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Sample records for abidjan cote divoire

  1. Petroleum geology of Cote d`Ivoir (Abidjan margin)

    SciTech Connect

    Reymond, A.

    1995-08-01

    The Cote d`Ivoire sedimentary basin is part of a typical transform passive margin developed along the West African coast from Liberia to Ghana. It straddles the coastline and the sedimentary section expands dramatically South of the East-West trending Lagune Fault, with up to 10,000 metres of sediments from Aptian to Present in age. Albo-Aptian rift series, mainly continental clastics without evaporites, have accumulated progressively in a tilted semi-graben. The drift stage marks a widespread marine sedimentation organized in progradational sequences which blanket the Albian block-fault topography of the continental break-up. Reservoirs are mainly clastics and present in the section from Middle Albian to Maastrichtian. Sand bodies are associated with identified submarine fans, infill structures or channelized units deposited in a shelf or outer-shelf environment. Trapping opportunities are due to block-faulting in the rift section, or gravity tectonics in the drift section, often combined with sand pinch-outs to constitute mixed structural-stratigraphic traps. Thick top-seal units formed by marine shales are widespread. Source-rocks have been shown to belong mainly to the rift series and they have been characterized in terms of geochemistry and maturation timing. An efficient simulation model has been used to recontruct the expulsion, migration and trapping of hydrocarbons along a selected North-South cross-section and to better define the Petroleum Systems.

  2. Children's Domestic Work in Abidjan, Cote D'Ivoire: The Petites Bonnes Have the Floor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacquemin, Melanie Y.

    2004-01-01

    This article tries to analyse the evolution over the past 40 years of children's domestic work and its representations in urban Cote d'Ivoire, and, particularly, how these practices evolved from family work linked to educational processes, into the kind of wage work that exists today. Listening to the children themselves, the aim is to find out…

  3. Aedes aegypti susceptibility to insecticide from Abidjan City, Cote D'ivoire.

    PubMed

    Konan, Lucien Yao; Coulibaly, Ibrahima Zanakoungo; Kone, Blaise Atioumounan; Ziogba, Jean-Claude Tokou; Diallo, Adama; Ekra, Daniel Kouadio; Traoré, Karim Sory; Doannio, Marie Christian Julien; Paul, Odehouri-Koudou

    2012-04-01

    The susceptibility of Aedes aegypti adults of three places in Abidjan city selected for an entomological surveillance of potential arbovirus vectors to permethrin, deltamethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, and propoxur was determined using WHO standard procedures. The wild populations of A. aegypti were susceptible to permethrin, deltamethirn, and lambdacyhalothin. Resistance to propoxur was detected in strains collected at the Autonomous Port of Abidjan and at Koumassi (mortality rate: 77%) but possibly resistance to this insecticide at the national zoological park (mortality rate: 90.8%). Populations of the national zoological park were possibly resistant to propoxur whereas those of the Autonomous port of Abidjan and of Koumassi were resistant.

  4. The Epidemiology of HIV and Prevention Needs of Men Who Have Sex with Men in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Hakim, Avi J; Aho, Josephine; Semde, Gisele; Diarrassouba, Mamadou; Ehoussou, Konan; Vuylsteke, Bea; Murrill, Christopher S; Thiam, Marguerite; Wingate, Therese

    2015-01-01

    To determine HIV prevalence and associated risk factors among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. We conducted a cross-sectional RDS survey of MSM in Abidjan from October 2011 to February 2012. Eligibility criteria included age ≥ 18 years and having had oral or anal sex with another man in the last 12 months. Weighted data analysis was conducted with RDSAT and SAS. We enrolled 603 participants, of whom 601 (99.7%) completed the questionnaire and 581 (96.7%) consented to HIV testing. HIV population prevalence was estimated as 18.0% (95% CI: 13.0-23.1); 86.4% (95% CI: 75.1-94.9) of HIV-positive MSM were unaware of their serostatus. In multivariable analysis, adjusting for age, education, and income, HIV infection was associated with unprotected sex at last sex with a woman, more than two male anal sex partners in last 12 months, inconsistent condom use during anal sex with a man, self-perceived risk of HIV, history of forced sex, history of physical abuse due to MSM status, and not receiving last HIV test result prior to study. HIV prevalence among MSM in Abidjan is more than four times as high as that of general population men. MSM engage in high-risk sexual behavior and most HIV-positive MSM are unaware of their serostatus. Greater access to HIV prevention, care, and treatment services targeted to MSM is necessary. PMID:25909484

  5. Exploring risk behaviors and vulnerability for HIV among men who have sex with men in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire: poor knowledge, homophobia and sexual violence.

    PubMed

    Aho, Josephine; Hakim, Avi; Vuylsteke, Bea; Semde, Gisèle; Gbais, Honorat G; Diarrassouba, Mamadou; Thiam, Marguerite; Laga, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk of HIV. Few data are available on MSM and HIV-related risk behaviors in West Africa. We aimed to describe risk behaviors and vulnerability among MSM in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire. We conducted a cross-sectional respondent-driven sampling survey with 601 MSM in 2011-2012. Sociodemographic and behavioural data as well as data related to emotional state and stigma were collected. Population estimates with 95% confidence intervals were produced. Survey weighted logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with inconsistent condom use in the prior 12 months. Most MSM were 24 years of age or younger (63.9%) and had attained at least primary education (84.4%). HIV risk behaviors such as low condom and water-based lubricant use, high numbers of male and female sex partners, and sex work were frequently reported as well as verbal, physical and sexual abuse. Inconsistent condom use during anal sex with a male partner in the prior 12 months was reported by 66.0% of the MSM and was positively associated with history of forced sex, alcohol consumption, having a regular partner and a casual partner, having bought sex, and self-perception of low HIV risk. MSM in Abidjan exhibit multiple and frequent HIV-related risk behaviors. To address those behaviours, a combination of individual but also structural interventions will be needed given the context of stigma, homophobia and violence. PMID:24959923

  6. Exploring risk behaviors and vulnerability for HIV among men who have sex with men in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire: poor knowledge, homophobia and sexual violence.

    PubMed

    Aho, Josephine; Hakim, Avi; Vuylsteke, Bea; Semde, Gisèle; Gbais, Honorat G; Diarrassouba, Mamadou; Thiam, Marguerite; Laga, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk of HIV. Few data are available on MSM and HIV-related risk behaviors in West Africa. We aimed to describe risk behaviors and vulnerability among MSM in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire. We conducted a cross-sectional respondent-driven sampling survey with 601 MSM in 2011-2012. Sociodemographic and behavioural data as well as data related to emotional state and stigma were collected. Population estimates with 95% confidence intervals were produced. Survey weighted logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with inconsistent condom use in the prior 12 months. Most MSM were 24 years of age or younger (63.9%) and had attained at least primary education (84.4%). HIV risk behaviors such as low condom and water-based lubricant use, high numbers of male and female sex partners, and sex work were frequently reported as well as verbal, physical and sexual abuse. Inconsistent condom use during anal sex with a male partner in the prior 12 months was reported by 66.0% of the MSM and was positively associated with history of forced sex, alcohol consumption, having a regular partner and a casual partner, having bought sex, and self-perception of low HIV risk. MSM in Abidjan exhibit multiple and frequent HIV-related risk behaviors. To address those behaviours, a combination of individual but also structural interventions will be needed given the context of stigma, homophobia and violence.

  7. Acceptance of HIV in Cote d'Ivoire earns praise.

    PubMed

    1996-04-22

    The first known case of AIDS in Cote d'Ivoire was diagnosed in 1985. After that, the number of people identified as having AIDS grew rapidly, but the social stigmatization of people with HIV and AIDS caused the discussion of HIV/AIDS to remain taboo for years. Even health workers only mentioned the virus within the privacy of their clinics. The government of Cote d'Ivoire finally decided in 1994 to acknowledge the existence of an HIV epidemic in the country and launched an anti-AIDS campaign supported by social workers and nongovernmental organizations. These actions have earned international support for the authorities of Cote d'Ivoire. As a result of the campaign, growing numbers of people have been taking care of infected relatives, while some people with AIDS have publicly declared their HIV-positive serostatus. An HIV laboratory, the first of its kind in West Africa, will be established in Cote d'Ivoire, and the UN Program Against AIDS will base its regional office for West Africa in the city. Peter Piot, the program's executive director, has stated that the UN chose Abidjan because of the Cote d'Ivoire's new honest approach toward fighting HIV and AIDS. Cote d'Ivoire, a member of the UN AIDS Coordination Committee, plans to host an International Conference on AIDS in 1997. The US Centers for Disease Control also plan to finance the creation of a virological laboratory in Abidjan to determine how the virus is reproduced in humans with the goal of developing a vaccine against it; to identify how HIV is transmitted, how it kills, and how to prevent its propagation; and to serve as a training center for young Ivoirian virologists. Construction began upon the Abidjan Virology Laboratory in late March 1996. The laboratory is expected to cost 400 million CFA francs (almost $850,000) and should start operating in July 1997. PMID:12290906

  8. Cote d'Ivoire offers large tracts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-22

    Cote d'Ivoire has opened an international bidding round for production sharing contracts (PSCs) on three blocks that lie mainly in the Gulf of Guinea. Qualified offers resulting in PSCs signed before Apr. 30, 1994, will be allowed special incentives designed to speed oil and gas development. The tender is part of a plan through which Cote d'Ivoire hopes to encourage domestic economic growth by stimulating enough oil and gas production to become energy self-sufficient. The paper discusses the blocks offered, offshore prospects, and PSC requirements, incentives, and biddable terms.

  9. AIDS soap opera generates massive interest. Eye witness: Cote d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Dodd, R

    1995-12-01

    SIDA Dans La Cite (AIDS in the City) is a popular weekly soap opera first broadcast in Cote d'Ivoire in 1991 with 11 15-minute episodes. The series is part of a campaign by Population Services International (PSI) to raise awareness about AIDS among Ivorian youth. Actors worked for a nominal fee, editing studios were provided at substantial discounts, and filming equipment was borrowed for next to nothing. Production director realized how important the soap opera had become after the fourth episode. A study of 700 households in Abidjan found that of the 75% who had access to a television, two-thirds had seen at least one episode. Cote d'Ivoire may be one of the most religiously conservative countries in Africa. 10% of the adult population, however, is infected with HIV. All sectors of society therefore understand the need to openly understand and discuss sexual issues in the context of such high HIV prevalence. Studies indicate that virtually everyone in Cote d'Ivoire has heard of AIDS and knows that it is a sexually transmitted disease, but persuading people to change their behavior is difficult. PSI sells approximately 750,000 of its subsidized Prudence condoms. Prudence has the same brand recognition in the country as Nescafe and Toyota. A recent survey of sexually active teens found that 30% of girls and 45% of boys used condoms. A weekly radio show is broadcast live from one of the poorest ghettos of Abidjan. Guests include popular singers, comedians, and television personalities. The actors are often from SIDA Dans La Cite. PMID:12319960

  10. Numerous seismic prospects dot concessions off Cote d'Ivoire

    SciTech Connect

    Koffi, N. ); Barton, E.W. )

    1994-04-04

    A recently announced significant oil discovery off Cote d'Ivoire in West Africa has piqued industry interest in the area. The well, drilled in the CI-11 block in 70 m of water about 12 km offshore, comes several weeks after UMIC announced a sizable gas/condensate discovery in the same block, UMIC and partners plan further drilling. Petroci, the Cote d'Ivoire state oil company and working interest partner in the two new discoveries, is offering three large evaluation concessions to the international oil industry. This current concession round represents the first time in recent years that the region has been opened for petroleum exploration activity. In a major change, Cote d'Ivoire just reduced its income tax rate for the oil industry to 35% from 50%. The paper describes the structure of the margin, stratigraphy, the Espair oil field, the Belier oil field, and the Fox trot gas field.

  11. Pay Differences between Teachers and Other Occupations: Some Evidence from Cote D'Ivoire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komenan, A. G.; Grootaert, C.

    1990-01-01

    Uses data from the 1985 Cote d'Ivoire Living Standards Survey to examine pay differences between teachers and other wage earners in the Ivory Coast. Results indicate that teachers' base salaries contain a rent component that disappears when the total remuneration plan is considered. Includes 20 references. (MLH)

  12. 3 CFR - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to Cote d'Ivoire

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs.... 2011-7 of March 7, 2011 Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to Cote d'Ivoire... laws of the United States, including section 2(c)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act...

  13. The Equity Impact of Public Finance of Private Education Provision in Cote d'Ivoire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakellariou, Chris; Patrinos, Harry Anthony

    2009-01-01

    The equity effects of public subsidization of private schools in Cote d'Ivoire are analyzed. The subsidy per student in private (and public) schools increases as one goes to higher household per capita expenditure groups. Students from families in the highest expenditure quartile receive twice the subsidy received by students from families in the…

  14. Groundwater vulnerability in the District of Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouame, Agnes; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Derron, Marc-Henri; Tacher, Laurent

    2014-05-01

    The District of Abidjan, located on the coastal sedimentary basin south of Côte d'Ivoire (West Africa) covers an area of 2,1 km2. This sedimentary basin is composed of continuous groundwater aquifers in Quaternary, Tertiary and Upper Cretaceous rocks. Our study focuses on the unconfined Quaternary groundwater called the Continental Terminal which formations are composed mainly of lenticular stratification of coarse sands, clays, ferruginous sandstone and iron ore. This Continental Terminal aquifer is the main source of drinking water for the city of Abidjan. Indeed, the city of Abidjan is facing various pollution problems such as illegal dumping of household waste, waste oils garages, domestic and industrial wastewater, gas stations, public discharge Akouédo and the spill of approximately 500 tons of toxic waste from the ship "Probo Koala" the night of 19 August 2006. These toxic wastes have killed more than 10 people and several infections. The infiltration of these contaminants under the influence of rainwater in the basement is a serious threat to groundwater from the District of Abidjan especially as the rains are very strong in this part of the country. What would be the fate of pollutants such as organochlorines, hydrogen sulfide, sulfides and hydrocarbons contained in toxic waste, knowing that this aquifer is the main source of supply of drinking water to the city of Abidjan? It therefore seems necessary to study the vulnerability of groundwater of Abidjan District. The overall objective of this study is to assess the risk of groundwater contamination by organochlorines, sulfides, hydrogen sulfide and hydrocarbons. This project is to develop groundwater flow and contaminant transport models such as organochlorines models, hydrogen sulfide and sulfides with two digital codes, Visual Modflow and Feflow. Then several scenarios with different pollutants are finally made to realize maps of groundwater vulnerability from Abidjan to these contaminants.

  15. Zones of Difference, Boundaries of Access: Moral Geography and Community Mapping in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Thomann, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    In Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, 18% of men who have sex with men (MSM) are HIV-positive. Based on ethnographic research conducted among HIV peer educators and activists in Abidjan, I examine their narratives and hand-drawn maps of city space. I draw on a methodological process of map-making to examine research participants' evaluations of neighborhoods and link these evaluations to debates over national and cultural belonging in Côte d'Ivoire. I suggest a moral geography emerges from the maps and narratives and ask what the bioethical implications of moral geography are in the context of service delivery and activism among sexual minorities.

  16. Sociopolitical crisis and the reconstruction of sustainable periurban agriculture in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Babo, Alfred

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the effects of the post-2002 sociopolitical crisis in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, on urban and peri-urban agriculture. Based on the case study of Abidjan, it argues for a conceptualization of sustainability that includes social as well as environmental dimensions and focuses on coping strategies of producers and merchants. In Abidjan, these strategies included internal migration within the city and its periphery, the use of organic fertilizers, and changes in market structure. The study illustrates how such strategies allowed producers to continue to supply produce to the market, despite the difficulties of war. PMID:21322900

  17. Sociopolitical crisis and the reconstruction of sustainable periurban agriculture in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Babo, Alfred

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the effects of the post-2002 sociopolitical crisis in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, on urban and peri-urban agriculture. Based on the case study of Abidjan, it argues for a conceptualization of sustainability that includes social as well as environmental dimensions and focuses on coping strategies of producers and merchants. In Abidjan, these strategies included internal migration within the city and its periphery, the use of organic fertilizers, and changes in market structure. The study illustrates how such strategies allowed producers to continue to supply produce to the market, despite the difficulties of war.

  18. Gender, Education, and Employment in Cote d'Ivoire. Social Dimensions of Adjustment in Sub-Saharan Africa. Working Paper No. 8. Policy Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appleton, Simon; And Others

    Recent survey data from Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) is used to investigate gender differences in education and labor market participation. Previous researchers believed that women in Cote d'Ivoire were less likely than men to work for wages because of child-related obligations and low wage rates. This report contradicts this commonly held view by…

  19. Development of Foxtrot offshore gas field Cote d'Ivoire. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    In December 1991, a definitional mission investigated a project to develop a natural gas field located offshore Cote d'Ivoire, and whether a grant to the Ivorian government should be made for the study. However, before the mission could be conducted, the character of the project changed from one which was primarily a gas-development venture to a power generation project in which the energy source was natural gas. It was concluded that the expanded project changed the focus of the definitional mission. In the project's original formulation in which the World Bank was to be the main lender, it was clear that U.S. firms would have an opportunity to bid on significant portions of the project due to the Bank's standard requirement for competitive bidding. But after French industrial and financial groups joined in the expanded project, it was not clear that a sufficient opportunity would still exist for the involvement of U.S. firms in the overall project. Therefore, the mission was modified to first assess the business and financial aspects of the project before making a decision on a mission to Cote d'Ivoire to conduct a technical review of the proposed development of the offshore gas field.

  20. Zones of Difference, Boundaries of Access: Moral Geography and Community Mapping in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Thomann, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    In Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, 18% of men who have sex with men (MSM) are HIV-positive. Based on ethnographic research conducted among HIV peer educators and activists in Abidjan, I examine their narratives and hand-drawn maps of city space. I draw on a methodological process of map-making to examine research participants' evaluations of neighborhoods and link these evaluations to debates over national and cultural belonging in Côte d'Ivoire. I suggest a moral geography emerges from the maps and narratives and ask what the bioethical implications of moral geography are in the context of service delivery and activism among sexual minorities. PMID:26646721

  1. Psychosexual development among HIV-positive adolescents in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Aka Dago-Akribi, Hortense; Cacou Adjoua, Marie-Chantal

    2004-05-01

    Some 84,000 children with HIV/AIDS live in Côte d'Ivoire, where very little therapeutic or psychological help is available to them. The Yopougon Child Programme of the "Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le Sida" was launched in Abidjan in October 2000. It provides services for HIV-infected children and psychological consultations for children and their parents. This paper is about the psychosexual development of the HIV-positive adolescents in the Programme, 11 girls and 8 boys aged 13-17, their problems with HIV-related physiological and psychosexual changes, and relationships with their parents. The information was gathered in individual therapy sessions, group discussions and family support sessions. Bodily development was of major importance to these adolescents, particularly among those who had not yet developed secondary sexual characteristics and were shorter and weighed less than their peers. Those who had not achieved puberty were unable to participate in traditional rituals and worried whether they could ever marry or have children. In most cases, adolescents with HIV have been infected by a sexually transmitted virus without having had sexual relations themselves. They need support dealing with their sexual development and sexual feelings, along with medical care, in a context in which HIV infection is a secret, impossible to talk about with their peers.

  2. A petroliferous transform-margin basin, Cote d'Ivoire, West Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Harms, J.C. ); Bruso, J.M. Jr.; Wallace, R.L.; Canales, J.A. )

    1996-01-01

    Break-up transform margins, formed by large dominantly strike-slip faults as continents separate, are distinct in structural style and stratigraphic sequence from subduction or purely extensional margins. A continental margin defined by such a transform zone is sharp, precipitous, and places an essentially complete continental crust abruptly against oceanic or highly attenuated continental crust. Structures develop in stress fields dominated by horizontal translation, with an overprint of uplift and subsidence related to thermal effects of a laterally migrating asthenosphere plume. Stratigraphic sequences begin with relatively deep-water lacustrine deposits and are followed by marine conditions as ocean connections develop. Because bathymetry tends to be steep across the transform zone, marine deposits along this zone represent slope environments with many erosional canyons and canyons fills, and these facies are vertically stacked through time. The offshore Cote d'Ivoire Basin is an excellent example of a transform margin documented by more than 110 wells, an extensive 2-D seismic grid, a growing number of 3-D surveys, and several productive fields. The sedimentary section exceeds 5000m, beginning with Aptian( )-Albian deep lacustrine facies. Marine incursion occurred in the Albian, followed by deformation, uplift, and erosion in later Albian. A series of major uplifts developed offshore along strands of the St. Paul fracture zone. The uplifts contain many SE-trending normal splay faults. The uplifts and NE-tilted fault blocks are the major petroleum targets within the Albian section. Upper Cretaceous petroleum traps are mainly related to stratigraphic variations caused by submarine canyon cutting and filling. The Cote d'lvoire Basin provides a valuable model of transform margin processes and petroleum occurrences.

  3. A petroliferous transform-margin basin, Cote d`Ivoire, West Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Harms, J.C.; Bruso, J.M. Jr.; Wallace, R.L.; Canales, J.A.

    1996-12-31

    Break-up transform margins, formed by large dominantly strike-slip faults as continents separate, are distinct in structural style and stratigraphic sequence from subduction or purely extensional margins. A continental margin defined by such a transform zone is sharp, precipitous, and places an essentially complete continental crust abruptly against oceanic or highly attenuated continental crust. Structures develop in stress fields dominated by horizontal translation, with an overprint of uplift and subsidence related to thermal effects of a laterally migrating asthenosphere plume. Stratigraphic sequences begin with relatively deep-water lacustrine deposits and are followed by marine conditions as ocean connections develop. Because bathymetry tends to be steep across the transform zone, marine deposits along this zone represent slope environments with many erosional canyons and canyons fills, and these facies are vertically stacked through time. The offshore Cote d`Ivoire Basin is an excellent example of a transform margin documented by more than 110 wells, an extensive 2-D seismic grid, a growing number of 3-D surveys, and several productive fields. The sedimentary section exceeds 5000m, beginning with Aptian(?)-Albian deep lacustrine facies. Marine incursion occurred in the Albian, followed by deformation, uplift, and erosion in later Albian. A series of major uplifts developed offshore along strands of the St. Paul fracture zone. The uplifts contain many SE-trending normal splay faults. The uplifts and NE-tilted fault blocks are the major petroleum targets within the Albian section. Upper Cretaceous petroleum traps are mainly related to stratigraphic variations caused by submarine canyon cutting and filling. The Cote d`lvoire Basin provides a valuable model of transform margin processes and petroleum occurrences.

  4. Ochratoxin A in human blood in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Sangare-Tigori, Béatrice; Moukha, Serge; Kouadio, James H; Dano, Djédjé Sébastien; Betbeder, Anne-Marie; Achour, Abdellatif; Creppy, Edmond E

    2006-06-15

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium genera contaminates a diversity of foods including cereals; cereals-derived foods; dry fruits; beans; cocoa; coffee; beer; wine; and foodstuffs of animal origin mainly poultry, eggs, pork and milk, including human breast milk. OTA is nephrotoxic to all animal species studied so far and most likely to humans, who show the longest half-life for elimination of this toxin among all species examined. Among other toxic effects, OTA is teratogenic, immunotoxic, genotoxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic, all of which lead to life-threatening pathologies through several molecular pathways. In Côte d'Ivoire, preliminary surveys conducted by us have proven from 1998 to 2004 the reality of ochratoxin A-contamination of foodstuffs. To assess OTA in human blood, the immunoaffinity columns were used along with HPLC for separation and fluorimetric quantification of blood samples collected in Abidjan from two categories of people: apparently healthy donors (n=63) and nephropathy patients undergoing dialysis (n=39). Among healthy donors, 34.9% show OTA concentrations ranging from 0.01 - 5.81 microg/l with a mean value of 0.83 microg/l, whereas, among nephropathy patients undergoing dialysis 20.5% are OTA positive in a range of 0.167-2.42 microg/l and a mean value of 1.05. Although the sex ratio is 0.82 (46 females for 56 males) ochratoxin A contamination is equally distributed in both sexes. Nephropathy patients undergoing dialysis appear, however, less frequently contaminated than healthy donors (20.5 versus 34.9%) and show higher OTA concentrations (higher mean value, p=0.01). Ochratoxin A concentrations found in human blood reflect concentrations previously detected in cereals and peanuts according to the eating habits and diets of people in Côte d'Ivoire. But, the prevalence of ochratoxin A in blood of nephropathy people undergoing dialysis appears lower than expected from the frequency of OTA contamination in cereals and

  5. HIV vulnerability and the erasure of sexual and gender diversity in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Thomann, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    In the fight against concentrated HIV epidemics, men who have sex with men (MSM) are often framed as a homogeneous population, with little attention paid to sexual and gender diversity and its impact on HIV vulnerability. This article draws on ethnographic research conducted in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire among les branchés - a local term encompassing several categories of same-sex desire and practice. In the context of increased HIV prevention programming targeting Ivoirian sexual and gender minorities, such diversity is effectively erased. This obfuscation of difference has particularly negative impacts for travestis, who may be at higher risk for HIV infection, though research and prevention efforts in which they are grouped with 'MSM' render them underrepresented and make their vulnerability difficult to quantify. Branchés whose class and/or ethnic backgrounds compound their stigmatised status as sexual and gender minorities also bear the burden of this exclusion. Furthermore, some branchés deploy 'MSM' as a form of self-identification, further complicating who such categories represent. By highlighting the ways in which constructions of gender and sexuality within HIV/AIDS programming obscure complex social realities, I aim to reorient thinking around the development of purposeful HIV programming that engages the complexity of sexual and gender minority experience. PMID:26894990

  6. Quantitative microbial risk assessment related to urban wastewater and lagoon water reuse in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Yapo, R I; Koné, B; Bonfoh, B; Cissé, G; Zinsstag, J; Nguyen-Viet, H

    2014-06-01

    We assessed the infection risks related to the use of wastewater in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, by using quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA). Giardia lamblia and Escherichia coli were isolated and identified in wastewater samples from the canal and lagoon. The exposure assessment was conducted using a cross-sectional survey by questionnaire with 150 individuals who were in contact with the wastewater during their daily activities of swimming, fishing, washing, and collecting materials for reuse. Risk was characterised using the Monte Carlo simulation with 10,000 iterations. Results showed high contamination of water by G. lamblia and E. coli (12.8 CFU/100 mL to 2.97 × 10(4)CFU/100 mL and from 0 cyst/L to 18.5 cysts/L, respectively). Estimates of yearly average infection risks for E. coli (90.07-99.90%, assuming that 8% of E. coli were E. coli O157:H7) and G. lamblia (9.4-34.78%) were much higher than the acceptable risk (10(-4)). These results suggest the need for wastewater treatment plants, raising awareness in the population in contact with urban wastewater and lagoon water. Our study also showed that QMRA is appropriate to study health risks in settings with limited data and budget resources. PMID:24937224

  7. Quantitative microbial risk assessment related to urban wastewater and lagoon water reuse in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Yapo, R I; Koné, B; Bonfoh, B; Cissé, G; Zinsstag, J; Nguyen-Viet, H

    2014-06-01

    We assessed the infection risks related to the use of wastewater in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, by using quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA). Giardia lamblia and Escherichia coli were isolated and identified in wastewater samples from the canal and lagoon. The exposure assessment was conducted using a cross-sectional survey by questionnaire with 150 individuals who were in contact with the wastewater during their daily activities of swimming, fishing, washing, and collecting materials for reuse. Risk was characterised using the Monte Carlo simulation with 10,000 iterations. Results showed high contamination of water by G. lamblia and E. coli (12.8 CFU/100 mL to 2.97 × 10(4)CFU/100 mL and from 0 cyst/L to 18.5 cysts/L, respectively). Estimates of yearly average infection risks for E. coli (90.07-99.90%, assuming that 8% of E. coli were E. coli O157:H7) and G. lamblia (9.4-34.78%) were much higher than the acceptable risk (10(-4)). These results suggest the need for wastewater treatment plants, raising awareness in the population in contact with urban wastewater and lagoon water. Our study also showed that QMRA is appropriate to study health risks in settings with limited data and budget resources.

  8. Exploring Risk Behaviors and Vulnerability for HIV among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Abidjan, Cote d′Ivoire: Poor Knowledge, Homophobia and Sexual Violence

    PubMed Central

    Aho, Josephine; Hakim, Avi; Vuylsteke, Bea; Semde, Gisèle; Gbais, Honorat G.; Diarrassouba, Mamadou; Thiam, Marguerite; Laga, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk of HIV. Few data are available on MSM and HIV-related risk behaviors in West Africa. We aimed to describe risk behaviors and vulnerability among MSM in Abidjan, Cote d′Ivoire. We conducted a cross-sectional respondent-driven sampling survey with 601 MSM in 2011–2012. Sociodemographic and behavioural data as well as data related to emotional state and stigma were collected. Population estimates with 95% confidence intervals were produced. Survey weighted logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with inconsistent condom use in the prior 12 months. Most MSM were 24 years of age or younger (63.9%) and had attained at least primary education (84.4%). HIV risk behaviors such as low condom and water-based lubricant use, high numbers of male and female sex partners, and sex work were frequently reported as well as verbal, physical and sexual abuse. Inconsistent condom use during anal sex with a male partner in the prior 12 months was reported by 66.0% of the MSM and was positively associated with history of forced sex, alcohol consumption, having a regular partner and a casual partner, having bought sex, and self-perception of low HIV risk. MSM in Abidjan exhibit multiple and frequent HIV-related risk behaviors. To address those behaviours, a combination of individual but also structural interventions will be needed given the context of stigma, homophobia and violence. PMID:24959923

  9. Occurrence of ochratoxin A in spices commercialized in Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire).

    PubMed

    Manda, Pierre; Adanou, Ketty Michele; Ardjouma, Dembelé; Adepo, Aholia Jean Baptiste; Dano, Djédjé Sébastien

    2016-08-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced mostly by several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium. OTA is nephrotoxic in all animal species in which it has been tested and is cancerogenic in rodents. It is associated with Balkan endemic nephropathy. It is naturally present in many crop products such as cereals (barley, wheat, maize) and dried fruits, spices, coffee, wine, olives, and cocoa. The aim of this study was to assess the contamination of three Ivoirian spices with OTA (ginger, chili, and pepper) widely consumed by the population. A total of 90 spice samples (ginger: n = 30; chili: n = 30; pepper n = 30) was taken from various sales outlets of Abidjan. OTA was quantified using an HPLC apparatus coupled with a fluorimetric detector. The chili and ginger samples were contaminated with OTA at a mean concentration of 57.48 ± 174 and 0.12 ± 0.15 μg/kg, respectively. No contamination of the pepper samples was detected. Eight (26.67 %) of the chili samples exceeded the maximum limit of 15 μg/kg established by European regulation. These results should serve as an alert on the risk to the consumer population of these products that are highly contaminated with OTA. PMID:27040819

  10. Occurrence of ochratoxin A in spices commercialized in Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire).

    PubMed

    Manda, Pierre; Adanou, Ketty Michele; Ardjouma, Dembelé; Adepo, Aholia Jean Baptiste; Dano, Djédjé Sébastien

    2016-08-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced mostly by several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium. OTA is nephrotoxic in all animal species in which it has been tested and is cancerogenic in rodents. It is associated with Balkan endemic nephropathy. It is naturally present in many crop products such as cereals (barley, wheat, maize) and dried fruits, spices, coffee, wine, olives, and cocoa. The aim of this study was to assess the contamination of three Ivoirian spices with OTA (ginger, chili, and pepper) widely consumed by the population. A total of 90 spice samples (ginger: n = 30; chili: n = 30; pepper n = 30) was taken from various sales outlets of Abidjan. OTA was quantified using an HPLC apparatus coupled with a fluorimetric detector. The chili and ginger samples were contaminated with OTA at a mean concentration of 57.48 ± 174 and 0.12 ± 0.15 μg/kg, respectively. No contamination of the pepper samples was detected. Eight (26.67 %) of the chili samples exceeded the maximum limit of 15 μg/kg established by European regulation. These results should serve as an alert on the risk to the consumer population of these products that are highly contaminated with OTA.

  11. An innovative fast-track development for Cote d`Ivoire

    SciTech Connect

    Kreider, G.J.; Barnes, J.E.; Smitherman, J.E.; McFarland, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    In May, 1994, approval was received for the development of the Panthere Gas Field and Lion Oil Field by UMC Petroleum Corporation as operator. At that time, UMC had drilled one well from a jackup at Panthere in 270 feet of water and had set a guyed caisson. Following the Panthere gas discovery, the Lion oil discovery well was drilled in 235 feet of water and another guyed caisson was set. Paragon Engineering Services had been hired in late 1993 to develop project scenarios and cost estimates and as the project evolved, detailed engineering, procurement and construction management services. Production equipment for 30,000 BOPD, 16,000 BWPD and 75 MMSCFD was to be installed on a jackup drilling rig converted to a Mobile Offshore Production Unit (MOPU) located at the Lion A caisson. Production from Panthere would flow through an 8-inch line to the MOPU. The production equipment on the MOPU would (1) separate oil, water and gas, (2) treat the oil for sale and the water for discharge, (3) pump the oil into an 8-inch pipeline to the refinery in Abidjan, (4) compress the oil well and gas well gas as needed, and (5) dehydrate it for sale. A CALM buoy with shuttle tanker was included in the original plan for early production and as a backup to the oil pipeline. It was also unknown at project initiation whether a gas sales contract would be successfully negotiated, and thus the project was to proceed on the basis of flaring produced gas with capability to add equipment at a later date for gas sales. This paper describes how the project was organized and how this organization allowed the project to accommodate changes and construction problems as they developed while completing the project on time.

  12. Ivermectin in onchocerciasis control in the forest zone of Cote d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Soungalo, T; Soumana, D; Moussa, S; François, R

    1997-12-01

    Ivermectin (Mectizan MK-933) is an efficient microfilaricidal drug used for mass treatment by the Onchocerciasis Control Programme (OCP) in the savanna zones of West Africa. Some populations of the forest zone of Côte d'Ivoire have very high microfilarial loads, so it was decided to treat some of these populations with ivermectin, in order to avoid an eventual reinfestation of the protected savanna areas. A pilot campaign was carried out in a small stream catchment area where onchocerciasis transmission is usually high. The whole population was treated orally with ivermectin (200 micrograms/kg of body weight), with the exception of children under 5 years of age, pregnant women and people who were ill. The results showed a very high efficiency of ivermectin in the treatment of onchocerciasis in the forest zone. The prevalence rate of microfilaria dropped from 60.1 to 33.2%. The community microfilarial load was reduced from 29.7 to 5.6 microfilariae per skin snip. To maintain this effect, the authors recommend regular treatment of all new comers into the area.

