Nie, Bao-Ming; Jiang, Xiao-Yan; Cai, Jin-Xian; Fu, Sai-Li; Yang, Li-Min; Lin, Lin; Hang, Qin; Lu, Pei-Lua; Lu, Yang

    2008-04-01

    Amyloid beta protein (Abeta), the central constituent of senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD), is known to exert toxic effects on cultured neurons. In the present study, the protective effect of panaxydol (PND) and panaxynol (PNN) on Abeta25-35-induced neuronal apoptosis and potential mechanisms were investigated in primary cultured rat cortical neurons. Pretreatment of the cells with PND or PNN prior to 10 microM Abeta25-35 exposure resulted significantly in elevation of cell survival determined by MTT assay, TUNEL/Hoechst staining and western blot. Furthermore, a marked increase in calcium influx and intracellular free radical generation was found after Abeta25-35 exposure, which could be almost completely reversed by pretreatment of PND or PNN. PND and PNN could also alleviate Abeta25-35-induced early-stage neuronal degeneration. These results indicated that inhibition of calcium influx and free radical generation is a mechanism of the anti-apoptotic action of PND and PNN. Since Abeta plays critical roles in the pathogenesis of AD, these findings raise the possibility that PND and PNN reduce neurodegeneration in AD.

  15. Inhibition of Alzheimer's amyloid toxicity with a tricyclic pyrone molecule in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hyun-Seok; Rana, Sandeep; Barrigan, Lydia; Shi, Aibin; Zhang, Yi; Zhou, Feimeng; Jin, Lee-Way; Hua, Duy H

    2009-02-01

    Small beta-amyloid (Abeta) 1-42 aggregates are toxic to neurons and may be the primary toxic species in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods to reduce the level of Abeta, prevent Abeta aggregation, and eliminate existing Abeta aggregates have been proposed for treatment of AD. A tricyclic pyrone named CP2 is found to prevent cell death associated with Abeta oligomers. We studied the possible mechanisms of neuroprotection by CP2. Surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy shows a direct binding of CP2 with Abeta42 oligomer. Circular dichroism spectroscopy reveals monomeric Abeta42 peptide remains as a random coil/alpha-helix structure in the presence of CP2 over 48 h. Atomic force microscopy studies show CP2 exhibits similar ability to inhibit Abeta42 aggregation as that of Congo red and curcumin. Atomic force microscopy closed-fluid cell study demonstrates that CP2 disaggregates Abeta42 oligomers and protofibrils. CP2 also blocks Abeta fibrillations using a protein quantification method. Treatment of 5x familial Alzheimer's disease mice, a robust Abeta42-producing animal model of AD, with a 2-week course of CP2 resulted in 40% and 50% decreases in non-fibrillar and fibrillar Abeta species, respectively. Our results suggest that CP2 might be beneficial to AD patients by preventing Abeta aggregation and disaggregating existing Abeta oligomers and protofibrils.

  16. Density functional theory study of neutral and oxidized thiophene oligomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Yafei; Wei, Chengwei; Blaisten-Barojas, Estela

    2013-11-01

    The effect of oxidation on the energetics and structure of thiophene (Th) oligomers is studied with density functional theory at the B3PW91/6-311++G(d,p) level. Neutral n-Th oligomers (2 < n < 13) are gently curved planar chains. Ionization potential and electron affinity results show that n-Th oligomers are easier to be oxidized as their chain length increases. Oxidation states +2, +4, +6, and +8 are energetically stable in 12-Th. Upon oxidation the conjugated backbone of 12-Th switches from extended benzenoid phase to quinoid phase localized on groups of monomers regularly spaced along the chain. Oxidized states +2, +4, +6, and +8 of 12-Th display two +1e localized at the ends of their chains only because of the finite size of the chains. In 12-Th this end-effect extends over the two terminal monomers forming a positive-negative charge duet. This peculiar charge localization makes n-Th oligomers different from other conducting polymers with similar structure, such as polypyrrole. The spectrum of single-electron molecular states of oxidized 12-Th displays two localized single-electron states in the HOMO-LUMO energy gap per +2 oxidation state. Oligothiophene 12-Th doped with F atoms at 1:2 concentration presents a charge transfer of 3.4 e from oligomer to dopants that increases to 4.8 e in the presence of solvent. The charge distribution in these F-doped oligomers is similar to the +4 oxidation state of 12-Th. It is predicted that dopants produce an enhanced charge transfer localized in the proximity of their locations enhancing the formation of bipolarons in the central part of the oligomer chain.

  17. The geminal dimethyl analogue of Flurbiprofen as a novel Abeta42 inhibitor and potential Alzheimer's disease modifying agent.

    PubMed

    Stock, Nicholas; Munoz, Benito; Wrigley, Jonathan D J; Shearman, Mark S; Beher, Dirk; Peachey, James; Williamson, Toni L; Bain, Gretchen; Chen, Weichao; Jiang, Xiaohui; St-Jacques, René; Prasit, Peppi

    2006-04-15

    The subtle modification of a selection of Abeta42 inhibiting non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), through synthesis of the geminal dimethyl analogues, was anticipated to ablate their cyclooxygenase activity whilst maintaining Abeta42 inhibition. Methylflurbiprofen 6 exhibited similar in vitro Abeta42 inhibition to its parent NSAID Flurbiprofen and was further evaluated in the Tg2576 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease and an animal model of gastro-intestinal (GI) impairment, but proved unviable for further clinical development.

  18. Low-resolution structure of a vesicle disrupting α-synuclein oligomer that accumulates during fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Giehm, Lise; Svergun, Dmitri I.; Otzen, Daniel E.; Vestergaard, Bente

    2011-01-01

    One of the major hallmarks of Parkinson disease is aggregation of the protein α-synuclein (αSN). Aggregate cytotoxicity has been linked to an oligomeric species formed at early stages in the aggregation process. Here we follow the fibrillation process of αSN in solution over time using small angle X-ray scattering and resolve four major coexisting species in the fibrillation process, namely monomer, dimer, fibril and an oligomer. By ab initio modeling to fit the data, we obtain a low-resolution structure of a symmetrical and slender αSN fibril in solution, consisting of a repeating unit with a maximal distance of 900 Å and a diameter of ∼180 Å. The same approach shows the oligomer to be shaped like a wreath, with a central channel and with dimensions corresponding to the width of the fibril. The structure, accumulation and decay of this oligomer is consistent with an on-pathway role for the oligomer in the fibrillation process. We propose an oligomer-driven αSN fibril formation mechanism, where the fibril is built from the oligomers. The wreath-shaped structure of the oligomer highlights its potential cytotoxicity by simple membrane permeabilization. This is confirmed by the ability of the purified oligomer to disrupt liposomes. Our results provide the first structural description in solution of a potentially cytotoxic oligomer, which accumulates during the fibrillation of αSN. PMID:21300904

  19. Macrocyclic 2,7-Anthrylene Oligomers.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yuta; Wakamatsu, Kan; Iwanaga, Tetsuo; Sato, Hiroyasu; Toyota, Shinji

    2016-05-06

    A macrocyclic compound consisting of six 2,7-anthrylene units was successfully synthesized by Ni-mediated coupling of the corresponding dibromo precursor as a novel π-conjugated compound. This compound was sufficiently stable and soluble in organic solvents due to the presence of mesityl groups. X-ray analysis showed that the molecule had a nonplanar and hexagonal wheel-shaped framework of approximately S6 symmetry. The dynamic process between two S6 structures was observed by using the dynamic NMR technique, the barrier being 58 kJ mol(-1) . The spectroscopic properties of the hexamer were compared with those of analogous linear oligomers.

  20. Control of APP processing and Abeta generation level by BACE1 enzymatic activity and transcription.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu; Zhou, Weihui; Tong, Yigang; He, Guiqiong; Song, Weihong

    2006-02-01

    Deposition of amyloid beta protein (Abeta) is one of the characteristic features of Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology. Beta-secretase, a beta-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), is essential for Abeta biosynthesis. Although inhibition of BACE1 is considered a valid therapeutic target for AD, the enzymatic dynamics of BACE1 in regulating APP processing and Abeta generation has not yet been fully defined. To examine this issue, tightly controlled inducible BACE1 gene expression was established in the neuronal cell line N2ABP1 and the non-neuronal cell line E2BP1 using an ecdysone-inducible system. The BACE1 protein level was increased in a time- and dosage-dependent manner in the inducible BACE1 stable cells by treatment with inducer ponasterone A. The generation of APP CTFbeta, the beta-secretase product, increased proportionally with the level of BACE1 protein expression. However, Abeta40/42 production sharply increased to the plateau level with a relatively small increase in BACE1 expression. Although further increasing BACE1 expression increased beta-secretase activity, it had no additional effect on Abeta production. Furthermore, we found that BACE1 mRNA levels and BACE1 promoter activity were significantly lower than APP mRNA levels and APP promoter activity. Our data demonstrate that lower BACE transcription is responsible for the minority of APP undergoing the amyloidogenic pathway and relatively lower Abeta production in the normal conditions, and that a slight increase in BACE1 can induce a dramatic elevation in Abeta production, indicating that the increase in BACE1 can potentially increase neuritic plaque formation in the pathological condition.

  1. Tyrosine kinase nerve growth factor receptor switches from prosurvival to proapoptotic activity via Abeta-mediated phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Matrone, C.; Marolda, R.; Ciafrè, S.; Ciotti, M. T.; Mercanti, D.; Calissano, P.

    2009-01-01

    The present study shows that increased Abeta production in hippocampal neurons, due to a failure of NGF signal, induces an unexpected phosphorylation of tyrosine kinase receptor A (TrkA), followed by activation of the phospholipase C γ (PLCγ) pathway and neuronal death. Such phosphorylation seems causally connected with 2 kinases known be involved in amyloidogenesis, Src and CDK5, and associated with α and γ secretase–mediated p75 processing. Pharmacologic inhibition of TrkA phosphorylation and partial silencing of TrkA and/or p75 receptors prevent PLCγ activation and protect neurons from death. Concomitantly with these events, TrkA, p75, Abeta peptides, and PS1 protein coimmunoprecipitate, suggesting their direct interplay in the subsequent onset of apoptotic death. Together, these findings depict a cellular mechanism whereby the same cellular transducing system may invert its intracellular message from trophic and antiapoptotic to a death signaling, which could also have relevance in the onset of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:19549834

  2. Tyrosine kinase nerve growth factor receptor switches from prosurvival to proapoptotic activity via Abeta-mediated phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Matrone, C; Marolda, R; Ciafrè, S; Ciotti, M T; Mercanti, D; Calissano, P

    2009-07-07

    The present study shows that increased Abeta production in hippocampal neurons, due to a failure of NGF signal, induces an unexpected phosphorylation of tyrosine kinase receptor A (TrkA), followed by activation of the phospholipase C gamma (PLCgamma) pathway and neuronal death. Such phosphorylation seems causally connected with 2 kinases known be involved in amyloidogenesis, Src and CDK5, and associated with alpha and gamma secretase-mediated p75 processing. Pharmacologic inhibition of TrkA phosphorylation and partial silencing of TrkA and/or p75 receptors prevent PLCgamma activation and protect neurons from death. Concomitantly with these events, TrkA, p75, Abeta peptides, and PS1 protein coimmunoprecipitate, suggesting their direct interplay in the subsequent onset of apoptotic death. Together, these findings depict a cellular mechanism whereby the same cellular transducing system may invert its intracellular message from trophic and antiapoptotic to a death signaling, which could also have relevance in the onset of Alzheimer's disease.

  3. A Mechanism of Subunit Recruitment in Human Small Heat Shock Protein Oligomers.

    PubMed

    Delbecq, Scott P; Rosenbaum, Joel C; Klevit, Rachel E

    2015-07-21

    Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) make up a class of molecular chaperones broadly observed across organisms. Many sHSPs form large oligomers that undergo dynamic subunit exchange that is thought to play a role in chaperone function. Though remarkably heterogeneous, sHSP oligomers share three types of intermolecular interactions that involve all three defined regions of a sHSP: the N-terminal region (NTR), the conserved α-crystallin domain (ACD), and a C-terminal region (CTR). Here we define the structural interactions involved in incorporation of a subunit into a sHSP oligomer. We demonstrate that a minimal ACD dimer of the human sHSP, HSPB5, interacts with an HSPB5 oligomer through two types of interactions: (1) interactions with CTRs in the oligomer and (2) via exchange into and out of the dimer interface composed of two ACDs. Unexpectedly, although dimers are thought to be the fundamental building block for sHSP oligomers, our results clearly indicate that subunit exchange into and out of oligomers occurs via monomers. Using structure-based mutants, we show that incorporation of a subunit into an oligomer is predicated on recruitment of the subunit via its interaction with CTRs on an oligomer. Both the rate and extent of subunit incorporation depend on the accessibility of CTRs within an HSPB5 oligomer. We show that this mechanism also applies to formation of heterooligomeric sHSP species composed of HSPB5 and HSPB6 and is likely general among sHSPs. Finally, our observations highlight the importance of NTRs in the thermodynamic stability of sHSP oligomers.

  4. Synaptotoxic amyloid-β oligomers: a molecular basis for the cause, diagnosis, and treatment of Alzheimer's disease?

    PubMed

    Klein, William L

    2013-01-01

    The oligomer hypothesis for Alzheimer's disease (AD)was introduced in 1998. It was based on evidence that oligomers could exist free of amyloid fibrils, that fibril-free oligomer solutions rapidly inhibited long term potentiation, and that oligomers ultimately caused a highly selective nerve cell death. Fibrils no longer were the only toxins made by amyloid-β (Aβ), and likely not the most important ones. Oligomers provided a new basis for instigating AD. Since introduction of the hypothesis, more than 1,500 articles on oligomers have been published. Articles for this review were selected for contributions to oligomer theory at three different levels. The first set demonstrated new aspects of oligomer pathobiology in cell models, showing that exposure of neurons to oligomers is sufficient to cause key features of AD neuropathology. The second set confirmed the relationship between oligomers and salient AD neuropathology in animal models, consistent with other in vivo studies that overall have substantiated cell-based discoveries. The third set developed strategies for therapeutic targeting of oligomers, introducing both small molecule and antibody-based approaches. These and related findings from many groups have helped establish oligomers as central to the mechanism of AD pathogenesis. Comprising a ligand-based attack on specific synapses, the action of toxic oligomers gives a molecular basis to account for key features of AD neuropathology and to explain why early disease targets memory. Although there still is no effective treatment for AD, insights over the past five years raise hopes that new approaches targeting Aβ oligomers could finally bring disease-modifying therapeutics.

  5. Alzheimer's abeta(1-40) amyloid fibrils feature size-dependent mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhiping; Paparcone, Raffaella; Buehler, Markus J

    2010-05-19

    Amyloid fibrils are highly ordered protein aggregates that are associated with several pathological processes, including prion propagation and Alzheimer's disease. A key issue in amyloid science is the need to understand the mechanical properties of amyloid fibrils and fibers to quantify biomechanical interactions with surrounding tissues, and to identify mechanobiological mechanisms associated with changes of material properties as amyloid fibrils grow from nanoscale to microscale structures. Here we report a series of computational studies in which atomistic simulation, elastic network modeling, and finite element simulation are utilized to elucidate the mechanical properties of Alzheimer's Abeta(1-40) amyloid fibrils as a function of the length of the protein filament for both twofold and threefold symmetric amyloid fibrils. We calculate the elastic constants associated with torsional, bending, and tensile deformation as a function of the size of the amyloid fibril, covering fibril lengths ranging from nanometers to micrometers. The resulting Young's moduli are found to be consistent with available experimental measurements obtained from long amyloid fibrils, and predicted to be in the range of 20-31 GPa. Our results show that Abeta(1-40) amyloid fibrils feature a remarkable structural stability and mechanical rigidity for fibrils longer than approximately 100 nm. However, local instabilities that emerge at the ends of short fibrils (on the order of tens of nanometers) reduce their stability and contribute to their disassociation under extreme mechanical or chemical conditions, suggesting that longer amyloid fibrils are more stable. Moreover, we find that amyloids with lengths shorter than the periodicity of their helical pitch, typically between 90 and 130 nm, feature significant size effects of their bending stiffness due the anisotropy in the fibril's cross section. At even smaller lengths (50 nm), shear effects dominate lateral deformation of amyloid fibrils

  6. Heat Resistant Characteristics of Major Royal Jelly Protein 1 (MRJP1) Oligomer.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Takanori; Ito, Aimi; Omote, Sumire; Miura, Yuri; Tsumoto, Hiroki

    2015-01-01

    Soluble royal jelly protein is a candidate factor responsible for mammiferous cell proliferation. Major royal jelly protein 1 (MRJP1), which consists of oligomeric and monomeric forms, is an abundant proliferative protein in royal jelly. We previously reported that MRJP1 oligomer has biochemical heat resistance. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the effects of several heat treatments (56, 65 and 96°C) on the proliferative activity of MRJP1 oligomer. Heat resistance studies showed that the oligomer molecular forms were slightly maintained until 56℃, but the molecular forms were converted to macromolecular heat-aggregated MRJP1 oligomer at 65℃ and 96℃. But, the growth activity of MRJP1 oligomer treated with 96°C was slightly attenuated when compared to unheated MRJP1 oligomer. On the other hand, the cell proliferation activity was preserved until 96℃ by the cell culture analysis of Jurkat cells. In contrast, those of IEC-6 cells were not preserved even at 56°C. The present observations suggest that the bioactive heat-resistance properties were different by the origin of the cells. The cell proliferation analysis showed that MRJP1 oligomer, but not MRJP2 and MRJP3, significantly increased cell numbers, suggesting that MRJP1 oligomer is the predominant proliferation factor for mammiferous cells.

  7. Amyloid-beta oligomers increase the localization of prion protein at the cell surface.

    PubMed

    Caetano, Fabiana A; Beraldo, Flavio H; Hajj, Glaucia N M; Guimaraes, Andre L; Jürgensen, Sofia; Wasilewska-Sampaio, Ana Paula; Hirata, Pedro H F; Souza, Ivana; Machado, Cleiton F; Wong, Daisy Y-L; De Felice, Fernanda G; Ferreira, Sergio T; Prado, Vania F; Rylett, R Jane; Martins, Vilma R; Prado, Marco A M

    2011-05-01

    In Alzheimer's disease, the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) interacts with distinct proteins at the cell surface to interfere with synaptic communication. Recent data have implicated the prion protein (PrP(C)) as a putative receptor for Aβ. We show here that Aβ oligomers signal in cells in a PrP(C)-dependent manner, as might be expected if Aβ oligomers use PrP(C) as a receptor. Immunofluorescence, flow cytometry and cell surface protein biotinylation experiments indicated that treatment with Aβ oligomers, but not monomers, increased the localization of PrP(C) at the cell surface in cell lines. These results were reproduced in hippocampal neuronal cultures by labeling cell surface PrP(C). In order to understand possible mechanisms involved with this effect of Aβ oligomers, we used live cell confocal and total internal reflection microscopy in cell lines. Aβ oligomers inhibited the constitutive endocytosis of PrP(C), but we also found that after Aβ oligomer-treatment PrP(C) formed more clusters at the cell surface, suggesting the possibility of multiple effects of Aβ oligomers. Our experiments show for the first time that Aβ oligomers signal in a PrP(C)-dependent way and that they can affect PrP(C) trafficking, increasing its localization at the cell surface.

  8. Heat Resistant Characteristics of Major Royal Jelly Protein 1 (MRJP1) Oligomer

    PubMed Central

    Moriyama, Takanori; Ito, Aimi; Omote, Sumire; Miura, Yuri; Tsumoto, Hiroki

    2015-01-01

    Soluble royal jelly protein is a candidate factor responsible for mammiferous cell proliferation. Major royal jelly protein 1 (MRJP1), which consists of oligomeric and monomeric forms, is an abundant proliferative protein in royal jelly. We previously reported that MRJP1 oligomer has biochemical heat resistance. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the effects of several heat treatments (56, 65 and 96°C) on the proliferative activity of MRJP1 oligomer. Heat resistance studies showed that the oligomer molecular forms were slightly maintained until 56℃, but the molecular forms were converted to macromolecular heat-aggregated MRJP1 oligomer at 65℃ and 96℃. But, the growth activity of MRJP1 oligomer treated with 96°C was slightly attenuated when compared to unheated MRJP1 oligomer. On the other hand, the cell proliferation activity was preserved until 96℃ by the cell culture analysis of Jurkat cells. In contrast, those of IEC-6 cells were not preserved even at 56°C. The present observations suggest that the bioactive heat-resistance properties were different by the origin of the cells. The cell proliferation analysis showed that MRJP1 oligomer, but not MRJP2 and MRJP3, significantly increased cell numbers, suggesting that MRJP1 oligomer is the predominant proliferation factor for mammiferous cells. PMID:26020775

  9. Solid-State Structure of Abeta (Ab) in Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Lu, Junxia; Dong, Xing-Qi; Zhang, Jian-Jun

    2017-02-08

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) has become the most common neurodegenerative disease. The deposition of amyloid fibrils in the brain is one of the characteristics of AD. The fibrils are composed of amyloid-b peptide (Ab). Ab is produced through a series event of protease cleavage of a transmembrane protein called β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) which is commonly expressed in the brain. The production of Ab and its propensity to aggregation to form oligomers and fibrils are believed to initiate a sequence of events that lead to AD dementia. The production of Ab is influenced by the transmembrane domain (TM) structure of APP. The structure variety of different Ab assemblies including oligomers and fibrils may result in different neurotoxicity to the brain. Therefore, enormous work has been carried out to study the structure of APP TM and various Ab assemblies. Solid-state NMR has advantages in studying immobile protein structures with large molecular weight. In this review, solid-state NMR structure of APP TM and different Ab assemblies will be discussed, especially various Ab amyloid fibril structures. This structural information greatly enhanced our understanding in AD, providing fundamental knowledge that will help in finding a treatment for AD.

  10. APP substitutions V715F and L720P alter PS1 conformation and differentially affect Abeta and AICD generation.

    PubMed

    Tesco, Giuseppina; Ginestroni, Andrea; Hiltunen, Mikko; Kim, Minji; Dolios, Georgia; Hyman, Bradley T; Wang, Rong; Berezovska, Oksana; Tanzi, Rudolph E

    2005-10-01

    The 37-43 amino acid Abeta peptide is the principal component of beta-amyloid deposits in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain, and is derived by serial proteolysis of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by beta- and gamma-secretase. gamma-Secretase also cleaves APP at Val50 in the Abeta numbering (epsilon cleavage), resulting in the release of a fragment called APP intracellular domain (AICD). The aim of this study was to determine whether amino acid substitutions in the APP transmembrane domain differentially affect Abeta and AICD generation. We found that the APPV715F substitution, which has been previously shown to dramatically decrease Abeta40 and Abeta42 while increasing Abeta38 levels, does not affect in vitro generation of AICD. Furthermore, we found that the APPL720P substitution, which has been previously shown to prevent in vitro generation of AICD, completely prevents Abeta generation. Using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) method, we next found that both the APPV715F and APPL720P substitutions significantly increase the distance between the N- and C-terminus of presenilin 1 (PS1), which has been proposed to contain the catalytic site of gamma-secretase. In conclusion, both APPV715F and APPL720P change PS1 conformation with differential effects on Abeta and AICD production.

  11. Direct detection of alpha synuclein oligomers in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Rat models of Parkinson’s disease are widely used to elucidate the mechanisms underlying disease etiology or to investigate therapeutic approaches. Models were developed using toxins such as MPTP or 6-OHDA to specifically target dopaminergic neurons resulting in acute neuronal loss in the substantia nigra or by using viral vectors to induce the specific and gradual expression of alpha synuclein in the substantia nigra. The detection of alpha- synuclein oligomers, the presumed toxic species, in these models and others has been possible using only indirect biochemical approaches to date. Here we coinjected AAVs encoding alpha-synuclein fused to the N- or C-terminal half of VenusYFP in rat substantia nigra pars compacta and describe for the first time a novel viral vector rodent model with the unique ability to directly detect and track alpha synuclein oligomers ex vivo and in vivo. Results Viral coinjection resulted in widespread VenusYFP signal within the nigrostriatal pathway, including cell bodies in the substantia nigra and synaptic accumulation in striatal terminals, suggestive of in vivo alpha-synuclein oligomers formation. Transduced rats showed alpha-synuclein induced dopaminergic neuron loss in the substantia nigra, the appearance of dystrophic neurites, and gliosis in the striatum. Moreover, we have applied in vivo imaging techniques in the living mouse to directly image alpha-synuclein oligomers in the cortex. Conclusion We have developed a unique animal model that provides a tool for the Parkinson’s disease research community with which to directly detect alpha- synuclein oligomers in vivo and screen therapeutic approaches targeting alpha-synuclein oligomers. PMID:24252244

  12. RAC1 inhibition targets amyloid precursor protein processing by gamma-secretase and decreases Abeta production in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Désiré, Laurent; Bourdin, Jérôme; Loiseau, Nadia; Peillon, Hélène; Picard, Virginie; De Oliveira, Catherine; Bachelot, Florence; Leblond, Bertrand; Taverne, Thierry; Beausoleil, Eric; Lacombe, Sandrine; Drouin, Dominique; Schweighoffer, Fabien

    2005-11-11

    beta-Amyloid peptides (Abeta) that form the senile plaques of Alzheimer disease consist mainly of 40- and 42-amino acid (Abeta 40 and Abeta 42) peptides generated from the cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). Generation of Abeta involves beta-secretase and gamma-secretase activities and is regulated by membrane trafficking of the proteins involved in Abeta production. Here we describe a new small molecule, EHT 1864, which blocks the Rac1 signaling pathways. In vitro, EHT 1864 blocks Abeta 40 and Abeta 42 production but does not impact sAPPalpha levels and does not inhibit beta-secretase. Rather, EHT 1864 modulates APP processing at the level of gamma-secretase to prevent Abeta 40 and Abeta 42 generation. This effect does not result from a direct inhibition of the gamma-secretase activity and is specific for APP cleavage, since EHT 1864 does not affect Notch cleavage. In vivo, EHT 1864 significantly reduces Abeta 40 and Abeta 42 levels in guinea pig brains at a threshold that is compatible with delaying plaque accumulation and/or clearing the existing plaque in brain. EHT 1864 is the first derivative of a new chemical series that consists of candidates for inhibiting Abeta formation in the brain of AD patients. Our findings represent the first pharmacological validation of Rac1 signaling as a target for developing novel therapies for Alzheimer disease.

  13. Alginate gels with a combination of calcium and chitosan oligomer mixtures as crosslinkers.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yiming; Kopplin, Georg; Sato, Kimihiko; Draget, Kurt I; Vårum, Kjell M

    2017-01-20

    Alginates are polysaccharides that are widely used in relation to their ability to form gels. Recently we reported that alginates may also form gels with chitosan oligomers as crosslinkers (Khong, Aarstad, Skjåk-Bræk, Draget, & Vårum, 2013). The purpose of the present study was to characterize alginate gels crosslinked with calcium and chitosan oligomers. Using two different alginates of similar molecular weights but different chemical composition, i.e. guluronic acid content of 46 and 68%, we found that both alginates could form homogeneous gels with calcium and chitosan oligomers separately and without syneresis. Systematic combinations of calcium and chitosan oligomers as crosslinkers were tested, showing that up to 50% of the calcium could be substituted with chitosan oligomers without reduction in gel strength or increased syneresis for the alginate with the lowest guluronic acid content. Furthermore, the kinetics of the combined gels were different from pure calcium alginate gels.

  14. Localization of human serum amyloid P component and heparan sulfate proteoglycan in in vitro-formed Abeta fibrils.

    PubMed

    Holm Nielsen, E; Nybo, M; Junker, K; Toftedal Hansen, P; Rasmussen, I M; Svehag, S E

    2000-08-01

    Ultrastructural studies of the localization of serum amyloid P component (SAP) in amyloid fibrils have given divergent results. We here report for the first time that electron microscopy of SAP coincubated with Abeta1-42 peptides or with mature Abeta1-42 fibrils, revealed SAP molecules coating the surface of the mature fibrils and that protofibrils of Abeta1-42 did not bind SAP. Also when incubated with extracted amyloid light chain (AL)-fibrils the SAP molecules aligned on the fibril surface. Heparan sulfate proteoglycan bound to the surface of the Abeta fibrils with a spacing of about 50 nm. We conclude that SAP does not bind to protofibrils but to the surface of mature Abeta fibrils and that it may stabilize and protect the fibrils.

  15. Hyperphosphorylation-induced tau oligomers.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Khalid; Gong, Cheng-Xin; Liu, Fei

    2013-01-01

    In normal adult brain the microtubule associated protein (MAP) tau contains 2-3 phosphates per mol of the protein and at this level of phosphorylation it is a soluble cytosolic protein. The normal brain tau interacts with tubulin and promotes its assembly into microtubules and stabilizes these fibrils. In Alzheimer disease (AD) brain tau is three to fourfold hyperphosphorylated. The abnormally hyperphosphorylated tau binds to normal tau instead of the tubulin and this binding leads to the formation of tau oligomers. The tau oligomers can be sedimented at 200,000 × g whereas the normal tau under these conditions remains in the supernatant. The abnormally hyperphosphorylated tau is capable of sequestering not only normal tau but also MAP MAP1 and MAP2 and causing disruption of the microtubule network promoted by these proteins. Unlike Aβ and prion protein (PrP) oligomers, tau oligomerization in AD and related tauopathies is hyperphosphorylation-dependent; in vitro dephosphorylation of AD P-tau with protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) inhibits and rehyperphosphorylation of the PP2A-AD P-tau with more than one combination of tau protein kinases promotes its oligomerization. In physiological assembly conditions the AD P-tau readily self-assembles into paired helical filaments. Missense tau mutations found in frontotemporal dementia apparently lead to tau oligomerization and neurofibrillary pathology by promoting its abnormal hyperphosphorylation. Dysregulation of the alternative splicing of tau that alters the 1:1 ratio of the 3-repeat: 4-repeat taus such as in Down syndrome, Pick disease, and progressive supranuclear palsy leads to the abnormal hyperphosphorylation of tau.

  16. ApoER2 expression increases Abeta production while decreasing Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) endocytosis: Possible role in the partitioning of APP into lipid rafts and in the regulation of gamma-secretase activity.

    PubMed

    Fuentealba, Rodrigo A; Barría, Maria Ines; Lee, Jiyeon; Cam, Judy; Araya, Claudia; Escudero, Claudia A; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C; Bronfman, Francisca C; Bu, Guojun; Marzolo, Maria-Paz

    2007-07-09

    The generation of the amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) through the proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a central event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent studies highlight APP endocytosis and localization to lipid rafts as important events favoring amyloidogenic processing. However, the precise mechanisms underlying these events are poorly understood. ApoER2 is a member of the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) family exhibiting slow endocytosis rate and a significant association with lipid rafts. Despite the important neurophysiological roles described for ApoER2, little is known regarding how ApoER2 regulates APP trafficking and processing. Here, we demonstrate that ApoER2 physically interacts and co-localizes with APP. Remarkably, we found that ApoER2 increases cell surface APP levels and APP association with lipid rafts. The increase of cell surface APP requires the presence of ApoER2 cytoplasmic domain and is a result of decreased APP internalization rate. Unexpectedly, ApoER2 expression correlated with a significant increase in Abeta production and reduced levels of APP-CTFs. The increased Abeta production was dependent on the integrity of the NPxY endocytosis motif of ApoER2. We also found that expression of ApoER2 increased APP association with lipid rafts and increased gamma-secretase activity, both of which might contribute to increased Abeta production. These findings show that ApoER2 negatively affects APP internalization. However, ApoER2 expression stimulates Abeta production by shifting the proportion of APP from the non-rafts to the raft membrane domains, thereby promoting beta-secretase and gamma-secretase mediated amyloidogenic processing and also by incrementing the activity of gamma-secretase.

  17. Ph₂N-susbtituted ethylene-bridged p-phenylene oligomers: synthesis and photophysical and redox properties.

    PubMed

    Shaibu, Balagopal Shainamma; Lin, Sheng-Hsun; Lin, Chi-Yen; Wong, Ken-Tsung; Liu, Rai-Shung

    2011-02-18

    For a series of p-phenylene-based oligomers terminated with two triphenylamines, their absorption, photoluminescence, and band gaps show a pattern of extensive π-conjugation with increasing array size. Oligomers with large central arrays have greater quantum yields than their small analogues. Cyclic voltammetric (CV) measurements indicated two-step oxidations of the two diphenylamino groups for compounds 1-5 and one-step oxidations for the two amines of large oligomers 6 and 7.

  18. Hypoxia increases Abeta generation by altering beta- and gamma-cleavage of APP.

    PubMed

    Li, Liang; Zhang, Xiaojie; Yang, Dehua; Luo, Guangrui; Chen, Shen; Le, Weidong

    2009-07-01

    Environmental factors are significant contributors for the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The greatly increased incidence of AD following stroke and cerebral ischemia suggests that hypoxia is a risk factor which may accelerate AD pathogenesis by altering amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the hypoxia mediated AD pathogenesis have not been fully elucidated. In the present study we demonstrated that repeated hypoxia increased beta-amyloid (Abeta) generation and neuritic plaques formation by elevating beta-cleavage of APP in APP(swe)+PS1(A246E) transgenic mice. We also found that hypoxia enhanced the expression of APH-1a, a component of gamma-secretase complex, which in turn may lead to increase in gamma-cleavage activity. Furthermore, we demonstrated that repeated hypoxia treatment can activate macroautophagy, which may contribute to the increases in Abeta production since pretreatment with macroautophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine significantly blocked chemical hypoxic condition-induced increase in Abeta production in SH-SY5Y cells. Taken together, our results suggest an important role of hypoxia in modulating the APP processing by facilitating both beta- and gamma-cleavage which may result in a significant increase of Abeta generation.

  19. Rectification mechanism in diblock oligomer molecular diodes.

    PubMed

    Oleynik, I I; Kozhushner, M A; Posvyanskii, V S; Yu, L

    2006-03-10

    We investigated a mechanism of rectification in diblock oligomer diode molecules that have recently been synthesized and showed a pronounced asymmetry in the measured I-V spectrum. The observed rectification effect is due to the resonant nature of electron transfer in the system and the localization properties of bound state wave functions of resonant states of the tunneling electron interacting with an asymmetric molecule in an electric field. The asymmetry of the tunneling wave function is enhanced or weakened depending on the polarity of the applied bias. The conceptually new theoretical approach, the Green's function theory of sub-barrier scattering, is able to provide a physically transparent explanation of this rectification effect based on the concept of the bound state spectrum of a tunneling electron. The theory predicts the characteristic features of the I-V spectrum in qualitative agreement with experiment.

  20. Acetylpuerarin reduces inflammation and improves memory function in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease induced by Abeta1-42.

    PubMed

    Meng, Q H; Lou, F L; Hou, W X; Liu, M; Guo, H; Zhang, X M

    2013-11-01

    This study was performed to determine if acetylpuerarin (compound N-2211) could reduce amyloid-beta1-42 (Abeta1-42) induced learning and memory deficits and to examine its anti-neuroinflammatory effects in a rat model. Forty Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10 each): control, model (Abeta1-42 injected), low-dose and high-dose acetylpuerarin groups. The acetylpuerarin groups received peritoneal acetylpuerarin every day for 12 days after 2 weeks of Abeta1-42 (5 microg/1 microl) intrahippocampal injections. The Morris water maze (MWM) was used to assess rats' learning and memory abilities. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess expression levels of ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule (Ibal), protein kinase C delta (PKCdelta), IkappaB kinase beta (IKKbeta), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in hippocampus. After Abeta1-42 injection, the learning and memory abilities of rats were reduced, and acetylpuerarin treatment ameliorated the observed deficits. Abeta1-42 injection resulted in microglia transforming from resting microglia into an activated state, but this was reduced by acetylpuerarin treatment. Furthermore, hippocampal expression of PKCdelta, IKKbeta, and iNOS increased following Abeta1-42 treatment, and acetylpuerarin could suppressed the levels of PKCdelta, iNOS, and IKKbeta. Acetylpuerarin improves learning and memory functions in Abeta1-42 induced rat models. These effects may be due to anti-neuroinflammatory effects.

  1. Mass spectrometric characterization of oligomers in Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin solutions

    PubMed Central

    Sokolová, Lucie; Williamson, Heather; Sýkora, Jan; Hof, Martin; Gray, Harry B.; Brutschy, Bernd; Vlček, Antonín

    2011-01-01

    We have employed laser induced liquid bead ion desorption mass spectroscopy (LILBID MS) to study the solution behavior of Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin as well as two mutants and corresponding Re-labeled derivatives containing a Re(CO)3(4,7-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline) chromophore appended to a surface histidine. LILBID spectra show broad oligomer distributions whose particular patterns depend on the solution composition (pure H2O, 20–30 mM NaCl, 20 and 50 mM NaPi or NH4Pi at pH = 7). The distribution maximum shifts to smaller oligomers upon decreasing the azurin concentration and increasing the buffer concentration. Oligomerization is less extensive for native azurin than its mutants. The oligomerization propensities of unlabeled and Re-labeled proteins are generally comparable, only Re126 shows some preference for the dimer that persists even in highly diluted solutions. Peak shifts to higher masses and broadening in 20–50 mM NaPi confirm strong azurin association with buffer ions and solvation. We have found that LILBID MS reveals the solution behavior of weakly bound nonspecific oligomers, clearly distinguishing individual components of the oligomer distribution. Independently, average data on oligomerization and the dependence on solution composition were obtained by time-resolved anisotropy of the Re-label photoluminescence that confirmed relatively long rotation correlation times, 6–30 ns, depending on Re-azurin and solution composition. Labeling proteins with Re-chromophores that have long-lived phosphorescence extends the timescale of anisotropy measurements to hundreds of ns, thereby opening the way for investigations of large oligomers with long rotation times. PMID:21452827

  2. Ginkgo biloba extract ameliorates oxidative phosphorylation performance and rescues abeta-induced failure.

    PubMed

    Rhein, Virginie; Giese, Maria; Baysang, Ginette; Meier, Fides; Rao, Stefania; Schulz, Kathrin L; Hamburger, Matthias; Eckert, Anne

    2010-08-24

    Energy deficiency and mitochondrial failure have been recognized as a prominent, early event in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recently, we demonstrated that chronic exposure to amyloid-beta (Abeta) in human neuroblastoma cells over-expressing human wild-type amyloid precursor protein (APP) resulted in (i) activity changes of complexes III and IV of the oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS) and in (ii) a drop of ATP levels which may finally instigate loss of synapses and neuronal cell death in AD. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether standardized Ginkgo biloba extract LI 1370 (GBE) is able to rescue Abeta-induced defects in energy metabolism. We used a high-resolution respiratory protocol to evaluate OXPHOS respiratory capacity under physiological condition in control (stably transfected with the empty vector) and APP cells after treatment with GBE. In addition, oxygen consumption of isolated mitochondria, activities of mitochondrial respiratory enzymes, ATP and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels as well as mitochondrial membrane mass and mitochondrial DNA content were determined. We observed a general antioxidant effect of GBE leading to an increase of the coupling state of mitochondria as well as energy homeostasis and a reduction of ROS levels in control cells and in APP cells. GBE effect on OXPHOS was even preserved in mitochondria after isolation from treated cells. Moreover, these functional data were paralleled by an up-regulation of mitochondrial DNA. Improvement of the OXPHOS efficiency was stronger in APP cells than in control cells. In APP cells, the GBE-induced amelioration of oxygen consumption most likely arose from the modulation and respective normalization of the Abeta-induced disturbance in the activity of mitochondrial complexes III and IV restoring impaired ATP levels possibly through decreasing Abeta and oxidative stress level. Although the underlying molecular mechanisms of the mode of action of GBE remain to be

  3. Receptor-associated protein (RAP) plays a central role in modulating Abeta deposition in APP/PS1 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guilian; Karch, Celeste; Li, Ning; Lin, Nianwei; Fromholt, David; Gonzales, Victoria; Borchelt, David R

    2008-09-08

    Receptor associated protein (RAP) functions in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to assist in the maturation of several membrane receptor proteins, including low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) and lipoprotein receptor 11 (SorLA/LR11). Previous studies in cell and mouse model systems have demonstrated that these proteins play roles in the metabolism of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), including processes involved in the generation, catabolism and deposition of beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptides. Mice transgenic for mutant APPswe and mutant presenilin 1 (PS1dE9) were mated to mice with homozygous deletion of RAP. Unexpectedly, mice that were homozygous null for RAP and transgenic for APPswe/PS1dE9 showed high post-natal mortality, necessitating a shift in focus to examine the levels of amyloid deposition in APPswe/PS1dE9 that were hemizygous null for RAP. Immunoblot analysis confirmed 50% reductions in the levels of RAP with modest reductions in the levels of proteins dependent upon RAP for maturation [LRP trend towards a 20% reduction ; SorLA/LR11 statistically significant 15% reduction (p<0.05)]. Changes in the levels of these proteins in the brains of [APPswe/PS1dE9](+/-)/RAP(+/-) mice correlated with 30-40% increases in amyloid deposition by 9 months of age. Partial reductions in the ER chaperone RAP enhance amyloid deposition in the APPswe/PS1dE9 model of Alzheimer amyloidosis. Partial reductions in RAP also affect the maturation of LRP and SorLA/LR11, which are each involved in several different aspects of APP processing and Abeta catabolism. Together, these findings suggest a central role for RAP in Alzheimer amyloidogenesis.

  4. Unique Properties of the Rabbit Prion Protein Oligomer

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ziyao; Huang, Pei; Yu, Yuanhui; Zheng, Zhen; Huang, Zicheng; Guo, Chenyun; Lin, Donghai

    2016-01-01

    Prion diseases, also known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), are a group of fatal neurodegenerative disorders infecting both humans and animals. Recent works have demonstrated that the soluble prion protein oligomer (PrPO), the intermediate of the conformational transformation from the host-derived cellular form (PrPC) to the disease-associated Scrapie form (PrPSc), exerts the major neurotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. Rabbits show strong resistance to TSEs, the underlying mechanism is unclear to date. It is expected that the relative TSEs-resistance of rabbits is closely associated with the unique properties of rabbit prion protein oligomer which remain to be addressed in detail. In the present work, we prepared rabbit prion protein oligomer (recRaPrPO) and human prion protein oligomer (recHuPrPO) under varied conditions, analyzed the effects of pH, NaCl concentration and incubation temperature on the oligomerization, and compared the properties of recRaPrPO and recHuPrPO. We found that several factors facilitated the formation of prion protein oligomers, including low pH, high NaCl concentration, high incubation temperature and low conformational stability of monomeric prion protein. RecRaPrPO was formed more slowly than recHuPrPO at physiological-like conditions (< 57°C, < 150 mM NaCl). Furthermore, recRaPrPO possessed higher susceptibility to proteinase K and lower cytotoxicity in vitro than recHuPrPO. These unique properties of recRaPrPO might substantially contribute to the TSEs-resistance of rabbits. Our work sheds light on the oligomerization of prion proteins and is of benefit to mechanistic understanding of TSEs-resistance of rabbits. PMID:27529173

  5. Ballistic Energy Transport in Oligomers.

    PubMed

    Rubtsova, Natalia I; Qasim, Layla N; Kurnosov, Arkady A; Burin, Alexander L; Rubtsov, Igor V

    2015-09-15

    The development of nanocomposite materials with desired heat management properties, including nanowires, layered semiconductor structures, and self-assembled monolayer (SAM) junctions, attracts broad interest. Such materials often involve polymeric/oligomeric components and can feature high or low thermal conductivity, depending on their design. For example, in SAM junctions made of alkane chains sandwiched between metal layers, the thermal conductivity can be very low, whereas the fibers of ordered polyethylene chains feature high thermal conductivity, exceeding that of many pure metals. The thermal conductivity of nanostructured materials is determined by the energy transport between and within each component of the material, which all need to be understood for optimizing the properties. For example, in the SAM junctions, the energy transport across the metal-chain interface as well as the transport through the chains both determine the overall heat conductivity, however, to separate these contributions is difficult. Recently developed relaxation-assisted two-dimensional infrared (RA 2DIR) spectroscopy is capable of studying energy transport in individual molecules in the time domain. The transport in a molecule is initiated by exciting an IR-active group (a tag); the method records the influence of the excess energy on another mode in the molecule (a reporter). The energy transport time can be measured for different reporters, and the transport speed through the molecule is evaluated. Various molecules were interrogated by RA 2DIR: in molecules without repeating units (disordered), the transport mechanism was expected and found to be diffusive. The transport via an oligomer backbone can potentially be ballistic, as the chain offers delocalized vibrational states. Indeed, the transport regime via three tested types of oligomers, alkanes, polyethyleneglycols, and perfluoroalkanes was found to be ballistic, whereas the transport within the end groups was diffusive

  6. Hologram recording in azobenzene oligomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozols, Andris O.; Kampars, Valdis; Reinfelde, Mara; Kokars, Valdis

    2003-08-01

    Elementary hologram (holographic grating) recording and their coherent optical erasure have been experimentally studied in azobenzene oligomer (ABO) layers differing by their chemical composition, matrices and by the connection type of azobenzene chromophores to the matrix (dispersed or covalently bound). The best holographic parameters (7.9% diffraction efficiency and 86 J/cm2 specific recording energy) were achieved in the samples with covalent bonding to the matrix. Vector recording is also possible. Recording is unstable and reversible. The coherent optical erasure studies have shown its efficiency dependencies on the initial diffraction efficiency, erasing beam intensity and grating period which are different for three groups of ABO samples. The conclusion is made that recording is due to the photoinduced alignment of the azobenzene chromophores followed by refractive index changes. These are the first results and further studies are in progress.

  7. Optical Spectra of Silicon Oligomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishida, Hideo; Tachibana, Hiroaki; Sakurai, Kouhei; Matsumoto, Mutsuyoshi; Abe, Shuji; Tokura, Yoshinori

    1996-06-01

    Optical absorption spectra have been measured for finite-chain analogs of linear polysilane, silicon oligomers CH3[Si(CH3)2]nCH3, with controlled chain length n(=2 to 16).The intense lowest electronic absorption peak and its higher-lying side bands,which correspond to the one-dimensional exciton series in the infinite chain,shift to higher energy with decrease of the chain length because of the confinement of the excited states.The oscillator strength of the main absorption peak increases with the chain length, while the linewidth of the main peak drastically decreases, especially in the region n=2 to 6.These finite size effects of the electronic (excitonic) absorptionare argued in terms of spatial extension of the excited states, motional narrowing and electron correlation effect.

  8. Studies on Oligomer Metal Complexes Derived from Bisamic Acid of Pyromellitic Dianhydride and 4-Bromoaniline

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Yogesh S.

    2014-01-01

    Novel oligomer metal complexes (2a–f) of the ligand 2,5-bis((4-bromophenyl)carbamoyl) terephthalic acid (1) were prepared using transition metal salts and characterized by various spectroscopic techniques. The geometry of oligomer metal complexes was carried out by electronic spectral analysis and magnetic measurement studies. Polymeric properties have also been carried out. Ligand was synthesized using pyromellitic dianhydride and 4-bromoaniline. It was duly characterized. All novel synthesized compounds 1 and 2a–f were evaluated for their antibacterial and antifungal activity. The results showed significantly higher antibacterial and antifungal activity of oligomer metal complexes compared to the ligand. PMID:27379295

  9. Studies on Oligomer Metal Complexes Derived from Bisamic Acid of Pyromellitic Dianhydride and 4-Bromoaniline.

    PubMed

    Patel, Yogesh S

    2014-01-01

    Novel oligomer metal complexes (2a-f) of the ligand 2,5-bis((4-bromophenyl)carbamoyl) terephthalic acid (1) were prepared using transition metal salts and characterized by various spectroscopic techniques. The geometry of oligomer metal complexes was carried out by electronic spectral analysis and magnetic measurement studies. Polymeric properties have also been carried out. Ligand was synthesized using pyromellitic dianhydride and 4-bromoaniline. It was duly characterized. All novel synthesized compounds 1 and 2a-f were evaluated for their antibacterial and antifungal activity. The results showed significantly higher antibacterial and antifungal activity of oligomer metal complexes compared to the ligand.

  10. White matter lesion severity is associated with reduced cognitive performances in patients with normal CSF Abeta42 levels.

    PubMed

    Stenset, V; Hofoss, D; Johnsen, L; Skinningsrud, A; Berstad, A E; Negaard, A; Reinvang, I; Gjerstad, L; Fladby, T

    2008-12-01

    To identify possible associations between white matter lesions (WML) and cognition in patients with memory complaints, stratified in groups with normal and low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Abeta42 values. 215 consecutive patients with subjective memory complaints were retrospectively included. Patients were stratified into two groups with normal (n = 127) or low (n = 88) CSF Abeta42 levels (cut-off is 450 ng/l). Cognitive scores from the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination (Cognistat) were used as continuous dependent variables in linear regression. WML load was used as a continuous independent variable and was scored with a visual rating scale. The regression model was corrected for possible confounding factors. WML were significantly associated with MMSE and all Cognistat subscores except language (repetition and naming) and attention in patients with normal CSF Abeta42 levels. No significant associations were observed in patients with low CSF Abeta42. WML were associated with affection of multiple cognitive domains, including delayed recall and executive functions, in patients with normal CSF Abeta42 levels. The lack of such associations for patients with low CSF Abeta42 (i.e. with evidence for amyloid deposition), suggests that amyloid pathology may obscure cognitive effects of WML.

  11. Reactive Processing with Difunctional Oligomers to Increase Interfacial Adhesion in Polymer Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Charles; Rice+, Kevin; Dadmun, Mark

    2000-03-01

    The intoduction of blocky copolymers represents a possible method of compatibilizing two immiscible polymers in a blend. However, copolymers do not diffuse quickly to the interface of a polymer blend system. Therefore, reactive processing is being investigated as a means to form in-situ compatibilizers for polymer blends. A model system composed of poly(bisphenol A-co-epichlorohydrin) blended with poly(ethylene oxide) that is compatibilized with difunctional oligomers that are the same structure as the blend components is currently under investigation. It is expected that the oligomers can undergo an addition copolymerization during processing to create the blocky copolymers at the biphasic interface. Initial tensile measurements show that the addition of the reactive oligomers improves the properties of the blend. Additionally, preliminary results indicate that reactive oligomers may act as plasticizers and continue to polymerize at room temperature after the blend is removed from the melt mixer if insufficiently mixed.

  12. Retromer deficiency observed in Alzheimer's disease causes hippocampal dysfunction, neurodegeneration, and Abeta accumulation.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Alim; Flores, Ingrid; Zhang, Hong; Yu, Rui; Staniszewski, Agnieszka; Planel, Emmanuel; Herman, Mathieu; Ho, Lingling; Kreber, Robert; Honig, Lawrence S; Ganetzky, Barry; Duff, Karen; Arancio, Ottavio; Small, Scott A

    2008-05-20

    Although deficiencies in the retromer sorting pathway have been linked to late-onset Alzheimer's disease, whether these deficiencies underlie the disease remains unknown. Here we characterized two genetically modified animal models to test separate but related questions about the effects that retromer deficiency has on the brain. First, testing for cognitive defects, we investigated retromer-deficient mice and found that they develop hippocampal-dependent memory and synaptic dysfunction, which was associated with elevations in endogenous Abeta peptide. Second, testing for neurodegeneration and amyloid deposits, we investigated retromer-deficient flies expressing human wild-type amyloid precursor protein (APP) and human beta-site APP-cleaving enzyme (BACE) and found that they develop neuronal loss and human Abeta aggregates. By recapitulating features of the disease, these animal models suggest that retromer deficiency observed in late-onset Alzheimer's disease can contribute to disease pathogenesis.

  13. Anticoagulant flavonoid oligomers from the rhizomes of Alpinia platychilus.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chuan-Pu; Luo, Jian-Guang; Yang, Ming-Hua; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2015-10-01

    Two pairs of enantiomers of flavonoid oligomers (1a and 1b, 2a and 2b) along with one known chalcone (3) were isolated from the rhizomes of Alpinia platychilus. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data (MS and 1D/2D NMR). The absolute configurations of the flavonoid oligomers were established by their ECD spectra. Separation of the enantiomeric mixtures (1a and 1b, 2a and 2b) was achieved on a chiral column using hexane:isopropyl alcohol:ethanol (7:2:1) as eluents. The anticoagulant assay showed that 2a, 2b and 3 exhibited potent activities to prolong the prothrombin times (PT) and the thrombin times (TT). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Phase behavior of a lattice hydrophobic oligomer in explicit water.

    PubMed

    Romero-Vargas Castrillón, Santiago; Matysiak, Silvina; Stillinger, Frank H; Rossky, Peter J; Debenedetti, Pablo G

    2012-08-09

    We investigate the thermodynamics of hydrophobic oligomer collapse using a water-explicit, three-dimensional lattice model. The model captures several aspects of protein thermodynamics, including the emergence of cold- and thermal-unfolding, as well as unfolding at high solvent density (a phenomenon akin to pressure-induced denaturation). We show that over a range of conditions spanning a ≈14% increase in solvent density, the oligomer transforms into a compact, strongly water-penetrated conformation at low temperature. This contrasts with thermal unfolding at high temperature, where the system "denatures" into an extended random coil conformation. We report a phase diagram for hydrophobic collapse that correctly captures qualitative aspects of cold and thermal unfolding at low to intermediate solvent densities.

