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Sample records for abh histo-blood group

  1. Modulation of ABH histo-blood group antigen expression in normal and myasthenic human thymus.

    PubMed

    Sarafian, Victoria S; Marinova, Tsvetana T

    2006-10-01

    The role of ABH histo-blood group antigens (HBGA) in intercellular communication during normal and pathological processes is still uncertain. The present work investigates the expression of ABH HBGA in epithelial cells and lymphocytes in normal thymus, and characterizes the modulation of their immunoreactivity during myasthenic transformation. Immunohistochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy were applied on normal young thymus and on myasthenia gravis-associated thymomas and thymic hyperplasias. The Hassall's corpuscules in the thymus of young individuals were homogeneously stained for HBGA, while in hyperplastic glands only their central part was positive. Stromal epithelial cells permanently expressed HBGA in all tissue samples. In thymomas, mainly the lymphocytes in close proximity to antigen expressing epithelial cells were positive, while in the hyperplastic gland the most intensely stained lymphocytes were those within Hassall's corpuscules. Novel evidence for modulation of ABH antigen reactivity in normal and myasthenic human thymus is presented. It suggests that HBGA might participate in the regulation of the cross-talk in the thymocyte microenvironment throughout the ontogeny, as well as during the myasthenic transformation.

  2. Selenoglycosides in silico: ab initio-derived reparameterization of MM4, conformational analysis using histo-blood group ABH antigens and lectin docking as indication for potential of bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Strino, Francesco; Lii, Jenn-Huei; Koppisetty, Chaitanya A K; Nyholm, Per-Georg; Gabius, Hans-Joachim

    2010-12-01

    The identification of glycan epitopes such as the histo-blood group ABH determinants as docking sites for bacterial/viral infections and signals in growth regulation fuels the interest to develop non-hydrolysable mimetics for therapeutic applications. Inevitably, the required substitution of the linkage oxygen atom will alter the derivative's topology. Our study addresses the question of the impact of substitution of oxygen by selenium. In order to characterize spatial parameters and flexibility of selenoglycosides, we first performed ab initio calculations on model compounds to refine the MM4 force field. The following application of the resulting MM4R version appears to reduce the difference to ab initio data when compared to using the MM4 estimator. Systematic conformational searches on the derivatives of histo-blood group ABH antigens revealed increased flexibility with acquisition of additional low-energy conformer(s), akin to the behavior of S-glycosides. Docking analysis using the Glide program for eight test cases indicated potential for bioactivity, giving further experimental investigation a clear direction to testing Se-glycosides as lectin ligands.

  3. Selenoglycosides in silico: ab initio-derived reparameterization of MM4, conformational analysis using histo-blood group ABH antigens and lectin docking as indication for potential of bioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strino, Francesco; Lii, Jenn-Huei; Koppisetty, Chaitanya A. K.; Nyholm, Per-Georg; Gabius, Hans-Joachim

    2010-12-01

    The identification of glycan epitopes such as the histo-blood group ABH determinants as docking sites for bacterial/viral infections and signals in growth regulation fuels the interest to develop non-hydrolysable mimetics for therapeutic applications. Inevitably, the required substitution of the linkage oxygen atom will alter the derivative's topology. Our study addresses the question of the impact of substitution of oxygen by selenium. In order to characterize spatial parameters and flexibility of selenoglycosides, we first performed ab initio calculations on model compounds to refine the MM4 force field. The following application of the resulting MM4R version appears to reduce the difference to ab initio data when compared to using the MM4 estimator. Systematic conformational searches on the derivatives of histo-blood group ABH antigens revealed increased flexibility with acquisition of additional low-energy conformer(s), akin to the behavior of S-glycosides. Docking analysis using the Glide program for eight test cases indicated potential for bioactivity, giving further experimental investigation a clear direction to testing Se-glycosides as lectin ligands.

  4. Conformational analysis of thioglycoside derivatives of histo-blood group ABH antigens using an ab initio-derived reparameterization of MM4: implications for design of non-hydrolysable mimetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strino, Francesco; Lii, Jenn-Huei; Gabius, Hans-Joachim; Nyholm, Per-Georg

    2009-12-01

    Histo-blood group ABH antigens serve as recognition sites for infectious microorganisms and tissue lectins in intercellular communication, e.g. in tumor progression. Thus, they are of interest as a starting point for drug design. In this respect, potent non-hydrolysable derivatives such as thioglycosides are of special interest. As prerequisite to enable estimations of ligand properties relative to their natural counterparts, conformational properties of the thioglycosidic derivatives of ABH trisaccharides and their disaccharide units were calculated using systematic and filtered systematic searches with the MM4 force field. Parameters for the glycosidic torsions of thioglycosides were independently derived from ab initio calculations. The resulting energy deviations required a reparameterization of MM4 to a new parameter set called MM4R. The data sets obtained using MM4R reveal that the thioglycosides have somewhat increased levels of flexibility about the major low-energy conformations shared with the corresponding O-glycosides. In the trisaccharides, the thiosubstitution of the Gal[NAc]α1-3Gal linkage leads to a preference for a conformation which is the secondary minimum of the natural counterparts. This conformation also generates contacts between the N-acetyl group and the fucose moiety in the blood group A derivative. Calculations further indicate that thiosubstitution of only the Fucα1-2Gal linkage does not affect the conformational preferences compared to the natural trisaccharide. Thiosubstitution of both linkages in the trisaccharide results in increased flexibility but the favored conformation of the natural trisaccharides is preferred. The study suggests that thioglycoside derivatives of ABH antigens could have pharmaceutical interest as ligands of lectins and other carbohydrate-binding proteins.

  5. Specificity and kinetics of norovirus binding to magnetic bead- conjugated histo-blood group antigens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Histo-blood group antigens (HBGA) have been identified as candidate receptors for human norovirus (NOR). Type A, type H1, and Lewis histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) in humans have been identified as major targets for NOR binding. Pig HBGA-conjugated magnetic beads have been utilized as a means ...

  6. Rotavirus infection and histo-blood group antigens in the children hospitalized with diarrhoea in China.

    PubMed

    Sun, X; Guo, N; Li, J; Yan, X; He, Z; Li, D; Jin, M; Xie, G; Pang, L; Zhang, Q; Liu, N; Duan, Z-J

    2016-08-01

    To explore the association between rotavirus (RV) infection and histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), a cross-sectional study was conducted in children hospitalized with diarrhoea in China from November 2014 to February 2015. In total, 424 sets of stool, saliva and buccal cell samples were collected. For the 125 RV-negative samples, 92% (104/125) were secretors/partial secretors, 8% (10/125) were non-secretors. Among the 299 RV-positive samples, 277 were P[8] and 22 were P[4]. All P[4] and P[8] positive individuals were secretors/partial secretors except for one P[8] (0.3%, 1/299), which was a non-secretor. These findings indicate that P[8] and P[4] RVs preferably infect secretors/partial secretors (p <0.001).

  7. Human Norovirus Interactions with Histo-Blood Group Antigens and Human Milk Oligosaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Schroten, Horst; Hanisch, Franz-Georg

    2016-01-01

    Human noroviruses interact with both human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) and human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs). The former are believed to be important for a virus infection, while the latter might act as natural decoys in the host during an infection. However, certain noroviruses are known to bind poorly to HBGAs and yet still cause infections; some interact with numerous HBGA types but are nonprevalent; and yet others bind HBGAs and seem to be increasing in prevalence. HBGAs and HMOs can be found as soluble antigens in humans, can be structurally alike, and can interact with equivalent residues at identical binding pockets on the capsid. In this Gem, we discuss HBGA and HMO binding studies for human noroviruses, concentrating on the clinically important genogroup II noroviruses. In short, the roles of HBGA and HMO interactions in norovirus infections are still unclear. PMID:27122582

  8. Structural diversity and biological importance of ABO, H, Lewis and secretor histo-blood group carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    de Mattos, Luiz Carlos

    ABO, H, secretor and Lewis histo-blood system genes control the expression of part of the carbohydrate repertoire present in areas of the body occupied by microorganisms. These carbohydrates, besides having great structural diversity, act as potential receptors for pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms influencing susceptibility and resistance to infection and illness. Despite the knowledge of some structural variability of these carbohydrate antigens and their polymorphic levels of expression in tissue and exocrine secretions, little is known about their biological importance and potential applications in medicine. This review highlights the structural diversity, the biological importance and potential applications of ABO, H, Lewis and secretor histo-blood carbohydrates.

  9. Seasonal tracking of histo-blood group antigen expression and norovirus binding in oyster gastrointestinal cells.

    PubMed

    Tian, Peng; Engelbrektson, Anna L; Mandrell, Robert E

    2008-08-01

    Noroviruses (NORs) are the most common cause of viral gastroenteritis outbreaks. Outbreaks are often associated with the consumption of contaminated oysters and generally occur between the months of November and March, when oysters produce the highest levels of glycogen. Oyster glycogen has been proposed as playing a role in NOR accumulation. Recent research indicates that histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) function as viral receptors on human gastrointestinal cells. In this study, oyster glycogen was tested to determine whether it contains HBGA-like molecules and whether it plays a role in NOR binding. The correlation between the amount of HBGA expression and NOR binding also was measured. We also tested whether seasonal changes affected HBGA expression and binding of recombinant NORs. The results indicate that recombinant NOR binding is highly correlated with HBGA expression in Virginica (Crassostrea virginica), Pacific (Crassostrea gigas), and Kumamato (Crassostrea sikamea) oysters, but the association does not have a seasonal pattern. No obvious trend in either HBGA expression or recombinant NOR binding by month was noted. A significant increase in recombinant NOR binding was observed in Virginica and Pacific oysters in a season not generally associated with NOR gastroenteritis outbreaks. A significant increase in HBGA expression also was observed for Pacific and Virginica oysters in the same season. Paradoxically, HBGA expression and NOR binding both were higher in oysters produced in the non-NOR gastroenteritis season (April through October) than in those produced in the NOR gastroenteritis season (November through March), suggesting that seasonal NOR gastroenteritis outbreaks are not associated with high levels of HBGA expression or NOR binding.

  10. Structural Analysis of Histo-Blood Group Antigen Binding Specificity in a Norovirus GII.4 Epidemic Variant: Implications for Epochal Evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Shanker, Sreejesh; Choi, Jae-Mun; Sankaran, Banumathi; Atmar, Robert L.; Estes, Mary K.; Prasad, B.V. Venkataram

    2012-03-23

    Susceptibility to norovirus (NoV), a major pathogen of epidemic gastroenteritis, is associated with histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), which are also cell attachment factors for this virus. GII.4 NoV strains are predominantly associated with worldwide NoV epidemics with a periodic emergence of new variants. The sequence variations in the surface-exposed P domain of the capsid protein resulting in differential HBGA binding patterns and antigenicity are suggested to drive GII.4 epochal evolution. To understand how temporal sequence variations affect the P domain structure and contribute to epochal evolution, we determined the P domain structure of a 2004 variant with ABH and secretor Lewis HBGAs and compared it with the previously determined structure of a 1996 variant. We show that temporal sequence variations do not affect the binding of monofucosyl ABH HBGAs but that they can modulate the binding strength of difucosyl Lewis HBGAs and thus could contribute to epochal evolution by the potentiated targeting of new variants to Lewis-positive, secretor-positive individuals. The temporal variations also result in significant differences in the electrostatic landscapes, likely reflecting antigenic variations. The proximity of some of these changes to the HBGA binding sites suggests the possibility of a coordinated interplay between antigenicity and HBGA binding in epochal evolution. From the observation that the regions involved in the formation of the HBGA binding sites can be conformationally flexible, we suggest a plausible mechanism for how norovirus disassociates from salivary mucin-linked HBGA before reassociating with HBGAs linked to intestinal epithelial cells during its passage through the gastrointestinal tract.

  11. Genome Sequence of Enterobacter cloacae Strain SENG-6, a Bacterium Producing Histo-Blood Group Antigen-Like Substances That Can Bind with Human Noroviruses

    PubMed Central

    Amarasiri, Mohan; Hashiba, Satoshi; Yang, Peiyi; Okabe, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Enterobacter sp. strain SENG-6, isolated from healthy human feces, produces histo-blood group antigen (HBGA)-like substances that can bind with human noroviruses. Based on the genome sequence analysis, strain SENG-6 belongs to the species Enterobacter cloacae. The genome sequence of this strain should help identify genes associated with the production of HBGA-like substances. PMID:27563051

  12. Genome Sequence of Enterobacter cloacae Strain SENG-6, a Bacterium Producing Histo-Blood Group Antigen-Like Substances That Can Bind with Human Noroviruses.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Satoshi; Amarasiri, Mohan; Hashiba, Satoshi; Yang, Peiyi; Okabe, Satoshi; Sano, Daisuke

    2016-08-25

    Enterobacter sp. strain SENG-6, isolated from healthy human feces, produces histo-blood group antigen (HBGA)-like substances that can bind with human noroviruses. Based on the genome sequence analysis, strain SENG-6 belongs to the species Enterobacter cloacae The genome sequence of this strain should help identify genes associated with the production of HBGA-like substances.

  13. "Natural" antibodies and histo-blood groups in biological development with respect to histo-blood group A. A perspective review.

    PubMed

    Arend, Peter

    2011-12-01

    The "inappropriate" A-specific ovarian glycosphingolipids discovered in unfertilized C57BL/10J female mice reflect growth processes, which suggest the activity of embryonic stem cells undergoing genetic polymorphism. And the responding anti-GalNAc antibody represents the first classical "natural" antibody, which was unmasked as a highly specific autoantibody. This murine anti-A is subspecifically distinct from the human antibody, discovering by a broader reactivity growth-dependent, xenoreactive A-specific structures also in non-reproductive murine tissues, where an equivalent of the human AB gene family as a cis AB-gene encodes A-and B glycotransferases. Expression of antigen is known to need always more than its encoded enzyme, and the special mechanism which in the C57BL/10J murine ovarian glycospingolipids blocks the expression of "B" still remains still unknown. A herewith arising postulation of a growth-predominating common biological activity may be supported by findings in rats. The number of A-genes here significantly exceeds those of B and in the Wistar rat the A-antigen is only expressed in the wild type, while B-expression requires the transfer of human B. Nevertheless in transgenic rats, the appearance of "A" still remains more pronounced. The observations lead to reports on animals, which do not show AB transferase production or a respective antigen expression in their normal tissues, but inconcistently display A activity in malignant tumors. And respective examples are delivered by phenotype independent neo expressions of "inappropriate" A-specific structures in human cancer. Although in comparison with epitope deletions they are rare, the ubiquitous "natural" (IgM and IgG) anti-A and anti-B levels, against self and not self, irrespective of the blood group in any normal human sera, may reflect invisible "inappropriate" A-specific growth. The role of the associated (auto) anti-B might be different, because B-neo expressions obviously not occur in

  14. Recognition of Histo-Blood Group Antigen-Like Carbohydrates in Lettuce by Human GII.4 Norovirus

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiang; Esseili, Malak A.; Lu, Zhongyan; Saif, Linda J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human norovirus (HuNoV) genogroup II genotype 4 (GII.4) strains account for about 80% of the gastroenteritis outbreaks in the United States. Contaminated food is a major transmission vehicle for this virus. In humans, pigs, and oysters, histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) act as attachment factors for HuNoVs. In lettuce, although the virus-like particles (VLPs) of a GII.4 HuNoV were found to bind to cell wall carbohydrates, the exact binding site has not been investigated. Here, we show the presence of HBGA-like carbohydrates in the cell wall of lettuce. The digestion of lettuce leaves with cell wall-degrading enzymes exposed more binding sites and significantly increased the level of binding of GII.4 HuNoV VLPs. Competition assays showed that both the HBGA monoclonal antibody, recognizing the H type, and plant lectins, recognizing α-l-fucose in the H type, effectively inhibited VLP binding to lettuce tissues. Lettuce cell wall components were isolated and their NoV VLP binding characteristics were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The binding was inhibited by pretreatment of the lettuce cell wall materials with α-1,2-fucosidase. Collectively, our results indicate that H-type HBGA-like carbohydrates exist in lettuce tissues and that GII.4 HuNoV VLPs can bind the exposed fucose moiety, possibly in the hemicellulose component of the cell wall. IMPORTANCE Salad crops and fruits are increasingly recognized as vehicles for human norovirus (HuNoV) transmission. A recent study showed that HuNoVs specifically bind to the carbohydrates of the lettuce cell wall. Histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) are carbohydrates and are known as the attachment factors for HuNoV infection in humans. In this study, we show the presence of HBGA-like carbohydrates in lettuce, to which HuNoVs specifically bind. These results suggest that specifically bound HuNoVs cannot be removed by simple washing, which may allow viral transmission to consumers. Our findings provide new

  15. Binding to histo-blood group antigen-expressing bacteria protects human norovirus from acute heat stress

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dan; Breiman, Adrien; le Pendu, Jacques; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate if histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) expressing bacteria have any protective role on human norovirus (NoV) from acute heat stress. Eleven bacterial strains were included, belonging to Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Clostridium difficile, Bifidobacterium adolescentis, and B. longum. HBGA expression of the bacteria as well as binding of human NoV virus-like particles (VLPs, GI.1, and GII.4 strains) to the bacteria were detected by flow cytometry. NoV VLPs pre-incubated with HBGA expressing or non-HBGA expressing bacteria were heated and detected by both direct ELISA and porcine gastric mucin-binding assay. The NoV-binding abilities of the bacteria correlated well with their HBGA expression profiles. Two HBGA expressing E. coli (LMG8223 and LFMFP861, both GI.1 and GII.4 binders) and one non-HBGA expressing E. coli (ATCC8739, neither GI.1 nor GII.4 binder) were selected for the heat treatment test with NoV VLPs. Compared with the same cell numbers of non-HBGA expressing E. coli, the presence of HBGA-expressing E. coli could always maintain higher antigen integrity, as well as mucin-binding ability of NoV VLPs of both GI.1 and GII.4 after heat-treatment at 90°C for 2 min. These results indicate that HBGA-expressing bacteria may protect NoVs during the food processing treatments, thereby facilitating their transmission. PMID:26191052

  16. Spike Protein VP8* of Human Rotavirus Recognizes Histo-Blood Group Antigens in a Type-Specific Manner

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Pengwei; Xia, Ming; Zhong, Weiming; Wei, Chao; Wang, Leyi; Morrow, Ardythe

    2012-01-01

    Rotaviruses (RVs), an important cause of severe diarrhea in children, have been found to recognize sialic acid as receptors for host cell attachment. While a few animal RVs (of P[1], P[2], P[3], and P[7]) are sialidase sensitive, human RVs and the majority of animal RVs are sialidase insensitive. In this study, we demonstrated that the surface spike protein VP8* of the major P genotypes of human RVs interacts with the secretor histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs). Strains of the P[4] and P[8] genotypes shared reactivity with the common antigens of Lewis b (Leb) and H type 1, while strains of the P[6] genotype bound the H type 1 antigen only. The bindings between recombinant VP8* and human saliva, milk, or synthetic HBGA oligosaccharides were demonstrated, which was confirmed by blockade of the bindings by monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific to Leb and/or H type 1. In addition, specific binding activities were observed when triple-layered particles of a P[8] (Wa) RV were tested. Our results suggest that the spike protein VP8* of RVs is involved in the recognition of human HBGAs that may function as ligands or receptors for RV attachment to host cells. PMID:22345472

  17. Histo-Blood Group Antigen Presentation Is Critical for Binding of Norovirus VLP to Glycosphingolipids in Model Membranes.

    PubMed

    Nasir, Waqas; Frank, Martin; Kunze, Angelika; Bally, Marta; Parra, Francisco; Nyholm, Per-Georg; Höök, Fredrik; Larson, Göran

    2017-03-27

    Virus entry depends on biomolecular recognition at the surface of cell membranes. In the case of glycolipid receptors, these events are expected to be influenced by how the glycan epitope close to the membrane is presented to the virus. This presentation of membrane-associated glycans is more restricted than that of glycans in solution, particularly because of orientational constraints imposed on the glycolipid through its lateral interactions with other membrane lipids and proteins. We have developed and employed a total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy-based binding assay and a scheme for molecular dynamics (MD) membrane simulations to investigate the consequences of various glycan presentation effects. The system studied was histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) epitopes of membrane-bound glycosphingolipids (GSLs) derived from small intestinal epithelium of humans (type 1 chain) and dogs (type 2 chain) interacting with GII.4 norovirus-like particles. Our experimental results showed strong binding to all lipid-linked type 1 chain HBGAs but no or only weak binding to the corresponding type 2 chain HBGAs. This is in contrast to results derived from STD experiments with free HBGAs in solution where binding was observed for Lewis x. The MD data suggest that the strong binding to type 1 chain glycolipids was due to the well-exposed (1,2)-linked α-l-Fucp and (1,4)-linked α-l-Fucp residues, while the weaker binding or lack of binding to type 2 chain HBGAs was due to the very restricted accessibility of the (1,3)-linked α-l-Fucp residue when the glycolipid is embedded in a phospholipid membrane. Our results not only contribute to a general understanding of protein-carbohydrate interactions on model membrane surfaces, particularly in the context of virus binding, but also suggest a possible role of human intestinal GSLs as potential receptors for norovirus uptake.

  18. Histo-Blood Group Antigen-Like Substances of Human Enteric Bacteria as Specific Adsorbents for Human Noroviruses

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Takayuki; Suenaga, Atsushi; Yoshimura, Takeshi; Fuzawa, Miyu; Nakagomi, Toyoko; Nakagomi, Osamu; Okabe, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) have been suggested to be receptors or coreceptors for human noroviruses (HuNoVs) expressed on the intestinal epithelium. We isolated an enteric bacterium strain (SENG-6), closely related to Enterobacter cloacae, bearing HBGA-like substances from a fecal sample of a healthy individual by using a biopanning technique with anti-HBGA antibodies. The binding capacities of four genotypes of norovirus-like particles (NoVLPs) to Enterobacter sp. SENG-6 cells were confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that NoVLPs bound mainly to extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of Enterobacter sp. SENG-6, where the HBGA-like substances were localized. EPS that contained HBGA-like substances extracted from Enterobacter sp. SENG-6 was shown by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to be capable of binding to NoVLPs of a GI.1 wild-type strain (8fIIa) and a GII.6 strain that can recognize A antigen but not to an NoVLP GI.1 mutant strain (W375A) that loses the ability to bind to A antigen. Enzymatic cleavage of terminal N-acetyl-galactosamine residues in the bacterial EPS weakened bacterial EPS binding to the GI.1 wild-type strain (8fIIa). These results indicate that A-like substances in the bacterial EPS play a key role in binding to NoVLPs. Since the specific binding of HuNoVs to HBGA-positive enteric bacteria is likely to affect the transmission and infection processes of HuNoVs in their hosts and in the environment, further studies of human enteric bacteria and their binding capacity to HuNoVs will provide a new scientific platform for understanding interactions between two types of microbes that were previously regarded as biologically unrelated. PMID:23804639

  19. Bacterial histo-blood group antigens contributing to genotype-dependent removal of human noroviruses with a microfiltration membrane.

    PubMed

    Amarasiri, Mohan; Hashiba, Satoshi; Miura, Takayuki; Nakagomi, Toyoko; Nakagomi, Osamu; Ishii, Satoshi; Okabe, Satoshi; Sano, Daisuke

    2016-05-15

    We demonstrated the genotype-dependent removal of human norovirus particles with a microfiltration (MF) membrane in the presence of bacteria bearing histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs). Three genotypes (GII.3, GII.4, and GII.6) of norovirus-like particles (NoVLPs) were mixed with three bacterial strains (Enterobacter sp. SENG-6, Escherichia coli O86:K61:B7, and Staphylococcus epidermidis), respectively, and the mixture was filtered with an MF membrane having a nominal pore size of 0.45 μm. All NoVLP genotypes were rejected by the MF membrane in the presence of Enterobacter sp. SENG-6, which excreted HBGAs as extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). This MF membrane removal of NoVLPs was not significant when EPS was removed from cells of Enterobacter sp. SENG-6. GII.6 NoVLP was not rejected with the MF membrane in the presence of E. coli O86:K61:B7, but the removal of EPS of E. coli O86:K61:B7 increased the removal efficiency due to the interaction of NoVLPs with the exposed B-antigen in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of E. coli O86:K61:B7. No MF membrane removal of all three genotypes was observed when S. epidermidis, an HBGA-negative strain, was mixed with NoVLPs. These results demonstrate that the location of HBGAs on bacterial cells is an important factor in determining the genotype-dependent removal efficiency of norovirus particles with the MF membrane. The presence of HBGAs in mixed liquor suspended solids from a membrane bioreactor (MBR) pilot plant was confirmed by immune-transmission electron microscopy, which implies that bacterial HBGAs can contribute to the genotype-dependent removal of human noroviruses with MBR using MF membrane.

  20. An integrative evolution theory of histo-blood group ABO and related genes

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Fumiichiro; Cid, Emili; Yamamoto, Miyako; Saitou, Naruya; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Blancher, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    The ABO system is one of the most important blood group systems in transfusion/transplantation medicine. However, the evolutionary significance of the ABO gene and its polymorphism remained unknown. We took an integrative approach to gain insights into the significance of the evolutionary process of ABO genes, including those related not only phylogenetically but also functionally. We experimentally created a code table correlating amino acid sequence motifs of the ABO gene-encoded glycosyltransferases with GalNAc (A)/galactose (B) specificity, and assigned A/B specificity to individual ABO genes from various species thus going beyond the simple sequence comparison. Together with genome information and phylogenetic analyses, this assignment revealed early appearance of A and B gene sequences in evolution and potentially non-allelic presence of both gene sequences in some animal species. We argue: Evolution may have suppressed the establishment of two independent, functional A and B genes in most vertebrates and promoted A/B conversion through amino acid substitutions and/or recombination; A/B allelism should have existed in common ancestors of primates; and bacterial ABO genes evolved through horizontal and vertical gene transmission into 2 separate groups encoding glycosyltransferases with distinct sugar specificities. PMID:25307962

  1. An integrative evolution theory of histo-blood group ABO and related genes.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Fumiichiro; Cid, Emili; Yamamoto, Miyako; Saitou, Naruya; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Blancher, Antoine

    2014-10-13

    The ABO system is one of the most important blood group systems in transfusion/transplantation medicine. However, the evolutionary significance of the ABO gene and its polymorphism remained unknown. We took an integrative approach to gain insights into the significance of the evolutionary process of ABO genes, including those related not only phylogenetically but also functionally. We experimentally created a code table correlating amino acid sequence motifs of the ABO gene-encoded glycosyltransferases with GalNAc (A)/galactose (B) specificity, and assigned A/B specificity to individual ABO genes from various species thus going beyond the simple sequence comparison. Together with genome information and phylogenetic analyses, this assignment revealed early appearance of A and B gene sequences in evolution and potentially non-allelic presence of both gene sequences in some animal species. We argue: Evolution may have suppressed the establishment of two independent, functional A and B genes in most vertebrates and promoted A/B conversion through amino acid substitutions and/or recombination; A/B allelism should have existed in common ancestors of primates; and bacterial ABO genes evolved through horizontal and vertical gene transmission into 2 separate groups encoding glycosyltransferases with distinct sugar specificities.

  2. ABO (histo) blood group phenotype development and human reproduction as they relate to ancestral IgM formation: A hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Arend, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The formation of a histo (blood) group) ABO phenotype and the exclusion of an autoreactive IgM or isoagglutinin activity arise apparently in identical glycosylation of complementary domains on cell surfaces and plasma proteins. The fundamental O-glycan emptiness of the circulating IgM, which during the neonatal amino acid sequencing of the variable regions is exerting germline-specific O-GalNAc glycan-reactive serine/threonine residues that in the plasma of the adult human blood group O individuals apparently remain associated with the open glycosidic sites on the ABOH convertible red cell surface, must raise suggestions on a transient expression of developmental glycans, which have been "lost" over the course of maturation. In fact, while the mammalian non-somatic, embryogenic stem cell (ESC)- germ cell (GC) transformation is characterized by a transient and genetically as-yet-undefined trans-species-functional O-GalNAc glycan expression, in the C57BL/10 mouse such expression was potentially identified in growth-dependent, blood group A-like GalNAc glycan-bearing, ovarian glycolipids complementary with the syngeneic anti-A reactive IgM, which does not appear in early ovariectomized animals. This non-somatically encoded, polyreactive, ancestral IgM molecule has not undergone clonal selection and does primarily not differentiate between self and non-self and might, due to amino acid hydroxyl groups, highly suggest substrate competition with subsequent O-glycosylations in ongoing ESC-GC transformations and affecting GC maturation. However, the membrane-bound somatic N/O-glycotransferases, which initiate, after formation of the zygote, the complex construction of the human ABO phenotypes in the trans cisternae of the Golgi apparatus, are associated and/or completed with soluble enzyme versions exerting identical specificities in plasma and likely competing vice versa by glycosylation of neonatal IgM amino acids, where they suggest to accomplish the clearance of anti

  3. A novel O-linked glycan modulates Campylobacter jejuni major outer membrane protein-mediated adhesion to human histo-blood group antigens and chicken colonization

    PubMed Central

    Mahdavi, Jafar; Pirinccioglu, Necmettin; Oldfield, Neil J.; Carlsohn, Elisabet; Stoof, Jeroen; Aslam, Akhmed; Self, Tim; Cawthraw, Shaun A.; Petrovska, Liljana; Colborne, Natalie; Sihlbom, Carina; Borén, Thomas; Wooldridge, Karl G.; Ala'Aldeen, Dlawer A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is an important cause of human foodborne gastroenteritis; strategies to prevent infection are hampered by a poor understanding of the complex interactions between host and pathogen. Previous work showed that C. jejuni could bind human histo-blood group antigens (BgAgs) in vitro and that BgAgs could inhibit the binding of C. jejuni to human intestinal mucosa ex vivo. Here, the major flagella subunit protein (FlaA) and the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) were identified as BgAg-binding adhesins in C. jejuni NCTC11168. Significantly, the MOMP was shown to be O-glycosylated at Thr268; previously only flagellin proteins were known to be O-glycosylated in C. jejuni. Substitution of MOMP Thr268 led to significantly reduced binding to BgAgs. The O-glycan moiety was characterized as Gal(β1–3)-GalNAc(β1–4)-GalNAc(β1–4)-GalNAcα1-Thr268; modelling suggested that O-glycosylation has a notable effect on the conformation of MOMP and this modulates BgAg-binding capacity. Glycosylation of MOMP at Thr268 promoted cell-to-cell binding, biofilm formation and adhesion to Caco-2 cells, and was required for the optimal colonization of chickens by C. jejuni, confirming the significance of this O-glycosylation in pathogenesis. PMID:24451549

  4. Histo-blood group gene polymorphisms as potential genetic modifiers of the development of coronary artery lesions in patients with Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Yamamura, K; Ihara, K; Ikeda, K; Nagata, H; Mizuno, Y; Hara, T

    2012-04-01

    Abnormal immunological responses to certain microbial agents may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Kawasaki disease (KD). The association studies between histo-blood group genes (Lewis and ABO blood types) and various types of infectious diseases or vasculopathy have been carried out based on the fact that glycosylated antigens could directly mediate microbial infections. We attempted to clarify the role of blood type antigens in the development of KD and coronary artery lesions in KD patients. The subjects included 164 KD patients enrolled from 1998 to 2003 (1st group), 232 patients from 2004 to 2009 (2nd group), and 223 healthy children and 118 patients with growth hormone deficiency as controls. The genotyping of the FUT2 and FUT3 genes, and ABO genotypes, was determined with the TaqMan SNP assay and allele-specific polymerase chain reaction. No significant differences were observed in the genotypes and allele frequencies of the FUT2 and FUT3 genes between the groups. The frequency of the BB blood genotype was significantly higher in KD patients with coronary artery lesions in the 1st and 2nd groups than in the controls (17% and 14% vs. 5%, P = 0.0020). This is the first report to investigate the roles of ABO and Lewis blood types in the development of KD, and in the formation of coronary artery lesions in KD patients. These data suggest that the ABO blood type may play a role in the development of coronary artery lesions in KD patients.

  5. Crystal Structures of GII.10 and GII.12 Norovirus Protruding Domains in Complex with Histo-Blood Group Antigens Reveal Details for a Potential Site of Vulnerability

    SciTech Connect

    Hansman, Grant S.; Biertümpfel, Christian; Georgiev, Ivelin; McLellan, Jason S.; Chen, Lei; Zhou, Tongqing; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Kwong, Peter D.

    2011-10-10

    Noroviruses are the dominant cause of outbreaks of gastroenteritis worldwide, and interactions with human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) are thought to play a critical role in their entry mechanism. Structures of noroviruses from genogroups GI and GII in complex with HBGAs, however, reveal different modes of interaction. To gain insight into norovirus recognition of HBGAs, we determined crystal structures of norovirus protruding domains from two rarely detected GII genotypes, GII.10 and GII.12, alone and in complex with a panel of HBGAs, and analyzed structure-function implications related to conservation of the HBGA binding pocket. The GII.10- and GII.12-apo structures as well as the previously solved GII.4-apo structure resembled each other more closely than the GI.1-derived structure, and all three GII structures showed similar modes of HBGA recognition. The primary GII norovirus-HBGA interaction involved six hydrogen bonds between a terminal {alpha}fucose1-2 of the HBGAs and a dimeric capsid interface, which was composed of elements from two protruding subdomains. Norovirus interactions with other saccharide units of the HBGAs were variable and involved fewer hydrogen bonds. Sequence analysis revealed a site of GII norovirus sequence conservation to reside under the critical {alpha}fucose1-2 and to be one of the few patches of conserved residues on the outer virion-capsid surface. The site was smaller than that involved in full HBGA recognition, a consequence of variable recognition of peripheral saccharides. Despite this evasion tactic, the HBGA site of viral vulnerability may provide a viable target for small molecule- and antibody-mediated neutralization of GII norovirus.

  6. Association between expression of the H histo-blood group antigen, alpha1,2fucosyltransferases polymorphism of wild rabbits, and sensitivity to rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus.

    PubMed

    Guillon, Patrice; Ruvoën-Clouet, Nathalie; Le Moullac-Vaidye, Béatrice; Marchandeau, Stéphane; Le Pendu, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    RHDV (rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus) is a highly virulent calicivirus that has become a major cause of mortality in wild rabbit populations (Oryctolagus cuniculus). It binds to the histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) H type 2 which requires an alpha1,2fucosyltransferase for its synthesis. In rabbit, three alpha1,2fucosyltransferases genes are known, Fut1, Fut2, and Sec1. Nonfunctional alleles at any of these loci could potentially confer resistance to RHDV, similar to human FUT2 alleles that determine the nonsecretor phenotype and resistance to infection by various NoV strains. In this study, we looked for the presence of H type 2 on buccal epithelial cells of wild rabbits from two geographic areas under RHDV pressure and from one RHDV-free area. Some animals with diminished H type 2 expression were found in the three populations (nonsecretor-like phenotype). Their frequency markedly increased according to the RHDV impact, suggesting that outbreaks selected survivors with low expression of the virus ligand. Polymorphisms of the Fut1, Fut2, and Sec1 coding regions were determined among animals that either died or survived outbreaks. The Fut2 and Sec1 genes presented a high polymorphism and the frequency of one Sec1 allele was significantly elevated, over 6-fold, among survivors. Sec1 enzyme variants showed either moderate, low, or undetectable catalytic activity, whereas all variant Fut2 enzymes showed strong catalytic activity. This functional analysis of the enzymes encoded by each Fut2 and Sec1 allele suggests that the association between one Sec1 allele and survival might be explained by a deficit of alpha1,2fucosyltransferase expression rather than by impaired catalytic activity.

  7. Variation at ABO histo-blood group and FUT loci and diffuse and intestinal gastric cancer risk in a European population.

    PubMed

    Duell, Eric J; Bonet, Catalina; Muñoz, Xavier; Lujan-Barroso, Leila; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Racine, Antoine; Severi, Gianluca; Canzian, Federico; Rizzato, Cosmeri; Boeing, Heiner; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Argüelles, Marcial; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Chamosa, Saioa; Huerta, José María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Travis, Rutch C; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Yiannakouris, Nikos; Palli, Domenico; Agnoli, Claudia; Tumino, Rosario; Naccarati, Alessio; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Siersema, Peter D; Peeters, Petra H M; Ohlsson, Bodil; Lindkvist, Björn; Johansson, Ingegerd; Ye, Weimin; Johansson, Matthias; Fenger, Claus; Riboli, Elio; Sala, Núria; González, Carlos A

    2015-02-15

    ABO blood serotype A is known to be associated with risk of gastric cancer (GC), but little is known how ABO alleles and the fucosyltransferase (FUT) enzymes and genes which are involved in Lewis antigen formation [and in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) binding and pathogenicity] may be related to GC risk in a European population. The authors conducted an investigation of 32 variants at ABO and FUT1-7 loci and GC risk in a case-control study of 365 cases and 1,284 controls nested within the EPIC cohort (the EPIC-Eurgast study). Four variants (including rs505922) in ABO, and allelic blood group A (AO+AA, odds ratio=1.84, 95%CI=1.20-2.80) were associated with diffuse-type GC; however, conditional models with other ABO variants indicated that the associations were largely due to allelic blood group A. One variant in FUT5 was also associated with diffuse-type GC, and four variants (and haplotypes) in FUT2 (Se), FUT3 (Le) and FUT6 with intestinal-type GC. Further, one variant in ABO, two in FUT3 and two in FUT6 were associated with H. pylori infection status in controls, and two of these (in FUT3 and FUT6) were weakly associated with intestinal-type GC risk. None of the individual variants surpassed a Bonferroni corrected p-value cutoff of 0.0016; however, after a gene-based permutation test, two loci [FUT3(Le)/FUT5/FUT6 and FUT2(Se)] were significantly associated with diffuse- and intestinal-type GC, respectively. Replication and functional studies are therefore recommended to clarify the role of ABO and FUT alleles in H. pylori infection and subtype-specific gastric carcinogenesis.

  8. The evaluation of histo-blood group ABO typing by flow cytometric and PCR-amplification of specific alleles analyses and their application in clinical laboratories.

    PubMed

    Aki, Kensaku; Izumi, Azusa; Hosoi, Eiji

    2012-01-01

    ABO antigens are oligosaccharide antigens, and are widely distributed on red blood and tissue cells as well as in saliva and body fluid. Therefore, these antigens are important not only for blood transfusion, but also for tissue cell and organ transplantations. Also, blood, hair, and seminal fluid are important sources of evidence at crime scenes, and these antigens are some of the most important markers for personal identification in forensic investigations. Here, we describe the development and use of quantitative analysis of A, B, and H antigens on red blood cells by employing flow cytometric analysis and the ABO genotyping method based on PCR-amplification of specific alleles (PASA) within DNA, especially from blood and saliva. In this study, flow cytometric analysis could be used to compare the differences between the expression of A and/or B and H antigens on red blood cells with various phenotypes, and the PASA method was able to determine the genotype of the type cisA(2)B(3) pedigree using only DNA extracted from saliva. These analysis methods are simple and useful for judging the ABO blood group system and genotyping, and are used widely throughout research and clinical laboratories and forensic fields.

  9. Effect of tissue fixatives on the immunohistochemical expression of ABH blood group isoantigens.

    PubMed

    Gokhale, Sumita; Ololade, Omiyosoye; Adegboyega, Patrick A

    2002-09-01

    Immunohistochemical analysis of ABH blood group isoantigens has been shown to be a useful ancillary technique for resolving problems associated with specimen mix-ups in the daily practice of surgical pathology. However, the effects of different fixatives on the expression of these antigens in paraffin-embedded tissues are not known. Therefore, the effects of seven different fixatives on the immunohistochemical expression of ABH blood group isoantigens were studied in tissues from several organs. The following fixatives were used: acetone, 70% ethanol, B5, Bouin, Carnoy, methanol, and 10% formalin. After fixation for 6, 12, and 72 hours, the tissue blocks were embedded in paraffin, and immunohistochemistry was performed on 4 microm-thick tissue sections using monoclonal antibodies to blood group isoantigens (A, B, and H) and the avidin-biotin detection method. Also, immunostaining was performed on step tissue sections with and without antigen retrieval using citrate buffer at pH 6.0. The expression of the blood group isoantigens was concordant with the blood group of the patient in all the cases studied, irrespective of the fixative and time of fixation. However, in the absence of antigen retrieval, the intensity of the staining reaction was diminished. These results showed that irrespective of the fixative used, immunohistochemical staining of paraffin-embedded tissue sections with ABH blood group antibodies is a rapid, reliable, and cost-effective method for sorting out interpretative problems of tissue contaminants (floaters) and specimen mix-ups in surgical pathology.

  10. Expression of ABH blood group antigens, Ulex europaeus agglutinin I, and type IV collagen in the sinusoids of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Terada, T; Nakanuma, Y

    1991-01-01

    The expression of blood group antigens (A, B, H, Lewis(a) and Lewis(b)), Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I), factor VIII-related antigen, and type IV collagen on the sinusoids was examined immunohistochemically in 15 cases of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC), 11 cases of cirrhosis, 12 cases of chronic active hepatitis, and in a control sample of 16 normal livers. Sinusoidal endothelial cells of HCC characteristically showed a diffuse and strong immunoreactivity to ABH blood group antigens in the specimen with a comparable ABO blood group. The sinusoidal endothelial cells were also diffusely and strongly positive for UEA-I receptors. In contrast, in cirrhosis and chronic active hepatitis a few sinusoidal endothelial cells were positive for ABH blood group antigens and UEA-I receptors. In normal livers, only a few sinusoidal endothelial cells were positive for ABH blood group antigens and UEA-1 receptors. Tests for factor VIII-related antigen and Lewis blood group antigens were almost negative on sinusoidal endothelial cells. Although type IV collagen was distributed diffusely in the space of Disse in these four groups, its expression was strongest in HCC. Blood vessels of portal tracts and fibrous septa were positive for ABH blood group antigens, UEA-1 receptors, factor VIII-related antigen, and type IV collagen, but negative for Lewis blood group antigens. These findings suggest that some sinusoidal endothelial cells undergo "capillarization" in cirrhosis and chronic active hepatitis, and that the majority of sinusoidal endothelial cells of HCC have phenotypic characteristics of capillaries.

  11. The Lewis Histo-Blood Group System: Molecular Analysis of the 59T>G, 508G>A, and 1067T>A Polymorphisms in an Amazonian Population

    PubMed Central

    Corvelo, Tereza Cristina de Oliveira; de Loiola, Rosane do Socorro Pompeu; Aguiar, Délia Cristina Figueira; de Matos, Gyselly de Cássia Bastos; de Brito, Danielle Calado

    2013-01-01

    Background The Lewis (FUT3) gene is responsible for the expression of the Lea and Leb blood group antigens. The individuals, who not synthesize these antigens have the phenotype Lewis negative, due to the presence of some single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), such as 59T>G, 508G>A and 1067T>A, whose distribution is different in various ethnic groups. Our aim was to verify the frequencies of these SNPs in an admixed population of Belém-Pará-Brazil. Materials and Methods Polymerase chain reaction/restriction enzyme method were used to detect these SNPs in the FUT3 gene, whereas Lewis phenotypes were defined by the direct hemagglutination and in saliva by Dot-Elisa assay in a random sample of 150 individuals from admixed population of Belém in the northeast Brazilian Amazon region. Results The frequency of these SNPs was detected as 47.6% (59T>G), 17.3% (508G>A) and 5.3% (1067T>A).The discrepancies between blood and salivary Lewis phenotypes are related to the relatively high frequencies of 59T>G and the null allele 508G>A. Whereas 38.6% of the individuals were Lewis negative based on blood, only 17.24% also tested negative when their saliva were analyzed. Conclusion We have found a marked consistency between the phenotypes and genotypes of the Lewis blood group system. Furthermore, our obtained FST values reveal distinct frequencies of the FUT3 SNPs between the present sample and its representative ancestral populations. These observations will help to evaluate the Lewis antigens impact as susceptibility markers, in genetic association studies to certain diseases. PMID:23922852

  12. The histo-blood group ABO system and tissue transplantation.

    PubMed

    Eastlund, T

    1998-10-01

    In general, one might expect that ABO incompatibility of donor and recipient would be important to some degree if viability of the transplanted allograft is important for graft incorporation and function. This is true for some recipients of organs. However, ABO incompatibility appears to play a minor role, if any, in the clinical success of viable cornea and viable skin allografts. Even though A and B antigens may be present on the transplanted tissue, other factors that can contribute include the strength of the immune response, the avidity of the antibody, and the dose of the antigen presented, which may vary from donor to donor. Although A and B antigens are present on endothelium, the use of ABO-incompatible heart valves is successful, as they carry out their mechanical function by using the strength of the connective tissue rather than the viability of the donor endothelium. The presence, immunogenicity, and significance of A and B antigens in human vessel transplants have not been well studied. With the more commonly transplanted tissue, such as bone and tendon, posttransplant success does not depend on cellular viability or ABO compatibility.