  13. Perceptions and Experiences of Intimate Partner Violence in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Shuman, Sara J.; Falb, Kathryn L.; Cardoso, Lauren F.; Cole, Heather; Kpebo, Denise; Gupta, Jhumka

    2016-01-01

    Background Men and women’s perceptions of intimate partner violence (IPV) within crisis-affected populations are not well understood. This mixed-methods study examined the frequency of IPV against women in urban Cote d’Ivoire, and qualitatively explored how men and women perceive the impact of various forms of IPV on health, everyday activities, and feelings of shame. Methods A survey was administered to Ivorian women (N = 80) to measure the frequency of IPV, and ten focus group discussions were conducted with women (n = 46) and men (n = 45) to explore perceptions of different forms of IPV, including its impacts on disruptions to health, everyday activities, and experiences of shame. Results Half of all surveyed women (53.6%) reported past year exposure to physical, sexual, or emotional IPV. Of the multiple types of violence, emotional IPV was most common (46.4%), followed by sexual IPV (21.7%) and physical IPV (17.4%). Focus group participants identified additional forms of violence including economic IPV and community discrimination. Lack of financial resources and unemployment were common problems among crisis-affected women and were described as an underlying source of IPV. Both women and men reported that shame and stigma play a large role in how women experience the repercussions of IPV, regardless of the form of violence, with public episodes of IPV almost always seen as more detrimental than private episodes of IPV. Conclusions These results underscore the need for increased social support mechanisms for women to reduce the shame, stigma, and isolation associated with their experiences. The creation of safe and supportive spaces for women to talk about and challenge social norms may be an important first step in reducing community shaming and the secrecy that often surrounds IPV. Safe spaces along with broader societal outreach, including challenging men’s social positions and creating opportunities for increasing economic resources can, in turn

  14. High prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections among male sex workers in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire: need for services tailored to their needs

    PubMed Central

    Semde, Gisèle; Sika, Lazare; Crucitti, Tania; Ettiegne Traore, Virginie; Buve, Anne; Laga, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To assess condom use and prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STI) and HIV among male sex workers (MSW) in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted between October 2007 and January 2008 among MSW attending a sex worker clinic in Abidjan. A short questionnaire was administered in a face-to-face interview, and the participants were asked to provide a urine sample for STI testing and to self-collect transudate of the gingival mucosa for anonymous HIV testing, using a rapid test. A rectal swab for STI testing was taken by a physician. Molecular amplification assays were performed for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Trichomonas vaginalis. Results 96 MSW participated in the survey, their median age was 27 years and the median duration of sex work was 5 years. Consistent condom use with clients during the last working day was 86.0%, and consistent condom use with the regular partner during the last week was 81.6%. HIV infection was detected in 50.0% of the participants. The prevalence of N gonorrhoeae was 12.8%, chlamydia infection was present in 3.2% and T vaginalis in 2.1% of the study participants. Conclusions HIV and STI rates found in this study confirm the high risk and vulnerability status of MSW in Côte d'Ivoire. There is a definite need for studies exploring risk and risk perceptions among MSW in more depth and for services tailored to their needs, including developing and validating simple algorithms for the diagnosis of STI in MSW and men who have sex with men. PMID:22328644

  15. Investigation of a Large Collection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Bacteriophages Collected from a Single Environmental Source in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Essoh, Christiane; Latino, Libera; Midoux, Cédric; Blouin, Yann; Loukou, Guillaume; Nguetta, Simon-Pierre A; Lathro, Serge; Cablanmian, Arsher; Kouassi, Athanase K; Vergnaud, Gilles; Pourcel, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Twenty two distinct bacteriophages were isolated from sewage water from five locations in the city of Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire over a two-year period, using a collection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains with diverse genotypes. The phages were characterized by their virulence spectrum on a panel of selected P. aeruginosa strains from cystic fibrosis patients and by whole genome sequencing. Twelve virions representing the observed diversity were visualised by electron microscopy. The combined observations showed that 17 phages, distributed into seven genera, were virulent, and that five phages were related to temperate phages belonging to three genera. Some showed similarity with known phages only at the protein level. The vast majority of the genetic variations among virulent phages from the same genus resulted from seemingly non-random horizontal transfer events, inside a population of P. aeruginosa phages with limited diversity. This suggests the existence of a single environmental reservoir or ecotype in which continuous selection is taking place. In contrast, mostly point mutations were observed among phages potentially capable of lysogenisation. This is the first study of P. aeruginosa phage diversity in an African city and it shows that a large variety of phage species can be recovered in a limited geographical site at least when different bacterial strains are used. The relative temporal and spatial stability of the Abidjan phage population might reflect equilibrium in the microbial community from which they are released.

  16. What Factors Contribute to Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in Urban, Conflict-Affected Settings? Qualitative Findings from Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, L F; Gupta, J; Shuman, S; Cole, H; Kpebo, D; Falb, K L

    2016-04-01

    Rapid urbanization is a key driver of the unique set of health risks facing urban populations. One of the most critical health hazards facing urban women is intimate partner violence (IPV). In post-conflict urban areas, women may face an even greater risk of IPV. Yet, few studies have examined the IPV experiences of urban-dwelling, conflict-affected women, including those who have been internally displaced. This study qualitatively examined the social and structural characteristics of the urban environment that contributed to the IPV experiences of women residing in post-conflict Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. Ten focus groups were conducted with men and women, both internally displaced (IDPs) and non-displaced. Lack of support networks, changing gender roles, and tensions between traditional gender norms and those of the "modern" city were reported as key contributors to IPV. Urban poverty and with it unemployment, food insecurity, and housing instability also played a role. Finally, IDPs faced heightened vulnerability to IPV as a result of displacement and discrimination. The relationship between economic strains and IPV are similar to other conflict-affected settings, but Abidjan's urban environment presented other unique characteristics contributing to IPV. Understanding these factors is crucial to designing appropriate services for women and for implementing IPV reduction interventions in urban areas. Strengthening formal and informal mechanisms for help-seeking, utilizing multi-modal interventions that address economic stress and challenge inequitable gender norms, as well as tailoring programs specifically for IDPs, are some considerations for IPV program planning focused on conflict-affected women in urban areas. PMID:27000124

  17. Operational issues in preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, 1998-99.

    PubMed Central

    Msellati, P.; Hingst, G.; Kaba, F.; Viho, I.; Welffens-Ekra, C.; Dabis, F.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the feasibility, from the public health standpoint, of preventing mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in Africa. METHODS: Voluntary counselling and HIV serotesting were routinely provided in four health centres in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, for six months in 1998-99. Peripartum treatment with zidovudine and alternatives to breastfeeding were provided free to HIV-infected women. FINDINGS: Of the 4309 pregnant women in the study who attended their first antenatal care visit, 3756 benefited from individual counselling and pretesting (87.2%), and 3452 (80.1%) agreed to undergo HIV serotesting. Overall HIV prevalence was (12.89%) and 5% for women aged under 18 years. Among the 2998 HIV-negative women, 71% returned for their test result, whereas only 60% of the 445 HIV-positive women did so. A total of 124 HIV-positive women were informed of their serostatus and the possibility of preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV; 100 started treatment and 80 completed zidovudine prophylaxis. At 6 weeks of age, 36 of the 78 liveborn children were being breastfed (46%), two were being mixed-fed and 41 (52%) were being artificially fed. CONCLUSIONS: In Abidjan, voluntary counselling and HIV testing with a view to preventing mother-to-child transmission was feasible in antenatal care units and was well accepted by pregnant women. An insufficient proportion of women returned to obtain their test results. This was especially so among HIV-positive women, the target group for preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Additional staff were required in order to offer voluntary counselling and HIV testing to the study women. Close supervision and strong commitment of health workers were essential. Alternatives to breastfeeding were effectively proposed to HIV-positive women, with active follow-up of children and clinical, nutritional and social support. PMID:11477967

  18. What Factors Contribute to Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in Urban, Conflict-Affected Settings? Qualitative Findings from Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, L F; Gupta, J; Shuman, S; Cole, H; Kpebo, D; Falb, K L

    2016-04-01

    Rapid urbanization is a key driver of the unique set of health risks facing urban populations. One of the most critical health hazards facing urban women is intimate partner violence (IPV). In post-conflict urban areas, women may face an even greater risk of IPV. Yet, few studies have examined the IPV experiences of urban-dwelling, conflict-affected women, including those who have been internally displaced. This study qualitatively examined the social and structural characteristics of the urban environment that contributed to the IPV experiences of women residing in post-conflict Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. Ten focus groups were conducted with men and women, both internally displaced (IDPs) and non-displaced. Lack of support networks, changing gender roles, and tensions between traditional gender norms and those of the "modern" city were reported as key contributors to IPV. Urban poverty and with it unemployment, food insecurity, and housing instability also played a role. Finally, IDPs faced heightened vulnerability to IPV as a result of displacement and discrimination. The relationship between economic strains and IPV are similar to other conflict-affected settings, but Abidjan's urban environment presented other unique characteristics contributing to IPV. Understanding these factors is crucial to designing appropriate services for women and for implementing IPV reduction interventions in urban areas. Strengthening formal and informal mechanisms for help-seeking, utilizing multi-modal interventions that address economic stress and challenge inequitable gender norms, as well as tailoring programs specifically for IDPs, are some considerations for IPV program planning focused on conflict-affected women in urban areas.

  19. Spatial dispersion and characterisation of mosquito breeding habitats in urban vegetable-production areas of Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Matthys, B; Koudou, B G; N'Goran, E K; Vounatsou, P; Gosoniu, L; Koné, M; Gissé, G; Utzinger, J

    2010-12-01

    Although urban agriculture (UA) in the developing world may enhance nutrition and local economies, it may also lead to higher densities of mosquito breeding sites and, consequently, to increased transmission of malarial parasites. If targeted interventions against malaria vectors are to be successful in urban areas, the habitats that support Anopheles breeding need to be identified and detected. Mosquito breeding sites have recently been characterised, and the factors associated with productive Anopheles habitats identified, in market gardens of Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. Two surveys were conducted in seven vegetable-production areas, one towards the end of the rainy season and one during the dry season. A standardized methodology was used for habitat characterisation and the detection of Anopheles larvae and mosquito pupae. Overall, 454 and 559 potential mosquito-breeding sites were recorded in the rainy-season and dry-season surveys, respectively. In the rainy season, Anopheles larvae and mosquito pupae were found in 29.7% and 5.5% of the potential breeding sites, respectively, whereas the corresponding percentages in the dry season were 24.3% and 8.6%. The potential breeding sites in an agricultural zone on the periphery of Abidjan were those least likely to be positive for Anopheles larvae and mosquito pupae whereas 'agricultural trenches' between seedbeds were the sites most likely to be positive. In a spatially-explicit Bayesian multivariate logistic-regression model, although one out of every five such wells was also found to harbour Anopheles larvae, irrigation wells were found to be the least productive habitats, of those sampled, for pupae. In the study area, simple and cost-effective strategies of larval control should be targeted at agricultural trenches, ideally with the active involvement of local stakeholders (i.e. urban farmers and urban agricultural extension services).

  20. The Potential of Food Fortification to Add Micronutrients in Young Children and Women of Reproductive Age - Findings from a Cross-Sectional Survey in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Rohner, Fabian; Leyvraz, Magali; Konan, Amoin G; Esso, Lasme J C E; Wirth, James P; Norte, Augusto; Adiko, Adiko F; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Aaron, Grant J

    2016-01-01

    Poor micronutrient intakes are a major contributing factor to the high burden of micronutrient deficiencies in Côte d'Ivoire. Large-scale food fortification is considered a cost-effective approach to deliver micronutrients, and fortification of salt (iodine), wheat flour (iron and folic acid), and vegetable oil (vitamin A) is mandatory in Côte d'Ivoire. A cross-sectional survey on households with at least one child 6-23 months was conducted to update coverage figures with adequately fortified food vehicles in Abidjan, the capital of and largest urban community in Côte d'Ivoire, and to evaluate whether additional iron and vitamin A intake is sufficient to bear the potential to reduce micronutrient malnutrition. Information on demographics and food consumption was collected, along with samples of salt and oil. Wheat flour was sampled from bakeries and retailers residing in the selected clusters. In Abidjan, 86% and 97% of salt and vegetable oil samples, respectively, were adequately fortified, while only 32% of wheat flour samples were adequately fortified, but all samples contained some added iron. There were no major differences in additional vitamin A and iron intake between poor and non-poor households. For vitamin A in oil, the additional percentage of the recommended nutrient intake was 27% and 40% for children 6-23 months and women of reproductive age, respectively, while for iron from wheat flour, only 13% and 19% could be covered. Compared to previous estimates, coverage has remained stable for salt and wheat flour, but improved for vegetable oil. Fortification of vegetable oil clearly provides a meaningful additional amount of vitamin A. This is not currently the case for iron, due to the low fortification levels. Iron levels in wheat flour should be increased and monitored, and additional vehicles should be explored to add iron to the Ivorian diet. PMID:27384762

  1. [Neonatal and child tetanus morbidity and mortality in the University hospitals of Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire (2001-2010)].

    PubMed

    Aba, Y T; Cissé, L; Abalé, A K; Diakité, I; Koné, D; Kadiané, J; Diallo, Z; Kra, O; Oulaï, S; Bissagnéné, E

    2016-08-01

    The lack of data on neonatal tetanus and children in university hospitals (UH) in Abidjan for over a decade has motivated the realization of this study. The objective of this study is to evaluate the morbidity and mortality related to neonatal tetanus (NT) and child tetanus (CT) in Abidjan University Hospital from 2001 to 2010. It is a retrospective study, multicenter analysis with records of newborns and children suffering from tetanus in the three UH of Abidjan. The collection and analysis of data were made by the SPHINX 4.5 and EPI.INFO 6.0 software. In ten years, 242 cases of tetanus (53 NT cases and 189 CT cases) were collected with a predominance of cases after the fifth year of life (59.5%). The incidence rate of NT was less than 1 case per 1,000 live births. All mothers of the newborns were inhabiting the city of Abidjan. Their median age was 19 years [16-32] and 64% were teenagers. Gateways were dominated by umbilical wounds (77.3%) in the NTand skin wounds (59%) in CT. The cure rate was 30.2% in the NT and 60% in the CT. Lethality was 60% for NT and 22% for CT with a positive correlation with young age (neonates: p = 4.10-7, age <5 years: p = 0.01), lack of intraspinal injection of tetanus serum (p = 8.10-6), the absence of conventional antibiotic therapy (p = 0.023), the existence of metabolic complications (p = 2.10-5), the score of ≥ 4 Dakar (p = 0.005). Tetanus remains a real morbidly cause among children in Abidjan University Hospital with high lethality. However, the incidence of NT seems consistent with the incidence threshold desired by WHO. PMID:27177642

  2. [Neonatal and child tetanus morbidity and mortality in the University hospitals of Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire (2001-2010)].

    PubMed

    Aba, Y T; Cissé, L; Abalé, A K; Diakité, I; Koné, D; Kadiané, J; Diallo, Z; Kra, O; Oulaï, S; Bissagnéné, E

    2016-08-01

    The lack of data on neonatal tetanus and children in university hospitals (UH) in Abidjan for over a decade has motivated the realization of this study. The objective of this study is to evaluate the morbidity and mortality related to neonatal tetanus (NT) and child tetanus (CT) in Abidjan University Hospital from 2001 to 2010. It is a retrospective study, multicenter analysis with records of newborns and children suffering from tetanus in the three UH of Abidjan. The collection and analysis of data were made by the SPHINX 4.5 and EPI.INFO 6.0 software. In ten years, 242 cases of tetanus (53 NT cases and 189 CT cases) were collected with a predominance of cases after the fifth year of life (59.5%). The incidence rate of NT was less than 1 case per 1,000 live births. All mothers of the newborns were inhabiting the city of Abidjan. Their median age was 19 years [16-32] and 64% were teenagers. Gateways were dominated by umbilical wounds (77.3%) in the NTand skin wounds (59%) in CT. The cure rate was 30.2% in the NT and 60% in the CT. Lethality was 60% for NT and 22% for CT with a positive correlation with young age (neonates: p = 4.10-7, age <5 years: p = 0.01), lack of intraspinal injection of tetanus serum (p = 8.10-6), the absence of conventional antibiotic therapy (p = 0.023), the existence of metabolic complications (p = 2.10-5), the score of ≥ 4 Dakar (p = 0.005). Tetanus remains a real morbidly cause among children in Abidjan University Hospital with high lethality. However, the incidence of NT seems consistent with the incidence threshold desired by WHO.

  3. Neoliberal policy, rural livelihoods, and urban food security in West Africa: a comparative study of The Gambia, Cote d'Ivoire, and Mali.

    PubMed

    Moseley, William G; Carney, Judith; Becker, Laurence

    2010-03-30

    This study examines the impact of two decades of neoliberal policy reform on food production and household livelihood security in three West African countries. The rice sectors in The Gambia, Côte d'Ivoire, and Mali are scrutinized as well as cotton and its relationship to sorghum production in Mali. Although market reforms were intended to improve food production, the net result was an increasing reliance on imported rice. The vulnerability of the urban populations in The Gambia and Côte d'Ivoire became especially clear during the 2007-2008 global food crisis when world prices for rice spiked. Urban Mali was spared the worst of this crisis because the country produces more of its own rice and the poorest consumers shifted from rice to sorghum, a grain whose production increased steeply as cotton production collapsed. The findings are based on household and market surveys as well as on an analysis of national level production data. PMID:20339079

  4. Neoliberal policy, rural livelihoods, and urban food security in West Africa: a comparative study of The Gambia, Cote d'Ivoire, and Mali.

    PubMed

    Moseley, William G; Carney, Judith; Becker, Laurence

    2010-03-30

    This study examines the impact of two decades of neoliberal policy reform on food production and household livelihood security in three West African countries. The rice sectors in The Gambia, Côte d'Ivoire, and Mali are scrutinized as well as cotton and its relationship to sorghum production in Mali. Although market reforms were intended to improve food production, the net result was an increasing reliance on imported rice. The vulnerability of the urban populations in The Gambia and Côte d'Ivoire became especially clear during the 2007-2008 global food crisis when world prices for rice spiked. Urban Mali was spared the worst of this crisis because the country produces more of its own rice and the poorest consumers shifted from rice to sorghum, a grain whose production increased steeply as cotton production collapsed. The findings are based on household and market surveys as well as on an analysis of national level production data.

  5. Organochlorine Pesticides and Biomarker Responses in Two Fishes Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (Lacepede, 1803) and an Invertebrate, Macrobrachium vollenhovenii (Herklot, 1857), from the Lake Taabo (Cote d`Ivoire)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, Helene; Tidou, Abiba; Persic, Ana

    The concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in muscle samples of two species of fish, tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and the catfish (Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus) and the prawn (Macrobrachium vollenhovenii) found in Lake Taabo (Cote d`Ivoire). Simultaneous measurements of enzymatic biomarkers were made to evaluate the ecotoxicological risk in this hydroelectric reservoir. Lindane and endosulfan were the dominant contaminants, suggesting their current use in neighboring agricultural areas. Other organochlorine (OC) compounds were detected, including some currently banned substances. Ranked in an order of descending concentrations, we found: DDT and its metabolites (17.8-57.2 ng g-1 dry weight), endrin (7.17-25.0 ng g-1 dry weight) and heptachlor (7.36-23.6 ng g-1 dry weight), as well as traces of isomers of chlordane, aldrin and fipronil. The hepatic Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) activity measured in fishes was not correlated with pesticide contamination; whereas the antioxidant biomarkers demonstrated some significant associations, especially hepatic catalase with lindane (R = 0.83) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) with heptachlor epoxide (R = 0.84) and with pp`DDT (R = 0.81). In the prawns, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity showed significant negative correlations with DDT and its metabolites (R = -0.91). The results of this study emphasize the urgent need for overall environmental risk assessment studies in the region of Taabo and other developing areas.

  6. [Bacillary angiomatosis in an adult infected with HIV-1 at an early stage of immunodepression in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire].

    PubMed

    Minga, K A; Gberi, I; Boka, M B; Gourvellec, G; Abo, Y; Dohoun, L; Abe, H; Ekra, D; Bonard, D; Danel, C; Huet, C; Salamon, R; Bondurand, A; N'Dri-Yoman, T; Anglaret, X

    2002-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated bacillary angiomatosis has rarely been described in Africa. We report here the first case in Côte d'Ivoire. Although in industrialised countries bacillary angiomatosis has been described in patients with low CD4 count, this episode occurred in the first year following HIV-seroconversion in an adult patient with more than 500 CD4 cells per cubic millimetre. Symptoms rapidly and totally disappeared under erythromycin treatment, although with a relapse two years after the end of the first episode. In Africa where people living with HIV often present chronic cutaneous lesions, bacillary angiomatosis may be under-diagnosed. Bacillary angiomatosis must be systematically considered in face of lesions similar to Kaposi's sarcoma. Improving knowledge on symptoms of bacillary angiomatosis in Africa should lead to better treatment and a better estimation of its true frequency which may be underestimated.

  7. ABO/Rh Blood Groups and Risk of HIV Infection and Hepatitis B Among Blood Donors of Abidjan, Côte D'ivoire.

    PubMed

    Siransy, Liliane Kouabla; Nanga, Zizendorf Yves; Zaba, Flore Sandrine; Tufa, Nyasenu Yawo; Dasse, Sery Romuald

    2015-09-01

    Hepatitis B and HIV infection are two viral infections that represent real global public health problems. In order to improve their management, some hypotheses suggest that genetic predispositions like ABO and Rh blood groups would influence the occurrence of these diseases. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between ABO and Rhesus blood groups and the susceptibility to HIV infection and hepatitis B. We conducted a cross-sectional and analytical study in a population of voluntary blood donors in the Blood Transfusion Center of Abidjan. All blood donors who donated blood between January and June 2014 were tested for HBs antigen and anti-HIV antibodies (ELISA tests) and were ABO typed. The total number of examined blood donors during this period was 45,538, of which 0.32% and 8.07% were respectively infected with HIV and hepatitis B virus. O-group donors were more infected than non-O donors. Our study is an outline concerning the search for a link between ABO and Rh blood groups and hepatitis B and HIV infection. Further studies should be conducted to confirm the interaction between these two infections and contribute to the search for new therapeutic approaches.

  8. [Description of sexual practices of women who have sex with other women to HIV / AIDS in Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire)].

    PubMed

    Konan, Y E; Dagnan, N S; Tetchi, E O; Aké, O; Tiembré, I; Zengbé, P; Ekou, F K; Sablé, P S; Kpebo, D O D; Saraka, K W O; Kouamé, K S; Akani, B C; Anoma, C

    2014-12-01

    The response to HIV must be based on all situations of risk and vulnerability related to sexual behavior. Sexual practices of women who have sex with other women to HIV described in his study come within this framework. This transversal and descriptive study on the sexual practices of 150 women who have sex with other women to HIV was conducted from July to September 2010 in Abidjan. Mean age of the respondents was 26.6 years. Among them, 21.3% was illiterate, 41.4% had no earned income and 57.3% was Christians. At the time of data collection, the majority (70.7%) did not know their HIV status. The analysis of sexual practices has found 13.3% of lesbians, bisexual, 36% and 50.7% of women who say they are lesbian even if they have had sex with men. Women who have sex with other women had sexual risk behavior. It was mostly the non-systematic use of the condom during sexual relation (60%). Among the 26.7% of respondents who had lesbian practices with penetration, 40% took no precaution to prevent HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Taking into account these results could help to develop specific strategies to promote responsible sexual practices among women who have sex with other women.

  9. A first database for landslide studies in densely urbanized areas of the intertropical zone: Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnagne, Frédéric; Demoulin, Alain; Biemi, Jean; Dewitte, Olivier; Kouadio, Hélène; Lasm, Théophile

    2016-04-01

    Landslides, a natural phenomenon often enhanced by human misuse of the land, may be a considerable threat to urban communities and severely affect urban landscapes, taking its death toll, impacting livelihood, and causing economic and social damages. Our first results show that, in Abidjan city, Ivory Coast, landslides caused more than fifty casualties in the towns of Attecoube and Abobo during the last twenty years. Although informal landslide reports exist, map information and geomorphological characterization are at best restricted, or often simply lacking. Here, we aim at constituting a comprehensive landslide database (localization, nature and morphometry of the slides, slope material, human interference, elements at risk) in the town of Attecoube as case study in order to support a first analysis of landslide susceptibility in the area. The field inventory conducted so far contains 56 landslides. These are mainly translational debris and soil slides, plus a few deeper rotational soil slides. Affecting 10-25°-steep, less than 10-m-high slopes in Quaternary sand and mud, they are most often associated with wild constructions either loading the top or cutting the toe of the slopes. They were located by GPS and tentatively dated through inquiries during the survey. While 12 landslides were accurately dated that way from the main rain seasons of 2013 to 2015, newspapers analysis and municipal archive consultation allowed us to assign a part of the rest to the last decade. Field inquiries were also used to collect information about fatalities and the local conditions of landsliding. This first landslide inventory in Attecoube provides clues about the main potential controls on landsliding, natural and anthropogenic, and will help define adequately anthropogenic variables to be used in the susceptibility modelling.

  10. Etiology of anemia among infants, school-aged children, and young non-pregnant women in different settings of South-Central Cote d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Righetti, Aurélie A; Koua, Ahou-Yah G; Adiossan, Lukas G; Glinz, Dominik; Hurrell, Richard F; N'goran, Eliézer K; Niamké, Sébastien; Wegmüller, Rita; Utzinger, Jürg

    2012-09-01

    Anemia affects one-quarter of the world's population, but its etiology remains poorly understood. We determined the prevalence of anemia and studied underlying risk factors in infants (6-23 months), young school-aged children (6-8 years), and young non-pregnant women (15-25 years) in south-central Côte d'Ivoire. Blood, stool, and urine samples were subjected to standardized, quality-controlled methods. We found high prevalence of anemia, malaria, inflammation, and deficiencies of iron, riboflavin, and vitamin A but low prevalence and intensities of soil-transmitted helminth and schistosome infections. Multivariate regression analysis revealed significant associations between anemia and Plasmodium falciparum for infants, inflammation for school-aged children, and cellular iron deficiency for both school-aged children and non-pregnant women. Women with riboflavin deficiency had significantly lower odds of anemia. Our findings call for interventions to protect infants from malaria, improved intake of dietary iron, better access to health care, and health education.

  11. Language Planning in Cote d'Ivoire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Djite, Paulin G.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the language situation in the Ivory coast. Examines historical and sociopolitical processes and the language policies and language-in-education practices of the country. Shows that the debate on language policy over the last two decades has failed to lead to the adoption of a language plan that takes into account the current language…

  12. Low risk of nevirapine resistance mutations in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1: Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le SIDA Ditrame Plus, Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Chaix, Marie-Laure; Ekouevi, Didier Koumavi; Rouet, Francois; Tonwe-Gold, Besigin; Viho, Ida; Bequet, Laurence; Peytavin, Gilles; Toure, Hassane; Menan, Herve; Leroy, Valeriane; Dabis, Francois; Rouzioux, Christine

    2006-02-15

    The frequency of resistance mutations was estimated in the cohort of Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le SIDA Ditrame Plus, a study that evaluated the combination of short-course zidovudine (ZDV) plus lamivudine (3TC) and single-dose nevirapine (SD-NVP) followed by 3 days of postpartum ZDV plus 3TC for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). The frequency with which resistance mutations were detected in mothers at week 4 postpartum was 1.14% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.03%-6.17%) for NVP and 8.33% (95% CI, 3.66%-15.76%) for 3TC. In multivariate analysis, 3TC resistance was associated with a longer duration of ZDV plus 3TC prepartum prophylaxis (P=.009). This regimen, which is feasible in resource-limited settings, prevents most peripartum HIV-1 transmission and minimizes the development of NVP resistance.

  13. Parametric and comparative study of the impact of waste pollutants in groundwater: the case of the district of Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire) and polluted site in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnès Kouamé, Amenan; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Derron, Marc-Henri

    2013-04-01

    Groundwater as natural resources is one of the main sources of water for agricultural, industrial and domestic in developed or developing countries. However this resource, which was considered of good quality, is now threatened by various sources of contamination by human activities. This is the case of the District of Abidjan which has been the victim of toxic waste in 2006 and of an alpine valley in Western Switzerland. Groundwater from these two sites is located in sandy and unconfined aquifers. In fact, the pollutant transport in porous media is influenced by a variety of physical, chemical or biological, complex and interdependent. In Switzerland, where data are available, we simulated steady-state flow and tetrachloroethene transport with a good result showing the tetrachloroethene plume. While in Abidjan, where the data are insufficient, we developed in steady and transient states, flow and contaminants transport models in order to predict the likely evolution of the contaminants in the basement. Contaminants are composed of a very high contents of hydrogen sulfide, organochlorines, sulfur, mercaptan sulfur, and hydrocarbons such as olefins, Paraffins. We made two parametric and comparative studies. The probability of contamination of groundwater is observed over time, taking into account the input parameters of the model and some assumptions.

  14. [Micronecta sp (Corixidae) and Diplonychus sp (Belostomatidae), two aquatic Hemiptera hosts and/or potential vectors of Mycobacterium ulcerans (pathogenic agent of Buruli ulcer) in Cote d'Ivoire].

    PubMed

    Doannio, J M C; Konan, K L; Dosso, F N; Koné, A B; Konan, Y L; Sankaré, Y; Ekaza, E; Coulibaly, N D; Odéhouri, K P; Dosso, M; Sess, E D; Marsollier, L; Aubry, J

    2011-02-01

    Buruli ulcer is currently a major public health problem in Côte d'Ivoire. It is a neglected tropical disease closely associated with aquatic environments. Aquatic insects of the Hemiptera order have been implicated in human transmission of Mycobacterium ulcerans, the pathogenic agent of Buruli ulcer. The purpose of this preliminary study using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was to evaluate aquatic insects in Sokrogbo, a village in the Tiassalé sanitary district where Buruli ulcer is endemic. Findings identified two water bugs hosting Mycobacterium ulcerans, i.e., one of the Micronecta genus in the Corixidae family and another of the Diplonychus genus in the Belostomatidae family. The PCR technique used revealed the molecular signatures of M. ulcerans in tissue from these two insects. Based on these findings, these two water bugs can be considered as potential hosts and/or vectors of M. ulcerans in the study zone. Unlike Diplonychus sp., this is the first report to describe Micronecta sp as a host of M. ulcerans. Further investigation will be needed to assess the role of these two water bugs in human transmission of M. ulcerans in Côte d'Ivoire.

  15. [Micronecta sp (Corixidae) and Diplonychus sp (Belostomatidae), two aquatic Hemiptera hosts and/or potential vectors of Mycobacterium ulcerans (pathogenic agent of Buruli ulcer) in Cote d'Ivoire].

    PubMed

    Doannio, J M C; Konan, K L; Dosso, F N; Koné, A B; Konan, Y L; Sankaré, Y; Ekaza, E; Coulibaly, N D; Odéhouri, K P; Dosso, M; Sess, E D; Marsollier, L; Aubry, J

    2011-02-01

    Buruli ulcer is currently a major public health problem in Côte d'Ivoire. It is a neglected tropical disease closely associated with aquatic environments. Aquatic insects of the Hemiptera order have been implicated in human transmission of Mycobacterium ulcerans, the pathogenic agent of Buruli ulcer. The purpose of this preliminary study using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was to evaluate aquatic insects in Sokrogbo, a village in the Tiassalé sanitary district where Buruli ulcer is endemic. Findings identified two water bugs hosting Mycobacterium ulcerans, i.e., one of the Micronecta genus in the Corixidae family and another of the Diplonychus genus in the Belostomatidae family. The PCR technique used revealed the molecular signatures of M. ulcerans in tissue from these two insects. Based on these findings, these two water bugs can be considered as potential hosts and/or vectors of M. ulcerans in the study zone. Unlike Diplonychus sp., this is the first report to describe Micronecta sp as a host of M. ulcerans. Further investigation will be needed to assess the role of these two water bugs in human transmission of M. ulcerans in Côte d'Ivoire. PMID:21585092

  16. Fire seasonality changes in Côte d'Ivoire revealed through Landsat imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlovic, N. R.; Bassett, T. J.; Greenberg, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Fire plays a significant role in the savanna systems of West Africa, where a large proportion of the landscape burns annually. Previous research has suggested that shifts in land use and agricultural practices have modified the fire regime of Cote d'Ivoire over the past 30 years. Specifically, increasing pastoralism in north-central Cote d'Ivoire has been shown to coincide with a shift in fire seasonality toward fires earlier in the dry season. We investigated decadal trends in monthly fire occurrence across Cote d'Ivoire to determine whether similar processes of shifting fire seasonality are at play at the national scale. We assessed fire occurrence using remotely sensed Landsat imagery covering the entire extent of Cote d'Ivoire across a 30-year period from 1984 to 2014. The fine resolution of Landsat imagery makes possible the detection of small fires that commonly occur in heavily managed West African savannas. We investigated trends in the timing of both active fires and burned areas. Active fires were detected using shortwave infrared emissions of fire, and burned areas were identified based on spectral and temporal patterns distinctive to burn scars. The timing of fire occurrence influences fire intensity, and shifting fire seasonality has implications for land cover and terrestrial carbon budgets. Our findings point to temporal-spatial shifts in fire regimes over the past three decades and advance understanding of the contribution of West Africa's savannas to global greenhouse gas emissions.

  17. Cote D'Ivoire (Ivory Coast): World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports on the country's limited oil reserves which are almost exhausted meaning difficult times in the future. New terms for an offer of 11 offshore blocks allow for a negotiable split of cost oil and profit oil linked to either daily production or the ratio between accumulated net revenues and accumulated revenue.

  18. [Analysis of the healthcare service decentralization process in Côte d'Ivoire].

    PubMed

    Soura, B D; Coulibaly, S S

    2014-01-01

    The decentralization of healthcare services is becoming increasingly important in strategies of public sector management. This concept is analyzed from various points of view, including legal, economic, political, and sociological. Several typologies have been proposed in the literature to analyze this decentralization process, which can take different forms ranging from simple deconcentration to more elaborate devolution. In some instances, decentralization can be analyzed by the degree of autonomy given to local authorities. This article applies these typologies to analyze the healthcare system decentralization process in Cote d'Ivoire. Special attention is paid to the new forms of community healthcare organizations. These decentralized structures enjoy a kind of autonomy, with characteristics closer to those of devolution. The model might serve as an example for population involvement in defining and managing healthcare problems in Cote d'Ivoire. We end with proposals for the improvement of the process.

  19. [Post-vaccination anti-poliomyelitis seroprevalence in an urban setting in Abidjan].

    PubMed

    Akoua-Koffi, G; Thonnon, J; Kouassi-Renaud, M; Dosso, M; Ehouman, A

    1995-01-01

    In order to determine the antipoliomyelitis seroprevalence of children in Abidjan, we checked the presence of antipoliovirus antibodies in 48 children received in the South Abobo's vaccination center for vaccination against measles. According to the vaccination schedule and rules applied in Côte d'Ivoire: 12.5% of the children have received less than three doses or oral polio vaccine (OPV), 87.5% have received the three doses. Antibody titration results indicated that 78.6, 93 and 76.2% of the children have been immunized against Poliovirus type I, type II and type III, respectively; 71.4% of the children showed antibodies against the three poliovirus serotypes and 4.8% had no antipoliovirus antibodies at all. The children which showed an antibodies titer less than 1/8 were considered unprotected: the proportion of unprotected was 21.4, 7 and 23.8% against Poliovirus type I, type II and type III, respectively. Although these results showed that the level of protection against poliomyelitis in Abidjan is acceptable (> 75%), the efforts for vaccination program in Côte d'Ivoire need to be improved in order to eradicate poliomyelitis.

  20. Parametric study of the impact of waste pollutants on groundwater: the case of Abidjan District (Ivory Coast)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnès Kouamé, Amenan; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Tacher, Laurent; Derron, Marc-Henri; Franz, Martin

    2015-04-01

    .4 and 2.9E-8 and 2.48E-5 m/s, respectively. These values of permeability are low. They were therefore multiplied by 10 in order to calibrate the model. This suggests that the environment of deposition of the sands is heterogeneous with coarse sand channels in places as it can be expected in such lagoon environment. The result of the model simulation in steady state indicates the groundwater flow direction (North-South) and the approach of pollutants plumes to some well fields after 20 years. References: Deh S. K. (2013). Contributions de l'évaluation de la vulnérabilité spécifique aux nitrates et d'un modèle de transport des organochlorés a la protection des eaux souterraines du district d'Abidjan (sud de la Côte d'Ivoire) 230p. Jourda J. P. (1987). Contribution à l'étude géologique et hydrogéologique de la région du Grand Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire). Thèse de doctorat de 3ème cycle, Université scientifique, technique et médicale de Grenoble, 319p. Kouamé K. J. (2007). Contribution à la Gestion Intégrée des Ressources en Eaux (GIRE) du District d'Abidjan (Sud de la Côte d'Ivoire) : Outils d'aide à la décision pour la prévention et la protection des eaux souterraines contre la pollution, Thèse de doctorat unique de l'Université de Cocody, 229p.

