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Sample records for abh histo-blood group

  1. Binding of Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus to Antigens of the ABH Histo-Blood Group Family

    PubMed Central

    Ruvoën-Clouet, Nathalie; Ganière, Jean Pierre; André-Fontaine, Geneviève; Blanchard, Dominique; Le Pendu, Jacques

    2000-01-01

    The ability of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus to agglutinate human erythrocytes and to attach to rabbit epithelial cells of the upper respiratory and digestive tracts was shown to depend on the presence of ABH blood group antigens. Indeed, agglutination was inhibited by saliva from secretor individuals but not from nonsecretors, the latter being devoid of H antigen. In addition, erythrocytes of the rare Bombay phenotype, which completely lack ABH antigens, were not agglutinated. Native viral particles from extracts of infected rabbit liver as well as virus-like particles from the recombinant virus capsid protein specifically bound to synthetic A and H type 2 blood group oligosaccharides. Both types of particles could attach to adult rabbit epithelial cells of the upper respiratory and digestive tracts. This binding paralleled that of anti-H type 2 blood group reagents and was inhibited by the H type 2-specific lectin UEA-I and polyacrylamide-conjugated H type 2 trisaccharide. Young rabbit tissues were almost devoid of A and H type 2 antigens, and only very weak binding of virus particles could be obtained on these tissues. PMID:11090195

  2. Association of Rotavirus Gastroenteritis with Histo-blood Group Antigens.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, E; Dwibedi, B; Kar, S K; Pandey, R M

    2016-07-01

    Association of rotavirus gastroenteritis with histo-blood group antigens in children younger than 5 years admitted with diarrhea (n=389) was studied. Distribution of blood groups in rotavirus positive (n=96) and rotavirus negative (n=51) diarrhea gastroenteritis cases did not show any susceptibility to any blood group; blood group O seemed to be protective. PMID:27508550

  3. Specificity and kinetics of norovirus binding to magnetic bead- conjugated histo-blood group antigens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Histo-blood group antigens (HBGA) have been identified as candidate receptors for human norovirus (NOR). Type A, type H1, and Lewis histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) in humans have been identified as major targets for NOR binding. Pig HBGA-conjugated magnetic beads have been utilized as a means ...

  4. Human Noroviruses' Fondness for Histo-Blood Group Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Bishal K.; Leuthold, Mila M.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human noroviruses are the dominant cause of outbreaks of gastroenteritis around the world. Human noroviruses interact with the polymorphic human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), and this interaction is thought to be important for infection. Indeed, synthetic HBGAs or HBGA-expressing enteric bacteria were shown to enhance norovirus infection in B cells. A number of studies have found a possible relationship between HBGA type and norovirus susceptibility. The genogroup II, genotype 4 (GII.4) noroviruses are the dominant cluster, evolve every other year, and are thought to modify their binding interactions with different HBGA types. Here we show high-resolution X-ray crystal structures of the capsid protruding (P) domains from epidemic GII.4 variants from 2004, 2006, and 2012, cocrystallized with a panel of HBGA types (H type 2, Lewis Y, Lewis B, Lewis A, Lewis X, A type, and B type). Many of the HBGA binding interactions were found to be complex, involving capsid loop movements, alternative HBGA conformations, and HBGA rotations. We showed that a loop (residues 391 to 395) was elegantly repositioned to allow for Lewis Y binding. This loop was also slightly shifted to provide direct hydrogen- and water-mediated bonds with Lewis B. We considered that the flexible loop modulated Lewis HBGA binding. The GII.4 noroviruses have dominated outbreaks over the past decade, which may be explained by their exquisite HBGA binding mechanisms, their fondness for Lewis HBGAs, and their temporal amino acid modifications. IMPORTANCE Our data provide a comprehensive picture of GII.4 P domain and HBGA binding interactions. The exceptionally high resolutions of our X-ray crystal structures allowed us to accurately recognize novel GII.4 P domain interactions with numerous HBGA types. We showed that the GII.4 P domain-HBGA interactions involved complex binding mechanisms that were not previously observed in norovirus structural studies. Many of the GII.4 P domain

  5. Noroviruses Distinguish between Type 1 and Type 2 Histo-Blood Group Antigens for Binding▿

    PubMed Central

    Shirato, Haruko; Ogawa, Satoko; Ito, Hiromi; Sato, Takashi; Kameyama, Akihiko; Narimatsu, Hisashi; Xiaofan, Zheng; Miyamura, Tatsuo; Wakita, Takaji; Ishii, Koji; Takeda, Naokazu

    2008-01-01

    Norovirus (NoV) is a causative agent of acute gastroenteritis. NoV binds to histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), namely, ABH antigens and Lewis (Le) antigens, in which type 1 and type 2 carbohydrate core structures constitute antigenically distinct variants. Norwalk virus, the prototype strain of norovirus, binds to the gastroduodenal junction, and this binding is correlated with the presence of H type 1 antigen but not with that of H type 2 antigen (S. Marionneau, N. Ruvoen, B. Le Moullac-Vaidye, M. Clement, A. Cailleau-Thomas, G. Ruiz-Palacois, P. Huang, X. Jiang, and J. Le Pendu, Gastroenterology 122:1967-1977, 2002). It has been unknown whether NoV distinguishes between the type 1 and type 2 chains of A and B antigens. In this study, we synthesized A type 1, A type 2, B type 1, and B type 2 pentasaccharides in vitro and examined the function of the core structures in the binding between NoV virus-like particles (VLPs) and HBGAs. The attachment of five genogroup I (GI) VLPs from 5 genotypes and 11 GII VLPs from 8 genotypes, GI/1, GI/2, GI/3, GI/4, GI/8, GII/1, GII/3, GII/4, GII/5, GII/6, GII/7, GII/12, and GII/14, to ABH and Le HBGAs was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based binding assays and Biacore analyses. GI/1, GI/2, GI/3, GI/4, GI/8, and GII/4 VLPs were more efficiently bound to A type 2 than A type 1, and GI/8 and GII/4 VLPs were more efficiently bound to B type 2 than B type 1, indicating that NoV VLPs distinguish between type 1 and type 2 carbohydrates. The dissociation of GII/4 VLPs from B type 1 was slower than that from B type 2 in the Biacore experiments; moreover, the binding to B type 1 was stronger than that to B type 2 in the ELISA experiments. These results indicated that the type 1 carbohydrates bind more tightly to NoV VLPs than the type 2 carbohydrates. This property may afford NoV tissue specificity. GII/4 is known to be a global epidemic genotype and binds to more HBGAs than other genotypes. This characteristic may be linked

  6. Atomic resolution structural characterization of recognition of histo-blood group antigens by Norwalk virus

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jae-Mun; Hutson, Anne M.; Estes, Mary K.; Prasad, B.V. Venkataram

    2008-07-28

    Members of Norovirus, a genus in the family Caliciviridae, are causative agents of epidemic diarrhea in humans. Susceptibility to several noroviruses is linked to human histo-blood type, and its determinant histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) are regarded as receptors for these viruses. Specificity for these carbohydrates is strain-dependent. Norwalk virus (NV) is the prototype genogroup I norovirus that specifically recognizes A- and H-type HBGA, in contrast to genogroup II noroviruses that exhibit a more diverse HBGA binding pattern. To understand the structural basis for how HBGAs interact with the NV capsid protein, and how the specificity is achieved, we carried out x-ray crystallographic analysis of the capsid protein domain by itself and in complex with A- and H-type HBGA at a resolution of {approx}1.4 {angstrom}. Despite differences in their carbohydrate sequence and linkage, both HBGAs bind to the same surface-exposed site in the capsid protein and project outward from the capsid surface, substantiating their possible role in initiating cell attachment. Precisely juxtaposed polar side chains that engage the sugar hydroxyls in a cooperative hydrogen bonding and a His/Trp pair involved in a cation-p interaction contribute to selective and specific recognition of A- and H-type HBGAs. This unique binding epitope, confirmed by mutational analysis, is highly conserved, but only in the genogroup I noroviruses, suggesting that a mechanism by which noroviruses infect broader human populations is by evolving different sites with altered HBGA specificities.

  7. Genogroup IV and VI Canine Noroviruses Interact with Histo-Blood Group Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Breiman, Adrien; le Pendu, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human noroviruses (HuNV) are a significant cause of viral gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. HuNV attaches to cell surface carbohydrate structures known as histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) prior to internalization, and HBGA polymorphism among human populations is closely linked to susceptibility to HuNV. Noroviruses are divided into 6 genogroups, with human strains grouped into genogroups I (GI), II, and IV. Canine norovirus (CNV) is a recently discovered pathogen in dogs, with strains classified into genogroups IV and VI. Whereas it is known that GI to GIII noroviruses bind to HBGAs and GV noroviruses recognize terminal sialic acid residues, the attachment factors for GIV and GVI noroviruses have not been reported. This study sought to determine the carbohydrate binding specificity of CNV and to compare it to the binding specificities of noroviruses from other genogroups. A panel of synthetic oligosaccharides were used to assess the binding specificity of CNV virus-like particles (VLPs) and identified α1,2-fucose as a key attachment factor. CNV VLP binding to canine saliva and tissue samples using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and immunohistochemistry confirmed that α1,2-fucose-containing H and A antigens of the HBGA family were recognized by CNV. Phenotyping studies demonstrated expression of these antigens in a population of dogs. The virus-ligand interaction was further characterized using blockade studies, cell lines expressing HBGAs, and enzymatic removal of candidate carbohydrates from tissue sections. Recognition of HBGAs by CNV provides new insights into the evolution of noroviruses and raises concerns regarding the potential for zoonotic transmission of CNV to humans. IMPORTANCE Infections with human norovirus cause acute gastroenteritis in millions of people each year worldwide. Noroviruses can also affect nonhuman species and are divided into 6 different groups based on their capsid sequences. Human noroviruses in genogroups

  8. Structural Constraints on Human Norovirus Binding to Histo-Blood Group Antigens.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bishal K; Leuthold, Mila M; Hansman, Grant S

    2016-01-01

    Human norovirus interacts with the polymorphic human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), and this interaction is thought to be important for infection. The genogroup II genotype 4 (GII.4) noroviruses are the dominant cluster, evolve every other year, and are thought to modify their binding interactions with different HBGA types. Most human noroviruses bind HBGAs, while some strains were found to have minimal or no HBGA interactions. Here, we explain some possible structural constraints for several noroviruses that were found to bind poorly to HBGAs by using X-ray crystallography. We showed that one aspartic acid was flexible or positioned away from the fucose moiety of the HBGAs and this likely hindered binding, although other fucose-interacting residues were perfectly oriented. Interestingly, a neighboring loop also appeared to influence the loop hosting the aspartic acid. These new findings might explain why some human noroviruses bound HBGAs poorly, although further studies are required. PMID:27303720

  9. Histo-blood group antigens: a common niche for norovirus and rotavirus.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ming; Jiang, Xi

    2014-01-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) and rotaviruses (RVs), the two most important causes of viral acute gastroenteritis, are found to recognise histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) as receptors or ligands for attachment. Human HBGAs are highly polymorphic containing ABO, secretor and Lewis antigens. In addition, both NoVs and RVs are highly diverse in how they recognise these HBGAs. Structural analysis of the HBGA-binding interfaces of NoVs revealed a conserved central binding pocket (CBP) interacting with a common major binding saccharide (MaBS) of HBGAs and a variable surrounding region interacting with additional minor binding saccharides. The conserved CBP indicates a strong selection of NoVs by the host HBGAs, whereas the variable surrounding region explains the diverse recognition patterns of different HBGAs by NoVs and RVs as functional adaptations of the viruses to human HBGAs. Diverse recognition of HBGAs has also been found in bacterial pathogen Helicobacter pylori. Thus, exploratory research into whether such diverse recognitions also occur for other viral and bacterial pathogens that recognise HBGAs is warranted. PMID:24606759

  10. Structural Analysis of Determinants of Histo-Blood Group Antigen Binding Specificity in Genogroup I Noroviruses

    PubMed Central

    Shanker, Sreejesh; Czako, Rita; Sankaran, Banumathi; Atmar, Robert L.; Estes, Mary K.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human noroviruses (NoVs) cause acute epidemic gastroenteritis. Susceptibility to the majority of NoV infections is determined by genetically controlled secretor-dependent expression of histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), which are also critical for NoV attachment to host cells. Human NoVs are classified into two major genogroups (genogroup I [GI] and GII), with each genogroup further divided into several genotypes. GII NoVs are more prevalent and exhibit periodic emergence of new variants, suggested to be driven by altered HBGA binding specificities and antigenic drift. Recent epidemiological studies show increased activity among GI NoVs, with some members showing the ability to bind nonsecretor HBGAs. NoVs bind HBGAs through the protruding (P) domain of the major capsid protein VP1. GI NoVs, similar to GII, exhibit significant sequence variations in the P domain; it is unclear how these variations affect HBGA binding specificities. To understand the determinants of possible strain-specific HBGA binding among GI NoVs, we determined the structure of the P domain of a GI.7 clinical isolate and compared it to the previously determined P domain structures of GI.1 and GI.2 strains. Our crystallographic studies revealed significant structural differences, particularly in the loop regions of the GI.7 P domain, altering its surface topography and electrostatic landscape and potentially indicating antigenic variation. The GI.7 strain bound to H- and A-type, Lewis secretor, and Lewis nonsecretor families of HBGAs, allowing us to further elucidate the structural determinants of nonsecretor HBGA binding among GI NoVs and to infer several contrasting and generalizable features of HBGA binding in the GI NoVs. IMPORTANCE Human noroviruses (NoVs) cause acute epidemic gastroenteritis. Recent epidemiological studies have shown increased prevalence of genogroup I (GI) NoVs. Although secretor-positive status is strongly correlated with NoV infection, cases of NoV infection

  11. Tulane Virus Recognizes the A Type 3 and B Histo-Blood Group Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dongsheng; Huang, Pengwei; Zou, Lu; Lowary, Todd L.; Tan, Ming

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tulane virus (TV), the prototype of the Recovirus genus in the calicivirus family, was isolated from the stools of rhesus monkeys and can be cultivated in vitro in monkey kidney cells. TV is genetically closely related to the genus Norovirus and recognizes the histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), similarly to human noroviruses (NoVs), making it a valuable surrogate for human NoVs. However, the precise structures of HBGAs recognized by TV remain elusive. In this study, we performed binding and blocking experiments on TV with extended HBGA types and showed that, while TV binds all four types (types 1 to 4) of the B antigens, it recognizes only the A type 3 antigen among four types of A antigens tested. The requirements for HBGAs in TV replication were demonstrated by blocking of TV replication in cell culture using the A type 3/4 and B saliva samples. Similar results were also observed in oligosaccharide-based blocking assays. Importantly, the previously reported, unexplained increase in TV replication by oligosaccharide in cell-based blocking assays has been clarified, which will facilitate the application of TV as a surrogate for human NoVs. IMPORTANCE Our understanding of the role of HBGAs in NoV infection has been significantly advanced in the past decade, but direct evidence for HBGAs as receptors for human NoVs remains lacking due to a lack of a cell culture method. TV recognizes HBGAs and can replicate in vitro, providing a valuable surrogate for human NoVs. However, TV binds to some but not all saliva samples from A-positive individuals, and an unexplained observation of synthetic oligosaccharide blocking of TV binding has been reported. These issues have been resolved in this study. PMID:25392226

  12. Norwalk Virus-Like Particle Hemagglutination by Binding to H Histo-Blood Group Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Hutson, Anne M.; Atmar, Robert L.; Marcus, Donald M.; Estes, Mary K.

    2003-01-01

    Noroviruses are a major cause of epidemic acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Here we report our discovery that recombinant Norwalk virus virus-like particles (rNV VLPs) agglutinate red blood cells (RBCs). Since histo-blood group antigens are expressed on gut mucosa as well as RBCs, we used rNV VLP hemagglutination (HA) as a model system for studying NV attachment to cells in order to help identify a potential NV receptor(s). rNV VLP HA is dependent on low temperature (4°C) and acidic pH. Of the 13 species of RBCs tested, rNV VLPs hemagglutinated only chimpanzee and human RBCs. The rNV VLPs hemagglutinated all human type O (11 of 11), A (9 of 9), and AB (4 of 4) RBCs; however, few human type B RBC samples (4 of 14) were hemagglutinated. HA with periodate- and neuraminidase-treated RBCs indicated that rNV VLP binding was carbohydrate dependent and did not require sialic acid. The rNV VLPs did not hemagglutinate Bombay RBCs (zero of seven) that lack H type 2 antigen, and an anti-H type 2 antibody inhibited rNV VLP HA of human type O RBCs. These data indicated that the H type 2 antigen functions as the rNV VLP HA receptor on human type O RBCs. The rNV VLP HA was also inhibited by rNV VLP-specific monoclonal antibody 8812, an antibody that inhibits VLP binding to Caco-2 cells. Convalescent-phase sera from NV-infected individuals showed increased rNV VLP HA inhibition titers compared to prechallenge sera. In carbohydrate binding assays, the rNV VLPs bound to synthetic Lewis d (Led), Leb, H type 2, and Ley antigens, and these antigens also inhibited rNV VLP HA of human type O RBCs. Overall, our results indicate that carbohydrate antigens in the gut are a previously unrecognized factor in NV pathogenesis. PMID:12477845

  13. Histo-blood group A/B versus H status of human carcinoma cells as correlated with haptotactic cell motility: approach with A and B gene transfection.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, D; Handa, K; Withers, D A; Hakomori, S

    1997-08-01

    In a search for the molecular basis of ABH status of tumors as correlated with malignancy, we studied various malignancy-related phenotypes of high H/Le(y)-expressing tumor cell lines in comparison with phenotypes of the same lines transfected with histo-blood group A or B genes. A and B gene transfectants, prepared independently from different H-active parental cells, showed A or B activity and abolition of H activity. All A and B gene transfectants, regardless of source, were characterized by significantly reduced Matrigel-dependent haptotactic motility. The level of haptotaxis of all transfectants was similar to that of parental cells in the presence of antibodies against human integrin subunits alpha3, alpha6, or beta1. These subunits showed high expression of A or B epitope in the A and B gene transfectants. Enhancement versus reduction of malignancy, associated with deletion versus induction of A/B epitopes, may be due in part to enhanced haptotaxis sustained by alpha3, alpha6, and beta1 integrin receptors, the activities of which are regulated by H or A/B glycosylation. These phenotypic changes provide a rationale for the deletion of A and B epitopes as one criterion defining human tumor malignancy. PMID:9242430

  14. Structural Analysis of Histo-Blood Group Antigen Binding Specificity in a Norovirus GII.4 Epidemic Variant: Implications for Epochal Evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Shanker, Sreejesh; Choi, Jae-Mun; Sankaran, Banumathi; Atmar, Robert L.; Estes, Mary K.; Prasad, B.V. Venkataram

    2012-03-23

    Susceptibility to norovirus (NoV), a major pathogen of epidemic gastroenteritis, is associated with histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), which are also cell attachment factors for this virus. GII.4 NoV strains are predominantly associated with worldwide NoV epidemics with a periodic emergence of new variants. The sequence variations in the surface-exposed P domain of the capsid protein resulting in differential HBGA binding patterns and antigenicity are suggested to drive GII.4 epochal evolution. To understand how temporal sequence variations affect the P domain structure and contribute to epochal evolution, we determined the P domain structure of a 2004 variant with ABH and secretor Lewis HBGAs and compared it with the previously determined structure of a 1996 variant. We show that temporal sequence variations do not affect the binding of monofucosyl ABH HBGAs but that they can modulate the binding strength of difucosyl Lewis HBGAs and thus could contribute to epochal evolution by the potentiated targeting of new variants to Lewis-positive, secretor-positive individuals. The temporal variations also result in significant differences in the electrostatic landscapes, likely reflecting antigenic variations. The proximity of some of these changes to the HBGA binding sites suggests the possibility of a coordinated interplay between antigenicity and HBGA binding in epochal evolution. From the observation that the regions involved in the formation of the HBGA binding sites can be conformationally flexible, we suggest a plausible mechanism for how norovirus disassociates from salivary mucin-linked HBGA before reassociating with HBGAs linked to intestinal epithelial cells during its passage through the gastrointestinal tract.

  15. An examination of co-infection in acute gastroenteritis and histo-blood group antigens leading to viral infection susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    FURUYA, KENTA; NAKAJIMA, HITOSHI; SASAKI, YOUSUKE; URITA, YOSHIHISA

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate co-infection in the gastrointestinal tract in terms of viruses, bacteria and the ABO blood group. We hypothesized that a combination of norovirus (NV) and bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract could affect the likelihood of an individual to contracting NV. Histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) are considered to act as receptors that can lead to NV susceptibility. In addition to genetics, co-infection in the gastrointestinal tract may be associated with this mechanism. A total of 370 patients with acute gastroenteritis presenting with diarrhea (14–89 years) were recruited. The male/female ratio was 20/17. Single infection (bacteria or virus), co-infection with two viruses, and co-infection with one virus and one bacterium were statistically analyzed. In total, 88 of the 376 subjects (23.4%) were positive for one virus, and 50 (13.3%) were positive for one bacterium. Co-transfection with bacteria and a virus were detected in 46 (47.9%) of the 96 bacterial gastroenteritis cases. Statistical analysis revealed that co-infection of bacteria and NV was not significant in all viral infections (P=0.768). In terms of the ABO histo-blood group type and NV infection, the frequency in the O type was not significantly increased (P=0.052). Co-infection of bacteria and a virus occurred frequently in the gastrointestinal tract. The ABO blood phenotype expression was not a significant factor in NV infection in the present case series and the results did not suggest an affinity of NV for specific bacteria. PMID:26998270

  16. Structure of a metal-independent bacterial glycosyltransferase that catalyzes the synthesis of histo-blood group A antigen

    PubMed Central

    Thiyagarajan, Nethaji; Pham, Tram T. K.; Stinson, Brittany; Sundriyal, Amit; Tumbale, Percy; Lizotte-Waniewski, Michelle; Brew, Keith; Acharya, K. Ravi

    2012-01-01

    Histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) are a source of antigenic variation between individuals that modulates resistance and susceptibility to pathogens and is a barrier to the spread of enveloped viruses. HBGAs are also produced by a few prokaryotes where they are synthesized by glycosyltransferases (GTs) related to human HBGA synthases. Here we report the first structure of a bacterial GT of this family, from an intestinal resident, Bacteroides ovatus. Unlike its mammalian homologues and other GTs with similar folds, this protein lacks a metal-binding Asp-X-Asp motif and is fully active in the absence of divalent metal ions, yet is strikingly similar in structure and in its interactions with substrates to structurally characterized mammalian metal-dependent mammalian homologues. This shows how an apparently major divergence in catalytic properties can be accommodated by minor structural adjustments and illustrates the structural underpinnings of horizontal transfer of a functional gene from prokaryotes to vertebrates. PMID:23230506

  17. Binding Patterns of Rotavirus Genotypes P[4], P[6], and P[8] in China with Histo-Blood Group Antigens.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xin; Li, Dan-di; Sun, Xiao-Man; Guo, Yan-Qing; Xiang, Jing-Yao; Wang, Wei-Huan; Zhang, Li-Xia; Gu, Qing-Jiu; Duan, Zhao-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Rotaviruses (RVs) are an important cause of severe gastroenteritis in children. It has been found that RV may recognize the histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) as ligands or receptors and bind HBGAs in a type-dependent manner. In this study, we investigated the binding specificity of VP8* proteins from human rotaviruses (RV) that are prevalent in China including genotypes P[4], P[6], and P[8]. Through the saliva- and oligosaccharide-based binding assays, we found that the VP8* proteins of P[4] and P[8] RV showed similar reactivity with the Leb and H type 1 antigens, while P[6] RV weakly bound the Leb antigen. These findings may facilitate further research into RV host specificity and vaccine development. PMID:26274396

  18. Binding Patterns of Rotavirus Genotypes P[4], P[6], and P[8] in China with Histo-Blood Group Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xin; Li, Dan-di; Sun, Xiao-man; Guo, Yan-qing; Xiang, Jing-yao; Wang, Wei-huan; Zhang, Li-xia; Gu, Qing-jiu; Duan, Zhao-jun

    2015-01-01

    Rotaviruses (RVs) are an important cause of severe gastroenteritis in children. It has been found that RV may recognize the histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) as ligands or receptors and bind HBGAs in a type-dependent manner. In this study, we investigated the binding specificity of VP8* proteins from human rotaviruses (RV) that are prevalent in China including genotypes P[4], P[6], and P[8]. Through the saliva- and oligosaccharide-based binding assays, we found that the VP8* proteins of P[4] and P[8] RV showed similar reactivity with the Leb and H type 1 antigens, while P[6] RV weakly bound the Leb antigen. These findings may facilitate further research into RV host specificity and vaccine development. PMID:26274396

  19. Genome Sequence of Enterobacter cloacae Strain SENG-6, a Bacterium Producing Histo-Blood Group Antigen-Like Substances That Can Bind with Human Noroviruses

    PubMed Central

    Amarasiri, Mohan; Hashiba, Satoshi; Yang, Peiyi; Okabe, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Enterobacter sp. strain SENG-6, isolated from healthy human feces, produces histo-blood group antigen (HBGA)-like substances that can bind with human noroviruses. Based on the genome sequence analysis, strain SENG-6 belongs to the species Enterobacter cloacae. The genome sequence of this strain should help identify genes associated with the production of HBGA-like substances. PMID:27563051

  20. Genome Sequence of Enterobacter cloacae Strain SENG-6, a Bacterium Producing Histo-Blood Group Antigen-Like Substances That Can Bind with Human Noroviruses.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Satoshi; Amarasiri, Mohan; Hashiba, Satoshi; Yang, Peiyi; Okabe, Satoshi; Sano, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Enterobacter sp. strain SENG-6, isolated from healthy human feces, produces histo-blood group antigen (HBGA)-like substances that can bind with human noroviruses. Based on the genome sequence analysis, strain SENG-6 belongs to the species Enterobacter cloacae The genome sequence of this strain should help identify genes associated with the production of HBGA-like substances. PMID:27563051

  1. Genome Sequence of Enterobacter cloacae Strain SENG-6, a Bacterium Producing Histo-Blood Group Antigen-Like Substances That Can Bind with Human Noroviruses.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Satoshi; Amarasiri, Mohan; Hashiba, Satoshi; Yang, Peiyi; Okabe, Satoshi; Sano, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Enterobacter sp. strain SENG-6, isolated from healthy human feces, produces histo-blood group antigen (HBGA)-like substances that can bind with human noroviruses. Based on the genome sequence analysis, strain SENG-6 belongs to the species Enterobacter cloacae The genome sequence of this strain should help identify genes associated with the production of HBGA-like substances.

  2. Histo-Blood Group Antigens Act as Attachment Factors of Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus Infection in a Virus Strain-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Nyström, Kristina; Le Gall-Reculé, Ghislaine; Grassi, Paola; Abrantes, Joana; Ruvoën-Clouet, Nathalie; Le Moullac-Vaidye, Beatrice; Lopes, Ana M.; Esteves, Pedro J.; Strive, Tanja; Marchandeau, Stéphane; Dell, Anne; Haslam, Stuart M.; Le Pendu, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Rabbit Hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV), a calicivirus of the Lagovirus genus, and responsible for rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD), kills rabbits between 48 to 72 hours post infection with mortality rates as high as 50–90%. Caliciviruses, including noroviruses and RHDV, have been shown to bind histo-blood group antigens (HBGA) and human non-secretor individuals lacking ABH antigens in epithelia have been found to be resistant to norovirus infection. RHDV virus-like particles have previously been shown to bind the H type 2 and A antigens. In this study we present a comprehensive assessment of the strain-specific binding patterns of different RHDV isolates to HBGAs. We characterized the HBGA expression in the duodenum of wild and domestic rabbits by mass spectrometry and relative quantification of A, B and H type 2 expression. A detailed binding analysis of a range of RHDV strains, to synthetic sugars and human red blood cells, as well as to rabbit duodenum, a likely gastrointestinal site for viral entrance was performed. Enzymatic cleavage of HBGA epitopes confirmed binding specificity. Binding was observed to blood group B, A and H type 2 epitopes in a strain-dependent manner with slight differences in specificity for A, B or H epitopes allowing RHDV strains to preferentially recognize different subgroups of animals. Strains related to the earliest described RHDV outbreak were not able to bind A, whereas all other genotypes have acquired A binding. In an experimental infection study, rabbits lacking the correct HBGA ligands were resistant to lethal RHDV infection at low challenge doses. Similarly, survivors of outbreaks in wild populations showed increased frequency of weak binding phenotypes, indicating selection for host resistance depending on the strain circulating in the population. HBGAs thus act as attachment factors facilitating infection, while their polymorphism of expression could contribute to generate genetic resistance to RHDV at the population

  3. Lewis histo-blood group α1,3/α1,4 fucose residues may both mediate binding to GII.4 noroviruses.

    PubMed

    Nasir, Waqas; Frank, Martin; Koppisetty, Chaitanya A K; Larson, Göran; Nyholm, Per-Georg

    2012-09-01

    Human noroviruses cause recurrent epidemics of gastroenteritis known to be dominated by the clinically important GII.4 genotype which recognizes human Secretor gene-dependent ABH histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) as attachment factors. There is increasing evidence that GII.4 noroviruses have undergone evolutionary changes to recognize Lewis antigens and non-Secretor saliva. In this study, we have investigated the possibilities of the Lewis α1,3/α1,4 fucoses as mediators of binding of GII.4 noroviruses to Lewis antigens. The study was carried out using molecular dynamics simulations of Lewis type-1 and type-2 chain HBGAs in complex with VA387 P domain dimers in explicit water. Based on the computer simulations, we suggest the possibility of two receptor binding modes for Lewis HBGAs: the "Secretor pose" with the Secretor Fucα1,2 in the binding site and the "Lewis pose" with the Lewis Fucα1,3/α1,4 residues in the binding site. This was further supported by an extensive GlyVicinity analysis of the Protein Data Bank with respect to the occurrence of the Lewis and Secretor poses in complexes of Lewis antigens with lectins and antibodies as well as GII norovirus strains. The Lewis pose can also explain the interactions of GII.4 norovirus strains with Le(x) and SLe(x) structures. Moreover, the present model suggests binding of complex branched polysaccharides, with the Lewis antigens at the nonreducing end, to P domain dimers of GII.4 strains. Our results are relevant for understanding the evolution of norovirus binding specificities and for in silico design of future antiviral therapeutics.

  4. Recognition of Histo-Blood Group Antigen-Like Carbohydrates in Lettuce by Human GII.4 Norovirus

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiang; Esseili, Malak A.; Lu, Zhongyan; Saif, Linda J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human norovirus (HuNoV) genogroup II genotype 4 (GII.4) strains account for about 80% of the gastroenteritis outbreaks in the United States. Contaminated food is a major transmission vehicle for this virus. In humans, pigs, and oysters, histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) act as attachment factors for HuNoVs. In lettuce, although the virus-like particles (VLPs) of a GII.4 HuNoV were found to bind to cell wall carbohydrates, the exact binding site has not been investigated. Here, we show the presence of HBGA-like carbohydrates in the cell wall of lettuce. The digestion of lettuce leaves with cell wall-degrading enzymes exposed more binding sites and significantly increased the level of binding of GII.4 HuNoV VLPs. Competition assays showed that both the HBGA monoclonal antibody, recognizing the H type, and plant lectins, recognizing α-l-fucose in the H type, effectively inhibited VLP binding to lettuce tissues. Lettuce cell wall components were isolated and their NoV VLP binding characteristics were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The binding was inhibited by pretreatment of the lettuce cell wall materials with α-1,2-fucosidase. Collectively, our results indicate that H-type HBGA-like carbohydrates exist in lettuce tissues and that GII.4 HuNoV VLPs can bind the exposed fucose moiety, possibly in the hemicellulose component of the cell wall. IMPORTANCE Salad crops and fruits are increasingly recognized as vehicles for human norovirus (HuNoV) transmission. A recent study showed that HuNoVs specifically bind to the carbohydrates of the lettuce cell wall. Histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) are carbohydrates and are known as the attachment factors for HuNoV infection in humans. In this study, we show the presence of HBGA-like carbohydrates in lettuce, to which HuNoVs specifically bind. These results suggest that specifically bound HuNoVs cannot be removed by simple washing, which may allow viral transmission to consumers. Our findings provide new

  5. Expression of human histo-blood group ABO genes is dependent upon DNA methylation of the promoter region.

    PubMed

    Kominato, Y; Hata, Y; Takizawa, H; Tsuchiya, T; Tsukada, J; Yamamoto, F

    1999-12-24

    We have investigated the regulatory role of DNA methylation in the expression of the human histo-blood group ABO genes. The ABO gene promoter region contains a CpG island whose methylation status correlates well with gene expression in the cell lines tested. The CpG island was found hypomethylated in some cell lines that expressed ABO genes, whereas the other cell lines that did not express ABO genes were hypermethylated. Whereas constitutive transcriptional activity of the ABO gene promoter was demonstrated in both expressor and nonexpressor cell lines by transient transfection of reporter constructs containing the ABO gene promoter sequence, HhaI methylase-catalyzed in vitro methylation of the promoter region prior to DNA transfection suppressed the promoter activity when introduced into the expressor gastric cancer cell line KATOIII cells. On the other hand, in the nonexpressor gastric cancer cell line MKN28 cells, treatment with DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine resulted in demethylation of the ABO gene promoter and appearance of A-transferase messages, as well as A-antigens synthesized by A-transferase. Taken together, these studies suggest that DNA methylation of the ABO gene promoter may play an important role in the regulation of ABO gene expression. PMID:10601288

  6. Binding to histo-blood group antigen-expressing bacteria protects human norovirus from acute heat stress

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dan; Breiman, Adrien; le Pendu, Jacques; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate if histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) expressing bacteria have any protective role on human norovirus (NoV) from acute heat stress. Eleven bacterial strains were included, belonging to Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Clostridium difficile, Bifidobacterium adolescentis, and B. longum. HBGA expression of the bacteria as well as binding of human NoV virus-like particles (VLPs, GI.1, and GII.4 strains) to the bacteria were detected by flow cytometry. NoV VLPs pre-incubated with HBGA expressing or non-HBGA expressing bacteria were heated and detected by both direct ELISA and porcine gastric mucin-binding assay. The NoV-binding abilities of the bacteria correlated well with their HBGA expression profiles. Two HBGA expressing E. coli (LMG8223 and LFMFP861, both GI.1 and GII.4 binders) and one non-HBGA expressing E. coli (ATCC8739, neither GI.1 nor GII.4 binder) were selected for the heat treatment test with NoV VLPs. Compared with the same cell numbers of non-HBGA expressing E. coli, the presence of HBGA-expressing E. coli could always maintain higher antigen integrity, as well as mucin-binding ability of NoV VLPs of both GI.1 and GII.4 after heat-treatment at 90°C for 2 min. These results indicate that HBGA-expressing bacteria may protect NoVs during the food processing treatments, thereby facilitating their transmission. PMID:26191052

  7. Expression of Histo-Blood Group A Type 1, 2 and 3 Antigens in Normal Skin and Extramammary Paget’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Aki; Kimura, Akihiko; Yamamoto, Yuki; Uede, Koji; Furukawa, Fukumi

    2008-01-01

    The distribution of histo-blood group A type 1, 2 and 3 antigens was investigated using immunohistochemistry in normal human skin and extramammary Paget’s disease (EMPD). We used monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) Bioclone-A (BA) and AR-1, which react with histo-blood group A type 1/2, and type 3 antigens, respectively. We found that A type 1, 2 and 3 antigens were expressed in the upper layer of the epidermis. We also found that the duct cells of the eccrine glands expressed A type 1/2 antigens and A type 3 antigens regardless of secretor status. The dark cells of the eccrine glands expressed A type 1, 2 and 3 antigens from A blood group secretors, but not from non-secretors. Apocrine glands, hair follicles and sebaceous glands did not express these antigens. Since these antigens were localized in the eccrine glands, we examined the possibility of a skin tumor marker. Interestingly, 7 out of 16 extramammary Paget’s disease cases were immunopositive for these antigens. Six cases were accompanied by dermal invasion. Five cases without dermal invasion were immunonegative against these antigens. These results suggest that the expression of histo-blood group A antigens in EMPD are associated with a poor histopathological prognosis. PMID:19180201

  8. Structural insight in histo-blood group binding by the F18 fimbrial adhesin FedF.

    PubMed

    Moonens, Kristof; Bouckaert, Julie; Coddens, Annelies; Tran, Thao; Panjikar, Santosh; De Kerpel, Maia; Cox, Eric; Remaut, Han; De Greve, Henri

    2012-10-01

    F18-positive enterotoxigenic and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli are responsible for post-weaning diarrhoea and oedema disease in pigs and lead to severe production losses in the farming industry. F18 fimbriae attach to the small intestine of young piglets by latching onto glycosphingolipids with A/H blood group determinants on type 1 core. We demonstrate the N-terminal domain of the F18 fimbrial subunit FedF to be responsible for ABH-mediated attachment and present its X-ray structure in ligand-free form and bound to A and B type 1 hexaoses. The FedF lectin domain comprises a 10-stranded immunoglobulin-like β-sandwich. Three linear motives, Q(47) -N(50), H(88) -S(90) and R(117) -T(119), form a shallow glycan binding pocket near the tip of the domain that is selective for type 1 core glycans in extended conformation. In addition to the glycan binding pocket, a polybasic loop on the membrane proximal surface of FedF lectin domain is shown to be required for binding to piglet enterocytes. Although dispensable for ABH glycan recognition, the polybasic surface adds binding affinity in the context of the host cell membrane, a mechanism that is proposed to direct ABH-glycan binding to cell-bound glycosphingolipids and could allow bacteria to avoid clearance by secreted glycoproteins. PMID:22812428

  9. Histo-Blood Group Antigen-Like Substances of Human Enteric Bacteria as Specific Adsorbents for Human Noroviruses

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Takayuki; Suenaga, Atsushi; Yoshimura, Takeshi; Fuzawa, Miyu; Nakagomi, Toyoko; Nakagomi, Osamu; Okabe, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) have been suggested to be receptors or coreceptors for human noroviruses (HuNoVs) expressed on the intestinal epithelium. We isolated an enteric bacterium strain (SENG-6), closely related to Enterobacter cloacae, bearing HBGA-like substances from a fecal sample of a healthy individual by using a biopanning technique with anti-HBGA antibodies. The binding capacities of four genotypes of norovirus-like particles (NoVLPs) to Enterobacter sp. SENG-6 cells were confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that NoVLPs bound mainly to extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of Enterobacter sp. SENG-6, where the HBGA-like substances were localized. EPS that contained HBGA-like substances extracted from Enterobacter sp. SENG-6 was shown by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to be capable of binding to NoVLPs of a GI.1 wild-type strain (8fIIa) and a GII.6 strain that can recognize A antigen but not to an NoVLP GI.1 mutant strain (W375A) that loses the ability to bind to A antigen. Enzymatic cleavage of terminal N-acetyl-galactosamine residues in the bacterial EPS weakened bacterial EPS binding to the GI.1 wild-type strain (8fIIa). These results indicate that A-like substances in the bacterial EPS play a key role in binding to NoVLPs. Since the specific binding of HuNoVs to HBGA-positive enteric bacteria is likely to affect the transmission and infection processes of HuNoVs in their hosts and in the environment, further studies of human enteric bacteria and their binding capacity to HuNoVs will provide a new scientific platform for understanding interactions between two types of microbes that were previously regarded as biologically unrelated. PMID:23804639

  10. Bacterial histo-blood group antigens contributing to genotype-dependent removal of human noroviruses with a microfiltration membrane.

    PubMed

    Amarasiri, Mohan; Hashiba, Satoshi; Miura, Takayuki; Nakagomi, Toyoko; Nakagomi, Osamu; Ishii, Satoshi; Okabe, Satoshi; Sano, Daisuke

    2016-05-15

    We demonstrated the genotype-dependent removal of human norovirus particles with a microfiltration (MF) membrane in the presence of bacteria bearing histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs). Three genotypes (GII.3, GII.4, and GII.6) of norovirus-like particles (NoVLPs) were mixed with three bacterial strains (Enterobacter sp. SENG-6, Escherichia coli O86:K61:B7, and Staphylococcus epidermidis), respectively, and the mixture was filtered with an MF membrane having a nominal pore size of 0.45 μm. All NoVLP genotypes were rejected by the MF membrane in the presence of Enterobacter sp. SENG-6, which excreted HBGAs as extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). This MF membrane removal of NoVLPs was not significant when EPS was removed from cells of Enterobacter sp. SENG-6. GII.6 NoVLP was not rejected with the MF membrane in the presence of E. coli O86:K61:B7, but the removal of EPS of E. coli O86:K61:B7 increased the removal efficiency due to the interaction of NoVLPs with the exposed B-antigen in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of E. coli O86:K61:B7. No MF membrane removal of all three genotypes was observed when S. epidermidis, an HBGA-negative strain, was mixed with NoVLPs. These results demonstrate that the location of HBGAs on bacterial cells is an important factor in determining the genotype-dependent removal efficiency of norovirus particles with the MF membrane. The presence of HBGAs in mixed liquor suspended solids from a membrane bioreactor (MBR) pilot plant was confirmed by immune-transmission electron microscopy, which implies that bacterial HBGAs can contribute to the genotype-dependent removal of human noroviruses with MBR using MF membrane. PMID:27095709

  11. Cell attachment protein VP8* of a human rotavirus specifically interacts with A-type histo-blood group antigen

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Liya; Crawford, Sue E.; Czako, Rita; Cortes-Penfield, Nicolas W; Smith, David F.; Le Pendu, Jacques; Estes, Mary K.; Venkataram Prasad, B. V.

    2012-01-01

    As with many other viruses, the initial cell attachment of rotaviruses, major causative agent of infantile gastroenteritis, is mediated by interactions with specific cellular glycans1–4. The distally located VP8* domain of the rotavirus spike protein VP45 mediates such interactions. The existing paradigm is that ‘sialidase-sensitive’ animal rotavirus strains bind to glycans with terminal sialic acid (Sia), whereas ‘sialidase-insensitive’ human rotavirus (HR) strains bind to glycans with internal Sia such as GM13. Although the involvement of Sia in the animal strains is firmly supported by crystallographic studies1,3,6,7, it is not yet known how VP8* of HRs interacts with Sia and whether their cell attachment necessarily involves sialoglycans. We found that VP8* of a HR strain specifically recognizes A-type histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) using a glycan array screen comprised of 511 glycans, and that virus infectivity in HT-29 cells is abrogated by anti-Atype antibodies as well as significantly enhanced in CHO cells genetically modified to express the A-type HBGA, providing a novel paradigm for initial cell attachment of HR. HBGAs are genetically determined glycoconjugates present in mucosal secretions, epithelial and on red blood cells8, and are recognized as susceptibility and cell attachment factors for gastric pathogens like H. pylori9 and noroviruses10. Our crystallographic studies show that the A-type HBGA binds to the HR VP8* at the same location as the Sia in the VP8* of animal rotavirus, and suggest how subtle changes within the same structural framework allow for such receptor switching. These results raise the possibility that host susceptibility to specific HR strains and pathogenesis are influenced by genetically controlled expression of different HBGAs among the world’s population. PMID:22504179

  12. ABO (histo) blood group phenotype development and human reproduction as they relate to ancestral IgM formation: A hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Arend, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The formation of a histo (blood) group) ABO phenotype and the exclusion of an autoreactive IgM or isoagglutinin activity arise apparently in identical glycosylation of complementary domains on cell surfaces and plasma proteins. The fundamental O-glycan emptiness of the circulating IgM, which during the neonatal amino acid sequencing of the variable regions is exerting germline-specific O-GalNAc glycan-reactive serine/threonine residues that in the plasma of the adult human blood group O individuals apparently remain associated with the open glycosidic sites on the ABOH convertible red cell surface, must raise suggestions on a transient expression of developmental glycans, which have been "lost" over the course of maturation. In fact, while the mammalian non-somatic, embryogenic stem cell (ESC)- germ cell (GC) transformation is characterized by a transient and genetically as-yet-undefined trans-species-functional O-GalNAc glycan expression, in the C57BL/10 mouse such expression was potentially identified in growth-dependent, blood group A-like GalNAc glycan-bearing, ovarian glycolipids complementary with the syngeneic anti-A reactive IgM, which does not appear in early ovariectomized animals. This non-somatically encoded, polyreactive, ancestral IgM molecule has not undergone clonal selection and does primarily not differentiate between self and non-self and might, due to amino acid hydroxyl groups, highly suggest substrate competition with subsequent O-glycosylations in ongoing ESC-GC transformations and affecting GC maturation. However, the membrane-bound somatic N/O-glycotransferases, which initiate, after formation of the zygote, the complex construction of the human ABO phenotypes in the trans cisternae of the Golgi apparatus, are associated and/or completed with soluble enzyme versions exerting identical specificities in plasma and likely competing vice versa by glycosylation of neonatal IgM amino acids, where they suggest to accomplish the clearance of anti

  13. The Hidden Conformation of Lewis x, a Human Histo-Blood Group Antigen, Is a Determinant for Recognition by Pathogen Lectins.

    PubMed

    Topin, Jérémie; Lelimousin, Mickaël; Arnaud, Julie; Audfray, Aymeric; Pérez, Serge; Varrot, Annabelle; Imberty, Anne

    2016-07-15

    Histo-blood group epitopes are fucosylated branched oligosaccharides with well-defined conformations in solution that are recognized by receptors, such as lectins from pathogens. We report here the results of a series of experimental and computational endeavors revealing the unusual distortion of histo-blood group antigens by bacterial and fungal lectins. The Lewis x trisaccharide adopts a rigid closed conformation in solution, while crystallography and molecular dynamics reveal several higher energy open conformations when bound to the Ralstonia solanacearum lectin, which is in agreement with thermodynamic and kinetic measurements. Extensive molecular dynamics simulations confirm rare transient Le(x) openings in solution, frequently assisted by distortion of the central N-acetyl-glucosamine ring. Additional directed molecular dynamic trajectories revealed the role of a conserved tryptophan residue in guiding the fucose into the binding site. Our findings show that conformational adaptation of oligosaccharides is of paramount importance in cell recognition and should be considered when designing anti-infective glyco-compounds. PMID:27198630

  14. Identification of novel rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus B-cell epitopes and their interaction with host histo-blood group antigens.