  13. Determinants of ABH expression on human blood platelets.

    PubMed

    Cooling, Laura L W; Kelly, Kathleen; Barton, James; Hwang, Debbie; Koerner, Theodore A W; Olson, John D

    2005-04-15

    Platelets express ABH antigens, which can adversely effect platelet transfusion recovery and survival in ABH-incompatible recipients. To date, there has been no large, comprehensive study comparing specific donor factors with ABH expression on platelet membranes and glycoconjugates. We studied ABH expression in 166 group A apheresis platelet donors by flow cytometry, Western blotting, and thin layer chromatography relative to donor age, sex, A1/A2 subgroup, and Lewis phenotype. Overall, A antigen on platelet membranes, glycoproteins, and glycosphingolipids was linked to an A1 red blood cell (RBC) phenotype. Among A1 donors, platelet ABH varied significantly between donors (0%-87%). Intradonor variability, however, was minimal, suggesting that platelet ABH expression is a stable, donor-specific characteristic, with 5% of A1 donors typing as either ABH high- or low-expressers. Group A2 donors, in contrast, possessed a Bombay-like phenotype, lacking both A and H antigens. Unlike RBCs, ABH expression on platelets may be determined primarily by H-glycosyltransferase (FUT1) activity. Identification of A2 and A1 low expressers may increase the availability and selection of crossmatched and HLA-matched platelets. Platelets from group A2 may also be a superior product for patients undergoing A/O major mismatch allogeneic progenitor cell transplantation.

  14. Regulation of the oncodevelopmental expression of type 1 chain ABH and Lewis(b) blood group antigens in human colon by alpha-2-L-fucosylation.

    PubMed Central

    Orntoft, T F; Greenwell, P; Clausen, H; Watkins, W M

    1991-01-01

    Blood group antigen expression in the distal human colon is related to the development of the organ and is modified by malignant transformation. To elucidate the biochemical basis for these changes, we have (a) analysed the activity of glycosyltransferases coded for by the H, Se, Le, X, and A genes, in tissue biopsy specimens from normal and malignant proximal and distal human colon; (b) characterised the glycosphingolipids expressed in the various regions of normal and malignant colon by immunostaining of high performance thin layer chromatography plates; and (c) located the antigens on tissue sections from the same subjects by immunohistochemistry. In both secretors and non-secretors we found a significantly higher activity of alpha-2-L-fucosyltransferases in carcinomatous rectal tissue than in tissue from normal subjects, whereas the other transferase activities studied showed no significant differences. The acceptor substrate specificity suggested that both the Se and the H gene dependent alpha-2-L-fucosyltransferases are increased in carcinomas. In non-malignant tissue the only enzyme which showed appreciably higher activity in caecum than in rectum was alpha-2-L-fucosyltransferase. Immunochemistry and immunohistochemistry showed alpha-2-L-fucosylated structures in normal caecum from secretors and in tumour tissue from both secretors and non-secretors. We conclude that the alpha-2-L-fucosyltransferases control the expression of ABH, and Lewis(b) structures in normal and malignant colon. Images Figure 4 PMID:1826491

  15. Seasonal Tracking of Histo-blood Group Antigen Expression and Norovirus Binding in Oyster Gastrointestinal Cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Noroviruses (NORs) are the most common cause of viral gastroenteritis outbreaks and the illnesses are sometimes described as “highly seasonal syndrome” or "winter vomiting disease”. Outbreaks are often associated with the consumption of contaminated oysters or other bivalves and generally occur betw...

  16. The ABO Histo-Blood Group and AKI in Critically Ill Patients with Trauma or Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Brian J.; Mangalmurti, Nilam S.; Nguyen, Tam D.; Holena, Daniel N.; Wu, Qufei; Nguyen, Ethan T.; Reilly, Muredach P.; Lanken, Paul N.; Christie, Jason D.; Meyer, Nuala J.; Shashaty, Michael G.S.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective ABO blood types are determined by antigen modifications on glycoproteins and glycolipids and associated with altered plasma levels of inflammatory and endothelial injury markers implicated in AKI pathogenesis. We sought to determine the association of ABO blood types with AKI risk in critically ill patients with trauma or sepsis. Design, setting, participants, & measurements We conducted two prospective cohort studies at an urban, academic, level I trauma center and tertiary referral center; 497 patients with trauma admitted to the surgical intensive care unit between 2005 and 2010 with an injury severity score >15 and 759 patients with severe sepsis admitted to the medical intensive care unit between 2008 and 2013 were followed for 6 days for the development of incident AKI. AKI was defined by Acute Kidney Injury Network creatinine and dialysis criteria. Results Of 497 patients with trauma, 134 developed AKI (27%). In multivariable analysis, blood type A was associated with higher AKI risk relative to type O among patients of European descent (n=229; adjusted risk, 0.28 versus 0.14; risk difference, 0.14; 95% confidence interval, 0.03 to 0.24; P=0.02). Of 759 patients with sepsis, AKI developed in 326 (43%). Blood type A again conferred higher AKI risk relative to type O among patients of European descent (n=437; adjusted risk, 0.53 versus 0.40; risk difference, 0.14; 95% confidence interval, 0.04 to 0.23; P=0.01). Findings were similar when analysis was restricted to those patients who did not develop acute respiratory distress syndrome or were not transfused. We did not detect a significant association between blood type and AKI risk among individuals of African descent in either cohort. Conclusions Blood type A is independently associated with AKI risk in critically ill patients with trauma or severe sepsis of European descent, suggesting a role for ABO glycans in AKI susceptibility. PMID:26342043

  17. Correlation between lack of norovirus replication and histo-blood group antigen expression in 3D-intestinal epithelial cultures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Noroviruses (NoV) are a leading cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. An in vitro model for NoV replication remains elusive, making study of the virus difficult. One publication utilizing a 3-dimensional (3D) intestinal model derived from Int407 cells reported NoV replication and extensive cytopathi...

  18. Blood group antigen expression is involved in C. albicans interaction with buccal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Everest-Dass, Arun V; Kolarich, Daniel; Pascovici, Dana; Packer, Nicolle H

    2017-02-01

    Human blood group polymorphisms are known to be determined by the expression of A, B or H antigens and the Lewis antigens. Protection against microbial infections has been associated with inheritance of polymorphisms in genes encoding and regulating the expression of ABH and Lewis antigens in bodily secretions and epithelial tissue surfaces, subsequently resulting in the presentation of different glycosylated terminal antigens on the cell surface. We investigated the role of blood group antigens in diversifying the glycosylation of buccal epithelial cells (BEC) that line the oral cavity. Specifically, we characterized and statistically evaluated the expression of histo-blood group (A, B, O) antigens on N-and O-linked glycans from BEC membrane proteins of various individuals that represented different blood group type and secretor status using a porous graphitic carbon liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PGC-LC-ESI-MS) based glycomics approach. From these BEC membrane proteins a total of 77 N-glycan and 96 O-glycan structures were structurally characterized from 19 individuals and relatively quantitated. The N-glycans from the secretor individuals did not express any A/B blood group determinants, but contained several terminal H-antigens. Apart from the non-secretors, the N-glycan profiles of BEC from all blood groups displayed similar glycan types, while varying in their relative intensities between individuals. However, multivariate analysis of the O-glycans from individuals displayed segregation patterns clearly associated with their blood group type and secretor status. In adhesion assays the oral pathogen Candida albicans showed a significantly higher interaction to blood group O type BECs relative to other blood groups.

  19. Chronic Oral Administration of the Arginase Inhibitor 2(S)-amino-6-boronohexanoic Acid (ABH) Improves Erectile Function in Aged Rats

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Robert; Hannan, Johanna L.; Liu, Xiaopu; Kutlu, Omer; Burnett, Arthur L.; Champion, Hunter C.; Kim, Jae Hyung; Steppan, Jochen; Berkowitz, Dan E.; Bivalacqua, Trinity J.

    2014-01-01

    Arginase expression and activity have been noted to be heightened in conditions associated with erectile dysfunction, including aging. Previously, arginase inhibition by chronic administration of the arginase inhibitor 2-(S)-amino-6-boronohexanoic acid (ABH) has been shown to improve endothelial dysfunction in aged rats. The objective of this study was to assess whether chronic oral ABH administration affects cavernosal erectile function. Rats were divided into 4 groups: young control, young treated with arginase inhibitor, aged control, and aged treated with arginase inhibitor. Arginase activity was measured and presented as a proportion of young untreated rats. In vivo erectile responses to cavernous nerve stimulation were measured in all cohorts. The cavernous nerve was stimulated with a graded electrical stimulus, and the intracavernosal/ mean arterial pressure ratios and total intracavernosal pressure were recorded. Arginase activity was elevated in the aged rats compared with young controls; however, arginase activity was significantly decreased in aged rats treated with ABH. With the addition of ABH, erectile responses improved in the aged rats (P < .05). Oral inhibition of arginase with ABH results in improved erectile function in aged rats, resulting in erectile hemodynamics similar to young rats. This represents the first documentation of systemic arginase inhibition positively affecting corporal cavernosal function. PMID:22492840

  20. Chronic oral administration of the arginase inhibitor 2(S)-amino-6-boronohexanoic acid (ABH) improves erectile function in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Segal, Robert; Hannan, Johanna L; Liu, Xiaopu; Kutlu, Omer; Burnett, Arthur L; Champion, Hunter C; Kim, Jae Hyung; Steppan, Jochen; Berkowitz, Dan E; Bivalacqua, Trinity J

    2012-01-01

    Arginase expression and activity have been noted to be heightened in conditions associated with erectile dysfunction, including aging. Previously, arginase inhibition by chronic administration of the arginase inhibitor 2-(S)-amino-6-boronohexanoic acid (ABH) has been shown to improve endothelial dysfunction in aged rats. The objective of this study was to assess whether chronic oral ABH administration affects cavernosal erectile function. Rats were divided into 4 groups: young control, young treated with arginase inhibitor, aged control, and aged treated with arginase inhibitor. Arginase activity was measured and presented as a proportion of young untreated rats. In vivo erectile responses to cavernous nerve stimulation were measured in all cohorts. The cavernous nerve was stimulated with a graded electrical stimulus, and the intracavernosal/mean arterial pressure ratios and total intracavernosal pressure were recorded. Arginase activity was elevated in the aged rats compared with young controls; however, arginase activity was significantly decreased in aged rats treated with ABH. With the addition of ABH, erectile responses improved in the aged rats (P < .05). Oral inhibition of arginase with ABH results in improved erectile function in aged rats, resulting in erectile hemodynamics similar to young rats. This represents the first documentation of systemic arginase inhibition positively affecting corporal cavernosal function.

  1. The genetic structure of a tribal population, the Yanomama Indians XI. Gene frequencies for 10 blood groups and the ABH-Le secretor traits in the Yanomama and their neighbors; the uniqueness of the tribe.

    PubMed Central

    Ward, R H; Gershowitz, H; Layrisse, M; Neel, J V

    1975-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of blood group typings for a total of 33 villages distributed among five South American Indian tribes--Yanomama (21 villages), Makiritare (eight villages), Macushi (two villages), Piaroa (one village), and Wapishana (one village). These new results for the Yanomama and Makiritare tribes have been combined with those previously reported to allow a better appreciation of the distribution of allelic frequencies in the tribes. The relationship of the Yanomama to other South American Indian tribes is investigated using data on six polymorphic loci (Rh, MNS, Fy, Jk, Di, Hp). By use of four genetic measures (two of genetic relationship and two of genetic diversity), we demonstrate that the Yanomama are genetically unique among a sample of 20 South American tribes. In addition, the Yanomama show somewhat less genetic diversity for the six loci analyzed than the average South American tribe. Taken together, these results indicate a rather long period of isolation for the population antecedent to the Yanomama--perhaps since the time of entry of man into the South American continent. The pattern of genetic relationships and genetic diversity for the 20 tribes is consistent with the hypothesis that evolution in South America proceeded by a process of fission-fusion leading to isolation of subpopulations with subsequent genetic differentiation as a consequence of population isolation. The uniqueness of the Yanomama appears to stem entirely from such a process, there being no evidence of any selective differential for the loci analyzed. PMID:50736

  2. Surface plasmon resonance imaging for ABH antigen detection on red blood cells and in saliva: secretor status-related ABO subgroup identification.

    PubMed

    Peungthum, Patjaree; Sudprasert, Krisda; Amarit, Ratthasart; Somboonkaew, Armote; Sutapun, Boonsong; Vongsakulyanon, Apirom; Seedacoon, Wuttigrai; Kitpoka, Pimpun; Kunakorn, Mongkol; Srikhirin, Toemsak

    2017-03-27

    Low antigenic expression of ABO subgroup system on red blood cell (RBC) is cause of discrepancy between forward and reverse blood typing in the standard agglutination technique. Neutralization agglutination is employed for verification of the detection of ABH substances in saliva. However, the neutralization technique is complicated, time-consuming and requires expertise. To overcome these drawbacks, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) imaging was developed for ABH antigen detection on RBCs and in saliva. An antibody array was designed to classify the ABO subgroups by anti-A, anti-B, and anti-H antibodies; the array was immobilized on a carboxymethyl-dextran sensor-surface. RBCs and saliva specimens from sixty-four donors were analysed by passing them over the antibody array, where the secretor status and blood group could be simultaneously identified. Consequently, the immobilized antibodies could specifically and quantitatively detect the ABH antigen on RBCs. Using the direct assay, the SPR signal of saliva detection was weaker than that of RBC detection. However, a sandwich assay with a mixture of anti-A, anti-B, and anti-H antibodies could efficiently enhance the signal. The sensor chip provided high specificity (cut-off at 100 to 175 micro refractive index units) and high precision at 0.06%-4.9% CV. The blood group results of the sixty-four donor specimens obtained by SPR agreed with the standard agglutination test with 100% accuracy. SPR could indicate different ABH antigen densities on the RBCs and nearly the same amounts of ABH substances in the saliva of strong and weak subgroups. Finally, we also demonstrated reduced assay time and fewer complications with the SPR imaging platform compared to the neutralization technique.

  3. A simple method to recover Norovirus from fresh produce with large sample size by using histo-blood group antigens conjugated magnetic beads re-circulating immunomagnetic separation system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Noroviruses (NoV) annually cause millions of cases of gastrointestinal disease in the United States. Although NoV outbreaks are generally associated with raw shellfish, particularly oysters, outbreaks have also been known to occur from other common-source food-borne vehicles such as lettuce, frozen...

  4. Immunochemical and immunohistological expression of Lewis histo-blood group antigens in small intestine including individuals of the Le(a+b+) and Le(a-b-) nonsecretor phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Henry, S M; Samuelsson, B E; Oriol, R

    1994-12-01

    Histological samples and total non-acid glycosphingolipids were prepared from small intestine of human cadavers with the Le(a+b+) and Le(a-b-) nonsecretor phenotypes and contrasted with the more common Lewis phenotypes. Glycolipid fractions were analysed by thin-layer chromatography and tested for Lewis activity with monoclonal antibodies reactive to Lewis epitopes. Paraffin-embedded small intestine sections were also fluorescently immunostained with anti-Lewis antibodies. Unlike the common Lewis positive phenotypes, we were immunochemically able to demonstrate the copresence of large amounts of Lea and Leb glycolipids in the Le(a+b+) sample. In addition we demonstrated increased formation of extended Lewis structures in this phenotype. By immunohistochemistry Lea, Leb and type 1 precursor chain epitopes could be demonstrated in the brush border. These results show that the expression of the Le(a+b+) phenotype at the erythrocyte phenotyping level parallels the small intestinal expression of this phenotype, and the patterns of Lewis antigen expressions are unique to this phenotype. By immunohistochemistry and immunochemistry we also demonstrated the presence of trace amounts of Lewis active glycoconjugates in the small intestine of the Le(a-b-) nonsecretor and Le(a+b-) samples. In the Le(a-b-) nonsecretor Lea and Leb activity was absent and type 1 precursor was present in brush border, while Leb activity was immunohistologically demonstrated in the Golgi apparatus of the deep glands. Trace amounts of both Lea and Leb glycolipids were identified in this sample. In parallel trace Leb activity could also be detected in the glycolipids of the Le(a+b-) sample and could be immunohistologically demonstrated to be fully expressed in occasional cells in the deep glands of the small intestine, a pattern quite dissimilar to that of the Le(a-b-) nonsecretor.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Ageing and recurrent episodes of neuroinflammation promote progressive experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in Biozzi ABH mice.

    PubMed

    Peferoen, Laura A N; Breur, Marjolein; van de Berg, Sarah; Peferoen-Baert, Regina; Boddeke, Erik H W G M; van der Valk, Paul; Pryce, Gareth; van Noort, Johannes M; Baker, David; Amor, Sandra

    2016-10-01

    Current therapies for multiple sclerosis (MS) reduce the frequency of relapses by modulating adaptive immune responses but fail to limit the irreversible neurodegeneration driving progressive disability. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in Biozzi ABH mice recapitulates clinical features of MS including relapsing-remitting episodes and secondary-progressive disability. To address the contribution of recurrent inflammatory events and ageing as factors that amplify progressive neurological disease, we examined EAE in 8- to 12-week-old and 12-month-old ABH mice. Compared with the relapsing-remitting (RREAE) and secondary progressive (SPEAE) EAE observed in young mice, old mice developed progressive disease from onset (PEAE) associated with pronounced axonal damage and increased numbers of CD3(+) T cells and microglia/macrophages, but not B cells. Whereas the clinical neurological features of PEAE and SPEAE were comparable, the pathology was distinct. SPEAE was associated with significantly reduced perivascular infiltrates and T-cell numbers in the central nervous system (CNS) compared with PEAE and the acute phase of RREAE. In contrast to perivascular infiltrates that declined during progression from RREAE into SPEAE, the numbers of microglia clusters remained constant. Similar to what is observed during MS, the microglia clusters emerging during EAE were associated with axonal damage and oligodendrocytes expressing heat-shock protein B5, but not lymphocytes. Taken together, our data reveal that the course of EAE is dependent on the age of the mice. Younger mice show a relapsing-remitting phase followed by progressive disease, whereas old mice immediately show progression. This indicates that recurrent episodes of inflammation in the CNS, as well as age, contribute to progressive neurological disease.

  6. Induction of Human Blood Group A Antigen Expression on Mouse Cells, Using Lentiviral Gene Transduction

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xiaohu; Lang, Haili; Zhou, Xianpei; Zhang, Li; Yin, Rong; Maciejko, Jessica; Giannitsos, Vasiliki; Motyka, Bruce; Medin, Jeffrey A.; Platt, Jeffrey L.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The ABO histo-blood group system is the most important antigen system in transplantation medicine, yet no small animal model of the ABO system exists. To determine the feasibility of developing a murine model, we previously subcloned the human α-1,2-fucosyltransferase (H-transferase, EC 2.4.1.69) cDNA and the human α-1,3-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (A-transferase, EC 2.4.1.40) cDNA into lentiviral vectors to study their ability to induce human histo-blood group A antigen expression on mouse cells. Herein we investigated the optimal conditions for human A and H antigen expression in murine cells. We determined that transduction of a bicistronic lentiviral vector (LvEF1-AH-trs) resulted in the expression of A antigen in a mouse endothelial cell line. We also studied the in vivo utility of this vector to induce human A antigen expression in mouse liver. After intrahepatic injection of LvEF1-AH-trs, A antigen expression was observed on hepatocytes as detected by immunohistochemistry and real-time RT-PCR. In human group A erythrocyte-sensitized mice, A antigen expression in the liver was associated with tissue damage, and deposition of antibody and complement. These results suggest that this gene transfer strategy can be used to simulate the human ABO blood group system in a murine model. This model will facilitate progress in the development of interventions for ABO-incompatible transplantation and transfusion scenarios, which are difficult to develop in clinical or large animal settings. PMID:20163247

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of the Multiresistant Acinetobacter baumannii Strain AbH12O-A2, Isolated during a Large Outbreak in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Merino, M.; Alvarez-Fraga, L.; Gómez, M. J.; Aransay, A. M.; Lavín, J. L.; Chaves, F.

    2014-01-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of Acinetobacter baumannii strain AbH12O-A2, isolated during a large outbreak in Spain. The genome has 3,875,775 bp and 3,526 coding sequences, with 39.4% G+C content. The availability of this genome will facilitate the study of the pathogenicity of the Acinetobacter species. PMID:25395646

  8. Losses of expression of the antigens A, Lea and Lex and over-expression of Ley in carcinomas and HG-SIL of the uterine cervix

    PubMed Central

    Moro-Rodríguez, Ernesto; Álvarez-Fernández, Emilio

    2008-01-01

    Background The glycosylation of a great number of molecules, glyco-protein or glycolipids, has been of interest for decades. Objective To compare the expressive patterns of the isoantigenic determinants of histo-blood groups ABH and Lewis in squamous and simple epithelium and in precursors and cancers of the cervix. Methods A total of 36 lesions and neoplasms (10 LG-SIL, 16 HG-SIL and 10 invasive carcinomas) have been studied with immunohistochemical techniques, using monoclonal antibodies (MoAb BG1 to BG8) for precursor chains, blood-group ABH and Lewis group Lea, Leb, Lex, and Ley, and four types of lectins. In addition, we have studied the expression of p53 protein and PCNA, establishing the rate of proliferation of each lesion. Using PCR techniques, we have also detected part of the intron of the E6 gene of HPV-16. Results In the invasive cervical carcinomas, we observed a loss of expression of the Lex antigen (p < 0.01). With regard to the progression of the different lesions studied, we found alterations in the patterns of expression of the antigens of the ABH and Lewis blood groups. There was a tendency towards a loss of expression and heterogeneous patterns in the more advanced lesions, as well as over-expression of the Ley antigens. With PCNA, we established a proliferative rate which tended to be greater in relation to the progression of the cervix neoplasms. Conclusion These results indicate that there is a relation between the losses of histo-blood groups and the progression of the squamous intraepithelial lesions. PMID:18786253

  9. Characterisation of Transcriptional Changes in the Spinal Cord of the Progressive Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Biozzi ABH Mouse Model by RNA Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Pryce, Gareth; Baker, David; Selwood, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a debilitating immune-mediated neurological disorder affecting young adults. MS is primarily relapsing-remitting, but neurodegeneration and disability accumulate from disease onset. The most commonly used mouse MS models exhibit a monophasic immune response with fast accumulation of neurological damage that does not allow the study of progressive neurodegeneration. The chronic relapsing and secondary progressive EAE (pEAE) Biozzi ABH mouse model of MS exhibits a reproducible relapsing-remitting disease course that slowly accumulates permanent neurological deficit and develops a post-relapsing progressive disease that permits the study of demyelination and neurodegeneration. RNA sequencing (RNAseq) was used to explore global gene expression in the pEAE Biozzi ABH mouse. Spinal cord tissue RNA from pEAE Biozzi ABH mice and healthy age-matched controls was sequenced. 2,072 genes were differentially expressed (q<0.05) from which 1,397 were significantly upregulated and 675 were significantly downregulated. This hypothesis-free investigation characterised the genomic changes that describe the pEAE mouse model. The differentially expressed genes revealed a persistent immunoreactant phenotype, combined with downregulation of the cholesterol biosynthesis superpathway and the LXR/RXR activation pathway. Genes differentially expressed include the myelination genes Slc17a7, Ugt8A and Opalin, the neuroprotective genes Sprr1A, Osm and Wisp2, as well as genes identified as MS risk factors, including RGs14 and Scap2. Novel genes with unestablished roles in EAE or MS were also identified. The identification of differentially expressed novel genes and genes involved in MS pathology, opens the door to their functional study in the pEAE mouse model which recapitulates some of the important clinical features of progressive MS. PMID:27355629

  10. Encephalitogenic and immunogenic potential of myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), oligodendrocyte-specific glycoprotein (OSP) and 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) in ABH and SJL mice.

    PubMed

    Morris-Downes, Margaret M; McCormack, Kirsty; Baker, David; Sivaprasad, Dinesh; Natkunarajah, Janahan; Amor, Sandra

    2002-01-01

    Synthetic peptides of myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), oligodendrocyte-specific glycoprotein (OSP) and 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) were screened for their ability to induce experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) in ABH (H-2A(g7)) and SJL (H-2(s)) mice. The use of overlapping 16mer MAG peptides identified residues 97-112 as a T-cell and encephalitogenic epitope in ABH mice which induced clinical and histological signs of acute EAE. Immunization of SJL mice with MAG peptides failed to induce disease whereas immunization of SJL mice with synthetic peptides of OSP induced major T-cell responses to OSP 73-88 and 81-96. Another epitope, OSP 57-72, that induced EAE, failed to induce T-cell responses in mice immunised with peptides based on the whole sequence supporting a role for cryptic epitopes. In comparison, whilst immunization of ABH mice with OSP revealed two immunodominant T-cell epitopes (49-64 and 137-152), an encephalitogenic epitope was not identified. Similarly, immunization of both SJL and ABH mice with CNPase peptides induced T-cell responses to several epitopes. However, these were not encephalitogenic. This study is the first to identify an encephalitogenic epitope of MAG and immunodominant epitopes of MAG, OSP and CNPase in SJL and ABH mice. The ability of both cryptic and noncryptic peptide epitopes of these myelin antigens to initiate EAE suggests that mice at least are not tolerant to some regions of MAG and OSP and that such specific autoimmune responses may play an important role in the pathogenesis of immune-mediated neurological diseases such as multiple sclerosis.

  11. Genetic polymorphisms of the Caucasus ethnic groups: distribution of some blood group genetic markers (Part II).

    PubMed

    Nasidze, I S

    1995-08-01

    The compiled data on the distribution of polymorphic blood groups (ABO, Diego, Duffy, Kell-Cellano, Kidd, MN, MNSs, P, Penney, Rh(D), Rh-Hr), secretion ABH antigens in saliva, HLA system (HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, HLA-DR), immunoglobulin (GM1) and other miscellaneous data (phenylthiocarbamide taste, tongue rolling) in the Caucasus are presented. Results of the interpopulation heterogeneity test show that, in spite of the limited territory of the Caucasus, a high level of genetic variability was observed. In terms of gene frequencies, these ethnic groups are approximately equidistant from European and West Asian Populations.

  12. Non-AUG start codons responsible for ABO weak blood group alleles on initiation mutant backgrounds

    PubMed Central

    Cid, Emili; Yamamoto, Miyako; Yamamoto, Fumiichiro

    2017-01-01

    Histo-blood group ABO gene polymorphism is crucial in transfusion medicine. We studied the activity and subcellular distribution of ABO gene-encoded A glycosyltransferases with N-terminal truncation. We hypothesized that truncated enzymes starting at internal methionines drove the synthesis of oligosaccharide A antigen in those already described alleles that lack a proper translation initiation codon. Not only we tested the functionality of the mutant transferases by expressing them and assessing their capacity to drive the appearance of A antigen on the cell surface, but we also analyzed their subcellullar localization, which has not been described before. The results highlight the importance of the transmembrane domain because proteins deprived of it are not able to localize properly and deliver substantial amounts of antigen on the cell surface. Truncated proteins with their first amino acid well within the luminal domain are not properly localized and lose their enzymatic activity. Most importantly, we demonstrated that other codons than AUG might be used to start the protein synthesis rather than internal methionines in translation-initiation mutants, explaining the molecular mechanism by which transferases lacking a classical start codon are able to synthesize A/B antigens. PMID:28139731

  13. A unique and sensitive ELISA technique for typing ABH antigens in bloodstains using UEA-I lectin--the removal of detergent with a Sephadex G-25 mini-column improves sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, K; Tanabe, K; Yuasa, I; Nakamura, H; Tanabe, Y; Idzu, T; Takahashi, S; Kimura, K

    1996-01-01

    A unique sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the determination of ABH antigens in bloodstains has been developed. Human anti-A and -B antisera and Ulex europaeus anti-H lectin were coated on the inner surface of microplate wells. The sample antigens from bloodstains, solubilized with n-octyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside which was then removed by passing through a Sephadex G-25 (G-25) mini-column, were placed in the wells. After washing the wells repeatedly, peroxidase-conjugated Ulex europaeus lectin I was added and incubated. Antigen activities were determined by the development of colors using o-phenylenediamine/H2O2. This technique permitted clear detection of all ABH antigens corresponding to the antisera and lectin with high sensitivities. The A and B antigens were solubilized as aggregates with H antigen from the erythrocyte membrane. Excess detergent remaining in the sample reduced the sensitivity and accuracy of this ELISA, probably due to the removal of antibody from the wells by the effect of the surfactant. The treatment of solubilized antigens with G-25, an indispensable step, eliminated the adverse effect of the detergent on the ELISA. The ELISA method reported here was proved to be easy, economical and sensitive, and this technique should be useful in the forensic practice.

  14. Individuals with Le(a+b−) Blood Group Have Increased Susceptibility to Symptomatic Vibrio cholerae O1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Arifuzzaman, Mohammad; Ahmed, Tanvir; Rahman, Mohammad Arif; Chowdhury, Fahima; Rashu, Rasheduzzaman; Khan, Ashraful I.; LaRocque, Regina C.; Harris, Jason B.; Bhuiyan, Taufiqur Rahman; Ryan, Edward T.

    2011-01-01

    Background Human genetic factors such as blood group antigens may affect the severity of infectious diseases. Presence of specific ABO and Lewis blood group antigens has been shown previously to be associated with the risk of different enteric infections. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of the Lewis blood group antigens with susceptibility to cholera, as well as severity of disease and immune responses to infection. Methodology We determined Lewis and ABO blood groups of a cohort of patients infected by Vibrio cholerae O1, their household contacts, and healthy controls, and analyzed the risk of symptomatic infection, severity of disease if infected and immune response following infection. Principal Findings We found that more individuals with cholera expressed the Le(a+b−) phenotype than the asymptomatic household contacts (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.03–3.56) or healthy controls (OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.13–3.21), as has been seen previously for the risk of symptomatic ETEC infection. Le(a–b+) individuals were less susceptible to cholera and if infected, required less intravenous fluid replacement in hospital, suggesting that this blood group may be associated with protection against V. cholerae O1. Individuals with Le(a–b−) blood group phenotype who had symptomatic cholera had a longer duration of diarrhea and required higher volumes of intravenous fluid replacement. In addition, individuals with Le(a–b−) phenotype also had lessened plasma IgA responses to V. cholerae O1 lipopolysaccharide on day 7 after infection compared to individuals in the other two Lewis blood group phenotypes. Conclusion Individuals with Lewis blood type Le(a+b−) are more susceptible and Le(a–b+) are less susceptible to V. cholerae O1 associated symptomatic disease. Presence of this histo-blood group antigen may be included in evaluating the risk for cholera in a population, as well as in vaccine efficacy studies, as is currently being done for the ABO blood

  15. Catfish antibodies to blood group substances

    PubMed Central

    Baldo, B. A.

    1972-01-01

    An antiserum prepared in the freshwater catfish Tandanus tandanus by the injection of O secretor seminal plasma was fractionated into anti-H reagents showing different specificities by absorption with A1B erythrocytes and by absorption and elution from A1B cells. Although purified human and hog H blood group substances inhibited the haemagglutination of O erythrocytes by both the eluate from A1B cells and the serum remaining after absorption with A1B cells, all of the simple sugars tested, except 2′-fucosyl-lactose, failed to inhibit either sample. The H-substances inhibited the A1B-eluate at dilutions which were significantly higher than those required to inhibit the A1B-absorbed serum. Inconsistent with this result was the finding that 2′-fucosyl-lactose, a trisaccharide with a structure similar to the terminal H-active groupings on the type 2 chains of the ABH macromolecules, was a more active inhibitor of the absorbed than of the eluted serum. Seventeen different samples of O secretor saliva either failed to inhibit the A1B-absorbed serum, or produced inhibition at very low dilution. These same saliva samples inhibited the A1B-eluate in high dilution. PMID:5032492

  16. Two-log increase in sensitivity for detection of Norovirus in complex samples using porcine gastric mucin capture and immunomagnetic separation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Human histo-blood group antigens (HBGA) have been identified previously as candidate receptors for human norovirus (NOR). Type A, type H1, Lewis HBGAs have been identified major HBGA for NOR binding. We have identified that pig stomach mucin (PGM) contains group A, type H1, and Lewis b type HBGAs...

  17. Activity-structure correlations in divergent lectin evolution: fine specificity of chicken galectin CG-14 and computational analysis of flexible ligand docking for CG-14 and the closely related CG-16.

    PubMed

    Wu, Albert M; Singh, Tanuja; Liu, Jia-Hau; Krzeminski, Mickael; Russwurm, Roland; Siebert, Hans-Christian; Bonvin, Alexandre M J J; André, Sabine; Gabius, Hans-Joachim

    2007-02-01

    Gene duplication and sequence divergence are driving forces toward establishing protein families. To examine how sequence changes affect carbohydrate specificity, the two closely related proto-type chicken galectins CG-14 and CG-16 were selected as models. Binding properties were analyzed using a highly sensitive solid-phase assay. We tested 56 free saccharides and 34 well-defined glycoproteins. The two galectins share preference for the II (Galbeta1-4GlcNAc) versus I (Galbeta1-3GlcNAc) version of beta-galactosides. A pronounced difference is found owing to the reactivity of CG-14 with histo-blood group ABH active oligosaccharides and A/B active glycoproteins. These experimental results prompted to determine activity-structure correlations by modeling. Computational analysis included consideration of the flexibility of binding partners and the presence of water molecules. It provided a comparative description of complete carbohydrate recognition domains, which had so far not been characterized in animal galectins. The structural models assigned II, I selectivity to a region downstream of the central Trp moiety. Docking revealed that the tetrasaccharides can be accommodated in their free-state low-energy conformations. CG-14's preference for A versus B epitopes could be attributed to a contact between His124 and the N-acetyl group of GalNAc. Regarding intergalectin comparison, the Ala53/Cys51 exchange affects the interaction potential of His54/His52. Close inspection of simulated dynamic interplay revealed reorientation of His124 at the site of the His124/Glu123 substitution, with potential impact on ligand dissociation. In summary, this study identifies activity differences and provides information on their relation to structural divergence, epitomizing the value of this combined approach beyond galectins.

  18. An extraction method for discrimination between infectious and inactive norovirus using RT-PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Human noroviruses (NoVs) are known to bind to human histo-blood group antigens, as well as to chemically-similar porcine gastric mucins. The binding ability of NoV to porcine mucin was assessed as a novel means of distinguishing non-infectious viral particles from potentially infectious viral parti...

  19. The influence of temperature pH and water immersion on the high hydrostatic pressure inactivation of GI.1 and GII.4 human noroviruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Detection of human norovirus (HuNoV) usually relies on molecular biology techniques, such as qRT PCR. Since histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) are the functional receptors for HuNoV, HuNoV can bind to porcine gastric mucin (PGM), which contains HBGA-like antigens. In this study, PGM conjugated magn...

  20. Faecal Microbiota Composition in Adults Is Associated with the FUT2 Gene Determining the Secretor Status

    PubMed Central

    Wacklin, Pirjo; Tuimala, Jarno; Nikkilä, Janne; Sebastian Tims; Mäkivuokko, Harri; Alakulppi, Noora; Laine, Pia; Rajilic-Stojanovic, Mirjana; Paulin, Lars; de Vos, Willem M.; Mättö, Jaana

    2014-01-01

    The human intestine is colonised with highly diverse and individually defined microbiota, which likely has an impact on the host well-being. Drivers of the individual variation in the microbiota compositions are multifactorial and include environmental, host and dietary factors. We studied the impact of the host secretor status, encoded by fucosyltransferase 2 (FUT2) -gene, on the intestinal microbiota composition. Secretor status determines the expression of the ABH and Lewis histo-blood group antigens in the intestinal mucosa. The study population was comprised of 14 non-secretor (FUT2 rs601338 genotype AA) and 57 secretor (genotypes GG and AG) adult individuals of western European descent. Intestinal microbiota was analyzed by PCR-DGGE and for a subset of 12 non-secretor subjects and 12 secretor subjects additionally by the 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and the HITChip phylogenetic microarray analysis. All three methods showed distinct clustering of the intestinal microbiota and significant differences in abundances of several taxa representing dominant microbiota between the non-secretors and the secretors as well as between the FUT2 genotypes. In addition, the non-secretors had lower species richness than the secretors. The soft clustering of microbiota into enterotypes (ET) 1 and 3 showed that the non-secretors had a higher probability of belonging to ET1 and the secretors to ET3. Our study shows that secretor status and FUT2 polymorphism are associated with the composition of human intestinal microbiota, and appears thus to be one of the key drivers affecting the individual variation of human intestinal microbiota. PMID:24733310

  1. The Galectin CvGal1 from the Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) Binds to Blood Group A Oligosaccharides on the Hemocyte Surface*

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Chiguang; Ghosh, Anita; Amin, Mohammed N.; Giomarelli, Barbara; Shridhar, Surekha; Banerjee, Aditi; Fernández-Robledo, José A.; Bianchet, Mario A.; Wang, Lai-Xi; Wilson, Iain B. H.; Vasta, Gerardo R.

    2013-01-01

    The galectin CvGal1 from the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica), which possesses four tandemly arrayed carbohydrate recognition domains, was previously shown to display stronger binding to galactosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine relative to d-galactose. CvGal1 expressed by phagocytic cells is “hijacked” by the parasite Perkinsus marinus to enter the host, where it proliferates and causes systemic infection and death. In this study, a detailed glycan array analysis revealed that CvGal1 preferentially recognizes type 2 blood group A oligosaccharides. Homology modeling of the protein and its oligosaccharide ligands supported this preference over type 1 blood group A and B oligosaccharides. The CvGal ligand models were further validated by binding, inhibition, and competitive binding studies of CvGal1 and ABH-specific monoclonal antibodies with intact and deglycosylated glycoproteins, hemocyte extracts, and intact hemocytes and by surface plasmon resonance analysis. A parallel glycomic study carried out on oyster hemocytes (Kurz, S., Jin, C., Hykollari, A., Gregorich, D., Giomarelli, B., Vasta, G. R., Wilson, I. B. H., and Paschinger, K. (2013) J. Biol. Chem. 288,) determined the structures of oligosaccharides recognized by CvGal1. Proteomic analysis of the hemocyte glycoproteins identified β-integrin and dominin as CvGal1 “self”-ligands. Despite strong CvGal1 binding to P. marinus trophozoites, no binding of ABH blood group antibodies was observed. Thus, parasite glycans structurally distinct from the blood group A oligosaccharides on the hemocyte surface may function as potentially effective ligands for CvGal1. We hypothesize that carbohydrate-based mimicry resulting from the host/parasite co-evolution facilitates CvGal1-mediated cross-linking to β-integrin, located on the hemocyte surface, leading to cell activation, phagocytosis, and host infection. PMID:23824193

  2. Comprehensive analysis of blood group antigen binding to classical and El Tor cholera toxin B-pentamers by NMR.

    PubMed

    Vasile, Francesca; Reina, José J; Potenza, Donatella; Heggelund, Julie E; Mackenzie, Alasdair; Krengel, Ute; Bernardi, Anna

    2014-08-01

    Cholera is a diarrheal disease responsible for the deaths of thousands, possibly even hundreds of thousands of people every year, and its impact is predicted to further increase with climate change. It has been known for decades that blood group O individuals suffer more severe symptoms of cholera compared with individuals with other blood groups (A, B and AB). The observed blood group dependence is likely to be caused by the major virulence factor of Vibrio cholerae, the cholera toxin (CT). Here, we investigate the binding of ABH blood group determinants to both classical and El Tor CTB-pentamers using saturation transfer difference NMR and show that all three blood group determinants bind to both toxin variants. Although the details of the interactions differ, we see no large differences between the two toxin genotypes and observe very similar binding constants. We also show that the blood group determinants bind to a site distinct from that of the primary receptor, GM1. Transferred NOESY data confirm that the conformations of the blood group determinants in complex with both toxin variants are similar to those of reported X-ray and solution structures. Taken together, this detailed analysis provides a framework for the interpretation of the epidemiological data linking the severity of cholera infection and an individual's blood group, and brings us one step closer to understanding the molecular basis of cholera blood group dependence.

  3. [ABO blood grouping of fingerprint by means of immunohistochemical procedure].

    PubMed

    Lin, Z; Ohshima, T; Takayasu, T; Nagano, T; Jia, J

    1993-04-01

    For the purpose of ABO-blood typing on fingerprints, the detection of blood group substances in fingerprints attached on nitrocellulose filter or paper was performed immunohistochemically using avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex (ABC) method. At first, it was fundamentally tested whether ABO-blood typing could be specifically performed for the fingerprints of known ABO blood group, being made experimentally on nitrocellulose filter or paper, and the effect of fixation and paper quality for the detection was also examined. And, ABO-typing was carried out using transferred fingerprints from a slide glass to a nitrocellulose filter. Moreover, using a fingerprint of unknown ABO-type, serially repetitive blood typing (three times) was compared to individually performed grouping (three tests) after dividing a single fingerprint into three parts. In addition, the method of serial ABO-blood typing after the morphological detection of fingerprints by ninhydrine was also considered. As results, according to primary antibodies applied, ABH activities were specifically detected in the fingerprints on nitrocellulose filter and paper. For the fixation procedure of very minute blood group substances to paper, heat fixation was the most effective and methanol fixation was also available. The intensity of immunostaining of fingerprints decreased according to the deterioration of paper quality used. And, the transferred fingerprints on nitrocellulose filter were also specifically typed. Serially repetitive blood typing (anti-B-->anti-A-->anti-H) was possible to fingerprints on nitrocellulose filter, but it gave poor results to those on paper. To overcome this difficulty, after being detected morphologically by ninhydrine, iodine or aluminium powder and decolored thereafter, a fingerprint on paper was divided into three parts and specific blood typing was possible. As for the double blind test to fingerprints on paper, 22 out of 35 fingerprints were specifically typed and the rate of

  4. Group X

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, Susannah

    2007-08-16

    This project is currently under contract for research through the Department of Homeland Security until 2011. The group I was responsible for studying has to remain confidential so as not to affect the current project. All dates, reference links and authors, and other distinguishing characteristics of the original group have been removed from this report. All references to the name of this group or the individual splinter groups has been changed to 'Group X'. I have been collecting texts from a variety of sources intended for the use of recruiting and radicalizing members for Group X splinter groups for the purpose of researching the motivation and intent of leaders of those groups and their influence over the likelihood of group radicalization. This work included visiting many Group X websites to find information on splinter group leaders and finding their statements to new and old members. This proved difficult because the splinter groups of Group X are united in beliefs, but differ in public opinion. They are eager to tear each other down, prove their superiority, and yet remain anonymous. After a few weeks of intense searching, a list of eight recruiting texts and eight radicalizing texts from a variety of Group X leaders were compiled.

  5. Group Flow and Group Genius

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Keith Sawyer views the spontaneous collaboration of group creativity and improvisation actions as "group flow," which organizations can use to function at optimum levels. Sawyer establishes ideal conditions for group flow: group goals, close listening, complete concentration, being in control, blending egos, equal participation, knowing…

  6. Isopermutation group

    SciTech Connect

    Muktibodh, A. S.

    2015-03-10

    The concept of ‘Isotopy’ as formulated by Ruggero Maria Santilli [1, 2, 3] plays a vital role in the development of Iso mathematics. Santilli defined iso-fields of characteristic zero. In this paper we extend this definition to define Iso-Galois fields [4] which are essentially of non-zero characteristic. Isotopically isomorphic realizations of a group define isopermutation group which gives a clear cut distinction between automorphic groups and isotopic groups.

  7. Home Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahler, Theresa M.

    All students enrolled in the entry level foundations course in the College of Education of Kutztown University (Pennsylvania) participate in home groups, a cooperative learning strategy. Each student is assigned to a five- or six-person home group on the first day of class. Although group placements are made on the basis of class lists, every…

  8. Galaxy groups

    SciTech Connect

    Brent Tully, R.

    2015-02-01

    Galaxy groups can be characterized by the radius of decoupling from cosmic expansion, the radius of the caustic of second turnaround, and the velocity dispersion of galaxies within this latter radius. These parameters can be a challenge to measure, especially for small groups with few members. In this study, results are gathered pertaining to particularly well-studied groups over four decades in group mass. Scaling relations anticipated from theory are demonstrated and coefficients of the relationships are specified. There is an update of the relationship between light and mass for groups, confirming that groups with mass of a few times 10{sup 12}M{sub ⊙} are the most lit up while groups with more and less mass are darker. It is demonstrated that there is an interesting one-to-one correlation between the number of dwarf satellites in a group and the group mass. There is the suggestion that small variations in the slope of the luminosity function in groups are caused by the degree of depletion of intermediate luminosity systems rather than variations in the number per unit mass of dwarfs. Finally, returning to the characteristic radii of groups, the ratio of first to second turnaround depends on the dark matter and dark energy content of the universe and a crude estimate can be made from the current observations of Ω{sub matter}∼0.15 in a flat topology, with a 68% probability of being less than 0.44.