  1. 75 FR 11564 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act Of 1993-Telemanagement Forum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act Of 1993... Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), TeleManagement Forum...; Etisalat Cote d'Ivoire, Abidjan, IVORY COAST; Etisalat Misr, Cairo, EGYPT; Etisalat Nigeria, Banana...

  2. The Spread of Dyula and Popular French in Cote d'Ivoire: Implications for Language Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Djite, Paulin G.

    1988-01-01

    In the Ivory Coast, the official standard French has not been established as the language of the masses and is threatened by Dyula and a Popular French, two lingua francas that have potential as national languages even though the populations do not seem supportive of new language policy. (Author/MSE)

  3. Educational Investments and Returns for Women and Men in Cote d'Ivoire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vijverberg, Wim P. M.

    1993-01-01

    Estimates of wage and nonfarm self-employment earnings in the Ivory Coast show that rates of return to education are high for both sexes, but men's wages exceed women's by a substantial margin for all but the most educated. (Author/SK)

  4. [Assessment of measles diagnostic from gingival fluid in Côte d'Ivoire].

    PubMed

    Bénié, B V J; Attoh-Touré, H; Aka, L N B; Fofana, N; Tiembré, I; Dagnan, N S

    2015-10-01

    After the adoption of the Global Initiative for Measles Elimination in 2001, Côte d'Ivoire has created monitoring case by case. Thus, the diagnosis of measles from the gingival fluid was implemented, through a pilot project. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of this diagnostic test. We conducted a cross-sectional survey, in four health districts of Abidjan, during a period from July 2010 to December 2012. The study consisted in collecting gingival fluid and serum samples in all suspected measles children. These samples were analyzed by ELISA test at Pasteur Institute of Côte d'Ivoire. Standard formulas were used to calculate sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of oral fluid compared to serum taken as the "gold standard" and confidence intervals were estimated with error alpha risk (α =0.05). The concordance of kappa coefficient (k) was used to estimate agreement level between the results of oral fluid analysis and those of serum. The sensitivity and specificity of the test were 98% and 82% respectively while the positive predictive value and the negative predictive value were 84% and 98%. The comparison of oral fluid with the reference test showed high agreement, between 0.61 and 0.80. The diagnostic test on gingival fluid is acceptable because its sensitivity, specificity and negative predictive value had high level. Therefore it can be extended to all sanitary districts.

  5. Investigation of a Large Collection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Bacteriophages Collected from a Single Environmental Source in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Essoh, Christiane; Latino, Libera; Midoux, Cédric; Blouin, Yann; Loukou, Guillaume; Nguetta, Simon-Pierre A.; Lathro, Serge; Cablanmian, Arsher; Kouassi, Athanase K.; Vergnaud, Gilles; Pourcel, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Twenty two distinct bacteriophages were isolated from sewage water from five locations in the city of Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire over a two-year period, using a collection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains with diverse genotypes. The phages were characterized by their virulence spectrum on a panel of selected P. aeruginosa strains from cystic fibrosis patients and by whole genome sequencing. Twelve virions representing the observed diversity were visualised by electron microscopy. The combined observations showed that 17 phages, distributed into seven genera, were virulent, and that five phages were related to temperate phages belonging to three genera. Some showed similarity with known phages only at the protein level. The vast majority of the genetic variations among virulent phages from the same genus resulted from seemingly non-random horizontal transfer events, inside a population of P. aeruginosa phages with limited diversity. This suggests the existence of a single environmental reservoir or ecotype in which continuous selection is taking place. In contrast, mostly point mutations were observed among phages potentially capable of lysogenisation. This is the first study of P. aeruginosa phage diversity in an African city and it shows that a large variety of phage species can be recovered in a limited geographical site at least when different bacterial strains are used. The relative temporal and spatial stability of the Abidjan phage population might reflect equilibrium in the microbial community from which they are released. PMID:26115051

  6. Management of Hypertension in the Elderly Patient at Abidjan Cardiology Institute (Ivory Coast)

    PubMed Central

    Kramoh, K. E.; Aké-Traboulsi, E.; Konin, C.; N'goran, Y.; Coulibaly, I.; Adoubi, A.; Koffi, J.; Anzouan-Kacou, J. B.; Guikahue, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Since the treatment of hypertension is beneficial for the elderly, we have undertaken this study that aims to evaluate the management of hypertension in elderly patient in Côte d'Ivoire. Methods. A retrospective study was conducted among 854 hypertensive elderly patients of Abidjan Cardiology Institute who were followed for a minimum of one year, between January 2000 and December 2009. Results. The patients mean age was 73.1 ± 5.3 years, and 59% were women. At the first presentation, it was mostly systolic-diastolic hypertension (51.8%) and isolated systolic hypertension (38.5%). Mean blood pressure was 169.4 ± 28.4 mmHg for systolic, 95.3 ± 15.7 mmHg for diastolic, and 74.1 ± 22.8 mmHg for pulse pressure. Pulse pressure was ≥60 mmHg in 80.4%. According to the European Guidelines stratification of the cardiovascular risk-excess attributable to high blood pressure, 82.1% of the sample had a very high added risk. The pharmacological therapy was prescribed in 93.5%. More than 66% of patients were receiving ≥2 antihypertensive drugs including fixed-dose combination drugs. The most common agents used were diuretics (63.5%) followed by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers in 61.3%. The most common agents used for monotherapy were calcium antagonists. When ≥2 drugs were used, diuretics and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers were the most common. Blood pressure control was achieved in 42.6%. Conclusion. The control of elderly hypertension can be effective in Sub-Saharan Africa. He required at least two antihypertensive drugs to meet the recommended blood pressure target. PMID:22028955

  7. Management of hypertension in the elderly patient at abidjan cardiology institute (ivory coast).

    PubMed

    Kramoh, K E; Aké-Traboulsi, E; Konin, C; N'goran, Y; Coulibaly, I; Adoubi, A; Koffi, J; Anzouan-Kacou, J B; Guikahue, M

    2012-01-01

    Background. Since the treatment of hypertension is beneficial for the elderly, we have undertaken this study that aims to evaluate the management of hypertension in elderly patient in Côte d'Ivoire. Methods. A retrospective study was conducted among 854 hypertensive elderly patients of Abidjan Cardiology Institute who were followed for a minimum of one year, between January 2000 and December 2009. Results. The patients mean age was 73.1 ± 5.3 years, and 59% were women. At the first presentation, it was mostly systolic-diastolic hypertension (51.8%) and isolated systolic hypertension (38.5%). Mean blood pressure was 169.4 ± 28.4 mmHg for systolic, 95.3 ± 15.7 mmHg for diastolic, and 74.1 ± 22.8 mmHg for pulse pressure. Pulse pressure was ≥60 mmHg in 80.4%. According to the European Guidelines stratification of the cardiovascular risk-excess attributable to high blood pressure, 82.1% of the sample had a very high added risk. The pharmacological therapy was prescribed in 93.5%. More than 66% of patients were receiving ≥2 antihypertensive drugs including fixed-dose combination drugs. The most common agents used were diuretics (63.5%) followed by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers in 61.3%. The most common agents used for monotherapy were calcium antagonists. When ≥2 drugs were used, diuretics and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers were the most common. Blood pressure control was achieved in 42.6%. Conclusion. The control of elderly hypertension can be effective in Sub-Saharan Africa. He required at least two antihypertensive drugs to meet the recommended blood pressure target.

  8. L'Enonce Toura-Cote d'Ivoire (The Spoken Language of Toura-Ivory Coast).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearth, Thomas

    The spoken language of Toura, a language spoken by nearly 20,000 inhabitants of a mountainous region situated in the north of Man, the administrative center of the West Ivory Coast, is systematically analyzed in this linguistic study. Sixteen major chapters include: (1) grammatical generalizations, (2) phonemic unities, (3) classification of…

  9. The HRD Competencies as Perceived by the Human Resource Development Professionals in Banks in Cote d'Ivoire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konan, Affoue Zitagisele

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify how Ivorian HRD professionals in banks perceived their current expertise levels of the HRD competencies, and how these professionals perceived the importance of these competencies needed to be successful in their occupations. In addition, this study determined competencies that are perceived to have the…

  10. 76 FR 50284 - Request for Public Comments on Interim Review of Eligibility of Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea, and Niger...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    .... Comments received related to the child labor criteria may also be considered by the Secretary of Labor for the preparation of the Department of Labor's report on child labor as required under section 412(c) of... eligibility for the President. Comments related to the child labor criteria may also be considered by...

  11. Identification of yeasts during alcoholic fermentation of tchapalo, a traditional sorghum beer from Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    N'guessan, Kouadio Florent; Brou, Kouakou; Jacques, Noémie; Casaregola, Serge; Dje, Koffi Marcellin

    2011-05-01

    This study investigated the diversity and dynamics of yeasts involved in alcoholic fermentation of a traditional sorghum beer from Côte d'Ivoire, tchapalo. A total of 240 yeast strains were isolated from fermenting sorghum wort inoculated with dry yeast from two geographic regions of Côte d'Ivoire (Abidjan and Bondoukou). Initial molecular identification to the species level was carried out using RFLP of PCR-amplified internal transcribed spacers of rDNA (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2). Ten different profiles were obtained from the restriction of PCR products with the three endonucleases HaeIII, CfoI and HinfI. Sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rDNA and the ACT1 gene allowed us to assign these groups to six different species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae-like, Candida tropicalis, Pichia kudriavzevii, Pichia kluyveri, Kodamaea ohmeri and Meyerozyma caribbica. The most frequent species associated with tchapalo fermentation was S. cerevisiae-like (87.36%), followed by C. tropicalis (5.45%) and M. caribbica (2.71%). S. cerevisiae-like strains were diploid heterozygotes and exhibited three to four nucleotides divergence from the type strain in the D1/D2 domain and several indels in the more discriminant sequence of the intron of the ACT1 gene. During the process, the yeast species isolated and their frequencies varied according to the geographic origin of the dry yeast. The occurrence of some species was sporadic and only two non-Saccharomyces species were found in the final product. PMID:21318423

  12. [Impact of a targeted technical assistance to improve vaccine coverage in Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, and Mauritania in 2014].

    PubMed

    Ahanhanzo, Y Glèlè; Palenfo, D; Saussier, C; Gbèdonou, P; Tonda, A; Da Silva, A; Aplogan, A

    2016-08-01

    Within the framework of its strategic goal of vaccine coverage (VC) improvement, GAVI, The Vaccine Alliance has entrusted the Agence de médecine préventive (agency for preventive medicine, AMP) with technical assistance services to Cameroon, Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast), and Mauritania. This support was provided to selected priority districts (PDs) with the worst Penta3 coverage performances. In 2014, PDs benefited from technical and management capacities in vaccinology strengthening for district medical officers, supportive supervisions and technical assistance in health logistics, data management and quality. We analyzed the effects of the AMP technical assistance on the improvement of the cumulative Penta3 coverage, which is the key performance indicator of the expanded programme on immunization (EPI) performance. We compared Penta3 coverage between PDs and other non-priority districts (NPDs), Penta3 coverage evolution within each PD, and the distribution of PDs and NPDs according to Penta3 coverage category between January and December 2014. Technical assistance had a positive effect on the EPI performance. Indeed Penta3 coverage progression was higher in PDs than in NPDs throughout the period. Besides, between January and December 2014, the Penta3 VC increased in 70%, 100% and 86% of DPs in Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire and Mauritania, respectively. Furthermore, the increase in the number of PDs with a Penta3 coverage over 80% was higher in DPs than in NPDs: 20% versus 8% for Cameroon, 58% versus 29% for Côte d'Ivoire and 17% versus 8% for Mauritania. Despite positive and encouraging results, this technical assistance service can be improved and efforts are needed to ensure that all health districts have a VC above 80% for all EPI vaccines. The current challenge is for African countries to mobilize resources for maintaining the knowledge and benefits and scaling such interventions in the public health area. PMID:27160219

  13. No Paragonimus in high-risk groups in Côte d'Ivoire, but considerable prevalence of helminths and intestinal protozoon infections

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Paragonimiasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by an infection with lung flukes that is transmitted through the consumption of undercooked crabs. The disease is often confused with tuberculosis. Paragonimiasis is thought to be endemic in south-western Côte d'Ivoire. Methods Two cross-sectional surveys were carried out in the first half of 2009 in patients attending two tuberculosis centres of Abidjan. A third cross-sectional survey was conducted in May 2010 in children of two primary schools in Dabou, where crabs are frequently consumed. Patients with chronic cough provided three sputum samples plus one stool sample. Sputum samples were examined for tuberculosis with an auramine staining technique and for Paragonimus eggs using a concentration technique. Stool samples were subjected to the Ritchie technique. Schoolchildren provided a single stool sample, and samples were subjected to the Kato-Katz and an ether-concentration technique. A pre-tested questionnaire was administered to patients and schoolchildren to investigate food consumption habits. Additionally, between June 2009 and August 2010, shellfish were purchased from markets in Abidjan and Dabou and examined for metacercariae. Results No human case of paragonimiasis was diagnosed. However, trematode infections were seen in 32 of the 272 shellfish examined (11.8%). Questionnaire results revealed that crab and pig meat is well cooked before consumption. Among the 278 patients with complete data records, 62 had tuberculosis, with a higher prevalence in males than females (28.8% vs. 13.9%, χ2 = 8.79, p = 0.003). The prevalence of helminths and intestinal protozoa was 4.6% and 16.9%, respectively. In the school survey, among 166 children with complete data records, the prevalence of helminths and intestinal protozoa was 22.3% and 48.8%, respectively. Boys had significantly higher prevalences of helminths and intestinal protozoa than girls. Hookworm was the predominant helminth species and

  14. Aghien lagoon: a sustainable resource of fresh water for the city of Abidjan (Ivory Coast)? Description of the project and preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamagaté, Bamory; Effebi, Rose K.; Goula Bi, Tié Albert; Lanciné Goné, Droh; Noufé, Djibril; Diallo, Seydou; Ehouman, Serge K.; Koffi, Thierry; Zamblé Trabi, Armand; Lazare, Kouakou; Paturel, Jean Emmanuel; Perrin, Jean-Louis; Salles, Christian; Seguis, Luc; Tournoud, Marie-George; Karoui, Hela

    2016-04-01

    With more than 6 million inhabitants, Abidjan district faces tremendous difficulties in water supply. The aquifer of the Continental Terminal which is actually the only drinking water source of the city shows a decline of resources and water demand is increasing due to the population growth. Moreover significant evidences of chemical and biological pollution of the groundwater are observed The Aghien lagoon, the largest freshwater pool located near Abidjan, has been identified by the State of Côte d'Ivoire as a potential resource for the production of drinking water.. The main objective of this project is to assess the quantitative and qualitative capacity of the Aghien lagoon to complement the water supply of Abidjan city in the near future. The main components of the project are: • to assess the water budget of the lagoon and its tributaries, • to characterize the spatial and temporal variability of contaminant levels and fluxes from the tributaries toward the lagoon, • to assess the sustainability of the water resources (quantity and quality) of the lagoon according to land use changes in the catchments . The project started in January 2015. The first year was devoted to the set-up of hydro-meteorological gauges within the lagoon watershed. Three major tributaries of the lagoon are considered, the Mé (4000 km2), the Djibi (78 km2) and Bete (206 km2) rivers. Since the start of the project, bi-monthly hydrochemical sampling surveys have been carried out along the tributaries and in the lagoon. The data available from the surveys concern the physico-chemical parameters, trace elements, all the forms of nitrogen and phosphorus, organic carbon, suspended solids. The Djibi and Bete watersheds are partly urbanized while the Mé basin is mainly rural. Baseflow has been identified as the major contribution to streamflow at the annual scale. The Mé flows into a channel downstream to the Aghien lagoon but during the floods, water from the Mé River can flow up the

  15. Epidemic in Ghana: "a very distinct profile".

    PubMed

    Decosas, J

    1995-06-01

    Sentinel surveillance for HIV among pregnant women in Ghana in 1992 pointed to an HIV prevalence of 3.2% in Koforidua and 4.2% in Kumasi; prevalence of 18%, however, was observed in rural Agomanya in the Eastern Region of the country. This relatively and absolutely high prevalence of HIV infection in the Eastern Region is closely related to the emigration of women to Cote d'Ivoire for work as prostitutes, and their ultimate return to their home villages in Eastern Ghana. It is hypothesized that the construction of the Volta river dam at Akosombe in the 1960s led to the establishment of a prostitution industry in that region. After the work was completed, the female prostitutes from Ghana followed the construction workers to their next site in Koussou, Cote d'Ivoire, and later moved to Abidjan. By 1990, an estimated 60% of the prostitutes in Abidjan were Ghanaian, one third of whom were from the Eastern Region. The national AIDS program of Cote d'Ivoire reported in 1992 that 86% of prostitutes in Abidjan were infected with HIV. Since 1986, these women have been returning to their villages in Ghana's Eastern Region to live out the last few months of their lives. Ghanaians are aware of this phenomenon and generally believe that HIV and AIDS affect only prostitutes from Abidjan. That, however, is not the case. The national AIDS program estimates that 2% of the adult population in the country is infected with HIV, mainly through sex with a Ghanaian in Ghana who is not a prostitute. All sexually active individuals in Ghana may therefore be at risk of contracting and transmitting HIV. This message must be communicated to the general public. PMID:12289034

  16. Epidemic in Ghana: "a very distinct profile".

    PubMed

    Decosas, J

    1995-06-01

    Sentinel surveillance for HIV among pregnant women in Ghana in 1992 pointed to an HIV prevalence of 3.2% in Koforidua and 4.2% in Kumasi; prevalence of 18%, however, was observed in rural Agomanya in the Eastern Region of the country. This relatively and absolutely high prevalence of HIV infection in the Eastern Region is closely related to the emigration of women to Cote d'Ivoire for work as prostitutes, and their ultimate return to their home villages in Eastern Ghana. It is hypothesized that the construction of the Volta river dam at Akosombe in the 1960s led to the establishment of a prostitution industry in that region. After the work was completed, the female prostitutes from Ghana followed the construction workers to their next site in Koussou, Cote d'Ivoire, and later moved to Abidjan. By 1990, an estimated 60% of the prostitutes in Abidjan were Ghanaian, one third of whom were from the Eastern Region. The national AIDS program of Cote d'Ivoire reported in 1992 that 86% of prostitutes in Abidjan were infected with HIV. Since 1986, these women have been returning to their villages in Ghana's Eastern Region to live out the last few months of their lives. Ghanaians are aware of this phenomenon and generally believe that HIV and AIDS affect only prostitutes from Abidjan. That, however, is not the case. The national AIDS program estimates that 2% of the adult population in the country is infected with HIV, mainly through sex with a Ghanaian in Ghana who is not a prostitute. All sexually active individuals in Ghana may therefore be at risk of contracting and transmitting HIV. This message must be communicated to the general public.

  17. Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium difficile in cooked beef sold in Côte d'Ivoire and their antimicrobial susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Kouassi, Kra Athanase; Dadie, Adjéhi Thomas; N'Guessan, Kouadio Florent; Dje, Koffi Marcellin; Loukou, Yao Guillaume

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens in cooked beef sold in the streets in Côte d'Ivoire and their antimicrobial susceptibility. A total of 395 kidney and flesh samples of cooked beef were collected from vendors at Abidjan and subjected to C. difficile and C. perfringens isolation and identification by using biochemical tests, API 20A system and PCR detection. Subsequently, the antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed for confirmed isolates. Our results showed the prevalence of 12.4% for C. difficile (11.04% in kidney and 13.45% in flesh) and 5.06% for C. perfringens (2.32% in kidney and 7.17% in flesh). Metronidazole and vancomycin remained the most potent antimicrobial agents against C. difficile while metronidazole and penicillin G were the most potent agents against C. perfringens. The resistance rates to tetracycline, doxycycline, chloramphenicol and erythromycin against C. difficile and C. perfringens isolates ranged from 2.05% to 8.16% and from 20% to 50%, respectively. Among all antimicrobial agents tested against C. difficile, percentages of resistance to quinolones ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and nalidixic acid as well as to gentamicin and cefotaxime were the highest. Eight resistant phenotypes were defined for C. difficile isolates and eleven resistant phenotypes for C. perfringens isolates. Clindamycin/gentamicin/cefotaxime/ciprofloxacin/norfloxacin/nalidixic acid resistance was the most common phenotype for C. difficile (55.10% of isolates) while norfloxacin/nalidixic acid resistance was the most common phenotype for C. perfringens (20% of isolates).

  18. Therapeutic algorithms for the management of sexually transmitted diseases at the peripheral level in Côte d'Ivoire: assessment of efficacy and cost.

    PubMed Central

    La Ruche, G.; Lorougnon, F.; Digbeu, N.

    1995-01-01

    In the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) era, adequate management of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is a primary concern in Africa. Assessed in this study is the clinical efficacy and feasibility of WHO-recommended therapeutic algorithms for genital discharges and ulcers, diagnosed without laboratory tests, for use at the primary health care level. Drugs were sold on a cost-recovery basis and included intramuscular ceftriaxone and oral ciprofloxacin for single-dose therapy of gonorrhoea and chancroid. During April 1993 in 10 peripheral health care centres in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, a total of 207 patients were followed up, including 89 cases of male urethritis, 92 cases of vaginal discharges and 26 cases of genital ulcers; clinical success, assessed 7 days after the onset of therapy, was, respectively, 92%, 87%, and 100%. Less than 10% of the 207 patients were referred to the next care level, an acceptable rate from a public health point of view. Medical adherence to the algorithms was excellent for urethral discharges and genital ulcers but poor for vaginal discharges, partly because of intentional therapeutic modifications, without detriment to success. For drugs, the average cost per cure was 1546 francs CFA (US$ 5.60) (maximum, 2980 francs CFA (US$ 10.70). Effective and affordable treatments for STDs are necessary for their realistic case management in Africa. PMID:7614662

  19. Can the Language of Rights Get Hold of the Complex Realities of Child Domestic Work?: The Case of Young Domestic Workers in Abidjan, Ivory Coast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacquemin, Melanie

    2006-01-01

    This review examines refractions of children's rights in development practice from an anthropological point of view and considers the case of young domestic girls working in Abidjan. The author argues that child labour legislation and the children's rights perspective in Abidjan is permeated by patriarchal values that mask the exploitation of work…

  20. Immunity Status of Blood Donors Regarding Toxoplasma gondii Infection in a Low-Income District of Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Dasse, Sery Romuald; Dou Gonat, Serge Pacôme; Legbedji, Antoinette; N'guessan, Koffi; Kouacou, Patricia Ama; Yeboah, Richard; Menan, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    Background. Toxoplasmosis is a widespread cosmopolitan anthropozoonosis, which affects more than a third of the world population. Except the modes of transmission well known, Toxoplasma gondii can be transmitted during transplantation or blood transfusion. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of IgG and IgM Toxoplasma gondii and to estimate the potential risk by blood products. Methods. This is a cross-sectional study on the research for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies (IgG and IgM) blood donors performed by ELISA. Results. An overall seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii among blood donors recruited was 67.92% (n = 72). Among these, 68 have Toxoplasma gondii IgG (64.15%), 12 Toxoplasma gondii IgM (11.32%), and 4 (3.77%) both. The risk varies between 8 for 100000 and 172 for 100000 donations. Conclusion. The need to strengthen security measures for people multitransfused, immunocompromised, and pregnant women to reduce the transmission of toxoplasmosis is important. PMID:27795962

  1. [Disseminated cutaneous histoplasmosis due to Histoplasma capsulatum var. duboisii associated with AIDS. A case report in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire].

    PubMed

    Sangaré, A; Yoboué, P; Ahogo, C; Ecra, E; Kaloga, M; Gbery, I; Kanga, J M

    2008-02-01

    Histoplasmosis is a deep mycosis whose capsulatum variety is recognized as being an AIDS-defining infection. However AIDS associated with Histoplasma capsulatum var. duboisii is rarely reported. We report a case of cutaneous duboisii histoplasmosis associated with AIDS which has been mistaken for molluscum contagiosum for many months. The diagnosis has been confirmed by means of a biopsy of a nodule followed by an anatomo-pathological examination. The medical treatment was successfully based on combination Triomune (stavudine + lamividine + nevirapine) and itraconazole. PMID:18431996

  2. Cultural Myths in Stories about Human Resource Development: Analysing the Cross-Cultural Transfer of American Models to Germany and the Cote d'Ivoire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Carol D.

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of reactions of 14 German and 20 Ivory Coast managers to informant stories from 14 U.S. human resource professionals revealed differences in work myths that reflected national differences, e.g., individual versus collective orientation, business development patterns, and management approaches. Awareness of the ethnocentrism of work myths…

  3. Returns to Formal and Informal Vocational Education in Cote d'Ivoire: The Role of the Structure of the Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grooteart, Christiaan

    1990-01-01

    Compares graduates of the formal vocational and technical education (VTE) system in the Ivory Coast with those of informal apprenticeships, regarding job access, earnings, and the internal rate of return to investment in education. Promoting informal VTE could increase society's returns to educational expenditures and assist the informal sector's…

  4. Pregnancy incidence and associated factors among HIV-infected female adolescents in HIV care in urban Côte d'Ivoire, 2009–2013

    PubMed Central

    Arikawa, Shino; Eboua, Tanoh; Kouakou, Kouadio; N'Gbeche, Marie-Sylvie; Amorissani-Folquet, Madeleine; Moh, Corinne; Amoussou-Bouah, Ursula Belinda; Coffie, Patrick Ahuatchi; Becquet, Renaud; Leroy, Valériane

    2016-01-01

    Objective Adolescents living with HIV are sexually active and engaged in risky sexual behaviors. Knowledge on how and to what extent adolescents in HIV care are affected by pregnancy is needed so as to adopt better preventive services. We estimated 4-year pregnancy incidence and correlates among HIV-infected female adolescents in HIV care in urban Côte d'Ivoire. Design We conducted retrospective analysis of a pediatric prospective cohort of the International epidemiological Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) West Africa Collaboration. Female patients with confirmed HIV infection aged 10–19 years, having at least one clinical visit in 2009 to health facilities participating in the pediatric IeDEA West African cohort in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, were included. Data on incident pregnancies were obtained through medical records and interviews with health professionals. Pregnancy incidence rate was estimated per 100 person-years (PY). Poisson regression models were used to identify factors associated with the first pregnancy and provided incidence rate ratios (IRR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results In 2009, 266 female adolescents were included, with a median age of 12.8 years (interquartile range, IQR: 10.0–15.0), CD4 cell counts of 506 cells/mm3 (IQR: 302–737), and 80% on antiretroviral treatment. At the 48th month, 17 new pregnancies were reported after 938 PY of follow-up: 13 girls had one pregnancy while 2 had two pregnancies. Overall incidence rate of pregnancy was 1.8/100 PY (95% CI: 1.1–2.9). High incidence was observed among those aged 15–19 years: 3.6/100 PY (95% CI: 2.2–5.9). Role of maternal death in the risk of pregnancy was at the limit of statistical significance (adjusted IRR: 3.1, 95% CI: 0.9–11.0; ref. non-maternal orphans). Conclusions Incidence of pregnancy among HIV-infected adolescents in care aged 15–19 years reached a level observed in adult cohorts in Sub-Saharan Africa. Health personnel in pediatric care have to

  5. Risk Factors for Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia in HIV-Infected Women on Antiretroviral Treatment in Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Jaquet, Antoine; Horo, Apollinaire; Ekouevi, Didier K.; Toure, Badian; Coffie, Patrick A.; Effi, Benjamin; Lenaud, Severin; Messou, Eugene; Minga, Albert; Sasco, Annie J.; Dabis, François

    2014-01-01

    Background Facing the dual burden of invasive cervical cancer and HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, the identification of preventable determinants of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) in HIV-infected women is of paramount importance. Methods A cervical cancer screening based on visual inspection methods was proposed to HIV-infected women in care in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. Positively screened women were referred for a colposcopy to a gynaecologist who performed directed biopsies. Results Of the 2,998 HIV-infected women enrolled, 132 (4.4%) CIN of any grade (CIN+) were identified. Women had been followed-up for a median duration of three years [IQR: 1–5] and 76% were on antiretroviral treatment (ART). Their median most recent CD4 count was 452 [IQR: 301–621] cells/mm3. In multivariate analysis, CIN+ was associated with a most recent CD4 count >350 cells/mm3 (OR: 0.3; 95% CI: 0.2–0.6) or ≥200–350 cells/mm3 (OR 0.6; 95% CI 0.4–1.0) (Ref: <200 cells/mm3 CD4) (p<10−4). Conclusions The presence of CIN+ is less common among HIV-infected women with limited or no immune deficiency. Despite the potential impact of immunological recovery on the reduction of premalignant cervical lesions through the use of ART, cervical cancer prevention, including screening and vaccination remains a priority in West Africa while ART is rolled-out. PMID:24595037

  6. Rapid Urban Malaria Appraisal (RUMA) III: epidemiology of urban malaria in the municipality of Yopougon (Abidjan)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shr-Jie; Lengeler, Christian; Smith, Thomas A; Vounatsou, Penelope; Cissé, Guéladio; Tanner, Marcel

    2006-01-01

    Background Currently, there is a significant lack of knowledge concerning urban malaria patterns in general and in Abidjan in particular. The prevalence of malaria, its distribution in the city and the fractions of fevers attributable to malaria in the health facilities have not been previously investigated. Methods A health facility-based survey and health care system evaluation was carried out in a peripheral municipality of Abidjan (Yopougon) during the rainy season of 2002, applying a standardized Rapid Urban Malaria Appraisal (RUMA) methodology. Results According to national statistics, approximately 240,000 malaria cases (both clinical cases and laboratory confirmed cases) were reported by health facilities in the whole of Abidjan in 2001. They accounted for 40% of all consultations. In the health facilities of the Yopougon municipality, the malaria infection rates in fever cases for different age groups were 22.1% (under one year-olds), 42.8% (one to five years-olds), 42.0% (> five to 15 years-olds) and 26.8% (over 15 years-olds), while those in the control group were 13.0%. 26.7%, 21.8% and 14.6%, respectively. The fractions of malaria-attributable fever were 0.12, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.13 in the same age groups. Parasitaemia was homogenously detected in different areas of Yopougon. Among all children, 10.1% used a mosquito net (treated or not) the night before the survey and this was protective (OR = 0.52, 95% CI 0.29–0.97). Travel to rural areas within the last three months was frequent (31% of all respondents) and associated with a malaria infection (OR = 1.75, 95% CI 1.25–2.45). Conclusion Rapid urbanization has changed malaria epidemiology in Abidjan and endemicity was found to be moderate in Yopougon. Routine health statistics are not fully reliable to assess the burden of disease, and the low level of the fractions of malaria-attributable fevers indicated substantial over-treatment of malaria. PMID:16584575

  7. Performance of rapid tests and algorithms for HIV screening in Abidjan, Ivory Coast.

    PubMed

    Loukou, Y G; Cabran, M A; Yessé, Zinzendorf Nanga; Adouko, B M O; Lathro, S J; Agbessi-Kouassi, K B T

    2014-01-01

    Seven rapid diagnosis tests (RDTs) of HIV were evaluated by a panel group who collected serum samples from patients in Abidjan (HIV-1 = 203, HIV-2 = 25, HIV-dual = 25, HIV = 305). Kit performances were recorded after the reference techniques (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). The following RDTs showed a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity higher than 99%: Determine, Oraquick, SD Bioline, BCP, and Stat-Pak. These kits were used to establish infection screening strategies. The combination with 2 or 3 of these tests in series or parallel algorithms showed that series combinations with 2 tests (Oraquick and Bioline) and 3 tests (Determine, BCP, and Stat-Pak) gave the best performances (sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 100%). However, the combination with 2 tests appeared to be more onerous than the combination with 3 tests. The combination with Determine, BCP, and Stat-Pak tests serving as a tiebreaker could be an alternative to the HIV/AIDS serological screening in Abidjan.

  8. [Complete immunization coverage and reasons for non-vaccination in a periurban area of Abidjan].

    PubMed

    Sackou, K J; Oga, A S S; Desquith, A A; Houenou, Y; Kouadio, K L

    2012-10-01

    An immunization coverage survey was conducted among children aged 12-59 months in a suburban neighbourhood in Abidjan. The objective was to determine the complete immunization coverage, the reasons for non-vaccination and factors influencing the immunization status of children. The method of exhaustive sampling enabled us to interview the mothers of 669 children using a questionnaire. Overall vaccination coverage was 68.6% with 1.2%, with 1.2% of children never having received vaccine. The logistic regression analysis showed that the level of education, knowledge of the immunization schedule and the marital status of mothers, as well as the type of habitat, were associated with full immunization of children. These determinants must be taken into account to improve vaccination coverage.

  9. [The epidemiological profile of subjects exposed to rabies in Abidjan, Ivory Coast].

    PubMed

    Tiembré, Issaka; Vroh Benié Bi, Joseph; N'Cho Dagnan, Simplice; Kouadio Ekra, Daniel; Zebe, Sonia; Tagliante-Saracino, Janine

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the epidemiological profile of subjects exposed to rabies in the anti-rabies center of Abidjan in Ivory Coast. The paper is based on a cross-sectional study conducted among all people exposed to the risk of rabies and followed in the anti-rabies center from January to December 2008. During the study period, 2,673 subjects were exposed, i.e. 5 exposures for every 10,000 persons. 1,534 patients (57.4%) were male. The most exposed age groups were the 0-9 and 10-19 age groups (22.4% and 29.5% respectively). In Abidjan, 608 individuals (22.7%) were exposed in Cocody, 471 individuals (17.6%) in Abobo, and 310 individuals (11.6%) in Yopougon. Exposure occurred in 76.9% of cases (2,055 subjects) at home and exclusively concerned visitors of the family. Exposures by animal bites represented 88.1% (2,354 subjects) of all cases, while 23.2% (620 subjects) of exposures were category III. The average period between exposure and consultation was 10 days. Subjects were exposed as a result of contact with a dog in 92.1 % of cases (2,462 subjects). The animal was found alive in 74.9% (2,002 cases) and was not immunized in 87.2% of cases (2,331). Post-exposure prophylaxis was given up by 1,470 persons (55.2%). 13 subjects were received at the stage of clinical rabies. Increased knowledge of the epidemiological profile of rabies exposure will contribute to improving the management of the disease in Ivory Coast.

  10. Genital ulcers associated with human immunodeficiency virus-related immunosuppression in female sex workers in Abidjan, Ivory Coast.

    PubMed

    Ghys, P D; Diallo, M O; Ettiègne-Traoré, V; Yeboué, K M; Gnaoré, E; Lorougnon, F; Kalé, K; Van Dyck, E; Brettegaard, K; Hoyi, Y M

    1995-11-01

    A cross-sectional study among female sex workers in Abidjan was conducted to study the association between sexually transmitted diseases and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and HIV-related immunosuppression. Among 1209 women tested for HIV, 962 (80%) were seropositive. HIV infection was independently associated with a longer duration of sex work, a lower price for intercourse, being an immigrant, and having a positive Treponema pallidum hemagglutination test (P < .05). Genital ulcers (25% vs. 5%), genital warts (14% vs. 4%), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (32% vs. 16%), Trichomonas vaginalis (27% vs. 17%), and syphilis (27% vs. 17%) were more frequent (P < .05) in HIV-infected than -uninfected women. Among HIV-infected women, the proportions with a genital ulcer were 17%, 25%, and 36% for those with > 28%, 14%-28%, and < 14% CD4 cells, respectively (P < .001). This study suggests that genital ulcers are an opportunistic disease in female sex workers in Abidjan.