  15. A HRMS study of oligomer formation through aqueous phase photooxidation of methylvinyl-ketone and methacrolein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salque-moreton, G.; Liu, Y.; Voisin, D.; Siekmann, F.; Renard, P.; Monod, A.; Thissen, R.

    2012-04-01

    Global estimates of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation flux show that the current descriptions miss a large fraction of the sources. Aqueous phase photochemistry in cloud droplets and deliquescent aerosol may provide some of this missing flux. Organic reactions in those media, particularly leading to higher molecular weight products thus need better understanding. Here, we investigated the aqueous phase photooxidation of methacrolein (MACR) and methylvinyl-ketone (MVK), which are the two main oxidation products of isoprene, the volatile organic compound (VOC) that is mostly emitted on the global scale. In our experiments, photolysis of H2O2 provided OH radicals whose reaction with MACR or MVK produced oligomers. Firstly, oligomers were analyzed using electrospray ionization coupled with high-resolution linear ion trap Orbitrap™ (Thermo Corp.) mass spectrometer (HRMS). This technique enabled to propose the unambiguous elemental composition of the produced compounds as data were collected for a mass range of m/z 50-2000 amu. The mass of oligomers increased strongly in positive and negative ionization modes when initial concentrations of MACR and MVK were increased from 2 to 20 mM. Typical regular patterns of oligomer formation were observed for both precursors, and extended up to 1400 amu. These patterns were very different from each other for the two precursors although both showed regular mass differences of 70 amu. In addition, we used a Kendrick analysis and identified more than 20 distinct chemical oligomer series produced by photooxidation of both MACR and MVK, some of which reaching more than 1400 amu. The HRMS investigations allowed us to propose a mechanism of production of oligomers. Upon nebulization, both oligomer systems produce SOA with a mass yield of 2-12%. This mass yield increases with reaction time and precursor concentration. Moreover, time evolution of the oligomer systems observed with the Orbitrap will be compared to HR

  16. Cu(II) coordination structure determinants of the fibrillization switch in Abeta peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Guzman, Jessica; Sun, Li; Mehta, Anil; Lynn, David; Warncke, Kurt

    2010-03-01

    Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is associated with the aggregation and fibrillization of the beta-amyloid protein (Abeta). The coordination of Cu(II) by peptide histidine imidazole sidechains is proposed to play an important role in determining the fibrillization ``switch'' [1]. We have developed techniques of powder X-band electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) spectroscopy to determine the 3D molecular structure of the Cu(II)-histidine imidazole coordination in cryotrapped soluble and fibrillar forms of Abeta peptides, in order to gain insight into the factors that govern fibrillization. We use hybrid optimization-based OPTESIM [2] simulation of the double quantum harmonic feature to determine the mutual orientation of the imidazole rings in Cu(II)--bis-imidazole complexes and in Abeta(13-21) peptides. The Cu(II) coordination mode and assembly constraints in fibrils are revealed. [1] Dong , J., et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 2007, 104, 13313. [2] Sun, L., et al., J. Magn. Reson. 2009, 200, 21.

  17. Absorption enhancing effects of chitosan oligomers on the intestinal absorption of low molecular weight heparin in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hailong; Mi, Jie; Huo, Yayu; Huang, Xiaoyan; Xing, Jianfeng; Yamamoto, Akira; Gao, Yang

    2014-05-15

    Absorption enhancing effects of chitosan oligomers with different type and varying concentration on the intestinal absorption of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) were examined by an in situ closed loop method in different intestinal sections of rats. Chitosan hexamer with the optimal concentration of 0.5% (w/v) showed the highest absorption enhancing ability both in the small intestine and large intestine. The membrane toxicities of chitosan oligomers were evaluated by morphological observation and determining the biological markers including amount of protein and activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) released from intestinal epithelium cells. There was no obvious change both in levels of protein and LDH and morphology in the intestinal membrane between control and various chitosan oligomers groups, suggesting that chitosan oligomers did not induce any significant membrane damage to the intestinal epithelium. In addition, zeta potentials became less negative and amount of free LMWH gradually decreased when various chitosan oligomers were added to LMWH solution, revealing that electrostatic interaction between positively charged chitosan oligomers and negative LMWH was included in the absorption enhancing mechanism of chitosan oligomers. In conclusion, chitosan oligomers, especially chitosan hexamer, are safe and efficient absorption enhancers and can be used promisingly to improve oral absorption of LMWH.

  18. Glycosyl-Templated Chiral Helix Stapling of Ethynylpyridine Oligomers by Alkene Metathesis between Inter-Pitch Side Chains.

    PubMed

    Abe, Hajime; Kayamori, Fumihiro; Inouye, Masahiko

    2015-06-22

    Ethynylpyridine polymers and oligomers consisting of 4-substituted pyridine rings linked by acetylene bonds at the 2- and 6-positions have been investigated. Ethynylpyridine oligomers covalently linked with a glycosyl chiral template form chiral helical complexes by intramolecular hydrogen bonding, in which the chirality of the template is translated to the helix. With a view to fixation of the chiral architecture, D/L-galactosyl- and D/L-mannosyl-linked ethynylpyridine oligomers have been developed with 4-(3-butenyloxy)pyridine units having alkene side chains. The helical structures are successfully stapled by alkene metathesis of the side chains. Subsequent removal of the chiral templates by acidolysis produces template-free stapled oligomers. The chiral, template-free, stapled oligomers show chiral helicity, which is resistant to polar solvents and heating.

  19. Soluble Prion Protein Binds Isolated Low Molecular Weight Amyloid-β Oligomers Causing Cytotoxicity Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Williams, Thomas L; Choi, Jin-Kyu; Surewicz, Krystyna; Surewicz, Witold K

    2015-12-16

    A growing number of observations indicate that soluble amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers play a major role in Alzheimer's disease. Recent studies strongly suggest that at least some of the neurotoxic effects of these oligomers are mediated by cellular, membrane-anchored prion protein and that Aβ neurotoxicity can be inhibited by soluble recombinant prion protein (rPrP) and its fragments. However, the mechanism by which rPrP interacts with Aβ oligomers and prevents their toxicity is largely unknown, and studies in this regard are hindered by the large structural heterogeneity of Aβ oligomers. To overcome this difficulty, here we used photoinduced cross-linking of unmodified proteins (PICUP) to isolate well-defined oligomers of Aβ42 and characterize these species with regard to their cytotoxicity and interaction with rPrP, as well the mechanism by which rPrP inhibits Aβ42 cytotoxicity. Our data shows that the addition of rPrP to the assembling Aβ42 results in a shift in oligomer size distribution, decreasing the population of toxic tetramers and higher order oligomers and increasing the population of nontoxic (and possibly neuroprotective) monomers. Isolated oligomeric species of Aβ42 are cytotoxic to primary neurons and cause permeation of model lipid bilayers. These toxic effects, which are oligomer size-dependent, can be inhibited by the addition of rPrP, and our data suggest potential mechanisms of this inhibitory action. This insight should help in current efforts to develop PrP-based therapeutics for Alzheimer's disease.

  20. KCTD Hetero-oligomers Confer Unique Kinetic Properties on Hippocampal GABAB Receptor-Induced K+ Currents.

    PubMed

    Fritzius, Thorsten; Turecek, Rostislav; Seddik, Riad; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Tiao, Jim; Rem, Pascal D; Metz, Michaela; Kralikova, Michaela; Bouvier, Michel; Gassmann, Martin; Bettler, Bernhard

    2017-02-01

    GABAB receptors are the G-protein coupled receptors for the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, GABA. GABAB receptors were shown to associate with homo-oligomers of auxiliary KCTD8, KCTD12, KCTD12b, and KCTD16 subunits (named after their T1 K(+)-channel tetramerization domain) that regulate G-protein signaling of the receptor. Here we provide evidence that GABAB receptors also associate with hetero-oligomers of KCTD subunits. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments indicate that two-thirds of the KCTD16 proteins in the hippocampus of adult mice associate with KCTD12. We show that the KCTD proteins hetero-oligomerize through self-interacting T1 and H1 homology domains. Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer measurements in live cells reveal that KCTD12/KCTD16 hetero-oligomers associate with both the receptor and the G-protein. Electrophysiological experiments demonstrate that KCTD12/KCTD16 hetero-oligomers impart unique kinetic properties on G-protein-activated Kir3 currents. During prolonged receptor activation (one min) KCTD12/KCTD16 hetero-oligomers produce moderately desensitizing fast deactivating K(+) currents, whereas KCTD12 and KCTD16 homo-oligomers produce strongly desensitizing fast deactivating currents and nondesensitizing slowly deactivating currents, respectively. During short activation (2 s) KCTD12/KCTD16 hetero-oligomers produce nondesensitizing slowly deactivating currents. Electrophysiological recordings from hippocampal neurons of KCTD knock-out mice are consistent with these findings and indicate that KCTD12/KCTD16 hetero-oligomers increase the duration of slow IPSCs. In summary, our data demonstrate that simultaneous assembly of distinct KCTDs at the receptor increases the molecular and functional repertoire of native GABAB receptors and modulates physiologically induced K(+) current responses in the hippocampus.

  1. Formation of high-order oligomers by a hyperthemostable Fe-superoxide dismutase (tcSOD).

    PubMed

    Wang, Sha; Dong, Zhi-Yang; Yan, Yong-Bin

    2014-01-01

    Hyperthermostable proteins are highly resistant to various extreme conditions. Many factors have been proposed to contribute to their ultrahigh structural stability. Some thermostable proteins have larger oligomeric size when compared to their mesophilic homologues. The formation of compact oligomers can minimize the solvent accessible surface area and increase the changes of Gibbs free energy for unfolding. Similar to mesophilic proteins, hyperthermostable proteins also face the problem of unproductive aggregation. In this research, we investigated the role of high-order oligomerization in the fight against aggregation by a hyperthermostable superoxide dismutase identified from Tengchong, China (tcSOD). Besides the predominant tetramers, tcSOD could also form active high-order oligomers containing at least eight subunits. The dynamic equilibrium between tetramers and high-order oligomers was not significantly affected by pH, salt concentration or moderate temperature. The secondary and tertiary structures of tcSOD remained unchanged during heating, while cross-linking experiments showed that there were conformational changes or structural fluctuations at high temperatures. Mutational analysis indicated that the last helix at the C-terminus was involved in the formation of high-order oligomers, probably via domain swapping. Based on these results, we proposed that the reversible conversion between the active tetramers and high-order oligomers might provide a buffering system for tcSOD to fight against the irreversible protein aggregation pathway. The formation of active high-order oligomers not only increases the energy barrier between the native state and unfolded/aggregated state, but also provides the enzyme the ability to reproduce the predominant oligomers from the active high-order oligomers.

  2. Low Molecular Weight Oligomers with Aromatic Backbone as Efficient Nonviral Gene Vectors.

    PubMed

    Luan, Chao-Ran; Liu, Yan-Hong; Zhang, Ji; Yu, Qing-Ying; Huang, Zheng; Wang, Bing; Yu, Xiao-Qi

    2016-05-04

    A series of oligomers were synthesized via ring-opening polymerization. Although the molecular weights of these oligomers are only ∼2.5 kDa, they could efficiently bind and condense DNA into nanoparticles. These oligomers gave comparable transfection efficiency (TE) to PEI 25 kDa, while their TE could even increase with the presence of serum, and up to 65 times higher TE than PEI was obtained. The excellent serum tolerance was also confirmed by TEM, flow cytometry, and BSA adsorption assay. Moreover, structure-activity relationship studies revealed some interesting factors. First, oligomers containing aromatic rings in the backbone showed better DNA binding ability. These materials could bring more DNA cargo into the cells, leading to much better TE. Second, the isomerism of the disubstituted phenyl group on the oligomer backbone has large effect on the transfection. The ortho-disubstituted ones gave at least 1 order of magnitude higher TE than meta- or para-disubstituted oligomers. Gel electrophoresis involving DNase and heparin indicated that the difficulty to release DNA might contribute to the lower TE of the latter. Such clues may help us to design novel nonviral gene vectors with high efficiency and biocompatibility.

  3. Polyphenols protect mitochondrial membrane against permeabilization induced by HEWL oligomers: Possible mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Roqanian, Shaqayeq; Meratan, Ali Akbar; Ahmadian, Shahin; Shafizadeh, Mahshid; Ghasemi, Atiyeh; Karami, Leila

    2017-10-01

    Increasing body of evidence suggests that polyphenols frequently interacting with amyloid aggregates and/or interfering with aggregate species to bind biomembranes may serve as a therapeutic approach for the treatment of amyloid-related diseases. Hence, in the present study, the possible effects of three naturally occurring polyphenols including Curcumin, Quercetin, and Resveratrol on mitochondrial membrane permeabilization induced by Hen Egg White Lysozyme (HEWL) oligomers were investigated. Our results indicated that pre-incubation of mitochondrial homogenate with polyphenols considerably inhibit membrane permeabilization in a concentration dependent manner. In parallel, HEWL oligomers, which were co-incubated with the polyphenols, showed less effectiveness on membrane permeabilization, suggesting that toxicity of oligomers was hindered. Using a range of techniques including fluorescence quenching, Nile red binding assay, zeta potential and size measurements, CD (far- and near-UV) spectroscopy, and molecular docking, we found that the polyphenols, structure-dependently, interact with and induce conformational changes in HEWL oligomers, thereby inhibit their toxicity. We proposed a mechanism by which selected polyphenols induce their protective effects through binding to mitochondria and interfering with HEWL oligomer-membrane interactions and/or by direct interaction with HEWL oligomers, induction of conformational changes, and generating far less toxic species. However, additional studies are needed to elucidate the detailed mechanisms involved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization of reducible peptide oligomers as carriers for gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Kiselev, Anton; Egorova, Anna; Laukkanen, Antti; Baranov, Vladislav; Urtti, Arto

    2013-01-30

    The stability of DNA-polyplexes and intracellular DNA release are important features of gene delivery systems. To study these features, we have evaluated reducible cysteine-flanked linear lysine and arginine-rich peptides, modified with histidine residues. The reducible disulfide bonds in cysteine flanked peptides and histidine residues should augment DNA release from the peptide-DNA complexes upon disintegration of the reducible bonds. Template polymerization and oxidative polycondensation were applied to obtain peptide oligomers used for DNA-polyplex preparation. The peptides and DNA-peptide complexes were investigated with physical, chemical and transfection measurements. Physicochemical and transfection properties of DNA-polyplexes depended on the amino acid sequence of the peptidic polymers and type of the polymerization. MALDI-TOF analysis of oxidatively polycondensed products revealed several forms of peptide oligomers corresponding to 5-8 amino acid monomers. DNA-peptide particles based on template-polymerized complexes were more resistant to relaxation by negatively charged heparan sulfate than polyplexes formed with oxidatively condensed peptides. Complexes of DNA with the polycations prepared by oxidative polycondensation exhibited a 100-1000-fold higher level of gene expression compared to DNA/template-polymerized peptide complexes. The most efficient transgene expression was shown with arginine-rich polyplexes. Transfection efficacy of the arginine-rich polyplexes was even 10-fold better than that of DNA/PEI complexes. On average, polyplexes based on cysteine-flanked peptide oligomers showed lower cytotoxicity than non-reducible high molecular weight polylysine/DNA particles. We conclude that reducible peptide oligomers provide efficient DNA transfection and have the potential as vehicles for gene delivery.

  5. Amyloidogenic properties of the prion protein fragment PrP(185-208): comparison with Alzheimer's peptide Abeta(1-28), influence of heparin and cell toxicity.

    PubMed

    Cortijo-Arellano, Marta; Ponce, Jovita; Durany, Núria; Cladera, Josep

    2008-04-04

    Amyloid fibrils are a hallmark of Alzheimer's and prion diseases. In both pathologies fibrils are found associated to glycosaminoglycans, modulators of the aggregation process. Amyloid peptides and proteins with very poor sequence homologies originate very similar aggregates. This implies the possible existence of a common formation mechanism. A homologous structural motif has recently been described for the Alzheimer's peptide Abeta(1-28) and the prion protein fragment PrP(185-208). We have studied the influence histidine residues and heparin on the aggregation process of both peptides and determined the possible amyloid characteristics of PrP(185-208), still unknown. The results show that PrP(185-208) forms amyloid aggregates in the presence of heparin. Histidines influence the aggregation kinetics, as in Abeta(1-28), although to a lesser extent. Other spectroscopic properties of the PrP(185-208) fragment are shown to be equivalent to those of other amyloid peptides and PrP(185-208) is shown to be cytotoxic using a neuroblastoma cell line.

  6. Alzheimer's-related endosome dysfunction in Down syndrome is Abeta-independent but requires APP and is reversed by BACE-1 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ying; Mullaney, Kerry A; Peterhoff, Corrinne M; Che, Shaoli; Schmidt, Stephen D; Boyer-Boiteau, Anne; Ginsberg, Stephen D; Cataldo, Anne M; Mathews, Paul M; Nixon, Ralph A

    2010-01-26

    An additional copy of the beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene causes early-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) in trisomy 21 (DS). Endosome dysfunction develops very early in DS and AD and has been implicated in the mechanism of neurodegeneration. Here, we show that morphological and functional endocytic abnormalities in fibroblasts from individuals with DS are reversed by lowering the expression of APP or beta-APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE-1) using short hairpin RNA constructs. By contrast, endosomal pathology can be induced in normal disomic (2N) fibroblasts by overexpressing APP or the C-terminal APP fragment generated by BACE-1 (betaCTF), all of which elevate the levels of betaCTFs. Expression of a mutant form of APP that cannot undergo beta-cleavage had no effect on endosomes. Pharmacological inhibition of APP gamma-secretase, which markedly reduced Abeta production but raised betaCTF levels, also induced AD-like endosome dysfunction in 2N fibroblasts and worsened this pathology in DS fibroblasts. These findings strongly implicate APP and the betaCTF of APP, and exclude Abeta and the alphaCTF, as the cause of endocytic pathway dysfunction in DS and AD, underscoring the potential multifaceted value of BACE-1 inhibition in AD therapeutics.

  7. Effect of molecular weight of oligomer on ionic diffusion in oligomer electrolytes and its implication for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jong Hyuk; Choi, Kyu Jin; Kim, Junkyung; Kang, Yong Soo; Lee, Sang-Soo

    This study measures the diffusion coefficients of I - and I 3 - in oligomer electrolytes as a function of the molecular weight of oligomers and investigates their effect on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The high-diffusion coefficients of ions in an oligomer electrolyte with a lower molecular weight can help to promote the redox mechanism in DSSCs and thereby increase the short-circuit current density. They can also cause a decrease in the open-circuit voltage since a high-diffusion coefficient of I 3 - is capable of reducing the lifetime of electrons in TiO 2 electrodes. To offset these effects, N-methyl-benzimidazole is added to the oligomer electrolytes, thereby improving the open-circuit voltage and fill factor and, consequently, the overall energy-conversion efficiency, which increases to over 5%. A further test involving storage at a high temperature of 75 °C demonstrates that DSSCs employing the oligomer electrolytes show excellent thermal stability over 200 h.

  8. Large Soluble Oligomers of Amyloid β-Protein from Alzheimer Brain Are Far Less Neuroactive Than the Smaller Oligomers to Which They Dissociate.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ting; Li, Shaomin; Xu, Huixin; Walsh, Dominic M; Selkoe, Dennis J

    2017-01-04

    Soluble oligomers of amyloid β-protein (oAβ) isolated from the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients have been shown experimentally (in the absence of amyloid plaques) to impair hippocampal synaptic plasticity, decrease synapses, induce tau hyperphosphorylation and neuritic dystrophy, activate microglial inflammation, and impair memory in normal adult rodents. Nevertheless, there has been controversy about what types of oligomers actually confer these AD-like phenotypes. Here, we show that the vast majority of soluble Aβ species obtained from brains of humans who died with confirmed AD elute at high molecular weight (HMW) on nondenaturing size-exclusion chromatography. These species have little or no cytotoxic activity in several bioassays. However, incubation of HMW oAβ in mildly alkaline buffer led to their quantitative dissociation into low molecular weight oligomers (∼8-70 kDa), and these were now far more bioactive: they impaired hippocampal LTP, decreased neuronal levels of β2-adrenergic receptors, and activated microglia in wt mice in vivo Thus, most soluble Aβ assemblies in AD cortex are large and inactive but under certain circumstances can dissociate into smaller, highly bioactive species. Insoluble amyloid plaques likely sequester soluble HMW oligomers, limiting their potential to dissociate. We conclude that conditions that destabilize HMW oligomers or retard the sequestration of their smaller, more bioactive components are important drivers of Aβ toxicity. Selectively targeting these small, cytotoxic forms should be therapeutically beneficial.

  9. Water quality has a pronounced effect on cholesterol-induced accumulation of Alzheimer amyloid beta (Abeta) in rabbit brain.

    PubMed

    Sparks, D Larry; Lochhead, Jeff; Horstman, Donna; Wagoner, Tom; Martin, Tim

    2002-12-01

    Increased circulating cholesterol is known to promote risk of coronary artery disease. It is now emerging that cholesterol promotes production and accumulation of amyloid beta (Abeta) deposited in the hallmark pathologic lesion of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the senile plaque, perhaps by shifting away from normal metabolism of amyloid beta protein precursor (AbetaPP) to beta. Previous studies employing the cholesterol-fed rabbit model of AD demonstrated that induction of AD-like Abeta accumulation in brain could be reversed by co-administration of cholesterol lowering drugs or removing cholesterol, prompted initiation of an AD Cholesterol-Lowering (Statin) Treatment Trial. We now present data that identify a previously unrecognized role for dietary water quality on the severity of neuropathology induced by elevated cholesterol. Neuronal accumulation of Abeta induced by increased circulating concentrations of cholesterol in the New Zealand white rabbit is attenuated when distilled drinking water is administered compared to use of tap water. The numbers of neurons in cholesterol-fed rabbits that exhibited Abeta immunoreactivity, relative to normal chow-fed controls, increased approximately 2.5 fold among animals on tap water but only approximately 1.9 fold among animals on distilled water. This yielded a statistically significant approximately 28% reduction due to the use of distilled water. In addition, the subjectively assessed intensity of neuronal Abeta immunoreactivity was consistently reduced among cholesterol-fed rabbits allowed distilled drinking water compared to cholesterol-fed rabbits on tap water. As intensity of antibody immunoreactivity is likely related to concentration of antigen, the identified difference among cholesterol-fed rabbits allowed distilled drinking water may hold greater importance than a significant reduction in numbers of affected neurons. The effect on neuronal Abeta immunoreactivity intensity was observable among cholesterol

  10. [Role of glycolysis and antioxidant enzymes in the toxicity of amyloid beta peptide Abeta25-35 to erythrocytes].

    PubMed

    Kosenko, E A; Solomadin, I N; Marov, N V; Venediktova, N I; Pogosian, A S; Kaminskiĭ, Iu G

    2008-01-01

    The role of glycolysis and antioxidant enzymes in amyloid beta peptide Abeta(25-35) toxicity to human and rat erythrocytes was studied. The erythrotoxicity of Abeta(25-35) was shown to increase two- to fourfold both in the absence of glucose in the incubation medium and upon the addition of sodium fluoride, an enolase inhibitor. Potassium cyanide, a Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase inhibitor, abolishes the toxic effect of Abeta(25-35) to erythrocytes, whereas mercaptosuccinate, a glutathione peroxidase inhibitor, and ouabain, a Na+,K+-ATPase inhibitor, promote it. Sodium azide, a catalase inhibitor, did not affect the cell lysis under the action of Abeta(25-35) . The results support the hypothesis that H2O2, Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase are involved in the toxicity mechanism rather than superoxide radical. Glycolysis and Na+,K+-ATPase play a substantial protective role. Fullerene C(60) nanoparticles are toxic to erythrocytes of both types; their toxicity is not related to enhanced oxidative stress and the mechanism of toxicity differs from that of Abeta(25-35) .

  11. Surface-enhanced spectroscopy on plasmonic oligomers assembled by AFM nanoxerography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moutet, Pierre; Sangeetha, Neralagatta M.; Ressier, Laurence; Vilar-Vidal, Noelia; Comesaña-Hermo, Miguel; Ravaine, Serge; Vallée, Renaud A. L.; Gabudean, Ana Maria; Astilean, Simion; Farcau, Cosmin

    2015-01-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and surface-enhanced fluorescence (SEF) from individual plasmonic oligomers are investigated by confocal Raman micro-spectroscopy and time-resolved fluorescence microscopy coupled to steady state micro-spectroscopy. The nanoparticle (NP) oligomers are made of either ligand protected Au or Au@SiO2 core-shell colloidal NPs, which were assembled into ordered arrays by atomic force microscopy (AFM) nanoxerography. A strong dependence of the SERS emission on the polarization of incident light relative to the specific geometry of the plasmonic oligomer was observed. The SEF studies, performed on a large collection of NP oligomers of various known configurations showed interesting fluorophore decay rate modification and red-shift of the emission spectra. The experimental results are analyzed theoretically by employing finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations on equivalent realistic structures, within the local density of optical states (LDOS) framework. The presented results, together with the proven potential of the LDOS approach as a useful common tool for analyzing both SERS and SEF effects further the general understanding of plasmon-related phenomena in nanoparticle oligomers.Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and surface-enhanced fluorescence (SEF) from individual plasmonic oligomers are investigated by confocal Raman micro-spectroscopy and time-resolved fluorescence microscopy coupled to steady state micro-spectroscopy. The nanoparticle (NP) oligomers are made of either ligand protected Au or Au@SiO2 core-shell colloidal NPs, which were assembled into ordered arrays by atomic force microscopy (AFM) nanoxerography. A strong dependence of the SERS emission on the polarization of incident light relative to the specific geometry of the plasmonic oligomer was observed. The SEF studies, performed on a large collection of NP oligomers of various known configurations showed interesting fluorophore decay rate

  12. Lactic acid oligomers (OLAs) as prodrug moieties.

    PubMed

    Kruse, J; Lachmann, B; Lauer, R; Eppacher, S; Noe, C R

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we propose the use of lactic acid oligomers (OLAs) as prodrug moieties. Two synthetic approaches are presented, on the one hand a non selective oligomerisation of lactic acid and on the other hand a block synthesis to tetramers of lactic acid. Dimers of lactic acid were investigated with respect to their plasma stability and their adsorption to albumine. Ibuprofen was chosen as the first drug for OLAylation. The ester 19 of LA(1)-ibuprofen was evaluated with respect to the degradation to human plasma and the adsorption to albumine. All results indicate that lactic acid oligomers are promising prodrug moieties.

  13. Intracellular soluble α‐synuclein oligomers reduce pyramidal cell excitability

    PubMed Central

    Kaufmann, Timothy J.; Harrison, Paul M.; Richardson, Magnus J. E.; Pinheiro, Teresa J. T.

    2016-01-01

    Key points The presynaptic protein α‐synuclein forms aggregates during Parkinson's disease.Accumulating evidence suggests that the small soluble oligomers of α‐synuclein are more toxic than the larger aggregates appearing later in the disease.The link between oligomer toxicity and structure still remains unclear.In the present study, we have produced two structurally‐defined oligomers that have a similar morphology but differ in secondary structure.These oligomers were introduced into neocortical pyramidal cells during whole‐cell recording and, using a combination of experimentation and modelling, electrophysiological parameters were extracted.Both oligomeric species had similar effects on neuronal properties reducing input resistance, time constant and increasing capacitance. The net effect was a marked reduction in neuronal excitability that could impact on network activity. Abstract The presynaptic protein α‐synuclein (αSyn) aggregates during Parkinson's disease (PD) to form large proteinaceous amyloid plaques, the spread of which throughout the brain clinically defines the severity of the disease. During early stages of aggregation, αSyn forms soluble annular oligomers that show greater toxicity than much larger fibrils. These oligomers produce toxicity via a number of possible mechanisms, including the production of pore‐forming complexes that permeabilize membranes. In the present study, two well‐defined species of soluble αSyn oligomers were produced by different protocols: by polymerization of monomer and by sonication of fibrils. The two oligomeric species produced were morphologically similar, with both having an annular structure and consisting of approximately the same number of monomer subunits, although they differed in their secondary structure. Oligomeric and monomeric αSyn were injected directly into the soma of pyramidal neurons in mouse neocortical brain slices during whole‐cell patch clamp recording. Using a combined

  14. Stabilization of neurotoxic Alzheimer amyloid-β oligomers by protein engineering

    PubMed Central

    Sandberg, Anders; Luheshi, Leila M.; Söllvander, Sofia; Pereira de Barros, Teresa; Macao, Bertil; Knowles, Tuomas P. J.; Biverstål, Henrik; Lendel, Christofer; Ekholm-Petterson, Frida; Dubnovitsky, Anatoly; Lannfelt, Lars; Dobson, Christopher M.; Härd, Torleif

    2010-01-01

    Soluble oligomeric aggregates of the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Although the conformation adopted by Aβ within these aggregates is not known, a β-hairpin conformation is known to be accessible to monomeric Aβ. Here we show that this β-hairpin is a building block of toxic Aβ oligomers by engineering a double-cysteine mutant (called Aβcc) in which the β-hairpin is stabilized by an intramolecular disulfide bond. Aβ40cc and Aβ42cc both spontaneously form stable oligomeric species with distinct molecular weights and secondary-structure content, but both are unable to convert into amyloid fibrils. Biochemical and biophysical experiments and assays with conformation-specific antibodies used to detect Aβ aggregates in vivo indicate that the wild-type oligomer structure is preserved and stabilized in Aβcc oligomers. Stable oligomers are expected to become highly toxic and, accordingly, we find that β-sheet-containing Aβ42cc oligomers or protofibrillar species formed by these oligomers are 50 times more potent inducers of neuronal apoptosis than amyloid fibrils or samples of monomeric wild-type Aβ42, in which toxic aggregates are only transiently formed. The possibility of obtaining completely stable and physiologically relevant neurotoxic Aβ oligomer preparations will facilitate studies of their structure and role in the pathogenesis of AD. For example, here we show how kinetic partitioning into different aggregation pathways can explain why Aβ42 is more toxic than the shorter Aβ40, and why certain inherited mutations are linked to protofibril formation and early-onset AD. PMID:20713699

  15. In vitro model of neurotoxicity of Abeta 1-42 and neuroprotection by a pentapeptide: irreversible events during the first hour.

    PubMed

    Datki, Zsolt; Papp, Rita; Zádori, Dénes; Soós, Katalin; Fülöp, Lívia; Juhász, Anna; Laskay, Gábor; Hetényi, Csaba; Mihalik, Erzsébet; Zarándi, Márta; Penke, Botond

    2004-12-01

    The cell biology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized mainly by the neurodegeneration caused by the beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptides and by the formation of neurofibrillary tangles. The initial events of neurodegeneration in the brain tissue include synaptic dysfunction and axonopathy. Abeta-induced axonopathy and neurite degeneration were studied in vitro on differentiated human-derived neurotypic SH-SY5Y cells. Different methods were used to investigate the mechanism of action of aggregated Abeta on neuroblastoma cells. Abeta 1-42 aggregated for 1 h induced irreversible changes in the neurite morphology. Change of tau hyperphosphorylation and cell viability (cytoplasmic redox state and active membrane uptake) was irreversible during the first hour after the addition of Abeta 1-42 to the cells. These rapid events indicate that Abeta might induce neurodegeneration even at an early stage of Abeta-cell contact. A novel pentapeptide LPYFD-amide, an analog of Soto's LPFFD, significantly decreased neurite degeneration, tau aggregation, and cell viability reduction induced by Abeta 1-42.

  16. Designing Surface-Confined Coordination Oligomers

    SciTech Connect

    Altman, M.; Rachamim, M; Ichiki, T; Iron, M; Evmenenko, G; Dutta, P; van der Boom, M

    2010-01-01

    HOMO-LUMO engineering of coordination-based oligomers covalently bound to silicon or glass has been achieved by the use of a partially fluorinated chromophore (see graphic). The experimental and computationally derived physical chemical properties of these assemblies are compared to their non-fluorinated analogues.

  17. Glucosamine oligomers: 1. Preparation and characterization.

    PubMed

    Domard, A; Cartier, N

    1989-10-01

    Hydrolysis of chitosan in hot concentrated HCl led to chito-oligosaccharides [beta-(1----4) linked 2-amino-2-deoxy-D-glucose]. The time dependence of the distribution was studied. A convenient choice of the conditions for steric exclusion chromatography of these hydrolysates allowed the separation of the first 15 oligomers and of fractions up to DP = 40.

  18. Neurotoxic Abeta peptides increase oxidative stress in vivo through NMDA-receptor and nitric-oxide-synthase mechanisms, and inhibit complex IV activity and induce a mitochondrial permeability transition in vitro.

    PubMed

    Parks, J K; Smith, T S; Trimmer, P A; Bennett, J P; Parker, W D

    2001-02-01

    Beta amyloid (Abeta) peptides accumulate in Alzheimer's disease and are neurotoxic possibly through the production of oxygen free radicals. Using brain microdialysis we characterized the ability of Abeta to increase oxygen radical production in vivo. The 1-40 Abeta fragment increased 2,3-dehydroxybenzoic acid efflux more than the 1-28 fragment, in a manner dependent on nitric oxide synthase and NMDA receptor channels. We then examined the effects of Abeta peptides on mitochondrial function in vitro. Induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition in isolated rat liver mitochondria by Abeta(25-35) and Abeta(35-25) exhibited dose dependency and required calcium and phosphate. Cyclosporin A prevented the transition as did ruthenium red, chlorpromazine, or N-ethylmaleimide. ADP and magnesium delayed the onset of mitochondrial permeability transition. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of Abeta aggregates and swollen mitochondria and preservation of mitochondrial structure by inhibitors of mitochondrial permeability transition. Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity was selectively inhibited by Abeta(25-35) but not by Abeta(35-25). Neurotoxic Abeta peptide can increase oxidative stress in vivo through mechanisms involving NMDA receptors and nitric oxide sythase. Increased intracellular Abeta levels can further exacerbate the genetically driven complex IV defect in sporadic Alzheimer's disease and may precipitate mitochondrial permeability transition opening. In combination, our results provide potential mechanisms to support the feed-forward hypothesis of Abeta neurotoxicity.

  19. Vesicle permeabilization by purified soluble oligomers of prion protein: a comparative study of the interaction of oligomers and monomers with lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Chich, J-F; Chapuis, C; Henry, C; Vidic, J; Rezaei, H; Noinville, S

    2010-04-09

    The conversion of normal cellular prion protein (PrP) into its pathological isoform, scrapie PrP, may occur at the cell surface or, more probably, in late endosomes. The early events leading to the structural conversion of PrP appear to be related to the presence of more or less stable soluble oligomers, which might mediate neurotoxicity. In the current study, we investigate the interaction of alpha-rich PrP monomers and beta-rich size-exclusion-chromatography-purified PrP oligomers with lipid membranes. We compare their structural properties when associated with lipid bilayers and study their propensities to permeabilize the membrane at physiological pH. We also study the influence of the N-terminal flexible region (residues 24-103) by comparing full-length PrP(24-234) and N-terminally truncated PrP(104-234) oligomers. We showed that both 12-subunit oligomers cause an immediate and large increase in the permeability of the membrane, whereas equivalent amounts of monomeric forms cause no detectable leakage. Although the two monomeric PrP constructs undergo an alpha-to-beta conformational change when bound to the negatively charged membrane, only the full-length form of monomeric PrP has a weak fusogenic effect. Finally, the oligomers affect the integrity of the membrane differently from the monomers, independently of the presence of the N-terminal flexible domain. As for other forms of amyloidogenesis, a reasonable mechanism for the toxicity arising from PrP fibrillization must be associated with low-molecular-weight oligomeric intermediates, rather than with mature fibrils. Knowledge of the mechanism of action of these soluble oligomers would have a high impact on the development of novel therapeutic targets.

  20. Salt anions promote the conversion of HypF-N into amyloid-like oligomers and modulate the structure of the oligomers and the monomeric precursor state.

    PubMed

    Campioni, Silvia; Mannini, Benedetta; López-Alonso, Jorge P; Shalova, Irina N; Penco, Amanda; Mulvihill, Estefania; Laurents, Douglas V; Relini, Annalisa; Chiti, Fabrizio

    2012-12-07

    An understanding of the solution factors contributing to the rate of aggregation of a protein into amyloid oligomers, to the modulation of the conformational state populated prior to aggregation and to the structure/morphology of the resulting oligomers is one of the goals of present research in this field. We have studied the influence of six different salts on the conversion of the N-terminal domain of Escherichiacoli HypF (HypF-N) into amyloid-like oligomers under conditions of acidic pH. Our results show that salts having different anions (NaCl, NaClO(4), NaI, Na(2)SO(4)) accelerate oligomerization with an efficacy that follows the electroselectivity series of the anions (SO(4)(2-)≥ ClO(4)(-)>I(-)>Cl(-)). By contrast, salts with different cations (NaCl, LiCl, KCl) have similar effects. We also investigated the effect of salts on the structure of the final and initial states of HypF-N aggregation. The electroselectivity series does not apply to the effect of anions on the structure of the oligomers. By contrast, it applies to their effect on the content of secondary structure and on the exposure of hydrophobic clusters of the monomeric precursor state. The results therefore indicate that the binding of anions to the positively charged residues of HypF-N at low pH is the mechanism by which salts modulate the rate of oligomerization and the structure of the monomeric precursor state but not the structure of the resulting oligomers. Overall, the data contribute to rationalize the effect of salts on amyloid-like oligomer formation and to explain the role of charged biological macromolecules in protein aggregation processes.

  1. Aluminum exposure through the diet: metal levels in AbetaPP transgenic mice, a model for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Mercedes; Esparza, José L; Cabré, María; García, Tania; Domingo, José L

    2008-07-30

    Aluminum (Al), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) cause have been implicated in the etiology of certain neurodegenerative disorders. Moreover, these elements cause the conformational changes of Alzheimer's amyloid beta protein. In this study, we determined the concentrations of Al, Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mn in various tissues of Tg 2576 (AbetaPP transgenic) Al-treated mice. Female Tg 2576 mice and wild-type littermates were exposed through the diet to 1mg Al/g for 6 months. At 11 months of age, metal concentrations were measured in various tissues. In brain, Al levels were higher in hippocampus than in cortex and cerebellum. In hippocampus, Cu concentrations decreased in non-treated Tg 2576 mice, while Zn levels were higher in Al-treated mice. Copper, Zn, Mn and Fe concentrations in liver, kidney and bone were not affected by Al exposure. The current results show that Al exposure of Tg 2576 and wild-type mice did not produce important metal changes related with the genotype, responding similarly both groups of animals. As Tg 2576 mice have been considered as a potential model for Alzheimer's disease (AD), the present results would not support the hypothetical role of Al in the etiology of AD.

  2. pRB is required for interferon-gamma-induction of the MHC class II abeta gene.

    PubMed

    Zhu, X; Pattenden, S; Bremner, R

    1999-09-02

    pRB is required for IFN-gamma-induction of MHC class II in human tumor cell lines, providing a potential link between tumor suppressors and the immune system. However, other genes, such as cyclin D1, show pRB-dependency only in tumor cells, so by analogy, pRB may not be necessary for cII-regulation in normal cells. Here, we demonstrate that induction of the mouse MHC class II I-A heterodimer is normal in RB+/+ mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), but deficient in RB-/- MEFs. Inducibility is restored in RB-/- MEFs stably transfected with wild type RB cDNA or infected with an adenovirus expressing pRB. Thus, involvement of pRB in MHC class II expression is conserved in the mouse and is not an aberrant feature of tumorigenic, aneuploid, human tumor cells. Although cII genes are generally induced in a coordinate fashion, suggesting a common mechanism, we found that pRB was specifically required for induction of the Abeta, but not Aalpha or other MHC cII genes including Ebeta, Ii and H2-Malpha. Finally, IFN-gamma-induction of class II transactivator (CIITA), was pRB-independent, suggesting that pRB works downstream of this master-regulator of MHC class II expression.

  3. Novel demonstration of amyloid-β oligomers in sporadic inclusion-body myositis muscle fibers.

    PubMed

    Nogalska, Anna; D'Agostino, Carla; Engel, W King; Klein, William L; Askanas, Valerie

    2010-11-01

    Accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) within muscle fibers has been considered an upstream step in the development of the s-IBM pathologic phenotype. Aβ42, which is considered more cytotoxic than Aβ40 and has a higher propensity to oligomerize, is preferentially increased in s-IBM muscle fibers. In Alzheimer disease (AD), low-molecular weight Aβ oligomers and toxic oligomers, also referred to as "Aβ-Derived Diffusible Ligands" (ADDLs), are considered strongly cytotoxic and proposed to play an important pathogenic role. ADDLs have been shown to be increased in AD brain. We now report for the first time that in s-IBM muscle biopsies Aβ-dimer, -trimer, and -tetramer are identifiable by immunoblots. While all the s-IBM samples we studied had Aβ-oligomers, their molecular weights and intensity varied between the patient samples. None of the control muscle biopsies had Aβ oligomers. Dot-immunoblots using highly specific anti-ADDL monoclonal antibodies also showed highly increased ADDLs in all s-IBM biopsies studied, while controls were negative. By immunofluorescence, in some of the abnormal s-IBM muscle fibers ADDLs were accumulated in the form of plaque-like inclusions, and were often increased diffusely in very small fibers. Normal and disease-controls were negative. By gold-immuno-electron microscopy, ADDL-immunoreactivities were in close proximity to 6-10 nm amyloid-like fibrils, and also were immunodecorating amorphous and floccular material. In cultured human muscle fibers, we found that inhibition of autophagy led to the accumulation of Aβ oligomers. This novel demonstration of Aβ42 oligomers in s-IBM muscle biopsy provides additional evidence that intra-muscle fiber accumulation of Aβ42 oligomers in s-IBM may contribute importantly to s-IBM pathogenic cascade.

  4. Discrete Molecular Dynamics Study of Oligomer Formation by N-Terminally Truncated Amyloid β-Protein

    PubMed Central

    Meral, Derya; Urbanc, Brigita

    2013-01-01

    In Alzheimer’s disease (AD), amyloid β-protein (Aβ) self–assembles into toxic oligomers. Of the two predominant Aβ alloforms, Aβ1–40 and Aβ1–42, the latter is particularly strongly linked to AD. N-terminally truncated and pyroglutamated Aβ peptides were recently shown to seed Aβ aggregation and contribute significantly to Aβ–mediated toxicity, yet their folding and assembly were not explored computationally. Discrete molecular dynamics (DMD) approach previously captured in vitro–derived distinct Aβ1–40 and Aβ1–42 oligomer size distributions and predicted that the more toxic Aβ1–42 oligomers had more flexible and solvent exposed N-termini than Aβ1–40 oligomers. Here, we examined oligomer formation of Aβ3–40, Aβ3–42, Aβ11–40, and Aβ11–42 by the DMD approach. The four N-terminally truncated peptides showed increased oligomerization propensity relative to the full–length peptides, consistent with in vitro findings. Conformations formed by Aβ3–40/42 had significantly more flexible and solvent–exposed N-termini than Aβ1–40/42 conformations. In contrast, in Aβ11–40/42 conformations the N-termini formed more contacts and were less accessible to the solvent. The compactness of the Aβ11–40/42 conformations was in part facilitated by Val12. Two single amino acid substitutions that reduced and abolished hydrophobicity at position 12, respectively, resulted in a proportionally increased structural variability. Our results suggest that Aβ11–40 and Aβ11–42 oligomers might be less toxic than Aβ1–40 and Aβ1–42 oligomers and offer a plausible explanation for the experimentally–observed increased toxicity of Aβ3–40 and Aβ3–42 and their pyroglutamated forms. PMID:23500806

  5. Large Soluble Oligomers of Amyloid β-Protein from Alzheimer Brain Are Far Less Neuroactive Than the Smaller Oligomers to Which They Dissociate

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ting; Li, Shaomin; Xu, Huixin

    2017-01-01

    Soluble oligomers of amyloid β-protein (oAβ) isolated from the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients have been shown experimentally (in the absence of amyloid plaques) to impair hippocampal synaptic plasticity, decrease synapses, induce tau hyperphosphorylation and neuritic dystrophy, activate microglial inflammation, and impair memory in normal adult rodents. Nevertheless, there has been controversy about what types of oligomers actually confer these AD-like phenotypes. Here, we show that the vast majority of soluble Aβ species obtained from brains of humans who died with confirmed AD elute at high molecular weight (HMW) on nondenaturing size-exclusion chromatography. These species have little or no cytotoxic activity in several bioassays. However, incubation of HMW oAβ in mildly alkaline buffer led to their quantitative dissociation into low molecular weight oligomers (∼8–70 kDa), and these were now far more bioactive: they impaired hippocampal LTP, decreased neuronal levels of β2-adrenergic receptors, and activated microglia in wt mice in vivo. Thus, most soluble Aβ assemblies in AD cortex are large and inactive but under certain circumstances can dissociate into smaller, highly bioactive species. Insoluble amyloid plaques likely sequester soluble HMW oligomers, limiting their potential to dissociate. We conclude that conditions that destabilize HMW oligomers or retard the sequestration of their smaller, more bioactive components are important drivers of Aβ toxicity. Selectively targeting these small, cytotoxic forms should be therapeutically beneficial. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Oligomers of amyloid β-protein (oAβ) are tought to play an important role in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but there is confusion and controversy about what types and sizes of oligomers have disease-relevant activity. Using size-exclusion chromatography and three distinct measures of bioactivity, we show that the predominant forms of Aβ in aqueous extracts of AD brain are

  6. Protective spin-labeled fluorenes maintain amyloid beta peptide in small oligomers and limit transitions in secondary structure

    PubMed Central

    Altman, Robin; Ly, Sonny; Hilt, Silvia; Petrlova, Jitka; Maezawa, Izumi; Kálai, Tamás; Hideg, Kálmán; Jin, Lee-Way; Laurence, Ted A.; Voss, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by the presence of extracellular plaques comprised of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides. Soluble oligomers of the Aβ peptide underlie a cascade of neuronal loss and dysfunction associated with Alzheimer’s disease. Single particle analyses of Aβ oligomers in solution by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) were used to provide real-time descriptions of how spin-labeled fluorenes (SLFs; bi-functional small molecules that block the toxicity of Aβ) prevent and disrupt oligomeric assemblies of Aβ in solution. Furthermore, the circular dichroism (CD) spectrum of untreated Aβ shows a continuous, progressive change over a 24-hour period, while the spectrum of Aβ treated with SLF remains relatively constant following initial incubation. These findings suggest the conformation of Aβ within the oligomer provides a complementary determinant of Aβ toxicity in addition to oligomer growth and size. Although SLF does not produce a dominant state of secondary structure in Aβ, it does induce a net reduction in beta secondary content compared to untreated samples of Aβ. The FCS results, combined with electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and CD spectroscopy, demonstrate SLFs can inhibit the growth of Aβ oligomers and disrupt existing oligomers, while retaining Aβ as a population of smaller, yet largely disordered oligomers. PMID:26374940

  7. Absorption-improving effects of chitosan oligomers based on their mucoadhesive properties: a comparative study on the oral and pulmonary delivery of calcitonin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hailong; Huang, Xiaoyan; Sun, Ya; Xing, Jianfeng; Yamamoto, Akira; Gao, Yang

    2016-09-01

    Effects of chitosan oligomers with different types and varying concentrations on the intestinal and pulmonary absorptions of calcitonin were investigated in rats by an in situ closed loop method and an in vivo pulmonary absorption experiment, respectively. Various chitosan oligomers demonstrated different efficiencies in improving the intestinal and pulmonary absorptions of calcitonin, and chitosan hexamer with the optimal concentration of 0.5% (w/v) showed the greatest absorption enhancing effect. Moreover, pharmacodynamic parameters of calcitonin after its coadministration intrapulmonarily with various chitosan oligomers were consistently larger than that in the intestinal delivery, indicating the superior potential of pulmonary administration for systemic delivery of calcitonin. Furthermore, various chitosan oligomers neither obviously increased release amounts of protein nor activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), revealing the safety of these chitosan oligomers to lung tissue. In addition, bioadhesions of various chitosan oligomers were well consistent with their absorption enhancing effects in the absorption experiment, suggesting the contribution of mucoadhesive properties of chitosan oligomers to their absorption improving effects. Taken together, chitosan oligomers, especially chitosan hexamer, can effectively improve the intestinal and pulmonary absorptions of calcitonin partly due to the mucoadhesion between positive chitosan oligomers and negative mucus in the membrane.

  8. Two distinct amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) assembly pathways leading to oligomers and fibrils identified by combined fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, morphology, and toxicity analyses.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Satoko; Shinoda, Keiko; Yamada, Mayumi; Yokojima, Satoshi; Inoue, Masafumi; Ohnishi, Takayuki; Shimada, Tetsuya; Kikuchi, Kazuya; Masui, Dai; Hashimoto, Shigeki; Sato, Michio; Ito, Akane; Akioka, Manami; Takagi, Shinsuke; Nakamura, Yoshihiro; Nemoto, Kiyokazu; Hasegawa, Yutaka; Takamoto, Hisayoshi; Inoue, Haruo; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Nabeshima, Yo-ichi; Teplow, David B; Kinjo, Masataka; Hoshi, Minako

    2011-04-01

    Nonfibrillar assemblies of amyloid β-protein (Aβ) are considered to play primary roles in Alzheimer disease (AD). Elucidating the assembly pathways of these specific aggregates is essential for understanding disease pathogenesis and developing knowledge-based therapies. However, these assemblies cannot be monitored in vivo, and there has been no reliable in vitro monitoring method at low protein concentration. We have developed a highly sensitive in vitro monitoring method using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) combined with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and toxicity assays. Using Aβ labeled at the N terminus or Lys(16), we uncovered two distinct assembly pathways. One leads to highly toxic 10-15-nm spherical Aβ assemblies, termed amylospheroids (ASPDs). The other leads to fibrils. The first step in ASPD formation is trimerization. ASPDs of ∼330 kDa in mass form from these trimers after 5 h of slow rotation. Up to at least 24 h, ASPDs remain the dominant structures in assembly reactions. Neurotoxicity studies reveal that the most toxic ASPDs are ∼128 kDa (∼32-mers). In contrast, fibrillogenesis begins with dimer formation and then proceeds to formation of 15-40-nm spherical intermediates, from which fibrils originate after 15 h. Unlike ASPD formation, the Lys(16)-labeled peptide disturbed fibril formation because the Aβ(16-20) region is critical for this final step. These differences in the assembly pathways clearly indicated that ASPDs are not fibril precursors. The method we have developed should facilitate identifying Aβ assembly steps at which inhibition may be beneficial.

  9. A thermodynamic study of Abeta(16-21) dissociation from a fibril using computer simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Cristiano; Mahmoudinobar, Farbod; Su, Zhaoqian

    Here, I will discuss recent all-atom molecular dynamics simulations with explicit water in which we studied the thermodynamic properties of Abeta(16-21) dissociation from an amyloid fibril. Changes in thermodynamics quantities, e.g., entropy, enthalpy, and volume, are computed from the temperature dependence of the free-energy computed using the umbrella sampling method. We find similarities and differences between the thermodynamics of peptide dissociation and protein unfolding. Similarly to protein unfolding, Abeta(16-21) dissociation is characterized by an unfavorable change in enthalpy, a favorable change in the entropic energy, and an increase in the heat capacity. A main difference is that peptide dissociation is characterized by a weak enthalpy-entropy compensation. We characterize dock and lock states of the peptide based on the solvent accessible surface area. The Lennard-Jones energy of the system is observed to increase continuously in lock and dock states as the peptide dissociates. The electrostatic energy increases in the lock state and it decreases in the dock state as the peptide dissociates. These results will be discussed as well as their implication for fibril growth.

  10. Synthesis and G-Quadruplex-Binding Properties of Defined Acridine Oligomers

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Rubén; Aviñó, Anna; Pérez-Tomás, Ricardo; Gargallo, Raimundo; Eritja, Ramon

    2010-01-01

    The synthesis of oligomers containing two or three acridine units linked through 2-aminoethylglycine using solid-phase methodology is described. Subsequent studies on cell viability showed that these compounds are not cytotoxic. Binding to several DNA structures was studied by competitive dialysis, which showed a clear affinity for DNA sequences that form G-quadruplexes and parallel triplexes. The fluorescence spectra of acridine oligomers were affected strongly upon binding to DNA. These spectral changes were used to calculate the binding constants (K). Log K were found to be in the order of 4–6. PMID:20725626

  11. Development of Tc-99m Imaging Agents for Abeta Plaques

    SciTech Connect

    Zhi-Ping, Zhuang; Mei-Ping Kung; Catherihne Hou; Hank F. Kung

    2008-09-26

    Development of SPECT imaging agents based on Tc-99m targeting Aβ plaques is useful for diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A stilbene derivative, [11C]SB-13, showing promise in detecting senile plaques present in AD patients has been reported previously1,2. Based on the 4’-amino-stilbene core structure we have added substituted groups through which a chelating group, N2S2, was conjugated. We report herein a series of Tc-99m labeled stilbene derivative conjugated with a TcO[N2S2] core. The syntheses of stilbenes containing a N2S2 chelating ligand are achieved by a scheme shown. Lipophilic 99mTc stilbene complexes were successfully prepared and purified through HPLC. Preliminary results of in vitro labeling of brain sections from transgenic mice showed very promising plaque labeling. These 99mTc stilbene derivatives are warranted for further evaluations as potential imaging agents targeting amyloid plaques.