  9. GROUP INEQUALITY

    PubMed Central

    Bowles, Samuel; Loury, Glenn C.; Sethi, Rajiv

    2014-01-01

    We explore the combined effect of segregation in social networks, peer effects, and the relative size of a historically disadvantaged group on the incentives to invest in market-rewarded skills and the dynamics of inequality between social groups. We identify conditions under which group inequality will persist in the absence of differences in ability, credit constraints, or labor market discrimination. Under these conditions, group inequality may be amplified even if initial group differences are negligible. Increases in social integration may destabilize an unequal state and make group equality possible, but the distributional and human capital effects of this depend on the demographic composition of the population. When the size of the initially disadvantaged group is sufficiently small, integration can lower the long-run costs of human capital investment in both groups and result in an increase the aggregate skill share. In contrast, when the initially disadvantaged group is large, integration can induce a fall in the aggregate skill share as the costs of human capital investment rise in both groups. We consider applications to concrete cases and policy implications. PMID:25554727

  10. Whitehead Groups of Spinor Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monastyrnyĭ, A. P.; Yanchevskiĭ, V. I.

    1991-02-01

    The Whitehead groups of spinor groups are studied. The known Kneser-Tits conjecture for spinor groups is reduced to a spinor analogue of the Tannaka-Artin problem, namely, to the question of whether the group K1Spin(D), where D is a division ring of exponent 2 , is trivial. A counterexample to the Kneser-Tits problem is constructed in the class of spinor groups. The group K1Spin(D) is computed. The stability of the Whitehead groups of spinor groups under purely transcendental extensions of the ground field is established. The R-equivalence on the k-points of spinor groups and the weak approximation problem are considered. The study of spinor group completes the study of the Whitehead groups of algebraic groups of classical type, that was started in studying reduced K-theory (V.P. Platonov) and was continued for reduced unitary K-theory (V.I. Yanchevskiĭ) and Hermitian K-theory (Platonov and Yanchevskiĭ). Bibliography: 50 titles.

  11. Norwalk Virus–specific Binding to Oyster Digestive Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Loisy, Fabienne; Atmar, Robert L.; Hutson, Anne M.; Estes, Mary K.; Ruvoën-Clouet, Nathalie; Pommepuy, Monique; Le Pendu, Jacques

    2006-01-01

    The primary pathogens related to shellfishborne gastroenteritis outbreaks are noroviruses. These viruses show persistence in oysters, which suggests an active mechanism of virus concentration. We investigated whether Norwalk virus or viruslike particles bind specifically to oyster tissues after bioaccumulation or addition to tissue sections. Since noroviruses attach to carbohydrates of the histo-blood group family, tests using immunohistochemical analysis were performed to evaluate specific binding of virus or viruslike particles to oyster tissues through these ligands. Viral particles bind specifically to digestive ducts (midgut, main and secondary ducts, and tubules) by carbohydrate structures with a terminal N-acetylgalactosamine residue in an α linkage (same binding site used for recognition of human histo-blood group antigens). These data show that the oyster can selectively concentrate a human pathogen and that conventional depuration will not eliminate noroviruses from oyster tissue. PMID:16707048

  12. Group Theatre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Brian

    The group interpretation approach to theatre production is defined as a method that will lead to production of plays that will appeal to "all the layers of the conscious and unconscious mind." In practice, it means that the group will develop and use resources of the theatre that orthodox companies too often ignore. The first two chapters of this…

  13. Group Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article Karen Adams demonstrates how to incorporate group grammar techniques into a classroom activity. In the activity, students practice using the target grammar to do something they naturally enjoy: learning about each other.

  14. Group Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    1992-01-01

    Research suggests that cooperative learning works best when students are first taught group-processing skills, such as leadership, decision making, communication, trust building, and conflict management. Inadequate teacher training and boring assignments can torpedo cooperative learning efforts. Administrators should reassure teachers with…

  15. Local Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateo, M.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Not long after EDWIN HUBBLE established that galaxies are `island universes' similar to our home galaxy, the MILKY WAY, he realized that a few of these external galaxies are considerably closer to us than any others. In 1936 he first coined the term `Local Group' in his famous book The Realm of the Nebulae to identify our nearest galactic neighbors. More than 60 yr later, the galaxies of the Loca...

  16. Underrepresented groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, David A.

    1990-01-01

    The problem with the shortage of under represented groups in science and engineering is absolutely crucial, especially considering that U.S. will experience a shortage of 560,000 science and engineering personnel by the year 2010. Most studies by the National Science Foundation also concluded that projected shortages cannot be alleviated without significant increases in the involvement of Blacks, Hispanics, Native Americans, handicapped persons, and women.

  17. Group Connections: Whole Group Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Dorothy

    2002-01-01

    A learner-centered approach to adult group instruction involved learners in investigating 20th-century events. The approach allowed learners to concentrate on different activities according to their abilities and gave them opportunities to develop basic skills and practice teamwork. (SK)

  18. Cardiovascular group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blomqvist, Gunnar

    1989-01-01

    As a starting point, the group defined a primary goal of maintaining in flight a level of systemic oxygen transport capacity comparable to each individual's preflight upright baseline. The goal of maintaining capacity at preflight levels would seem to be a reasonable objective for several different reasons, including the maintenance of good health in general and the preservation of sufficient cardiovascular reserve capacity to meet operational demands. It is also important not to introduce confounding variables in whatever other physiological studies are being performed. A change in the level of fitness is likely to be a significant confounding variable in the study of many organ systems. The principal component of the in-flight cardiovascular exercise program should be large-muscle activity such as treadmill exercise. It is desirable that at least one session per week be monitored to assure maintenance of proper functional levels and to provide guidance for any adjustments of the exercise prescription. Appropriate measurements include evaluation of the heart-rate/workload or the heart-rate/oxygen-uptake relationship. Respiratory gas analysis is helpful by providing better opportunities to document relative workload levels from analysis of the interrelationships among VO2, VCO2, and ventilation. The committee felt that there is no clear evidence that any particular in-flight exercise regimen is protective against orthostatic hypotension during the early readaptation phase. Some group members suggested that maintenance of the lower body muscle mass and muscle tone may be helpful. There is also evidence that late in-flight interventions to reexpand blood volume to preflight levels are helpful in preventing or minimizing postflight orthostatic hypotension.

  19. Group evaporation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Hayley H.

    1991-01-01

    Liquid fuel combustion process is greatly affected by the rate of droplet evaporation. The heat and mass exchanges between gas and liquid couple the dynamics of both phases in all aspects: mass, momentum, and energy. Correct prediction of the evaporation rate is therefore a key issue in engineering design of liquid combustion devices. Current analytical tools for characterizing the behavior of these devices are based on results from a single isolated droplet. Numerous experimental studies have challenged the applicability of these results in a dense spray. To account for the droplets' interaction in a dense spray, a number of theories have been developed in the past decade. Herein, two tasks are examined. One was to study how to implement the existing theoretical results, and the other was to explore the possibility of experimental verifications. The current theoretical results of group evaporation are given for a monodispersed cluster subject to adiabatic conditions. The time evolution of the fluid mechanic and thermodynamic behavior in this cluster is derived. The results given are not in the form of a subscale model for CFD codes.

  20. Group typicality, group loyalty and cognitive development.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Meagan M

    2014-09-01

    Over the course of childhood, children's thinking about social groups changes in a variety of ways. Developmental Subjective Group Dynamics (DSGD) theory emphasizes children's understanding of the importance of conforming to group norms. Abrams et al.'s study, which uses DSGD theory as a framework, demonstrates the social cognitive skills underlying young elementary school children's thinking about group norms. Future research on children's thinking about groups and group norms should explore additional elements of this topic, including aspects of typicality beyond loyalty.

  1. Group Cohesion in Experiential Growth Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Sam; Vasserman-Stokes, Elaina; Vannatta, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the effect of web-based journaling on changes in group cohesion within experiential growth groups. Master's students were divided into 2 groups. Both used a web-based platform to journal after each session; however, only 1 of the groups was able to read each other's journals. Quantitative data collected before and…

  2. Group theories: relevance to group safety studies.

    PubMed

    Benevento, A L

    1998-01-01

    Promoting safety in the workplace has been attempted in a variety of ways. Increasingly, industries are using groups such as safety teams and quality circles to promote worker safety. Group influences on individual behavior and attitudes have long been studied in the social psychology literature, but the theories have not been commonly found outside the psychology arena. This paper describes the group theories of group polarization, risky shift, social loafing, groupthink and team think and attempts to apply these theories to existing studies that examine work group influences on safety. Interesting parallels were found but only one study examined group influences as their primary focus of research. Since groups are increasingly used for safety promotion, future research on safety that studies group influences with respect to current group theories is recommended.

  3. Constructing Group Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimlich, Joe E.

    1996-01-01

    Presents guidelines for constructing group learning activities, describes group learning methods (discussion, gaming, role play, simulation, projects), and provides tips for facilitating group activities. (SK)

  4. Group Dynamic Processes in Email Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpay, Esat

    2005-01-01

    Discussion is given on the relevance of group dynamic processes in promoting decision-making in email discussion groups. General theories on social facilitation and social loafing are considered in the context of email groups, as well as the applicability of psychodynamic and interaction-based models. It is argued that such theories may indeed…

  5. Can Groups Learn?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Elizabeth G.; Lotan, Rachel A.; Abram, Percy L.; Scarloss, Beth A.; Schultz, Susan E.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluated the work of sixth grade students' creative problem-solving groups, proposing that providing students with specific guidelines about what makes an exemplary group product would improve the character of the discussion and quality of the group product. Student groups did learn as a result of their discussions and creation of group products.…

  6. Small Groups in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suessmuth, Patrick

    1974-01-01

    Small groups can sometimes be difficult to set up and work with properly. A number of tips for small group instruction are divided into seven areas: (1) presenting tasks; (2) group seating; (3) task time; (4) answering questions; (5) teacher's role in observing groups; (6) group noise level patterns; and (7) serial take-ups. (BP)

  7. Group Work: How to Use Groups Effectively

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Alison

    2011-01-01

    Many students cringe and groan when told that they will need to work in a group. However, group work has been found to be good for students and good for teachers. Employers want college graduates to have developed teamwork skills. Additionally, students who participate in collaborative learning get better grades, are more satisfied with their…

  8. Group Time: Building Language at Group Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Church, Ellen Booth

    2004-01-01

    This article features energizing and surprising activities for children at group time. In the drawing activity, children are asked to give instructions on how to draw a picture using vocabulary and descriptive language. In the mailbox activity, children will be surprised to discover that they have mail at group time. Mailboxes can be used for…

  9. Group B Strep Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Questions OverviewWhat is group B strep?Group B streptococcus, or group B strep for short, is a ... can develop an infection of the lungs (called pneumonia), bloodstream (called sepsis), or the fluid around the ...

  10. Structural Basis for Norovirus Inhibition by Human Milk Oligosaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Weichert, Stefan; Koromyslova, Anna; Singh, Bishal K.; Hansman, Satoko; Jennewein, Stefan; Schroten, Horst

    2016-01-01

    Histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) are important binding factors for norovirus infections. We show that two human milk oligosaccharides, 2′-fucosyllactose (2′FL) and 3-fucosyllactose (3FL), could block norovirus from binding to surrogate HBGA samples. We found that 2′FL and 3FL bound at the equivalent HBGA pockets on the norovirus capsid using X-ray crystallography. Our data revealed that 2′FL and 3FL structurally mimic HBGAs. These results suggest that 2′FL and 3FL might act as naturally occurring decoys in humans. PMID:26889023

  11. The Group Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, John

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of group dynamics and leadership activities is a component of the CORE Standards for the Master's degree curriculum in Rehabilitation Counseling. A group experience is often included as a learning activity in rehabilitation counselor education curricula as an instructional method of imparting knowledge of group dynamics. Group experience…

  12. Group Psychotherapy in Iceland.

    PubMed

    Ívarsson, Ómar

    2015-10-01

    In this overview of group psychotherapy in Iceland, an attempt will be made to describe how it is practiced today, give some glimpses into its earlier history, and clarify seven issues: (1) the standing of group psychotherapy in Iceland, its previous history, and the theoretical orientation of dynamic group therapy in the country; (2) the role of group therapy in the health care system; (3) how training in group therapy is organized; (4) the relationship between group psychotherapy research and clinical practice; (5) which issues/processes can be identified as unique to therapy groups in Iceland; and (6) how important are group-related issues within the social background of the country; and (7) what group work holds for the future.

  13. The GROOP Effect: Groups Mimic Group Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Jessica Chia-Chin; Sebanz, Natalie; Knoblich, Gunther

    2011-01-01

    Research on perception-action links has focused on an interpersonal level, demonstrating effects of observing individual actions on performance. The present study investigated perception-action matching at an inter-group level. Pairs of participants responded to hand movements that were performed by two individuals who used one hand each or they…

  14. Working with Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Joan, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Describes nine Canadian programs for counseling groups of students. Topics include introducing computer-assisted guidance, future challenges for counselors, sociometry, sexuality, parent counseling, reluctant students, shyness, peer groups, education for living, and guidance advisory committees. (JAC)

  15. What Makes Groups Tick.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allcorn, Seth

    1985-01-01

    By reviewing this analysis of the behavior of both groups and individuals in groups, human resources managers can learn to tell whether committees, task forces, and departments may be encouraging or inhibiting the work they set out to do. (Author)

  16. Group B streptococcus - pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000511.htm Group B streptococcus - pregnancy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a type of bacteria that some ...

  17. The group selection controversy.

    PubMed

    Leigh, E G

    2010-01-01

    Many thought Darwinian natural selection could not explain altruism. This error led Wynne-Edwards to explain sustainable exploitation in animals by selection against overexploiting groups. Williams riposted that selection among groups rarely overrides within-group selection. Hamilton showed that altruism can evolve through kin selection. How strongly does group selection influence evolution? Following Price, Hamilton showed how levels of selection interact: group selection prevails if Hamilton's rule applies. Several showed that group selection drove some major evolutionary transitions. Following Hamilton's lead, Queller extended Hamilton's rule, replacing genealogical relatedness by the regression on an actor's genotypic altruism of interacting neighbours' phenotypic altruism. Price's theorem shows the generality of Hamilton's rule. All instances of group selection can be viewed as increasing inclusive fitness of autosomal genomes. Nonetheless, to grasp fully how cooperation and altruism evolve, most biologists need more concrete concepts like kin selection, group selection and selection among individuals for their common good.

  18. Gestalt Interactional Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Robert L.; Franklin, Richard W.

    1975-01-01

    Gestalt therapy in groups is not limited to individual work in the presence of an audience. Describes several ways to involve gestalt groups interactionally. Interactions described focus on learning by doing and discovering, and are noninterpretive. (Author/EJT)

  19. Practice and Group Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hager, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Although learning has always been a central topic for philosophy of education, little attention has been paid to the notion of group learning. This article outlines and discusses some plausible examples of group learning. Drawing on these examples, various principles and issues that surround the notion of group learning are identified and…

  20. Customizing Group Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambliss, Catherine; Oxman, Elaine

    The group therapy context provides unparalleled opportunities for cost effective learning. However, within group meetings, therapists must strive to tailor psychological services to address the particular needs of individual patients. Creative means of customizing patients experiences within group are needed in order to address consumer needs…

  1. Internet Discussion Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Glen; Bull, Gina; Sigmon, Tim

    1997-01-01

    Discusses newsgroups, listservs, and Web-based discussion groups. Highlights include major categories of international USENET discussion groups; newsgroups versus mailing lists; newsreaders; news servers; newsgroup subscriptions; newsgroups versus Web discussion groups; linking newsgroups, mailing lists, and the Web; and setting up a news host. A…

  2. Parent Group Spotlight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parenting for High Potential, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This issue's "Parent Group Spotlight" features Deborah Simon, president of West Sound Gifted, Talented & Twice-Exceptional (WSGT2e), who started a parent group in Washington in 2013. In just one year, this small, but mighty group has held community forums, attended school board meetings, and helped influence local gifted programming.…

  3. Infant Group Care Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Earline D.

    Children under 3 years of age who are in group care face special health risks. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control indicate the existence of a causal relationship between infant group day care and certain diseases that are spread through contact at day care centers. Children in group care who are still in diapers are especially vulnerable to…

  4. Integrated Play Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glovak, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    As an occupational therapist running social play groups with sensory integration for children on the autism spectrum, the author frequently doubted the wisdom of combining several children on the spectrum into a group. In fact, as the owner of a clinic she said, "No more!" The groups seemed like a waste of parents' time and money, and she refused…

  5. Spin line groups.

    PubMed

    Lazić, Nataša; Milivojević, Marko; Damnjanović, Milan

    2013-11-01

    Spin line groups describe the symmetries of spin arrangements in quasi-one-dimensional systems. These groups are derived for the first family of line groups. Among them, magnetic groups are singled out as a special case. Spin arrangements generated by the derived groups are first discussed for single-orbit systems and then the conclusions are extended to multi-orbit cases. The results are illustrated by the examples of a CuO2 zigzag chain, a (13)C nanotube and the hexaferrite Ba2Mg2Fe12O22. Applications to neutron diffraction and classical ground-state determination are indicated.

  6. Grouped exposed metal heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Coit, William George; Griffin, Peter Terry; Hamilton, Paul Taylor; Hsu, Chia-Fu; Mason, Stanley Leroy; Samuel, Allan James; Watkins, Ronnie Wade

    2010-11-09

    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. The system includes two or more groups of elongated heaters. The group includes two or more heaters placed in two or more openings in the formation. The heaters in the group are electrically coupled below the surface of the formation. The openings include at least partially uncased wellbores in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The groups are electrically configured such that current flow through the formation between at least two groups is inhibited. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the formation.

  7. Grouped exposed metal heaters

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; Coit, William George [Bellaire, TX; Griffin, Peter Terry [Brixham, GB; Hamilton, Paul Taylor [Houston, TX; Hsu, Chia-Fu [Granada Hills, CA; Mason, Stanley Leroy [Allen, TX; Samuel, Allan James [Kular Lumpar, ML; Watkins, Ronnie Wade [Cypress, TX

    2012-07-31

    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. The system includes two or more groups of elongated heaters. The group includes two or more heaters placed in two or more openings in the formation. The heaters in the group are electrically coupled below the surface of the formation. The openings include at least partially uncased wellbores in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The groups are electrically configured such that current flow through the formation between at least two groups is inhibited. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the formation.

  8. Group Psychotherapy in Italy.

    PubMed

    Giannone, Francesca; Giordano, Cecilia; Di Blasi, Maria

    2015-10-01

    This article describes the history and the prevailing orientations of group psychotherapy in Italy (psychoanalytically oriented, psychodrama, CBT groups) and particularly group analysis. Provided free of charge by the Italian health system, group psychotherapy is growing, but its expansion is patchy. The main pathways of Italian training in the different group psychotherapy orientations are also presented. Clinical-theoretical elaboration on self development, psychopathology related to group experiences, and the methodological attention paid to objectives and methods in different clinical groups are issues related to group therapy in Italy. Difficulties in the relationship between research and clinical practice are discussed, as well as the empirical research network that tries to bridge the gap between research and clinical work in group psychotherapy. The economic crisis in Italy has led to massive cuts in health care and to an increasing demand for some forms of psychological treatment. For these reasons, and because of its positive cost-benefit ratio, group psychotherapy is now considered an important tool in the national health care system to expand the clinical response to different forms of psychological distress.

  9. What's your group worth?

    PubMed

    Greenberg, M R

    1986-01-01

    With the advent of acquisitions and mergers of healthcare organizations, it has become necessary for medical group practices to know what they are worth. The traditional balance sheet valuation ignores what is perhaps the most important consideration of all: a group's earning potential. Discussed in this article are the many facets of the complex valuation process, including both tangible and intangible assets, and the author provides a method for adequately determining a range of values for a medical group.

  10. E-Group Arrangements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aylesworth, Grant R.

    Group E at Uaxactún has long been considered an ancient Maya observatory in which an observer could see the sun rise along architectural alignments at the solstices and equinoxes. E-Groups named for the architectural complex list identified in Group E at Uaxactún, typically consist of a large radial pyramid on their west side and three temples on a raised platform on their east side.

  11. Immersive group-to-group telepresence.

    PubMed

    Beck, Stephan; Kunert, André; Kulik, Alexander; Froehlich, Bernd

    2013-04-01

    We present a novel immersive telepresence system that allows distributed groups of users to meet in a shared virtual 3D world. Our approach is based on two coupled projection-based multi-user setups, each providing multiple users with perspectively correct stereoscopic images. At each site the users and their local interaction space are continuously captured using a cluster of registered depth and color cameras. The captured 3D information is transferred to the respective other location, where the remote participants are virtually reconstructed. We explore the use of these virtual user representations in various interaction scenarios in which local and remote users are face-to-face, side-by-side or decoupled. Initial experiments with distributed user groups indicate the mutual understanding of pointing and tracing gestures independent of whether they were performed by local or remote participants. Our users were excited about the new possibilities of jointly exploring a virtual city, where they relied on a world-in-miniature metaphor for mutual awareness of their respective locations.

  12. Group Sparse Additive Models

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Junming; Chen, Xi; Xing, Eric P.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of sparse variable selection in nonparametric additive models, with the prior knowledge of the structure among the covariates to encourage those variables within a group to be selected jointly. Previous works either study the group sparsity in the parametric setting (e.g., group lasso), or address the problem in the nonparametric setting without exploiting the structural information (e.g., sparse additive models). In this paper, we present a new method, called group sparse additive models (GroupSpAM), which can handle group sparsity in additive models. We generalize the ℓ1/ℓ2 norm to Hilbert spaces as the sparsity-inducing penalty in GroupSpAM. Moreover, we derive a novel thresholding condition for identifying the functional sparsity at the group level, and propose an efficient block coordinate descent algorithm for constructing the estimate. We demonstrate by simulation that GroupSpAM substantially outperforms the competing methods in terms of support recovery and prediction accuracy in additive models, and also conduct a comparative experiment on a real breast cancer dataset.

  13. EXPERIMENTS IN GROUP PREDICTION,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    GROUP DYNAMICS, *ATTITUDES(PSYCHOLOGY)), (*PREDICTIONS, ACCURACY), PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION MAKING, CONFORMITY , QUESTIONNAIRES, EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN, SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, FEEDBACK, RELIABILITY, STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

  14. Mechanisms of GII.4 Norovirus Persistence in Human Populations

    PubMed Central

    LoBue, Anna D; Cannon, Jennifer L; Zheng, Du-Ping; Vinje, Jan; Baric, Ralph S

    2008-01-01

    Background Noroviruses are the leading cause of viral acute gastroenteritis in humans, noted for causing epidemic outbreaks in communities, the military, cruise ships, hospitals, and assisted living communities. The evolutionary mechanisms governing the persistence and emergence of new norovirus strains in human populations are unknown. Primarily organized by sequence homology into two major human genogroups defined by multiple genoclusters, the majority of norovirus outbreaks are caused by viruses from the GII.4 genocluster, which was first recognized as the major epidemic strain in the mid-1990s. Previous studies by our laboratory and others indicate that some noroviruses readily infect individuals who carry a gene encoding a functional alpha-1,2-fucosyltransferase (FUT2) and are designated “secretor-positive” to indicate that they express ABH histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), a highly heterogeneous group of related carbohydrates on mucosal surfaces. Individuals with defects in the FUT2 gene are termed secretor-negative, do not express the appropriate HBGA necessary for docking, and are resistant to Norwalk infection. These data argue that FUT2 and other genes encoding enzymes that regulate processing of the HBGA carbohydrates function as susceptibility alleles. However, secretor-negative individuals can be infected with other norovirus strains, and reinfection with the GII.4 strains is common in human populations. In this article, we analyze molecular mechanisms governing GII.4 epidemiology, susceptibility, and persistence in human populations. Methods and Findings Phylogenetic analyses of the GII.4 capsid sequences suggested an epochal evolution over the last 20 y with periods of stasis followed by rapid evolution of novel epidemic strains. The epidemic strains show a linear relationship in time, whereby serial replacements emerge from the previous cluster. Five major evolutionary clusters were identified, and representative ORF2 capsid genes for each

  15. Democratic Group Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laursen, Erik K.; Tate, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    For a century, democratic values have called for abandoning coercive approaches and teaching children and youth to be responsible citizens. The authors explore strategies for creating respectful environments and positive group cultures with challenging youth. They offer suggestions to adult group facilitators to support youth in developing…

  16. User Working Group Members

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-04-29

    User Working Group Members   Mail for the entire group may be directed to:  larc-asdc-uwg@lists.nasa.gov   Member Status Affiliation E-mail Contact Bob Holz (Co-Chair in 2010) Co-Chair University of ...

  17. Beam dynamics group summary

    SciTech Connect

    Peggs, S.

    1994-12-31

    This paper summarizes the activities of the beam dynamics working group of the LHC Collective Effects Workshop that was held in Montreux in 1994. It reviews the presentations that were made to the group, the discussions that ensued, and the consensuses that evolved.

  18. Group Work. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2010-01-01

    According to Johnson and Johnson, group work helps increase student retention and satisfaction, develops strong oral communication and social skills, as well as higher self-esteem (University of Minnesota, n.d.). Group work, when planned and implemented deliberately and thoughtfully helps students develop cognitive and leadership skills as well as…

  19. Fairness and Ability Grouping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strike, Kenneth A.

    1983-01-01

    A recent controversy regarding ability grouping is that it is often perceived as a means whereby racial or class bias can be subtly transformed into mechanisms of discrimination which exhibit the appearance of fairness and objectivity. This article addresses the question of fairness in ability grouping. (CJB)

  20. Topologies on Abelian Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenyuk, E. G.; Protasov, I. V.

    1991-04-01

    A filter phi on an abelian group G is called a T-filter if there exists a Hausdorff group topology under which phi converges to zero. G{phi} will denote the group G with the largest topology among those making phi converge to zero. This method of defining a group topology is completely equivalent to the definition of an abstract group by defining relations. We shall obtain characterizations of T-filters and of T-sequences; among these, we shall pay particular attention to T-sequences on the integers. The method of T-sequences will be used to construct a series of counterexamples for several open problems in topological algebra. For instance there exists, on every infinite abelian group, a topology distinguishing between sequentiality and the Fréchet-Urysohn property (this solves a problem posed by V.I. Malykhin) we also find a topology on the group of integers admitting no nontrivial continuous character, thus solving a problem of Nienhuys. We show also that on every infinite abelian group there exists a free ultrafilter which is not a T-ultrafilter.

  1. Grouping for Inequity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macqueen, Suzanne Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The inequity of streaming as a method of organising classes was established by research conducted in the 1960s and 1970s. While the practice produces small advantages for limited groups of students, it hinders the academic and social advancement of the majority. Although streaming has declined, new forms of achievement grouping have emerged, with…

  2. Physically detached 'compact groups'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernquist, Lars; Katz, Neal; Weinberg, David H.

    1995-01-01

    A small fraction of galaxies appear to reside in dense compact groups, whose inferred crossing times are much shorter than a Hubble time. These short crossing times have led to considerable disagreement among researchers attempting to deduce the dynamical state of these systems. In this paper, we suggest that many of the observed groups are not physically bound but are chance projections of galaxies well separated along the line of sight. Unlike earlier similar proposals, ours does not require that the galaxies in the compact group be members of a more diffuse, but physically bound entity. The probability of physically separated galaxies projecting into an apparent compact group is nonnegligible if most galaxies are distributed in thin filaments. We illustrate this general point with a specific example: a simulation of a cold dark matter universe, in which hydrodynamic effects are included to identify galaxies. The simulated galaxy distribution is filamentary and end-on views of these filaments produce apparent galaxy associations that have sizes and velocity dispersions similar to those of observed compact groups. The frequency of such projections is sufficient, in principle, to explain the observed space density of groups in the Hickson catalog. We discuss the implications of our proposal for the formation and evolution of groups and elliptical galaxies. The proposal can be tested by using redshift-independent distance estimators to measure the line-of-sight spatial extent of nearby compact groups.

  3. Perceiving persons and groups.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, D L; Sherman, S J

    1996-04-01

    This article analyzes the similarities and differences in forming impressions of individuals and in developing conceptions of groups. In both cases, the perceiver develops a mental conception of the target (individual or group) on the basis of available information and uses that information to make judgments about that person or group. However, a review of existing evidence reveals differences in the outcomes of impressions formed of individual and group targets, even when those impressions are based on the very same behavioral information. A model is proposed to account for these differences. The model emphasizes the role of differing expectancies of unity and coherence in individual and group targets, which in turn engage different mechanisms for processing information and making judgments. Implications of the model are discussed.

  4. Groups and Violence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhavnani, Ravi; Miodownik, Dan; Riolo, Rick

    Violence can take place along a multitude of cleavages, e.g., (1) between political groups like the Kach Movement, pitting West Bank settlers against Israeli governments supporting the land-for-peace agenda; (2) between religious groups, such as Christians and Muslims in the Nigerian cities of Jos and Kaduna; (3) along class lines, as in India between Dalits and members of the Brahminical upper castes, upwardly mobile intermediate castes, and even other backward castes such as the Thevars; and (4) between ethnic groups such as the Hutu and Tutsi, both within and across state boundaries in Rwanda and neighboring Burundi.

  5. Group key management

    SciTech Connect

    Dunigan, T.; Cao, C.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes an architecture and implementation for doing group key management over a data communications network. The architecture describes a protocol for establishing a shared encryption key among an authenticated and authorized collection of network entities. Group access requires one or more authorization certificates. The implementation includes a simple public key and certificate infrastructure. Multicast is used for some of the key management messages. An application programming interface multiplexes key management and user application messages. An implementation using the new IP security protocols is postulated. The architecture is compared with other group key management proposals, and the performance and the limitations of the implementation are described.

  6. Conformal Carroll groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duval, C.; Gibbons, G. W.; Horvathy, P. A.

    2014-08-01

    Conformal extensions of Lévy-Leblond's Carroll group, based on geometric properties analogous to those of Newton-Cartan space-time are proposed. The extensions are labeled by an integer k. This framework includes and extends our recent study of the Bondi-Metzner-Sachs (BMS) and Newman-Unti (NU) groups. The relation to conformal Galilei groups is clarified. Conformal Carroll symmetry is illustrated by ‘Carrollian photons’. Motion both in the Newton-Cartan and Carroll spaces may be related to that of strings in the Bargmann space.

  7. Cyclic soft groups and their applications on groups.

    PubMed

    Aktaş, Hacı; Özlü, Serif

    2014-01-01

    In crisp environment the notions of order of group and cyclic group are well known due to many applications. In this paper, we introduce order of the soft groups, power of the soft sets, power of the soft groups, and cyclic soft group on a group. We also investigate the relationship between cyclic soft groups and classical groups.

  8. UnitedHealth Group

    Cancer.gov

    UnitedHealth Group provides accessible and affordable services, improved quality of care, coordinated health care efforts, and a supportive environment for shared decision making between patients and their physicians.

  9. SRNL Atmospheric Technologies Group

    ScienceCinema

    Viner, Brian; Parker, Matthew J.

    2016-07-12

    The Savannah River National Laboratory, Atmospheric Technologies Group, conducts a best-in class Applied Meteorology Program to ensure the Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site is operated safely and complies with stringent environmental regulations.

  10. Indictment of Ability Grouping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckman, Bruce

    1972-01-01

    The use of ability grouping restricts students to interact with others who have been identified as similar in ability and carries with it the stigma of failure and the operation of the self-fulfilling prophecy. (Author)

  11. Building Bunk Group Buddies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Denise Cabrero

    2000-01-01

    Describes how camp counselors can foster camaraderie among campers through participative decision making, name games, listening, adventure courses, storytelling, spending time in nature, decorating cabins, avoiding favoritism, setting rules, admitting faults, setting group goals, and praising sincere efforts. (TD)

  12. Functional Group Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Walter T., Jr.; Patterson, John M.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses analytical methods selected from current research articles. Groups information by topics of general interest, including acids, aldehydes and ketones, nitro compounds, phenols, and thiols. Cites 97 references. (CS)

  13. Group Support Systems (GSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamel, Gary P.; Wijesinghe, R.

    1996-01-01

    Groupware is a term describing an emerging computer software technology enhancing the ability of people to work together as a group, (a software driven 'group support system'). This project originated at the beginning of 1992 and reports were issued describing the activity through May 1995. These reports stressed the need for process as well as technology. That is, while the technology represented a computer assisted method for groups to work together, the Group Support System (GSS) technology als required an understanding of the facilitation process electronic meetings demand. Even people trained in traditional facilitation techniques did not necessarily aimlessly adopt groupware techniques. The latest phase of this activity attempted to (1) improve the facilitation process by developing training support for a portable groupware computer system, and (2) to explore settings and uses for the portable groupware system using different software, such as Lotus Notes.

  14. Is Group Counseling Neglected?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Susanne M.

    1972-01-01

    Group counseling is valuable for the psychological and social readjustment of newly disabled persons and their families, with the counselor and physician having major roles in personal rehabilitation. (AG)

  15. User Working Group Charter

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-04-29

    ... Amended 2010   The Langley Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC) User Working Group (UWG) is chartered by the Earth Observing ... of the ASDC user interface, development of the Information Management System (IMS), and ASDC user conferences requirements for and ...

  16. SRNL Atmospheric Technologies Group

    SciTech Connect

    Viner, Brian; Parker, Matthew J.

    2016-05-10

    The Savannah River National Laboratory, Atmospheric Technologies Group, conducts a best-in class Applied Meteorology Program to ensure the Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site is operated safely and complies with stringent environmental regulations.

  17. Group Capability Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olejarski, Michael; Appleton, Amy; Deltorchio, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The Group Capability Model (GCM) is a software tool that allows an organization, from first line management to senior executive, to monitor and track the health (capability) of various groups in performing their contractual obligations. GCM calculates a Group Capability Index (GCI) by comparing actual head counts, certifications, and/or skills within a group. The model can also be used to simulate the effects of employee usage, training, and attrition on the GCI. A universal tool and common method was required due to the high risk of losing skills necessary to complete the Space Shuttle Program and meet the needs of the Constellation Program. During this transition from one space vehicle to another, the uncertainty among the critical skilled workforce is high and attrition has the potential to be unmanageable. GCM allows managers to establish requirements for their group in the form of head counts, certification requirements, or skills requirements. GCM then calculates a Group Capability Index (GCI), where a score of 1 indicates that the group is at the appropriate level; anything less than 1 indicates a potential for improvement. This shows the health of a group, both currently and over time. GCM accepts as input head count, certification needs, critical needs, competency needs, and competency critical needs. In addition, team members are categorized by years of experience, percentage of contribution, ex-members and their skills, availability, function, and in-work requirements. Outputs are several reports, including actual vs. required head count, actual vs. required certificates, CGI change over time (by month), and more. The program stores historical data for summary and historical reporting, which is done via an Excel spreadsheet that is color-coded to show health statistics at a glance. GCM has provided the Shuttle Ground Processing team with a quantifiable, repeatable approach to assessing and managing the skills in their organization. They now have a common

  18. Magnetograph group summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harrison P.

    1989-01-01

    The Magnetograph Group focussed on the techniques and many practical problems of interleaving ground-based measurements of magnetic fields from diverse sites and instruments to address the original scientific objectives. The predominant view of the discussion group was that present instrumentation and analysis resources do not warrant immediate, specific plans for further worldwide campaigns of cooperative magnetograph observing. The several reasons for this view, together with many caveats, qualifications, and suggestions for future work are presented.

  19. Basic Pile Group Behavior.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    geotechnical engineer to obtain the values of the soil modulus and the coefficient of horizontal subgrade reaction. The methods provided in this Appendix must...describes a computerized method for pile group design and analysis as practiced in the Corps of Engineers and proposes criteria for sys- tematizing... Engineers , and to propose criteria for systematizing this method in a computer program. This paper describes a computerized method of pile group analysis

  20. Frequent Use of the IgA Isotype in Human B Cells Encoding Potent Norovirus-Specific Monoclonal Antibodies That Block HBGA Binding

    PubMed Central

    Shanker, Sreejesh; Prasad, B. V. Venkataram; Atmar, Robert L.; Estes, Mary K.; Crowe, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Noroviruses (NoV) are the most common cause of non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis and cause local outbreaks of illness, especially in confined situations. Despite being identified four decades ago, the correlates of protection against norovirus gastroenteritis are still being elucidated. Recent studies have shown an association of protection with NoV-specific serum histo-blood group antigen-blocking antibody and with serum IgA in patients vaccinated with NoV VLPs. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of human monoclonal IgG and IgA antibodies against a GI.I NoV, Norwalk virus (NV). A higher proportion of the IgA antibodies blocked NV VLP binding to glycans than did IgG antibodies. We generated isotype-switched variants of IgG and IgA antibodies to study the effects of the constant domain on blocking and binding activities. The IgA form of antibodies appears to be more potent than the IgG form in blocking norovirus binding to histo-blood group antigens. These studies suggest a unique role for IgA antibodies in protection from NoV infections by blocking attachment to cell receptors. PMID:27355511

  1. Computational studies on the interaction of ABO-active saccharides with the norovirus VA387 capsid protein can explain experimental binding data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppisetty, Chaitanya A. K.; Nasir, Waqas; Strino, Francesco; Rydell, Gustaf E.; Larson, Göran; Nyholm, Per-Georg

    2010-05-01

    Norovirus strains are known to cause recurring epidemics of winter vomiting disease. The crystal structure of the capsid protein of VA387, a representative of the clinically important GII.4 genocluster, was recently solved in complex with histo-blood group A- and B-trisaccharides. However, the VA387 strain is known to bind also to other natural carbohydrates for which detailed structural information of the complexes is not available. In this study we have computationally explored the fit of the VA387 with a set of naturally occurring carbohydrate ligands containing a terminal α1,2-linked fucose. MD simulations both with explicit and implicit solvent models indicate that type 1 and 3 extensions of the ABO-determinant including ALeb and BLeb pentasaccharides can be well accommodated in the site. Scoring with Glide XP indicates that the downstream extensions of the ABO-determinants give an increase in binding strength, although the α1,2-linked fucose is the single strongest interacting residue. An error was discovered in the geometry of the GalNAc-Gal moiety of the published crystal structure of the A-trisaccharide/VA387 complex. The present modeling of the complexes with histo-blood group A-active structures shows some contacts which provide insight into mutational data, explaining the involvement of I389 and Q331. Our results can be applicable in structure-based design of adhesion inhibitors of noroviruses.

  2. Facilities removal working group

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This working group`s first objective is to identify major economic, technical, and regulatory constraints on operator practices and decisions relevant to offshore facilities removal. Then, the group will try to make recommendations as to regulatory and policy adjustments, additional research, or process improvements and/or technological advances, that may be needed to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the removal process. The working group will focus primarily on issues dealing with Gulf of Mexico platform abandonments. In order to make the working group sessions as productive as possible, the Facilities Removal Working Group will focus on three topics that address a majority of the concerns and/or constraints relevant to facilities removal. The three areas are: (1) Explosive Severing and its Impact on Marine Life, (2) Pile and Conductor Severing, and (3) Deep Water Abandonments This paper will outline the current state of practice in the offshore industry, identifying current regulations and specific issues encountered when addressing each of the three main topics above. The intent of the paper is to highlight potential issues for panel discussion, not to provide a detailed review of all data relevant to the topic. Before each panel discussion, key speakers will review data and information to facilitate development and discussion of the main issues of each topic. Please refer to the attached agenda for the workshop format, key speakers, presentation topics, and panel participants. The goal of the panel discussions is to identify key issues for each of the three topics above. The working group will also make recommendations on how to proceed on these key issues.

  3. Coordinating Group report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    In December 1992, western governors and four federal agencies established a Federal Advisory Committee to Develop On-site Innovative Technologies for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (the DOIT Committee). The purpose of the Committee is to advise the federal government on ways to improve waste cleanup technology development and the cleanup of federal sites in the West. The Committee directed in January 1993 that information be collected from a wide range of potential stakeholders and that innovative technology candidate projects be identified, organized, set in motion, and evaluated to test new partnerships, regulatory approaches, and technologies which will lead to improve site cleanup. Five working groups were organized, one to develop broad project selection and evaluation criteria and four to focus on specific contaminant problems. A Coordinating Group comprised of working group spokesmen and federal and state representatives, was set up to plan and organize the routine functioning of these working groups. The working groups were charged with defining particular contaminant problems; identifying shortcomings in technology development, stakeholder involvement, regulatory review, and commercialization which impede the resolution of these problems; and identifying candidate sites or technologies which could serve as regional innovative demonstration projects to test new approaches to overcome the shortcomings. This report from the Coordinating Group to the DOIT Committee highlights the key findings and opportunities uncovered by these fact-finding working groups. It provides a basis from which recommendations from the DOIT Committee to the federal government can be made. It also includes observations from two public roundtables, one on commercialization and another on regulatory and institutional barriers impeding technology development and cleanup.

  4. Instructions to working groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foushee, H. Clayton

    1987-01-01

    The key to the success of this workshop is your active participation in the working group process. The goals of this workshop are to address four major questions regarding Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) Training. To some extent the working group topic areas parallel these issues, but in some cases they do not. However, it is important for all of the working groups to keep these general questions in mind during their deliberations: (1) What are the essential elements of an optimal CRM Training program; (2) What are the strengths and weaknesses of current approaches to CRM Training; (3) How can CRM Training best be implemented, and what barriers exist; and (4) Is CRM Training effective, do we know, and if not, how can we find out.

  5. Illinois Wind Workers Group

    SciTech Connect

    David G. Loomis

    2012-05-28

    The Illinois Wind Working Group (IWWG) was founded in 2006 with about 15 members. It has grown to over 200 members today representing all aspects of the wind industry across the State of Illinois. In 2008, the IWWG developed a strategic plan to give direction to the group and its activities. The strategic plan identifies ways to address critical market barriers to the further penetration of wind. The key to addressing these market barriers is public education and outreach. Since Illinois has a restructured electricity market, utilities no longer have a strong control over the addition of new capacity within the state. Instead, market acceptance depends on willing landowners to lease land and willing county officials to site wind farms. Many times these groups are uninformed about the benefits of wind energy and unfamiliar with the process. Therefore, many of the project objectives focus on conferences, forum, databases and research that will allow these stakeholders to make well-educated decisions.

  6. Upgraded Coal Interest Group

    SciTech Connect

    Evan Hughes

    2009-01-08

    The Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) is an EPRI 'users group' that focuses on clean, low-cost options for coal-based power generation. The UCIG covers topics that involve (1) pre-combustion processes, (2) co-firing systems and fuels, and (3) reburn using coal-derived or biomass-derived fuels. The UCIG mission is to preserve and expand the economic use of coal for energy. By reducing the fuel costs and environmental impacts of coal-fired power generation, existing units become more cost effective and thus new units utilizing advanced combustion technologies are more likely to be coal-fired.

  7. Bell, group and tangle

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, A. I.

    2010-03-15

    The 'Bell' of the title refers to bipartite Bell states, and their extensions to, for example, tripartite systems. The 'Group' of the title is the Braid Group in its various representations; while 'Tangle' refers to the property of entanglement which is present in both of these scenarios. The objective of this note is to explore the relation between Quantum Entanglement and Topological Links, and to show that the use of the language of entanglement in both cases is more than one of linguistic analogy.

  8. Valuing Support Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graziosi, Elena

    2010-01-01

    For people living with or caring for someone with a disability, being able to talk to someone who can relate to their feelings of frustration during difficult times, offer practical advice on an issue, or even understand the importance of a small success, can make a difference. Support groups are a mainstay for individuals coping with daily…

  9. Internet Cancer Support Groups

    PubMed Central

    Chee, Wonshik; Tsai, Hsiu-Min; Lin, Li-Chen; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2006-01-01

    Internet Cancer Support Groups (ICSGs) are an emerging form of support group on Internet specifically for cancer patients. Previous studies have indicated the effectiveness of ICSGs as a research setting or a data-collection method. Yet recent studies have also indicated that ICSGs tend to serve highly educated, high-income White males who tend to be at an early stage of cancer. In this article, a total of 317 general ICSGs and 229 ethnic-specific ICSGs searched through Google.com, Yahoo.com, http://Msn.com, AOL.com, and ACOR.org are analyzed from a feminist perspective. The written records of group discussions and written memos by the research staff members were also analyzed using content analysis. The idea categories that emerged about these groups include (a) authenticity issues; (b) ethnicity and gender issues; (c) intersubjectivity issues; and (d) potential ethical issues. The findings suggest that (a) researchers adopt multiple recruitment strategies through various Internet sites and/or real settings; (b) researchers raise their own awareness of the potential influences of the health-related resources provided by ICSGs and regularly update their knowledge related to the federal and state standards and/or policies related to ICSGs; and (c) researchers consider adopting a quota-sampling method. PMID:15681976

  10. LCDs Revolutionize Group Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandell, Mel

    1987-01-01

    Describes a screen projector based on liquid crystal display (LCD) that duplicates the monitor of a microcomputer and may be used in group training sessions for demonstration purposes. Suggestions of what features to look for and a buyer's guide are provided. (CLB)

  11. Test Group Rethinks Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    A group that is developing tests for half the states in the nation has dramatically reduced the length of its assessment in a bid to balance the desire for a more meaningful and useful exam with concerns about the amount of time spent on testing. The decision by the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium reflects months of conversation among its…

  12. Working Group Report: Neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    de Gouvea, A.; Pitts, K.; Scholberg, K.; Zeller, G. P.