    PubMed

    Song, Yanhua; Wang, Fang; Fan, Zhiyu; Hu, Bo; Liu, Xing; Wei, Houjun; Xue, Jiabin; Xu, Weizhong; Qiu, Rulong

    2016-02-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease, caused by rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV), results in the death of millions of adult rabbits worldwide, with a mortality rate that exceeds 90%. The sole capsid protein, VP60, is divided into shell (S) and protruding (P) domains, and the more exposed P domain likely contains determinants for cell attachment and antigenic diversity. Nine mAbs against VP60 were screened and identified. To map antigenic epitopes, a set of partially overlapping and consecutive truncated proteins spanning VP60 were expressed. The minimal determinants of the linear B-cell epitopes of VP60 in the P domain, N(326)PISQV(331), D(338)MSFV(342) and K(562)STLVFNL(569), were recognized by one (5H3), four (1B8, 3D11, 4C2 and 4G2) and four mAbs (1D4, 3F7, 5G2 and 6B2), respectively. Sequence alignment showed epitope D(338)MSFV(342) was conserved among all RHDV isolates. Epitopes N(326)PISQV(331) and K(562)STLVFNL(569) were highly conserved among RHDV G1-G6 and variable in RHDV2 strains. Previous studies demonstrated that native viral particles and virus-like particles (VLPs) of RHDV specifically bound to synthetic blood group H type 2 oligosaccharides. We established an oligosaccharide-based assay to analyse the binding of VP60 and epitopes to histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs). Results showed VP60 and its epitopes (aa 326-331 and 338-342) in the P2 subdomain could significantly bind to blood group H type 2. Furthermore, mAbs 1B8 and 5H3 could block RHDV VLP binding to synthetic H type 2. Collectively, these two epitopes might play a key role in the antigenic structure of VP60 and interaction of RHDV and HBGA. PMID:26612210

  15. Crystal Structures of GII.10 and GII.12 Norovirus Protruding Domains in Complex with Histo-Blood Group Antigens Reveal Details for a Potential Site of Vulnerability

    SciTech Connect

    Hansman, Grant S.; Biertümpfel, Christian; Georgiev, Ivelin; McLellan, Jason S.; Chen, Lei; Zhou, Tongqing; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Kwong, Peter D.

    2011-10-10

    Noroviruses are the dominant cause of outbreaks of gastroenteritis worldwide, and interactions with human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) are thought to play a critical role in their entry mechanism. Structures of noroviruses from genogroups GI and GII in complex with HBGAs, however, reveal different modes of interaction. To gain insight into norovirus recognition of HBGAs, we determined crystal structures of norovirus protruding domains from two rarely detected GII genotypes, GII.10 and GII.12, alone and in complex with a panel of HBGAs, and analyzed structure-function implications related to conservation of the HBGA binding pocket. The GII.10- and GII.12-apo structures as well as the previously solved GII.4-apo structure resembled each other more closely than the GI.1-derived structure, and all three GII structures showed similar modes of HBGA recognition. The primary GII norovirus-HBGA interaction involved six hydrogen bonds between a terminal {alpha}fucose1-2 of the HBGAs and a dimeric capsid interface, which was composed of elements from two protruding subdomains. Norovirus interactions with other saccharide units of the HBGAs were variable and involved fewer hydrogen bonds. Sequence analysis revealed a site of GII norovirus sequence conservation to reside under the critical {alpha}fucose1-2 and to be one of the few patches of conserved residues on the outer virion-capsid surface. The site was smaller than that involved in full HBGA recognition, a consequence of variable recognition of peripheral saccharides. Despite this evasion tactic, the HBGA site of viral vulnerability may provide a viable target for small molecule- and antibody-mediated neutralization of GII norovirus.

  16. The αGal Epitope of the Histo-Blood Group Antigen Family Is a Ligand for Bovine Norovirus Newbury2 Expected to Prevent Cross-Species Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Zakhour, Maha; Ruvoën-Clouet, Nathalie; Charpilienne, Annie; Langpap, Brigitte; Poncet, Didier; Peters, Thomas; Bovin, Nicolai; Le Pendu, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    Among Caliciviridae, the norovirus genus encompasses enteric viruses that infect humans as well as several animal species, causing gastroenteritis. Porcine strains are classified together with human strains within genogroup II, whilst bovine norovirus strains represent genogroup III. Various GI and GII human strains bind to carbohydrates of the histo-blood group family which may be shared among mammalian species. Genetic relatedness of human and animal strains as well as the presence of potentially shared ligands raises the possibility of norovirus cross-species transmission. In the present study, we identified a carbohydrate ligand for the prototype bovine norovirus strain Bo/Newbury2/76/UK (NB2). Attachment of virus-like particles (VLPs) of the NB2 strain to bovine gut tissue sections showed a complete match with the staining by reagents recognizing the Galα1,3 motif. Alpha-galactosidase treatment confirmed involvement of a terminal alpha-linked galactose. Specific binding of VLPs to the αGal epitope (Galα3Galβ4GlcNAcβ-R) was observed. The binding of Galα3GalαOMe to rNB2 VLPs was characterized at atomic resolution employing saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR experiments. Transfection of human cells with an α1,3galactosyltransferase cDNA allowed binding of NB2 VLPs, whilst inversely, attachment to porcine vascular endothelial cells was lost when the cells originated from an α1,3galactosyltransferase KO animal. The αGal epitope is expressed in all mammalian species with the exception of the Hominidaea family due to the inactivation of the α1,3galactosyltransferase gene (GGTA1). Accordingly, the NB2 carbohydrate ligand is absent from human tissues. Although expressed on porcine vascular endothelial cells, we observed that unlike in cows, it is not present on gut epithelial cells, suggesting that neither man nor pig could be infected by the NB2 bovine strain. PMID:19578439

  17. Expression of M-N#1, a histo-blood group B-like antigen, is strongly up-regulated in nonapoptosing mammary epithelial cells during rat mammary gland involution.

    PubMed

    Mengwasser, J; Sleeman, J P

    2001-06-01

    Antibodies against the histo-blood group B-like antigen M-N#1 efficiently block the growth in vivo of rat mammary carcinoma cells that bear the antigen (Sleeman et al., 1999, Oncogene 18, 4485--4494). To try to understand the function of the M-N#1 antigen, we investigated when and where the antigen is expressed during the normal function of the rat mammary gland. Expression was virtually only seen during mammary gland involution. Here, strong expression of the antigen was observed in mammary epithelial cells, beginning around 2 days postweaning and lasting throughout the involution process. Dexamethasone treatment of animals postlactation inhibited alveolar collapse and remodeling in the mammary gland but inhibited neither the apoptosis of mammary epithelial cells nor the expression of the M-N#1 antigen. We show that up-regulation of carbohydrate antigens is not a general phenomenon during mammary gland involution, and thus that M-N#1 antigen expression is specifically regulated. Up-regulation of alpha(1,2)fucosyltransferase A, an enzyme required for M-N#1 antigen synthesis, is at least partly responsible for regulated M-N#1 antigen expression postlactation. Most significantly, we observed that the M-N#1 antigen is virtually exclusively expressed on nonapoptosing epithelial cells in the involuting mammary gland. These data suggest that M-N#1 antigen expression might either provide a survival function and/or be expressed in epithelial cells that are destined to grow and remodel mammary duct structures. PMID:11445549

  18. A simple method to recover Norovirus from fresh produce with large sample size by using histo-blood group antigen-conjugated to magnetic beads in a recirculating affinity magnetic separation system (RCAMS).

    PubMed

    Tian, Peng; Yang, David; Mandrell, Robert

    2011-06-30

    Human norovirus (NoV) outbreaks are major food safety concerns. The virus has to be concentrated from food samples in order to be detected. PEG precipitation is the most common method to recover the virus. Recently, histo-blood group antigens (HBGA) have been recognized as receptors for human NoV, and have been utilized as an alternative method to concentrate human NoV for samples up to 40 mL in volume. However, to wash off the virus from contaminated fresh food samples, at least 250 mL of wash volume is required. Recirculating affinity magnetic separation system (RCAMS) has been tried by others to concentrate human NoV from large-volume samples and failed to yield consistent results with the standard procedure of 30 min of recirculation at the default flow rate. Our work here demonstrates that proper recirculation time and flow rate are key factors for success in using the RCAMS. The bead recovery rate was increased from 28% to 47%, 67% and 90% when recirculation times were extended from 30 min to 60 min, 120 min and 180 min, respectively. The kinetics study suggests that at least 120 min recirculation is required to obtain a good recovery of NoV. In addition, different binding and elution conditions were compared for releasing NoV from inoculated lettuce. Phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and water results in similar efficacy for virus release, but the released virus does not bind to RCAMS effectively unless pH was adjusted to acidic. Either citrate-buffered saline (CBS) wash, or water wash followed by CBS adjustment, resulted in an enhanced recovery of virus. We also demonstrated that the standard curve generated from viral RNA extracted from serially-diluted virus samples is more accurate for quantitative analysis than standard curves generated from serially-diluted plasmid DNA or transcribed-RNA templates, both of which tend to overestimate the concentration power. The efficacy of recovery of NoV from produce using RCAMS was directly compared with that of the

  19. Blood groups and ABH saliva secretion in Koya Dora and Konda Kammara tribes of Andhra Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Veerraju, P; Babu, M S; Jaikishan, G; Walter, H; Naidu, J M; Rao, T V; Raju, B M

    1982-09-01

    The present paper reports the distribution of blood groups and ABH saliva secretion in two Andhra tribal populations: the Koya Dora and the Konda Kammara. 100 Koya Dora and nearly 110 Konda Kammara adults of both sexes were tested for A1A2BO, MN, Rh (CcDEe) blood groups and ABH saliva secretion. The gene frequencies for A1A2BO, MN and ABH and the gene as well as chromosome frequencies for Rh (CcDEe) systems were calculated. Koya Doras show a higher incidence of A gene than B gene, while the reverse trend is seen in Konda Kammaras. Both the tribes show a high M gene frequency. No Rh(D) negative individual was found in Koya Doras, while 4.59% of Konda Kammaras are Rh(D) negative. The chromosomes CDE, CdE, cDe, cdE, Cde and cde are absent in Koya Doras, while only the four chromosomes CDE, CdE, cDe and cdE are absent in Konda Kammaras. The chromosome CDe shows the highest frequency in both the tribes. The frequency of secretors is, as usual, higher than that of nonsecretors in both the tribes. The intergroup variation between the two tribes is not statistically significant for MN, Rh (CcDEe) and ABH systems, while the difference is significant for the A1A2BO blood groups. Suitable comparisons have also been made with all the other available data from Andhra Pradesh tribal populations with respect to different systems studied. Finally Fi estimates have been calculated after Harpending et al. (1973) and Workman et al. (1974) for Koya Doras and Konda Kammaras to assess their degree of endogamy, considering the codominant systems studied, which suggest that Koya Doras are relatively more isolated than Konda Kammaras.

  20. Blood groups, ABH saliva secretion and colour vision deficiency in Hindu castes and religious groups of West Godavari, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Vijayalakshmi, M; Naidu, J M; Suryanarayana, B

    1994-12-01

    The distribution of A1A2B0 and Rh(D) blood groups, ABH saliva secretion and red-green colour blindness among fourteen Hindu caste groups, besides Christian and Muslim populations of West Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh, India, is reported. All the Hindu castes except Brahmin, Kshatriya and Reddy exhibit relatively higher frequency of group B over group A. The subtyping of group A reveals that group A2 records an incidence ranging from 0.98% to 7.78%. The interpopulation chi-square tests for A1A2B0 blood group distribution indicate significant variation between several Hindu castes. The Vysya, Reddy and Adi Andhra castes not only differ from each other but also register significant variation from a majority of other populations. In the ABH saliva secretion also Vysya deviate from all other populations by recording the highest incidence (37.70%) of non-secretors, while the lowest frequency (19.98%) was observed among Kamma. The Rh(D) negative blood group is observed in all Hindu castes and religious groups with an incidence ranging from 1.04% in Vysya to 8.11% in Kamma. All the sixteen populations investigated exhibit prevalence of red-green colour blindness with a relatively higher frequency of deutan type over protan.

  1. Degradation of blood group antigens in human colon ecosystems. I. In vitro production of ABH blood group-degrading enzymes by enteric bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Hoskins, L C; Boulding, E T

    1976-01-01

    Human feces contain enzymes produced by enteric bacteria that degrade the A, B, and H blood group antigens of gut mucin glycoproteins. We have studied their production in fecal cultures to determine if such cultures can be a source for enzyme purification and to explore how blood group antigen-degrading enzymes are adapted in individual human colon ecosystems. They were present in fecal cultures from each of 27 healthy subjects, including ABH nonsecretors. Heat-sensitive obligate anaerobes are their major source. From 39 to 85% of the total enzyme activity produced by growing cultures was extracellular. Commercial hog gastric mucin and salivary glycoproteins, including Lea saliva which lacks A, B, and H antigens, enhance production of A-, B-, and H-degrading activity in anaerobic fecal cultures irrespective of the glycoprotein's blood group specificity. There is evidence that the host's ABO blood type and secretor status affects the specificity of blood group-degrading enzymes produced by his fecal bacteria in vitro. Thus, fecal inocula from B secretors incubated with hog gastric mucin (A and H specificity) or with Lea saliva produced greater levels of B-degrading than A- or H-degrading activity, and inocula from A secretors in similar media produced greater levels of A-degrading than B- or H-degrading activity. Blood group-degrading enzymes produced in fecal cultures are glycosidases and not proteases. The B-degrading enzyme cleaves the B antigenic determinant alpha-D-galactose from the oligosaccharide side chains of mucin glycoproteins with B specificity. Anaerobic fecal cultures containing blood group substances are a feasible source for purifying blood group antigen-degrading enzymes. Prior adaptation to blood group antigens in the gut mucins of type A and type B secretors affects the specificity of the enzymes produced in vitro. PMID:54365

  2. Seasonal Tracking of Histo-blood Group Antigen Expression and Norovirus Binding in Oyster Gastrointestinal Cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Noroviruses (NORs) are the most common cause of viral gastroenteritis outbreaks and the illnesses are sometimes described as “highly seasonal syndrome” or "winter vomiting disease”. Outbreaks are often associated with the consumption of contaminated oysters or other bivalves and generally occur betw...

  3. Synthesis and Evaluation of Biotinylated Bivalent HistoBlood Group Antigens for Capturing Human Noroviruses.

    PubMed

    Dhawane, Abasaheb N; Diez-Valcarce, Marta; Gurale, Bharat P; Dinh, Hieu; Vinjé, Jan; Iyer, Suri S

    2016-08-17

    A panel of biotinylated bivalent H-type glycans that have been reported as binding ligands for human noroviruses were synthesized using a modular synthetic strategy. These glycoconjugates were attached to streptavidin-coated magnetic beads and used to recover human norovirus from fecal samples using a magnetic bead-based assay. The biotinylated bivalent glycans synthesized for this study exhibited similar or better capturing ability when compared to commercial biotinylated glycopolymers. PMID:27383368

  4. Correlation between lack of norovirus replication and histo-blood group antigen expression in 3D-intestinal epithelial cultures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Noroviruses (NoV) are a leading cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. An in vitro model for NoV replication remains elusive, making study of the virus difficult. One publication utilizing a 3-dimensional (3D) intestinal model derived from Int407 cells reported NoV replication and extensive cytopathi...

  5. Rhenium tricarbonyl chloro of di-2-pyridylketone 4-aminobenzoyl hydrazone (dpk4abh), fac-[Re(CO) 3(κ 2-N,N-dpk4abh)Cl]: Synthesis, spectroscopic and electrochemical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakir, Mohammed; Green, Orville

    2011-06-01

    The reaction between di-2-pyridyl ketone 4-aminobenzoylhydrazone hydrate (dpk4abh.H 2O) and [Re(CO) 5Cl] in refluxing toluene gave fac-[Re(CO) 3(κ 2-N,N-dpk4abh)Cl]. Hydrolysis of fac-[Re(CO) 3(κ 2-N,N-dpk4abh)Cl] to form fac-[Re(CO) 3(κ 3-N,O,N-dpkO,OH)] occurs in wet solvents. The identity of fac-[Re(CO) 3(κ 2-N,N-dpk4abh)Cl] was established from the results of its elemental analysis, spectroscopic measurements, and electrochemical properties. The infrared spectra of fac-[Re(CO) 3(κ 2-N,N-dpk4abh)Cl] show the facial coordination of the carbonyl (C tbnd O) groups, the coordination of dpkabh and none coordination of the carbonyl (C dbnd O) group. 1H-NMR measurements on fac-[Re(CO) 3(κ 2-N,N-dpk4abh)Cl] in d 6-dmso and d 7-dmf confirmed the coordination of dpkabh, and demonstrate sensitivity of fac-[Re(CO) 3(κ 2-N,N-dpk4abh)Cl] to its surroundings as manifested by the chemical shift variations observed in different solvents. Variable temperature 1H-NMR studies showed stronger interaction between d 7-dmf and fac-[Re(CO) 3(κ 2-N,N-dpk4abh)Cl] compared to d 6-dmso and the amine protons of coordinated dpk4abh undergo faster exchanges with solvated water protons compared to the amide proton. The electronic absorption spectra of fac-[Re(CO) 3(κ 2-N,N-dpk4abh)Cl] showed significant solvent dependence. In CH 3CN, a single intra-ligand charge transfer (ILCT) transition appeared at 332 nm and assigned to π → π * of dpk followed by dpk → hydrazone charge transfer. In a protophilic solvent, such as dmf, two intra-ligand charge transfer (ILCT) transitions assigned to fac-[Re(CO) 3(κ 2-N,N-dpk4abh-H)Cl] and fac-[Re(CO) 3(κ 2-N,N-dpk4abh)Cl] appeared at 464 and 350 nm, respectively. Reversible interconversion between fac-[Re(CO) 3(κ 2-N,N-dpk4abh)Cl] and its conjugate base fac-[Re(CO) 3(κ 2-N,N-dpk4abh-H)Cl] was established in protophilic solvents by using a base to shift the equilibrium to the conjugate base and an acid to shift the equilibrium or conjugate

  6. ABH secretion polymorphism in Icelanders, Aland Islanders, Finns, Finnish Lapps, Komi and Greenland Eskimos: a review and new data.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, A W; Partanen, K; Frants, R R; Pronk, J C; Kostense, P J

    1986-01-01

    The secretion of the ABH antigens in saliva was tested in indigenous individuals of several populations: Icelanders in Reykjavik and Husavik (northeastern Iceland), Aland Islanders, Finno-Ugrians (Finns, Finnish Lapps, Komi) and Eskimos (Augpilagtok, northwestern Greenland). The frequencies of ABH non-secretors among the Icelanders (28-36%) were among the highest ever noted in Europeans. Among Alanders and Swedes on the Finnish mainland the frequency (around 20%) was comparable to Swedish values but considerably higher than among Finns (13-14%). The values among northeastern Finns and Komi (about 9%) were intermediate between values among Lapps (below 5%) and Scandinavians (15-26%), excluding Icelanders (28-41%). The average frequency of non-secretors among Lapps in Finland (2.2 +/- 0.5%) was the lowest observed among white populations. Like many other arctic populations of the Mongolian race, the Greenland Eskimos had a very low frequency of non-secretors. It is probable that the non-secretor allele ABH*se was absent from the ancient Lapps and Greenland Eskimos but introduced by invading populations. It is concluded that the ABH*se allele frequencies vary much more among northern European populations than hitherto appreciated. Recent studies indicate that the non-secretor status of the ABH blood group substances in mucous body fluids is associated with pathological conditions of the mucous membranes of the embryologically related digestive and respiratory systems, particularly with duodenal ulcer and gastric (pre)malignancies but probably also with pulmonary dysfunction. In view of these disadvantages of the ABH non-secretor status the high frequency of ABH*se in Icelanders is a paradoxical phenomenon. The frequency of ABH non-secretors among the founders (Vikings) of Iceland may have been considerably higher than among the present populations in northwestern Europe. The increase in northwestern direction of the ABH*se allele frequencies supports this hypothesis

  7. Norovirus recognizes histo-blood group antigens on the gastrointestinal cells of clams, mussels and oysters: a possible mechanism of bio-accumulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, a set of HBGA-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) was used to detect the expression of HBGA in three oyster species consumed commonly (pacific, virginica, and kumamato), and manila clams, and blue mussels. rNVLPs were applied to plate coated with oyster, mussel or clam GI homogena...

  8. The 3' flanking region of the human ABO histo-blood group gene is involved in negative regulation of gene expression.

    PubMed

    Sano, Rie; Nakajima, Tamiko; Takahashi, Keiko; Kubo, Rieko; Yazawa, Shin; Kominato, Yoshihiko

    2011-01-01

    Gene expression is driven by promoters, enhancers, silencers, and other cis-regulatory elements upstream and downstream of the gene. Previous studies of the regulation of human ABO gene transcription have focused mainly on the 5' region, including the core promoter and the region proximal to it. However, as the involvement of the 3' flanking region in transcriptional regulation has not yet been examined, we focused on this issue. The 3' region approximately 2.2kb downstream of the ABO gene was PCR-amplified and inserted into a cloning vector, followed by sequence determination and preparation of luciferase reporter vectors. Transient transfections into KATOIII and K562 cells were performed using various reporter plasmids containing the 3' region. The 3' region of the ABO gene, which was characterized by a high degree of sequence repetition, was effectively cloned by a single-copy cloning method. Transfections in KATOIII and K562 cells showed that negative elements were demonstrable within the 3' region. These observations suggest that negative regulatory elements seem to be present in the 3' region of ABO in both epithelial and erythroid lineages. As we had observed a negative region just upstream of the ABO promoter, transcription from ABO could be negatively regulated by repressive regions just upstream of the promoter and downstream of the gene. Further studies of the enhancer will be required for elucidating the molecular basis of ABO gene expression. PMID:21144789

  9. Intragraft expression of recipient-type ABO blood group antigens: long-term follow-up and histological features after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yuichi; Haga, Hironori; Egawa, Hiroto; Okuno, Tomoko; Miyagawa-Hayashino, Aya; Tsuruyama, Tatsuaki; Kambe, Michiyo; Marusawa, Hiroyuki; Chiba, Tsutomu; Manabe, Toshiaki

    2005-05-01

    Several reports have shown detection of recipient-type ABO histo-blood group antigens (r-ABOAg) in the liver allograft, which may represent either true intragraft chimerism or other events such as cell injury. Little is known about factors that affect the timing and extent of r-ABOAg expression in the graft. We examined 65 recipients who underwent ABO nonidentical living donor liver transplantation (61 compatible, 4 incompatible). Ninety-seven postoperative specimens (71 episode biopsies, 16 protocol biopsies, and 10 explanted allografts) were available for evaluation with immunohistochemistry of ABH blood type antigens. The expression of r-ABOAg was assessed in relation to histological and clinical factors. Capillaries in the portal tracts were the primary sites of r-ABOAg expression. The percentage of specimens showing r-ABOAg expression increased with lengthening of the post-transplantation period. Only 1 (4%) of 28 specimens showed endothelium with r-ABOAg within 1 year after the procedure, but 10 (29%) of 35 did between 1 and 5 years after transplantation and 21 (62%) of 34 after more than 5 years. Proportional analysis found that chronic rejection was a significant factor (P = 0.006) for any r-ABOAg expression in the capillaries, and allograft portal fibrosis was a significant predictive factor for extensive r-ABOAg expression (seen in more than one third of the portal tracts) in the capillaries (P = 0.017). Sex mismatch, age of recipients, age of donors, graft/recipient body weight ratio, and histology other than chronic rejection and fibrosis did not correlate with the expression of r-ABOAg. In conclusion, these observations suggest that portal capillaries with r-ABOAg are the results of graft injury and repair, and some of them may be neovessels of recipient origin.

  10. Chronic Oral Administration of the Arginase Inhibitor 2(S)-amino-6-boronohexanoic Acid (ABH) Improves Erectile Function in Aged Rats

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Robert; Hannan, Johanna L.; Liu, Xiaopu; Kutlu, Omer; Burnett, Arthur L.; Champion, Hunter C.; Kim, Jae Hyung; Steppan, Jochen; Berkowitz, Dan E.; Bivalacqua, Trinity J.

    2014-01-01

    Arginase expression and activity have been noted to be heightened in conditions associated with erectile dysfunction, including aging. Previously, arginase inhibition by chronic administration of the arginase inhibitor 2-(S)-amino-6-boronohexanoic acid (ABH) has been shown to improve endothelial dysfunction in aged rats. The objective of this study was to assess whether chronic oral ABH administration affects cavernosal erectile function. Rats were divided into 4 groups: young control, young treated with arginase inhibitor, aged control, and aged treated with arginase inhibitor. Arginase activity was measured and presented as a proportion of young untreated rats. In vivo erectile responses to cavernous nerve stimulation were measured in all cohorts. The cavernous nerve was stimulated with a graded electrical stimulus, and the intracavernosal/ mean arterial pressure ratios and total intracavernosal pressure were recorded. Arginase activity was elevated in the aged rats compared with young controls; however, arginase activity was significantly decreased in aged rats treated with ABH. With the addition of ABH, erectile responses improved in the aged rats (P < .05). Oral inhibition of arginase with ABH results in improved erectile function in aged rats, resulting in erectile hemodynamics similar to young rats. This represents the first documentation of systemic arginase inhibition positively affecting corporal cavernosal function. PMID:22492840

  11. The genetic structure of a tribal population, the Yanomama Indians XI. Gene frequencies for 10 blood groups and the ABH-Le secretor traits in the Yanomama and their neighbors; the uniqueness of the tribe.

    PubMed Central

    Ward, R H; Gershowitz, H; Layrisse, M; Neel, J V

    1975-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of blood group typings for a total of 33 villages distributed among five South American Indian tribes--Yanomama (21 villages), Makiritare (eight villages), Macushi (two villages), Piaroa (one village), and Wapishana (one village). These new results for the Yanomama and Makiritare tribes have been combined with those previously reported to allow a better appreciation of the distribution of allelic frequencies in the tribes. The relationship of the Yanomama to other South American Indian tribes is investigated using data on six polymorphic loci (Rh, MNS, Fy, Jk, Di, Hp). By use of four genetic measures (two of genetic relationship and two of genetic diversity), we demonstrate that the Yanomama are genetically unique among a sample of 20 South American tribes. In addition, the Yanomama show somewhat less genetic diversity for the six loci analyzed than the average South American tribe. Taken together, these results indicate a rather long period of isolation for the population antecedent to the Yanomama--perhaps since the time of entry of man into the South American continent. The pattern of genetic relationships and genetic diversity for the 20 tribes is consistent with the hypothesis that evolution in South America proceeded by a process of fission-fusion leading to isolation of subpopulations with subsequent genetic differentiation as a consequence of population isolation. The uniqueness of the Yanomama appears to stem entirely from such a process, there being no evidence of any selective differential for the loci analyzed. PMID:50736

  12. A simple method to recover Norovirus from fresh produce with large sample size by using histo-blood group antigens conjugated magnetic beads re-circulating immunomagnetic separation system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Noroviruses (NoV) annually cause millions of cases of gastrointestinal disease in the United States. Although NoV outbreaks are generally associated with raw shellfish, particularly oysters, outbreaks have also been known to occur from other common-source food-borne vehicles such as lettuce, frozen...

  13. [Increase in Alkaline Phosphatase Activity after High-Fat Meal Ingestion is Correlated to the Amount of ABH Substances in Saliva].

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Makoto; Otani, Kana; Sakamoto, Yui; Arai, Tomoko; Yukimasa, Nobuyasu; Muramoto, Yoshimi; Komoda, Tsugikazu

    2015-05-01

    Intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) appears in the circulation more frequently in blood group B or O secretors than in blood group A or AB secretors and non-secretors, and serum IAP activity rises following the ingestion of a high-fat meal. In a previous study, the occurrence of two IAP isoforms, with high (HIAP) and normal molecular mass (NIAP), in healthy sera was demonstrated by 6.0% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of 1% Triton X-100. NIAP was present in the fasting serum of only healthy blood group B or O secretors, but was present in all subjects following ingestion of a high-fat meal. We classified 56 healthy subjects into 3 blood groups: B (n = 19), O (n = 17), and A (n = 20), and measured their serum ALP activity in a fasting state and 6 h after a high-fat meal. The amount of ABH substances in the saliva of each subject was determined by the hemagglutination inhibition test. Correlation coefficients between the change in ALP activity after high-fat meal ingestion and the hemagglutination inhibition values in saliva were 0.925 in blood group B, 0.879 in blood group O, and 0.906 in blood group A. These results suggest that increases in ALP activity in the circulation following the ingestion of a high-fat meal are closely related to the amount of ABH substances in saliva. PMID:26524892

  14. Expression of the gene encoding secretor type galactoside 2 α fucosyltransferase (FUT2) and ABH antigens in patients with oral lesions

    PubMed Central

    Campi, Carlos; Escovich, Livia; Moreno, Alejandra; Racca, Liliana; Racca, Amelia; Cotorruelo, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this work was to evaluate the expression of FUT2 gene in saliva and histo ABH antigens of patients with oral lesions. Study Design: In total 178 subjects were examined, half of whom suffered from oral pre-cancerous and cancerous lesions, while the other half were the healthy control group We analyzed the FUT 2 polymorphism by ASO-PCR (allele specific oligonucleotid – polymerase chain reaction) with specific primers for G428 allele and the wild type allele of FUT2 gene. To reveal A, B and H antigens in tissue sections of the patients (n= 89) we used a modified specific red cell adherence technique. Results: We found a high intensity of oral disease in the non-secretor group (OR = 2.43). A total of 58% of the patients with oral pre-cancerous and cancerous lesions was non secretors (se_/_), in contrast with the healthy population (21.5%). A strongly positive reaction was defined as a sheet of indicator erythrocytes adhered to the epithelial cells. In 31 of the 54 samples analyzed the test showed slightly positive results on atypical areas, and there was a complete antigen deletion in areas affected by neoplasia. Nineteen samples showed a total absence of ABH antigens in both histologically normal and pathological areas. Blood group antigens were expressed at a high level in benign and highly differentiated malignant tumors. In poorly differentiated malignant tumors, they were mostly absent. Conclusion: Considering these results we suggest the use of this method to monitor probable preneoplastic lesions in risk population, especially in those with no secretor status (absence of FUT2 gene). Key words: FUT2 gene, ABH antigens, secretor status, oral lesions. PMID:22157667

  15. Arabidopsis suppressor mutant of abh1 shows a new face of the already known players: ABH1 (CBP80) and ABI4-in response to ABA and abiotic stresses during seed germination.

    PubMed

    Daszkowska-Golec, Agata; Wojnar, Weronika; Rosikiewicz, Marta; Szarejko, Iwona; Maluszynski, Miroslaw; Szweykowska-Kulinska, Zofia; Jarmolowski, Artur

    2013-01-01

    Although the importance of abscisic acid (ABA) in plant development and response to abiotic and biotic stresses is well recognized, the molecular basis of the signaling pathway has not been fully elucidated. Mutants in genes related to ABA are widely used as a tool for gaining insight into the mechanisms of ABA signal transduction and ABA-dependent stress response. We used a genetic approach of a suppressor screening in order to decipher the interaction between ABH1 (CBP80) and other components of ABA signaling. ABH1 (CBP80) encodes a large subunit of CBC (CAP BINDING COMPLEX) and the abh1 mutant is drought-tolerant and hypersensitive to ABA during seed germination. The suppressor mutants of abh1 were generated after chemical mutagenesis. The mutant named soa1 (suppressor of abh1 hypersensitivity to ABA 1) displayed an ABA-insensitive phenotype during seed germination. The genetic analysis showed that the soa1 phenotype is dominant in relation to abh1 and segregates as a single locus. Based on soa1's response to a wide spectrum of physiological assays during different stages of development, we used the candidate-genes approach in order to identify a suppressor gene. The molecular analysis revealed that mutation causing the phenotype of soa1 occurred in the ABI4 (ABA insensitive 4) gene. Analysis of pre-miR159 expression, whose processing depends on CBC, as well as targets of miR159: MYB33 and MYB101, which are positive regulators of ABA signaling, revealed a possible link between CBP80 (ABH1) and ABI4 presented here.

  16. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of the Binding of GII.4 Norovirus Variants onto Human Blood Group Antigens▿

    PubMed Central

    de Rougemont, A.; Ruvoen-Clouet, N.; Simon, B.; Estienney, M.; Elie-Caille, C.; Aho, S.; Pothier, P.; Le Pendu, J.; Boireau, W.; Belliot, G.

    2011-01-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are one of the leading causes of gastroenteritis in children and adults. For the last 2 decades, genogroup II genotype 4 (GII.4) NoVs have been circulating worldwide. GII.4 NoVs can be divided into variants, and since 2002 they have circulated in the population before being replaced every 2 or 3 years, which raises questions about the role of their histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) ligands in their evolution. To shed light on these questions, we performed an analysis of the interaction between representative GII.4 variants and HBGAs, and we determined the role of selected amino acids in the binding profiles. By mutagenesis, we showed that there was a strict structural requirement for the amino acids, directly implicated in interactions with HBGAs. However, the ablation of the threonine residue at position 395 (ΔT395), an epidemiological feature of the post-2002 variants, was not deleterious to the binding of the virus-like particle (VLP) to the H antigen, while binding to A and B antigens was severely hampered. Nevertheless, the ΔT395 VLPs gained the capacity to bind to the Lewis x and sialyl-Lewis x antigens in comparison with the wild-type VLP, demonstrating that amino acid residues outside the HBGA binding site can modify the binding properties of NoVs. We also analyzed the attachment of baculovirus-expressed VLPs from six variants (Bristol, US95/96, Hunter, Yerseke, Den Haag, and Osaka) that were isolated from 1987 to 2007 to phenotyped saliva samples and synthetic HBGAs. We showed that the six variants could all attach to saliva of secretors irrespective of the ABO phenotype and to oligosaccharides characteristic of the secretor phenotype. Interestingly, Den Haag and Osaka variants additionally bound to carbohydrates present in the saliva of Lewis-positive nonsecretors. The carbohydrate binding profile and the genetic and mutagenesis analysis suggested that GII.4 binding to Lewis x and sialyl-Lewis x antigens might be a by-product of the

  17. Towards the Identification of New Genes Involved in ABA-Dependent Abiotic Stresses Using Arabidopsis Suppressor Mutants of abh1 Hypersensitivity to ABA during Seed Germination

    PubMed Central

    Daszkowska-Golec, Agata; Chorazy, Edyta; Maluszynski, Miroslaw; Szarejko, Iwona

    2013-01-01

    Abscisic acid plays a pivotal role in the abiotic stress response in plants. Although great progress has been achieved explaining the complexity of the stress and ABA signaling cascade, there are still many questions to answer. Mutants are a valuable tool in the identification of new genes or new alleles of already known genes and in elucidating their role in signaling pathways. We applied a suppressor mutation approach in order to find new components of ABA and abiotic stress signaling in Arabidopsis. Using the abh1 (ABA hypersensitive 1) insertional mutant as a parental line for EMS mutagenesis, we selected several mutants with suppressed hypersensitivity to ABA during seed germination. Here, we present the response to ABA and a wide range of abiotic stresses during the seed germination and young seedling development of two suppressor mutants—soa2 (suppressor of abh1 hypersensitivity to ABA 2) and soa3 (suppressor of abh1 hypersensitivity to ABA 3). Generally, both mutants displayed a suppression of the hypersensitivity of abh1 to ABA, NaCl and mannitol during germination. Both mutants showed a higher level of tolerance than Columbia-0 (Col-0—the parental line of abh1) in high concentrations of glucose. Additionally, soa2 exhibited better root growth than Col-0 in the presence of high ABA concentrations. soa2 and soa3 were drought tolerant and both had about 50% fewer stomata per mm2 than the wild-type but the same number as their parental line—abh1. Taking into account that suppressor mutants had the same genetic background as their parental line—abh1, it was necessary to backcross abh1 with Landsberg erecta four times for the map-based cloning approach. Mapping populations, derived from the cross of abh1 in the Landsberg erecta background with each suppressor mutant, were created. Map based cloning in order to identify the suppressor genes is in progress. PMID:23807502

  18. Ageing and recurrent episodes of neuroinflammation promote progressive experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in Biozzi ABH mice.

    PubMed

    Peferoen, Laura A N; Breur, Marjolein; van de Berg, Sarah; Peferoen-Baert, Regina; Boddeke, Erik H W G M; van der Valk, Paul; Pryce, Gareth; van Noort, Johannes M; Baker, David; Amor, Sandra

    2016-10-01

    Current therapies for multiple sclerosis (MS) reduce the frequency of relapses by modulating adaptive immune responses but fail to limit the irreversible neurodegeneration driving progressive disability. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in Biozzi ABH mice recapitulates clinical features of MS including relapsing-remitting episodes and secondary-progressive disability. To address the contribution of recurrent inflammatory events and ageing as factors that amplify progressive neurological disease, we examined EAE in 8- to 12-week-old and 12-month-old ABH mice. Compared with the relapsing-remitting (RREAE) and secondary progressive (SPEAE) EAE observed in young mice, old mice developed progressive disease from onset (PEAE) associated with pronounced axonal damage and increased numbers of CD3(+) T cells and microglia/macrophages, but not B cells. Whereas the clinical neurological features of PEAE and SPEAE were comparable, the pathology was distinct. SPEAE was associated with significantly reduced perivascular infiltrates and T-cell numbers in the central nervous system (CNS) compared with PEAE and the acute phase of RREAE. In contrast to perivascular infiltrates that declined during progression from RREAE into SPEAE, the numbers of microglia clusters remained constant. Similar to what is observed during MS, the microglia clusters emerging during EAE were associated with axonal damage and oligodendrocytes expressing heat-shock protein B5, but not lymphocytes. Taken together, our data reveal that the course of EAE is dependent on the age of the mice. Younger mice show a relapsing-remitting phase followed by progressive disease, whereas old mice immediately show progression. This indicates that recurrent episodes of inflammation in the CNS, as well as age, contribute to progressive neurological disease.

  19. Complement activation and expression during chronic relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in the Biozzi ABH mouse.

    PubMed

    Ramaglia, V; Jackson, S J; Hughes, T R; Neal, J W; Baker, D; Morgan, B P

    2015-06-01

    Chronic relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (crEAE) in mice recapitulates many of the clinical and histopathological features of human multiple sclerosis (MS), making it a preferred model for the disease. In both, adaptive immunity and anti-myelin T cells responses are thought to be important, while in MS a role for innate immunity and complement has emerged. Here we sought to test whether complement is activated in crEAE and important for disease. Disease was induced in Biozzi ABH mice that were terminated at different stages of the disease to assess complement activation and local complement expression in the central nervous system. Complement activation products were abundant in all spinal cord areas examined in acute disease during relapse and in the progressive phase, but were absent in early disease remission, despite significant residual clinical disease. Local expression of C1q and C3 was increased at all stages of disease, while C9 expression was increased only in acute disease; expression of the complement regulators CD55, complement receptor 1-related gene/protein y (Crry) and CD59a was reduced at all stages of the disease compared to naive controls. These data show that complement is activated in the central nervous system in the model and suggest that it is a suitable candidate for exploring whether anti-complement agents might be of benefit in MS.

  20. Nickel Ions Inhibit Histone Demethylase JMJD1A and DNA Repair Enzyme ABH2 by Replacing the Ferrous Iron in the Catalytic Centers*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haobin; Giri, Nitai Charan; Zhang, Ronghe; Yamane, Kenichi; Zhang, Yi; Maroney, Michael; Costa, Max

    2010-01-01

    Iron- and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases are a diverse family of non-heme iron enzymes that catalyze various important oxidations in cells. A key structural motif of these dioxygenases is a facial triad of 2-histidines-1-carboxylate that coordinates the Fe(II) at the catalytic site. Using histone demethylase JMJD1A and DNA repair enzyme ABH2 as examples, we show that this family of dioxygenases is highly sensitive to inhibition by carcinogenic nickel ions. We find that, with iron, the 50% inhibitory concentrations of nickel (IC50 [Ni(II)]) are 25 μm for JMJD1A and 7.5 μm for ABH2. Without iron, JMJD1A is 10 times more sensitive to nickel inhibition with an IC50 [Ni(II)] of 2.5 μm, and approximately one molecule of Ni(II) inhibits one molecule of JMJD1A, suggesting that nickel causes inhibition by replacing the iron. Furthermore, nickel-bound JMJD1A is not reactivated by excessive iron even up to a 2 mm concentration. Using x-ray absorption spectroscopy, we demonstrate that nickel binds to the same site in ABH2 as iron, and replacement of the iron by nickel does not prevent the binding of the cofactor 2-oxoglutarate. Finally, we show that nickel ions target and inhibit JMJD1A in intact cells, and disruption of the iron-binding site decreases binding of nickel ions to ABH2 in intact cells. Together, our results reveal that the members of this dioxygenase family are specific targets for nickel ions in cells. Inhibition of these dioxygenases by nickel is likely to have widespread impacts on cells (e.g. impaired epigenetic programs and DNA repair) and may eventually lead to cancer development. PMID:20042601

  1. Characterisation of Transcriptional Changes in the Spinal Cord of the Progressive Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Biozzi ABH Mouse Model by RNA Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Pryce, Gareth; Baker, David; Selwood, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a debilitating immune-mediated neurological disorder affecting young adults. MS is primarily relapsing-remitting, but neurodegeneration and disability accumulate from disease onset. The most commonly used mouse MS models exhibit a monophasic immune response with fast accumulation of neurological damage that does not allow the study of progressive neurodegeneration. The chronic relapsing and secondary progressive EAE (pEAE) Biozzi ABH mouse model of MS exhibits a reproducible relapsing-remitting disease course that slowly accumulates permanent neurological deficit and develops a post-relapsing progressive disease that permits the study of demyelination and neurodegeneration. RNA sequencing (RNAseq) was used to explore global gene expression in the pEAE Biozzi ABH mouse. Spinal cord tissue RNA from pEAE Biozzi ABH mice and healthy age-matched controls was sequenced. 2,072 genes were differentially expressed (q<0.05) from which 1,397 were significantly upregulated and 675 were significantly downregulated. This hypothesis-free investigation characterised the genomic changes that describe the pEAE mouse model. The differentially expressed genes revealed a persistent immunoreactant phenotype, combined with downregulation of the cholesterol biosynthesis superpathway and the LXR/RXR activation pathway. Genes differentially expressed include the myelination genes Slc17a7, Ugt8A and Opalin, the neuroprotective genes Sprr1A, Osm and Wisp2, as well as genes identified as MS risk factors, including RGs14 and Scap2. Novel genes with unestablished roles in EAE or MS were also identified. The identification of differentially expressed novel genes and genes involved in MS pathology, opens the door to their functional study in the pEAE mouse model which recapitulates some of the important clinical features of progressive MS. PMID:27355629

  2. ABO blood groups in the primate species of Cebidae from the Amazon region.

    PubMed

    Corvelo, T C O; Schneider, H; Harada, M L

    2002-06-01

    The ABO blood groups were determined in blood and saliva collected from 40 Aotus infulatus, 74 Saimiri sciureus, and 96 Cebus apella from the Amazonian region along the Tocantins river. Saliva samples were tested for human ABH antigens by a standard hemagglutination inhibition test. Aotus infulatus showed monomorphism, exhibiting only the B blood group. Saimiri sciureus exhibited the A (67) and AB (7) phenotypes. All four phenotypes have been found in C. apella: O (8), A (52), B (19) and AB (17). The observed distribution was as expected assuming Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The titers of ABH substances varied among the species and phenotypes. The B-like agglutinogen, common to all New World monkey species tested, was detected in the red blood cells. Sera were used to detect naturally occurring antibodies and the results showed discrepancies between serum and saliva phenotypes in all species studied. PMID:12190854

  3. Blood groups as genetic markers in glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Brooks, A M; Gillies, W E

    1988-04-01

    A series of 474 mixed cases of glaucoma was assessed to determine whether there were any genetic differences between different types of glaucoma. A careful distinction was made between chronic open angle glaucoma (COAG), acute and chronic angle closure glaucoma, ocular hypertension, low tension glaucoma, patients with large cup disc ratios, and various types of secondary glaucoma including pseudoexfoliation of the lens capsule, uveitic and traumatic glaucoma. Using ABO blood groups, Rhesus groups, ABH secretion or non-secretion, and phenylthiourea tasting we identified certain differences. The differences from normal were significant decrease in Rh-negative patients in chronic closed angle glaucoma (p less than 0.05), a decrease in ABH secretors in ocular hypertension (p less than 0.01), and fewer HB secretors in patients with COAG (p less than 0.02). There was a significant decrease in AH secretors and increase in HB secretors in both pseudoexfoliation with raised intraocular pressure compared with COAG (p less than 0.01) and in secondary glaucomas as a group compared with COAG (p less than 0.01). Tasters of phenylthiourea were more common in traumatic and uveitic glaucoma than in normal controls (p less than 0.05). These results suggest that secondary glaucoma develops in different subjects from COAG, while patients who develop a rise in intraocular pressure proceed to cupping and field loss if they have a certain genetic constitution. The groups of patients are too small for the differences to be of great prognostic value.

  4. Hemocytes and Plasma of the Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) Display a Diverse Repertoire of Sulfated and Blood Group A-modified N-Glycans*

    PubMed Central

    Kurz, Simone; Jin, Chunsheng; Hykollari, Alba; Gregorich, Daniel; Giomarelli, Barbara; Vasta, Gerardo R.; Wilson, Iain B. H.; Paschinger, Katharina

    2013-01-01

    The eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) has become a useful model system for glycan-dependent host-parasite interactions due to the hijacking of the oyster galectin CvGal1 for host entry by the protozoan parasite Perkinsus marinus, the causative agent of Dermo disease. In this study, we examined the N-glycans of both the hemocytes, which via CvGal1 are the target of the parasite, and the plasma of the oyster. In combination with HPLC fractionation, exoglycosidase digestion, and fragmentation of the glycans, mass spectrometry revealed that the major N-glycans of plasma are simple hybrid structures, sometimes methylated and core α1,6-fucosylated, with terminal β1,3-linked galactose; a remarkable high degree of sulfation of such glycans was observed. Hemocytes express a larger range of glycans, including core-difucosylated paucimannosidic forms, whereas bi- and triantennary glycans were found in both sources, including structures carrying sulfated and methylated variants of the histo-blood group A epitope. The primary features of the oyster whole hemocyte N-glycome were also found in dominin, the major plasma glycoprotein, which had also been identified as a CvGal1 glycoprotein ligand associated with hemocytes. The occurrence of terminal blood group moieties on oyster dominin and on hemocyte surfaces can account in part for their affinity for the endogenous CvGal1. PMID:23824194

  5. Expression of the carcinoma markers: the sialylated Lewis A and X carbohydrate antigens in normal laryngeal surface epithelium and submucosal glands from old humans.

    PubMed

    Kirkeby, Svend; Moe, Dennis

    2013-03-01

    Aberrant surface expression of the carbohydrate ABH and Lewis antigens are often used as markers for the diagnosis of cancer, but while the distribution of these histo-blood group antigens is relatively well-described in tissues and organs from young and middle-aged humans little is known of their expression in old age. The objective for this study was to estimate if the Lewis A and X antigens together with their sialylated modifications, are expressed in sections of normal laryngeal tissue from old humans. Antibodies directed against the tumor markers Sialyl Lewis A and Sialyl Lewis X showed positive reaction in the surface epithelia from normal larynx autopsies obtained from people aged 77-90 years. The sialylated and non-sialylated Lewis A antigens were more frequently expressed in the pseudostratified epithelium than in squamous surface epithelium. Both the sialylated and the non-sialylated carbohydrates were stained in the submucosal glands in all the autopsies. In conclusion, visualization of Lewis tumor markers in the larynx should be interpreted with great care, as they may be present in normal laryngeal epithelial cells from old humans.