  11. Les pneumopathies aigues du nourrisson en Côte d'Ivoire: apport de la radiographie thoracique dans la recherche étiologique et la prise en charge précoce

    PubMed Central

    Nágoan, Kouamé; Nágoan-Domoua, Anne-Marie; Alihonou, Sétchéou; Konan, Anhum Nicaise

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Identifier les tableaux radio-cliniques actuels des pneumopathies aiguës du nourrisson rencontrés en Côte d'Ivoire et démontrer le rôle de la radiographie thoracique dans leur prise en charge. Méthodes Etude rétrospective de 24 mois ayant concerné l'analyse de 165 radiographies thoraciques (RT) de face réalisées chez des nourrissons âgés de 1 à 24 mois, hospitalisés dans le service de pédiatrie du CHU de Yopougon (Abidjan-Côte d'Ivoire) pour pneumopathies aigues. Les éléments épidémio-cliniques, thérapeutiques et évolutifs ont été obtenus à partir du dossier médical des nourrissons. Résultats L'âge moyen des nourrissons était de 9 mois avec des extrêmes entre 3 et 22 mois. Le sex-ratio était égal à 1,2. Les syndromes radiographiques étaient dominés par le syndrome alvéolaire (70,3%) suivi par l'association syndrome alvéolaire-syndrome bronchique (29,7%). Les signes radiographiques de gravité étaient présents dans 61,8%. Les entités radio-cliniques étaient représentées par les pneumopathies massives (32,7%), la pneumonie franche lobaire aigue (4,2%), les abcès du poumon (7,3%), les staphylococcies pleuro-pulmonaires (4,2%), les pleuro-pneumopathies (13,3%), le pyo-pneumothorax (4,9%), les broncho-pneumopathies (29,7%) et la primo-infection tuberculeuse (3,7%). Conclusion A travers la mise en parallèle des entités radio-cliniques avec les éléments épidémiologiques et cliniques, la RT a permis de préjuger de l'étiologie des pneumopathies et de mettre en route immédiatement le traitement spécifique. A l'ère de la pandémie du VIH-SIDA, cette étude montre que la tuberculose pulmonaire est paradoxalement l'entité radio-clinique la plus rare. PMID:23319234

  12. The Long Forgotten Compound: CoTe, and its Epitaxial Film Growth and Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhiwei; Zhu, Zhihai; Hines, William A.; Budnick, Joseph I.; Wells, Barrett O.

    As part of our investigation of Co-doped, Fe-chalcogenide superconductors, we have synthesized films of CoTe; a long forgotten binary compound. Using pulsed laser deposition, we have grown epitaxial films on MgO, CaF2, and SrTiO3 and have found that careful control of growth conditions allows for the synthesis of either (001) or (101) oriented films. X-ray diffraction shows the structure of the films is hexagonal. However, we also find the surprising presence of the nominally disallowed (001) peak. We also report temperature dependent transport and magnetic properties. This material may be of interest as a magnetic semiconductor and for its relationship to chemically doping Fe-based superconductors. DOE/BES Contract DE-FG02-00ER45801.

  13. [Epidemiologic study on patrons of traditional drink establishments (Bandjidromes) in Abidjan, Ivory Coast and surrounding areas].

    PubMed

    Yeo-Tenena, Y J M; Yao, Y P; Konan, Y E; Koffi, K E; Amani, N; Delfosse, R C J

    2007-02-01

    This transverse descriptive study was conducted over a three-month period from January 10 to April 10, 2003. Findings demonstrated a clear profile of 120 patrons of traditional drinking establishments called n the city of Abidjan and surrounding areas in the Ivory Coast. All subjects interrogated were male. Mean age was 31.1 years. Almost all subjects interrogated (99.2%) were of Ivory Coast nationality. The main ethnic group was Akan (86.7%) from Baoulé (60%). More than a third (35.9%) of subjects interviewed were unemployed. Most (62.5%) were single. All subjects interrogated stated that they attended "bandjidromes" to drink palm wine although other alcoholic beverages were served. However only 9.2% of subjects drank only palm wine. The euphoric effect of alcohol and friendly atmosphere of the drinking establishment were the main reasons for attendance (53.3%). Most persons interrogated (63.3%) had been consuming alcohol for more than 10 years. More than half (55%) spent less than three hours a day drinking alcoholic beverages. Daily consumption of palm wine ranged from two to four liters for most atrons (76.7%). Only 2.5% (3/120) presented neuropsychiatric disturbances. These results could be useful in the fight against alcoholism.

  14. [Smoking in the African setting (Abidjan, Ivory coast): patient knowledge, attitude and behavior].

    PubMed

    Koffi, N; Kouassi, B; Horo, K; Kouakou, Y G M; N'Gom, A; Toloba, Y; Bouzid, S; Aka-Danguy, E

    2004-09-01

    Recent studies on smoking conducted in the ivory coast have been sparse despite increasingly aggressive tobacco company campaigns. The purpose of this prospective study was to examine the influence of medical specialty on patient knowledge, attitude and smoking behavior among people consulting three university hospitals in Abidjan. The inquiry was performed with a questionnaire concerning a comparative series of 180 subjects (90 patients in each sample). Overall, the series included 16.10% active smokers, 15.60% former smokers, and 68.30% non-smokers, with no difference between the groups. The well-known feature of smoking with friends was main reason cited for beginning smoking. Three quarters of patients (75.9%) had attempted to stop smoking. Information about smoking was obtained from the media. The hospital was involved little in acquiring knowledge about smoking. Type of specialist consultation (hospital units providing care for smoking-related disease or not) had little influence. Hospital units should become more involved in the anti-smoking campaign. Consultations on cessation of smoking should be instituted in a country with highly aggressive smoking advertisements.

  15. Numerical performance of AOR methods in solving first order composite closed Newton-Cotes quadrature algebraic equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthuvalu, Mohana Sundaram; Aruchunan, Elayaraja; Koh, Wei Sin; Akhir, Mohd Kamalrulzaman Md; Sulaiman, Jumat; Karim, Samsul Ariffin Abdul

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, the application of the Accelerated Over-Relaxation (AOR) iterative method is extended to solve first order composite closed Newton-Cotes quadrature (1-CCNC) algebraic equations arising from second kind linear Fredholm integral equations. The formulation and implementation of the method are also discussed. In addition, numerical results by solving several test problems are included and compared with the conventional iterative methods.

  16. [Epidemiology of induced abortion in Côte d'Ivoire].

    PubMed

    Vroh, Joseph Benie Bi; Tiembre, Issaka; Attoh-Toure, Harvey; Kouadio, Daniel Ekra; Kouakou, Lucien; Coulibaly, Lazare; Kouakou, Hyacinthe Andoh; Tagliante-Saracino, Janine

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine induced abortion in Côte d'Ivoire. A nationwide cross-sectional descriptive study of induced abortion was carried out in 2007 among 3,057 women aged 15-49 years. The study showed that induced abortion is a widespread practice in Côte d'Ivoire, with a prevalence estimated at 42.5%. The women who had undergone an abortion were generally under 25, unmarried, and illiterate, and had used contraception. More than half (52.1%) of all induced abortions were performed at home by traditional abortionists or were self-induced with plants or decoctions. The main reasons for induced abortion were concern about the reaction of parents (27.7%), age (22.2%), a lack of financial resources (21.3%) and the desire of women to continue their education. More than half of the participants (55.8%) stated that they had suffered complications, which were more common after a home abortion than after a hospital abortion. Political and legal measures or reforms aimed at changing abortion laws in Côte d'Ivoire and better access to family planning are required in order to prevent or treat the social issue of induced abortion.

  17. Flexibility of the programme of spore coat formation in Bacillus subtilis: bypass of CotE requirement by over-production of CotH.

    PubMed

    Isticato, Rachele; Sirec, Teja; Giglio, Rosa; Baccigalupi, Loredana; Rusciano, Giulia; Pesce, Giuseppe; Zito, Gianluigi; Sasso, Antonio; De Felice, Maurilio; Ricca, Ezio

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial spores are surrounded by the coat, a multilayered shell that contributes in protecting the genome during stress conditions. In Bacillus subtilis, the model organism for spore formers, the coat is composed by about seventy different proteins, organized into four layers by the action of several regulatory proteins. A major component of this regulatory network, CotE, is needed to assemble the outer coat and develop spores fully resistant to lysozyme and able to germinate efficiently. Another regulator, CotH, is controlled by CotE and is present in low amounts both during sporulation and in mature spores. In spite of this CotH controls the assembly of at least nine outer coat proteins and cooperates with CotE in producing fully resistant and efficiently germinating spores. In order to improve our understanding of CotH role in spore formation, we over-produced CotH by placing its coding region under the control of a promoter stronger than its own promoter but with a similar timing of activity during sporulation. Over-production of CotH in an otherwise wild type strain did not cause any major effect, whereas in a cotE null background a partial recovery of the phenotypes associated to the cotE null mutation was observed. Western blot, fluorescence microscopy and Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering spectroscopy data indicate that, in the absence of CotE, over-production of CotH allowed the formation of spores overall resembling wild type spores and carrying in their coat some CotE-/CotH-dependant proteins. Our results suggest that the B. subtilis spore differentiation programme is flexible, and that an increase in the amount of a regulatory protein can replace a missing partner and partially substitute its function in the assembly of the spore coat.

  18. Numerical performance of half-sweep SOR method for solving second order composite closed Newton-Cotes system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthuvalu, Mohana Sundaram; Aruchunan, Elayaraja; Akhir, Mohd Kamalrulzaman Md; Sulaiman, Jumat; Karim, Samsul Ariffin Abdul

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, application of the Half-Sweep Successive Over-Relaxation (HSSOR) iterative method is extended by solving second order composite closed Newton-Cotes quadrature (2-CCNC) system. The performance of HSSOR method in solving 2-CCNC system is comparatively studied by their application on linear Fredholm integral equations of the second kind. The derivation and implementation of the method are discussed. In addition, numerical results by solving two test problems are included and compared with the standard Gauss-Seidel (GS) and Successive Over-Relaxation (SOR) methods. Numerical results demonstrate that HSSOR method is an efficient method among the tested methods.

  19. Characteristics and Results of the Treatment of Multiple Myeloma in the Subject under the Age of 65 at the University Hospital of Yopougon in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Tolo, Diebkilé Aïssata; Sawadogo, Duni; Nanho, Danho Clotaire; Kouakou, Boidy; Méité, N'dogomo; Ayémou, Roméo; Kouéhion, Paul; Konan, Mozart; Sékongo, Yassongui Mamadou; N'dhatz, Emeraude; Kamara, Ismaël; Silué, Alexis; Koffi, Kouassi Gustave; Sanogo, Ibrahima

    2013-01-01

    We retrospectively studied 30 cases of multiple myeloma in patients under the age of 65, diagnosed from 1991 to 2005 in the clinical hematology department of the University Hospital of Yopougon that is a hospital incidence of 2.9 cases/year. The age of patients ranged from 34 to 64 years, with a mean age of 49 years and a sex ratio of 1.73. The professional activity was variable with 3% of radiographers and 10% of farmers. Clinically, the dominant sign was bone pain in 83% of cases. Myeloma was secretory in 93% of cases. It was Ig G-type in 86%, kappa-type in 66% of cases. 86% of patients were anemic, 20% had creatinine >20 mg/L, and 10% had serum calcium >120 mg/L. Geodes were found in 80% of cases. 53% were at stage III of DURIE and SALMON. Complications were infectious (33%), renal (20%), and hemorrhagic (7%). Chemotherapy regimens were VAD (10%), VMCP (30%), and VMCP/VBAP (60%) with 47% of partial responses, 33% of stable disease, and 7% of very good quality partial responses. The outcome developed towards death in 37% and causes of death were renal in 46% of cases. The median survival was only 5.1 months.

  20. Characteristics and Results of the Treatment of Multiple Myeloma in the Subject under the Age of 65 at the University Hospital of Yopougon in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Tolo, Diebkilé Aïssata; Sawadogo, Duni; Nanho, Danho Clotaire; Kouakou, Boidy; Méité, N'Dogomo; Ayémou, Roméo; Kouéhion, Paul; Konan, Mozart; Sékongo, Yassongui Mamadou; N'Dhatz, Emeraude; Kamara, Ismaël; Silué, Alexis; Koffi, Kouassi Gustave; Sanogo, Ibrahima

    2013-01-01

    We retrospectively studied 30 cases of multiple myeloma in patients under the age of 65, diagnosed from 1991 to 2005 in the clinical hematology department of the University Hospital of Yopougon that is a hospital incidence of 2.9 cases/year. The age of patients ranged from 34 to 64 years, with a mean age of 49 years and a sex ratio of 1.73. The professional activity was variable with 3% of radiographers and 10% of farmers. Clinically, the dominant sign was bone pain in 83% of cases. Myeloma was secretory in 93% of cases. It was Ig G-type in 86%, kappa-type in 66% of cases. 86% of patients were anemic, 20% had creatinine >20 mg/L, and 10% had serum calcium >120 mg/L. Geodes were found in 80% of cases. 53% were at stage III of DURIE and SALMON. Complications were infectious (33%), renal (20%), and hemorrhagic (7%). Chemotherapy regimens were VAD (10%), VMCP (30%), and VMCP/VBAP (60%) with 47% of partial responses, 33% of stable disease, and 7% of very good quality partial responses. The outcome developed towards death in 37% and causes of death were renal in 46% of cases. The median survival was only 5.1 months. PMID:24454380

  1. Using a Software Package to Publish EAD Encoded Finding Aids: A Practical Approach and Gradual Implementation at the Archives Departementales de la Cote-d'Or, France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devarrewaere, Anthony; Roelly, Aude

    2005-01-01

    The Archives Departementales de la Cote-d'Or chose as a priority for its automation plan the acquisition of a search engine, to publish online archival descriptions and the library catalogue. The Archives deliberately opted for a practical approach, using for the encoding of the finding aids an automatic data export from an archival management…

  2. Sporulation Temperature Reveals a Requirement for CotE in the Assembly of both the Coat and Exosporium Layers of Bacillus cereus Spores

    PubMed Central

    Bressuire-Isoard, Christelle; Bornard, Isabelle; Henriques, Adriano O.; Carlin, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    The Bacillus cereus spore surface layers consist of a coat surrounded by an exosporium. We investigated the interplay between the sporulation temperature and the CotE morphogenetic protein in the assembly of the surface layers of B. cereus ATCC 14579 spores and on the resulting spore properties. The cotE deletion affects the coat and exosporium composition of the spores formed both at the suboptimal temperature of 20°C and at the optimal growth temperature of 37°C. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that ΔcotE spores had a fragmented and detached exosporium when formed at 37°C. However, when produced at 20°C, ΔcotE spores showed defects in both coat and exosporium attachment and were susceptible to lysozyme and mutanolysin. Thus, CotE has a role in the assembly of both the coat and exosporium, which is more important during sporulation at 20°C. CotE was more represented in extracts from spores formed at 20°C than at 37°C, suggesting that increased synthesis of the protein is required to maintain proper assembly of spore surface layers at the former temperature. ΔcotE spores formed at either sporulation temperature were impaired in inosine-triggered germination and resistance to UV-C and H2O2 and were less hydrophobic than wild-type (WT) spores but had a higher resistance to wet heat. While underscoring the role of CotE in the assembly of B. cereus spore surface layers, our study also suggests a contribution of the protein to functional properties of additional spore structures. Moreover, it also suggests a complex relationship between the function of a spore morphogenetic protein and environmental factors such as the temperature during spore formation. PMID:26497467

  3. Sporulation Temperature Reveals a Requirement for CotE in the Assembly of both the Coat and Exosporium Layers of Bacillus cereus Spores.

    PubMed

    Bressuire-Isoard, Christelle; Bornard, Isabelle; Henriques, Adriano O; Carlin, Frédéric; Broussolle, Véronique

    2015-10-23

    The Bacillus cereus spore surface layers consist of a coat surrounded by an exosporium. We investigated the interplay between the sporulation temperature and the CotE morphogenetic protein in the assembly of the surface layers of B. cereus ATCC 14579 spores and on the resulting spore properties. The cotE deletion affects the coat and exosporium composition of the spores formed both at the suboptimal temperature of 20°C and at the optimal growth temperature of 37°C. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that ΔcotE spores had a fragmented and detached exosporium when formed at 37°C. However, when produced at 20°C, ΔcotE spores showed defects in both coat and exosporium attachment and were susceptible to lysozyme and mutanolysin. Thus, CotE has a role in the assembly of both the coat and exosporium, which is more important during sporulation at 20°C. CotE was more represented in extracts from spores formed at 20°C than at 37°C, suggesting that increased synthesis of the protein is required to maintain proper assembly of spore surface layers at the former temperature. ΔcotE spores formed at either sporulation temperature were impaired in inosine-triggered germination and resistance to UV-C and H2O2 and were less hydrophobic than wild-type (WT) spores but had a higher resistance to wet heat. While underscoring the role of CotE in the assembly of B. cereus spore surface layers, our study also suggests a contribution of the protein to functional properties of additional spore structures. Moreover, it also suggests a complex relationship between the function of a spore morphogenetic protein and environmental factors such as the temperature during spore formation.

  4. 76 FR 35719 - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to Libya and C[ocirc]te d'Ivoire

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, June 8, 2011 [FR Doc. 2011-15441 Filed 6-17-11; 8:45 am] Billing... Migration Needs Related to Libya and C te d'Ivoire Memorandum for the Secretary of State By the authority...) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (the ``Act''), as amended (22 U.S.C....

  5. 76 FR 14269 - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to C[ocirc]te d'Ivoire

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... Register. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, March 7, 2011 [FR Doc. 2011-6257 Filed 3-15-11... Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to C te d'Ivoire Memorandum for the Secretary of State..., including section 2(c)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (the ``Act''), as amended,...

  6. [Clinical and developmental aspects of care-related tetanus in the reference service of the teaching hospital of Abidjan].

    PubMed

    Aba, T; Kra, O; Ehui, E; Tanon, K A; Kacou, A R; Ouatara, B; Bissagnéné, E; Kadio, A

    2011-02-01

    A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted from medical data of inpatients with tetanus in the Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases of the University Hospital of Treichville in Abidjan from January 2003 to December 2007. In five years, 221 cases of tetanus have been hospitalized. The tetanus gateway was found in 188 patients (85%). Tetanus gateway linked to care was found in 22 patients (11.7%). Acts of care in question were intramuscular injections (10 cases) and operative procedures (12 cases). Concerning medical care by intramuscular injection, quinine (four cases), sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (one case), and long-acting penicillin (one case) were the identified drugs. The operative procedures mainly involved were skin sutures (nine cases), cures of hernia (two cases), and flattening of Fournier's gangrene (one case). The average incubation period was 9.5 days. The invasion lasted for an average of 1.8 days. On admission, tetanus was immediately generalized for all patients with the presence of paroxysms in 20 patients (90.9%). The lethality of tetanus related care was 54.5%. The death rate in the first 48 hours of hospitalization was estimated at 83.3%. The average length of hospital stay was 14.6 days. Health workers should be involved in the prevention of tetanus in improving the quality of care and especially in reducing intramuscular injections. Also, any patient not immunized against tetanus should receive anti-tetanus serum and an update of its tetanus vaccine before any invasive procedures.

  7. [Qnr-type quinolone resistance in extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing enterobacteria in Abidjan, Ivory Coast].

    PubMed

    Guessennd, N; Bremont, S; Gbonon, V; Kacou-Ndouba, A; Ekaza, E; Lambert, T; Dosso, M; Courvalin, P

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to show the emergence of the qnr genes in extended spectrum beta-lactamases producing enterobacteria in Abidjan between 2005 and 2006. The whole of 151 strains of extended spectrum beta-lactamases producing enterobacteria were studied: 64 Escherichia coli, 66 Klebsiella pneumoniae, seven Klebsiella oxytoca and 14 Enterobacter spp. isolated from various biological products and from in- and out-patients. The techniques of disks diffusion, double-disk synergy, E-test were respectively used for the antimicrobial susceptibility test, the detection of extended spectrum beta-lactamases and the minimal inhibiting concentration. The bla genes(SHV, TEM, CTXM groups 1, 2, 8, 9), and AmpC were determined by PCR and characterized by sequencing. A global prevalence of 27,2 % (41/151) and rates of 9,9, 14,6, 2,7 % for the qnr genes A, B, A and S were observed. The distribution was 42,9 % for Enterobacter spp, 31,2 % for Escherichia coli, 20,5 % for Klebsiella; 30 strains expressed at least two bla genes; four strains were associated with AmpC. The strains were resistant to the cotrimoxazole (97,6 %), to the céfépime (73,2 %), to the céfoxitine (56,1 %), to the imipénème (0 %) and 43,9 % to all the aminosides. This high qnr gene prevalence associated with several types of bla genes in epidemic matter, the high level of resistance to antibiotics make fear a high risk of the transmission of multi-resistants bacteria and challenge the authorities for a resistance monitoring policy.

  8. Residual risk of HIV, HVB and HCV transmission by blood transfusion between 2002 and 2004 at the Abidjan National Blood Transfusion Center.

    PubMed

    Ouattara, H; Siransy-Bogui, L; Fretz, C; Diane, K M; Konate, S; Koidio, A; Minga, K A; Hyda, J; Koffi-Abe, N; Offoumou, A M; Abissey, S

    2006-10-01

    The assessment of the viral residual risk from blood products is an assessment indicator of the quality management system and of the availability process of these products. Assessments of HIV, HBV and HCV viruses transmission risks through blood transfusion are calculated after the setting of a quality approach at the Abidjan NBTC. The method used estimates the risk of a donation made during a period immunologically silent. The residual risks for HIV, HBV, and HCV viruses have been estimated by multiplying the incidence rate for 100,000 people per year by the respective durations of the serological windows. The data received from the Abidjan Center's information processing system (Progesa 4.4d of MAK SYSTEM) go from 2002 to 2004 period. The residual risks are 1/5780 donations for HIV and 1/406 donations for the HCV, then 1/383 donations for the HBV. The residual risk for the HIV is almost four times reduced compared to that of 1997. The results show not only the importance of the transmission risk of HIV, HBV and HCV viruses through blood products, but also the necessity to set a quality management system in endemic countries of Sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:16822686

  9. Ten years of limnological monitoring of a modified natural lake in the tropics: Cote Lake, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Umaña, Gerardo

    2014-06-01

    It is located 650m above sea level along the boundary between the North Caribbean and Pacific slopes, near the Southern end of the volcanic Guanacaste mountain range. In the early 1980s the lake's main outlet was dammed and the outflow was diverted into Arenal Reservoir. Lake Cote was first studied in 1990-1991, and later in 2001, before it was again modified by raising its dam by one meter to use its outflow for hydroelectricity. From 2002 to 2010 it has been monitored twice a year for changes in its limnology. Here I present a summary of its basic characteristics and an analysis of their changes through time. The lake is discontinuous polymictic, and sometimes develops a thermocline at 6m depth that may last for several days as evidenced by the occasional development of an anoxic layer close to the bottom. Since its modification for hydropower production, the surface water temperature has attained higher values than before. Oxygen levels in the lake show periods of hypoxia to anoxia in the hypolimnion, that have become more frequent since modification. Despite its turbid water, the lake has low levels of nutrient concentrations and of chlorophyll a. The trend in these parameters in recent times is a reduction in chlorophyll a and an increase in water transparency, implying a reduction in primary productivity. These changes are discussed in relationship with anthropogenic factors such as the modification of the lake and its management, changes in landscape around the lake and global climate change.

  10. Genetic Polymorphism of msp1 and msp2 in Plasmodium falciparum Isolates from Côte d'Ivoire versus Gabon

    PubMed Central

    Yavo, William; Konaté, Abibatou; Mawili-Mboumba, Denise Patricia; Kassi, Fulgence Kondo; Tshibola Mbuyi, Marie L.; Angora, Etienne Kpongbo; Menan, Eby I. Hervé; Bouyou-Akotet, Marielle K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The characterization of genetic profile of Plasmodium isolates from different areas could help in better strategies for malaria elimination. This study aimed to compare P. falciparum diversity in two African countries. Methods. Isolates collected from 100 and 73 falciparum malaria infections in sites of Côte d'Ivoire (West Africa) and Gabon (Central Africa), respectively, were analyzed by a nested PCR amplification of msp1 and msp2 genes. Results. The K1 allelic family was widespread in Côte d'Ivoire (64.6%) and in Gabon (56.6%). For msp2, the 3D7 alleles were more prevalent (>70% in both countries) compared to FC27 alleles. In Côte d'Ivoire, the frequencies of multiple infections with msp1 (45.1%) and msp2 (40.3%) were higher than those found for isolates from Gabon, that is, 30.2% with msp1 and 31.4% with msp2. The overall complexity of infection was 1.66 (SD = 0.79) in Côte d'Ivoire and 1.58 (SD = 0.83) in Gabon. It decreased with age in Côte d'Ivoire in contrast to Gabon. Conclusion. Differences observed in some allelic families and in complexity profile may suggest an impact of epidemiological facies as well as immunological response on genetic variability of P. falciparum. PMID:27110390

  11. [Socio-economic impact at the household level of the health consequences of toxic waste discharge in Abidjan in 2006].

    PubMed

    Koné, B A; Tiembré, I; Dongo, K; Tanner, M; Zinsstag, J; Cissé, G

    2011-02-01

    In August 2006, toxic wastes were discharged in the district of Abidjan, causing important health consequences in many households in the area. In order to appreciate the socio-economic impact of the consequences of toxic waste discharge on the households and of the measures taken by the authorities to deal with this catastrophe, and to appreciate the spatial extent of the pollution, we undertook a multidisciplinary transversal investigation at the sites of discharge of oxic waste, from October the 19th to December the 8th, 2006, using a transect sampling methodology. This paper presents the results related to the socio-economic aspects of the survey while the environmental and epidemiological results are presented in two other published papers. The socioeconomics investigation, conducted using a questionnaire, concerned 809 households across the various sites of discharge of toxic waste. More than 62% of households had at least one person who had been affected by toxic waste (affected households). 62.47% of these households were in Cocody district (with 2 sites and 4 points of discharge), 30.14% in Abobo district (with 2 sites and 3 points) and 7.39% in Koumassi district (with 1 site and 1 point). To escape the bad smell and the nuisance, 22.75% of the 501 "affected" households had left their houses. To face the health consequences generated by the toxic waste, 30.54% of the "affected" households engaged expenses. Those were on average of 92 450 FCFA (€141), with a minimum of 1 000 FCFA (€1.5) and a maximum of 1500000 FCFA (€2.287), in spite of the advertisement of the exemption from payment treatment fees made by the government. The decision of destroying cultures and farms near the points of discharge of the toxic products in a radius of 200 meters, taken by the authorities, touched 2.22% of the households. For these households, it did nothing but worsen their state of poverty, since the zone of influence of the toxic waste went well beyond the 200 meters

  12. Developpement D'un Modele Climatique Regional: Fizr Simulation des Conditions de Janvier de la Cote Ouest Nord Americaine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyette, Stephane

    1995-11-01

    Le sujet de cette these concerne la modelisation numerique du climat regional. L'objectif principal de l'exercice est de developper un modele climatique regional ayant les capacites de simuler des phenomenes de meso-echelle spatiale. Notre domaine d'etude se situe sur la Cote Ouest nord americaine. Ce dernier a retenu notre attention a cause de la complexite du relief et de son controle sur le climat. Les raisons qui motivent cette etude sont multiples: d'une part, nous ne pouvons pas augmenter, en pratique, la faible resolution spatiale des modeles de la circulation generale de l'atmosphere (MCG) sans augmenter a outrance les couts d'integration et, d'autre part, la gestion de l'environnement exige de plus en plus de donnees climatiques regionales determinees avec une meilleure resolution spatiale. Jusqu'alors, les MCG constituaient les modeles les plus estimes pour leurs aptitudes a simuler le climat ainsi que les changements climatiques mondiaux. Toutefois, les phenomenes climatiques de fine echelle echappent encore aux MCG a cause de leur faible resolution spatiale. De plus, les repercussions socio-economiques des modifications possibles des climats sont etroitement liees a des phenomenes imperceptibles par les MCG actuels. Afin de circonvenir certains problemes inherents a la resolution, une approche pratique vise a prendre un domaine spatial limite d'un MCG et a y imbriquer un autre modele numerique possedant, lui, un maillage de haute resolution spatiale. Ce processus d'imbrication implique alors une nouvelle simulation numerique. Cette "retro-simulation" est guidee dans le domaine restreint a partir de pieces d'informations fournies par le MCG et forcee par des mecanismes pris en charge uniquement par le modele imbrique. Ainsi, afin de raffiner la precision spatiale des previsions climatiques de grande echelle, nous developpons ici un modele numerique appele FIZR, permettant d'obtenir de l'information climatique regionale valide a la fine echelle spatiale

  13. Physics and agriculture: applied optics to plant fertilization and breeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diomandé, K.; Soro, P. A.; Zoro, G. H.; Krou, V. A.

    2011-08-01

    The economy of Côte d'Ivoire rests on the agriculture. In order to contribute to the development of this agriculture, we have oriented our research field on applied optics to agriculture. Then, our research concerns mainly the Laser Induced chlorophyll fluorescence in plants. A simple laser-induced fluorescence set up has been designed and built at the Laboratory of Crystallography and Molecular Physics (LaCPM) at the University of Cocody (Abidjan, COTE D'IVOIRE). With this home set up we first have studied the fluorescence spectra of the "chlorophyll" to characterize the potassium deficiency in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq,). However, we found that the results differed for samples along terraced plots. The study of this phenomenon called "border effect", has enabled us to realize that sampling should be done after two rows of safety in each plot. We also applied the Laser Induced chlorophyll fluorescence technique to improve the plant breeding. For this, we have characterized the rubber tree seedlings in nurseries. And so we have highlighted those sensible to drought and resistant ones.

  14. Comparison of two methods for evaluating the quality of stored drinking water in Abidjan, Côte d'lvoire, and review of other comparisons in the literature.

    PubMed

    Macy, J T; Dunne, E F; Angoran-Benie, Y H; Kamelan-Tano, Y; Kouadio, L; Djai, K A; Luby, S P

    2005-09-01

    Membrane filtration, multiple tube fermentation (the standard methods) and Colilert are techniques available for assessing drinking water quality, but there are no published comparisons of Colilert to standard methods in a developing country laboratory. We reviewed the published literature on Colilert and standard methods and conducted a study to compare Colilert with membrane filtration for the detection and enumeration of total coliforms and fecal coliforms (Escherichia coli bacteria) using 35 stored drinking water samples from households in Abidjan, Côte d'lvoire. Our study results are consistent with previous published studies conducted in developed countries. Results from Colilert and membrane filtration correlated for both total coliforms (r2 = 0.81) and E. coli (r2 = 0.93). Colilert is an acceptable method to measure the presence and quantity of coliforms in water samples in a developing country setting.

  15. The link between postnatal abstinence and extramarital sex in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Ali, M M; Cleland, J G

    2001-09-01

    Whether the link, found in Benin, between postnatal abstinence and husbands' extramarital contacts can be generalized to other West African countries is assessed in this study. Data from the 1994 Demographic and Health Survey, Côte d'Ivoire, obtained from monogamous husbands concerning their extramarital sexual behavior in the two months preceding the survey were linked to data reported by wives concerning postnatal abstinence over the same time period. Logistic regression was applied to assess the link between these two factors, net of the effects of possible confounders. A significant effect of postnatal abstinence on the probability that the husband reported at least one extramarital partner was found. Unprotected extramarital sex was two times more common among men who observed conjugal abstinence than it was among other men. Other predictors of extramarital sex were urban-rural residence, region, education, and whether or not husband and wife had the same religious affiliation. Because condom use is low in this population, the protective effect of marital abstinence is offset by an increased probability that husbands will seek extramarital partners during the postpartum period. The results confirm the earlier findings for Benin and can likely be generalized to most of West Africa.

  16. Assessment of the contamination of surface water and fish from Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Wandan, E N; Zabik, M J

    1996-03-01

    Water and fish samples were collected from selected rivers and lagoons from Côte d'Ivoire. Water samples were analyzed for their chemical characteristics and for the levels of heavy metals and organochlorine pesticides. Fish samples were analyzed for the presence of organochlorine pesticides. The values for pH and total hardness found indicate that these waters are suitable for drinking. The COD is higher in the south and urban areas indicating an enrichment in organic matter due to agricultural and industrial activities. Only two metals, zinc and copper were detected at very low levels (ranges of values). The levels of organochlorine pesticides detected in water and fish samples were below the extraneous residue limits (ERL) and the acceptable daily intake (ADI) set by the FAO/WHO codex alimentarius commission. The levels found are higher in the south and around urban areas. These findings [correction of finding] indicate that agriculture and industrial activities are the most important source of surface water contamination by xenobiotics. PMID:8819838

  17. Human seroprevalence indicating hantavirus infections in tropical rainforests of Côte d'Ivoire and Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Witkowski, Peter T; Leendertz, Siv A J; Auste, Brita; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Schubert, Grit; Klempa, Boris; Muyembe-Tamfum, Jean-Jacques; Karhemere, Stomy; Leendertz, Fabian H; Krüger, Detlev H

    2015-01-01

    Hantaviruses are members of the Bunyaviridae family carried by small mammals and causing human hemorrhagic fevers worldwide. In Western Africa, where a variety of hemorrhagic fever viruses occurs, indigenous hantaviruses have been molecularly found in animal reservoirs such as rodents, shrews, and bats since 2006. To investigate the human contact to hantaviruses carried by these hosts and to assess the public health relevance of hantaviruses for humans living in the tropical rainforest regions of Western and Central Africa, we performed a cross-sectional seroprevalence study in the region of Taï National Park in Côte d'Ivoire and the Bandundu region near the Salonga National Park in the Democratic Republic (DR) of Congo. Serum samples were initially screened with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using nucleoproteins of several hantaviruses as diagnostic antigens. Positive results were confirmed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence testing. Seroprevalence rates of 3.9% (27/687) and 2.4% (7/295), respectively, were found in the investigated regions in Côte d'Ivoire and the DR Congo. In Côte d'Ivoire, this value was significantly higher than the seroprevalence rates previously reported from the neighboring country Guinea as well as from South Africa. Our study indicates an exposure of humans to hantaviruses in West and Central African tropical rainforest areas. In order to pinpoint the possible existence and frequency of clinical disease caused by hantaviruses in this region of the world, systematic investigations of patients with fever and renal or respiratory symptoms are required.