  12. Analysis of PEG oligomers in black gel inks: Discrimination and ink dating.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qiran; Luo, Yiwen; Xiang, Ping; Yang, Xu; Shen, Min

    2017-08-01

    Carbon-based black gel inks are common samples in forensic practice of questioned document examination in China, but there are few analytical methods for this type of ink. In this study, a liquid chromatography-.high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) method was established for the analysis of PEG oligomers in carbon-based black gel ink entries. The coupled instruments achieve both the identification and quantification of PEG oligomers in ink entries with reproducible results. Twenty carbon-based black gel inks, whose Raman spectra appeared identical, were analyzed using the LC-HRMS method. As a result, the twenty gel inks were classified into four groups according to the distribution of PEG oligomers. Artificially aging of PEG 400 and a gel ink showed that as PEG degraded, the relative amounts of low molecular weight PEG oligomers increased, while those of high molecular weight decreased. The degradation of PEG oligomers in a naturally aged gel ink was consistent with those in the artificially aged samples, but occurred more slowly. This study not only provided a new method for discriminating carbon-based black gel ink entries, but also offered a new approach for studying the relative ink dating of carbon-based black gel ink entries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Large α-synuclein oligomers inhibit neuronal SNARE-mediated vesicle docking

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Bong-Kyu; Choi, Mal-Gi; Kim, Jae-Yeol; Yang, Yoosoo; Lai, Ying; Kweon, Dae-Hyuk; Lee, Nam Ki; Shin, Yeon-Kyun

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson disease and dementia with Lewy bodies are featured with the formation of Lewy bodies composed mostly of α-synuclein (α-Syn) in the brain. Although evidence indicates that the large oligomeric or protofibril forms of α-Syn are neurotoxic agents, the detailed mechanisms of the toxic functions of the oligomers remain unclear. Here, we show that large α-Syn oligomers efficiently inhibit neuronal SNARE-mediated vesicle lipid mixing. Large α-Syn oligomers preferentially bind to the N-terminal domain of a vesicular SNARE protein, synaptobrevin-2, which blocks SNARE-mediated lipid mixing by preventing SNARE complex formation. In sharp contrast, the α-Syn monomer has a negligible effect on lipid mixing even with a 30-fold excess compared with the case of large α-Syn oligomers. Thus, the results suggest that large α-Syn oligomers function as inhibitors of dopamine release, which thus provides a clue, at the molecular level, to their neurotoxicity. PMID:23431141

  14. Large-scale motif discovery using DNA Gray code and equiprobable oligomers

    PubMed Central

    Ichinose, Natsuhiro; Yada, Tetsushi; Gotoh, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: How to find motifs from genome-scale functional sequences, such as all the promoters in a genome, is a challenging problem. Word-based methods count the occurrences of oligomers to detect excessively represented ones. This approach is known to be fast and accurate compared with other methods. However, two problems have hampered the application of such methods to large-scale data. One is the computational cost necessary for clustering similar oligomers, and the other is the bias in the frequency of fixed-length oligomers, which complicates the detection of significant words. Results: We introduce a method that uses a DNA Gray code and equiprobable oligomers, which solve the clustering problem and the oligomer bias, respectively. Our method can analyze 18 000 sequences of ~1 kbp long in 30 s. We also show that the accuracy of our method is superior to that of a leading method, especially for large-scale data and small fractions of motif-containing sequences. Availability: The online and stand-alone versions of the application, named Hegma, are available at our website: http://www.genome.ist.i.kyoto-u.ac.jp/~ichinose/hegma/ Contact: ichinose@i.kyoto-u.ac.jp; o.gotoh@i.kyoto-u.ac.jp PMID:22057160

  15. Nature of the Amyloid-β Monomer and the Monomer-Oligomer Equilibrium

    PubMed Central

    Nag, Suman; Sarkar, Bidyut; Bandyopadhyay, Arkarup; Sahoo, Bankanidhi; Sreenivasan, Varun K. A.; Kombrabail, Mamata; Muralidharan, Chandrakesan; Maiti, Sudipta

    2011-01-01

    The monomer to oligomer transition initiates the aggregation and pathogenic transformation of Alzheimer amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide. However, the monomeric state of this aggregation-prone peptide has remained beyond the reach of most experimental techniques, and a quantitative understanding of this transition is yet to emerge. Here, we employ single-molecule level fluorescence tools to characterize the monomeric state and the monomer-oligomer transition at physiological concentrations in buffers mimicking the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Our measurements show that the monomer has a hydrodynamic radius of 0.9 ± 0.1 nm, which confirms the prediction made by some of the in silico studies. Surprisingly, at equilibrium, both Aβ40 and Aβ42 remain predominantly monomeric up to 3 μm, above which it forms large aggregates. This concentration is much higher than the estimated concentrations in the CSF of either normal or diseased brains. If Aβ oligomers are present in the CSF and are the key agents in Alzheimer pathology, as is generally believed, then these must be released in the CSF as preformed entities. Although the oligomers are thermodynamically unstable, we find that a large kinetic barrier, which is mostly entropic in origin, strongly impedes their dissociation. Thermodynamic principles therefore allow the development of a pharmacological agent that can catalytically convert metastable oligomers into nontoxic monomers. PMID:21349839

  16. Large-scale motif discovery using DNA Gray code and equiprobable oligomers.

    PubMed

    Ichinose, Natsuhiro; Yada, Tetsushi; Gotoh, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    How to find motifs from genome-scale functional sequences, such as all the promoters in a genome, is a challenging problem. Word-based methods count the occurrences of oligomers to detect excessively represented ones. This approach is known to be fast and accurate compared with other methods. However, two problems have hampered the application of such methods to large-scale data. One is the computational cost necessary for clustering similar oligomers, and the other is the bias in the frequency of fixed-length oligomers, which complicates the detection of significant words. We introduce a method that uses a DNA Gray code and equiprobable oligomers, which solve the clustering problem and the oligomer bias, respectively. Our method can analyze 18 000 sequences of ~1 kbp long in 30 s. We also show that the accuracy of our method is superior to that of a leading method, especially for large-scale data and small fractions of motif-containing sequences. The online and stand-alone versions of the application, named Hegma, are available at our website: http://www.genome.ist.i.kyoto-u.ac.jp/~ichinose/hegma/ ichinose@i.kyoto-u.ac.jp; o.gotoh@i.kyoto-u.ac.jp

  17. The extracellular domain of Bri2 (ITM2B) binds the ABri peptide (1-23) and amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta1-40): Implications for Bri2 effects on processing of amyloid precursor protein and Abeta aggregation.

    PubMed

    Peng, Siwei; Fitzen, Michael; Jörnvall, Hans; Johansson, Jan

    2010-03-12

    In Alzheimer's disease the amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta) aggregates in brain tissue and arteries. Abeta is proteolytically cleaved out from amyloid precursor protein (APP) by different secretases. Recently, the transmembrane protein ITM2B/Bri2, which is expressed in neurons and associated with familial British and Danish dementia, was shown to inhibit APP processing in transfected cells as well as in transgenic mice. Several mechanisms by which Bri2 can interfere with Abeta production and aggregation have been proposed. Herein, we studied recombinant human Bri2 (residues 90-236) containing the extracellular Brichos domain without the ABri23 peptide. Bri2(90-236) binds to ABri23, which suggests that these two parts interact during Bri2 biosynthesis, in line with proposed functions of Brichos domains in other proteins. Moreover, Bri2(90-236) binds Abeta1-40 and inhibits its aggregation and fibril formation. These data suggest a model for how the processing of Bri2 and APP are interrelated. 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Saccharide recognition-induced transformation of pyridine-pyridone alternate oligomers from self-dimer to helical complex.

    PubMed

    Abe, Hajime; Machiguchi, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Shinya; Inouye, Masahiko

    2008-06-20

    Co-oligomers involving (1H)-4-pyridone and 4-alkoxypyridine rings were studied, and it was found that their supramolecular transformation was caused by saccharide recognition. In the co-oligomers, pyridone and pyridine rings are alternately linked at their 2,6-position with an acetylene bond. The pyridine rings behave as a hydrogen bonding acceptor, and the pyridone rings and tautomerized 4-pyridinol work as a donor. Pyridine-pyridone-pyridine 3-mer was found to self-dimerize on the basis of vapor pressure osmometry in CHCl(3), and the association constant was obtained as 2.3 x 10(3) M(-1) by (1)H NMR titration. Longer 5-, 7-, 9-, and 11-mer oligomers showed considerable broadening and anisotropy in the (1)H NMR spectra due to self-association. These longer oligomers recognized octyl beta-D-glucopyranoside and changed their form into a chiral helical complex, showing characteristic circular dichroism.

  19. Monte Carlo Simulation of Endlinking Oligomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkley, Jeffrey A.; Young, Jennifer A.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes initial efforts to model the endlinking reaction of phenylethynyl-terminated oligomers. Several different molecular weights were simulated using the Bond Fluctuation Monte Carlo technique on a 20 x 20 x 20 unit lattice with periodic boundary conditions. After a monodisperse "melt" was equilibrated, chain ends were linked whenever they came within the allowed bond distance. Ends remained reactive throughout, so that multiple links were permitted. Even under these very liberal crosslinking assumptions, geometrical factors limited the degree of crosslinking. Average crosslink functionalities were 2.3 to 2.6; surprisingly, they did not depend strongly on the chain length. These results agreed well with the degrees of crosslinking inferred from experiment in a cured phenylethynyl-terminated polyimide oligomer.

  20. Oligomer functionalized nanotubes and composites formed therewith

    DOEpatents

    Zettl, Alexander K; Sainsbury, Toby; Frechet, Jean M.J.

    2014-03-18

    Disclosed herein is a sequential functionalization methodology for the covalent modification of nanotubes with between one and four repeat units of a polymer. Covalent attachment of oligomer units to the surface of nanotubes results in oligomer units forming an organic sheath around the nanotubes, polymer-functionalized-nanotubes (P-NTs). P-NTs possess chemical functionality identical to that of the functionalizing polymer, and thus provide nanoscale scaffolds which may be readily dispersed within a monomer solution and participate in the polymerization reaction to form a polymer-nanotube/polymer composite. Formation of polymer in the presence of P-NTs leads to a uniform dispersion of nanotubes within the polymer matrix, in contrast to aggregated masses of nanotubes in the case of pristine-NTs. The covalent attachment of oligomeric units to the surface of nanotubes represents the formation of a functional nanoscale building block which can be readily dispersed and integrated within the polymer to form a novel composite material.

  1. Cure Chemistry of Phenylethynyl Terminated Oligomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Karen H.; Orwoll, Robert A.; Young, Philip R.; Jensen, Brian J.; McNair, Harold M.

    1997-01-01

    The ability to process high performance polymers into quality, void-free composites has been significantly advanced using oligomers terminated with reactive groups which cure or crosslink at elevated temperature without the evolution of volatile byproducts. Several matrix resin systems of considerable interest to the aerospace community utilize phenylethynyl-terminated imide (PETI) technology to achieve this advantage. The present paper addresses the cure chemistry of PETI oligomers. The thermal cure of a low molecular weight model compound was studied using a variety of analytical techniques including differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy. The studies indicate an extremely complex cure process. Many stable products were isolated and this paper reports current work on identification of those products. The intent of this research is to provide fundamental insight into the molecular structure of the cured PETI engineering materials so that performance and durability can be more fully assessed.

  2. Conducting Acetylene-Terminated Polyaniline Oligomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilbur, J.; Sandreczki, T. C.; Park, J.; Zhong, Z.; Brown, I. M.; Leopold, D. J.

    1996-03-01

    Short polyaniline oligomers terminated with acetylene groups were synthesized and characterized. Synthesis was by adaptation of the procedures of Wudl, et al. (JACS 109, 3677 (1987)) and Manassen and Khalif. (JACS 88, 1943 (1966)) The as-synthesized materials were in oxidation states between fully reduced leucoemeraldine and half- oxidized emeraldine. Further oxidation was with O2. Typical conductivities were on the order of 0.01 S/cm. The oligomers were characterized using several spectroscopic methods including UV-vis, FTIR, and ESR. Oxidation states were determined by recording the total coulombs required to convert the partially-oxidized conducting forms to fully-reduced forms. Conductivity was monitored as a function of time at 150 C. Data from conventional high molecular weight polyaniline were collected for comparison.

  3. H adsorption and the formation of alane oligomers on Al(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Go, Eden P.; Thuermer, Konrad; Reutt-Robey, Janice E.

    1999-09-01

    Complementary scanning tunneling microscopy and surface infrared measurements show that H reacts strongly with Al(111), producing a variety of new alane (aluminum hydride) surface species. Alane oligomers, ranging in size from the monomer to 30-mers, form through a sequence of surface etching and condensation reactions. Atomic hydrogen initiates production by extracting aluminum atoms from the surface lattice to create mobile monohydride monomers (ad-AlH), which predominate in the low-coverage regime. At higher hydrogen coverages, multihydride oligomers form in coexistence with the ad-AlH. These alane oligomers are more thermally stable, remaining on the surface at room temperature, where they are directly imaged. The mass transfer of aluminum to surface alanes is discussed in relationship to alane stoichiometry.

  4. Ethynyl terminated ester oligomers and polymers therefrom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); hesives and composite matrices. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A new class of ethynyl-terminated oligomers and the process for preparing same are disclosed. Upon the application of heat, with or without a catalyst, the ethynyl groups react to provide crosslinking and chain extension to increase the polymer use temperature and improve the polymer solvent resistance. These improved polyesters are potentially useful in packaging, magnetic tapes, capacitors, industrial belting, protective coatings, structural adhesives and composite matrices.

  5. New Acetylene-Terminated Quinoxaline Oligomers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    diketone . In this work, we tried other bases, but potassium t-butoxide and lithium t- butoxide gave unsatisfactory results. Synthesis of acetone adduct...the most expensive ingredient. We have previously been able to improve the synthesis of the bisglyoxals needed for these adhesives,2 and are now...general method of synthesis which have been developed is to first condense the quinoxallne oligomer with glyoxal end groups. 2 r ),-CO--CO-Ar--CO--C&O--j

  6. Evidence for the binding of phosphate ion to the C-terminus region in Abeta1-40 using heteronuclear NMR analyses.

    PubMed

    Nagata-Uchiyama, Makiko; Abe, Yoshito; Monji, Akira; Kanba, Shigenobu; Ueda, Tadashi

    2010-02-01

    Amyloid fibril formation of amyloid beta peptide 1-40 (Abeta 1-40) was reported to be retarded in the presence of 150mM phosphate buffer at pH 7 [Monji, Ustumi, Ueda, Imoto, Yoshida, Hashioka, Tashiro and Tashiro, J. Neurochemistry, 77, 1425-1432 (2007)]. In order to elucidate the reason why phosphate ion retards the amyloid fibril formation, we examined the preferential binding sites of phosphate ion to Abeta 1-40 using chemical shift perturbation analysis of heteronuclear NMR. In titration analysis of (15)N-labeled Abeta1-40 in the presence of 150 mM phosphate ion or 150 mM chloride ion, we identified the residues affected by these ions in Abeta 1-40. As a result, we found the tendency that phosphate ion preferentially bound to some residues located on the C-terminus region where the region was reported to be the potential beta-strand region in Abeta1-40. Therefore, we suggested that phosphate ions interacted with the potential beta-strand region in Abeta1-40 to be hard to form beta-sheet in Abeta 1-40, resulting in retardation of the amyloid fibril formation.

  7. Enhanced amyloidogenic processing of the beta-amyloid precursor protein in gene-targeted mice bearing the Swedish familial Alzheimer's disease mutations and a "humanized" Abeta sequence.

    PubMed

    Reaume, A G; Howland, D S; Trusko, S P; Savage, M J; Lang, D M; Greenberg, B D; Siman, R; Scott, R W

    1996-09-20

    The processing of the beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) in vivo has been characterized in a novel animal model that recapitulates, in part, the APP genotype of a familial form of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A gene-targeting strategy was used to introduce the Swedish familial AD mutations and convert mouse Abeta to the human sequence. The mutant APP is expressed at normal levels in brain, and cleavage at the mutant beta-secretase site is both accurate and enhanced. Furthermore, human Abeta production is significantly increased to levels 9-fold greater than those in normal human brain while nonamyloidogenic processing is depressed. The results on Abeta production extend similar findings obtained in cell culture to the brain of an animal and substantiate Abeta as a etiological factor in Swedish familial AD. These animals provide several distinguishing features over others created by conventional transgenic methodologies. The spatial and temporal expression patterns of human Abeta are expected to be faithfully reproduced because the gene encoding the mutant APP remains in its normal chromosomal context. Thus, the neuropathological consequences of human Abeta overproduction can be evaluated longitudinally in the absence of potential mitigating effects of APP overexpression or presence of the mouse Abeta peptide.

  8. A 3'-UTR polymorphism in the oxidized LDL receptor 1 gene increases Abeta40 load as cerebral amyloid angiopathy in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jing; Tian, Jinzhou; Pritchard, Antonia; Lendon, Corinne; Lambert, Jean-Charles; Iwatsubo, Takeshi; Mann, David M A

    2006-01-01

    It is presently unclear whether polymorphic variations in the oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (OLR1), or low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1), genes act as risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, we have investigated the extent of amyloid beta protein (Abeta) deposition as cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) or senile plaques (SP) in relationship to OLR1 +1071 and +1073 polymorphisms and LRP1 C766T polymorphism in patients with AD There was an increased Abeta40 load as CAA, but not as SP, in frontal cortex of AD patients carrying OLR1+1073 CC genotype, compared to those with CT, TT or CT+TT genotypes, but only in those individuals without apolipoprotein (APOE) epsilon4 allele. No differences in total Abeta or Abeta42 load as CAA or SP between OLR1+1073 genotypes was seen, nor were there any differences between OLR1+1071 and LRP1 genotypes for any measure of Abeta. Present data suggests that homozygosity for the C allele for OLR1+1073 polymorphism, selectively in individuals without APOE epsilon4 allele, may impair clearance of Abeta, and particularly Abeta40, from the brain across the blood-brain barrier, leading to its 'diversion' into perivascular drainage channels, thereby increasing the severity of CAA in such persons.

  9. Chronic exposure to sub-lethal beta-amyloid (Abeta) inhibits the import of nuclear-encoded proteins to mitochondria in differentiated PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Sirk, Daniel; Zhu, Ziping; Wadia, Jehangir S; Shulyakova, Natalya; Phan, Nam; Fong, Jamie; Mills, Linda R

    2007-12-01

    Studies on amyloid beta (Abeta|), the peptide thought to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, have implicated mitochondria in Abeta-mediated neurotoxicity. We used differentiated PC12 cells stably transfected with an inducible green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein containing an N'-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequence (mtGFP), to examine the effects of sub-lethal Abeta on the import of nuclear-encoded proteins to mitochondria. Exposure to sub-lethal Abeta(25-35) (10 mumol/L) for 48 h inhibited mtGFP import to mitochondria; average rates decreased by 20 +/- 4%. Concomitant with the decline in mtGFP, cytoplasmic mtGFP increased significantly while mtGFP expression and intramitochondrial mtGFP turnover were unchanged. Sub-lethal Abeta(1-42) inhibited mtGFP import and increased cytoplasmic mtGFP but only after 96 h. The import of two endogenous nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins, mortalin/mtHsp70 and Tom20 also declined. Prior to the decline in import, mitochondrial membrane potential (mmp), and reactive oxygen species levels were unchanged in Abeta-treated cells versus reverse phase controls. Sustained periods of decreased import were associated with decreased mmp, increased reactive oxygen species, increased vulnerability to oxygen-glucose deprivation and altered mitochondrial morphology. These findings suggest that an Abeta-mediated inhibition of mitochondrial protein import, and the consequent mitochondrial impairment, may contribute to Alzheimer's disease.

  10. Asymmetric synthesis of vinylogous β-amino acids and their incorporation into mixed backbone oligomers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hao; An, Hongchan; Mo, Shuting Cynthia; Kodadek, Thomas

    2017-03-27

    Chiral vinylogous β-amino acids (VBAA) were synthesized using enantioselective Mannich reactions of aldehydes with in situ generated N-carbamoyl imines followed by a Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons reaction. The efficiency with which these units could be incorporated into oligomers with different moieties on the C- and N-terminal sides was established, as was the feasibility of sequencing oligomers containing VBAAs by tandem mass spectrometry. The data show that VBAAs will be useful building blocks for the construction of combinatorial libraries of peptidomimetic compounds.

  11. Lipid raft disruption protects mature neurons against amyloid oligomer toxicity.

    PubMed

    Malchiodi-Albedi, Fiorella; Contrusciere, Valentina; Raggi, Carla; Fecchi, Katia; Rainaldi, Gabriella; Paradisi, Silvia; Matteucci, Andrea; Santini, Maria Teresa; Sargiacomo, Massimo; Frank, Claudio; Gaudiano, Maria Cristina; Diociaiuti, Marco

    2010-04-01

    A specific neuronal vulnerability to amyloid protein toxicity may account for brain susceptibility to protein misfolding diseases. To investigate this issue, we compared the effects induced by oligomers from salmon calcitonin (sCTOs), a neurotoxic amyloid protein, on cells of different histogenesis: mature and immature primary hippocampal neurons, primary astrocytes, MG63 osteoblasts and NIH-3T3 fibroblasts. In mature neurons, sCTOs increased apoptosis and induced neuritic and synaptic damages similar to those caused by amyloid beta oligomers. Immature neurons and the other cell types showed no cytotoxicity. sCTOs caused cytosolic Ca(2+) rise in mature, but not in immature neurons and the other cell types. Comparison of plasma membrane lipid composition showed that mature neurons had the highest content in lipid rafts, suggesting a key role for them in neuronal vulnerability to sCTOs. Consistently, depletion in gangliosides protected against sCTO toxicity. We hypothesize that the high content in lipid rafts makes mature neurons especially vulnerable to amyloid proteins, as compared to other cell types; this may help explain why the brain is a target organ for amyloid-related diseases.

  12. Charge transfer interactions in oligomer coated gold nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newmai, M. Boazbou; Kumar, Pandian Senthil

    2016-05-01

    Gold nanoclusters were synthesized by a bottom-up synergistic approach of in-situ oligomerization of the monomer, N-vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP) and simultaneous weak reduction of Au-NVP complexes in the absence of any other external energy sources, thereby making these tiny gold clusters as the most elemental building blocks to construct further novel nano/microstructures with application potentials. It is well-known that metal clusters with less than 2 nm size do not show the usual surface plasmon band, because of the presence of a band-gap at the fermi level. Nevertheless, our present oligomer coated gold clusters show a discrete intense band at around 630 nm, which could very well be attributed to the charge transfer between the oligomer chain and the surface Au atoms. Such kind of sacrificial plasmon induced charge transfer interaction, observed for the very first time to the best of our knowledge, were also strongly corroborated through the enhancement / shifting of specific vibrational / rotational peaks as observed from the FTIR and Raman measurements as a function of the metal oxidation states, thus representing a new prototype for an efficient solar energy conversion probe.

  13. Charge transfer interactions in oligomer coated gold nanoclusters

    SciTech Connect

    Newmai, M. Boazbou; Kumar, Pandian Senthil

    2016-05-23

    Gold nanoclusters were synthesized by a bottom-up synergistic approach of in-situ oligomerization of the monomer, N-vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP) and simultaneous weak reduction of Au-NVP complexes in the absence of any other external energy sources, thereby making these tiny gold clusters as the most elemental building blocks to construct further novel nano/microstructures with application potentials. It is well-known that metal clusters with less than 2 nm size do not show the usual surface plasmon band, because of the presence of a band-gap at the fermi level. Nevertheless, our present oligomer coated gold clusters show a discrete intense band at around 630 nm, which could very well be attributed to the charge transfer between the oligomer chain and the surface Au atoms. Such kind of sacrificial plasmon induced charge transfer interaction, observed for the very first time to the best of our knowledge, were also strongly corroborated through the enhancement / shifting of specific vibrational / rotational peaks as observed from the FTIR and Raman measurements as a function of the metal oxidation states, thus representing a new prototype for an efficient solar energy conversion probe.

  14. Molecular Mechanism for the (-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate-Induced Toxic to Nontoxic Remodeling of Aβ Oligomers.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Rashik; VanSchouwen, Bryan; Jafari, Naeimeh; Ni, Xiaodan; Ortega, Joaquin; Melacini, Giuseppe

    2017-10-04

    (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) effectively reduces the cytotoxicity of the Alzheimer's disease β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) by remodeling seeding-competent Aβ oligomers into off-pathway seeding-incompetent Aβ assemblies. However, the mechanism of EGCG-induced remodeling is not fully understood. Here we combine (15)N and (1)H dark-state exchange saturation transfer (DEST), relaxation, and chemical shift projection NMR analyses with fluorescence, dynamic light scattering, and electron microscopy to elucidate how EGCG remodels Aβ oligomers. We show that the remodeling adheres to a Hill-Scatchard model whereby the Aβ(1-40) self-association occurs cooperatively and generates Aβ(1-40) oligomers with multiple independent binding sites for EGCG with a Kd ∼10-fold lower than that for the Aβ(1-40) monomers. Upon binding to EGCG, the Aβ(1-40) oligomers become less solvent exposed, and the β-regions, which are involved in direct monomer-protofibril contacts in the absence of EGCG, undergo a direct-to-tethered contact shift. This switch toward less engaged monomer-protofibril contacts explains the seeding incompetency observed upon EGCG remodeling and suggests that EGCG interferes with secondary nucleation events known to generate toxic Aβ assemblies. Unexpectedly, the N-terminal residues experience an opposite EGCG-induced shift from tethered to direct contacts, explaining why EGCG remodeling occurs without release of Aβ(1-40) monomers. We also show that upon binding Aβ(1-40) oligomers the relative positions of the EGCG B and D rings change with respect to that of ring A. These distinct structural changes occurring in both Aβ(1-40) oligomers and EGCG during remodeling offer a foundation for understanding the molecular mechanism of EGCG as a neurotoxicity inhibitor. Furthermore, the results reported here illustrate the effectiveness of DEST-based NMR approaches in investigating the mechanism of low-molecular-weight amyloid inhibitors.

  15. Alzheimer therapy with an antibody against N-terminal Abeta 4-X and pyroglutamate Abeta 3-X

    PubMed Central

    Antonios, Gregory; Borgers, Henning; Richard, Bernhard C.; Brauß, Andreas; Meißner, Julius; Weggen, Sascha; Pena, Vladimir; Pillot, Thierry; Davies, Sarah L.; Bakrania, Preeti; Matthews, David; Brownlees, Janet; Bouter, Yvonne; Bayer, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Full-length Aβ1-42 and Aβ1-40, N-truncated pyroglutamate Aβ3-42 and Aβ4-42 are major variants in the Alzheimer brain. Aβ4-42 has not been considered as a therapeutic target yet. We demonstrate that the antibody NT4X and its Fab fragment reacting with both the free N-terminus of Aβ4-x and pyroglutamate Aβ3-X mitigated neuron loss in Tg4-42 mice expressing Aβ4-42 and completely rescued spatial reference memory deficits after passive immunization. NT4X and its Fab fragment also rescued working memory deficits in wild type mice induced by intraventricular injection of Aβ4-42. NT4X reduced pyroglutamate Aβ3-x, Aβx-40 and Thioflavin-S positive plaque load after passive immunization of 5XFAD mice. Aβ1-x and Aβx-42 plaque deposits were unchanged. Importantly, for the first time, we demonstrate that passive immunization using the antibody NT4X is therapeutically beneficial in Alzheimer mouse models showing that N-truncated Aβ starting with position four in addition to pyroglutamate Aβ3-x is a relevant target to fight Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:26626428

  16. Alzheimer therapy with an antibody against N-terminal Abeta 4-X and pyroglutamate Abeta 3-X.

    PubMed

    Antonios, Gregory; Borgers, Henning; Richard, Bernhard C; Brauß, Andreas; Meißner, Julius; Weggen, Sascha; Pena, Vladimir; Pillot, Thierry; Davies, Sarah L; Bakrania, Preeti; Matthews, David; Brownlees, Janet; Bouter, Yvonne; Bayer, Thomas A

    2015-12-02

    Full-length Aβ1-42 and Aβ1-40, N-truncated pyroglutamate Aβ3-42 and Aβ4-42 are major variants in the Alzheimer brain. Aβ4-42 has not been considered as a therapeutic target yet. We demonstrate that the antibody NT4X and its Fab fragment reacting with both the free N-terminus of Aβ4-x and pyroglutamate Aβ3-X mitigated neuron loss in Tg4-42 mice expressing Aβ4-42 and completely rescued spatial reference memory deficits after passive immunization. NT4X and its Fab fragment also rescued working memory deficits in wild type mice induced by intraventricular injection of Aβ4-42. NT4X reduced pyroglutamate Aβ3-x, Aβx-40 and Thioflavin-S positive plaque load after passive immunization of 5XFAD mice. Aβ1-x and Aβx-42 plaque deposits were unchanged. Importantly, for the first time, we demonstrate that passive immunization using the antibody NT4X is therapeutically beneficial in Alzheimer mouse models showing that N-truncated Aβ starting with position four in addition to pyroglutamate Aβ3-x is a relevant target to fight Alzheimer's disease.

  17. Modulation of the humoral and cellular immune response in Abeta immunotherapy by the adjuvants monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL), cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) and E. coli enterotoxin LT(R192G).

    PubMed

    Maier, Marcel; Seabrook, Timothy J; Lemere, Cynthia A

    2005-10-25

    Abeta vaccination or passive transfer of human-specific anti-Abeta antibodies are approaches under investigation to prevent and/or treat Alzheimer's disease (AD). Successful active Abeta vaccination requires a strong and safe adjuvant to induce anti-Abeta antibody formation. We compared the adjuvants monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL)/trehalose dicorynomycolate (TDM), cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) and Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin LT(R192G) for their ability to induce a humoral and cellular immune reaction, using fibrillar Abeta1-40/42 as a common immunogen in wildtype B6D2F1 mice. Subcutaneous (s.c.) administration with MPL/TDM resulted in anti-Abeta antibodies levels up to four times higher compared to s.c. LT(R192G). Using MPL/TDM, the anti-Abeta antibodies induced were mainly IgG2b, IgG1 and lower levels of IgG2a and IgM, with a moderate splenocyte proliferation and IFN-gamma production in vitro upon stimulation with Abeta1-40/42. LT(R192G), previously shown by us to induce robust titers of anti-Abeta antibodies, generated predominantly IgG2b and IgG1 anti-Abeta antibodies with very low splenocyte proliferation and IFN-gamma production. Weekly intranasal (i.n.) administration over 11 weeks of Abeta40/42 with CTB induced only moderate levels of antibodies. All immunogens generated antibodies that recognized mainly the Abeta1-7 epitope and specifically detected amyloid plaques on AD brain sections. In conclusion, MPL/TDM, in addition to LT(R192G), is an effective adjuvant when combined with Abeta40/42 and may aid in the design of Abeta immunotherapy.

  18. Tau Oligomers Associate with Inflammation in the Brain and Retina of Tauopathy Mice and in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Nilson, Ashley N.; English, Kelsey C.; Gerson, Julia E.; Barton Whittle, T.; Nicolas Crain, C.; Xue, Judy; Sengupta, Urmi; Castillo-Carranza, Diana L.; Zhang, Wenbo; Gupta, Praveena; Kayed, Rakez

    2016-01-01

    It is well-established that inflammation plays an important role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and frontotemporal lobar dementia (FTLD). Inflammation and synapse loss occur in disease prior to the formation of larger aggregates, but the contribution of tau to inflammation has not yet been thoroughly investigated. Tau pathologically aggregates to form large fibrillar structures known as tangles. However, evidence suggests that smaller soluble aggregates, called oligomers, are the most toxic species and form prior to tangles. Furthermore, tau oligomers can spread to neighboring cells and between anatomically connected brain regions. In addition, recent evidence suggests that inspecting the retina may be a window to brain pathology. We hypothesized that there is a relationship between tau oligomers and inflammation, which are hallmarks of early disease. We conducted immunofluorescence and biochemical analyses on tauopathy mice, FTLD, and AD subjects. We showed that oligomers co-localize with astrocytes, microglia, and HMGB1, a pro-inflammatory cytokine. Additionally, we show that tau oligomers are present in the retina and are associated with inflammatory cells suggesting that the retina may be a valid non-invasive biomarker for brain pathology. These results suggest that there may be a toxic relationship between tau oligomers and inflammation. Therefore, the ability of tau oligomers to spread may initiate a feed-forward cycle in which tau oligomers induce inflammation, leading to neuronal damage, and thus more inflammation. Further mechanistic studies are warranted in order to understand this relationship, which may have critical implications for improving the treatment of tauopathies. PMID:27716675

  19. Trehalose differentially inhibits aggregation and neurotoxicity of beta-amyloid 40 and 42.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruitian; Barkhordarian, Hedieh; Emadi, Sharareh; Park, Chan Beum; Sierks, Michael R

    2005-10-01

    A key event in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis is the conversion of the peptide beta-amyloid (Abeta) from its soluble monomeric form into various aggregated morphologies in the brain. Preventing aggregation of Abeta is being actively pursued as a primary therapeutic strategy for treating AD. Trehalose, a simple disaccharide, has been shown to be effective in preventing the deactivation of numerous proteins and in protecting cells against stress. Here, we show that trehalose is also effective in inhibiting aggregation of Abeta and reducing its cytotoxicity, although it shows differential effects toward Abeta40 and Abeta42. When co-incubated with Abeta40, trehalose inhibits formation of both fibrillar and oligomeric morphologies as determined by fluorescence staining and atomic force microscopy (AFM). However, when co-incubated with Abeta42, trehalose inhibits formation only of the fibrillar morphology, with significant oligomeric formation still present. When aggregated mixtures were incubated with SH-SY5Y cells, trehalose was shown to reduce the toxicity of Abeta40 mixtures, but not Abeta42. These results provide additional evidence that aggregation of Abeta into soluble oligomeric forms is a pathological step in AD and that Abeta42 in particular is more susceptible to forming these toxic oligomers than Abeta40. These results also suggest that the use of trehalose, a highly soluble, low-priced sugar, as part of a potential therapeutic cocktail to control Abeta peptide aggregation and toxicity warrants further study.

  20. Laccase-gum Arabic conjugate for preparation of water-soluble oligomer of catechin with enhanced antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Swati B; Singhal, Rekha S

    2014-05-01

    Catechin was oligomerized using free laccase and laccase-gum Arabic conjugate. The process of oligomerization was optimized with respect to solvent, ratio of solvent to buffer (0.2:10 to 1:10), pH of buffer (3-10), enzyme (575-18,400 U/mg) and substrate concentration (1-7mM). Maximum production of oligomer was observed in methanol at ratio 0.6:10 of methanol:buffer of pH 5 using 2300 U/mg of laccase and 5mM of catechin. The laccase-gum Arabic conjugate showed lower activity but higher stability than free laccase in methanol. Free laccase produced cross linked water-insoluble oligomer, whereas conjugated laccase produced linear water-soluble oligomer. The linear water-soluble oligomer showed higher antioxidant activity, as determined by the DPPH assay, and reducing power as compared to monomer making it suitable for biological applications. The molecular weight of the linear oligomer was found to be 13.14kDa, which suggested it to be composed of 45 monomer units. Further characterizations of linear and cross linked oligomer were done using FTIR and differential scanning calorimetry. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Structural studies on HCN oligomers. [catalysts for prebiotic processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, J. P.; Edelson, E. H.; Auyeung, J. M.; Joshi, P. C.

    1981-01-01

    NMR spectral studies on the HCN oligomers suggest the presence of carboxamide and urea groupings. The release of CO2, H2O, HCN, CH3CN, HCONH2 and pyridine on pyrolysis is consistent with the presence of these groupings as well as carboxylic acid groups. No basic primary amine groupings could be detected with fluorescamine. Hydrazinolysis of the HCN oligomers releases 10% of the amino acids normally released by acid hydrolysis. The oligomers give a positive biuret test but this is not due to the presence of peptide bonds. There is no conclusive evidence for the presence of peptide bonds in the HCN oligomers. No diglycine was detected on partial hydrolysis of the HCN oligomers at pH 8.5 suggesting that HCN oligomers were not a source of prebiotic peptides.

  2. Air-Stable n-channel Diketopyrrolopyrrole-Diketopyrrolopyrrole Oligomers for High Performance Ambipolar Organic Transistors.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Tushita; Puttaraju, Boregowda; Senanayak, Satyaprasad P; Sadhanala, Aditya; Friend, Richard; Faber, Hendrik A; Anthopoulos, Thomas D; Salzner, Ulrike; Meyer, Andreas; Patil, Satish

    2016-09-28

    n-channel organic semiconductors are prone to oxidation upon exposed to ambient conditions. Herein, we report design and synthesis of diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP)-based oligomers for ambipolar organic thin-film transistors (OFETs) with excellent air and bias stability at ambient conditions. The cyclic voltammetry measurements reveal exceptional electrochemical stability during the redox cycle of oligomers. Structural properties including aggregation, crystallinity, and morphology in thin film were investigated by UV-visible spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), thin-film X-ray diffraction (XRD), and grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) measurements. AFM reveals morphological changes induced by different processing conditions whereas GISAXS measurements show an increase in the population of face-on oriented crystallites in films subjected to a combination of solvent and thermal treatments. These measurements also highlight the significance of chalcogen atom from sulfur to selenium on the photophysical, optical, electronic, and solid-state properties of DPP-DPP oligomers. Charge carrier mobilities of the oligomers were investigated by fabricating top-gate bottom-contact (TG-BC) thin-film transistors by annealing the thin films under various conditions. Combined solvent and thermal annealing of DPP-DPP oligomer thin films results in consistent electron mobilities as high as ∼0.2 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) with an on/off ratio exceeding 10(4). Field-effect behavior was retained for up to ∼4 weeks, which illustrates remarkable air and bias stability. This work paves the way toward the development of n-channel DPP-DPP-based oligomers exhibiting retention of field-effect behavior with superior stability at ambient conditions.

  3. Radial distribution function of semiflexible oligomers with stretching flexibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xi; Bao, Lei; Wu, Yuan-Yan; Zhu, Xiao-Long; Tan, Zhi-Jie

    2017-08-01

    The radial distribution of the end-to-end distance Ree is crucial for quantifying the global size and flexibility of a linear polymer. For semiflexible polymers, several analytical formulas have been derived for the radial distribution of Ree ignoring the stretching flexibility. However, for semiflexible oligomers, such as DNA or RNA, the stretching flexibility can be rather pronounced and can significantly affect the radial distribution of Ree. In this study, we obtained an extended formula that includes the stretch modulus to describe the distribution of Ree for semiflexible oligomers on the basis of previous formulas for semiflexible polymers without stretching flexibility. The extended formula was validated by extensive Monte Carlo simulations over wide ranges of the stretch modulus and persistence length, as well as all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of short DNAs and RNAs. Additionally, our analyses showed that the effect of stretching flexibility on the distribution of Ree becomes negligible for DNAs longer than ˜130 base pairs and RNAs longer than ˜240 base pairs.

  4. DNA sequence similarity recognition by hybridization to short oligomers

    DOEpatents

    Milosavljevic, Aleksandar

    1999-01-01

    Methods are disclosed for the comparison of nucleic acid sequences. Data is generated by hybridizing sets of oligomers with target nucleic acids. The data thus generated is manipulated simultaneously with respect to both (i) matching between oligomers and (ii) matching between oligomers and putative reference sequences available in databases. Using data compression methods to manipulate this mutual information, sequences for the target can be constructed.

  5. Transient formation of nano-crystalline structures during fibrillation of an Abeta-like peptide.

    PubMed

    Otzen, Daniel E; Oliveberg, Mikael

    2004-05-01

    During the first few minutes of fibrillation of a 14-residue peptide homologous to the hydrophobic C-terminal part of the Abeta-peptide, EM micrographs reveal small crystalline areas (100 to 150 nm, repeating unit 47 A) scattered in more amorphous material. On a longer time scale, these crystalline areas disappear and are replaced by tangled clusters resembling protofilaments (hours), and eventually by more regular amyloid fibrils of 60 A to 120 A diameter (days). The transient population of the crystalline areas indicates the presence of ordered substructures in the early fibrillation process, the diameter of which matches the length of the 14-mer peptide in an extended beta-strand conformation.

  6. The formation of fibrils by intertwining of filaments: model and application to amyloid Abeta protein.

    PubMed

    van Gestel, Jeroen; de Leeuw, Simon W

    2007-02-15

    We outline a model that describes the interaction of rods that form intertwined bundles. In this simple model, we compare the elastic energy penalty that arises due to the deformation of the rods to the gain in binding energy upon intertwining. We find that, for proper values of the bending Young's modulus and the binding energy, a helical pitch may be found for which the energy of intertwining is most favorable. We apply our description to the problem of Alzheimer's Abeta protein fibrillization. If we forbid configurations that exhibit steric overlap between the protofilaments that make up a protein fibril, our model predicts that fibrils consisting of three protofilaments shall form. This agrees well with experimental results. Our model can also provide an estimate for the helical pitch of suitable fibrils.

  7. Amyloid β-protein oligomers and Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The oligomer cascade hypothesis, which states that oligomers are the initiating pathologic agents in Alzheimer’s disease, has all but supplanted the amyloid cascade hypothesis, which suggested that fibers were the key etiologic agents in Alzheimer’s disease. We review here the results of in vivo, in vitro and in silico studies of amyloid β-protein oligomers, and discuss important caveats that should be considered in the evaluation of these results. This article is divided into four sections that mirror the main approaches used in the field to better understand oligomers: (1) attempts to locate and examine oligomers in vivo in situ; that is, without removing these species from their environment; (2) studies involving oligomers extracted from human or animal tissues and the subsequent characterization of their properties ex vivo; (3) studies of oligomers that have been produced synthetically and studied using a reductionist approach in relatively simple in vitro biophysical systems; and (4) computational studies of oligomers in silico. These multiple orthogonal approaches have revealed much about the molecular and cell biology of amyloid β-protein. However, as informative as these approaches have been, the amyloid β-protein oligomer system remains enigmatic. PMID:24289820

  8. Polyetherurethane oligomers with aldehyde groups as additives for lubricating oils

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolaev, V.N.; Abramov, E.G.; Tenyushev, A.I.

    1995-01-01

    Polyetherurethane oligomers with aldehyde groups, which we synthesized from polyoxypropylene diols (molecular weight 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, or 3000) with toluene diisocyanate and salicylaldehyde, are of interest as additives for lubricating oils. The effects of these oligomers on the service properties and physicochemical characteristics of lubricating oils were investigated by methods prreviously described. As the lube base stocks we used castor oil, a polyoxypropylene diol and a polyethoxysiloxane. The oligomers are readily soluble in organic solvents and in the lube base stocks, and their solutions are stable during storage and use. We found that the optimal concentration of oligomers is 5%, providing the best lubricating properties, in particular the best antiwear properties.

  9. Theory of microphase separation in homopolymer oligomer mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olemskoi, Alexander; Savelyev, Alexey

    2005-11-01

    This work starts with the review of theoretical methods proposed, during past decades, for description of phase behavior in different polymer systems, involving variety of linear polymers (regular and polydisperse block (co)polymers, random polymers) and the polymer systems with non-covalent bonds of different strength. Microphase separation (MS) into different ordered mesophases is known to be the principal property of such systems. It is shown that most of the theoretical approaches proposed for description of the MS are based on the simple random phase approximation (RPA). It turns out, however, that mean field RPA method applied to description of the systems with non-covalent bonds does not provide the whole picture of MS. We show that the problem here arises when one treats both Flory-Huggins non-associated interactions and non-covalent bonds (hydrogen, ionic) within the unified RPA scheme, which is obviously rough for description of the latter type of interactions. Such a theory was developed in a few recent papers for the systems involving weak hydrogen bonds between homopolymer chains and the low molecular weight oligomers (surfactants). However, it leaves some experimental data unaccounted. The purpose of this review is to consider more detailed theory which is able to explain not only all the experimental data for the above systems but also to take into account the strength variation of non-bonding interactions. In particular, we consider the strong ionic interactions, weak hydrogen bonding, and the interactions of intermediate strength between polymer chain and short oligomers within our unifying theory. To develop such a description in a self-consistent way we propose to use a general field theory of stochastic systems. The mesoscopic (lamellar) structure of the periodically alternating layers of stretched homopolymer chains surrounded by perpendicularly oriented oligomeric tails is studied for the systems with both strong (ionic) and weak (hydrogen

  10. Fabrication of an antibody-aptamer sandwich assay for electrochemical evaluation of levels of β-amyloid oligomers

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yanli; Zhang, Huanqing; Liu, Lantao; Li, Congming; Chang, Zhu; Zhu, Xu; Ye, Baoxian; Xu, Maotian

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) in its oligomeric form is often considered as the most toxic species in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and thus Aβ oligomer is a potentially promising candidate biomarker for AD diagnosis. The development of a sensitive and reliable method for monitoring the Aβ oligomer levels in body fluids is an urgent requirement in order to predict the severity and progression at early or preclinical stages of AD. Here, we show a proof of concept for a sensitive and specific detection of Aβ oligomers by an antibody-aptamer sandwich assay. The antibodies of Aβ oligomers and a nanocomposite of gold nanoparticles with aptamer and thionine (aptamer-Au-Th) were used as the recognition element and the detection probe for specifically binding to Aβ oligomers, respectively. The electrochemical signal of Th reduction could provide measurable electrochemical signals, and a low limit of detection (100 pM) was achieved due to the signal amplification by high loading of Th on the gold nanoparticles. The feasibility of the assay was verified by test of Aβ oligomers in artificial cerebrospinal fluid. The proposed strategy presents valuable information related to early diagnosis of AD process. PMID:27725775

  11. Aβ42 assembles into specific β-barrel pore-forming oligomers in membrane-mimicking environments

    PubMed Central

    Serra-Batiste, Montserrat; Ninot-Pedrosa, Martí; Bayoumi, Mariam; Gairí, Margarida; Maglia, Giovanni; Carulla, Natàlia

    2016-01-01

    The formation of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) oligomers at the cellular membrane is considered to be a crucial process underlying neurotoxicity in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Therefore, it is critical to characterize the oligomers that form within a membrane environment. To contribute to this characterization, we have applied strategies widely used to examine the structure of membrane proteins to study the two major Aβ variants, Aβ40 and Aβ42. Accordingly, various types of detergent micelles were extensively screened to identify one that preserved the properties of Aβ in lipid environments—namely the formation of oligomers that function as pores. Remarkably, under the optimized detergent micelle conditions, Aβ40 and Aβ42 showed different behavior. Aβ40 aggregated into amyloid fibrils, whereas Aβ42 assembled into oligomers that inserted into lipid bilayers as well-defined pores and adopted a specific structure with characteristics of a β-barrel arrangement that we named β-barrel pore-forming Aβ42 oligomers (βPFOsAβ42). Because Aβ42, relative to Aβ40, has a more prominent role in AD, the higher propensity of Aβ42 to form βPFOs constitutes an indication of their relevance in AD. Moreover, because βPFOsAβ42 adopt a specific structure, this property offers an unprecedented opportunity for testing a hypothesis regarding the involvement of βPFOs and, more generally, membrane-associated Aβ oligomers in AD. PMID:27621459

  12. Aβ42-oligomer Interacting Peptide (AIP) neutralizes toxic amyloid-β42 species and protects synaptic structure and function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barucker, Christian; Bittner, Heiko J.; Chang, Philip K.-Y.; Cameron, Scott; Hancock, Mark A.; Liebsch, Filip; Hossain, Shireen; Harmeier, Anja; Shaw, Hunter; Charron, François M.; Gensler, Manuel; Dembny, Paul; Zhuang, Wei; Schmitz, Dietmar; Rabe, Jürgen P.; Rao, Yong; Lurz, Rudi; Hildebrand, Peter W.; McKinney, R. Anne; Multhaup, Gerhard

    2015-10-01

    The amyloid-β42 (Aβ42) peptide is believed to be the main culprit in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD), impairing synaptic function and initiating neuronal degeneration. Soluble Aβ42 oligomers are highly toxic and contribute to progressive neuronal dysfunction, loss of synaptic spine density, and affect long-term potentiation (LTP). We have characterized a short, L-amino acid Aβ-oligomer Interacting Peptide (AIP) that targets a relatively well-defined population of low-n Aβ42 oligomers, rather than simply inhibiting the aggregation of Aβ monomers into oligomers. Our data show that AIP diminishes the loss of Aβ42-induced synaptic spine density and rescues LTP in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures. Notably, the AIP enantiomer (comprised of D-amino acids) attenuated the rough-eye phenotype in a transgenic Aβ42 fly model and significantly improved the function of photoreceptors of these flies in electroretinography tests. Overall, our results indicate that specifically “trapping” low-n oligomers provides a novel strategy for toxic Aβ42-oligomer recognition and removal.

  13. Monomer adds to preformed structured oligomers of Aβ-peptides by a two-stage dock–lock mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Phuong H.; Li, Mai Suan; Stock, Gerhard; Straub, John E.; Thirumalai, D.

    2007-01-01

    Nonfibrillar soluble oligomers, which are intermediates in the transition from monomers to amyloid fibrils, may be the toxic species in Alzheimer's disease. To monitor the early events that direct assembly of amyloidogenic peptides we probe the dynamics of formation of (Aβ16–22)n by adding a monomer to a preformed (Aβ16–22)n−1 (n = 4–6) oligomer in which the peptides are arranged in an antiparallel β-sheet conformation. All atom molecular dynamics simulations in water and multiple long trajectories, for a cumulative time of 6.9 μs, show that the oligomer grows by a two-stage dock–lock mechanism. The largest conformational change in the added disordered monomer occurs during the rapid (≈50 ns) first dock stage in which the β-strand content of the monomer increases substantially from a low initial value. In the second slow-lock phase, the monomer rearranges to form in register antiparallel structures. Surprisingly, the mobile structured oligomers undergo large conformational changes in order to accommodate the added monomer. The time needed to incorporate the monomer into the fluid-like oligomer grows even when n = 6, which suggests that the critical nucleus size must exceed six. Stable antiparallel structure formation exceeds hundreds of nanoseconds even though frequent interpeptide collisions occur at elevated monomer concentrations used in the simulations. The dock–lock mechanism should be a generic mechanism for growth of oligomers of amyloidogenic peptides. PMID:17190811

  14. Aβ42-oligomer Interacting Peptide (AIP) neutralizes toxic amyloid-β42 species and protects synaptic structure and function.

    PubMed

    Barucker, Christian; Bittner, Heiko J; Chang, Philip K-Y; Cameron, Scott; Hancock, Mark A; Liebsch, Filip; Hossain, Shireen; Harmeier, Anja; Shaw, Hunter; Charron, François M; Gensler, Manuel; Dembny, Paul; Zhuang, Wei; Schmitz, Dietmar; Rabe, Jürgen P; Rao, Yong; Lurz, Rudi; Hildebrand, Peter W; McKinney, R Anne; Multhaup, Gerhard

    2015-10-29

    The amyloid-β42 (Aβ42) peptide is believed to be the main culprit in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD), impairing synaptic function and initiating neuronal degeneration. Soluble Aβ42 oligomers are highly toxic and contribute to progressive neuronal dysfunction, loss of synaptic spine density, and affect long-term potentiation (LTP). We have characterized a short, L-amino acid Aβ-oligomer Interacting Peptide (AIP) that targets a relatively well-defined population of low-n Aβ42 oligomers, rather than simply inhibiting the aggregation of Aβ monomers into oligomers. Our data show that AIP diminishes the loss of Aβ42-induced synaptic spine density and rescues LTP in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures. Notably, the AIP enantiomer (comprised of D-amino acids) attenuated the rough-eye phenotype in a transgenic Aβ42 fly model and significantly improved the function of photoreceptors of these flies in electroretinography tests. Overall, our results indicate that specifically "trapping" low-n oligomers provides a novel strategy for toxic Aβ42-oligomer recognition and removal.