    2013-10-16

    This document represents the response of the Intensity Frontier Neutrino Working Group to the Snowmass charge. We summarize the current status of neutrino physics and identify many exciting future opportunities for studying the properties of neutrinos and for addressing important physics and astrophysics questions with neutrinos.

  13. Dimensions of Group Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawidowicz, Paula

    2008-01-01

    The correlation between positive and negative group interactions and one or another of individuals' attitudes or characteristics--moral development, critical thinking, resilience, and self efficacy--has been examined previously. However, no systemic examination of individuals' development of patterns of these characteristics and those patterns'…

  14. American Ethnic Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowell, Thomas, Ed.; Collins, Lynn D., Ed.

    The essays in this volume focus on the historical and social evolution of six American ethnic groups. Thomas Sowell discusses similarities and differences in the experiences of antebellum "free persons of color," emancipated slaves and their descendants, and West Indian immigrants, and examines trends in the socioeconomic status of black…

  15. Abandoning wells working group

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The primary objective of this working group is to identify major technical, regulatory, and environmental issues that are relevant to the abandonment of offshore wellbores. Once the issues have been identified, the working group also has the objective of making recommendations or providing potential solutions for consideration. Areas for process improvement will be identified and {open_quotes}best practices{close_quotes} will be discussed and compared to {open_quotes}minimum standards.{close_quotes} The working group will primarily focus on wellbore abandonment in the Gulf of Mexico. However, workshop participants are encouraged to discuss international issues which may be relevant to wellbore abandonment practices in the Gulf of Mexico. The Abandoning Wells Group has identified several major areas for discussion that have concerns related to both operators and service companies performing wellbore abandonments in the Gulf of Mexico. The following broad topics were selected for the agenda: (1) MMS minimum requirements and state regulations. (2) Co-existence of best practices, new technology, and P & A economics. (3) Liability and environmental issues relating to wellbore abandonment.

  16. Leukosis/Sarcoma Group

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The leukosis/sarcoma (L/S) group of diseases designates a variety of transmissible benign and malignant neoplasms of chickens caused by members that belong to the family Retroviridae. Because the expansion of the literature on this disease, it is no longer feasible to cite all relevant publications ...

  17. Functional Group Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Walter T., Jr.; Patterson, John M.

    1984-01-01

    Literature on analytical methods related to the functional groups of 17 chemical compounds is reviewed. These compounds include acids, acid azides, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, amino acids, aromatic hydrocarbons, carbodiimides, carbohydrates, ethers, nitro compounds, nitrosamines, organometallic compounds, peroxides, phenols, silicon compounds,…

  18. The Pressure Group Cooker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Bill

    1992-01-01

    Administrators across the nation have encountered vigorous challenges against textbooks, practices, and procedures that critics find laden with occult and New Age values. Attacks are becoming more aggressive, better organized, and well financed. This article and accompanying sidebars discuss pressure group tactics and ways to counter them. The…

  19. National Melon Research Group

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Melon Research Group met with the Cucurbitaceae 2010 conference in Charleston, South Carolina at 7:00 P.M. on November 17. The discussion was focused solely on cucurbit powdery mildew (CPM). Several reported increased problem with CPM or apparent changes in race. Ales Lebeda (Palacký Un...

  20. Ground Rules for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Roger M.

    1994-01-01

    Tips for effective groups include the following: test assumptions, share relevant information, focus on interests, be specific, agree on meanings, explain reasons, disagree openly, invite feedback, jointly design solutions, discuss nondiscussable issues, keep focused, eliminate distractions, expect all to participate, decide by consensus, and…

  1. Modeling Small Group Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draskovic, I.; Holdrinet, R.; Bulte, J.; Bolhuis, S.; Van Leeuwe, J.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents findings from an empirical study on the relations between the variables comprising learning mechanisms in small collaborative groups. Variables comprising the central learning mechanisms component were "task related interactions," "knowledge elaborations," and "subjective estimation of knowledge acquisition." Student related…

  2. International Study Tour Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Frances L.; Matt, John J.; McCaw, William P.; Kero, Patty; Stewart, Courtney; Haddouch, Reda

    2014-01-01

    Using the context of international study tour groups, this study examined the personal and professional transformation that occurred among host faculty and staff at The University of Montana-Missoula as a result of their interactions with traveling academics from other countries. Data were collected from participant responses (n = 27) using a…

  3. Group Counseling: Health Related.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFadden, Johnnie

    1979-01-01

    Diabetes and sickle cell anemia (SCA) are two health-related characteristics that distinguish young people from their peers. This article outlines the problems of children with diabetes and SCA and presents the goals and format for group counseling of these populations and their parents. (Author/BEF)

  4. Grouping Illumination Frameworks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zdravkovic, Suncica; Economou, Elias; Gilchrist, Alan

    2012-01-01

    According to Koffka (1935), the lightness of a target surface is determined by the relationship between the target and the illumination frame of reference to which it belongs. However, each scene contains numerous illumination frames, and judging each one separately would lead to an enormous amount of computing. Grouping those frames that are in…

  5. Assessing Minority Group Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Beeman N., Ed.

    Contents of this book include the following collection of articles: "Assessing Minority Group Children: Challenges for School Psychologists," Thomas Oakland; "The NEA Testing Moratorium," Boyd Bosma; "Cultural Myopia: The Need for a Corrective Lens," Martin H. Gerry; "Assumptions Underlying Psychological Testing," T. Ernest Newland;…

  6. External Interest Group Impingements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millard, Richard M.

    The history of the interrelation among state approval, accreditation, and institutional eligibility is considered. It is suggested that faculty and college administrators can be either an internal or external group in relationship to the planning process. The federal government, or the state government, passes legislation that may have both…

  7. Native American Cultural Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Loriene, Comp.

    Part of a larger report on the Four Directions Project, an American Indian technology innovation project, this section includes 13 "pathfinders" to locating information on Native American and other indigenous cultural groups. The pathfinders were designed by students in the Graduate School of Library and Information Science at the…

  8. An Intergenerational Women's Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogler, Janet

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the Intergenerational Women's Group, formed to provide social support and an interchange of ideas between women of different generations. Provides a model for such a program that may be offered in geriatric medical clinics. Discusses the impact of intergenerational support for both the old and the young. (Author/BHK)

  9. Media Criticism Group Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, E. Michele

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To integrate speaking practice with rhetorical theory. Type of speech: Persuasive. Point value: 100 points (i.e., 30 points based on peer evaluations, 30 points based on individual performance, 40 points based on the group presentation), which is 25% of course grade. Requirements: (a) References: 7-10; (b) Length: 20-30 minutes; (c)…

  10. Functional group analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.T. Jr.; Patterson, J.M.

    1986-04-01

    Analytical methods for functional group analysis are reviewed. Literature reviewed is from the period of December 1983 through November 1985 and presents methods for determining the following compounds: acids, acid halides, active hydrogen, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, amides, amines, amino acids, anhydrides, aromatic hydrocarbons, azo compounds, carbohydrates, chloramines, esters, ethers, halogen compounds, hydrazines, isothiocyanates, nitro compounds, nitroso compounds, organometallic compounds, oxiranes, peroxides, phenols, phosphorus compounds, quinones, silicon compounds, sulfates, sulfonyl chlorides, thioamides, thiols, and thiosemicarbazones. 150 references.

  11. Management Agenda Task Group

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    Report FY04-4 • Recommendations related to business management priorities for the Secretary of Defense February...Business Board (DBB) formed this Task Group to assess and make recommendations to the Department of Defense on management priorities for the next four...This list should be drawn from the four primary areas of DBB focus over the past three years: human resources, financial management, acquisition

  12. Group Variables and Gaming Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Dwight R.; Niebuhr, Robert E.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a study designed to determine the effects of group cohesiveness on group performance in a management game and, to examine the effects voluntary v assigned group membership has on the cohesiveness of the group. (Author/LLS)

  13. Grouping Students for Increased Achievements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, John H.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews results of four recent studies exploring the effects of various student-grouping schemes on academic achievement. Grouping plans included multiage classrooms, full-time ability grouping, and within-classroom grouping. Two studies investigated administrator attitudes toward student grouping. Several studies found that grouping plans…

  14. Local Group Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Delgado, David

    2013-11-01

    List of contributors; List of participants; Preface; Acknowledgments; Abbreviations; 1. The formation of the Milky Way in the CDM paradigm Ken Freeman; 2. Dark matter content and tidal effects in Local Group dwarf galaxies Steven R. Majewski; 3. Notes on the missing satellites problem James Bullock; 4. The Milky Way satellite galaxies Pavel Kroupa; 5. Stellar tidal streams Rodrigo Ibata; 6. Tutorial: the analysis of colour-magnitude diagrams David Valls-Gabaud; 7. Tutorial: modeling tidal streams using N-body simulations Jorge Peñarrubia.

  15. Theory and modeling group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, Gordon D.

    1989-01-01

    The primary purpose of the Theory and Modeling Group meeting was to identify scientists engaged or interested in theoretical work pertinent to the Max '91 program, and to encourage theorists to pursue modeling which is directly relevant to data which can be expected to result from the program. A list of participants and their institutions is presented. Two solar flare paradigms were discussed during the meeting -- the importance of magnetic reconnection in flares and the applicability of numerical simulation results to solar flare studies.

  16. STEAM GENERATOR GROUP PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R. A.; Lewis, M

    1985-09-01

    This report is a summary of progress in the Surry Steam Generator Group Project for 1984. Information is presented on the analysis of two baseline eddy current inspections of the generator. Round robin series of tests using standard in-service inspection techniques are described along with some preliminary results. Observations are reported of degradation found on tubing specimens removed from the generator, and on support plates characterized in-situ. Residual stresses measured on a tubing specimen are reported. Two steam generator repair demonstrations are described; one for antivibration bar replacement, and one on tube repair methods. Chemical analyses are shown for sludge samples removed from above the tube sheet.

  17. Systems special investigation group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    An interim report concerning the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) is presented by a Boeing Systems special investigation group (SIG). The SIG activities were divided into five engineering disciplines: electrical, mechanical, optics, thermal, and batteries/solar cells. The responsibilities of the SIG included the following areas: support de-integration at Kennedy Space Center (KSC); testing of hardware at Boeing; review of principal investigator (PI) test plans and test results; support of test activities at PI labs; and collation of all test results into the SIG database.

  18. AO Group Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Olivier, S

    2005-10-04

    The Adaptive Optics (AO) Group in I Division develops and tests a broad range of advanced wavefront control technologies. Current applications focus on: Remote sensing, High power lasers, Astronomy, and Human vision. In the area of remote sensing, the AO Group leads a collaborative effort with LLNL's Nonproliferation, Arms Control & International Security (NAI) Directorate on Enhanced Surveillance Imaging. The ability to detect and identify individual people or vehicles from long-range is an important requirement for proliferation detection and homeland security. High-resolution imaging along horizontal paths through the atmosphere is limited by turbulence, which blurs and distorts the image. For ranges over {approx}one km, visible image resolution can be reduced by over an order of magnitude. We have developed an approach based on speckle imaging that can correct the turbulence-induced blurring and provide high resolution imagery. The system records a series of short exposure images which freeze the atmospheric effects. We can then estimate the image magnitude and phase using a bispectral estimation algorithm which cancels the atmospheric effects while maintaining object information at the diffraction limit of the imaging system.

  19. Group Processes in Experiential Training Groups in Botswana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nitza, Amy

    2011-01-01

    While group counseling has the potential to be an effective form of intervention in sub-Saharan Africa, research on group processes that would help guide group interventions in the region is scarce. This study investigated therapeutic factors and group climate in experiential training groups in Botswana. The Critical Incident Questionnaire (CIQ;…

  20. Group Psychotherapy and Group Methods in Community Mental Health Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pattison, E. Mansell

    An ad hoc committee of the American Group Psychotherapy Association (AGPA) was charged to investigate the use of group methods in Community mental health centers (CMHC), to assess the conceptual basis for the use of various group methods, to relate the use of group methods to group psychotherapy, and to evaluate trends in this area of mental…

  1. Group Development in Self-Help Groups for College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuehrer, Ann E.; Keys, Christopher B.

    Research on mutual-aid groups has begun to examine reasons for joining and outcomes, but few investigations have focused on the processes of group development or interaction. The applicability of a therapy-group development model to student mutual-aid groups was examined to determine the extent to which specified formal group structure and…

  2. Sofia Science Working Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zmuidzinas, J.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this grant was to enable the Principal Investigator (P.I.) to travel to and participate in the meetings and activities of the NASA SOFIA Science Working Group (SSWG), and to spend time working on some of the associated technical issues relating to the SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy) project. The SOFIA Science Working Group was established to help develop the plans and specifications for the next-generation airborne observatory ("SOFIA"), which is now under development. The P.I. was asked to serve on the SSWG due to his experience in airborne astronomy: he has developed several astronomical instruments for the Kuiper Airborne Observatory NASA's previous airborne astronomy platform (which was decommissioned in 1995 in preparation for SOFIA). SOFIA, which will be a 747 SP aircraft carrying a 2.7 meter diameter telescope, is a joint project sponsored by NASA and DLR (the German space agency), and is now under development by a consortium including Universities Space Research Association (USRA), Raytheon, Sterling Software, and United Airlines. Further details on the SOFIA project can be found on the internet at http: //sofia. arc. nasa. gov. Rather than develop the SOFIA observatory in-house, NASA decided to privatize the project by issuing a Request for Proposals (RFP). The respondents to this RFP were consortia of private organizations which together had the required facilities and expertise to be able to carry out the project; the winner was the group led by USRA. One of the main roles of the SSWG was to help develop the technical specifications for the SOFIA observatory. In particular, the SSWG provided advice to NASA on the specifications that were written into the RFP, particularly those which had an important impact on the scientific productivity of the observatory. These specifications were discussed at the meetings of the SSWG, which were held primarily at NASA/Ames (in California) and at NASA Headquarters (in Washington

  3. Renormalization Group Tutorial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Thomas L.

    2004-01-01

    Complex physical systems sometimes have statistical behavior characterized by power- law dependence on the parameters of the system and spatial variability with no particular characteristic scale as the parameters approach critical values. The renormalization group (RG) approach was developed in the fields of statistical mechanics and quantum field theory to derive quantitative predictions of such behavior in cases where conventional methods of analysis fail. Techniques based on these ideas have since been extended to treat problems in many different fields, and in particular, the behavior of turbulent fluids. This lecture will describe a relatively simple but nontrivial example of the RG approach applied to the diffusion of photons out of a stellar medium when the photons have wavelengths near that of an emission line of atoms in the medium.

  4. NOSS science working group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The members of the NOSS Science Working Group are John Apel, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratories/NOAA; Tim Barnett, Scripps Institution of Oceanography; Francis Bretherton (chairman), National Center for Atmospheric Research; Otis Brown, University of Miami; Joost Businger, University of Washington; Garrett Campbell, NCAR; Mark Cane, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Robert Edwards, National Marine Fisheries Service/NOAA; James Mueller, Naval Postgraduate School; Peter Niiler, Oregon State University; James J. O'Brien, Florida State University; Norman Phillips, National Meteorological Center/NOAA; Owen Phillips, The Johns Hopkins University; Stephen Piacsek, NSTL Station, NORDA; Trevor Platt, Bedford Institute of Oceanography; Stephen Pond, University of British Columbia; Stanley Ruttenberg (executive secretary), NCAR; William Schmitz, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution; Jerry Schubel, State University of New York; Robert Stewart, Scripps; Norbert Untersteiner, NOAA; and Alan Weinstein, Naval Environmental Prediction Research Facility.

  5. Working Group Report: Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Artuso, M.; et al.,

    2013-10-18

    Sensors play a key role in detecting both charged particles and photons for all three frontiers in Particle Physics. The signals from an individual sensor that can be used include ionization deposited, phonons created, or light emitted from excitations of the material. The individual sensors are then typically arrayed for detection of individual particles or groups of particles. Mounting of new, ever higher performance experiments, often depend on advances in sensors in a range of performance characteristics. These performance metrics can include position resolution for passing particles, time resolution on particles impacting the sensor, and overall rate capabilities. In addition the feasible detector area and cost frequently provides a limit to what can be built and therefore is often another area where improvements are important. Finally, radiation tolerance is becoming a requirement in a broad array of devices. We present a status report on a broad category of sensors, including challenges for the future and work in progress to solve those challenges.

  6. SOFIA Science Working Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zmuldzinas, J.

    1997-01-01

    The SOFIA Science Working Group was established to help develop the plans and specifications for the next-generation airborne observatory ("SOFIA"), which is now under development. The P.I. has developed several astronomical instruments for the Kuiper Airborne Observatory, NASA's previous airborne astronomy platform (which was decommisioned in 1995 in preparation for SOFIA). SOFIA, which will be a 747 SP aircraft carrying a 2.7 meter diameter telescope, is a joint project sponsored by NASA and DLR (the German space agency), and is now under development by a consortium including Universities Space Research Association (USRA), Raytheon, Sterling Software, and United Airlines. Rather than develop the SOFIA observatory in-house, NASA decided to privatize the project by issuing a Request for Proposals (RFP). The respondents to this RFP were consortia of private organizations which together had the required facilities and expertise to be able to carry out the project; the winner was the group led by USRA. One of the main roles of the SSWG was to help develop the technical specifications for the SOFIA observatory. In particular, the SSWG provided advice to NASA on the specifications that were written into the RFP, particularly those which had an important impact on the scientific productivity of the observatory. These specifications were discussed at the meetings of the SSWG, which were held primarily at NASA/Ames (in California) and at NASA Headquarters (in Washington DC). Apart from these meetings, members of the SSWG were expected to perform more detailed analyses of the impact of certain parameters and specifications on the performance of astronomical instruments. The SSWG ended its activities with the selection of the USRA team in January 1997.

  7. Carry Groups: Abstract Algebra Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Cheryl Chute; Madore, Blair F.

    2004-01-01

    Carry Groups are a wonderful collection of groups to introduce in an undergraduate Abstract Algebra course. These groups are straightforward to define but have interesting structures for students to discover. We describe these groups and give examples of in-class group projects that were developed and used by Miller.

  8. The Group Tree of Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ping, Ki

    1994-01-01

    Describes a group activity that uses a tree as a metaphor to reflect both group and personal growth during adventure activities. The tree's roots represent the group's formation, the branches and leaves represent the group's diversity and capabilities, and the seeds represent the personal learning and growth that took place within the group.…

  9. New Developments in Group Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gladding, Samuel T., Ed.

    Group counseling is a rapidly changing field. This collection of 31 digests examines various aspects of group process and group counseling. The digests are arranged under different subject headings. In section 1, the nature of group work is examined, along with the evolution of group work training since 1990. The second section looks at…

  10. Naive Theories of Social Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Marjorie

    2012-01-01

    Four studies examined children's (ages 3-10, Total N = 235) naive theories of social groups, in particular, their expectations about how group memberships constrain social interactions. After introduction to novel groups of people, preschoolers (ages 3-5) reliably expected agents from one group to harm members of the other group (rather than…

  11. The Neuroscience of Group Membership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Samantha; Decety, Jean; Molenberghs, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to uncover the neural activity associated with specific in-group and out-group word related stimuli, to examine the neuroanatomical basis of group membership concept representation, and investigate to what extent neural processes represent "in-group" differently from "out-group". Participants' brain activity was measured…

  12. Cluster functional renormalization group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuther, Johannes; Thomale, Ronny

    2014-01-01

    Functional renormalization group (FRG) has become a diverse and powerful tool to derive effective low-energy scattering vertices of interacting many-body systems. Starting from a free expansion point of the action, the flow of the RG parameter Λ allows us to trace the evolution of the effective one- and two-particle vertices towards low energies by taking into account the vertex corrections between all parquet channels in an unbiased fashion. In this work, we generalize the expansion point at which the diagrammatic resummation procedure is initiated from a free UV limit to a cluster product state. We formulate a cluster FRG scheme where the noninteracting building blocks (i.e., decoupled spin clusters) are treated exactly, and the intercluster couplings are addressed via RG. As a benchmark study, we apply our cluster FRG scheme to the spin-1/2 bilayer Heisenberg model (BHM) on a square lattice where the neighboring sites in the two layers form the individual two-site clusters. Comparing with existing numerical evidence for the BHM, we obtain reasonable findings for the spin susceptibility, the spin-triplet excitation energy, and quasiparticle weight even in coupling regimes close to antiferromagnetic order. The concept of cluster FRG promises applications to a large class of interacting electron systems.

  13. The analytic renormalization group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Frank

    2016-08-01

    Finite temperature Euclidean two-point functions in quantum mechanics or quantum field theory are characterized by a discrete set of Fourier coefficients Gk, k ∈ Z, associated with the Matsubara frequencies νk = 2 πk / β. We show that analyticity implies that the coefficients Gk must satisfy an infinite number of model-independent linear equations that we write down explicitly. In particular, we construct "Analytic Renormalization Group" linear maps Aμ which, for any choice of cut-off μ, allow to express the low energy Fourier coefficients for |νk | < μ (with the possible exception of the zero mode G0), together with the real-time correlators and spectral functions, in terms of the high energy Fourier coefficients for |νk | ≥ μ. Operating a simple numerical algorithm, we show that the exact universal linear constraints on Gk can be used to systematically improve any random approximate data set obtained, for example, from Monte-Carlo simulations. Our results are illustrated on several explicit examples.

  14. A Comparison of Workplace Groups with Groups in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, George M.; James, Joyce E.

    The use of groups in both the workplace and schools has been increasing. In the workplace, groups reflective of a growing trend toward worker participation in management have been variously referred to as self-managing work teams, self-directed work groups, quality circles, autonomous work groups, and cross-functional teams. Schools have used many…

  15. Group Time: Taking a "Humor Break" at Group Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Church, Ellen Booth

    2005-01-01

    January is a perfect time to insert a strong dose of humor into group time gatherings. Oftentimes, children have tired of the predictable pattern of group meetings and need some change. Humor-filled group time activities can be the best secret remedy. Not only will children become more interested in the group time meetings (and therefore listen…

  16. Group Leader Development: Effects of Personal Growth and Psychoeducational Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrt, Jonathan H.; Robinson, E. H., III; Hagedorn, W. Bryce

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to compare the effects of personal growth groups and psychoeducational groups on counselor education students' (n = 74) empathy and group leader self-efficacy. Additionally, we compared the degree to which participants in each group valued: (a) cohesion, (b) catharsis, and (c) insight. There were no…

  17. Post-Disaster Social Justice Group Work and Group Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bemak, Fred; Chung, Rita Chi-Ying

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses post-disaster group counseling and group supervision using a social justice orientation for working with post-disaster survivors from underserved populations. The Disaster Cross-Cultural Counseling model is a culturally responsive group counseling model that infuses social justice into post-disaster group counseling and…

  18. In vivo evaluation of a new sealant material on a rat lung air leak model.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, H; Sekine, T; Nakamura, T; Shimizu, Y

    2001-01-01

    The ability of an albumin-based hydrogel sealant (ABHS) to prevent air leakage through the suture line after pulmonary surgery was evaluated by comparison with that of a fibrin glue (FG). As an air-leak model, a rat lung was used in which a standard incision was made and the burst pressure for ABHS and FG was measured. The average burst pressures at time 0 for the FG and ABHS groups were 30.8+/-15.2 and 77.5 +/-19.1 mmHg, respectively. At Day 3, the value of ABHS (76.3 +/- 15.8 mmHg) was still significantly higher (P<0.05) than that of FG (60.0 +/- 21.9 mmHg). At Day 7, no statistical difference was observed between the FG group(71.2 +/- 18.6 mmHg) and the ABHS group(88.8 +/- 11.7 mmHg). Histological examination of the incision at Day 14 revealed that neither sealant was not visible at the incision site, and there was no evidence of adverse tissue reaction. It was concluded that ABHS had good sealing properties and is an alternative to FG for air leakage treatment in pulmonary surgery.

  19. Emotional collectives: How groups shape emotions and emotions shape groups.

    PubMed

    van Kleef, Gerben A; Fischer, Agneta H

    2016-01-01

    Group settings are epicentres of emotional activity. Yet, the role of emotions in groups is poorly understood. How do group-level phenomena shape group members' emotional experience and expression? How are emotional expressions recognised, interpreted and shared in group settings? And how do such expressions influence the emotions, cognitions and behaviours of fellow group members and outside observers? To answer these and other questions, we draw on relevant theoretical perspectives (e.g., intergroup emotions theory, social appraisal theory and emotions as social information theory) and recent empirical findings regarding the role of emotions in groups. We organise our review according to two overarching themes: how groups shape emotions and how emotions shape groups. We show how novel empirical approaches break important new ground in uncovering the role of emotions in groups. Research on emotional collectives is thriving and constitutes a key to understanding the social nature of emotions.

  20. Fermilab Steering Group Report

    SciTech Connect

    Beier, Eugene; Butler, Joel; Dawson, Sally; Edwards, Helen; Himel, Thomas; Holmes, Stephen; Kim, Young-Kee; Lankford, Andrew; McGinnis, David; Nagaitsev, Sergei; Raubenheimer, Tor; /SLAC /Fermilab

    2007-01-01

    The Fermilab Steering Group has developed a plan to keep U.S. accelerator-based particle physics on the pathway to discovery, both at the Terascale with the LHC and the ILC and in the domain of neutrinos and precision physics with a high-intensity accelerator. The plan puts discovering Terascale physics with the LHC and the ILC as Fermilab's highest priority. While supporting ILC development, the plan creates opportunities for exciting science at the intensity frontier. If the ILC remains near the Global Design Effort's technically driven timeline, Fermilab would continue neutrino science with the NOVA experiment, using the NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) proton plan, scheduled to begin operating in 2011. If ILC construction must wait somewhat longer, Fermilab's plan proposes SNuMI, an upgrade of NuMI to create a more powerful neutrino beam. If the ILC start is postponed significantly, a central feature of the proposed Fermilab plan calls for building an intense proton facility, Project X, consisting of a linear accelerator with the currently planned characteristics of the ILC combined with Fermilab's existing Recycler Ring and the Main Injector accelerator. The major component of Project X is the linac. Cryomodules, radio-frequency distribution, cryogenics and instrumentation for the linac are the same as or similar to those used in the ILC at a scale of about one percent of a full ILC linac. Project X's intense proton beams would open a path to discovery in neutrino science and in precision physics with charged leptons and quarks. World-leading experiments would allow physicists to address key questions of the Quantum Universe: How did the universe come to be? Are there undiscovered principles of nature: new symmetries, new physical laws? Do all the particles and forces become one? What happened to the antimatter? Building Project X's ILC-like linac would offer substantial support for ILC development by accelerating the industrialization of ILC components

  1. Fermilab Steering Group Report

    SciTech Connect

    Steering Group, Fermilab; /Fermilab

    2007-12-01

    The Fermilab Steering Group has developed a plan to keep U.S. accelerator-based particle physics on the pathway to discovery, both at the Terascale with the LHC and the ILC and in the domain of neutrinos and precision physics with a high-intensity accelerator. The plan puts discovering Terascale physics with the LHC and the ILC as Fermilab's highest priority. While supporting ILC development, the plan creates opportunities for exciting science at the intensity frontier. If the ILC remains near the Global Design Effort's technically driven timeline, Fermilab would continue neutrino science with the NOvA experiment, using the NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) proton plan, scheduled to begin operating in 2011. If ILC construction must wait somewhat longer, Fermilab's plan proposes SNuMI, an upgrade of NuMI to create a more powerful neutrino beam. If the ILC start is postponed significantly, a central feature of the proposed Fermilab plan calls for building an intense proton facility, Project X, consisting of a linear accelerator with the currently planned characteristics of the ILC combined with Fermilab's existing Recycler Ring and the Main Injector accelerator. The major component of Project X is the linac. Cryomodules, radio-frequency distribution, cryogenics and instrumentation for the linac are the same as or similar to those used in the ILC at a scale of about one percent of a full ILC linac. Project X's intense proton beams would open a path to discovery in neutrino science and in precision physics with charged leptons and quarks. World-leading experiments would allow physicists to address key questions of the Quantum Universe: How did the universe come to be? Are there undiscovered principles of nature: new symmetries, new physical laws? Do all the particles and forces become one? What happened to the antimatter? Building Project X's ILC-like linac would offer substantial support for ILC development by accelerating the industrialization of ILC components

  2. Instrumentation Working Group Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaller, Michelle; Miake-Lye, Richard

    1999-01-01

    The Instrumentation Working Group compiled a summary of measurement techniques applicable to gas turbine engine aerosol precursors and particulates. An assessment was made of the limits, accuracy, applicability, and technology readiness of the various techniques. Despite advances made in emissions characterization of aircraft engines, uncertainties still exist in the mechanisms by which aerosols and particulates are produced in the near-field engine exhaust. To adequately assess current understanding of the formation of sulfuric acid aerosols in the exhaust plumes of gas turbine engines, measurements are required to determine the degree and importance of sulfur oxidation in the turbine and at the engine exit. Ideally, concentrations of all sulfur species would be acquired, with emphasis on SO2 and SO3. Numerous options exist for extractive and non-extractive measurement of SO2 at the engine exit, most of which are well developed. SO2 measurements should be performed first to place an upper bound on the percentage of SO2 oxidation. If extractive and non-extractive techniques indicate that a large amount of the fuel sulfur is not detected as SO2, then efforts are needed to improve techniques for SO3 measurements. Additional work will be required to account for the fuel sulfur in the engine exhaust. Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CI-MS) measurements need to be pursued, although a careful assessment needs to be made of the sampling line impact on the extracted sample composition. Efforts should also be placed on implementing non-intrusive techniques and extending their capabilities by maximizing exhaust coverage for line-of-sight measurements, as well as development of 2-D techniques, where feasible. Recommendations were made to continue engine exit and combustor measurements of particulates. Particulate measurements should include particle size distribution, mass fraction, hydration properties, and volatile fraction. However, methods to ensure that unaltered

  3. A Typology for Finite Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tou, Erik R

    2013-01-01

    This project classifies groups of small order using a group's center as the key feature. Groups of a given order "n" are typed based on the order of each group's center. Students are led through a sequence of exercises that combine proof-writing, independent research, and an analysis of specific classes of finite groups…

  4. Study Groups: Conduit for Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makibbin, Shirley S.; Sprague, Marsha M.

    This conference presentation describes study groups as a mechanism for changing teacher behavior. The history of study groups is discussed, beginning with the first American study groups organized by Benjamin Franklin; the Chautauqua Literary and Scientific Circle; the waning of study groups in the early 20th century as college enrollment…

  5. 2010 Chemical Working Group Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.

    2010-01-01

    The Steering Group for the Interagency Advanced Power Group (IAPG) held their business meeting on November 30-December 1st in McLean, Virginia. Status reports were presented from each of the IAPG's Working Groups. These charts contain a brief summary of the IAPG Chemical Working Group's activities during 2010 and its plans for 2011.

  6. Task Group for Orthodontics Report.

    PubMed

    Lumsden, K W; Brown, D V; Edler, R J; Kirschen, R H; Macadam, T S; Stephens, C D

    1998-08-01

    The UK Specialist Review Group of the General Dental Council's Education Committee has been charged with taking forward the recommendations in the Chief Dental Officer's report 'UK Specialist Dental Training'. The Specialist Review Group has, in turn, established a number of specialty task groups. This report is from the Task Group for Orthodontics. It was submitted in May 1996.

  7. Teaching Group Work: Modeling Group Leader and Member Behaviors in the Classroom to Demonstrate Group Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riva, Maria T.; Korinek, Lauri

    2004-01-01

    Training in group counseling typically includes an academic component, although little has been written about how to teach a group course except for what specific content should be included. This article suggests that while teaching group counseling courses, instructors can intentionally model effective group leader behaviors and use these…

  8. Group Assessment: Comparing Group and Individual Undergraduate Module Marks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almond, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes a small study that analysed module marks of one cohort of science undergraduates from one academic year. It explored how group summative assessment marking affected the overall marks in comparison with individual assessment. A tutor allocated students to mixed ability project groups. Individual marks for the group work…

  9. How Much "Group" Is There in Online Group Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowes, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The ability to work in groups across time and space has become a frequent requirement for the workplace and is increasingly common in higher education, but there is a surprising lack of research on how online groups work. This research applies analytic approaches used in studies of face-to-face classroom "talk" to multiple groups in two…

  10. Group Composition and Group Therapy for Complicated Grief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, William E.; Ogrodniczuk, John S.; Joyce, Anthony S.; Weideman, Rene; Rosie, John S.

    2007-01-01

    This prospective study investigated the impact of group composition on the outcome of 2 forms of time-limited, short-term group therapy (interpretive, supportive) with 110 outpatients from 18 therapy groups, who presented with complicated grief. The composition variable was based on the patient's level of quality of object relations. The higher…

  11. An Exploration of Group and Member Development in Experiential Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrt, Jonathan H.; Prochenko, Yulia; Stulmaker, Hayley; Huffman, David; Fernando, Delini; Swan, Karrie

    2014-01-01

    In this phenomenological study, we explored 52 group members' development in experiential groups. Specifically, participants completed 10 weekly journal reflections about their experiences as members and also reflected on the group's overall development. Four overall themes--exploration, transition, working, closure--as well as multiple subthemes…

  12. Riemannian Means on Special Euclidean Group and Unipotent Matrices Group

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Xiaomin; Sun, Huafei

    2013-01-01

    Among the noncompact matrix Lie groups, the special Euclidean group and the unipotent matrix group play important roles in both theoretic and applied studies. The Riemannian means of a finite set of the given points on the two matrix groups are investigated, respectively. Based on the left invariant metric on the matrix Lie groups, the geodesic between any two points is gotten. And the sum of the geodesic distances is taken as the cost function, whose minimizer is the Riemannian mean. Moreover, a Riemannian gradient algorithm for computing the Riemannian mean on the special Euclidean group and an iterative formula for that on the unipotent matrix group are proposed, respectively. Finally, several numerical simulations in the 3-dimensional case are given to illustrate our results. PMID:24282378

  13. Cognitive Development and Group Stages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saidla, Debie D.

    1990-01-01

    Attempts to integrate Perry's (1970) scheme of the cognitive development of college students with a model of group development adapted by Waldo (1985) based on Tuckman's (1965) formulation of developmental group stages. (Author)

  14. Group process among novice students.

    PubMed

    Blumkin, M K

    1996-03-01

    This paper explores the experiences of a group of registered nurses returning to graduate school. The organizing framework used is an integration of Tuckman and Jensen's group process theory and Benner's novice to expert model.

  15. Group performance and decision making.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Norbert L; Tindale, R Scott

    2004-01-01

    Theory and research on small group performance and decision making is reviewed. Recent trends in group performance research have found that process gains as well as losses are possible, and both are frequently explained by situational and procedural contexts that differentially affect motivation and resource coordination. Research has continued on classic topics (e.g., brainstorming, group goal setting, stress, and group performance) and relatively new areas (e.g., collective induction). Group decision making research has focused on preference combination for continuous response distributions and group information processing. New approaches (e.g., group-level signal detection) and traditional topics (e.g., groupthink) are discussed. New directions, such as nonlinear dynamic systems, evolutionary adaptation, and technological advances, should keep small group research vigorous well into the future.

  16. Crystallographic Groups, Groupoids, and Orbifolds

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.K.

    2000-09-11

    In this note, We first discuss the relationship among crystallographic lattice groups, space groups, and point groups by using a short exact sequence, then in footnotes indicate the classification of those groups. We then introduce screw and glide groupoids as an extension of point groups in a new exact sequence, and list the one-translational-dimension screw and glide groupoids, which require torus and truncated cylinder projection representations in addition to the spherical projection used for point groups. We then briefly discuss the two and three translational dimension groupoids associated with the remaining point groups. Examples of space groups and their groupoid based nomenclature, which is mainly the extended Hermana-Mauguin international crystallographic nomenclature system plus a specific type of coset decomposition, are then given. Next the crystallographic orbifolds are defined and some application problems associated with orbifolds discussed. Finally, the derivation of might be called orbifoldoids is suggested as future research.

  17. The group as a resource: reducing biased attributions for group success and failure via group affirmation.

    PubMed

    Sherman, David K; Kinias, Zoe; Major, Brenda; Kim, Heejung S; Prenovost, Mary

    2007-08-01

    Self-affirmation theory proposes that people can respond to threats to the self by affirming alternative sources of self-integrity, resulting in greater openness to self-threatening information. The present research examines this at a group level by investigating whether a group affirmation (affirming an important group value) increases acceptance of threatening group information among sports teams and fans. In Study 1, athletes exhibited a group-serving attributional bias, which was eliminated by the group affirmation. In Study 2, the most highly identified fans exhibited the most bias in terms of their attributions, and this bias was eliminated by the group affirmation. These studies suggest that groups can serve as resources from which people can draw in response to threatening group events.

  18. [Marginality, ethnic groups and health].

    PubMed

    Corretger, J M; Fortuny, C; Botet, F; Valls, O

    1992-06-01

    Main marginated ethnic groups in Span are to be found among gypsies and 3rd world immigrants. The first group include about 250,000 persons and the second group more tan half a million people. Their origins and their being past of the less fortunate social layers made them a group of health risk. Pediatric pathologies are those favored by socio-economic shortcomings as well as hygienic-sanitary deficiencies. Imported pediatric pathologies have a small incident.

  19. Direct Sum Decomposition of Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thaheem, A. B.

    2005-01-01

    Direct sum decomposition of Abelian groups appears in almost all textbooks on algebra for undergraduate students. This concept plays an important role in group theory. One simple example of this decomposition is obtained by using the kernel and range of a projection map on an Abelian group. The aim in this pedagogical note is to establish a direct…

  20. Empowering Groups that Enable Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, David Sloan; Marshall, Danielle; Iserhott, Hindi

    2011-01-01

    Creating play environments for children usually requires groups of adults working together. An extensive scientific literature describes how groups function to achieve shared goals in general terms, and groups attempting to empower play may find this literature useful. Design principles for managing natural resources, identified by Elinor Ostrom…

  1. Group Process: A Systematic Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roark, Albert E.; Radl, Myrna C.

    1984-01-01

    Identifies components of group process and describes leader functions. Discusses personal elements, focus of interaction/psychological distance, group development, content, quality of interaction, and self-reflective/meaning attribution, illustrated by a case study of a group of persons (N=5) arrested for drunk driving. (JAC)

  2. SOCIAL CHANGE THROUGH LISTENING GROUPS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OHLIGER, JOHN

    A LISTENING GROUP IS A GROUP OF ADULTS MEETING TOGETHER REGULARLY TO DISCUSS RADIO OR TELEVISION PROGRAMS, USUALLY UNDER LAY LEADERSHIP, SOMETIMES ASSISTED BY SUPPLEMENTAL PRINTED MATERIALS, WITH ARRANGEMENTS FOR TWO-WAY COMMUNICATION (FEEDBACK) BETWEEN THE LISTENERS AND BROADCASTERS. GROUPS APPEAL TO CLIENTELE NOT ORDINARILY ATTRACTED TO ADULT…

  3. Group Cooperation in Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Bruce E.

    1978-01-01

    Utilizing the Beatles' Yellow Submarine fantasy (e.g., the Blue Meanies), this outdoor education program is designed for sixth graders and special education students. Activities developed at the Cortland Resident Outdoor Education Camp include a series of group stress/challenge activities to be accomplished by everyone in the group, as a group.…

  4. The Ethics of Group Contingencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapon-Shevin, Mara

    Group contingencies structure situations which link individual behavior with group outcomes, attempting to change behavior through peer pressure. As such, group contingencies raise numerous methodological and ethical problems, and illuminate the relationship between what data is collected and what subsequent decisions can be made. Over 100…

  5. Group Counseling with Navy Prisoners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biasco, Frank; Redfering, David

    1980-01-01

    The effects of a short-term group counseling with confinees in a U.S. Navy correctional facility were determined. After 10 weeks of counseling the treatment group held significantly more positive views toward "Persons in Authority" than did the control group. (Author)

  6. Role Transitions in Small Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreland, Richard L.; Levine, John M.

    This paper analyzes role transitions in small groups within the context of a more general model of group socialization that is based on the psychological processes of evaluation, commitment, and decision making. The major advantage of such an approach is that it specifies why role transitions in small groups occur. According to the model, groups…

  7. Correlation properties of loose groups

    SciTech Connect

    Maia, M.A.G.; Da Costa, L.N. )

    1990-02-01

    The two-point spatial correlation function for loose groups of galaxies is computed, using the recently compiled catalog of groups in the southern hemisphere. It is found that the correlation function for groups has a similar slope to that of galaxies but with a smaller amplitude, confirming an earlier result obtained from a similar analysis of the CfA group catalog. This implies that groups of galaxies are more randomly distributed than galaxies, which may be consistent with the predictions of Kashlinsky (1987) for a gravitational clustering scenario for the formation of large-scale structures. 21 refs.

  8. Citizen groups: a creative force

    SciTech Connect

    Stoel, T.

    1981-02-01

    The role of citizen groups is as important as that of government agencies when it comes to environmental policy in a democracy. These groups spend little money, yet they have initiated the major US environmental legislation of the past two decades. They are a recent, but effective, force in developing countries even though adversarial approaches are not often appropriate. The methods used by US environmental groups range from lobbying to confrontation in court. Groups outside the US tend to use consensus in democracies and information gathering in developing countries. While the groups' primary concerns are national in scope, international awareness and cooperation are growing. (DCK)

  9. Stereotypes of Norwegian social groups

    PubMed Central

    Bye, Hege H; Herrebrøden, Henrik; Hjetland, Gunnhild J; Røyset, Guro Ø; Westby, Linda L

    2014-01-01

    We present a pilot study and two main studies that address the nature of stereotypes of social groups in Norway within the framework of the Stereotype Content Model (SCM). The first study focused on stereotypes of a wide range of groups across categories such as gender, age, religious conviction, socioeconomic and health status. The second study focused on stereotypes of immigrant groups. Participants (n = 244 and n = 63, respectively) rated the groups on perceived warmth, competence, status, and competition. Results from both studies support the applicability of the SCM in Norway and provides a unique insight into stereotypes of Norwegian social groups. PMID:24975918

  10. Stereotypes of Norwegian social groups.

    PubMed

    Bye, Hege H; Herrebrøden, Henrik; Hjetland, Gunnhild J; Røyset, Guro Ø; Westby, Linda L

    2014-10-01

    We present a pilot study and two main studies that address the nature of stereotypes of social groups in Norway within the framework of the Stereotype Content Model (SCM). The first study focused on stereotypes of a wide range of groups across categories such as gender, age, religious conviction, socioeconomic and health status. The second study focused on stereotypes of immigrant groups. Participants (n = 244 and n = 63, respectively) rated the groups on perceived warmth, competence, status, and competition. Results from both studies support the applicability of the SCM in Norway and provides a unique insight into stereotypes of Norwegian social groups.

  11. The "group" in obstetric psychoprophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Volpe, B; Tenaglia, F; Fede, T; Cerutti, R

    1983-01-01

    In the practice of obstetric psychoprophylaxis every method employed considered always the group both from a psychological and a pedagogic point of view. Today the group of pregnant women (or couples) is considered under various aspects: - psychological: the group as a support for members with regard to maternal and parental emotional feelings; - anthropological: the group fills up an empty vital space and becomes a "rite de passage" from a state of social identity to another one; - social: the group is a significative cultural intermediary between health services and the women-patient. The knowledge of these aspects becomes an important methodological support for group conductors. We present an analysis of our experience with groups and how this has affected the Psychoprophylaxis in the last years.

  12. The darker side of groups.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Mike; Hynes, Celia

    2007-05-01

    This paper examines the role of group interaction in the workplace and the impact of anxiety on group cohesion. It takes a psychoanalytical perspective and highlights how early learning within a familial setting influences later attitudes and behaviour at work. In particular the article focuses on the signs of negative group anxiety and how the manager can recognise anti-group culture. By recognising the negative signs the leader can also come to understand how the anti-group develops and thereby prevent the resulting disruptive behaviour. In some instances the perception of anti-group feelings and behaviour can also be altered so that the team leader can reach a positive outcome for the group dynamic and resultant team cohesion and collaboration.