  6. The occurrence of blood group substances (A, B, H, Le-a, Le-b) in salivary glands and salivary gland tumors. An immunohistochemical investigation.

    PubMed

    Hamper, K; Caselitz, J; Seifert, G; Seitz, R; Poschmann, A

    1986-07-01

    The distribution of blood group substances A, B, H, Le-a and Le-b in normal and neoplastic salivary gland tissue was evaluated by means of immunohistochemistry. The serological ABH blood group status of one third of the patients was known. Lewis blood group and secretory status were not known. In normal tissue, expression of blood group antigens corresponded to the serological blood group. Blood group substance H was present in almost every gland, regardless of the serological blood group. In submandibular glands, Le-b was rather selective for mucous acini. In tumors, a relationship of blood group expression to a glandular pattern and a high differentiation could be observed. Blood group substances were expressed at a high level in benign and highly differentiated malignant tumors. In poorly differentiated malignant tumors, they were mostly absent. Blood group expression evaluation could be of value in establishing the level of functional differentiation in salivary gland tumors.

  7. Two-log increase in sensitivity for detection of Norovirus in complex samples using porcine gastric mucin capture and immunomagnetic separation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Human histo-blood group antigens (HBGA) have been identified previously as candidate receptors for human norovirus (NOR). Type A, type H1, Lewis HBGAs have been identified major HBGA for NOR binding. We have identified that pig stomach mucin (PGM) contains group A, type H1, and Lewis b type HBGAs...

  8. The influence of temperature pH and water immersion on the high hydrostatic pressure inactivation of GI.1 and GII.4 human noroviruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Detection of human norovirus (HuNoV) usually relies on molecular biology techniques, such as qRT PCR. Since histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) are the functional receptors for HuNoV, HuNoV can bind to porcine gastric mucin (PGM), which contains HBGA-like antigens. In this study, PGM conjugated magn...

  9. An extraction method for discrimination between infectious and inactive norovirus using RT-PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Human noroviruses (NoVs) are known to bind to human histo-blood group antigens, as well as to chemically-similar porcine gastric mucins. The binding ability of NoV to porcine mucin was assessed as a novel means of distinguishing non-infectious viral particles from potentially infectious viral parti...

  10. [Noroviruses--tactic of spread].

    PubMed

    Gospodarek, Eugenia; Zalas-Wiecek, Patrycja

    2009-01-01

    Noroviruses are the commonest cause of nonbacterial acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Food and water are considered as the main source of the food-borne infections in humans. Noroviruses outbreaks are frequently associated with semiclosed or closed institutions such as hospitals, homes for the elderly, schools. Transmission of noroviruses is usually person-to-person, although food and environmental or airborne contamination have all been implicated in transmission and are members of the Caliciviridae family. The genomic diversity noroviruses includes 5 genogroups (GI-GV). Diversity among noroviruses is maintained through the accumulation of point mutations associated with nature RNA replication and genetic recombination involving the exchange of sequence between two related RINA viruses. The evolutionary mechanisms governing the persistence and emergence of new norovirus strains in human populations are unknown. The majority of norovirus outbreaks are caused by viruses from the GII.4 genoclusters, which was first recognized as the major epidemic strain in the mid-1990s. Some noroviruses readily infect humans who carry a gene encoding a alpha-1,2-fucosyltransferase (FUT2) and they express ABH histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), a highly heterogeneous group of related carbohydrates on mucosal surface. Individuals with defects in the FUT2 are resistant to Norwalk virus infection. Surface-exposed carbohydrate ligand binding domain in the norovirus capsid is under heavy immune selection and likely evolves by antigenic drift in the face of human herd immunity. Variation in the capsid carbohydrate-binding domain is tolerated because of the large repertoire of similar, yet distinct HBGA carbohydrate receptors available on mucosal surfaces that could interface with the remodeled architecture of the capsid ligand-binding pocket.

  11. Faecal Microbiota Composition in Adults Is Associated with the FUT2 Gene Determining the Secretor Status

    PubMed Central

    Wacklin, Pirjo; Tuimala, Jarno; Nikkilä, Janne; Sebastian Tims; Mäkivuokko, Harri; Alakulppi, Noora; Laine, Pia; Rajilic-Stojanovic, Mirjana; Paulin, Lars; de Vos, Willem M.; Mättö, Jaana

    2014-01-01

    The human intestine is colonised with highly diverse and individually defined microbiota, which likely has an impact on the host well-being. Drivers of the individual variation in the microbiota compositions are multifactorial and include environmental, host and dietary factors. We studied the impact of the host secretor status, encoded by fucosyltransferase 2 (FUT2) -gene, on the intestinal microbiota composition. Secretor status determines the expression of the ABH and Lewis histo-blood group antigens in the intestinal mucosa. The study population was comprised of 14 non-secretor (FUT2 rs601338 genotype AA) and 57 secretor (genotypes GG and AG) adult individuals of western European descent. Intestinal microbiota was analyzed by PCR-DGGE and for a subset of 12 non-secretor subjects and 12 secretor subjects additionally by the 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and the HITChip phylogenetic microarray analysis. All three methods showed distinct clustering of the intestinal microbiota and significant differences in abundances of several taxa representing dominant microbiota between the non-secretors and the secretors as well as between the FUT2 genotypes. In addition, the non-secretors had lower species richness than the secretors. The soft clustering of microbiota into enterotypes (ET) 1 and 3 showed that the non-secretors had a higher probability of belonging to ET1 and the secretors to ET3. Our study shows that secretor status and FUT2 polymorphism are associated with the composition of human intestinal microbiota, and appears thus to be one of the key drivers affecting the individual variation of human intestinal microbiota. PMID:24733310

  12. The Galectin CvGal1 from the Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) Binds to Blood Group A Oligosaccharides on the Hemocyte Surface*

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Chiguang; Ghosh, Anita; Amin, Mohammed N.; Giomarelli, Barbara; Shridhar, Surekha; Banerjee, Aditi; Fernández-Robledo, José A.; Bianchet, Mario A.; Wang, Lai-Xi; Wilson, Iain B. H.; Vasta, Gerardo R.

    2013-01-01

    The galectin CvGal1 from the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica), which possesses four tandemly arrayed carbohydrate recognition domains, was previously shown to display stronger binding to galactosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine relative to d-galactose. CvGal1 expressed by phagocytic cells is “hijacked” by the parasite Perkinsus marinus to enter the host, where it proliferates and causes systemic infection and death. In this study, a detailed glycan array analysis revealed that CvGal1 preferentially recognizes type 2 blood group A oligosaccharides. Homology modeling of the protein and its oligosaccharide ligands supported this preference over type 1 blood group A and B oligosaccharides. The CvGal ligand models were further validated by binding, inhibition, and competitive binding studies of CvGal1 and ABH-specific monoclonal antibodies with intact and deglycosylated glycoproteins, hemocyte extracts, and intact hemocytes and by surface plasmon resonance analysis. A parallel glycomic study carried out on oyster hemocytes (Kurz, S., Jin, C., Hykollari, A., Gregorich, D., Giomarelli, B., Vasta, G. R., Wilson, I. B. H., and Paschinger, K. (2013) J. Biol. Chem. 288,) determined the structures of oligosaccharides recognized by CvGal1. Proteomic analysis of the hemocyte glycoproteins identified β-integrin and dominin as CvGal1 “self”-ligands. Despite strong CvGal1 binding to P. marinus trophozoites, no binding of ABH blood group antibodies was observed. Thus, parasite glycans structurally distinct from the blood group A oligosaccharides on the hemocyte surface may function as potentially effective ligands for CvGal1. We hypothesize that carbohydrate-based mimicry resulting from the host/parasite co-evolution facilitates CvGal1-mediated cross-linking to β-integrin, located on the hemocyte surface, leading to cell activation, phagocytosis, and host infection. PMID:23824193

  13. Training Groups, Encounter Groups, Sensitivity Groups and Group Psychotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Gottschalk, Louis A.; Pattison, E. Mansell; Schafer, Donald W.

    1971-01-01

    Descriptions and comparison of group therapies and the new group procedures (training groups and sensitivity groups—an outgrowth of the so-called Laboratory Movement methods of the mid-1930's) have been provided for the better understanding of non-psychiatric physicians. A group leader must have proper training and must help his group in its search for its avowed goals, whether he is a group therapist, a sensitivity trainer, or anyone else interested in utilizing group processes. Those goals are either the therapeutic benefit of the individual, as defined in group psychotherapy, or a better understanding of how one functions in groups, as in T-groups or the other group processes in the area of sensitive living. All group situations contain powerful tools which must be handled with proper respect. When so handled by experienced leaders, the individuals involved can achieve their goals in these group experiences. PMID:18730582

  14. Group Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahler, Clarence A.

    1971-01-01

    This article reviews the major concerns of group counseling and differentiates among group guidance, group counseling, and group therapy. It also evaluates the research status of group counseling and presents implications for the future of this approach. Comment by Carl E. Thoresen follows. (Author)

  15. Ancestry runs deeper than blood: The evolutionary history of ABO points to cryptic variation of functional importance

    PubMed Central

    Ségurel, Laure; Gao, Ziyue; Przeworski, Molly

    2013-01-01

    The ABO histo-blood group, first discovered over a century ago, is found not only in humans but also in many other primate species, with the same genetic variants maintained for at least 20 million years. Polymorphisms in ABO have been associated with susceptibility to a large number of human diseases, from gastric cancers to immune or artery diseases, but the adaptive phenotypes to which the polymorphism contributes remain unclear. We suggest that variation in ABO has been maintained by frequency-dependent or fluctuating selection pressures, potentially arising from co-evolution with gut pathogens. We further hypothesize that the histo-blood group labels A, B, AB, and O do not offer a full description of variants maintained by natural selection, implying that there are unrecognized, functionally important, antigens beyond the ABO group in humans and other primates. PMID:23836453

  16. Group X

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, Susannah

    2007-08-16

    This project is currently under contract for research through the Department of Homeland Security until 2011. The group I was responsible for studying has to remain confidential so as not to affect the current project. All dates, reference links and authors, and other distinguishing characteristics of the original group have been removed from this report. All references to the name of this group or the individual splinter groups has been changed to 'Group X'. I have been collecting texts from a variety of sources intended for the use of recruiting and radicalizing members for Group X splinter groups for the purpose of researching the motivation and intent of leaders of those groups and their influence over the likelihood of group radicalization. This work included visiting many Group X websites to find information on splinter group leaders and finding their statements to new and old members. This proved difficult because the splinter groups of Group X are united in beliefs, but differ in public opinion. They are eager to tear each other down, prove their superiority, and yet remain anonymous. After a few weeks of intense searching, a list of eight recruiting texts and eight radicalizing texts from a variety of Group X leaders were compiled.

  17. Group Flow and Group Genius

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Keith Sawyer views the spontaneous collaboration of group creativity and improvisation actions as "group flow," which organizations can use to function at optimum levels. Sawyer establishes ideal conditions for group flow: group goals, close listening, complete concentration, being in control, blending egos, equal participation, knowing…

  18. Norwalk Virus–specific Binding to Oyster Digestive Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Loisy, Fabienne; Atmar, Robert L.; Hutson, Anne M.; Estes, Mary K.; Ruvoën-Clouet, Nathalie; Pommepuy, Monique; Le Pendu, Jacques

    2006-01-01

    The primary pathogens related to shellfishborne gastroenteritis outbreaks are noroviruses. These viruses show persistence in oysters, which suggests an active mechanism of virus concentration. We investigated whether Norwalk virus or viruslike particles bind specifically to oyster tissues after bioaccumulation or addition to tissue sections. Since noroviruses attach to carbohydrates of the histo-blood group family, tests using immunohistochemical analysis were performed to evaluate specific binding of virus or viruslike particles to oyster tissues through these ligands. Viral particles bind specifically to digestive ducts (midgut, main and secondary ducts, and tubules) by carbohydrate structures with a terminal N-acetylgalactosamine residue in an α linkage (same binding site used for recognition of human histo-blood group antigens). These data show that the oyster can selectively concentrate a human pathogen and that conventional depuration will not eliminate noroviruses from oyster tissue. PMID:16707048

  19. Comprehensive Analysis of a Norovirus-Associated Gastroenteritis Outbreak, from the Environment to the Consumer▿

    PubMed Central

    Le Guyader, Françoise S.; Krol, Joanna; Ambert-Balay, Katia; Ruvoen-Clouet, Nathalie; Desaubliaux, Benedicte; Parnaudeau, Sylvain; Le Saux, Jean-Claude; Ponge, Agnès; Pothier, Pierre; Atmar, Robert L.; Le Pendu, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    Noroviruses have been recognized to be the predominant agents of nonbacterial gastroenteritis outbreaks in humans, and their transmission via contaminated shellfish consumption has been demonstrated. Norovirus laboratory experiments, volunteer challenge studies, and community gastroenteritis outbreak investigations have identified human genetic susceptibility factors related to histo-blood group antigen expression. Following a banquet in Brittany, France, in February 2008, gastroenteritis cases were linked to oyster consumption. This study identified an association of the norovirus illnesses with histo-blood group expression, and oyster contamination with norovirus was confirmed by qualitative and quantitative analyses. The secretor phenotype was associated with illness, especially for the non-A subgroup. The study showed that, in addition to accidental climatic events that may lead to oyster contamination, illegal shellfish collection and trading are also risk factors associated with outbreaks. PMID:20053852

  20. Isopermutation group

    SciTech Connect

    Muktibodh, A. S.

    2015-03-10

    The concept of ‘Isotopy’ as formulated by Ruggero Maria Santilli [1, 2, 3] plays a vital role in the development of Iso mathematics. Santilli defined iso-fields of characteristic zero. In this paper we extend this definition to define Iso-Galois fields [4] which are essentially of non-zero characteristic. Isotopically isomorphic realizations of a group define isopermutation group which gives a clear cut distinction between automorphic groups and isotopic groups.

  1. Hot Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, Kathleen

    1996-01-01

    Collaborators sparked by creative ideas and obsessed by a common task may not realize they're part of a "hot group"--a term coined by business professors Harold J. Leavitt and Jean Lipman-Blumen. Spawned by group decision making and employee empowerment, hot groups can flourish in education settings. They're typically small, short lived, and goal…

  2. Galaxy groups

    SciTech Connect

    Brent Tully, R.

    2015-02-01

    Galaxy groups can be characterized by the radius of decoupling from cosmic expansion, the radius of the caustic of second turnaround, and the velocity dispersion of galaxies within this latter radius. These parameters can be a challenge to measure, especially for small groups with few members. In this study, results are gathered pertaining to particularly well-studied groups over four decades in group mass. Scaling relations anticipated from theory are demonstrated and coefficients of the relationships are specified. There is an update of the relationship between light and mass for groups, confirming that groups with mass of a few times 10{sup 12}M{sub ⊙} are the most lit up while groups with more and less mass are darker. It is demonstrated that there is an interesting one-to-one correlation between the number of dwarf satellites in a group and the group mass. There is the suggestion that small variations in the slope of the luminosity function in groups are caused by the degree of depletion of intermediate luminosity systems rather than variations in the number per unit mass of dwarfs. Finally, returning to the characteristic radii of groups, the ratio of first to second turnaround depends on the dark matter and dark energy content of the universe and a crude estimate can be made from the current observations of Ω{sub matter}∼0.15 in a flat topology, with a 68% probability of being less than 0.44.

  3. GROUP INEQUALITY

    PubMed Central

    Bowles, Samuel; Loury, Glenn C.; Sethi, Rajiv

    2014-01-01

    We explore the combined effect of segregation in social networks, peer effects, and the relative size of a historically disadvantaged group on the incentives to invest in market-rewarded skills and the dynamics of inequality between social groups. We identify conditions under which group inequality will persist in the absence of differences in ability, credit constraints, or labor market discrimination. Under these conditions, group inequality may be amplified even if initial group differences are negligible. Increases in social integration may destabilize an unequal state and make group equality possible, but the distributional and human capital effects of this depend on the demographic composition of the population. When the size of the initially disadvantaged group is sufficiently small, integration can lower the long-run costs of human capital investment in both groups and result in an increase the aggregate skill share. In contrast, when the initially disadvantaged group is large, integration can induce a fall in the aggregate skill share as the costs of human capital investment rise in both groups. We consider applications to concrete cases and policy implications. PMID:25554727

  4. Evolution of the human ABO polymorphism by two complementary selective pressures.

    PubMed Central

    Seymour, Robert M.; Allan, Martin J.; Pomiankowski, Andrew; Gustafsson, Kenth

    2004-01-01

    The best-known example of terminal-glycan variation is the ABO histo-blood group polymorphism in humans. We model two selective forces acting on histo-blood group antigens that may account for this polymorphism. The first is generated by the invasion of opportunistic bacterial or other pathogens that interact with the epithelial-mucosal surfaces. The bacteria adapt to the microenvironments of common host phenotypes and so create frequency-dependent selection for rarer host alleles. The second is generated by intracellular viruses, and accounts for the observed differentials between the ABO-phenotype frequencies. It is thought that viruses acquire histo-blood group structures as part of their envelope from their previous host. The presence of host antigens on the viral envelope causes differential transmission of the virus between host types owing to the asymmetric action of ABO natural antibodies. Our model simulations show that these two forces acting together can account for the major features of the ABO polymorphism in humans. PMID:15293861

  5. Group Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article Karen Adams demonstrates how to incorporate group grammar techniques into a classroom activity. In the activity, students practice using the target grammar to do something they naturally enjoy: learning about each other.

  6. Group dynamics.

    PubMed

    Scandiffio, A L

    1990-12-01

    Group dynamics play a significant role within any organization, culture, or unit. The important thing to remember with any of these structures is that they are made up of people--people with different ideas, motivations, background, and sometimes different agendas. Most groups, formal or informal, look for a leader in an effort to maintain cohesiveness of the unit. At times, that cultural bond must be developed; once developed, it must be nurtured. There are also times that one of the group no longer finds the culture comfortable and begins to act out behaviorally. It is these times that become trying for the leader as she or he attempts to remain objective when that which was once in the building phase of group cohesiveness starts to fall apart. At all times, the manager must continue to view the employee creating the disturbance as an integral part of the group. It is at this time that it is beneficial to perceive the employee exhibiting problem behaviors as a special employee, as one who needs the benefit of your experience and skills, as one who is still part of the group. It is also during this time that the manager should focus upon her or his own views in the area of power, communication, and the corporate culture of the unit that one has established before attempting to understand another's point of view. Once we understand our own motivation and accept ourselves, it is then that we may move on to offer assistance to another. Once we understand our insecurities recognizing staff dysfunction as a symptom of system dysfunction will not be so threatening to the concept of the manager that we perceive ourselves to be. It takes a secure person to admit that she or he favors staff before deciding to do something to change things. The important thing to know is that it can be done. The favored staff can find a new way of relating to others, the special employee can find new modes of behavior (and even find self-esteem in the process), the group can find new ways

  7. Group Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    1992-01-01

    Research suggests that cooperative learning works best when students are first taught group-processing skills, such as leadership, decision making, communication, trust building, and conflict management. Inadequate teacher training and boring assignments can torpedo cooperative learning efforts. Administrators should reassure teachers with…

  8. Local Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateo, M.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Not long after EDWIN HUBBLE established that galaxies are `island universes' similar to our home galaxy, the MILKY WAY, he realized that a few of these external galaxies are considerably closer to us than any others. In 1936 he first coined the term `Local Group' in his famous book The Realm of the Nebulae to identify our nearest galactic neighbors. More than 60 yr later, the galaxies of the Loca...

  9. Underrepresented groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, David A.

    1990-01-01

    The problem with the shortage of under represented groups in science and engineering is absolutely crucial, especially considering that U.S. will experience a shortage of 560,000 science and engineering personnel by the year 2010. Most studies by the National Science Foundation also concluded that projected shortages cannot be alleviated without significant increases in the involvement of Blacks, Hispanics, Native Americans, handicapped persons, and women.

  10. Cardiovascular group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blomqvist, Gunnar

    1989-01-01

    As a starting point, the group defined a primary goal of maintaining in flight a level of systemic oxygen transport capacity comparable to each individual's preflight upright baseline. The goal of maintaining capacity at preflight levels would seem to be a reasonable objective for several different reasons, including the maintenance of good health in general and the preservation of sufficient cardiovascular reserve capacity to meet operational demands. It is also important not to introduce confounding variables in whatever other physiological studies are being performed. A change in the level of fitness is likely to be a significant confounding variable in the study of many organ systems. The principal component of the in-flight cardiovascular exercise program should be large-muscle activity such as treadmill exercise. It is desirable that at least one session per week be monitored to assure maintenance of proper functional levels and to provide guidance for any adjustments of the exercise prescription. Appropriate measurements include evaluation of the heart-rate/workload or the heart-rate/oxygen-uptake relationship. Respiratory gas analysis is helpful by providing better opportunities to document relative workload levels from analysis of the interrelationships among VO2, VCO2, and ventilation. The committee felt that there is no clear evidence that any particular in-flight exercise regimen is protective against orthostatic hypotension during the early readaptation phase. Some group members suggested that maintenance of the lower body muscle mass and muscle tone may be helpful. There is also evidence that late in-flight interventions to reexpand blood volume to preflight levels are helpful in preventing or minimizing postflight orthostatic hypotension.

  11. Group evaporation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Hayley H.

    1991-01-01

    Liquid fuel combustion process is greatly affected by the rate of droplet evaporation. The heat and mass exchanges between gas and liquid couple the dynamics of both phases in all aspects: mass, momentum, and energy. Correct prediction of the evaporation rate is therefore a key issue in engineering design of liquid combustion devices. Current analytical tools for characterizing the behavior of these devices are based on results from a single isolated droplet. Numerous experimental studies have challenged the applicability of these results in a dense spray. To account for the droplets' interaction in a dense spray, a number of theories have been developed in the past decade. Herein, two tasks are examined. One was to study how to implement the existing theoretical results, and the other was to explore the possibility of experimental verifications. The current theoretical results of group evaporation are given for a monodispersed cluster subject to adiabatic conditions. The time evolution of the fluid mechanic and thermodynamic behavior in this cluster is derived. The results given are not in the form of a subscale model for CFD codes.

  12. Missense mutation of FUT1 and deletion of FUT2 are responsible for Indian Bombay phenotype of ABO blood group system.

    PubMed

    Koda, Y; Soejima, M; Johnson, P H; Smart, E; Kimura, H

    1997-09-01

    The Bombay phenotype fails to express the ABH antigens of ABO blood group system on red blood cells and in secretions because of a lack in activities of the H gene (FUT1)- and Secretor gene (FUT2)-encoded alpha (1,2)fucosyltransferases. In this study, we have examined the FUT1 and the FUT2 from three unrelated Indian individuals with the Bombay phenotype. These three individuals were found to be homozygous for a T725G mutation in the coding region of the FUT1, which inactivated the enzyme activity. In addition, we did not detect any hybridized band corresponding to the FUT2 by Southern blot analysis using the catalytic domain of the FUT2 as a probe, indicating that the three individuals were homozygous for a gene deletion in the FUT2. These results suggest that the T725G mutation of FUT1 and the gene deletion of FUT2 are responsible for the classical Indian Bombay phenotype.

  13. Group Work Publication-1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimpfer, David G.

    1992-01-01

    Lists 21 new publications in group work, of which 9 are reviewed. Those discussed include publications on group counseling and psychotherapy, structured groups, support groups, psychodrama, and social group work. (Author/NB)

  14. Group Cohesion in Experiential Growth Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Sam; Vasserman-Stokes, Elaina; Vannatta, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the effect of web-based journaling on changes in group cohesion within experiential growth groups. Master's students were divided into 2 groups. Both used a web-based platform to journal after each session; however, only 1 of the groups was able to read each other's journals. Quantitative data collected before and…

  15. Genetic susceptibility to symptomatic norovirus infection in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Bucardo, Filemon; Kindberg, Elin; Paniagua, Margarita; Grahn, Ammi; Larson, Göran; Vildevall, Malin; Svensson, Lennart

    2009-04-01

    Host genetic resistance to Norovirus (NoV) has been observed in challenge and outbreak studies in populations from Europe, Asia, and USA. In this study, we have investigated if histo-blood group antigens can predict susceptibility to diarrhea caused by NoV in Nicaragua, Central America, and if this can be reflected in antibody-prevalence and titer to NoV among individuals with different histo-blood group antigen phenotypes. Investigation of 28 individuals infected with NoV and 131 population controls revealed 6% of non-secretors in the population and nil non-secretors among patients infected with NoV, suggesting that non-secretors may be protected against NoV disease in Nicaragua. Surprisingly, 25% of the population was Lewis negative (Le(a-b-)). NoV infections with genogroup I (GI) and GII occurred irrespective of Lewis genotype, but none of the Lewis a positive (Le(a + b-)) were infected. The globally dominating GII.4 virus infected individuals of all blood groups except AB (n = 5), while the GI viruses (n = 4) infected only blood type O individuals. Furthermore, O blood types were susceptible to infections with GI.4, GII.4, GII.7, GII.17, and GII.18-Nica viruses, suggesting that secretors with blood type O are susceptible (OR = 1.52) and non-secretors resistant. The overall antibody-prevalence to NoV GII.3 VLP was 62% with the highest prevalence among blood type B carriers (70%) followed by A (68%) and O (62%). All four investigated individuals carrying blood type AB were antibody-negative. Among secretors, 63% were antibody-positive compared to 33% among non-secretors (P = 0.151). This study extends previous knowledge about the histo-blood group antigens role in NoV disease in a population with different genetic background than North American and European.

  16. Interagency mechanical operations group numerical systems group

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This report consists of the minutes of the May 20-21, 1971 meeting of the Interagency Mechanical Operations Group (IMOG) Numerical Systems Group. This group looks at issues related to numerical control in the machining industry. Items discussed related to the use of CAD and CAM, EIA standards, data links, and numerical control.

  17. Group Dynamic Processes in Email Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpay, Esat

    2005-01-01

    Discussion is given on the relevance of group dynamic processes in promoting decision-making in email discussion groups. General theories on social facilitation and social loafing are considered in the context of email groups, as well as the applicability of psychodynamic and interaction-based models. It is argued that such theories may indeed…

  18. Facilitating Reminiscence Groups: Perceptions of Group Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Teresa M.; Hulse-Killacky, Diana; Salgado, Roy A.; Thornton, Mark D.; Miller, Jason L.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the results of a two-year qualitative investigation in which group leaders provided their perceptions of the process of facilitating reminiscence groups with elderly persons in a residential care facility. Group Culture emerged as the dominant construct. Findings from this study can serve guide leaders who are interested in…

  19. Genetic analyses of GII.17 norovirus strains in diarrheal disease outbreaks from December 2014 to March 2015 in Japan reveal a novel polymerase sequence and amino acid substitutions in the capsid region.

    PubMed

    Matsushima, Y; Ishikawa, M; Shimizu, T; Komane, A; Kasuo, S; Shinohara, M; Nagasawa, K; Kimura, H; Ryo, A; Okabe, N; Haga, K; Doan, Y H; Katayama, K; Shimizu, H

    2015-01-01

    A novel GII.P17-GII.17 variant norovirus emerged as a major cause of norovirus outbreaks from December 2014 to March 2015 in Japan. Named Hu/GII/JP/2014/GII.P17-GII.17, this variant has a newly identified GII.P17 type RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, while the capsid sequence displays amino acid substitutions around histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) binding sites. Several variants caused by mutations in the capsid region have previously been observed in the GII.4 genotype. Monitoring the GII.17 variant's geographical spread and evolution is important.

  20. Group Work: How to Use Groups Effectively

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Alison

    2011-01-01

    Many students cringe and groan when told that they will need to work in a group. However, group work has been found to be good for students and good for teachers. Employers want college graduates to have developed teamwork skills. Additionally, students who participate in collaborative learning get better grades, are more satisfied with their…

  1. MSUD Family Support Group

    MedlinePlus

    ... Group The MSUD Family Support Group is a non-profit 501 (c)(3) organization for those with MSUD ... Family Support Group is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization with no paid staff. Funds are needed ...

  2. Mucosal Blood Group Antigen Expression Profiles and HIV Infections: A Study among Female Sex Workers in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Chanzu, Nadia Musimbi; Mwanda, Walter; Oyugi, Julius; Anzala, Omu

    2015-01-01

    Background The ABO blood group antigens are carbohydrate moieties expressed on human red blood cells however; these antigens can also be expressed on some other cells particularly the surface of epithelial cells and may be found in mucosal secretions. In many human populations 80% secrete ABO antigens (termed ‘secretors’) while 20% do not (termed ‘non-secretors’). Furthermore, there are disease conditions that are associated with secretor status. Objective To investigate correlations between secretor status and HIV infection among female sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya. Methodology This cross-sectional study recruited 280 female sex workers aged 18–65 years from the Pumwani Majengo cohort, Kenya. Blood typing was determined by serological techniques using monoclonal antibodies to the ABO blood group antigens. Secretor phenotyping was determined using anti-H specific lectins specific to salivary, vaginal and cervical blood group H antigen using the agglutination inhibition technique and correlated to individual HIV sero-status. Participants were additionally screened for Bacterial vaginosis, Neisseria gonorrhoea and Trichomonas vaginalis. Results Out of the 280 participants, 212 (75.7%) were secretors and 68 (24.3%) were non-secretors. The incidence of all infections: HIV, Bacterial vaginosis, Neisseria gonorrhoea and Trichomonas vaginalis was higher among secretors compared to non-secretors. However, this difference was only statistically significant for HIV infection incidence rates: HIV infected secretors (83.7%) versus HIV un-infected secretors (71.8%) (p = 0.029) Based on ABO phenotype stratification, the incidence of HIV infection was higher among blood group A secretors (26/52 = 50%), in comparison to B (12/39 = 33.3%: p = 0.066), AB (3/9 = 33.3%: p = 0.355), and O secretors (36/112 = 32.1%: p = 0.028). Conclusion This is the first report to document the variable expression of the ABH blood group antigens profiling secretor and non-secretor phenotypes

  3. The GROOP Effect: Groups Mimic Group Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Jessica Chia-Chin; Sebanz, Natalie; Knoblich, Gunther

    2011-01-01

    Research on perception-action links has focused on an interpersonal level, demonstrating effects of observing individual actions on performance. The present study investigated perception-action matching at an inter-group level. Pairs of participants responded to hand movements that were performed by two individuals who used one hand each or they…

  4. Gestalt Interactional Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Robert L.; Franklin, Richard W.

    1975-01-01

    Gestalt therapy in groups is not limited to individual work in the presence of an audience. Describes several ways to involve gestalt groups interactionally. Interactions described focus on learning by doing and discovering, and are noninterpretive. (Author/EJT)

  5. What Makes Groups Tick.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allcorn, Seth

    1985-01-01

    By reviewing this analysis of the behavior of both groups and individuals in groups, human resources managers can learn to tell whether committees, task forces, and departments may be encouraging or inhibiting the work they set out to do. (Author)

  6. Nilpotent -local finite groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantarero, José; Scherer, Jérôme; Viruel, Antonio

    2014-10-01

    We provide characterizations of -nilpotency for fusion systems and -local finite groups that are inspired by known result for finite groups. In particular, we generalize criteria by Atiyah, Brunetti, Frobenius, Quillen, Stammbach and Tate.

  7. Internet minimal group paradigm.

    PubMed

    Amichai-Hamburger, Yair

    2005-04-01

    Over many years, social psychologists have sought to understand what causes individuals to form themselves into groups. Initially, it was believed that groups were formed when people bonded around a common goal. Later, it was found that, when individuals were divided into groups on a random basis, this in itself was sufficient for them to feel part of a group and show a preference for their own group over others. Since the environment in cyberspace is different from that of the offline world, for example, there is no physical proximity between participants; it may be assumed that it would be difficult to achieve feelings of affiliation among potential or actual group members. This pioneer study seeks to discover which components are requisite to the creation of a group identity among individuals surfing the Internet. For this experiment, 24 people were divided into two Internet chat groups according to their intuitive preference in a decision-making task. It was found that group members perceived their own group performance as superior on a cognitive task as compared with that of the other group. These results demonstrate that for surfers, the Internet experience is very real and even a trivial allocation of people to a group is likely to create a situation of ingroup favoritism. PMID:15938653

  8. Practice and Group Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hager, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Although learning has always been a central topic for philosophy of education, little attention has been paid to the notion of group learning. This article outlines and discusses some plausible examples of group learning. Drawing on these examples, various principles and issues that surround the notion of group learning are identified and…

  9. Infant Group Care Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Earline D.

    Children under 3 years of age who are in group care face special health risks. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control indicate the existence of a causal relationship between infant group day care and certain diseases that are spread through contact at day care centers. Children in group care who are still in diapers are especially vulnerable to…

  10. Internet Discussion Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Glen; Bull, Gina; Sigmon, Tim

    1997-01-01

    Discusses newsgroups, listservs, and Web-based discussion groups. Highlights include major categories of international USENET discussion groups; newsgroups versus mailing lists; newsreaders; news servers; newsgroup subscriptions; newsgroups versus Web discussion groups; linking newsgroups, mailing lists, and the Web; and setting up a news host. A…

  11. Integrated Play Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glovak, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    As an occupational therapist running social play groups with sensory integration for children on the autism spectrum, the author frequently doubted the wisdom of combining several children on the spectrum into a group. In fact, as the owner of a clinic she said, "No more!" The groups seemed like a waste of parents' time and money, and she refused…

  12. Working Group 7 Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Nagaitsev S.; Berg J.

    2012-06-10

    The primary subject of working group 7 at the 2012 Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop was muon accelerators for a muon collider or neutrino factory. Additionally, this working group included topics that did not fit well into other working groups. Two subjects were discussed by more than one speaker: lattices to create a perfectly integrable nonlinear lattice, and a Penning trap to create antihydrogen.

  13. Parent Group Spotlight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parenting for High Potential, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This issue's "Parent Group Spotlight" features Deborah Simon, president of West Sound Gifted, Talented & Twice-Exceptional (WSGT2e), who started a parent group in Washington in 2013. In just one year, this small, but mighty group has held community forums, attended school board meetings, and helped influence local gifted programming.…

  14. Grouped exposed metal heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Coit, William George; Griffin, Peter Terry; Hamilton, Paul Taylor; Hsu, Chia-Fu; Mason, Stanley Leroy; Samuel, Allan James; Watkins, Ronnie Wade

    2012-07-31

    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. The system includes two or more groups of elongated heaters. The group includes two or more heaters placed in two or more openings in the formation. The heaters in the group are electrically coupled below the surface of the formation. The openings include at least partially uncased wellbores in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The groups are electrically configured such that current flow through the formation between at least two groups is inhibited. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the formation.

  15. Grouped exposed metal heaters

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Coit, William George; Griffin, Peter Terry; Hamilton, Paul Taylor; Hsu, Chia-Fu; Mason, Stanley Leroy; Samuel, Allan James; Watkins, Ronnie Wade

    2010-11-09

    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. The system includes two or more groups of elongated heaters. The group includes two or more heaters placed in two or more openings in the formation. The heaters in the group are electrically coupled below the surface of the formation. The openings include at least partially uncased wellbores in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The groups are electrically configured such that current flow through the formation between at least two groups is inhibited. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the formation.

  16. Work group diversity.

    PubMed

    van Knippenberg, Daan; Schippers, Michaéla C

    2007-01-01

    Work group diversity, the degree to which there are differences between group members, may affect group process and performance positively as well as negatively. Much is still unclear about the effects of diversity, however. We review the 1997-2005 literature on work group diversity to assess the state of the art and to identify key issues for future research. This review points to the need for more complex conceptualizations of diversity, as well as to the need for more empirical attention to the processes that are assumed to underlie the effects of diversity on group process and performance and to the contingency factors of these processes.

  17. Work group diversity.

    PubMed

    van Knippenberg, Daan; Schippers, Michaéla C

    2007-01-01

    Work group diversity, the degree to which there are differences between group members, may affect group process and performance positively as well as negatively. Much is still unclear about the effects of diversity, however. We review the 1997-2005 literature on work group diversity to assess the state of the art and to identify key issues for future research. This review points to the need for more complex conceptualizations of diversity, as well as to the need for more empirical attention to the processes that are assumed to underlie the effects of diversity on group process and performance and to the contingency factors of these processes. PMID:16903805

  18. Group Psychotherapy in Italy.

    PubMed

    Giannone, Francesca; Giordano, Cecilia; Di Blasi, Maria

    2015-10-01

    This article describes the history and the prevailing orientations of group psychotherapy in Italy (psychoanalytically oriented, psychodrama, CBT groups) and particularly group analysis. Provided free of charge by the Italian health system, group psychotherapy is growing, but its expansion is patchy. The main pathways of Italian training in the different group psychotherapy orientations are also presented. Clinical-theoretical elaboration on self development, psychopathology related to group experiences, and the methodological attention paid to objectives and methods in different clinical groups are issues related to group therapy in Italy. Difficulties in the relationship between research and clinical practice are discussed, as well as the empirical research network that tries to bridge the gap between research and clinical work in group psychotherapy. The economic crisis in Italy has led to massive cuts in health care and to an increasing demand for some forms of psychological treatment. For these reasons, and because of its positive cost-benefit ratio, group psychotherapy is now considered an important tool in the national health care system to expand the clinical response to different forms of psychological distress. PMID:26401793

  19. Blood groups systems

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Ranadhir; Mishra, Nitasha; Rath, Girija Prasad

    2014-01-01

    International Society of Blood Transfusion has recently recognized 33 blood group systems. Apart from ABO and Rhesus system, many other types of antigens have been noticed on the red cell membranes. Blood grouping and cross-matching is one of the few important tests that the anaesthesiologist orders during perioperative period. Hence, a proper understanding of the blood group system, their clinical significance, typing and cross-matching tests, and current perspective are of paramount importance to prevent transfusion-related complications. Nonetheless, the knowledge on blood group system is necessary to approach blood group-linked diseases which are still at the stage of research. This review addresses all these aspects of the blood groups system. PMID:25535412

  20. Blood groups systems.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Ranadhir; Mishra, Nitasha; Rath, Girija Prasad

    2014-09-01

    International Society of Blood Transfusion has recently recognized 33 blood group systems. Apart from ABO and Rhesus system, many other types of antigens have been noticed on the red cell membranes. Blood grouping and cross-matching is one of the few important tests that the anaesthesiologist orders during perioperative period. Hence, a proper understanding of the blood group system, their clinical significance, typing and cross-matching tests, and current perspective are of paramount importance to prevent transfusion-related complications. Nonetheless, the knowledge on blood group system is necessary to approach blood group-linked diseases which are still at the stage of research. This review addresses all these aspects of the blood groups system. PMID:25535412

  1. E-Group Arrangements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aylesworth, Grant R.

    Group E at Uaxactún has long been considered an ancient Maya observatory in which an observer could see the sun rise along architectural alignments at the solstices and equinoxes. E-Groups named for the architectural complex list identified in Group E at Uaxactún, typically consist of a large radial pyramid on their west side and three temples on a raised platform on their east side.

  2. Mechanisms of GII.4 Norovirus Persistence in Human Populations

    PubMed Central

    LoBue, Anna D; Cannon, Jennifer L; Zheng, Du-Ping; Vinje, Jan; Baric, Ralph S

    2008-01-01

    Background Noroviruses are the leading cause of viral acute gastroenteritis in humans, noted for causing epidemic outbreaks in communities, the military, cruise ships, hospitals, and assisted living communities. The evolutionary mechanisms governing the persistence and emergence of new norovirus strains in human populations are unknown. Primarily organized by sequence homology into two major human genogroups defined by multiple genoclusters, the majority of norovirus outbreaks are caused by viruses from the GII.4 genocluster, which was first recognized as the major epidemic strain in the mid-1990s. Previous studies by our laboratory and others indicate that some noroviruses readily infect individuals who carry a gene encoding a functional alpha-1,2-fucosyltransferase (FUT2) and are designated “secretor-positive” to indicate that they express ABH histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), a highly heterogeneous group of related carbohydrates on mucosal surfaces. Individuals with defects in the FUT2 gene are termed secretor-negative, do not express the appropriate HBGA necessary for docking, and are resistant to Norwalk infection. These data argue that FUT2 and other genes encoding enzymes that regulate processing of the HBGA carbohydrates function as susceptibility alleles. However, secretor-negative individuals can be infected with other norovirus strains, and reinfection with the GII.4 strains is common in human populations. In this article, we analyze molecular mechanisms governing GII.4 epidemiology, susceptibility, and persistence in human populations. Methods and Findings Phylogenetic analyses of the GII.4 capsid sequences suggested an epochal evolution over the last 20 y with periods of stasis followed by rapid evolution of novel epidemic strains. The epidemic strains show a linear relationship in time, whereby serial replacements emerge from the previous cluster. Five major evolutionary clusters were identified, and representative ORF2 capsid genes for each

  3. Online User Group Directory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Mary

    1978-01-01

    This list of U.S. and international online user groups includes contact persons and their addresses. The U.S. regions are divided according to the Medlars regional geographical breakdown. The user groups were formed so that data base producers or search service vendors could be invited to do training or give educational programs. (JPF)

  4. Grouping Information for Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Anuj K.; Oppenheimer, Daniel M.

    2011-01-01

    Models of cue weighting in judgment have typically focused on how decision-makers weight cues individually. Here, the authors propose that people might recognize and weight "groups" of cues. They examine how judgments change when decision-makers focus on cues individually or as parts of groups. Several experiments demonstrate that people can…

  5. Small Group Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koller, Martin M.

    Learning in small groups is a practical way to bring about behavior change. The inquiry learning process is perceived to be the most natural and scientific way of learning. Skills developed include those of problem-solving task analysis, decision-making, value formation and adaptability. The art of small group interaction is developed. Factual…

  6. Our Deming Users' Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinklocker, Christina

    1992-01-01

    After training in the Total Quality Management concept, a suburban Ohio school district created a Deming Users' Group to link agencies, individuals, and ideas. The group has facilitated ongoing school/business collaboration, networking among individuals from diverse school systems, mentoring and cooperative learning activities, and resource…

  7. Perceptual grouping across eccentricity.

    PubMed

    Tannazzo, Teresa; Kurylo, Daniel D; Bukhari, Farhan

    2014-10-01

    Across the visual field, progressive differences exist in neural processing as well as perceptual abilities. Expansion of stimulus scale across eccentricity compensates for some basic visual capacities, but not for high-order functions. It was hypothesized that as with many higher-order functions, perceptual grouping ability should decline across eccentricity. To test this prediction, psychophysical measurements of grouping were made across eccentricity. Participants indicated the dominant grouping of dot grids in which grouping was based upon luminance, motion, orientation, or proximity. Across trials, the organization of stimuli was systematically decreased until perceived grouping became ambiguous. For all stimulus features, grouping ability remained relatively stable until 40°, beyond which thresholds significantly elevated. The pattern of change across eccentricity varied across stimulus feature, in which stimulus scale, dot size, or stimulus size interacted with eccentricity effects. These results demonstrate that perceptual grouping of such stimuli is not reliant upon foveal viewing, and suggest that selection of dominant grouping patterns from ambiguous displays operates similarly across much of the visual field.

  8. Group Work. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2010-01-01

    According to Johnson and Johnson, group work helps increase student retention and satisfaction, develops strong oral communication and social skills, as well as higher self-esteem (University of Minnesota, n.d.). Group work, when planned and implemented deliberately and thoughtfully helps students develop cognitive and leadership skills as well as…

  9. Training for Environmental Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, J. Clarence; And Others

    This report examines the need for and resources available to environmental and conservation groups to develop skills in raising money and recruiting new members, managing an organization, communicating with the press, and analyzing policy issues. Data were obtained from 225 questionnaires returned by representative groups (411 were mailed), an…

  10. Democratic Group Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laursen, Erik K.; Tate, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    For a century, democratic values have called for abandoning coercive approaches and teaching children and youth to be responsible citizens. The authors explore strategies for creating respectful environments and positive group cultures with challenging youth. They offer suggestions to adult group facilitators to support youth in developing…

  11. The Thursday Night Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    History and Social Science Teacher, 1985

    1985-01-01

    A Los Angeles based grassroots organization, the Thursday Night Group, promotes the vision that the world can be different and that we all--adults and children--can do something to find solutions to the nuclear threat. How the group serves as a resource to elementary and secondary schools is described. (RM)

  12. Reading Groups: Problems, Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthington, Jim

    The practice of grouping children of similar ability for reading instruction is as much a part of the classroom as the chalkboard, yet for decades research into classroom practice has raised serious questions about ability grouping. A research project using the meta-analysis approach to analyze more than 50 research studies concluded that ability…

  13. Physically detached 'compact groups'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernquist, Lars; Katz, Neal; Weinberg, David H.

    1995-01-01

    A small fraction of galaxies appear to reside in dense compact groups, whose inferred crossing times are much shorter than a Hubble time. These short crossing times have led to considerable disagreement among researchers attempting to deduce the dynamical state of these systems. In this paper, we suggest that many of the observed groups are not physically bound but are chance projections of galaxies well separated along the line of sight. Unlike earlier similar proposals, ours does not require that the galaxies in the compact group be members of a more diffuse, but physically bound entity. The probability of physically separated galaxies projecting into an apparent compact group is nonnegligible if most galaxies are distributed in thin filaments. We illustrate this general point with a specific example: a simulation of a cold dark matter universe, in which hydrodynamic effects are included to identify galaxies. The simulated galaxy distribution is filamentary and end-on views of these filaments produce apparent galaxy associations that have sizes and velocity dispersions similar to those of observed compact groups. The frequency of such projections is sufficient, in principle, to explain the observed space density of groups in the Hickson catalog. We discuss the implications of our proposal for the formation and evolution of groups and elliptical galaxies. The proposal can be tested by using redshift-independent distance estimators to measure the line-of-sight spatial extent of nearby compact groups.

  14. Fairness and Ability Grouping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strike, Kenneth A.

    1983-01-01

    A recent controversy regarding ability grouping is that it is often perceived as a means whereby racial or class bias can be subtly transformed into mechanisms of discrimination which exhibit the appearance of fairness and objectivity. This article addresses the question of fairness in ability grouping. (CJB)

  15. Leukosis/Sarcoma Group

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The leukosis/sarcoma (L/S) group of diseases designates a variety of transmissible benign and malignant neoplasms of chickens caused by members that belong to the family Retroviridae. Lymphoid leukosis has been the most common form of L/S group of diseases seen in field flocks, although myeloid leuk...