  15. Aβ42-oligomer Interacting Peptide (AIP) neutralizes toxic amyloid-β42 species and protects synaptic structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Barucker, Christian; Bittner, Heiko J.; Chang, Philip K.-Y.; Cameron, Scott; Hancock, Mark A.; Liebsch, Filip; Hossain, Shireen; Harmeier, Anja; Shaw, Hunter; Charron, François M.; Gensler, Manuel; Dembny, Paul; Zhuang, Wei; Schmitz, Dietmar; Rabe, Jürgen P.; Rao, Yong; Lurz, Rudi; Hildebrand, Peter W.; McKinney, R. Anne; Multhaup, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    The amyloid-β42 (Aβ42) peptide is believed to be the main culprit in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD), impairing synaptic function and initiating neuronal degeneration. Soluble Aβ42 oligomers are highly toxic and contribute to progressive neuronal dysfunction, loss of synaptic spine density, and affect long-term potentiation (LTP). We have characterized a short, L-amino acid Aβ-oligomer Interacting Peptide (AIP) that targets a relatively well-defined population of low-n Aβ42 oligomers, rather than simply inhibiting the aggregation of Aβ monomers into oligomers. Our data show that AIP diminishes the loss of Aβ42-induced synaptic spine density and rescues LTP in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures. Notably, the AIP enantiomer (comprised of D-amino acids) attenuated the rough-eye phenotype in a transgenic Aβ42 fly model and significantly improved the function of photoreceptors of these flies in electroretinography tests. Overall, our results indicate that specifically “trapping” low-n oligomers provides a novel strategy for toxic Aβ42-oligomer recognition and removal. PMID:26510576

  16. Anharmonic Vibrational Dynamics of DNA Oligomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühn, O.; Došlić, N.; Krishnan, G. M.; Fidder, H.; Heyne, K.

    Combining two-color infared pump-probe spectroscopy and anharmonic force field calculations we characterize the anharmonic coupling patterns between fingerprint modes and the hydrogen-bonded symmetric vNH2 stretching vibration in adenine-thymine dA20-dT20 DNA oligomers. Specifically, it is shown that the anharmonic coupling between the δNH2 bending and the vC4=O4 stretching vibration, both absorbing around 1665 cm-1, can be used to assign the vNH2 fundamental transition at 3215 cm-1 despite the broad background absorption of water.

  17. Methyl-esterified 3-hydroxybutyrate oligomers protect bacteria from hydroxyl radicals.

    PubMed

    Koskimäki, Janne J; Kajula, Marena; Hokkanen, Juho; Ihantola, Emmi-Leena; Kim, Jong H; Hautajärvi, Heidi; Hankala, Elina; Suokas, Marko; Pohjanen, Johanna; Podolich, Olga; Kozyrovska, Natalia; Turpeinen, Ari; Pääkkönen, Mirva; Mattila, Sampo; Campbell, Bruce C; Pirttilä, Anna Maria

    2016-05-01

    Bacteria rely mainly on enzymes, glutathione and other low-molecular weight thiols to overcome oxidative stress. However, hydroxyl radicals are the most cytotoxic reactive oxygen species, and no known enzymatic system exists for their detoxification. We now show that methyl-esterified dimers and trimers of 3-hydroxybutyrate (ME-3HB), produced by bacteria capable of polyhydroxybutyrate biosynthesis, have 3-fold greater hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity than glutathione and 11-fold higher activity than vitamin C or the monomer 3-hydroxybutyric acid. We found that ME-3HB oligomers protect hypersensitive yeast deletion mutants lacking oxidative stress-response genes from hydroxyl radical stress. Our results show that phaC and phaZ, encoding polymerase and depolymerase, respectively, are activated and polyhydroxybutyrate reserves are degraded for production of ME-3HB oligomers in bacteria infecting plant cells and exposed to hydroxyl radical stress. We found that ME-3HB oligomer production is widespread, especially in bacteria adapted to stressful environments. We discuss how ME-3HB oligomers could provide opportunities for numerous applications in human health.

  18. Enhanced Volatile Organic Compounds emissions and organic aerosol mass increase the oligomer content of atmospheric aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourtchev, Ivan; Giorio, Chiara; Manninen, Antti; Wilson, Eoin; Mahon, Brendan; Aalto, Juho; Kajos, Maija; Venables, Dean; Ruuskanen, Taina; Levula, Janne; Loponen, Matti; Connors, Sarah; Harris, Neil; Zhao, Defeng; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Mentel, Thomas; Rudich, Yinon; Hallquist, Mattias; Doussin, Jean-Francois; Maenhaut, Willy; Bäck, Jaana; Petäjä, Tuukka; Wenger, John; Kulmala, Markku; Kalberer, Markus

    2016-10-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) accounts for a dominant fraction of the submicron atmospheric particle mass, but knowledge of the formation, composition and climate effects of SOA is incomplete and limits our understanding of overall aerosol effects in the atmosphere. Organic oligomers were discovered as dominant components in SOA over a decade ago in laboratory experiments and have since been proposed to play a dominant role in many aerosol processes. However, it remains unclear whether oligomers are relevant under ambient atmospheric conditions because they are often not clearly observed in field samples. Here we resolve this long-standing discrepancy by showing that elevated SOA mass is one of the key drivers of oligomer formation in the ambient atmosphere and laboratory experiments. We show for the first time that a specific organic compound class in aerosols, oligomers, is strongly correlated with cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activities of SOA particles. These findings might have important implications for future climate scenarios where increased temperatures cause higher biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions, which in turn lead to higher SOA mass formation and significant changes in SOA composition. Such processes would need to be considered in climate models for a realistic representation of future aerosol-climate-biosphere feedbacks.

  19. Enhanced Volatile Organic Compounds emissions and organic aerosol mass increase the oligomer content of atmospheric aerosols.

    PubMed

    Kourtchev, Ivan; Giorio, Chiara; Manninen, Antti; Wilson, Eoin; Mahon, Brendan; Aalto, Juho; Kajos, Maija; Venables, Dean; Ruuskanen, Taina; Levula, Janne; Loponen, Matti; Connors, Sarah; Harris, Neil; Zhao, Defeng; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Mentel, Thomas; Rudich, Yinon; Hallquist, Mattias; Doussin, Jean-Francois; Maenhaut, Willy; Bäck, Jaana; Petäjä, Tuukka; Wenger, John; Kulmala, Markku; Kalberer, Markus

    2016-10-13

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) accounts for a dominant fraction of the submicron atmospheric particle mass, but knowledge of the formation, composition and climate effects of SOA is incomplete and limits our understanding of overall aerosol effects in the atmosphere. Organic oligomers were discovered as dominant components in SOA over a decade ago in laboratory experiments and have since been proposed to play a dominant role in many aerosol processes. However, it remains unclear whether oligomers are relevant under ambient atmospheric conditions because they are often not clearly observed in field samples. Here we resolve this long-standing discrepancy by showing that elevated SOA mass is one of the key drivers of oligomer formation in the ambient atmosphere and laboratory experiments. We show for the first time that a specific organic compound class in aerosols, oligomers, is strongly correlated with cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activities of SOA particles. These findings might have important implications for future climate scenarios where increased temperatures cause higher biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions, which in turn lead to higher SOA mass formation and significant changes in SOA composition. Such processes would need to be considered in climate models for a realistic representation of future aerosol-climate-biosphere feedbacks.

  20. Oligomer-targeting with a conformational antibody fragment promotes toxicity in Aβ-expressing flies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The self-assembly of Aβ peptides into a range of conformationally heterogeneous amyloid states represents a fundamental event in Alzheimer’s disease. Within these structures oligomeric intermediates are considered to be particularly pathogenic. To test this hypothesis we have used a conformational targeting approach where particular conformational states, such as oligomers or fibrils, are recognized in vivo by state-specific antibody fragments. Results We show that oligomer targeting with the KW1 antibody fragment, but not fibril targeting with the B10 antibody fragment, affects toxicity in Aβ-expressing Drosophila melanogaster. The effect of KW1 is observed to occur selectively with flies expressing Aβ(1–40) and not with those expressing Aβ(1–42) or the arctic variant of Aβ(1–42) This finding is consistent with the binding preference of KW1 for Aβ(1–40) oligomers that has been established in vitro. Strikingly, and in contrast to the previously demonstrated in vitro ability of this antibody fragment to block oligomeric toxicity in long-term potentiation measurements, KW1 promotes toxicity in the flies rather than preventing it. This result shows the crucial importance of the environment in determining the influence of antibody binding on the nature and consequences of the protein misfolding and aggregation. Conclusions While our data support to the pathological relevance of oligomers, they highlight the issues to be addressed when developing inhibitory strategies that aim to neutralize these states by means of antagonistic binding agents. PMID:24725347

  1. Enhanced Volatile Organic Compounds emissions and organic aerosol mass increase the oligomer content of atmospheric aerosols

    PubMed Central

    Kourtchev, Ivan; Giorio, Chiara; Manninen, Antti; Wilson, Eoin; Mahon, Brendan; Aalto, Juho; Kajos, Maija; Venables, Dean; Ruuskanen, Taina; Levula, Janne; Loponen, Matti; Connors, Sarah; Harris, Neil; Zhao, Defeng; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Mentel, Thomas; Rudich, Yinon; Hallquist, Mattias; Doussin, Jean-Francois; Maenhaut, Willy; Bäck, Jaana; Petäjä, Tuukka; Wenger, John; Kulmala, Markku; Kalberer, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) accounts for a dominant fraction of the submicron atmospheric particle mass, but knowledge of the formation, composition and climate effects of SOA is incomplete and limits our understanding of overall aerosol effects in the atmosphere. Organic oligomers were discovered as dominant components in SOA over a decade ago in laboratory experiments and have since been proposed to play a dominant role in many aerosol processes. However, it remains unclear whether oligomers are relevant under ambient atmospheric conditions because they are often not clearly observed in field samples. Here we resolve this long-standing discrepancy by showing that elevated SOA mass is one of the key drivers of oligomer formation in the ambient atmosphere and laboratory experiments. We show for the first time that a specific organic compound class in aerosols, oligomers, is strongly correlated with cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activities of SOA particles. These findings might have important implications for future climate scenarios where increased temperatures cause higher biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions, which in turn lead to higher SOA mass formation and significant changes in SOA composition. Such processes would need to be considered in climate models for a realistic representation of future aerosol-climate-biosphere feedbacks. PMID:27733773

  2. Alzheimer amyloid beta-peptide A-beta25-35 blocks adenylate cyclase-mediated forms of hippocampal long-term potentiation.

    PubMed

    Bisel, Blaine E; Henkins, Kristen M; Parfitt, Karen D

    2007-02-01

    Progressive memory loss and deposition of amyloid beta (Abeta) peptides throughout cortical regions are hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Several studies in mice and rats have shown that overexpression of amyloid precursor protein (APP) or pretreatment with Abeta peptide fragments results in the inhibition of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) as well as impairments in learning and memory of hippocampal-dependent tasks. For these studies we have investigated the effects of the Abeta(25-35) peptide fragment on LTP induced by adenylate cyclase stimulation followed immediately by application of Mg(++)-free aCSF ("chemLTP"). Treatment of young adult slices with the Abeta(25-35) peptide had no significant effect on basal synaptic transmission in area CA1, but treatment with the peptide for 20 min before inducing chemLTP with isoproterenol (ISO; 1 microM) or forskolin (FSK;10 microM) + Mg(++)-free aCSF resulted in complete blockade of LTP. In contrast, normal ISO-chemLTP was observed after treatment with the control peptide Abeta(35-25). The ability of the Abeta(25-35) peptide fragment to block this and other forms of synaptic plasticity may help elucidate the mechanisms underlying hippocampal deficits observed in animal models of AD and/or AD individuals.

  3. Cooperative Switching in Nanofibers of Azobenzene Oligomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Christopher; Liebig, Tobias; Gensler, Manuel; Zykov, Anton; Pithan, Linus; Rabe, Jürgen P.; Hecht, Stefan; Bléger, David; Kowarik, Stefan

    2016-05-01

    Next-generation molecular devices and machines demand the integration of molecular switches into hierarchical assemblies to amplify the response of the system from the molecular level to the meso- or macro-scale. Here, we demonstrate that multi-azobenzene oligomers can assemble to form robust supramolecular nanofibers in which they can be switched repeatedly between the E- and Z-configuration. While in isolated oligomers the azobenzene units undergo reversible photoisomerization independently, in the nanofibers they are coupled via intermolecular interactions and switch cooperatively as evidenced by unusual thermal and kinetic behavior. We find that the photoisomerization rate from the Z-isomer to the E-isomer depends on the fraction of Z-azobenzene in the nanofibers, and is increased by more than a factor of 4 in Z-rich fibers when compared to E-rich fibers. This demonstrates the great potential of coupling individual photochromic units for increasing their quantum efficiency in the solid state with potential relevance for actuation and sensing.

  4. Cooperative Switching in Nanofibers of Azobenzene Oligomers

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Christopher; Liebig, Tobias; Gensler, Manuel; Zykov, Anton; Pithan, Linus; Rabe, Jürgen P.; Hecht, Stefan; Bléger, David; Kowarik, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation molecular devices and machines demand the integration of molecular switches into hierarchical assemblies to amplify the response of the system from the molecular level to the meso- or macro-scale. Here, we demonstrate that multi-azobenzene oligomers can assemble to form robust supramolecular nanofibers in which they can be switched repeatedly between the E- and Z-configuration. While in isolated oligomers the azobenzene units undergo reversible photoisomerization independently, in the nanofibers they are coupled via intermolecular interactions and switch cooperatively as evidenced by unusual thermal and kinetic behavior. We find that the photoisomerization rate from the Z-isomer to the E-isomer depends on the fraction of Z-azobenzene in the nanofibers, and is increased by more than a factor of 4 in Z-rich fibers when compared to E-rich fibers. This demonstrates the great potential of coupling individual photochromic units for increasing their quantum efficiency in the solid state with potential relevance for actuation and sensing. PMID:27161608

  5. Genetics and pathology of alpha-secretase site AbetaPP mutations in the understanding of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Van Broeckhoven, Christine; Kumar-Singh, Samir

    2006-01-01

    Development of therapeutics begins with delineating the precise disease pathology along with a reasonable understanding of the sequence of events responsible for the development of disease, or disease pathogenesis. For Alzheimer's disease (AD), the classical pathology is now known for quite some time; however, the disease pathogenesis has eluded our understanding for a complete century. This review, in addition to providing a brief overview of all primary events, will highlight those aspects of AD genetics and novel pathological descriptions linked to unique mutations within AbetaPP that have led to our better understanding of the pathogenesis of AD. Specifically, we will discuss how pathologies linked to the Dutch (E693Q) and Flemish AbetaPP (A692G) mutations have helped in understanding the role of CAA in dementia and in the development of dense-core plaques. In addition, this review will also point directions that warrant additional studies.

  6. Origin and diversification of a metabolic cycle in oligomer world.

    PubMed

    Nishio, Tomoaki; Narikiyo, Osamu

    2013-02-01

    Based on the oligomer-world hypothesis we propose an abstract model where the molecular recognition among oligomers is described in the shape space. The origin of life in the oligomer world is regarded as the establishment of a metabolic cycle in a primitive cell. The cycle is sustained by the molecular recognition. If an original cell acquires the ability of the replication of oligomers, the relationship among oligomers changes due to the poor fidelity of the replication. This change leads to the diversification of metabolic cycles. The selection among diverse cycles is the basis of the evolution. The evolvability is one of the essential characters of life. We demonstrate the origin and diversification of the metabolic cycle by the computer simulation of our model. Such a simulation is expected to be the simplified demonstration of what actually occurred in the primordial soup. Our model describes an analog era preceding the digital era based on the genetic code.

  7. Atomic View of a Toxic Amyloid Small Oligomer

    SciTech Connect

    Laganowsky, Arthur; Liu, Cong; Sawaya, Michael R.; Whitelegge, Julian P.; Park, Jiyong; Zhao, Minglei; Pensalfini, Anna; Soriaga, Angela B.; Landau, Meytal; Teng, Poh K.; Cascio, Duilio; Glabe, Charles; Eisenberg, David

    2012-04-30

    Amyloid diseases, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and the prion conditions, are each associated with a particular protein in fibrillar form. These amyloid fibrils were long suspected to be the disease agents, but evidence suggests that smaller, often transient and polymorphic oligomers are the toxic entities. Here, we identify a segment of the amyloid-forming protein {alpha}{beta} crystallin, which forms an oligomeric complex exhibiting properties of other amyloid oligomers: {beta}-sheet-rich structure, cytotoxicity, and recognition by an oligomer-specific antibody. The x-ray-derived atomic structure of the oligomer reveals a cylindrical barrel, formed from six antiparallel protein strands, that we term a cylindrin. The cylindrin structure is compatible with a sequence segment from the {beta}-amyloid protein of Alzheimer's disease. Cylindrins offer models for the hitherto elusive structures of amyloid oligomers.

  8. Non-aqueous dispersion coatings based on crystalline oligomers

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, F.N.

    1993-12-31

    Amorphous oligomers and polymers are generally used in coatings; crystalline ones are avoided because of the difficulty of achieving homogeneous, defect-free films. However, dispersions of crystalline oligomers offer potential advantages of stability, useful application rheology, and excellent film properties. The authors describe non-aqueous dispersions of mixtures of crystalline and amorphous oligomers. An example is a dispersion of mixtures of crystalline (at ambient temperature) hydroxyl-functional oligomer of terephthalic acid and 1,6-hexanediol mixed with an amorphous hydroxyl-functional oligomer of terephthalic acid and glycidyl neodecanote. Microscopy, WAXD and DSC indicate that the dispersion particles are crystalline and have a diameter of 5 to 20 {mu}m. The dispersions are stable and are thixotropic. Coatings formulated with melamine and polyisocyanate resin crosslinkers form glossy, transparent film with excellent mechanical properties.

  9. Glucosamine oligomers: 4. Solid state-crystallization and sustained dissolution.

    PubMed

    Domard, A; Cartier, N

    1992-04-01

    When glucosamine oligomers are stored in the solid state they undergo a process of crystallization. The extent to which this occurs depends on whether the samples are isolated in the -NH3+ or -NH2 form, on the storage time, and on the degree of polymerization of the isolated oligomer. The allomorph obtained by this process seems to correspond to the so-called 'tendon-chitosan'. Dissolution of such aged oligomer samples gives rise to a process of dissociation of the associated chains in the crystal, leading to the establishment of a pseudo-equilibrium between single and associated oligomer chains and hence the simultaneous presence of the 'monomeric', 'dimeric', 'trimeric', etc., forms of the oligomer. The phenomenon cannot be attributed to a process of aggregation in solution. The effects of various parameters on this behaviour have been investigated.

  10. High-resolution NMR characterization of low abundance oligomers of amyloid-β without purification.

    PubMed

    Kotler, Samuel A; Brender, Jeffrey R; Vivekanandan, Subramanian; Suzuki, Yuta; Yamamoto, Kazutoshi; Monette, Martine; Krishnamoorthy, Janarthanan; Walsh, Patrick; Cauble, Meagan; Holl, Mark M Banaszak; Marsh, E Neil G; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2015-07-03

    Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the misfolding and self-assembly of the amyloidogenic protein amyloid-β (Aβ). The aggregation of Aβ leads to diverse oligomeric states, each of which may be potential targets for intervention. Obtaining insight into Aβ oligomers at the atomic level has been a major challenge to most techniques. Here, we use magic angle spinning recoupling (1)H-(1)H NMR experiments to overcome many of these limitations. Using (1)H-(1)H dipolar couplings as a NMR spectral filter to remove both high and low molecular weight species, we provide atomic-level characterization of a non-fibrillar aggregation product of the Aβ1-40 peptide using non-frozen samples without isotopic labeling. Importantly, this spectral filter allows the detection of the specific oligomer signal without a separate purification procedure. In comparison to other solid-state NMR techniques, the experiment is extraordinarily selective and sensitive. A resolved 2D spectra could be acquired of a small population of oligomers (6 micrograms, 7% of the total) amongst a much larger population of monomers and fibers (93% of the total). By coupling real-time (1)H-(1)H NMR experiments with other biophysical measurements, we show that a stable, primarily disordered Aβ1-40 oligomer 5-15 nm in diameter can form and coexist in parallel with the well-known cross-β-sheet fibrils.

  11. Optimization of the All-D Peptide D3 for Aβ Oligomer Elimination.

    PubMed

    Klein, Antonia Nicole; Ziehm, Tamar; Tusche, Markus; Buitenhuis, Johan; Bartnik, Dirk; Boeddrich, Annett; Wiglenda, Thomas; Wanker, Erich; Funke, Susanne Aileen; Brener, Oleksandr; Gremer, Lothar; Kutzsche, Janine; Willbold, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    The aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) is postulated to be the crucial event in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In particular, small neurotoxic Aβ oligomers are considered to be responsible for the development and progression of AD. Therefore, elimination of thesis oligomers represents a potential causal therapy of AD. Starting from the well-characterized d-enantiomeric peptide D3, we identified D3 derivatives that bind monomeric Aβ. The underlying hypothesis is that ligands bind monomeric Aβ and stabilize these species within the various equilibria with Aβ assemblies, leading ultimately to the elimination of Aβ oligomers. One of the hereby identified d-peptides, DB3, and a head-to-tail tandem of DB3, DB3DB3, were studied in detail. Both peptides were found to: (i) inhibit the formation of Thioflavin T-positive fibrils; (ii) bind to Aβ monomers with micromolar affinities; (iii) eliminate Aβ oligomers; (iv) reduce Aβ-induced cytotoxicity; and (v) disassemble preformed Aβ aggregates. The beneficial effects of DB3 were improved by DB3DB3, which showed highly enhanced efficacy. Our approach yielded Aβ monomer-stabilizing ligands that can be investigated as a suitable therapeutic strategy against AD.

  12. High-resolution NMR characterization of low abundance oligomers of amyloid-β without purification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotler, Samuel A.; Brender, Jeffrey R.; Vivekanandan, Subramanian; Suzuki, Yuta; Yamamoto, Kazutoshi; Monette, Martine; Krishnamoorthy, Janarthanan; Walsh, Patrick; Cauble, Meagan; Holl, Mark M. Banaszak; Marsh, E. Neil. G.; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2015-07-01

    Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by the misfolding and self-assembly of the amyloidogenic protein amyloid-β (Aβ). The aggregation of Aβ leads to diverse oligomeric states, each of which may be potential targets for intervention. Obtaining insight into Aβ oligomers at the atomic level has been a major challenge to most techniques. Here, we use magic angle spinning recoupling 1H-1H NMR experiments to overcome many of these limitations. Using 1H-1H dipolar couplings as a NMR spectral filter to remove both high and low molecular weight species, we provide atomic-level characterization of a non-fibrillar aggregation product of the Aβ1-40 peptide using non-frozen samples without isotopic labeling. Importantly, this spectral filter allows the detection of the specific oligomer signal without a separate purification procedure. In comparison to other solid-state NMR techniques, the experiment is extraordinarily selective and sensitive. A resolved 2D spectra could be acquired of a small population of oligomers (6 micrograms, 7% of the total) amongst a much larger population of monomers and fibers (93% of the total). By coupling real-time 1H-1H NMR experiments with other biophysical measurements, we show that a stable, primarily disordered Aβ1-40 oligomer 5-15 nm in diameter can form and coexist in parallel with the well-known cross-β-sheet fibrils.

  13. The Volumetric Diversity of Misfolded Prion Protein Oligomers Revealed by Pressure Dissociation*

    PubMed Central

    Torrent, Joan; Lange, Reinhard; Rezaei, Human

    2015-01-01

    Protein oligomerization has been associated with a wide range of diseases. High pressure approaches offer a powerful tool for deciphering the underlying molecular mechanisms by revealing volume changes associated with the misfolding and assembly reactions. We applied high pressure to induce conformational changes in three distinct β-sheet-rich oligomers of the prion protein PrP, a protein characterized by a variety of infectious quaternary structures that can propagate stably and faithfully and cause diseases with specific phenotypic traits. We show that pressure induces dissociation of the oligomers and leads to a lower volume monomeric PrP state that refolds into the native conformation after pressure release. By measuring the different pressure and temperature sensitivity of the tested PrP oligomers, we demonstrate significantly different void volumes in their quaternary structure. In addition, by focusing on the kinetic and energetic behavior of the pressure-induced dissociation of one specific PrP oligomer, we reveal a large negative activation volume and an increase in both apparent activation enthalpy and entropy. This suggests a transition state ensemble that is less structured and significantly more hydrated than the oligomeric state. Finally, we found that site-specific fluorescent labeling allows monitoring of the transient population of a kinetic intermediate in the dissociation reaction. Our results indicate that defects in atomic packing may deserve consideration as a new factor that influences differences between PrP assemblies and that could be relevant also for explaining the origin of prion strains. PMID:26126829

  14. Facile Synthesis of Highly Crystalline and Large Areal Hexagonal Boron Nitride from Borazine Oligomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sungchan; Seo, Tae Hoon; Cho, Hyunjin; Min, Kyung Hyun; Lee, Dong Su; Won, Dong-Il; Kang, Sang Ook; Kim, Myung Jong

    2017-01-01

    A novel and facile synthetic method for h-BN films from borazine oligomer (B3N3H4)x precursors has been developed. This method only includes spin-coating of borazine oligomer onto nickel catalysts and a subsequent annealing step. Large areal and highly crystalline h-BN films were obtained. The stoichiometric B/N ratio of borazine oligomer precursor was preserved in the final h-BN product such that it was close to 1 as revealed by XPS. Catalytic effect of nickel for h-BN formation was clearly demonstrated by lowering crystallization temperature compared to the growth condition in the absence of catalyst. The graphene field effect transistor (GFET) characterization has proved the high quality synthesis of h-BN films, showing the shift of neutrality point and the increase of the mobility. This method can also provide functional h-BN coating on various surfaces by annealing Ni-coated borazine oligomer films and subsequent removal of Ni catalyst.

  15. Facile Synthesis of Highly Crystalline and Large Areal Hexagonal Boron Nitride from Borazine Oligomers.

    PubMed

    Park, Sungchan; Seo, Tae Hoon; Cho, Hyunjin; Min, Kyung Hyun; Lee, Dong Su; Won, Dong-Il; Kang, Sang Ook; Kim, Myung Jong

    2017-01-11

    A novel and facile synthetic method for h-BN films from borazine oligomer (B3N3H4)x precursors has been developed. This method only includes spin-coating of borazine oligomer onto nickel catalysts and a subsequent annealing step. Large areal and highly crystalline h-BN films were obtained. The stoichiometric B/N ratio of borazine oligomer precursor was preserved in the final h-BN product such that it was close to 1 as revealed by XPS. Catalytic effect of nickel for h-BN formation was clearly demonstrated by lowering crystallization temperature compared to the growth condition in the absence of catalyst. The graphene field effect transistor (GFET) characterization has proved the high quality synthesis of h-BN films, showing the shift of neutrality point and the increase of the mobility. This method can also provide functional h-BN coating on various surfaces by annealing Ni-coated borazine oligomer films and subsequent removal of Ni catalyst.

  16. Facile Synthesis of Highly Crystalline and Large Areal Hexagonal Boron Nitride from Borazine Oligomers

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sungchan; Seo, Tae Hoon; Cho, Hyunjin; Min, Kyung Hyun; Lee, Dong Su; Won, Dong-Il; Kang, Sang Ook; Kim, Myung Jong

    2017-01-01

    A novel and facile synthetic method for h-BN films from borazine oligomer (B3N3H4)x precursors has been developed. This method only includes spin-coating of borazine oligomer onto nickel catalysts and a subsequent annealing step. Large areal and highly crystalline h-BN films were obtained. The stoichiometric B/N ratio of borazine oligomer precursor was preserved in the final h-BN product such that it was close to 1 as revealed by XPS. Catalytic effect of nickel for h-BN formation was clearly demonstrated by lowering crystallization temperature compared to the growth condition in the absence of catalyst. The graphene field effect transistor (GFET) characterization has proved the high quality synthesis of h-BN films, showing the shift of neutrality point and the increase of the mobility. This method can also provide functional h-BN coating on various surfaces by annealing Ni-coated borazine oligomer films and subsequent removal of Ni catalyst. PMID:28074854

  17. DOPAL derived alpha-synuclein oligomers impair synaptic vesicles physiological function

    PubMed Central

    Plotegher, N.; Berti, G.; Ferrari, E.; Tessari, I.; Zanetti, M.; Lunelli, L.; Greggio, E.; Bisaglia, M.; Veronesi, M.; Girotto, S.; Dalla Serra, M.; Perego, C.; Casella, L.; Bubacco, L.

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the death of dopaminergic neurons and by accumulation of alpha-synuclein (aS) aggregates in the surviving neurons. The dopamine catabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL) is a highly reactive and toxic molecule that leads to aS oligomerization by covalent modifications to lysine residues. Here we show that DOPAL-induced aS oligomer formation in neurons is associated with damage of synaptic vesicles, and with alterations in the synaptic vesicles pools. To investigate the molecular mechanism that leads to synaptic impairment, we first aimed to characterize the biochemical and biophysical properties of the aS-DOPAL oligomers; heterogeneous ensembles of macromolecules able to permeabilise cholesterol-containing lipid membranes. aS-DOPAL oligomers can induce dopamine leak in an in vitro model of synaptic vesicles and in cellular models. The dopamine released, after conversion to DOPAL in the cytoplasm, could trigger a noxious cycle that further fuels the formation of aS-DOPAL oligomers, inducing neurodegeneration. PMID:28084443

  18. Synthesis of a new π-conjugated redox oligomer: Electrochemical and optical investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blili, Saber; Zaâboub, Zouhour; Maaref, Hassen; Haj Said, Ayoub

    2017-01-01

    A new π-conjugated redox oligomer was prepared according a two-Step Synthesis. Firstly, an oligophenylene (OMPA) was obtained from the anodic oxidation of the (4-methoxyphenyl)acetonitrile. Then, the resulting material was chemically modified by the Knoevenagel condensation with the ferrocenecarboxaldehyde. This reaction led to a redox-conjugated oligomer the Fc-OMPA. The synthesized material was characterized using different spectroscopic techniques: NMR, FTIR, UV-vis and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The Fc-OMPA was used to modify a platinum electrode surface and the electrochemical response of the ferrocene redox-center was investigated by cyclic voltammetry. Moreover, the room temperature PL spectra of Fc-OMPA revealed that the ferrocene moiety, which acts as an electron donor, can effectively quench the oligomer luminescence. However, when ferrocene was oxidized to ferrocenium ion, the intramolecular charge transfer process was prevented which consequently enhanced the light emission. Thus, the oligomer light-emission can be, chemically or electrochemically tuned. The obtained results showed that the prepared material is a good candidate for the elaboration of electrochemical sensors and for the development of luminescent Redox-switchable devices.

  19. Huntingtin Fragments and SOD1 Mutants Form Soluble Oligomers in the Cell

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Mark; Taylor, J. Paul; Eisenberg, Evan; Greene, Lois E.

    2012-01-01

    Diffusion coefficients of huntingtin (Htt) fragments and SOD1 mutants expressed in cells were measured using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. The diffusion mobilities of both non-pathological Htt fragments (25 polyQs) and pathological Htt fragments (103 polyQs) were much slower than expected for monomers suggesting that they oligomerize. The mobility of these fragments was unaffected by duration of expression or by over-expression of Hsp70 and Hsp40. However in cells with HttQ103 inclusions, diffusion measurements showed that the residual cytosolic HttQ103 was monomeric. These results suggest that both non-pathological and pathological Htt fragments form soluble oligomers in the cytosol with the properties of the oligomers determining whether they cause pathology. SOD1 with point mutations (A4V, G37R, and G85R) also had slower diffusional mobility than the wild-type protein whose mobility was consistent with that of a dimer. However, the decrease in mobility of the different SOD1 mutantsdid not correlate with their known pathology. Therefore, while soluble oligomers always seem to be present under conditions where cell pathology occurs, the presence of the oligomers, in itself, does not determine the extent of neuropathology. PMID:22768276

  20. Irreversible formation of intermediate BSA oligomers requires and induces conformational changes.

    PubMed

    Vaiana, S M; Emanuele, A; Palma-Vittorelli, M B; Palma, M U

    2004-06-01

    Understanding the relation between protein conformational changes and aggregation, and the physical mechanisms leading to such processes, is of primary importance, due to its direct relation to a vast class of severe pathologies. Growing evidence also suggests that oligomeric intermediates, which may occur early in the aggregation pathway, can be themselves pathogenic. The possible cytotoxicity of oligomers of non-disease-associated proteins adds generality to such suggestion and to the interest of studies of oligomer formation. Here we study the early stages of aggregation of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA), a non pathogenic protein which has proved to be a useful model system. Dynamic light scattering and circular dichroism measurements in kinetic experiments following step-wise temperature rises, show that the "intermediate" form, which initiates large-scale aggregation, is the result of structural and conformational changes and concurrent formation of oligomers, of average size in the range of 100-200 A. Two distinct thresholds are observed. Beyond the first one oligomerization starts and causes partial irreversibility of conformational changes. Beyond the second threshold, additional secondary structural changes occurring in proteins being recruited progress on the same time scale of oligomerization. The concurrent behavior causes a mutual stabilization of oligomerization, and of structural and conformational changes, evidenced by a progressive increase of their irreversibility. This process interaction appears to be pivotal in producing irreversible oligomers. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Cytotoxic Helix-Rich Oligomer Formation by Melittin and Pancreatic Polypeptide

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Pradeep K.; Ghosh, Dhiman; Tewari, Debanjan; Mohite, Ganesh M.; Carvalho, Edmund; Jha, Narendra Nath; Jacob, Reeba S.; Sahay, Shruti; Banerjee, Rinti; Bera, Amal K.; Maji, Samir K.

    2015-01-01

    Conversion of amyloid fibrils by many peptides/proteins involves cytotoxic helix-rich oligomers. However, their toxicity and biophysical studies remain largely unknown due to their highly dynamic nature. To address this, we chose two helical peptides (melittin, Mel and pancreatic polypeptide, PP) and studied their aggregation and toxicity. Mel converted its random coil structure to oligomeric helical structure upon binding to heparin; however, PP remained as helix after oligomerization. Interestingly, similar to Parkinson’s associated α-synuclein (AS) oligomers, Mel and PP also showed tinctorial properties, higher hydrophobic surface exposure, cellular toxicity and membrane pore formation after oligomerization in the presence of heparin. We suggest that helix-rich oligomers with exposed hydrophobic surface are highly cytotoxic to cells irrespective of their disease association. Moreover as Mel and PP (in the presence of heparin) instantly self-assemble into stable helix-rich amyloidogenic oligomers; they could be represented as models for understanding the biophysical and cytotoxic properties of helix-rich intermediates in detail. PMID:25803428

  2. Complement Protein C1q Forms a Complex with Cytotoxic Prion Protein Oligomers

    PubMed Central

    Erlich, Paul; Dumestre-Pérard, Chantal; Ling, Wai Li; Lemaire-Vieille, Catherine; Schoehn, Guy; Arlaud, Gérard J.; Thielens, Nicole M.; Gagnon, Jean; Cesbron, Jean-Yves

    2010-01-01

    A growing number of studies have investigated the interaction between C1q and PrP, but the oligomeric form of PrP involved in this interaction remains to be determined. Aggregation of recombinant full-length murine PrP in the presence of 100 mm NaCl allowed us to isolate three different types of oligomers by size-exclusion chromatography. In contrast to PrP monomers and fibrils, these oligomers activate the classical complement pathway, the smallest species containing 8–15 PrP protomers being the most efficient. We used Thioflavine T fluorescence to monitor PrP aggregation and showed that, when added to the reaction, C1q has a cooperative effect on PrP aggregation and leads to the formation of C1q-PrP complexes. In these complexes, C1q interacts through its globular domains preferentially with the smallest oligomers, as shown by electron microscopy, and retains the ability to activate the classical complement pathway. Using two cell lines, we also provide evidence that C1q inhibits the cytotoxicity induced by the smallest PrP oligomers. The cooperative interaction between C1q and PrP could represent an early step in the disease, where it prevents elimination of the prion seed, leading to further aggregation. PMID:20410306

  3. Optimization of the All-D Peptide D3 for Aβ Oligomer Elimination

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Antonia Nicole; Ziehm, Tamar; Tusche, Markus; Buitenhuis, Johan; Bartnik, Dirk; Boeddrich, Annett; Wiglenda, Thomas; Wanker, Erich; Funke, Susanne Aileen; Brener, Oleksandr; Gremer, Lothar; Kutzsche, Janine; Willbold, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    The aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) is postulated to be the crucial event in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In particular, small neurotoxic Aβ oligomers are considered to be responsible for the development and progression of AD. Therefore, elimination of thesis oligomers represents a potential causal therapy of AD. Starting from the well-characterized d-enantiomeric peptide D3, we identified D3 derivatives that bind monomeric Aβ. The underlying hypothesis is that ligands bind monomeric Aβ and stabilize these species within the various equilibria with Aβ assemblies, leading ultimately to the elimination of Aβ oligomers. One of the hereby identified d-peptides, DB3, and a head-to-tail tandem of DB3, DB3DB3, were studied in detail. Both peptides were found to: (i) inhibit the formation of Thioflavin T-positive fibrils; (ii) bind to Aβ monomers with micromolar affinities; (iii) eliminate Aβ oligomers; (iv) reduce Aβ-induced cytotoxicity; and (v) disassemble preformed Aβ aggregates. The beneficial effects of DB3 were improved by DB3DB3, which showed highly enhanced efficacy. Our approach yielded Aβ monomer-stabilizing ligands that can be investigated as a suitable therapeutic strategy against AD. PMID:27105346

  4. High-resolution NMR characterization of low abundance oligomers of amyloid-β without purification

    PubMed Central

    Kotler, Samuel A.; Brender, Jeffrey R.; Vivekanandan, Subramanian; Suzuki, Yuta; Yamamoto, Kazutoshi; Monette, Martine; Krishnamoorthy, Janarthanan; Walsh, Patrick; Cauble, Meagan; Holl, Mark M. Banaszak; Marsh, E. Neil. G.; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by the misfolding and self-assembly of the amyloidogenic protein amyloid-β (Aβ). The aggregation of Aβ leads to diverse oligomeric states, each of which may be potential targets for intervention. Obtaining insight into Aβ oligomers at the atomic level has been a major challenge to most techniques. Here, we use magic angle spinning recoupling 1H-1H NMR experiments to overcome many of these limitations. Using 1H-1H dipolar couplings as a NMR spectral filter to remove both high and low molecular weight species, we provide atomic-level characterization of a non-fibrillar aggregation product of the Aβ1-40 peptide using non-frozen samples without isotopic labeling. Importantly, this spectral filter allows the detection of the specific oligomer signal without a separate purification procedure. In comparison to other solid-state NMR techniques, the experiment is extraordinarily selective and sensitive. A resolved 2D spectra could be acquired of a small population of oligomers (6 micrograms, 7% of the total) amongst a much larger population of monomers and fibers (93% of the total). By coupling real-time 1H-1H NMR experiments with other biophysical measurements, we show that a stable, primarily disordered Aβ1-40 oligomer 5–15 nm in diameter can form and coexist in parallel with the well-known cross-β-sheet fibrils. PMID:26138908

  5. High-Capacity Conductive Nanocellulose Paper Sheets for Electrochemically Controlled Extraction of DNA Oligomers

    PubMed Central

    Razaq, Aamir; Nyström, Gustav; Strømme, Maria; Mihranyan, Albert; Nyholm, Leif

    2011-01-01

    Highly porous polypyrrole (PPy)-nanocellulose paper sheets have been evaluated as inexpensive and disposable electrochemically controlled three-dimensional solid phase extraction materials. The composites, which had a total anion exchange capacity of about 1.1 mol kg−1, were used for extraction and subsequent release of negatively charged fluorophore tagged DNA oligomers via galvanostatic oxidation and reduction of a 30–50 nm conformal PPy layer on the cellulose substrate. The ion exchange capacity, which was, at least, two orders of magnitude higher than those previously reached in electrochemically controlled extraction, originated from the high surface area (i.e. 80 m2 g−1) of the porous composites and the thin PPy layer which ensured excellent access to the ion exchange material. This enabled the extractions to be carried out faster and with better control of the PPy charge than with previously employed approaches. Experiments in equimolar mixtures of (dT)6, (dT)20, and (dT)40 DNA oligomers showed that all oligomers could be extracted, and that the smallest oligomer was preferentially released with an efficiency of up to 40% during the reduction of the PPy layer. These results indicate that the present material is very promising for the development of inexpensive and efficient electrochemically controlled ion-exchange membranes for batch-wise extraction of biomolecules. PMID:22195031

  6. DOPAL derived alpha-synuclein oligomers impair synaptic vesicles physiological function.

    PubMed

    Plotegher, N; Berti, G; Ferrari, E; Tessari, I; Zanetti, M; Lunelli, L; Greggio, E; Bisaglia, M; Veronesi, M; Girotto, S; Dalla Serra, M; Perego, C; Casella, L; Bubacco, L

    2017-01-13

    Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the death of dopaminergic neurons and by accumulation of alpha-synuclein (aS) aggregates in the surviving neurons. The dopamine catabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL) is a highly reactive and toxic molecule that leads to aS oligomerization by covalent modifications to lysine residues. Here we show that DOPAL-induced aS oligomer formation in neurons is associated with damage of synaptic vesicles, and with alterations in the synaptic vesicles pools. To investigate the molecular mechanism that leads to synaptic impairment, we first aimed to characterize the biochemical and biophysical properties of the aS-DOPAL oligomers; heterogeneous ensembles of macromolecules able to permeabilise cholesterol-containing lipid membranes. aS-DOPAL oligomers can induce dopamine leak in an in vitro model of synaptic vesicles and in cellular models. The dopamine released, after conversion to DOPAL in the cytoplasm, could trigger a noxious cycle that further fuels the formation of aS-DOPAL oligomers, inducing neurodegeneration.

  7. Tau oligomers and fibrils induce activation of microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Morales, Inelia; Jiménez, José M; Mancilla, Marcela; Maccioni, Ricardo B

    2013-01-01

    Neuroinflammation is a process related to the onset of several neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Increasing sets of evidence support the major role of deregulation of the interaction patterns between glial cells and neurons in the pathway toward neuronal degeneration, a process we are calling neuroimmunomodulation in AD. On the basis of the hypothesis that pathological tau aggregates induce microglial activation with the subsequent events of the neuroinflammatory cascade, we have studied the effects of tau oligomeric species and filamentous structures over microglial cells in vitro. Tau oligomers and fibrils were induced by arachidonic acid and then their actions assayed upon addition to microglial cells. We showed activation of the microglia, with significant morphological alterations as analyzed by immunofluorescence. The augmentation of nitrites and the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 was evaluated in ELISA assays. Furthermore, conditioned media of stimulated microglia cells were exposed to hippocampal neurons generating altered patterns in these cells, including shortening of neuritic processes and cytoskeleton reorganization.

  8. Omega-3 fatty acid obtained from Nannochloropsis oceanica cultures grown under low urea protect against Abeta-induced neural damage.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ying-Jang

    2015-05-01

    Amyloid-beta (Abeta) protein is a key factor in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Moreover, it has been reported that oxidative stress is involved in the biochemical pathway by which Abeta can lead to neuronal dysfunction. Recently, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5n-3) have been reported to protect against AD. However, these omega-3 fatty acids are frequently obtained from fish oil and may contain heavy metals. In this study, we utilized Nannochloropsis oceanica to produce omega-3 fatty acid. We observed that when urea levels (nitrogen source) were lowered from 2 to 0.2 g/L in Nannochloropsis oceanica cultures, EPA production increased. Moreover, EPA in Nannochloropsis oceanica effectively promoted antioxidant activity to counter the Abeta-induced oxidative stress in Neuro-2A cells. These results indicate that Nannochloropsis oceanica may be potentially used as a therapeutic agent or as a functional food that promotes protection against AD.

  9. Relative Orientation of Imidazole Ligands in Cu(II) Model and Abeta peptides Complexes revealed by ESEEM Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Jessica; Sun, Li; Warncke, Kurt

    2009-11-01

    Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is associated with the aggregation and fibrillization of the beta-amyloid protein (Abeta). The coordination of Cu(II) by peptide histidine imidazole sidechains is proposed to play an important role in determining the fibrillization ``switch'' [1]. We have developed techniques of X-band electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) spectroscopy to determine the molecular structure of the Cu(II)-histidine imidazole coordination in cryotrapped soluble and fibrillar forms of Abeta peptides, in order to gain insight into the factors that govern fibrillization. Focusing on the ESEEM double quantum harmonic feature, we use our hybrid optimization-based OPTESIM simulation software [2] to determine the mutual orientation of the imidazole rings in Cu(II)--bis-imidazole complexes that include cis- versus trans- coordination. The technique has been applied to Abeta(13-21) peptide to reveal the Cu(II) coordination mode in fibrils. [1] Dong , J., et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 2007, 104, 13313. [2] Sun, L., et al., J. Magn. Reson. 2009, 200, 21

  10. Prevention of amyloid-beta oligomer-induced neuronal death by EGTA, estradiol, and endocytosis inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Cižas, Paulius; Jekabsonė, Aistė; Borutaitė, Vilmantė; Morkūnienė, Ramunė

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE. Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that is biochemically characterized by the accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides in the brain. The current hypothesis suggests that Aβ oligomers rather than fibrillar aggregates are the most toxic species of Aβ though the mechanisms of their neurotoxicity are unclear. The authors have previously shown that small Aβ(1-42) oligomers at around 1 µM concentration caused rapid (in 24 h) neuronal death in cerebellar granule cell (CGC) cultures. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether protracted (up to 7 days) incubation of CGC cultures with lower submicromolar concentration of various aggregates of Aβ(1-42) had an effect on viability of neurons. In order to get some insight into the mechanism of Aβ-induced cell death, we also sought to determine whether extracellular Ca(2+) and process of endocytosis contributed to Aβ oligomer-induced neurotoxicity and whether pharmacological interventions into these processes would prevent Aβ oligomer-induced cell death. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Primary cultures of CGC were treated with various aggregate forms of Aβ(1-42). Cell viability was assessed by fluorescent microscopy using propidium iodide and Hoechst 33342 staining. RESULTS. Exposure of neurons to 500 nM Aβ(1-42) oligomers for 72-168 h caused extensive neuronal necrosis. Lower concentrations (100-250 nM) were not toxic to cells during 7 days of incubation. Aβ(1-42) monomers and fibrils had no effect on neuronal viability even after 7 days of incubation. Treatment of neurons with EGTA, steroid hormone 17β-estradiol, and methyl-β-cyclodextrin significantly reduced Aβ(1-42) oligomers-induced neuronal death. CONCLUSIONS. The results show that submicromolar concentrations of Aβ(1-42) oligomers were highly toxic to neurons during protracted incubation inducing neuronal necrosis that can be prevented by chelating extracellular Ca(2+) with EGTA, inhibiting endocytosis with

  11. Elucidation of insulin assembly at acidic and neutral pH: Characterization of low molecular weight oligomers.

    PubMed

    Mawhinney, Matthew T; Williams, Thomas L; Hart, James L; Taheri, Mitra L; Urbanc, Brigita

    2017-08-10

    Deficiency in insulin secretion and function that characterize type 2 diabetes often requires administration of extraneous insulin, leading to injection-site amyloidosis. Insulin aggregation at neutral pH is not well understood. Although oligomer formation is believed to play an important role, insulin oligomers have not been fully characterized yet. Here, we elucidate similarities and differences between in vitro insulin aggregation at acidic and neutral pH for a range of insulin concentrations (2.5-100 μM) by using kinetic thioflavin T fluorescence, circular dichroism, atomic force and electron microscopy imaging. Importantly, we characterize the size distribution of insulin oligomers at different assembly stages by the application of covalent cross-linking and gel electrophoresis. Our results show that at the earliest assembly stage, oligomers comprise up to 40% and 70% of soluble insulin at acidic and neutral pH, respectively. While the highest oligomer order increases with insulin concentration at acidic pH, the opposite tendency is observed at neutral pH, where oligomers up to heptamers are formed in 10 μM insulin. These findings suggest that oligomers may be on- and off-pathway assemblies for insulin at acidic and neutral pH, respectively. Agitation, which is required to induce insulin aggregation at neutral pH, is shown to increase fibril formation rate and fibrillar mass both by an order of magnitude. Insulin incubated under agitated conditions at neutral pH rapidly aggregates into large micrometer-sized aggregates, which may be of physiological relevance and provides insight into injection-site amyloidosis and toxic pulmonary aggregates induced by administration of extraneous insulin. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Detection of α-synuclein oligomers in red blood cells as a potential biomarker of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuemei; Yu, Shun; Li, Fangfei; Feng, Tao

    2015-07-10

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by intracellular α-synuclein (α-syn) deposition. Alterations in α-syn levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma of PD patients have been thought to be potential PD biomarkers; however, contamination arising from hemolysis often influences the accuracy of detecting α-syn levels in the CSF and plasma. In this study, α-syn oligomer levels in red blood cells (RBCs) obtained from 100 PD patients, 22 MSA patients, and 102 control subjects were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We showed that the ratio of α-syn oligomer/total RBC protein was higher in PD patients than in controls (29.0±19.8 ng/mg vs. 15.4±7.4 ng/mg, P<0.001). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) indicated a sensitivity of 79.0%, specificity of 64.7% and a positive predictive value of 68.7%, with an AUC of 0.76 for increased α-syn oligomer/total RBC protein ratio. However, there was no correlation between RBC α-syn oligomer levels and age at onset, disease duration, age, UPDRS motor scale score or progression of motor degeneration in PD patients. The ratio of RBC α-syn oligomer/total protein was also higher in MSA patients than in controls (22.9±13.9 ng/mg vs. 15.4±7.4 ng/mg, P<0.001). However, no significant difference was found for α-syn oligomer/total protein ratio between PD and MSA (29.0±19.8 ng/mg vs. 22.9±13.9 ng/mg, P>0.05). The present results suggest that the RBC α-syn oligomer/total protein ratio can be a potential diagnostic biomarker for PD.

  13. Novel chemo-enzymatic oligomers of cinnamic acids as direct and indirect inhibitors of coagulation proteinases.

    PubMed

    Monien, Bernhard H; Henry, Brian L; Raghuraman, Arjun; Hindle, Michael; Desai, Umesh R

    2006-12-01

    Thrombin and factor Xa, two important procoagulant enzymes, have been prime targets for regulation of clotting through the direct and indirect mechanism of inhibition. Our efforts on exploiting the indirect mechanism led us to study a carboxylic acid-based scaffold, which displayed major acceleration in the inhibition of these enzymes [J. Med. Chem.2005, 48, 1269, 5360]. This work advances the study to chemo-enzymatically prepared oligomers of 4-hydroxycinnamic acids, DHPs, which display interesting anticoagulant properties. Oligomers, ranging in size from tetramers to pentadecamers, were prepared through peroxidase-catalyzed oxidative coupling of caffeic, ferulic, and sinapic acids, and sulfated using triethylamine-sulfur trioxide complex. Chromatographic, spectroscopic, and elemental studies suggest that the DHPs are heterogeneous, polydisperse preparations composed of inter-monomer linkages similar to those found in natural lignins. Measurement of activated thromboplastin and prothrombin time indicates that both the sulfated and unsulfated derivatives of the DHPs display anticoagulant activity, which is dramatically higher than that of the reference polyacrylic acids. More interestingly, this activity approaches that of low-molecular-weight heparin with the sulfated derivative showing approximately 2- to 3-fold greater potency than the unsulfated parent. Studies on the inhibition of factor Xa and thrombin indicate that the oligomers exert their anticoagulant effect through both direct and indirect inhibition mechanisms. This dual inhibition property of 4-hydroxycinnamic acid-based DHP oligomers is the first example in inhibitors of coagulation. This work puts forward a novel, non-heparin structure, which may be exploited for the design of potent, dual action inhibitors of coagulation through combinatorial virtual screening on a library of DHP oligomers.