  13. Group 31 and Group 34 Li-ion Battery Specification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-08

    DOD wide Li ion rechargeable draft specification that is currently under development by the DOD Power Sources Battery Technical Working Group... batteries shall be capable of charging to 100% capacity from a standard 12V or 24V lead acid vehicle battery charger in less than 2 hours from 0...Unclassified 1 Unclassified United States Army Group 31 and Group 34 Li-ion Battery Specification US Army TARDEC Energy Storage Team

  14. Assessment of Group Preferences and Group Uncertainty for Decision Making

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-06-01

    inhibiting group problem solving. In order to effectively use interacting groups , methods need to be found that minimize the inhibiting influences ... pressure for conformity , and so forth, while the use of controlled feedback on successive rounds allows the exchange of ideas and information. A typic.al...methods depend on strLuctured conmunication to allow the facilitation of group judgments while avoiding many of the detrimental influences that have

  15. Associative grouping: perceptual grouping of shapes by association.

    PubMed

    Vickery, Timothy J; Jiang, Yuhong V

    2009-05-01

    Perceptual grouping is usually defined by principles that associate distinct elements by virtue of image properties, such as proximity, similarity, and occurrence within common regions. What role does learning play in forming a perceptual group? This study provides evidence that learning of shape associations leads to perceptual grouping. Subjects were repeatedly exposed to pairs of unique shapes that co-occurred within a common region. The common region cue was later removed in displays composed of these shapes, and the subjects searched the display for two adjacent shapes of the same color. The subjects were faster at locating the color repetition when the adjacent shapes with the same color came from the same trained groups than when they were composed of two shapes from different trained groups. The effects were perceptual in nature: Learned pairings produced spatial distortions similar to those observed for groups defined by perceptual similarity. A residual grouping effect was observed even when the shapes in the trained group switched their relative positions but was eliminated when each shape was inverted. These results indicate that statistical co-occurrence with explicit grouping cues may form an important component of perceptual organization, determining perceived scene structure solely on the basis of past experience.

  16. Programming with process groups: Group and multicast semantics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birman, Kenneth P.; Cooper, Robert; Gleeson, Barry

    1991-01-01

    Process groups are a natural tool for distributed programming and are increasingly important in distributed computing environments. Discussed here is a new architecture that arose from an effort to simplify Isis process group semantics. The findings include a refined notion of how the clients of a group should be treated, what the properties of a multicast primitive should be when systems contain large numbers of overlapping groups, and a new construct called the causality domain. A system based on this architecture is now being implemented in collaboration with the Chorus and Mach projects.

  17. [Group cohesion: a concept analysis].

    PubMed

    Lin, Yen-Ru; Chen, Yu-Jung; Tzeng, Wen-Chii; Chou, Kuei-Ru

    2007-10-01

    Group cohesion is considered an essential condition for achieving a successful treatment team. High cohesion groups more readily reach their goals, with group members also feeling more secure about their functions and contributions. In clinical practice, nurses use group teaching and group therapy to help patient and family members gain knowledge and skills related to illness treatment and recuperation. Effective group leadership helps minimize non-productive time and manpower and enhance interpersonal interaction. A further advantage of group cohesion is that the more effective administration of nursing programs that results can raise the profession level of staffs and reduce turnover. Walker and Avant (1995) employ concept analysis to use defining attributes in order to apply the same definition and communication to the same profession. The purpose of this paper was to apply this methodology to an analysis of group cohesion. Steps used include a review of the literature on conceptual definitions of group cohesion, a determination of defining attributes, model construction, identification of borderline, contrary, and related cases, and identification of antecedents and consequences and empirical tools. It is hoped that this analysis can help nursing staff to gain a better understanding of the concept of group cohesion and to apply such to clinical practice and nursing administration.

  18. The Tavistock Group: Empirical Findings and Implications for Group Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rugel, Robert P.; Meyer, Darrell J.

    1984-01-01

    Presents a factor analysis for subjects (N=52) participating in a Tavistock Group. Indicates the importance of the emergence of workable structures for leaders and members and the expression of affection and commentary on group processes. Output, input, self-understanding, and catharsis were the most valued factors. (Author/JAC)

  19. Group Performance in Information Systems Project Groups: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahli, Bouchaib; Buyukkurt, Meral Demirbag

    2005-01-01

    The importance of teamwork in Information Systems Development (ISD) practice and education has been acknowledged but not studied extensively to date. This paper tests a model of how groups participating in ISD projects perform and examines the relationships between some antecedents of this performance based on group research theory well…

  20. Working with Group-Tasks and Group Cohesiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anwar, Khoirul

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at exploring the connection between the use of group task and group cohesiveness. This study is very important because the nature of the learner's success is largely determined by the values of cooperation, interaction, and understanding of the learning objectives together. Subjects of this study are 28 students on the course…

  1. Group Journaling: A Tool for Reflection, Fun and Group Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asfeldt, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Personal journaling is common practice in outdoor programs and is an important means of reflection and meaning-making. For over 20 years the author has used group journals to promote reflection and understanding, raise important questions, explore difficult issues, develop writing and speaking skills, and enhance group development. In this…

  2. Using an Experiential Group To Teach a Group Therapy Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halgin, Richard P.

    This paper describes one approach to the study of group therapy by graduate and undergraduate psychology students, i.e., student participation in an experiential therapy group. The problems and benefits of this method are explored in terms of issues such as confidentiality, content definition, limit-setting, assignment of grades, effect on…

  3. 32. View of relay assembly group and interconnecting group electronic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. View of relay assembly group and interconnecting group electronic modules located on second floor of transmitter building no. 102 in MIP area. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  4. Strategic Groups: One Perspective on Integrating Strategic and Group Therapies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahey, Maureen; Wallace, Evie

    1988-01-01

    Describes a short-term, strategic, solution-focused self-esteem group in an outpatient mental health setting. Discusses constructs that form foundations of both strategic and group therapies. Training, supervision, and outcome issues arising from integrating the two therapies are addressed. (Author/NB)

  5. Group Analytic Psychotherapy in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Penna, Carla; Castanho, Pablo

    2015-10-01

    Group analytic practice in Brazil began quite early. Highly influenced by the Argentinean Pichon-Rivière, it enjoyed a major development from the 1950s to the early 1980s. Beginning in the 1970s, different factors undermined its development and eventually led to its steep decline. From the mid 1980s on, the number of people looking for either group analytic psychotherapy or group analytic training decreased considerably. Group analytic psychotherapy societies struggled to survive and most of them had to close their doors in the 1990s and the following decade. Psychiatric reform and the new public health system have stimulated a new demand for groups in Brazil. Developments in the public and not-for-profit sectors, combined with theoretical and practical research in universities, present promising new perspectives for group analytic psychotherapy in Brazil nowadays.

  6. Quantum groups with invariant integrals

    PubMed Central

    Van Daele, Alfons

    2000-01-01

    Quantum groups have been studied intensively for the last two decades from various points of view. The underlying mathematical structure is that of an algebra with a coproduct. Compact quantum groups admit Haar measures. However, if we want to have a Haar measure also in the noncompact case, we are forced to work with algebras without identity, and the notion of a coproduct has to be adapted. These considerations lead to the theory of multiplier Hopf algebras, which provides the mathematical tool for studying noncompact quantum groups with Haar measures. I will concentrate on the *-algebra case and assume positivity of the invariant integral. Doing so, I create an algebraic framework that serves as a model for the operator algebra approach to quantum groups. Indeed, the theory of locally compact quantum groups can be seen as the topological version of the theory of quantum groups as they are developed here in a purely algebraic context. PMID:10639115

  7. Synchronous computer mediated group discussion.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, focus groups have become increasingly popular with nursing researchers as a data collection method, as has the use of computer-based technologies to support all forms of nursing research. This article describes the conduct of a series of focus groups in which the participants were in the same room as part of a "real-time" discussion during which they also used personal computers as an interface between each other and the moderator. Synchronous Computer Mediated Group Discussion differed from other forms of focus group discussion in that participants used personal computers rather than verbal expressions to respond to specific questions, engage in communication with other participants, and to record their thoughts. This form of focus group maintained many of the features of spoken exchanges, a cornerstone of the focus group, while capturing the advantages of online discussion.

  8. Group discussion improves lie detection

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Nadav; Epley, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Groups of individuals can sometimes make more accurate judgments than the average individual could make alone. We tested whether this group advantage extends to lie detection, an exceptionally challenging judgment with accuracy rates rarely exceeding chance. In four experiments, we find that groups are consistently more accurate than individuals in distinguishing truths from lies, an effect that comes primarily from an increased ability to correctly identify when a person is lying. These experiments demonstrate that the group advantage in lie detection comes through the process of group discussion, and is not a product of aggregating individual opinions (a “wisdom-of-crowds” effect) or of altering response biases (such as reducing the “truth bias”). Interventions to improve lie detection typically focus on improving individual judgment, a costly and generally ineffective endeavor. Our findings suggest a cheap and simple synergistic approach of enabling group discussion before rendering a judgment. PMID:26015581

  9. Taxonomy Working Group Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, Vickie S.; Beil, Robert J.; Terrone, Mark; Barth, Timothy S.; Panontin, Tina L.; Wales, Roxana; Rackley, Michael W.; Milne, James S.; McPherson, John W.; Dutra, Jayne E.; Shaw, Larry C.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the Taxonomy Working Group was to develop a proposal for a common taxonomy to be used by all NASA projects in the classifying of nonconformances, anomalies, and problems. Specifically, the group developed a recommended list of data elements along with general suggestions for the development of a problem reporting system to better serve NASA's need for managing, reporting, and trending project aberrant events. The Group's recommendations are reported in this document.

  10. Group formation through indirect reciprocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oishi, Koji; Shimada, Takashi; Ito, Nobuyasu

    2013-03-01

    The emergence of group structure of cooperative relations is studied in an agent-based model. It is proved that specific types of reciprocity norms lead individuals to split into two groups only inside of which they are cooperative. The condition for the evolutionary stability of the norms is also obtained. This result suggests reciprocity norms, which usually promote cooperation, can cause society's separation into multiple groups.

  11. Software Engineering Process Group Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    unless there is a unifying influence applied. It is the job of the corporate (i.e., highest level) process group to track and harmonize the action...the realm of influence of the process group and its spon- sor need to be acknowledged and taken into account in planning, even when they cannot be...Technical Report CMU/SEI-90-TR-24 ESD-90-TR-225 Software Engineering Process Group Guide Priscilla Fowler Stan Rifkin September 1990 Technical Report

  12. Theoretical Issues in Clinical Social Group Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, Elizabeth; Wodarski, John S.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews relevant issues in clinical social group practice including group versus individual treatment, group work advantages, approach rationale, group conditions for change, worker role in group, group composition, group practice technique and method, time as group work dimension, pretherapy training, group therapy precautions, and group work…

  13. Leadership in moving human groups.

    PubMed

    Boos, Margarete; Pritz, Johannes; Lange, Simon; Belz, Michael

    2014-04-01

    How is movement of individuals coordinated as a group? This is a fundamental question of social behaviour, encompassing phenomena such as bird flocking, fish schooling, and the innumerable activities in human groups that require people to synchronise their actions. We have developed an experimental paradigm, the HoneyComb computer-based multi-client game, to empirically investigate human movement coordination and leadership. Using economic games as a model, we set monetary incentives to motivate players on a virtual playfield to reach goals via players' movements. We asked whether (I) humans coordinate their movements when information is limited to an individual group member's observation of adjacent group member motion, (II) whether an informed group minority can lead an uninformed group majority to the minority's goal, and if so, (III) how this minority exerts its influence. We showed that in a human group--on the basis of movement alone--a minority can successfully lead a majority. Minorities lead successfully when (a) their members choose similar initial steps towards their goal field and (b) they are among the first in the whole group to make a move. Using our approach, we empirically demonstrate that the rules of swarming behaviour apply to humans. Even complex human behaviour, such as leadership and directed group movement, follow simple rules that are based on visual perception of local movement.

  14. Adverse Outcomes in Group Psychotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Roback, Howard B.

    2000-01-01

    Group forms of therapy have been growing at a rapid rate, in part because of their documented effectiveness and economic considerations such as managed care. It is therefore becoming increasingly important to assess the psychological risks of these interventions. The author provides an overview of the published literature and conference presentations on negative effects in adult outpatient groups. Although much of the literature on adverse outcomes in group therapy focuses on single risk factors (e.g., negative leader, group process, or patient characteristics), the author argues that an interactional model should be encouraged. Means of reducing casualties are also discussed, as well as methodological issues and research directions. PMID:10896735

  15. Regulation of ABO gene expression.

    PubMed

    Kominato, Yoshihiko; Hata, Yukiko; Matsui, Kazuhiro; Takizawa, Hisao

    2005-07-01

    The ABO blood group system is important in blood transfusions and in identifying individuals during criminal investigations. Two carbohydrate antigens, the A and B antigens, and their antibodies constitute this system. Although biochemical and molecular genetic studies have demonstrated the molecular basis of the histo-blood group ABO system, some aspects remain to be elucidated. To explain the molecular basis of how the ABO genes are controlled in cell type-specific expression, during normal cell differentiation, and in cancer cells with invasive and metastatic potential that lack A/B antigens, it is essential to understand the regulatory mechanism of ABO gene transcription. We review the transcriptional regulation of the ABO gene, including positive and negative elements in the upstream region of the gene, and draw some inferences that help to explain the phenomena described above.

  16. Regularized group regression methods for genomic prediction: Bridge, MCP, SCAD, group bridge, group lasso, sparse group lasso, group MCP and group SCAD

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Genomic prediction is now widely recognized as an efficient, cost-effective and theoretically well-founded method for estimating breeding values using molecular markers spread over the whole genome. The prediction problem entails estimating the effects of all genes or chromosomal segments simultaneously and aggregating them to yield the predicted total genomic breeding value. Many potential methods for genomic prediction exist but have widely different relative computational costs, complexity and ease of implementation, with significant repercussions for predictive accuracy. We empirically evaluate the predictive performance of several contending regularization methods, designed to accommodate grouping of markers, using three synthetic traits of known accuracy. Methods Each of the competitor methods was used to estimate predictive accuracy for each of the three quantitative traits. The traits and an associated genome comprising five chromosomes with 10000 biallelic Single Nucleotide Polymorphic (SNP)-marker loci were simulated for the QTL-MAS 2012 workshop. The models were trained on 3000 phenotyped and genotyped individuals and used to predict genomic breeding values for 1020 unphenotyped individuals. Accuracy was expressed as the Pearson correlation between the simulated true and the estimated breeding values. Results All the methods produced accurate estimates of genomic breeding values. Grouping of markers did not clearly improve accuracy contrary to expectation. Selecting the penalty parameter with replicated 10-fold cross validation often gave better accuracy than using information theoretic criteria. Conclusions All the regularization methods considered produced satisfactory predictive accuracies for most practical purposes and thus deserve serious consideration in genomic prediction research and practice. Grouping markers did not enhance predictive accuracy for the synthetic data set considered. But other more sophisticated grouping schemes could

  17. Stick with your group: young children's attitudes about group loyalty.

    PubMed

    Misch, Antonia; Over, Harriet; Carpenter, Malinda

    2014-10-01

    For adults, loyalty to the group is highly valued, yet little is known about how children evaluate loyalty. We investigated children's attitudes about loyalty in a third-party context. In the first experiment, 4- and 5-year-olds watched a video of two groups competing. Two members of the losing group then spoke. The disloyal individual said she wanted to win and therefore would join the other group. The loyal individual said she also wanted to win but would stay with her group. Children were then asked five forced-choice questions about these two individuals' niceness, trustworthiness, morality, and deservingness of a reward. The 5-year-olds preferred the loyal person across all questions; results for the 4-year-olds were considerably weaker but in the same direction. The second experiment investigated the direction of the effect in 5-year-olds. In this experiment, children answered questions about either a loyal individual, a disloyal individual, or a neutral individual. Children rated both the loyal and neutral individuals more positively than the disloyal individual across a number of measures. Thus, whereas disloyal behavior is evaluated unfavorably by children, loyal behavior is the expected norm. These results suggest that, at least from 5 years of age, children understand that belonging to a group entails certain commitments. This marks an important step in their own ability to negotiate belonging and become trustworthy and reliable members of their social groups.

  18. Group Work with Transgender Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickey, Lore M.; Loewy, Michael I.

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on the existing literature, the authors' research and clinical experiences, and the first author's personal journey as a member and leader of the transgender community, this article offers a brief history of group work with transgender clients followed by suggestions for group work with transgender clients from a social justice…

  19. Play and Positive Group Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Pam; White, Samantha

    2010-01-01

    Play is an important part of a child's life and essential to learning and development (Vygotsky, 1978). It is vital that students participate in play and that play be conducted in a restorative manner. Play allows a variety of group dynamics to emerge. Irvin Yalom (1995) identifies 11 curative factors of the group experience. These factors include…

  20. Social Disaffection Among Deprived Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Daniel; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Examines groups of individuals of differing income, education, occupation, age and sex and investigates the extent of differences between these groups on three levels: nationalism, support for the political system and satisfaction with aspects of every day living. Available from: International Journal of Intercultural Relations, Transaction…

  1. Group Syntality and Parliamentary Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winn, Larry James; Kell, Carl L.

    The group syntality concept of Raymond B. Cattell furnishes a useful framework for teaching parliamentary procedure. Although there are contrasts between the histories, subject matters, and perspectives of the areas of parliamentary procedure and group dynamics, teachers and students of parliamentary procedure might profitably draw from some of…

  2. Group Activities for Math Enthusiasts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdener, J.; Milnikel, R.

    2016-01-01

    In this article we present three group activities designed for math students: a balloon-twisting workshop, a group proof of the irrationality of p, and a game of Math Bingo. These activities have been particularly successful in building enthusiasm for mathematics and camaraderie among math faculty and students at Kenyon College.

  3. Group Intervention in Pediatric Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaForme Fiss, Alyssa

    2012-01-01

    Group intervention in pediatric physical and occupational therapy is an alternative to individual intervention allowing the therapist to meet the needs of multiple children at one time. Survey research indicates that approximately 40% to 60% of pediatric physical and occupational therapists use group intervention at least occasionally in practice,…

  4. Coset spaces for quantum groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoda, Zoran

    Consideration of symmetries often simplifies problems in physics and geometry. Quantum groups are analogues of groups, and they can describe a novel kind of symmetry. We view them as objects of noncommutative geometry. They may act on algebras of noncommutative or quantum observables. We propose a theory of coset spaces for quantum groups in the language of coactions of Hopf algebras and analyse an example which should be thought as a quantum group analogue of the flag variety. In the classical case the flag variety is the coset space of the special linear group modulo its Borel subgroup of lower triangular matrices. We introduce and study a notion of localized coinvariants; the quantum group coset space is viewed as a system of algebras of localized coinvariants, equipped with a quantum version of the locally trivial principal bundle where the total space is described by the quantum special linear group and the base space is described by the system of algebras of localized coinvariants. We use quasideterminants, the commutation relations between the quantum minors and the noncommutative Gauss decomposition to formulate and prove the main results. We apply our axiomatization of quantum group fibre bundles to obtain a generalization of a concept of Perelomov coherent states to the Hopf algebra setting and obtain the corresponding resolution of unity formula.

  5. Finite simple groups as expanders

    PubMed Central

    Kassabov, Martin; Lubotzky, Alexander; Nikolov, Nikolay

    2006-01-01

    We prove that there exist k ∈ ℕ and 0 < ε ∈ ℝ such that every non-abelian finite simple group G, which is not a Suzuki group, has a set of k generators for which the Cayley graph Cay(G; S) is an ε-expander. PMID:16601101

  6. Modeling Interactions in Small Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heise, David R.

    2013-01-01

    A new theory of interaction within small groups posits that group members initiate actions when tension mounts between the affective meanings of their situational identities and impressions produced by recent events. Actors choose partners and behaviors so as to reduce the tensions. A computer model based on this theory, incorporating reciprocal…

  7. Kinesics, Communication and Group Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, J. Regis

    This paper reports on the effects of four forms of kinesic communication and three forms of verbal communication on leadership perception in a small group setting. Forty-eight college age discussants were observed in groups of four during twelve 30-minute sessions. Permitted only visual input, eleven previously trained observers recorded four…

  8. My Career: Group Fitness Instructor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Tammy Kenney, who teaches a yoga-Pilates class in several different gyms. In this interview, Kenney talks about her career as a group fitness instructor and gives her best advice for someone who wants to teach group fitness.

  9. Nonmetric Grouping: Clusters and Cliques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peay, Edmund R.

    1975-01-01

    A class of closely related hierarchical grouping methods are discussed and a procedure which implements them in an integrated fashion is presented. These methods avoid some theoretical anomalies inherent in clustering and provide a framework for viewing partitioning and nonpartitioning grouping. Significant relationships between these methods and…

  10. Group Grades Miss the Mark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagan, Spencer

    1995-01-01

    Some teachers justify group grading for cooperative projects using specious arguments that invoke real-world comparison, employment skills, motivation, teacher workload, and credit for teamwork. This article argues that group grades are blatantly unfair, invalidate report cards, undermine motivation, convey the wrong message, violate individual…

  11. Group Learning on the Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alant, E.; Dada, S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the issues of syndicate learning in a web-based environment. The multi-professional Master's degree in Early Childhood Intervention is described and discussed in terms of its philosophy of multi-professional small group learning. A description of the processes involved in facilitating web-based learning in small groups is…

  12. Group Development: Extending Tuckman's Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maples, Mary F.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a framework for extending the Tuckman model of developmental sequence in small groups. Considers Tuckman's stages of forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning lacking in descriptive depth and clear definition. Gathered and organized group dynamics graduate students' assessments of characteristics of stages over five-year…

  13. A Manual for Group Facilitators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auvine, Brian; And Others

    This resource manual presents guidelines and effective techniques for people who want to acquire group facilitation skills. It is a valuable resource for anyone planning or presenting a workshop; trainers or teachers interested in innovative classroom techniques; and anyone involved in a group as leader, facilitator, or participant. The manual…

  14. Challenges Facing Group Work Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Bo; Kang, Haijun

    2016-01-01

    Online group work can be complicated because of its asynchronous characteristics and lack of physical presence, and its requirements for skills in handling technology, human relationships, and content-related tasks. This study focuses on the administrative, logistical and relationship-related challenges in online group work. Challenges in areas…

  15. The Globalization of Cooperative Groups.

    PubMed

    Valdivieso, Manuel; Corn, Benjamin W; Dancey, Janet E; Wickerham, D Lawrence; Horvath, L Elise; Perez, Edith A; Urton, Alison; Cronin, Walter M; Field, Erica; Lackey, Evonne; Blanke, Charles D

    2015-10-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI)-supported adult cooperative oncology research groups (now officially Network groups) have a longstanding history of participating in international collaborations throughout the world. Most frequently, the US-based cooperative groups work reciprocally with the Canadian national adult cancer clinical trial group, NCIC CTG (previously the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group). Thus, Canada is the largest contributor to cooperative groups based in the United States, and vice versa. Although international collaborations have many benefits, they are most frequently utilized to enhance patient accrual to large phase III trials originating in the United States or Canada. Within the cooperative group setting, adequate attention has not been given to the study of cancers that are unique to countries outside the United States and Canada, such as those frequently associated with infections in Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Global collaborations are limited by a number of barriers, some of which are unique to the countries involved, while others are related to financial support and to US policies that restrict drug distribution outside the United States. This article serves to detail the cooperative group experience in international research and describe how international collaboration in cancer clinical trials is a promising and important area that requires greater consideration in the future.

  16. THE TEACHER AND GROUP DEVELOPMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'HARE, MARY RITA

    TO ASCERTAIN THEIR ATTITUDES TOWARD GROUP PROCESS, AN UNSPECIFIED NUMBER OF TEACHERS WAS ASKED TO WRITE AN ACCOUNT OF THEIR GENERAL ATTITUDES TOWARD THE PROCESS AS THEY UNDERSTOOD IT. THEY ALSO RATED THEMSELVES ON A 5-POINT SCALE, RANGING FROM STRONGLY FAVORABLE TO STRONGLY OPPOSED ATTITUDES, AND BY WHICH THE ACCOUNTS WERE GROUPED. A CONTENT…

  17. The Globalization of Cooperative Groups

    PubMed Central

    Valdivieso, Manuel; Corn, Benjamin W.; Dancey, Janet E.; Wickerham, D. Lawrence; Horvath, L. Elise; Perez, Edith A.; Urton, Alison; Cronin, Walter M.; Field, Erica; Lackey, Evonne; Blanke, Charles D.

    2015-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute-supported adult cooperative oncology research groups (now officially Network groups) have a long-standing history of participating in international collaborations throughout the world. Most frequently, the U.S. based cooperative groups work reciprocally with the Canadian national adult cancer clinical trial group, NCIC CTG (previously the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group). Thus, Canada is the largest contributor to cooperative groups based in the U.S., and vice versa. Although international collaborations have many benefits, they are most frequently utilized to enhance patient accrual to large phase III trials originating in the U.S. or Canada. Within the cooperative group setting, adequate attention has not been given to the study of cancers that are unique to countries outside the U.S. and Canada, such as those frequently associated with infections in Latin America, Asia and Africa. Global collaborations are limited by a number of barriers, some of which are unique to the countries involved, while others are related to financial support and to U.S. policies that restrict drug distribution outside the U.S. This manuscript serves to detail the cooperative group experience in international research and describe how international collaboration in cancer clinical trials is a promising and important area that requires greater consideration in the future. PMID:26433551

  18. Automata representation for Abelian groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fong, Wan Heng; Gan, Yee Siang; Sarmin, Nor Haniza; Turaev, Sherzod

    2013-04-01

    A finite automaton is one of the classic models of recognition devices, which is used to determine the type of language a string belongs to. A string is said to be recognized by a finite automaton if the automaton "reads" the string from the left to the right starting from the initial state and finishing at a final state. Another type of automata which is a counterpart of sticker systems, namely Watson-Crick automata, is finite automata which can scan the double-stranded tapes of DNA strings using the complimentary relation. The properties of groups have been extended for the recognition of finite automata over groups. In this paper, two variants of automata, modified deterministic finite automata and modified deterministic Watson-Crick automata are used in the study of Abelian groups. Moreover, the relation between finite automata diagram over Abelian groups and the Cayley table is introduced. In addition, some properties of Abelian groups are presented in terms of automata.

  19. Bayesian Hierarchical Grouping: perceptual grouping as mixture estimation

    PubMed Central

    Froyen, Vicky; Feldman, Jacob; Singh, Manish

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel framework for perceptual grouping based on the idea of mixture models, called Bayesian Hierarchical Grouping (BHG). In BHG we assume that the configuration of image elements is generated by a mixture of distinct objects, each of which generates image elements according to some generative assumptions. Grouping, in this framework, means estimating the number and the parameters of the mixture components that generated the image, including estimating which image elements are “owned” by which objects. We present a tractable implementation of the framework, based on the hierarchical clustering approach of Heller and Ghahramani (2005). We illustrate it with examples drawn from a number of classical perceptual grouping problems, including dot clustering, contour integration, and part decomposition. Our approach yields an intuitive hierarchical representation of image elements, giving an explicit decomposition of the image into mixture components, along with estimates of the probability of various candidate decompositions. We show that BHG accounts well for a diverse range of empirical data drawn from the literature. Because BHG provides a principled quantification of the plausibility of grouping interpretations over a wide range of grouping problems, we argue that it provides an appealing unifying account of the elusive Gestalt notion of Prägnanz. PMID:26322548

  20. Detection of node group membership in networks with group overlap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawardecker, E. N.; Sales-Pardo, M.; Amaral, L. A. N.

    2009-02-01

    Most networks found in social and biochemical systems have modular structures. An important question prompted by the modularity of these networks is whether nodes can be said to belong to a single group. If they cannot, we would need to consider the role of “overlapping communities.” Despite some efforts in this direction, the problem of detecting overlapping groups remains unsolved because there is neither a formal definition of overlapping community, nor an ensemble of networks with which to test the performance of group detection algorithms when nodes can belong to more than one group. Here, we introduce an ensemble of networks with overlapping groups. We then apply three group identification methods - modularity maximization, k-clique percolation, and modularity-landscape surveying - to these networks. We find that the modularity-landscape surveying method is the only one able to detect heterogeneities in node memberships, and that those heterogeneities are only detectable when the overlap is small. Surprisingly, we find that the k-clique percolation method is unable to detect node membership for the overlapping case.

  1. Diamines Containing Pendent Phenylethynyl Groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Controlled molecular weight imide oligomers and co-oligomers containing pendent phenylethynyl groups (PEPIs) and endcapped with nonreactive or phenylethynyl groups have been prepared by the cyclodehydration of the precursor amide acid oligomers or co-oligomers containing pendent phenylethynyl groups and endcapped with nonreactive or phenylethynyl groups. The amine terminated amide acid oligomers or co-oligomers are prepared from the reaction of dianhydride(s) with an excess of diamine(s) and diamine containing pendent phenylethynyl groups and subsequently endcapped with a phenylethynyl phthalic anhydride or monofunctional anhydride. The anhydride terminated amide acid oligomers and co-oligomers are prepared from the reaction of diamine(s) and diamine containing pendent phenylethynyl group(s) with an excess of dianhydride(s) and subsequently endcapped with a phenylethynyl amine or monofunctional amine. The polymerizations are carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as and N,N-dimethylacetamide under nitrogen at room temperature. The amide acid oligomers or co-oligomers are subsequently cyclodehydrated either thermally or chemically to the corresponding imide oligomers. The polymers and copolymers prepared from these materials exhibit a unique and unexpected combination of properties that includes higher glass transition temperatures after curing and higher retention of neat resin, adhesive and carbon fiber reinforced mechanical properties at temperatures up to 204 C under wet conditions without sacrificing melt flow behavior and processability as compared to similar materials. These materials are useful as adhesives, coatings, films, moldings, and composite matrices.

  2. Merged Group Tractography Evaluation with Selective Automated Group Integrated Tractography

    PubMed Central

    Chen, David Q.; Zhong, Jidan; Hayes, David J.; Behan, Brendan; Walker, Matthew; Hung, Peter S.-P.; Hodaie, Mojgan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Tractography analysis in group-based studies across large populations has been difficult to implement. We propose Selective Automated Group Integrated Tractography (SAGIT), an automated group tractography software platform that incorporates multiple diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) practices which will allow great accessibility to group-wise dMRI. We use a merged tractography approach that permits evaluation of tractography datasets at the group level. We also introduce an image normalized overlap score (NOS) that measures the quality of the group tractography results. We deploy SAGIT to evaluate deterministic and probabilistic constrained spherical deconvolution (CSTdet, CSTprob) tractography, eXtended Streamline Tractography (XST), and diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) in their ability to delineate different neuroanatomy, as well as validating NOS across these different brain regions. Materials and methods: Magnetic resonance sequences were acquired from 42 healthy adults. Anatomical and group registrations were performed using Automated Normalization Tools. Cortical segmentation was performed using FreeSurfer. Four tractography algorithms were used to delineate six sets of neuroanatomy: fornix, facial/vestibular-cochlear cranial nerve complex, vagus nerve, rubral–cerebellar decussation, optic radiation, and auditory radiation. The tracts were generated both with and without region of interest filters. The generated visual reports were then evaluated by five neuroscientists. Results: At a group level, merged tractography demonstrated that different methods have different fiber distribution characteristics. CSTprob is prone to false-positives, and thereby suitable in anatomy with strong priors. CSTdet and XST are more conservative, but have greater difficulty resolving hemispherical decussation and distant crossing projections. DTT consistently shows the worst reproducibility across the anatomies. Linear regression of rater scores

  3. Marketing audit in group practice.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, J M

    1984-01-01

    The marketing audit, whether large-scale or small-scale, will soon be critical to the success of every medical group practice. This dynamic process, in which the many components of a group's marketing efforts are analyzed, is examined from the perspective of ideal circumstances and unlimited resources, and more pragmatically, from the perspective of various-sized groups, with different resources and marketing talent. The audit components are prioritized, possible adaptations and combinations are presented, and reasonable implementation mechanisms, designed to address audit outcomes, are suggested.

  4. Groups, measures, and the NIP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrushovski, Ehud; Peterzil, Ya'acov; Pillay, Anand

    2008-04-01

    We discuss measures, invariant measures on definable groups, and genericity, often in an NIP (failure of the independence property) environment. We complete the proof of the third author's conjectures relating definably compact groups G in saturated o -minimal structures to compact Lie groups. We also prove some other structural results about such G , for example the existence of a left invariant finitely additive probability measure on definable subsets of G . We finally introduce the new notion of ``compact domination" (domination of a definable set by a compact space) and raise some new conjectures in the o -minimal case.

  5. Remainder Wheels and Group Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenton, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    Why should prospective elementary and high school teachers study group theory in college? This paper examines applications of abstract algebra to the familiar algorithm for converting fractions to repeating decimals, revealing ideas of surprising substance beneath an innocent facade.

  6. NISE (Nursing Inservice Education Group)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clubine, Marilyn; And Others

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of the Toronto Inservice Education Group became to meet regularly in order to provide an opportunity to assist and guide those responsible for formulating and carrying out inservice education. Article outlines their objectives. (Author/RK)

  7. Metabolomics and Epidemiology Working Group

    Cancer.gov

    The Metabolomics and Epidemiology (MetEpi) Working Group promotes metabolomics analyses in population-based studies, as well as advancement in the field of metabolomics for broader biomedical and public health research.

  8. All About the Grains Group

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Grains Group? Any food made from wheat, rice, oats, cornmeal, barley or another cereal grain is ... bulgur (cracked wheat), oatmeal, whole cornmeal, and brown rice. Refined grains have been milled, a process that ...

  9. Asymptotic invariants of homotopy groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manin, Fedor

    We study the homotopy groups of a finite CW complex X via constraints on the geometry of representatives of their elements. For example, one can measure the "size" of alpha ∈ pi n (X) by the optimal Lipschitz constant or volume of a representative. By comparing the geometrical structure thus obtained with the algebraic structure of the group, one can define functions such as growth and distortion in pin(X), analogously to the way that such functions are studied in asymptotic geometric group theory. We provide a number of examples and techniques for studying these invariants, with a special focus on spaces with few rational homotopy groups. Our main theorem characterizes those X in which all non-torsion homotopy classes are undistorted, that is, their volume distortion functions, and hence also their Lipschitz distortion functions, are linear.

  10. Group Designs in Clinical Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Gerald M.; Young, Martin A.

    1987-01-01

    Despite the similarity between single-subject research sessions and clinical sessions, single-subject research designs are not intrinsically more appropriate than group designs for clinical research concerning the communication disordered. (Author/CB)

  11. The Group Treatment of Bulimia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Harvey M.; Richman, Ann

    1984-01-01

    Bulimia has become an increasing problem in the college population. This article describes a group psychotherapeutic treatment approach to the problem. A theoretical formulation of the psychodynamics that may underlie the development of bulimia is offered. (Author/DF)

  12. MOVES Model Review Work Group

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The FACA MOVES Review Work Group was formed under the Mobile Sources Technical Review Subcommittee (MSTRS), and is charged to provide input to EPA via the MSTRS and the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee on specific issues regarding MOVES development.

  13. Popular Music in Group Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderkolk, Charles

    1976-01-01

    The author suggests that contemporary music is a medium that has the potential for reaching deep levels of human need and emotions and can be used effectively in group counseling sessions with preadolescents and adolescents. (Author/HMV)

  14. A service dog in group.

    PubMed

    Rothberg, Brian; Collins, Emily

    2015-04-01

    Service dogs are sanctioned by the Americans with Disabilities Act as having protected rights allowing them to assist owners with disabilities. These dogs are appearing with increasing frequency in healthcare settings, and it is important for healthcare providers to understand the rules and regulations given to service animals and owners. We discuss processes that transpired when a service dog was brought into a psychodynamic psychotherapy group. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the unintended consequences of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 2010 as it concerns service dogs and the impact on the group process. Problems resulting from the introduction of service dogs into therapy groups should be anticipated and explicitly discussed in the course of the group's transactions.

  15. On extending actions of groups

    SciTech Connect

    Ageev, Sergei M; Repovs, Dusan

    2010-02-28

    Problems of dense and closed extension of actions of compact transformation groups are solved. The method developed in the paper is applied to problems of extension of equivariant maps and of construction of equivariant compactifications. Bibliography: 27 titles.

  16. LLNL Chemical Kinetics Modeling Group

    SciTech Connect

    Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Mehl, M; Herbinet, O; Curran, H J; Silke, E J

    2008-09-24

    The LLNL chemical kinetics modeling group has been responsible for much progress in the development of chemical kinetic models for practical fuels. The group began its work in the early 1970s, developing chemical kinetic models for methane, ethane, ethanol and halogenated inhibitors. Most recently, it has been developing chemical kinetic models for large n-alkanes, cycloalkanes, hexenes, and large methyl esters. These component models are needed to represent gasoline, diesel, jet, and oil-sand-derived fuels.

  17. Polyimides containing pendent siloxane groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Novel polyimides containing pendent siloxane groups (PISOX) were prepared by the reaction of functionalized siloxane compounds with hydroxy containing polyimides (PIOH). The pendent siloxane groups on the polyimide backbone offer distinct advantages such as lowering the dielectric constant and moisture resistance and enhanced atomic oxygen resistance. The siloxane containing polyimides are potentially useful as protective silicon oxide coatings and are useful for a variety of applications where atomic oxygen resistance is needed.

  18. Hybrid Ionosilica containing aromatic groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thach, U. D.; Prelot, B.; Hesemann, P.

    2015-07-01

    Ionosilicas are defined as mesostructured silica based materials bearing covalently bound ionic groups. These materials, situated at the interface of ionic liquids and structured silica mesophases, are usually synthesized following template directed hydrolysis-polycondensation procedures starting from silylated ionic compounds. Here, we report new ammonium type hybrid ionosilicas containing aromatic groups which can serve as a new platform for the design of functional materials, for applications in the areas of ion exchange reactions, drug delivery or wastewater treatment.

  19. Fifteenth LAMPF users group meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, D.R.F.

    1982-03-01

    The Fifteenth LAMPF Users Group Meeting was held November 2-3, 1981 at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physical Facility. The program of papers scheduled to be presented was amended to include a Report from Washington by Clarence R. Richardson, US Department of Energy. The general meeting ended with a round-table working group discussion concerning the Planning for a Kaon Factory. Individual items from the meeting were prepared separately for the data base.

  20. Group practices explore EDI options.

    PubMed

    McCormack, J

    1999-04-01

    Although physician groups have been relatively slow to take advantage of electronic commerce, more are discovering the benefits. Once group practice administrators get beyond their initial trepidation and realize that EDI is efficient, many are pleased with the results. And some are automating other transactions, including verifying patient eligibility for insurance coverage, gaining insurance authorization for referrals to specialists and checking the status of claims.

  1. Identification of a novel cellular target and a co-factor for norovirus infection - B cells & commensal bacteria.

    PubMed

    Karst, Stephanie M

    2015-07-04

    Human noroviruses are a leading cause of gastroenteritis worldwide but research on these important enteric pathogens has long been restricted by their uncultivability. Extensive efforts to infect intestinal epithelial cells with murine and human noroviruses in vitro have been thus far unsuccessful while murine noroviruses efficiently and lytically infect innate immune cells including macrophages and dendritic cells. We have recently discovered that murine and human noroviruses infect B cells in vitro. The nature of B cell infection was distinct from innate immune cell infection in that mature B cells were infected noncytopathically in contrast to the lytic infection of macrophages and dendritic cells. Human norovirus infection of B cells was facilitated by commensal bacteria expressing an appropriate histo-blood group antigen. Importantly, we used the mouse model of norovirus infection to confirm that Peyer's patch B cells are infected, and that commensal bacteria stimulate infection, in vivo.

  2. From the rotation group to the Poincare group

    SciTech Connect

    Louck, J.D.

    1992-10-01

    Larry Biedenham is, perhaps, best known for his penetrating insights into the relevance of abstract mathematics for the structure of physical theory and his ability to implement this mathematics in a style comprehensible to physicists. This is well-illustrated by his many recent contributions to q-algebras. He has also written numerous papers concerned with the pedagogy of physical theory -- papers with the purpose of clarifying the content and meaning of a subject. It is in the spirit of these latter contributions that the present paper is presented. The subject is the quantum rotation group, SU(2), the group of 2 {times} 2 unitary unimodular matrices, and its fundamental role in physical theory. The fact that the irreducible representations (irreps) of the group SU(2) can be realized by unitary transformation of state vectors whose domain of definition is the usual Euclidean 3-space, R{sup 3}, is usually obscured by the fact that one is accustomed to thinking of the underlying group of transformations on R{sup 3} the group SO(3,R) of proper orthogonal matrices. We show in the first part of this paper how one can formulate the usual ``orbital angular momentum theory`` from the viewpoint of SU(2) alone. The motivation for this approach is to eliminate from the language of quantum mechanics the ambiguities arising from the highly unsatisfactory notion of ``double-valued functions.`` In the second part of the paper, we show how the irreps of SU(2), extended to GL(2,C), enter into the description of the unitary irreps of the Poincare group. We emphasize again the uniform role of SU(2), in contrast to SO(3,R), and point out the several ways that the standard irreps of SU(2) occur. In the third part of the paper, we discuss the parametrization of SL(2,C) in terms of biquaternions and mention the problem of determining the discrete subgroups of SL(2,C).

  3. From the rotation group to the Poincare group

    SciTech Connect

    Louck, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    Larry Biedenham is, perhaps, best known for his penetrating insights into the relevance of abstract mathematics for the structure of physical theory and his ability to implement this mathematics in a style comprehensible to physicists. This is well-illustrated by his many recent contributions to q-algebras. He has also written numerous papers concerned with the pedagogy of physical theory -- papers with the purpose of clarifying the content and meaning of a subject. It is in the spirit of these latter contributions that the present paper is presented. The subject is the quantum rotation group, SU(2), the group of 2 [times] 2 unitary unimodular matrices, and its fundamental role in physical theory. The fact that the irreducible representations (irreps) of the group SU(2) can be realized by unitary transformation of state vectors whose domain of definition is the usual Euclidean 3-space, R[sup 3], is usually obscured by the fact that one is accustomed to thinking of the underlying group of transformations on R[sup 3] the group SO(3,R) of proper orthogonal matrices. We show in the first part of this paper how one can formulate the usual orbital angular momentum theory'' from the viewpoint of SU(2) alone. The motivation for this approach is to eliminate from the language of quantum mechanics the ambiguities arising from the highly unsatisfactory notion of double-valued functions.'' In the second part of the paper, we show how the irreps of SU(2), extended to GL(2,C), enter into the description of the unitary irreps of the Poincare group. We emphasize again the uniform role of SU(2), in contrast to SO(3,R), and point out the several ways that the standard irreps of SU(2) occur. In the third part of the paper, we discuss the parametrization of SL(2,C) in terms of biquaternions and mention the problem of determining the discrete subgroups of SL(2,C).

  4. Pride, Shame, and Group Identification

    PubMed Central

    Salice, Alessandro; Montes Sánchez, Alba

    2016-01-01

    Self-conscious emotions such as shame and pride are emotions that typically focus on the self of the person who feels them. In other words, the intentional object of these emotions is assumed to be the subject that experiences them. Many reasons speak in its favor and yet this account seems to leave a question open: how to cash out those cases in which one genuinely feels ashamed or proud of what someone else does? This paper contends that such cases do not necessarily challenge the idea that shame and pride are about the emoting subject. Rather, we claim that some of the most paradigmatic scenarios of shame and pride induced by others can be accommodated by taking seriously the consideration that, in such cases, the subject “group-identifies” with the other. This is the idea that, in feeling these forms of shame or pride, the subject is conceiving of herself as a member of the same group as the subject acting shamefully or in an admirable way. In other words, these peculiar emotive responses are elicited in the subject insofar as, and to the extent that, she is (or sees herself as being) a member of a group – the group to which those who act shamefully or admirably also belong. By looking into the way in which the notion of group identification can allow for an account of hetero-induced shame and pride, this paper attempts to achieve a sort of mutual enlightenment that brings to light not only an important and generally neglected form of self-conscious emotions, but also relevant features of group identification. In particular, it generates evidence for the idea that group identification is a psychological process that the subject does not have to carry out intentionally in the sense that it is not necessarily triggered by the subject’s conative states like desires or intentions. PMID:27199797

  5. A Fossil Group in Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Eric D.; Rappaport, Saul A.; McDonald, Michael; Bautz, Mark W.; Grant, Catherine E.; Veilleux, Sylvain

    2016-04-01

    In the current picture of hierarchical structure formation, galaxy groups play a vital role as the seeds from which large assemblies of matter form. Compact groups are also important environments in which to watch the fueling of star formation and AGN activity, as the conditions are ideal for galaxy-galaxy interactions. We have identified a galaxy system that may represent an intermediate or transition stage in group evolution. Shakhbazyan 1 (or SHK 1) is a remarkably compact collection of about ten massive, red-sequence galaxies within a region 100 kpc across. Several of these galaxies show signs of AGN activity, and new, deep optical observations with the Discovery Channel Telescope reveal an extended stellar envelope surrounding the galaxies. This envelope is much more extended than what would be expected from a superposition of normal galaxy envelopes, and it indicates a large amount of intra-group starlight, evidence that the galaxies in SHK 1 are dynamically interacting.We here present new Chandra spectral imaging observations of this unusual system that confirm the presence of an X-ray-emitting diffuse intra-group medium (IGM), with a temperature of 1.5 keV and X-ray luminosity of 1043 erg/s. Assuming hydrostatic equilibrium, the system is about 1/3 as massive as expected from the optical richness. In addition, three of the ten central galaxies exhibit signatures of X-ray AGN. The under-luminous IGM, high density of bright galaxies, and evidence for galaxy-galaxy interaction indicate that this system may be in a transition stage of galaxy merging, similar to that expected in the formation of a fossil group. Alternatively, SHK 1 may consist of multiple poor groups in the final stages of merging along our line of sight. We explore these scenarios and outline paths of future study for this enigmatic system.