  16. Grouping for Inequity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macqueen, Suzanne Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The inequity of streaming as a method of organising classes was established by research conducted in the 1960s and 1970s. While the practice produces small advantages for limited groups of students, it hinders the academic and social advancement of the majority. Although streaming has declined, new forms of achievement grouping have emerged, with…

  17. Frequent Use of the IgA Isotype in Human B Cells Encoding Potent Norovirus-Specific Monoclonal Antibodies That Block HBGA Binding

    PubMed Central

    Shanker, Sreejesh; Prasad, B. V. Venkataram; Atmar, Robert L.; Estes, Mary K.; Crowe, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Noroviruses (NoV) are the most common cause of non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis and cause local outbreaks of illness, especially in confined situations. Despite being identified four decades ago, the correlates of protection against norovirus gastroenteritis are still being elucidated. Recent studies have shown an association of protection with NoV-specific serum histo-blood group antigen-blocking antibody and with serum IgA in patients vaccinated with NoV VLPs. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of human monoclonal IgG and IgA antibodies against a GI.I NoV, Norwalk virus (NV). A higher proportion of the IgA antibodies blocked NV VLP binding to glycans than did IgG antibodies. We generated isotype-switched variants of IgG and IgA antibodies to study the effects of the constant domain on blocking and binding activities. The IgA form of antibodies appears to be more potent than the IgG form in blocking norovirus binding to histo-blood group antigens. These studies suggest a unique role for IgA antibodies in protection from NoV infections by blocking attachment to cell receptors. PMID:27355511

  18. Perceiving persons and groups.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, D L; Sherman, S J

    1996-04-01

    This article analyzes the similarities and differences in forming impressions of individuals and in developing conceptions of groups. In both cases, the perceiver develops a mental conception of the target (individual or group) on the basis of available information and uses that information to make judgments about that person or group. However, a review of existing evidence reveals differences in the outcomes of impressions formed of individual and group targets, even when those impressions are based on the very same behavioral information. A model is proposed to account for these differences. The model emphasizes the role of differing expectancies of unity and coherence in individual and group targets, which in turn engage different mechanisms for processing information and making judgments. Implications of the model are discussed.

  19. Perceiving persons and groups.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, D L; Sherman, S J

    1996-04-01

    This article analyzes the similarities and differences in forming impressions of individuals and in developing conceptions of groups. In both cases, the perceiver develops a mental conception of the target (individual or group) on the basis of available information and uses that information to make judgments about that person or group. However, a review of existing evidence reveals differences in the outcomes of impressions formed of individual and group targets, even when those impressions are based on the very same behavioral information. A model is proposed to account for these differences. The model emphasizes the role of differing expectancies of unity and coherence in individual and group targets, which in turn engage different mechanisms for processing information and making judgments. Implications of the model are discussed. PMID:8637962

  20. Groups and Violence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhavnani, Ravi; Miodownik, Dan; Riolo, Rick

    Violence can take place along a multitude of cleavages, e.g., (1) between political groups like the Kach Movement, pitting West Bank settlers against Israeli governments supporting the land-for-peace agenda; (2) between religious groups, such as Christians and Muslims in the Nigerian cities of Jos and Kaduna; (3) along class lines, as in India between Dalits and members of the Brahminical upper castes, upwardly mobile intermediate castes, and even other backward castes such as the Thevars; and (4) between ethnic groups such as the Hutu and Tutsi, both within and across state boundaries in Rwanda and neighboring Burundi.

  1. Group key management

    SciTech Connect

    Dunigan, T.; Cao, C.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes an architecture and implementation for doing group key management over a data communications network. The architecture describes a protocol for establishing a shared encryption key among an authenticated and authorized collection of network entities. Group access requires one or more authorization certificates. The implementation includes a simple public key and certificate infrastructure. Multicast is used for some of the key management messages. An application programming interface multiplexes key management and user application messages. An implementation using the new IP security protocols is postulated. The architecture is compared with other group key management proposals, and the performance and the limitations of the implementation are described.

  2. Impedance group summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaskiewicz, M.; Dooling, J.; Dyachkov, M.; Fedotov, A.; Gluckstern, R.; Hahn, H.; Huang, H.; Kurennoy, S.; Linnecar, T.; Shaposhnikova, E.; Stupakov, G.; Toyama, T.; Wang, J. G.; Weng, W. T.; Zhang, S. Y.; Zotter, B.

    1999-12-01

    The impedance working group was charged to reply to the following 8 questions relevant to the design of high-intensity proton machines such as the SNS or the FNAL driver. These questions were first discussed one by one in the whole group, then each ne of them assigned to one member to summarize. On the lst morning these contributions were publicly read, re-discussed and re-written where required—hence they are not the opinion of a particular person, but rather the averaged opinion of all members of the working group. (AIP)

  3. InterGroup Protocols

    2003-04-02

    Existing reliable ordered group communication protocols have been developed for local-area networks and do not in general scale well to a large number of nodes and wide-area networks. The InterGroup suite of protocols is a scalable group communication system that introduces an unusual approach to handling group membership, and supports a receiver-oriented selection of service. The protocols are intended for a wide-area network, with a large number of nodes, that has highly variable delays andmore » a high message loss rate, such as the Internet. The levels of the message delivery service range from unreliable unordered to reliable timestamp ordered.« less

  4. Building Group Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chartier, George

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the value of name recognition for theater companies. Describes steps toward identity and recognition, analyzing the group, the mission statement, symbolic logic, designing and identity, developing a communications plan, and meaningful activities. (SR)

  5. RAS Laboratory Groups

    Cancer.gov

    The RAS Initiative uses multiple technologies to attack RAS-driven cancers. The resources of the Frederick National Lab allocated to the RAS Hub are organized into seven laboratory groups, each contributing to the collaborative effort.

  6. Functional Group Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Walter T., Jr.; Patterson, John M.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses analytical methods selected from current research articles. Groups information by topics of general interest, including acids, aldehydes and ketones, nitro compounds, phenols, and thiols. Cites 97 references. (CS)

  7. SRNL Atmospheric Technologies Group

    ScienceCinema

    Viner, Brian; Parker, Matthew J.

    2016-07-12

    The Savannah River National Laboratory, Atmospheric Technologies Group, conducts a best-in class Applied Meteorology Program to ensure the Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site is operated safely and complies with stringent environmental regulations.

  8. UnitedHealth Group

    Cancer.gov

    UnitedHealth Group provides accessible and affordable services, improved quality of care, coordinated health care efforts, and a supportive environment for shared decision making between patients and their physicians.

  9. Making Group Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drennen, Nancy Hungerford

    1982-01-01

    For greater effectiveness, attention should be paid to how group decisions are made. The process of consensus-seeking encourages appraisal of more information and provides a broader range of potential alternatives. (SK)

  10. Gluten Intolerance Group

    MedlinePlus

    ... The Gluten Intolerance Group (GIG) empowers the gluten-free community through consumer support, advocacy, and education. • SUPPORT GIG • ... about the events taking place in your gluten-free community. Find >> Products From breads and pastas to pet ...

  11. Group Support Systems (GSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamel, Gary P.; Wijesinghe, R.

    1996-01-01

    Groupware is a term describing an emerging computer software technology enhancing the ability of people to work together as a group, (a software driven 'group support system'). This project originated at the beginning of 1992 and reports were issued describing the activity through May 1995. These reports stressed the need for process as well as technology. That is, while the technology represented a computer assisted method for groups to work together, the Group Support System (GSS) technology als required an understanding of the facilitation process electronic meetings demand. Even people trained in traditional facilitation techniques did not necessarily aimlessly adopt groupware techniques. The latest phase of this activity attempted to (1) improve the facilitation process by developing training support for a portable groupware computer system, and (2) to explore settings and uses for the portable groupware system using different software, such as Lotus Notes.

  12. Group B streptococcus - pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... PS, Baker CJ. Group B streptococcal infections. In: Cherry J, Harrison GJ, Kaplan SL, Steinbach WJ, Hotez PJ, eds. Feigin and Cherry's Textbook of Pediatric Infectious Diseases. 7th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  13. Parton Distributions Working Group

    SciTech Connect

    de Barbaro, L.; Keller, S. A.; Kuhlmann, S.; Schellman, H.; Tung, W.-K.

    2000-07-20

    This report summarizes the activities of the Parton Distributions Working Group of the QCD and Weak Boson Physics workshop held in preparation for Run II at the Fermilab Tevatron. The main focus of this working group was to investigate the different issues associated with the development of quantitative tools to estimate parton distribution functions uncertainties. In the conclusion, the authors introduce a Manifesto that describes an optimal method for reporting data.

  14. Magnetograph group summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harrison P.

    1989-01-01

    The Magnetograph Group focussed on the techniques and many practical problems of interleaving ground-based measurements of magnetic fields from diverse sites and instruments to address the original scientific objectives. The predominant view of the discussion group was that present instrumentation and analysis resources do not warrant immediate, specific plans for further worldwide campaigns of cooperative magnetograph observing. The several reasons for this view, together with many caveats, qualifications, and suggestions for future work are presented.

  15. Group Capability Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olejarski, Michael; Appleton, Amy; Deltorchio, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The Group Capability Model (GCM) is a software tool that allows an organization, from first line management to senior executive, to monitor and track the health (capability) of various groups in performing their contractual obligations. GCM calculates a Group Capability Index (GCI) by comparing actual head counts, certifications, and/or skills within a group. The model can also be used to simulate the effects of employee usage, training, and attrition on the GCI. A universal tool and common method was required due to the high risk of losing skills necessary to complete the Space Shuttle Program and meet the needs of the Constellation Program. During this transition from one space vehicle to another, the uncertainty among the critical skilled workforce is high and attrition has the potential to be unmanageable. GCM allows managers to establish requirements for their group in the form of head counts, certification requirements, or skills requirements. GCM then calculates a Group Capability Index (GCI), where a score of 1 indicates that the group is at the appropriate level; anything less than 1 indicates a potential for improvement. This shows the health of a group, both currently and over time. GCM accepts as input head count, certification needs, critical needs, competency needs, and competency critical needs. In addition, team members are categorized by years of experience, percentage of contribution, ex-members and their skills, availability, function, and in-work requirements. Outputs are several reports, including actual vs. required head count, actual vs. required certificates, CGI change over time (by month), and more. The program stores historical data for summary and historical reporting, which is done via an Excel spreadsheet that is color-coded to show health statistics at a glance. GCM has provided the Shuttle Ground Processing team with a quantifiable, repeatable approach to assessing and managing the skills in their organization. They now have a common

  16. Swept group delay measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trowbridge, D. L. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Direct recording of group delay measurements on a system under temperature and stress tests employs modulated carrier frequency sweep over an S or X band. Reference path and test paths to separate detectors utilize a power divider e.g., a directional coupler or a hybrid T junction. An initially balanced phase comparator is swept in frequency by modulated carrier over the band of interest for different conditions of temperature and/or mechanical stress to obtain characteristic group delay curves.

  17. Blood groups and filariasis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, H; Santhanam, S

    1989-01-01

    Only a little is known about the studies done with filariasis in relation to blood groups. The present communication reports the results of a preliminary study carried out to investigate any relationship of ABO and Rho(D) blood groups in persons with circulating microfilariae (mf) in blood and with disease manifestations compared with healthy normal controls within a population in similar epidemiological and ecological conditions. Blood groups ABO and Rho(D) were investigated among 271 persons with filarial disease and 172 normal subjects from an endemic area of bancroftian filariasis. No relationship was observed between infection and blood groups. It appeared that blood groups and filarial infection were independent of each other. Also the sex of the individual and stage of the infection, i.e. persons with circulating mf only without manifestations and persons with established manifestation without mf, has no bearing on blood group inheritance. There were 95.05% of Rh-positive and 4.95% of Rh-negative persons in the whole studied population. The observations are similar to other studies.

  18. Facilities removal working group

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This working group`s first objective is to identify major economic, technical, and regulatory constraints on operator practices and decisions relevant to offshore facilities removal. Then, the group will try to make recommendations as to regulatory and policy adjustments, additional research, or process improvements and/or technological advances, that may be needed to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the removal process. The working group will focus primarily on issues dealing with Gulf of Mexico platform abandonments. In order to make the working group sessions as productive as possible, the Facilities Removal Working Group will focus on three topics that address a majority of the concerns and/or constraints relevant to facilities removal. The three areas are: (1) Explosive Severing and its Impact on Marine Life, (2) Pile and Conductor Severing, and (3) Deep Water Abandonments This paper will outline the current state of practice in the offshore industry, identifying current regulations and specific issues encountered when addressing each of the three main topics above. The intent of the paper is to highlight potential issues for panel discussion, not to provide a detailed review of all data relevant to the topic. Before each panel discussion, key speakers will review data and information to facilitate development and discussion of the main issues of each topic. Please refer to the attached agenda for the workshop format, key speakers, presentation topics, and panel participants. The goal of the panel discussions is to identify key issues for each of the three topics above. The working group will also make recommendations on how to proceed on these key issues.

  19. Coordinating Group report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    In December 1992, western governors and four federal agencies established a Federal Advisory Committee to Develop On-site Innovative Technologies for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (the DOIT Committee). The purpose of the Committee is to advise the federal government on ways to improve waste cleanup technology development and the cleanup of federal sites in the West. The Committee directed in January 1993 that information be collected from a wide range of potential stakeholders and that innovative technology candidate projects be identified, organized, set in motion, and evaluated to test new partnerships, regulatory approaches, and technologies which will lead to improve site cleanup. Five working groups were organized, one to develop broad project selection and evaluation criteria and four to focus on specific contaminant problems. A Coordinating Group comprised of working group spokesmen and federal and state representatives, was set up to plan and organize the routine functioning of these working groups. The working groups were charged with defining particular contaminant problems; identifying shortcomings in technology development, stakeholder involvement, regulatory review, and commercialization which impede the resolution of these problems; and identifying candidate sites or technologies which could serve as regional innovative demonstration projects to test new approaches to overcome the shortcomings. This report from the Coordinating Group to the DOIT Committee highlights the key findings and opportunities uncovered by these fact-finding working groups. It provides a basis from which recommendations from the DOIT Committee to the federal government can be made. It also includes observations from two public roundtables, one on commercialization and another on regulatory and institutional barriers impeding technology development and cleanup.

  20. Illinois Wind Workers Group

    SciTech Connect

    David G. Loomis

    2012-05-28

    The Illinois Wind Working Group (IWWG) was founded in 2006 with about 15 members. It has grown to over 200 members today representing all aspects of the wind industry across the State of Illinois. In 2008, the IWWG developed a strategic plan to give direction to the group and its activities. The strategic plan identifies ways to address critical market barriers to the further penetration of wind. The key to addressing these market barriers is public education and outreach. Since Illinois has a restructured electricity market, utilities no longer have a strong control over the addition of new capacity within the state. Instead, market acceptance depends on willing landowners to lease land and willing county officials to site wind farms. Many times these groups are uninformed about the benefits of wind energy and unfamiliar with the process. Therefore, many of the project objectives focus on conferences, forum, databases and research that will allow these stakeholders to make well-educated decisions.

  1. Instructions to working groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foushee, H. Clayton

    1987-01-01

    The key to the success of this workshop is your active participation in the working group process. The goals of this workshop are to address four major questions regarding Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) Training. To some extent the working group topic areas parallel these issues, but in some cases they do not. However, it is important for all of the working groups to keep these general questions in mind during their deliberations: (1) What are the essential elements of an optimal CRM Training program; (2) What are the strengths and weaknesses of current approaches to CRM Training; (3) How can CRM Training best be implemented, and what barriers exist; and (4) Is CRM Training effective, do we know, and if not, how can we find out.

  2. [Blood groups and disease].

    PubMed

    Prokop, O

    1986-09-01

    The inquiry for the sense of blood group polymorphisms (enzyme groups and serum groups included) and their significance for the constitution and also disposition to diseases is for the time being absolutely legitimate. But it is shown that the field--scarcely a new hereditary blood factor has been detected--becomes a subject of speculations, possibly of the teleological kind: "For which purpose is the factor existing?", or even "Why has God made up the factor?". The hypotheses developing on that are often extremely suggestive and incorrect hypotheses on the first opportunity sometimes reappear like a "cork-tumbler". Finally only a few hard facts remain. This is shown with the help of the systems AB0, Duffy, HLA, Hp and Pi. PMID:2947391

  3. Group Psychotherapy in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ahlin, Göran

    2015-10-01

    The paper presents an overview of the national developments of group psychotherapy (GPS) in Sweden during the period from World War II until the present time. Methods and concepts, imported primarily from England and the United States, inspired trainings and widespread psychodynamic and group analytic applications in schools, health treatment, and social care. Education in psychotherapy and GPS at universities opened new therapeutic and vocational areas during the period 1970-2005. Increasing criticism of psychodynamics, as in other Western societies, but more radical in Sweden, has in the last decades made group analytic GPS diminish in favor of cognitive behavioral therapy models. Prospects for GPS further development may presently look bleak but, in a longer perspective, are promising.

  4. Factorizations in finite groups

    SciTech Connect

    Kulikov, Viktor S

    2013-02-28

    A necessary condition for uniqueness of factorizations of elements of a finite group G with factors belonging to a union of some conjugacy classes of G is given. This condition is sufficient if the number of factors belonging to each conjugacy class is big enough. The result is applied to the problem on the number of irreducible components of the Hurwitz space of degree d marked coverings of P{sup 1} with given Galois group G and fixed collection of local monodromies. Bibliography: 9 titles.

  5. Upgraded Coal Interest Group

    SciTech Connect

    Evan Hughes

    2009-01-08

    The Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) is an EPRI 'users group' that focuses on clean, low-cost options for coal-based power generation. The UCIG covers topics that involve (1) pre-combustion processes, (2) co-firing systems and fuels, and (3) reburn using coal-derived or biomass-derived fuels. The UCIG mission is to preserve and expand the economic use of coal for energy. By reducing the fuel costs and environmental impacts of coal-fired power generation, existing units become more cost effective and thus new units utilizing advanced combustion technologies are more likely to be coal-fired.

  6. Bell, group and tangle

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, A. I.

    2010-03-15

    The 'Bell' of the title refers to bipartite Bell states, and their extensions to, for example, tripartite systems. The 'Group' of the title is the Braid Group in its various representations; while 'Tangle' refers to the property of entanglement which is present in both of these scenarios. The objective of this note is to explore the relation between Quantum Entanglement and Topological Links, and to show that the use of the language of entanglement in both cases is more than one of linguistic analogy.

  7. Group caregiver language checklist.

    PubMed

    Pearson, M E; Shelton, D; Pearson, A A; Miller, M

    1992-01-01

    Because young children with language disabilities frequently are placed in group-care settings, there is a need to make judgments concerning the language environment of those settings. The GCLC is offered as one procedure for assessment of the language environment provided by the caregiver(s) in a group setting. The assessment provides information that may assist in matching the environment to a particular child's needs and may provide a basis for assisting caregivers in improving the language environment and addressing a child's needs. The authors welcome comments from the readers.

  8. Children's Divorce Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Gary S.; Bleck, Robert T.

    1977-01-01

    Elementary school counselors can implement a specific strategy to meet the needs of the children of divorce by using many of the techniques already in use. The activities used in the Children's Divorce Groups are ones that have been skillfully developed by counselors familiar with the developmental model of counseling. (Author/PC)

  9. Quantifying social group evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palla, Gergely; Barabási, Albert-László; Vicsek, Tamás

    2007-04-01

    The rich set of interactions between individuals in society results in complex community structure, capturing highly connected circles of friends, families or professional cliques in a social network. Thanks to frequent changes in the activity and communication patterns of individuals, the associated social and communication network is subject to constant evolution. Our knowledge of the mechanisms governing the underlying community dynamics is limited, but is essential for a deeper understanding of the development and self-optimization of society as a whole. We have developed an algorithm based on clique percolation that allows us to investigate the time dependence of overlapping communities on a large scale, and thus uncover basic relationships characterizing community evolution. Our focus is on networks capturing the collaboration between scientists and the calls between mobile phone users. We find that large groups persist for longer if they are capable of dynamically altering their membership, suggesting that an ability to change the group composition results in better adaptability. The behaviour of small groups displays the opposite tendency-the condition for stability is that their composition remains unchanged. We also show that knowledge of the time commitment of members to a given community can be used for estimating the community's lifetime. These findings offer insight into the fundamental differences between the dynamics of small groups and large institutions.

  10. Squeezing and quantum groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celeghini, E.; Rasetti, M.; Vitiello, G.

    1991-04-01

    Generalized quasicoherent states for the Weyl-Heisenberg quantum group have been defined by Biedenharn and MacFarlane. In this Letter other quantum Weyl-Heisenberg coherent states are defined for complex q in the usual Fock space. Such states are shown to exhibit interesting squeezing properties, in particular when ||q||~=1, for the q analog to the harmonic oscillator.

  11. Group Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, James C.

    1988-01-01

    This pamphlet discusses group problem solving in schools. Its point of departure is that teachers go at problems from a number of different directions and that principals need to capitalize on those differences and bring a whole range of skills and perceptions to the problem-solving process. Rather than trying to get everyone to think alike,…

  12. Assessing Minority Group Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Beeman N., Ed.

    Contents of this book include the following collection of articles: "Assessing Minority Group Children: Challenges for School Psychologists," Thomas Oakland; "The NEA Testing Moratorium," Boyd Bosma; "Cultural Myopia: The Need for a Corrective Lens," Martin H. Gerry; "Assumptions Underlying Psychological Testing," T. Ernest Newland;…

  13. Valuing Support Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graziosi, Elena

    2010-01-01

    For people living with or caring for someone with a disability, being able to talk to someone who can relate to their feelings of frustration during difficult times, offer practical advice on an issue, or even understand the importance of a small success, can make a difference. Support groups are a mainstay for individuals coping with daily…

  14. Teaching Badminton to Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jonathan E.

    1980-01-01

    Numerous ideas for teaching badminton to large groups are presented. The focus is on drills and techniques for off the court instructional stations. Instead of having students waiting their turn to play, more students can participate actively as they rotate from one station to another. (JN)

  15. Internet Cancer Support Groups

    PubMed Central

    Chee, Wonshik; Tsai, Hsiu-Min; Lin, Li-Chen; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2006-01-01

    Internet Cancer Support Groups (ICSGs) are an emerging form of support group on Internet specifically for cancer patients. Previous studies have indicated the effectiveness of ICSGs as a research setting or a data-collection method. Yet recent studies have also indicated that ICSGs tend to serve highly educated, high-income White males who tend to be at an early stage of cancer. In this article, a total of 317 general ICSGs and 229 ethnic-specific ICSGs searched through Google.com, Yahoo.com, http://Msn.com, AOL.com, and ACOR.org are analyzed from a feminist perspective. The written records of group discussions and written memos by the research staff members were also analyzed using content analysis. The idea categories that emerged about these groups include (a) authenticity issues; (b) ethnicity and gender issues; (c) intersubjectivity issues; and (d) potential ethical issues. The findings suggest that (a) researchers adopt multiple recruitment strategies through various Internet sites and/or real settings; (b) researchers raise their own awareness of the potential influences of the health-related resources provided by ICSGs and regularly update their knowledge related to the federal and state standards and/or policies related to ICSGs; and (c) researchers consider adopting a quota-sampling method. PMID:15681976

  16. Abandoning wells working group

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The primary objective of this working group is to identify major technical, regulatory, and environmental issues that are relevant to the abandonment of offshore wellbores. Once the issues have been identified, the working group also has the objective of making recommendations or providing potential solutions for consideration. Areas for process improvement will be identified and {open_quotes}best practices{close_quotes} will be discussed and compared to {open_quotes}minimum standards.{close_quotes} The working group will primarily focus on wellbore abandonment in the Gulf of Mexico. However, workshop participants are encouraged to discuss international issues which may be relevant to wellbore abandonment practices in the Gulf of Mexico. The Abandoning Wells Group has identified several major areas for discussion that have concerns related to both operators and service companies performing wellbore abandonments in the Gulf of Mexico. The following broad topics were selected for the agenda: (1) MMS minimum requirements and state regulations. (2) Co-existence of best practices, new technology, and P & A economics. (3) Liability and environmental issues relating to wellbore abandonment.

  17. Tennis: Group Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United States Lawn Tennis Association, New York, NY.

    This manual is a guide to group instruction of basic tennis. Chapter 1 discusses four premises. Chapter 2 illustrates basic strokes, including the forehand and backhand ground strokes, the forehand and backhand volleys, the lob and overhead smash, and the half-volley. Chapter 3 presents methods of teaching the strokes, some corrective techniques,…

  18. Special Interest Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degi, Bruce J.

    1999-01-01

    Offers a reflection on the shootings at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado, on April 20, 1999. Notes how every special-interest group has used the tragedy to support its own point of view, and concludes that teachers have become bystanders in the education of America's children. (SR)

  19. Learning from Nurture Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Paul

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with Nurture Groups, which are a specialist form of provision for pupils with social, emotional and learning difficulties. The paper outlines the theoretical underpinnings of the NG approach and describes the practical arrangements and operations features of this form of provision. Evidence from research studies exploring the…

  20. International Study Tour Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Frances L.; Matt, John J.; McCaw, William P.; Kero, Patty; Stewart, Courtney; Haddouch, Reda

    2014-01-01

    Using the context of international study tour groups, this study examined the personal and professional transformation that occurred among host faculty and staff at The University of Montana-Missoula as a result of their interactions with traveling academics from other countries. Data were collected from participant responses (n = 27) using a…

  1. The Pressure Group Cooker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Bill

    1992-01-01

    Administrators across the nation have encountered vigorous challenges against textbooks, practices, and procedures that critics find laden with occult and New Age values. Attacks are becoming more aggressive, better organized, and well financed. This article and accompanying sidebars discuss pressure group tactics and ways to counter them. The…

  2. Functional Group Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Walter T., Jr.; Patterson, John M.

    1984-01-01

    Literature on analytical methods related to the functional groups of 17 chemical compounds is reviewed. These compounds include acids, acid azides, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, amino acids, aromatic hydrocarbons, carbodiimides, carbohydrates, ethers, nitro compounds, nitrosamines, organometallic compounds, peroxides, phenols, silicon compounds,…

  3. Working With Citizens' Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, James B.

    1974-01-01

    The growing demand for expert technical advice in the areas of environmental impact statements, testimony at public hearings, and testimony in consumer or environmental litigation is examined. Brief descriptions of thirteen of the most active public-interest science groups are included. (DT)

  4. Group Counseling: Health Related.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFadden, Johnnie

    1979-01-01

    Diabetes and sickle cell anemia (SCA) are two health-related characteristics that distinguish young people from their peers. This article outlines the problems of children with diabetes and SCA and presents the goals and format for group counseling of these populations and their parents. (Author/BEF)

  5. National Melon Research Group

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Melon Research Group met with the Cucurbitaceae 2010 conference in Charleston, South Carolina at 7:00 P.M. on November 17. The discussion was focused solely on cucurbit powdery mildew (CPM). Several reported increased problem with CPM or apparent changes in race. Ales Lebeda (Palacký Un...

  6. Project Echo Task Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    'A technician assigned to the Project Echo Task Group separates the two hemispheres of the Echo 1 container for inspection. The charge that freed the balloon was placed inside of a ring encircling the canister at its equator.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, p. 181.

  7. [Transference and group psychotherapy].

    PubMed

    Bechelli, Luiz Paulo de C; Santos, Manoel Antônio Dos

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the concept of transference, focusing on its peculiarities in the group context. The nature of the therapeutic situation and the broad freedom given to patients in order to access the unconscious material at their own pace, within a safe environment and with as little censorship as can be managed, transference gradually takes place. Through displacement, the psychotherapist and group members are perceived not as they are, with their real attributes, but as one or more objects that arouse emotions coming from the infant world, more precisely from the collection of deep affective influences. One peculiarity of the group situation when compared to individual psychotherapy is that, in the former, multiple transferences coexist, which group members establish among themselves, enabling a wide range of possible feelings. Both treatment modes share the assumption that unresolved conflicts which stimulated patients to seek for help can be reduced or even abolished through the interpretation and working through of transference, which functions as a process of change throughout the psychotherapy. PMID:16532247

  8. Native American Cultural Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Loriene, Comp.

    Part of a larger report on the Four Directions Project, an American Indian technology innovation project, this section includes 13 "pathfinders" to locating information on Native American and other indigenous cultural groups. The pathfinders were designed by students in the Graduate School of Library and Information Science at the University of…

  9. Group Home Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Washington, DC.

    This guide seeks improvement in group home management, especially community-based residential facilities for juvenile offenders. Primary organizational considerations include structure, communication lines and decision making. The role of the Board of Directors is explored from initial selection through definition of the program directors role.…

  10. Belonging to the Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Bruce D.

    2002-01-01

    Describes how teachers can help children feel included, connected, and valued, explaining that the family is the child's first and most important group, and children learn the rules of social interaction from primary relationships with adults. As children play, they learn and formulate their own social rules. Teachers can provide structured,…

  11. Leukosis/Sarcoma Group

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The leukosis/sarcoma (L/S) group of diseases designates a variety of transmissible benign and malignant neoplasms of chickens caused by members that belong to the family Retroviridae. Because the expansion of the literature on this disease, it is no longer feasible to cite all relevant publications ...

  12. LCDs Revolutionize Group Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandell, Mel

    1987-01-01

    Describes a screen projector based on liquid crystal display (LCD) that duplicates the monitor of a microcomputer and may be used in group training sessions for demonstration purposes. Suggestions of what features to look for and a buyer's guide are provided. (CLB)

  13. Group Formation in Economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demange, Gabrielle; Wooders, Myrna

    2005-01-01

    Broad and diverse ranges of activities are conducted within and by organized groups of individuals, including political, economic and social activities. These activities have recently become a subject of intense interest in economics and game theory. Some of the topics investigated in this collection are models of networks of power and privilege, trade networks, co-authorship networks, buyer-seller networks with differentiated products, and networks of medical innovation and the adaptation of new information. Other topics are social norms on punctuality, clubs and the provision of club goods and public goods, research and development and collusive alliances among corporations, and international alliances and trading agreements. While relatively recent, the literature on game theoretic studies of group formation in economics is already vast. This volume provides an introduction to this important literature on game-theoretic treatments of situations with networks, clubs, and coalitions, including some applications.

  14. KKG Group Paraffin Removal

    SciTech Connect

    Schulte, Ralph

    2001-12-01

    The Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) has recently completed a test of a paraffin removal system developed by the KKG Group utilizing the technology of two Russian scientists, Gennady Katzyn and Boris Koggi. The system consisting of chemical ''sticks'' that generate heat in-situ to melt the paraffin deposits in oilfield tubing. The melted paraffin is then brought to the surface utilizing the naturally flowing energy of the well.

  15. Hadron hadron collider group

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.; Peoples, J.; Ankenbrandt, C.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this group was to make a rough assessment of the characteristics of a hadron-hadron collider which could make it possible to study the 1 TeV mass scale. Since there is very little theoretical guidance for the type of experimental measurements which could illuminate this mass scale, we chose to extend the types of experiments which have been done at the ISR, and which are in progress at the SPS collider to these higher energies.

  16. Functional group analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.T. Jr.; Patterson, J.M.

    1986-04-01

    Analytical methods for functional group analysis are reviewed. Literature reviewed is from the period of December 1983 through November 1985 and presents methods for determining the following compounds: acids, acid halides, active hydrogen, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, amides, amines, amino acids, anhydrides, aromatic hydrocarbons, azo compounds, carbohydrates, chloramines, esters, ethers, halogen compounds, hydrazines, isothiocyanates, nitro compounds, nitroso compounds, organometallic compounds, oxiranes, peroxides, phenols, phosphorus compounds, quinones, silicon compounds, sulfates, sulfonyl chlorides, thioamides, thiols, and thiosemicarbazones. 150 references.

  17. Summaries of group discussions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, L. D.

    1972-01-01

    Group discussions following the presentations of reports on the remote sensing of Chesapeake Bay resources are presented. The parameters to be investigated by the remote sensors and the specifications of the sensors are described. Specific sensors for obtaining data on various aspects of the ecology are identified. Recommendations for establishing a data bank and additional efforts to obtain increased understanding of the ecology are submitted.

  18. Empfangsleistung in Abhängigkeit von der Zielentfernung bei optischen Kurzstrecken-Radargeräten.

    PubMed

    Riegl, J; Bernhard, M

    1974-04-01

    The dependence of the received optical power on the range in optical short-distance radar range finders is calculated by means of the methods of geometrical optics. The calculations are based on a constant intensity of the transmitter-beam cross section and on an ideal thin lens for the receiver optics. The results are confirmed by measurements. Even measurements using a nonideal thick lens system for the receiver optics are in reasonable agreement with the calculations.

  19. Applications of Quantum Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chryssomalakos, Chryssomalis

    The main theme of this thesis is the search for applications of Quantum Group and Hopf algebraic concepts and techniques in Physics. We investigate in particular the possibilities that exist in deforming, in a self consistent way, the symmetry structure of physical theories with the hope that the resulting scheme will be of relevance in the description of physical reality. Our choice of topics reflects this motivation: we discuss deformations of rotations and Lorentz boosts, search for integrals on the quantum plane and attempt to Fourier transform functions of non -commuting coordinates. Along the way, more formal considerations prompt us to revisit integration on finite dimensional Hopf algebras, explore the interconnections between various descriptions of the quantum double and derive the algebraic structure of the quantum plane from that of the underlying deformed symmetry group. The material is structured as follows. Chapter 1 introduces the language, basic concepts and notation employed throughout this thesis. Chapter 2 focuses on Hopf algebras viewed as universal envelopes of deformed Lie algebras and their duals. Bicovariant generators enter the discussion as analogues of the classical Lie algebra generators and some of their properties are given. We comment on the geometrical interpretation of the algebraic formulation and introduce computational tools. In chapter 3 we take a close look at the quantum Lorentz Hopf algebra. The basics of complex quantum groups are presented and applied in the derivation of the algebra of the quantum Lorentz generators and its Hopf and involutive structures. We point also to isomorphisms with previous related constructions. The subject of quantum integration is explored in chapter 4. We derive a formula for the integral on a finite dimensional Hopf algebra and show its equivalence to the formulation in terms of the trace of the square of the antipode. Integration on the quantum plane is also examined and a Fourier transform

  20. Systems special investigation group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    An interim report concerning the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) is presented by a Boeing Systems special investigation group (SIG). The SIG activities were divided into five engineering disciplines: electrical, mechanical, optics, thermal, and batteries/solar cells. The responsibilities of the SIG included the following areas: support de-integration at Kennedy Space Center (KSC); testing of hardware at Boeing; review of principal investigator (PI) test plans and test results; support of test activities at PI labs; and collation of all test results into the SIG database.

  1. Theory and modeling group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, Gordon D.

    1989-01-01

    The primary purpose of the Theory and Modeling Group meeting was to identify scientists engaged or interested in theoretical work pertinent to the Max '91 program, and to encourage theorists to pursue modeling which is directly relevant to data which can be expected to result from the program. A list of participants and their institutions is presented. Two solar flare paradigms were discussed during the meeting -- the importance of magnetic reconnection in flares and the applicability of numerical simulation results to solar flare studies.

  2. STEAM GENERATOR GROUP PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R. A.; Lewis, M

    1985-09-01

    This report is a summary of progress in the Surry Steam Generator Group Project for 1984. Information is presented on the analysis of two baseline eddy current inspections of the generator. Round robin series of tests using standard in-service inspection techniques are described along with some preliminary results. Observations are reported of degradation found on tubing specimens removed from the generator, and on support plates characterized in-situ. Residual stresses measured on a tubing specimen are reported. Two steam generator repair demonstrations are described; one for antivibration bar replacement, and one on tube repair methods. Chemical analyses are shown for sludge samples removed from above the tube sheet.

  3. Renormalization group functional equations

    SciTech Connect

    Curtright, Thomas L.; Zachos, Cosmas K.

    2011-03-15

    Functional conjugation methods are used to analyze the global structure of various renormalization group trajectories and to gain insight into the interplay between continuous and discrete rescaling. With minimal assumptions, the methods produce continuous flows from step-scaling {sigma} functions and lead to exact functional relations for the local flow {beta} functions, whose solutions may have novel, exotic features, including multiple branches. As a result, fixed points of {sigma} are sometimes not true fixed points under continuous changes in scale and zeroes of {beta} do not necessarily signal fixed points of the flow but instead may only indicate turning points of the trajectories.

  4. Group Processes in Experiential Training Groups in Botswana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nitza, Amy

    2011-01-01

    While group counseling has the potential to be an effective form of intervention in sub-Saharan Africa, research on group processes that would help guide group interventions in the region is scarce. This study investigated therapeutic factors and group climate in experiential training groups in Botswana. The Critical Incident Questionnaire (CIQ;…

  5. Group Progress of Community Elderly as Measured by Tape Recordings, Group Tempo and Group Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Marcella Bakur; Weinstock, Comilda S.

    1979-01-01

    Geriatric outpatients were involved in a group resocialization program. Comparison is made between experimental groups whose leader used group intervention techniques, and groups where leader played a nonintervention role. Experimental group members showed changes toward more active problem-solving approaches, while group members remained fixed at…

  6. AO Group Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Olivier, S

    2005-10-04

    The Adaptive Optics (AO) Group in I Division develops and tests a broad range of advanced wavefront control technologies. Current applications focus on: Remote sensing, High power lasers, Astronomy, and Human vision. In the area of remote sensing, the AO Group leads a collaborative effort with LLNL's Nonproliferation, Arms Control & International Security (NAI) Directorate on Enhanced Surveillance Imaging. The ability to detect and identify individual people or vehicles from long-range is an important requirement for proliferation detection and homeland security. High-resolution imaging along horizontal paths through the atmosphere is limited by turbulence, which blurs and distorts the image. For ranges over {approx}one km, visible image resolution can be reduced by over an order of magnitude. We have developed an approach based on speckle imaging that can correct the turbulence-induced blurring and provide high resolution imagery. The system records a series of short exposure images which freeze the atmospheric effects. We can then estimate the image magnitude and phase using a bispectral estimation algorithm which cancels the atmospheric effects while maintaining object information at the diffraction limit of the imaging system.

  7. Group collaboration in recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Clark, S E; Hori, A; Putnam, A; Martin, T P

    2000-11-01

    Group collaboration was examined in item and associative recognition. The present study distinguishes between group effects versus collaborative processes and defines the latter as interactive information exchange among group members. By that definition, many group effects do not involve collaboration. For example, group performance can exceed individual performance by pooling the increased resources of the group. Specifically, a group advantage can be obtained by deferring to a majority vote or to the group's best member. For both item and associative recognition, a group advantage was obtained that could not be accounted for by resource pooling. Collaborative facilitation was shown reliably in recognizing targets but not for rejecting distractors. PMID:11185784

  8. Organocatalyzed Group Transfer Polymerization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yougen; Kakuchi, Toyoji

    2016-08-01

    In contrast to the conventional group transfer polymerization (GTP) using a catalyst of either an anionic nucleophile or a transition-metal compound, the organocatalyzed GTP has to a great extent improved the living characteristics of the polymerization from the viewpoints of synthesizing structurally well-defined acrylic polymers and constructing defect-free polymer architectures. In this article, we describe the organocatalyzed GTP from a relatively personal perspective to provide our colleagues with a perspicuous and systematic overview on its recent progress as well as a reply to the curiosity of how excellently the organocatalysts have performed in this field. The stated perspectives of this review mainly cover five aspects, in terms of the assessment of the livingness of the polymerization, limit and scope of applicable monomers, mechanistic studies, control of the polymer structure, and a new GTP methodology involving the use of tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane and hydrosilane. PMID:27427399

  9. Gutzwiller renormalization group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanatà, Nicola; Yao, Yong-Xin; Deng, Xiaoyu; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Ho, Kai-Ming; Kotliar, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    We develop a variational scheme called the "Gutzwiller renormalization group" (GRG), which enables us to calculate the ground state of Anderson impurity models (AIM) with arbitrary numerical precision. Our method exploits the low-entanglement property of the ground state of local Hamiltonians in combination with the framework of the Gutzwiller wave function and indicates that the ground state of the AIM has a very simple structure, which can be represented very accurately in terms of a surprisingly small number of variational parameters. We perform benchmark calculations of the single-band AIM that validate our theory and suggest that the GRG might enable us to study complex systems beyond the reach of the other methods presently available and pave the way to interesting generalizations, e.g., to nonequilibrium transport in nanostructures.

  10. Working Group Report: Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Artuso, M.; et al.,

    2013-10-18

    Sensors play a key role in detecting both charged particles and photons for all three frontiers in Particle Physics. The signals from an individual sensor that can be used include ionization deposited, phonons created, or light emitted from excitations of the material. The individual sensors are then typically arrayed for detection of individual particles or groups of particles. Mounting of new, ever higher performance experiments, often depend on advances in sensors in a range of performance characteristics. These performance metrics can include position resolution for passing particles, time resolution on particles impacting the sensor, and overall rate capabilities. In addition the feasible detector area and cost frequently provides a limit to what can be built and therefore is often another area where improvements are important. Finally, radiation tolerance is becoming a requirement in a broad array of devices. We present a status report on a broad category of sensors, including challenges for the future and work in progress to solve those challenges.

  11. NOSS science working group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The members of the NOSS Science Working Group are John Apel, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratories/NOAA; Tim Barnett, Scripps Institution of Oceanography; Francis Bretherton (chairman), National Center for Atmospheric Research; Otis Brown, University of Miami; Joost Businger, University of Washington; Garrett Campbell, NCAR; Mark Cane, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Robert Edwards, National Marine Fisheries Service/NOAA; James Mueller, Naval Postgraduate School; Peter Niiler, Oregon State University; James J. O'Brien, Florida State University; Norman Phillips, National Meteorological Center/NOAA; Owen Phillips, The Johns Hopkins University; Stephen Piacsek, NSTL Station, NORDA; Trevor Platt, Bedford Institute of Oceanography; Stephen Pond, University of British Columbia; Stanley Ruttenberg (executive secretary), NCAR; William Schmitz, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution; Jerry Schubel, State University of New York; Robert Stewart, Scripps; Norbert Untersteiner, NOAA; and Alan Weinstein, Naval Environmental Prediction Research Facility.

  12. Renormalization Group Tutorial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Thomas L.

    2004-01-01

    Complex physical systems sometimes have statistical behavior characterized by power- law dependence on the parameters of the system and spatial variability with no particular characteristic scale as the parameters approach critical values. The renormalization group (RG) approach was developed in the fields of statistical mechanics and quantum field theory to derive quantitative predictions of such behavior in cases where conventional methods of analysis fail. Techniques based on these ideas have since been extended to treat problems in many different fields, and in particular, the behavior of turbulent fluids. This lecture will describe a relatively simple but nontrivial example of the RG approach applied to the diffusion of photons out of a stellar medium when the photons have wavelengths near that of an emission line of atoms in the medium.

  13. The Group Tree of Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ping, Ki

    1994-01-01

    Describes a group activity that uses a tree as a metaphor to reflect both group and personal growth during adventure activities. The tree's roots represent the group's formation, the branches and leaves represent the group's diversity and capabilities, and the seeds represent the personal learning and growth that took place within the group.…

  14. Introduction to Small Group Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millar, Dan Pyle

    To bring educational research into focus with tested classroom practice, this booklet provides an introduction to small group discussion. The theory and research section discusses the importance of small group discussion, characteristics of small group discussions, group attraction based on Maslow's hierarchy of basic human needs, group decision…

  15. Naive Theories of Social Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Marjorie

    2012-01-01

    Four studies examined children's (ages 3-10, Total N = 235) naive theories of social groups, in particular, their expectations about how group memberships constrain social interactions. After introduction to novel groups of people, preschoolers (ages 3-5) reliably expected agents from one group to harm members of the other group (rather than…

  16. The Neuroscience of Group Membership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Samantha; Decety, Jean; Molenberghs, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to uncover the neural activity associated with specific in-group and out-group word related stimuli, to examine the neuroanatomical basis of group membership concept representation, and investigate to what extent neural processes represent "in-group" differently from "out-group". Participants' brain activity was measured…

  17. New Developments in Group Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gladding, Samuel T., Ed.

    Group counseling is a rapidly changing field. This collection of 31 digests examines various aspects of group process and group counseling. The digests are arranged under different subject headings. In section 1, the nature of group work is examined, along with the evolution of group work training since 1990. The second section looks at…

  18. Group Time: Taking a "Humor Break" at Group Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Church, Ellen Booth

    2005-01-01

    January is a perfect time to insert a strong dose of humor into group time gatherings. Oftentimes, children have tired of the predictable pattern of group meetings and need some change. Humor-filled group time activities can be the best secret remedy. Not only will children become more interested in the group time meetings (and therefore listen…

  19. Post-Disaster Social Justice Group Work and Group Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bemak, Fred; Chung, Rita Chi-Ying

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses post-disaster group counseling and group supervision using a social justice orientation for working with post-disaster survivors from underserved populations. The Disaster Cross-Cultural Counseling model is a culturally responsive group counseling model that infuses social justice into post-disaster group counseling and…

  20. On Sufism, Sufi Group Study and Group Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einhorn, Jay

    1979-01-01

    Sufism is an ancient tradition of experiential human development. Sufi human development specialists utilize the group setting as a major study format. Comparison with group counseling might broaden perspectives on the possibilities and pitfalls of group process, and pinpoint several important issues relevant to group leadership. (Author)

  1. Group Leader Development: Effects of Personal Growth and Psychoeducational Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrt, Jonathan H.; Robinson, E. H., III; Hagedorn, W. Bryce

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to compare the effects of personal growth groups and psychoeducational groups on counselor education students' (n = 74) empathy and group leader self-efficacy. Additionally, we compared the degree to which participants in each group valued: (a) cohesion, (b) catharsis, and (c) insight. There were no…

  2. Cluster functional renormalization group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuther, Johannes; Thomale, Ronny

    2014-01-01

    Functional renormalization group (FRG) has become a diverse and powerful tool to derive effective low-energy scattering vertices of interacting many-body systems. Starting from a free expansion point of the action, the flow of the RG parameter Λ allows us to trace the evolution of the effective one- and two-particle vertices towards low energies by taking into account the vertex corrections between all parquet channels in an unbiased fashion. In this work, we generalize the expansion point at which the diagrammatic resummation procedure is initiated from a free UV limit to a cluster product state. We formulate a cluster FRG scheme where the noninteracting building blocks (i.e., decoupled spin clusters) are treated exactly, and the intercluster couplings are addressed via RG. As a benchmark study, we apply our cluster FRG scheme to the spin-1/2 bilayer Heisenberg model (BHM) on a square lattice where the neighboring sites in the two layers form the individual two-site clusters. Comparing with existing numerical evidence for the BHM, we obtain reasonable findings for the spin susceptibility, the spin-triplet excitation energy, and quasiparticle weight even in coupling regimes close to antiferromagnetic order. The concept of cluster FRG promises applications to a large class of interacting electron systems.

  3. Prostate Cancer Support Groups

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Suzanne; Garrett, Bernie; Bottorff, Joan L.; McKenzie, Michael; Han, Christina S.; Ogrodniczuk, John S.