  14. PrPSc-Specific Antibodies with the Ability to Immunodetect Prion Oligomers

    PubMed Central

    Tayebi, Mourad; Jones, Daryl Rhys; Taylor, William Alexander; Stileman, Benjamin Frederick; Chapman, Charlotte; Zhao, Deming; David, Monique

    2011-01-01

    The development of antibodies with binding capacity towards soluble oligomeric forms of PrPSc recognised in the aggregation process in early stage of the disease would be of paramount importance in diagnosing prion diseases before extensive neuropathology has ensued. As blood transfusion appears to be efficient in the transmission of the infectious prion agent, there is an urgent need to develop reagents that would specifically recognize oligomeric forms of the abnormally folded prion protein, PrPSc. To that end, we show that anti-PrP monoclonal antibodies (called PRIOC mAbs) derived from mice immunised with native PrP-coated microbeads are able to immunodetect oligomers/multimers of PrPSc. Oligomer-specific immunoreactivity displayed by these PRIOC mAbs was demonstrated as large aggregates of immunoreactive deposits in prion-permissive neuroblastoma cell lines but not in equivalent non-infected or prn-p0/0 cell lines. In contrast, an anti-monomer PrP antibody displayed diffuse immunoreactivity restricted to the cell membrane. Furthermore, our PRIOC mAbs did not display any binding with monomeric recombinant and cellular prion proteins but strongly detected PrPSc oligomers as shown by a newly developed sensitive and specific ELISA. Finally, PrioC antibodies were also able to bind soluble oligomers formed of Aβ and α-synuclein. These findings demonstrate the potential use of anti-prion antibodies that bind PrPSc oligomers, recognised in early stage of the disease, for the diagnosis of prion diseases in blood and other body fluids. PMID:21625515

  15. Pycnoporus laccase-mediated bioconversion of rutin to oligomers suitable for biotechnology applications.

    PubMed

    Uzan, Eva; Portet, Bénédicte; Lubrano, Christian; Milesi, Sandrine; Favel, Anne; Lesage-Meessen, Laurence; Lomascolo, Anne

    2011-04-01

    The Pycnoporus fungi are white-rot basidiomycetes listed as food- and cosmetic-grade microorganisms. Three high redox potential laccases from Pycnoporus coccineus and Pycnoporus sanguineus were tested and compared, with the commercial Suberase® as reference, for their ability to synthesise natural active oligomers from rutin (quercetin-3-rutinoside, one of the best-known naturally occurring flavonoid glycosides). The aim of this work was to develop a process with technical parameters (solvent, temperature, reaction time and raw materials) that were easy to scale up for industrial production and compatible with cosmetic and pharmaceutical formulation guidelines. The aqueous mixture of glycerol/ethanol/buffer described in this study met this requirement and allowed the solubilisation of rutin and its oxidative bioconversion into oligomers. The four flavonoid oligomer mixtures synthesised using laccases as catalysts were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-negative electrospray ionisation-multistage mass spectrometry. Their chromatographic elution profiles were compared and 16 compounds were characterised and identified as dimers and trimers of rutin. The oligorutins were different in Suberase® and Pycnoporus laccase reaction mixtures. They were evaluated for their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-ageing activities on specific enzymatic targets such as cyclooxygenase (COX-2) and human matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP-3). Expressed in terms of IC(50), the flavonoid oligomers displayed a 2.5- to 3-fold higher superoxide scavenging activity than monomeric rutin. Pycnoporus laccase and Suberase® oligorutins led to an inhibition of COX-2 of about 35% and 70%, respectively, while monomeric rutin showed a near-negligible inhibition effect, less than about 10%. The best results on MMP-3 activity were obtained with rutin oligomers from P. sanguineus IMB W006-2 laccase and Suberase® with about 70-75% inhibition.

  16. Soluble Aβ oligomer production and toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Megan E.; Lesné, Sylvain E.

    2011-01-01

    For nearly 100 years following the first description of this neurological disorder by Dr. Alois Alzheimer, amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles have been hypothesized to cause neuronal loss. With evidence that the extent of insoluble, deposited amyloid poorly correlated with cognitive impairment, research efforts focused on soluble forms of Aβ, also referred as Aβ oligomers. Following a decade of studies, soluble oligomeric forms of Aβ are now believed to induce the deleterious cascade(s) involved in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s disease. In this review, we will discuss our current understanding about endogenous oligomeric Aβ production, their relative toxicity in vivo and in vitro, and explore the potential future directions needed for the field. PMID:22121920

  17. First-principles simulations of thiophene oligomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherlis, Damian; Marzari, Nicola

    2003-03-01

    Conducting polymers, extensively investigated for their use in electronic and nanotechnology applications, have recently gained prominence for their possible use as molecular actuators in mechanical and bioengineering devices. We have focused our efforts on thiophene-based compounds, a class of materials that can be designed for high stress generation and large linear displacement (actuation strain), ideally outperforming mammalian muscle. Key features for the development of these materials are the microscopic binding properties of thiophene and thiophene oligomers stacks, where applied electric fields lead to oxidation and enhanced pi-pi bonding. We have completed the structural studies of neutral and charged oligothiophene dimers, in the search for efficient dimerization mechanisms. A comparison between different density-functional and quantum-chemistry approaches is critically presented, as are solvation effects, described in this work with a combination of first-principles molecular dynamics and a QM/MM approach for the solvating medium.

  18. Searching for disease modifiers-PKC activation and HDAC inhibition - a dual drug approach to Alzheimer's disease that decreases Abeta production while blocking oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Kozikowski, Alan P; Chen, Yihua; Subhasish, Tapadar; Lewin, Nancy E; Blumberg, Peter M; Zhong, Zhenyu; D'Annibale, Melissa A; Wang, Weng-Long; Shen, Yong; Langley, Brett

    2009-07-01

    A series of benzolactam compounds were synthesized, some of which caused a concentration-dependent increase in sAPPalpha and decrease in Abeta production in the concentration range of 0.1-10 microM. Moreover, some compounds showed neuroprotective effects in the 10-20 microM range in the HCA cortical neuron model of oxidative stress and no toxicity in measurements of neuron viability by MTT assay, even at the highest concentrations tested (20 microM). Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a well-studied neurodegenerative process characterized by the presence of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. In this study, a series of protein kinase C (PKC) activators were investigated, some of which also exhibit histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitory activity, under the hypothesis that such compounds might provide a new path forward in the discovery of drugs for the treatment of AD. The PKC-activating properties of these drugs were expected to enhance the alpha-secretase pathway in the processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP), while their HDAC inhibition was anticipated to confer neuroprotective activity. We found that benzolactams 9 and 11-14 caused a concentration-dependent increase in sAPPalpha and decrease in beta-amyloid (Abeta) production in the concentration range of 0.1-10 microM, consistent with a shift of APP metabolism toward the alpha-secretase-processing pathway. Moreover, compounds 9-14 showed neuroprotective effects in the 10-20 microM range in the homocysteate (HCA) cortical neuron model of oxidative stress. In parallel, we found that the most neuroprotective compounds caused increased levels of histone acetylation (H4), thus indicating their likely ability to inhibit HDAC activity. As the majority of the compounds studied also show nanomolar binding affinities for PKC, we conclude that it is possible to design, de novo, agents that combine both PKC-activating properties along with HDAC inhibitory properties. Such agents would be capable of modulating

  19. Dependence of antimicrobial selectivity and potency on oligomer structure investigated using substrate supported lipid bilayers and sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Avery, Christopher W; Som, Abhigyan; Xu, Yongjiang; Tew, Gregory N; Chen, Zhan

    2009-10-15

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy was used to study interactions between solid-supported lipid bilayers mimicking microbial and erythrocyte cellular membranes and synthetic antimicrobial arylamide oligomers named 2, 3, and 4, designed with the facial amphiphilicity common to naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides. The three compounds have the same backbone structure but varied side chains. The inherent interfacial sensitivity of SFG allowed for simultaneous monitoring of lipid ordering in the individual bilayer leaflets and orientation of 2, 3, and 4 upon interaction with the bilayer. Critical concentrations at which the inner leaflet is disrupted were determined for each oligomer. Spectral evidence of the oligomers' interaction with the bilayer below the critical concentrations was also found. Oligomers 2 and 3 tilted toward the bilayer surface normal, in agreement with previous experimental and simulation results. These oligomers selectively interact with microbial membrane models over erythrocyte membrane models, correlating well to previously published SFG studies on antimicrobial oligomer 1. It was shown that the oligomers interact with the lipid bilayers differently, indicating their different activity and selectivity. This research further shows that SFG is a particularly useful technique for the investigation of interaction mechanisms between cell membranes and membrane-active molecules. Additionally, SFG provides details of the specific interactions between these novel antimicrobials and lipid bilayers.

  20. Reduction of Abeta amyloid pathology in APPPS1 transgenic mice in the absence of gut microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Harach, T.; Marungruang, N.; Duthilleul, N.; Cheatham, V.; Mc Coy, K. D.; Frisoni, G.; Neher, J. J.; Fåk, F.; Jucker, M.; Lasser, T.; Bolmont, T.

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease is the most common form of dementia in the western world, however there is no cure available for this devastating neurodegenerative disorder. Despite clinical and experimental evidence implicating the intestinal microbiota in a number of brain disorders, its impact on Alzheimer’s disease is not known. To this end we sequenced bacterial 16S rRNA from fecal samples of Aβ precursor protein (APP) transgenic mouse model and found a remarkable shift in the gut microbiota as compared to non-transgenic wild-type mice. Subsequently we generated germ-free APP transgenic mice and found a drastic reduction of cerebral Aβ amyloid pathology when compared to control mice with intestinal microbiota. Importantly, colonization of germ-free APP transgenic mice with microbiota from conventionally-raised APP transgenic mice increased cerebral Aβ pathology, while colonization with microbiota from wild-type mice was less effective in increasing cerebral Aβ levels. Our results indicate a microbial involvement in the development of Abeta amyloid pathology, and suggest that microbiota may contribute to the development of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:28176819

  1. Reduction of Abeta amyloid pathology in APPPS1 transgenic mice in the absence of gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Harach, T; Marungruang, N; Duthilleul, N; Cheatham, V; Mc Coy, K D; Frisoni, G; Neher, J J; Fåk, F; Jucker, M; Lasser, T; Bolmont, T

    2017-02-08

    Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia in the western world, however there is no cure available for this devastating neurodegenerative disorder. Despite clinical and experimental evidence implicating the intestinal microbiota in a number of brain disorders, its impact on Alzheimer's disease is not known. To this end we sequenced bacterial 16S rRNA from fecal samples of Aβ precursor protein (APP) transgenic mouse model and found a remarkable shift in the gut microbiota as compared to non-transgenic wild-type mice. Subsequently we generated germ-free APP transgenic mice and found a drastic reduction of cerebral Aβ amyloid pathology when compared to control mice with intestinal microbiota. Importantly, colonization of germ-free APP transgenic mice with microbiota from conventionally-raised APP transgenic mice increased cerebral Aβ pathology, while colonization with microbiota from wild-type mice was less effective in increasing cerebral Aβ levels. Our results indicate a microbial involvement in the development of Abeta amyloid pathology, and suggest that microbiota may contribute to the development of neurodegenerative diseases.

  2. Effect of shear on the desorption of oligomers in nanoscopically confined films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manias, E.; Hadziioannou, G.; ten Brinke, G.

    1994-07-01

    Bitsanis et al. J. Chem. Phys. 99, 5520 (1993) found that in nanoscopically confined films between strongly physisorbing surfaces chains with many contacts with the walls are irreversibly adsorbed. When shear is imposed to these systems molecular dynamics (MD) simulations show that the majority of the adsorbed oligomers adopts flat conformations on top of the walls. Although these conformations are characterized by high molecular adsorption energies, the same MD simulations show that desorption is strongly promoted by shear. The underlying mechanism is discussed.

  3. Pramipexole prevents neurotoxicity induced by oligomers of beta-amyloid.

    PubMed

    Uberti, Daniela; Bianchi, Irene; Olivari, Luca; Ferrari-Toninelli, Giulia; Canonico, PierLuigi; Memo, Maurizio

    2007-08-27

    Here we demonstrate that pramipexole, an antiparkinsonian dopamine receptor agonist drug, exerts neuroprotective effects against beta-amyloid neurotoxicity. Using a specific protocol to test individually oligomers, fibrils, or unaggregated amyloid beta-peptide, we found pramipexole able to protect cells against oligomers and fibrils. Unaggregated amyloid beta-peptide was found unable to cause cell death. Fibrils and oligomers were also found to produce elevated amount of free radicals, and this effect was prevented by pramipexole. We propose pramipexole may become in the future a coadjuvant in the treatment of neuropathologies, besides Parkinson's disease, where amyloid beta-peptide-mediated oxidative injury exerts a relevant role.

  4. The Essential Role of Soluble Aβ Oligomers in Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zi-Xuan; Tan, Lan; Liu, Jinyuan; Yu, Jin-Tai

    2016-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common neurodegenerative disease characterized by amyloid plaque and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT). With the finding that soluble nonfibrillar Aβ levels actually correlate strongly with the severity of the disease, the initial focus on amyloid plaques shifted to the contemporary concept that AD memory failure is caused by soluble Aβ oligomers. The soluble Aβ are known to be more neurotoxicthan fibrillar Aβ species. In this paper, we summarize the essential role of soluble Aβ oligomers in AD and discuss therapeutic strategies that target soluble Aβ oligomers.

  5. Effect of molecular chaperones on aberrant protein oligomers in vitro: super-versus sub-stoichiometric chaperone concentrations.

    PubMed

    Cappelli, Sara; Penco, Amanda; Mannini, Benedetta; Cascella, Roberta; Wilson, Mark R; Ecroyd, Heath; Li, Xinyi; Buxbaum, Joel N; Dobson, Christopher M; Cecchi, Cristina; Relini, Annalisa; Chiti, Fabrizio

    2016-05-01

    Living systems protect themselves from aberrant proteins by a network of chaperones. We have tested in vitro the effects of different concentrations, ranging from 0 to 16 μm, of two molecular chaperones, namely αB-crystallin and clusterin, and an engineered monomeric variant of transthyretin (M-TTR), on the morphology and cytotoxicity of preformed toxic oligomers of HypF-N, which represent a useful model of misfolded protein aggregates. Using atomic force microscopy imaging and static light scattering analysis, all were found to bind HypF-N oligomers and increase the size of the aggregates, to an extent that correlates with chaperone concentration. SDS-PAGE profiles have shown that the large aggregates were predominantly composed of the HypF-N protein. ANS fluorescence measurements show that the chaperone-induced clustering of HypF-N oligomers does not change the overall solvent exposure of hydrophobic residues on the surface of the oligomers. αB-crystallin, clusterin and M-TTR can diminish the cytotoxic effects of the HypF-N oligomers at all chaperone concentration, as demonstrated by MTT reduction and Ca2+ influx measurements. The observation that the protective effect is primarily at all concentrations of chaperones, both when the increase in HypF-N aggregate size is minimal and large, emphasizes the efficiency and versatility of these protein molecules.

  6. T-cell activation by soluble MHC oligomers can be described by a two-parameter binding model.

    PubMed Central

    Stone, J D; Cochran, J R; Stern, L J

    2001-01-01

    T-cell activation is essential for initiation and control of immune system function. T cells are activated by interaction of cell-surface antigen receptors with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins on the surface of other cells. Studies using soluble oligomers of MHC-peptide complexes and other types of receptor cross-linking agents have supported an activation mechanism that involves T cell receptor clustering. Receptor clustering induced by incubation of T cells with MHC-peptide oligomers leads to the induction of T-cell activation processes, including downregulation of engaged receptors and upregulation of the cell-surface proteins CD69 and CD25. Dose-response curves for these T-cell activation markers are bell-shaped, with different maxima and midpoints, depending on the valency of the soluble oligomer used. In this study, we have analyzed the activation behavior using a mathematical model that describes the binding of multivalent ligands to cell-surface receptors. We show that a simple equilibrium binding model accurately describes the activation data for CD4(+) T cells treated with MHC-peptide oligomers of varying valency. The model can be used to predict activation and binding behavior for T cells and MHC oligomers with different properties. PMID:11606269

  7. Investigation of intermolecular interactions between single walled nanotubes and conjugated oligomers using the dispersion-corrected DFT methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagowski, Jolanta B.; Aljohani, Suad; Khan, M. Zahidul H.; Zhao, Yuming

    The area of carbon nanotubes (CNT)-polymer composites has been progressing rapidly in recent years. Pure CNT and CNT-polymer composites have many useful (industry related) properties: ranging from electronic electrical conductivity to superior strength. However the full potential of using CNTs as reinforcements (in say a polymer matrix) has been severely limited because of complications associated with the dispersion of CNTs. CNTs tend to entangle with each other forming materials that have properties that fall short of the expectations. The goal of this work is to identify the type of conjugated oligomers that are best suited for the dispersion of single walled CNT (SWCNT). For this purpose, various methods of dispersion corrected density functional theory (DFT-D/B97D, /WB97XD, /CAM-B3LYP) have been used to investigate the interaction between the SWCNT and the organic conjugated oligomers with different end groups (aldehyde (ALD) and dithiafulvenyl (DTF)). We investigate the effect of intermolecular interactions on the structure, polarity and energetics of the oligomers and SWCNT combinations. The comparison of results obtained using different DFT approximations is made. Our results show that DFT-endcapped oligomer interact more strongly with CNT than ALD-endcapped oligomer. The financial support from NSERC, SACBC and Memorial University and the computational resources from Compute Canada were received.

  8. Optimization of d-Peptides for Aβ Monomer Binding Specificity Enhances Their Potential to Eliminate Toxic Aβ Oligomers.

    PubMed

    Klein, Antonia Nicole; Ziehm, Tamar; van Groen, Thomas; Kadish, Inga; Elfgen, Anne; Tusche, Markus; Thomaier, Maren; Reiss, Kerstin; Brener, Oleksandr; Gremer, Lothar; Kutzsche, Janine; Willbold, Dieter

    2017-09-20

    Amyloid-beta (Aβ) oligomers are thought to be causative for the development and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Starting from the Aβ oligomer eliminating d-enantiomeric peptide D3, we developed and applied a two-step procedure based on peptide microarrays to identify D3 derivatives with increased binding affinity and specificity for monomeric Aβ(1-42) to further enhance the Aβ oligomer elimination efficacy. Out of more than 1000 D3 derivatives, we selected seven novel d-peptides, named ANK1 to ANK7, and characterized them in more detail in vitro. All ANK peptides bound to monomeric Aβ(1-42), eliminated Aβ(1-42) oligomers, inhibited Aβ(1-42) fibril formation, and reduced Aβ(1-42)-induced cytotoxicity more efficiently than D3. Additionally, ANK6 completely inhibited the prion-like propagation of preformed Aβ(1-42) seeds and showed a nonsignificant tendency for improving memory performance of tg-APPSwDI mice after i.p. application for 4 weeks. This supports the hypothesis that stabilization of Aβ monomers and thereby induced elimination of Aβ oligomers is a suitable therapeutic strategy.

  9. Selective amyloid β oligomer assay based on abasic site-containing molecular beacon and enzyme-free amplification.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Linling; Zhang, Junying; Wang, Fengyang; Wang, Ya; Lu, Linlin; Feng, Chongchong; Xu, Zhiai; Zhang, Wen

    2016-04-15

    Amyloid-beta (Aβ) oligomers are highly toxic species in the process of Aβ aggregation and are regarded as potent therapeutic targets and diagnostic markers for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Herein, a label-free molecular beacon (MB) system integrated with enzyme-free amplification strategy was developed for simple and highly selective assay of Aβ oligomers. The MB system was constructed with abasic site (AP site)-containing stem-loop DNA and a fluorescent ligand 2-amino-5,6,7-trimethyl-1,8-naphyridine (ATMND), of which the fluorescence was quenched upon binding to the AP site in DNA stem. Enzyme-free amplification was realized by target-triggered continuous opening of two delicately designed MBs (MB1 and MB2). Target DNA hybridization with MB1 and then MB2 resulted in the release of two ATMND molecules in one binding event. Subsequent target recycling could greatly amplify the detection sensitivity due to the greatly enhanced turn-on emission of ATMND fluorescence. Combining with Aβ oligomers aptamers, the strategy was applied to analyze Aβ oligomers and the results showed that it could quantify Aβ oligomers with high selectivity and monitor the Aβ aggregation process. This novel method may be conducive to improve the diagnosis and pathogenic study of Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Production and magnetic properties of in situ oligomer coated α-Fe nanoparticles in the gas phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Byeong Ju; Lee, Gang Ho

    2007-11-01

    We report on the production and characterization of the magnetic properties of in situ oligomer coated α-Fe nanoparticles. Although a polymer cannot be used to in situ coat iron nanoparticles in the gas phase due to its low vapor pressure, an oligomer (i.e., a low mass polymer) may be used for this purpose because it has enough vapor pressure. Besides surface protection, functional molecules such as ligands, peptides, antibodies, and DNA can be also easily bound to an oligomer, which will be extremely useful for further advanced applications. We in situ coated α-Fe nanoparticles with a dimethylsilylenesiloxane oligomer in the gas phase by thermally decomposing Fe(CO)5 as a precursor of α-Fe nanoparticles with a resistive heater in the presence of dimethylsilylenesiloxane oligomer vapor. These core-shell nanoparticles ranging from 5 to 15 nm in core α-Fe nanoparticle diameter showed saturation magnetization as high as 68 emu/g and coercivities as large as 1338 and 381 Oe at 10 and 300 K, respectively.

  11. Oligomer formation in the radiation-induced polymerization of styrene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harayma, Hiroshi; Al-Sheikhly, Mohamad; Silverman, Joseph

    2003-12-01

    Analyses of the oligomers formed in radiation-induced polymerization of purified styrene were performed. The principal dimeric products were cis- and trans-diphenyl-cyclobutane with a relatively small amount of 1-phenyltetralin; the trimeric products were the optical isomers of 1-phenyl-4-[1'-phenylethyl-(1')]-tetralin in gamma-ray and 60 MeV proton irradiation. Oligomer formation increased with increasing dose, but more gradually than the linear formation of high polymer with dose. The yield was 0.25-3.1 μmol/J at low doses and decreased to an asymptotic value of 0.15 at higher doses. It appears that oligomers act as chain transfer agents during the polymerization reaction which would account for the observed decrease in molecular weight of the high polymer with increase in dose. Although the thermal and radiation-induced polymerization of styrene have different initiation steps, the oligomers produced by both reactions are similar in composition.

  12. Biomimetic peptoid oligomers as dual-action antifreeze agents

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Mia L.; Ehre, David; Jiang, Qi; Hu, Chunhua; Kirshenbaum, Kent; Ward, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    The ability of natural peptides and proteins to influence the formation of inorganic crystalline materials has prompted the design of synthetic compounds for the regulation of crystal growth, including the freezing of water and growth of ice crystals. Despite their versatility and ease of structural modification, peptidomimetic oligomers have not yet been explored extensively as crystallization modulators. This report describes a library of synthetic N-substituted glycine peptoid oligomers that possess “dual-action” antifreeze activity as exemplified by ice crystal growth inhibition concomitant with melting temperature reduction. We investigated the structural features responsible for these phenomena and observed that peptoid antifreeze activities depend both on oligomer backbone structure and side chain chemical composition. These studies reveal the capability of peptoids to act as ice crystallization regulators, enabling the discovery of a unique and diverse family of synthetic oligomers with potential as antifreeze agents in food production and biomedicine. PMID:23169638

  13. Toxic tau oligomer formation blocked by capping of cysteine residues with 1,2-dihydroxybenzene groups.

    PubMed

    Soeda, Yoshiyuki; Yoshikawa, Misato; Almeida, Osborne F X; Sumioka, Akio; Maeda, Sumihiro; Osada, Hiroyuki; Kondoh, Yasumitsu; Saito, Akiko; Miyasaka, Tomohiro; Kimura, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Masaaki; Koyama, Hiroko; Yoshiike, Yuji; Sugimoto, Hachiro; Ihara, Yasuo; Takashima, Akihiko

    2015-12-16

    Neurofibrillary tangles, composed of hyperphosphorylated tau fibrils, are a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease; the neurofibrillary tangle load correlates strongly with clinical progression of the disease. A growing body of evidence indicates that tau oligomer formation precedes the appearance of neurofibrillary tangles and contributes to neuronal loss. Here we show that tau oligomer formation can be inhibited by compounds whose chemical backbone includes 1,2-dihydroxybenzene. Specifically, we demonstrate that 1,2-dihydroxybenzene-containing compounds bind to and cap cysteine residues of tau and prevent its aggregation by hindering interactions between tau molecules. Further, we show that orally administered DL-isoproterenol, an adrenergic receptor agonist whose skeleton includes 1,2-dihydroxybenzene and which penetrates the brain, reduces the levels of detergent-insoluble tau, neuronal loss and reverses neurofibrillary tangle-associated brain dysfunction. Thus, compounds that target the cysteine residues of tau may prove useful in halting the progression of Alzheimer's disease and other tauopathies.

  14. Maximizing the stereochemical diversity of spiro-ladder oligomers.

    PubMed

    Levins, Christopher G; Brown, Zachary Z; Schafmeister, Christian E

    2006-06-22

    [reaction: see text] We introduce all stereoisomers of a bis-amino acid building block derived from trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline. This small library of monomers allows arbitrary stereochemical configuration at any chiral center within our spiro-ladder oligomers. Three tetramer oligomers containing several combinations of the monomers 1-4 were synthesized; we explored the effect of monomer sequence on scaffold conformation by NMR.

  15. DNA-Grafted Supramolecular Polymers: Helical Ribbon Structures Formed by Self-Assembly of Pyrene-DNA Chimeric Oligomers.

    PubMed

    Vyborna, Yuliia; Vybornyi, Mykhailo; Rudnev, Alexander V; Häner, Robert

    2015-06-26

    The controlled arraying of DNA strands on adaptive polymeric platforms remains a challenge. Here, the noncovalent synthesis of DNA-grafted supramolecular polymers from short chimeric oligomers is presented. The oligomers are composed of an oligopyrenotide strand attached to the 5'-end of an oligodeoxynucleotide. The supramolecular polymerization of these oligomers in an aqueous medium leads to the formation of one-dimensional (1D) helical ribbon structures. Atomic force and transmission electron microscopy show rod-like polymers of several hundred nanometers in length. DNA-grafted polymers of the type described herein will serve as models for the development of structurally and functionally diverse supramolecular platforms with applications in materials science and diagnostics.

  16. Accumulation of oligomer-prone α-synuclein exacerbates synaptic and neuronal degeneration in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Rockenstein, Edward; Nuber, Silke; Overk, Cassia R.; Ubhi, Kiren; Mante, Michael; Patrick, Christina; Adame, Anthony; Trejo-Morales, Margarita; Gerez, Juan; Picotti, Paola; Jensen, Poul H.; Campioni, Silvia; Riek, Roland; Winkler, Jürgen; Gage, Fred H.; Winner, Beate

    2014-01-01

    In Parkinson’s disease and dementia with Lewy bodies, α-synuclein aggregates to form oligomers and fibrils; however, the precise nature of the toxic α-synuclein species remains unclear. A number of synthetic α-synuclein mutations were recently created (E57K and E35K) that produce species of α-synuclein that preferentially form oligomers and increase α-synuclein-mediated toxicity. We have shown that acute lentiviral expression of α-synuclein E57K leads to the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons; however, the effects of chronic expression of oligomer-prone α-synuclein in synapses throughout the brain have not been investigated. Such a study could provide insight into the possible mechanism(s) through which accumulation of α-synuclein oligomers in the synapse leads to neurodegeneration. For this purpose, we compared the patterns of neurodegeneration and synaptic damage between a newly generated mThy-1 α-synuclein E57K transgenic mouse model that is prone to forming oligomers and the mThy-1 α-synuclein wild-type mouse model (Line 61), which accumulates various forms of α-synuclein. Three lines of α-synuclein E57K (Lines 9, 16 and 54) were generated and compared with the wild-type. The α-synuclein E57K Lines 9 and 16 were higher expressings of α-synuclein, similar to α-synuclein wild-type Line 61, and Line 54 was a low expressing of α-synuclein compared to Line 61. By immunoblot analysis, the higher-expressing α-synuclein E57K transgenic mice showed abundant oligomeric, but not fibrillar, α-synuclein whereas lower-expressing mice accumulated monomeric α-synuclein. Monomers, oligomers, and fibrils were present in α-synuclein wild-type Line 61. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural analyses demonstrated that α-synuclein accumulated in the synapses but not in the neuronal cells bodies, which was different from the α-synuclein wild-type Line 61, which accumulates α-synuclein in the soma. Compared to non-transgenic and lower-expressing mice, the

  17. Accumulation of oligomer-prone α-synuclein exacerbates synaptic and neuronal degeneration in vivo.

    PubMed

    Rockenstein, Edward; Nuber, Silke; Overk, Cassia R; Ubhi, Kiren; Mante, Michael; Patrick, Christina; Adame, Anthony; Trejo-Morales, Margarita; Gerez, Juan; Picotti, Paola; Jensen, Poul H; Campioni, Silvia; Riek, Roland; Winkler, Jürgen; Gage, Fred H; Winner, Beate; Masliah, Eliezer

    2014-05-01

    In Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies, α-synuclein aggregates to form oligomers and fibrils; however, the precise nature of the toxic α-synuclein species remains unclear. A number of synthetic α-synuclein mutations were recently created (E57K and E35K) that produce species of α-synuclein that preferentially form oligomers and increase α-synuclein-mediated toxicity. We have shown that acute lentiviral expression of α-synuclein E57K leads to the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons; however, the effects of chronic expression of oligomer-prone α-synuclein in synapses throughout the brain have not been investigated. Such a study could provide insight into the possible mechanism(s) through which accumulation of α-synuclein oligomers in the synapse leads to neurodegeneration. For this purpose, we compared the patterns of neurodegeneration and synaptic damage between a newly generated mThy-1 α-synuclein E57K transgenic mouse model that is prone to forming oligomers and the mThy-1 α-synuclein wild-type mouse model (Line 61), which accumulates various forms of α-synuclein. Three lines of α-synuclein E57K (Lines 9, 16 and 54) were generated and compared with the wild-type. The α-synuclein E57K Lines 9 and 16 were higher expressings of α-synuclein, similar to α-synuclein wild-type Line 61, and Line 54 was a low expressing of α-synuclein compared to Line 61. By immunoblot analysis, the higher-expressing α-synuclein E57K transgenic mice showed abundant oligomeric, but not fibrillar, α-synuclein whereas lower-expressing mice accumulated monomeric α-synuclein. Monomers, oligomers, and fibrils were present in α-synuclein wild-type Line 61. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural analyses demonstrated that α-synuclein accumulated in the synapses but not in the neuronal cells bodies, which was different from the α-synuclein wild-type Line 61, which accumulates α-synuclein in the soma. Compared to non-transgenic and lower-expressing mice, the

  18. Subdiffusion of proteins and oligomers on membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepzelter, David; Zaman, Muhammad

    2012-11-01

    Diffusion of proteins on lipid membranes plays a central role in cell signaling processes. From a mathematical perspective, most membrane diffusion processes are explained by the Saffman-Delbrück theory. However, recent studies have suggested a major limitation in the theoretical framework, the lack of complexity in the modeled lipid membrane. Lipid domains (sometimes termed membrane rafts) are known to slow protein diffusion, but there have been no quantitative theoretical examinations of how much diffusion is slowed in a general case. We provide an overall theoretical framework for confined-domain ("corralled") diffusion. Further, there have been multiple apparent contradictions of the basic conclusions of Saffman and Delbrück, each involving cases in which a single protein or an oligomer has multiple transmembrane regions passing through a lipid phase barrier. We present a set of corrections to the Saffman-Delbrück theory to account for these experimental observations. Our corrections are able to provide a quantitative explanation of numerous cellular signaling processes that have been considered beyond the scope of the Saffman-Delbrück theory, and may be extendable to other forms of subdiffusion.

  19. Amphipathic helices from aromatic amino acid oligomers.

    PubMed

    Gillies, Elizabeth R; Dolain, Christel; Léger, Jean-Michel; Huc, Ivan

    2006-10-13

    Synthetic helical foldamers are of significant interest for mimicking the conformations of naturally occurring molecules while at the same time introducing new structures and properties. In particular, oligoamides of aromatic amino acids are attractive targets, as their folding is highly predictable and stable. Here the design and synthesis of new amphipathic helical oligoamides based on quinoline-derived amino acids having either hydrophobic or cationic side chains are described. Their structures were characterized in the solid state by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and in solution by NMR. Results of these studies suggest that an oligomer as short as a pentamer folds into a stable helical conformation in protic solvents, including MeOH and H(2)O. The introduction of polar proteinogenic side chains to these foldamers, as described here for the first time, promises to provide possibilities for the biological applications of these molecules. In particular, amphipathic helices are versatile targets to explore due to their importance in a variety of biological processes, and the unique structure and properties of the quinoline-derived oligoamides may allow new structure-activity relationships to be developed.

  20. Leg muscle reflexes mediated by cutaneous A-beta fibres are normal during gait in reflex sympathetic dystrophy.

    PubMed

    van der Laan, L; Boks, L M; van Wezel, B M; Goris, R J; Duysens, J E

    2000-04-01

    Reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) is, from the onset, characterized by various neurological deficits such as an alteration of sensation and a decrease in muscle strength. We investigated if afferent A-beta fibre-mediated reflexes are changed in lower extremities affected by acute RSD. The involvement of these fibres was determined by analyzing reflex responses from the tibialis anterior (TA) and biceps femoris (BF) muscles after electrical stimulation of the sural nerve. The reflexes were studied during walking on a treadmill to investigate whether the abnormalities in gait of the patients were related either to abnormal amplitudes or deficient phase-dependent modulation of reflexes. In 5 patients with acute RSD of the leg and 5 healthy volunteers these reflex responses were determined during the early and late swing phase of the step cycle. No significant difference was found between the RSD and the volunteers. During early swing the mean amplitude of the facilitatory P2 responses in BF and TA increased as a function of stimulus intensity (1.5, 2 and 2.5 times the perception threshold) in both groups. At end swing the same stimuli induced suppressive responses in TA. This phase-dependent reflex reversal from facilitation in early swing to suppression in late swing occurred equally in both groups. In the acute phase of RSD of the lower extremity there is no evidence for abnormal A-beta fibre-mediated reflexes or for defective regulation of such reflexes. This finding has implications for both the theory on RSD pathophysiology and RSD models, which are based on abnormal functioning of A-beta fibres.

  1. Alpha-Synuclein Oligomers Interact with Metal Ions to Induce Oxidative Stress and Neuronal Death in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Deas, Emma; Cremades, Nunilo; Angelova, Plamena R.; Ludtmann, Marthe H.R.; Yao, Zhi; Chen, Serene; Horrocks, Mathew H.; Banushi, Blerida; Little, Daniel; Devine, Michael J.; Gissen, Paul; Klenerman, David; Dobson, Christopher M.; Wood, Nicholas W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Protein aggregation and oxidative stress are both key pathogenic processes in Parkinson's disease, although the mechanism by which misfolded proteins induce oxidative stress and neuronal death remains unknown. In this study, we describe how aggregation of alpha-synuclein (α-S) from its monomeric form to its soluble oligomeric state results in aberrant free radical production and neuronal toxicity. Results: We first demonstrate excessive free radical production in a human induced pluripotent stem-derived α-S triplication model at basal levels and on application of picomolar doses of β-sheet-rich α-S oligomers. We probed the effects of different structural species of α-S in wild-type rat neuronal cultures and show that both oligomeric and fibrillar forms of α-S are capable of generating free radical production, but that only the oligomeric form results in reduction of endogenous glutathione and subsequent neuronal toxicity. We dissected the mechanism of oligomer-induced free radical production and found that it was interestingly independent of several known cellular enzymatic sources. Innovation: The oligomer-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was entirely dependent on the presence of free metal ions as addition of metal chelators was able to block oligomer-induced ROS production and prevent oligomer-induced neuronal death. Conclusion: Our findings further support the causative role of soluble amyloid oligomers in triggering neurodegeneration and shed light into the mechanisms by which these species cause neuronal damage, which, we show here, can be amenable to modulation through the use of metal chelation. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 24, 376–391. PMID:26564470

  2. Evidence for the accumulation of Abeta immunoreactive material in the human brain and in transgenic animal models.

    PubMed

    Cuello, A Claudio; Allard, Simon; Ferretti, Maria Teresa

    2012-12-10

    In this review we highlight the evidence for an intracellular origin of Abeta (Aβ) amyloid peptides as well as the observations for a pathological accumulation of these peptides in Alzheimer's disease and Down syndrome, as well as in transgenic animal models. We deliberate on the controversy as to whether the intracellular Aβ immunoreactive material is simply an accumulation of unprocessed full length amyloid precursor protein (APP) or a mix of processed APP fragments including Aβ. Finally, we discuss the possible pathological significance of these intracellular APP fragments and the expected future research directions regarding this thought-provoking problem. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Soybean Ferritin Forms an Iron-Containing Oligomer in Tofu Even after Heat Treatment.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Taro

    2015-10-14

    Ferritin, a multimeric iron storage protein distributed in almost all living kingdoms, has been highlighted recently as a nutritional iron source in plant-derived foodstuffs, because ferritin iron is suggested to have high bioavailability. In soybean seeds, ferritin contributes largely to the net iron contents. Here, the oligomeric states and iron contents of soybean ferritin during food processing (especially tofu gel formation) were analyzed. Ferritin was purified from tofu gel as an iron-containing oligomer (approximately 1000 Fe atoms per oligomer), which was composed of two types of subunits similar to the native soybean seed ferritin. Circular dichroism spectra also showed no differences in α-helical structure between native soybean ferritin and tofu ferritin. The present data demonstrate that ferritin was stable during the heat treatment (boiling procedure) in food processing, although partial denaturation was observed at temperatures higher than 80 °C.

  4. Liquid Crystal Ordering and Isotropic Gelation in Solutions of Four-Base-Long DNA Oligomers.

    PubMed

    Fraccia, Tommaso P; Smith, Gregory P; Bethge, Lucas; Zanchetta, Giuliano; Nava, Giovanni; Klussmann, Sven; Clark, Noel A; Bellini, Tommaso

    2016-09-27

    Liquid crystal ordering is reported in aqueous solutions of the oligomer 5'-ATTAp-3' and of the oligomer 5'-GCCGp-3'. In both systems, we quantitatively interpret ordering as stemming from the chaining of molecules via a "running-bond" type of pairing, a self-assembly process distinct from the duplex aggregation previously reported for longer oligonucleotides. While concentrated solutions of 5'-ATTAp-3' show only a columnar liquid crystal phase, solutions of 5'-GCCGp-3' display a rich phase diagram, featuring a chiral nematic phase analogous to those observed in solutions of longer oligonucleotides and two unconventional phases, a columnar crystal and, at high concentration, an isotropic amorphous gel. The appearance of these phases, which can be interpreted on the basis of features of 5'-GCCGp-3'molecular structure, suggests distinctive assembly motifs specific to ultrashort oligonucleotides.

  5. Self-assembly of human MxA GTPase into highly ordered dynamin-like oligomers.

    PubMed

    Kochs, Georg; Haener, Markus; Aebi, Ueli; Haller, Otto

    2002-04-19

    Human MxA protein is a member of the interferon-induced Mx protein family and an important component of the innate host defense against RNA viruses. The Mx family belongs to a superfamily of large GTPases that also includes the dynamins and the interferon-regulated guanylate-binding proteins. A common feature of these large GTPases is their ability to form high molecular weight oligomers. Here we determined the capacity of MxA to self-assemble into homo-oligomers in vitro. We show that recombinant MxA protein assembles into long filamentous structures with a diameter of about 20 nm at physiological salt concentration as demonstrated by sedimentation assays and electron microscopy. In the presence of guanosine nucleotides the filaments rearranged into rings and more compact helical arrays. Our data indicate that binding and hydrolysis of GTP induce conformational changes in MxA that may be essential for viral target recognition and antiviral activity.

  6. Red mold rice promotes neuroprotective sAPPalpha secretion instead of Alzheimer's risk factors and amyloid beta expression in hyperlipidemic Abeta40-infused rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chun-Lin; Kuo, Tzong-Fu; Wu, Cheng-Lun; Wang, Jyh-Jye; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2010-02-24

    Amyloid beta (Abeta) peptide is closely related to the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A high-cholesterol or high-energy diet was demonstrated to stimulate Abeta formation and deposition in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) pathway and, oppositely, downregulate the secretion of the neuroprotective soluble APP alpha-fragment (sAPPalpha). Monascus-fermented red mold rice (RMR) including multiple cholesterol-lowering agents, antioxidants, and anti-inflammatory agents has been proven to ameliorate Abeta40 infusion-induced memory deficit in our previous study. In this study, the ethanol extract of RMR (RE) and natural RMR were respectively tested for their effect on the mediation of the proteolytic process of APP in cholesterol-treated human neuroblastoma IMR32 cell, as well as their effect on memory and learning ability and the expression of AD risk factors in intracerebroventricular Abeta40-infused hyperlipidemic rats. In the results, RE suppressed cholesterol-raised beta-secretase activity and further resulted in the increase of sAPPalpha secretion in the IMR32 cell. In the animal test, RMR potently reversed the memory deficit in the water maze and passive avoidance tasks. RMR administration could prevent against Abeta40 infusion plus the great damage caused by a high energy diet in hippocampus and cortex involved in the raise of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and reactive oxygen species. The neuroprotection provided by RMR downregulates Abeta40 formation and deposition by suppressing the cholesterol-raised beta-secretase activity and apolipoprotein E expression, as well as mediates the proteolytic process of APP toward neuroprotective sAPPalpha secretion in hippocampus.

  7. Unique copper-induced oligomers mediate alpha-synuclein toxicity.

    PubMed

    Wright, Josephine A; Wang, Xiaoyan; Brown, David R

    2009-08-01

    Parkinson's disease and a number of other neurodegenerative diseases have been linked to either genetic mutations in the alpha-synuclein gene or show evidence of aggregates of the alpha-synuclein protein, sometimes in the form of Lewy bodies. There currently is no clear evidence of a distinct neurotoxic species of alpha-synuclein to explain the death of neurons in these diseases. We undertook to assess the toxicity of alpha-synuclein via exogenous application in cell culture. Initially, we showed that only aggregated alpha-synuclein is neurotoxic and requires the presence copper but not iron. Other members of the synuclein family showed no toxicity in any form and inherited point mutations did not alter the effective toxic concentration of alpha-synuclein. Through protein fractionation techniques, we were able to isolate an oligomeric species responsible for the toxicity of alpha-synuclein. This oligomeric species has a unique stellate appearance under EM and again, requires association with copper to induce cell death. The results allow us to suggest that the toxic species of alpha-synuclein in vivo could possibly be these stellate oligomers and not fibrils. Our data provide a link between the recently noted association of copper and alpha-synuclein and a potential role for the combination in causing neurodegeneration.

  8. A Rat Model of Alzheimer’s Disease Based on Abeta42 and Pro-oxidative Substances Exhibits Cognitive Deficit and Alterations in Glutamatergic and Cholinergic Neurotransmitter Systems

    PubMed Central

    Petrasek, Tomas; Skurlova, Martina; Maleninska, Kristyna; Vojtechova, Iveta; Kristofikova, Zdena; Matuskova, Hana; Sirova, Jana; Vales, Karel; Ripova, Daniela; Stuchlik, Ales

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the most serious human, medical, and socioeconomic burdens. Here we tested the hypothesis that a rat model of AD (Samaritan; Taconic Pharmaceuticals, USA) based on the application of amyloid beta42 (Abeta42) and the pro-oxidative substances ferrous sulfate heptahydrate and L-buthionine-(S, R)-sulfoximine, will exhibit cognitive deficits and disruption of the glutamatergic and cholinergic systems in the brain. Behavioral methods included the Morris water maze (MWM; long-term memory version) and the active allothetic place avoidance (AAPA) task (acquisition and reversal), testing spatial memory and different aspects of hippocampal function. Neurochemical methods included testing of the NR1/NR2A/NR2B subunits of NMDA receptors in the frontal cortex and CHT1 transporters in the hippocampus, in both cases in the right and left hemisphere separately. Our results show that Samaritan rats™ exhibit marked impairment in both the MWM and active place avoidance tasks, suggesting a deficit of spatial learning and memory. Moreover, Samaritan rats exhibited significant changes in NR2A expression and CHT1 activity compared to controls rats, mimicking the situation in patients with early stage AD. Taken together, our results corroborate the hypothesis that Samaritan rats are a promising model of AD in its early stages. PMID:27148049

  9. Beta-amyloid oligomers induce early loss of presynaptic proteins in primary neurons by caspase-dependent and proteasome-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Jang, Bong Geum; In, Sua; Choi, Boyoung; Kim, Min-Ju

    2014-11-12

    Beta-amyloid is a major pathogenic molecule for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and can be aggregated into a soluble oligomer, which is a toxic intermediate, before amyloid fibril formation. Beta-amyloid oligomers are associated closely with early synaptic loss in AD. However, it is still unknown which synaptic proteins are involved in the synaptotoxicity, and a direct comparison among the synaptic proteins should also be addressed. Here, we investigated changes in the expression of several presynaptic and postsynaptic proteins in primary neurons after treatment with a low-molecular weight and a high-molecular weight beta-amyloid oligomer. Both oligomers induced early neuronal dysfunction after 4 h and significantly reduced presynaptic protein (synaptophysin, syntaxin, synapsin, and synaptotagmin) expression. However, the expression of postsynaptic proteins (PSD95, NMDAR2A/B, and GluR2/3), except NMDAR1 was not reduced, and some protein expression levels were increased. Glutamate treatment, which is correlated with postsynaptic activation, showed more postsynaptic-specific protein loss compared with beta-amyloid oligomer treatment. Finally, the caspase inhibitor zVAD and the proteasomal inhibitor MG132 attenuated presynaptic protein loss. Thus, our data showed changes in synaptic proteins by beta-amyloid oligomers, which provides an understanding of early synaptotoxicity and suggests new approaches for AD treatment.

  10. Oligomers modulate interfibril branching and mass transport properties of collagen matrices.

    PubMed

    Whittington, Catherine F; Brandner, Eric; Teo, Ka Yaw; Han, Bumsoo; Nauman, Eric; Voytik-Harbin, Sherry L

    2013-10-01

    Mass transport within collagen-based matrices is critical to tissue development, repair, and pathogenesis, as well as the design of next-generation tissue engineering strategies. This work shows how collagen precursors, specified by intermolecular cross-link composition, provide independent control of collagen matrix mechanical and transport properties. Collagen matrices were prepared from tissue-extracted monomers or oligomers. Viscoelastic behavior was measured in oscillatory shear and unconfined compression. Matrix permeability and diffusivity were measured using gravity-driven permeametry and integrated optical imaging, respectively. Both collagen types showed an increase in stiffness and permeability hindrance with increasing collagen concentration (fibril density); however, different physical property–concentration relationships were noted. Diffusivity was not affected by concentration for either collagen type over the range tested. In general, oligomer matrices exhibited a substantial increase in stiffness and only a modest decrease in transport properties when compared with monomer matrices prepared at the same concentration. The observed differences in viscoelastic and transport properties were largely attributed to increased levels of interfibril branching within oligomer matrices. The ability to relate physical properties to relevant microstructure parameters, including fibril density and interfibril branching, is expected to advance the understanding of cell–matrix signaling, as well as facilitate model-based prediction and design of matrix-based therapeutic strategies.

  11. Epicatechin oligomers longer than trimers have anti-cancer activities, but not the catechin counterparts.

    PubMed

    Takanashi, Kohki; Suda, Manato; Matsumoto, Kiriko; Ishihara, Chisato; Toda, Kazuya; Kawaguchi, Koichiro; Senga, Shogo; Kobayashi, Narumi; Ichikawa, Mikihiro; Katoh, Miyuki; Hattori, Yasunao; Kawahara, Sei-Ichi; Umezawa, Koji; Fujii, Hiroshi; Makabe, Hidefumi

    2017-08-10

    Since procyanidins (oligomeric catechin or epicatechin) were reported to exhibit health benefits, much attention has been paid to the synthesis of these compounds, especially those that are longer than trimers. In the present study, syntheses of cinnamtannin A3 (epicatechin pentamer), A4 (epicatechin hexamer), catechin tetramer, pentamer, arecatannin A2 (epicatechin-epicatechin-epicatechin-catechin) and A3 (epicatechin-epicatechin-epicatechin-epicatechin-catechin) were achieved. The key reaction was a Lewis acid mediated equimolar condensation. The antitumor effects of these synthesized compounds against a human prostate cancer cell line (PC-3) were investigated. Among the tested compounds, cinnamtannin A3, A4 and arecatannin A3, which possess epicatechin oligomers longer than tetramers as the basic scaffold, showed significant activities for suppression of cell growth, invasion and FABP5 (fatty acid-binding protein 5) gene expression. Effects on cell cycle distribution showed that cell cycle arrest in the G2 phase was induced. Furthermore, these epicatechin oligomers suppressed significantly the expression of the cancer-promoting gene, FABP5, which is related to cell proliferation and metastasis in various cancer cells. Interestingly, the suppressive activities were associated with the degree of oligomerization of epicatechin. Thus, synthetic studies clearly demonstrate that epicatechin oligomers longer than trimers have significant anti-tumorigenic activities, but not the catechin counterparts.

  12. Oligomers Modulate Interfibril Branching and Mass Transport Properties of Collagen Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Whittington, Catherine F.; Brandner, Eric; Teo, Ka Yaw; Han, Bumsoo; Nauman, Eric; Voytik-Harbin, Sherry L.

    2013-01-01

    Mass transport within collagen-based matrices is critical to tissue development, repair, and pathogenesis as well as the design of next generation tissue engineering strategies. This work shows how collagen precursors, specified by intermolecular cross-link composition, provide independent control of collagen matrix mechanical and transport properties. Collagen matrices were prepared from tissue-extracted monomers or oligomers. Viscoelastic behavior was measured in oscillatory shear and unconfined compression. Matrix permeability and diffusivity were measured using gravity-driven permeametry and integrated optical imaging, respectively. Both collagen types showed an increase in stiffness and permeability hindrance with increasing collagen concentration (fibril density); however, different physical property-concentration relationships were noted. Diffusivity wasn’t affected by concentration for either collagen type over the range tested. In general, oligomer matrices exhibited a substantial increase in stiffness and only a modest decrease in transport properties when compared to monomer matrices prepared at the same concentration. The observed differences in viscoelastic and transport properties were largely attributed to increased levels of interfibril branching within oligomer matrices. The ability to relate physical properties to relevant microstructure parameters, including fibril density and interfibril branching, is expected to advance the understanding of cell-matrix signaling as well as facilitate model-based prediction and design of matrix-based therapeutic strategies. PMID:23842082

  13. Macroscopic Strain-Induced Transition from Quasi-infinite Gold Nanoparticle Chains to Defined Plasmonic Oligomers.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Anja Maria; Mayer, Martin; Seuss, Maximilian; Nikolov, Svetoslav; Harris, Kenneth D; Alexeev, Alexander; Kuttner, Christian; König, Tobias A F; Fery, Andreas

    2017-09-26

    We investigate the formation of chains of few plasmonic nanoparticles-so-called plasmonic oligomers-by strain-induced fragmentation of linear particle assemblies. Detailed investigations of the fragmentation process are conducted by in situ atomic force microscopy and UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy. Based on these experimental results and mechanical simulations computed by the lattice spring model, we propose a formation mechanism that explains the observed decrease of chain polydispersity upon increasing strain and provides experimental guidelines for tailoring chain length distribution. By evaluation of the strain-dependent optical properties, we find a reversible, nonlinear shift of the dominant plasmonic resonance. We could quantitatively explain this feature based on simulations using generalized multiparticle Mie theory (GMMT). Both optical and morphological characterization show that the unstrained sample is dominated by chains with a length above the so-called infinite chain limit-above which optical properties show no dependency on chain length-while during deformation, the average chain length decrease below this limit and chain length distribution becomes more narrow. Since the formation mechanism results in a well-defined, parallel orientation of the oligomers on macroscopic areas, the effect of finite chain length can be studied even using conventional UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy. The scalable fabrication of oriented, linear plasmonic oligomers opens up additional opportunities for strain-dependent optical devices and mechanoplasmonic sensing.

  14. Induction of Covalently Crosslinked p62 Oligomers with Reduced Binding to Polyubiquitinated Proteins by the Autophagy Inhibitor Verteporfin.

    PubMed

    Donohue, Elizabeth; Balgi, Aruna D; Komatsu, Masaaki; Roberge, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is a cellular catabolic process responsible for the degradation of cytoplasmic constituents, including organelles and long-lived proteins, that helps maintain cellular homeostasis and protect against various cellular stresses. Verteporfin is a benzoporphyrin derivative used clinically in photodynamic therapy to treat macular degeneration. Verteporfin was recently found to inhibit autophagosome formation by an unknown mechanism that does not require exposure to light. We report that verteporfin directly targets and modifies p62, a scaffold and adaptor protein that binds both polyubiquitinated proteins destined for degradation and LC3 on autophagosomal membranes. Western blotting experiments revealed that exposure of cells or purified p62 to verteporfin causes the formation of covalently crosslinked p62 oligomers by a mechanism involving low-level singlet oxygen production. Rose bengal, a singlet oxygen producer structurally unrelated to verteporfin, also produced crosslinked p62 oligomers and inhibited autophagosome formation. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that crosslinked p62 oligomers retain their ability to bind to LC3 but show defective binding to polyubiquitinated proteins. Mutations in the p62 PB1 domain that abolish self-oligomerization also abolished crosslinked oligomer formation. Interestingly, small amounts of crosslinked p62 oligomers were detected in untreated cells, and other groups noted the accumulation of p62 forms with reduced SDS-PAGE mobility in cellular and animal models of oxidative stress and aging. These data indicate that p62 is particularly susceptible to oxidative crosslinking and lead us to propose a model whereby oxidized crosslinked p62 oligomers generated rapidly by drugs like verteporfin or over time during the aging process interfere with autophagy.