  6. Unitary Representations of Gauge Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerfano, Ruth Stella

    I generalize to the case of gauge groups over non-trivial principal bundles representations that I. M. Gelfand, M. I. Graev and A. M. Versik constructed for current groups. The gauge group of the principal G-bundle P over M, (G a Lie group with an euclidean structure, M a compact, connected and oriented manifold), as the smooth sections of the associated group bundle is presented and studied in chapter I. Chapter II describes the symmetric algebra associated to a Hilbert space, its Hilbert structure, a convenient exponential and a total set that later play a key role in the construction of the representation. Chapter III is concerned with the calculus needed to make the space of Lie algebra valued 1-forms a Gaussian L^2-space. This is accomplished by studying general projective systems of finitely measurable spaces and the corresponding systems of sigma -additive measures, all of these leading to the description of a promeasure, a concept modeled after Bourbaki and classical measure theory. In the case of a locally convex vector space E, the corresponding Fourier transform, family of characters and the existence of a promeasure for every quadratic form on E^' are established, so the Gaussian L^2-space associated to a real Hilbert space is constructed. Chapter III finishes by exhibiting the explicit Hilbert space isomorphism between the Gaussian L ^2-space associated to a real Hilbert space and the complexification of its symmetric algebra. In chapter IV taking as a Hilbert space H the L^2-space of the Lie algebra valued 1-forms on P, the gauge group acts on the motion group of H defining in an straight forward fashion the representation desired.

  7. Identifying Chemical Groups for Biomonitoring

    PubMed Central

    Krowech, Gail; Hoover, Sara; Plummer, Laurel; Sandy, Martha; Zeise, Lauren; Solomon, Gina

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Regulatory agencies face daunting challenges identifying emerging chemical hazards because of the large number of chemicals in commerce and limited data on exposure and toxicology. Evaluating one chemical at a time is inefficient and can lead to replacement with uncharacterized chemicals or chemicals with structural features already linked to toxicity. The Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) has developed a process for constructing and assessing chemical groups for potential biomonitoring in California. We screen for chemicals with significant exposure potential and propose possible chemical groups, based on structure and function. To support formal consideration of these groups by Biomonitoring California’s Scientific Guidance Panel, we conduct a detailed review of exposure and toxicity data and examine the likelihood of detection in biological samples. To date, 12 chemical groups have been constructed and added to the pool of chemicals that can be selected for Biomonitoring California studies, including p,p´-bisphenols, brominated and chlorinated organic compounds used as flame retardants, non-halogenated aromatic phosphates, and synthetic polycyclic musks. Evaluating chemical groups, rather than individual chemicals, is an efficient way to respond to shifts in chemical use and the emergence of new chemicals. This strategy can enable earlier identification of important chemicals for monitoring and intervention. PMID:27905275

  8. The anatomy of group dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hayes, David F

    2014-04-01

    The dysfunction of the radiology group has 2 components: (1) the thinking component-the governance structure of the radiology group; how we manage the group; and (2) the structural component-the group's business model and its conflict with the partner's personal business model. Of the 2 components, governance is more important. Governance must be structured on classic, immutable business management principles. The structural component, the business model, is not immutable. In fact, it must continually change in response to the marketplace. Changes in the business model should occur only if demanded or permitted by the marketplace; instituting changes for other reasons, including personal interests or deficient knowledge of the deciders, is fundamentally contrary to the long-term interests of the group and its owners. First, we must learn basic business management concepts to appreciate the function and necessity of standard business models and standard business governance. Peter Drucker's The Effective Executive is an excellent primer on the subjects of standard business practices and the importance of a functional, authorized, and fully accountable chief executive officer.

  9. Brain evolution: when is a group not a group?

    PubMed

    Byrne, Richard W; Bates, Lucy A

    2007-10-23

    In testing the 'social brain hypothesis' with comparative data, most research has used group size as an index of cognitive challenge. Recent work suggests that this measure is too crude to apply to a wide range of species, and biologists may need to develop other ways of extending these analyses.

  10. Girls' Groups and Boys' Groups at a Municipal Technology Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salminen-Karlsson, Minna

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the Swedish initiative of municipal technology centres from a gender point of view. These centres provide after-school technology education for children aged 6-16. By means of an ethnographic study, the effects of the use of single-sex groups in increasing the interest of girls and boys in technical activities have been…

  11. Group Chaos Theory: A Metaphor and Model for Group Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, Edil Torres; Wilbur, Michael; Frank-Saraceni, James; Roberts-Wilbur, Janice; Phan, Loan T.; Garrett, Michael T.

    2005-01-01

    Group phenomena and interactions are described through the use of the chaos theory constructs and characteristics of sensitive dependence on initial conditions, phase space, turbulence, emergence, self-organization, dissipation, iteration, bifurcation, and attractors and fractals. These constructs and theoretical tenets are presented as applicable…

  12. Group Therapy with Multiple Therapists in A Large Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herschleman, Philip; Freundlich, David

    The utilization of multiple therapists in large group therapy meetings has been found to be a significant improvement over the traditional ward meeting or patient-staff conference. The initially limited goals of reducing ward tension and acting out by means of patients ventilation were surpassed. Despite the size of the meetings it was often…

  13. [A work group reviews the AIDS testing of selected groups].

    PubMed

    Albinus, S

    1988-02-01

    A working group of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) advisory group to the health administration of Denmark has been studying the advantages and disadvantages of routine tests of certain groups. One advantage of offering routine human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) tests to all pregnant women is that it makes it possible to follow the course of the epidemic. Secondly, it makes it possible for an individual woman to get an abortion if she is HIV-positive. On the other hand, routine HIV tests may keep female drug addicts who do not wish to be tested out of the pregnancy health care system. A specific problem is the greater number of false positives among pregnant women that among other groups. Normally tests are repeated immediately and again several months later if a new test is ambiguous but this possibility does not apply to pregnant women since the time limit for having an abortion will be exceeded. Still another advantage of offering routine HIV tests to pregnant women is that it will contribute to making HIV tests more routine, which will generally be an advantage to the AIDS campaign. A tentative conclusion is that it will be more productive to have routine HIV tests in venereal disease clinics where there is a higher percentage of population at risk.

  14. Site-specific group selection drives locally adapted group compositions.

    PubMed

    Pruitt, Jonathan N; Goodnight, Charles J

    2014-10-16

    Group selection may be defined as selection caused by the differential extinction or proliferation of groups. The socially polymorphic spider Anelosimus studiosus exhibits a behavioural polymorphism in which females exhibit either a 'docile' or 'aggressive' behavioural phenotype. Natural colonies are composed of a mixture of related docile and aggressive individuals, and populations differ in colonies' characteristic docile:aggressive ratios. Using experimentally constructed colonies of known composition, here we demonstrate that population-level divergence in docile:aggressive ratios is driven by site-specific selection at the group level--certain ratios yield high survivorship at some sites but not others. Our data also indicate that colonies responded to the risk of extinction: perturbed colonies tended to adjust their composition over two generations to match the ratio characteristic of their native site, thus promoting their long-term survival in their natal habitat. However, colonies of displaced individuals continued to shift their compositions towards mixtures that would have promoted their survival had they remained at their home sites, regardless of their contemporary environment. Thus, the regulatory mechanisms that colonies use to adjust their composition appear to be locally adapted. Our data provide experimental evidence of group selection driving collective traits in wild populations.

  15. The Effects of Music and Group Stage on Group Leader and Member Behavior in Psychoeducational Groups for Children of Divorce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cercone, Kristin; DeLucia-Waack, Janice

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of music and group stage on group process and group leader and member behavior within 8-week psychoeducational groups for children of divorce. Audiotapes of group sessions were rated using the Interactional Process Analysis and the Group Sessions Ratings Scale. Both treatment groups were very similar in terms of…

  16. 75 FR 47631 - Swets Information Services, Operations Department, Information Technology Group, Marketing Group...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... Technology Group, Marketing Group, Finance Group, Runnemede, NJ; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility... investigation combined the Operations Department, Information Technology (IT) Group, Marketing Group and the... Information Services, Operations Department, Information Technology Group, Marketing Group, and......

  17. Projected motion group for vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Masaru

    1993-12-01

    For the image understanding and patten recognitions, it is important to extract invariant features from given images corresponding to various transformations. Once the invariant features are obtained, we can estimate motion parameters and/or categorize objects into equivalent classes based on some criterions. So many techniques to extract invariant features are proposed, and most of them need exact matching between an image before transformation and another image after transformation. But this matching process is not easy to perform. Then we propose a group theoretical method, which does not require a matching process. In this paper, we show the bases of the representation of the perspective projected motion group and those of the spherical projected motion group explicitly.

  18. A virtual team group process.

    PubMed

    Bell, Marnie; Robertson, Della; Weeks, Marlene; Yu, Deborah

    2002-01-01

    Virtual teams are a phenomenon of the Information Era and their existence in health care is anticipated to increase with technology enhancements such as telehealth and groupware. The mobilization and support of high performing virtual teams are important for leading knowledge-based health professionals in the 21st century. Using an adapted McGrath group development model, the four staged maturation process of a virtual team consisting of four masters students is explored in this paper. The team's development is analyzed addressing the interaction of technology with social and task dynamics. Throughout the project, leadership competencies of value to the group that emerged were demonstrated and incorporated into the development of a leadership competency assessment instrument. The demonstration of these competencies illustrated how they were valued and internalized by the group. In learning about the work of this virtual team, the reader will gain understanding of how leadership impacts virtual team performance.

  19. Polyimides with pendant alkyl groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, B. J.; Young, P. R.

    1982-01-01

    The effect on selected polyimide properties when pendant alkyl groups were attached to the polymer backbone was investigated. A series of polymers were prepared using benzophenone tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride (BTDA) and seven different p-alkyl-m,p'-diaminobenzophenone monomers. The alkyl groups varied in length from C(1) (methyl) to C(9) (nonyl). The polyimide prepared from BTDA and m,p'-diaminobenzophenone was included as a control. All polymers were characterized by various chromatographic, spectroscopic, thermal, and mechanical techniques. Increasing the length of the pendant alkyl group resulted in a systematic decrease in glass transition temperature (Tg) for vacuum cured films. A 70 C decrease in Tg to 193 C was observed for the nonyl polymer compared to the Tg for the control. A corresponding systematic increase in Tg indicative of crosslinking, was observed for air cured films. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed a slight sacrifice in thermal stability with increasing alkyl length. No improvement in film toughness was observed.

  20. CFCC working group meeting: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    This report is a compilation of the vugraphs presented at this meeting. Presentations covered are: CFCC Working Group; Overview of study on applications for advanced ceramics in industries for the future; Design codes and data bases: The CFCC program and its involvement in ASTM, ISO, ASME, and military handbook 17 activities; CFCC Working Group meeting (McDermott Technology); CFCC Working Group meeting (Textron); CFCC program for DMO materials; Developments in PIP-derived CFCCs; Toughened Silcomp (SiC-Si) composites for gas turbine engine applications; CFCC program for CVI materials; Self-lubricating CFCCs for diesel engine applications; Overview of the CFCC program`s supporting technologies task; Life prediction methodologies for CFCC components; Environmental testing of CFCCs in combustion gas environments; High-temperature particle filtration ORNL/DCC CRADA; HSCT CMC combustor; and Case study -- CFCC shroud for industrial gas turbines.

  1. Bacterial Surface-Displayed GII.4 Human Norovirus Capsid Proteins Bound to HBGA-Like Molecules in Romaine Lettuce

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ming; Rong, Shaofeng; Tian, Peng; Zhou, Yue; Guan, Shimin; Li, Qianqian; Wang, Dapeng

    2017-01-01

    Human Noroviruses (HuNoVs) are the main cause of non-bacterial gastroenteritis. Contaminated produce is a main vehicle for dissemination of HuNoVs. In this study, we used an ice nucleation protein mediated surface display system to present the protruding domain of GII.4 HuNoV capsid protein on bacterial surface and used it as a new strategy to explore interaction between HuNoV protein and receptor candidates from romaine lettuce. The surface-displayed HuNoV proteins were confirmed on the surface of the transformed bacteria by an immunofluorescence assay. The distribution patterns of the surface-displayed HuNoV proteins in romaine lettuce were identified through a confocal immunofluorescence assay. The surface-displayed HuNoV proteins could be found in the stomata, and the surfaces of vein and leaf of romaine lettuce. The surface-displayed HuNoV proteins could be captured by an ELISA assay utilizing extract from leaf (LE) or vein (VE). The binding of the surface-displayed HuNoV proteins to LE or VE could be competitively blocked by histo-blood group antigens from human saliva. In addition, the binding of the surface-displayed HuNoV proteins to LE or VE could also be attenuated by heat denaturation of lettuce proteins, and abolished by oxidation of lettuce carbohydrates. The results indicated that histo-blood group antigen-like molecules in LE or VE were involved in the binding of the surface-displayed HuNoV proteins to romaine lettuce. All data demonstrated that the surface-displayed HuNoV proteins could be utilized in a new and simple system for investigation of the interaction between the HuNoVs and their candidate ligands. PMID:28265267

  2. Bacterial Surface-Displayed GII.4 Human Norovirus Capsid Proteins Bound to HBGA-Like Molecules in Romaine Lettuce.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming; Rong, Shaofeng; Tian, Peng; Zhou, Yue; Guan, Shimin; Li, Qianqian; Wang, Dapeng

    2017-01-01

    Human Noroviruses (HuNoVs) are the main cause of non-bacterial gastroenteritis. Contaminated produce is a main vehicle for dissemination of HuNoVs. In this study, we used an ice nucleation protein mediated surface display system to present the protruding domain of GII.4 HuNoV capsid protein on bacterial surface and used it as a new strategy to explore interaction between HuNoV protein and receptor candidates from romaine lettuce. The surface-displayed HuNoV proteins were confirmed on the surface of the transformed bacteria by an immunofluorescence assay. The distribution patterns of the surface-displayed HuNoV proteins in romaine lettuce were identified through a confocal immunofluorescence assay. The surface-displayed HuNoV proteins could be found in the stomata, and the surfaces of vein and leaf of romaine lettuce. The surface-displayed HuNoV proteins could be captured by an ELISA assay utilizing extract from leaf (LE) or vein (VE). The binding of the surface-displayed HuNoV proteins to LE or VE could be competitively blocked by histo-blood group antigens from human saliva. In addition, the binding of the surface-displayed HuNoV proteins to LE or VE could also be attenuated by heat denaturation of lettuce proteins, and abolished by oxidation of lettuce carbohydrates. The results indicated that histo-blood group antigen-like molecules in LE or VE were involved in the binding of the surface-displayed HuNoV proteins to romaine lettuce. All data demonstrated that the surface-displayed HuNoV proteins could be utilized in a new and simple system for investigation of the interaction between the HuNoVs and their candidate ligands.

  3. Bell Inequalities and Group Symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolonek-Lasoń, Katarzyna

    2017-03-01

    Recently the method based on irreducible representations of finite groups has been proposed as a tool for investigating the more sophisticated versions of Bell inequalities (V. Ugǔr Gűney, M. Hillery, Phys. Rev. A90, 062121 ([2014]) and Phys. Rev. A91, 052110 ([2015])). In the present paper an example based on the symmetry group S 4 is considered. The Bell inequality violation due to the symmetry properties of regular tetrahedron is described. A nonlocal game based on the inequalities derived is described and it is shown that the violation of Bell inequality implies that the quantum strategies outperform their classical counterparts.

  4. SEEDS Moving Group Status Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McElwain, Michael

    2011-01-01

    I will summarize the current status of the SEEDS Moving Group category and describe the importance of this sub-sample for the entire SEEDS survey. This presentation will include analysis of the sensitivity for the Moving Groups with general a comparison to other the other sub-categories. I will discuss the future impact of the Subaru SCExAO system for these targets and the advantage of using a specialized integral field spectrograph. Finally, I will present the impact of a pupil grid mask in order to produce fiducial spots in the focal plane that can be used for both photometry and astrometry.

  5. Properties of intra-group stars and galaxies in galaxy groups: `normal' versus `fossil' groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer-Larsen, Jesper

    2006-06-01

    Cosmological [cold dark matter (ΛCDM)] TreeSPH simulations of the formation and evolution of 12 galaxy groups of virial mass ~1014Msolar have been performed. The simulations invoke star formation, chemical evolution with non-instantaneous recycling, metallicity-dependent radiative cooling, strong star-burst driven galactic super-winds and effects of a meta-galactic ultraviolet (UV) field. The intra-group (IG) stars are found to contribute 12-45 per cent of the total group B-band luminosity at z = 0. The lowest fractions are found for groups with only a small difference between the R-band magnitudes of the first and second ranked group galaxy (Δm12,R <~ 0.5), the larger fractions are typical of `fossil' groups (FGs, Δm12,R >= 2). A similar conclusion is obtained from BVRIJK surface brightness profiles of the IG star populations. The IG stars in the four FGs are found to be older than the ones in the eight `normal' groups (non-FGs), on average by about 0.3-0.5 Gyr. The typical colour of the IG stellar population is B - R = 1.4-1.5, for both types of systems in good agreement with observations. The mean iron abundance of the IG stars is slightly sub-solar in the central part of the groups (r ~ 100 kpc) decreasing to about 40 per cent solar at about half the virial radius. The IG stars are α-element enhanced with a trend of [O/Fe] increasing with r and an overall [O/Fe] ~ 0.45 dex, indicative of dominant enrichment from Type II supernovae. The abundance properties are similar for both types of systems. The velocity distributions of the IG stars are, at r >~ 30 kpc, significantly more radially anisotropic for FGs than for the non-FGs; this also holds for the velocity distributions of the group galaxies. This indicates that an important characteristic determining whether a group becomes fossil or not, apart from its formation time, as discussed by D'Onghia et al., is the `initial' velocity distribution of the group galaxies. For FGs, one can dynamically infer the

  6. Task Group 9 Update (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Bosco, N.

    2014-04-01

    This presentation is a brief update of IEC TC82 QA Task Force, Group 9. Presented is an outline of the recently submitted New Work Item Proposal (NWIP) for a Comparative Thermal Cycling Test for CPV Modules to Differentiate Thermal Fatigue Durability.

  7. Polyhedral Painting with Group Averaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farris, Frank A.; Tsao, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    The technique of "group-averaging" produces colorings of a sphere that have the symmetries of various polyhedra. The concepts are accessible at the undergraduate level, without being well-known in typical courses on algebra or geometry. The material makes an excellent discovery project, especially for students with some background in…

  8. Assessing Contributions to Group Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lucy; Miles, Lynden

    2004-01-01

    We report the use of a combination of self- and peer-assessment in an undergraduate social psychology laboratory course. Students worked in small groups on a self-directed empirical project that they each wrote up independently as a laboratory report. Marks for the written assignment were moderated by a contribution index measure based on the…

  9. Bracket relations for relativity groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Thomas F.

    2016-11-01

    Poisson bracket relations for generators of canonical transformations are derived directly from the Galilei and Poincaré groups of space-time coordinate changes. The method is simple but rigorous. The meaning of each step is clear, because it corresponds to an operation in the group of changes of space-time coordinates. Only products and inverses are used; differences are not used. It is made explicitly clear why constants occur in some bracket relations but not in others and how some constants can be removed, so that in the end there is a constant in the bracket relations for the Galilei group but not for the Poincaré group. Each change of coordinates needs to be only to first order, so matrices are not needed for rotations or Lorentz transformations; simple three-vector descriptions are enough. Conversion to quantum mechanics is immediate. One result is a simpler derivation of the commutation relations for angular momentum directly from rotations. Problems are included.

  10. Group Contagion: The Mailbox Melee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, William C.

    2010-01-01

    In a group situation, something goes wrong but no individual feels personal responsibility. This is called the "pie" phenomenon because everybody has a piece of the action, but all believe they are innocent. Each contributes to contagion and chaos but all say, "We didn't do nothing." In this article, the author, a pioneer in work with troubled…

  11. Censorship: Pressure Groups and Boycotts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Fred

    1978-01-01

    Records ABC President Fred Silverman's 1977 speech to the American Association of Advertising Agencies emphasizing the potential harm inherent in pressure groups and boycott's increasing power over broadcasters and advertisers. Available from: Vital Speeches of the Day, City News Publishing Company, Box 606, Southold, New York 11971. (MH)

  12. Professional Women's Groups, May 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of American Colleges, Washington, DC. Project on the Status and Education of Women.

    This document lists in alphabetical order the addresses, phone numbers, subgroup titles (if applicable), and the names and addresses of directors/ chairpersons of professional women's organizations. An asterisk indicates whether or not a group offers services in the areas of employment opportunities, such as a roster of women for employees seeking…

  13. Healthy Thinking: A Group Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, Janet N.; Carty, Laurie

    1994-01-01

    A "Healthy Thinking" group, based on a modified Aaron Beck Cognitive Therapy model, teaches depressed clients to realistically appraise their experiences by monitoring and changing distorted thinking. Clients learn that situational stress activates long held assumptions (negative beliefs) leading to distorted thinking and ultimately…

  14. How Book Groups Bring Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoerr, Thomas R.

    2009-01-01

    Teachers and administrators need opportunities to share perceptions, consider possibilities, and forge solutions. Faculty book groups are a powerful tool to create organic solutions with wide ownership. They are great for spurring true professional development. In this article, the author shares how the teachers at New City School have met…

  15. Control systems on Lie groups.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurdjevic, V.; Sussmann, H. J.

    1972-01-01

    The controllability properties of systems which are described by an evolution equation in a Lie group are studied. The revelant Lie algebras induced by a right invariant system are singled out, and the basic properties of attainable sets are derived. The homogeneous case and the general case are studied, and results are interpreted in terms of controllability. Five examples are given.

  16. TROPIX plasma interactions group report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herr, Joel L.; Chock, Ricaurte

    1993-01-01

    The purpose is to summarize the spacecraft charging analysis conducted by the plasma interactions group during the period from April 1993 to July 1993, on the proposed TROPIX spacecraft, and to make design recommendations which will limit the detrimental effects introduced by spacecraft charging. The recommendations were presented to the TROPIX study team at a Technical Review meeting held on 15 July 1993.

  17. Prior Distributions on Symmetric Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Jayanti; Damien, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Fully and partially ranked data arise in a variety of contexts. From a Bayesian perspective, attention has focused on distance-based models; in particular, the Mallows model and extensions thereof. In this paper, a class of prior distributions, the "Binary Tree," is developed on the symmetric group. The attractive features of the class are: it…

  18. Distributed Leadership in Online Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gressick, Julia; Derry, Sharon J.

    2010-01-01

    We conducted research within a program serving future mathematics and science teachers. Groups of teachers worked primarily online in an asynchronous discussion environment on a 6-week task in which they applied learning-science ideas acquired from an educational psychology course to design interdisciplinary instructional units. We employed an…

  19. Social Group Work in Hospitals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stambler, Moses

    This literature review focuses on social group work in the hospital setting. The first section addresses the need for a holistic approach within a typology of illness, and discusses the social work role and intervention tasks required at different stages of illness, i.e., diagnosis, adaptation to long-term illness, and the ending of the illness…

  20. Learning Opportunities for Group Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gil, Alfonso J.; Mataveli, Mara

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to analyse the impact of organizational learning culture and learning facilitators in group learning. Design/methodology/approach: This study was conducted using a survey method applied to a statistically representative sample of employees from Rioja wine companies in Spain. A model was tested using a structural equation…

  1. Brucellosis in Occupationally Exposed Groups

    PubMed Central

    Sajjan, Annapurna G.; Mohite, Shivajirao T.; Gajul, Shivali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In India, high incidence of human brucellosis may be expected, as the conditions conducive for human brucellosis exist. Limited studies have been undertaken on human brucellosis especially in occupationally-exposed groups. Aim To estimate prevalence of anti-brucellar antibodies, evaluate the clinical manifestations, risk factors and Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) levels about brucellosis among occupationally exposed groups. Materials and Methods Blood samples were collected from 2337 occupationally exposed individuals. The serum samples were screened for the presence of anti-brucellar antibodies by Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT), Serum Agglutination Test (SAT) and 2-Mercaptoethanol test (2-ME). Clinical manifestations, risk factors and KAP levels were evaluated by personal interview using a structured questionnaire. Results Seroprevalence of brucellosis by RBPT, SAT and 2-ME test was 9.46%, 4.45% and 3.64 % respectively. Clinical symptoms resembling brucellosis were seen in 91 subjects. The major risk factors were animal exposure in veterinarians and abattoirs, both animal exposure and raw milk ingestion in farmers and shepherds, exposure to raw milk and its ingestion in dairy workers and exposure to Brucella culture in laboratory workers. Except laboratory workers, few veterinarians and dairy workers none had heard about brucellosis. KAP levels regarding brucellosis were too poor in all the groups except laboratory workers. Conclusion Brucellosis most of the times was missed or misdiagnosed. Regular screenings for brucellosis and awareness programmes to increase KAP levels are necessary to control brucellosis in occupationally exposed groups. PMID:27190804

  2. Group dialogue empowers Brazilian women.

    PubMed

    Badiani, R; Becker, J

    1995-11-01

    In response to an alarming rise in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among Brazilian women during the early 1990s, the Sociedade Civil Bem-Estar Familiar no Brazil (BEMFAM) developed a project that integrates HIV prevention with clinical services, community-based prevention activities, and sexually transmitted disease diagnosis and treatment. Preliminary interviews with clinic clients revealed that women's fears they would be considered unfaithful were impeding their ability to suggest condom use to their sexual partners. Condom use within a relationship was considered appropriate only for pregnancy prevention. To facilitate dialogue about sexual health, BEMFAM developed a women's group intervention project. All women who attend a BEMFAM clinic are invited to participate in a one-hour group discussion before receiving medical services. Novela-style booklets with stories and characters women can relate to their own lives are used to stimulate discussion. Participants learn to use condoms correctly by putting them on a penis model and anticipate situations in which they would be able to negotiate condom use. The group setting enables women to gain confidence and practice assertiveness in a non-threatening, supportive environment. Their identification with other women's stories empowers women to take control of their health and sexual lives. Between October 1994 and July 1995, 3464 women participated in group discussions organized by BEMFAM and 40,688 condoms were distributed; 18% of these women returned to the clinic for additional condoms.

  3. Theoretical Studies Of Group IVA And Group IVB Chemistry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-20

    reaction paths. The R(-7) dispersion terms was also derived and coded. While most workers ignore the odd power dispersion terms, these terms can be...second order perturbation theory (MP2) to help explain the experimental results of the Fayer group on phenol migration dynamics. An exhaustive...2013) 3. L. Kocia, S. Young, Y. Kholod, M. Gordon, M. Fayer, and A. Rappe, “Theoretical Examination of Picosecond Phenol Migration Dynamics in

  4. Quantum groups: Geometry and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Chong -Sun

    1996-05-13

    The main theme of this thesis is a study of the geometry of quantum groups and quantum spaces, with the hope that they will be useful for the construction of quantum field theory with quantum group symmetry. The main tool used is the Faddeev-Reshetikhin-Takhtajan description of quantum groups. A few content-rich examples of quantum complex spaces with quantum group symmetry are treated in details. In chapter 1, the author reviews some of the basic concepts and notions for Hopf algebras and other background materials. In chapter 2, he studies the vector fields of quantum groups. A compact realization of these vector fields as pseudodifferential operators acting on the linear quantum spaces is given. In chapter 3, he describes the quantum sphere as a complex quantum manifold by means of a quantum stereographic projection. A covariant calculus is introduced. An interesting property of this calculus is the existence of a one-form realization of the exterior differential operator. The concept of a braided comodule is introduced and a braided algebra of quantum spheres is constructed. In chapter 4, the author considers the more general higher dimensional quantum complex projective spaces and the quantum Grassman manifolds. Differential calculus, integration and braiding can be introduced as in the one dimensional case. Finally, in chapter 5, he studies the framework of quantum principal bundle and construct the q-deformed Dirac monopole as a quantum principal bundle with a quantum sphere as the base and a U(1) with non-commutative calculus as the fiber. The first Chern class can be introduced and integrated to give the monopole charge.

  5. 77 FR 74099 - Reestablishment of Advisory Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    .... Reestablishing the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health. The Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health (Advisory Group), as...

  6. Working Group Report: Quantum Chromodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J. M.

    2013-10-18

    This is the summary report of the energy frontier QCD working group prepared for Snowmass 2013. We review the status of tools, both theoretical and experimental, for understanding the strong interactions at colliders. We attempt to prioritize important directions that future developments should take. Most of the efforts of the QCD working group concentrate on proton-proton colliders, at 14 TeV as planned for the next run of the LHC, and for 33 and 100 TeV, possible energies of the colliders that will be necessary to carry on the physics program started at 14 TeV. We also examine QCD predictions and measurements at lepton-lepton and lepton-hadron colliders, and in particular their ability to improve our knowledge of strong coupling constant and parton distribution functions.

  7. SETI science working group report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, F.; Wolfe, J. H.; Seeger, C. L.

    1984-01-01

    This report covers the initial activities and deliberations of a continuing working group asked to assist the SETI Program Office at NASA. Seven chapters present the group's consensus on objectives, strategies, and plans for instrumental R&D and for a microwave search for extraterrestrial in intelligence (SETI) projected for the end of this decade. Thirteen appendixes reflect the views of their individual authors. Included are discussions of the 8-million-channel spectrum analyzer architecture and the proof-of-concept device under development; signal detection, recognition, and identification on-line in the presence of noise and radio interference; the 1-10 GHz sky survey and the 1-3 GHz targeted search envisaged; and the mutual interests of SETI and radio astronomy. The report ends with a selective, annotated SETI reading list of pro and contra SETI publications.

  8. Radiation sources working group summary

    SciTech Connect

    Fazio, M.V.

    1998-12-31

    The Radiation Sources Working Group addressed advanced concepts for the generation of RF energy to power advanced accelerators. The focus of the working group included advanced sources and technologies above 17 GHz. The topics discussed included RF sources above 17 GHz, pulse compression techniques to achieve extreme peak power levels, components technology, technology limitations and physical limits, and other advanced concepts. RF sources included gyroklystrons, magnicons, free-electron masers, two beam accelerators, and gyroharmonic and traveling wave devices. Technology components discussed included advanced cathodes and electron guns, high temperature superconductors for producing magnetic fields, RF breakdown physics and mitigation, and phenomena that impact source design such as fatigue in resonant structures due to RF heating. New approaches for RF source diagnostics located internal to the source were discussed for detecting plasma and beam phenomena existing in high energy density electrodynamic systems in order to help elucidate the reasons for performance limitations.

  9. Conducting Research with Community Groups

    PubMed Central

    Doornbos, Mary Molewyk; Ayoola, Adejoke; Topp, Robert; Zandee, Gail Landheer

    2016-01-01

    Nurse scientists are increasingly recognizing the necessity of conducting research with community groups to effectively address complex health problems and successfully translate scientific advancements into the community. While several barriers to conducting research with community groups exist, community based participatory research (CBPR) has the potential to mitigate these barriers. CBPR has been employed in programs of research that respond in culturally sensitive ways to identify community needs and thereby address current health disparities. This manuscript presents case studies that demonstrate how CBPR principles guided the development of: (a) a healthy body weight program for urban, underserved African-American women, (b) a reproductive health educational intervention for urban, low-income, underserved, ethnically diverse women, and (c) a pilot anxiety/depression intervention for urban, low-income, underserved, ethnically diverse women. These case studies illustrate the potential of CBPR as an orientation to research that can be employed effectively in non-research intensive academic environments. PMID:25724557

  10. Groups of Groups: The Role of Group Learning in Building Social Capital. CRLRA Discussion Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilpatrick, Sue; Bell, Rowena; Falk, Ian

    The Centre for Research and Learning in Regional Australia is investigating the elements of social capital and developing a set of indicators that show when social capital is building. The indicators can be used where groups or organizations with a shared purpose engage in productive interactions that benefit not only the individual member groups…

  11. Renormalization group approach to satisfiability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppersmith, S. N.

    2007-02-01

    Satisfiability is a classic problem in computational complexity theory, in which one wishes to determine whether an assignment of values to a collection of Boolean variables exists in which all of a collection of clauses composed of logical ORs of these variables is true. Here, a renormalization group transformation is constructed and used to relate the properties of satisfiability problems with different numbers of variables in each clause. The transformation yields new insight into phase transitions delineating "hard" and "easy" satisfiability problems.

  12. Multiple group rape: psychosocial considerations.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, J W

    1979-02-01

    Psychiatric examination of the participants in repeated episodes of rape demonstrated that sexual assault combined with stealing represents symbolically an attack upon the bad mother, such hostile acting out enabling the individual to defend against strong, but ambivalent, wishes to be nurtured. Separation from home in each case was considered a crucial precipitant of such behavior. It is suggested that exhibitionistic-voyeuristic conflict may be an important determinant of whether or not rape is committed in group fashion.

  13. Visualization and Modeling Working Group

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, S.J.; Dodrill, K.A.

    2007-03-01

    During the 2005 Hurricane season, many consequence predictions were available from 36 to 96 hours before landfalls, via the Department of Energy’s Visualization and Modeling Working Group (VMWG). Real-time data can be tapped by local officials and utilities, and can also be accessed for post-event regulatory audits. An overview of VMWG’s models, results and uses will be presented.

  14. Pollutant Assessments Group Procedures Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Chavarria, D.E.; Davidson, J.R.; Espegren, M.L.; Kearl, P.M.; Knott, R.R.; Pierce, G.A.; Retolaza, C.D.; Smuin, D.R.; Wilson, M.J.; Witt, D.A. ); Conklin, N.G.; Egidi, P.V.; Ertel, D.B.; Foster, D.S.; Krall, B.J.; Meredith, R.L.; Rice, J.A.; Roemer, E.K. )

    1991-02-01

    This procedures manual combines the existing procedures for radiological and chemical assessment of hazardous wastes used by the Pollutant Assessments Group at the time of manuscript completion (October 1, 1990). These procedures will be revised in an ongoing process to incorporate new developments in hazardous waste assessment technology and changes in administrative policy and support procedures. Format inconsistencies will be corrected in subsequent revisions of individual procedures.

  15. Faint dwarfs in nearby groups

    SciTech Connect

    Speller, Ryan; Taylor, James E. E-mail: taylor@uwaterloo.ca

    2014-06-20

    The number and distribution of dwarf satellite galaxies remain a critical test of cold dark matter-dominated structure formation on small scales. Until recently, observational information about galaxy formation on these scales has been limited mainly to the Local Group. We have searched for faint analogues of Local Group dwarfs around nearby bright galaxies, using a spatial clustering analysis of the photometric catalog of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8. Several other recent searches of SDSS have detected clustered satellite populations down to Δm{sub r} ≡ (m{sub r,} {sub sat} – m{sub r,} {sub main}) ∼ 6-8, using photometric redshifts to reduce background contamination. SDSS photometric redshifts are relatively imprecise, however, for faint and nearby galaxies. Instead, we use angular size to select potential nearby dwarfs and consider only the nearest isolated bright galaxies as primaries. As a result, we are able to detect an excess clustering signal from companions down to Δm{sub r} = 12, 4 mag fainter than most recent studies. We detect an overdensity of objects at separations <400 kpc, corresponding to about 4.6 ± 0.5 satellites per central galaxy, consistent with the satellite abundance expected from the Local Group, given our selection function. Although the sample of satellites detected is incomplete by construction, since it excludes the least and most compact dwarfs, this detection provides a lower bound on the average satellite luminosity function, down to luminosities corresponding to the faintest ''classical'' dwarfs of the Local Group.

  16. Historic Radio Astronomy Working Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-06-01

    This special issue of Astronomische Nachrichten contains the proceedings of a session of the Historic Radio Astronomy Working Group of the International Astronomical Union that took place during the 26th General Assembly of the IAU in Prague on 17th August 2006. In addition to the talks presented in Prague some contributions were solicited to give a more complete overview of `The Early History of European Radio Astronomy'.

  17. The Iraq Study Group Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    Capitol Hill meeting hosted by U.S. Senator John Warner and attended by congressional leaders from both sides of the aisle. To support the Study...advisor to the Study Group; John Williams, Policy Assistant to Mr. Baker; and Ben Rhodes, Special Assistant to Mr. Hamilton. Richard H. Solomon...M. Abshire, President Center for the Study of the Presidency John J. Hamre, President Center for Strategic and International Studies 65 Iraq

  18. Physical Demands Study - Focus Groups

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-26

    BFV CAT FAASV FS3 GLPS HEl-T IOTV JAQ LLDR LRAS3 MK19 MOPMS MOS NCO SME TOW TRADOC USARIEM LIST OF ACRONYMS Armored Knight...Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine v AKV APOBS BFV CAT FAASV FS3 GLPS HEl-T IOTV JAQ LLDR LRAS3 MK19 MOP MS MOS NCO...the Carrier Ammunition Track ( CAT ) task. Soldiers in the senior enlisted’ 138 focus group reported the most frequently performed tasks in training

  19. California Tsunami Policy Working Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Real, C. R.; Johnson, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    California has established a Tsunami Policy Working Group of specialists from government and industry, from diverse fields including tsunami, seismic, and flood hazards, local and regional planning, structural engineering, natural hazard policy, and coastal engineering that have come together to facilitate the development of policy recommendations for tsunami hazard mitigation. The group is acting on findings from two major efforts: the USGS SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) Project - Tsunami Scenario, a comprehensive impact analysis of a large credible tsunami originating from a M 9.0 earthquake on the Aleutian Islands striking California's Coastline, and the State's Tsunami Hazard Mitigation and Education Program carried out by the California Emergency Management Agency and the California Geological Survey. The latter program is currently involved with several projects to help coastal communities reduce their tsunami risk, including two pilot projects (Crescent City in Del Norte County and the City of Huntington Beach in Orange County) where tsunami risk is among the highest in California, and a third pilot study focusing on the maritime community. The pilot projects are developing and testing probabilistic tsunami hazard products that will assist land-use and construction decisions for coastal development. The role of the policy group is to identify gaps and issues in current tsunami hazard mitigation, make recommendations that will help eliminate these impediments and to provide advice that will assist in the development and implementation of effective tsunami hazard products that will help coastal communities improve tsunami resiliency.

  20. Interobject grouping facilitates visual awareness.

    PubMed

    Stein, Timo; Kaiser, Daniel; Peelen, Marius V

    2015-01-01

    In organizing perception, the human visual system takes advantage of regularities in the visual input to perceptually group related image elements. Simple stimuli that can be perceptually grouped based on physical regularities, for example by forming an illusory contour, have a competitive advantage in entering visual awareness. Here, we show that regularities that arise from the relative positioning of complex, meaningful objects in the visual environment also modulate visual awareness. Using continuous flash suppression, we found that pairs of objects that were positioned according to real-world spatial regularities (e.g., a lamp above a table) accessed awareness more quickly than the same object pairs shown in irregular configurations (e.g., a table above a lamp). This advantage was specific to upright stimuli and abolished by stimulus inversion, meaning that it did not reflect physical stimulus confounds or the grouping of simple image elements. Thus, knowledge of the spatial configuration of objects in the environment shapes the contents of conscious perception.

  1. Access grid: Immersive group-to-group collaborative visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Childers, L.; Disz, T.; Olson, R.; Papka, M. E.; Stevens, R.; Udeshi, T.

    2000-07-12

    Immersive projection displays have played an important role in enabling large-format virtual reality systems such as the CAVE and CAVE like devices and the various immersive desks and desktop-like displays. However, these devices have played a minor role so far in advancing the sense of immersion for conferencing systems. The Access Grid project led by Argonne is exploring the use of large-scale projection based systems as the basis for building room oriented collaboration and semi-immersive visualization systems. The authors believe these multi-projector systems will become common infrastructure in the future, largely based on their value for enabling group-to-group collaboration in an environment that can also support large-format projector based visualization. Creating a strong sense of immersion is an important goal for future collaboration technologies. Immersion in conferencing applications implies that the users can rely on natural sight and audio cues to facilitate interactions with participants at remote sites. The Access Grid is a low cost environment aimed primarily at supporting conferencing applications, but it also enables semi-immersive visualization and in particular, remote visualization. In this paper, they describe the current state of the Access Grid project and how it relates and compares to other environments. They also discuss augmentations to the Access Grid that will enable it to support more immersive visualizations. These enhancements include stereo, higher performance rendering support, tracking and non-uniform projection surface.

  2. How Do Children Share Information in Groups?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gummerum, Michaela; Leman, Patrick J.; Hollins, Tara S.

    2014-01-01

    Group decision making should be particularly beneficial when group members share unique information, because then a group can make a better decision than each group member alone. This study examined how elementary-school children share unique information during group decision making. Seventy-nine groups of 3 same-sex and same-age 7- and 9-year-old…

  3. Population groups in dietary transition

    PubMed Central

    Wändell, Per E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about the effects of dietary acculturation in minority groups in the Nordic countries, including immigrants from non-Western societies. Methods A search was performed in Medlin33e/PubMed and SweMed+ for articles published in 1990–2011. Results A total of 840 articles were identified, with a final 32 articles used to tabulate results which were included in the primary analysis. High rates of vitamin D deficiency (23 articles) were found in immigrants of non-Western origin; deficiency rates were very high among both pregnant and non-pregnant women, and also among children, with young children of immigrant parents showing 50 times higher risk for rickets when compared to children of indigenous parents. The risk of iron deficiency (two articles) was high among immigrant women, while the results were inconclusive regarding children. High rates of dental caries (seven articles) were found among pre-school and younger school children of immigrant origin, while the risk of caries was not as evident among older children. In a secondary analysis, including 48 articles (results not tabulated), overweight and obesity (14 articles) were seen in many immigrant groups, resulting in a high prevalence of diabetes (2 review articles from a total of 14 original articles) and incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD; seven articles). For hypertension (three articles), dyslipidemia (four articles), and dietary patterns among immigrants (10 articles), the results were contradictory. Conclusions Risk of vitamin D deficiency is alarmingly high in the Nordic countries among immigrants of non-Western origin, especially among women. Dental caries is high among immigrant children aged 0–7 years due to a higher intake of sugary products. Overweight and obesity, associated with a higher risk of diabetes and CHD, are prevalent in many immigrant groups and need further attention. PMID:24106456

  4. NASA's Software Bank (Signal Group)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A COSMIC program helped the Signal Group to provide a communications system linking a desert area without communications facilities to civilization. The system was developed for a hunting party of wealthy Middle Eastern men. The latest in two-way radio technology was incorporated into a portable system with a small inflatable tethered blimp, which served as a solar-powered relay station. The program, Transverse Mercator Map Projection of the Spheroid Using Transformation of the Elliptic Integral, enabled the company to develop the system without the aid of accurate satellite derived terrain data.

  5. Perception of Persons in Groups.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    F. A spreading-activation model of semantic processing. Psychological Review , 1975, 92, 407-422. G1arner, W. R., lake, H. W. & Eriksen, C. W...Operationism and the concept of perception. Psychological Review , 1956, 63, 149-159. Johnson, N. The memorial structure of organized sequences. Memory and...AD-A096 080 OHIO STATE UNIV COLUMBUS DEPT OF PSYCHOLOGY F/6 510 PERCEPTION OF PERSONS IN GROUPS. (U) DEC GO J 8 PRYOR, T M OSTROM NOOOIV-79-C-0027

  6. SSC muon detector group report

    SciTech Connect

    Carlsmith, D.; Groom, D.; Hedin, D.; Kirk, T.; Ohsugi, T.; Reeder, D.; Rosner, J.; Wojcicki, S.

    1986-01-01

    We report here on results from the Muon Detector Group which met to discuss aspects of muon detection for the reference 4..pi.. detector models put forward for evaluation at the Snowmass 1986 Summer Study. We report on: suitable overall detector geometry; muon energy loss mechanisms; muon orbit determination; muon momentum and angle measurement resolution; raw muon rates and trigger concepts; plus we identify SSC physics for which muon detection will play a significant role. We conclude that muon detection at SSC energies and luminosities is feasible and will play an important role in the evolution of physics at the SSC.

  7. Working group 1: Coronal streamers

    SciTech Connect

    Kopp, R.A.

    1994-04-01

    The working group on colonel streamers convened on the first day of the 2nd SOHO Workshop, which took place in Marciana Marina, Isola d`Elba, 27 September--1 October 1993. Recent progress in streamer observational techniques and theoretical modeling was reported. The contribution of streamers to the mass and energy supply for the solar wind was discussed. Moreover, the importance of thin electric current sheets for determining both the gross dynamical properties of streamers and the fine-scale filamentary structure within streamers, was strongly emphasized. Potential advances to our understanding of these areas of colonel physics that could be made by the contingent of instruments aboard SOHO were pointed out.