  18. Human seroprevalence indicating hantavirus infections in tropical rainforests of Côte d'Ivoire and Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Witkowski, Peter T; Leendertz, Siv A J; Auste, Brita; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Schubert, Grit; Klempa, Boris; Muyembe-Tamfum, Jean-Jacques; Karhemere, Stomy; Leendertz, Fabian H; Krüger, Detlev H

    2015-01-01

    Hantaviruses are members of the Bunyaviridae family carried by small mammals and causing human hemorrhagic fevers worldwide. In Western Africa, where a variety of hemorrhagic fever viruses occurs, indigenous hantaviruses have been molecularly found in animal reservoirs such as rodents, shrews, and bats since 2006. To investigate the human contact to hantaviruses carried by these hosts and to assess the public health relevance of hantaviruses for humans living in the tropical rainforest regions of Western and Central Africa, we performed a cross-sectional seroprevalence study in the region of Taï National Park in Côte d'Ivoire and the Bandundu region near the Salonga National Park in the Democratic Republic (DR) of Congo. Serum samples were initially screened with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using nucleoproteins of several hantaviruses as diagnostic antigens. Positive results were confirmed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence testing. Seroprevalence rates of 3.9% (27/687) and 2.4% (7/295), respectively, were found in the investigated regions in Côte d'Ivoire and the DR Congo. In Côte d'Ivoire, this value was significantly higher than the seroprevalence rates previously reported from the neighboring country Guinea as well as from South Africa. Our study indicates an exposure of humans to hantaviruses in West and Central African tropical rainforest areas. In order to pinpoint the possible existence and frequency of clinical disease caused by hantaviruses in this region of the world, systematic investigations of patients with fever and renal or respiratory symptoms are required. PMID:26052326

  19. First ecotoxicological assessment assay in a hydroelectric reservoir: the Lake Taabo (Côte d'Ivoire).

    PubMed

    Roche, Hélène; Tidou, Abiba

    2009-03-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) contamination was assessed in marketable species, two fishes (tilapia and catfish) and a prawn from the Lake Taabo (Côte d'Ivoire). Lindane and endosulfan were the main contaminants, suggesting their current use. DDT, endrin, heptachlor plus traces of chlordane, aldrin and fipronil were also detected. In fishes and in prawns, enzymatic biomarkers exhibited significant correlations with OCPs levels, showing the feasibility of a biomonitoring. The transfer of OCPs along the aquatic food web and their immunosuppressive effects in human are discussed. This preliminary study highlights that the pesticide contamination was concomitant with the increase in infectious diseases in the bordering population of this African lake.

  20. Rice irrigation and schistosomiasis in savannah and forest areas of Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Yapi, Y G; Briët, O J T; Diabate, S; Vounatsou, P; Akodo, E; Tanner, M; Teuscher, T

    2005-02-01

    Prevalence and intensity of infection of Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni were studied in relation to irrigated rice cultivation in Côte d'Ivoire. Urine and stool samples were collected from 4 to 15-year-old children in 24 villages in the savannah zone and 21 villages in the forest zone. Villages were classified according to surrounding inland valleys into three agro-ecosystems: (R2) full or partial water control allowing two rice cycles per year; (R1) no or partial water control allowing one harvest per year and (R0) absence of rice growing. In the savannah zone, S. haematobium prevalence was 4.8%, 2.3% and 0.7% and S. mansoni prevalence was 16.1%, 11.9% and 2.1% in R2, R1 and R0, respectively. In the forest zone, S. haematobium prevalence was 0.9%, 4.4% and 1.7% and S. mansoni prevalence was 61.3%, 46.6% and 17.5% in R2, in R1 and R0, respectively. Prevalences of S. mansoni adjusted for village effects were significantly different between agro-ecosystems in both zones. Significance of differences between agro-ecosystems of S. haematobium infection were strongly influenced by outlying villages. In savannah rice growing villages, negative binomial regression on infection intensity of each species showed significant positive relations to the surface of rice cultivated inland valleys, whereas uncultivated inland valleys showed no significant relation. However, in forest rice growing villages, S. mansoni infection intensity showed significant positive relations to the surface of uncultivated inland valleys, whereas surface water on rice cultivated land showed significant negative relations with infection intensity of each schistosomiasis species.

  1. Dual Simian Foamy Virus/Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infections in Persons from Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Switzer, William M; Tang, Shaohua; Zheng, HaoQiang; Shankar, Anupama; Sprinkle, Patrick S; Sullivan, Vickie; Granade, Timothy C; Heneine, Walid

    2016-01-01

    Zoonotic transmission of simian retroviruses in West-Central Africa occurring in primate hunters has resulted in pandemic spread of human immunodeficiency viruses (HIVs) and human T-lymphotropic viruses (HTLVs). While simian foamy virus (SFV) and simian T- lymphotropic virus (STLV)-like infection were reported in healthy persons exposed to nonhuman primates (NHPs) in West-Central Africa, less is known about the distribution of these viruses in Western Africa and in hospitalized populations. We serologically screened for SFV and STLV infection using 1,529 specimens collected between 1985 and 1997 from Côte d'Ivoire patients with high HIV prevalence. PCR amplification and analysis of SFV, STLV, and HIV/SIV sequences from PBMCs was used to investigate possible simian origin of infection. We confirmed SFV antibodies in three persons (0.2%), two of whom were HIV-1-infected. SFV polymerase (pol) and LTR sequences were detected in PBMC DNA available for one HIV-infected person. Phylogenetic comparisons with new SFV sequences from African guenons showed infection likely originated from a Chlorocebus sabaeus monkey endemic to Côte d'Ivoire. 4.6% of persons were HTLV seropositive and PCR testing of PBMCs from 15 HTLV seroreactive persons identified nine with HTLV-1 and one with HTLV-2 LTR sequences. Phylogenetic analysis showed that two persons had STLV-1-like infections, seven were HTLV-1, and one was an HTLV-2 infection. 310/858 (53%), 8/858 (0.93%), and 18/858 (2.1%) were HIV-1, HIV-2, and HIV-positive but undifferentiated by serology, respectively. No SIV sequences were found in persons with HIV-2 antibodies (n = 1) or with undifferentiated HIV results (n = 7). We document SFV, STLV-1-like, and dual SFV/HIV infection in Côte d'Ivoire expanding the geographic range for zoonotic simian retrovirus transmission to West Africa. These findings highlight the need to define the public health consequences of these infections. Studying dual HIV-1/SFV infections in

  2. ABO/Rh Blood Groups and Risk of HIV Infection and Hepatitis B Among Blood Donors of Abidjan, Côte D’ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Siransy, Liliane Kouabla; Nanga, Zizendorf Yves; Zaba, Flore Sandrine; Tufa, Nyasenu Yawo; Dasse, Sery Romuald

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B and HIV infection are two viral infections that represent real global public health problems. In order to improve their management, some hypotheses suggest that genetic predispositions like ABO and Rh blood groups would influence the occurrence of these diseases. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between ABO and Rhesus blood groups and the susceptibility to HIV infection and hepatitis B. We conducted a cross-sectional and analytical study in a population of voluntary blood donors in the Blood Transfusion Center of Abidjan. All blood donors who donated blood between January and June 2014 were tested for HBs antigen and anti-HIV antibodies (ELISA tests) and were ABO typed. The total number of examined blood donors during this period was 45,538, of which 0.32% and 8.07% were respectively infected with HIV and hepatitis B virus. O-group donors were more infected than non-O donors. Our study is an outline concerning the search for a link between ABO and Rh blood groups and hepatitis B and HIV infection. Further studies should be conducted to confirm the interaction between these two infections and contribute to the search for new therapeutic approaches. PMID:26495131

  3. Divergent lineage of a novel hantavirus in the banana pipistrelle (Neoromicia nanus) in Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Recently identified hantaviruses harbored by shrews and moles (order Soricomorpha) suggest that other mammals having shared ancestry may serve as reservoirs. To investigate this possibility, archival tissues from 213 insectivorous bats (order Chiroptera) were analyzed for hantavirus RNA by RT-PCR. Following numerous failed attempts, hantavirus RNA was detected in ethanol-fixed liver tissue from two banana pipistrelles (Neoromicia nanus), captured near Mouyassué village in Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa, in June 2011. Phylogenetic analysis of partial L-segment sequences using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods revealed that the newfound hantavirus, designated Mouyassué virus (MOUV), was highly divergent and basal to all other rodent- and soricomorph-borne hantaviruses, except for Nova virus in the European common mole (Talpa europaea). Full genome sequencing of MOUV and further surveys of other bat species for hantaviruses, now underway, will provide critical insights into the evolution and diversification of hantaviruses. PMID:22281072

  4. Changing tracks as situations change: humanitarian and health response along the Liberia-Côte d'Ivoire border.

    PubMed

    Derderian, Katharine

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, protracted crises and fragile post-conflict settings have challenged the co-existence, and even the linear continuum, of relief and development aid. Forced migration has tested humanitarian and development paradigms where sudden-onset emergencies, violence and displacement arise alongside ongoing development work. Drawing on Médecins Sans Frontières interventions in the region from December 2010 to May 2011, this paper examines aid and healthcare responses to displacement in Côte d'Ivoire and Liberia; it focuses on challenges to the maintenance of preparedness for such foreseeable emergencies and to adaptation in response to changing situations of displacement and insecurity. This 'backsliding' from development to emergency remains a substantial challenge to aid; yet, in exactly such cases, it also presents the opportunity to ensure access to medical care that is much more urgently needed in times of crisis, including the suspension of user fees for medical care. PMID:25196331

  5. [Antimicrobial activity of Morinda morindoides on in vitro growth of vibrio cholerae in Côte d'Ivoire].

    PubMed

    Koffi, A E; Yapi, H F; Bahi, C; Guessend, K N; Djaman, J A; Guede-Guina, F

    2010-02-01

    Cholera is a major public health problem in developing countries. As a contribution to management of this disease, the study described herein was carried out in Côte d'Ivoire. The purpose was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of products obtained by various techniques from the leaves of Morinda morindoides on a pathogenic strain of Vibrio cholerae O:1. Morinda morindoides is a medicinal plant in the Ivorian pharmacopoeia. The products were obtained as aqueous extracts, 70% ethanolic extracts, residual extracts and a chromatographic fraction (BGG F5). All three extracts and the chromatographic fraction showed considerable in vitro antimicrobial efficacy against Vibrio cholerae O:1. The most active against in vitro growth of Vibrio cholorae O:1 was the 70% ethanolic extract with a minimal bactericidal concentration of 5 mg/ml. The antibacterial properties of this medicinal plant can be of great benefit for management of cholera. PMID:20337116

  6. Divergent lineage of a novel hantavirus in the banana pipistrelle (Neoromicia nanus) in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Sumibcay, Laarni; Kadjo, Blaise; Gu, Se Hun; Kang, Hae Ji; Lim, Burton K; Cook, Joseph A; Song, Jin-Won; Yanagihara, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Recently identified hantaviruses harbored by shrews and moles (order Soricomorpha) suggest that other mammals having shared ancestry may serve as reservoirs. To investigate this possibility, archival tissues from 213 insectivorous bats (order Chiroptera) were analyzed for hantavirus RNA by RT-PCR. Following numerous failed attempts, hantavirus RNA was detected in ethanol-fixed liver tissue from two banana pipistrelles (Neoromicia nanus), captured near Mouyassué village in Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa, in June 2011. Phylogenetic analysis of partial L-segment sequences using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods revealed that the newfound hantavirus, designated Mouyassué virus (MOUV), was highly divergent and basal to all other rodent- and soricomorph-borne hantaviruses, except for Nova virus in the European common mole (Talpa europaea). Full genome sequencing of MOUV and further surveys of other bat species for hantaviruses, now underway, will provide critical insights into the evolution and diversification of hantaviruses. PMID:22281072

  7. [Investigation surrounding a fatal case of yellow fever in Côte d'Ivoire in 1999].

    PubMed

    Akoua-Koffi, C; Diarrassouba, S; Bénié, V B; Ngbichi, J M; Bozoua, T; Bosson, A; Akran, V; Carnevale, P; Ehouman, A

    2001-08-01

    Côte d'Ivoire is an endemic country for yellow fever, but no case was officially notified in recent years. In July 1999, however, one fatal case was reported. A German citizen was infected in the national park of Comoe, in the north eastern area of the country. In order to evaluate the extent of amaril virus circulation and the risk for local people, a virological, entomological and epidemiological investigation was carried out by the ministry of health, the OCCGE, the Côte d'Ivoire Pasteur Institute (IPCI) and the World Health Organisation in the area where the fatal case had been staying. 18 suspected and 24 confirmed mosquito catchers were identified by interview and a blood specimen was collected from each of them. In addition, 159 batches of mosquitoes from which 94 batches of potential vectors were collected; among the suspected cases, 22% were immunised against yellow fever. Serological and virological analyses were made at IPCI and the Paris Pasteur Institute by ELISA technique and isolation on cells cultures and newborn mice. All the suspicious sera and 87.5% of the catchers were positive for IgG anti-amaril virus. One catcher's serum was positive for IgM anti-amaril virus. 11 suspected sera were positive for IgG anti-dengue virus with 1 positive for IgM. 1 strain of amaril virus and 3 strains of Zika virus were isolated from mosquitoes at IPCI and confirmed by CRORA in Dakar. These results indicated that there is a yellow fever and dengue virus are prevalent among the human and vector populations in the study area. Preventive measures must be adopted to protect human beings at risk for amaril infection.

  8. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 710 - States Parties to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (EAR) (15 CFR parts 730 through 774). ** For export control purposes, Cook Islands and Niue are not...** Costa Rica Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) Croatia Cuba Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti...

  9. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 710 - States Parties to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (EAR) (15 CFR parts 730 through 774). ** For export control purposes, Cook Islands and Niue are not...** Costa Rica Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) Croatia Cuba Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti...

  10. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 710 - States Parties to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (EAR) (15 CFR parts 730 through 774). ** For export control purposes, Cook Islands and Niue are not...** Costa Rica Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) Croatia Cuba Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti...

  11. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 710 - States Parties to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (EAR) (15 CFR parts 730 through 774). ** For export control purposes, Cook Islands and Niue are not...** Costa Rica Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) Croatia Cuba Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti...

  12. [Clinical, biological, therapeutic and evolving profile of patients with HIV infection hospitalized at Infectious and tropical diseases unit in Abidjan (Ivory Coast)].

    PubMed

    Kra, O; Aba, Y T; Yao, K H; Ouattara, B; Abouo, F; Tanon, K A; Eholié, S; Bissagnené, E

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the clinical, biological, therapeutic and evolving current profile of hospitalized patients with HIV infection in the cohort of the Infectious and Tropical Diseases Unit (ITDU) in the aim to improve their care management. This is a retrospective study, conducted on medical data of hospitalized cases of patients with HIV infection in the ITDU at the teaching hospital of Treichville (Abidjan) from 2006 to 2007. During the two years, 447 patients were included in the study. Their average age was 39 years [18 years-86 years] and sex ratio was 0.69. Of the 447 patients, 35% were unemployed and 67% were new patients who had never undergone antiretroviral therapy (ART). The duration of drug exposure was less than 6 months in 59% of treated patients. The average time to initiate ART was seven weeks. Among naive patients 41.9% were lost to follow up, 35.9% were waiting for treatment and 22.1% waiting for baseline biological test to initiate ART. At the initiation of ART, 79.6% of patients had a CD4 count less than 200/mm(3). The reasons of hospitalization defining AIDS were dominated by tuberculosis (34.2%), cerebral toxoplasmosis (17.9%) and neuromeningeal cryptococcosis (8%). The main reasons of hospitalization in classifying non-AIDS were pyelonephritis (6.5%), bacterial pneumonia (5.4%) and undetermined infectious encephalitis (4.9%). Hospital mortality was 24.4%. The leading causes of death were tuberculosis (22.9%), cerebral toxoplasmosis (20.2%), undetermined infectious encephalitis (18.3%) and cryptococcal meningitis (13.7%). The profile of PLHIV in hospital is characterized by profound immunosuppression due to late diagnosis and high mortality associated with severe opportunistic infections and late initiation of ART.

  13. Interest in Determining the CD34+ CD38− Phenotype in the Diagnosis and Prognosis of Acute Leukemia in Abidjan – Côte d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Sawadogo, Duni; Tolo, Aissata; Kassi, Hermance; Sangare, Mahawa; Inwoley, Andre

    2013-01-01

    Background In Côte d’Ivoire, acute leukemias account for 12.5% of hematological malignancies. Acute leukemias are due to an anomaly of the stem cell characterized among other things by the expression of CD34+ CD38− surface markers. This CD34+ CD38− phenotype as well as other factors such as tumor syndrome, high leukocytosis and blasts are considered as important factors of poor prognosis. We therefore proposed to investigate the prognostic value of the expression of CD34+ CD38− markers in acute leukemias in Abidjan. Methods We selected 23 patients aged 33 years on whom we performed Complete Blood Count, bone marrow aspiration and immunophenotyping. To search for myeloperoxydase, smears of blood or bone marrow were stained with benzidine and revealed by the use of Hydrogen peroxide. Acute leukemias were then identified and distributed using the score proposed by the European Group for the Immunological characterization of Leukemias. The definitive diagnosis was made by combining morphological characters that serve as the basis for the French-American-British classification as well as cytochemical and immunophenotypic characters. Results According to the cytological and immunophenotypic classifications, the acute lymphoid leukemia 2 and B IV predominated. 52.2% (12/33) of patients were CD34+ CD38−. This phenotype was found in almost all cytological immunophenotypic types. The medullary invasion by blasts (reflection of the tumor mass) of the total sample of CD34+, CD34+ CD38− patients and those not expressing CD34+ was respectively 79.4%, 81.25%, 83.3% and 74.8%. Conclusion There was therefore no correlation between medullary blasts and the expression of CD34+ CD38−. To the factors we selected it would have been necessary to associate the study of cytogenetic and molecular anomalies to better understand the role of CD34+ CD38− phenotype, concerning prognosis. PMID:23667721

  14. Sleep-wake cycle of adolescents in Côte d'Ivoire: influence of age, gender, religion and occupation.

    PubMed

    Borchers, Claudia; Randler, Christoph

    2012-12-01

    The human sleep-wake cycle is characterized by significant individual differences. Those differences in the sleep-wake cycle are partially heritable but are also influenced by environmental factors like the light/dark cycle or social habits. In this study we analyse for the first time the sleep-wake rhythm of adolescent pupils and working adolescents in a less industrialised country in West Africa near the equator. The aim of this study was to explore the sleep wake cycle in this geographical region, using Côte d'Ivoire as an example. Data collection took place between 2nd of March and 10th of June 2009. 588 adolescents (338 girls, 250 boys) between 10 and 15 years (mean ± SD: 12.72 ± 1.63) participated in this study. We collected data on the religion of the participants (Christian (N = 159), Muslim (N = 352), other/no religion (N = 77)) and their occupation. Participants were either pupils attending school (N = 336) or adolescents that were already working (N = 252) and not attending school. The interviewer filled in the questionnaire. We found significant effects of age (p < 0.001), gender (p < 0.001), occupation (p = 0.002), religion (p < 0.001) and region (p < 0.001). The midpoint of sleep was on average 1:26 (SD: 00:30) on weekdays and 1:37 (SD: 00:42) on weekend days. There are significant differences between weekdays and weekend days, but these were only small. Sleep duration suggests that adolescents in Côte d'Ivoire may gain sufficient sleep during week and weekend days, and thus, may live more in accordance with their own biological clock than adolescents in the northern hemisphere. In contrast, the data can be interpreted that adolescents live in a permanent 'jetlag'. Factors may be the more continuous light/dark cycle in the tropics, low amount of ambient light and less electricity.

  15. Assessment of Regional Climate Models over Côte d'Ivoire and Analysis of Future Projections over West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouadio, K.; Konare, A.; Diawara, A.; Dje, B. K.; Ajayi, V. O.; Diedhiou, A.

    2015-12-01

    The ability of six Regional Climate Models (RCMs) used in AMMA-ENSEMBLES project is assessed over six meteorological stations in Côte d'Ivoire. The ensemble mean of the models is also used for the prediction of climate change over West Africa. The study focused on two periods: the period 1995-2005, the present-day simulations, is used to evaluate the skills of the models over the country and the years 2010-2013, for assessment of the future climate change scenario used. The results show that the skills of the models vary from one station to another and from one season to another. None of the models considered, presents an excellent performance over the entire country and in all the seasons. Generally, the ensemble mean of all the models presents better results when compared with the observation. These results suggest that the choice of any model for study over the country may depend on the focus of interest: intensity or variability of the rain and also on area of interest. The projection for 2020-2040, future climate change over West Africa shows that the Sahel exhibits a tendency to be drier while wetter Guinean coast is observed

  16. Social and health determinants of the efficiency of cotton farmers in Northern Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Audibert, Martine; Mathonnat, Jacky; Henry, Marie Claire

    2003-04-01

    This article assesses the role of malaria and some social determinants on the agricultural development and more precisely on efficiency in the context of cotton crop in the Korhogo region in the North of Côte d'Ivoire. Data envelopment analyses (DEA) was first applied for the purpose of calculating relative efficiencies in production. A Tobit regression model was then used to explain the variation in the DEA scores and check the hypotheses that the efficiency deviations between farmers can be explained by the disparity of malaria morbidity rate among the farmers and their family, by social cohesiveness and cultural behaviour. Field data were collected by the authors between March 1997 and February 1998 on 700 rural households living in three rice production systems differently exposed to the malaria risk. Two malaria indicators were used for the active (11-55 years old) family members of the farm: Plasmodium falciparum infection rate and high parasite density infection rate. The DEA model was applied on the sub-sample of cotton growers (about one third of the households of the full sample). Results of the different DEA and Tobit models (depending of the production process hypothesis) show that high parasite density infection has a direct and indirect negative effect on efficiency in the cotton crop. They also show that more cotton growers in the village improve efficiency, although villages where cotton is growing more widespread have weaker social cohesion. PMID:12639587

  17. Stable isotope canopy effects for sympatric monkeys at Taï Forest, Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Krigbaum, John; Berger, Michael H.; Daegling, David J.; McGraw, W. Scott

    2013-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that vertical habitat preferences of different monkey species inhabiting closed canopy rainforest are reflected in oxygen isotopes. We sampled bone from seven sympatric cercopithecid species in the Taï forest, Côte d'Ivoire, where long-term study has established taxon-specific patterns of habitat use and diet. Modern rib samples (n = 34) were examined for oxygen (δ18Oap) and carbon (δ13Cap) from bone apatite (‘bioapatite’), and carbon (δ13Cco) and nitrogen (δ15Nco) from bone collagen. Results are consistent for C3 feeders in a closed canopy habitat. Low irradiance and evapotranspiration, coupled with high relative humidity and recycled CO2 in forest understory, contribute to observed isotopic variability. Both δ13Cco and δ13Cap results reflect diet; however, δ13C values are not correlated with species preference for canopy height. By contrast, δ18Oap results are correlated with mean observed height and show significant vertical partitioning between taxa feeding at ground, lower and upper canopy levels. This oxygen isotope canopy effect has important palaeobiological implications for reconstructing vertical partitioning among sympatric primates and other species in tropical forests. PMID:23843220

  18. Molecular phylogeny of hantaviruses harbored by insectivorous bats in Côte d'Ivoire and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Gu, Se Hun; Lim, Burton K; Kadjo, Blaise; Arai, Satoru; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Nicolas, Violaine; Lalis, Aude; Denys, Christiane; Cook, Joseph A; Dominguez, Samuel R; Holmes, Kathryn V; Urushadze, Lela; Sidamonidze, Ketevan; Putkaradze, Davit; Kuzmin, Ivan V; Kosoy, Michael Y; Song, Jin-Won; Yanagihara, Richard

    2014-04-29

    The recent discovery of genetically distinct hantaviruses in multiple species of shrews and moles prompted a further exploration of their host diversification by analyzing frozen, ethanol-fixed and RNAlater®-preserved archival tissues and fecal samples from 533 bats (representing seven families, 28 genera and 53 species in the order Chiroptera), captured in Asia, Africa and the Americas in 1981-2012, using RT-PCR. Hantavirus RNA was detected in Pomona roundleaf bats (Hipposideros pomona) (family Hipposideridae), captured in Vietnam in 1997 and 1999, and in banana pipistrelles (Neoromicia nanus) (family Vespertilionidae), captured in Côte d'Ivoire in 2011. Phylogenetic analysis, based on the full-length S- and partial M- and L-segment sequences using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, demonstrated that the newfound hantaviruses formed highly divergent lineages, comprising other recently recognized bat-borne hantaviruses in Sierra Leone and China. The detection of bat-associated hantaviruses opens a new era in hantavirology and provides insights into their evolutionary origins.

  19. Molecular phylogeny of hantaviruses harbored by insectivorous bats in Côte d'Ivoire and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Gu, Se Hun; Lim, Burton K; Kadjo, Blaise; Arai, Satoru; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Nicolas, Violaine; Lalis, Aude; Denys, Christiane; Cook, Joseph A; Dominguez, Samuel R; Holmes, Kathryn V; Urushadze, Lela; Sidamonidze, Ketevan; Putkaradze, Davit; Kuzmin, Ivan V; Kosoy, Michael Y; Song, Jin-Won; Yanagihara, Richard

    2014-05-01

    The recent discovery of genetically distinct hantaviruses in multiple species of shrews and moles prompted a further exploration of their host diversification by analyzing frozen, ethanol-fixed and RNAlater®-preserved archival tissues and fecal samples from 533 bats (representing seven families, 28 genera and 53 species in the order Chiroptera), captured in Asia, Africa and the Americas in 1981-2012, using RT-PCR. Hantavirus RNA was detected in Pomona roundleaf bats (Hipposideros pomona) (family Hipposideridae), captured in Vietnam in 1997 and 1999, and in banana pipistrelles (Neoromicia nanus) (family Vespertilionidae), captured in Côte d'Ivoire in 2011. Phylogenetic analysis, based on the full-length S- and partial M- and L-segment sequences using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, demonstrated that the newfound hantaviruses formed highly divergent lineages, comprising other recently recognized bat-borne hantaviruses in Sierra Leone and China. The detection of bat-associated hantaviruses opens a new era in hantavirology and provides insights into their evolutionary origins. PMID:24784569

  20. Zinc, copper, cadmium, and lead concentrations in water, sediment, and Anadara senilis in a tropical estuary.

    PubMed

    Bakary, Inza; Yao, Koffi Marcellin; Etchian, Olivier Assoi; Soro, Metongo Bernard; Trokourey, Albert; Bokra, Yobou

    2015-12-01

    Spatial and seasonal contaminations of zinc, copper, cadmium, and lead were assessed simultaneously in water, sediment, and in the bivalve Arca senilis from the Milliardaires Bay (Cote d'Ivoire) between February and October 2008. The metal load in sediments doubled from the dry season to the rainy season. On the contrary, metal concentrations in waters decreased significantly from the dry season to the rainy season. Zn and Pb concentrations in A. senilis showed similar seasonal variation with sediments. On the other hand, A. senilis regulated Cu concentrations by eliminating about twelve times the concentration accumulated during the dry season. Apparent Zn, Cu, Cd, and Pb concentration gradients were observed, but no significant differences between stations for sediment, water, and A. senilis. Concentrations in sediment increased from stations close to Abidjan Harbor towards farther stations, while concentrations in A. senilis showed a reverse gradient. The distribution gradient of A. senilis indicates pollution from local sources, but a transplant experiment is needed to better understand the observed spatial trend. Zn and Cu concentrations may pose little risk to human health and the environment, but they are the highest on the regional scale. On the contrary, Cd and Pb concentrations in A. senilis exceeded the maximum allowable limits set by the European Commission. Complementary studies including chemical speciation should be considered to provide a more accurate assessment of the risk of heavy metals to the environment. PMID:26581608

  1. Re-Visiting Insecticide Resistance Status in Anopheles gambiae from Côte d'Ivoire: A Nation-Wide Informative Survey

    PubMed Central

    Koffi, Alphonsine A.; Ahoua Alou, Ludovic P.; Kabran, Jean-Paul K.; N'Guessan, Raphael; Pennetier, Cédric

    2013-01-01

    Insecticide resistance constitutes a major threat that may undermine current gain in malaria control in most endemic countries. National Malaria Control Programmes (NMCPs) need as much information as possible on the resistance status of malaria vectors and underlying mechanisms in order to implement the most relevant and efficient control strategy. Bioassays, biochemical and molecular analysis were performed on An. gambiae collected in six sentinel sites in Côte d'Ivoire. The sites were selected on the basis of their bioclimatic status and agricultural practices. An. gambiae populations across sites showed high levels of resistance to organochloride, pyrethroid and carbamate insecticides. The kdr and ace-1R mutations were detected in almost all sentinel sites with mosquitoes on the coastal and cotton growing areas mostly affected by these mutations. At almost all sites, the levels of detoxifying enzymes (mixed-function oxidases (MFOs), non-specific esterases (NSE) and glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs)) in An. gambiae populations were significantly higher than the levels found in the susceptible strain Kisumu. Pre-exposure of mosquitoes to PBO, an inhibitor of MFOs and NSEs, significantly increased mortality rates to pyrethroids and carbamates in mosquitoes but resistance in most cases was not fully synergised by PBO, inferring a residual role of additional mechanisms, including kdr and ace-1 site insensitivity. The large distribution of resistance in Côte d'Ivoire raises an important question of whether to continue to deploy pyrethroid-based long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and insecticide residual spraying (IRS) towards which resistance continues to rise with no guarantee that the level of resistance would not compromise their efficacy. Innovative strategies that combine insecticide and synergists in LLINs or spatially LLIN and an effective non-pyrethroid insecticide for IRS could be in the short term the best practice for the NMCP to manage insecticide

  2. The Potential of Food Fortification to Add Micronutrients in Young Children and Women of Reproductive Age – Findings from a Cross-Sectional Survey in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Rohner, Fabian; Leyvraz, Magali; Konan, Amoin G.; Esso, Lasme J. C. E.; Wirth, James P.; Norte, Augusto; Adiko, Adiko F.; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Aaron, Grant J.

    2016-01-01

    Poor micronutrient intakes are a major contributing factor to the high burden of micronutrient deficiencies in Côte d’Ivoire. Large-scale food fortification is considered a cost-effective approach to deliver micronutrients, and fortification of salt (iodine), wheat flour (iron and folic acid), and vegetable oil (vitamin A) is mandatory in Côte d’Ivoire. A cross-sectional survey on households with at least one child 6–23 months was conducted to update coverage figures with adequately fortified food vehicles in Abidjan, the capital of and largest urban community in Côte d’Ivoire, and to evaluate whether additional iron and vitamin A intake is sufficient to bear the potential to reduce micronutrient malnutrition. Information on demographics and food consumption was collected, along with samples of salt and oil. Wheat flour was sampled from bakeries and retailers residing in the selected clusters. In Abidjan, 86% and 97% of salt and vegetable oil samples, respectively, were adequately fortified, while only 32% of wheat flour samples were adequately fortified, but all samples contained some added iron. There were no major differences in additional vitamin A and iron intake between poor and non-poor households. For vitamin A in oil, the additional percentage of the recommended nutrient intake was 27% and 40% for children 6–23 months and women of reproductive age, respectively, while for iron from wheat flour, only 13% and 19% could be covered. Compared to previous estimates, coverage has remained stable for salt and wheat flour, but improved for vegetable oil. Fortification of vegetable oil clearly provides a meaningful additional amount of vitamin A. This is not currently the case for iron, due to the low fortification levels. Iron levels in wheat flour should be increased and monitored, and additional vehicles should be explored to add iron to the Ivorian diet. PMID:27384762

  3. Social and cultural aspects of 'malaria' and its control in central Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Essé, Clémence; Utzinger, Jürg; Tschannen, Andres B; Raso, Giovanna; Pfeiffer, Constanze; Granado, Stefanie; Koudou, Benjamin G; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Cissé, Guéladio; Girardin, Olivier; Tanner, Marcel; Obrist, Brigit

    2008-01-01

    Background A sound local understanding of preventive measures and health-seeking behaviour is important for the effective control of malaria. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes, practices and beliefs of 'malaria' and its control in two rural communities of central Côte d'Ivoire, and to examine associations between 'malaria' and the households' socioeconomic status. Methods A cross-sectional household survey was carried out, using a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods. People's socioeconomic status was estimated, employing a household asset-based approach. Results Malaria was identified as djèkouadjo, the local folk name of the disease. Although people were aware of malaria-related symptoms and their association with mosquitoes, folk perceptions were common. In terms of treatment, a wide array of modern and traditional remedies was employed, often in combination. Individuals with a sound knowledge of the causes and symptoms of malaria continued to use traditional treatments and only a few people sleep under bed nets, whereas folk beliefs did not necessarily translate into refusal of modern treatments. Perceived causes of malaria were linked to the household's socioeconomic status with wealthier individuals reporting mosquitoes more frequently than poorer households. Bed nets were more frequently used in wealthier social strata, whereas other protective measures – perceived to be cheaper – were more prominent among the poorest. Conclusion Equitable access to resources at household, community and health system levels are essential in order to enable community members to prevent and treat malaria. There is a need for community-based approaches that match health care services with poor people's needs and resources. PMID:18973663

  4. Preventing gender-based violence engendered by conflict: The case of Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Blay-Tofey, Morkeh; Lee, Bandy X

    2015-12-01

    Despite a growing awareness of the increased prevalence of intimate partner violence and sexual violence in conflict and post-conflict settings, much less is known about the dynamics, as well as the interventions that would be effective at individual, relational, and structural levels. In addition to the human capital lost by conflict violence, gender-based violence (GBV) poses a grave threat to the post-conflict rehabilitation process. With regard to violence that occurs during and post conflict, research must take into consideration the different types of violence that share similar causes as the larger conflict as well as become widespread as a result of the conflict and use existing frameworks to build future interventions. Researchers are trying to understand the interplay of personal, situational, and socio-cultural factors in conflict settings that combine to cause GBV and lead to guidelines for program planning to address the health and social needs of survivors as well as to prevent further GBV. These actions result from a growing recognition that violence represents a serious public health problem, is an important cause of many physical and psychological illnesses, and can cause social disruptions that impede reconstruction efforts for generations. This review studies the manifestations of GBV during and following the Ivoirian Civil War, juxtaposes them against narratives, as well as lists relevant interventions at the individual, relational, community, and institutional levels. Part of a growing literature that aims to better understand the nature of violence during and after conflict and to plan effective responses to it, this study hopes to suggest solutions for the situation of Côte d'Ivoire and elsewhere.

  5. Preventing gender-based violence engendered by conflict: The case of Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Blay-Tofey, Morkeh; Lee, Bandy X

    2015-12-01

    Despite a growing awareness of the increased prevalence of intimate partner violence and sexual violence in conflict and post-conflict settings, much less is known about the dynamics, as well as the interventions that would be effective at individual, relational, and structural levels. In addition to the human capital lost by conflict violence, gender-based violence (GBV) poses a grave threat to the post-conflict rehabilitation process. With regard to violence that occurs during and post conflict, research must take into consideration the different types of violence that share similar causes as the larger conflict as well as become widespread as a result of the conflict and use existing frameworks to build future interventions. Researchers are trying to understand the interplay of personal, situational, and socio-cultural factors in conflict settings that combine to cause GBV and lead to guidelines for program planning to address the health and social needs of survivors as well as to prevent further GBV. These actions result from a growing recognition that violence represents a serious public health problem, is an important cause of many physical and psychological illnesses, and can cause social disruptions that impede reconstruction efforts for generations. This review studies the manifestations of GBV during and following the Ivoirian Civil War, juxtaposes them against narratives, as well as lists relevant interventions at the individual, relational, community, and institutional levels. Part of a growing literature that aims to better understand the nature of violence during and after conflict and to plan effective responses to it, this study hopes to suggest solutions for the situation of Côte d'Ivoire and elsewhere. PMID:26482357

  6. Rapid screening for Schistosoma mansoni in western Côte d'Ivoire using a simple school questionnaire.

    PubMed Central

    Utzinger, J.; N'Goran, E. K.; Ossey, Y. A.; Booth, M.; Traoré, M.; Lohourignon, K. L.; Allangba, A.; Ahiba, L. A.; Tanner, M.; Lengeler, C.