  15. Formation and Toxicity of Soluble Polyglutamine Oligomers in Living Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lajoie, Patrick; Snapp, Erik Lee

    2010-01-01

    Background Aggregation and cytotoxicity of mutant proteins containing an expanded number of polyglutamine (polyQ) repeats is a hallmark of several diseases, including Huntington's disease (HD). Within cells, mutant Huntingtin (mHtt) and other polyglutamine expansion mutant proteins exist as monomers, soluble oligomers, and insoluble inclusion bodies (IBs). Determining which of these forms constitute a toxic species has proven difficult. Recent studies support a role for IBs as a cellular coping mechanism to sequester levels of potentially toxic soluble monomeric and oligomeric species of mHtt. Methodology/Principal Findings When fused to a fluorescent reporter (GFP) and expressed in cells, the soluble monomeric and oligomeric polyglutamine species are visually indistinguishable. Here, we describe two complementary biophysical fluorescence microscopy techniques to directly detect soluble polyglutamine oligomers (using Htt exon 1 or Httex1) and monitor their fates in live cells. Photobleaching analyses revealed a significant reduction in the mobilities of mHttex1 variants consistent with their incorporation into soluble microcomplexes. Similarly, when fused to split-GFP constructs, both wildtype and mHttex1 formed oligomers, as evidenced by the formation of a fluorescent reporter. Only the mHttex1 split-GFP oligomers assembled into IBs. Both FRAP and split-GFP approaches confirmed the ability of mHttex1 to bind and incorporate wildtype Htt into soluble oligomers. We exploited the irreversible binding of split-GFP fragments to forcibly increase levels of soluble oligomeric mHttex1. A corresponding increase in the rate of IBs formation and the number formed was observed. Importantly, higher levels of soluble mHttex1 oligomers significantly correlated with increased mutant cytotoxicity, independent of the presence of IBs. Conclusions/Significance Our study describes powerful and sensitive tools for investigating soluble oligomeric forms of expanded polyglutamine

  16. Functional Diversity of Isoamylase Oligomers: The ISA1 Homo-Oligomer Is Essential for Amylopectin Biosynthesis in Rice Endosperm1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Utsumi, Yoshinori; Utsumi, Chikako; Sawada, Takayuki; Fujita, Naoko; Nakamura, Yasunori

    2011-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) endosperm has two isoamylase (ISA) oligomers, ISA1 homo-oligomer and ISA1-ISA2 hetero-oligomer. To examine their contribution to starch synthesis, expression of the ISA1 or ISA2 gene was differently regulated in various transgenic plants. Although suppression of ISA2 gene expression caused the endosperm to have only the homo-oligomer, no significant effects were detected on the starch phenotypes. In contrast, ISA2 overexpression led to endosperm having only the hetero-oligomer, and starch synthesis in the endosperm was drastically impaired, both quantitatively and qualitatively, because the starch was devoid of typical starch features, such as thermal and x-ray diffraction properties, and water-soluble highly branched maltodextrins were accumulated. In the ISA2 overexpressed line, about 60% to 70% of the ISA1-ISA2 hetero-oligomer was bound to starch, while the ISA homo- and hetero-oligomers from the wild type were mostly present in the soluble form at the early milking stage of the endosperm. Detailed analysis of the relative amounts of homo- and hetero-oligomers in various lines also led us to the conclusion that the ISA1 homo-oligomer is essential, but not the ISA1-ISA2 oligomer, for starch production in rice endosperm. The relative amounts of ISA1 and ISA2 proteins were shown to determine the ratio of both oligomers and the stoichiometry of both ISAs in the hetero-oligomer. It was noted when compared with the homo-oligomer that all the hetero-oligomers from rice endosperm and leaf and potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber were much more stable at 40°C. This study provides substantial data on the structural and functional diversity of ISA oligomers between plant tissues and species. PMID:21436381

  17. Cyclen-based lipidic oligomers as potential gene delivery vehicles.

    PubMed

    Yi, Wen-Jing; Zhang, Qin-Fang; Zhang, Ji; Liu, Qiang; Ren, Laifeng; Chen, Qian-Ming; Guo, Liandi; Yu, Xiao-Qi

    2014-03-01

    A series of cyclen-based linear oligomers bearing hydrophobic long chains (lipopolymers Cy-LC, where Cy and LC represent cyclen-based linear backbone and hydrophobic long chain substituents, respectively) were designed and synthesized. The effects of type and degree of substitution (DS) of hydrophobic long chains on the transfection efficiency were systematically studied. The nitrogen atoms with relatively strong basicity on the cyclen ensure their good DNA binding ability, which was confirmed by gel retardation and ethidium bromide exclusion assays. Lipopolyplexes could be formed as nanoparticles with suitable sizes and zeta potentials for gene transfection. In vitro gene delivery experiments revealed that the linoleic acid (LIN) substituted material Cy-LIN has better transfection efficiency than 25 kDa polyethylenimine in the absence or in the presence of serum. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and hemolysis assays showed low cytotoxicity and good biocompatibility of the lipopolyplexes. Fluorescent labeled DNA was used to study the cellular uptake and intracellular distribution of transfected DNA. Flow cytometry results suggested that a long chain is necessary for efficient cellular uptake, and images from confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that after 4h transfection, most of the fluorescent labeled DNA accumulated in the perinuclear region, which was required for efficient gene expression. Moreover, it was also found that the DS of the hydrophobic moiety can adjust the balance between DNA binding ability and dissociation of polyplexes, significantly affecting the transfection efficiency.

  18. Low polydispersity (N-ethyl pyrrolidine methacrylamide-co-1-vinylimidazole) linear oligomers for gene therapy applications.

    PubMed

    Velasco, D; Réthoré, G; Newland, B; Parra, J; Elvira, C; Pandit, A; Rojo, L; San Román, J

    2012-11-01

    Nonviral methods for gene delivery are becoming ever more prevalent along with the need to design new vectors that are highly effective, stable in biological fluids, inexpensive, and facile to produce. Here, we synthesize our previously reported monomer N-ethyl pyrrolidine methacrylamide (EPA) and evaluate its effectiveness in gene vector applications when copolymerized with 1-vinylimidazole (VI). A range of these novel linear cationic copolymers were synthesized via free radical polymerization with low molecular weights (oligomers) and low polydispersities showing two pK(a) values as the two co-monomers are cationic. DNA-polymer polyplexes had average sizes between 100 and 250nm and zeta-potentials between 10 and 25mV, and a strong dependence of composition on the size on the zeta-potential was observed. The cytotoxicity of the homopolymers, oligomers, and polyplexes toward human fibroblasts and 3T3 mouse fibroblasts was evaluated using the MTT and AlamarBlue™ assays, proving that formulations could be made with toxicity as low as low molecular weight linear poly (dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA). The transfection capability of the polyplexes measured using the G-luciferase marker gene far superseded PDMAEMA when evaluated in biological conditions. Furthermore, blood compatibility studies showed that these new oligomers exhibit no significant hemolysis or platelet activation above PBS controls. These new EPA based oligomers with low toxicity and ease of scalability show high transfection abilities in serum conditions, and blood compatibility showing its potential for systemic gene delivery applications.

  19. "The Show"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehring, John

    2004-01-01

    For the past 16 years, the blue-collar city of Huntington, West Virginia, has rolled out the red carpet to welcome young wrestlers and their families as old friends. They have come to town chasing the same dream for a spot in what many of them call "The Show". For three days, under the lights of an arena packed with 5,000 fans, the…

  20. "The Show"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehring, John

    2004-01-01

    For the past 16 years, the blue-collar city of Huntington, West Virginia, has rolled out the red carpet to welcome young wrestlers and their families as old friends. They have come to town chasing the same dream for a spot in what many of them call "The Show". For three days, under the lights of an arena packed with 5,000 fans, the…

  1. Yeast prion-protein, sup35, fibril formation proceeds by addition and substraction of oligomers.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Saravanakumar; Walter, Stefan; Reif, Bernd

    2006-05-01

    In analogy to human prions, a domain of the translation-termination protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Sup35, can switch its conformation from a soluble functional state, [psi-], to a conformation, [PSI+], that facilitates aggregation and impairs its native function. Overexpression of the molecular chaperone Hsp104 abolishes the [PSI+] phenotype and restores the normal function of Sup35. We have recently shown that Hsp104 interacts preferably with low oligomeric species of a Sup35 derived peptide, Sup35[5-26]; however, due to possible exchange between different oligomeric states, it was not possible to obtain information on the distribution and stability of the oligomeric state. We show here, that low-molecular-weight oligomers (Sup35[5-26])n (n approximately = 4-6) are indeed important for the fibril formation and disassembly process. We find that Hsp104 is able to disaggregate Sup35[5-26] fibrils by substraction of hexameric to decameric Sup35[5-26] oligomers. This disaggregation effect does not require assistance from other chaperones and is independent of ATP at high Hsp104 concentrations. Furthermore, we demonstrate that critical oligomers have a preference for alpha-helical conformations. The conformational reorganization into beta-sheet structures seems to occur only upon incorporation of these oligomers into fibrillar structures. The results are demonstrated by using an equilibrium dialysis experiment that employed different molecular-weight cut-off membranes. A combination of thioflavin-T (ThT) fluorescence and UV measurements allowed the quantification of fibril formation and the amount of peptide diffusing out of the dialysis bag. CD and NMR spectroscopy data were combined to obtain structural information.

  2. Structural fingerprints and their evolution during oligomeric vs. oligomer-free amyloid fibril growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, Joseph; Hill, Shannon E.; Miti, Tatiana; Mulaj, Mentor; Ciesla, Marissa; Robeel, Rhonda; Persichilli, Christopher; Raynes, Rachel; Westerheide, Sandy; Muschol, Martin

    2013-09-01

    Deposits of fibrils formed by disease-specific proteins are the molecular hallmark of such diverse human disorders as Alzheimer's disease, type II diabetes, or rheumatoid arthritis. Amyloid fibril formation by structurally and functionally unrelated proteins exhibits many generic characteristics, most prominently the cross β-sheet structure of their mature fibrils. At the same time, amyloid formation tends to proceed along one of two separate assembly pathways yielding either stiff monomeric filaments or globular oligomers and curvilinear protofibrils. Given the focus on oligomers as major toxic species, the very existence of an oligomer-free assembly pathway is significant. Little is known, though, about the structure of the various intermediates emerging along different pathways and whether the pathways converge towards a common or distinct fibril structures. Using infrared spectroscopy we probed the structural evolution of intermediates and late-stage fibrils formed during in vitro lysozyme amyloid assembly along an oligomeric and oligomer-free pathway. Infrared spectroscopy confirmed that both pathways produced amyloid-specific β-sheet peaks, but at pathway-specific wavenumbers. We further found that the amyloid-specific dye thioflavin T responded to all intermediates along either pathway. The relative amplitudes of thioflavin T fluorescence responses displayed pathway-specific differences and could be utilized for monitoring the structural evolution of intermediates. Pathway-specific structural features obtained from infrared spectroscopy and Thioflavin T responses were identical for fibrils grown at highly acidic or at physiological pH values and showed no discernible effects of protein hydrolysis. Our results suggest that late-stage fibrils formed along either pathway are amyloidogenic in nature, but have distinguishable structural fingerprints. These pathway-specific fingerprints emerge during the earliest aggregation events and persist throughout the

  3. Quaternized chitosan oligomers as novel gene delivery vectors in epithelial cell lines.

    PubMed

    Thanou, M; Florea, B I; Geldof, M; Junginger, H E; Borchard, G

    2002-01-01

    Quaternized modifications of chitosan present characteristics that might be useful in DNA condensing and efficient gene delivery. Trimethylated chitosan (TMO) was synthesized from oligomeric chitosan (<20 monomer units). TMOs spontaneously formed complexes (chitoplexes) with RSV-alpha3 luciferase plasmid DNA. These complexes were characterized by photon correlation spectroscopy and were investigated for their ability to transfect COS-1 and Caco-2 cell lines in the presence and absence of fetal calf serum and compared with DOTAP (N-[1-(2,3-dioleoyloxy)propyl]-N,N,N-trimethylammonium sulphate) lipoplexes. Additionally, their effect on the viability of the respective cell cultures was investigated using the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Results showed that quaternized chitosan oligomers were able to condense DNA and form complexes with a size ranging from 200 to 500 nm. Chitoplexes proved to transfect COS-1 cells, however, to a lesser extent than DOTAP-DNA lipoplexes. The quaternized oligomer derivatives appeared to be superior to oligomeric chitosan. The presence of fetal calf serum (FCS) did not affect the transfection efficiency of the chitoplexes, whereas the transfection efficiency of DOTAP DNA complexes was decreased. Cells remained 100% viable in the presence of chitosan oligomers whereas viability of DOTAP treated cells decreased to approximately 50% in both cell lines. Both DOTAP-DNA lipoplexes and chitoplexes resulted in less transfection efficiency in Caco-2 cell cultures than in COS-1 cells; however quaternized chitosan oligomers proved to be superior to DOTAP. Effects on the viability of Caco-2 cells were similar to the effects observed in COS-1 cells. We conclude that trimethylated chitosan-DNA complexes present suitable characteristics and the potential to be used as gene delivery vectors.

  4. The Volumetric Diversity of Misfolded Prion Protein Oligomers Revealed by Pressure Dissociation.

    PubMed

    Torrent, Joan; Lange, Reinhard; Rezaei, Human

    2015-08-14

    Protein oligomerization has been associated with a wide range of diseases. High pressure approaches offer a powerful tool for deciphering the underlying molecular mechanisms by revealing volume changes associated with the misfolding and assembly reactions. We applied high pressure to induce conformational changes in three distinct β-sheet-rich oligomers of the prion protein PrP, a protein characterized by a variety of infectious quaternary structures that can propagate stably and faithfully and cause diseases with specific phenotypic traits. We show that pressure induces dissociation of the oligomers and leads to a lower volume monomeric PrP state that refolds into the native conformation after pressure release. By measuring the different pressure and temperature sensitivity of the tested PrP oligomers, we demonstrate significantly different void volumes in their quaternary structure. In addition, by focusing on the kinetic and energetic behavior of the pressure-induced dissociation of one specific PrP oligomer, we reveal a large negative activation volume and an increase in both apparent activation enthalpy and entropy. This suggests a transition state ensemble that is less structured and significantly more hydrated than the oligomeric state. Finally, we found that site-specific fluorescent labeling allows monitoring of the transient population of a kinetic intermediate in the dissociation reaction. Our results indicate that defects in atomic packing may deserve consideration as a new factor that influences differences between PrP assemblies and that could be relevant also for explaining the origin of prion strains. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. General dynamic properties of Abeta12-36 amyloid peptide involved in Alzheimer's disease from unfolding simulation.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shinya; Galzitskaya, Oxana V; Mitomo, Daisuke; Higo, Junichi

    2004-11-01

    To study the folding/unfolding properties of a beta-amyloid peptide Abeta(12-36) of Alzheimer's disease, five molecular dynamics simulations of Abeta(12-36) in explicit water were done at 450 K starting from a structure that is stable in trifluoroethanol/water at room temperature with two alpha-helices. Due to high temperature, the initial helical structure unfolded during the simulation. The observed aspects of the unfolding were as follows. 1) One helix (helix 1) had a longer life than the other (helix 2), which correlates well with the theoretically computed Phi values. 2) Temporal prolongation of helix 1 was found before unfolding. 3) Hydrophobic cores formed frequently with rearrangement of amino-acid residues in the hydrophobic cores. The formation and rearrangement of the hydrophobic cores may be a general aspect of this peptide in the unfolded state, and the structural changes accompanied by the hydrophobic-core rearrangement may lead the peptide to the most stable structure. 4) Concerted motions (collective modes) appeared to unfold helix 1. The collective modes were similar with those observed in another simulation at 300 K. The analysis implies that the conformation moves according to the collective modes when the peptide is in the initial stage of protein unfolding and in the final stage of protein folding.

  6. LptA Assembles into Rod-Like Oligomers Involving Disorder-to-Order Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santambrogio, Carlo; Sperandeo, Paola; Villa, Riccardo; Sobott, Frank; Polissi, Alessandra; Grandori, Rita

    2013-10-01

    LptA is a periplasmic protein involved in the transport of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from the inner membrane (IM) to the outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative bacteria. Growing evidence supports a model in which LptA assembles into oligomers, forming a physical bridge connecting IM and OM. This work investigates assembly and architecture of LptA oligomers. Circular dichroism and "native" electrospray-ionization ion-mobility mass spectrometry (ESI-IM-MS) are employed to test concentration dependence of LptA structural features and to analyze the morphology of higher-order aggregates. The results show that LptA progressively assembles into rod-like oligomers without fixed stoichiometry, and grows by an n + 1 mechanism up to at least the pentamer. The oligomerization process induces disorder-to-order transitions in the polypeptide chain. Comparison with crystallographic and computational data suggests that these conformational changes likely involve short disordered regions at the N- and C-termini of monomeric LptA. The protein response to thermal denaturation displays strong concentration dependence, indicating that oligomerization increases protein stability. LptA conformational stability can also be enhanced by in vitro LPS binding. The genesis of these fibrillar structures could be relevant for the correct transport of LPS across the bacterial periplasm.

  7. The adsorption of short single-stranded DNA oligomers to mineral surfaces.

    PubMed

    Cleaves, H James; Crapster-Pregont, Ellen; Jonsson, Caroline M; Jonsson, Christopher L; Sverjensky, Dimitri A; Hazen, Robert A

    2011-06-01

    We studied the adsorption of short single-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (ssDNA) oligomers, of approximately 30 nucleotides (nt) in length, of varying sequence, adenine+guanine+cytosine (AGC) content, and propensity to form secondary structure, to equal surface area samples of olivine, pyrite, calcite, hematite, and rutile in 0.1M NaCl, 0.05M pH 8.1 KHCO(3) buffer. Although the mineral surfaces have widely varying points of zero charge, under these conditions they show remarkably similar adsorption of ssDNA regardless of oligomer characteristics. Mineral surfaces appear to accommodate ssDNA comparably, or ssDNA oligomers of this length are able to find binding sites of comparable strength and density due to their flexibility, despite the disparate surface properties of the different minerals. This may partially be due charge shielding by the ionic strength of the solutions tested, which are typical of many natural environments. These results may have some bearing on the adsorption and accumulation of biologically derived nucleic acids in sediments as well as the abiotic synthesis of nucleic acids before the origin of life. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Citric acid-γ-cyclodextrin crosslinked oligomers as carriers for doxorubicin delivery.

    PubMed

    Anand, Resmi; Malanga, Milo; Manet, Ilse; Manoli, Francesco; Tuza, Kata; Aykaç, Ahmet; Ladavière, C; Fenyvesi, Eva; Vargas-Berenguel, Antonio; Gref, Ruxandra; Monti, Sandra

    2013-10-01

    Two citric acid crosslinked γ-cyclodextrin oligomers (pγ-CyD) with a MW of 21-33 kDa and 10-15 γ-CyD units per molecule were prepared by following green chemistry methods and were fully characterized. The non-covalent association of doxorubicin (DOX) with these macromolecules was investigated in neutral aqueous medium by means of circular dichroism (CD), UV-vis absorption and fluorescence. Global analysis of multiwavelength spectroscopic CD and fluorescence titration data, taking into account the DOX monomer-dimer equilibrium, evidenced the formation of 1 : 1 and 1 : 2 pγ-CyD unit-DOX complexes. The binding constants are 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than those obtained for γ-CyD and depend on the characteristics of the oligomer batch used. The concentration profiles of the species in solution evidence the progressive monomerization of DOX with increasing oligomer concentration. Confocal fluorescence imaging and spectral imaging showed a similar drug distribution within the MCF-7 cell line incubated with either DOX complexed to pγ-CyD or free DOX. In both cases DOX is taken up into the cell nucleus without any degradation.

  9. Exciton–exciton annihilation as a probe of interchain interactions in PPV–oligomer aggregates

    DOE PAGES

    Peteanu, Linda A.; Chowdhury, Sanchari; Wildeman, Jurjen; ...

    2017-01-20

    One measure of exciton mobility in an aggregate is the efficiency of exciton–exciton annihilation (EEA). Both exciton mobilities and EEA are enhanced for aggregate morphologies in which the distances between chromophores and their relative orientations are favorable for Förster energy transfer. Here this principle is applied to gauge the strength of interchain interactions in aggregates of two substituted PPV oligomers of 7 (OPPV7) and 13 (OPPV13) phenylene rings. These are models of the semiconducting conjugated polymer MEH–PPV. The aggregates were formed by adding a poor solvent (methanol or water) to the oligomers dissolved in a good solvent. Aggregates formed frommore » the longer-chain oligomer and/or by addition of the more polar solvent showed the largest contribution of EEA in their emission decay dynamics. This was found to correlate with the degree to which the steady-state emission spectrum of the monomer is altered by aggregation. Furthermore, the wavelength dependence of the EEA signal was also shown to be useful in differentiating emission features due to monomeric and aggregated chains when their spectra overlap significantly.« less

  10. Panchromatic Light Capture and Efficient Excitation Transfer Leading to Near-IR Emission of BODIPY Oligomers.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ritambhara; Gobeze, Habtom B; D'Souza, Francis; Ravikanth, Mangalampalli

    2016-08-18

    All-BODIPY-based (BODIPY=boron-dipyrromethene) donor-acceptor systems capable of wide-band absorbance leading to efficient energy transfer in the near-IR region are reported. A covalently linked 3-pyrrolyl BODIPY-BODIPY dimer building block bearing an ethynyl group at the meso-aryl position is synthesized and coupled with three different monomeric BODIPY/pyrrolyl BODIPY building blocks with a bromo/iodo group under Pd(0) coupling conditions to obtain three covalently linked 3-pyrrolyl-BODIPY-based donor-acceptor oligomers in 19-29 % yield. The oligomers are characterized in detail by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, high-resolution mass spectrometry, and optical spectroscopy. Due to the presence of different functionalized BODIPY derivatives in the oligomers, panchromatic light capture (300-725 nm) is witnessed. Fluorescence studies reveal singlet-singlet energy transfer from BODIPY monomer to BODIPY dimer leading to emission in the 700-800 nm range. Theoretical modeling according to the Förster mechanism predicts ultrafast energy transfer due to good spectral overlap of the donor and acceptor entities. Femtosecond transient absorption studies confirm this to be the case and thus show the relevance of the currently developed all-BODIPY-based energy-funneling supramolecular sytems with near-IR emission to solar-energy harvesting applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. SERS Detection of Amyloid Oligomers on Metallorganic-Decorated Plasmonic Beads.

    PubMed

    Guerrini, Luca; Arenal, Raul; Mannini, Benedetta; Chiti, Fabrizio; Pini, Roberto; Matteini, Paolo; Alvarez-Puebla, Ramon A

    2015-05-13

    Protein misfolded proteins are among the most toxic endogenous species of macromolecules. These chemical entities are responsible for neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Creutzfeldt-Jakob's and different non-neurophatic amyloidosis. Notably, these oligomers show a combination of marked heterogeneity and low abundance in body fluids, which have prevented a reliable detection by immunological methods so far. Herein we exploit the selectivity of proteins to react with metallic ions and the sensitivity of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) toward small electronic changes in coordination compounds to design and engineer a reliable optical sensor for protein misfolded oligomers. Our strategy relies on the functionalization of Au nanoparticle-decorated polystyrene beads with an effective metallorganic Raman chemoreceptor, composed by Al(3+) ions coordinated to 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (MBA) with high Raman cross-section, that selectively binds aberrant protein oligomers. The mechanical deformations of the MBA phenyl ring upon complexation with the oligomeric species are registered in its SERS spectrum and can be quantitatively correlated with the concentration of the target biomolecule. The SERS platform used here appears promising for future implementation of diagnostic tools of aberrant species associated with protein deposition diseases, including those with a strong social and economic impact, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.

  12. Synthesis and Electrochromic Properties of Star-Shaped Oligomers with Phenyl Cores.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jinming; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Zhu, Xiaoting; Liu, Ping

    2017-09-05

    A series of star-shaped conjugated oligomers, 1,3,5-tri(2'-thienyl) benzene (3TB), 1,3,5-tri(3',4'-ethylenedioxythienyl) benzene (3EB), 1,3,5-tri[5',2"-(3",4"-ethylenedioxy-thienyl)-2'-thienyl] benzene (3ETB), and 1,3,5-tri[5',2"-(3",4"-ethylenedioxy-thienyl)-2'-thienyl]-4-(3',4'-ethylenedioxythienyl)benzene (3TB-4EDOT), were synthesized. The star-shaped polymer, poly(1,3,5-tri[5',2"-(3",4"-ethylenedioxythineyl)-2'-thienyl]benzene) (P3ETB), was also prepared. The electrochemical and electrochromic properties of these conjugated oligomers and polymer were investigated. These oligomer and polymer films showed reversible, clear color changes upon electrochemical doping and dedoping. The color of the P3ETB film reversibly changed from orange to blue under doping and dedoping. The switching times for doping and dedoping were 1.2 and 0.9 s, respectively. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Imide Oligomers Endcapped with Phenylethynl Phthalic Anhydrides and Polymers Therefrom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    Controlled molecular weight phenylethynyl terminated imide oligomers (PETIs) have been prepared by the cyclodehydration of precursor phenylethynyl terminated amic acid oligomers. Amino terminated amic acid oligomers are prepared from the reaction of dianhydride(s) with an excess of diamine(s) and subsequently endcapped with phenylethynyl phthalic anhydride(s) (PEPA). The polymerizations are carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone or N.N-dimethylacetamide under nitrogen at room temperature. The amic acid oligomers are subsequently cyclodehydrated either thermally or cheznicauy to the corresponding imide oligomers. Direct preparation of PETIs from the reaction of dianhydxide(s) with an excess of diamine(s) and endcapped with phenylethynyl phthalic anhydride(s) has been performed in m-cresol. Phenylethynyl phthalic anhydrides are synthesized by the palladium catalyzed reaction of phenylacetylene with bromo substituted phthalic anhydrides in triethylamine. These new materials exhibit excellent properties and are potentially useful as adhesives, coatings, films, moldings and composite matrices.

  14. Imide oligomers endcapped with phenylethynyl phthalic anhydrides and polymers therefrom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Smith, Jr., Joseph G. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    Controlled molecular weight phenylethynyl terminated imide oligomers (PETIs) have been prepared by the cyclodehydration of precursor phenylethynyl terminated amic acid oligomers. Amino terminated amic acid oligomers are prepared from the reaction of dianhydride(s) with an excess of diamine(s) and subsequently endcapped with phenylethynyl phthalic anhydride(s) (PEPA). The polymerizations are carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone or N,N-dimethylacetamide under nitrogen at room temperature. The amic acid oligomers are subsequently cyclodehydrated either thermally or chemically to the corresponding imide oligomers. Direct preparation of PETIs from the reaction of dianhydride(s) with an excess of diamine(s) and endcapped with phenylethynyl phthalic anhydride(s) has been performed in m-cresol. Phenylethynyl phthalic anhydrides are synthesized by the palladium catalyzed reaction of phenylacetylene with bromo substituted phthalic anhydrides in triethylamine. These new materials exhibit excellent properties and are potentially useful as adhesives, coatings, films, moldings and composite matrices.

  15. ortho-Phenylene oligomers with terminal push-pull substitution.

    PubMed

    He, Jian; Mathew, Sanyo M; Cornett, Sarah D; Grundy, Stephan C; Hartley, C Scott

    2012-05-07

    ortho-Phenylenes are an emerging class of helical oligomers and polymers. We have synthesized a series of push-pull-substituted o-phenylene oligomers (dimethylamino/nitro) up to the octamer. Conformational analysis of the hexamer using a combination of low-temperature NMR spectroscopy and ab initio predictions of (1)H NMR chemical shifts indicates that, like other o-phenylenes, they exist as compact helices in solution. However, the substituents are found to have a significant effect on their conformational behavior: the nitro-functionalized terminus is 3-fold more likely to twist out of the helix. Protonation of the dimethylamino group favors the helical conformer. UV/vis spectroscopy indicates that the direct charge-transfer interaction between the push-pull substituents attenuates quickly compared to other conjugated systems, with no significant charge-transfer band for oligomers longer than the trimer. On protonation of the dimethylamino group, significant bathochromic shifts with increasing oligomer length are observed: the effective conjugation length is 9 repeat units, more than twice that of the parent oligomer. This behavior may be rationalized through examination of the frontier molecular orbitals of these compounds, which exhibit greater delocalization after protonation, as shown by DFT calculations.

  16. Effect of procyandin oligomers on oxidative hair damage.

    PubMed

    Kim, Moon-Moo

    2011-02-01

    Procyanidins are a subclass of flavonoids and consist of oligomers of catechin that naturally occur in plants and are known to exert many physiological effects, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and enzyme inhibitory effects. These possible inhibitory effects of the procyanidins were known to involve metal chelation, radical trapping, or direct enzyme binding. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of procyandin oligomers on hair damage induced by oxidative stress. In this study, several methods for evaluating oxidative damage in bleached hair are utilized to analyze the protective effect of procyandin oligomers against oxidative hair damage. It was observed that procyanidin oligomers strongly bind to keratin in hair and inhibit the breakdown of hair caused by oxidative damage in an analysis of hair using electrophoresis, transmission electron microscope, and fluorescence dye. These results confirm that procyanidin oligomers can be applicable as a potential candidate to the development of hair care with protective effect on hair damage. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Degradation of a Sodium Acrylate Oligomer by an Arthrobacter sp

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Takaya; Mukouyama, Masaharu; Sakano, Kouichi; Tani, Yoshiki

    1993-01-01

    Arthrobacter sp. strain NO-18 was first isolated from soil as a bacterium which could degrade the sodium acrylate oligomer and utilize it as the sole source of carbon. When 0.2% (wt/wt) oligomer was added to the culture medium, the acrylate oligomer was found to be degraded by 70 to 80% in 2 weeks, using gel permeation chromatography. To determine the maximum molecular weight for biodegradation, the degradation test was done with the hexamer, heptamer, and octamer, which were separated from the oligomer mixture by fractional gel permeation chromatography. The hexamer and heptamer were consumed to the extents of 58 and 36%, respectively, in 2 weeks, but the octamer was not degraded. Oligomers with three different terminal groups were synthesized to examine the effect of the different terminal groups on biodegradation, but few differences were found. Arthrobacter sp. NO-18 assimilated acrylic acid, propionic acid, glutaric acid, 2-methylglutaric acid, and 1,3,5-pentanetricarboxylic acid. Degradation of the acrylic unit structure by this strain is discussed. PMID:8517751

  18. Biochemical characterization of nuclear pore complex protein gp210 oligomers.

    PubMed

    Favreau, C; Bastos, R; Cartaud, J; Courvalin, J C; Mustonen, P

    2001-07-01

    The membrane-spanning glycoprotein gp210 is a major component of the nuclear pore complex. This nucleoporin contains a large cisternal N-terminal domain, a short C-terminal cytoplasmic tail, and a single transmembrane segment. We show here that dimers of native gp210 can be isolated from cell extracts by immunoprecipitation, and from purified rat liver nuclear envelopes by velocity sedimentation and gel filtration. Cross-linking of proteins in isolated membranes prior to solubilization dramatically increases the proportion of dimers. The dimers are SDS-resistant, as previously observed for some integral membrane proteins of cis-Golgi and plasma membrane proteins, including glycophorin A. Larger oligomers of gp210 can also be obtained by gel filtration and denaturing electrophoresis, but unlike the dimers are dissociated by reduction and heating in the presence of SDS. We propose that gp210 is organized into the pore membrane as a large array of gp210 dimers that may constitute a luminal submembranous protein skeleton.

  19. Carboxybetaine methacrylate oligomer modified nylon for circulating tumor cells capture.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chaoqun; Wang, Huiyu; Zhang, Zhuo; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Baorui

    2014-10-15

    Circulating tumor cells (CTC) capture is one of the most effective approaches in diagnosis and treatment of cancers in the field of personalized cancer medicine. In our study, zwitterionic carboxybetaine methacrylate (CBMA) oligomers were grafted onto nylon via atomic transfer random polymerization (ATRP) which would serve as a novel material for the development of convenient CTC capture interventional medical devices. The chemical, physical and biological properties of pristine and modified nylon surfaces were assessed by Fourier transform infrared spectra, atomic force microscope, water contact angle measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, protein adsorption, platelet adhesion, and plasma recalcification time (PRT) determinations, etc. The results, including the significant decrease of proteins adsorption and platelets adhesion, as well as prolonged PRTs demonstrated the extraordinary biocompatibility and blood compatibility of the modified surface. Furthermore, we showed that upon immobilization of anti-epithelial cell adhesion molecular (anti-EpCAM) antibody onto the CBMA moiety, the modified nylon surface can selectively capture EpCAM positive tumor cells from blood with high efficiency, indicating the potential of the modified nylon in the manufacture of convenient interventional CTC capture medical devices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of Poly (Arylene Ether Benzimidazole) Oligomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, Michael J.

    1995-01-01

    Several poly(arylene ether benzimidazole) oligomers were prepared by the nucleophilic aromatic substitution reaction of a bisphenol benzimidazole and various alkyl-substituted aromatic bisphenols with an activated aromatic dihalide in N, N-dimethylacetarnide. Moderate to high molecular weight terpolymers were obtained in all cases, as shown by their inherent viscosities, which ranged from 0.50 to 0.87 dL g(sup -1). Glass transition temperatures (T(sub g)s) of polymer powders ranged from 267-280 C. Air-dried unoriented thin film T(sub g)s were markedly lower than those of the powders, whereas T(sub g)s of films dried in a nitrogen atmosphere were identical to those of the corresponding powders. In addition, air-dried films were dark amber and brittle, whereas nitrogen-dried films were yellow and creasable. Nitrogen-dried films showed slightly higher thin-film tensile properties than the air-dried films, as well.

  1. Mapping eGFP oligomer mobility in living cell nuclei.

    PubMed

    Dross, Nicolas; Spriet, Corentin; Zwerger, Monika; Müller, Gabriele; Waldeck, Waldemar; Langowski, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    Movement of particles in cell nuclei can be affected by viscosity, directed flows, active transport, or the presence of obstacles such as the chromatin network. Here we investigate whether the mobility of small fluorescent proteins is affected by the chromatin density. Diffusion of inert fluorescent proteins was studied in living cell nuclei using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) with a two-color confocal scanning detection system. We first present experiments exposing FCS-specific artifacts encountered in live cell studies as well as strategies to prevent them, in particular those arising from the choice of the fluorophore used for calibration of the focal volume, as well as temperature and acquisition conditions used for fluorescence fluctuation measurements. After defining the best acquisition conditions, we show for various human cell lines that the mobility of GFP varies significantly within the cell nucleus, but does not correlate with chromatin density. The intranuclear diffusional mobility strongly depends on protein size: in a series of GFP-oligomers, used as free inert fluorescent tracers, the diffusion coefficient decreased from the monomer to the tetramer much more than expected for molecules free in aqueous solution. Still, the entire intranuclear chromatin network is freely accessible for small proteins up to the size of eGFP-tetramers, regardless of the chromatin density or cell line. Even the densest chromatin regions do not exclude free eGFP-monomers or multimers.

  2. Mapping eGFP Oligomer Mobility in Living Cell Nuclei

    PubMed Central

    Zwerger, Monika; Müller, Gabriele; Waldeck, Waldemar; Langowski, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    Movement of particles in cell nuclei can be affected by viscosity, directed flows, active transport, or the presence of obstacles such as the chromatin network. Here we investigate whether the mobility of small fluorescent proteins is affected by the chromatin density. Diffusion of inert fluorescent proteins was studied in living cell nuclei using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) with a two-color confocal scanning detection system. We first present experiments exposing FCS-specific artifacts encountered in live cell studies as well as strategies to prevent them, in particular those arising from the choice of the fluorophore used for calibration of the focal volume, as well as temperature and acquisition conditions used for fluorescence fluctuation measurements. After defining the best acquisition conditions, we show for various human cell lines that the mobility of GFP varies significantly within the cell nucleus, but does not correlate with chromatin density. The intranuclear diffusional mobility strongly depends on protein size: in a series of GFP-oligomers, used as free inert fluorescent tracers, the diffusion coefficient decreased from the monomer to the tetramer much more than expected for molecules free in aqueous solution. Still, the entire intranuclear chromatin network is freely accessible for small proteins up to the size of eGFP-tetramers, regardless of the chromatin density or cell line. Even the densest chromatin regions do not exclude free eGFP-monomers or multimers. PMID:19347038

  3. Show Code.

    PubMed

    Shalev, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    "Let's get one thing straight: there is no such thing as a show code," my attending asserted, pausing for effect. "You either try to resuscitate, or you don't. None of this halfway junk." He spoke so loudly that the two off-service consultants huddled at computers at the end of the unit looked up… We did four rounds of compressions and pushed epinephrine twice. It was not a long code. We did good, strong compressions and coded this man in earnest until the end. Toward the final round, though, as I stepped up to do compressions, my attending looked at me in a deep way. It was a look in between willing me as some object under his command and revealing to me everything that lay within his brash, confident surface but could not be spoken. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  4. Preparation and applications of a variety of fluoroalkyl end-capped oligomer/hydroxyapatite composites.

    PubMed

    Takashima, Hiroki; Iwaki, Ken-Ichi; Furukuwa, Rika; Takishita, Katsuhisa; Sawada, Hideo

    2008-04-15

    A variety of fluoroalkyl end-capped oligomers were applied to the preparation of fluorinated oligomer/hydroxyapatite (HAp) composites (particle size: 38-356 nm), which exhibit a good dispersibility in water and traditional organic solvents. These fluoroalkyl end-capped oligomer/HAp composites were easily prepared by the reactions of disodium hydrogen phosphate and calcium chloride in the presence of self-assembled molecular aggregates formed by fluoroalkyl end-capped oligomers in aqueous solutions. In these fluorinated HAp composites thus obtained, fluoroalkyl end-capped acrylic acid oligomers and 2-methacryloyloxyethanesulfonic acid oligomer/HAp nanocomposites afforded transparent colorless solutions toward water; however, fluoroalkyl end-capped N,N-dimethylacrylamide oligomer and acryloylmorpholine oligomer were found to afford transparent colorless solutions with trace amounts of white-colored HAp precipitants under similar conditions. HAp could be encapsulated more effectively into fluorinated 2-methacryloyloxyethanesulfonic acid oligomeric aggregate cores to afford colloidal stable fluorinated oligomer/HAp composites, compared to that of fluorinated acrylic acid oligomers. These fluorinated oligomer/HAp composites were applied to the surface modification of glass and PVA to exhibit a good oleophobicity imparted by fluorine. HAp formation was newly observed on the modified polyethylene terephthalate film surface treated with fluorinated 2-methacryloyloxyethanesulfonic acid oligomers and acrylic acid oligomer/HAp composites by soaking these films into the simulated body fluid.

  5. Aggregation of inorganic nanoparticles mediated by biomimetic oligomers.

    PubMed

    Tigger-Zaborov, Hagar; Maayan, Galia

    2015-09-14

    Assemblies of nanoparticles (NPs) have been broadly used for the construction of materials with unique spectroscopic and chiral properties for applications in various scientific disciplines such as sensing, bio-nanotechnology and medicine. Mediating the aggregation of NPs by synthetic biomimetic oligomers, namely, DNA, PNA, peptides and peptide mimics, rather than by small organic molecules has been shown to produce interesting supramolecular structures and enable the combination of the biocompatibility of the mediators and the spectroscopic properties of the NPs. Yet, the key to using this powerful approach for designing new functional materials is to understand the NPs aggregation patterns induced by biopolymers and biomimetic oligomers. Herein we describe the important developments in this field, from early studies to recent work with an emphasis on synthetic methods and tools for controlled assembly of metal NPs by biomimetic polymers and oligomers.

  6. Proportion effect in diblock co-oligomer molecular diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, G. C.; Zhang, G. P.; Li, Y.; Ren, J. F.; Wang, C. K.

    2014-10-01

    Based on ab-initio theory and nonequilibrium Green's function method, the effect of proportion on the rectification in pyrimidinyl-phenyl diblock co-oligomer diodes is investigated in two regimes. For a short co-oligomer diode, it is found that the 1:1 proportion of the two moieties favors the largest rectification ratio. For a long co-oligomer diode, an interesting proportion-dependent variation of the rectifying direction is observed. Furthermore, the optimal proportion for the largest rectification ratio is not 1:1 any longer. A deep understanding can be achieved by analyzing the bias-dependent transmission spectra combined with the evolution of the molecular orbitals.

  7. Single Particle Characterization of Aβ Oligomers in Solution

    PubMed Central

    Yusko, Erik C.; Prangkio, Panchika; Sept, David; Rollings, Ryan C.; Li, Jiali; Mayer, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Determining the pathological role of amyloids in amyloid-associated diseases will require a method for determining the dynamic distributions in size and shape of amyloid oligomers with high resolution. Here, we explored the potential of resistive-pulse sensing through lipid bilayer-coated nanopores to measure the size of individual amyloid-β oligomers directly in solution and without chemical modification. This method classified individual amyloid-β aggregates as spherical oligomers, protofibrils, or mature fibers and made it possible to account for the large heterogeneity of amyloid-β aggregate sizes. The approach revealed the distribution of protofibrillar lengths as well as the average cross-sectional area of protofibrils and fibers. PMID:22686709

  8. Aluminium and iron, but neither copper nor zinc, are key to the precipitation of beta-sheets of Abeta_{42} in senile plaque cores in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Exley, Christopher

    2006-11-01

    A number of metals including Fe(II)/Fe(III), Al(III), Zn(II) and Cu(II) are found co-localised with beta-sheets of Abeta_{42} in senile plaque cores in AD brain. We know neither why nor how the co-localisation takes place or, indeed, if it is entirely aberrant or partly protective. There are data from in vitro studies which may begin to explain some of these unanswered questions and in considering these I have summised that Al(III) and Fe(III)/Fe(II) are directly involved in the precipitation of beta-sheets of Abeta_{42} in senile plaque cores whereas the presence of Cu(II) and Zn(II) is adventitious. The co-deposition of Al(III), Fe(III) and beta-sheets of Abeta_{42} could act as a source of reactive oxygen species and begin to explain some of the oxidative damage found in the immediate vicinity of senile plaques. Whether such metal-Abeta_{42} synergisms are an integral part of the aetiology of AD remains to be confirmed.

  9. Influence of Aqueous-Salt Conditions on the Structure and Dynamics of the Monomeric and Novel Dimeric forms of the Alzheimer s ABeta21-30 protein fragment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Micholas Dean

    The behavior of the Alzheimer's related peptide Abeta is the subject of much study. In typical computational studies the environment local to the peptide is assumed to be pure water; however, in vivo the peptide is found in the extracellular space near the plasma membrane which is rich in ionic species. In this thesis, the hypothesis that the presence of group I/IIA salts will result in increased sampling of disordered structures as well as modify the dynamics of meta-stable structural motifs in the small folding nucleus of the Abeta peptide (Abeta21-30) is examined under a variety of ionic environments and was shown that of the tested salts, CaCl2 (and MgCl2, to a much lesser degree) did increase the propensity for disordered states; while, the group IA salts, KCl and NaCl, had little effect on the secondary structure of the peptide. Further, study of three familial mutations of this peptide region is also performed under aqueous salt-environments to elucidate further mechanistic details of how aqueous salts modify the region's behavior. Finally, as experimental results have highlighted that aggregation rates of the full-length peptide are modified by the presence of CaCl2, this work examines novel dimers states of Abeta21-30 and their stabilities when exposed to CaCl2.

  10. Inhibition of gamma-secretase activity reduces Abeta production, reduces oxidative stress, increases mitochondrial activity and leads to reduced vulnerability to apoptosis: Implications for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Baiyang; Gong, Kai; Niu, Ying; Liu, Lingling; Yan, Yufang; Lu, Guangyuan; Zhang, Lihai; Hu, Min; Zhao, Nanming; Zhang, Xiufang; Tang, Peifu; Gong, Yandao

    2009-05-15

    It has been argued that gamma-secretase should be considered as a pharmacological target, as there are few mechanism-based experimental and clinical studies on gamma-secretase treatment. In this study, we found that N2a cells bearing APP695 or its Swedish mutant exhibited increased basal levels of ROS, nitric oxide (NO), protein carbonyls, MDA and intracellular calcium, as well as reduced level of the mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP. When the activity of gamma-secretase was inhibited by expression of the D385A PS1 variant, cells (N2a/Swe.D385A) showed reduced basal levels of ROS, nitric oxide (NO), protein carbonyls, MDA and intracellular calcium, as well as increased mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP level. In addition, N2a/Swe.D385A cells showed reduced vulnerability to H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis. The Bcl-2 and JNK/ERK pathways were proven to be involved in the change of vulnerability to H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis. Moreover, we discovered that inhibition of gamma-secretase by DAPT would lead to a reduction of ROS levels and stabilization of mitochondrial function in APP (N2a/APP695) and APP Swedish mutant (N2a/APPswe) transfected cells. At last, it was shown that Abeta antibody and antiserum prevented increase of ROS and reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential in N2a/Swe.DeltaE9 cells but not in N2a/Swe.D385A cells, which indicated that reduced formation of Abeta was the reason for reduction of ROS formation and increase of mitochondrial membrane potential when PS-1 activity was impaired in N2a/Swe.D385A cells. We concluded that neurotoxicity was positively correlated with the activity of gamma-secretase, which suggested inhibition of gamma-secretase is a rational pharmacological target for Alzheimer's disease treatment.

  11. Formation of critical oligomers is a key event during conformational transition of recombinant syrian hamster prion protein.

    PubMed

    Sokolowski, Fabian; Modler, Andreas Johannes; Masuch, Ralf; Zirwer, Dietrich; Baier, Michael; Lutsch, Gudrun; Moss, David Alan; Gast, Klaus; Naumann, Dieter

    2003-10-17

    We have investigated the conformational transition and aggregation process of recombinant Syrian hamster prion protein (SHaPrP90-232) by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, circular dichroism spectroscopy, light scattering, and electron microscopy under equilibrium and kinetic conditions. SHaPrP90-232 showed an infrared absorbance spectrum typical of proteins with a predominant alpha-helical structure both at pH 7.0 and at pH 4.2 in the absence of guanidine hydrochloride. At pH 4.2 and destabilizing conditions (0.3-2 m guanidine hydrochloride), the secondary structure of SHaPrP90-232 was transformed to a strongly hydrogen-bonded, most probably intermolecularly arranged antiparallel beta-sheet structure as indicated by dominant amide I band components at 1620 and 1691 cm-1. Kinetic analysis of the transition process showed that the decrease in alpha-helical structures and the increase in beta-sheet structures occurred concomitantly according to a bimolecular reaction. However, the concentration dependence of the corresponding rate constant pointed to an apparent third order reaction. No beta-sheet structure was formed within the dead time (190 ms) of the infrared experiments. Light scattering measurements revealed that the structural transition of SHaPrP90-232 was accompanied by formation of oligomers, whose size was linearly dependent on protein concentration. Extrapolation to zero protein concentration yielded octamers as the smallest oligomers, which are considered as "critical oligomers." The small oligomers showed spherical and annular shapes in electron micrographs. Critical oligomers seem to play a key role during the transition and aggregation process of SHaPrP90-232. A new model for the structural transition and aggregation process of the prion protein is described.

  12. Memantine rescues transient cognitive impairment caused by high-molecular-weight aβ oligomers but not the persistent impairment induced by low-molecular-weight oligomers.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Cláudia P; Clarke, Julia R; Ledo, José Henrique; Ribeiro, Felipe C; Costa, Carine V; Melo, Helen M; Mota-Sales, Axa P; Saraiva, Leonardo M; Klein, William L; Sebollela, Adriano; De Felice, Fernanda G; Ferreira, Sergio T

    2013-06-05

    Brain accumulation of soluble amyloid-β oligomers (AβOs) has been implicated in synapse failure and cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, whether and how oligomers of different sizes induce synapse dysfunction is a matter of controversy. Here, we report that low-molecular-weight (LMW) and high-molecular-weight (HMW) Aβ oligomers differentially impact synapses and memory. A single intracerebroventricular injection of LMW AβOs (10 pmol) induced rapid and persistent cognitive impairment in mice. On the other hand, memory deficit induced by HMW AβOs (10 pmol) was found to be reversible. While memory impairment in LMW oligomer-injected mice was associated with decreased hippocampal synaptophysin and GluN2B immunoreactivities, synaptic pathology was not detected in the hippocampi of HMW oligomer-injected mice. On the other hand, HMW oligomers, but not LMW oligomers, induced oxidative stress in hippocampal neurons. Memantine rescued both neuronal oxidative stress and the transient memory impairment caused by HMW oligomers, but did not prevent the persistent cognitive deficit induced by LMW oligomers. Results establish that different Aβ oligomer assemblies act in an orchestrated manner, inducing different pathologies and leading to synapse dysfunction. Furthermore, results suggest a mechanistic explanation for the limited efficacy of memantine in preventing memory loss in AD.

  13. Scalable Fabrication of Quasi-Three-Dimensional Chiral Plasmonic Oligomers Based on Stepwise Colloid Sphere Lithography Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Shiwei; Yang, Jinzhe; Xiao, Xiao; Hou, Yidong; Du, Jinglei; Pang, Lin; Li, Xie; Gao, Fuhua

    2015-10-01

    We report a simple and scalable method for the fabrication of spiral-type chiral plasmonic oligomers based on the stepwise colloid sphere lithography technology. Through carefully adjusting the azimuthal angle Φ of polystyrene (PS) sphere array monolayer and the deposition thickness k n , the chiral plasmonic oligomers composed of four achiral particles can be successfully fabricated on a desired substrate. And their chiral sign, i.e., left-hand or right-hand, is dependent on the anticlockwise or clockwise deposition sequence of the achiral particles. The measured results show a large chiroptical resonance in the visible region, and this resonance can be easily adjusted by using different sizes of PS spheres. Our in-depth theoretical and experimental researches further reveal that the obtained chiral plasmonic oligomers are indeed a kind of quasi-three-dimensional chiral nanostructures, which own a three-dimensional geometrical morphology, but with nonreciprocity chiroptical effect. The ease and scalability (>1 cm2) of the fabrication method make chiral plasmonic oligomers promising candidates for many applications, such as chiral biosensor and catalysis.

  14. Binding affinity of amyloid oligomers to cellular membranes is a generic indicator of cellular dysfunction in protein misfolding diseases

    PubMed Central

    Evangelisti, Elisa; Cascella, Roberta; Becatti, Matteo; Marrazza, Giovanna; Dobson, Christopher M.; Chiti, Fabrizio; Stefani, Massimo; Cecchi, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    The conversion of peptides or proteins from their soluble native states into intractable amyloid deposits is associated with a wide range of human disorders. Misfolded protein oligomers formed during the process of aggregation have been identified as the primary pathogenic agents in many such conditions. Here, we show the existence of a quantitative relationship between the degree of binding to neuronal cells of different types of oligomers formed from a model protein, HypF-N, and the GM1 content of the plasma membranes. In addition, remarkably similar behavior is observed for oligomers of the Aβ42 peptide associated with Alzheimer’s disease. Further analysis has revealed the existence of a linear correlation between the level of the influx of Ca2+ across neuronal membranes that triggers cellular damage, and the fraction of oligomeric species bound to the membrane. Our findings indicate that the susceptibility of neuronal cells to different types of misfolded oligomeric assemblies is directly related to the extent of binding of such oligomers to the cellular membrane. PMID:27619987

  15. Sequence-specific purification of DNA oligomers in hydrophobic interaction chromatography using peptide nucleic acid amphiphiles: extended dynamic range.

    PubMed

    Savard, Jeffrey M; Schneider, James W

    2007-06-01

    We present improvements on a previously reported method (Vernille JP, Schneider JW. 2004. Biotechnol Prog 20(6):1776-1782) to purify DNA oligomers by attachment of peptide nucleic acid amphiphiles (PNAA) to particular sequences on the oligomers, followed by their separation from unbound oligomers using hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC). Use of alkyl-modified HIC media (butyl and octyl sepharose) over phenyl-modified media (phenyl sepharose) reduced the elution time of unbound DNA while not affecting the elution time of the PNAA/DNA complex. Modifying the alkane tail length for PNAA from C(12) to C(18) increased slightly the retention of PNAA/DNA duplexes. By combining these two refinements, we show that sequence-specific purifications of DNA oligomers 60 bases in length or more can be achieved with high resolution, even when the PNAA alkane is attached to the center of the target strand. The insensitivity of the PNAA/DNA duplex binding to choice of HIC media appears to be due to a surface-induced aggregation phenomenon that does not occur in the case of untagged DNA. We also report on the use of batch HIC as an adequate predictor of elution profiles in linear gradient HIC, and its potential to considerably reduce purification times by applying step gradients. (c) 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Binding affinity of amyloid oligomers to cellular membranes is a generic indicator of cellular dysfunction in protein misfolding diseases.

    PubMed

    Evangelisti, Elisa; Cascella, Roberta; Becatti, Matteo; Marrazza, Giovanna; Dobson, Christopher M; Chiti, Fabrizio; Stefani, Massimo; Cecchi, Cristina

    2016-09-13

    The conversion of peptides or proteins from their soluble native states into intractable amyloid deposits is associated with a wide range of human disorders. Misfolded protein oligomers formed during the process of aggregation have been identified as the primary pathogenic agents in many such conditions. Here, we show the existence of a quantitative relationship between the degree of binding to neuronal cells of different types of oligomers formed from a model protein, HypF-N, and the GM1 content of the plasma membranes. In addition, remarkably similar behavior is observed for oligomers of the Aβ42 peptide associated with Alzheimer's disease. Further analysis has revealed the existence of a linear correlation between the level of the influx of Ca(2+) across neuronal membranes that triggers cellular damage, and the fraction of oligomeric species bound to the membrane. Our findings indicate that the susceptibility of neuronal cells to different types of misfolded oligomeric assemblies is directly related to the extent of binding of such oligomers to the cellular membrane.