  8. Autonomous Spacecraft Maintenance Study Group.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    ADOAIOO 318 JETOPROPULSION LAB PASADENA CA F/G 9/2 AUTONOMOUS SPACECRAFT MAINTENANCE STUDY GROUP(U) FEB 81 M H MARSHALL, G D LOW NAS7-100...for pUblio release AW AIR 1912a(T) D1etribution 13 Umlalt~ d , (7b). A. D . BLOSE -7 The research described in this pubi’cation was carried out by the Jet...Rettriek (Jill I Academic Assessment Committee iKDAMac (~jf.IIht~i~srtt D I I I I1. ), ’I ,lil I. I 1 i i t: c; Jill I h-0 K IfItt,1 fIIlkc I IV

  9. Computer Programming and Group Theory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    the following: SO is the null subgroup S1 = ( eO el e2 ) The above was a very quick walk -through of the group generation options of the system. We will...depth-of-canonical form) first element - canionical form~m] En]; hold =n; ++n; while(canionicatlform(m][n] I 1 \\0’) if(first-element > canonical...canonicalform - 0) m z 0; first element = canonical forin~m] En]; hold = m; ++m; while(m :depth of canionical form) if(first-element < canonical-formlm

  10. Neonatal group B streptococcal meningitis.

    PubMed Central

    Mulder, C J; Zanen, H C

    1984-01-01

    Bacteriological and clinical data on 68 children with neonatal group B streptococcal meningitis were analysed as part of a wider study of bacterial meningitis undertaken between 1976 and 1982. Twenty five per cent of patients died and there was no difference in the mortality rate between early and late onset disease. Sixteen per cent of the infants weighed less than 2500 g at birth but in 50% no predisposing aetiological factor was found. Streptococcus agalactiae type III was isolated in 57% of the patients. PMID:6375583

  11. Thermal Control Working Group report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haslett, Robert; Mahefkey, E. Thomas

    1986-01-01

    The Thermal Control Working Group limited its evaluation to issues associated with Earth orbiting and planetary spacecraft with power levels up to 50 kW. It was concluded that the space station technology is a necessary precursor but does not meet S/C 2000 needs (life, high heat flux, long term cryogenics, and survivability). Additional basic and applied research are required (fluid/materials compatibility and two phase system modeling). Scaling, the key issue, must define accelerated life test criteria. The two phase systems require 0g to 1 g correlation. Additional ground test beds are required and combined space environment tests of materials.

  12. Renormalization group in internal space

    SciTech Connect

    Polonyi, J.; Sailer, K.

    2005-01-15

    Renormalization group in the internal space consists of the gradual change of the coupling constants. Functional evolution equations corresponding to the change of the mass or the coupling constant are presented in the framework of a scalar model. The evolution in the mass which yields the functional generalization of the Callan-Symanzik equation for the one-particle irreducible effective action is given in its renormalized, cutoff-independent form. The evolution of the coupling constant generates an evolution equation for the two-particle irreducible effective action.

  13. When are emotions related to group-based appraisals? A comparison between group-based emotions and general group emotions.

    PubMed

    Kuppens, Toon; Yzerbyt, Vincent Y

    2014-12-01

    In the literature on emotions in intergroup relations, it is not always clear how exactly emotions are group-related. Here, we distinguish between emotions that involve appraisals of immediate group concerns (i.e., group-based emotions) and emotions that do not. Recently, general group emotions, measured by asking people how they feel "as a group member" but without specifying an object for these emotions, have been conceptualized as reflecting appraisals of group concerns. In contrast, we propose that general group emotions are best seen as emotions about belonging to a group. In two studies, general group emotions were closely related to emotions that are explicitly measured as belonging emotions. Two further studies showed that general group emotions were not related to appraisals of immediate group concerns, whereas group-based emotions were. We argue for more specificity regarding the group-level aspects of emotion that are tapped by emotion measures.

  14. Group Dynamics in Automatic Imitation

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Neil; Reddy, Geetha; Catmur, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Imitation–matching the configural body movements of another individual–plays a crucial part in social interaction. We investigated whether automatic imitation is not only influenced by who we imitate (ingroup vs. outgroup member) but also by the nature of an expected interaction situation (competitive vs. cooperative). In line with assumptions from Social Identity Theory), we predicted that both social group membership and the expected situation impact on the level of automatic imitation. We adopted a 2 (group membership target: ingroup, outgroup) x 2 (situation: cooperative, competitive) design. The dependent variable was the degree to which participants imitated the target in a reaction time automatic imitation task. 99 female students from two British Universities participated. We found a significant two-way interaction on the imitation effect. When interacting in expectation of cooperation, imitation was stronger for an ingroup target compared to an outgroup target. However, this was not the case in the competitive condition where imitation did not differ between ingroup and outgroup target. This demonstrates that the goal structure of an expected interaction will determine the extent to which intergroup relations influence imitation, supporting a social identity approach. PMID:27657926

  15. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Peer; Ejlertsen, Bent; Jensen, Maj-Britt; Mouridsen, Henning

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), with an associated database, was introduced as a nationwide multidisciplinary group in 1977 with the ultimate aim to improve the prognosis in breast cancer. Since then, the database has registered women diagnosed with primary invasive nonmetastatic breast cancer. The data reported from the departments to the database included details of the characteristics of the primary tumor, of surgery, radiotherapy, and systemic therapies, and of follow-up reported on specific forms from the departments in question. Descriptive data From 1977 through 2014, ~110,000 patients are registered in the nationwide, clinical database. The completeness has gradually improved to more than 95%. DBCG has continuously prepared evidence-based guidelines on diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer and conducted quality control studies to ascertain the degree of adherence to the guidelines in the different departments. Conclusion Utilizing data from the DBCG database, a long array of high-quality DBCG studies of various designs and scope, nationwide or in international collaboration, have contributed to the current updating of the guidelines, and have been an instrumental resource in the improvement of management and prognosis of breast cancer in Denmark. Thus, since the establishment of DBCG, the prognosis in breast cancer has continuously improved with a decrease in 5-year mortality from ~37% to 15%. PMID:27822082

  16. Rejuvenated by environmental groups' support

    SciTech Connect

    Kirschner, E.

    1993-05-12

    A letter of conditional support last week from seven environmental groups reinvigorated the North American Free Trade Agreement. The likelihood of NAFTA ratification in Congress seemed to hit its nadir when Office of Management and Budget chief Leon Panetta declared that the Canada-US-Mexico pact was dead. Observers say that ratification, said to be stalled because of a lack of public support, could be jump-started by the proposal. The seven groups offered to back NAFTA on more conciliatory terms than they had previously demanded. They proposed that the North American Commission on the Environment (NACE), which is to be defined by the side agreements, be given power and finances to investigate environmental offenses. The signatories would also negotiate criteria for process standards. Public participation must be built into the side agreements, they said. Non-binding NACE recommendations must then be considered by the governments. The Sierra Club broke ranks, demanding more power for NACE, with a specific emphasis on industry accountability. [open quotes]NAFTA must insure that industries bear the responsibility for their actions,[close quotes] said Sierra trade and environmental program director John Audley. Sierra Club called for funding for cleanup under a [open quotes]polluter pays[close quotes] principle, legal avenues for NACE information gathering, industry-specific sanctions, and consideration of production processes in addition to product qualities.

  17. DOE Waste Treatability Group Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, T.D.

    1995-01-01

    This guidance presents a method and definitions for aggregating U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) waste into streams and treatability groups based on characteristic parameters that influence waste management technology needs. Adaptable to all DOE waste types (i.e., radioactive waste, hazardous waste, mixed waste, sanitary waste), the guidance establishes categories and definitions that reflect variations within the radiological, matrix (e.g., bulk physical/chemical form), and regulated contaminant characteristics of DOE waste. Beginning at the waste container level, the guidance presents a logical approach to implementing the characteristic parameter categories as part of the basis for defining waste streams and as the sole basis for assigning streams to treatability groups. Implementation of this guidance at each DOE site will facilitate the development of technically defined, site-specific waste stream data sets to support waste management planning and reporting activities. Consistent implementation at all of the sites will enable aggregation of the site-specific waste stream data sets into comparable national data sets to support these activities at a DOE complex-wide level.

  18. Cosmic Dawn Science Interest Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazio, T. Joseph W.; Cosmic Origins Program Analysis Group

    2016-01-01

    Cosmic Dawn was identified as one of the three science objectives for this decade in the _New Worlds, New Horizons_ Decadal report, and it will likely continue to be a research focus well into the next decade. Cosmic Dawn refers to the interval during which the Universe transitioned from a nearly completely neutral state back to a nearly fully ionized state and includes the time during which the first stars formed and the first galaxies assembled.The Cosmic Dawn Science Interest Group (SIG) was formed recently under the auspices of the Cosmic Origins Program Analysis Group (COPAG). The Cosmic Dawn SIG focusses on the science cases, observations, and technology development needed to address the "great mystery" of Cosmic Origins. The reach of this SIG is broad, involving the nature of the first stars and the detectability of gamma-ray bursts at high redshifts, the extent to which the first galaxies and first supermassive black holes grew together, and the technology required to pursue these questions.For further information, consult the Cosmic Dawn SIG Web site http://cd-sig.jpl.nasa.gov/ and join the mailing list (by contacting the author).Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  19. Mixed Waste Working Group report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-09

    The treatment of mixed waste remains one of this country`s most vexing environmental problems. Mixed waste is the combination of radioactive waste and hazardous waste, as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The Department of Energy (DOE), as the country`s largest mixed waste generator, responsible for 95 percent of the Nation`s mixed waste volume, is now required to address a strict set of milestones under the Federal Facility Compliance Act of 1992. DOE`s earlier failure to adequately address the storage and treatment issues associated with mixed waste has led to a significant backlog of temporarily stored waste, significant quantities of buried waste, limited permanent disposal options, and inadequate treatment solutions. Between May and November of 1993, the Mixed Waste Working Group brought together stakeholders from around the Nation. Scientists, citizens, entrepreneurs, and bureaucrats convened in a series of forums to chart a course for accelerated testing of innovative mixed waste technologies. For the first time, a wide range of stakeholders were asked to examine new technologies that, if given the chance to be tested and evaluated, offer the prospect for better, safer, cheaper, and faster solutions to the mixed waste problem. In a matter of months, the Working Group has managed to bridge a gap between science and perception, engineer and citizen, and has developed a shared program for testing new technologies.

  20. Exascale Hardware Architectures Working Group

    SciTech Connect

    Hemmert, S; Ang, J; Chiang, P; Carnes, B; Doerfler, D; Leininger, M; Dosanjh, S; Fields, P; Koch, K; Laros, J; Noe, J; Quinn, T; Torrellas, J; Vetter, J; Wampler, C; White, A

    2011-03-15

    The ASC Exascale Hardware Architecture working group is challenged to provide input on the following areas impacting the future use and usability of potential exascale computer systems: processor, memory, and interconnect architectures, as well as the power and resilience of these systems. Going forward, there are many challenging issues that will need to be addressed. First, power constraints in processor technologies will lead to steady increases in parallelism within a socket. Additionally, all cores may not be fully independent nor fully general purpose. Second, there is a clear trend toward less balanced machines, in terms of compute capability compared to memory and interconnect performance. In order to mitigate the memory issues, memory technologies will introduce 3D stacking, eventually moving on-socket and likely on-die, providing greatly increased bandwidth but unfortunately also likely providing smaller memory capacity per core. Off-socket memory, possibly in the form of non-volatile memory, will create a complex memory hierarchy. Third, communication energy will dominate the energy required to compute, such that interconnect power and bandwidth will have a significant impact. All of the above changes are driven by the need for greatly increased energy efficiency, as current technology will prove unsuitable for exascale, due to unsustainable power requirements of such a system. These changes will have the most significant impact on programming models and algorithms, but they will be felt across all layers of the machine. There is clear need to engage all ASC working groups in planning for how to deal with technological changes of this magnitude. The primary function of the Hardware Architecture Working Group is to facilitate codesign with hardware vendors to ensure future exascale platforms are capable of efficiently supporting the ASC applications, which in turn need to meet the mission needs of the NNSA Stockpile Stewardship Program. This issue is

  1. Return to Flight Task Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    It has been 29 months since Columbia was lost over East Texas in February 2003. Seven months after the accident, the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) released the first volume of its final report, citing a variety of technical, managerial, and cultural issues within NASA and the Space Shuttle Program. To their credit, NASA offered few excuses, embraced the report, and set about correcting the deficiencies noted by the accident board. Of the 29 recommendations issued by the CAIB, 15 were deemed critical enough that the accident board believed they should be implemented prior to returning the Space Shuttle to flight. Some of these recommendations were relatively easy, most were straightforward, a few bordered on the impossible, and others were largely overcome by events, particularly the decision by the President to retire the Space Shuttle by 2010. The Return to Flight Task Group (RTF TG, or simply, the Task Group) was chartered by the NASA Administrator in July 2003 to provide an independent assessment of the implementation of the 15 CAIB return-to-flight recommendations. An important observation must be stated up-front: neither the CAIB nor the RTF TG believes that all risk can be eliminated from Space Shuttle operations; nor do we believe that the Space Shuttle is inherently unsafe. What the CAIB and RTF TG do believe, however, is that NASA and the American public need to understand the risks associated with space travel, and that NASA must make every reasonable effort to minimize such risk. Since the release of the CAIB report, NASA and the Space Shuttle Program expended enormous effort and resources toward correcting the causes of the accident and preparing to fly again. Relative to the 15 specific recommendations that the CAIB indicated should be implemented prior to returning to flight, NASA has met or exceeded most of them the Task Group believes that NASA met the intent of the CAIB for 12 of these recommendations. The remaining three

  2. Invariant Differential Operators for Non-Compact Lie Groups: Euclidean Jordan Groups or Conformal Lie Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrev, V. K.

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper we continue the project of systematic construction of invariant differential operators for non-compact semisimple Lie groups. Our starting points is the class of algebras, which we call 'conformal Lie algebras' (CLA), which have very similar properties to the conformal algebras of Minkowski space-time, though our aim is to go beyond this class in a natural way. For this we introduce the new notion of parabolic relation between two non-compact semisimple Lie algebras Script G and Script G' that have the same complexification and possess maximal parabolic subalgebras with the same complexification.

  3. Neuroactive steroids with perfluorobenzoyl group.

    PubMed

    Cerný, Ivan; Buděšínský, Miloš; Pouzar, Vladimír; Vyklický, Vojtěch; Krausová, Barbora; Vyklický, Ladislav

    2012-10-01

    During an initial study in searching for the alternative derivatives suitable for photolabeling of neuroactive steroids, perfluorobenzoates and perfluorobenzamides in position 17 of 5β-androstan-3α-ol were synthesized from the corresponding 17-hydroxy and 17-amino derivatives. After transformation into glutamates or sulfates, 17α-epimers had comparable inhibitory activity at NMDA receptors to the natural neurosteroid (20-oxo-5β-pregnan-3β-yl sulfate), however, were more potent (2- to 36-fold) than their 17β-substituted analogs. In one case, fluorine in position 4' of perfluorobenzoate group was substituted with azide and activity of the final glutamate was retained comparing with the corresponding perfluorobenzoate. The series was expanded with perfluorobenzoyl derivatives of pregnanolone: Perfluorobenzamide of glutamate and perfluorobenzoate of 11α-hydroxy pregnanolone were prepared and tested. From nine tested compounds, four of them exhibit very good inhibition activity and can serve as promising leads for photolabeling experiments.

  4. Group B streptococcal neonatal parotitis.

    PubMed

    Dias Costa, Filipa; Ramos Andrade, Daniel; Cunha, Filipa Inês; Fernandes, Agostinho

    2015-06-10

    Acute neonatal parotitis (ANP) is a rare condition, characterised by parotid swelling and other local inflammatory signs. The most common pathogen is Staphylococcus aureus, but other organisms can be implicated. We describe the case of a 13-day-old term newborn, previously healthy, with late-onset group B Streptococcus (GBS) bacteraemia with ANP, who presented with irritability, reduced feeding and tender swelling of the right parotid. Laboratory evaluation showed neutrophilia, elevated C reactive protein and procalcitonin, with normal serum amylase concentration. Ultrasound findings were suggestive of acute parotitis. Empiric antibiotic therapy was immediately started and adjusted when culture results became available. The newborn was discharged after 10 days, with clinical improvement within the first 72 h. Although S. aureus is the most common pathogen implicated in ANP, GBS should be included in the differential diagnosis.

  5. Nonaccelerator physics working group summary

    SciTech Connect

    Ayres, D.S.; Beier, E.W.; Cherry, M.L.; Marciano, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    The Nonaccelerator Physics Working Group set itself the task of predicting the contributions of nonaccelerator experiments to particle physics during the 1990s, in order to assess the needs for new experimental facilities. The main topics studied by the subgroups were: (1) the possibility of doing particle physics experiments with high energy cosmic rays from astrophysical sources; (2) the prospects for experiments which seek to measure the masses of neutrinos and the mixing of neutrino flavors; (3) an examination of the implications for proton decay of recent theoretical developments in grand unified and string theories. Other topics included a survey of magnetic monopole searches, an assessment of future prospects for double-beta-decay and nucleon-decay experiments, and a review of recent progress on neutrino and dark-matter detectors based on quasiparticles in superconductors and phonons in crystals.

  6. Renormalization group analysis of turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Leslie M.

    1989-01-01

    The objective is to understand and extend a recent theory of turbulence based on dynamic renormalization group (RNG) techniques. The application of RNG methods to hydrodynamic turbulence was explored most extensively by Yakhot and Orszag (1986). An eddy viscosity was calculated which was consistent with the Kolmogorov inertial range by systematic elimination of the small scales in the flow. Further, assumed smallness of the nonlinear terms in the redefined equations for the large scales results in predictions for important flow constants such as the Kolmogorov constant. It is emphasized that no adjustable parameters are needed. The parameterization of the small scales in a self-consistent manner has important implications for sub-grid modeling.

  7. Working Group Report: Higgs Boson

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, Sally; Gritsan, Andrei; Logan, Heather; Qian, Jianming; Tully, Chris; Van Kooten, Rick

    2013-10-30

    This report summarizes the work of the Energy Frontier Higgs Boson working group of the 2013 Community Summer Study (Snowmass). We identify the key elements of a precision Higgs physics program and document the physics potential of future experimental facilities as elucidated during the Snowmass study. We study Higgs couplings to gauge boson and fermion pairs, double Higgs production for the Higgs self-coupling, its quantum numbers and $CP$-mixing in Higgs couplings, the Higgs mass and total width, and prospects for direct searches for additional Higgs bosons in extensions of the Standard Model. Our report includes projections of measurement capabilities from detailed studies of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC), a Gamma-Gamma Collider, the International Linear Collider (ILC), the Large Hadron Collider High-Luminosity Upgrade (HL-LHC), Very Large Hadron Colliders up to 100 TeV (VLHC), a Muon Collider, and a Triple-Large Electron Positron Collider (TLEP).

  8. Group heterogeneity increases the risks of large group size: a longitudinal study of productivity in research groups.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Jonathon N; Kiesler, Sara; Bosagh Zadeh, Reza; Balakrishnan, Aruna D

    2013-06-01

    Heterogeneous groups are valuable, but differences among members can weaken group identification. Weak group identification may be especially problematic in larger groups, which, in contrast with smaller groups, require more attention to motivating members and coordinating their tasks. We hypothesized that as groups increase in size, productivity would decrease with greater heterogeneity. We studied the longitudinal productivity of 549 research groups varying in disciplinary heterogeneity, institutional heterogeneity, and size. We examined their publication and citation productivity before their projects started and 5 to 9 years later. Larger groups were more productive than smaller groups, but their marginal productivity declined as their heterogeneity increased, either because their members belonged to more disciplines or to more institutions. These results provide evidence that group heterogeneity moderates the effects of group size, and they suggest that desirable diversity in groups may be better leveraged in smaller, more cohesive units.

  9. Group B streptococcal opacity variants.

    PubMed Central

    Pincus, S H; Cole, R L; Wessels, M R; Corwin, M D; Kamanga-Sollo, E; Hayes, S F; Cieplak, W; Swanson, J

    1992-01-01

    Colony opacity variants were detected for type III group B streptococci (GBS). Transparent colonies predominate in the parent GBS, with occasional colonies having opaque portions. Two stable opaque variants (1.1 and 1.5) were compared with three transparent clones (1.2, 1.3, and 1.4). All grew well on blood agar and on GC medium, but variant 1.1 failed to grow on Todd-Hewitt medium. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that colony opacity correlated with bacterial aggregation status, with opaque variants forming longer and more organized chains. Opaque-transparent switches were observed in both directions for most variants, with transparent to opaque noted most frequently, but 1.5 did not switch at all. Switching of the opacity phenotype was observed both in vitro and in neonatal mice. Relationships between colony opacity and several cell surface phenomena were explored. (i) Opaque variant 1.1 had two surface proteins (46 and 75 kDa) that were either unique or greatly overexpressed. (ii) Variant 1.1 was deficient in type III polysaccharide, while 1.5 lacked group B antigen. Diminished capsular polysaccharide of variant 1.1 was reflected in reduced negative electrophoretic mobility and in increased buoyant density. (iii) Transparent variant colonies growing closest to a penicillin disk were opaque, but colonial variants did not differ in their sensitivity to penicillin. These data indicate that GBS can exist in both opaque and transparent forms, with opaque appearance occurring by multiple routes. Opaque variants grow poorly on Todd-Hewitt medium generally used for isolation of GBS, so any possible relationships between opacity variation and pathogenesis of GBS infection are unknown. Images PMID:1592825

  10. Mental health and group tensions

    PubMed Central

    Koekebakker, J.

    1955-01-01

    The author points out that, with the development of technology in industry and the resultant more-technical roles demanded of workers, communication between them and between all persons in an industrial organization becomes of primary importance. This is particularly so because of the constant demands for change within an industrial organization. Any change, however minor, will inevitably involve a wide area of the organization, and special attention will therefore have to be paid to communication between persons. The author goes on to describe some of the investigations which have been made by the Institute of Preventive Medicine, Leyden, and indicates the extreme difficulty of obtaining accurate information. He shows also how the different attitudes of persons within a factory can lead to completely different perceptions of the field and of the attitudes of others within the same organization. He concludes that the main task of the mental health workers in industry lies in the prevention of tensions within it. One of the means of preventing tensions is to aim at a concept of “productive collaboration” within a factory. This task is seen as a special kind of therapy which must concern all levels of the factory. The author describes a procedure of investigation—diagnostic and therapeutic—within a factory, commencing with a phase of introduction, a pilot study, extensive individual interviewing, group interviewing, and a more specifically therapeutic phase, in which groups or specific individuals are enabled to talk their problems out. Finally, the investigating team must take steps to prevent situations of tension recurring, and, before leaving, must be certain that the plant is capable of maintaining a healthy equilibrium by itself. PMID:13276808

  11. PsychDT Working Group

    PubMed Central

    Barnard, Katharine D.; Venkat, Manu V.; Close, Kelly; Heinemann, Lutz; Weissberg-Benchell, Jill; Hood, Korey K.; Kubiak, Thomas; Kowalski, Aaron J.; Laffel, Lori

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetes technology is a cornerstone of diabetes management in the 21st century, with advances in available devices over recent years playing a central role in the way that health care has progressed. Psychosocial interventions have been shown to have a positive impact on glycemic control, reduce psychological distress and reduce costs of health care. Addressing and improving psychosocial outcomes that complement biomedical improvements and looking to the future are crucial to enhance patient acceptance of artificial pancreas (AP) systems. Methods: To achieve closer collaboration and comparability across different AP research trials, a working group was established. Results: Existing measures fail to adequately capture the extent to which human and psychological factors play a role in the uptake and efficient use of AP systems. Understanding these factors will ultimately lead to the most benefit for users. Reliable measures of the psychosocial impact of AP systems for users is crucial to ensure that (1) regulatory authorities are able to robustly consider these aspects as part of their approval process, (2) government and private payers are able to factor these aspects into their decisions regarding reimbursement, and (3) persons with diabetes maximize benefits in terms of both glycemic control and quality of life to minimize the burden of diabetes in everyday life. Conclusions: This working group will serve as a platform to foster exchange, identify research needs, and guide and initiate collaborative research laying the groundwork for optimal utilization of diabetes technology in clinical diabetes care. A close collaboration among all key stakeholders is crucial to ensure that devices are designed, trialed, approved, and provided with minimal user burden and maximum beneficial effect. PMID:26085567

  12. Quality Control in Small Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemmens, L. F.

    2008-11-01

    The smallness of some groups in a set up to control the quality of a service using questionnaires limits the size of the samples, this limitation has several consequences. Indeed the common approach used for relatively large groups, based on the central limit theorem and the law of large numbers, cannot be used anymore to construct estimators for the parameters of the model. Using an inverse probability will lift these restrictions. A questionnaire is a collection of items. In an item the respondent indicates on a Likert scale his or her agreement with a statement. Dimensions are a set of items dealing with one aspect of the service. In a questionnaire several dimensions are addressed but usually the items are presented in a random sequence. The model for an item is hierarchical with following components: a multivariate hypergeometric model takes the sampling in a finite population into account, the multinomial serves as a prior for the sampling and the Dirichlet-distribution serves as a prior for the multinomials. The composition of dimensions allows to use the posterior for one of the items as a prior for another item of that dimension and so on. After analysis of several questionnaires using this model, the reliability of the responses from some respondents turned out to be a key-problem, in the sense the responses can be classified into at least two classes and a decision rule had to be developed to neglect some of them. The influence of rejecting some answers, on the confidence for the most plausible statement can be estimated. This leads often to the result that there is only minimal evidence for the most probable statement.

  13. Emergent Power Hierarchies and Group Performance.

    PubMed

    Frauendorfer, Denise; Schmid Mast, Marianne; Sanchez-Cortes, Dairazalia; Gatica-Perez, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    In newly formed groups, informal hierarchies emerge automatically and readily. In this study, we argue that emergent group hierarchies enhance group performance (Hypothesis 1) and we assume that the more the power hierarchy within a group corresponds to the task-competence differences of the individual group members, the better the group performs (Hypothesis 2). Twelve three-person groups and 28 four-person groups were investigated while solving the Winter Survival Task. Results show that emerging power hierarchies positively impact group performance but the alignment between task-competence and power hierarchy did not affect group performance. Thus, emergent power hierarchies are beneficial for group performance and although they were on average created around individual group members' competence, this correspondence was not a prerequisite for better group performance.

  14. Extending Sociocultural Theory to Group Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Sociocultural theory focuses on group processes through time, and argues that group phenomena cannot be reduced to explanation in terms of the mental states or actions of the participating individuals. This makes sociocultural theory particularly useful in the analysis of group creativity and group learning, because both group creativity and group…

  15. Effect of Group Sandtray Therapy with Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flahive, Mon-hsin Wang; Ray, Dee

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of group sandtray therapy, a model of play therapy, was evaluated using a pretest-posttest control group design with 56 preadolescents exhibiting behavioral difficulties. The experimental group (n = 28) received sandtray therapy in small groups for 10 weeks while the wait-list control group (n = 28) received no treatment. Results…

  16. A Comparison of Approaches to Group Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimpfer, David G.; And Others

    This panel is based on the assumptions that: (1) group counseling has a valuable contribution to make, (2) group counseling is feasible in terms of time and space at local institutions, (3) group counseling is particularly concerned with affective material, and (4) group counseling probably cannot be conducted effectively in groups as large as 30.…

  17. Group Treatment for Parents of Handicapped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Helen L.

    The booklet considers principles of short-term group treatment to help parents of handicapped children with problems of emotional adjustment and child management. The value of a parents' group is seen to lie in the purposeful use of group dynamics and group processes by trained leader. Discussed are the role of the group leader; the process of…

  18. Properties of Group Five and Group Seven transactinium elements

    SciTech Connect

    Wilk, Philip A.

    2001-05-01

    The detection and positive identification of the short-lived, low cross section isotopes used in the chemical studies of the heaviest elements are usually accomplished by measuring their alpha-decay, thus the nuclear properties of the heaviest elements must be examined simultaneously with their chemical properties. The isotopes 224 Pa and 266,267 Bh have been studied extensively as an integral part of the investigation of the heaviest members of the groups five and seven of the periodic table. The half-life of 224 Pa was determined to be 855 ±19 ms by measuring its alpha-decay using our rotating wheel, solid state detector system at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 88-Inch Cyclotron. Protactinium was produced by bombardment of a bismuth target. New neutron rich isotopes, 267 Bh and 266 Bh, were produced in bombardments of a 249 Bk target and their decay was observed using the rotating wheel system. The 266 Bh that was produced decays with a half-life of approximately 1 s by emission of alpha particles with an average energy of 9.25 plus/minus 0.03 MeV. 267 Bh was observed to decay with a 17 s half-life by emission of alpha-particles with an average energy of 8.83 plus/minus 0.03 MeV. The chemical behavior of hafnium, Ha (element 105) was investigated using the fast on-line continuous liquid extraction and detection system SISAK-LISSY. Hafnium was not observed in this experiment following transport and extraction. Protactinium was used as on-line test of the apparatus to determine the experimental efficiency of the entire system. Unfortunately, the amount of protactinium observed after the extraction, compared to the amount produced, was extremely small, only 2.5%. The extraction of the protactinium isotope indicated the efficiency of the apparatus was too low to observe the extraction of hafnium. The chemical behavior of oxychloride compounds of bohrium was

  19. Danish Colorectal Cancer Group Database

    PubMed Central

    Ingeholm, Peter; Gögenur, Ismail; Iversen, Lene H

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The aim of the database, which has existed for registration of all patients with colorectal cancer in Denmark since 2001, is to improve the prognosis for this patient group. Study population All Danish patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer who are either diagnosed or treated in a surgical department of a public Danish hospital. Main variables The database comprises an array of surgical, radiological, oncological, and pathological variables. The surgeons record data such as diagnostics performed, including type and results of radiological examinations, lifestyle factors, comorbidity and performance, treatment including the surgical procedure, urgency of surgery, and intra- and postoperative complications within 30 days after surgery. The pathologists record data such as tumor type, number of lymph nodes and metastatic lymph nodes, surgical margin status, and other pathological risk factors. Descriptive data The database has had >95% completeness in including patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma with >54,000 patients registered so far with approximately one-third rectal cancers and two-third colon cancers and an overrepresentation of men among rectal cancer patients. The stage distribution has been more or less constant until 2014 with a tendency toward a lower rate of stage IV and higher rate of stage I after introduction of the national screening program in 2014. The 30-day mortality rate after elective surgery has been reduced from >7% in 2001–2003 to <2% since 2013. Conclusion The database is a national population-based clinical database with high patient and data completeness for the perioperative period. The resolution of data is high for description of the patient at the time of diagnosis, including comorbidities, and for characterizing diagnosis, surgical interventions, and short-term outcomes. The database does not have high-resolution oncological data and does not register recurrences after primary surgery. The Danish

  20. Dr. Irvin Yalom Discusses Group Psychotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forester-Miller, Holly

    1989-01-01

    In this interview, Dr. Irvin Yalom, director of the Adult Psychiatry Clinic at Stanford University School of Medicine, discusses his beginnings as a group psychotherapist, current issues in group work, and the future of group work. (Author/TE)

  1. Group behaviour: leadership by those in need.

    PubMed

    Sumpter, David J T

    2009-04-28

    A new model of animal group behaviour shows that, when the need to reach a target outweighs the costs of splitting from the group, a minority of the most 'needy' individuals become the leaders of large groups.

  2. The Mini-Group in Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercurio, John M.; Weiner, Michael

    1975-01-01

    Mini-group counseling involves a counselor or facilitator and no more than four clients. This article describes the group's rationale, structure, and content. The results of two such mini-groups are also discussed. (Author/EJT)

  3. The Local Group: Our Galactic Neighborhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Paul

    1987-01-01

    Presents information on the properties and largest spirals of the Local Group galaxies. Explains the three categories of galaxies, identifies the brightest members of the Local Group, and discusses recent discoveries within the group. (ML)

  4. 42 CFR 411.352 - Group practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ownership, governance, and operation; and (3) Organization of the group practice into multiple entities is... a new group practice, a group practice must make a reasonable, good faith effort to ensure that...

  5. 42 CFR 411.352 - Group practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ownership, governance, and operation; and (3) Organization of the group practice into multiple entities is... a new group practice, a group practice must make a reasonable, good faith effort to ensure that...

  6. 42 CFR 411.352 - Group practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ownership, governance, and operation; and (3) Organization of the group practice into multiple entities is... a new group practice, a group practice must make a reasonable, good faith effort to ensure that...

  7. 42 CFR 411.352 - Group practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ownership, governance, and operation; and (3) Organization of the group practice into multiple entities is... a new group practice, a group practice must make a reasonable, good faith effort to ensure that...

  8. 42 CFR 411.352 - Group practice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ownership, governance, and operation; and (3) Organization of the group practice into multiple entities is... a new group practice, a group practice must make a reasonable, good faith effort to ensure that...

  9. Social Class Differences Produce Social Group Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Horwitz, Suzanne R.; Shutts, Kristin; Olson, Kristina R.

    2014-01-01

    Some social groups are higher in socioeconomic status than others and the former tend to be favored over the latter. The present research investigated whether observing group differences in wealth alone can directly cause children to prefer wealthier groups. In Experiment 1, 4–5-year-old children developed a preference for a wealthy novel group over a less wealthy group. In Experiment 2, children did not develop preferences when groups differed by another kind of positive/negative attribute (i.e., living in brightly-colored houses vs. drab houses), suggesting that wealth is a particularly meaningful group distinction. Lastly, in Experiment 3, the effect of favoring novel wealthy groups was moderated by group membership: Children assigned to a wealthy group showed ingroup favoritism, but those assigned to the less wealthy group did not. These experiments shed light on why children tend to be biased in favor of social groups that are higher in socioeconomic status. PMID:24702971

  10. Computation of group table alphanumeric display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, G. P.; Evans, D. D.

    1971-01-01

    Computer program, using only group elements as input data, provides machine computation of group tables used for proving theorems and algorithms of finite groups. Program is written for second generation computers.

  11. Systems special investigation group overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, James B.; Dursch, Harry; Edelman, Joel

    1991-01-01

    The Systems Special Investigation Group (SIG) has undertaken investigations in the four major engineering disciplines represented in the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) hardware: electrical, mechanical, thermal, and optical systems. Testing was planned for the highest possible level of assembly, and top level system tests for nearly all systems were performed at this time. To date, testing was performed on a mix of LDEF and individual experimenter systems. No electrical or mechanical system level failures attributed to the spaceflight environment have yet been detected. Some low cost electrical components were used successfully, although relays were a continuing problem. Mechanical galling was observed unexpectedly, but no evidence of cold welding was identified yet. A working index of observed systems anomalies was created and will be used to support the tracking and resolution of these effects. The LDEF hardware currently available to the Systems SIG includes most of the LDEF systems hardware, and some significant experimenter hardware as well. A series of work packages was developed for each of several subsystem types where further testing is of critical interest. The System SIG is distributing a regular newsletter to the greater LDEF community in order to maintain coherence in an investigation which is widely scattered both in subject matter and in geography. Circulation of this informal document has quadrupled in its first year.

  12. Systems special investigation group overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, James B.; Dursch, Harry; Edelman, Joel

    1992-01-01

    The Systems Special Investigation Group (SIG) has undertaken investigations in the four major engineering disciplines represented by LDEF hardware: electrical, mechanical, thermal, and optical systems. Testing was planned for the highest possible level of assembly, and top level system tests for nearly all systems were performed at this time. Testing to date was performed on a mix of LDEF and individual experimenter systems. No electrical or mechanical system level failures attributed to the spaceflight environment were detected by the Systems SIG. Some low cost electrical components were used successfully, although relays were a continuing problem. Extensive mechanical galling was observed, but no evidence of coldwelding was identified. A working index of observed systems anomalies was created and will be used to support the tracking and resolution of these effects. LDEF hardware currently available to the Systems SIG includes most of the LDEF facility systems hardware, and some significant experimenter hardware as well. A series of work packages was developed for each of several subsystem types where further testing is of critical interest. The Systems SIG is distributing a regular newsletter to the greater LDEF community in order to maintain coherence in an investigation which is widely scattered both in subject matter and in geography. Circulation of this informal document has quadrupled in its first year.

  13. Findings: LANL outsourcing focus groups

    SciTech Connect

    Jannotta, M.J.; McCabe, V.B.

    1996-12-31

    In March 1996, a series of 24 3-hour dialog focus groups were held with randomly selected Laboratory employees and contractors to gain their perceptions regarding potentials and problems for privatization and consolidation. A secondary goal was to educate and inform the workforce about potentials and issues in privatization and consolidation. Two hundred and thirty-six participants engaged in a learning session and structured input exercises resulting in 2,768 usable comments. Comments were categorized using standard qualitative methods; resulting categories included positive and negative comments on four models (consolidation, spin offs, outsourcing, and corporate partnering) and implications for the workforce, the Laboratory, and the local economy. Categories were in the areas of increasing/decreasing jobs, expertise, opportunity/salary/benefits, quality/efficiency, and effect on the local area and economy. An additional concern was losing Laboratory culture and history. Data were gathered and categorized on employee opinion regarding elements of successful transition to the four models, and issues emerged in the areas of terms and conditions of employment; communication; involvement; sound business planning; ethics and fairness; community infrastructure. From the aggregated opinion of the participants, it is recommended that decision-makers: Plan using sound business principles and continually communicate plans to the workforce; Respect workforce investments in the Laboratory; Tell the workforce exactly what is going on at all times; Understand that economic growth in Northern New Mexico is not universally viewed as positive; and Establish dialog with stakeholders on growth issues.

  14. Ames vision group research overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    1990-01-01

    A major goal of the reseach group is to develop mathematical and computational models of early human vision. These models are valuable in the prediction of human performance, in the design of visual coding schemes and displays, and in robotic vision. To date researchers have models of retinal sampling, spatial processing in visual cortex, contrast sensitivity, and motion processing. Based on their models of early human vision, researchers developed several schemes for efficient coding and compression of monochrome and color images. These are pyramid schemes that decompose the image into features that vary in location, size, orientation, and phase. To determine the perceptual fidelity of these codes, researchers developed novel human testing methods that have received considerable attention in the research community. Researchers constructed models of human visual motion processing based on physiological and psychophysical data, and have tested these models through simulation and human experiments. They also explored the application of these biological algorithms to applications in automated guidance of rotorcraft and autonomous landing of spacecraft. Researchers developed networks for inhomogeneous image sampling, for pyramid coding of images, for automatic geometrical correction of disordered samples, and for removal of motion artifacts from unstable cameras.

  15. Hawaii Census 2000 Block Groups

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This data layer represents Census 2000 demographic data derived from the PL94-171 redistricting files and SF3. Census geographic entities include blocks, blockgroups and tracts. Tiger line files are the source of the geometry representing the Census blocks. Attributes include total population counts, racial/ethnic, and poverty/income information. Racial/ethnic classifications are represented in units of blocks, blockgroups and tracts. Poverty and income data are represented in units of blockgroups and tracts. Percentages of each racial/ethnic group have been calculated from the population counts. Total Minority counts and percentages were compiled from each racial/ethnic non-white category. Categories compiled to create the Total Minority count includes the following: African American, Asian, American Indian, Pacific Islander, White Hispanic, Other and all mixed race categories. The percentage poverty attribute represents the percent of the population living at or below poverty level. The per capita income attribute represents the sum of all income within the geographic entity, divided by the total population of that entity. Special fields designed to be used for EJ analysis have been derived from the PL data and include the following: Percentage difference of block, blockgroup and total minority from the state and county averages, percentile rank for each percent total minority within state and county entitie

  16. Activities of the WASVSO Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonsen, Michael A.; van Poucker, Joseph F.; Greene, Stephen M.

    2001-04-01

    This poster outlines the goals, activities, and achievements of the Warren Astronomical Society Variable Star Observers (WASVSO), a special-interest sub-group of the Warren Astronomical Society in Michigan. The WASVSO holds monthly meetings to discuss variable star behavior, terminology, current events, observing techniques, Internet resources, software, and of course, the weather. Ongoing projects include monitoring cataclysmic variables, active galactic nuclei, and stars that need more observations from the AAVSO "News Flashes" and "Alert Notices". We are also actively involved in "spreading the word" about AAVSO and variable star observing through presentations at star parties and a speaker exchange program with other astronomy clubs throughout the Midwest and Canada. The WASVSO also maintains an impressive website featuring member areas, upcoming events, articles on variable stars and observing techniques, charts for obscure cataclsmic variables, utilities for observing, and links to variable star organizations and observers throughout the world. Members of the WASVSO contributed 94% of all variable star observations submitted to the AAVSO from Michigan in the fiscal year 2000-2001, and our enthusiasm has catapulted Michigan from 20th place to 11th in overall numbers of US observations submitted to AAVSO in one year.

  17. A Brief History of Human Blood Groups

    PubMed Central

    FARHUD, Dariush D; ZARIF YEGANEH, Marjan

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of human blood groups, without doubt, has a history as old as man himself. There are at least three hypotheses about the emergence and mutation of human blood groups. Global distribution pattern of blood groups depends on various environmental factors, such as disease, climate, altitude, humidity etc. In this survey, the collection of main blood groups ABO and Rh, along with some minor groups, are presented. Several investigations of blood groups from Iran, particularly a large sampling on 291857 individuals from Iran, including the main blood groups ABO and Rh, as well as minor blood groups such as Duffy, Lutheran, Kell, KP, Kidd, and Xg, have been reviewed. PMID:23514954

  18. The inter-group comparison-intra-group cooperation hypothesis: comparisons between groups increase efficiency in public goods provision.

    PubMed

    Böhm, Robert; Rockenbach, Bettina

    2013-01-01

    Identifying methods to increase cooperation and efficiency in public goods provision is of vital interest for human societies. The methods that have been proposed often incur costs that (more than) destroy the efficiency gains through increased cooperation. It has for example been shown that inter-group conflict increases intra-group cooperation, however at the cost of collective efficiency. We propose a new method that makes use of the positive effects associated with inter-group competition but avoids the detrimental (cost) effects of a structural conflict. We show that the mere comparison to another structurally independent group increases both the level of intra-group cooperation and overall efficiency. The advantage of this new method is that it directly transfers the benefits from increased cooperation into increased efficiency. In repeated public goods provision we experimentally manipulated the participants' level of contribution feedback (intra-group only vs. both intra- and inter-group) as well as the provision environment (smaller groups with higher individual benefits from cooperation vs. larger groups with lower individual benefits from cooperation). Irrespective of the provision environment groups with an inter-group comparison opportunity exhibited a significantly stronger cooperation than groups without this opportunity. Participants conditionally cooperated within their group and additionally acted to advance their group to not fall behind the other group. The individual efforts to advance the own group cushion the downward trend in the above average contributors and thus render contributions on a higher level. We discuss areas of practical application.

  19. Disruptive Colouration and Perceptual Grouping

    PubMed Central

    Espinosa, Irene; Cuthill, Innes C.

    2014-01-01

    Camouflage is the primary defence of many animals and includes multiple strategies that interfere with figure-ground segmentation and object recognition. While matching background colours and textures is widespread and conceptually straightforward, less well explored are the optical ‘tricks’, collectively called disruptive colouration, that exploit perceptual grouping mechanisms. Adjacent high contrast colours create false edges, but this is not sufficient for an object’s shape to be broken up; some colours must blend with the background. We test the novel hypothesis that this will be particularly effective when the colour patches on the animal appear to belong to, not merely different background colours, but different background objects. We used computer-based experiments where human participants had to find cryptic targets on artificial backgrounds. Creating what appeared to be bi-coloured foreground objects on bi-coloured backgrounds, we generated colour boundaries that had identical local contrast but either lay within or between (illusory) objects. As predicted, error rates for targets matching what appeared to be different background objects were higher than for targets which had otherwise identical local contrast to the background but appeared to belong to single background objects. This provides evidence for disruptive colouration interfering with higher-level feature integration in addition to previously demonstrated low-level effects involving contour detection. In addition, detection was impeded in treatments where targets were on or in close proximity to multiple background colour or tone boundaries. This is consistent with other studies which show a deleterious influence of visual ‘clutter’ or background complexity on search. PMID:24466337

  20. ALGORITHM FOR SORTING GROUPED DATA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, J. D.

    1994-01-01

    It is often desirable to sort data sets in ascending or descending order. This becomes more difficult for grouped data, i.e., multiple sets of data, where each set of data involves several measurements or related elements. The sort becomes increasingly cumbersome when more than a few elements exist for each data set. In order to achieve an efficient sorting process, an algorithm has been devised in which the maximum most significant element is found, and then compared to each element in succession. The program was written to handle the daily temperature readings of the Voyager spacecraft, particularly those related to the special tracking requirements of Voyager 2. By reducing each data set to a single representative number, the sorting process becomes very easy. The first step in the process is to reduce the data set of width 'n' to a data set of width '1'. This is done by representing each data set by a polynomial of length 'n' based on the differences of the maximum and minimum elements. These single numbers are then sorted and converted back to obtain the original data sets. Required input data are the name of the data file to read and sort, and the starting and ending record numbers. The package includes a sample data file, containing 500 sets of data with 5 elements in each set. This program will perform a sort of the 500 data sets in 3 - 5 seconds on an IBM PC-AT with a hard disk; on a similarly equipped IBM PC-XT the time is under 10 seconds. This program is written in BASIC (specifically the Microsoft QuickBasic compiler) for interactive execution and has been implemented on the IBM PC computer series operating under PC-DOS with a central memory requirement of approximately 40K of 8 bit bytes. A hard disk is desirable for speed considerations, but is not required. This program was developed in 1986.