    2000-01-01

    The distribution of schistosomiasis is focal, so if the resources available for control are to be used most effectively, they need to be directed towards the individuals and/or communities at highest risk of morbidity from schistosomiasis. Rapid and inexpensive ways of doing this are needed, such as simple school questionnaires. The present study used such questionnaires in an area of western Côte d'Ivoire where Schistosoma mansoni is endemic; correctly completed questionnaires were returned from 121 out of 134 schools (90.3%), with 12,227 children interviewed individually. The presence of S. mansoni was verified by microscopic examination in 60 randomly selected schools, where 5047 schoolchildren provided two consecutive stool samples for Kato-Katz thick smears. For all samples it was found that 54.4% of individuals were infected with S. mansoni. Moreover, individuals infected with S. mansoni reported "bloody diarrhoea", "blood in stools" and "schistosomiasis" significantly more often than uninfected children. At the school level, Spearman rank correlation analysis showed that the prevalence of S. mansoni significantly correlated with the prevalence of reported bloody diarrhoea (P = 0.002), reported blood in stools (P = 0.014) and reported schistosomiasis (P = 0.011). Reported bloody diarrhoea and reported blood in stools had the best diagnostic performance (sensitivity: 88.2%, specificity: 57.7%, positive predictive value: 73.2%, negative predictive value: 78.9%). The study, which is probably the largest of its kind ever undertaken in Africa, revealed a moderate diagnostic performance of questionnaires for identifying individuals and/or communities at high risk from S. mansoni. PMID:10812739

  7. Nutritive Evaluation of the Bambara Groundnut Ci12 Landrace [Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc. (Fabaceae)] Produced in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Yao, Denis N'Dri; Kouassi, Kouakou Nestor; Erba, Daniela; Scazzina, Francesca; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Casiraghi, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The nutritional evaluation of the Bambara groundnut Ci12 landrace (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) seeds produced in Côte d'Ivoire shows a 19% content of protein, containing all the essential amino acids with tryptophan as the limiting amino acid, a total dietary fiber level of 10%, with a low soluble fraction content, and a fat content of 1.4%, with a high proportion of total unsaturated fatty acids (61%) of which 36% were n-6 fatty acids. This legume contains phosphorus, as the major mineral, followed by magnesium and calcium, and trace elements (iron, copper and zinc). It is characterized by the same amount of α-tocopherol and antioxidant capacity as common legumes. The high concentration of essential amino acids, n-6 fatty acids and minerals, mainly Fe, in the Ci12 landrace of Bambara groundnut indicates that this local legume has the potentiality to improve the nutritional status in Côte d'Ivoire and it could be regarded as a nutrient dense food. PMID:26370971

  8. Nutritive Evaluation of the Bambara Groundnut Ci12 Landrace [Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc. (Fabaceae)] Produced in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Yao, Denis N'Dri; Kouassi, Kouakou Nestor; Erba, Daniela; Scazzina, Francesca; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Casiraghi, Maria Cristina

    2015-09-07

    The nutritional evaluation of the Bambara groundnut Ci12 landrace (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) seeds produced in Côte d'Ivoire shows a 19% content of protein, containing all the essential amino acids with tryptophan as the limiting amino acid, a total dietary fiber level of 10%, with a low soluble fraction content, and a fat content of 1.4%, with a high proportion of total unsaturated fatty acids (61%) of which 36% were n-6 fatty acids. This legume contains phosphorus, as the major mineral, followed by magnesium and calcium, and trace elements (iron, copper and zinc). It is characterized by the same amount of α-tocopherol and antioxidant capacity as common legumes. The high concentration of essential amino acids, n-6 fatty acids and minerals, mainly Fe, in the Ci12 landrace of Bambara groundnut indicates that this local legume has the potentiality to improve the nutritional status in Côte d'Ivoire and it could be regarded as a nutrient dense food.

  9. Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis control in Cameroon and Côte d'Ivoire: implementing control on a limited budget.

    PubMed

    Tchuenté, L A Tchuem; N'goran, E K

    2009-11-01

    Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis occur throughout the developing world and remain a major public health problem in the poorest communities with enormous consequences for development. The extent of the problem has long been neglected because these diseases rarely kill at a young age and also because of their insidious nature. Today there exists a momentum and an unprecedented opportunity for a cost-effective control of these neglected tropical diseases. The control of these diseases has become a priority on the agenda of many governments, donors and international agencies. This paper highlights the progress made and future control activities in Cameroon and Côte d'Ivoire, where schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis control measures have been implemented over the past decade with limited budgets. In Cameroon, deworming activities were increased to encompass all ten regions in 2007 as a result of a co-ordinated effort of the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Education with national and international partners. In Côte d'Ivoire, focal control activities were achieved with support from various partners. Prospects, opportunities and challenges for the control of neglected tropical diseases in these two countries are discussed.

  10. Déterminants de la calcémie néonatale dans une maternité périphérique à Abidjan

    PubMed Central

    Konan, Diby Jean-Paul; Amon-Tanoh-Dick, Flore; Aka, Joseph; Daniel, Sess Essiagne

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Le transfert du calcium de la mère au nouveau-né est nécessaire pour la constitution de la charpente osseuse. L'hypocalcémie néonatale reste peu documentée en Afrique. En 1993, il a été observé au service de néonatologie du Centre hospitalo-universitaire de Yopougon à Abidjan une proportion d'hypocalcémie asymptomatique de 26.9%. L'objectif de ce travail était de préciser la prévalence de l'hypocalcémie néonatale dans une maternité périphérique de Yopougon et en déterminer les facteurs de risque. Méthodes Une étude transversale a été menée à la formation sanitaire de de Yopougon de février à mai 2012 auprès de 145 parturientes et leurs nouveau-nés. Les caractéristiques des mères et des nouveau-nés ont été recueillies. Les prélèvements de sang maternel et du cordon ont permis le dosage des paramètres du métabolisme phosphocalcique. Une régression linéaire multiple a été faite pour apprécier les éléments de prédilection de la calcémie néonatale. Résultats Les valeurs moyennes étaient de 2,271 mmol/l pour la calcémie, 1,169 mmol/l pour le phosphore, 0,735 mmol/l pour le magnésium et 69 g/l pour les protides totaux chez les mères. La durée moyenne du travail était de 499 minutes. L’âge gestationnel moyen était de 39 semaines. Les constantes anthropométriques et cliniques des nouveau-nés étaient normales. Les paramètres phosphocalciques étaient en moyenne normaux (calcémie = 2,52 mmol/l, phosphorémie = 1,668 mmol/l, magnesémie = 0,777 mmol/l, protidémie = 63 g/l). Six gestantes (4,1%) étaient hypocalcémiques contre 12 nouveau-nés (8,1%). La durée du travail influençait la calcémie néonatale (p = 0,02). En analyse multivariée, 34% de la variabilité de la calcémie néonatale était expliqué par la calcémie maternelle et la durée du travail. Conclusion L'hypocalcémie néonatale est rare en zone tropicale. Dans cette étude, la proportion était de 8,1%. La durée du travail

  11. Contribution of Remote Sensing and GIS for Sustainable Forest Management in Côte d'Ivoire; Case of the classified Forest of TENE in the department of OUME (Côte d'Ivoire).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, N. A.

    2015-12-01

    protected against logging in order to do not disturb them because they are refuge environments for fauna as well as flora conservation. This study will enable the manager of the classified forest of TENE to target those sites considered sensitive to preserve for a sustainable management. Keywords: Spectral signature, Forest, Wetland, Remote Sensing, GIS, Côte d'Ivoire.

  12. Causes of death in the Taabo health and demographic surveillance system, Côte d'Ivoire, from 2009 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Koné, Siaka; Fürst, Thomas; Jaeger, Fabienne N.; Esso, Emmanuel L. J. C.; Baïkoro, Nahoua; Kouadio, Kouamé A.; Adiossan, Lukas G.; Zouzou, Fabien; Boti, Louis I.; Tanner, Marcel; Utzinger, Jürg; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Dao, Daouda; N'Goran, Eliézer K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Current vital statistics from governmental institutions in Côte d'Ivoire are incomplete. This problem is particularly notable for remote rural areas that have limited access to the health system. Objective To record all deaths from 2009 to 2011 and to identify the leading causes of death in the Taabo health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) in south-central Côte d'Ivoire. Design Deaths recorded in the first 3 years of operation of the Taabo HDSS were investigated by verbal autopsy (VA), using the InterVA-4 model. InterVA-4 is based on the World Health Organization 2012 VA tool in terms of input indicators and categories of causes of death. Results Overall, 948 deaths were recorded, of which 236 (24.9%) had incomplete VA data. Among the 712 deaths analyzed, communicable diseases represented the leading causes (58.9%), with most deaths attributed to malaria (n=129), acute respiratory tract infections (n=110), HIV/AIDS (n=80), and pulmonary tuberculosis (n=46). Non-communicable diseases accounted for 18.9% of the deaths and included mainly acute abdomen (n=38), unspecified cardiac diseases (n=15), and digestive neoplasms (n=13). Maternal and neonatal conditions accounted for 8.3% of deaths, primarily pneumonia (n=19) and birth asphyxia (n=16) in newborns. Among the 3.8% of deaths linked to trauma and injury, the main causes were assault (n=6), accidental drowning (n=4), contact with venomous plants/animals (n=4), and traffic-related accidents (n=4). No clear causes were determined in 10.0% of the analyzed deaths. Conclusions Communicable diseases remain the predominant cause of death in rural Côte d'Ivoire. Based on these findings, measures are now being implemented in the Taabo HDSS. It will be interesting to monitor patterns of mortality and causes of death in the face of rapid demographic and epidemiological transitions in this part of West Africa. PMID:25959772

  13. The ecology of primate retroviruses - an assessment of 12 years of retroviral studies in the Taï national park area, Côte d׳Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Gogarten, Jan F; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Calvignac-Spencer, Sebastien; Leendertz, Siv Aina J; Weiss, Sabrina; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Koné, Inza; Peeters, Martine; Wittig, Roman M; Boesch, Christophe; Hahn, Beatrice H; Leendertz, Fabian H

    2014-07-01

    The existence and genetic make-up of most primate retroviruses was revealed by studies of bushmeat and fecal samples from unhabituated primate communities. For these, detailed data on intra- and within-species contact rates are generally missing, which makes identification of factors influencing transmission a challenging task. Here we present an assessment of 12 years of research on primate retroviruses in the Taï National Park area, Côte d'Ivoire. We discuss insights gained into the prevalence, within- and cross-species transmission of primate retroviruses (including towards local human populations) and the importance of virus-host interactions in determining cross-species transmission risk. Finally we discuss how retroviruses ecology and evolution may change in a shifting environment and identify avenues for future research.

  14. [Approaches of the Expanded Programme of Immunization (EPI) and analysis of its failures in the sanitary district of Bouna (Northeast of Côte d'Ivoire)].

    PubMed

    Boa, A

    2006-12-01

    The anthropological study of the approach of target diseases in the Expanded Programme of Immunization (EPI) in Bouna, a semi-rural district of Northeast Côte d'Ivoire, shows that the population is well-informed about each disease named in this programme as well as for modern vaccination but its objectives remain completely unknown. Populations' reluctances towards vaccination can be explained by several "organizational" causes: overestimated cost of vaccination records, incoherence in the follow-up of vaccination and disruption in the cold chain. These organizational problems are induced by the programme itself and appear more determining than those corresponding to cultural opposition to explain the poor results of the EPI in Bouna. Therefore improvement of these results is linked to the quality of the health cares which can be provided.

  15. The impact of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative on the financing of routine immunization: case studies in Bangladesh, C te d'Ivoire, and Morocco.

    PubMed

    Levin, Ann; Ram, Sujata; Kaddar, Miloud

    2002-01-01

    To determine if the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (PEI) affected financing of routine immunization programmes, we compared sources and uses of funds for routine immunization programmes and PEI activities in Bangladesh, C te d'Ivoire, and Morocco for the years 1993-98. We also examined funding trends for these years in these countries and assessed the effect of the initiative on the availability of specific resources in national immunization programmes, such as cold-chain equipment and personnel time spent on activities related to national immunization days and surveillance of poliomyelitis and acute flaccid paralysis. We found that all three governments and the majority of donors and international organizations continued to fund routine immunization programmes at levels similar to those before the PEI. Trend analysis also indicated that financing for routine immunization in each of the countries continued to increase after the PEI was introduced. The results show that the PEI did not reduce funding for routine immunizations in these countries.

  16. Moussa virus: a new member of the Rhabdoviridae family isolated from Culex decens mosquitoes in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Quan, Phenix-Lan; Junglen, Sandra; Tashmukhamedova, Alla; Conlan, Sean; Hutchison, Stephen K; Kurth, Andreas; Ellerbrok, Heinz; Egholm, Michael; Briese, Thomas; Leendertz, Fabian H; Lipkin, W Ian

    2010-01-01

    Characterization of arboviruses at the interface of pristine habitats and anthropogenic landscapes is crucial to comprehensive emergent disease surveillance and forecasting efforts. In context of a surveillance campaign in and around a West African rainforest, particles morphologically consistent with rhabdoviruses were identified in cell cultures infected with homogenates of trapped mosquitoes. RNA recovered from these cultures was used to derive the first complete genome sequence of a rhabdovirus isolated from Culex decens mosquitoes in Côte d'Ivoire, tentatively named Moussa virus (MOUV). MOUV shows the classical genome organization of rhabdoviruses, with five open reading frames (ORF) in a linear order. However, sequences show only limited conservation (12-33% identity at amino acid level), and ORF2 and ORF3 have no significant similarity to sequences deposited in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis indicates a potential new species with distant relationship to Tupaia and Tibrogargan virus.

  17. A Measure of the Forest Protected Areas Benefits for the Surrounding Population: A Case Study of the Bouaflé Protected Forest (CÔTE D'IVOIRE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouame, B. N. P.

    2015-12-01

    Côte d'Ivoire located in West Africa, registers high level of biodiversity which occurs mainly in forest land. The country has suffered severe deforestation. However, deforestation and forest degradation release Greenhouse Gases into the atmosphere which contributes to Climate Change. In order to address the deforestation, many actions are taken, one of which is the implementation of protected areas within countries. These measures put restrictions on the access of local communities to forest services. However, local communities supplement their daily livelihood from forests, especially from timber and non-timber forest products. What are the effects of forests conservation in protected areas on surrounding population? This study focuses on the Bouaflé protected forest (foret classée de Bouaflé) in the western part of Côte d'Ivoire. The forest is 20350 ha and was made a protected forest in 1974. It is one of the most deforested protected areas in the country. Firstly, we described the perception of forest benefits by the population. Secondly, we estimated the benefits of forest conservation using a contingent valuation approach, particularly the Willingness to Pay (WTP) methodology. From our sample size of 156 households, it appears that most of the individuals are aware of the importance of the forest (94 % against 6%). According to the estimate of the benefits, it results on average, people are willing to pay 1658.491F CFA (2.53 Euros). The median WTP is 1000 FCFA. This study will be helpful by adding to the scientific literature and for inducing local people implication in conservation.

  18. Disparities in parasitic infections, perceived ill health and access to health care among poorer and less poor schoolchildren of rural Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Raso, Giovanna; Utzinger, Jürg; Silué, Kigbafori D; Ouattara, Mamadou; Yapi, Ahoua; Toty, Abale; Matthys, Barbara; Vounatsou, Penelope; Tanner, Marcel; N'Goran, Eliézer K

    2005-01-01

    Differences in the state of health between rural and urban populations living in Africa have been described, yet only few studies analysed inequities within poor rural communities. We investigated disparities in parasitic infections, perceived ill health and access to formal health services among more than 4000 schoolchildren from 57 primary schools in a rural area of western Côte d'Ivoire, as measured by their socioeconomic status. In a first step, we carried out a cross-sectional parasitological survey. Stool specimens and finger prick blood samples were collected and processed with standardized, quality-controlled methods, for diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni, soil-transmitted helminths, intestinal protozoa and Plasmodium. Then, a questionnaire survey was carried out for the appraisal of self-reported morbidity indicators, as well as housing characteristics and household assets ownership. Mean travel distance from each village to the nearest health care delivery structure was provided by the regional health authorities. Poorer schoolchildren showed a significantly higher infection prevalence of hookworm than better-off children. However, higher infection prevalences of intestinal protozoa (i.e. Blastocystis hominis, Endolimax nana and Iodamoeba butschlii) were found with increasing socioeconomic status. Significant negative associations were observed between socioeconomic status and light infection intensities with hookworm and S. mansoni, as well as with several self-reported morbidity indicators. The poorest school-attending children lived significantly further away from formal health services than their richer counterparts. Our study provides evidence for inequities among schoolchildren's parasitic infection status, perceived ill health and access to health care in a large rural part of Côte d'Ivoire. These findings call for more equity-balanced parasitic disease control interventions, which in turn might be an important strategy for poverty alleviation

  19. Antepartum Depression and Anxiety Associated with Disability in African Women: Cross-Sectional Results from the CDS Study in Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Bindt, Carola; Appiah-Poku, John; Te Bonle, Marguerite; Schoppen, Stefanie; Feldt, Torsten; Barkmann, Claus; Koffi, Mathurin; Baum, Jana; Nguah, Samuel Blay; Tagbor, Harry; Guo, Nan; N'Goran, Eliezer; Ehrhardt, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    Background Common mental disorders, particularly unipolar depressive disorders, rank among the top 5 with respect to the global burden of disease. As a major public health concern, antepartum depression and anxiety not only affects the individual woman, but also her offspring. Data on the prevalence of common mental disorders in pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce. We provide results from Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire. Methods We subsequently recruited and screened n = 1030 women in the third trimester of their pregnancy for depressed mood, general anxiety, and perceived disability using the Patient Health Questionnaire depression module (PHQ-9), the 7-item Anxiety Scale (GAD-7), and the World Health Organisation Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS 2.0, 12-item version). In addition to estimates of means and prevalence, a hierarchical linear regression model was calculated to determine the influence of antepartum depression and anxiety on disability. Results In Ghana, 26.6% of women showed substantially depressed mood. In Côte d'Ivoire, this figure was even higher (32.9%). Clear indications for a generalized anxiety disorder were observed in 11.4% and 17.4% of pregnant women, respectively. Comorbidity of both conditions was common, affecting about 7.7% of Ghanaian and 12.6% of Ivorian participants. Pregnant women in both countries reported a high degree of disability regarding everyday activity limitations and participation restrictions. Controlled for country and age, depression and anxiety accounted for 33% of variance in the disability score. Conclusions Antepartum depression and anxiety were highly prevalent in our sample and contributed substantially to perceived disability. These serious threats to health must be further investigated and more data are needed to comprehensively quantify the problem in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:23110236

  20. Prevalence and Spatial Distribution of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar and Giardia lamblia among Schoolchildren in Agboville Area (Côte d'Ivoire)

    PubMed Central

    Ouattara, Mamadou; N'Guéssan, Nicaise A.; Yapi, Ahoua; N'Goran, Eliézer K.

    2010-01-01

    Background New efforts are being made to improve understanding of the epidemiology of the helminths and intensifying the control efforts against these parasites. In contrast, relatively few studies are being carried out in this direction for the intestinal protozoa. To contribute to a better comprehension of the epidemiology of the intestinal protozoa, prevalence, and spatial distribution of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar and Giardia lamblia, and their association with drinking water supplies, were determined in the Agboville department in southeast Côte d'Ivoire. Methods/Findings Stool samples were taken from more than 1,300 schoolchildren in the third year of primary education (CE1) from 30 primary schools and preserved in SAF (sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin). The samples were analyzed by formalin-ether concentration. Then, a survey questionnaire addressed to schoolchildren and school directors was used to collect data on water supplies. Prevalence of E. histolytica/dispar and G. lamblia were, respectively, 18.8% and 13.9%. No particular focus zone was observed in the spatial distribution of the two species. Significant negative association was observed between use of tap water and high prevalence of E. histolytica/dispar infection (OR = 0.83, p = 0.01). High prevalence of G. lamblia infection was positively associated with use of ponds as the source of drinking water (OR = 1.28, p = 0.009). Conclusion These two species of pathogenic protozoa are present with substantial prevalence in this area of Côte d'Ivoire. Although their spatial distribution is not focused in any one place, determination of the population segments with the highest levels of infection will help to target the chemotherapeutic fight. To reinforce treatment with chemotherapeutic agents, tap water should be made available in all the localities of this area. PMID:20087416

  1. Length-weight relationships for 36 freshwater fish species from two tropical reservoirs: Ayamé I and Buyo, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Tah, Leonard; Gouli; Bi, Goore; Da Costa, Kouassi Sebastino

    2012-12-01

    Nowadays, the successful management of small scale fisheries requires the use of biometric data collected in the field, in order to transform them into suitable indicators. The present study describes the length-weight relationships for 36 freshwater fish species from two tropical reservoirs Ayame I and Buyo, in Côte d'Ivoire. The main objective of the study was to provide a length weight key for a wide range of freshwater fish species from these tropical reservoirs exploited by the inland fisheries. The samplings were carried out at Buyo from July 1997 to August 1998, and from August 2004 to July 2005 in Ayame I. Fish specimens were collected from catches of artisanal fisheries using gill-nets, cast-nets, beach seines and bamboo traps. After landings, samples were identified, total weight for each specimen was recorded to the nearest gram and standard length was measured to the nearest millimetre. A total of 12 724 individuals belonging to 15 families and 24 genera were obtained in this study. The results indicated that the family with the highest number of species was Cichlidae with eight species. Six families were recorded with only one species per family. The value of the exponent b in the length weight relationships (W=aL(b)) ranged from 2.173 for Marcusenius furcidens to 3.472 for Polypterus endlicheri and the median of b was 2.756. The modal value of the exponent b equal to 2.70 indicates that most of the fish species in Ayame I and Buyo Reservoirs have negative allometric growth. The length weight parameters of the three species, Lates niloticus, Synodontis koensis and S. punctifer are described for the first time in these regions. The present length-weight key for 36 freshwater fish species could be used as a valuable tool for fishery managers, in order to improve the inland fisheries statistics largely based on hydropower reservoirs in Côte d'Ivoire.

  2. So near and yet so far: the specific case of Ralstonia Solanacearum populations from Côte d'Ivoire in Africa.

    PubMed

    N'guessan, C A; Abo, K; Fondio, L; Chiroleu, F; Lebeau, A; Poussier, S; Wicker, E; Koné, D

    2012-08-01

    The genetic and phenotypic diversity of Côte d'Ivoire Ralstonia solanacearum strains was assessed on a 168-strain collection sampled on Solanaceae both in the southern lowlands and western highlands. Phylotypes I, II, and III were prevalent, though at unexpected frequencies. Phylotype I strains (87.5%) were genetically diverse and overrepresented in all agroecological areas, including highlands (AEZ III). Phylotype II strains (10.7%) only belonged to one tropical lowland-adapted broad host range lineage (IIA-35), whereas no highland-adapted potato brown rot (IIB-1) or Moko strains were detected. African phylotype III strains were rare (1.8%). They originated from a single Burkina Faso lineage (III-23) and were only found in lowlands. Three phylotype I strains were found harboring pRSC35, a plasmid identified in phylotype III strains in Cameroon. From pathogenicity tests performed on commercial varieties and tomato/eggplant/pepper references, the virulence diversity observed was high, with five pathoprofiles described. Eggplant accessions MM152 and EG203 and tomato HW7996 displayed the largest resistance spectrum and highest level. Two highly virulent phylotype I strains were able to bypass resistance of HW7996 and the eggplant reference AG91-25. Collectively, these points lead to the conclusion that the situation in Côte d'Ivoire is specific towards other African countries, and specifically from the Cameroon reference, and that within phylotype I can exist a high virulence diversity. This calls for similar studies in neighboring West African countries, linking R. solanacearum pathogen genetic diversity to strain virulence at the regional level, for the rationalization of regional resistance deployment strategies and future resistance durability studies. PMID:22533876

  3. The Kleine-Levin Syndrome: A Rare Disease with Often Delayed Diagnosis—A Report of Two Cases in the Department of Neurology of the University Hospital of Cocody (Côte d'Ivoire)

    PubMed Central

    Assi, Berthe; Yapo-Ehounoud, Constance; Baby, Mohamed Ben Allaoui; Aka-Diarra, Evelyne; Amon-Tanoh, Muriel; Tanoh, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The Kleine-Levin syndrome is a rare pathology characterized by recurrent episodes of hypersomnia associated with behavioral and cognitive disorders with, among others, hyperphagia and hypersexuality. The disease mainly affects young males. A few studies mention cases that occurred in Africa, especially in Côte d'Ivoire. In this paper, we report the very first two cases observed in the Neurology Department of the University Hospital of Cocody. The diagnosis was clinical, based on the recurrence of hypersomnia, cognitive and behavioral disorders during the periods of hypersomnia, and the return of patients to normal state between episodes. This diagnosis was delayed due to failure to understand the pathology, thereby leading patients to wandering. In fact, the two patients were consulted, respectively, 3 years and 6 years after the hypersomnia began. The objective was to report the very first cases observed in the Neurology Department of the University Hospital of Cocody, Côte d'Ivoire. PMID:26989535

  4. Detection of Enteroviruses in Water Samples from Yopougon, Côte d'Ivoire by Cell Culture and Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    PubMed

    Momou, K J; Akoua-Koffi, C; Dosso, M

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare sensitivities of enterovirus isolation from wastewater in different cell lines as well as to compare the sensitivity and specificity of isolation in cell culture with direct detection by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Sixty-eight samples of wastewaters were collected between September 2008 and January 2009 in Yopougon, Abidjan. Enteroviruses were concentrated according to World Health Organization recommendations. Viruses were inoculated into various cell lines while direct RT-PCR was performed on water concentrates. The buffalo green monkey kidney cell line was the most sensitive with 58.8 % of viral isolation. This was followed by the rhabdomyosarcoma cell line with sensitivity of 51.6 %, with human epidermoid carcinoma cell line showing sensitivity of 50 % and fibroblastic cells derived from transgenic mice LTK-1 (L20B) cell showing 23.50 % sensitivity. However, a lower specificity of 2.9 % was observed with the L20B cell line. 44.1 % of the samples were positive by direct RT-PCR detection while 51.47 % samples were positive by using RT-PCR on infected cell cultures. No difference in percentage positivity was observed using RT-PCR on infected tissue culture isolates or using RT-PCR directly on wastewater samples.

  5. Abcès cérébral compliquant une cardiopathie congénitale: à propos de 7 cas à l'institut de cardiologie d'Abidjan

    PubMed Central

    N'goran, Yves N'da Kouakou; Tano, Micesse; Traore, Fatoumata; Angoran, Inès; Roland, N'guetta; Traboulsi, Aké Evelyne; Yao, Konan Serge; Kramoh, Kouadio Euloge; Kakou, Maurice Guikahue

    2015-01-01

    Le diagnostic précoce des cardiopathies congénitales (C.C) a une incidence positive sur leur évolution. En effet diagnostiquées tard ou non traitées elles peuvent se compliquer. L'abcès cérébral est une complication des C.C cyanogènes qui est rare dans les pays développés. Notre objectif était d'analyser à travers une revue bibliographique les particularités de 7 cas de C.C compliquées d'abcès cérébral découvertes et prises en charge dans un service de cardiologie pédiatrique de l'Institut de Cardiologie d'Abidjan. La tétralogie de Fallot était la cardiopathie congénitale la plus fréquente. Le traitement a été médical et/ou chirurgical. Seule la réalisation de la cure complète des cardiopathies congénitales peut permettre la prévention de l'abcès cérébral. PMID:26848356

  6. Results from a rapid national assessment of services for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Granato, S Adam; Gloyd, Stephen; Robinson, Julia; Dali, Serge A; Ahoba, Irma; Aka, David; Kouyaté, Seydou; Billy, Doroux A; Kalibala, Samuel; Koné, Ahoua

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Loss-to-follow-up (LTFU) in the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) programmes can occur at multiple stages of antenatal and follow-up care. This paper presents findings from a national assessment aimed at identifying major bottlenecks in Côte d'Ivoire's PMTCT cascade, and to distinguish characteristics of high- and low-performing health facilities. Methods This cross-sectional study, based on a nationally representative sample of 30 health facilities in Côte d'Ivoire used multiple data sources (registries, patient charts, patient booklets, interviews) to determine the magnitude of LTFU in PMTCT services. A composite measure of retention – based on child prophylaxis, maternal treatment and infant testing – was used to identify high- and low-performing sites and determine significant differences using Student's t-tests. Results Among 1,741 pregnant women newly recorded as HIV-positive between June 2011 and May 2012, 43% had a CD4 count taken, 77% received appropriate prophylaxis and 70% received prophylaxis intended for their infant. During that time, 1,054 first infant HIV tests were recorded. A conservative rate of adherence to antiretroviral therapy was estimated at 50% (n=219 patient charts). Significant differences between high- and low-performing sites included: duration of time elapsed between HIV testing and CD4 results (29.5 versus 56.3 days, p=0.001); and density (number per 100 first antenatal care visits) of full-time physicians (6.7 versus 1.7, p=0.04), laboratory technicians (2.3 versus 0.7, p=0.046), staff trained in PMTCT (10.7 versus 4.7, p=0.01), and staff performing patient follow-up activities (7.9 versus 2.5, p=0.02). Key informants highlighted staff presence and training, the availability of medical supplies and equipment (i.e., on-site CD4 machine), and the adequacy of infrastructure (i.e., space and ventilation) as perceived key factors positively and negatively impacting retention in care. Conclusions

  7. Men's and women's experiences of violence and traumatic events in rural Côte d'Ivoire before, during and after a period of armed conflict

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Mazeda; Zimmerman, Cathy; Kiss, Ligia; Kone, Drissa; Bakayoko-Topolska, Monika; Manan K A, David; Lehmann, Heidi; Watts, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Objective We assessed men's and women's experiences of gender based violence and other traumatic events in Côte d'Ivoire, a West African conflict-affected setting, before, during and after a period of active armed conflict (2000–2007). Design Cross-sectional, household survey. Setting 12 rural communities directly impacted by the Crisis in Côte d'Ivoire, spanning regions controlled by government forces, rebels and UN peacekeepers in 2008. Participants 2678 men and women aged 15–49 years. Primary outcome measures Violence exposures measured since age 15. Questions included intimate partner physical and sexual violence; physical and sexual violence by others (including combatants) and exposure to traumatic events before, during and after the Crisis period (2000–2007). Results Physical and/or sexual violence since age 15 was reported by 57.1% women and 40.2% men (p=0.01); 29.9% women and 12.3% men reported exposure to any violence in the past year. Nearly 1 in 10 women (9.9%) and 5.9% men (p=0.03) were forced to have sex by a non-partner since age 15, and 14.8% women and 3.3% men (p=0.00) reported their first sexual experience was forced. Combatants were rarely reported as sexual violence perpetrators (0.3% women). After the Crisis, intimate partner physical violence was the most frequently reported form of violence and highest among women (20.9% women, 9.9% men, p=0.00). Fearing for their life was reported by men and women before, during and after the Crisis. Conclusions Sexual violence in conflict remains a critical international policy concern. However, men and women experience different types of violence before, during and after conflict. In many conflict settings, other forms of violence, including intimate partner violence, may be more widespread than conflict-related sexual violence. Alongside service provision for rape survivors, our findings underscore the need for postconflict reconstruction efforts to invest in programmes to prevent and respond to

  8. Novel Arenavirus Sequences in Hylomyscus sp. and Mus (Nannomys) setulosus from Côte d'Ivoire: Implications for Evolution of Arenaviruses in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kouassi, Stéphane K.; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Becker-Ziaja, Beate; Rieger, Toni; Ölschläger, Stephan; Dosso, Hernri; Denys, Christiane; ter Meulen, Jan; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Günther, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to identify new arenaviruses and gather insights in the evolution of arenaviruses in Africa. During 2003 through 2005, 1,228 small mammals representing 14 different genera were trapped in 9 villages in south, east, and middle west of Côte d'Ivoire. Specimens were screened by pan-Old World arenavirus RT-PCRs targeting S and L RNA segments as well as immunofluorescence assay. Sequences of two novel tentative species of the family Arenaviridae, Menekre and Gbagroube virus, were detected in Hylomyscus sp. and Mus (Nannomys) setulosus, respectively. Arenavirus infection of Mus (Nannomys) setulosus was also demonstrated by serological testing. Lassa virus was not found, although 60% of the captured animals were Mastomys natalensis. Complete S RNA and partial L RNA sequences of the novel viruses were recovered from the rodent specimens and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. Gbagroube virus is a closely related sister taxon of Lassa virus, while Menekre virus clusters with the Ippy/Mobala/Mopeia virus complex. Reconstruction of possible virus–host co-phylogeny scenarios suggests that, within the African continent, signatures of co-evolution might have been obliterated by multiple host-switching events. PMID:21695269

  9. Risk factors and spatial patterns of hookworm infection among schoolchildren in a rural area of western Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Raso, Giovanna; Vounatsou, Penelope; Gosoniu, Laura; Tanner, Marcel; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Utzinger, Jürg

    2006-02-01

    This study is aimed at investigating the risk factors for hookworm infection among schoolchildren in a rural area of western Côte d'Ivoire and predicting and mapping the spatial distribution of infection. We used demographic and socio-economic data from a cross-sectional survey of 6-16-year-old schoolchildren from 56 schools. Infection with hookworm was determined by microscopic examination of stool samples employing the Kato-Katz technique and an ether-concentration method. Environmental data were derived from satellite images and digitised maps. Bayesian variogram models were applied to investigate the variation of hookworm infection in relation to demographic, socio-economic and environmental factors. The overall hookworm infection prevalence, based on the pooled microscopic diagnoses, was 43.3% and ranged from 5.4 to 79.1% in the schools surveyed. Bivariate analyses showed that sex, age, socio-economic status, elevation, rainfall and land cover were significantly associated with the spatial distribution of hookworm infection. The final multivariate spatial model consisted of the covariates age, sex, socio-economic status, elevation and land cover. When assuming non-stationary underlying spatial dependency, the results of the model suggested that spatial correlation depended on the location only marginally. We conclude that, at the current resolution, it seems more reasonable to target interventions based on well-established epidemiologic risk factors, rather than on spatial factors.

  10. Contact to Non-human Primates and Risk Factors for Zoonotic Disease Emergence in the Taï Region, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Mossoun, Arsène; Pauly, Maude; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Leendertz, Siv Aina J; Anoh, Augustin E; Gnoukpoho, Ange H; Leendertz, Fabian H; Schubert, Grit

    2015-12-01

    Elevated exposure levels to non-human primates (NHP) and NHP bushmeat represent major risk factors for zoonotic disease transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. Demography can affect personal nutritional behavior, and thus rates of contact to NHP bushmeat. Here, we analyzed demographic and NHP contact data from 504 participants of differing demographic backgrounds living in proximity to the Taï National Park in Western Côte d'Ivoire (CI) to identify factors impacting the risk of NHP exposure. Overall, participants' contact rates to NHP were high, and increased along a gradient of bushmeat processing (e.g., 7.7% hunted, but 61.9% consumed monkeys). Contact to monkeys was significantly more frequent than to chimpanzees, most likely a reflection of meat availability and hunting effort. 17.2% of participants reported previous interaction with NHP pets. Generalized linear mixed model analysis revealed significant effects of sex, country of birth or ethnicity on rates of NHP bushmeat contact, with male participants from CI being at particular risk of exposure to NHP. The presence of zoonotic pathogens in humans and NHP in Taï further highlights the risk for zoonotic disease emergence in this region. Our results are relevant for formulating prevention strategies to reduce zoonotic pathogen burden in tropical Africa.