    2015-01-01

    To understand prostate cancer (PCa) specialists’ views about prostate cancer support groups (PCSGs), a volunteer sample of Canada-based PCa specialists (n = 150), including urologists (n = 100), radiation oncologists (n = 40), and medical oncologists (n = 10) were surveyed. The 56-item questionnaire used in this study included six sets of attitudinal items to measure prostate cancer specialists’ beliefs about positive and negative influences of PCSGs, reasons for attending PCSGs, the attributes of effective PCSGs, and the value of face-to-face and web-based PCSGs. In addition, an open-ended question was included to invite additional input from participants. Results showed that PCSGs were positively valued, particularly for information sharing, education and psychosocial support. Inclusivity, privacy, and accessibility were identified as potential barriers, and recommendations were made for better marketing PCSGs to increase engagement. Findings suggest prostate cancer specialists highly valued the role and potential benefits of face-to-face PCSGs. Information provision and an educational role were perceived as key benefits. Some concerns were expressed about the ability of web-based PCSGs to effectively engage and educate men who experience prostate cancer. PMID:25061087

  4. The analytic renormalization group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Frank

    2016-08-01

    Finite temperature Euclidean two-point functions in quantum mechanics or quantum field theory are characterized by a discrete set of Fourier coefficients Gk, k ∈ Z, associated with the Matsubara frequencies νk = 2 πk / β. We show that analyticity implies that the coefficients Gk must satisfy an infinite number of model-independent linear equations that we write down explicitly. In particular, we construct "Analytic Renormalization Group" linear maps Aμ which, for any choice of cut-off μ, allow to express the low energy Fourier coefficients for |νk | < μ (with the possible exception of the zero mode G0), together with the real-time correlators and spectral functions, in terms of the high energy Fourier coefficients for |νk | ≥ μ. Operating a simple numerical algorithm, we show that the exact universal linear constraints on Gk can be used to systematically improve any random approximate data set obtained, for example, from Monte-Carlo simulations. Our results are illustrated on several explicit examples.

  5. Reflexive Analysis of Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefebvre, Vladimir A.

    This chapter develops further a model I previously introduced, of an agent facing a choice between the positive and the negative poles. Here I will consider agents whose individual behavior depends on a ‘society’ compounded by all of them. Four ideas underlie the theory. The first idea is to consider relationships between the subgroups of agents, not just pairs of agents; this idea allows us to represent a decomposable graph corresponding to an agent or a group of agents as a tree of subgraphs. The second idea is to establish a correspondence between decomposable graphs and polynomials, allowing us to replace a tree of subgraphs with a tree of polynomials representing a computational process. The third idea consists of the interpretation of the tree of polynomials as an agent who has images of the self, which can have images of the self, etc. Finally, the fourth idea is putting an equation into correspondence to the agent, allowing us to find out the agent’s state. The theory is illustrated here with several examples from modern geopolitics, including scenarios of current interest.

  6. Emotional collectives: How groups shape emotions and emotions shape groups.

    PubMed

    van Kleef, Gerben A; Fischer, Agneta H

    2016-01-01

    Group settings are epicentres of emotional activity. Yet, the role of emotions in groups is poorly understood. How do group-level phenomena shape group members' emotional experience and expression? How are emotional expressions recognised, interpreted and shared in group settings? And how do such expressions influence the emotions, cognitions and behaviours of fellow group members and outside observers? To answer these and other questions, we draw on relevant theoretical perspectives (e.g., intergroup emotions theory, social appraisal theory and emotions as social information theory) and recent empirical findings regarding the role of emotions in groups. We organise our review according to two overarching themes: how groups shape emotions and how emotions shape groups. We show how novel empirical approaches break important new ground in uncovering the role of emotions in groups. Research on emotional collectives is thriving and constitutes a key to understanding the social nature of emotions.

  7. Fermilab Steering Group Report

    SciTech Connect

    Steering Group, Fermilab; /Fermilab

    2007-12-01

    The Fermilab Steering Group has developed a plan to keep U.S. accelerator-based particle physics on the pathway to discovery, both at the Terascale with the LHC and the ILC and in the domain of neutrinos and precision physics with a high-intensity accelerator. The plan puts discovering Terascale physics with the LHC and the ILC as Fermilab's highest priority. While supporting ILC development, the plan creates opportunities for exciting science at the intensity frontier. If the ILC remains near the Global Design Effort's technically driven timeline, Fermilab would continue neutrino science with the NOvA experiment, using the NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) proton plan, scheduled to begin operating in 2011. If ILC construction must wait somewhat longer, Fermilab's plan proposes SNuMI, an upgrade of NuMI to create a more powerful neutrino beam. If the ILC start is postponed significantly, a central feature of the proposed Fermilab plan calls for building an intense proton facility, Project X, consisting of a linear accelerator with the currently planned characteristics of the ILC combined with Fermilab's existing Recycler Ring and the Main Injector accelerator. The major component of Project X is the linac. Cryomodules, radio-frequency distribution, cryogenics and instrumentation for the linac are the same as or similar to those used in the ILC at a scale of about one percent of a full ILC linac. Project X's intense proton beams would open a path to discovery in neutrino science and in precision physics with charged leptons and quarks. World-leading experiments would allow physicists to address key questions of the Quantum Universe: How did the universe come to be? Are there undiscovered principles of nature: new symmetries, new physical laws? Do all the particles and forces become one? What happened to the antimatter? Building Project X's ILC-like linac would offer substantial support for ILC development by accelerating the industrialization of ILC components

  8. Fermilab Steering Group Report

    SciTech Connect

    Beier, Eugene; Butler, Joel; Dawson, Sally; Edwards, Helen; Himel, Thomas; Holmes, Stephen; Kim, Young-Kee; Lankford, Andrew; McGinnis, David; Nagaitsev, Sergei; Raubenheimer, Tor; /SLAC /Fermilab

    2007-01-01

    The Fermilab Steering Group has developed a plan to keep U.S. accelerator-based particle physics on the pathway to discovery, both at the Terascale with the LHC and the ILC and in the domain of neutrinos and precision physics with a high-intensity accelerator. The plan puts discovering Terascale physics with the LHC and the ILC as Fermilab's highest priority. While supporting ILC development, the plan creates opportunities for exciting science at the intensity frontier. If the ILC remains near the Global Design Effort's technically driven timeline, Fermilab would continue neutrino science with the NOVA experiment, using the NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) proton plan, scheduled to begin operating in 2011. If ILC construction must wait somewhat longer, Fermilab's plan proposes SNuMI, an upgrade of NuMI to create a more powerful neutrino beam. If the ILC start is postponed significantly, a central feature of the proposed Fermilab plan calls for building an intense proton facility, Project X, consisting of a linear accelerator with the currently planned characteristics of the ILC combined with Fermilab's existing Recycler Ring and the Main Injector accelerator. The major component of Project X is the linac. Cryomodules, radio-frequency distribution, cryogenics and instrumentation for the linac are the same as or similar to those used in the ILC at a scale of about one percent of a full ILC linac. Project X's intense proton beams would open a path to discovery in neutrino science and in precision physics with charged leptons and quarks. World-leading experiments would allow physicists to address key questions of the Quantum Universe: How did the universe come to be? Are there undiscovered principles of nature: new symmetries, new physical laws? Do all the particles and forces become one? What happened to the antimatter? Building Project X's ILC-like linac would offer substantial support for ILC development by accelerating the industrialization of ILC components

  9. Instrumentation Working Group Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaller, Michelle; Miake-Lye, Richard

    1999-01-01

    The Instrumentation Working Group compiled a summary of measurement techniques applicable to gas turbine engine aerosol precursors and particulates. An assessment was made of the limits, accuracy, applicability, and technology readiness of the various techniques. Despite advances made in emissions characterization of aircraft engines, uncertainties still exist in the mechanisms by which aerosols and particulates are produced in the near-field engine exhaust. To adequately assess current understanding of the formation of sulfuric acid aerosols in the exhaust plumes of gas turbine engines, measurements are required to determine the degree and importance of sulfur oxidation in the turbine and at the engine exit. Ideally, concentrations of all sulfur species would be acquired, with emphasis on SO2 and SO3. Numerous options exist for extractive and non-extractive measurement of SO2 at the engine exit, most of which are well developed. SO2 measurements should be performed first to place an upper bound on the percentage of SO2 oxidation. If extractive and non-extractive techniques indicate that a large amount of the fuel sulfur is not detected as SO2, then efforts are needed to improve techniques for SO3 measurements. Additional work will be required to account for the fuel sulfur in the engine exhaust. Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CI-MS) measurements need to be pursued, although a careful assessment needs to be made of the sampling line impact on the extracted sample composition. Efforts should also be placed on implementing non-intrusive techniques and extending their capabilities by maximizing exhaust coverage for line-of-sight measurements, as well as development of 2-D techniques, where feasible. Recommendations were made to continue engine exit and combustor measurements of particulates. Particulate measurements should include particle size distribution, mass fraction, hydration properties, and volatile fraction. However, methods to ensure that unaltered

  10. 2010 Chemical Working Group Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.

    2010-01-01

    The Steering Group for the Interagency Advanced Power Group (IAPG) held their business meeting on November 30-December 1st in McLean, Virginia. Status reports were presented from each of the IAPG's Working Groups. These charts contain a brief summary of the IAPG Chemical Working Group's activities during 2010 and its plans for 2011.

  11. Study Groups: Conduit for Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makibbin, Shirley S.; Sprague, Marsha M.

    This conference presentation describes study groups as a mechanism for changing teacher behavior. The history of study groups is discussed, beginning with the first American study groups organized by Benjamin Franklin; the Chautauqua Literary and Scientific Circle; the waning of study groups in the early 20th century as college enrollment…

  12. Marketing of Group Counseling Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, F. Robert; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Provides social marketing guidelines for attracting members of appropriate target groups and encouraging their participation in group activities. Includes examination of the personal and social framework of the group counselor, elements of social marketing theory, a case study illustrating difficulties encountered by novice group counselors in…

  13. Instrumentation Working Group Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaller, Michelle; Miake-Lye, Richard

    1999-01-01

    The Instrumentation Working Group compiled a summary of measurement techniques applicable to gas turbine engine aerosol precursors and particulates. An assessment was made of the limits, accuracy, applicability, and technology readiness of the various techniques. Despite advances made in emissions characterization of aircraft engines, uncertainties still exist in the mechanisms by which aerosols and particulates are produced in the near-field engine exhaust. To adequately assess current understanding of the formation of sulfuric acid aerosols in the exhaust plumes of gas turbine engines, measurements are required to determine the degree and importance of sulfur oxidation in the turbine and at the engine exit. Ideally, concentrations of all sulfur species would be acquired, with emphasis on SO2 and SO3. Numerous options exist for extractive and non-extractive measurement of SO2 at the engine exit, most of which are well developed. SO2 measurements should be performed first to place an upper bound on the percentage of SO2 oxidation. If extractive and non-extractive techniques indicate that a large amount of the fuel sulfur is not detected as SO2, then efforts are needed to improve techniques for SO3 measurements. Additional work will be required to account for the fuel sulfur in the engine exhaust. Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CI-MS) measurements need to be pursued, although a careful assessment needs to be made of the sampling line impact on the extracted sample composition. Efforts should also be placed on implementing non-intrusive techniques and extending their capabilities by maximizing exhaust coverage for line-of-sight measurements, as well as development of 2-D techniques, where feasible. Recommendations were made to continue engine exit and combustor measurements of particulates. Particulate measurements should include particle size distribution, mass fraction, hydration properties, and volatile fraction. However, methods to ensure that unaltered

  14. What Is a Group? Young Children's Perceptions of Different Types of Groups and Group Entitativity.

    PubMed

    Plötner, Maria; Over, Harriet; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2016-01-01

    To date, developmental research on groups has focused mainly on in-group biases and intergroup relations. However, little is known about children's general understanding of social groups and their perceptions of different forms of group. In this study, 5- to 6-year-old children were asked to evaluate prototypes of four key types of groups: an intimacy group (friends), a task group (people who are collaborating), a social category (people who look alike), and a loose association (people who coincidently meet at a tram stop). In line with previous work with adults, the vast majority of children perceived the intimacy group, task group, and social category, but not the loose association, to possess entitativity, that is, to be a 'real group.' In addition, children evaluated group member properties, social relations, and social obligations differently in each type of group, demonstrating that young children are able to distinguish between different types of in-group relations. The origins of the general group typology used by adults thus appear early in development. These findings contribute to our knowledge about children's intuitive understanding of groups and group members' behavior. PMID:27010484

  15. Ability Grouping Plus Heterogeneous Grouping: Win-Win Schedules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Fred

    1998-01-01

    Describes a type of block scheduling for middle schools that combines heterogeneous grouping in all subjects within the block and ability grouping. Presents a method of compiling data for block schedules to assist planning. (JPB)

  16. Group Composition and Group Therapy for Complicated Grief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, William E.; Ogrodniczuk, John S.; Joyce, Anthony S.; Weideman, Rene; Rosie, John S.

    2007-01-01

    This prospective study investigated the impact of group composition on the outcome of 2 forms of time-limited, short-term group therapy (interpretive, supportive) with 110 outpatients from 18 therapy groups, who presented with complicated grief. The composition variable was based on the patient's level of quality of object relations. The higher…

  17. Intensifying the Group Member's Experience Using the Group Log.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valine, Warren J.

    1983-01-01

    Presents the use of a group log in which members analyze the content and process of each session using a suggested format. The log promotes dialogue between the leader and each group member and involves members more fully in the group process. Feedback indicates the log is valuable. (JAC)

  18. Structuring the Group Experience: A Format for Designing Psychoeducational Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furr, Susan R.

    2000-01-01

    Presents six-step model for moving from a general statement of purpose to a psychoeducational group design that includes didactic content, experiential activities, and processing. By following this model the group facilitator will be able to develop a psychoeducational group that provides a logical sequence of learning activities fostering…

  19. How Much "Group" Is There in Online Group Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowes, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The ability to work in groups across time and space has become a frequent requirement for the workplace and is increasingly common in higher education, but there is a surprising lack of research on how online groups work. This research applies analytic approaches used in studies of face-to-face classroom "talk" to multiple groups in two…

  20. Group Assessment: Comparing Group and Individual Undergraduate Module Marks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almond, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes a small study that analysed module marks of one cohort of science undergraduates from one academic year. It explored how group summative assessment marking affected the overall marks in comparison with individual assessment. A tutor allocated students to mixed ability project groups. Individual marks for the group work…

  1. Riemannian means on special euclidean group and unipotent matrices group.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xiaomin; Sun, Huafei; Peng, Linyu

    2013-01-01

    Among the noncompact matrix Lie groups, the special Euclidean group and the unipotent matrix group play important roles in both theoretic and applied studies. The Riemannian means of a finite set of the given points on the two matrix groups are investigated, respectively. Based on the left invariant metric on the matrix Lie groups, the geodesic between any two points is gotten. And the sum of the geodesic distances is taken as the cost function, whose minimizer is the Riemannian mean. Moreover, a Riemannian gradient algorithm for computing the Riemannian mean on the special Euclidean group and an iterative formula for that on the unipotent matrix group are proposed, respectively. Finally, several numerical simulations in the 3-dimensional case are given to illustrate our results.

  2. Cognitive Development and Group Stages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saidla, Debie D.

    1990-01-01

    Attempts to integrate Perry's (1970) scheme of the cognitive development of college students with a model of group development adapted by Waldo (1985) based on Tuckman's (1965) formulation of developmental group stages. (Author)

  3. H-deficient blood groups ( Bombay) of Reunion Island.

    PubMed

    Gerard, G; Vitrac, D; Le Pendu, J; Muller, A; Oriol, R

    1982-11-01

    Forty-two H-deficient individuals (lacking H antigen on erythrocytes) with anti-H in their sera were found on Reunion Island. A, B, and AB Bombay subjects had small but detectable amounts of A and/or B antigens on erythrocytes. All the H-deficient phenotypes tested were nonsecretors of ABH in their saliva, and one-third were Lewis negative. Fifty-three of the 108 (49%) unaffected members in the 14 Bombay pedigrees analyzed were se/se, showing that the families were selected for the nonsecretor trait, and suggesting that the Bombay probands used to select the families have se/se genotype. In accordance with this concept, all the children from Bombay nonsecretor x unaffected nonsecretor matings were se/se. Segregation of H and Se is compatible with the genetic model proposing that Se and H are closely linked structural genes, and the analysis of the present and previously published Bombay pedigrees strongly supports this model.

  4. [Marginality, ethnic groups and health].

    PubMed

    Corretger, J M; Fortuny, C; Botet, F; Valls, O

    1992-06-01

    Main marginated ethnic groups in Span are to be found among gypsies and 3rd world immigrants. The first group include about 250,000 persons and the second group more tan half a million people. Their origins and their being past of the less fortunate social layers made them a group of health risk. Pediatric pathologies are those favored by socio-economic shortcomings as well as hygienic-sanitary deficiencies. Imported pediatric pathologies have a small incident.

  5. Group Theory: It's a SNAP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huetinck, Linda

    1996-01-01

    Introduces concepts of modern algebraic group theory in the form of a game. Peg boards and rubber bands represent nonnumerical group elements and are manipulated under the operation of reorienting a regular polygon. Symmetry groups are used to explore set properties, as well as commutative and noncommutative operations. (CMS)

  6. Empowering Groups that Enable Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, David Sloan; Marshall, Danielle; Iserhott, Hindi

    2011-01-01

    Creating play environments for children usually requires groups of adults working together. An extensive scientific literature describes how groups function to achieve shared goals in general terms, and groups attempting to empower play may find this literature useful. Design principles for managing natural resources, identified by Elinor Ostrom…

  7. Group Cooperation in Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Bruce E.

    1978-01-01

    Utilizing the Beatles' Yellow Submarine fantasy (e.g., the Blue Meanies), this outdoor education program is designed for sixth graders and special education students. Activities developed at the Cortland Resident Outdoor Education Camp include a series of group stress/challenge activities to be accomplished by everyone in the group, as a group.…

  8. Suppose We Took Groups Seriously...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavitt, Harold J.

    The idea of using groups, rather than individuals, as the basic building blocks for an organization is suggested in this paper. Although this idea is not new in theory, it is new in practice. To design an organization from scratch around groups appears to violate the American value of individualism. Groups, however, have advantages over…

  9. SOCIAL CHANGE THROUGH LISTENING GROUPS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OHLIGER, JOHN

    A LISTENING GROUP IS A GROUP OF ADULTS MEETING TOGETHER REGULARLY TO DISCUSS RADIO OR TELEVISION PROGRAMS, USUALLY UNDER LAY LEADERSHIP, SOMETIMES ASSISTED BY SUPPLEMENTAL PRINTED MATERIALS, WITH ARRANGEMENTS FOR TWO-WAY COMMUNICATION (FEEDBACK) BETWEEN THE LISTENERS AND BROADCASTERS. GROUPS APPEAL TO CLIENTELE NOT ORDINARILY ATTRACTED TO ADULT…

  10. Direct Sum Decomposition of Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thaheem, A. B.

    2005-01-01

    Direct sum decomposition of Abelian groups appears in almost all textbooks on algebra for undergraduate students. This concept plays an important role in group theory. One simple example of this decomposition is obtained by using the kernel and range of a projection map on an Abelian group. The aim in this pedagogical note is to establish a direct…

  11. Reading, Grouping, and the Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Reading instruction and placing students into groups emphasizes a plethora of approaches. Each method of grouping for instructional purposes should stress providing for learners' individual purposes. Which plans are appropriate for grouping students for reading instruction? Team teaching has many advocates, but it has both advantages and…

  12. Correlation properties of loose groups

    SciTech Connect

    Maia, M.A.G.; Da Costa, L.N. )

    1990-02-01

    The two-point spatial correlation function for loose groups of galaxies is computed, using the recently compiled catalog of groups in the southern hemisphere. It is found that the correlation function for groups has a similar slope to that of galaxies but with a smaller amplitude, confirming an earlier result obtained from a similar analysis of the CfA group catalog. This implies that groups of galaxies are more randomly distributed than galaxies, which may be consistent with the predictions of Kashlinsky (1987) for a gravitational clustering scenario for the formation of large-scale structures. 21 refs.

  13. Citizen groups: a creative force

    SciTech Connect

    Stoel, T.

    1981-02-01

    The role of citizen groups is as important as that of government agencies when it comes to environmental policy in a democracy. These groups spend little money, yet they have initiated the major US environmental legislation of the past two decades. They are a recent, but effective, force in developing countries even though adversarial approaches are not often appropriate. The methods used by US environmental groups range from lobbying to confrontation in court. Groups outside the US tend to use consensus in democracies and information gathering in developing countries. While the groups' primary concerns are national in scope, international awareness and cooperation are growing. (DCK)

  14. Stereotypes of Norwegian social groups

    PubMed Central

    Bye, Hege H; Herrebrøden, Henrik; Hjetland, Gunnhild J; Røyset, Guro Ø; Westby, Linda L

    2014-01-01

    We present a pilot study and two main studies that address the nature of stereotypes of social groups in Norway within the framework of the Stereotype Content Model (SCM). The first study focused on stereotypes of a wide range of groups across categories such as gender, age, religious conviction, socioeconomic and health status. The second study focused on stereotypes of immigrant groups. Participants (n = 244 and n = 63, respectively) rated the groups on perceived warmth, competence, status, and competition. Results from both studies support the applicability of the SCM in Norway and provides a unique insight into stereotypes of Norwegian social groups. PMID:24975918

  15. The darker side of groups.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Mike; Hynes, Celia

    2007-05-01

    This paper examines the role of group interaction in the workplace and the impact of anxiety on group cohesion. It takes a psychoanalytical perspective and highlights how early learning within a familial setting influences later attitudes and behaviour at work. In particular the article focuses on the signs of negative group anxiety and how the manager can recognise anti-group culture. By recognising the negative signs the leader can also come to understand how the anti-group develops and thereby prevent the resulting disruptive behaviour. In some instances the perception of anti-group feelings and behaviour can also be altered so that the team leader can reach a positive outcome for the group dynamic and resultant team cohesion and collaboration. PMID:17456166

  16. Little Groups of Preon Branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MKRTCHYAN, H.; MKRTCHYAN, R.

    Little groups for preon branes (i.e. configurations of branes with maximal (n-1)/n fraction of survived supersymmetry) for dimensions d=2,3,…,11 are calculated for all massless, and partially for massive orbits. For massless orbits little groups are semidirect product of d-2 translational group Td-2 on a subgroup of (SO(d-2) × R-invariance) group. E.g. at d=9 the subgroup is exceptional G2 group. It is also argued, that 11D Majorana spinor invariants, which distinguish orbits, are actually invariant under d=2+10 Lorentz group. Possible applications of these results include construction of field theories in generalized spacetimes with brane charges coordinates, different problems of group's representations decompositions, spin-statistics issues.

  17. In-Group Versus Out-Group Source Memory.

    PubMed

    Greenstein, Michael; Franklin, Nancy; Klug, Jessica

    2016-06-01

    A common finding in the source monitoring literature is that greater similarity impairs source discriminability. Experiments traditionally manipulate similarity overtly by describing or showing sources with explicitly differentiable features. However, people may also infer source characteristics themselves, which should also affect discriminability. Two studies examined inferred source characteristics by capitalizing on the out-group homogeneity effect, whereby in-group members are conceptualized as more diverse than out-group members. Participants learned about two sources who were described only as members of an in-group or an out-group and whose actions did not have higher a priori association with either group. Source memory was superior when participants believed the sources to be in-group members. This demonstrates that people spontaneously include inferred features with source representations and can capitalize on these features during source monitoring. Interestingly, information suggesting membership in one's in-group improved performance even for sources who had previously been considered out-group members (Experiment 2).

  18. Programming with process groups: Group and multicast semantics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birman, Kenneth P.; Cooper, Robert; Gleeson, Barry

    1991-01-01

    Process groups are a natural tool for distributed programming and are increasingly important in distributed computing environments. Discussed here is a new architecture that arose from an effort to simplify Isis process group semantics. The findings include a refined notion of how the clients of a group should be treated, what the properties of a multicast primitive should be when systems contain large numbers of overlapping groups, and a new construct called the causality domain. A system based on this architecture is now being implemented in collaboration with the Chorus and Mach projects.

  19. Group discussion improves lie detection.

    PubMed

    Klein, Nadav; Epley, Nicholas

    2015-06-16

    Groups of individuals can sometimes make more accurate judgments than the average individual could make alone. We tested whether this group advantage extends to lie detection, an exceptionally challenging judgment with accuracy rates rarely exceeding chance. In four experiments, we find that groups are consistently more accurate than individuals in distinguishing truths from lies, an effect that comes primarily from an increased ability to correctly identify when a person is lying. These experiments demonstrate that the group advantage in lie detection comes through the process of group discussion, and is not a product of aggregating individual opinions (a "wisdom-of-crowds" effect) or of altering response biases (such as reducing the "truth bias"). Interventions to improve lie detection typically focus on improving individual judgment, a costly and generally ineffective endeavor. Our findings suggest a cheap and simple synergistic approach of enabling group discussion before rendering a judgment.

  20. Group discussion improves lie detection

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Nadav; Epley, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Groups of individuals can sometimes make more accurate judgments than the average individual could make alone. We tested whether this group advantage extends to lie detection, an exceptionally challenging judgment with accuracy rates rarely exceeding chance. In four experiments, we find that groups are consistently more accurate than individuals in distinguishing truths from lies, an effect that comes primarily from an increased ability to correctly identify when a person is lying. These experiments demonstrate that the group advantage in lie detection comes through the process of group discussion, and is not a product of aggregating individual opinions (a “wisdom-of-crowds” effect) or of altering response biases (such as reducing the “truth bias”). Interventions to improve lie detection typically focus on improving individual judgment, a costly and generally ineffective endeavor. Our findings suggest a cheap and simple synergistic approach of enabling group discussion before rendering a judgment. PMID:26015581

  1. Group discussion improves lie detection.

    PubMed

    Klein, Nadav; Epley, Nicholas

    2015-06-16

    Groups of individuals can sometimes make more accurate judgments than the average individual could make alone. We tested whether this group advantage extends to lie detection, an exceptionally challenging judgment with accuracy rates rarely exceeding chance. In four experiments, we find that groups are consistently more accurate than individuals in distinguishing truths from lies, an effect that comes primarily from an increased ability to correctly identify when a person is lying. These experiments demonstrate that the group advantage in lie detection comes through the process of group discussion, and is not a product of aggregating individual opinions (a "wisdom-of-crowds" effect) or of altering response biases (such as reducing the "truth bias"). Interventions to improve lie detection typically focus on improving individual judgment, a costly and generally ineffective endeavor. Our findings suggest a cheap and simple synergistic approach of enabling group discussion before rendering a judgment. PMID:26015581

  2. 32. View of relay assembly group and interconnecting group electronic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. View of relay assembly group and interconnecting group electronic modules located on second floor of transmitter building no. 102 in MIP area. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  3. Group Processes in Helping Groups: Toward a Developmental Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakin, Martin; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Analyzed interaction and emotional atmosphere categories of interactions among old and young participants in support-discussion groups. The groups differed in frequencies of boundary, self-disclosure, and support behaviors, with the elderly exceeding the young on the first two and the young exceeding the elderly on the third. The young showed…

  4. Group Performance in Information Systems Project Groups: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahli, Bouchaib; Buyukkurt, Meral Demirbag

    2005-01-01

    The importance of teamwork in Information Systems Development (ISD) practice and education has been acknowledged but not studied extensively to date. This paper tests a model of how groups participating in ISD projects perform and examines the relationships between some antecedents of this performance based on group research theory well…

  5. Matching with Multiple Control Groups with Adjustment for Group Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Rubin, Donald B.

    2008-01-01

    When estimating causal effects from observational data, it is desirable to approximate a randomized experiment as closely as possible. This goal can often be achieved by choosing a subsample from the original control group that matches the treatment group on the distribution of the observed covariates. However, sometimes the original control group…

  6. Group formation through indirect reciprocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oishi, Koji; Shimada, Takashi; Ito, Nobuyasu

    2013-03-01

    The emergence of group structure of cooperative relations is studied in an agent-based model. It is proved that specific types of reciprocity norms lead individuals to split into two groups only inside of which they are cooperative. The condition for the evolutionary stability of the norms is also obtained. This result suggests reciprocity norms, which usually promote cooperation, can cause society's separation into multiple groups.

  7. Taxonomy Working Group Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, Vickie S.; Beil, Robert J.; Terrone, Mark; Barth, Timothy S.; Panontin, Tina L.; Wales, Roxana; Rackley, Michael W.; Milne, James S.; McPherson, John W.; Dutra, Jayne E.; Shaw, Larry C.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the Taxonomy Working Group was to develop a proposal for a common taxonomy to be used by all NASA projects in the classifying of nonconformances, anomalies, and problems. Specifically, the group developed a recommended list of data elements along with general suggestions for the development of a problem reporting system to better serve NASA's need for managing, reporting, and trending project aberrant events. The Group's recommendations are reported in this document.

  8. Grouping principles in direct competition.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Filipp; Schmidt, Thomas

    2013-08-01

    We (1) introduce a primed flanker task as an objective method to measure perceptual grouping, and (2) use it to directly compare the efficiency of different grouping cues in rapid visuomotor processing. In two experiments, centrally presented primes were succeeded by flanking targets with varying stimulus-onset asynchronies (SOAs). Primes and targets were grouped by the same or by different grouping cues (Exp. 1: brightness/shape, Exp. 2: brightness/size) and were consistent or inconsistent with respect to the required response. Subjective grouping strength was varied to identify its influence on overall response times, error rates, and priming effects, that served as a measure of visual feedforward processing. Our results show that stronger grouping in the targets enhanced overall response times while stronger grouping in the primes enhanced priming effects in motor responses. Also, we obtained differences between rapid visuomotor processing and the subjective impression with cues of brightness and shape but not with cues of brightness and size. Our findings establish the primed flanker task as an objective method to study the speeded visuomotor processing of grouping cues, making it a useful method for the comparative study of feedforward-transmitted base groupings (Roelfsema & Houtkamp, 2011). PMID:23764184

  9. Hanford Waste Tank Grouping Study

    SciTech Connect

    Remund, K.M.; Simpson, B.C.

    1996-09-30

    This letter report discusses the progress and accomplishments of the Tank Grouping Study in FY96. Forty-one single-shell tanks (SSTs) were included in the FY95. In FY96, technical enhancements were also made to data transformations and tank grouping methods. The first focus of the FY96 effort was a general tank grouping study in which the 41 SSTs were grouped into classes with similar waste properties. The second FY96 focus was a demonstration of how multivariate statistical methods can be used to help resolve tank safety issues.

  10. Photodissociation UV-Vis Spectra of Cold Protonated Azobenzene and 4-(Dimethylamino)azobenzene and Their Benzenediazonium Cation Fragment.

    PubMed

    Féraud, Géraldine; Dedonder-Lardeux, Claude; Jouvet, Christophe; Marceca, Ernesto

    2016-06-01

    Gas phase photodissociation electronic spectra of protonated azobenzene (ABH(+)) and 4-(dimethylamino)azobenzene (dmaABH(+)) were measured in a cryogenically cooled ion trap at temperatures of a few tens of Kelvin. Experimental results were complemented with electronic structure calculations in the ground state at the MP2/cc-pVDZ level of theory, and in the low lying excited states using the RI-CC2 method. Calculated energies revealed that only the trans isomers of the azonium molecular ions (protonation site on the azo group) will likely exist in the trap at the temperatures achieved in the experiment. The first transition of trans-ABH(+) is π* ← π, and the absorption band in the spectrum appears strongly red-shifted from that of the neutral molecule. The calculations showed that upon excitation the quasi-planar ground state (S0) transforms into a chairlike excited state (S1) by twisting the CNNC dihedral angle about 96°. A 41 cm(-1) active vibrational progression found in the ABH(+) spectrum may be associated with the twisting of the azo bond. Conversely, the electronic spectrum of dmaABH(+) exhibits a steep and unstructured S1 ← S0 absorption corresponding to a less distorted S1 state. The next two quasi-degenerate bands in the ABH(+) spectrum evidence sharper onsets and a charge transfer character. Using a second fragmentation laser and an additional He cooling pulse in the trap, it was possible to measure the UV spectrum of cold benzenediazonium fragments.

  11. Group Therapy for Anorexia Nervosa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polivy, Janet

    A variety of psychotherapeutic techniques have been used to treat anorexia nervosa with varying degrees of success. Group therapy has advantages to offer anorectic patients in the form of certain curative factors including consensual validation from other anorectic group members, models of coping, peer feedback, and active participation in the…

  12. Controlling multiple groups of robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hor, MawKae

    1992-11-01

    Coordinating multiple robots has attracted researchers' interests for many years. However, most of the problems being studied deal with multiple robots acted only within a single group. Coordinated robots are categorized into different groups when the coordination involves robots interchange or heterogeneous motion during the manipulation process. In such a case, coordination between robot groups has to be considered. This is required in certain types of coordinated manipulations such as passing an object, held by multiple robots, between groups of robots or rotating or rolling an object, held by multiple robots, continuously. In the former task, coordinations are made between two isotropic groups of robots whereas in the latter task, coordinations are made between non-isotropic groups of robots. This paper investigates problems related to the control and coordinating of multiple groups of robots. We analyze various kind of tasks of these types and propose a hierarchical control mechanism in achieving these coordinations. Scenarios and limitations for these tasks are presented and discussed. A hybrid force and position control principle is employed in both global and local planning and control. A hierarchical architecture is used to control different levels of the control and planning primitives. The primitives developed for controlling individual robot group can be adopted in this architecture. The primitives in one level offer services only to those in its neighboring levels and hides them from the details of actual service implementations hence reducing the system designing complexity.

  13. Communication in Cooperative Learning Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalkowski, Page

    This study explores aspects of the hypothesis that communication in cooperative learning groups mediates effects of cooperative learning. The study develops a taxonomy of the cooperative communications of groups of predominantly Anglo and Hispanic elementary school students attending a public school where teachers were being trained to implement…

  14. Group Process and Sex Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Lynn Sandra

    1984-01-01

    Investigated theme development and role types in eight same-sex, self-analytic groups with male or female leadership, through the use of The General Inquirer, a computerized program of content analysis. All groups, male and female, showed a significant increase in the use of AFFILIATION words over time. (BH)

  15. My Career: Group Fitness Instructor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Tammy Kenney, who teaches a yoga-Pilates class in several different gyms. In this interview, Kenney talks about her career as a group fitness instructor and gives her best advice for someone who wants to teach group fitness.

  16. The Globalization of Cooperative Groups.

    PubMed

    Valdivieso, Manuel; Corn, Benjamin W; Dancey, Janet E; Wickerham, D Lawrence; Horvath, L Elise; Perez, Edith A; Urton, Alison; Cronin, Walter M; Field, Erica; Lackey, Evonne; Blanke, Charles D

    2015-10-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI)-supported adult cooperative oncology research groups (now officially Network groups) have a longstanding history of participating in international collaborations throughout the world. Most frequently, the US-based cooperative groups work reciprocally with the Canadian national adult cancer clinical trial group, NCIC CTG (previously the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group). Thus, Canada is the largest contributor to cooperative groups based in the United States, and vice versa. Although international collaborations have many benefits, they are most frequently utilized to enhance patient accrual to large phase III trials originating in the United States or Canada. Within the cooperative group setting, adequate attention has not been given to the study of cancers that are unique to countries outside the United States and Canada, such as those frequently associated with infections in Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Global collaborations are limited by a number of barriers, some of which are unique to the countries involved, while others are related to financial support and to US policies that restrict drug distribution outside the United States. This article serves to detail the cooperative group experience in international research and describe how international collaboration in cancer clinical trials is a promising and important area that requires greater consideration in the future. PMID:26433551

  17. Group Intervention in Pediatric Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaForme Fiss, Alyssa

    2012-01-01

    Group intervention in pediatric physical and occupational therapy is an alternative to individual intervention allowing the therapist to meet the needs of multiple children at one time. Survey research indicates that approximately 40% to 60% of pediatric physical and occupational therapists use group intervention at least occasionally in practice,…

  18. Group Polarization and Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, David; Magdaleno, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Although educational leaders may be optimistic about initiating change, lasting reforms are rare. The group polarization literature, although dated, provides an important explanation for a very current problem. The theory holds that when there are differences of opinion to begin with, a counter-conformity effect works among members of groups.…

  19. Group Work in Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Debbie; Tolmie, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This article considers how students might work together in small groups, from two to eight, in either a primary or secondary science classroom. The nature of group work can vary widely and could include, for example, a pair carrying out an illustrative experiment, a trio or quad debating climate change, or six or seven rehearsing how they will…

  20. Modeling Interactions in Small Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heise, David R.

    2013-01-01

    A new theory of interaction within small groups posits that group members initiate actions when tension mounts between the affective meanings of their situational identities and impressions produced by recent events. Actors choose partners and behaviors so as to reduce the tensions. A computer model based on this theory, incorporating reciprocal…

  1. BALANCING IN GROUP DECISION MAKING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GREGOR, GARY L.; WRENCH, DAVID F.

    THIS STUDY WAS DESIGNED TO TEST THE THEORY THAT LABORATORY GROUPS MAKING COMPLEX DECISIONS WILL DISTORT THEIR PERCEPTIONS OF EACH OTHER IN WAYS PREDICTABLE FROM NEWCOMB'S A-B-X MODEL OF PERCEPTUAL DISTORTION IN WHICH "A" REPRESENTS THE PERCEIVING INDIVIDUAL, "B" REPRESENTS ANOTHER MEMBER OF THE GROUP, AND "X" THE ISSUES UNDER DISCUSSION. FOUR…

  2. Nurture Groups in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colley, David

    2009-01-01

    Nurture groups are school-based interventions that offer specialist support for children and young people with social, emotional and behavioural difficulties. Initially developed as an early years intervention in the 1970s, nurture groups dwindled in the 1980s but have enjoyed something of a renaissance over the last 15 years. There are now more…

  3. Nonverbal Interventions in Clinical Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shadish, William R., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A comparison of nonverbal with verbal clinical group interventions suggested that some traditional self-report devices show less differentiation between these two interventions than do measures of group cohesion. A strong, replicable manipulation tested these findings, which were consistent with previous research. (Author/BEF)

  4. Multiage Grouping and Student Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this action research project was to investigate students' social preferences and pro-social interactions in a multiage, high school classroom in order to better understand how to group students to maximize learning and collaboration. According to many educational experts and previous inquiries, mixed-age learning groups introduce…

  5. Group Work with Transgender Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickey, Lore M.; Loewy, Michael I.

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on the existing literature, the authors' research and clinical experiences, and the first author's personal journey as a member and leader of the transgender community, this article offers a brief history of group work with transgender clients followed by suggestions for group work with transgender clients from a social justice…

  6. Challenges Facing Group Work Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Bo; Kang, Haijun

    2016-01-01

    Online group work can be complicated because of its asynchronous characteristics and lack of physical presence, and its requirements for skills in handling technology, human relationships, and content-related tasks. This study focuses on the administrative, logistical and relationship-related challenges in online group work. Challenges in areas…

  7. Group Activities for Math Enthusiasts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdener, J.; Milnikel, R.

    2016-01-01

    In this article we present three group activities designed for math students: a balloon-twisting workshop, a group proof of the irrationality of p, and a game of Math Bingo. These activities have been particularly successful in building enthusiasm for mathematics and camaraderie among math faculty and students at Kenyon College.

  8. Exploring Interpersonal Compatibility in Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyton, Joann

    This study investigated William Schutz's three-dimensional theory of interpersonal behavior and compatibility (FIRO) to determine its validity as a group measure of compatibility. Data were collected from 248 students enrolled in a multi-section course in small group communications at a large midwestern university. Subjects self-selected…

  9. The Globalization of Cooperative Groups.

    PubMed

    Valdivieso, Manuel; Corn, Benjamin W; Dancey, Janet E; Wickerham, D Lawrence; Horvath, L Elise; Perez, Edith A; Urton, Alison; Cronin, Walter M; Field, Erica; Lackey, Evonne; Blanke, Charles D

    2015-10-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI)-supported adult cooperative oncology research groups (now officially Network groups) have a longstanding history of participating in international collaborations throughout the world. Most frequently, the US-based cooperative groups work reciprocally with the Canadian national adult cancer clinical trial group, NCIC CTG (previously the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group). Thus, Canada is the largest contributor to cooperative groups based in the United States, and vice versa. Although international collaborations have many benefits, they are most frequently utilized to enhance patient accrual to large phase III trials originating in the United States or Canada. Within the cooperative group setting, adequate attention has not been given to the study of cancers that are unique to countries outside the United States and Canada, such as those frequently associated with infections in Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Global collaborations are limited by a number of barriers, some of which are unique to the countries involved, while others are related to financial support and to US policies that restrict drug distribution outside the United States. This article serves to detail the cooperative group experience in international research and describe how international collaboration in cancer clinical trials is a promising and important area that requires greater consideration in the future.

  10. Group Therapy with Senile Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoham, Harry; Neuschatz, Samuel

    1985-01-01

    Describes a group therapy program for nursing home residents suffering from senile dementia which concentrates on techniques that help individuals with impaired communication to interrelate successfully. Principles of ego-supportive group therapy sessions are discussed. A case study is included. (NRB)

  11. The Globalization of Cooperative Groups

    PubMed Central

    Valdivieso, Manuel; Corn, Benjamin W.; Dancey, Janet E.; Wickerham, D. Lawrence; Horvath, L. Elise; Perez, Edith A.; Urton, Alison; Cronin, Walter M.; Field, Erica; Lackey, Evonne; Blanke, Charles D.

    2015-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute-supported adult cooperative oncology research groups (now officially Network groups) have a long-standing history of participating in international collaborations throughout the world. Most frequently, the U.S. based cooperative groups work reciprocally with the Canadian national adult cancer clinical trial group, NCIC CTG (previously the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group). Thus, Canada is the largest contributor to cooperative groups based in the U.S., and vice versa. Although international collaborations have many benefits, they are most frequently utilized to enhance patient accrual to large phase III trials originating in the U.S. or Canada. Within the cooperative group setting, adequate attention has not been given to the study of cancers that are unique to countries outside the U.S. and Canada, such as those frequently associated with infections in Latin America, Asia and Africa. Global collaborations are limited by a number of barriers, some of which are unique to the countries involved, while others are related to financial support and to U.S. policies that restrict drug distribution outside the U.S. This manuscript serves to detail the cooperative group experience in international research and describe how international collaboration in cancer clinical trials is a promising and important area that requires greater consideration in the future. PMID:26433551

  12. Play and Positive Group Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Pam; White, Samantha

    2010-01-01

    Play is an important part of a child's life and essential to learning and development (Vygotsky, 1978). It is vital that students participate in play and that play be conducted in a restorative manner. Play allows a variety of group dynamics to emerge. Irvin Yalom (1995) identifies 11 curative factors of the group experience. These factors include…

  13. Helping a Learning Group Mature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Jerry

    The ultimate goal of a learning group is to help learners achieve their goals and objectives and to help them learn to live in a rapidly changing and evolving society. Within the context of social change, the author examines how internal dynamics can be used to aid a teacher in developing an effective learning group. Drawing from psychology,…

  14. H-deficient blood groups of Reunion island. II. Differences between Indians (Bombay Phenotype) and whites (Reunion phenotype).

    PubMed

    Le Pendu, J; Gerard, G; Vitrac, D; Juszczak, G; Liberge, G; Rouger, P; Salmon, C; Lambert, F; Dalix, A M; Oriol, R

    1983-05-01

    Two variants of recessive, H-deficient nonsecretor individuals (h/h, se/se) were identified on Reunion Island: (1) H-negative individuals corresponding to the classical Bombay phenotypes (OhO, OhA, OhB, OhAB) who lack completely the H antigen on their red cells; all of them were Indian and had strong anti-H antibodies reacting with normal O and Oh red cells from whites; and (2) H-weak individuals (Oh, Ah, Bh, ABh). This phenotype represented the majority (85%) of the H-deficient phenotypes on Reunion Island, and all of them were white. They had only a weak expression of the H antigen and showed small but detectable amounts of ABH antigens on their red cells. Their anti-H antibodies reacted with normal O erythrocytes, but failed to react with Oh red cells, regardless of the ethnic origin of the donor. They were all from the same geographical area on the Island (Cilaos) and showed homogeneous titers of anti-H antibodies in sera. We propose to call this particular variant of weak H phenotype, belonging to the so-called para-Bombay series, Reunion.

  15. A survey of blood groups.

    PubMed

    Afzal, M; Ziaur-Rehman; Hussain, F; Siddiqi, R

    1977-11-01

    A survey was conducted to investigate into the frequency of different blood groups in Punjab. A total of 1415 persons were included in this survey. The slide method was used for determination of ABO and AB blood groups as well as Rh factor. The frequency of blood group A was 21.20%; B, 36.16%; AB, 9.05% and O, 34.14%. Distribution of blood groups among various castes revealed the incidence of blood group A, 13.57% to 30%; B, 28.125% to 50%; O, 16.67% to 40%; and AB, zero to 25%. Only 2.76% cases were found to be Rh negative. Rh negative frequency was much higher in Baluchs, Awans and Gujjars than Rajputs, Jats and Arains.

  16. The hypothesis on function of glycosphingolipids and ABO blood groups revisited.

    PubMed

    Kościelak, Jerzy

    2012-06-01

    Twenty-five years ago the author proposed new ideas of glycoprotein (GPs) and glycosphingolipid (GSLs) functions at the cell membrane. The GPs, apart from their glycan carrying capacity, were assumed to have specific, protein associated, functions. In contrast, GSLs such as those of globo and neolacto/lacto series, were considered to be energetically cheap membrane packing substances, filling in membrane spaces not covered with functional GPs. The terminal carbohydrate structures of the neolacto/lacto GSLs, i.e., sialic acid residues and ABH glycotopes, were postulated to have either regulatory or protective functions, respectively. A special active role was ascribed to terminal β-galactosyl residues of GSLs and GPs. Gangliosides were considered to be functional GSLs. In the present review the author discusses these old ideas in context of the contemporary knowledge and comes to the conclusion that they have not aged.

  17. Small group discussion: Students perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Annamalai, Nachal; Manivel, Rajajeyakumar; Palanisamy, Rajendran

    2015-01-01

    Context: Various alternative methods are being used in many medical colleges to reinforce didactic lectures in physiology. Small group teaching can take on a variety of different tasks such as problem-solving, role play, discussions, brainstorming, and debate. Research has demonstrated that group discussion promotes greater synthesis and retention of materials. Aims: The aims of this study were to adopt a problem-solving approach by relating basic sciences with the clinical scenario through self-learning. To develop soft skills, to understand principles of group dynamics, and adopt a new teaching learning methodology. Subjects and Methods: Experimental study design was conducted in Phase I 1st year medical students of 2014–2015 batch (n = 120). On the day of the session, the students were grouped into small groups (15 each). The session started with the facilitator starting off the discussion. Feedback forms from five students in each group was taken (n = 40). A five point Likert scale was used ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 21.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp. Results: Our results show that 70% of the students opined that small group discussion were interactive, friendly, innovative, built interaction between teacher and student. Small group discussion increased their thought process and helped them in better communication. Conclusions: The small group discussion was interactive, friendly, and bridged the gap between the teacher and student. The student's communication skills are also improved. In conclusion, small group discussion is more effective than the traditional teaching methods. PMID:26380202

  18. Identification of a novel cellular target and a co-factor for norovirus infection - B cells & commensal bacteria.

    PubMed

    Karst, Stephanie M

    2015-07-01

    Human noroviruses are a leading cause of gastroenteritis worldwide but research on these important enteric pathogens has long been restricted by their uncultivability. Extensive efforts to infect intestinal epithelial cells with murine and human noroviruses in vitro have been thus far unsuccessful while murine noroviruses efficiently and lytically infect innate immune cells including macrophages and dendritic cells. We have recently discovered that murine and human noroviruses infect B cells in vitro. The nature of B cell infection was distinct from innate immune cell infection in that mature B cells were infected noncytopathically in contrast to the lytic infection of macrophages and dendritic cells. Human norovirus infection of B cells was facilitated by commensal bacteria expressing an appropriate histo-blood group antigen. Importantly, we used the mouse model of norovirus infection to confirm that Peyer's patch B cells are infected, and that commensal bacteria stimulate infection, in vivo.