  17. Resting microglia react to Aβ42 fibrils but do not detect oligomers or oligomer-induced neuronal damage.

    PubMed

    Ferrera, Denise; Mazzaro, Nadia; Canale, Claudio; Gasparini, Laura

    2014-11-01

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyloid-β (Aβ) deposits accumulate in the brain parenchyma and contain fibrils of aggregated heterogeneous Aβ peptides. In addition to fibrils, Aβ aggregates into stable soluble species (termed Aβ oligomers), which are increasingly viewed as the key drivers of early neurodegenerative events in AD. Aβ aggregates stimulate microglia recruitment and activation. In the AD brain, microglia surround Aβ deposits, activate, and abnormally produce inflammatory mediators, contributing to AD pathogenesis. However, it remains unclear to which of the conformationally diverse Aβ species microglia specifically react. Here, we explore the "sensor" capability of murine microglia. We examine whether they can detect and discriminate the toxic Aβ oligomers, Aβ fibrils, and Aβ-induced neuronal damage and investigate whether they are activated by diverse human Aβ species cell autonomously or through neuron-derived factors. We find that, on aggregation in vitro, Aβ42 peptides form stable oligomers and fibrils, which are neurotoxic and trigger dendritic spine loss in mature primary mouse hippocampal neurons. Further, in resting primary murine microglia, Aβ42 fibrils induce a pattern of expression of inflammatory genes typical of the classical inflammatory response induced by infectious agents (e.g., the bacterial toxin lipopolysaccharide). Conversely, Aβ42 oligomers never elicit a microglia inflammatory response, whether applied alone, in combination with neuron-derived secreted factors, or in contact with neurons. Thus, microglia strongly react to Aβ42 fibrils, but do not sense Aβ oligomers or oligomer-induced neuronal damage. This suggests that early neurotoxic species can escape detection by microglia, leading to the chronic unfolding of amyloid pathology in AD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The effect of polar end of long-chain fluorocarbon oligomers in promoting the superamphiphobic property over multi-scale rough Al alloy surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saifaldeen, Zubayda S.; Khedir, Khedir R.; Camci, Merve T.; Ucar, Ahmet; Suzer, Sefik; Karabacak, Tansel

    2016-08-01

    Rough structures with re-entrant property and their subsequent surface energy reduction with long-chain fluorocarbon oligomers are both critical in developing superamphiphobic (SAP, i.e. both super hydrophobic and superoleophobic) surfaces. However, morphology of the low-surface energy layer on a rough re-entrant substrate can strongly depend on the fluorocarbon oligomers used. In this study, the effect of polar end of different kinds of long-chain fluorocarbon oligomers in promoting a self-assembled monolayer with close packed molecules and robust adhesion on multi-scale rough Al alloy surfaces was investigated. Hierarchical Al alloy surfaces with microgrooves and nanograss structures were developed by a simple combination of one-directional mechanical sanding and post treatment in boiling de-ionized water (DIW). Three types of long-chain fluorocarbon oligomers of 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorodecyltriethoxysilane (PFDTS), 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane (PFDCS), and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were chemically vaporized onto these rough Al alloy surfaces. The PFDCS exhibited the lowest surface free energy of less than 10 mN/m. The contact angle and sliding angle measurements for water, ethylene glycol, and peanut oil verified the SAP property of hierarchical rough Al alloy surfaces treated with alkylsilane oligomers (PFDTS, PFDCS). However, the hierarchical surfaces treated with fluorocarbon oligomer with polar acidic tail (PFOA) showed highly amphiphobic properties but could not reach the threshold for SAP. Chemical stability of the hierarchical Al alloy surfaces treated with the fluorocarbon oligomers was tested under the harsh conditions of ultra-sonication in acetone and annealing at high temperature after different treatment times. Contact angle measurements revealed the robustness of the alkylsilane oligomers and deterioration of the PFOA coating particularly for low surface tension liquids. The robust adhesion and close-packing of the alkylsilane

  19. Oligomer Molecules for Efficient Organic Photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuze; Zhan, Xiaowei

    2016-02-16

    Solar cells, a renewable, clean energy technology that efficiently converts sunlight into electricity, are a promising long-term solution for energy and environmental problems caused by a mass of production and the use of fossil fuels. Solution-processed organic solar cells (OSCs) have attracted much attention in the past few years because of several advantages, including easy fabrication, low cost, lightweight, and flexibility. Now, OSCs exhibit power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of over 10%. In the early stage of OSCs, vapor-deposited organic dye materials were first used in bilayer heterojunction devices in the 1980s, and then, solution-processed polymers were introduced in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) devices. Relative to polymers, vapor-deposited small molecules offer potential advantages, such as a defined molecular structure, definite molecular weight, easy purification, mass-scale production, and good batch-to-batch reproducibility. However, the limited solubility and high crystallinity of vapor-deposited small molecules are unfavorable for use in solution-processed BHJ OSCs. Conversely, polymers have good solution-processing and film-forming properties and are easily processed into flexible devices, whereas their polydispersity of molecular weights and difficulty in purification results in batch to batch variation, which may hamper performance reproducibility and commercialization. Oligomer molecules (OMs) are monodisperse big molecules with intermediate molecular weights (generally in the thousands), and their sizes are between those of small molecules (generally with molecular weights <1000) and polymers (generally with molecular weights >10000). OMs not only overcome shortcomings of both vapor-deposited small molecules and solution-processed polymers, but also combine their advantages, such as defined molecular structure, definite molecular weight, easy purification, mass-scale production, good batch-to-batch reproducibility, good solution processability

  20. Insulin-degrading enzyme antagonizes insulin-dependent tissue growth and Abeta-induced neurotoxicity in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Manabu; Kobayashi, Toshikazu; Matsuo, Takashi; Aigaki, Toshiro

    2010-07-02

    Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) is implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we provide genetic evidence that Drosophila Ide (dIde) antagonizes the insulin signaling pathway and human Abeta-induced neurotoxicity in Drosophila. In this study, we also generated a dIde knockout mutant (dIde(KO)) by gene targeting, and found that loss of IDE increases the content of the major insect blood sugar, trehalose, thus suggesting a conserved role of IDE in sugar metabolism. Using dIde(KO) as a model, further investigations into the biological functions of IDE and its role in the pathogenesis of DM2 and AD can be made.

  1. Electronic coherence dynamics in trans-polyacetylene oligomers.

    PubMed

    Franco, Ignacio; Brumer, Paul

    2012-04-14

    Electronic coherence dynamics in trans-polyacetylene oligomers are considered by explicitly computing the time dependent molecular polarization from the coupled dynamics of electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom in a mean-field mixed quantum-classical approximation. The oligomers are described by the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger Hamiltonian and the effect of decoherence is incorporated by propagating an ensemble of quantum-classical trajectories with initial conditions obtained by sampling the Wigner distribution of the nuclear degrees of freedom. The electronic coherence of superpositions between the ground and excited and between pairs of excited states is examined for chains of different length, and the dynamics is discussed in terms of the nuclear overlap function that appears in the off-diagonal elements of the electronic reduced density matrix. For long oligomers the loss of coherence occurs in tens of femtoseconds. This time scale is determined by the decay of population into other electronic states through vibronic interactions, and is relatively insensitive to the type and class of superposition considered. By contrast, for smaller oligomers the decoherence time scale depends strongly on the initially selected superposition, with superpositions that can decay as fast as 50 fs and as slow as 250 fs. The long-lived superpositions are such that little population is transferred to other electronic states and for which the vibronic dynamics is relatively harmonic.

  2. Microdroplet temperature calibration via thermal dissociation of quenched DNA oligomers

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Eric W.; Faris, Gregory W.

    2014-01-01

    The development of microscale analytical techniques has created an increasing demand for reliable and accurate heating at the microscale. Here, we present a novel method for calibrating the temperature of microdroplets using quenched, fluorescently labeled DNA oligomers. Upon melting, the 3′ fluorophore of the reporter oligomer separates from the 5′ quencher of its reverse complement, creating a fluorescent signal recorded as a melting curve. The melting temperature for a given oligomer is determined with a conventional quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) instrument and used to calibrate the temperature within a microdroplet, with identical buffer concentrations, heated with an infrared laser. Since significant premelt fluorescence prevents the use of a conventional (single-term) sigmoid or logistic function to describe the melting curve, we present a three-term sigmoid model that provides a very good match to the asymmetric fluorescence melting curve with premelting. Using mixtures of three oligomers of different lengths, we fit multiple three-term sigmoids to obtain precise comparison of the microscale and macroscale fluorescence melting curves using “extrapolated two-state” melting temperatures. PMID:24688810

  3. Effect of Synthetic Aβ Peptide Oligomers and Fluorinated Solvents on Kv1.3 Channel Properties and Membrane Conductance

    PubMed Central

    Lioudyno, Maria I.; Broccio, Matteo; Sokolov, Yuri; Rasool, Suhail; Wu, Jessica; Alkire, Michael T.; Liu, Virginia; Kozak, J. Ashot; Dennison, Philip R.; Glabe, Charles G.; Lösche, Mathias; Hall, James E.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of synthetic amyloid β (1–42) (Aβ1–42) oligomers on biophysical properties of voltage-gated potassium channels Kv 1.3 and lipid bilayer membranes (BLMs) was quantified for protocols using hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) or sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as solvents prior to initiating the oligomer formation. Regardless of the solvent used Aβ1–42 samples contained oligomers that reacted with the conformation-specific antibodies A11 and OC and had similar size distributions as determined by dynamic light scattering. Patch-clamp recordings of the potassium currents showed that synthetic Aβ1–42 oligomers accelerate the activation and inactivation kinetics of Kv 1.3 current with no significant effect on current amplitude. In contrast to oligomeric samples, freshly prepared, presumably monomeric, Aβ1–42 solutions had no effect on Kv 1.3 channel properties. Aβ1–42 oligomers had no effect on the steady-state current (at −80 mV) recorded from Kv 1.3-expressing cells but increased the conductance of artificial BLMs in a dose-dependent fashion. Formation of amyloid channels, however, was not observed due to conditions of the experiments. To exclude the effects of HFIP (used to dissolve lyophilized Aβ1–42 peptide), and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) (used during Aβ1–42 synthesis), we determined concentrations of these fluorinated compounds in the stock Aβ1–42 solutions by 19F NMR. After extensive evaporation, the concentration of HFIP in the 100× stock Aβ1–42 solutions was ∼1.7 μM. The concentration of residual TFA in the 70× stock Aβ1–42 solutions was ∼20 μM. Even at the stock concentrations neither HFIP nor TFA alone had any effect on potassium currents or BLMs. The Aβ1–42 oligomers prepared with HFIP as solvent, however, were more potent in the electrophysiological tests, suggesting that fluorinated compounds, such as HFIP or structurally-related inhalational anesthetics, may affect Aβ1–42 aggregation and potentially enhance

  4. Protection against the synaptic targeting and toxicity of Alzheimer's-associated Aβ oligomers by insulin mimetic chiro-inositols

    PubMed Central

    Pitt, Jason; Thorner, Michael; Brautigan, David; Larner, Joseph; Klein, William L.

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive dementia that correlates highly with synapse loss. This loss appears due to the synaptic accumulation of toxic Aβ oligomers (ADDLs), which damages synapse structure and function. Although it has been reported that oligomer binding and toxicity can be prevented by stimulation of neuronal insulin signaling with PPARγ agonists, these agonists have problematic side effects. We therefore investigated the therapeutic potential of chiro-inositols, insulin-sensitizing compounds safe for human consumption. Chiro-inositols have been studied extensively for treatment of diseases associated with peripheral insulin resistance, but their insulin mimetic function in memory-relevant central nervous system (CNS) cells is unknown. Here we demonstrate that mature cultures of hippocampal neurons respond to d-chiro-inositol (DCI), pinitol (3-O-methyl DCI), and the inositol glycan INS-2 (pinitol β-1-4 galactosamine) with increased phosphorylation in key upstream components in the insulin-signaling pathway (insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate-1, and Akt). Consistent with insulin stimulation, DCI treatment promotes rapid withdrawal of dendritic insulin receptors. With respect to neuroprotection, DCI greatly enhances the ability of insulin to prevent ADDL-induced synapse damage (EC50 of 90 nM). The mechanism comprises inhibition of oligomer binding at synapses and requires insulin/IGF signaling. DCI showed no effects on Aβ oligomerization. We propose that inositol glycans and DCI, a compound already established as safe for human consumption, have potential as AD therapeutics by protecting CNS synapses against Aβ oligomers through their insulin mimetic activity.—Pitt, J., Thorner, M., Brautigan, D., Larner, J., Klein, W. L. Protection against the synaptic targeting and toxicity of Alzheimer's-associated Aβ oligomers by insulin mimetic chiro-inositols. PMID:23073831

  5. Imide Oligomers Containing Pendent and Terminal Phenylethynyl Groups-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, J. W.; Smith, J. G., Jr.; Hergenrother, P. M.

    1998-01-01

    As part of a program to develop high-performance/high-temperature structural resins for aeronautical applications, imide oligomers containing pendent and terminal phenylethynyl groups were prepared, characterized and the cured resins evaluated as composite matrices. The oligomers were prepared at a calculated number-average molecular weight of 5000 g/mol and contained 15-20 mol% pendent phenylethynyl groups. In previous work, an oligomer containing pendent and terminal phenylethynyl groups exhibited a high glass transition temperature (approximately 313 C), and laminates therefrom exhibited high compressive properties, but processability, fracture toughness, microcrack resistance and damage tolerance were less than desired. In an attempt to improve these deficiencies, modifications in the oligomeric backbone involving the incorporation of 1,3-bis(3-aminophenoxy)benzene were investigated as a means of improving processability and toughness without detracting from the high glass transition temperature and high compressive properties. The amide acid oligomeric solutions were prepared in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone and were subsequently processed into imide powder, thin films, adhesive tape and carbon fiber prepreg. Neat resin plaques were fabricated from imide powder by compression moulding. The maximum processing pressure was 1.4 MPa and the cure temperature ranged from 350 to 371 C for 1 h for the mouldings, adhesives, films and composites. The properties of the 1,3-bis(3-aniinophenoxy)benzene modified cured imide oligomers containing pendent and terminal phenylethynyl groups are compared with those of previously prepared oligomers containing pendent and terminal phenylethynyl groups of similar composition and molecular weight.

  6. A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase with Thrombospondin Motifs-5 (ADAMTS-5) Forms Catalytically Active Oligomers*

    PubMed Central

    Kosasih, Hansen J.; Last, Karena; Rogerson, Fraser M.; Golub, Suzanne B.; Gauci, Stephanie J.; Russo, Vincenzo C.; Stanton, Heather; Wilson, Richard; Lamande, Shireen R.; Holden, Paul; Fosang, Amanda J.

    2016-01-01

    The metalloproteinase ADAMTS-5 (A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs) degrades aggrecan, a proteoglycan essential for cartilage structure and function. ADAMTS-5 is the major aggrecanase in mouse cartilage, and is also likely to be the major aggrecanase in humans. ADAMTS-5 is a multidomain enzyme, but the function of the C-terminal ancillary domains is poorly understood. We show that mutant ADAMTS-5 lacking the catalytic domain, but with a full suite of ancillary domains inhibits wild type ADAMTS activity, in vitro and in vivo, in a dominant-negative manner. The data suggest that mutant ADAMTS-5 binds to wild type ADAMTS-5; thus we tested the hypothesis that ADAMTS-5 associates to form oligomers. Co-elution, competition, and in situ PLA experiments using full-length and truncated recombinant ADAMTS-5 confirmed that ADAMTS-5 molecules interact, and showed that the catalytic and disintegrin-like domains support these intermolecular interactions. Cross-linking experiments revealed that recombinant ADAMTS-5 formed large, reduction-sensitive oligomers with a nominal molecular mass of ∼400 kDa. The oligomers were unimolecular and proteolytically active. ADAMTS-5 truncates comprising the disintegrin and/or catalytic domains were able to competitively block full-length ADAMTS-5-mediated aggrecan cleavage, measured by production of the G1-EGE373 neoepitope. These results show that ADAMTS-5 oligomerization is required for full aggrecanase activity, and they provide evidence that blocking oligomerization inhibits ADAMTS-5 activity. The data identify the surface provided by the catalytic and disintegrin-like domains of ADAMTS-5 as a legitimate target for the design of aggrecanase inhibitors. PMID:26668318

  7. [Effects of huannao yicong recipe extract on the learning and memory and related factors of Abeta generation in the brain of APP transgenic mice].

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Liu, Ming-Fang; Liu, Jian-Gang; Liu, Long-Tao; Guan, Jie; Cai, Ling-Ling; Hu, Jia; Wei, Yun

    2013-01-01

    To study the effects of Huannao Yicong Recipe (HNYCR)extract on the learning and memory ability, and the expressions of amyloid precursor protein (APP), beta-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), presenilin-1 (PS-1), and beta amyloid protein (Abeta)in hippocampus CA1 area of APP transgenic mice, and to explore its mechanisms for treating Alzheimer's disease (AD). Totally 3-month-old APP695V7171 transgenic mice were used to establish the AD model in this research. They were randomly divided into the model group, the Donepezil group, the large dose HNYCR extract group, the small dose HNYCR extract group, and the normal control group (C57BL/6J mice), 15 in each group. These animals were gavaged for 4 continuous months. Relevant indicators were detected: Morris water maze test was used to measure the spatial learning and memory ability. The immunohistochemical assay was used to detect the expressions of APP, BACE1, PS-1, and Abeta. The times of crossing the original platform and the swimming time and distance in the fourth quadrant of the 7-month-old APP transgenic mice were significantly reduced in Morris water maze test, when compared with the normal control group (P < 0.01). The times of crossing original platform and the swimming time and distance in the fourth quadrant of all treatment groups significantly increased in Morris water maze test, when compared with the model group (P < 0.05). The expressions of APP, BACE1, PS-1, and Abeta in hippocampus CA1 area of 7-month-old model mice increased significantly (P < 0.01), when compared with the normal control group. The expressions of APP, BACE1, PS-1, and Abeta in each 7-month-old intervention groups were significantly reduced, when compared with the model group (P < 0.01). Early application of HNYCR extract can obviously improve the learning and memory ability of APP transgenic mice that has declined, reduce the expressions of APP, BACE1, PS-1, and Abeta in the hippocampal CA1 area, reduce the production of Abeta

  8. Amphiphilic oligomer-based micelles as cisplatin nanocarriers for cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Xiuxiu; Li, Najun; Gu, Hongwei; Xu, Yujie; Xu, Ying; Jiao, Yang; Xu, Qingfeng; Li, Hua; Lu, Jianmei

    2013-09-01

    Polymeric micelles (~10 nm) have been prepared from the amphiphilic oligomer comprising oligomeric polystyrene as the hydrophobic inner core and half of EDTA (-N(CH2COOH)2) as the hydrophilic outermost shell. After chelating cisplatin with -N(CH2COOH)2 in water, polymeric micelles containing Pt on the spherical surface have been easily obtained. Since the chelate group is introduced into the amphiphilic oligomer as the terminal group by a RAFT agent, the chelation of cisplatin with PS(COOH)2 is almost stoichiometric. The drug carrier based on PS(COOH)2 showed a high loading efficiency (>70%) towards cisplatin. The release of the therapeutic Pt from the cisplatin-loaded composites (PS(COOH)2-Pt) triggered under weak acidic conditions resulted in good Pt-release and accumulation in tumor cells. Both in vitro and in vivo, the chelated cisplatin inhibited Sk-Br3 cancer more effectively than the intact cisplatin does. Furthermore, neither PS(COOH)2 nor PS(COOH)2-Pt showed obvious systematic toxicity.Polymeric micelles (~10 nm) have been prepared from the amphiphilic oligomer comprising oligomeric polystyrene as the hydrophobic inner core and half of EDTA (-N(CH2COOH)2) as the hydrophilic outermost shell. After chelating cisplatin with -N(CH2COOH)2 in water, polymeric micelles containing Pt on the spherical surface have been easily obtained. Since the chelate group is introduced into the amphiphilic oligomer as the terminal group by a RAFT agent, the chelation of cisplatin with PS(COOH)2 is almost stoichiometric. The drug carrier based on PS(COOH)2 showed a high loading efficiency (>70%) towards cisplatin. The release of the therapeutic Pt from the cisplatin-loaded composites (PS(COOH)2-Pt) triggered under weak acidic conditions resulted in good Pt-release and accumulation in tumor cells. Both in vitro and in vivo, the chelated cisplatin inhibited Sk-Br3 cancer more effectively than the intact cisplatin does. Furthermore, neither PS(COOH)2 nor PS(COOH)2-Pt showed obvious

  9. Static and time-resolved spectroscopy of carbazole-based oligomers with phenylene/thiophene/furan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiangjie; Liu, Yingliang; Meng, Kang; Zeng, Qi; Wang, Shufeng; Gong, Qihuang

    2008-06-01

    Steady-state and picosecond transient spectroscopy measurements are applied to study the photo-physics of three carbazolenevinylene derivatives: alternatively conjugated oligomer of alkylated carbazole and phenylene/thiophene/furan (PBC/PBT/PBF), bridged by vinyl group. Their fluorescence spectra show a bathochromic phenomenon towards solvent polarity. The fluorescence decays of PBF are found to be bi-exponential, while those of PBT and PBC are simple single exponential. It is suggested that PBF is non-planar conformation at ground state and twists to planar conformation after excitation. This chain twisting process of PBF is verified by viscosity dependent fluorescence decay.

  10. Radiation inactivation method provides evidence that membrane-bound mitochondrial creatine kinase is an oligomer

    SciTech Connect

    Quemeneur, E.; Eichenberger, D.; Goldschmidt, D.; Vial, C.; Beauregard, G.; Potier, M.

    1988-06-30

    Lyophilized suspensions of rabbit heart mitochondria have been irradiated with varying doses of gamma rays. Mitochondrial creatine kinase activity was inactivated exponentially with a radiation inactivation size of 352 or 377 kDa depending upon the initial medium. These values are in good agreement with the molecular mass previously deduced from by permeation experiments: 357 kDa. This is the first direct evidence showing that the native form of mitochondrial creatine kinase is associated to the inner membrane as an oligomer, very likely an octamer.

  11. Janus and Strawberry-like Particles from Azo Molecular Glass and Polydimethylsiloxane Oligomer.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chungen; Du, Yi; Wang, Xiaogong

    2017-10-10

    This study investigated Janus and strawberry-like particles composed of azo molecular glass and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) oligomer, focusing on controllable fabrication and formation mechanism of these unique structures and morphologies. Two materials, the azo molecular glass (IA-Chol) and PDMS oligomer (H2pdca-PDMS), were prepared for this purpose. The Janus and strawberry-like particles were obtained from the droplets of a dichloromethane (DCM) solution containing both IA-Chol and H2pdca-PDMS, dispersed in water and stabilized by poly(vinyl alcohol). Results show that the structured particles are formed through segregation between the two components induced by gradual evaporation of DCM from the droplets, which is controlled by adding ethylene glycol (EG) into the above dispersion. Without the addition of EG, Janus particles are formed through the full segregation of the two components in the droplets. On the other hand, with the existence of EG in the dispersion, strawberry-like particles instead of Janus particles are formed in the phase separation process. The diffusion of EG molecules from the dispersion medium into the droplets causes the PDMS phase deswelling in the interfacial area due to the poor solvent effect. Caused by the surface coagulation, the coalescence of the isolated IA-Chol domains is jammed in the shell region, which results in the formation of the strawberry-like particles. For the particles separated from the dispersion and dried, the PDMS oligomer phase of the Janus particles can adhere and spread on the substrate to form unique "particle-on-pad" morphology due to its low surface energy and swelling ability, while the strawberry-like particles exist as "standstill" objects on the substrates. Upon irradiation with a linearly polarized laser beam at 488 nm, the azo molecular glass parts in the particles are significantly deformed along the light polarization direction, which show unique and distinct morphologies for these two types of the

  12. TRP1 interacting PDZ-domain protein GIPC forms oligomers and is localized to intracellular vesicles in human melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Kedlaya, Rajendra H; Bhat, Kumar M R; Mitchell, Julie; Darnell, Steven J; Setaluri, Vijayasaradhi

    2006-10-15

    PDZ proteins coordinate assembly of protein complexes that participate in diverse biological processes. GIPC is a multifunctional PDZ protein that interacts with several soluble and membrane proteins. Unlike most PDZ proteins, GIPC contains single PDZ domain and the mechanisms by which GIPC mediates its actions remain unclear. We investigated the possibility that in lieu of multiple PDZ domains, GIPC forms multimers. Here, we demonstrate that GIPC can bind to itself and that the PDZ domain is involved in GIPC-GIPC interaction. Gel filtration, sucrose gradient centrifugation and chemical cross-linking showed that whereas bulk of cytosolic GIPC was present as monomer, oligomers with an estimated molecular mass corresponding to GIPC homotrimer were readily detectable in the membrane fraction. Modeling of GIPC PDZ domain showed feasibility of trimerization. Immunogold electron microscopy showed that GIPC is present in clusters near vesicles. Our data suggest that oligomers of GIPC mediate its functions in melanocytes.

  13. TRP1 interacting PDZ-domain protein GIPC forms oligomers and is localized to intracellular vesicles in human melanocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kedlaya, Rajendra H.; Bhat, Kumar M.R.; Mitchell, Julie; Darnell, Steven J.; Setaluri, Vijayasaradhi

    2010-01-01

    PDZ proteins coordinate assembly of protein complexes that participate in diverse biological processes. GIPC is a multifunctional PDZ protein that interacts with several soluble and membrane proteins. Unlike most PDZ proteins, GIPC contains single PDZ domain and the mechanisms by which GIPC mediates its actions remain unclear. We investigated the possibility that in lieu of multiple PDZ domains, GIPC forms multimers. Here, we demonstrate that GIPC can bind to itself and that the PDZ domain is involved in GIPC–GIPC interaction. Gel filtration, sucrose gradient centrifugation and chemical cross-linking showed that whereas bulk of cytosolic GIPC was present as monomer, oligomers with an estimated molecular mass corresponding to GIPC homotrimer were readily detectable in the membrane fraction. Modeling of GIPC PDZ domain showed feasibility of trimerization. Immunogold electron microscopy showed that GIPC is present in clusters near vesicles. Our data suggest that oligomers of GIPC mediate its functions in melanocytes. PMID:16962991

  14. Residue Y70 of the Nitrilase Cyanide Dihydratase from Bacillus pumilus Is Critical for Formation and Activity of the Spiral Oligomer.

    PubMed

    Park, Jason M; Ponder, Christian M; Sewell, B Trevor; Benedik, Michael J

    2016-12-28

    Nitrilases pose attractive alternatives to the chemical hydrolysis of nitrile compounds. The activity of bacterial nitrilases towards substrate is intimately tied to the formation of large spiral-shaped oligomers. In the nitrilase CynD (cyanide dihydratase) from Bacillus pumilus, mutations in a predicted oligomeric surface region altered its oligomerization and reduced its activity. One mutant, CynD Y70C, retained uniform oligomer formation however it was inactive, unlike all other inactive mutants throughout that region all of which significantly perturbed oligomer formation. It was hypothesized that Y70 is playing an additional role necessary for CynD activity beyond influencing oligomerization. Here, we performed saturation mutagenesis at residue 70 and demonstrated that only tyrosine or phenylalanine is permissible for CynD activity. Furthermore, we show that other residues at this position are not only inactive, but have altered or disrupted oligomer conformations. These results suggest that Y70's essential role in activity is independent of its role in the formation of the spiral oligomer.

  15. Native Mannose-Dominant Extraction by Pyridine-Phenol Alternating Oligomers Having an Extremely Efficient Repeating Motif of Hydrogen-Bonding Acceptors and Donors.

    PubMed

    Ohishi, Yuki; Abe, Hajime; Inouye, Masahiko

    2015-11-09

    Pyridine-phenol alternating oligomers in which pyridine and phenol moieties are alternatingly linked through acetylene bonds at the 2,6-positions of the aromatic rings were designed and synthesized. The pyridine nitrogen atom and the neighboring phenolic hydroxyl group were oriented so that they do not form an intramolecular hydrogen bond but cooperatively act as hydrogen-bonding acceptor and donor in a push-pull fashion for the hydroxyl group of saccharides. The longer oligomer strongly bound to lipophilic glycosides in 1,2-dichloroethane, and association constants approached 10(8)  M(-1) . Moreover, the oligomer extracted native saccharides from a solid phase to apolar organic solvents up to the extent of an equal amount of the oligomer and showed mannose-dominant extraction among naturally abundant hexoses. The oligomer bound to native saccharides even in 20 % DMSO-containing 1,2-dichloroethane and exhibited association constants of greater than 10 M(-1) for D-mannose and D-glucose. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Interactions between Aβ oligomers and presynaptic cholinergic signaling: age-dependent effects on attentional capacities

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Vinay; Bernard, Carcha S.; Naughton, Sean X.; Yegla, Brittney

    2014-01-01

    Substantial evidence suggests that cerebral deposition of the neurotoxic fibrillar form of amyloid precursor protein, β-amyloid (Aβ), plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Yet, many aspects of AD pathology including the cognitive symptoms and selective vulnerability of cortically-projecting basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic neurons are not well explained by this hypothesis. Specifically, it is not clear why cognitive decline appears early when the loss of BF cholinergic neurons and plaque deposition are manifested late in AD. Soluble oligomeric forms of Aβ are proposed to appear early in the pathology and to be better predictors of synaptic loss and cognitive deficits. The present study was designed to examine the impact of Aβ oligomers on attentional functions and presynaptic cholinergic transmission in young and aged rats. Chronic intracranial infusions of Aβ oligomers produced subtle decrements in the ability of rats to sustain attentional performance with time on task, irrespective of the age of the animals. However, Aβ oligomers produced robust detrimental effects on performance under conditions of enhanced attentional load in aged animals. In vivo electrochemical recordings show reduced depolarization-evoked cholinergic signals in Aβ-infused aged rats. Moreover, soluble Aβ disrupted the capacity of cholinergic synapses to clear exogenous choline from the extracellular space in both young and aged rats, reflecting impairments in the choline transport process that is critical for acetylcholine (ACh) synthesis and release. Although aging per se reduced the cross-sectional area of BF cholinergic neurons and presynaptic cholinergic proteins in the cortex, attentional performance and ACh release remained unaffected in aged rats infused with the control peptide. Taken together, these data suggest that soluble Aβ may marginally influence attentional functions at young ages primarily by interfering with the choline uptake

  17. Following the TRMC Trail: Optimization of Photovoltaic Efficiency and Structure-Property Correlation of Thiophene Oligomers.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Tanwistha; Gopal, Anesh; Nagasawa, Shinji; Mohan, Nila; Saeki, Akinori; Nair, Vijayakumar C

    2016-09-28

    Semiconducting conjugated oligomers having same end group (N-ethylrhodanine) but different central core (thiophene: OT-T, bithiophene: OT-BT, thienothiophene: OT-TT) connected through thiophene pi-linker (alkylated terthiophene) were synthesized for solution processable bulk-heterojunction solar cells. The effect of the incorporation of an extra thiophene to the central thiophene unit either through C-C bond linkage to form bithiophene or by fusing two thiophenes together to form thienothiophene on the optoelectronic properties and photovoltaic performances of the oligomers were studied in detail. Flash photolysis time-resolved microwave conductivity (FP-TRMC) technique shows OT-TT has significantly higher photoconductivity than OT-T and OT-BT implying that the former can outperform the latter two derivatives by a wide margin under identical conditions in a bulk-heterojunction solar cell device. However, the initial photovoltaic devices fabricated from all three oligomers (with PC71BM as the acceptor) gave power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of about 0.7%, which was counterintuitive to the TRMC observation. By using TRMC results as a guiding tool, solution engineering was carried out; no remarkable changes were seen in the PCE of OT-T and OT-BT. On the other hand, 5-fold enhancement in the device efficiency was achieved in OT-TT (PCE: 3.52%, VOC: 0.80 V, JSC: 8.74 mA cm(-2), FF: 0.50), which was in correlation with the TRMC results. The structure-property correlation and the fundamental reasons for the improvement in device performance upon solvent engineering were deduced through UV-vis absorption, atomic force microscopy, bright-field transmission electron microscopy, photoluminescence quenching analysis and two-dimensional grazing incidence X-ray diffraction studies.

  18. A single administration of morpholino antisense oligomer rescues spinal muscular atrophy in mouse.

    PubMed

    Porensky, Paul N; Mitrpant, Chalermchai; McGovern, Vicki L; Bevan, Adam K; Foust, Kevin D; Kaspar, Brain K; Wilton, Stephen D; Burghes, Arthur H M

    2012-04-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by α-motor neuron loss in the spinal cord anterior horn. SMA results from deletion or mutation of the Survival Motor Neuron 1 gene (SMN1) and retention of SMN2. A single nucleotide difference between SMN1 and SMN2 results in exclusion of exon 7 from the majority of SMN2 transcripts, leading to decreased SMN protein levels and development of SMA. A series of splice enhancers and silencers regulate incorporation of SMN2 exon 7; these splice motifs can be blocked with antisense oligomers (ASOs) to alter SMN2 transcript splicing. We have evaluated a morpholino (MO) oligomer against ISS-N1 [HSMN2Ex7D(-10,-29)], and delivered this MO to postnatal day 0 (P0) SMA pups (Smn-/-, SMN2+/+, SMNΔ7+/+) by intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection. Survival was increased markedly from 15 days to >100 days. Delayed CNS MO injection has moderate efficacy, and delayed peripheral injection has mild survival advantage, suggesting that early CNS ASO administration is essential for SMA therapy consideration. ICV treatment increased full-length SMN2 transcript as well as SMN protein in neural tissue, but only minimally in peripheral tissue. Interval analysis shows a decrease in alternative splice modification over time. We suggest that CNS increases of SMN will have a major impact on SMA, and an early increase of the SMN level results in correction of motor phenotypes. Finally, the early introduction by intrathecal delivery of MO oligomers is a potential treatment for SMA patients.

  19. Synthesis of long Prebiotic Oligomers on Mineral Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, James P.; Hill, Aubrey R., Jr.; Liu, Rihe; Orgel, Leslie E.

    1996-01-01

    Most theories of the origin of biological organization assume that polymers with lengths in the range of 30-60 monomers are needed to make a genetic system viable. But it has not proved possible to synthesize plausibly prebiotic polymers this long by condensation in aqueous solution, because hydrolysis competes with polymerization. The potential of mineral surfaces to facilitate prebiotic polymerization was pointed out long ago. Here we describe a system that models prebiotic polymerization by the oligomerization of activated monomers -both nucleotides and amino acids. We find that whereas the reactions in solution produce only short oligomers (the longest typically being a 10-mer), the presence of mineral surfaces (montmorillonite for nucleotides, illite and hydroxylapatite for amino adds) induces the formation of oligomers up to 55 monomers long. These are formed by successive "feedings" with the monomers; polymerization takes place on the mineral surfaces in a manner akin to solid-phase synthesis of biopolymers.

  20. Pigment oligomers as natural and artificial photosynthetic antennas

    SciTech Connect

    Blankenship, R.E.

    1996-12-31

    Green photosynthetic bacteria contain antenna complexes known as chlorosomes. These complexes are appressed to the cytoplasmic side of the inner cell membrane and function to absorb light and transfer the energy to the photochemical reaction center, where photochemical energy storage takes place. Chlorosomes differ from all other known photosynthetic antenna complexes in that the geometrical arrangement of pigments is determined primarily by pigment-pigment interactions instead of pigment-protein interactions. The bacteriochlorophyll c, d or e pigments found in chlorosomes form large oligomers with characteristic spectral properties significantly perturbed from those exhibited by monomeric pigments. Because of their close spatial interaction, the pigments are thought to be strongly coupled electronically, and many of the optical properties result from exciton interactions. This presentation will summarize existing knowledge on the chemical composition and properties of chlorosomes, the evidence for the oligomeric nature of chlorosome pigment organization and proposed structures for the oligomers, and the kinetics and mechanisms of energy transfer in chlorosomes.

  1. Phase transition in conjugated oligomers suspended in chloroform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, Shikha; Kumar, Anupam; Yadav, S. N. S.; Mishra, Pankaj

    2015-08-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) has been used to investigate the isotropic-nematic (I-N) phase transition in a system of high aspect ratio conjugated oligomers suspended in chloroform. The interaction between the oligomers is modeled using Gay-Berne potential in which effect of solvent is implicit. Percus-Yevick integral equation theory has been used to evaluate the pair correlation functions of the fluid phase at several temperatures and densities. These pair correlation function has been used in the DFT to evaluate the I-N freezing parameters. Highly oriented nematic is found to stabilize at low density. The results obtained are in qualitative agreement with the simulation and are verifiable.

  2. Synthesis of long prebiotic oligomers on mineral surfaces.

    PubMed

    Ferris, J P; Hill, A R; Liu, R; Orgel, L E

    1996-05-02

    Most theories of the origin of biological organization assume that polymers with lengths in the range of 30-60 monomers are needed to make a genetic system viable. But it has not proved possible to synthesize plausibly prebiotic polymers this long by condensation in aqueous solution, because hydrolysis competes with polymerization. The potential of mineral surfaces to facilitate prebiotic polymerization was pointed out long ago. Here we describe a system that models prebiotic polymerization by the oligomerization of activated monomers--both nucleotides and amino acids. We find that whereas the reactions in solution produce only short oligomers (the longest typically being a 10-mer), the presence of mineral surfaces (montmorillonite for nucleotides, illite and hydroxylapatite for amino acids) induces the formation of oligomers up to 55 monomers long. These are formed by successive 'feedings' with the monomers; polymerization takes place on the mineral surfaces in a manner akin to solid-phase synthesis of biopolymers.

  3. Thermodynamics and Reaction Pathways of Furfuryl Alcohol Oligomer Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Taejin; Surendran Assary, Rajeev; Pauls, Richard E.; Marshall, Christopher L.; Curtiss, Larry A.; Stair, Peter C.

    2014-01-01

    The acid-catalyzed transformation of furfuryl alcohol (FA) monomer to oligomers has been studied in the liquid phase to investigate the reaction mechanisms and intermediate species by using a combination of quantitative reaction product measurements and density functional theory calculations. FA monomer was converted into oligomers with a broad range of carbon number: C9–C10, C14–C15, C19–C29, NC29. Based on the calculations, terminal CH2OH dimer formation is both kinetically and thermodynamically favored, consistent with the experimental results. The order for dimer production in the C9–C10 range follows terminal CH2OH N ether bridged–methylene bridged dimer N OH-carbon bridge.

  4. Production of random DNA oligomers for scalable DNA computing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sixue S L; Johnson, John J X; Hughes, Bradley S T; Karabay, Dundar A O; Bader, Karson D W; Austin, Allen; Austin, Alan; Habib, Aisha; Hatef, Husnia; Joshi, Megha; Nguyen, Lawrence; Mills, Allen P

    2009-01-01

    While remarkably complex networks of connected DNA molecules can form from a relatively small number of distinct oligomer strands, a large computational space created by DNA reactions would ultimately require the use of many distinct DNA strands. The automatic synthesis of this many distinct strands is economically prohibitive. We present here a new approach to producing distinct DNA oligomers based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of a few random template sequences. As an example, we designed a DNA template sequence consisting of a 50-mer random DNA segment flanked by two 20-mer invariant primer sequences. Amplification of a dilute sample containing about 30 different template molecules allows us to obtain around 10(11) copies of these molecules and their complements. We demonstrate the use of these amplicons to implement some of the vector operations that will be required in a DNA implementation of an analog neural network.

  5. Wnt-related SynGAP1 is a neuroprotective factor of glutamatergic synapses against Aβ oligomers

    PubMed Central

    Codocedo, Juan F.; Montecinos-Oliva, Carla; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C.

    2015-01-01

    Wnt-5a is a synaptogenic factor that modulates glutamatergic synapses and generates neuroprotection against Aβ oligomers. It is known that Wnt-5a plays a key role in the adult nervous system and synaptic plasticity. Emerging evidence indicates that miRNAs are actively involved in the regulation of synaptic plasticity. Recently, we showed that Wnt-5a is able to control the expression of several miRNAs including miR-101b, which has been extensively studied in carcinogenesis. However, its role in brain is just beginning to be explored. That is why we aim to study the relationship between Wnt-5a and miRNAs in glutamatergic synapses. We performed in silico analysis which predicted that miR-101b may inhibit the expression of synaptic GTPase-Activating Protein (SynGAP1), a Ras GTPase-activating protein critical for the development of cognition and proper synaptic function. Through overexpression of miR-101b, we showed that miR-101b is able to regulate the expression of SynGAP1 in an hippocampal cell line. Moreover and consistent with a decrease of miR-101b, Wnt-5a enhances SynGAP expression in cultured hippocampal neurons. Additionally, Wnt-5a increases the activity of SynGAP in a time-dependent manner, with a similar kinetic to CaMKII phosphorylation. This also, correlates with a modulation in the SynGAP clusters density. On the other hand, Aβ oligomers permanently decrease the number of SynGAP clusters. Interestingly, when neurons are co-incubated with Wnt-5a and Aβ oligomers, we do not observe the detrimental effect of Aβ oligomers, indicating that, Wnt-5a protects neurons from the synaptic failure triggered by Aβ oligomers. Overall, our findings suggest that SynGAP1 is part of the signaling pathways induced by Wnt-5a. Therefore, possibility exists that SynGAP is involved in the synaptic protection against Aβ oligomers. PMID:26124704

  6. Wnt-related SynGAP1 is a neuroprotective factor of glutamatergic synapses against Aβ oligomers.

    PubMed

    Codocedo, Juan F; Montecinos-Oliva, Carla; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2015-01-01

    Wnt-5a is a synaptogenic factor that modulates glutamatergic synapses and generates neuroprotection against Aβ oligomers. It is known that Wnt-5a plays a key role in the adult nervous system and synaptic plasticity. Emerging evidence indicates that miRNAs are actively involved in the regulation of synaptic plasticity. Recently, we showed that Wnt-5a is able to control the expression of several miRNAs including miR-101b, which has been extensively studied in carcinogenesis. However, its role in brain is just beginning to be explored. That is why we aim to study the relationship between Wnt-5a and miRNAs in glutamatergic synapses. We performed in silico analysis which predicted that miR-101b may inhibit the expression of synaptic GTPase-Activating Protein (SynGAP1), a Ras GTPase-activating protein critical for the development of cognition and proper synaptic function. Through overexpression of miR-101b, we showed that miR-101b is able to regulate the expression of SynGAP1 in an hippocampal cell line. Moreover and consistent with a decrease of miR-101b, Wnt-5a enhances SynGAP expression in cultured hippocampal neurons. Additionally, Wnt-5a increases the activity of SynGAP in a time-dependent manner, with a similar kinetic to CaMKII phosphorylation. This also, correlates with a modulation in the SynGAP clusters density. On the other hand, Aβ oligomers permanently decrease the number of SynGAP clusters. Interestingly, when neurons are co-incubated with Wnt-5a and Aβ oligomers, we do not observe the detrimental effect of Aβ oligomers, indicating that, Wnt-5a protects neurons from the synaptic failure triggered by Aβ oligomers. Overall, our findings suggest that SynGAP1 is part of the signaling pathways induced by Wnt-5a. Therefore, possibility exists that SynGAP is involved in the synaptic protection against Aβ oligomers.

  7. Soluble Amyloid β-Oligomers Affect Dielectric Membrane Properties by Bilayer Insertion and Domain Formation: Implications for Cell Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Valincius, Gintaras; Heinrich, Frank; Budvytyte, Rima; Vanderah, David J.; McGillivray, Duncan J.; Sokolov, Yuri; Hall, James E.; Lösche, Mathias

    2008-01-01

    It is well established that Alzheimer's amyloid β-peptides reduce the membrane barrier to ion transport. The prevailing model ascribes the resulting interference with ion homeostasis to the formation of peptide pores across the bilayer. In this work, we examine the interaction of soluble prefibrillar amyloid β (Aβ1–42)-oligomers with bilayer models, observing also dramatic increases in ion current at micromolar peptide concentrations. We demonstrate that the Aβ-induced ion conductances across free-standing membranes and across substrate-supported “tethered” bilayers are quantitatively similar and depend on membrane composition. However, characteristic signatures of the molecular transport mechanism were distinctly different from ion transfer through water-filled pores, as shown by a quantitative comparison of the membrane response to Aβ-oligomers and to the bacterial toxin α-hemolysin. Neutron reflection from tethered membranes showed that Aβ-oligomers insert into the bilayer, affecting both membrane leaflets. By measuring the capacitance of peptide-free membranes, as well as their geometrical thicknesses, the dielectric constants in the aliphatic cores of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and 1,2-diphytanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine bilayers were determined to be ɛ = 2.8 and 2.2, respectively. The magnitude of the Aβ-induced increase in ɛ indicates that Aβ-oligomers affect membranes by inducing lateral heterogeneity in the bilayers, but an increase in the water content of the bilayers was not observed. The activation energy for Aβ-induced ion transport across the membrane is at least three times higher than that measured for membranes reconstituted with α-hemolysin pores, Ea = 36.8 vs. 9.9 kJ/mol, indicating that the molecular mechanisms underlying both transport processes are fundamentally different. The Aβ-induced membrane conductance shows a nonlinear dependence on the peptide concentration in the membrane. Moreover, Ea depends on

  8. In vivo modification of Abeta plaque toxicity as a novel neuroprotective lithium-mediated therapy for Alzheimer’s disease pathology

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by the abnormal accumulation of extracellular beta-amyloid (Abeta) plaques, intracellular hyperphosphorylated tau, progressive synaptic alterations, axonal dystrophies, neuronal loss and the deterioration of cognitive capabilities of patients. However, no effective disease-modifying treatment has been yet developed. In this work we have evaluated whether chronic lithium treatment could ameliorate the neuropathology evolution of our well characterized PS1M146LxAPPSwe-London mice model. Results Though beneficial effects of lithium have been previously described in different AD models, here we report a novel in vivo action of this compound that efficiently ameliorated AD-like pathology progression and rescued memory impairments by reducing the toxicity of Abeta plaques. Transgenic PS1M146LxAPPSwe-London mice, treated before the pathology onset, developed smaller plaques characterized by higher Abeta compaction, reduced oligomeric-positive halo and therefore with attenuated capacity to induce neuronal damage. Importantly, neuronal loss in hippocampus and entorhinal cortex was fully prevented. Our data also demonstrated that the axonal dystrophic area associated with lithium-modified plaques was highly reduced. Moreover, a significant lower accumulation of phospho-tau, LC3-II and ubiquitinated proteins was detected in treated mice. Our study highlights that this switch of plaque quality by lithium could be mediated by astrocyte activation and the release of heat shock proteins, which concentrate in the core of the plaques. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that the pharmacological in vivo modulation of the extracellular Abeta plaque compaction/toxicity is indeed possible and, in addition, might constitute a novel promising and innovative approach to develop a disease-modifying therapeutic intervention against AD. PMID:24252759

  9. Changes of adiponectin oligomer composition by moderate weight reduction.

    PubMed

    Bobbert, Thomas; Rochlitz, Helmut; Wegewitz, Uta; Akpulat, Suzan; Mai, Knut; Weickert, Martin O; Möhlig, Matthias; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Spranger, Joachim

    2005-09-01

    Adiponectin affects lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity. However, adiponectin circulates in three different oligomers that may also have distinct biological functions. We aimed to analyze the role of these oligomers in obesity and lipid metabolism after weight reduction. A total of 17 obese volunteers (15 women and 2 men) participated in a weight reduction program. Individuals were characterized before and after 6 months of a balanced diet. Adiponectin was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and oligomers were detected by nondenaturating Western blot. BMI decreased (35.1 +/- 1.2 to 32.8 +/- 1.1 kg/m(2), P < 0.001), which was associated with an improved metabolite profile. Total adiponectin increased from 5.3 +/- 0.5 to 6.1 +/- 0.6 microg/ml (P = 0.076). High (HMW) and medium molecular weight (MMW) adiponectin oligomers significantly increased during weight reduction (HMW: 0.37 +/- 0.07 to 0.4 +/- 0.08 microg/ml, P = 0.042; MMW: 2.3 +/- 0.2 to 2.9 +/- 0.3 microg/ml, P = 0.007), while low molecular weight (LMW) did not significantly change. Body weight inversely correlated with HMW (r = -0.695, P = 0.002) and positively with LMW (r = 0.579, P = 0.015). Interestingly, HDL cholesterol and HMW were strongly correlated (r = 0.665, P = 0.007). Indeed, HMW and free fatty acids before weight reduction predicted approximately 60% of HDL changes during intervention. In conclusion, weight reduction results in a relative increase of HMW/MMW adiponectin and a reduction of LMW adiponectin. Total adiponectin and especially HMW adiponectin are related to circulating HDL cholesterol.

  10. Ethynyl-terminated ester oligomers and polymers therefrom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Havens, Stephen J. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A class of ethynyl terminated oligomers and the process for preparing the same are disclosed. Upon the application of heat, with or without a catalyst, the ethynyl groups react to provide crosslinking and chain extension to increase the polymer use temperature and improve the polymer solvent resistance. These polyesters are potentially useful in packaging, magnetic tapes, capacitors, industrial belting, protective coatings, structural adhesives and composite matrices.

  11. Using hyperbranched oligomer functionalized glass fillers to reduce shrinkage stress

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Sheng; Azarnoush, Setareh; Smith, Ian R.; Cramer, Neil B.; Stansbury, Jeffrey W.; Bowman, Christopher N

    2012-01-01

    Objective Fillers are widely utilized to enhance the mechanical properties of polymer resins. However, polymerization stress has the potential to increase due to the higher elastic modulus achieved upon filler addition. Here, we demonstrate a hyperbranched oligomer functionalized glass filler UV curable resin composite which is able to reduce the shrinkage stress without sacrificing mechanical properties. Methods A 16-functional alkene-terminated hyperbranched oligomer is synthesized by thiol-acrylate and thiol-yne reactions and the product structure is analyzed by 1H-NMR, mass spectroscopy, and gel permeation chromatography. Surface functionalization of the glass filler is measured by thermogravimetric analysis. Reaction kinetics, mechanical properties and shrinkage stress are studied via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, dynamic mechanical analysis and a tensometer, respectively. Results Silica nanoparticles are functionalized with a flexible 16-functional alkene-terminated hyperbranched oligomer which is synthesized by multistage thiol-ene/yne reactions. 93% of the particle surface was covered by this oligomer and an interfacial layer ranging from 0.7 – 4.5 nm thickness is generated. A composite system with these functionalized silica nanoparticles incorporated into the thiol-yne-methacrylate resin demonstrates 30% reduction of shrinkage stress (from 0.9 MPa to 0.6 MPa) without sacrificing the modulus (3100 ± 300 MPa) or glass transition temperature (62 ± 3 °C). Moreover, the shrinkage stress of the composite system builds up at much later stages of the polymerization as compared to the control system. Significance Due to the capability of reducing shrinkage stress without sacrificing mechanical properties, this composite system will be a great candidate for dental composite applications. PMID:22717296

  12. Dihydroxybenzoic Acid Isomers Differentially Dissociate Soluble Biotinyl-Aβ(1–42) Oligomers

    PubMed Central

    LeVine, Harry; Lampe, Levi; Abdelmoti, Lina; Augelli-Szafran, Corinne E.

    2014-01-01

    Polyphenolic compounds including a number of natural products such as resveratrol, curcumin, catechin derivatives, and nordihydroguaiaretic acid have effects on the assembly of Aβ fibrils and oligomers as well as on fibril morphology. Based on a lead structure obtained from a screen of a small molecule diversity library, simple benzoic acid derivatives distinguished by the number and position of hydroxyls on the aromatic ring displayed different abilities to dissociate pre-formed biotinyl-Aβ(1–42) oligomers. The 2, 3-, 2, 5-, and 3, 4- dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) isomers were active oligomer dissociators. The remaining DHBA isomers and the monohydroxy and unsubstituted benzoic acids were inactive and did not compete with the active compounds to block oligomer dissociation. None of the compounds blocked oligomer assembly, indicating that they do not interact with monomeric Aβ to shift the oligomer-monomer equilibrium. Dissociating activity was not associated with quinone redox cycling capacity of the compounds. Gallic acid (3, 4, 5-trihydroxybenzoic acid) stabilized biotinyl-Aβ(1–42) oligomers against intrinsic dissociation and blocked the effects of the active dissociators, independent of the concentration of dissociator. A model for the mechanism of action of the DHBA dissociators proposes that these compounds destabilize oligomer structure promoting progressive monomer dissociation rather than fissioning oligomers into smaller, but still macromolecular species. Gallic acid blocks dissociation by stabilizing oligomers against this process. PMID:22129351

  13. Evidence of molecular links between PKR and mTOR signalling pathways in Abeta neurotoxicity: role of p53, Redd1 and TSC2.