  11. Ecohealth approach to urban waste management: exposure to environmental pollutants and health risks in Yamoussoukro, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Kouamé, Parfait K; Dongo, Kouassi; Nguyen-Viet, Hung; Zurbrügg, Christian; Lüthi, Christoph; Hattendorf, Jan; Utzinger, Jürg; Biémi, Jean; Bonfoh, Bassirou

    2014-10-02

    Poor waste management is a key driver of ill-health in urban settlements of developing countries. The current study aimed at assessing environmental and human health risks related to urban waste management in Yamoussoukro, the political capital of Côte d'Ivoire. We undertook trans-disciplinary research within an Ecohealth approach, comprised of a participatory workshop with stakeholders and mapping of exposure patterns. A total of 492 randomly selected households participated in a cross-sectional survey. Waste deposit sites were characterised and 108 wastewater samples were subjected to laboratory examinations. The physico-chemical parameters of the surface water (temperature, pH, conductivity, potential oxidise reduction, BOD5, COD, dissolved oxygen, nitrates, ammonia and total Kendal nitrogen) did not comply with World Health Organization standards of surface water quality. Questionnaire results showed that malaria was the most commonly reported disease. Diarrhoea and malaria were associated with poor sanitation. Households having dry latrines had a higher risk of diarrhoea (odds ratio (OR) = 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-2.7) compared to latrines with septic tanks and also a higher risk for malaria (OR = 1.9, 95% (CI) 1.1-3.3). Our research showed that combining health and environmental assessments enables a deeper understanding of environmental threats and disease burdens linked to poor waste management. Further study should investigate the sanitation strategy aspects that could reduce the environmental and health risks in the study area.

  12. The impact of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative on the financing of routine immunization: case studies in Bangladesh, C te d'Ivoire, and Morocco.

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Ann; Ram, Sujata; Kaddar, Miloud

    2002-01-01

    To determine if the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (PEI) affected financing of routine immunization programmes, we compared sources and uses of funds for routine immunization programmes and PEI activities in Bangladesh, C te d'Ivoire, and Morocco for the years 1993-98. We also examined funding trends for these years in these countries and assessed the effect of the initiative on the availability of specific resources in national immunization programmes, such as cold-chain equipment and personnel time spent on activities related to national immunization days and surveillance of poliomyelitis and acute flaccid paralysis. We found that all three governments and the majority of donors and international organizations continued to fund routine immunization programmes at levels similar to those before the PEI. Trend analysis also indicated that financing for routine immunization in each of the countries continued to increase after the PEI was introduced. The results show that the PEI did not reduce funding for routine immunizations in these countries. PMID:12471404

  13. [Bio-ecological characteristics of Anopheles gambiae s.s. in irrigated rice fields of central Côte d'Ivoire].

    PubMed

    Zahouli, Z B J; Tchicaya, E S; Nsanzabana, C; Donzé, J; Utzinger, J; N'Goran, E K; Koudou, B G

    2011-12-01

    This longitudinal entomological survey was conducted between September 2008 and September 2009 in the villages of Abokro and Yaokoffikro located in an irrigated rice farming area of central Côte d'Ivoire. The purpose was to investigate the bio-ecological characteristics of Anopheles gambiae s.s. during the gonotrophic cycle. In both villages, adult mosquitoes were captured in 72 light traps, collected on humans subjects at a rate of 72 man-night from 6 p.m. to 6 a.m., and knocked down using pyrethroid spray inside 60 sentinel houses in the early morning. A total of 10,312 adult mosquitoes were collected in Abokro and 7,662 in Yaokoffikro. Anopheles was the dominant genus at both locations. Light traps were three times more efficient in Abokro than in Yaokoffikro. In both places, An. gambiae s.s. biting rates increased gradually up to a peak observed between midnight and 1 a.m. In Abokro, most An. gambiae s.s. were collected inside sleeping rooms. The endophagic rate and indoor resting density was 67.4% (n = 4798) and 14.9 females per bedroom per night, respectively, in Abokro as compared to 49.3% (n = 6775) and 2.9 females per bedroom per day, respectively, in Yaokoffikro. PMID:22393624

  14. [Laboratory evaluation of alpha-cypermethrin insecticide efficacy on Anopheles gambiae populations of Côte d'Ivoire resistant to permethrin and deltamethrin].

    PubMed

    Koffi, A A; Darriet, F; N'Guessan, R; Doannio, J M; Carnevale, P

    1999-02-01

    Susceptibility tests were carried out in laboratory conditions to evaluate the efficacy of alpha-cypermethrin (a synthetic pyrethroid never used in Côte d'Ivoire) for malaria vector control. Five wild populations of Anopheles gambiae originating from M'bé, Yaokoffikro, Korhogo, Kafiné and Daola and two laboratory reared strains (Kisumu susceptible and Kou permethrin resistant selected strain) were tested. The diagnostic dosage of alpha-cypermethrin for the sensitive strain Kisumu was 2.5 x 10(-3)%. A comparative study of the susceptibility of samples of wild populations of An. gambiae was carried out according to the WHO standard susceptibility test. Impregnated papers with 4% DDT, 0.25% permethrin, 0.025% deltamethrin and 0.0025% alpha-cypermethrin were used. The results showed that except for mosquitoes from M'bé, all the other populations were resistant to these insecticides. Bioassays were carried out with alpha-cypermethrin at the operational dosage of 20 mg a.i./m2 on the same population and laboratory reared strains. The results showed the efficacy of this insecticide on both the Kisumu strain and the population from M'bé, a maintained efficacy for the Daloa, Kafiné and Korhogo mosquito populations, but the wild anopheline population from Yaokoffikro clearly appeared fully resistant.

  15. Contact to Non-human Primates and Risk Factors for Zoonotic Disease Emergence in the Taï Region, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Mossoun, Arsène; Pauly, Maude; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Leendertz, Siv Aina J; Anoh, Augustin E; Gnoukpoho, Ange H; Leendertz, Fabian H; Schubert, Grit

    2015-12-01

    Elevated exposure levels to non-human primates (NHP) and NHP bushmeat represent major risk factors for zoonotic disease transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. Demography can affect personal nutritional behavior, and thus rates of contact to NHP bushmeat. Here, we analyzed demographic and NHP contact data from 504 participants of differing demographic backgrounds living in proximity to the Taï National Park in Western Côte d'Ivoire (CI) to identify factors impacting the risk of NHP exposure. Overall, participants' contact rates to NHP were high, and increased along a gradient of bushmeat processing (e.g., 7.7% hunted, but 61.9% consumed monkeys). Contact to monkeys was significantly more frequent than to chimpanzees, most likely a reflection of meat availability and hunting effort. 17.2% of participants reported previous interaction with NHP pets. Generalized linear mixed model analysis revealed significant effects of sex, country of birth or ethnicity on rates of NHP bushmeat contact, with male participants from CI being at particular risk of exposure to NHP. The presence of zoonotic pathogens in humans and NHP in Taï further highlights the risk for zoonotic disease emergence in this region. Our results are relevant for formulating prevention strategies to reduce zoonotic pathogen burden in tropical Africa. PMID:26302959

  16. [Military and political crises and the psycho-physical health of internally displaced persons (IDPs): the case of Côte d'Ivoire].

    PubMed

    Kouadio, Kouakou Jérôme; Beugre, Jean-Bertin; Djaha, Konan; Sonan, Kakou N'guessan

    2012-06-01

    People displaced by conflict who remain within the borders of their country are known as Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs). The physical and psychological health of IDPs, who have been forced to relocate to a new environment, has not been adequately studied. The objective of this study was to compare the physical and psychological health of IDPs and non-displaced populations. The study examined 580 subjects aged 18-59 years living in Côte d'Ivoire, including 290 IDPs and 290 non-displaced persons. The physical and psychological health of both groups was examined and compared using face-to-face questionnaires. The prevalence of physical illness and depression and anxiety disorders were found to be twice as high among IDPs (80% compared to 42% and 60% compared to 30%). This study provides evidence of the high prevalence of physical and psychological morbidity among IDPs. The results highlight the importance of providing better support to this highly vulnerable population.

  17. Diversity and prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in seven non-human primates of the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Kouassi, Roland Yao Wa; McGraw, Scott William; Yao, Patrick Kouassi; Abou-Bacar, Ahmed; Brunet, Julie; Pesson, Bernard; Bonfoh, Bassirou; N'goran, Eliezer Kouakou; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2015-01-01

    Parasites and infectious diseases are well-known threats to primate populations. The main objective of this study was to provide baseline data on fecal parasites in the cercopithecid monkeys inhabiting Côte d'Ivoire's Taï National Park. Seven of eight cercopithecid species present in the park were sampled: Cercopithecus diana, Cercopithecus campbelli, Cercopithecus petaurista, Procolobus badius, Procolobus verus, Colobus polykomos, and Cercocebus atys. We collected 3142 monkey stool samples between November 2009 and December 2010. Stool samples were processed by direct wet mount examination, formalin-ethyl acetate concentration, and MIF (merthiolate, iodine, formalin) concentration methods. Slides were examined under microscope and parasite identification was based on the morphology of cysts, eggs, and adult worms. A total of 23 species of parasites was recovered including 9 protozoa (Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Entamoeba hartmanni, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba butschlii, Chilomastix mesnili, Giardia sp., Balantidium coli, and Blastocystis sp.), 13 nematodes (Oesophagostomum sp., Ancylostoma sp., Anatrichosoma sp., Capillariidae Gen. sp. 1, Capillariidae Gen. sp. 2, Chitwoodspirura sp., Subulura sp., spirurids [cf Protospirura muricola], Ternidens sp., Strongyloides sp., Trichostrongylus sp., and Trichuris sp.), and 1 trematode (Dicrocoelium sp.). Diversity indices and parasite richness were high for all monkey taxa, but C. diana, C. petaurista, C. atys, and C. campbelli exhibited a greater diversity of parasite species and a more equitable distribution. The parasitological data reported are the first available for these cercopithecid species within Taï National Park. PMID:25619957

  18. [Bio-ecological characteristics of Anopheles gambiae s.s. in irrigated rice fields of central Côte d'Ivoire].

    PubMed

    Zahouli, Z B J; Tchicaya, E S; Nsanzabana, C; Donzé, J; Utzinger, J; N'Goran, E K; Koudou, B G

    2011-12-01

    This longitudinal entomological survey was conducted between September 2008 and September 2009 in the villages of Abokro and Yaokoffikro located in an irrigated rice farming area of central Côte d'Ivoire. The purpose was to investigate the bio-ecological characteristics of Anopheles gambiae s.s. during the gonotrophic cycle. In both villages, adult mosquitoes were captured in 72 light traps, collected on humans subjects at a rate of 72 man-night from 6 p.m. to 6 a.m., and knocked down using pyrethroid spray inside 60 sentinel houses in the early morning. A total of 10,312 adult mosquitoes were collected in Abokro and 7,662 in Yaokoffikro. Anopheles was the dominant genus at both locations. Light traps were three times more efficient in Abokro than in Yaokoffikro. In both places, An. gambiae s.s. biting rates increased gradually up to a peak observed between midnight and 1 a.m. In Abokro, most An. gambiae s.s. were collected inside sleeping rooms. The endophagic rate and indoor resting density was 67.4% (n = 4798) and 14.9 females per bedroom per night, respectively, in Abokro as compared to 49.3% (n = 6775) and 2.9 females per bedroom per day, respectively, in Yaokoffikro.

  19. Giardia duodenalis genotypes and Cryptosporidium species in humans and domestic animals in Côte d'Ivoire: occurrence and evidence for environmental contamination.

    PubMed

    Berrilli, Federica; D'Alfonso, Rossella; Giangaspero, Annunziata; Marangi, Marianna; Brandonisio, Olga; Kaboré, Yolande; Glé, Christoph; Cianfanelli, Cristina; Lauro, Renato; Di Cave, David

    2012-03-01

    Giardia duodenalis genotypes and Cryptosporidium species were studied in humans and free-ranging animals living in closed enclaves in Côte d'Ivoire. Three hundred and seven stool samples were tested from humans, and 47 from freely roaming domestic animals (dogs, goats, ducks, chickens). Molecular characterization of the isolates was performed by sequence analysis of a portion of the SSU-rDNA for Giardia and the COWP gene for Cryptosporidium, and a β-giardin SYBR-green real-time PCR was also used to confirm the assignment of Giardia isolates to Assemblages. In humans, genotyping of Giardia assigned many of the sequences (43/56 by the SSU-rDNA gene, and 36/61 by the β-giardin gene) to Assemblage B. The animal species harboured only zoonotic Assemblages A and B, except for dogs, in which host specific Assemblages C and D were also detected. Cryptosporidium meleagridis, C. parvum and C. hominis were detected in humans, while among the animals only chickens were found positive for oocysts, identified as C. meleagridis and C. parvum. The results provide further evidence about the role of free-ranging domestic animals living closely with humans in the environmental dissemination and potential transmission of these anthropozoonotic pathogens to humans.

  20. Exposure to the 'SIDA dans la Cité' AIDS prevention television series in Côte' d'Ivoire, sexual risk behaviour and condom use.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, D; Meekers, D; Tambashe, B

    2003-06-01

    This study assesses factors associated with viewing of 'SIDA dans la Cite', a weekly television soap opera on AIDS in Côte d'Ivoire, and the relationship between 'SIDA dans la Cite' viewing, sexual risk behaviour and condom use. The study uses across-sectional survey of 2150 respondents aged 15-49 in three regions. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the effect of'SIDA dans la Cite' exposure on condom use. The results show that 65% of the sample had seen at least one 'SIDA dans la Cite' episode. Among viewers, 27% of males and 41% of females had seen ten or more episodes. Persons who had risky sexual partners were particularly likely to watch the programme. Women who had seen ten or more episodes were 1.4 times more likely than non-viewers to have used a condom in last sex. Men who had seen ten or more episodes were 2. 7 times more likely to have used a condom. We conclude that television soap operas on AIDS, such as 'SIDA dans la Cite',can be an important tool for promoting condom use. The programme was most appealing to viewers who engaged in risky behaviour, who are the core transmitters of the virus. HIV prevention programmes that provide continuous information, through multiple media channels or through series of broadcasts, are likely to have the greatest impact on condom use.

  1. Schistosomiasis, Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis, and Sociodemographic Factors Influence Quality of Life of Adults in Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Fürst, Thomas; Silué, Kigbafori D.; Ouattara, Mamadou; N'Goran, Dje N.; Adiossan, Lukas G.; N'Guessan, Yao; Zouzou, Fabian; Koné, Siaka; N'Goran, Eliézer K.; Utzinger, Jürg

    2012-01-01

    Background Burden of disease estimates are widely used for priority setting in public health and disability-adjusted life years are a powerful “currency” nowadays. However, disability weights, which capture the disability incurred by a typical patient of a certain condition, are fundamental to such burden calculation and their determination remains a widely debated issue. Methodology A cross-sectional epidemiological survey was conducted in the recently established Taabo health demographic surveillance system (HDSS) in south-central Côte d'Ivoire, to provide new, population-based evidence on the disability caused by schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis. Parasitological results from stool, urine, and blood examinations were juxtaposed to quality of life (QoL) questionnaire results from 187 adults. A multivariable linear regression model with stepwise backward elimination was used to identify significant associations, considering also sociodemographic characteristics obtained from the Taabo HDSS database. Principal Findings Prevalences for hookworm, Plasmodium spp., Trichuris trichiura, Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni were 39.0%, 18.2%, 2.7%, 2.1% and 2.1%, respectively. S. mansoni and T. trichiura infections of any intensity reduced the participants' self-rated QoL by 16 points (95% confidence interval (CI): 4–29 points) and 13 points (95% CI: 1–24 points), respectively, on a scale from 0 (worst QoL) to 100 points (best QoL). The only other statistically significant effect was a 1-point (95% CI: 0.1–2 points) increase on the QoL scale per one unit increase in a calculated wealth index. Conclusions/Significance We found consistent and significant results on the negative effects of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis on adults' self-rated QoL, also when taking sociodemographic characteristics into account. Our results warrant further investigation on the disability incurred by helmintic infections and the

  2. Usefulness of Noninvasive Predictors of Oesophageal Varices in Black African Cirrhotic Patients in Côte d'Ivoire (West Africa)

    PubMed Central

    Mahassadi, Alassan Kouamé; Bathaix, Fulgence Yao; Assi, Constant; Bangoura, Aboubacar Demba; Allah-Kouadio, Emile; Kissi, Henriette Ya; Touré, Abdoulaye; Doffou, Stanislas; Konaté, Issa; Attia, Alain Koffi; Camara, Mathieu Benoit; Ndri-Yoman, Thérèse Aya

    2012-01-01

    Aims. To determine the usefulness of platelet count (PC), spleen diameter (SD) and platelet count/spleen diameter ratio (PC/SD ratio) for the prediction of oesophageal varices (OV) and large OV in black African patients with cirrhosis in Côte d'Ivoire. Materials and Methods. Study was conducted in a training sample (111 patients) and in a validation sample (91 patients). Results. Factors predicting OV were sex: (OR = 0.08, P = 0.0003), PC (OR = 12.4, P = 0.0003), SD (OR = 1.04, P = 0.002) in the training sample. The AUROCs (±SE) of the model (cutoff ≥ 0.6), PC (cutoff < 110500), SD (cutoff > 140) and PC/SD ratio (cutoff ≤ 868) were, respectively; 0.879 ± 0.04, 0.768 ± 0.06, 0.679 ± 0.06, 0.793 ± 0.06. For the prediction of large OV, the model's AUROC (0.850 ± 0.05) was superior to that of PC (0.688 ± 0.06), SD (0.732 ± 0.05) and PC/SD ratio (0.752 ± 0.06). In the validation sample, with PC, PC/SD ratio and the model, upper digestive endoscopy could be obviated respectively in 45.1, 45.1, and 44% of cirrhotic patients. Prophylactic treatment with beta blockers could be started undoubtedly respectively in 36.3, 41.8 and 28.6% of them as having large OV. Conclusion. Non-invasive means could be used to monitor cirrhotic patients and consider treatment in African regions lacking endoscopic facilities. PMID:22888334

  3. Identification of yeasts isolated from raffia wine (Raphia hookeri) produced in Côte d'Ivoire and genotyping of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains by PCR inter-delta.

    PubMed

    Tra Bi, Charles Y; N'guessan, Florent K; Kouakou, Clémentine A; Jacques, Noemie; Casaregola, Serge; Djè, Marcellin K

    2016-08-01

    Raffia wine is a traditional alcoholic beverage produced in several African countries where it plays a significant role in traditional customs and population diet. Alcoholic fermentation of this beverage is ensured by a complex natural yeast flora which plays a decisive role in the quality of the final product. This present study aims to evaluate the distribution and the diversity of the yeast strains isolated in raffia wine from four sampling areas (Abengourou, Alépé, Grand-Lahou and Adzopé) in Côte d'Ivoire. Based on the D1/D2 domain of the LSU rDNA sequence analysis, nine species belonging to six genera were distinguished. With a percentage of 69.5 % out of 171 yeast isolates, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the predominant species in the raffia wine, followed by Kodamaea ohmeri (20.4 %). The other species isolated were Candida haemulonii (4.1 %), Candida phangngensis (1.8 %), Pichia kudriavzevii (1.2 %), Hanseniaspora jakobsenii (1.2 %), Candida silvae (0.6 %), Hanseniaspora guilliermondii (0.6 %) and Meyerozyma caribbica (0.6 %). The molecular characterization of S. cerevisiae isolates at the strain level using the PCR-interdelta method revealed the presence of 21 profiles (named I to XXI) within 115 isolates. Only four profiles (I, III, V and XI) were shared by the four areas under study. Phenotypic characterization of K. ohmeri strains showed two subgroups for sugar fermentation and no diversity for the nitrogen compound assimilations and the growth at different temperatures. PMID:27339306

  4. Molecular evolution of Azagny virus, a newfound hantavirus harbored by the West African pygmy shrew (Crocidura obscurior) in Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Tanganya virus (TGNV), the only shrew-associated hantavirus reported to date from sub-Saharan Africa, is harbored by the Therese's shrew (Crocidura theresae), and is phylogenetically distinct from Thottapalayam virus (TPMV) in the Asian house shrew (Suncus murinus) and Imjin virus (MJNV) in the Ussuri white-toothed shrew (Crocidura lasiura). The existence of myriad soricid-borne hantaviruses in Eurasia and North America would predict the presence of additional hantaviruses in sub-Saharan Africa, where multiple shrew lineages have evolved and diversified. Methods Lung tissues, collected in RNAlater®, from 39 Buettikofer's shrews (Crocidura buettikoferi), 5 Jouvenet's shrews (Crocidura jouvenetae), 9 West African pygmy shrews (Crocidura obscurior) and 21 African giant shrews (Crocidura olivieri) captured in Côte d'Ivoire during 2009, were systematically examined for hantavirus RNA by RT-PCR. Results A genetically distinct hantavirus, designated Azagny virus (AZGV), was detected in the West African pygmy shrew. Phylogenetic analysis of the S, M and L segments, using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, under the GTR+I+Γ model of evolution, showed that AZGV shared a common ancestry with TGNV and was more closely related to hantaviruses harbored by soricine shrews than to TPMV and MJNV. That is, AZGV in the West African pygmy shrew, like TGNV in the Therese's shrew, did not form a monophyletic group with TPMV and MJNV, which were deeply divergent and basal to other rodent- and soricomorph-borne hantaviruses. Ancestral distributions of each hantavirus lineage, reconstructed using Mesquite 2.74, suggested that the common ancestor of all hantaviruses was most likely of Eurasian, not African, origin. Conclusions Genome-wide analysis of many more hantaviruses from sub-Saharan Africa are required to better understand how the biogeographic origin and radiation of African shrews might have contributed to, or have resulted from, the evolution of hantaviruses

  5. Detection and identification of pathogenic trypanosome species in tsetse flies along the Comoé River in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Djohan, Vincent; Kaba, Dramane; Rayaissé, Jean-Baptiste; Dayo, Guiguigbaza-Kossigan; Coulibaly, Bamoro; Salou, Ernest; Dofini, Fabien; Kouadio, Alain De Marie Koffi; Menan, Hervé; Solano, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    In order to identify pathogenic trypanosomes responsible for African trypanosomiasis, and to better understand tsetse-trypanosome relationships, surveys were undertaken in three sites located in different eco-climatic areas in Côte d'Ivoire during the dry and rainy seasons. Tsetse flies were caught during five consecutive days using biconical traps, dissected and microscopically examined looking for trypanosome infection. Samples from infected flies were tested by PCR using specific primers for Trypanosoma brucei s.l., T. congolense savannah type, T. congolense forest type and T. vivax. Of 1941 tsetse flies caught including four species, i.e. Glossina palpalis palpalis, G. p. gambiensis, G. tachinoides and G. medicorum, 513 (26%) were dissected and 60 (12%) were found positive by microscopy. Up to 41% of the infections were due to T. congolense savannah type, 30% to T. vivax, 20% to T. congolense forest type and 9% due to T. brucei s.l. All four trypanosome species and subgroups were identified from G. tachinoides and G. p. palpalis, while only two were isolated from G. p. gambiensis (T. brucei s.l., T. congolense savannah type) and G. medicorum (T. congolense forest, savannah types). Mixed infections were found in 25% of cases and all involved T. congolense savannah type with another trypanosome species. The simultaneous occurrence of T. brucei s.l., and tsetse from the palpalis group may suggest that human trypanosomiasis can still be a constraint in these localities, while high rates of T. congolense and T. vivax in the area suggest a potential risk of animal trypanosomiasis in livestock along the Comoé River.

  6. Identification of yeasts isolated from raffia wine (Raphia hookeri) produced in Côte d'Ivoire and genotyping of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains by PCR inter-delta.

    PubMed

    Tra Bi, Charles Y; N'guessan, Florent K; Kouakou, Clémentine A; Jacques, Noemie; Casaregola, Serge; Djè, Marcellin K

    2016-08-01

    Raffia wine is a traditional alcoholic beverage produced in several African countries where it plays a significant role in traditional customs and population diet. Alcoholic fermentation of this beverage is ensured by a complex natural yeast flora which plays a decisive role in the quality of the final product. This present study aims to evaluate the distribution and the diversity of the yeast strains isolated in raffia wine from four sampling areas (Abengourou, Alépé, Grand-Lahou and Adzopé) in Côte d'Ivoire. Based on the D1/D2 domain of the LSU rDNA sequence analysis, nine species belonging to six genera were distinguished. With a percentage of 69.5 % out of 171 yeast isolates, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the predominant species in the raffia wine, followed by Kodamaea ohmeri (20.4 %). The other species isolated were Candida haemulonii (4.1 %), Candida phangngensis (1.8 %), Pichia kudriavzevii (1.2 %), Hanseniaspora jakobsenii (1.2 %), Candida silvae (0.6 %), Hanseniaspora guilliermondii (0.6 %) and Meyerozyma caribbica (0.6 %). The molecular characterization of S. cerevisiae isolates at the strain level using the PCR-interdelta method revealed the presence of 21 profiles (named I to XXI) within 115 isolates. Only four profiles (I, III, V and XI) were shared by the four areas under study. Phenotypic characterization of K. ohmeri strains showed two subgroups for sugar fermentation and no diversity for the nitrogen compound assimilations and the growth at different temperatures.

  7. Combined stool-based multiplex PCR and microscopy for enhanced pathogen detection in patients with persistent diarrhoea and asymptomatic controls from Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Becker, S L; Chatigre, J K; Gohou, J-P; Coulibaly, J T; Leuppi, R; Polman, K; Chappuis, F; Mertens, P; Herrmann, M; N'Goran, E K; Utzinger, J; von Müller, L

    2015-06-01

    Infectious diarrhoea ranks among the leading causes of morbidity worldwide. Although most acute diarrhoeal episodes are self-limiting, the diagnosis and treatment of persistent diarrhoea (≥2 weeks) are cumbersome and require laboratory identification of the causative pathogen. Stool-based PCR assays have greatly improved the previously disappointing pathogen detection rates in high-income countries, but there is a paucity of quality data from tropical settings. We performed a case-control study to elucidate the spectrum of intestinal pathogens in patients with persistent diarrhoea and asymptomatic controls in southern Côte d'Ivoire. Stool samples from 68 patients and 68 controls were obtained and subjected to molecular multiplex testing with the Luminex(®) Gastrointestinal Pathogen Panel (GPP), microscopy and rapid antigen detection tests for the diagnosis of diarrhoeagenic pathogens. Overall, 20 different bacteria, parasites and viruses were detected by the suite of diagnostic methods employed. At least one pathogen was observed in 84% of the participants, and co-infections were observed in >50% of the participants. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (32%), Giardia intestinalis (29%) and Shigella species (20%) were the predominant pathogens, and Strongyloides stercoralis (10%) was the most prevalent helminth. Pathogen frequencies and numbers of co-infections were similar in patients and controls. Although the Luminex(®) GPP detects a broad range of pathogens, microscopy for helminths and intestinal protozoa remains necessary to cover the full aetiological spectrum in tropical settings. We conclude that highly sensitive multiplex PCR assays constitute a useful screening tool, but that positive results might need to be confirmed by independent methods to discriminate active infection from asymptomatic faecal shedding of nucleic acids.

  8. Spatial cohesion of adult male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Eckhardt, Nadin; Polansky, Leo; Boesch, Christophe

    2015-02-01

    Group living animals can exhibit fission-fusion behavior whereby individuals temporarily separate to reduce the costs of living in large groups. Primates living in groups with fission-fusion dynamics face numerous challenges in maintaining spatial cohesion, especially in environments with limited visibility. Here we investigated the spatial cohesion of adult male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) living in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, to better understand the mechanisms by which individuals maintain group cohesion during fission-fusion events. Over a 3-year period, we simultaneously tracked the movements of 2-4 males for 4-12 hr on up to 12 consecutive days using handheld GPS devices that recorded locations at one-minute intervals. Analyses of the male's inter-individual distance (IID) showed that the maximum, median, and mean IID values across all observations were 7.2 km, 73 m, and 483 m, respectively. These males (a) had maximum daily IID values below the limits of auditory communication (<1 km) for 63% of the observation time, (b) remained out of visual range (≥100 m) for 46% of observation time, and (c) remained within auditory range for 70% of the time when they were in different parties. We compared the observed distribution of IIDs with a random distribution obtained from permutations of the individuals' travel paths using Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests. Observation IID values were significantly smaller than those generated by the permutation procedure. We conclude that these male chimpanzees actively maintain cohesion when out of sight, and that auditory communication is one likely mechanism by which they do so. We discuss mechanisms by which chimpanzees may maintain the level of cohesion observed. This study provides a first analysis of spatial group cohesion over large distances in forest chimpanzees using high-resolution tracking, and illustrates the utility of such data for quantifying socio-ecological processes in primate ecology.

  9. Access to, and use of, water by populations living in a schistosomiasis and fascioliasis co-endemic area of northern Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Krauth, Stefanie J; Musard, Capucine; Traoré, Seïdinan I; Zinsstag, Jakob; Achi, Louise Y; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Utzinger, Jürg

    2015-09-01

    Water is an essential element of life, but it can also be a source of disease. Apart from direct consumption of unsafe water, direct contact and indirect consumption puts people at risk of many different types of pathogens. Employing a mixed methods approach, consisting of questionnaires and direct observations, we assessed access to, and use of, different water sources by the participants of the district des Savanes in northern Côte d'Ivoire. The use of water sources was put in relation to the potential risk of acquiring schistosomiasis and fascioliasis. Overall, 489 people aged 8 to 82 years participated. While all participants had access to safe water, 63% were in direct contact with unimproved water and 31% directly consumed unsafe water. More than a third of the people who otherwise reported using only improved water for all activities came in contact with unimproved water through crossing open water when going to their workplace, school or other destinations. Self-reported blood in urine - a marker for Schistosoma haematobium with reasonable sensitivity and specificity - was reported by 6% (n=30), self-reported blood in stool - an unspecific marker for Schistosoma mansoni - was reported by 7% (n=35), while blood co-occurring in both urine and stool was reported by another 10% (n=48) of participants. Accessing unimproved water for any activity (including crossing) was associated with higher odds of reporting blood in urine and/or blood in stool (odds ratio: 1.90; 95% confidence interval: 1.07-3.36). Our results have important rami-fications for intervention programmes targeting neglected tropical diseases, and emphasize the need for a wider supply of safe water to rural populations, since the water supply at the workplace needs to be considered as well next to the water supply at home. Crossing of open water sources is an important risk factor for sustained transmission of schistosomiasis.

  10. Efficacy and Safety of Artesunate-Amodiaquine versus Artemether-Lumefantrine in the Treatment of Uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Sentinel Sites across Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Yavo, William; Konaté, Abibatou; Kassi, Fulgence Kondo; Djohan, Vincent; Angora, Etienne Kpongbo; Kiki-Barro, Pulcherie Christiane; Vanga-Bosson, Henriette; Menan, Eby Ignace Hervé

    2015-01-01

    Two years after the introduction of free Artesunate-Amodiaquine (ASAQ) and Artemether-Lumefantrine (AL) for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in public health facilities in Côte d'Ivoire, we carried out this study to compare their efficacy and tolerability in three surveillance sites. It was a multicentre open randomised clinical trial of 3-day ASAQ treatment against AL for the treatment of 2 parallel groups of patients aged 2 years and above. The endpoints were (1) Adequate Clinical and Parasitological Response (ACPR) at day 28 and (2) the clinical and biological tolerability. Of the 300 patients who were enrolled 289, with 143 (49.5%) and 146 (50.5%) in the ASAQ and AL groups, respectively, correctly followed the WHO 2003 protocol we used. The PCR-corrected ACPR was 99.3% for each group. More than 94% of patients no longer showed signs of fever, 48 hours after treatment. Approximately 78% of the people in the ASAQ group had a parasite clearance time of 48 hours or less compared to 81% in the AL group (p = 0.496). Both drugs were found to be well tolerated by the patients. This study demonstrates the effectiveness and tolerability of ASAQ and AL supporting their continuous use for the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria infection in Côte d'Ivoire.

  11. Effect of an armed conflict on relative socioeconomic position of rural households: case study from western Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Current conceptual frameworks on the interrelationship between armed conflict and poverty are based primarily on aggregated macro-level data and/or qualitative evidence and usually focus on adherents of warring factions. In contrast, there is a paucity of quantitative studies about the socioeconomic consequences of armed conflict at the micro-level, i.e., noncommitted local households and civilians. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of data pertaining to risk factors for malaria and neglected tropical diseases. Standardized questionnaires were administered to 182 households in a rural part of western Côte d'Ivoire in August 2002 and again in early 2004. Between the two surveys, the area was subject to intensive fighting in the Ivorian civil war. Principal component analysis was applied at the two time points for constructing an asset-based wealth-index and categorizing the households in wealth quintiles. Based on quintile changes, the households were labeled as 'worse-off', 'even' or 'better-off'. Statistical analysis tested for significant associations between the socioeconomic fates of households and head of household characteristics, household composition, village characteristics and self-reported events associated with the armed conflict. Most-poor/least-poor ratios and concentration indices were calculated to assess equity changes in households' asset possession. Results Of 203 households initially included in the first survey, 21 were lost to follow-up. The population in the remaining 182 households shrunk from 1,749 to 1,625 persons due to migration and natural population changes. However, only weak socioeconomic dynamics were observed; every seventh household was defined as 'worse-off' or 'better-off' despite the war-time circumstances. Analysis of other reported demographic and economic characteristics did not clearly identify more or less resilient households, and only subtle equity shifts were noted. However, the results indicate

  12. Characterizing the HIV risks and potential pathways to HIV infection among transgender women in Côte d'Ivoire, Togo and Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Stahlman, Shauna; Liestman, Benjamin; Ketende, Sosthenes; Kouanda, Seni; Ky-Zerbo, Odette; Lougue, Marcel; Diouf, Daouda; Anato, Simplice; Tchalla, Jules; Bamba, Amara; Drame, Fatou Maria; Ezouatchi, Rebecca; Kouamé, Abo; Baral, Stefan D

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Transgender women are at high risk for the acquisition and transmission of HIV. However, there are limited empiric data characterizing HIV-related risks among transgender women in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of these analyses is to determine what factors, including sexual behaviour stigma, condom use and engagement in sex work, contribute to risk for HIV infection among transgender women across three West African nations. Methods Data were collected via respondent-driven sampling from men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women during three- to five-month intervals from December 2012 to October 2015 across a total of six study sites in Togo, Burkina Faso and Côte d'Ivoire. During the study visit, participants completed a questionnaire and were tested for HIV. Chi-square tests were used to compare the prevalence of variables of interest between transgender women and MSM. A multilevel generalized structural equation model (GSEM) was used to account for clustering of observations within study sites in the multivariable analysis, as well as to estimate mediated associations between sexual behaviour stigma and HIV infection among transgender women. Results In total, 2456 participants meeting eligibility criteria were recruited, of which 453 individuals identified as being female/transgender. Transgender women were more likely than MSM to report selling sex to a male partner within the past 12 months (p<0.01), to be living with HIV (p<0.01) and to report greater levels of sexual behaviour stigma as compared with MSM (p<0.05). In the GSEM, sexual behaviour stigma from broader social groups was positively associated with condomless anal sex (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.33, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.09, 1.62) and with selling sex (AOR=1.23, 95% CI=1.02, 1.50). Stigma from family/friends was also associated with selling sex (AOR=1.42, 95% CI=1.13, 1.79), although no significant associations were identified with prevalent HIV infection

  13. Towards understanding the presence/absence of Human African Trypanosomosis in a focus of Côte d'Ivoire: a spatial analysis of the pathogenic system

    PubMed Central

    Courtin, Fabrice; Jamonneau, Vincent; Oké, Emmanuel; Coulibaly, Bamoro; Oswald, Yohan; Dupont, Sophie; Cuny, Gérard; Doumenge, Jean-Pierre; Solano, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    Background This study aimed at identifying factors influencing the development of Human African Trypanosomosis (HAT, or sleeping sickness) in the focus of Bonon, located in the mesophile forest of Côte d'Ivoire. A previous study mapping the main daytime activity sites of 96 patients revealed an important disparity between the area south of the town- where all the patients lived- and the area north of the town, apparently free of disease. In order to explain this disparity, we carried out a spatial analysis of the key components of the pathogenic system, i.e. the human host, the tsetse vector and the trypanosomes in their environment using a geographic information system (GIS). Results This approach at the scale of a HAT focus enabled us to identify spatial patterns which linked to the transmission and the dissemination of this disease. The history of human settlement (with the rural northern area exploited much earlier than the southern one) appears to be a major factor which determines the land use pattern, which itself may account for differences found in vector densities (tsetse were found six times more abundant in the southern rural area than in the northern). Vector density, according to the human and environmental context in which it is found (here an intense mobility between the town of Bonon and the rural areas), may explain the observed spatial differences in HAT prevalence. Conclusion This work demonstrates the role of GIS analyses of key components of the pathogenic system in providing a better understanding of transmission and dissemination of HAT. Moreover, following the identification of the most active transmission areas, and of an area unfavourable to HAT transmission, this study more precisely delineates the boundaries of the Bonon focus. As a follow-up, targeted tsetse control activities starting north of Bonon (with few chances of reinvasion due to very low densities) going south, and additional medical surveys in the south will be proposed to

  14. Tsetse flies, biodiversity and the control of sleeping sickness. Structure of a Glossina guild in southwest Côte d'Ivoire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouteux, Jean-Paul; Jarry, Marc

    1998-10-01

    Tsetse fly guilds usually comprise two or three species. However, the presence of only one species often indicates that anthropic modifications have occurred in the habitat. On the other hand, more than three species are seldom observed in the same zone and the presence of five is extremely rare. Previous detailed studies have always focused on a single species, without taking into account interactions between species. The authors present the results of observations carried out in Côte d'Ivoire on a guild consisting of Glossina palpalis, G. pallicera, G. nigrofusca, G. longipalpis and G. fusca. Glossina have unusual physiological characteristics: both sexes feed exclusively on blood, they have a highly developed larviparity associated with a slow rhythm of reproduction (one larva about every ten days) and a long life expectancy (up to nine months). The authors report on the size of the flies, the hosts, feeding habits, ecodistribution, resting-places, flying heights, circadian activity and seasonal dynamics of tsetse fly populations in order to understand the organization of this guild. Each species feeds indiscriminately on a wide spectrum of hosts without a particular preference. Different species shared habitat (ecodistribution) and time (circadian and annual cycles). Thus, during an annual cycle, there is always a slight time-lag between the density peaks of G. palpalis and G. pallicera, the peak of the dominant species immediately preceding that of the dominated species. In a village area, 77% of the variations in density of G. pallicera were accounted for by the previous variations in density of the dominant species ( G. palpalis). Experiments show that G. pallicera and G. nigrofusca immediately invade anthropic areas from which G. palpalis has been partially removed by trapping. These species thus appear to confront each other in a global dynamic equilibrium. This suggests that there is a 'conflicting coexistence' between the cohabiting species. Whereas the

  15. 78 FR 16908 - Determinations Under the African Growth and Opportunity Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-19

    ..., 66 FR 7837 (2001). Ron Kirk, United States Trade Representative. BILLING CODE 3190-F3-P ... textile and apparel articles and the use of counterfeit documents in connection with the shipment of such... specified in this notice, imports of eligible products from Cote d'Ivoire qualify for the textile...