  19. Host-pathogen co-evolution and glycan interactions.

    PubMed

    Le Pendu, Jacques; Nyström, Kristina; Ruvoën-Clouet, Nathalie

    2014-08-01

    Noroviruses and rotavirus A bind to polymorphic glycans of the histo-blood group type (HBGAs). Norovirus strains that bind to HBGAs can collectively infect all humans but each strain only infects a subgroup of the population, suggesting a past co-evolution that led to a trade-off where the human population is partly protected whilst the virus circulation is maintained. We termed 'Herd Innate Protection' the host species partial protection provided by the HBGAs polymorphism. Given its recent emergence, high virulence and HBGAs attachment, RHDV provides a model for studying calicivirus-host co-evolution. Field observations documented evolution of the virus ability to recognize the host HBGAs diversity and reciprocal strain-dependent selection of HBGA phenotypes following outbreaks, indicating host-pathogen co-evolution involving glycan polymorphisms.

  20. Ultrastructural localization of glycodelin oligosaccharides Le-x and Le-y in human seminal vesicles by immunogold staining

    PubMed Central

    Piludu, M; Cossu, M; De Lisa, A; Piras, M; Lantini, M S

    2007-01-01

    Histo-blood group antigens Le-x and Le-y are oligosaccharidic terminals that characterize many glycoproteins in the human tissues. In seminal plasma, they are expressed as part of the so-called glycodelin S, which is suggested to regulate sperm capacitation/decapacitation. It has recently been demonstrated that the core protein of glycodelin S is secreted by seminal vesicles. Here we show that epithelial cells of human seminal vesicles also release the Le-x and Le-y antigens. The presence of these substances in secretory material was revealed by means of an immunogold staining method in normal surgical samples. The results suggest that glycodelin S is secreted by seminal vesicles in its finished glycosylated form. Moreover, antigen reactivity was also revealed associated with plasma membranes. PMID:17331183

  1. EPRI Nuclear Power Group`s Instrumentation and Control Program

    SciTech Connect

    Machiels, A.J.

    1995-03-01

    EPRI`s Nuclear Power Group`s Instrumentation and Control Program is outlined. The topics discussed include an introduction, I and C obsolescence cost control initiative, and EPRI as a strategic partner. The cost control initiative included a multiyear effort to assist utilities in planning, implementing, and licensing digital instrumentation and control upgrades in nuclear power plants; the approach is intended to be pragmatic and flexible; and active utility participation is anticipated through tailored-collaboration-funded plant demonstrations.

  2. Third group cohomology and gerbes over Lie groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickelsson, Jouko; Wagner, Stefan

    2016-10-01

    The topological classification of gerbes, as principal bundles with the structure group the projective unitary group of a complex Hilbert space, over a topological space H is given by the third cohomology H3(H , Z) . When H is a topological group the integral cohomology is often related to a locally continuous (or in the case of a Lie group, locally smooth) third group cohomology of H. We shall study in more detail this relation in the case of a group extension 1 → N → G → H → 1 when the gerbe is defined by an abelian extension 1 → A → N ˆ → N → 1 of N. In particular, when Hs1 (N , A) vanishes we shall construct a transgression map Hs2 (N , A) → Hs3 (H ,AN) , where AN is the subgroup of N-invariants in A and the subscript s denotes the locally smooth cohomology. Examples of this relation appear in gauge theory which are discussed in the paper.

  3. Bayesian hierarchical grouping: Perceptual grouping as mixture estimation.

    PubMed

    Froyen, Vicky; Feldman, Jacob; Singh, Manish

    2015-10-01

    We propose a novel framework for perceptual grouping based on the idea of mixture models, called Bayesian hierarchical grouping (BHG). In BHG, we assume that the configuration of image elements is generated by a mixture of distinct objects, each of which generates image elements according to some generative assumptions. Grouping, in this framework, means estimating the number and the parameters of the mixture components that generated the image, including estimating which image elements are "owned" by which objects. We present a tractable implementation of the framework, based on the hierarchical clustering approach of Heller and Ghahramani (2005). We illustrate it with examples drawn from a number of classical perceptual grouping problems, including dot clustering, contour integration, and part decomposition. Our approach yields an intuitive hierarchical representation of image elements, giving an explicit decomposition of the image into mixture components, along with estimates of the probability of various candidate decompositions. We show that BHG accounts well for a diverse range of empirical data drawn from the literature. Because BHG provides a principled quantification of the plausibility of grouping interpretations over a wide range of grouping problems, we argue that it provides an appealing unifying account of the elusive Gestalt notion of Prägnanz.

  4. Bayesian Hierarchical Grouping: perceptual grouping as mixture estimation

    PubMed Central

    Froyen, Vicky; Feldman, Jacob; Singh, Manish

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel framework for perceptual grouping based on the idea of mixture models, called Bayesian Hierarchical Grouping (BHG). In BHG we assume that the configuration of image elements is generated by a mixture of distinct objects, each of which generates image elements according to some generative assumptions. Grouping, in this framework, means estimating the number and the parameters of the mixture components that generated the image, including estimating which image elements are “owned” by which objects. We present a tractable implementation of the framework, based on the hierarchical clustering approach of Heller and Ghahramani (2005). We illustrate it with examples drawn from a number of classical perceptual grouping problems, including dot clustering, contour integration, and part decomposition. Our approach yields an intuitive hierarchical representation of image elements, giving an explicit decomposition of the image into mixture components, along with estimates of the probability of various candidate decompositions. We show that BHG accounts well for a diverse range of empirical data drawn from the literature. Because BHG provides a principled quantification of the plausibility of grouping interpretations over a wide range of grouping problems, we argue that it provides an appealing unifying account of the elusive Gestalt notion of Prägnanz. PMID:26322548

  5. Diamines Containing Pendent Phenylethynyl Groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Controlled molecular weight imide oligomers and co-oligomers containing pendent phenylethynyl groups (PEPIs) and endcapped with nonreactive or phenylethynyl groups have been prepared by the cyclodehydration of the precursor amide acid oligomers or co-oligomers containing pendent phenylethynyl groups and endcapped with nonreactive or phenylethynyl groups. The amine terminated amide acid oligomers or co-oligomers are prepared from the reaction of dianhydride(s) with an excess of diamine(s) and diamine containing pendent phenylethynyl groups and subsequently endcapped with a phenylethynyl phthalic anhydride or monofunctional anhydride. The anhydride terminated amide acid oligomers and co-oligomers are prepared from the reaction of diamine(s) and diamine containing pendent phenylethynyl group(s) with an excess of dianhydride(s) and subsequently endcapped with a phenylethynyl amine or monofunctional amine. The polymerizations are carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as and N,N-dimethylacetamide under nitrogen at room temperature. The amide acid oligomers or co-oligomers are subsequently cyclodehydrated either thermally or chemically to the corresponding imide oligomers. The polymers and copolymers prepared from these materials exhibit a unique and unexpected combination of properties that includes higher glass transition temperatures after curing and higher retention of neat resin, adhesive and carbon fiber reinforced mechanical properties at temperatures up to 204 C under wet conditions without sacrificing melt flow behavior and processability as compared to similar materials. These materials are useful as adhesives, coatings, films, moldings, and composite matrices.

  6. Merged Group Tractography Evaluation with Selective Automated Group Integrated Tractography

    PubMed Central

    Chen, David Q.; Zhong, Jidan; Hayes, David J.; Behan, Brendan; Walker, Matthew; Hung, Peter S.-P.; Hodaie, Mojgan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Tractography analysis in group-based studies across large populations has been difficult to implement. We propose Selective Automated Group Integrated Tractography (SAGIT), an automated group tractography software platform that incorporates multiple diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) practices which will allow great accessibility to group-wise dMRI. We use a merged tractography approach that permits evaluation of tractography datasets at the group level. We also introduce an image normalized overlap score (NOS) that measures the quality of the group tractography results. We deploy SAGIT to evaluate deterministic and probabilistic constrained spherical deconvolution (CSTdet, CSTprob) tractography, eXtended Streamline Tractography (XST), and diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) in their ability to delineate different neuroanatomy, as well as validating NOS across these different brain regions. Materials and methods: Magnetic resonance sequences were acquired from 42 healthy adults. Anatomical and group registrations were performed using Automated Normalization Tools. Cortical segmentation was performed using FreeSurfer. Four tractography algorithms were used to delineate six sets of neuroanatomy: fornix, facial/vestibular-cochlear cranial nerve complex, vagus nerve, rubral–cerebellar decussation, optic radiation, and auditory radiation. The tracts were generated both with and without region of interest filters. The generated visual reports were then evaluated by five neuroscientists. Results: At a group level, merged tractography demonstrated that different methods have different fiber distribution characteristics. CSTprob is prone to false-positives, and thereby suitable in anatomy with strong priors. CSTdet and XST are more conservative, but have greater difficulty resolving hemispherical decussation and distant crossing projections. DTT consistently shows the worst reproducibility across the anatomies. Linear regression of rater scores

  7. Metabolomics and Epidemiology Working Group

    Cancer.gov

    The Metabolomics and Epidemiology (MetEpi) Working Group promotes metabolomics analyses in population-based studies, as well as advancement in the field of metabolomics for broader biomedical and public health research.

  8. Report of Industry Panel Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallimore, Simon; Gier, Jochen; Heitland, Greg; Povinelli, Louis; Sharma, Om; VandeWall, Allen

    2006-01-01

    A final report is presented from the industry panel group. The contents include: 1) General comments; 2) Positive progress since Minnowbrook IV; 3) Industry panel outcome; 4) Prioritized turbine projects; 5) Prioritized compressor projects; and 6) Miscellaneous.

  9. A service dog in group.

    PubMed

    Rothberg, Brian; Collins, Emily

    2015-04-01

    Service dogs are sanctioned by the Americans with Disabilities Act as having protected rights allowing them to assist owners with disabilities. These dogs are appearing with increasing frequency in healthcare settings, and it is important for healthcare providers to understand the rules and regulations given to service animals and owners. We discuss processes that transpired when a service dog was brought into a psychodynamic psychotherapy group. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the unintended consequences of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 2010 as it concerns service dogs and the impact on the group process. Problems resulting from the introduction of service dogs into therapy groups should be anticipated and explicitly discussed in the course of the group's transactions.

  10. On extending actions of groups

    SciTech Connect

    Ageev, Sergei M; Repovs, Dusan

    2010-02-28

    Problems of dense and closed extension of actions of compact transformation groups are solved. The method developed in the paper is applied to problems of extension of equivariant maps and of construction of equivariant compactifications. Bibliography: 27 titles.

  11. Groups of piecewise projective homeomorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Monod, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The group of piecewise projective homeomorphisms of the line provides straightforward torsion-free counterexamples to the so-called von Neumann conjecture. The examples are so simple that many additional properties can be established.

  12. Remainder Wheels and Group Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenton, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    Why should prospective elementary and high school teachers study group theory in college? This paper examines applications of abstract algebra to the familiar algorithm for converting fractions to repeating decimals, revealing ideas of surprising substance beneath an innocent facade.

  13. The Group Treatment of Bulimia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Harvey M.; Richman, Ann

    1984-01-01

    Bulimia has become an increasing problem in the college population. This article describes a group psychotherapeutic treatment approach to the problem. A theoretical formulation of the psychodynamics that may underlie the development of bulimia is offered. (Author/DF)

  14. Asymptotic invariants of homotopy groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manin, Fedor

    We study the homotopy groups of a finite CW complex X via constraints on the geometry of representatives of their elements. For example, one can measure the "size" of alpha ∈ pi n (X) by the optimal Lipschitz constant or volume of a representative. By comparing the geometrical structure thus obtained with the algebraic structure of the group, one can define functions such as growth and distortion in pin(X), analogously to the way that such functions are studied in asymptotic geometric group theory. We provide a number of examples and techniques for studying these invariants, with a special focus on spaces with few rational homotopy groups. Our main theorem characterizes those X in which all non-torsion homotopy classes are undistorted, that is, their volume distortion functions, and hence also their Lipschitz distortion functions, are linear.

  15. Group practices explore EDI options.

    PubMed

    McCormack, J

    1999-04-01

    Although physician groups have been relatively slow to take advantage of electronic commerce, more are discovering the benefits. Once group practice administrators get beyond their initial trepidation and realize that EDI is efficient, many are pleased with the results. And some are automating other transactions, including verifying patient eligibility for insurance coverage, gaining insurance authorization for referrals to specialists and checking the status of claims. PMID:10351309

  16. Fifteenth LAMPF users group meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, D.R.F.

    1982-03-01

    The Fifteenth LAMPF Users Group Meeting was held November 2-3, 1981 at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physical Facility. The program of papers scheduled to be presented was amended to include a Report from Washington by Clarence R. Richardson, US Department of Energy. The general meeting ended with a round-table working group discussion concerning the Planning for a Kaon Factory. Individual items from the meeting were prepared separately for the data base.

  17. Polyimides containing pendent siloxane groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Novel polyimides containing pendent siloxane groups (PISOX) were prepared by the reaction of functionalized siloxane compounds with hydroxy containing polyimides (PIOH). The pendent siloxane groups on the polyimide backbone offer distinct advantages such as lowering the dielectric constant and moisture resistance and enhanced atomic oxygen resistance. The siloxane containing polyimides are potentially useful as protective silicon oxide coatings and are useful for a variety of applications where atomic oxygen resistance is needed.

  18. LLNL Chemical Kinetics Modeling Group

    SciTech Connect

    Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Mehl, M; Herbinet, O; Curran, H J; Silke, E J

    2008-09-24

    The LLNL chemical kinetics modeling group has been responsible for much progress in the development of chemical kinetic models for practical fuels. The group began its work in the early 1970s, developing chemical kinetic models for methane, ethane, ethanol and halogenated inhibitors. Most recently, it has been developing chemical kinetic models for large n-alkanes, cycloalkanes, hexenes, and large methyl esters. These component models are needed to represent gasoline, diesel, jet, and oil-sand-derived fuels.

  19. Blue ellipticals in compact groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zepf, Stephen E.; Whitmore, Bradley C.

    1990-01-01

    By studying galaxies in compact groups, the authors examine the hypothesis that mergers of spiral galaxies make elliptical galaxies. The authors combine dynamical models of the merger-rich compact group environment with stellar evolution models and predict that roughly 15 percent of compact group ellipticals should be 0.15 mag bluer in B - R color than normal ellipticals. The published colors of these galaxies suggest the existence of this predicted blue population, but a normal distribution with large random errors can not be ruled out based on these data alone. However, the authors have new ultraviolet blue visual data which confirm the blue color of the two ellipticals with blue B - R colors for which they have their own colors. This confirmation of a population of blue ellipticals indicates that interactions are occurring in compact groups, but a blue color in one index alone does not require that these ellipticals are recent products of the merger of two spirals. The authors demonstrate how optical spectroscopy in the blue may distinguish between a true spiral + spiral merger and the swallowing of a gas-rich system by an already formed elliptical. The authors also show that the sum of the luminosity of the galaxies in each group is consistent with the hypothesis that the final stage in the evolution of compact group is an elliptical galaxy.

  20. Double groups and projective representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altmann, S. L.; Herzig, P.

    Some problems are discussed in relation to the usual treatment of improper groups through their double groups, in particular the identification (rather than the mere isomorphism) of such groups as C3v and D3. The enhancement of SU(2) by the addition of the inversion is analysed for this purpose. This requires a careful discussion of the behaviour of spinors under inversion and two types of spinors are defined, Cartan and Pauli spinors, that behave differently with respect to inversion, although it is shown that this difference merely entails a choice of gauge in the language of projective representations. A distinction is proposed between the inversion operation and the parity operator: when the former is realized as a binary rotation in 4-space, the latter can be identified with its infinitesimal generator. The passage from SO(3) to O(3) (group of all proper and improper rotations) is studied and a hitherto unknown faithful projective representations of O(3) is given. It is shown how spinor representations can be constructed for improper point groups in either the Cartan or Pauli gauges. A choice of gauge is proposed to ensure agreement with current practice in angular momentum theory and with that in single point groups. As an example, Clebsch-Gordan coefficients are constructed for C3v.

  1. Organizational citizenship behavior in work groups: a group norms approach.

    PubMed

    Ehrhart, Mark G; Naumann, Stefanie E

    2004-12-01

    Although the relationship between unit-level organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and unit outcomes has been well established in recent years, the conceptual development of OCB at the unit level of analysis has not been adequately addressed. In an effort to fill this conceptual gap and to spur future research, the authors apply the literature on group norms to the concept of OCB. The resulting framework suggests a cyclical relationship between individual- and group-level processes and ultimately offers an explanation for how OCB norms are established and maintained in work groups. The authors demonstrate how this framework incorporates past research on the relationship between unit-level OCB and unit outcomes and how it extends previous research by suggesting multiple directions for future efforts related to unit-level OCB.

  2. Intra-group Light in Hickson Compact Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Rocha, C.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.; Ziegler, B. L.

    We have analyzed the intra-group light component of 3 Hickson Compact Groups (HCG 79, HCG 88 and HCG 95) with detections in two of them: HCG 79, with 46±11% of the total B band luminosity and HCG 95 with 11±26%. HCG 88 had no component detected. This component is presumably due to tidally stripped stellar material trapped in the group potential and represents an efficient tool to determine the stage of dynamical evolution and to map its gravitational potential. To detect this low surface brightness structure we have applied the wavelet technique OV_WAV, which separates the different components of the image according to their spatial characteristic sizes.

  3. A Fossil Group in Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Eric D.; Rappaport, Saul A.; McDonald, Michael; Bautz, Mark W.; Grant, Catherine E.; Veilleux, Sylvain

    2016-04-01

    In the current picture of hierarchical structure formation, galaxy groups play a vital role as the seeds from which large assemblies of matter form. Compact groups are also important environments in which to watch the fueling of star formation and AGN activity, as the conditions are ideal for galaxy-galaxy interactions. We have identified a galaxy system that may represent an intermediate or transition stage in group evolution. Shakhbazyan 1 (or SHK 1) is a remarkably compact collection of about ten massive, red-sequence galaxies within a region 100 kpc across. Several of these galaxies show signs of AGN activity, and new, deep optical observations with the Discovery Channel Telescope reveal an extended stellar envelope surrounding the galaxies. This envelope is much more extended than what would be expected from a superposition of normal galaxy envelopes, and it indicates a large amount of intra-group starlight, evidence that the galaxies in SHK 1 are dynamically interacting.We here present new Chandra spectral imaging observations of this unusual system that confirm the presence of an X-ray-emitting diffuse intra-group medium (IGM), with a temperature of 1.5 keV and X-ray luminosity of 1043 erg/s. Assuming hydrostatic equilibrium, the system is about 1/3 as massive as expected from the optical richness. In addition, three of the ten central galaxies exhibit signatures of X-ray AGN. The under-luminous IGM, high density of bright galaxies, and evidence for galaxy-galaxy interaction indicate that this system may be in a transition stage of galaxy merging, similar to that expected in the formation of a fossil group. Alternatively, SHK 1 may consist of multiple poor groups in the final stages of merging along our line of sight. We explore these scenarios and outline paths of future study for this enigmatic system.

  4. Pride, Shame, and Group Identification

    PubMed Central

    Salice, Alessandro; Montes Sánchez, Alba

    2016-01-01

    Self-conscious emotions such as shame and pride are emotions that typically focus on the self of the person who feels them. In other words, the intentional object of these emotions is assumed to be the subject that experiences them. Many reasons speak in its favor and yet this account seems to leave a question open: how to cash out those cases in which one genuinely feels ashamed or proud of what someone else does? This paper contends that such cases do not necessarily challenge the idea that shame and pride are about the emoting subject. Rather, we claim that some of the most paradigmatic scenarios of shame and pride induced by others can be accommodated by taking seriously the consideration that, in such cases, the subject “group-identifies” with the other. This is the idea that, in feeling these forms of shame or pride, the subject is conceiving of herself as a member of the same group as the subject acting shamefully or in an admirable way. In other words, these peculiar emotive responses are elicited in the subject insofar as, and to the extent that, she is (or sees herself as being) a member of a group – the group to which those who act shamefully or admirably also belong. By looking into the way in which the notion of group identification can allow for an account of hetero-induced shame and pride, this paper attempts to achieve a sort of mutual enlightenment that brings to light not only an important and generally neglected form of self-conscious emotions, but also relevant features of group identification. In particular, it generates evidence for the idea that group identification is a psychological process that the subject does not have to carry out intentionally in the sense that it is not necessarily triggered by the subject’s conative states like desires or intentions. PMID:27199797

  5. Unitary Representations of Gauge Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerfano, Ruth Stella

    I generalize to the case of gauge groups over non-trivial principal bundles representations that I. M. Gelfand, M. I. Graev and A. M. Versik constructed for current groups. The gauge group of the principal G-bundle P over M, (G a Lie group with an euclidean structure, M a compact, connected and oriented manifold), as the smooth sections of the associated group bundle is presented and studied in chapter I. Chapter II describes the symmetric algebra associated to a Hilbert space, its Hilbert structure, a convenient exponential and a total set that later play a key role in the construction of the representation. Chapter III is concerned with the calculus needed to make the space of Lie algebra valued 1-forms a Gaussian L^2-space. This is accomplished by studying general projective systems of finitely measurable spaces and the corresponding systems of sigma -additive measures, all of these leading to the description of a promeasure, a concept modeled after Bourbaki and classical measure theory. In the case of a locally convex vector space E, the corresponding Fourier transform, family of characters and the existence of a promeasure for every quadratic form on E^' are established, so the Gaussian L^2-space associated to a real Hilbert space is constructed. Chapter III finishes by exhibiting the explicit Hilbert space isomorphism between the Gaussian L ^2-space associated to a real Hilbert space and the complexification of its symmetric algebra. In chapter IV taking as a Hilbert space H the L^2-space of the Lie algebra valued 1-forms on P, the gauge group acts on the motion group of H defining in an straight forward fashion the representation desired.

  6. Pride, Shame, and Group Identification.

    PubMed

    Salice, Alessandro; Montes Sánchez, Alba

    2016-01-01

    Self-conscious emotions such as shame and pride are emotions that typically focus on the self of the person who feels them. In other words, the intentional object of these emotions is assumed to be the subject that experiences them. Many reasons speak in its favor and yet this account seems to leave a question open: how to cash out those cases in which one genuinely feels ashamed or proud of what someone else does? This paper contends that such cases do not necessarily challenge the idea that shame and pride are about the emoting subject. Rather, we claim that some of the most paradigmatic scenarios of shame and pride induced by others can be accommodated by taking seriously the consideration that, in such cases, the subject "group-identifies" with the other. This is the idea that, in feeling these forms of shame or pride, the subject is conceiving of herself as a member of the same group as the subject acting shamefully or in an admirable way. In other words, these peculiar emotive responses are elicited in the subject insofar as, and to the extent that, she is (or sees herself as being) a member of a group - the group to which those who act shamefully or admirably also belong. By looking into the way in which the notion of group identification can allow for an account of hetero-induced shame and pride, this paper attempts to achieve a sort of mutual enlightenment that brings to light not only an important and generally neglected form of self-conscious emotions, but also relevant features of group identification. In particular, it generates evidence for the idea that group identification is a psychological process that the subject does not have to carry out intentionally in the sense that it is not necessarily triggered by the subject's conative states like desires or intentions. PMID:27199797

  7. The Effects of Music and Group Stage on Group Leader and Member Behavior in Psychoeducational Groups for Children of Divorce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cercone, Kristin; DeLucia-Waack, Janice

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of music and group stage on group process and group leader and member behavior within 8-week psychoeducational groups for children of divorce. Audiotapes of group sessions were rated using the Interactional Process Analysis and the Group Sessions Ratings Scale. Both treatment groups were very similar in terms of…

  8. The anatomy of group dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hayes, David F

    2014-04-01

    The dysfunction of the radiology group has 2 components: (1) the thinking component-the governance structure of the radiology group; how we manage the group; and (2) the structural component-the group's business model and its conflict with the partner's personal business model. Of the 2 components, governance is more important. Governance must be structured on classic, immutable business management principles. The structural component, the business model, is not immutable. In fact, it must continually change in response to the marketplace. Changes in the business model should occur only if demanded or permitted by the marketplace; instituting changes for other reasons, including personal interests or deficient knowledge of the deciders, is fundamentally contrary to the long-term interests of the group and its owners. First, we must learn basic business management concepts to appreciate the function and necessity of standard business models and standard business governance. Peter Drucker's The Effective Executive is an excellent primer on the subjects of standard business practices and the importance of a functional, authorized, and fully accountable chief executive officer.

  9. Topological Insulators from Group Cohomology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandradinata, A.; Wang, Zhijun; Bernevig, B. Andrei

    2016-04-01

    We classify insulators by generalized symmetries that combine space-time transformations with quasimomentum translations. Our group-cohomological classification generalizes the nonsymmorphic space groups, which extend point groups by real-space translations; i.e., nonsymmorphic symmetries unavoidably translate the spatial origin by a fraction of the lattice period. Here, we further extend nonsymmorphic groups by reciprocal translations, thus placing real and quasimomentum space on equal footing. We propose that group cohomology provides a symmetry-based classification of quasimomentum manifolds, which in turn determines the band topology. In this sense, cohomology underlies band topology. Our claim is exemplified by the first theory of time-reversal-invariant insulators with nonsymmorphic spatial symmetries. These insulators may be described as "piecewise topological," in the sense that subtopologies describe the different high-symmetry submanifolds of the Brillouin zone, and the various subtopologies must be pieced together to form a globally consistent topology. The subtopologies that we discover include a glide-symmetric analog of the quantum spin Hall effect, an hourglass-flow topology (exemplified by our recently proposed KHgSb material class), and quantized non-Abelian polarizations. Our cohomological classification results in an atypical bulk-boundary correspondence for our topological insulators.

  10. Interagency Advanced Power Group Steering Group meeting minutes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-18

    This document contains presentation overviews and viewgraphs from a meeting military personnel on the subject of power generation and distribution systems for military applications. Mission analysis and directional plans were given for each working group (chemical, mechanical, electrical, nuclear, solar and systems). Attendees represented the US Air Force, Army, Navy, and NASA.

  11. Group Therapy with Multiple Therapists in A Large Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herschleman, Philip; Freundlich, David

    The utilization of multiple therapists in large group therapy meetings has been found to be a significant improvement over the traditional ward meeting or patient-staff conference. The initially limited goals of reducing ward tension and acting out by means of patients ventilation were surpassed. Despite the size of the meetings it was often…

  12. Group Chaos Theory: A Metaphor and Model for Group Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, Edil Torres; Wilbur, Michael; Frank-Saraceni, James; Roberts-Wilbur, Janice; Phan, Loan T.; Garrett, Michael T.

    2005-01-01

    Group phenomena and interactions are described through the use of the chaos theory constructs and characteristics of sensitive dependence on initial conditions, phase space, turbulence, emergence, self-organization, dissipation, iteration, bifurcation, and attractors and fractals. These constructs and theoretical tenets are presented as applicable…

  13. Girls' Groups and Boys' Groups at a Municipal Technology Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salminen-Karlsson, Minna

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the Swedish initiative of municipal technology centres from a gender point of view. These centres provide after-school technology education for children aged 6-16. By means of an ethnographic study, the effects of the use of single-sex groups in increasing the interest of girls and boys in technical activities have been…

  14. Polyimides with pendant alkyl groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, B. J.; Young, P. R.

    1982-01-01

    The effect on selected polyimide properties when pendant alkyl groups were attached to the polymer backbone was investigated. A series of polymers were prepared using benzophenone tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride (BTDA) and seven different p-alkyl-m,p'-diaminobenzophenone monomers. The alkyl groups varied in length from C(1) (methyl) to C(9) (nonyl). The polyimide prepared from BTDA and m,p'-diaminobenzophenone was included as a control. All polymers were characterized by various chromatographic, spectroscopic, thermal, and mechanical techniques. Increasing the length of the pendant alkyl group resulted in a systematic decrease in glass transition temperature (Tg) for vacuum cured films. A 70 C decrease in Tg to 193 C was observed for the nonyl polymer compared to the Tg for the control. A corresponding systematic increase in Tg indicative of crosslinking, was observed for air cured films. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed a slight sacrifice in thermal stability with increasing alkyl length. No improvement in film toughness was observed.

  15. CFCC working group meeting: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    This report is a compilation of the vugraphs presented at this meeting. Presentations covered are: CFCC Working Group; Overview of study on applications for advanced ceramics in industries for the future; Design codes and data bases: The CFCC program and its involvement in ASTM, ISO, ASME, and military handbook 17 activities; CFCC Working Group meeting (McDermott Technology); CFCC Working Group meeting (Textron); CFCC program for DMO materials; Developments in PIP-derived CFCCs; Toughened Silcomp (SiC-Si) composites for gas turbine engine applications; CFCC program for CVI materials; Self-lubricating CFCCs for diesel engine applications; Overview of the CFCC program`s supporting technologies task; Life prediction methodologies for CFCC components; Environmental testing of CFCCs in combustion gas environments; High-temperature particle filtration ORNL/DCC CRADA; HSCT CMC combustor; and Case study -- CFCC shroud for industrial gas turbines.

  16. SEEDS Moving Group Status Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McElwain, Michael

    2011-01-01

    I will summarize the current status of the SEEDS Moving Group category and describe the importance of this sub-sample for the entire SEEDS survey. This presentation will include analysis of the sensitivity for the Moving Groups with general a comparison to other the other sub-categories. I will discuss the future impact of the Subaru SCExAO system for these targets and the advantage of using a specialized integral field spectrograph. Finally, I will present the impact of a pupil grid mask in order to produce fiducial spots in the focal plane that can be used for both photometry and astrometry.

  17. Symmetric spaces of exceptional groups

    SciTech Connect

    Boya, L. J.

    2010-02-15

    We address the problem of the reasons for the existence of 12 symmetric spaces with the exceptional Lie groups. The 1 + 2 cases for G{sub 2} and F{sub 4}, respectively, are easily explained from the octonionic nature of these groups. The 4 + 3 + 2 cases on the E{sub 6,7,8} series require the magic square of Freudenthal and, for the split case, an appeal to the supergravity chain in 5, 4, and 3 space-time dimensions.

  18. Existential issues in group psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Frankel, Bernard

    2002-04-01

    Existential issues in group psychotherapy derive from existential thought both as a philosophy and as a value system. Its origins derive from the weakening of traditional values and the growing alienation of man from himself. The unique features of existentialism can be applied to all forms of therapy. These features are universal to humankind. They are finiteness, aloneness, guilt, responsibility, and freedom. In including existential concerns as part of group psychotherapy, therapist and patients move more closely to bilateral relationships and subjective interactions. PMID:11928200

  19. Fossil groups of galaxies: Are they groups? Are they fossils?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupke, Renato de Alencar; Miller, Eric; de Oliveira, Claudia Mendes; Sodre, Laerte; Rykoff, Eli; de Oliveira, Raimundo Lopes; Proctor, Rob

    2010-11-01

    Fossil groups present a puzzle to current theories of structure formation. Despite the low number of bright galaxies, their high velocity dispersions and high TX indicate cluster-like potential wells. Measured concentration parameters seem very high indicating early formation epochs in contradiction with the observed lack of large and well defined cooling cores. There are very few fossil groups with good quality X-ray data and their idiosyncrasies may enhance these apparent contradictions. The standard explanation for their formation suggests that bright galaxies within half the virial radii of these systems were wiped out by cannibalism forming the central galaxy. Since dry mergers, typically invoked to explain the formation of the central galaxies, are not expected to change the IGM energetics significantly, thus not preventing the formation of cooling cores, we investigate the scenario where recent gaseous (wet) mergers formed the central galaxy injecting energy and changing the chemistry of the IGM in fossil groups. We show a test for this scenario using fossil groups with enough X-ray flux in the Chandra X-ray Observatory archive by looking at individual metal abundance ratio distributions near the core. Secondary SN II powered winds would tend to erase the dominance of SN IA ejecta in the core of these systems and would help to erase previously existing cold cores. Strong SN II-powered galactic winds resulting from galaxy merging would be trapped by their deep potential wells reducing the central enhancement of SN Ia/SN II iron mass fraction ratio. The results indicate that there is a decrement in the ratio of SN Ia to SN II iron mass fraction in the central regions of the systems analyzed, varying from 99±1% in the outer regions to 85±2% within the cooling radius (Figure 1) and would inject enough energy into the IGM preventing central gas cooling. The results are consistent with a scenario of later formation epoch for fossil groups, as they are defined

  20. Control systems on Lie groups.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurdjevic, V.; Sussmann, H. J.

    1972-01-01

    The controllability properties of systems which are described by an evolution equation in a Lie group are studied. The revelant Lie algebras induced by a right invariant system are singled out, and the basic properties of attainable sets are derived. The homogeneous case and the general case are studied, and results are interpreted in terms of controllability. Five examples are given.

  1. Project in Apartment Group Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riehman, Lynne; O'Brien, Carolyn F.

    1973-01-01

    After discharge from the hospital, many mental patients go back to the kind of environment that contributed to their breakdown. In the belief that new options should be available to mental patients when discharged, a hospital in New York City developed--with marked success--a plan for group living. (Author)

  2. TROPIX plasma interactions group report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herr, Joel L.; Chock, Ricaurte

    1993-01-01

    The purpose is to summarize the spacecraft charging analysis conducted by the plasma interactions group during the period from April 1993 to July 1993, on the proposed TROPIX spacecraft, and to make design recommendations which will limit the detrimental effects introduced by spacecraft charging. The recommendations were presented to the TROPIX study team at a Technical Review meeting held on 15 July 1993.

  3. Social Group Work in Hospitals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stambler, Moses

    This literature review focuses on social group work in the hospital setting. The first section addresses the need for a holistic approach within a typology of illness, and discusses the social work role and intervention tasks required at different stages of illness, i.e., diagnosis, adaptation to long-term illness, and the ending of the illness…

  4. The Disruptive Child's Play Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleck, Robert T.; Bleck, Bonnie L.

    1982-01-01

    Examined the effects of the Disruptive Child's Play Group (DCPG) on the self-concept of children with disruptive behavior problems. Results indicated that counselors using structured play can have positive effects on the attitudes of disruptive children. The DCPG significantly increased self-concept scores of disruptive children. (RC)

  5. Is cultural group selection enough?

    PubMed

    Read, Dwight

    2016-01-01

    Richerson et al. propose cultural group selection (CGS) as the basis for understanding the evolution of cultural systems. Their proposal does not take into account the nature of cultural idea systems as being constituted at an organizational, rather than an individual level. The sealing partners of the Netsilik Inuit exemplify the problem with their account. PMID:27562228

  6. Cluster Grouping Coast to Coast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuler, Patricia A.

    This paper discusses the results of a survey that investigated how 69 school districts associated with the National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented were implementing cluster grouping to meet the intellectual, social, and emotional needs of gifted students. Results from the survey indicate: (1) the majority of school districts did not…

  7. Tribimaximal mixing from small groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parattu, Krishna Mohan; Wingerter, Akın

    2011-07-01

    Current experimental data on the neutrino parameters are in good agreement with tribimaximal mixing and may indicate the presence of an underlying family symmetry. For 76 flavor groups, we perform a systematic scan for models: The particle content is that of the standard model plus up to three flavon fields, and the effective Lagrangian contains all terms of mass dimension ≤6. We find that 44 groups can accommodate models that are consistent with experiment at 3σ, and 38 groups can have models that are tribimaximal. For A4×Z3, T7, and T13 we look at correlations between the mixing angles and make a prediction for θ13 that will be testable in the near future. We present the details of a model with θ12=33.9°, θ23=40.9°, θ13=5.1° to show that the recent tentative hints of a nonzero θ13 can easily be accommodated. The smallest group for which we find tribimaximal mixing is T7. We argue that T7 and T13 are as suited to produce tribimaximal mixing as A4 and should therefore be considered on equal footing. In the appendixes, we present some new mathematical methods and results that may prove useful for future model building efforts.

  8. Establishing Rapport with Deviant Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berk, Richard A.; Adams, Joseph M.

    1970-01-01

    Techniques recommended for establishing and maintaining rapport with deviant groups focus on overcoming problems of social distance and mistrust. Although based on experience with juvenile delinquents and drug addicts, the suggestions made are held to offer potential for wider applicability. (RJ)

  9. Teaching Group Work on Teletechnet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Nina W.

    Many undergraduate courses can be easily modified for televised instruction. However, courses such as group work require weekly writing, have major expectations of practice, and necessitate immediate feedback, and so need considerable revamping for televised instruction. Ways to achieve this modification are covered here. The first consideration…

  10. The Anatomy of Small Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Harry A.

    1979-01-01

    Five studies on the advantages and disadvantages of small groups in teaching in higher education are discussed. These include works by M. L. Johnson Abercrombie; Barbara Cockburn and Alex Ross; M. L. J. Abercrombie and P. M. Terry; and Jean Rudduck. (JMF)

  11. Task Group 9 Update (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Bosco, N.

    2014-04-01

    This presentation is a brief update of IEC TC82 QA Task Force, Group 9. Presented is an outline of the recently submitted New Work Item Proposal (NWIP) for a Comparative Thermal Cycling Test for CPV Modules to Differentiate Thermal Fatigue Durability.

  12. SHOULD YOU FORM A GROUP?

    PubMed Central

    Porterfield, Chester; Marks, Geoffrey; Edgers, Barton

    1954-01-01

    In this discussion, greatest emphasis has been placed upon the personal factors involved, rather than upon the mechanical aspects of creating and maintaining a group, since it is the personal factors, the authors say, that are the most often overlooked. PMID:13150218

  13. Grouping through local, parallel interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proesmans, Marc; Van Gool, Luc J.; Oosterlinck, Andre J.

    1995-08-01

    This paper describes a new approach for computer based visual grouping. A number of computational principles are defined related to results on neurophysiological and psychophysical experiments. The grouping principles have been subdivided into two groups. The 'first-order processes' perform local operations on 'basic' features such as luminance, color, and orientation. 'Second-order processes' consider bilocal interactions (stereo, optical flow, texture, symmetry). The computational scheme developed in this paper relies on the solution of a set of nonlinear differential equations. They are referred to as 'coupled diffusion maps'. Such systems obey the prescribed computational principles. Several maps, corresponding to different features, evolve in parallel, while all computations within and between the maps are localized in a small neighborhood. Moreover, interactions between maps are bidirectional and retinotopically organized, features also underlying processing by the human visual system. Within this framework, new techniques are proposed and developed for e.g. the segmentation of oriented textures, stereo analysis, optical flow detection, etc. Experiments show that the underlying algorithms prove to be successful for first-order as well as second-order grouping processes and show the promising possiblities such a framework can offer for a large number of low-level vision tasks.

  14. The Joy of Reading Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwood, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Reading groups or book clubs have become increasingly popular in recent years, with many libraries, bookshops and workplaces hosting meetings, while a wealth of support is available online. They provide a chance to read, share opinions, chat and have fun--each one will be unique in how it works. Discussing books can help to reinforce, change or…

  15. Polyhedral Painting with Group Averaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farris, Frank A.; Tsao, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    The technique of "group-averaging" produces colorings of a sphere that have the symmetries of various polyhedra. The concepts are accessible at the undergraduate level, without being well-known in typical courses on algebra or geometry. The material makes an excellent discovery project, especially for students with some background in…

  16. Prior Distributions on Symmetric Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Jayanti; Damien, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Fully and partially ranked data arise in a variety of contexts. From a Bayesian perspective, attention has focused on distance-based models; in particular, the Mallows model and extensions thereof. In this paper, a class of prior distributions, the "Binary Tree," is developed on the symmetric group. The attractive features of the class are: it…

  17. Finite groups and quantum physics

    SciTech Connect

    Kornyak, V. V.

    2013-02-15

    Concepts of quantum theory are considered from the constructive 'finite' point of view. The introduction of a continuum or other actual infinities in physics destroys constructiveness without any need for them in describing empirical observations. It is shown that quantum behavior is a natural consequence of symmetries of dynamical systems. The underlying reason is that it is impossible in principle to trace the identity of indistinguishable objects in their evolution-only information about invariant statements and values concerning such objects is available. General mathematical arguments indicate that any quantum dynamics is reducible to a sequence of permutations. Quantum phenomena, such as interference, arise in invariant subspaces of permutation representations of the symmetry group of a dynamical system. Observable quantities can be expressed in terms of permutation invariants. It is shown that nonconstructive number systems, such as complex numbers, are not needed for describing quantum phenomena. It is sufficient to employ cyclotomic numbers-a minimal extension of natural numbers that is appropriate for quantum mechanics. The use of finite groups in physics, which underlies the present approach, has an additional motivation. Numerous experiments and observations in the particle physics suggest the importance of finite groups of relatively small orders in some fundamental processes. The origin of these groups is unclear within the currently accepted theories-in particular, within the Standard Model.

  18. Ability Grouping and Cooperative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1994

    This collection of articles is intended to demonstrate that there is solid research to justify both ability grouping and cooperative learning with gifted students and that each approach should be used judiciously to address particular student needs. Introductory material describes the philosophy and program policy of the Center for Talented Youth…

  19. Healthy Thinking: A Group Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, Janet N.; Carty, Laurie

    1994-01-01

    A "Healthy Thinking" group, based on a modified Aaron Beck Cognitive Therapy model, teaches depressed clients to realistically appraise their experiences by monitoring and changing distorted thinking. Clients learn that situational stress activates long held assumptions (negative beliefs) leading to distorted thinking and ultimately depression.…

  20. Supporting Student Research Group Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopatin, Dennis E.

    1993-01-01

    This discussion describes methods that foster a healthy Student Research Group (SRG) and permits it to fulfill its responsibility in the development of the student researcher. The model used in the discussion is that of the University of Michigan School of Dentistry SRG. (GLR)

  1. Brucellosis in Occupationally Exposed Groups

    PubMed Central

    Sajjan, Annapurna G.; Mohite, Shivajirao T.; Gajul, Shivali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In India, high incidence of human brucellosis may be expected, as the conditions conducive for human brucellosis exist. Limited studies have been undertaken on human brucellosis especially in occupationally-exposed groups. Aim To estimate prevalence of anti-brucellar antibodies, evaluate the clinical manifestations, risk factors and Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) levels about brucellosis among occupationally exposed groups. Materials and Methods Blood samples were collected from 2337 occupationally exposed individuals. The serum samples were screened for the presence of anti-brucellar antibodies by Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT), Serum Agglutination Test (SAT) and 2-Mercaptoethanol test (2-ME). Clinical manifestations, risk factors and KAP levels were evaluated by personal interview using a structured questionnaire. Results Seroprevalence of brucellosis by RBPT, SAT and 2-ME test was 9.46%, 4.45% and 3.64 % respectively. Clinical symptoms resembling brucellosis were seen in 91 subjects. The major risk factors were animal exposure in veterinarians and abattoirs, both animal exposure and raw milk ingestion in farmers and shepherds, exposure to raw milk and its ingestion in dairy workers and exposure to Brucella culture in laboratory workers. Except laboratory workers, few veterinarians and dairy workers none had heard about brucellosis. KAP levels regarding brucellosis were too poor in all the groups except laboratory workers. Conclusion Brucellosis most of the times was missed or misdiagnosed. Regular screenings for brucellosis and awareness programmes to increase KAP levels are necessary to control brucellosis in occupationally exposed groups. PMID:27190804

  2. The perceived intentionality of groups.

    PubMed

    Bloom, P; Veres, C

    1999-05-01

    Heider and Simmel [Heider, F., Simmel, M., 1944. An experimental study of apparent behavior. American Journal of Psychology 57, 243-259] found that people spontaneously describe depictions of simple moving objects in terms of purposeful and intentional action. Not all intentional beings are objects, however, and people often attribute purposeful activity to non-object individuals such as countries, basketball teams, and families. This raises the question of whether the same effect found by Heider and Simmel would hold for non-object individuals such as groups. We replicate and extend the original study, using both objects and groups as stimuli, and introducing two control conditions with groups that are not engaged in structured movement. We found that under the condition that best promoted the attribution of intentionality, moving groups are viewed as purposeful and goal-directed entities to the same extent that moving objects are. These results suggest that the psychological distinction between the notion of 'intentional entity' and the notion of 'object' can be found even in the perception of moving geometrical figures.

  3. Collective motion in animal groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couzin, Iain

    2004-03-01

    In recent years there has been a growing interest in the relationship between individual behavior and population-level properties in animal groups. One of the fundamental problems is related to spatial scale; how do interactions over a local range result in population properties at larger, averaged, scales, and how can we integrate the properties of aggregates over these scales? Many group-living animals exhibit complex, and coordinated, spatio-temporal patterns which despite their ubiquity and ecological importance are very poorly understood. This is largely due to the difficulties associated with quantifying the motion of, and interactions among, many animals simultaneously. It is on how these behaviors scale to collective behaviors that I will focus here. Using a combined empirical approach (using novel computer vision techniques) and individual-based computer models, I investigate pattern formation in both invertebrate and vertebrate systems, including - Collective memory and self-organized group structure in vertebrate groups (Couzin, I.D., Krause, J., James, R., Ruxton, G.D. & Franks, N.R. (2002) Journal of Theoretical Biology 218, 1-11. (2) Couzin, I.D. & Krause, J. (2003) Advances in the Study of Behavior 32, 1-75. (3) Hoare, D.J., Couzin, I.D. Godin, J.-G. & Krause, J. (2003) Animal Behaviour, in press.) - Self-organized lane formation and optimized traffic flow in army ants (Couzin, I.D. & Franks, N.R. (2003) Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B 270, 139-146) - Leadership and information transfer in flocks, schools and swarms. - Why do hoppers hop? Hopping and the generation of long-range order in some of the largest animal groups in nature, locust hopper bands.

  4. Quantum groups: Geometry and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, C.S.

    1996-05-13

    The main theme of this thesis is a study of the geometry of quantum groups and quantum spaces, with the hope that they will be useful for the construction of quantum field theory with quantum group symmetry. The main tool used is the Faddeev-Reshetikhin-Takhtajan description of quantum groups. A few content-rich examples of quantum complex spaces with quantum group symmetry are treated in details. In chapter 1, the author reviews some of the basic concepts and notions for Hopf algebras and other background materials. In chapter 2, he studies the vector fields of quantum groups. A compact realization of these vector fields as pseudodifferential operators acting on the linear quantum spaces is given. In chapter 3, he describes the quantum sphere as a complex quantum manifold by means of a quantum stereographic projection. A covariant calculus is introduced. An interesting property of this calculus is the existence of a one-form realization of the exterior differential operator. The concept of a braided comodule is introduced and a braided algebra of quantum spheres is constructed. In chapter 4, the author considers the more general higher dimensional quantum complex projective spaces and the quantum Grassman manifolds. Differential calculus, integration and braiding can be introduced as in the one dimensional case. Finally, in chapter 5, he studies the framework of quantum principal bundle and construct the q-deformed Dirac monopole as a quantum principal bundle with a quantum sphere as the base and a U(1) with non-commutative calculus as the fiber. The first Chern class can be introduced and integrated to give the monopole charge.