  1. Disruptive colouration and perceptual grouping.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Irene; Cuthill, Innes C

    2014-01-01

    Camouflage is the primary defence of many animals and includes multiple strategies that interfere with figure-ground segmentation and object recognition. While matching background colours and textures is widespread and conceptually straightforward, less well explored are the optical 'tricks', collectively called disruptive colouration, that exploit perceptual grouping mechanisms. Adjacent high contrast colours create false edges, but this is not sufficient for an object's shape to be broken up; some colours must blend with the background. We test the novel hypothesis that this will be particularly effective when the colour patches on the animal appear to belong to, not merely different background colours, but different background objects. We used computer-based experiments where human participants had to find cryptic targets on artificial backgrounds. Creating what appeared to be bi-coloured foreground objects on bi-coloured backgrounds, we generated colour boundaries that had identical local contrast but either lay within or between (illusory) objects. As predicted, error rates for targets matching what appeared to be different background objects were higher than for targets which had otherwise identical local contrast to the background but appeared to belong to single background objects. This provides evidence for disruptive colouration interfering with higher-level feature integration in addition to previously demonstrated low-level effects involving contour detection. In addition, detection was impeded in treatments where targets were on or in close proximity to multiple background colour or tone boundaries. This is consistent with other studies which show a deleterious influence of visual 'clutter' or background complexity on search.

  2. The SOFeX Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coale, K. H.

    2002-12-01

    The SOFeX Group is comprised of the following institutions and individuals, all of whose participation resulted in a successful experiment. Moss Landing Marine Laboratories: K. Coale, C. Hunter, M. Gordon, S. Tanner, W. Wang, N. Ladizinsky, D. Cooper, G. Smith, J. Brewster; Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute: K. Johnson, F. Chavez, S. Fitzwater, P. Strutton, G. Elrod, Z. Chase, E. Drake, J. Plant; Oregon State University: B. Hales, J. Barth, L.Bandstra, P. Covert, D. Hubbard, J. Jennings, S. Pierce, E. Scholz; Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory: T. Takahashi; Duke University: R. Barber, V. Lance, D. Stube, A. Hilting, M. Hiscock, A. Apprill, C. Van Hilst, ; Virginia Institute of Marine Science: W. Smith, H. Ducklow, L. Delizo, J. Oliver, E. Bailey, J. Peloquin, R. Daniels, J. Bauer; University Of Hawaii: M. Landry, R. Bidigare, S. Brown, N. Cassar, B. Twining, K. Selph, C. Sheridan; NOAA Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory: R. Wanninkhof, K. Sullivan, C. Neill; University of Miami: F. Millero, X. Zhu, W. Hiscock, V. Koehler, A. Cabrera; University of Calif. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory: J. Bishop, T. Wood, C. Guay, P. Lam; Rutgers University: P. Falkowski, Z. Kolber, R. Nicolayson, S. Tozzi, M. Gorbunov, M. Koblizek; University of Massachusets: M. Altabet, M. McIlvan, D. Timothy; New Mexico Tech.: Oliver Wingenter; San Francisco State Univ. - Romberg Tiburon Center: W. Cochlan, J. Herndon; University of Calif. Santa Cruz: R. Kudela, A. Roberts; Univ. of Calif. Santa Barbara: M. Brezinski, J. Jones, M. Demarest; Massachusets Inst. of Technology: S. Chisolm, Z. Johnson; Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute: K. Buesseler, J. Andrews, G. Crossin, S. Pike, J. Tegeder, C. Herbold, K. Mahoney, M.Coggeshell ; University of East Anglia: L. Houghton, L. Goldson, A. Watson, J. Ledwell; Institute of Marine Research, Kiel: Peter Croot; University of Otago: R. Frew, E. Abraham, P. Boyd.

  3. Spreading of cooperative behaviour across interdependent groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Luo-Luo; Perc, Matjaž

    2013-08-01

    Recent empirical research has shown that links between groups reinforce individuals within groups to adopt cooperative behaviour. Moreover, links between networks may induce cascading failures, competitive percolation, or contribute to efficient transportation. Here we show that there in fact exists an intermediate fraction of links between groups that is optimal for the evolution of cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma game. We consider individual groups with regular, random, and scale-free topology, and study their different combinations to reveal that an intermediate interdependence optimally facilitates the spreading of cooperative behaviour between groups. Excessive between-group links simply unify the two groups and make them act as one, while too rare between-group links preclude a useful information flow between the two groups. Interestingly, we find that between-group links are more likely to connect two cooperators than in-group links, thus supporting the conclusion that they are of paramount importance.

  4. Spreading of cooperative behaviour across interdependent groups

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Luo-Luo; Perc, Matjaž

    2013-01-01

    Recent empirical research has shown that links between groups reinforce individuals within groups to adopt cooperative behaviour. Moreover, links between networks may induce cascading failures, competitive percolation, or contribute to efficient transportation. Here we show that there in fact exists an intermediate fraction of links between groups that is optimal for the evolution of cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma game. We consider individual groups with regular, random, and scale-free topology, and study their different combinations to reveal that an intermediate interdependence optimally facilitates the spreading of cooperative behaviour between groups. Excessive between-group links simply unify the two groups and make them act as one, while too rare between-group links preclude a useful information flow between the two groups. Interestingly, we find that between-group links are more likely to connect two cooperators than in-group links, thus supporting the conclusion that they are of paramount importance. PMID:23963495

  5. Interteaching: Discussion Group Size and Course Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truelove, Jacob C.; Saville, Bryan K.; Van Patten, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have yet to examine whether discussion group size affects student performance in an interteaching-based course. In the current study, we addressed this question by manipulating discussion group size (smaller groups of 2 students vs. larger groups of 4 students) across 2 sections of an undergraduate psychology course. We found no…

  6. Six Considerations for Social Justice Group Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Anneliese A.; Salazar, Carmen F.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes "courageous conversations" in social justice group work and a continuum of action for social justice interventions. It analyzes themes from 20 contributions to 2 consecutive special issues of "The Journal for Specialists in Group Work" on social justice group work. Implications for future development in group leadership and…

  7. A Functional Analytic Approach to Group Psychotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandenberghe, Luc

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a particular view on the use of Functional Analytical Psychotherapy (FAP) in a group therapy format. This view is based on the author's experiences as a supervisor of Functional Analytical Psychotherapy Groups, including groups for women with depression and groups for chronic pain patients. The contexts in which this approach…

  8. Qualitative Description of College Students' Dinner Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Brita; Brown, Lora Beth

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To discover how college students conduct dinner groups and perceptions of the benefits and difficulties of participation. Design: Qualitative study conducted with 7 focus groups. Setting and Participants: A university campus, with 36 students participating in dinner groups, defined as a group of 3 people or more cooking for one another…

  9. Opposites detract: middle school peer group antipathies.

    PubMed

    Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M; Nurmi, Jari-Eri; Marion, Donna; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Kiuru, Noona

    2010-08-01

    This study examines variability in patterns of peer group antipathy. Same-grade adolescent peer groups were identified from sociometric nominations of preferred affiliates in a community sample of 600 Finnish ninth-grade middle school students (mean age=15.0 years). Hierarchical linear modeling determined characteristics of youths in actor groups (nominators) that predicted antipathy for youths in target groups (nominatees) on the basis of target group characteristics. Most antipathies were based on dissimilarity between groups representing the mainstream culture and groups opposed to it. The higher a peer group's school burnout, the more its members disliked students in peer groups with higher school grades and students in peer groups with higher sports participation. Conversely, the higher a peer group's school grades, the more its members disliked students in peer groups with higher school burnout. Students in peer groups with less problem behavior disliked students in peer groups with more problem behavior. There was some evidence of rivalry within the mainstream culture: The higher a group's school grades, the more its members disliked groups whose members participated in sports.

  10. The Light-Weight Group Library

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, A. T.

    2012-07-02

    The Light-Weight Group (LWGRP) bibrary provides data structures and collective routines to define and operate on groups of MPI processes. Groups can be created and freed efficiently in O(log N) time space requiring less overhead that constructing full MPI communicators. This facilitates faster development of applications and libraries that need to rapidly create, use, and destroy process groups.

  11. Researching Women's Groups Findings, Limitations, and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Nancy L.; Kees, Nathalie L.

    2005-01-01

    There is not a "typical" women's group, nor are there "typical" women's issues. Every women's group is diverse, with as many viewpoints and perspectives as there are members in the group. Using the group format for women is common practice with many counselors. It is interesting that there has been little empirical research reported on women's…

  12. The Education of Ethnic Groups in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kravetz, Nathan

    Education of ethnic groups in Israel is explored in light of the rapidly growing population and the desire of members of all ethnic groups for upward economic and social mobility. Major ethnic groups include Moslems, Christians, Druze, and various religious and non-religious groups of Jews including Ashkenazim, Sephardim, and Kibbutznik. Ethnic…

  13. The Dilemma of Within-Class Grouping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schell, Leo M.

    Three conclusions were drawn about within-class grouping after reviewing the work of several researchers on the following topics: teacher and student behavior, academic achievement, perceptions about reading groups, social class membership and reading group assignment, and the role of group cohesiveness. The conclusions were that: (1) although the…

  14. Decision Making from a Small Group Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Alvin A.; Hannegan, David W., Jr.

    This paper applies some of the research done on small group decision-making to the process of identification and selection of colleges by high school students. It argues that, since the decisions that are reached are often group decisions, or are at least strongly influenced by groups, an understanding of group decision-making processes can be…

  15. THE TELEOANALYTIC APPROACH TO GROUP COUNSELING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DREIKURS, RUDOLF; SONSTEGARD, MANFORD

    THIS PAPER PRESENTS THE PROCEDURES FOR A GROUP COUNSELING PROGRAM ON FOUR LEVELS--(1) COUNSELING WITHIN PEER GROUPS AS CHILDREN LEARN FROM EACH OTHER IN INTERACTION, (2) TEACHER SEMINARS WHERE TEACHERS CAN SHARE IDEAS ON SPECIFIC PROBLEMS AND GAIN INSIGHT ON THE OTHER COUNSELING GROUPS, (3) PARENT GROUPS WHERE ONE PARENT COUNSELED IN FRONT OF THE…

  16. Conjugacy classes in discrete Heisenberg groups

    SciTech Connect

    Budylin, R Ya

    2014-08-01

    We study an extension of a discrete Heisenberg group coming from the theory of loop groups and find invariants of conjugacy classes in this group. In some cases, including the case of the integer Heisenberg group, we make these invariants more explicit. Bibliography: 4 titles.

  17. Opposites Detract: Middle School Peer Group Antipathies

    PubMed Central

    Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M.; Nurmi, Jari-Eri; Marion, Donna; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Kiuru, Noona

    2010-01-01

    This study examines variability in patterns of peer group antipathy. Same-grade adolescent peer groups were identified from sociometric nominations of preferred affiliates in a community sample of 600 Finnish 9th grade middle school students (M = 15.0 years-old). Hierarchical linear modeling determined characteristics of youth in actor groups (nominators) that predicted antipathy for youth in target groups (nominatees) on the basis of target group characteristics. Most antipathies were based on dissimilarity between groups representing the mainstream culture and groups opposed to it. The higher a peer group's school burnout, the more its members disliked students in peer groups with higher school grades and students in peer groups with higher sports participation. Conversely, the higher a peer group's school grades, the more its members disliked students in peer groups with higher school burnout. Students in peer groups with less problem behavior disliked students in peer groups with more problem behavior. There was some evidence of rivalry within the mainstream culture: The higher a group's school grades, the more its members disliked those in groups whose members participated in sports. PMID:20378125

  18. Common Group Problems: A Field Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Sanford B.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    A field study of a naturally functioning group (N=125) was conducted to identify common group problems. Trained observers attended group meetings and described the problems encountered. Difficulties of cohesion, leadership, sub-group formation, and personality conflict were identified. (RC)

  19. Marathon Group Therapy with Female Narcotic Addicts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilmann, Peter R.

    This study evaluated the impact of structured and unstructured marathon therapy on institutionalized female narcotic addicts. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of five groups: two structured therapy groups, two unstructured therapy groups, and a no-treatment control group. The Personal Orientation Inventory, the Adjective Check List, and a…

  20. The evolution of groups and clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottlöber, S.; Klypin, A.; Kravtsov, A. V.; Turchaninov, V.

    Using high resolution N -body simulations we study the formation and evolution of clusters and groups in a &Lambda CDM cosmological model. Groups of galaxies already form before z = 4. Merging of groups and accretion leads to cluster formation at z <&sim2. Some of the groups merge into large isolated halos.

  1. Dealing with Parasites in Group Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Judy H.

    While it is generally accepted that people working in groups can accomplish more than people working individually, it is equally accepted that parasites will attempt to feed on the other group members. Group work has been called by several names--group learning, cooperative learning, collaborative learning--all of which carry slightly different…

  2. The recurrence sequence via the Fibonacci groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aküzüm, Yeşim; Deveci, Ömür

    2016-04-01

    This work develops properties of the recurrence sequence defined by the aid of the relation matrix of the Fibonacci groups. The study of this sequence modulo m yields cyclic groups and semigroups from generating matrix. Finally, we extend the sequence defined to groups and then, we obtain its period in the Fibonacci groups.

  3. Technique and Facilitation of Developmental Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Marilyn M.

    Counselors working with developmental groups need: (1) a thorough understanding of their group, (2) great skill, and (3) deep personal involvement. The author suggests specific characteristics for successful developmental groups: (1) the desire of the entire residence hall staff to be involved, (2) a co-ed group limited to eight members, and (3)…

  4. Organization of an undergraduate research group

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J.; Noteboom, E.

    1995-04-01

    Traditionally, research groups consist of senior physicists, staff members, and graduate students. The physics department at Creighton University has formed a Relativistic Heavy Ion physics research group consisting primarily of undergraduate students. Although senior staff and graduate students are actively involved, undergraduate research and the education of undergraduates is the focus of the group. The presentation, given by two undergraduate members of the group, will outline progress made in the group`s organization, discuss the benefits to the undergraduate group members, and speak to the balance which must be struck between education concerns and research goals.

  5. Quality of decision making and group norms.

    PubMed

    Postmes, T; Spears, R; Cihangir, S

    2001-06-01

    Two studies investigated the impact of group norms for maintaining consensus versus norms for critical thought on group decisions in a modification of the biased sampling paradigm (G. Stasser & W. Titus, 1985). Both studies showed that critical norms improved the quality of decisions, whereas consensus norms did not. This effect appeared to be mediated by the perceived value of shared and unshared information: Consensus norm groups valued shared information more highly than critical groups did, and valence was a good predictor of decision outcome. In addition, the 2nd study showed that the group norm manipulation has no impact on individual decisions, consistent with the assumption that this is a group effect. Results suggest that the content of group norms is an important factor influencing the quality of group decision-making processes and that the content of group norms may be related to the group's proneness for groupthink.

  6. Introduction to sporadic groups for physicists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boya, Luis J.

    2013-04-01

    We describe the collection of finite simple groups, with a view to physical applications. We recall first the prime cyclic groups Zp and the alternating groups Altn > 4. After a quick revision of finite fields {F}_q, q = pf, with p prime, we consider the 16 families of finite simple groups of Lie type. There are also 26 extra ‘sporadic’ groups, which gather in three interconnected ‘generations’ (with 5+7+8 groups) plus the pariah groups (6). We point out a couple of physical applications, including constructing the biggest sporadic group, the ‘Monster’ group, with close to 1054 elements from arguments of physics, and also the relation of some Mathieu groups with compactification in string and M-theory. This article is dedicated to the memory of Juan Sancho Guimerá.

  7. Human Blood Typing: A Forensic Science Approach: Part II. Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobilinsky, Lawrence; Sheehan, Francis X.

    1988-01-01

    Describes several experiments that explore the methodology available to the forensic serologist for typing a human bloodstain in the ABH grouping system. Presents ABO blood group of wet blood, Lattes Crust test procedure, and the absorption-elution procedure. Uses outdated blood; equipment requirements are minimal. (ML)

  8. Sustaining exercise participation through group cohesion.

    PubMed

    Estabrooks, P A

    2000-04-01

    The general hypothesis to be examined by this article is that increased group cohesion leads to an increase in adherence to an exercise program over time. Although preliminary research is promising, there is a need for further research aimed at examining the model of group development in exercise classes, the impact of group cohesion on both group and individual exercise behavior, and the measurement of group cohesion.

  9. Performance monitoring during a minimal group manipulation.

    PubMed

    Pfabigan, Daniela M; Holzner, Marie-Theres; Lamm, Claus

    2016-10-01

    The on-going (self-)monitoring of our behaviour is inextricably intertwined with the surrounding social context. In this study, we investigated whether a minimal group paradigm assigning individuals to arbitrary group categories is powerful enough to induce changes in behavioural, psychophysiological and event-related potential correlates of performance monitoring. Following arbitrary group assignment based on ostensible task performance and a group identification task, 22 volunteers performed a flanker-task during both in-group and out-group contexts, while electroencephalography was performed. More errors were committed in the out-group compared with the in-group context. Error-related negativity amplitudes were larger for in-group compared with out-group errors. However, subsequent processing reflected in late Pe amplitudes and stimulus-driven conflict reflected in N2 amplitudes were not affected by the group context. Heart rate deceleration (during both correct and incorrect trials) tended to be more pronounced during the out-group compared with the in-group context. This surprising observation was corroborated by subjective ratings of performance satisfaction, in which participants reported higher satisfaction with their out-group performance. This study identified specific stimulus evaluation processes to be affected by a minimal group manipulation and demonstrated thereby transient top-down effects of a social context manipulation on performance monitoring.

  10. Older but Wilier: In-Group Accountability and the Development of Subjective Group Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Dominic; Rutland, Adam; Cameron, Lindsey; Ferrell, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    To test social and cognitive variables that may affect the development of subjective group dynamics, the authors had 224 children between the ages of 5 and 12 years evaluate an in-group and an out-group and normative and deviant in-group members under conditions of high or low accountability to in-group peers. In-group bias and relative…

  11. Leadership behaviours that foster nursing group power.

    PubMed

    Sieloff, Christina Leibold

    2004-07-01

    Today's health care environment presents many challenges to nursing groups as they seek to achieve their goals. All resources must be recognized and effectively utilized. Power, defined as the capacity to achieve goals (Sieloff 1995), is a valuable resource that can assist nursing groups in the achievement of their goals. The leader of a nursing group can make a significant difference in a group's ability to actualize their power capacity. The purpose of this article is to identify and discuss the use of a tool (Sieloff-King Assessment of Group Power within Organizations) to identify the nurse leader/group power variables that can be used to improve a nursing group's power as a resource in the achievement of its goals. Using behaviours related to a Nurse Leader's Power Competency and Power Perspective variables, identified in the Theory of Group Power within Organizations (Sieloff 1999), a nurse leader can foster a nursing group's power.

  12. Blood Groups in Infection and Host Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Blood group antigens represent polymorphic traits inherited among individuals and populations. At present, there are 34 recognized human blood groups and hundreds of individual blood group antigens and alleles. Differences in blood group antigen expression can increase or decrease host susceptibility to many infections. Blood groups can play a direct role in infection by serving as receptors and/or coreceptors for microorganisms, parasites, and viruses. In addition, many blood group antigens facilitate intracellular uptake, signal transduction, or adhesion through the organization of membrane microdomains. Several blood groups can modify the innate immune response to infection. Several distinct phenotypes associated with increased host resistance to malaria are overrepresented in populations living in areas where malaria is endemic, as a result of evolutionary pressures. Microorganisms can also stimulate antibodies against blood group antigens, including ABO, T, and Kell. Finally, there is a symbiotic relationship between blood group expression and maturation of the gastrointestinal microbiome. PMID:26085552

  13. CAPE: Automatically Predicting Changes in Group Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sliva, Amy; Subrahmanian, V. S.; Martinez, Vanina; Simari, Gerardo

    There is now intense interest in the problem of forecasting what a group will do in the future. Past work [1, 2, 3] has built complex models of a group’s behavior and used this to predict what the group might do in the future. However, almost all past work assumes that the group will not change its past behavior. Whether the group is a group of investors, or a political party, or a terror group, there is much interest in when and how the group will change its behavior. In this paper, we develop an architecture and algorithms called CAPE to forecast the conditions under which a group will change its behavior. We have tested CAPE on social science data about the behaviors of seven terrorist groups and show that CAPE is highly accurate in its predictions—at least in this limited setting.

  14. Radio properties of fossil galaxy groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miraghaei, H.; Khosroshahi, H. G.

    2016-09-01

    We study 1.4 GHz radio properties of a sample of fossil galaxy groups using GMRT radio observations and the FIRST survey catalog. Fossil galaxy groups, having no recent major mergers in their dominant galaxies and also group scale mergers, give us the opportunity to investigate the effect of galaxy merger on AGN activity. In this work, we compare the radio properties of a rich sample of fossil groups with a sample of normal galaxy groups and clusters and show that the brightest group galaxies in fossil groups are under luminous at 1.4 GHz, relative to the general population of the brightest group galaxies, indicating that the dynamically relaxed nature of fossil groups has influenced the AGN activity in their dominant galaxy.

  15. Ecological diversification in the Bacillus cereus Group.

    PubMed

    Guinebretière, Marie-Hélène; Thompson, Fabiano L; Sorokin, Alexei; Normand, Philippe; Dawyndt, Peter; Ehling-Schulz, Monika; Svensson, Birgitta; Sanchis, Vincent; Nguyen-The, Christophe; Heyndrickx, Marc; De Vos, Paul

    2008-04-01

    The Bacillus cereus Group comprises organisms that are widely distributed in the environment and are of health and economic interest. We demonstrate an 'ecotypic' structure of populations in the B. cereus Group using (i) molecular data from Fluorescent Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism patterns, ribosomal gene sequences, partial panC gene sequences, 'psychrotolerant' DNA sequence signatures and (ii) phenotypic and descriptive data from range of growth temperature, psychrotolerance and thermal niches. Seven major phylogenetic groups (I to VII) were thus identified, with ecological differences that provide evidence for a multiemergence of psychrotolerance in the B. cereus Group. A moderate thermotolerant group (VII) was basal to the mesophilic group I, from which in turn distinct thermal lineages have emerged, comprising two mesophilic groups (III, IV), an intermediate group (V) and two psychrotolerant groups (VI, II). This stepwise evolutionary transition toward psychrotolerance was particularly well illustrated by the relative abundance of the 'psychrotolerant' rrs signature (as defined by Pruss et al.) copies accumulated in strains that varied according to the phylogenetic group. The 'psychrotolerant' cspA signature (as defined by Francis et al.) was specific to group VI and provided a useful way to differentiate it from the psychrotolerant group II. This study illustrates how adaptation to novel environments by the modification of temperature tolerance limits has shaped historical patterns of global ecological diversification in the B. cereus Group. The implications for the taxonomy of this Group and for the human health risk are discussed.

  16. The Paradox of Group Mind: "People in a Group" Have More Mind Than "a Group of People".

    PubMed

    Cooley, Erin; Payne, B Keith; Cipolli, William; Cameron, C Daryl; Berger, Alyssa; Gray, Kurt

    2017-04-03

    Three studies examine how subtle shifts in framing can alter the mind perception of groups. Study 1 finds that people generally perceive groups to have less mind than individuals. However, Study 2 demonstrates that changing the framing of a group from "a group of people" to "people in a group," substantially increases mind perception-leading to comparable levels of mind between groups and individuals. Study 3 reveals that this change in framing influences people's sympathy for groups, an effect mediated by mind perception. We conclude that minor linguistic shifts can have big effects on how groups are perceived-with implications for mind perception and sympathy for mass suffering. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. Characteristics of established group practices in Ontario.

    PubMed

    Vayda, E; Williams, A P; Stevenson, H M; Pierre, K D; Burke, M; Barnsley, J

    1989-01-01

    Established group practices in Ontario were surveyed to determine their structure, characteristics and attitudes toward government assistance in the development of group practice. The degree of organization of the groups surveyed was related to size and less than that reported in surveys of United States group practices. Group size and years of operation were strongly associated. Night, weekend and vacation coverage, the use of a unit patient record and the employment of non-physician administrators were reported frequently, and were more common in older and larger groups. As well, fringe benefits, except for professional organization dues, were not commonly provided.

  18. CCAP for Universal Discrete Quantum Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Commer, Kenny; Freslon, Amaury; Yamashita, Makoto

    2014-10-01

    We show that the discrete duals of the free orthogonal quantum groups have the Haagerup property and the completely contractive approximation property. Analogous results hold for the free unitary quantum groups and the quantum automorphism groups of finite-dimensional C*-algebras. The proof relies on the monoidal equivalence between free orthogonal quantum groups and SU q (2) quantum groups, on the construction of a sufficient supply of bounded central functionals for SU q (2) quantum groups, and on the free product techniques of Ricard and Xu. Our results generalize previous work in the Kac setting due to Brannan on the Haagerup property, and due to the second author on the CCAP.

  19. Ability of Hand Hygiene Interventions Using Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers and Soap To Reduce Microbial Load on Farmworker Hands Soiled during Harvest.

    PubMed

    de Aceituno, Anna Fabiszewski; Bartz, Faith E; Hodge, Domonique Watson; Shumaker, David J; Grubb, James E; Arbogast, James W; Dávila-Aviña, Jorgé; Venegas, Fabiola; Heredia, Norma; García, Santos; Leon, Juan S

    2015-11-01

    Effective hand hygiene is essential to prevent the spread of pathogens on produce farms and reduce foodborne illness. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act Proposed Rule for Produce Safety recommends the use of soap and running water for hand hygiene of produce handlers. The use of alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS) may be an effective alternative hygiene intervention where access to water is limited. There are no published data on the efficacy of either soap or ABHS-based interventions to reduce microbial contamination in agricultural settings. The goal of this study was to assess the ability of two soap-based (traditional or pumice) and two ABHS-based (label-use or two-step) hygiene interventions to reduce microbes (coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus spp.) and soil (absorbance of hand rinsate at 600 nm [A600]) on farmworker hands after harvesting produce, compared with the results for a no-hand-hygiene control. With no hand hygiene, farmworker hands were soiled (median A600, 0.48) and had high concentrations of coliforms (geometric mean, 3.4 log CFU per hand) and Enterococcus spp. (geometric mean, 5.3 log CFU per hand) after 1 to 2 h of harvesting tomatoes. Differences in microbial loads in comparison to the loads in the control group varied by indicator organism and hygiene intervention (0 to 2.3 log CFU per hand). All interventions yielded lower concentrations of Enterococcus spp. and E. coli (P < 0.05), but not of coliforms, than were found in the control group. The two-step ABHS intervention led to significantly lower concentrations of coliforms and Enterococcus spp. than the pumice soap and label-use ABHS interventions (P < 0.05) and was the only intervention to yield significantly fewer samples with E. coli than were found in the control group (P < 0.05). All interventions removed soil from hands (P < 0.05), soap-based interventions more so than ABHS-based interventions (P < 0.05). ABHS-based interventions were

  20. Group processes and process evaluations in a new treatment setting: inpatient group psychotherapy followed by internet-chat aftercare groups.

    PubMed

    Haug, Severin; Sedway, Jan; Kordy, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about processes characterizing therapeutic Internet-chat groups, which offer a novel way of providing group therapy over distances. In this study group processes and group evaluations were examined in a treatment setting where face-to-face inpatient groups are followed by chat aftercare groups. For a sample of 121 patients who participated in both treatment modalities, group processes and group evaluations were modeled using hierarchical linear modeling. The group evaluations followed a consistent upward course from the beginning of therapy until the end of chat aftercare. For the process measures Activity and Emotional Reactivity, the initial scores at the beginning of the chat groups were lower than at the end of the inpatient treatment, but higher than at admission. During chat aftercare, Activity and Emotional Reactivity scores increased less than during the inpatient phase, but on average Activity and Emotional Reactivity were higher during Internet-chat aftercare. The predictive value of the acquaintance of the therapist from inpatient treatment and the course of group evaluations during inpatient treatment on the course of group evaluations during chat aftercare were examined.

  1. Large Independent Primary Care Medical Groups

    PubMed Central

    Casalino, Lawrence P.; Chen, Melinda A.; Staub, C. Todd; Press, Matthew J.; Mendelsohn, Jayme L.; Lynch, John T.; Miranda, Yesenia

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE In the turbulent US health care environment, many primary care physicians seek hospital employment. Large physician-owned primary care groups are an alternative, but few physicians or policy makers realize that such groups exist. We wanted to describe these groups, their advantages, and their challenges. METHODS We identified 21 groups and studied 5 that varied in size and location. We conducted interviews with group leaders, surveyed randomly selected group physicians, and interviewed external observers—leaders of a health plan, hospital, and specialty medical group that shared patients with the group. We triangulated responses from group leaders, group physicians, and external observers to identify key themes. RESULTS The groups’ physicians work in small practices, with the group providing economies of scale necessary to develop laboratory and imaging services, health information technology, and quality improvement infrastructure. The groups differ in their size and the extent to which they engage in value-based contracting, though all are moving to increase the amount of financial risk they take for their quality and cost performance. Unlike hospital-employed and multispecialty groups, independent primary care groups can aim to reduce health care costs without conflicting incentives to fill hospital beds and keep specialist incomes high. Each group was positively regarded by external observers. The groups are under pressure, however, to sell to organizations that can provide capital for additional infrastructure to engage in value-based contracting, as well as provide substantial income to physicians from the sale. CONCLUSIONS Large, independent primary care groups have the potential to make primary care attractive to physicians and to improve patient care by combining human scale advantages of physician autonomy and the small practice setting with resources that are important to succeed in value-based contracting. PMID:26755779

  2. Between-group competition elicits within-group cooperation in children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majolo, Bonaventura; Maréchal, Laëtitia

    2017-02-01

    Aggressive interactions between groups are frequent in human societies and can bear significant fitness costs and benefits (e.g. death or access to resources). During between-group competitive interactions, more cohesive groups (i.e. groups formed by individuals who cooperate in group defence) should out-perform less cohesive groups, other factors being equal (e.g. group size). The cost/benefit of between-group competition are thought to have driven correlated evolution of traits that favour between-group aggression and within-group cooperation (e.g. parochial altruism). Our aim was to analyse whether the proximate relationship between between-group competition and within-group cooperation is found in 3–10 years old children and the developmental trajectory of such a relationship. We used a large cohort of children (n = 120) and tested whether simulated between-group competition increased within-group cooperation (i.e. how much of a resource children were giving to their group companions) in two experiments. We found greater within-group cooperation when groups of four children were competing with other groups then in the control condition (no between-group competition). Within-group cooperation increased with age. Our study suggests that parochial altruism and in-group/out-group biases emerge early during the course of human development.

  3. Between-group competition elicits within-group cooperation in children.

    PubMed

    Majolo, Bonaventura; Maréchal, Laëtitia

    2017-02-24

    Aggressive interactions between groups are frequent in human societies and can bear significant fitness costs and benefits (e.g. death or access to resources). During between-group competitive interactions, more cohesive groups (i.e. groups formed by individuals who cooperate in group defence) should out-perform less cohesive groups, other factors being equal (e.g. group size). The cost/benefit of between-group competition are thought to have driven correlated evolution of traits that favour between-group aggression and within-group cooperation (e.g. parochial altruism). Our aim was to analyse whether the proximate relationship between between-group competition and within-group cooperation is found in 3-10 years old children and the developmental trajectory of such a relationship. We used a large cohort of children (n = 120) and tested whether simulated between-group competition increased within-group cooperation (i.e. how much of a resource children were giving to their group companions) in two experiments. We found greater within-group cooperation when groups of four children were competing with other groups then in the control condition (no between-group competition). Within-group cooperation increased with age. Our study suggests that parochial altruism and in-group/out-group biases emerge early during the course of human development.

  4. Between-group competition elicits within-group cooperation in children

    PubMed Central

    Majolo, Bonaventura; Maréchal, Laëtitia

    2017-01-01

    Aggressive interactions between groups are frequent in human societies and can bear significant fitness costs and benefits (e.g. death or access to resources). During between-group competitive interactions, more cohesive groups (i.e. groups formed by individuals who cooperate in group defence) should out-perform less cohesive groups, other factors being equal (e.g. group size). The cost/benefit of between-group competition are thought to have driven correlated evolution of traits that favour between-group aggression and within-group cooperation (e.g. parochial altruism). Our aim was to analyse whether the proximate relationship between between-group competition and within-group cooperation is found in 3–10 years old children and the developmental trajectory of such a relationship. We used a large cohort of children (n = 120) and tested whether simulated between-group competition increased within-group cooperation (i.e. how much of a resource children were giving to their group companions) in two experiments. We found greater within-group cooperation when groups of four children were competing with other groups then in the control condition (no between-group competition). Within-group cooperation increased with age. Our study suggests that parochial altruism and in-group/out-group biases emerge early during the course of human development. PMID:28233820

  5. On Finite Groups and Finite Fields.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, J. D.

    1991-01-01

    Given a multiplicative group of nonzero elements with order n, the explicit relationship between the number of cyclic subgroups of order d, which divides n, is used in the proof concerning the cyclic nature of that given multiplicative group. (JJK)

  6. Scarlet Fever: A Group A Streptococcal Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a bacterial infection caused by group A Streptococcus or "group A strep." This illness affects some ... infections Abscesses (pockets of pus) of the throat Pneumonia (lung infection) Arthritis (joint inflammation) Treatment with antibiotics ...

  7. The two faces of the group therapist.

    PubMed

    Billow, Richard M

    2005-04-01

    The group therapist wears two faces: spokesperson of the Establishment and spokesperson of significant truth. To run vital groups, these two roles of group leadership must stand in dialectic relationship to each other. The therapist introduces principles and practices that normalize group relations and provide a sense of cohesion, continuity, and regularity. However, to be constructive and promote significant truth, the group therapist must also be deconstructive, and encourage and support the group's questioning and challenging the very principles and practices that he or she asserts. A case example illustrates how the group leader is also two-faced in another sense of the term, since he or she may be false and insincere--or perceived as such--when being either the conservator or challenger of group process and culture.

  8. Chemically-related Groups of Active Ingredients

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Many pesticide active ingredients affect pests in similar ways, and we re-evaluate them together as a group. Groups include carbamate insecticides, neonicotinoids, organochlorines, organophosphates, pyrethrins, and pyrethroids.

  9. N-ACETYL GROUPS IN VITELLENIN,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The presence of acetyl groups in vitellenin was confirmed by hydrazinolysis according to the DNP method of Phillips. After hydrazinolysis of 10-30...hydrazinolysis at room temperature for 1 hour, vitellenin contains N- acetyl , but no Oacetyl, groups. (Author)

  10. Group problems in problem-based learning.

    PubMed

    Hendry, Graham D; Ryan, Greg; Harris, Jennifer

    2003-11-01

    Successful small-group learning in problem-based learning (PBL) educational programmes relies on functional group processes. However, there has been limited research on PBL group problems, and no studies have been conducted on problems as perceived by both students and tutors in the same educational context. The authors investigated PBL group problems in a graduate-entry medical programme, and report the most common group problems, and those that hinder students' learning the most. The possible causes of individual quietness and dominant behaviour, and potential influences that group problems may have on the tutorial process are summarized in an exploratory model of PBL group dysfunction that could be used to guide further research. Specifically, there is a need for further evidence on which to base guidelines for tutors and students to effectively manage group problems.

  11. 32 CFR 643.129 - Youth groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... facilities, without monetary consideration, to on-post youth groups such as the Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts, and... intermittent or continuing use, to off-post youth groups such as the Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts, and the...

  12. 32 CFR 643.129 - Youth groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... facilities, without monetary consideration, to on-post youth groups such as the Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts, and... intermittent or continuing use, to off-post youth groups such as the Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts, and the...

  13. 32 CFR 643.129 - Youth groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... facilities, without monetary consideration, to on-post youth groups such as the Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts, and... intermittent or continuing use, to off-post youth groups such as the Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts, and the...

  14. 32 CFR 643.129 - Youth groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... facilities, without monetary consideration, to on-post youth groups such as the Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts, and... intermittent or continuing use, to off-post youth groups such as the Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts, and the...

  15. 32 CFR 643.129 - Youth groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... facilities, without monetary consideration, to on-post youth groups such as the Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts, and... intermittent or continuing use, to off-post youth groups such as the Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts, and the...

  16. Using Consensus Groups in Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Regina O.; Dirkx, John M.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter describes online consensus group work, a form of collaborative learning. It discusses collaborative learning, small group work, and consensus learning, with recommendations for their use in online contexts.

  17. Selection and Composition Criteria in Group Psychotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unger, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Reviews the literature on the selection of members for and the composition of psychotherapy groups. Discusses viewpoints on inclusion-exclusion criteria as well as theories on group composition. (Author)

  18. Teaching Interpersonal Skills through Group Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrew, Linda G.; Lewis, Stephen D.

    1998-01-01

    Indicates the importance of interpersonal skills in the workplace and suggests that the business curricula offers many opportunities for incorporation of group activities. Offers steps for planning student group activities. (JOW)

  19. Building the Emotional Intelligence of Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Druskat, Vanessa Urch; Wolff, Steven B.

    2001-01-01

    Research has found that individual emotional intelligence has a group analog and it is critical to groups' effectiveness. Teams can develop greater emotional intelligence and boost their overall performance. (JOW)

  20. Relational Control in Two Group Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Donald G.

    1979-01-01

    Examines and explains relational control interaction patterns in two decision-making groups and two women's consciousness-raising groups. Analyzes the interaction data using a Markov model and tracking the control dimension of relationships over time. (JMF)

  1. The Dynamics of Scapegoating in Small Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gemmill, Gary

    1989-01-01

    Analyzes proposition that scapegoat role emerges in small groups to permit member distancing from intrapsychic and interpersonal conflict through displacement. Describes small group scapegoating and its consequences. (Author/CM)

  2. Groups in Geological Education, Research, and Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romey, William D.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses different methods of instruction, such as the Keller Plan, audio-visual-tutorial methods, contract systems, and group seminars. Also discusses the role of groups in professional associations, particularly the National Association of Geology Teachers. (MLH)

  3. [Real groups in the minimal group paradigm; does the group context work as corrective or catalysing agent for social discrimination?].

    PubMed

    Petersen, L E; Blank, H

    2001-01-01

    Studies applying the minimal group paradigm to analyze social discrimination processes have been analyzing for the most part the behavior of individuals. The present experiment extends the minimal group paradigm to the group level. The aim of the present study was to compare the decisions made by real groups (N = 3 persons) with those made by single persons. The analysis of the total points given to the in- or the outgroup as well as the strategy MIP + MDI on F revealed that groups are significantly more biased towards the ingroup than individuals. On the other hand, individuals use the strategy F on MIP + MDI significantly more than groups and thus show a greater amount of fairness. These conclusions are qualified by a new method of identifying dominant strategies which shows that the dominant strategy used by individuals and groups is fairness. A theoretical explanation of the results is offered based on social identity theory, the groupthink model and self-awareness theory.

  4. ILDG Middleware Working Group Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    B. Joo; W. Watson

    2004-09-01

    We report on the status of the ILDG Middleware Working Group. The Middleware Working Group was formed with the aim of designing standard middleware to allow the interoperation of the data grids of ILDG member collaborations. Details of the working group are given. In this contribution we outline the role of middleware in the ILDG, present our proposed middleware architecture and discuss our current status and future work within the working group.

  5. Can Attention be Divided Between Perceptual Groups?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCann, Robert S.; Foyle, David C.; Johnston, James C.; Hart, Sandra G. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Previous work using Head-Up Displays (HUDs) suggests that the visual system parses the HUD and the outside world into distinct perceptual groups, with attention deployed sequentially to first one group and then the other. New experiments show that both groups can be processed in parallel in a divided attention search task, even though subjects have just processed a stimulus in one perceptual group or the other. Implications for models of visual attention will be discussed.

  6. GROUP AND ORGANIZATIONAL FACTORS INFLUENCING CREATIVITY.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    SOCIAL COMMUNICATION, GROUP DYNAMICS, MOTIVATION, SOCIOMETRICS, MEASUREMENT, BEHAVIOR, CULTURE, PERSONALITY, COMPUTER PROGRAMMING, APTITUDE TESTS, COMPUTERS, LEADERSHIP, PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS, FACTOR ANALYSIS.

  7. Improved Decision Making Through Group Composition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    the group process during the experiment and the influence of the MBTI. 7 Subsidiary Research Ouestions and Hypothesis The research objectives were...members’ contributions. Margolis explained how defensive feelings can influence the group members: Feeling defensive, individuals protect themselves and...encouraging diversity and nonconformity during group decision making" (18:449). Another way to guard against groupthink.is to pick someone in the group who will

  8. Life Cycles of Ad Hoc Task Groups

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    internal group dynamics, and external influence on the group . Time pressure . Members’ first comments about time pressure appeared at transition meetings...organizational supports and management behavior can influence team effectiveness. Yet it is unclear how such factors may affect the group "_.3...on members’ ability to work together, yet little is known about how the gradual creation of work products influences groups ’ social development. The

  9. Demonstrating Group Process Using "12 Angry Men"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Stephen A.; Berg, Robert C.

    2005-01-01

    The feature film "12 Angry Men" focuses on an organizational task group that demonstrates the dynamics of a working group. The film is discussed as an effective tool for illuminating group process. The authors describe their experiences using the movie as a teaching tool and provide examples of how it can be used to depict critical incidents, the…

  10. Using Group Explorer in Teaching Abstract Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, Claus; Gfeller, Mary; Donohue, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the use of Group Explorer in an undergraduate mathematics course in abstract algebra. The visual nature of Group Explorer in representing concepts in group theory is an attractive incentive to use this software in the classroom. However, little is known about students' perceptions on this technology in learning concepts in…

  11. Designing and Fostering Effective Online Group Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherling, Sarah E.

    2011-01-01

    Collaborative learning is a hallmark of adult education and a popular instructional strategy. For over a decade, as an educator of adult learners, the author has integrated group work into courses. Group projects require the contribution and evaluation from all group members and often reflect a collective grade at the end of the project. However,…

  12. Differential Effects of Two T Group Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boller, Jon D.

    1974-01-01

    This article presents a rationale for examining the effects of the T group on introverts and extroverts. Results indicate that the sensory awareness group is more profitable to both personality types and that there is a direct relationship between personality type and profit in a T group. (Author)

  13. Group Supervision of School Psychologists in Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haboush, Karen L.

    2003-01-01

    Little has been written about the nature of group supervision for school psychologists in training. In organizing the supervisor's approach to running such a group, the following theoretical models may prove effective: attachment theory, object relations theory, group theory and self psychology. Case examples are discussed in order to illustrate…

  14. The Finite Lamplighter Groups: A Guided Tour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siehler, Jacob A.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we present a family of finite groups, which provide excellent examples of the basic concepts of group theory. To work out the center, conjuagacy classes, and commutators of these groups, all that's required is a bit of linear algebra.

  15. Self-Reflections on Group Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torosyan, Roben

    2008-01-01

    This article provides a first-person account of a training program in group dynamics. It is deliberately written in the first-person to capture the highly personal nature of group dynamic analysis. Proceeding through an intensive account of six days of T-groups, module facilitation, and facilitator feedback sessions, the author examines painful…

  16. Rehabilitation Teaching of Adults in Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soucy-Moloney, Lisa-Anne; Paskin, Nancy

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses the evolution of the group model for the Adaptive Skills Program used by the New York Lighthouse Vision Rehabilitation Services. Recommendations are provided for program site selection, transportation, consumer selection and group size, program schedule, and curriculum. The benefits of group instruction are described.…

  17. A New Approach to Group Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Jerry

    1976-01-01

    To help teachers plan strategy for working with a learning group, 12 factors affecting a learning group are discussed and a series of check points are identified as criteria for evaluation. Concepts and principles of group dynamics are drawn from sociology and the work of Carl Rogers. (Author/AJ)

  18. Mutual Group Hypnosis: A Social Interaction Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Shirley

    Mutual Group Hypnosis is discussed in terms of its similarity to group dynamics in general and in terms of its similarity to a social interaction program (Role Modeling) designed to foster the expression of warmth and acceptance among group members. Hypnosis also fosters a regression to prelogical thought processes in the service of the ego. Group…

  19. Student Perceptions of Small-Group Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florez, Ida Rose; McCaslin, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Background/Context: Elementary school teachers regularly arrange students in small groups for learning activities. A rich literature discusses various types of small-group learning formats and how those formats affect achievement. Few studies, however, have examined students' perceptions of small-group learning experiences. Our work extends the…

  20. Seven Keys for Small Group Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Joseph L.

    2004-01-01

    One of the most commonly used instructional methods in adult education is the small group. Small group learning is a staple of the adult education enterprise. Small groups are used in higher education, adult literacy and basic education, and many forms of training (Taylor, Marienau, & Fiddler, 2000). Some write solely about it (Brookfield…