    PubMed

    Morel, Milena; Couturier, Julien; Pontcharraud, Raymond; Gil, Roger; Fauconneau, Bernard; Paccalin, Marc; Page, Guylène

    2009-10-01

    The control of translation is disturbed in Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study analysed the crosslink between the up regulation of double-stranded RNA-dependent-protein kinase (PKR) and the down regulation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling pathways via p53, the protein Regulated in the Development and DNA damage response 1 (Redd1) and the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC2) factors in two beta-amyloid peptide (Abeta) neurotoxicity models. In SH-SY5Y cells, Abeta42 induced an increase of P(T451)-PKR and of the ratio p66/(p66+p53) in nuclei and a physical interaction between these proteins. Redd1 gene levels increased and P(T1462)-TSC2 decreased. These disturbances were earlier in rat primary neurons with nuclear co-localization of Redd1 and PKR. The PKR gene silencing in SH-SY5Y cells prevented these alterations. p53, Redd1 and TSC2 could represent the molecular links between PKR and mTOR in Abeta neurotoxicity. PKR could be a critical target in a therapeutic program of AD.

  14. Synthesis of soybean oil-based thiol oligomers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jennifer F; Fernando, Shashi; Weerasinghe, Dimuthu; Chen, Zhigang; Webster, Dean C

    2011-08-22

    Industrial grade soybean oil (SBO) and thiols were reacted to generate thiol-functionalized oligomers via a thermal, free radical initiated thiol-ene reaction between the SBO double bond moieties and the thiol functional groups. The effect of the reaction conditions, including thiol concentration, catalyst loading level, reaction time, and atmosphere, on the molecular weight and the conversion to the resultant soy-thiols were examined in a combinatorial high-throughput fashion using parallel synthesis, combinatorial FTIR, and rapid gel permeation chromatography (GPC). High thiol functionality and concentration, high thermal free radical catalyst concentration, long reaction time, and the use of a nitrogen reaction atmosphere were found to favor fast consumption of the SBO, and produced high molecular weight products. The thiol conversion during the reaction was inversely affected by a high thiol concentration, but was favored by a long reaction time and an air reaction atmosphere. These experimental observations were explained by the initial low affinity of the SBO and thiol, and the improved affinity between the generated soy-thiol oligomers and unreacted SBO during the reaction. The synthesized soy-thiol oligomers can be used for renewable thiol-ene UV curable materials and high molecular solids and thiourethane thermal cure materials.

  15. Size-dependent neurotoxicity of β-amyloid oligomers

    PubMed Central

    Cizas, Paulius; Budvytyte, Rima; Morkuniene, Ramune; Moldovan, Radu; Broccio, Matteo; Lösche, Mathias; Niaura, Gediminas; Valincius, Gintaras; Borutaite, Vilmante

    2010-01-01

    The link between the size of soluble amyloid β (Aβ) oligomers and their toxicity to rat cerebellar granule cells (CGC) was investigated. Variation in conditions during in vitro oligomerization of Aβ1-42 resulted in peptide assemblies with different particle size as measured by atomic force microscopy and confirmed by the dynamic light scattering and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Small oligomers of Aβ1-42 with a mean particle z-height of 1-2 nm exhibited propensity to bind to the phospholipid vesicles and they were the most toxic species that induced rapid neuronal necrosis at submicromolar concentrations whereas the bigger aggregates (z-height above 4-5 nm) did not bind vesicles and did not cause detectable neuronal death. Similar neurotoxic pattern was also observed in primary cultures of cortex neurons whereas Aβ1–42 oligomers, monomers and fibrils were non-toxic to glial cells in CGC cultures or macrophage J774 cells. However, both oligomeric forms of Aβ1-42 induced reduction of neuronal cell densities in the CGC cultures. PMID:20153288

  16. The Viscoelastic Behavior of Polymer/Oligomer Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Wei; McKenna, Gregory; Simon, Sindee

    2009-03-01

    The dynamics in athermal blends of poly(α-methyl styrene) (PaMS) and its short chain oligomer are investigated using rheometry and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Master curves for the dynamic shear responses, G' and G", are successfully constructed for both the pure materials and the blends, indicating the validity of the time-temperature superposition principle. The temperature dependence of the shift factor follows the WLF (Williams-Landel-Ferry) behavior over the temperature range studied, and for the blends, the dependence is dominated by the high mobility oligomer. The discrete relaxation spectra of the materials are calculated and are found to be broader for the blends than for the pure materials. A similar domination of the dynamics by the oligomer is observed in DSC enthalpy recovery studies and in the broadened glass transition from DSC. The ability to predict the dynamic responses of the blends from the responses of the neat materials is examined, and whether this prediction needs to incorporate the self-concentration idea as described in Colmenero's model will be discussed.

  17. α-Synuclein oligomers and clinical implications for Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Kalia, Lorraine V; Kalia, Suneil K; McLean, Pamela J; Lozano, Andres M; Lang, Anthony E

    2013-02-01

    Protein aggregation within the central nervous system has been recognized as a defining feature of neurodegenerative diseases since the early 20th century. Since that time, there has been a growing list of neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson disease, which are characterized by inclusions of specific pathogenic proteins. This has led to the long-held dogma that these characteristic protein inclusions, which are composed of large insoluble fibrillar protein aggregates and visible by light microscopy, are responsible for cell death in these diseases. However, the correlation between protein inclusion formation and cytotoxicity is inconsistent, suggesting that another form of the pathogenic proteins may be contributing to neurodegeneration. There is emerging evidence implicating soluble oligomers, smaller protein aggregates not detectable by conventional microscopy, as potential culprits in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. The protein α-synuclein is well recognized to contribute to the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease and is the major component of Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites. However, α-synuclein also forms oligomeric species, with certain conformations being toxic to cells. The mechanisms by which these α-synuclein oligomers cause cell death are being actively investigated, as they may provide new strategies for diagnosis and treatment of Parkinson disease and related disorders. Here we review the possible role of α-synuclein oligomers in cell death in Parkinson disease and discuss the potential clinical implications.

  18. Oligomers, organosulfates, and nitroxy organosulfates identified in rainwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altieri, K. E.; Turpin, B. J.; Seitzinger, S. P.

    2008-12-01

    Wet deposition is an important removal mechanism for atmospheric organic matter, and a potentially important input for receiving ecosystems, yet less than 50 percent of rainwater organic matter is considered chemically characterized. Precipitation samples collected in New Jersey, USA, were analyzed by negative ion ultra-high resolution electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). We document the presence of 552 unique compounds in the rainwater over a mass range of 50-500 Da, in four compound classes (i.e., CHO, CHOS, CHON, and CHONS). The presence of oligomers, organosulfates, nitroxy organosulfates, organic acids, and linear alkylbenzene sulfonates is reported. Some compounds detected have distinct primary sources; however, the composition of the bulk of this material suggests it is formed in the atmosphere and composed of known contributors to secondary organic aerosol. For example, eight oligomer series known to form through aqueous photooxidation of methylglyoxal and organosulfate compounds known to form from 4 precursors in smog chamber experiments were identified in the rainwater samples. The oligomers, organosulfates, and nitroxy organosulfates detected in the rainwater could all contribute to the HULIS fraction of atmospheric organic matter.

  19. α-Synuclein oligomers and clinical implications for Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Kalia, Lorraine V.; Kalia, Suneil K.; McLean, Pamela J.; Lozano, Andres M.; Lang, Anthony E.

    2012-01-01

    Protein aggregation within the central nervous system has been recognized as a defining feature of neurodegenerative diseases since the early 20th century. Since that time, there has been a growing list of neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson disease, which are characterized by inclusions of specific pathogenic proteins. This has led to the long-held dogma that these characteristic protein inclusions, which are composed of large insoluble fibrillar protein aggregates and visible by light microscopy, are responsible for cell death in these diseases. However, the correlation between protein inclusion formation and cytotoxicity is inconsistent suggesting another form of the pathogenic proteins may be contributing to neurodegeneration. There is emerging evidence implicating soluble oligomers, smaller protein aggregates not detectable by conventional microscopy, as potential culprits in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. The protein α-synuclein is well recognized to contribute to the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease and is the major component of Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites. However, α-synuclein also forms oligomeric species with certain conformations being toxic to cells. The mechanisms by which these α-synuclein oligomers cause cell death are being actively investigated as they may provide new strategies for diagnosis and treatment of Parkinson disease and related disorders. Here we review the possible role of α-synuclein oligomers in cell death in Parkinson disease and discuss the potential clinical implications. PMID:23225525

  20. Molecular modeling of crystalline alkylthiophene oligomers and polymers.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Margherita; Casalegno, Mosè; Raos, Guido; Meille, Stefano V; Po, Riccardo

    2010-02-04

    We present the results of a thorough molecular modeling study of several alkylthiophene-based oligomers and polymers. In particular, we consider two polymers whose limit-ordered crystal structures have been recently reported by our group, on the basis of powder X-ray data analysis: poly(3-(S)-2-methylbutylthiophene) (P3MBT) and form I' of poly(3-butylthiophene) (P3BT). We first describe the development of a series general purpose force fields for the simulation of these and related systems. The force fields incorporate the results of ab initio calculations of the bond torsion energies of selected oligomers and differ in the set of atomic charges used to represent the electrostatic interactions. We then present the results of an extensive validation of these force fields, by means of molecular mechanics (MM) energy minimizations and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the crystal structures of these oligomers and polymers. While our "best" force field does not outperform the others on each of the investigated systems, it provides a balanced description of their overall structure and energetics. Finally, our MM minimizations and MD simulations confirm that the reported crystal structures of P3MBT and P3BT are stable and correspond to well-defined energetic minima. The room-temperature MD simulations reveal a certain degree of side-chain disorder, even in our virtually defect-free polymer crystal models.

  1. Deuteration-induced scission of C{sub 58} oligomers

    SciTech Connect

    Loeffler, Daniel; Jester, Stefan-S.; Weis, Patrick; Boettcher, Artur; Kappes, Manfred M.

    2006-12-14

    The reaction of solid C{sub 58} films with atomic deuterium to yield deuterofullerenes, C{sub 58}D{sub x}, has been investigated by thermal desorption spectroscopy coupled with mass spectrometric detection, ultraviolet photoionization spectroscopy (21.2 eV), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The average composition of the deuterofullerenes created depends on deuterium dose, beam flux, and surface temperature. Low deuterium exposures at room temperature yield predominantly C{sub 58}D{sub 6-8} cages. Saturation exposures at room temperature yield mass spectra peaked at C{sub 58}D{sub 26}. After saturation exposures at elevated surface temperatures ({approx}500 K), the (subsequently) desorbed material reveals a comparatively narrow mass spectral distribution centered at C{sub 58}D{sub 30}. Deuteration is associated with cleavage of covalent cage-cage bonds in the starting C{sub 58} oligomer material, as evidenced by a considerable lowering of the sublimation energies of C{sub 58}D{sub x} compared to desorption of C{sub 58} desorbed from pure oligomer films. Correspondingly, AFM images reveal a D-induced, thermally activated transition from dendritic C{sub 58} oligomer islands into smooth-rimmed islands composed of deuterated cages. Deuterated films exhibit a significantly lower work function than bare C{sub 58} films. Progressing deuteration also gradually raises the surface ionization potential.

  2. Regiocontrolled synthesis of ethene-bridged para-phenylene oligomers based on Pt(II)- and Ru(II)-catalyzed aromatization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tse-An; Lee, Te-Ju; Lin, Ming-Yuan; Sohel, Shariar M A; Diau, Eric Wei-Guang; Lush, Shie-Fu; Liu, Rai-Shung

    2010-02-08

    We report the regiocontrolled syntheses of ethene-bridged para-phenylene oligomers in three distinct classes by using Pt(II)- and Ru(II)-catalyzed aromatization. This synthetic approach has been developed based on twofold aromatization of the 1-aryl-2-alkynylbenzene functionality, which proceeds by distinct regioselectivity for platinum and ruthenium catalysts. Variable-temperature NMR spectra provide evidence that large arrays of these oligomers are prone to twist from planarity. The UV/Vis and photoluminescence (PL) spectra as well as the band gaps of these regularly growing arrays show a pattern of extensive pi conjugation with increasing array sizes, except for in one instance.

  3. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of Citrus tristeza virus forms oligomers.

    PubMed

    Cevik, Bayram

    2013-12-01

    The RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRp) from Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) were tagged with HA and FLAG epitopes. Differentially tagged proteins were expressed either individually or concomitantly in Escherichia coli. Immunoprecipitation of the expressed proteins with anti-FLAG antibody followed by Western blot with anti-HA antibody demonstrated that molecules of RdRp from CTV interact to form oligomers. Yeast two-hybrid assays showed that molecules of RdRp interact in eukaryotic cells. Co-immunoprecipitation with anti-FLAG antibody of truncated HA-tagged RdRps (RdRpΔ1-166-HA, RdRpΔ1-390-HA, RdRp1-169-HA) co-expressed with full-length RdRp-FLAG showed that only RdRp1-169-HA interacted with the full-length FLAG-RdRp. Yeast two-hybrid assays with truncated RdRp constructs confirmed that the oligomerization site resides in the N-terminal region and that the first 169 aa of CTV RdRp are necessary and sufficient for oligomerization both in bacterial and yeast cells. Development of control strategies targeting viral RdRp oligomer formation may inhibit virus replication and prove useful in control of CTV. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Oligomer formation in the troposphere: from experimental knowledge to 3-D modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaire, V.; Coll, I.; Couvidat, F.; Mouchel-Vallon, C.; Seigneur, C.; Siour, G.

    2015-10-01

    The organic fraction of atmospheric aerosols has proven to be a critical element of air quality and climate issues. However, its composition and the aging processes it undergoes remain insufficiently understood. This work builds on laboratory knowledge to simulate the formation of oligomers from biogenic secondary organic aerosol (BSOA) in the troposphere at the continental scale. We compare the results of two different modeling approaches, a 1st-order kinetic process and a pH-dependent parameterization, both implemented in the CHIMERE air quality model (AQM), to simulate the spatial and temporal distribution of oligomerized SOA over western Europe. Our results show that there is a strong dependence of the results on the selected modeling approach: while the irreversible kinetic process leads to the oligomerization of about 50 % of the total BSOA mass, the pH-dependent approach shows a broader range of impacts, with a strong dependency on environmental parameters (pH and nature of aerosol) and the possibility for the process to be reversible. In parallel, we investigated the sensitivity of each modeling approach to the representation of SOA precursor solubility (Henry's law constant values). Finally, the pros and cons of each approach for the representation of SOA aging are discussed and recommendations are provided to improve current representations of oligomer formation in AQMs.

  5. The myelin proteolipid plasmolipin forms oligomers and induces liquid-ordered membranes in the Golgi complex.

    PubMed

    Yaffe, Yakey; Hugger, Ilan; Yassaf, Inbar Nevo; Shepshelovitch, Jeanne; Sklan, Ella H; Elkabetz, Yechiel; Yeheskel, Adva; Pasmanik-Chor, Metsada; Benzing, Carola; Macmillan, Alexander; Gaus, Katharina; Eshed-Eisenbach, Yael; Peles, Elior; Hirschberg, Koret

    2015-07-01

    Myelin comprises a compactly stacked massive surface area of protein-poor thick membrane that insulates axons to allow fast signal propagation. Increasing levels of the myelin protein plasmolipin (PLLP) were correlated with post-natal myelination; however, its function is unknown. Here, the intracellular localization and dynamics of PLLP were characterized in primary glial and cultured cells using fluorescently labeled PLLP and antibodies against PLLP. PLLP localized to and recycled between the plasma membrane and the Golgi complex. In the Golgi complex, PLLP forms oligomers based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) analyses. PLLP oligomers blocked Golgi to plasma membrane transport of the secretory protein vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSVG), but not of a VSVG mutant with an elongated transmembrane domain. Laurdan staining analysis showed that this block is associated with PLLP-induced proliferation of liquid-ordered membranes. These findings show the capacity of PLLP to assemble potential myelin membrane precursor domains at the Golgi complex through its oligomerization and ability to attract liquid-ordered lipids. These data support a model in which PLLP functions in myelin biogenesis through organization of myelin liquid-ordered membranes in the Golgi complex.

  6. Abeta targets of the biosimilar antibodies of Bapineuzumab, Crenezumab, Solanezumab in comparison to an antibody against N‑truncated Abeta in sporadic Alzheimer disease cases and mouse models.

    PubMed

    Bouter, Yvonne; Lopez Noguerola, Jose Socrates; Tucholla, Petra; Crespi, Gabriela A N; Parker, Michael W; Wiltfang, Jens; Miles, Luke A; Bayer, Thomas A

    2015-11-01

    Solanezumab and Crenezumab are two humanized antibodies targeting Amyloid-β (Aβ) which are currently tested in multiple clinical trials for the prevention of Alzheimer's disease. However, there is a scientific discussion ongoing about the target engagement of these antibodies. Here, we report the immunohistochemical staining profiles of biosimilar antibodies of Solanezumab, Crenezumab and Bapineuzumab in human formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue and human fresh frozen tissue. Furthermore, we performed a direct comparative immunohistochemistry analysis of the biosimilar versions of the humanized antibodies in different mouse models including 5XFAD, Tg4-42, TBA42, APP/PS1KI, 3xTg. The staining pattern with these humanized antibodies revealed a surprisingly similar profile. All three antibodies detected plaques, cerebral amyloid angiopathy and intraneuronal Aβ in a similar fashion. Remarkably, Solanezumab showed a strong binding affinity to plaques. We also reaffirmed that Bapineuzumab does not recognize N-truncated or modified Aβ, while Solanezumab and Crenezumab do detect N-terminally modified Aβ peptides Aβ4-42 and pyroglutamate Aβ3-42. In addition, we compared the results with the staining pattern of the mouse NT4X antibody that recognizes specifically Aβ4-42 and pyroglutamate Aβ3-42, but not full-length Aβ1-42. In contrast to the biosimilar antibodies of Solanezumab, Crenezumab and Bapineuzumab, the murine NT4X antibody shows a unique target engagement. NT4X does barely cross-react with amyloid plaques in human tissue. It does, however, detect cerebral amyloid angiopathy in human tissue. In Alzheimer mouse models, NT4X detects intraneuronal Aβ and plaques comparable to the humanized antibodies. In conclusion, the biosimilar antibodies Solanezumab, Crenezumab and Bapineuzumab strongly react with amyloid plaques, which are in contrast to the NT4X antibody that hardly recognizes plaques in human tissue. Therefore, NT4X is the first of a new class of

  7. Synthesis and Characterization of Unsymmetrical Perylene Derivatives and Perylene Oligomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Runkun

    Since the discovery of high fluorescent property of perylene tetracarboxylic diimide (PDI) derivatives in 1959, more and more researchers' attention has been attracted to related fields. Ever since, many kinds of PDI derives has been synthesized and characterized. And many special properties of PDI derivatives also has been found, such as strong absorbance ability, special redox property and self assembly induced by pi-pi interaction etc. All these properties endow PDI derivatives wide applications in photovoltaic field and semi-conducting materials area. At the same time, those important applications also encourage researchers to do more exploration on the synthesis and characterization of PDI derivatives. As one of those researchers, my thesis also mainly focused on developing new synthetic methods and characterization of novel PDI derivatives. In Chapter 1, the history of perylene, PDI derivatives and PDI oligomers are introduced. Their corresponding properties and applications also are introduced. Furthermore, the synthetic methods for different kinds of PDI derivatives, both advantages and disadvantages, are discussed thoroughly. In Chapter 2, with the investigation of known reactions which were used to prepare the key intermediate, perylene monoimide monoanhydride, a new synthetic method was developed. The key intermediate could be prepared with high yield conveniently. With the key intermediate, several unsymmetric PDI derivatives were prepared with decent yield. The optical property of one unsymmetric PDI was studied. In Chapter 3, the synthesis of peryelene diester monoanhydride (PEA) and perylene monoimide monoanhydride (PIA) was discussed. We discovered a new way to prepare PEA and PEI. Several PEA and PEI with complex structure were prepared with decent yield. The first unsymmetric PEA was synthesized. In Chapter 4, the synthesis of several perylene oligomers was discussed. Base on our experience gained in the Chapter 3 and our investigation of Langhals

  8. Folic acid-polydopamine nanofibers show enhanced ordered-stacking via π-π interactions.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hailong; Yu, Xiang; Liu, Yang; Shi, Zujin; Liu, Huihui; Nie, Zongxiu; Wu, Decheng; Jin, Zhaoxia

    2015-06-21

    Recent research has indicated that polydopamine and synthetic eumelanins are optoelectronic biomaterials in which one-dimensional aggregates composed of ordered-stacking oligomers have been proposed as unique organic semiconductors. However, improving the ordered-stacking of oligomers in polydopamine nanostructures is a big challenge. Herein, we first demonstrate how folic acid molecules influence the morphology and nanostructure of polydopamine via tuning the π-π interactions of oligomers. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry reveals that porphyrin-like tetramers are characteristic of folic acid-polydopamine (FA-PDA) nanofibers. X-ray diffraction combined with simulation studies indicate that these oligomers favour aggregation into graphite-like ordered nanostructures via strong π-π interactions. High-resolution TEM characterization of carbonized FA-PDA hybrids show that in FA-PDA nanofibers the size of the graphite-like domains is over 100 nm. The addition of folic acid in polydopamine enhances the ordered stacking of oligomers in its nanostructure. Our study steps forward to discover the mystery of the structure-property relationship of FA-PDA hybrids. It paves a way to optimize the properties of PDA through the design and selection of oligomer structures.

  9. Precise measurement of the self-diffusion coefficient for poly(ethylene glycol) in aqueous solution using uniform oligomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Kayori; Kato, Haruhisa; Saito, Takeshi; Matsuyama, Shigetomo; Kinugasa, Shinichi

    2005-06-01

    Uniform poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) oligomers, with a degree of polymerization n =1-40, were separated by preparative supercritical fluid chromatography from commercial monodispersed samples. Diffusion coefficients, D, for separated uniform PEG oligomers were measured in dilute solutions of deuterium oxide (D2O) at 30 ° C, using pulsed-field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance. The measured D for each molecular weight was extrapolated to infinite dilution. Diffusion coefficients obtained at infinite dilution follow the scaling behavior of Zimm-type diffusion, even in the lower molecular weight range. Molecular-dynamics simulations for PEG in H2O also showed this scaling behavior, and reproduced close hydrodynamic interactions between PEG and water. These findings suggest that diffusion of PEG in water is dominated by hydrodynamic interaction over a wide molecular weight range, including at low molecular weights around 1000.

  10. Repurposing doxycycline for synucleinopathies: remodelling of α-synuclein oligomers towards non-toxic parallel beta-sheet structured species

    PubMed Central

    González-Lizárraga, Florencia; Socías, Sergio B.; Ávila, César L.; Torres-Bugeau, Clarisa M.; Barbosa, Leandro R. S.; Binolfi, Andres; Sepúlveda-Díaz, Julia E.; Del-Bel, Elaine; Fernandez, Claudio O.; Papy-Garcia, Dulce; Itri, Rosangela; Raisman-Vozari, Rita; Chehín, Rosana N.

    2017-01-01

    Synucleinophaties are progressive neurodegenerative disorders with no cure to date. An attractive strategy to tackle this problem is repurposing already tested safe drugs against novel targets. In this way, doxycycline prevents neurodegeneration in Parkinson models by modulating neuroinflammation. However, anti-inflammatory therapy per se is insufficient to account for neuroprotection. Herein we characterise novel targets of doxycycline describing the structural background supporting its effectiveness as a neuroprotector at subantibiotic doses. Our results show that doxycycline reshapes α-synuclein oligomers into off-pathway, high-molecular-weight species that do not evolve into fibrils. Off-pathway species present less hydrophobic surface than on-pathway oligomers and display different β-sheet structural arrangement. These structural changes affect the α-synuclein ability to destabilize biological membranes, cell viability, and formation of additional toxic species. Altogether, these mechanisms could act synergically giving novel targets for repurposing this drug. PMID:28155912

  11. Repurposing doxycycline for synucleinopathies: remodelling of α-synuclein oligomers towards non-toxic parallel beta-sheet structured species.

    PubMed

    González-Lizárraga, Florencia; Socías, Sergio B; Ávila, César L; Torres-Bugeau, Clarisa M; Barbosa, Leandro R S; Binolfi, Andres; Sepúlveda-Díaz, Julia E; Del-Bel, Elaine; Fernandez, Claudio O; Papy-Garcia, Dulce; Itri, Rosangela; Raisman-Vozari, Rita; Chehín, Rosana N

    2017-02-03

    Synucleinophaties are progressive neurodegenerative disorders with no cure to date. An attractive strategy to tackle this problem is repurposing already tested safe drugs against novel targets. In this way, doxycycline prevents neurodegeneration in Parkinson models by modulating neuroinflammation. However, anti-inflammatory therapy per se is insufficient to account for neuroprotection. Herein we characterise novel targets of doxycycline describing the structural background supporting its effectiveness as a neuroprotector at subantibiotic doses. Our results show that doxycycline reshapes α-synuclein oligomers into off-pathway, high-molecular-weight species that do not evolve into fibrils. Off-pathway species present less hydrophobic surface than on-pathway oligomers and display different β-sheet structural arrangement. These structural changes affect the α-synuclein ability to destabilize biological membranes, cell viability, and formation of additional toxic species. Altogether, these mechanisms could act synergically giving novel targets for repurposing this drug.

  12. Radiative decay of excitons in model aggregates of {pi}-conjugated oligomers

    SciTech Connect

    Manas, E.S.; Spano, F.C.

    1998-07-01

    Spontaneous emission from exciton states in an aggregate of {pi}-conjugated oligomers is studied theoretically. Each oligomer is taken as a ring of N carbon atoms and is treated using a PPP Hamiltonian. Coulombic interactions between rings are treated to first order. The radiative decay rate {gamma} from an exciton state in an aggregate of M aligned oligomers is superradiant, being M times faster than the decay rate of an isolated oligomer exciton. Inter-oligomer interactions have little effect on the exciton size and energy when the oligomer size N is large compared to the interoligomer spacing. However, when N is small, both the exciton size and energy are strongly affected by these interactions, leading to a markedly different N dependence for {gamma}.

  13. Apoptosis induced by islet amyloid polypeptide soluble oligomers is neutralized by diabetes-associated specific antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Bram, Yaron; Frydman-Marom, Anat; Yanai, Inbal; Gilead, Sharon; Shaltiel-Karyo, Ronit; Amdursky, Nadav; Gazit, Ehud

    2014-01-01

    Soluble oligomeric assemblies of amyloidal proteins appear to act as major pathological agents in several degenerative disorders. Isolation and characterization of these oligomers is a pivotal step towards determination of their pathological relevance. Here we describe the isolation of Type 2 diabetes-associated islet amyloid polypeptide soluble cytotoxic oligomers; these oligomers induced apoptosis in cultured pancreatic cells, permeated model lipid vesicles and interacted with cell membranes following complete internalization. Moreover, antibodies which specifically recognized these assemblies, but not monomers or amyloid fibrils, were exclusively identified in diabetic patients and were shown to neutralize the apoptotic effect induced by these oligomers. Our findings support the notion that human IAPP peptide can form highly toxic oligomers. The presence of antibodies identified in the serum of diabetic patients confirms the pathological relevance of the oligomers. In addition, the newly identified structural epitopes may also provide new mechanistic insights and a molecular target for future therapy. PMID:24589570

  14. Apoptosis induced by islet amyloid polypeptide soluble oligomers is neutralized by diabetes-associated specific antibodies.

    PubMed

    Bram, Yaron; Frydman-Marom, Anat; Yanai, Inbal; Gilead, Sharon; Shaltiel-Karyo, Ronit; Amdursky, Nadav; Gazit, Ehud

    2014-03-04

    Soluble oligomeric assemblies of amyloidal proteins appear to act as major pathological agents in several degenerative disorders. Isolation and characterization of these oligomers is a pivotal step towards determination of their pathological relevance. Here we describe the isolation of Type 2 diabetes-associated islet amyloid polypeptide soluble cytotoxic oligomers; these oligomers induced apoptosis in cultured pancreatic cells, permeated model lipid vesicles and interacted with cell membranes following complete internalization. Moreover, antibodies which specifically recognized these assemblies, but not monomers or amyloid fibrils, were exclusively identified in diabetic patients and were shown to neutralize the apoptotic effect induced by these oligomers. Our findings support the notion that human IAPP peptide can form highly toxic oligomers. The presence of antibodies identified in the serum of diabetic patients confirms the pathological relevance of the oligomers. In addition, the newly identified structural epitopes may also provide new mechanistic insights and a molecular target for future therapy.

  15. Synthesis and Optoelectronic Characterization of Some Star-Shaped Oligomers with Benzene and Triphenylamine Cores

    PubMed Central

    Ivan, Teofilia; Vacareanu, Loredana; Grigoras, Mircea

    2012-01-01

    Six star-shaped oligomers containing triphenylamine (D1–D3) and benzene unit (D4–D6) as cores have been synthesized by Wittig condensation or Heck coupling reaction using aromatic aldehydes and triphenylphosphonium salts or aromatic halogenated compounds with vinyl triphenylamine. All oligomers have well-defined molecular structure and high purity. Characterization of the oligomers was made by FT-IR, 1H-NMR spectroscopy, UV-Vis, and fluorescence spectroscopy. The electrochemical behavior was studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV). The cyclic voltammograms have revealed that oligomers undergo quasireversible or irreversible redox processes. The irreversible process is associated with electrochemical polymerization of oligomers by dimerization of unsubstituted triphenylamine groups. Thermal characterization was accomplished by TGA and DSC methods and evidenced that all oligomers were stable materials until 250°C and have formed stable molecular glasses after first heating scan. PMID:24052859

  16. Influence of thermalization on thermal conduction through molecular junctions: Computational study of PEG oligomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Hari Datt; Leitner, David M.

    2017-08-01

    Thermalization in molecular junctions and the extent to which it mediates thermal transport through the junction are explored and illustrated with computational modeling of polyethylene glycol (PEG) oligomer junctions. We calculate rates of thermalization in the PEG oligomers from 100 K to 600 K and thermal conduction through PEG oligomer interfaces between gold and other materials, including water, motivated in part by photothermal applications of gold nanoparticles capped by PEG oligomers in aqueous and cellular environments. Variation of thermalization rates over a range of oligomer lengths and temperatures reveals striking effects of thermalization on thermal conduction through the junction. The calculated thermalization rates help clarify the scope of applicability of approaches that can be used to predict thermal conduction, e.g., where Fourier's law breaks down and where a Landauer approach is suitable. The rates and nature of vibrational energy transport computed for PEG oligomers are compared with available experimental results.

  17. A mimotope of Aβ oligomers may also behave as a β-sheet inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang-Xin; Wang, Shao-Wei; Lu, Shuai; Zhang, Ling-Xiao; Liu, Dong-Qun; Ji, Mei; Wang, Wei-Yun; Liu, Rui-Tian

    2017-10-04

    Beta-amyloid (Aβ) oligomers are strongly associated with the cascade of harmful events leading to neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Elimination of Aβ oligomers or inhibition of Aβ assembly is a valuable therapeutic approach for the treatment of AD. Here, we obtained a mimotope of Aβ oligomers, AOEP2, by screening a peptide library using oligomer-specific antibodies. The antibodies induced by AOEP2 specifically recognize Aβ oligomers rather than monomers and fibrils. Interestingly, the AOEP2 peptide binds to Aβ monomers and inhibits the formation of Aβ oligomers and β-sheet structure, reduces Aβ42-induced neurotoxicity and decreases the release of proinflammatory cytokines. Taken together, AOEP2, a novel multifunctional peptide directly or indirectly targeting Aβ, has promising therapeutic potential for AD. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Intrinsic versus imposed curvature in cyclical oligomers: the portal protein of bacteriophage SPP1.

    PubMed Central

    van Heel, M; Orlova, E V; Dube, P; Tavares, P

    1996-01-01

    Large cyclical oligomers may be formed by (curvi-) linear polymerization of monomers until the n(th) monomer locks in with the first member of the chain. The subunits in incomplete structures exhibit a natural curvature with respect to each other which can be perturbed when the oligomer closes cyclically. Using cryo-electron microscopy and multivariate statistical image processing we report herein a direct structural observation of this effect. A sub-population (approximately 15%) of incomplete oligomers was found within a sample of SPP1 bacteriophage portal proteins embedded in vitreous ice. Whereas the curvature between adjacent subunits of the closed circular 13-fold symmetric oligomer is 27.7 degrees, in these incomplete oligomers the angle is only 25.8 degrees, a value which almost allows for a 14-subunit cyclical arrangement. A simple model for the association of large cyclical oligomers is suggested by our data. Images PMID:8890151

  19. Influence of thermalization on thermal conduction through molecular junctions: Computational study of PEG oligomers.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Hari Datt; Leitner, David M

    2017-08-28

    Thermalization in molecular junctions and the extent to which it mediates thermal transport through the junction are explored and illustrated with computational modeling of polyethylene glycol (PEG) oligomer junctions. We calculate rates of thermalization in the PEG oligomers from 100 K to 600 K and thermal conduction through PEG oligomer interfaces between gold and other materials, including water, motivated in part by photothermal applications of gold nanoparticles capped by PEG oligomers in aqueous and cellular environments. Variation of thermalization rates over a range of oligomer lengths and temperatures reveals striking effects of thermalization on thermal conduction through the junction. The calculated thermalization rates help clarify the scope of applicability of approaches that can be used to predict thermal conduction, e.g., where Fourier's law breaks down and where a Landauer approach is suitable. The rates and nature of vibrational energy transport computed for PEG oligomers are compared with available experimental results.

  20. Inflammation-Induced CCR7 Oligomers Form Scaffolds to Integrate Distinct Signaling Pathways for Efficient Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Mark A; Schaeuble, Karin; Kindinger, Ilona; Impellizzieri, Daniela; Krueger, Wolfgang A; Hauck, Christof R; Boyman, Onur; Legler, Daniel F

    2016-01-19

    Host defense depends on orchestrated cell migration guided by chemokines that elicit selective but biased signaling pathways to control chemotaxis. Here, we showed that different inflammatory stimuli provoked oligomerization of the chemokine receptor CCR7, enabling human dendritic cells and T cell subpopulations to process guidance cues not only through classical G protein-dependent signaling but also by integrating an oligomer-dependent Src kinase signaling pathway. Efficient CCR7-driven migration depends on a hydrophobic oligomerization interface near the conserved NPXXY motif of G protein-coupled receptors as shown by mutagenesis screen and a CCR7-SNP demonstrating super-oligomer characteristics leading to enhanced Src activity and superior chemotaxis. Furthermore, Src phosphorylates oligomeric CCR7, thereby creating a docking site for SH2-domain-bearing signaling molecules. Finally, we identified CCL21-biased signaling that involved the phosphatase SHP2 to control efficient cell migration. Collectively, our data showed that CCR7 oligomers serve as molecular hubs regulating distinct signaling pathways.

  1. Effects of dilute acid pretreatment conditions on enzymatic hydrolysis monomer and oligomer sugar yields for aspen, balsam, and switchgrass.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jill R; Morinelly, Juan E; Gossen, Kelsey R; Brodeur-Campbell, Michael J; Shonnard, David R

    2010-04-01

    The effects of dilute acid hydrolysis conditions were investigated on total sugar (glucose and xylose) yields after enzymatic hydrolysis with additional analyses on glucose and xylose monomer and oligomer yields from the individual hydrolysis steps for aspen (a hardwood), balsam (a softwood), and switchgrass (a herbaceous energy crop). The results of this study, in the form of measured versus theoretical yields and a severity analysis, show that for aspen and balsam, high dilute acid hydrolysis xylose yields were obtainable at all acid concentrations (0.25-0.75 wt.%) and temperatures (150-175 degrees C) studied as long as reaction time was optimized. Switchgrass shows a relatively stronger dependence on dilute acid hydrolysis acid concentration due to its higher neutralizing mineral content. Maximum total sugar (xylose and glucose; monomer plus oligomer) yields post-enzymatic hydrolysis for aspen, balsam, and switchgrass, were 88.3%, 21.2%, and 97.6%, respectively. In general, highest yields of total sugars (xylose and glucose; monomer plus oligomer) were achieved at combined severity parameter values (log CS) between 2.20 and 2.40 for the biomass species studied.

  2. Shaking Alone Induces De Novo Conversion of Recombinant Prion Proteins to β-Sheet Rich Oligomers and Fibrils

    PubMed Central

    Ladner-Keay, Carol L.; Griffith, Bethany J.; Wishart, David S.

    2014-01-01

    The formation of β-sheet rich prion oligomers and fibrils from native prion protein (PrP) is thought to be a key step in the development of prion diseases. Many methods are available to convert recombinant prion protein into β-sheet rich fibrils using various chemical denaturants (urea, SDS, GdnHCl), high temperature, phospholipids, or mildly acidic conditions (pH 4). Many of these methods also require shaking or another form of agitation to complete the conversion process. We have identified that shaking alone causes the conversion of recombinant PrP to β-sheet rich oligomers and fibrils at near physiological pH (pH 5.5 to pH 6.2) and temperature. This conversion does not require any denaturant, detergent, or any other chemical cofactor. Interestingly, this conversion does not occur when the water-air interface is eliminated in the shaken sample. We have analyzed shaking-induced conversion using circular dichroism, resolution enhanced native acidic gel electrophoresis (RENAGE), electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thioflavin T fluorescence and proteinase K resistance. Our results show that shaking causes the formation of β-sheet rich oligomers with a population distribution ranging from octamers to dodecamers and that further shaking causes a transition to β-sheet fibrils. In addition, we show that shaking-induced conversion occurs for a wide range of full-length and truncated constructs of mouse, hamster and cervid prion proteins. We propose that this method of conversion provides a robust, reproducible and easily accessible model for scrapie-like amyloid formation, allowing the generation of milligram quantities of physiologically stable β-sheet rich oligomers and fibrils. These results may also have interesting implications regarding our understanding of prion conversion and propagation both within the brain and via techniques such as protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) and quaking induced conversion (QuIC). PMID

  3. Soluble Prion Protein and Its N-terminal Fragment Prevent Impairment of Synaptic Plasticity by Aβ Oligomers: Implications for Novel Therapeutic Strategy in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jin-Kyu; Ruffin, Vernon A.; Salameh, Ahlam I.; Nieznanski, Krzysztof; Costa, Alberto C.S.; Surewicz, Witold K.

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenic process in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) appears to be closely linked to the neurotoxic action of amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers. Recent studies have shown that these oligomers bind with high affinity to the membrane-anchored cellular prion protein (PrPC). It has also been proposed that this binding might mediate some of the toxic effects of the oligomers. Here, we show that the soluble (membrane anchor-free) recombinant human prion protein (rPrP) and its N-terminal fragment N1 block Aβ oligomers-induced inhibition of long-term potentiation (LTP) in hippocampal slices, an important surrogate marker of cognitive deficit associated with AD. rPrP and N1 are also strikingly potent inhibitors of Aβ cytotoxicity in primary hippocampal neurons. Furthermore, experiments using hippocampal slices and neurons from wild-type and PrPC null mice (as well as rat neurons in which PrPC expression was greatly reduced by gene silencing) indicate that, in contrast to the impairment of synaptic plasticity by Aβ oligomers, the cytotoxic effects of these oligomers, and the inhibition of these effects by rPrP and N1, are independent of the presence of endogenous PrPC. This suggests fundamentally different mechanisms by which soluble rPrP and its fragments inhibit these two toxic responses to Aβ. Overall, these findings provide strong support to recent suggestions that PrP-based compounds may offer new avenues for pharmacological intervention in AD. PMID:26949218

  4. Somatostatin receptor subtype-4 agonist NNC 26-9100 mitigates the effect of soluble Aβ(42) oligomers via a metalloproteinase-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Karin E; Farr, Susan A; Banks, William A; Crider, Albert M; Morley, John E; Witt, Ken A

    2013-07-03

    Soluble amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) oligomers have been hypothesized to be primary mediators of Alzheimer's disease progression. In this regard, reduction of soluble Aβ-oligomers levels within the brain may provide a viable means in which to treat the disease. Somatostatin receptor subtype-4 (SSTR4) agonists have been proposed to reduce Aβ levels in the brain via enhancement of enzymatic degradation. Herein we evaluated the effect of selective SSTR4 agonist NNC 26-9100 on the changes in learning and soluble Aβ42 oligomer brain content with and without co-administration of the M13-metalloproteinase family enzyme-inhibitor phosphoramidon, using the senescence-accelerated mouse prone-8 (SAMP8) model. NNC 26-9100 treatment (0.2 µg i.c.v. in 2 µL) improved learning, which was blocked by phosphoramidon (1 and 10mM, respectively). NNC 26-9100 decreased total soluble Aβ42, an effect which was blocked by phosphoramidon (10mM). Extracellular, intracellular, and membrane fractions were then isolated from cortical tissue and assessed for soluble oligomer alterations. NNC 26-9100 decreased the Aβ42 trimeric (12 kDa) form within the extracellular and intracellular fractions, and produced a band-split effect of the Aβ42 hexameric (25 kDa) form within the extracellular fraction. These effects were also blocked by phosphoramdon (1 and 10mM, respectively). Subsequent evaluation of NNC 26-9100 in APPswe Tg2576 transgenic mice showed a similar learning improvement and corresponding reduction in soluble Aβ42 oligomers within extracellular, intracellular, and membrane fractions. These data support the hypothesis that NNC 26-9100 reduces soluble Aβ42 oligomers and enhances learning through a phosphoramidon-sensitive metalloproteinase-dependent mechanism.

  5. Extracellular Tau Oligomers Produce An Immediate Impairment of LTP and Memory.

    PubMed

    Fá, M; Puzzo, D; Piacentini, R; Staniszewski, A; Zhang, H; Baltrons, M A; Li Puma, D D; Chatterjee, I; Li, J; Saeed, F; Berman, H L; Ripoli, C; Gulisano, W; Gonzalez, J; Tian, H; Costa, J A; Lopez, P; Davidowitz, E; Yu, W H; Haroutunian, V; Brown, L M; Palmeri, A; Sigurdsson, E M; Duff, K E; Teich, A F; Honig, L S; Sierks, M; Moe, J G; D'Adamio, L; Grassi, C; Kanaan, N M; Fraser, P E; Arancio, O

    2016-01-20

    Non-fibrillar soluble oligomeric forms of amyloid-β peptide (oAβ) and tau proteins are likely to play a major role in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The prevailing hypothesis on the disease etiopathogenesis is that oAβ initiates tau pathology that slowly spreads throughout the medial temporal cortex and neocortices independently of Aβ, eventually leading to memory loss. Here we show that a brief exposure to extracellular recombinant human tau oligomers (oTau), but not monomers, produces an impairment of long-term potentiation (LTP) and memory, independent of the presence of high oAβ levels. The impairment is immediate as it raises as soon as 20 min after exposure to the oligomers. These effects are reproduced either by oTau extracted from AD human specimens, or naturally produced in mice overexpressing human tau. Finally, we found that oTau could also act in combination with oAβ to produce these effects, as sub-toxic doses of the two peptides combined lead to LTP and memory impairment. These findings provide a novel view of the effects of tau and Aβ on memory loss, offering new therapeutic opportunities in the therapy of AD and other neurodegenerative diseases associated with Aβ and tau pathology.

  6. The effects of soluble Aβ oligomers on neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Brouillette, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    The neurodegenerative process that defines Alzheimer''s disease (AD) is initially characterized by synaptic alterations followed by synapse loss and ultimately cell death. Decreased synaptic density that precedes neuronal death is the strongest pathological correlate of cognitive deficits observed in AD. Substantial synapse and neuron loss occur early in disease progression in the entorhinal cortex (EC) and the CA1 region of the hippocampus, when memory deficits become clinically detectable. Mounting evidence suggests that soluble amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers trigger synapse dysfunction both in vitro and in vivo. However, the neurodegenerative effect of Aβ species observed on neuronal culture or organotypic brain slice culture has been more challenging to mimic in animal models. While most of the transgenic mice that overexpress Aβ show abundant amyloid plaque pathology and early synaptic alterations, these models have been less successful in recapitulating the spatiotemporal pattern of cell loss observed in AD. Recently we developed a novel animal model that revealed the neurodegenerative effect of soluble low-molecular-weight Aβ oligomers in vivo. This new approach may now serve to determine the molecular and cellular mechanisms linking soluble Aβ species to neurodegeneration in animals. In light of the low efficiency of AD therapies based on the amyloid cascade hypothesis, a novel framework, the aging factor cascade hypothesis, is proposed in an attempt to integrate the new data and concepts that emerged from recent research to develop disease modifying therapies.

  7. CD45 Deficiency Drives Amyloid-β Peptide Oligomers and Neuronal Loss in Alzheimer's Disease Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yuyan; Hou, Huayan; Rezai-Zadeh, Kavon; Giunta, Brian; Ruscin, Amanda; Gemma, Carmelina; Jin, JingJi; Dragicevic, Natasa; Bradshaw, Patrick; Rasool, Suhail; Glabe, Charles G.; Ehrhart, Jared; Bickford, Paula; Mori, Takashi; Obregon, Demian; Town, Terrence; Tan, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Converging lines of evidence indicate dysregulation of the key immunoregulatory molecule CD45 (also known as leukocyte common antigen) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We report that transgenic mice overproducing amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) but deficient in CD45 (PSAPP/CD45–/– mice) faithfully recapitulate AD neuropathology. Specifically, we find increased abundance of cerebral intracellular and extracellular soluble oligomeric and insoluble Aβ, decreased plasma soluble Aβ, increased abundance of microglial neurotoxic cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β, and neuronal loss in PSAPP/CD45–/– mice compared with CD45-sufficient PSAPP littermates (bearing mutant human amyloid precursor protein and mutant human presenilin-1 transgenes). After CD45 ablation, in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrate an anti-Aβ phagocytic but proinflammatory microglial phenotype. This form of microglial activation occurs with elevated Aβ oligomers and neural injury and loss as determined by decreased ratio of anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL to proapoptotic Bax, increased activated caspase-3, mitochondrial dysfunction, and loss of cortical neurons in PSAPP/CD45–/– mice. These data show that deficiency in CD45 activity leads to brain accumulation of neurotoxic Aβ oligomers and validate CD45-mediated microglial clearance of oligomeric Aβ as a novel AD therapeutic target. PMID:21273420

  8. Separation and reformation of cell surface dopamine receptor oligomers visualized in cells.

    PubMed

    O'Dowd, Brian F; Ji, Xiaodong; Alijaniaram, Mohammad; Nguyen, Tuan; George, Susan R

    2011-05-11

    We previously showed that dopamine receptors existed as homo- and heterooligomers, in cells and in brain tissue. We developed a method designed to study the formation and regulation of G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) oligomers in cells, using a GPCR into which a nuclear localization sequence (NLS) had been inserted. Unlike wildtype GPCRs, in the presence of agonist/antagonist ligands the GPCR-NLS is retained at the cell surface, and following ligand removal, the GPCR-NLS translocated from the cell surface. The D(1) dopamine receptor expressed with either D(2)-NLS or D(1-)NLS receptors translocated to the nucleus, indicating hetero- or homo-oligomerization with the NLS-containing receptor. Using these tools, we now demonstrate that D(1)-D(2) dopamine heterooligomers can be disrupted and the component receptors separated by dopamine and selective agonists that occupied one or both binding pockets. Subsequent agonist removal allowed the reformation of the heterooligomer. D(1) receptor homooligomers could also be disrupted by agonist, but at higher concentrations than that required for the disruption of the D(1)-D(2) heteromer. Dopamine D(1) or D(2) receptor antagonists had no effect on the integrity of the homo- or heterooligomer. We have also determined that the D(1)-D(2) heterooligomer contains D(1) homooligomers. These studies indicate that the populations of dopamine receptor oligomers at the cell surface are subject to conformational changes following agonist occupancy and are likely dynamically regulated following agonist activation.

  9. Ring-like oligomers of Synaptotagmins and related C2 domain proteins

    PubMed Central

    Zanetti, Maria N; Bello, Oscar D; Wang, Jing; Coleman, Jeff; Cai, Yiying; Sindelar, Charles V; Rothman, James E; Krishnakumar, Shyam S

    2016-01-01

    We recently reported that the C2AB portion of Synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1) could self-assemble into Ca2+-sensitive ring-like oligomers on membranes, which could potentially regulate neurotransmitter release. Here we report that analogous ring-like oligomers assemble from the C2AB domains of other Syt isoforms (Syt2, Syt7, Syt9) as well as related C2 domain containing protein, Doc2B and extended Synaptotagmins (E-Syts). Evidently, circular oligomerization is a general and conserved structural aspect of many C2 domain proteins, including Synaptotagmins. Further, using electron microscopy combined with targeted mutations, we show that under physiologically relevant conditions, both the Syt1 ring assembly and its rapid disruption by Ca2+ involve the well-established functional surfaces on the C2B domain that are important for synaptic transmission. Our data suggests that ring formation may be triggered at an early step in synaptic vesicle docking and positions Syt1 to synchronize neurotransmitter release to Ca2+ influx. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17262.001 PMID:27434670

  10. Molecular dynamics simulations of silica nanoparticles grafted with poly(ethylene oxide) oligomer chains.

    PubMed

    Hong, Bingbing; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z

    2012-03-01

    A molecular model of silica nanoparticles grafted with poly(ethylene oxide) oligomers has been developed for predicting the transport properties of nanoparticle organic-hybrid materials (NOHMs). Ungrafted silica nanoparticles in a medium of poly(ethylene oxide) oligomers were also simulated to clarify the effect of grafting on the dynamics of nanoparticles and chains. The model approximates nanoparticles as solid spheres and uses a united-atom representation for chains, including torsional and bond-bending interactions. The calculated viscosities from Green-Kubo relationships and temperature extrapolation are of the same order of magnitude as experimental data but show a smaller activation energy relative to real NOHMs systems. Grafted systems have higher viscosities, smaller diffusion coefficients, and slower chain dynamics than the ungrafted ones at high temperatures. At lower temperatures, grafted systems exhibit faster dynamics for both nanoparticles and chains relative to ungrafted systems, because of lower aggregation of particles and enhanced correlations between nanoparticles and chains. This agrees with the experimental observation that NOHMs have liquidlike behavior in the absence of a solvent. For both grafted and ungrafted systems at low temperatures, increasing chain length reduces the volume fraction of nanoparticles and accelerates the dynamics. However, at high temperatures, longer chains slow down nanoparticle diffusion. From the Stokes-Einstein relationship, it was determined that the coarse-grained treatment of nanoparticles leads to slip on the nanoparticle surfaces. Grafted systems obey the Stokes-Einstein relationship over the temperature range simulated, but ungrafted systems display deviations from it.

  11. Accurate excitation energies of molecules and oligomers from a semilocal density functional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Guocai; Mo, Yuxiang; Tao, Jianmin

    2017-06-01

    Excitation energy plays an important role in energy conversion, biological processes, and optical devices. In this work, we apply the Tao-Mo (TM) nonempirical meta-generalized gradient approximation and the combination TMTPSS (TMx + TPSSc), with TPSSc being the correlation part of the original TPSS (Tao-Perdew-Staroverov-Scuseria) to study excitation energies of small molecules and oligomers. Our test set consists of 17 molecules with 134 total excited states, including singlet, triplet, valence, and Rydberg excited states. Our calculation shows that both the TMTPSS and TM functionals yield good overall performance, with mean absolute errors (MAEs) of 0.37 eV and 0.42 eV, respectively, outperforming commonly used semilocal functionals LSDA (MAE = 0.55 eV), PBE (MAE = 0.58 eV), and TPSS (MAE = 0.47 eV). In particular, TMTPSS can yield nearly the same accuracy of B3LYP (MAE = 0.36 eV), with lower computational cost. The accuracy for semilocal density functional theory continues to hold for conjugated oligomers, but they become less accurate than hybrid functionals, due to the insufficient nonlocality.

  12. Absorption and fluorescence spectra of poly(p-phenylenevinylene) (PPV) oligomers: an ab initio simulation.

    PubMed

    Cardozo, Thiago M; Aquino, Adélia J A; Barbatti, Mario; Borges, Itamar; Lischka, Hans

    2015-03-05

    The absorption and fluorescence spectra of poly(p-phenylenevinylene) (PPV) oligomers with up to seven repeat units were theoretically investigated using the algebraic diagrammatic construction method to second order, ADC(2), combined with the resolution-of-the-identity (RI) approach. The ground and first excited state geometries of the oligomers were fully optimized. Vertical excitation energies and oscillator strengths of the first four transitions were computed. The vibrational broadening of the absorption and fluorescence spectra was studied using a semiclassical nuclear ensemble method. After correcting for basis set and solvent effects, we achieved a balanced description of the absorption and fluorescence spectra by means of the ADC(2) approach. This fact is documented by the computed Stokes shift along the PPV series, which is in good agreement with the experimental values. The experimentally observed band width of the UV absorption and fluorescence spectra is well reproduced by the present simulations showing that the nuclear ensemble generated should be well suitable for consecutive surface hopping dynamics simulations.

  13. Amyloid-β Oligomers Induce Differential Gene Expression in Adult Human Brain Slices*

    PubMed Central

    Sebollela, Adriano; Freitas-Correa, Leo; Oliveira, Fabio F.; Paula-Lima, Andrea C.; Saraiva, Leonardo M.; Martins