  5. New Perspectives on Structured Life Education Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apgar, Kathryn; Coplon, Jennifer Kane

    1985-01-01

    Defines life education groups as educational, time-limited groups focusing on family and personal growth issues. Discusses the conceptual framework of the groups, the value of structure, prevention and intervention, and responding to the needs of diverse groups. (JAC)

  6. Collective cognition in animal groups.

    PubMed

    Couzin, Iain D

    2009-01-01

    The remarkable collective action of organisms such as swarming ants, schooling fish and flocking birds has long captivated the attention of artists, naturalists, philosophers and scientists. Despite a long history of scientific investigation, only now are we beginning to decipher the relationship between individuals and group-level properties. This interdisciplinary effort is beginning to reveal the underlying principles of collective decision-making in animal groups, demonstrating how social interactions, individual state, environmental modification and processes of informational amplification and decay can all play a part in tuning adaptive response. It is proposed that important commonalities exist with the understanding of neuronal processes and that much could be learned by considering collective animal behavior in the framework of cognitive science. PMID:19058992

  7. Conducting Research with Community Groups

    PubMed Central

    Doornbos, Mary Molewyk; Ayoola, Adejoke; Topp, Robert; Zandee, Gail Landheer

    2016-01-01

    Nurse scientists are increasingly recognizing the necessity of conducting research with community groups to effectively address complex health problems and successfully translate scientific advancements into the community. While several barriers to conducting research with community groups exist, community based participatory research (CBPR) has the potential to mitigate these barriers. CBPR has been employed in programs of research that respond in culturally sensitive ways to identify community needs and thereby address current health disparities. This manuscript presents case studies that demonstrate how CBPR principles guided the development of: (a) a healthy body weight program for urban, underserved African-American women, (b) a reproductive health educational intervention for urban, low-income, underserved, ethnically diverse women, and (c) a pilot anxiety/depression intervention for urban, low-income, underserved, ethnically diverse women. These case studies illustrate the potential of CBPR as an orientation to research that can be employed effectively in non-research intensive academic environments. PMID:25724557

  8. Parabolic curves in Lie groups

    SciTech Connect

    Pauley, Michael

    2010-05-15

    To interpolate a sequence of points in Euclidean space, parabolic splines can be used. These are curves which are piecewise quadratic. To interpolate between points in a (semi-)Riemannian manifold, we could look for curves such that the second covariant derivative of the velocity is zero. We call such curves Jupp and Kent quadratics or JK-quadratics because they are a special case of the cubic curves advocated by Jupp and Kent. When the manifold is a Lie group with bi-invariant metric, we can relate JK-quadratics to null Lie quadratics which arise from another interpolation problem. We solve JK-quadratics in the Lie groups SO(3) and SO(1,2) and in the sphere and hyperbolic plane, by relating them to the differential equation for a quantum harmonic oscillator00.

  9. Radiation sources working group summary

    SciTech Connect

    Fazio, M.V.

    1998-12-31

    The Radiation Sources Working Group addressed advanced concepts for the generation of RF energy to power advanced accelerators. The focus of the working group included advanced sources and technologies above 17 GHz. The topics discussed included RF sources above 17 GHz, pulse compression techniques to achieve extreme peak power levels, components technology, technology limitations and physical limits, and other advanced concepts. RF sources included gyroklystrons, magnicons, free-electron masers, two beam accelerators, and gyroharmonic and traveling wave devices. Technology components discussed included advanced cathodes and electron guns, high temperature superconductors for producing magnetic fields, RF breakdown physics and mitigation, and phenomena that impact source design such as fatigue in resonant structures due to RF heating. New approaches for RF source diagnostics located internal to the source were discussed for detecting plasma and beam phenomena existing in high energy density electrodynamic systems in order to help elucidate the reasons for performance limitations.

  10. SETI science working group report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, F.; Wolfe, J. H.; Seeger, C. L.

    1984-01-01

    This report covers the initial activities and deliberations of a continuing working group asked to assist the SETI Program Office at NASA. Seven chapters present the group's consensus on objectives, strategies, and plans for instrumental R&D and for a microwave search for extraterrestrial in intelligence (SETI) projected for the end of this decade. Thirteen appendixes reflect the views of their individual authors. Included are discussions of the 8-million-channel spectrum analyzer architecture and the proof-of-concept device under development; signal detection, recognition, and identification on-line in the presence of noise and radio interference; the 1-10 GHz sky survey and the 1-3 GHz targeted search envisaged; and the mutual interests of SETI and radio astronomy. The report ends with a selective, annotated SETI reading list of pro and contra SETI publications.

  11. Group identification and historical memory.

    PubMed

    Sahdra, Baljinder; Ross, Michael

    2007-03-01

    Differences in ingroup identification can influence the accessibility of historical memories. In Study 1, the authors examined individual differences in identity; in Study 2 they experimentally manipulated identity. In Study 1, high identifiers recalled fewer incidents of ingroup violence and hatred than did low identifiers. High and low identifiers did not differ in their recall of ingroup suffering. In Study 2, participants in the high-identity condition recalled fewer incidents of violence and hatred by members of their group than did those in the low-identity condition but a similar number of good deeds. Control participants recalled more positive than negative group actions; this bias was exaggerated in the high-identity condition and eliminated in the low-identity condition. The authors interpret the results as indicating the effects of social identity on individual-level memory processes, especially schema-consistent recall. They evaluate other explanations of the bias, including collective censorship of negative histories. PMID:17312319

  12. Faint dwarfs in nearby groups

    SciTech Connect

    Speller, Ryan; Taylor, James E. E-mail: taylor@uwaterloo.ca

    2014-06-20

    The number and distribution of dwarf satellite galaxies remain a critical test of cold dark matter-dominated structure formation on small scales. Until recently, observational information about galaxy formation on these scales has been limited mainly to the Local Group. We have searched for faint analogues of Local Group dwarfs around nearby bright galaxies, using a spatial clustering analysis of the photometric catalog of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8. Several other recent searches of SDSS have detected clustered satellite populations down to Δm{sub r} ≡ (m{sub r,} {sub sat} – m{sub r,} {sub main}) ∼ 6-8, using photometric redshifts to reduce background contamination. SDSS photometric redshifts are relatively imprecise, however, for faint and nearby galaxies. Instead, we use angular size to select potential nearby dwarfs and consider only the nearest isolated bright galaxies as primaries. As a result, we are able to detect an excess clustering signal from companions down to Δm{sub r} = 12, 4 mag fainter than most recent studies. We detect an overdensity of objects at separations <400 kpc, corresponding to about 4.6 ± 0.5 satellites per central galaxy, consistent with the satellite abundance expected from the Local Group, given our selection function. Although the sample of satellites detected is incomplete by construction, since it excludes the least and most compact dwarfs, this detection provides a lower bound on the average satellite luminosity function, down to luminosities corresponding to the faintest ''classical'' dwarfs of the Local Group.

  13. Visualization and Modeling Working Group

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, S.J.; Dodrill, K.A.

    2007-03-01

    During the 2005 Hurricane season, many consequence predictions were available from 36 to 96 hours before landfalls, via the Department of Energy’s Visualization and Modeling Working Group (VMWG). Real-time data can be tapped by local officials and utilities, and can also be accessed for post-event regulatory audits. An overview of VMWG’s models, results and uses will be presented.

  14. California Tsunami Policy Working Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Real, C. R.; Johnson, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    California has established a Tsunami Policy Working Group of specialists from government and industry, from diverse fields including tsunami, seismic, and flood hazards, local and regional planning, structural engineering, natural hazard policy, and coastal engineering that have come together to facilitate the development of policy recommendations for tsunami hazard mitigation. The group is acting on findings from two major efforts: the USGS SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) Project - Tsunami Scenario, a comprehensive impact analysis of a large credible tsunami originating from a M 9.0 earthquake on the Aleutian Islands striking California's Coastline, and the State's Tsunami Hazard Mitigation and Education Program carried out by the California Emergency Management Agency and the California Geological Survey. The latter program is currently involved with several projects to help coastal communities reduce their tsunami risk, including two pilot projects (Crescent City in Del Norte County and the City of Huntington Beach in Orange County) where tsunami risk is among the highest in California, and a third pilot study focusing on the maritime community. The pilot projects are developing and testing probabilistic tsunami hazard products that will assist land-use and construction decisions for coastal development. The role of the policy group is to identify gaps and issues in current tsunami hazard mitigation, make recommendations that will help eliminate these impediments and to provide advice that will assist in the development and implementation of effective tsunami hazard products that will help coastal communities improve tsunami resiliency.

  15. How Do Children Share Information in Groups?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gummerum, Michaela; Leman, Patrick J.; Hollins, Tara S.

    2014-01-01

    Group decision making should be particularly beneficial when group members share unique information, because then a group can make a better decision than each group member alone. This study examined how elementary-school children share unique information during group decision making. Seventy-nine groups of 3 same-sex and same-age 7- and 9-year-old…

  16. Stellar kinematic groups. I - The Ursa Major group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderblom, David R.; Mayor, Michel

    1993-01-01

    The Ursa Major Group (UMaG) is studied as a test case for the authenticity of Stellar Kinematic Groups, using Coravel radial velocities, recent compilations of astrometric data, and new spectroscopic observations. Spectroscopic age indicators, particularly indices of the strength of chromospheric emission, are applied to solar-type candidate members of UMaG, and it is shown that stars that meet the spectroscopic criteria also have kinematics that agree better with the space motions of the nucleus of UMaG than does the starting sample as a whole. The primary limitation on the precision of kinematics is now parallaxes instead of radial velocities. These more restrictive kinematic criteria are then applied to other UMaG candidates and a list summarizing membership is presented. UMaG is also examined as a cluster, confirming its traditional age of 0.3 Gyr, and a mean Fe/H of -0.08 +/- 0.09 for those stars most likely to be bona fide members.

  17. Carboxyl group participation in sulfate and sulfamate group transfer reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, A.; Williams, A.

    1982-04-23

    The pH dependence for the hydrolysis of N-(2-carboxyphenyl)sulfamic acid exhibits a plateau region corresponding to participation of the carboxyl function. A normal deuterium oxide solvent isotope effect indicates that proton transfer from the carboxylic acid is concerted with sulfamate group transfer to water. Hydrolysis of salicylic sulfate and N-(2-carboxyphenyl)sulfamate in /sup 18/O-enriched water yields salicylic acid and anthranilic acids with no enrichment, excluding catalysis by neighboring nucleophilic attack on sulfur by the carboxylate group. Intermolecular catalysis by carboxylic acids is demonstrated in the hydrolysis of N-(1-naphthyl)sulfamic acid; the mechanism is shown to involve preequilibrium protonation of the nitrogen followed by nucleophilic attack on sulfur by the carboxylate anion. Fast decomposition of the acyl sulfate completes the hydrolysis; this mechanism is considered to be the most efficient but is excluded in the intramolecular case which is constrained by the electronic requirements of displacement at the sulfur atom (6-ENDO-tet).

  18. Access grid: Immersive group-to-group collaborative visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Childers, L.; Disz, T.; Olson, R.; Papka, M. E.; Stevens, R.; Udeshi, T.

    2000-07-12

    Immersive projection displays have played an important role in enabling large-format virtual reality systems such as the CAVE and CAVE like devices and the various immersive desks and desktop-like displays. However, these devices have played a minor role so far in advancing the sense of immersion for conferencing systems. The Access Grid project led by Argonne is exploring the use of large-scale projection based systems as the basis for building room oriented collaboration and semi-immersive visualization systems. The authors believe these multi-projector systems will become common infrastructure in the future, largely based on their value for enabling group-to-group collaboration in an environment that can also support large-format projector based visualization. Creating a strong sense of immersion is an important goal for future collaboration technologies. Immersion in conferencing applications implies that the users can rely on natural sight and audio cues to facilitate interactions with participants at remote sites. The Access Grid is a low cost environment aimed primarily at supporting conferencing applications, but it also enables semi-immersive visualization and in particular, remote visualization. In this paper, they describe the current state of the Access Grid project and how it relates and compares to other environments. They also discuss augmentations to the Access Grid that will enable it to support more immersive visualizations. These enhancements include stereo, higher performance rendering support, tracking and non-uniform projection surface.

  19. Population groups in dietary transition

    PubMed Central

    Wändell, Per E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about the effects of dietary acculturation in minority groups in the Nordic countries, including immigrants from non-Western societies. Methods A search was performed in Medlin33e/PubMed and SweMed+ for articles published in 1990–2011. Results A total of 840 articles were identified, with a final 32 articles used to tabulate results which were included in the primary analysis. High rates of vitamin D deficiency (23 articles) were found in immigrants of non-Western origin; deficiency rates were very high among both pregnant and non-pregnant women, and also among children, with young children of immigrant parents showing 50 times higher risk for rickets when compared to children of indigenous parents. The risk of iron deficiency (two articles) was high among immigrant women, while the results were inconclusive regarding children. High rates of dental caries (seven articles) were found among pre-school and younger school children of immigrant origin, while the risk of caries was not as evident among older children. In a secondary analysis, including 48 articles (results not tabulated), overweight and obesity (14 articles) were seen in many immigrant groups, resulting in a high prevalence of diabetes (2 review articles from a total of 14 original articles) and incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD; seven articles). For hypertension (three articles), dyslipidemia (four articles), and dietary patterns among immigrants (10 articles), the results were contradictory. Conclusions Risk of vitamin D deficiency is alarmingly high in the Nordic countries among immigrants of non-Western origin, especially among women. Dental caries is high among immigrant children aged 0–7 years due to a higher intake of sugary products. Overweight and obesity, associated with a higher risk of diabetes and CHD, are prevalent in many immigrant groups and need further attention. PMID:24106456

  20. Stennis group receives NESC award

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Engineering & Safety Center recently presented its Group Achievement Award to a Stennis team in recognition of technical excellence in evaluating the operational anomalies and reliability improvements associated with the space shuttle engine cut-off system. Stennis employees receiving the award were: (standing, l to r) Freddie Douglas (NASA), George Drouant (Jacobs Technology Inc.), Fred Abell (Jacobs), Robert Drackett (Jacobs) and Mike Smiles (NASA); (seated, l to r): Binh Nguyen (Jacobs), Stennis Director Gene Goldman and Joseph Lacker (NASA). Phillip Hebert of NASA is not pictured.

  1. Renormalization group in internal space

    SciTech Connect

    Polonyi, J.; Sailer, K.

    2005-01-15

    Renormalization group in the internal space consists of the gradual change of the coupling constants. Functional evolution equations corresponding to the change of the mass or the coupling constant are presented in the framework of a scalar model. The evolution in the mass which yields the functional generalization of the Callan-Symanzik equation for the one-particle irreducible effective action is given in its renormalized, cutoff-independent form. The evolution of the coupling constant generates an evolution equation for the two-particle irreducible effective action.

  2. Online groups and patient forums.

    PubMed

    Dosani, Sabina; Harding, Claire; Wilson, Simon

    2014-11-01

    Online mental health support forums are becoming increasingly popular and there is evidence that they are useful: particularly for providing anonymous support and filling information gaps. However, there are also very real concerns about negative outcomes for users. One online mental health service, Big White Wall, manages these risks and supports its members through the provision of 24 hour professional moderation. Comparison of Big White Wall's member population with the population of one London borough shows a diverse user group, but members are more likely to be female, and aged 25 to 34, or unemployed. PMID:25273668

  3. Working group 1: Coronal streamers

    SciTech Connect

    Kopp, R.A.

    1994-04-01

    The working group on colonel streamers convened on the first day of the 2nd SOHO Workshop, which took place in Marciana Marina, Isola d`Elba, 27 September--1 October 1993. Recent progress in streamer observational techniques and theoretical modeling was reported. The contribution of streamers to the mass and energy supply for the solar wind was discussed. Moreover, the importance of thin electric current sheets for determining both the gross dynamical properties of streamers and the fine-scale filamentary structure within streamers, was strongly emphasized. Potential advances to our understanding of these areas of colonel physics that could be made by the contingent of instruments aboard SOHO were pointed out.

  4. When are emotions related to group-based appraisals? A comparison between group-based emotions and general group emotions.

    PubMed

    Kuppens, Toon; Yzerbyt, Vincent Y

    2014-12-01

    In the literature on emotions in intergroup relations, it is not always clear how exactly emotions are group-related. Here, we distinguish between emotions that involve appraisals of immediate group concerns (i.e., group-based emotions) and emotions that do not. Recently, general group emotions, measured by asking people how they feel "as a group member" but without specifying an object for these emotions, have been conceptualized as reflecting appraisals of group concerns. In contrast, we propose that general group emotions are best seen as emotions about belonging to a group. In two studies, general group emotions were closely related to emotions that are explicitly measured as belonging emotions. Two further studies showed that general group emotions were not related to appraisals of immediate group concerns, whereas group-based emotions were. We argue for more specificity regarding the group-level aspects of emotion that are tapped by emotion measures.

  5. Stand of other religious groups.

    PubMed

    Bernales, E H

    1980-01-01

    The views of heads and representatives of 5 major religious groups in the Philippines, other than the Catholic Church and the Muslims, are presented. The groups reviewed are the following: Protestants (United Methodist Church); Iglesia ni Cristo; the Philippine Independent Church (known as the Aglipayan Church); the Iglesia Watawat Ng Lahi; and Jehovah's Witnesses. The United Methodist Church recognizes the need to control population growth in the Philippines and accepts all methods of family planning for as long as they are medically safe and are administered with the couple's free consent. The United Methodist Church makes family planning information and services accessible to its members by means of community centers and medical clinics. A Christian sect, the Iglesia ni Cristo, approves of the different forms of birth control and is 1 of the major agencies involved in the national population programs. It operates mobile clinics that offer all forms of family planning services. The Philippine Independent Church strongly favors the different forms of birth control and has several family planning clinics operating in the Philippines. The Iglesia Watawat Ng Lahi, a minor sect, does not see anything wrong in the use of contraception and has been responsive to the national population program. The Jehovah's Witnesses, a Christian organization, believes that the Bible is the inspiring word of God or Jehovah. As the Bible does not directly discuss birth control, birth control has never been a subject of open discussion among its members. Personal decisions relating to procreation are left to the individual's conscience. PMID:12337598

  6. The Indian blood group system.

    PubMed

    Xu, Q

    2011-01-01

    The Indian blood group system (ISBT: IN/023) consists of two antithetical antigens: In(a) (IN1), which is present in approximately 10 percent of some Arab populations and in 3 percent of Bombay Indians, and its allelic antigen In(b) (IN2), an antigen of high incidence in all populations. In 2007, two new high-incidence antigens were identified as belonging to the IN blood group system, namely IN3 (INFI) and IN4 (INJA). The antigens in this system are located on CD44, a single-pass membrane glycoprotein that is encoded by the CD44 gene on chromosome 11 at position p13. The biologic function of CD44 is as a leukocyte homing receptor and cellular adhesion molecule. The In(a) and In(b) polymorphism represents a 252G>C substitution of CD44, encoding R46P, and lack of IN3 and IN4 results from homozygosity for mutations encoding H85Q and T163R in the CD44 gene. The high-frequency antigen AnWj (901009) has not been assigned to the Indian system, but either is located on an isoform of CD44 or is closely associated with it.

  7. Accelerator Physics Working Group Summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, D.; Uesugi, T.; Wildnerc, E.

    2010-03-01

    The Accelerator Physics Working Group addressed the worldwide R&D activities performed in support of future neutrino facilities. These studies cover R&D activities for Super Beam, Beta Beam and muon-based Neutrino Factory facilities. Beta Beam activities reported the important progress made, together with the research activity planned for the coming years. Discussion sessions were also organized jointly with other working groups in order to define common ground for the optimization of a future neutrino facility. Lessons learned from already operating neutrino facilities provide key information for the design of any future neutrino facility, and were also discussed in this meeting. Radiation damage, remote handling for equipment maintenance and exchange, and primary proton beam stability and monitoring were among the important subjects presented and discussed. Status reports for each of the facility subsystems were presented: proton drivers, targets, capture systems, and muon cooling and acceleration systems. The preferred scenario for each type of possible future facility was presented, together with the challenges and remaining issues. The baseline specification for the muon-based Neutrino Factory was reviewed and updated where required. This report will emphasize new results and ideas and discuss possible changes in the baseline scenarios of the facilities. A list of possible future steps is proposed that should be followed up at NuFact10.

  8. Medical student Dermatology Interest Groups.

    PubMed

    Jalalat, Sheila Z; Hunter-Ellul, Lindsey; Wagner, Richard F

    2013-01-01

    The Dermatology Interest Group (DIG) at the University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB) blog (digutmb.blogspot.com) was created in 2004 with the aims of increasing communication and collaboration among students, faculty, residents, and alumni, promoting educational opportunities, and fostering the missions for which DIG was created. This blog is unique, because its frequent activity is directed toward the educational and professional needs of medical students and residents. We assessed the use of this blog by evaluating the number of blog views and audience members with relationship to the number of posts and post content over time via a tracking system. We found that there has been an increase in blog posts, views, and subscribers, as well as in areas of post content including dermatology resources/news/articles, residency applications, and resident-related information. Usefulness of such posts expands beyond UTMB students, which increases blog views and widens viewer audience. An international viewer population also was evaluated. Recorded blog viewing time was 1 minute, 57 seconds, which is more time than needed to read a post, suggesting use of additional blog information. This review of the DIG at the UTMB blog demonstrates how the use of web-based tools, in addition to the inherent benefits of medical student interests groups, are valuable resources for students, residents, and faculty.

  9. Group Dynamics in Automatic Imitation

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Neil; Reddy, Geetha; Catmur, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Imitation–matching the configural body movements of another individual–plays a crucial part in social interaction. We investigated whether automatic imitation is not only influenced by who we imitate (ingroup vs. outgroup member) but also by the nature of an expected interaction situation (competitive vs. cooperative). In line with assumptions from Social Identity Theory), we predicted that both social group membership and the expected situation impact on the level of automatic imitation. We adopted a 2 (group membership target: ingroup, outgroup) x 2 (situation: cooperative, competitive) design. The dependent variable was the degree to which participants imitated the target in a reaction time automatic imitation task. 99 female students from two British Universities participated. We found a significant two-way interaction on the imitation effect. When interacting in expectation of cooperation, imitation was stronger for an ingroup target compared to an outgroup target. However, this was not the case in the competitive condition where imitation did not differ between ingroup and outgroup target. This demonstrates that the goal structure of an expected interaction will determine the extent to which intergroup relations influence imitation, supporting a social identity approach. PMID:27657926

  10. Medical student Dermatology Interest Groups.

    PubMed

    Jalalat, Sheila Z; Hunter-Ellul, Lindsey; Wagner, Richard F

    2013-01-01

    The Dermatology Interest Group (DIG) at the University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB) blog (digutmb.blogspot.com) was created in 2004 with the aims of increasing communication and collaboration among students, faculty, residents, and alumni, promoting educational opportunities, and fostering the missions for which DIG was created. This blog is unique, because its frequent activity is directed toward the educational and professional needs of medical students and residents. We assessed the use of this blog by evaluating the number of blog views and audience members with relationship to the number of posts and post content over time via a tracking system. We found that there has been an increase in blog posts, views, and subscribers, as well as in areas of post content including dermatology resources/news/articles, residency applications, and resident-related information. Usefulness of such posts expands beyond UTMB students, which increases blog views and widens viewer audience. An international viewer population also was evaluated. Recorded blog viewing time was 1 minute, 57 seconds, which is more time than needed to read a post, suggesting use of additional blog information. This review of the DIG at the UTMB blog demonstrates how the use of web-based tools, in addition to the inherent benefits of medical student interests groups, are valuable resources for students, residents, and faculty. PMID:24079594

  11. Mixed Waste Working Group report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-09

    The treatment of mixed waste remains one of this country`s most vexing environmental problems. Mixed waste is the combination of radioactive waste and hazardous waste, as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The Department of Energy (DOE), as the country`s largest mixed waste generator, responsible for 95 percent of the Nation`s mixed waste volume, is now required to address a strict set of milestones under the Federal Facility Compliance Act of 1992. DOE`s earlier failure to adequately address the storage and treatment issues associated with mixed waste has led to a significant backlog of temporarily stored waste, significant quantities of buried waste, limited permanent disposal options, and inadequate treatment solutions. Between May and November of 1993, the Mixed Waste Working Group brought together stakeholders from around the Nation. Scientists, citizens, entrepreneurs, and bureaucrats convened in a series of forums to chart a course for accelerated testing of innovative mixed waste technologies. For the first time, a wide range of stakeholders were asked to examine new technologies that, if given the chance to be tested and evaluated, offer the prospect for better, safer, cheaper, and faster solutions to the mixed waste problem. In a matter of months, the Working Group has managed to bridge a gap between science and perception, engineer and citizen, and has developed a shared program for testing new technologies.

  12. Cosmic Dawn Science Interest Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazio, T. Joseph W.; Cosmic Origins Program Analysis Group

    2016-01-01

    Cosmic Dawn was identified as one of the three science objectives for this decade in the _New Worlds, New Horizons_ Decadal report, and it will likely continue to be a research focus well into the next decade. Cosmic Dawn refers to the interval during which the Universe transitioned from a nearly completely neutral state back to a nearly fully ionized state and includes the time during which the first stars formed and the first galaxies assembled.The Cosmic Dawn Science Interest Group (SIG) was formed recently under the auspices of the Cosmic Origins Program Analysis Group (COPAG). The Cosmic Dawn SIG focusses on the science cases, observations, and technology development needed to address the "great mystery" of Cosmic Origins. The reach of this SIG is broad, involving the nature of the first stars and the detectability of gamma-ray bursts at high redshifts, the extent to which the first galaxies and first supermassive black holes grew together, and the technology required to pursue these questions.For further information, consult the Cosmic Dawn SIG Web site http://cd-sig.jpl.nasa.gov/ and join the mailing list (by contacting the author).Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  13. DOE Waste Treatability Group Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, T.D.

    1995-01-01

    This guidance presents a method and definitions for aggregating U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) waste into streams and treatability groups based on characteristic parameters that influence waste management technology needs. Adaptable to all DOE waste types (i.e., radioactive waste, hazardous waste, mixed waste, sanitary waste), the guidance establishes categories and definitions that reflect variations within the radiological, matrix (e.g., bulk physical/chemical form), and regulated contaminant characteristics of DOE waste. Beginning at the waste container level, the guidance presents a logical approach to implementing the characteristic parameter categories as part of the basis for defining waste streams and as the sole basis for assigning streams to treatability groups. Implementation of this guidance at each DOE site will facilitate the development of technically defined, site-specific waste stream data sets to support waste management planning and reporting activities. Consistent implementation at all of the sites will enable aggregation of the site-specific waste stream data sets into comparable national data sets to support these activities at a DOE complex-wide level.

  14. Return to Flight Task Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    It has been 29 months since Columbia was lost over East Texas in February 2003. Seven months after the accident, the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) released the first volume of its final report, citing a variety of technical, managerial, and cultural issues within NASA and the Space Shuttle Program. To their credit, NASA offered few excuses, embraced the report, and set about correcting the deficiencies noted by the accident board. Of the 29 recommendations issued by the CAIB, 15 were deemed critical enough that the accident board believed they should be implemented prior to returning the Space Shuttle to flight. Some of these recommendations were relatively easy, most were straightforward, a few bordered on the impossible, and others were largely overcome by events, particularly the decision by the President to retire the Space Shuttle by 2010. The Return to Flight Task Group (RTF TG, or simply, the Task Group) was chartered by the NASA Administrator in July 2003 to provide an independent assessment of the implementation of the 15 CAIB return-to-flight recommendations. An important observation must be stated up-front: neither the CAIB nor the RTF TG believes that all risk can be eliminated from Space Shuttle operations; nor do we believe that the Space Shuttle is inherently unsafe. What the CAIB and RTF TG do believe, however, is that NASA and the American public need to understand the risks associated with space travel, and that NASA must make every reasonable effort to minimize such risk. Since the release of the CAIB report, NASA and the Space Shuttle Program expended enormous effort and resources toward correcting the causes of the accident and preparing to fly again. Relative to the 15 specific recommendations that the CAIB indicated should be implemented prior to returning to flight, NASA has met or exceeded most of them the Task Group believes that NASA met the intent of the CAIB for 12 of these recommendations. The remaining three

  15. Focus groups reveal consumer ambivalence.

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    According to qualitative research, Salvadoreans are ambivalent about the use of contraceptives. Since complete responsibility for management of the CSM project was accepted by the Association Demografica Salvadorena (ADS), the agency which operates the contraceptive social marketing project in El Salvador, in November 1980, the need for decisions in such areas as product price increases, introduction of new condom brands, promotion of the vaginal foaming tablet, and assessment of product sales performance had arisen. The ICSMP funded market research, completed during 1983, was intended to provide the data on which such decisions by ADS could be based. The qualitative research involved 8 focus groups, comprised of men and women, aged 18-45, contraceptive users and nonusers, from the middle and lower socioeconomic strata of the city of San Salvador and other suburban areas. In each group a moderator led discussion of family planning and probed respondents for specific attitudes, knowledge, and behavior regarding the use of contraceptives. To assess attitudes at a more emotional level, moderators asked respondents to "draw" their ideas on certain issues. A marked discrepancy was revealed between respondents' intellectual responses to the issues raised in group discussion, as opposed to their feelings expressed in the drawings. Intellectually, participants responded very positively to family planning practice, but when they were asked to draw their perceptions, ambivalent feelings emerged. Drawings of both the user and the nonuser convey primarily negative aspects for either choice. The user is tense and moody toward her children; the nonuser loses her attractiveness and "dies." Figures also show drawings of some of the attitudes of single and married male participants. 1 drawing shows an incomplete and a complete circle, symbolizing a sterilized man (incomplete) and a nonsterilized man (complete). Another picture depicts a chained man who has lost his freedom

  16. Exascale Hardware Architectures Working Group

    SciTech Connect

    Hemmert, S; Ang, J; Chiang, P; Carnes, B; Doerfler, D; Leininger, M; Dosanjh, S; Fields, P; Koch, K; Laros, J; Noe, J; Quinn, T; Torrellas, J; Vetter, J; Wampler, C; White, A

    2011-03-15

    The ASC Exascale Hardware Architecture working group is challenged to provide input on the following areas impacting the future use and usability of potential exascale computer systems: processor, memory, and interconnect architectures, as well as the power and resilience of these systems. Going forward, there are many challenging issues that will need to be addressed. First, power constraints in processor technologies will lead to steady increases in parallelism within a socket. Additionally, all cores may not be fully independent nor fully general purpose. Second, there is a clear trend toward less balanced machines, in terms of compute capability compared to memory and interconnect performance. In order to mitigate the memory issues, memory technologies will introduce 3D stacking, eventually moving on-socket and likely on-die, providing greatly increased bandwidth but unfortunately also likely providing smaller memory capacity per core. Off-socket memory, possibly in the form of non-volatile memory, will create a complex memory hierarchy. Third, communication energy will dominate the energy required to compute, such that interconnect power and bandwidth will have a significant impact. All of the above changes are driven by the need for greatly increased energy efficiency, as current technology will prove unsuitable for exascale, due to unsustainable power requirements of such a system. These changes will have the most significant impact on programming models and algorithms, but they will be felt across all layers of the machine. There is clear need to engage all ASC working groups in planning for how to deal with technological changes of this magnitude. The primary function of the Hardware Architecture Working Group is to facilitate codesign with hardware vendors to ensure future exascale platforms are capable of efficiently supporting the ASC applications, which in turn need to meet the mission needs of the NNSA Stockpile Stewardship Program. This issue is

  17. Galaxy Group Properties in Observations and Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurmi, Pasi

    2016-10-01

    In this project, we compare different properties of galaxy groups in cosmological N-body simulations and SDSS galaxy group catalogs. In the first part of the project (Nurmi et al. 2013) we compared the basic properties of the groups like the luminosity functions, group richness and velocity dispersion distributions and studied how good is the agreement between the mock group catalog and the SDSS group catalog. Here we continue the earlier study and use updated galaxy group catalog (SDSS DR10) and new simulation data (Guo et al. 2013). We reanalyse earlier group properties and include new properties in the analysis like group environment, star formation rates and group masses. Our analysis show that there are clear differences between the simulated and observed properties of galaxy groups, especially for small groups with a few members. Also, the high luminosities are clearly overestimated in the simulations compared with the SDSS group data.

  18. The interprofessional team as a small group.

    PubMed

    Kane, R A

    1975-01-01

    Conflicts in interprofessional teamwork may be as much explained by group process considerations as by the interaction of professional roles and statuses. This paper examines the interprofessional team as a small group, using a synthesis of sources from social psychology, social group work, T-group literature, management theory, and health team research. Eight issues are considered in relation to the team as a small group, namely, (a) the individual in the group, (b) team size, (c) group norms, (d) democracy, (e) decision making and conflict resolution, (f) communication and structure, (g) leadership, and (h) group harmony and its relationship to group productivity.

  19. Nonlinear, nonbinary cyclic group codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, G.

    1992-01-01

    New cyclic group codes of length 2(exp m) - 1 over (m - j)-bit symbols are introduced. These codes can be systematically encoded and decoded algebraically. The code rates are very close to Reed-Solomon (RS) codes and are much better than Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) codes (a former alternative). The binary (m - j)-tuples are identified with a subgroup of the binary m-tuples which represents the field GF(2 exp m). Encoding is systematic and involves a two-stage procedure consisting of the usual linear feedback register (using the division or check polynomial) and a small table lookup. For low rates, a second shift-register encoding operation may be invoked. Decoding uses the RS error-correcting procedures for the m-tuple codes for m = 4, 5, and 6.

  20. Neuroactive steroids with perfluorobenzoyl group.

    PubMed

    Cerný, Ivan; Buděšínský, Miloš; Pouzar, Vladimír; Vyklický, Vojtěch; Krausová, Barbora; Vyklický, Ladislav

    2012-10-01

    During an initial study in searching for the alternative derivatives suitable for photolabeling of neuroactive steroids, perfluorobenzoates and perfluorobenzamides in position 17 of 5β-androstan-3α-ol were synthesized from the corresponding 17-hydroxy and 17-amino derivatives. After transformation into glutamates or sulfates, 17α-epimers had comparable inhibitory activity at NMDA receptors to the natural neurosteroid (20-oxo-5β-pregnan-3β-yl sulfate), however, were more potent (2- to 36-fold) than their 17β-substituted analogs. In one case, fluorine in position 4' of perfluorobenzoate group was substituted with azide and activity of the final glutamate was retained comparing with the corresponding perfluorobenzoate. The series was expanded with perfluorobenzoyl derivatives of pregnanolone: Perfluorobenzamide of glutamate and perfluorobenzoate of 11α-hydroxy pregnanolone were prepared and tested. From nine tested compounds, four of them exhibit very good inhibition activity and can serve as promising leads for photolabeling experiments.

  1. Diffeomorphisms in group field theories

    SciTech Connect

    Baratin, Aristide; Girelli, Florian; Oriti, Daniele

    2011-05-15

    We study the issue of diffeomorphism symmetry in group field theories (GFT), using the noncommutative metric representation introduced by A. Baratin and D. Oriti [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 221302 (2010).]. In the colored Boulatov model for 3d gravity, we identify a field (quantum) symmetry which ties together the vertex translation invariance of discrete gravity, the flatness constraint of canonical quantum gravity, and the topological (coarse-graining) identities for the 6j symbols. We also show how, for the GFT graphs dual to manifolds, the invariance of the Feynman amplitudes encodes the discrete residual action of diffeomorphisms in simplicial gravity path integrals. We extend the results to GFT models for higher-dimensional BF theories and discuss various insights that they provide on the GFT formalism itself.

  2. Heisenberg groups and noncommutative fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Freed, Daniel S. . E-mail: dafr@math.utexas.edu; Moore, Gregory W.; Segal, Graeme

    2007-01-15

    We develop a group-theoretical approach to the formulation of generalized abelian gauge theories, such as those appearing in string theory and M-theory. We explore several applications of this approach. First, we show that there is an uncertainty relation which obstructs simultaneous measurement of electric and magnetic flux when torsion fluxes are included. Next, we show how to define the Hilbert space of a self-dual field. The Hilbert space is Z{sub 2}-graded and we show that, in general, self-dual theories (including the RR fields of string theory) have fermionic sectors. We indicate how rational conformal field theories associated to the two-dimensional Gaussian model generalize to (4k+2)-dimensional conformal field theories. When our ideas are applied to the RR fields of string theory we learn that it is impossible to measure the K-theory class of a RR field. Only the reduction modulo torsion can be measured.

  3. Extending Sociocultural Theory to Group Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Sociocultural theory focuses on group processes through time, and argues that group phenomena cannot be reduced to explanation in terms of the mental states or actions of the participating individuals. This makes sociocultural theory particularly useful in the analysis of group creativity and group learning, because both group creativity and group…

  4. Attachment Theory: Contributions to Group Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pistole, M. Carole

    1997-01-01

    Describes attachment theory, explores its application to group counseling, and elaborates points of interest to group workers. Focuses on attachment styles, attachment and caregiving, the group leader's goals, the group as an attachment experience, interventions based on attachment theory, its use in psychoeducational groups, and complexities in…

  5. A Comparison of Approaches to Group Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimpfer, David G.; And Others

    This panel is based on the assumptions that: (1) group counseling has a valuable contribution to make, (2) group counseling is feasible in terms of time and space at local institutions, (3) group counseling is particularly concerned with affective material, and (4) group counseling probably cannot be conducted effectively in groups as large as 30.…

  6. Grouping and Achievement in Cooperative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, John

    2003-01-01

    Colleges typically group students homogeneously in classes by means of both admission requirements and course prerequisites, but when professors form cooperative learning groups within classes they generally use heterogeneous grouping. Authors compared heterogeneously and homogeneously grouped cooperative learning groups in six paired classes,…

  7. Properties of Group Five and Group Seven transactinium elements

    SciTech Connect

    Wilk, Philip A.

    2001-05-01

    The detection and positive identification of the short-lived, low cross section isotopes used in the chemical studies of the heaviest elements are usually accomplished by measuring their alpha-decay, thus the nuclear properties of the heaviest elements must be examined simultaneously with their chemical properties. The isotopes 224 Pa and 266,267 Bh have been studied extensively as an integral part of the investigation of the heaviest members of the groups five and seven of the periodic table. The half-life of 224 Pa was determined to be 855 plus/minus19 ms by measuring its alpha-decay using our rotating wheel, solid state detector system at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 88-Inch Cyclotron. Protactinium was produced by bombardment of a bismuth target. New neutron rich isotopes, 267 Bh and 266 Bh, were produced in bombardments of a 249 Bk target and their decay was observed using the rotating wheel system. The 266 Bh that was produced decays with a half-life of approximately 1 s by emission of alpha particles with an average energy of 9.25 plus/minus 0.03 MeV. 267 Bh was observed to decay with a 17 s half-life by emission of alpha-particles with an average energy of 8.83 plus/minus 0.03 MeV. The chemical behavior of hafnium, Ha (element 105) was investigated using the fast on-line continuous liquid extraction and detection system SISAK-LISSY. Hafnium was not observed in this experiment following transport and extraction. Protactinium was used as on-line test of the apparatus to determine the experimental efficiency of the entire system. Unfortunately, the amount of protactinium observed after the extraction, compared to the amount produced, was extremely small, only 2.5%. The extraction of the protactinium isotope indicated the efficiency of the apparatus was too low to observe the extraction of hafnium. The chemical behavior of oxychloride compounds of bohrium was investigated by isothermal gas adsorption chromatography in a quartz column at 180, 150

  8. The Mini-Group in Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercurio, John M.; Weiner, Michael

    1975-01-01

    Mini-group counseling involves a counselor or facilitator and no more than four clients. This article describes the group's rationale, structure, and content. The results of two such mini-groups are also discussed. (Author/EJT)

  9. The Local Group: Our Galactic Neighborhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Paul

    1987-01-01

    Presents information on the properties and largest spirals of the Local Group galaxies. Explains the three categories of galaxies, identifies the brightest members of the Local Group, and discusses recent discoveries within the group. (ML)

  10. Learning the Functional Groups: Keys to Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Shannon; Hildreth, David P.

    2001-01-01

    Points out the difficulties students have when they are expected to learn functional groups, which are frameworks for chemical and physical properties of molecules. Presents a classification key for functional groups categorized by 10 common functional groups. (YDS)

  11. Social Class Differences Produce Social Group Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Horwitz, Suzanne R.; Shutts, Kristin; Olson, Kristina R.

    2014-01-01

    Some social groups are higher in socioeconomic status than others and the former tend to be favored over the latter. The present research investigated whether observing group differences in wealth alone can directly cause children to prefer wealthier groups. In Experiment 1, 4–5-year-old children developed a preference for a wealthy novel group over a less wealthy group. In Experiment 2, children did not develop preferences when groups differed by another kind of positive/negative attribute (i.e., living in brightly-colored houses vs. drab houses), suggesting that wealth is a particularly meaningful group distinction. Lastly, in Experiment 3, the effect of favoring novel wealthy groups was moderated by group membership: Children assigned to a wealthy group showed ingroup favoritism, but those assigned to the less wealthy group did not. These experiments shed light on why children tend to be biased in favor of social groups that are higher in socioeconomic status. PMID:24702971

  12. Dr. Irvin Yalom Discusses Group Psychotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forester-Miller, Holly

    1989-01-01

    In this interview, Dr. Irvin Yalom, director of the Adult Psychiatry Clinic at Stanford University School of Medicine, discusses his beginnings as a group psychotherapist, current issues in group work, and the future of group work. (Author/TE)

  13. A Brief History of Human Blood Groups

    PubMed Central

    FARHUD, Dariush D; ZARIF YEGANEH, Marjan

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of human blood groups, without doubt, has a history as old as man himself. There are at least three hypotheses about the emergence and mutation of human blood groups. Global distribution pattern of blood groups depends on various environmental factors, such as disease, climate, altitude, humidity etc. In this survey, the collection of main blood groups ABO and Rh, along with some minor groups, are presented. Several investigations of blood groups from Iran, particularly a large sampling on 291857 individuals from Iran, including the main blood groups ABO and Rh, as well as minor blood groups such as Duffy, Lutheran, Kell, KP, Kidd, and Xg, have been reviewed. PMID:23514954

  14. Findings: LANL outsourcing focus groups

    SciTech Connect

    Jannotta, M.J.; McCabe, V.B.

    1996-12-31

    In March 1996, a series of 24 3-hour dialog focus groups were held with randomly selected Laboratory employees and contractors to gain their perceptions regarding potentials and problems for privatization and consolidation. A secondary goal was to educate and inform the workforce about potentials and issues in privatization and consolidation. Two hundred and thirty-six participants engaged in a learning session and structured input exercises resulting in 2,768 usable comments. Comments were categorized using standard qualitative methods; resulting categories included positive and negative comments on four models (consolidation, spin offs, outsourcing, and corporate partnering) and implications for the workforce, the Laboratory, and the local economy. Categories were in the areas of increasing/decreasing jobs, expertise, opportunity/salary/benefits, quality/efficiency, and effect on the local area and economy. An additional concern was losing Laboratory culture and history. Data were gathered and categorized on employee opinion regarding elements of successful transition to the four models, and issues emerged in the areas of terms and conditions of employment; communication; involvement; sound business planning; ethics and fairness; community infrastructure. From the aggregated opinion of the participants, it is recommended that decision-makers: Plan using sound business principles and continually communicate plans to the workforce; Respect workforce investments in the Laboratory; Tell the workforce exactly what is going on at all times; Understand that economic growth in Northern New Mexico is not universally viewed as positive; and Establish dialog with stakeholders on growth issues.

  15. Ames vision group research overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    1990-01-01

    A major goal of the reseach group is to develop mathematical and computational models of early human vision. These models are valuable in the prediction of human performance, in the design of visual coding schemes and displays, and in robotic vision. To date researchers have models of retinal sampling, spatial processing in visual cortex, contrast sensitivity, and motion processing. Based on their models of early human vision, researchers developed several schemes for efficient coding and compression of monochrome and color images. These are pyramid schemes that decompose the image into features that vary in location, size, orientation, and phase. To determine the perceptual fidelity of these codes, researchers developed novel human testing methods that have received considerable attention in the research community. Researchers constructed models of human visual motion processing based on physiological and psychophysical data, and have tested these models through simulation and human experiments. They also explored the application of these biological algorithms to applications in automated guidance of rotorcraft and autonomous landing of spacecraft. Researchers developed networks for inhomogeneous image sampling, for pyramid coding of images, for automatic geometrical correction of disordered samples, and for removal of motion artifacts from unstable cameras.

  16. B-Group Vitamins: Chemoprevention?

    PubMed

    Gruber, Beata M

    2016-01-01

    The importance of vitamins in the prevention of cancer has attracted the attention of consumers, nutritionists and scientists for decades. The mechanisms of carcinogenesis, extended in the context of the function of vitamins, i.e. regulation of and participation in metabolic processes in the cell, suggest a substantial impact of these compounds on the initial stages of carcinogenesis. One-carbon metabolism involving folic acid, vitamins B2, B6 and B12, and folate metabolism doesn't only generate methyl groups, thus determining epigenetic processes, modifications of the genome and carcinogenesis. It also provides the compounds involved in the DNA synthesis and repair processes, especially the synthesis of purines and pyrimidines and the conversion of dUMP (2-deoxyuridine monophosphate) to dTMP (2-deoxythymidine monophosphate). In light of these pathways, folate, together with vitamins B2, B6 and B12, became a subject of interest as compounds whose deficit or surplus can potentially have an impact on the processes of carcinogenesis. Literature reports, however, do not fully confirm that the influence on the synthesis of nucleotides is connected with the inhibition of carcinogenesis. The impact of individual vitamins involved in one-carbon metabolism on carcinogenesis and their role in the prevention of these conditions depend on the type of cancer and the dose administered. Nevertheless, the research conducted makes it possible to conclude a considerable and probably long-underestimated role of these compounds in the prevention of serious, difficult to treat or incurable diseases. PMID:27629746

  17. ALMA Common Software - UTFSM Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araya, M.; Avarias, J.; Mora, M.; Tobar, R.

    The ACS-UTFSM Group was created as a distributed systems research team on astronomical and non-astronomical applications on the year 2004. The choice of the ALMA Common Software framework (ACS) as the development platform came from the experience gained during summerjobs at ESO observatories. After three years of informal contributions to ACS development, the team presented a technology exchange initiative to the ALMA-CONICYT Fund 2006, which was granted in 2007. Through the past years, the UTFSM helped the ACS team with "nice-to-have" applications and testing. Currently the ACS-UTFSM is involved in several contributions to ACS, and the development of a flexible telescope control system (gTCS) framework which aims to encapsulate common requirements and will provide a uniform software. In preparation for this challenging objective, several small projects are currently being developed. The other interesting edge of the team work is the technology transfer initiatives. Several inter-universities collaborations are flourishing (PUC, UCN, UV) after the first ACS Workshop held at the UTFSM this year. Today three former team members are working at NRAO's ALMA Test Facility in Socorro, New Mexico. Two other students will have a summer job next year to work in ALMA related development.

  18. Systems special investigation group overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, James B.; Dursch, Harry; Edelman, Joel

    1992-01-01

    The Systems Special Investigation Group (SIG) has undertaken investigations in the four major engineering disciplines represented by LDEF hardware: electrical, mechanical, thermal, and optical systems. Testing was planned for the highest possible level of assembly, and top level system tests for nearly all systems were performed at this time. Testing to date was performed on a mix of LDEF and individual experimenter systems. No electrical or mechanical system level failures attributed to the spaceflight environment were detected by the Systems SIG. Some low cost electrical components were used successfully, although relays were a continuing problem. Extensive mechanical galling was observed, but no evidence of coldwelding was identified. A working index of observed systems anomalies was created and will be used to support the tracking and resolution of these effects. LDEF hardware currently available to the Systems SIG includes most of the LDEF facility systems hardware, and some significant experimenter hardware as well. A series of work packages was developed for each of several subsystem types where further testing is of critical interest. The Systems SIG is distributing a regular newsletter to the greater LDEF community in order to maintain coherence in an investigation which is widely scattered both in subject matter and in geography. Circulation of this informal document has quadrupled in its first year.

  19. Systems special investigation group overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, James B.; Dursch, Harry; Edelman, Joel

    1991-01-01

    The Systems Special Investigation Group (SIG) has undertaken investigations in the four major engineering disciplines represented in the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) hardware: electrical, mechanical, thermal, and optical systems. Testing was planned for the highest possible level of assembly, and top level system tests for nearly all systems were performed at this time. To date, testing was performed on a mix of LDEF and individual experimenter systems. No electrical or mechanical system level failures attributed to the spaceflight environment have yet been detected. Some low cost electrical components were used successfully, although relays were a continuing problem. Mechanical galling was observed unexpectedly, but no evidence of cold welding was identified yet. A working index of observed systems anomalies was created and will be used to support the tracking and resolution of these effects. The LDEF hardware currently available to the Systems SIG includes most of the LDEF systems hardware, and some significant experimenter hardware as well. A series of work packages was developed for each of several subsystem types where further testing is of critical interest. The System SIG is distributing a regular newsletter to the greater LDEF community in order to maintain coherence in an investigation which is widely scattered both in subject matter and in geography. Circulation of this informal document has quadrupled in its first year.

  20. Polyimides with pendent ethynyl groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J.; Hergenrother, Paul M.; Nwokogu, Godson

    1992-01-01

    Several new polyimides containing pendent ethynyl groups were prepared and characterized. The new polyimides were prepared from the following novel ethynyl containing diamines; 1,1-bis(p aminophenyl)-1-(p ethynylphenyl) 2,2,2-trifluoroethane, and 1,1-bis(p aminophenyl)-1-(p phenylethynylphenyl)-2,2,2 trifluoroethane, and 1,1-bis(p aminophenyl)-1-(p hexynylphenyl)-2,2,2 trifluoroethane by reacting with either 3,3',4,4' benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride or 2,2-bis(3,4 dicarboxyphenyl) hexafluoropropane dianhydride (6FDA). Inherent viscosities for the polymers ranged from 0.26 to 0.94 dL/g. Three copolymers prepared by reacting 10 mole pct. of one of the ethynyl containing diamines and 90 mole pct. of 2,2-bis-(4-(4 aminophenoxy)phenyl) hexafluoropropane with 6FDA were also prepared and characterized. Inherent viscosities for these copolymers ranged from 1.08 to 1.54 dL/g. Original polyimide glass transition temperatures were approx. 265 C while curing at 300 to 350 C for 1 hr in air increased the Tgs by approx. 10 C. Film properties and thermal stability were also measured for these copolyimides.

  1. What Is a Group? Young Children’s Perceptions of Different Types of Groups and Group Entitativity

    PubMed Central

    Plötner, Maria; Over, Harriet; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2016-01-01

    To date, developmental research on groups has focused mainly on in-group biases and intergroup relations. However, little is known about children’s general understanding of social groups and their perceptions of different forms of group. In this study, 5- to 6-year-old children were asked to evaluate prototypes of four key types of groups: an intimacy group (friends), a task group (people who are collaborating), a social category (people who look alike), and a loose association (people who coincidently meet at a tram stop). In line with previous work with adults, the vast majority of children perceived the intimacy group, task group, and social category, but not the loose association, to possess entitativity, that is, to be a ‘real group.’ In addition, children evaluated group member properties, social relations, and social obligations differently in each type of group, demonstrating that young children are able to distinguish between different types of in-group relations. The origins of the general group typology used by adults thus appear early in development. These findings contribute to our knowledge about children's intuitive understanding of groups and group members' behavior. PMID:27010484

  2. The Inter-Group Comparison – Intra-Group Cooperation Hypothesis: Comparisons between Groups Increase Efficiency in Public Goods Provision

    PubMed Central

    Böhm, Robert; Rockenbach, Bettina

    2013-01-01

    Identifying methods to increase cooperation and efficiency in public goods provision is of vital interest for human societies. The methods that have been proposed often incur costs that (more than) destroy the efficiency gains through increased cooperation. It has for example been shown that inter-group conflict increases intra-group cooperation, however at the cost of collective efficiency. We propose a new method that makes use of the positive effects associated with inter-group competition but avoids the detrimental (cost) effects of a structural conflict. We show that the mere comparison to another structurally independent group increases both the level of intra-group cooperation and overall efficiency. The advantage of this new method is that it directly transfers the benefits from increased cooperation into increased efficiency. In repeated public goods provision we experimentally manipulated the participants’ level of contribution feedback (intra-group only vs. both intra- and inter-group) as well as the provision environment (smaller groups with higher individual benefits from cooperation vs. larger groups with lower individual benefits from cooperation). Irrespective of the provision environment groups with an inter-group comparison opportunity exhibited a significantly stronger cooperation than groups without this opportunity. Participants conditionally cooperated within their group and additionally acted to advance their group to not fall behind the other group. The individual efforts to advance the own group cushion the downward trend in the above average contributors and thus render contributions on a higher level. We discuss areas of practical application. PMID:23405262

  3. Social identity and individual productivity within groups.

    PubMed

    Worchel, S; Rothgerber, H; Day, E A; Hart, D; Butemeyer, J

    1998-12-01

    The purpose of the present research was to show how social identity theory can be applied to enhance individual productivity within groups. Three experiments manipulated in-group identifiability and importance of the group for one's social identity, and compared individual's productivity when working alone to when working in a group setting. The group setting in the first study involved either a collective of unrelated individuals, a group of participants expecting future interaction, or a group working for a group reward. The second study compared productivity in groups with four differing interdependent reward structures. The final study examine the impact of group members wearing a common uniform (vs. no uniform) and the presence (or absence) of an out-group. Results supported the general prediction that group productivity would be enhanced by factors that increase group categorization and the importance of the group to members' social identities (future interaction, interdependent reward structure and uniform/outgroup present). However, productivity in groups was not influenced by perceptions of the task or identifiability of performance. These findings extent social identity theory by suggesting that group members will increase their in-group position through individual work efforts.

  4. The SOFeX Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coale, K. H.

    2002-12-01

    The SOFeX Group is comprised of the following institutions and individuals, all of whose participation resulted in a successful experiment. Moss Landing Marine Laboratories: K. Coale, C. Hunter, M. Gordon, S. Tanner, W. Wang, N. Ladizinsky, D. Cooper, G. Smith, J. Brewster; Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute: K. Johnson, F. Chavez, S. Fitzwater, P. Strutton, G. Elrod, Z. Chase, E. Drake, J. Plant; Oregon State University: B. Hales, J. Barth, L.Bandstra, P. Covert, D. Hubbard, J. Jennings, S. Pierce, E. Scholz; Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory: T. Takahashi; Duke University: R. Barber, V. Lance, D. Stube, A. Hilting, M. Hiscock, A. Apprill, C. Van Hilst, ; Virginia Institute of Marine Science: W. Smith, H. Ducklow, L. Delizo, J. Oliver, E. Bailey, J. Peloquin, R. Daniels, J. Bauer; University Of Hawaii: M. Landry, R. Bidigare, S. Brown, N. Cassar, B. Twining, K. Selph, C. Sheridan; NOAA Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory: R. Wanninkhof, K. Sullivan, C. Neill; University of Miami: F. Millero, X. Zhu, W. Hiscock, V. Koehler, A. Cabrera; University of Calif. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory: J. Bishop, T. Wood, C. Guay, P. Lam; Rutgers University: P. Falkowski, Z. Kolber, R. Nicolayson, S. Tozzi, M. Gorbunov, M. Koblizek; University of Massachusets: M. Altabet, M. McIlvan, D. Timothy; New Mexico Tech.: Oliver Wingenter; San Francisco State Univ. - Romberg Tiburon Center: W. Cochlan, J. Herndon; University of Calif. Santa Cruz: R. Kudela, A. Roberts; Univ. of Calif. Santa Barbara: M. Brezinski, J. Jones, M. Demarest; Massachusets Inst. of Technology: S. Chisolm, Z. Johnson; Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute: K. Buesseler, J. Andrews, G. Crossin, S. Pike, J. Tegeder, C. Herbold, K. Mahoney, M.Coggeshell ; University of East Anglia: L. Houghton, L. Goldson, A. Watson, J. Ledwell; Institute of Marine Research, Kiel: Peter Croot; University of Otago: R. Frew, E. Abraham, P. Boyd.

  5. Lung cancer working group report.

    PubMed

    Saijo, Nagahiro; Fukuoka, Masahiro; Thongprasert, Sumitra; Ichinose, Yukito; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Mok, Tony Shu Kam; Ohe, Yuichiro; Park, Keunchil; Wu, Yi-Long

    2010-09-01

    Asia needs a guideline for non-small-cell lung cancer because of differences in medical care, medical care insurance, ethnic variation and drug approval lag within Asian countries and compared with Western countries. Due to ethnic differences, drug dosages are often higher in the USA than in Japan. EGFR mutation in non-small-cell lung cancer was detected in 32% of Asians but only 6% of non-Asians, while differences in irinotecan metabolism cause higher frequencies of toxicity (leukopenia, diarrhea) in Asians. Pharmacodynamic ethnic differences in relation to paclitaxel/carboplatin resulted in longer median survival and a higher 1-year survival rate for Japanese-advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients compared with Americans. To solve the problem of drug lag, pharmaceutical companies must perform multinational Asian clinical trials with quick accrual of patients, while regulatory authorities must establish high-quality, efficient approval processes, and achieve regulatory harmonization. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network promotes creation of national clinical practice guidelines, and Korea, China and Thailand adapted the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines. Many Asian countries still lack such guidelines, and there are no pan-Asian guidelines for non-small-cell lung cancer. Japan developed its own non-small-cell lung cancer guidelines and also a gefitinib guidance. The study group members concluded that immediate establishment of an Asian non-small-cell lung cancer guideline will be difficult because of the differences among the countries. Asian collaborative trials on treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer need to be started at an early date to generate Asian data.

  6. Group 2 PH: Medical Therapy.

    PubMed

    Guazzi, Marco; Labate, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) secondary to left heart disease, classified as Group 2, is a widely underestimated target of therapy. Prevention and treatment of initial subclinical stages are not valued as a priority in the management of this chronic disease population, whereas attention is high for PH consequences in patients with advanced heart failure (HF) requiring a left ventricular mechanical assist device or heart transplant candidates. Even so, there is a growing interest toward the evidence of a clinical and prognostic role of PH in the elderly populations and in HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Certainly, along with a prevalence definition not yet defined, the search for effective pharmacological approaches that might favorably affect the aging process and the natural history of HFpEF from earlier stages is not an easy task. Pharmacological studies that have tested some traditional pulmonary arterial hypertension approved drugs (i.e., prostanoids and endothelin-1 receptor blockers) primarily in PH and HF with reduced ejection fraction have not been positive, especially because of concomitant side effects, i.e., systemic hypotension, fluid retention and hepatic toxicity. In recent years, interest has moved toward drugs overexpressing the nitric oxide (NO)-cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway with recent availability of well-tolerated selective pulmonary vasodilators, such as phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors and guanylate cyclase stimulators. Single center studies performed with these drugs have shown good tolerability and safety profile providing alternating hemodynamic results mainly because of recruitment of patients at different stages of the pulmonary vascular disease. Nonetheless, the overexpression of NO pathway appears to remain the most solid background for targeting lung microvessel dysfunction and treating RV dysfunction since the earliest stages of the disease. PMID:27389809

  7. A Functional Analytic Approach to Group Psychotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandenberghe, Luc

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a particular view on the use of Functional Analytical Psychotherapy (FAP) in a group therapy format. This view is based on the author's experiences as a supervisor of Functional Analytical Psychotherapy Groups, including groups for women with depression and groups for chronic pain patients. The contexts in which this approach…

  8. Group Intervention for Widowed Survivors of Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantino, Rose E.; Sekula, L. Kathleen; Rubenstein, Elaine N.

    2001-01-01

    Evaluates the effects of two group interventions, the Bereavement Group Postvention and the Social Group Postvention, on bereavement outcomes in widowed survivors of suicide. The goals were to determine if group interventions would significantly decrease levels of depression, psychological distress, and grief, as well as significantly increase…

  9. 42 CFR 405.1837 - Group appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....1837 Group appeals. (a) Right to Board hearing as part of a group appeal; criteria. A provider (but no other individual, entity, or party) has a right to a Board hearing, as part of a group appeal with other...)(2) of this subpart; (2) The matter at issue in the group appeal involves a single question of...

  10. 42 CFR 405.1837 - Group appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....1837 Group appeals. (a) Right to Board hearing as part of a group appeal; criteria. A provider (but no other individual, entity, or party) has a right to a Board hearing, as part of a group appeal with other...)(2) of this subpart; (2) The matter at issue in the group appeal involves a single question of...

  11. The Light-Weight Group Library

    2012-07-02

    The Light-Weight Group (LWGRP) bibrary provides data structures and collective routines to define and operate on groups of MPI processes. Groups can be created and freed efficiently in O(log N) time space requiring less overhead that constructing full MPI communicators. This facilitates faster development of applications and libraries that need to rapidly create, use, and destroy process groups.

  12. Researching Women's Groups Findings, Limitations, and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Nancy L.; Kees, Nathalie L.

    2005-01-01

    There is not a "typical" women's group, nor are there "typical" women's issues. Every women's group is diverse, with as many viewpoints and perspectives as there are members in the group. Using the group format for women is common practice with many counselors. It is interesting that there has been little empirical research reported on women's…

  13. Conjugacy classes in discrete Heisenberg groups

    SciTech Connect

    Budylin, R Ya

    2014-08-01

    We study an extension of a discrete Heisenberg group coming from the theory of loop groups and find invariants of conjugacy classes in this group. In some cases, including the case of the integer Heisenberg group, we make these invariants more explicit. Bibliography: 4 titles.

  14. Dealing with Parasites in Group Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Judy H.

    While it is generally accepted that people working in groups can accomplish more than people working individually, it is equally accepted that parasites will attempt to feed on the other group members. Group work has been called by several names--group learning, cooperative learning, collaborative learning--all of which carry slightly different…

  15. Small Group Communication in the 1980's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neer, Michael R., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    This special edition of "Communication" brings together the work of nine leading scholars of small group communication. The following topics are discussed: (1) small group communication research in the 1980s; (2) unanswered questions in research on communication in the small group; (3) emerging trends in small group research; (4) structure in…

  16. Group Counseling: A Treatment Modality for Batterers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kriner, Lon; Waldron, Barbara

    1988-01-01

    Investigated effects of group counseling program for self-referred men on their self-esteem and abusive behavior toward female partners. Used experimental and control group design which included pre- and post-tests. Results suggest that group counseling did significantly enhance self-esteem in experimental group. (Author/NB)

  17. Six Considerations for Social Justice Group Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Anneliese A.; Salazar, Carmen F.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes "courageous conversations" in social justice group work and a continuum of action for social justice interventions. It analyzes themes from 20 contributions to 2 consecutive special issues of "The Journal for Specialists in Group Work" on social justice group work. Implications for future development in group leadership and…

  18. Small-Group Composition and Peer Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Ian A. G.; Fung, Irene Y. Y.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews research on grouping of students within classes and its effects on learning. Primary consideration is given to grouping and mixing students by ability, though consideration is also given to grouping and mixing students by ethnicity and gender as well as to research on the effects of group size. Results of meta-analyses of…

  19. Consequences of "Minimal" Group Affiliations in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunham, Yarrow; Baron, Andrew Scott; Carey, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments (total N = 140) tested the hypothesis that 5-year-old children's membership in randomly assigned "minimal" groups would be sufficient to induce intergroup bias. Children were randomly assigned to groups and engaged in tasks involving judgments of unfamiliar in-group or out-group children. Despite an absence of information…

  20. The Unfocused Focus Group: Benefit or Bane?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franz, Nancy K.

    2011-01-01

    Facilitating successful focus groups requires both science and art. One element that can fully challenge focus group facilitators includes how to handle the unfocused focus group. This article describes "unfocus" and the benefits and disadvantages of unfocus in focus groups. Lessons learned from and approaches taken on this journey are shared to…

  1. Qualitative Description of College Students' Dinner Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Brita; Brown, Lora Beth

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To discover how college students conduct dinner groups and perceptions of the benefits and difficulties of participation. Design: Qualitative study conducted with 7 focus groups. Setting and Participants: A university campus, with 36 students participating in dinner groups, defined as a group of 3 people or more cooking for one another…

  2. Marathon Group Therapy with Female Narcotic Addicts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilmann, Peter R.

    This study evaluated the impact of structured and unstructured marathon therapy on institutionalized female narcotic addicts. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of five groups: two structured therapy groups, two unstructured therapy groups, and a no-treatment control group. The Personal Orientation Inventory, the Adjective Check List, and a…

  3. The recurrence sequence via the Fibonacci groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aküzüm, Yeşim; Deveci, Ömür

    2016-04-01

    This work develops properties of the recurrence sequence defined by the aid of the relation matrix of the Fibonacci groups. The study of this sequence modulo m yields cyclic groups and semigroups from generating matrix. Finally, we extend the sequence defined to groups and then, we obtain its period in the Fibonacci groups.

  4. THE TELEOANALYTIC APPROACH TO GROUP COUNSELING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DREIKURS, RUDOLF; SONSTEGARD, MANFORD

    THIS PAPER PRESENTS THE PROCEDURES FOR A GROUP COUNSELING PROGRAM ON FOUR LEVELS--(1) COUNSELING WITHIN PEER GROUPS AS CHILDREN LEARN FROM EACH OTHER IN INTERACTION, (2) TEACHER SEMINARS WHERE TEACHERS CAN SHARE IDEAS ON SPECIFIC PROBLEMS AND GAIN INSIGHT ON THE OTHER COUNSELING GROUPS, (3) PARENT GROUPS WHERE ONE PARENT COUNSELED IN FRONT OF THE…

  5. Organization of an undergraduate research group

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J.; Noteboom, E.

    1995-04-01

    Traditionally, research groups consist of senior physicists, staff members, and graduate students. The physics department at Creighton University has formed a Relativistic Heavy Ion physics research group consisting primarily of undergraduate students. Although senior staff and graduate students are actively involved, undergraduate research and the education of undergraduates is the focus of the group. The presentation, given by two undergraduate members of the group, will outline progress made in the group`s organization, discuss the benefits to the undergraduate group members, and speak to the balance which must be struck between education concerns and research goals.

  6. Group work with individuals with chronic cancer.

    PubMed

    Glaser, Susan R; Glassman, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the value and importance of support groups for people living with chronic cancer. It is a primer for the professional mental health practitioner interested in leading a support group. Group formation, screening, open versus closed groups, size, co-facilitation, duration and phases-beginning, middle and end will be discussed. Leadership, structure, and group dynamics are explained using case examples to highlight the issues. The effect of the deterioration and death of group members on both the facilitators and the group's members will be explored. The paper ends with a discussion of counter-transference, stress, self-care and resiliency. PMID:24405237

  7. Introduction to sporadic groups for physicists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boya, Luis J.

    2013-04-01

    We describe the collection of finite simple groups, with a view to physical applications. We recall first the prime cyclic groups Zp and the alternating groups Altn > 4. After a quick revision of finite fields {F}_q, q = pf, with p prime, we consider the 16 families of finite simple groups of Lie type. There are also 26 extra ‘sporadic’ groups, which gather in three interconnected ‘generations’ (with 5+7+8 groups) plus the pariah groups (6). We point out a couple of physical applications, including constructing the biggest sporadic group, the ‘Monster’ group, with close to 1054 elements from arguments of physics, and also the relation of some Mathieu groups with compactification in string and M-theory. This article is dedicated to the memory of Juan Sancho Guimerá.

  8. Attachment to groups: theory and measurement.

    PubMed

    Smith, E R; Murphy, J; Coats, S

    1999-07-01

    Aspects of people's identification with groups may be understood by borrowing theoretical ideas and measurement strategies from research on attachment in close relationships. People have mental models of the self as a group member and of groups as sources of identity and esteem. These models affect thoughts, emotions, and behaviors related to group membership. Three studies show that two dimensions of attachment to groups, attachment anxiety and avoidance, can be assessed with good reliability, validity, and over-time stability. These factors are distinct from relationship attachment and from other measures of group identification. Group attachment predicts several important outcomes, including emotions concerning the group, time and activities shared with a group, social support, collective self-esteem, and ways of resolving conflict. This conceptualization provides new insights into the nature of people's psychological ties to groups.

  9. Mixed parentage in Neolamprologus pulcher groups.

    PubMed

    Stiver, K A; Fitzpatrick, J L; Desjardins, J K; Balshine, S

    2009-04-01

    Genetic data collected on co-operatively breeding Neolamprologus pulcher groups from Lake Tanganyika revealed mixed parentage in 80% of the groups examined. A case (1/11) of shared maternity was detected where a subordinate female bred alongside the dominant female in a social group. Extra-pair paternity was assigned to other dominant males who held their own social groups, but subordinate males were not found to father young in any group (0/9).

  10. Relationship between ABO blood groups and malaria*

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Madhu; Chowdhuri, A. N. Rai

    1980-01-01

    A total of 736 patients with fever was tested for malaria and classified according to ABO blood group. Of these, 476 cases had patent parasitaemia at the time of investigation. The distribution of blood groups in this group was significantly different from that in 1300 controls from the same area. While group A was found to be more common in malaria cases than in normals, the reverse situation was found for group O. Possible explanations for this are discussed. PMID:6971187

  11. Adaptive group coordination and role differentiation.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Michael E; Goldstone, Robert L

    2011-01-01

    Many real world situations (potluck dinners, academic departments, sports teams, corporate divisions, committees, seminar classes, etc.) involve actors adjusting their contributions in order to achieve a mutually satisfactory group goal, a win-win result. However, the majority of human group research has involved situations where groups perform poorly because task constraints promote either individual maximization behavior or diffusion of responsibility, and even successful tasks generally involve the propagation of one correct solution through a group. Here we introduce a group task that requires complementary actions among participants in order to reach a shared goal. Without communication, group members submit numbers in an attempt to collectively sum to a randomly selected target number. After receiving group feedback, members adjust their submitted numbers until the target number is reached. For all groups, performance improves with task experience, and group reactivity decreases over rounds. Our empirical results provide evidence for adaptive coordination in human groups, and as the coordination costs increase with group size, large groups adapt through spontaneous role differentiation and self-consistency among members. We suggest several agent-based models with different rules for agent reactions, and we show that the empirical results are best fit by a flexible, adaptive agent strategy in which agents decrease their reactions when the group feedback changes. The task offers a simple experimental platform for studying the general problem of group coordination while maximizing group returns, and we distinguish the task from several games in behavioral game theory. PMID:21811595

  12. Radio properties of fossil galaxy groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miraghaei, H.; Khosroshahi, H. G.

    2016-09-01

    We study 1.4 GHz radio properties of a sample of fossil galaxy groups using GMRT radio observations and the FIRST survey catalog. Fossil galaxy groups, having no recent major mergers in their dominant galaxies and also group scale mergers, give us the opportunity to investigate the effect of galaxy merger on AGN activity. In this work, we compare the radio properties of a rich sample of fossil groups with a sample of normal galaxy groups and clusters and show that the brightest group galaxies in fossil groups are under luminous at 1.4 GHz, relative to the general population of the brightest group galaxies, indicating that the dynamically relaxed nature of fossil groups has influenced the AGN activity in their dominant galaxy.

  13. Blood Groups in Infection and Host Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Blood group antigens represent polymorphic traits inherited among individuals and populations. At present, there are 34 recognized human blood groups and hundreds of individual blood group antigens and alleles. Differences in blood group antigen expression can increase or decrease host susceptibility to many infections. Blood groups can play a direct role in infection by serving as receptors and/or coreceptors for microorganisms, parasites, and viruses. In addition, many blood group antigens facilitate intracellular uptake, signal transduction, or adhesion through the organization of membrane microdomains. Several blood groups can modify the innate immune response to infection. Several distinct phenotypes associated with increased host resistance to malaria are overrepresented in populations living in areas where malaria is endemic, as a result of evolutionary pressures. Microorganisms can also stimulate antibodies against blood group antigens, including ABO, T, and Kell. Finally, there is a symbiotic relationship between blood group expression and maturation of the gastrointestinal microbiome. PMID:26085552

  14. Leadership behaviours that foster nursing group power.

    PubMed

    Sieloff, Christina Leibold

    2004-07-01

    Today's health care environment presents many challenges to nursing groups as they seek to achieve their goals. All resources must be recognized and effectively utilized. Power, defined as the capacity to achieve goals (Sieloff 1995), is a valuable resource that can assist nursing groups in the achievement of their goals. The leader of a nursing group can make a significant difference in a group's ability to actualize their power capacity. The purpose of this article is to identify and discuss the use of a tool (Sieloff-King Assessment of Group Power within Organizations) to identify the nurse leader/group power variables that can be used to improve a nursing group's power as a resource in the achievement of its goals. Using behaviours related to a Nurse Leader's Power Competency and Power Perspective variables, identified in the Theory of Group Power within Organizations (Sieloff 1999), a nurse leader can foster a nursing group's power.

  15. The group dynamics of medical practices.

    PubMed

    Allcorn, S

    1995-01-01

    A medical group by definition is a group of physicians and their support staff who have joined together to practice medicine. However, a medical group is more than that. Medical groups are composed of many different types of subgroups and group dynamics that are in constant flux and which may serve the medical group well or inhibit it from achieving its best performance. Understanding group dynamics is, therefore, one of the paths toward achieving excellence in the practice of low cost but fulfilling medicine. This article describes three types of potentially unsatisfactory group dynamics--homogenized, institutionalized and autocratic. Homogenized dynamics occur when physicians act as though they must all participate in decision making. Managing the group can become deadlocked by one veto. Institutionalized group dynamics lead to an over reliance upon systems and procedures to control work. Flexibility, adaptability and creativity are often lost in the process. Autocratic group dynamics arise when a single individual assumes nearly absolute control of decision making. Each of these group dynamics contain positive and negative outcomes that must be considered when evaluating medical group performance. Case examples and exhibits are provided to operationalize the importance of understanding these potentially dysfunctional group dynamics.

  16. The group dynamics of medical practices.

    PubMed

    Allcorn, S

    1995-01-01

    A medical group by definition is a group of physicians and their support staff who have joined together to practice medicine. However, a medical group is more than that. Medical groups are composed of many different types of subgroups and group dynamics that are in constant flux and which may serve the medical group well or inhibit it from achieving its best performance. Understanding group dynamics is, therefore, one of the paths toward achieving excellence in the practice of low cost but fulfilling medicine. This article describes three types of potentially unsatisfactory group dynamics--homogenized, institutionalized and autocratic. Homogenized dynamics occur when physicians act as though they must all participate in decision making. Managing the group can become deadlocked by one veto. Institutionalized group dynamics lead to an over reliance upon systems and procedures to control work. Flexibility, adaptability and creativity are often lost in the process. Autocratic group dynamics arise when a single individual assumes nearly absolute control of decision making. Each of these group dynamics contain positive and negative outcomes that must be considered when evaluating medical group performance. Case examples and exhibits are provided to operationalize the importance of understanding these potentially dysfunctional group dynamics. PMID:10151363

  17. Psychodrama groups for girls coping with trauma.

    PubMed

    Carbonell, D M; Parteleno-Barehmi, C

    1999-07-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of psychodrama groups with traumatized middle-school girls. Comparisons of treatment and control group members' pre- and postintervention adjustment revealed significant decreases in group participants' self-reported difficulties in withdrawn behavior and anxiety/depression. Interviews with the participants reinforced the value of psychodrama group participation in the resolution of trauma and in increasing a sense of competence and self-efficacy. A brief outline of the group structure and a description of the process offer examples that illustrate the practice methodology and provide guidance for conducting psychodrama groups with vulnerable populations. Concerns with safety and containment are addressed.

  18. Engagement in group therapy for aphasia.

    PubMed

    Simmons-Mackie, Nina; Damico, Jack S

    2009-02-01

    For group therapy for aphasia to be maximally effective, group members must be engaged in the clinical interaction. Engagement is a process through which people establish, maintain, and terminate collaborative exchanges. To investigate the interactive resources employed for managing and monitoring engagement in group therapy interactions, two videotaped conversation therapy groups for aphasia were analyzed via conversation analysis. Examples of clinician behaviors that engaged group members included gaze, body orientation, gesture, and mirrored acts. In addition, gaze, gesture, body position, and shared laughter provided evidence of engagement of group members. The study of these subtle interactive elements within clinical discourse provides information about the mechanisms that promote successful clinical interactions. PMID:19145547

  19. Large Independent Primary Care Medical Groups

    PubMed Central

    Casalino, Lawrence P.; Chen, Melinda A.; Staub, C. Todd; Press, Matthew J.; Mendelsohn, Jayme L.; Lynch, John T.; Miranda, Yesenia

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE In the turbulent US health care environment, many primary care physicians seek hospital employment. Large physician-owned primary care groups are an alternative, but few physicians or policy makers realize that such groups exist. We wanted to describe these groups, their advantages, and their challenges. METHODS We identified 21 groups and studied 5 that varied in size and location. We conducted interviews with group leaders, surveyed randomly selected group physicians, and interviewed external observers—leaders of a health plan, hospital, and specialty medical group that shared patients with the group. We triangulated responses from group leaders, group physicians, and external observers to identify key themes. RESULTS The groups’ physicians work in small practices, with the group providing economies of scale necessary to develop laboratory and imaging services, health information technology, and quality improvement infrastructure. The groups differ in their size and the extent to which they engage in value-based contracting, though all are moving to increase the amount of financial risk they take for their quality and cost performance. Unlike hospital-employed and multispecialty groups, independent primary care groups can aim to reduce health care costs without conflicting incentives to fill hospital beds and keep specialist incomes high. Each group was positively regarded by external observers. The groups are under pressure, however, to sell to organizations that can provide capital for additional infrastructure to engage in value-based contracting, as well as provide substantial income to physicians from the sale. CONCLUSIONS Large, independent primary care groups have the potential to make primary care attractive to physicians and to improve patient care by combining human scale advantages of physician autonomy and the small practice setting with resources that are important to succeed in value-based contracting. PMID:26755779

  20. Group Design Problems in Engineering Design Graphics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, David

    2001-01-01

    Describes group design techniques used within the engineering design graphics sequence at Western Washington University. Engineering and design philosophies such as concurrent engineering place an emphasis on group collaboration for the solving of design problems. (Author/DDR)

  1. Critical Reaction to Personal Mastery Group Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Albert

    1978-01-01

    Reviews seven previous articles on Personal Mastery Group Counseling and discusses their main advantages and disadvantages. The relationship of Personal Mastery Group Counseling to Rational-Emotive Therapy is also considered. (Author)

  2. You Can Be a Skilled Group Helper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamminen, Armas W.; Smaby, Marlowe H.

    1978-01-01

    The authors propose a two-phase model of group counseling that is structured and involves simultaneously teaching and applying counseling skills to real-life problems of the members of the group. (Author)

  3. 32 CFR 643.129 - Youth groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... facilities, without monetary consideration, to on-post youth groups such as the Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts, and... intermittent or continuing use, to off-post youth groups such as the Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts, and the...

  4. 32 CFR 643.129 - Youth groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... facilities, without monetary consideration, to on-post youth groups such as the Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts, and... intermittent or continuing use, to off-post youth groups such as the Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts, and the...

  5. 32 CFR 643.129 - Youth groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... facilities, without monetary consideration, to on-post youth groups such as the Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts, and... intermittent or continuing use, to off-post youth groups such as the Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts, and the...

  6. 32 CFR 643.129 - Youth groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... facilities, without monetary consideration, to on-post youth groups such as the Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts, and... intermittent or continuing use, to off-post youth groups such as the Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts, and the...

  7. 32 CFR 643.129 - Youth groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... facilities, without monetary consideration, to on-post youth groups such as the Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts, and... intermittent or continuing use, to off-post youth groups such as the Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts, and the...

  8. Building the Emotional Intelligence of Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Druskat, Vanessa Urch; Wolff, Steven B.

    2001-01-01

    Research has found that individual emotional intelligence has a group analog and it is critical to groups' effectiveness. Teams can develop greater emotional intelligence and boost their overall performance. (JOW)

  9. Pregnancy Complications: Group B Strep Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... percent) who have meningitis caused by GBS develop: Cerebral palsy (A group of disorders that can cause problems ... percent) who have meningitis caused by GBS develop: Cerebral palsy (A group of disorders that can cause problems ...

  10. Evolutionarily stable in-group favoritism and out-group spite in intergroup conflict.

    PubMed

    Konrad, Kai A; Morath, Florian

    2012-08-01

    We study conflict between two groups of individuals. Using Schaffer's (1988) concept of evolutionary stability we provide an evolutionary underpinning for in-group altruism combined with spiteful behavior towards members of the rival out-group. We characterize the set of evolutionarily stable combinations of in-group favoritism and out-group spite and find that an increase in in-group altruism can be balanced by a decrease in spiteful behavior towards the out-group. PMID:22726807

  11. Intergroup competition may not be needed for shaping group cooperation and cultural group selection.

    PubMed

    De Dreu, Carsten K W; Balliet, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Because intergroup interactions often are mixed-motive rather than strictly zero-sum, groups often negotiate settlements that enable both cultures to thrive. Moreover, group prosperity rests on in-group love (rather than out-group hate) that emerges also absent intergroup competition or comparison. It follows that cultural group selection (CGS) reflects group effectiveness in organizing in-group trust and cooperation, rather than winning (in)direct intergroup competitions. PMID:27562414

  12. The disunity of cultural group selection.

    PubMed

    Morin, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    I argue that demographic selection, migration, and cultural diffusion, three mechanisms of institutional change, have little in common. Two of these lack the key features associated with group selection: they do not present us with group-level selection pressures counteracting individual-level ones, need not produce behavioral altruism, and do not require competition between groups whose members cooperate preferentially with one another. Cultural norms vary, change, and influence cooperation; but that is not group selection. PMID:27562116

  13. Women, money, and psychodynamic group psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Motherwell, Lise

    2002-01-01

    Developmental concerns and sociocultural expectations may keep female patients and therapists from addressing financial issues openly in group psychotherapy. Interpersonal theory provides a different view of nurturing that may help women leaders deal better with financial discussions in group. This paper includes a review of the literature on group psychotherapy and fees; feminist literature relevant to leadership; money management in group therapy; countertransference; and case examples.

  14. Improving work group decision-making effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Schoonover-Shoffner, K

    1989-01-01

    Many of the decisions in complex health care organizations are made by small work groups. Nurse administrators often lead or are highly involved in these groups, where reaching quality decisions is a critical goal. This paper examines research and information from the communications field, presenting a model for making decisions in small groups. The author identifies common pitfalls of decision-making groups and presents strategies for problem solving and improved decision making.

  15. Group therapy in a forensic setting.

    PubMed

    Stein, E; Brown, J D

    1991-12-01

    Mentally ill offenders are especially difficult patients to rehabilitate. Although group therapy is a universal method of treating these patients, their ability to benefit from group therapy has not been proven. The authors studied a group of patients held on Warrants of the Lieutenant Governor to assess their personality characteristics and their ability to develop group dynamics which are beneficial in other patient populations. The findings were that forensic patients have personality characteristics which preclude the development of these therapeutic dynamics.

  16. Thermal cleavage of the fmoc protection group.

    PubMed

    Höck, Stefan; Marti, Roger; Riedl, Rainer; Simeunovice, Marina

    2010-01-01

    The Fmoc protection group is among the most commonly used protection groups for the amino function. A fast method for the thermal deavage of this protection group under base-free conditions without the need for dibenzofulvene scavengers is presented. The advantages of this method include straightforward testability by means of a simple high-temperature NMR experiment, usually high yields, and good selectivity towards the BOC protection group and t-butyl ethers.

  17. Can Attention be Divided Between Perceptual Groups?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCann, Robert S.; Foyle, David C.; Johnston, James C.; Hart, Sandra G. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Previous work using Head-Up Displays (HUDs) suggests that the visual system parses the HUD and the outside world into distinct perceptual groups, with attention deployed sequentially to first one group and then the other. New experiments show that both groups can be processed in parallel in a divided attention search task, even though subjects have just processed a stimulus in one perceptual group or the other. Implications for models of visual attention will be discussed.

  18. ILDG Middleware Working Group Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    B. Joo; W. Watson

    2004-09-01

    We report on the status of the ILDG Middleware Working Group. The Middleware Working Group was formed with the aim of designing standard middleware to allow the interoperation of the data grids of ILDG member collaborations. Details of the working group are given. In this contribution we outline the role of middleware in the ILDG, present our proposed middleware architecture and discuss our current status and future work within the working group.

  19. The disunity of cultural group selection.

    PubMed

    Morin, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    I argue that demographic selection, migration, and cultural diffusion, three mechanisms of institutional change, have little in common. Two of these lack the key features associated with group selection: they do not present us with group-level selection pressures counteracting individual-level ones, need not produce behavioral altruism, and do not require competition between groups whose members cooperate preferentially with one another. Cultural norms vary, change, and influence cooperation; but that is not group selection.

  20. Machiavellianism, Discussion Time, and Group Shift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamm, Helmut; Myers, David G.

    1976-01-01

    Social-emotional and rational-cognitive explanations of group risky shift on choice dilemmas (hypothetical life situations) were evaluated by comparing shift in groups of low Mach (emotional) and high Mach (non-emotional) subjects. Effects of Machiavellian beliefs on social functioning are examined. Group composition was not observed to affect…

  1. The Finite Lamplighter Groups: A Guided Tour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siehler, Jacob A.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we present a family of finite groups, which provide excellent examples of the basic concepts of group theory. To work out the center, conjuagacy classes, and commutators of these groups, all that's required is a bit of linear algebra.

  2. Looking at Gestalt Group Impact: An Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serok, Shraga; Bar, Ruth

    1984-01-01

    Tested the impact of gestalt group therapy on aspects of self-concept in graduate students (N=33). Results showed a significant rise in decisiveness, general adaptation and self-criticism in the gestalt group as compared to the control groups and showed no significant changes in the self-identification and self-acceptance parameters. (LLL)

  3. A New Approach to Group Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Jerry

    1976-01-01

    To help teachers plan strategy for working with a learning group, 12 factors affecting a learning group are discussed and a series of check points are identified as criteria for evaluation. Concepts and principles of group dynamics are drawn from sociology and the work of Carl Rogers. (Author/AJ)

  4. Differential Effects of Two T Group Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boller, Jon D.

    1974-01-01

    This article presents a rationale for examining the effects of the T group on introverts and extroverts. Results indicate that the sensory awareness group is more profitable to both personality types and that there is a direct relationship between personality type and profit in a T group. (Author)

  5. Teaching Group Communication with Feature Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Russell F., II

    While a number of feature films can be used in group-process instruction, "Twelve Angry Men" and "The Breakfast Club" are particularly valuable for analyzing group communication patterns and strategies. "Twelve Angry Men" demonstrates that persuasion in groups can take place through a variety of methods. Exercises based on the film can raise…

  6. Group Intervention With Adolescent Vietnamese Refugees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsui, Alice M.; Sammons, Morgan T.

    1988-01-01

    Describes group intervention model, based on primary prevention schemes, for work with adolescent Vietnamese refugees. Addresses special cultural and therapeutic issues and concerns. Notes that while group therapies are generally difficult to implement with Vietnamese participants, group intervention work is feasible if clinicians modify…

  7. Grouping and Organizing for Instruction in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Flexibility is a key term to emphasize when grouping students for instruction, since a student might be in a different group for one academic area as compared to another academic area. This paper describes grouping for different methods of reading instruction and other disciplines. The paper discusses the following: using basal readers, using…

  8. In-group modulation of perceptual matching.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Zargol; Sui, Jie; Hewstone, Miles; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2015-10-01

    We report a novel effect of in-group bias on a task requiring simple perceptual matching of stimuli. Football fans were instructed to associate the badges of their favorite football team (in-group), a rival team (out-group), and neutral teams with simple geometric shapes. Responses to matching in-group stimuli were more efficient, and discriminability was enhanced, as compared to out-group stimuli (rival and neutral)-a result that occurred even when participants responded only to the (equally familiar) geometric shapes. Across individuals, the in-group bias on shape matching was correlated with measures of group satisfaction, and similar results were found when football fans performed the task, in the context of both the football ground and a laboratory setting. We also observed effects of in-group bias on the response criteria in some but not all of the experiments. In control studies, the advantage for in-group stimuli was not found in an independent sample of participants who were not football fans. This indicates that there was not an intrinsic advantage for the stimuli that were "in-group" for football fans. Also, performance did not differ for familiar versus unfamiliar stimuli without in-group associations. These findings indicate that group identification can affect simple shape matching.

  9. Disentangling dynamics: group sensitivity and supervision.

    PubMed

    Winship, G; Hardy, S

    1999-08-01

    In order to contextualize Altschul's interest in group dynamics we present a brief history of staff group work approaches in the UK and USA. Using case examples, the work of staff group sensitivity and group supervision is described. The difficulties of working in staff groups are highlighted and the antipathy towards group practice is discussed. It is argued that learning about conflict resolution in staff groups prepares nurses for dealing with conflicts in clinical practice. The case for re-invigorating interest in group theory and practice is presented. In presenting our reflections on staff group work, we hope not only to re-kindle the type of interest in groups that inspired Altschul but also to represent the case that it is ill conceived to attempt the work of mental health nursing without recourse to the supervisory resources of group theory, practice and support. It is through group feedback that mental health nurses and other health professionals can extend their learning about interpersonal relations, achieve quality standardization through peer feedback and reflect on practice in truly collaborative ways (Schon 1983). PMID:10763666

  10. 14 CFR Section 04 - Air Carrier Groupings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air Carrier Groupings Section 04 Section 04... REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS Section 04 Air Carrier Groupings (a) All large certificated air carriers are placed into three basic air carrier groupings...

  11. 14 CFR Section 04 - Air Carrier Groupings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air Carrier Groupings Section 04 Section 04... REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS Section 04 Air Carrier Groupings (a) All large certificated air carriers are placed into three basic air carrier groupings...

  12. 14 CFR Section 04 - Air Carrier Groupings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air Carrier Groupings Section 04 Section 04... REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS Section 04 Air Carrier Groupings (a) All large certificated air carriers are placed into three basic air carrier groupings...

  13. The Fairfax County (Va.) Principals' Research Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endo, Todd

    1987-01-01

    Describes the activities developed for the "Students with Special Needs" group of the Fairfax County Principals' Research Group. The "Research Group" has shown that principals can implement ideas that do not emerge from any other source in the school system. (MD)

  14. Group Counseling: Concepts and Procedures. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Robert C.; Landreth, Garry L.; Fall, Kevin A.

    This third edition is designed to be used as a primary source for traditional courses in group counseling. Providing a thorough discussion of the rationale for using group counseling, this book examines the differing approaches of each author to group counseling, outlines practical suggestions on the skills needed for effective facilitation of…

  15. Disentangling dynamics: group sensitivity and supervision.

    PubMed

    Winship, G; Hardy, S

    1999-08-01

    In order to contextualize Altschul's interest in group dynamics we present a brief history of staff group work approaches in the UK and USA. Using case examples, the work of staff group sensitivity and group supervision is described. The difficulties of working in staff groups are highlighted and the antipathy towards group practice is discussed. It is argued that learning about conflict resolution in staff groups prepares nurses for dealing with conflicts in clinical practice. The case for re-invigorating interest in group theory and practice is presented. In presenting our reflections on staff group work, we hope not only to re-kindle the type of interest in groups that inspired Altschul but also to represent the case that it is ill conceived to attempt the work of mental health nursing without recourse to the supervisory resources of group theory, practice and support. It is through group feedback that mental health nurses and other health professionals can extend their learning about interpersonal relations, achieve quality standardization through peer feedback and reflect on practice in truly collaborative ways (Schon 1983).

  16. The operator algebra approach to quantum groups

    PubMed Central

    Kustermans, Johan; Vaes, Stefaan

    2000-01-01

    A relatively simple definition of a locally compact quantum group in the C*-algebra setting will be explained as it was recently obtained by the authors. At the same time, we put this definition in the historical and mathematical context of locally compact groups, compact quantum groups, Kac algebras, multiplicative unitaries, and duality theory. PMID:10639116

  17. Critical Issues in International Group Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bemak, Fred; Chung, Rita Chi-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Three-quarters of the world come from collectivistic group-oriented cultures. As the world becomes more globalized it is inevitable that group counseling will be a major choice of healing and psychological intervention internationally. However, a review of scholarly articles from "The Journal for Specialists in Group Work" and…

  18. Innovative uses of psychodynamic group psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Buchele, B J

    1994-01-01

    Psychodynamic group psychotherapy is gaining renewed attention as an effective form of treatment, due in part to increasing economic constraints that make other forms of treatment less accessible. The author highlights some innovative applications of both extended and time-limited groups. She also describes specific issues that can be addressed effectively in homogeneous time-limited group therapy.

  19. Rehabilitation Teaching of Adults in Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soucy-Moloney, Lisa-Anne; Paskin, Nancy

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses the evolution of the group model for the Adaptive Skills Program used by the New York Lighthouse Vision Rehabilitation Services. Recommendations are provided for program site selection, transportation, consumer selection and group size, program schedule, and curriculum. The benefits of group instruction are described.…

  20. Transpersonal Group Psychotherapy: Theory, Method, and Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Carlton F. "Perk"

    1998-01-01

    Transpersonal group psychotherapy is a carpet of theory, technique, and experiences woven from threads of contemporary psychology, mysticism, and a perennial philosophy many centuries old. Introduces the basic concepts of transpersonal group psychotherapy, proposes a model of transpersonal group psychotherapy, discusses the training of…