  16. The Educational Community Running the School System: The Example of School Management Committees (COGES)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Gbo; Aka, Rene Goubo

    2006-01-01

    Since 2001 the school system in Cote d'Ivoire has evolved with the advent of the second Republic and the rise to power of the Ivorian Popular Front (Front Populaire Ivoirien, FPI). The Government has introduced reforms in the education system making use of past experience and extending its benefits. Most of the innovations implemented as part of…

  17. French-African Cultures: A Resource Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Barbara

    This resource unit concerns French-African cultures and their influence on other cultures. The materials may be incorporated into Levels 3, 4, and 5 French classes. Topics in the outline include environmental aspects; historical background; and cultural differences expressed in Senegal, Guinee, Mali, Cote d'Ivoire, Haute Volta, Togo, Dahomey,…

  18. 19 CFR 12.104b - State Parties to the Convention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Sept. 5, 1993 (S) See Note 1. Australia Oct. 30, 1989 (Ac) Jan. 30, 1990. Bangladesh Dec. 9, 1987 (R.... 28, 1978 (Ac) June 28, 1978. Central African Republic Feb. 1, 1972 (R) May 1, 1972. China, People's Republic of Nov. 28, 1989 (Ac) Feb. 28, 1990. Colombia May 24, 1988 (Ac) Aug. 24, 1988. Cote d'Ivoire...

  19. 15 CFR 746.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CONTROLS § 746.1 Introduction. In this part, references to the EAR are references to 15 CFR chapter VII... CFR part 774) (CCL) and a prohibition on the export to Syria of products of the United States, other... embargoes are: Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast), Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Iran, Iraq,...

  20. 15 CFR 746.1 - Introduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CONTROLS § 746.1 Introduction. In this part, references to the EAR are references to 15 CFR chapter VII... CFR part 774) (CCL) and a prohibition on the export to Syria of products of the United States, other... embargoes are: Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast), Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Iran, Iraq,...

  1. Cultural Issues in Secondary Education Development in West Africa: Away from Colonial Survivals, towards Neocolonial Influences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quist, Hubert O.

    2001-01-01

    In urban Ghana and Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast), cultural factors arising from West Africa's "triple cultural heritage" (African, Euro-Christian, and Islamic) and globalization place considerable strains on secondary education and have implications for postcolonial nation-building and development. Surveys of 200 secondary students in the two…

  2. The Origin and Development of the African Evaluation Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouge, Jean-Charles

    2004-01-01

    In May 1990, the first evaluation seminar in Africa took place in Cote d'Ivoire. It was the first in a series of regional seminars on evaluation planned by the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The seminar was jointly presented by the DAC and African Development Bank (ADB).…

  3. English as a Second Language: An Educational Overview for Multicultural and Bilingual West African Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ubadigbo, Fidelis N.

    This paper describes cultural and educational characteristics of West African countries that may have implications for West Africans studying and learning English in the United States. Countries discussed include Nigeria, Ghana, Sierra Leone, Benin, Niger, Gambia, Senegal, Cote d'Ivoire, and Mali. The structures of the systems of elementary,…

  4. Financing Higher Education in Francophone West Africa. An EDI Policy Seminar Report, Number 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ransom, Angela

    Meetings were held in Senegal in 1985, in Cote d'Ivoire in 1986, and in Zimbabwe in 1987, concerning the current state of higher education finance in Africa, the structure of unit costs, and the role of development assistance agencies and other sources of financial support. Reports are presented concerning the macroeconomic perspective, internal…

  5. Memories of an Aid Worker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daoust, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    The author had come to Cote d'Ivoire in April 1999 to work for the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), an independent humanitarian organization dedicated to persuading governments to respect the rules of international humanitarian law (IHL), which are found in the Geneva Conventions. These rules provide impartial protection for the…

  6. Field Evaluation of a Combination of Monospecific Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays for Type-Specific Diagnosis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-2 Infections in HIV-Seropositive Persons in Abidjan, Ivory Coast

    PubMed Central

    Nkengasong, John N.; Maurice, Chantal; Koblavi, Stéphania; Kalou, Mireille; Bile, Celestin; Yavo, Daniel; Boateng, Emmanuel; Wiktor, Stefan Z.; Greenberg, Alan E.

    1998-01-01

    Serologic distinction between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-2 infection is made difficult because of the cross-reactivity and high cost of existing differentiation assays. An evaluation of a strategy based on a combination of monospecific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) (CME), was carried out in Abidjan, Ivory Coast, where both HIV-1 and HIV-2 are present, to determine its accuracy and cost-effectiveness. A total of 1,608 (428 HIV-1-positive, 361 HIV-2-positive, 371 dually HIV-1 and HIV-2 [HIV-D] reactive, and 448 HIV-negative) sera that had been serotyped by a line immunoassay (Peptilav) were tested retrospectively by an HIV-1-monospecific (Wellcozyme HIV Recombinant ELISA) and an HIV-2-monospecific (ICE*-HIV-2) assay. The CME strategy gave concordant results for all of the 428 sera scored as HIV-1 by Peptilav. Of the 361 sera scored as HIV-2 by Peptilav, 316 (87.5%) were scored as HIV-2 by CME; the remaining 45 sera were positive by both monospecific ELISAs (mean optical density ratios, 1.36 for Wellcozyme and 11.30 for ICE*-HIV-2) and were classified as HIV-D by CME. Of the 371 sera classified as HIV-D by Peptilav, 344 (92.7%), 21, and 6 were scored as HIV-D, HIV-1, and HIV-2, respectively, by CME. Additional testing of the discrepant samples by two HIV differentiation assays (RIBA and INNO-LIA) gave results that agreed with those by CME for most of the sera. In addition, 267 other sera were tested prospectively by both CME and Peptilav. In the prospective evaluation, CME results agreed with those by Peptilav for all 106 HIV-1 sera and 40 of the 41 HIV-2 sera. However, of the 120 sera scored as HIV-D by Peptilav, 69 (57.5%), 47 (39.2%), and 4 (3.3%) were scored as HIV-D, HIV-1 only, and HIV-2 only, respectively, by CME. All 47 samples scored as HIV-1 by CME and two of four HIV-2 sera gave concordant results by RIBA, whereas 29 of 47 sera scored as HIV-1 by CME and all four HIV-2 sera gave concordant results by INNO-LIA. The

  7. Maternal education and marital fertility in four African countries.

    PubMed

    Chimere-dan, O

    1993-01-01

    World fertility data were used for Cote d'Ivoire, Cameroon, Ghana, and Nigeria. Estimates of marital fertility and its proportional reduction owing to the proximate determinants were computed using Fertility Exposure Analysis (FEA). Eight exposure states were identified in an interval of 3 years before the survey. Proximate determinants were estimated from an equation for subsequent regression analysis, which also included socioeconomic variables, e.g., place of residence, religion, work pattern, and husband's education. Except for the 25-29 age group in Cameroon and Cote d'Ivoire and the 15-19 age group in Cote d'Ivoire, age specific marital fertility was higher for women who had between 4 and 6 years of formal education than for those who had 7 or more years of schooling. Marital age specific fertility was higher for women who had 4-6 years of education than for uneducated women, except from the 2 oldest age groups in Cote d'Ivoire and the oldest age groups in Ghana. On the other hand, lower fertility also existed in poorly educated women in Cameroon, in the 15-19 age group in Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana, and also in 20-24 and 30-34 age groups in Nigeria. Women with no education had lower fertility than those with 1-3 years and 4-6 years of education. Breastfeeding made the greatest contribution to the reduction of marital fertility for the educational categories except for the most educated women in Cote d'Ivoire. Contraception had a weak effect on fertility in Nigeria and Cameroon but a strong effect in Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana. Postpartum abstinence had a small effect since the 1970s except in Nigeria where it depressed marital fertility by over 10%. In these 4 countries differences existed in the patterns of educational differentials in fertility-reducing impacts of the proximate determinants. The impact of maternal education on marital fertility is not uniformly predictable in all African countries.

  8. Polymorphisms of the Pfatpase 6 and Pfcrt gene and their relationship with the in vitro susceptibility to dihydroartemisinin and chloroquine of Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Abobo, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Bla, Brice K; Yavo, William; Trébissou, Jonhson; Kipré, Rolland G; Yapi, Félix H; N'guessan, Jean D; Djaman, Joseph A

    2014-01-01

    As a result of widespread resistance to chloroquine (CQ) and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has been recommended as a first-line anti-malarial regimen in Côte d'Ivoire since 2005. A thorough understanding of the molecular bases of P. falciparum resistance to existing drugs is therefore needed. The aims of this study were to analyze the in vitro sensitivity of P. falciparum field isolates from Abobo to CQ, pyronaridine (PYR) and dihydroartemisinine (DHA), and to investigate the polymorphisms associated with drug resistance. The standard in vitro drug sensitivity microtechnique recommended by the WHO was used to assess the sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum isolates collected in December 2006. The Pfcrt haplotype 76 was analysed by PCR-RFLP while Pfatpase 6 amplification products were sequenced. Associations between drug sensitivity and parasite gene polymorphisms were evaluated with Cohen's kappa test. The correlation between the IC50 values for different drugs was assessed by the coefficient of determination (r²). Significance was assumed at p<0.05. Of 128 in vitro tests performed, 112 (87.5%) were successful. Of the isolates, 56.2% were resistant for CQ and 48% for PYR. One isolate (3.6%) demonstrated reduced DHA sensitivity (IC50 higher than 10 nM). The mutant K76T pfcrt codon, present in 90% of DNA fragments analyzed, was associated with CQ-R (ĸ=0.76). The N669Y (16.1%), D734Y (28.6%) and D734H (1.8%) isolates were found to have mutant Pfatpase6, however, these mutations were not associated with diminished DHA sensitivity (k=0.01). These high levels of antimalarial drug resistance in Abobo (Côte d'Ivoire) demand further studies of drug efficacy across the whole country. PMID:25706423

  9. [Evaluation of the efficacity of coconut (Cocos nucifera), palm nut (Eleais guineensis) and gobi (Carapa procera) lotions and creams in indivirual protection against Simulium damnosum s.l. bites in Côte d'Ivoire].

    PubMed

    Sylla, M; Konan, L; Doannio, J M; Traoré, S

    2003-05-01

    With the interruption of larva treatments done by OCP as part of onchocerciasis control in West Africa, Simulium came back in abundance in forest regions and savannah fertile valleys. In addition to the severe discomfort, nuisance by Simulium is in certain cases incompatible with land use. Since ground treatment of larval breading sites using insecticides is not always possible or efficient, it is therefore a necessity to develop other methods among which individual protection against Simulium bites. The general objective of our study was to evaluate different vegetable oil compound repellent formulas against Simulium bites. Activities were carried out in savannah zone (Niakaramandougou) and in forest zone (Soubré) in Côte d'Ivoire. The methodology consisted in catching blackflies on volunteers whose legs were rubbed with a repellent. Gobi raw oil and coconut, palm nut and gobi formulas (lotions and creams) were tested. During each session, which lasted from 07:00 am to 12:00 and from 03:00 pm to 06:00 pm, one person did not apply any repellent and was used as the control person. The results of our experimentations show that for a given zone (savannah, forest), a repellent (coconut, palm nut, gobi) and a compound (shea butter, vaseline), there is no significant difference between protection rates obtained with lotions (maximum: 21 bites/person/day) and those obtained with creams (maximum: 30 bites/person/day). In other respects, the lotion of a given repellent seems to be efficient in savannah as in the forest, in protecting against Simulium bites. It is the same situation with creams. So, repellents can be an efficient solution against Simulium nuisance. However, experimentations should continue to confirm the high repellency of tested formulas, proceed to the identification of principles and evaluate the toxicity and irritant effect of repellents to be applied on the skin.

  10. Real-time PCR for detection of Strongyloides stercoralis in human stool samples from Côte d'Ivoire: diagnostic accuracy, inter-laboratory comparison and patterns of hookworm co-infection.

    PubMed

    Becker, Sören L; Piraisoody, Nivetha; Kramme, Stefanie; Marti, Hanspeter; Silué, Kigbafori D; Panning, Marcus; Nickel, Beatrice; Kern, Winfried V; Herrmann, Mathias; Hatz, Christoph F; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Utzinger, Jürg; von Müller, Lutz

    2015-10-01

    Human infections with the helminth species Strongyloides stercoralis encompass a wide clinical spectrum, ranging from asymptomatic carriage to life-threatening disease. The diagnosis of S. stercoralis is cumbersome and the sensitivity of conventional stool microscopy is low. New molecular tools have been developed to increase sensitivity. We compared the diagnostic accuracy of real-time PCR with microscopy for the detection of S. stercoralis and hookworm in human stool samples, and investigated the inter-laboratory agreement of S. stercoralis-specific real-time PCR in two European laboratories. Stool specimens from 256 randomly selected individuals in rural Côte d'Ivoire were examined using three microscopic techniques (i.e. Kato-Katz, Koga agar plate (KAP) and Baermann (BM)). Additionally, ethanol-fixed stool aliquots were subjected to molecular diagnosis. The prevalence of S. stercoralis and hookworm infection was 21.9% and 52.0%, respectively, whilst co-infections were detected in 35 (13.7%) participants. The diagnostic agreement between real-time PCR and microscopy was excellent when both KAP and BM tested positive for S. stercoralis, but was considerably lower when only one microscopic technique was positive. The sensitivity of KAP, BM and real-time PCR for detection of S. stercoralis as compared to a combination of all diagnostic techniques was 21.4%, 37.5% and 76.8%, respectively. The inter-laboratory agreement of S. stercoralis-specific PCR was substantial (κ=0.63, p<0.001). We conclude that a combination of real-time PCR and stool microscopy shows high accuracy for S. stercoralis diagnosis. Besides high sensitivity, PCR may also enhance specificity by reducing microscopic misdiagnosis of morphologically similar helminth larvae (i.e. hookworm and S. stercoralis) in settings where both helminth species co-exist.

  11. The use of insecticide-treated nets for reducing malaria morbidity among children aged 6-59 months, in an area of high malaria transmission in central Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are an important tool for controlling malaria. Much attention has been devoted to determine both the effect of LLINs on the reduction of Plasmodium infection rate and on clinically-confirmed malaria cases in sub-Saharan Africa. We carried out an epidemiological study to investigate whether LLINs impact on Plasmodium prevalence rate and the proportion of clinically-confirmed malaria cases, in five villages in the district of Toumodi, central Côte d'Ivoire. Methods From April 2007 to November 2008, a community-based malaria control programme was implemented in the study villages, which involved large-scale distribution of LLINs, and training and sensitization activities within the community. We determined the effect of this programme on Plasmodium prevalence rate, clinically-confirmed malaria cases and proportion of high parasitaemia rates in children aged 6-59 months through a series of cross-sectional surveys starting in April 2007 and repeated once every 6 months. Results We observed a significant decrease in the mean P. falciparum prevalence rate from April 2007 to April 2008 (p = 0.029). An opposite trend was observed from November 2007 to November 2008 when P. falciparum prevalence rate increased significantly (p = 0.003). Highly significant decreases in the proportions of clinical malaria cases were observed between April 2007 and April 2008 (p < 0.001), and between November 2007 and November 2008 (p = 0.001). Conclusions Large-scale distribution of LLINs, accompanied by training and sensitization activities, significantly reduced Plasmodium prevalence rates among young children in the first year of the project, whereas overall clinical malaria rates dropped over the entire 18-month project period. A decrease in community motivation to sleep under bed nets, perhaps along with changing patterns of malaria transmission, might explain the observed increase in the Plasmodium prevalence rate between November 2007

  12. Africa: Prosperous times

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    Political instability and corruption is the rule, rather than the exception, in Africa`s main producing regions, but exploration and production prospects there are bright and attractive to foreign operators. The paper discusses exploration, drilling, resource development, and production in Nigeria, Libya, Algeria, Egypt, Angola, Congo, Gabon, and Tunisia. The other countries of Africa are briefly mentioned, i.e., Cameroon, Cote D`Ivoire, South Africa, Sudan, Namibia, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Zaire, Mozambique, Ghana, Niger, and Seychelles.

  13. Update on resistance status of Anopheles gambiae s.s. to conventional insecticides at a previous WHOPES field site, "Yaokoffikro", 6 years after the political crisis in Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background At Yaokoffikro field site near Bouaké, in central Côte d'Ivoire, a group of experimental huts built in 1996 served over many years for the evaluation of insecticides against highly resistant mosquitoes. Breeding sites of mosquitoes and selection pressure in the area were maintained by local farming practices until a war broke out in September 2002. Six years after the crisis, we conducted bioassays and biochemical analysis to update the resistance status of Anopheles gambiae s.s. populations and detect other potential mechanisms of resistance that might have evolved. Methods An. gambiae s.s. larvae from Yaokoffikro were collected in breeding sites and reared to adults. Resistance status of this population to insecticides was assessed using WHO bioassay test kits for adult mosquitoes with seven insecticides: two pyrethroids, a pseudo-pyrethroid, an organochloride, two carbamates and an organophosphate. Molecular and biochemical assays were carried out to identify the L1014F kdr and ace-1R alleles in individual mosquitoes and to detect potential increase in mixed function oxidases (MFO), non-specific esterases (NSE) and glutathione S-transferases (GST) activity. Results High pyrethroids, DDT and carbamate resistance was confirmed in An. gambiae s.s. populations from Yaokoffikro. Mortality rates were less than 70% with pyrethroids and etofenprox, 12% with DDT, and less than 22% with the carbamates. Tolerance to fenitrothion was observed, with 95% mortality after 24 h. PCR analysis of samples from the site showed high allelic frequency of the L1014F kdr (0.94) and the ace-1R (0.50) as before the crisis. In addition, increased activity of NSE, GST and to a lesser extent MFO was found relative to the reference strain Kisumu. This was the first report detecting enhanced activity of these enzymes in An. gambiae s.s from Yaokoffikro, which could have serious implications in detoxification of insecticides. Their specific roles in resistance should be

  14. Drought in West Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Drought settled over West Africa's Ivory Coast region when wet season rains came late in 2007. Instead of beginning in February, the rainy season didn't start until March, and steady rains didn't start until late March, said the Famine Early Warning System Network. Though the rain had started to alleviate the drought, vegetation was still depressed in parts of Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) between March 22 and April 6, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured the data used to make this image. The image shows current vegetation conditions compared to average conditions recorded since 2000. Areas where plants are growing more slowly or more sparsely than average are brown, while areas where vegetation is denser than average are green. The brown tint that dominates the image indicates that plants through most of the country are more sparse than normal. Among the crops affected by the lack of rain was West Africa's cocoa crop. About 70 percent of the world's cocoa comes from West Africa, and Cote d'Ivoire is a top grower, said Reuters. Cocoa prices climbed as the crop fell short. Farmers called the drought the worst in living memory, Reuters said. The delay in rainfall also led to water shortages in parts of Cote d'Ivoire, according to the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.

  15. A Rare Case of Ovarian Filariasis in Abidjan.

    PubMed

    Brahima, Doukouré; Alain Didier, Abouna; Gonat Serge Pacôme, Dou; Nguiessan Alphonse, Aman; Abdoul, Koffi; Jean-Marie, Diomandé Mohenou Isidore

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian filariasis is an exceptional disease and displays a major diagnostic problem even in endemic areas. We reported the case of a 19-year-old patient who had ovarian cyst which was revealed by chronic pelvic pain. The histological examination of oophorectomy specimen led to the Wuchereria bancrofti filariasis of the ovary. The anatomopathologic examination is required for the diagnosis of this disease. PMID:27313932

  16. A Rare Case of Ovarian Filariasis in Abidjan

    PubMed Central

    Brahima, Doukouré; Alain Didier, Abouna; Gonat Serge Pacôme, Dou; Nguiessan Alphonse, Aman; Abdoul, Koffi; Jean-Marie, Diomandé Mohenou Isidore

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian filariasis is an exceptional disease and displays a major diagnostic problem even in endemic areas. We reported the case of a 19-year-old patient who had ovarian cyst which was revealed by chronic pelvic pain. The histological examination of oophorectomy specimen led to the Wuchereria bancrofti filariasis of the ovary. The anatomopathologic examination is required for the diagnosis of this disease. PMID:27313932

  17. Factors associated with early introduction of formula and/or solid, semi-solid or soft foods in seven Francophone West African countries.

    PubMed

    Issaka, Abukari I; Agho, Kingsley E; Page, Andrew N; Burns, Penelope L; Stevens, Garry J; Dibley, Michael J

    2015-01-30

    The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with early introduction of formula and/or solid, semi-solid or soft foods to infants aged three to five months in seven Francophone West African countries. The sources of data for the analyses were the most recent Demographic and Health Survey datasets of the seven countries, namely Benin (BDHS, 2012), Burkina Faso (BFDHS, 2010), Cote d'Ivoire (CIDHS, 2011-2012), Guinea (GDHS, 2012), Mali (MDHS, 2012-2013), Niger (NDHS, 2012) and Senegal (SDHS, 2010). The study used multiple logistic regression methods to analyse the factors associated with early introduction of complementary feeding using individual-, household- and community-level determinants. The sample was composed of 4158 infants aged between three and five months with: 671 from Benin, 811 from Burkina Faso, 362 from Cote d'Ivoire, 398 from Guinea, 519 from Mali, 767 from Niger and 630 from Senegal. Multiple analyses indicated that in three of the seven countries (Benin, Guinea and Senegal), infants who suffered illnesses, such as diarrhoea and acute respiratory infection, were significantly more likely to be introduced to formula and/or solid, semi-solid or soft foods between the age of three and five months. Other significant factors included infants who: were born in second to fourth position (Benin), whose mothers did not attend any antenatal clinics (Burkina Faso and Niger), were male (Cote d'Ivoire and Senegal), lived in an urban areas (Senegal), or were delivered by traditional birth attendants (Guinea, Niger and Senegal). Programmes to discourage early introduction of formula and/or solid, semi-solid or soft foods in these countries should target the most vulnerable segments of the population in order to improve exclusive breastfeeding practices and reduce infant mortality.

  18. Simulation of the transfer of hydrocarbons in unconfined aquifer in tropical zone: the case of benzene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnès Kouamé, Amenan; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Derron, Marc-Henri; Kouamé, Kan Jean

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater is the largest global reserves of continental freshwater (Bosca, 2002) and also an important source of drinking water in many parts of the world (Brassington. 2007). However, this resource is today threatened by pollution such as inadequate supply of drinking water services, inaccessibility and / or dilapidated sanitation facilities and excessive use fertilizers, and industrial wastewater and solid waste pesticides (Boubacar, 2010) and the rapid urbanization in great cities (Foster, 2001). Abidjan, the largest city in Côte d'Ivoire is also facing pollution problems such as illegal dumping of waste, waste oil spilled garages, land application of domestic and industrial wastewater, automotive workshops, overexploitation of sand in the Ebrié lagoon, open waste dump of Akouédo and the spill of about 400,000 liters of toxic waste from the ship "Probo Koala" in August 2006. The Abidjan aquifer or the Continental terminal aquifer is the main source of supply drinking water. It is mainly composed of sandy and it is an unconfined aquifer as a whole (Jourda, 1987). According to Gilli and al., (2012), the recharge of unconfined aquifers comes mostly from the infiltration of surface water including rainwater. These waters on their transport in the basement could carry certain pollutants into groundwater. Kouamé (2007) reports a potential groundwater pollution of the "Continental terminal" aquifer in Abidjan. In addition to the cases cited pollution, there has been a proliferation of service stations in the district of Abidjan and this can cause possible pollution. We deemed it necessary to conduct a study on the groundwater pollution of Abidjan by oil in general. We chose benzene to simulate organic pollution in case of accident. To observe the likely evolution of such contaminants in the subsurface, we developed hydrogeological models that couple groundwater flow and benzene transport with FEFLOW software in steady and transient states. The models are composed

  19. Turmoil doesn`t dampen enthusiasm

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The paper discusses the outlook for the African gas and oil industries. Though Africa remains politically and economically volatile, its vast energy potential is becoming increasingly attractive to foreign oil and gas companies. Separate evaluations are given for Algeria, Egypt, Nigeria, Angola, Libya, Congo, Gabon, Tunisia, Cameroon, Cote D`Ivoire, and briefly for South Africa, Sudan, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Zaire, Benin, Mozambique, Chad, Namibia, Tanzania, Eritrea, Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, Morocco, Sao Tome and Principe, Ethiopia, Niger, Madagascar, Rwanda, Mauritania, Seychelles, Uganda, and Liberia.

  20. Determinants of suboptimal complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months in seven francophone West African countries.

    PubMed

    Issaka, Abukari I; Agho, Kingsley E; Page, Andrew N; Burns, Penelope L; Stevens, Garry J; Dibley, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Suboptimal complementary feeding practices play a crucial role in the health and development of children. The objective of this research paper was to identify factors associated with suboptimal complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months in seven francophone West African countries, namely, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea, Mali, Niger and Senegal. This study covered 22 376 children aged 6-23 months from the seven countries surveyed (Benin: 3732 children; Burkina Faso: 4205 children; Cote d'Ivoire: 2109 children, Guinea: 1944 children, Mali: 3798 children, Niger: 3451 children and Senegal: 3137 children). The most recent Demographic and Health Survey datasets of the various countries were used as data sources. A set of individual-, household- and community-level factors were used to examine the four complementary feeding indicators. Multivariate analysis revealed that the youngest age bracket (6-11 months) of children, administrative/geographical region, mother's limited or non-access to the mass media, mothers' lack of contact with a health facility, rural residence, poor households and non-working mothers were the main factors associated with suboptimal complementary feeding in the countries surveyed. Our findings highlight the need to consider broader social, cultural and economic factors when designing child nutritional interventions. PMID:26364790

  1. West and Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Lydie, N; Robinson, N J

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews scientific and other literature during the 1990s that links migration and mobility with the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV/AIDS. The focus is on key population groups linked to the spread of HIV and STDs in West and Central Africa: migrant laborers, truck drivers, itinerant traders, commercial sex workers (CSWs), and refugees. Countries with high emigration and immigration tend to have high levels of HIV infection, with the exception of Senegal. The main destination of immigrants are Senegal, Nigeria, and Cote d'Ivoire in West Africa and Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, and Congo in Central Africa. The risk of infection and the spread of HIV is variable among migrants. There is little in the literature that substantiates hypotheses about the strong association between migration and HIV-positive status. Information is needed on the duration, frequency of return visits, living conditions, sexual activities with multiple partners, and information before departure, along the routes, at final destination, and at the time of returns. Action-based research in five West African countries (Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali, Niger, and Senegal) should produce results in late 1998. Comparable studies in Central Africa are unknown. Regional studies should be complemented by local studies. Prevention would benefit from studies on the relative size of these five population groups by geographic location.

  2. Determinants of suboptimal complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months in seven francophone West African countries.

    PubMed

    Issaka, Abukari I; Agho, Kingsley E; Page, Andrew N; Burns, Penelope L; Stevens, Garry J; Dibley, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Suboptimal complementary feeding practices play a crucial role in the health and development of children. The objective of this research paper was to identify factors associated with suboptimal complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months in seven francophone West African countries, namely, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea, Mali, Niger and Senegal. This study covered 22 376 children aged 6-23 months from the seven countries surveyed (Benin: 3732 children; Burkina Faso: 4205 children; Cote d'Ivoire: 2109 children, Guinea: 1944 children, Mali: 3798 children, Niger: 3451 children and Senegal: 3137 children). The most recent Demographic and Health Survey datasets of the various countries were used as data sources. A set of individual-, household- and community-level factors were used to examine the four complementary feeding indicators. Multivariate analysis revealed that the youngest age bracket (6-11 months) of children, administrative/geographical region, mother's limited or non-access to the mass media, mothers' lack of contact with a health facility, rural residence, poor households and non-working mothers were the main factors associated with suboptimal complementary feeding in the countries surveyed. Our findings highlight the need to consider broader social, cultural and economic factors when designing child nutritional interventions.

  3. Hazy and Dusty Skies over Western Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    A pall of smoke and dust largely obscured the nations of Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Burkina Faso and southern Mali on January 12, 2004. The poor air quality in the region was a combined result of the hundreds of agricultural fires that were burning throughout western Africa during December and early January, and was likely to have been influenced by a Saharan dust storm that occurred several days earlier. These image data products from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) illustrate the abundance of atmospheric particulate matter across the region.

    The left-hand panels are natural-color views from MISR's downward-pointing (nadir) and most obliquely forward-pointing cameras. At the nadir view, the shoreline of the Cote d'Ivoire and many other surface features are apparent, and the haze across the region is noticeable. The distinctive area of dark green vegetation (apparent below and left of image center) is situated in the Cote d'Ivoire, near the border with Ghana, to the east of the Komoe River and southwest of the Comoe National Park. At the oblique view the aerosol appears so thick that the coastline is completely obscured, but this region of dark vegetation and hilly terrain can still be discerned.

    The right-hand panel is generated through automated processing of data from multiple MISR cameras, and utilizes the change in scene brightness and contrast at different view angles to retrieve aerosol amounts, expressed as optical depth. The aerosol map indicates an optically thick atmosphere by the orange or yellow pixels, and clearer skies are indicated by blue pixels. Places where clouds or other factors precluded an aerosol retrieval are shown in dark gray. Aerosol properties are retrieved at a coarse spatial resolution of 17.6 kilometers.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. These data products were

  4. Tuberculose ostéoarticulaire (mal de Pott exclu): à propos de 120 cas à Abidjan

    PubMed Central

    Gbané-Koné, Mariam; Koné, Samba; Ouali, Boubacar; Djaha, Kouassi Jean -Mermoz; Akoli, Ekoya Ondzala; Nseng, Ingrid Nseng; Eti, Edmond; Daboiko, Jean Claude; Touré, Stanislas André; Kouakou, N'zué Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction La tuberculose ostéoarticulaire (TOA) représente 2 à 5% de l'ensemble des tuberculoses. Elle demeure d'actualité surtout dans les pays à forte endémicité tuberculeuse. L'objectif était de déterminer la prévalence, les aspects topographiques, radiologiques de la TOA en milieu hospitalier ivoirien. Méthodes Les auteurs rapportent une expérience de 11 ans, à travers une étude rétrospective de 120 dossiers de patients atteints de la tuberculose ostéoarticulaire (le mal de Pott est exclu de cette étude). N'ont pas été inclus dans l’étude les dossiers ne comportant pas d'imagerie. Résultats L'atteinte extra vertébrale représentait 09,2% de la tuberculose ostéoarticulaire. Il s'agissait de 54 hommes et 66 femmes, l’âge moyen était de 43,13 ans. On notait 123 cas d'ostéoarthrites, et 8 cas d'ostéites des os plats. L'atteinte des membres inférieurs prédominait dans 91,87% des cas. La hanche était la première localisation (45,04%), suivie du genou (25,19%). Les atteintes étaient multifocales dans 20% des cas. L'atteinte osseuse était associée à une tuberculose pulmonaire dans 05,83% des cas. Des localisations inhabituelles ont été rapportées: poignet (n = 2), branches ischiopubiennes (n = 4), atteinte sternoclaviculaire (n = 4), médiopieds (n = 2). Les lésions radiologiques étaient avancées (stades III et IV) dans 55,73% des cas. A la TDM, la prévalence des abcès était de 77%. Un geste chirurgical a été réalisé sur 16 articulations (2 épaules, 13 genoux, une cheville). Conclusion La TOA des membres est peu fréquente contrairement à l'atteinte vertébrale. La hanche est la principale localisation. Le retard au diagnostic explique l’étendue des lésions anatomoradiologiques. PMID:26587129

  5. 12th International Congress (Abidjan, Ivory Coast, July 25-29, 1969)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, Mabel

    1970-01-01

    The past president of the American Association of Health, Physical Education, and Recreation reports on the annual meetings of (1) the International Council on Health, Physical Education, and Recreation and (2) the World Confederation of Organizations of the Teaching Profession. (SW)

  6. [Five years of cholera surveillance in Ivory Coast during social and political crisis, 2001 to 2005].

    PubMed

    Ekra, K D; Attoh-Touré, H; Bénié, B V J; Coulibaly, D; Koutouan, M G; Aka, L N; Dagnan, S N; Coulibaly, A; Douba, A; Tiembré, I; Odéhouri-Koudou, P; Tagliante-Saracino, J

    2009-05-01

    For an efficient struggle against infectious diseases with epidemic potential, the Cdte d'Ivoire set up a precocious alert system in 2001 with a main objective: to detect epidemics of cholera, measles, yellow fever and meningitis and to provide necessary information for their control and their prevention. During the 2001 to 2005 period, the country was marked by military and political crisis which occurred in 2002; the country had to face up to a reappearance of cholera. How did it evolve in such a context? The question was to describe the performances of the system and the evolution of cholera from weekly data collected by the centers of epidemiological monitoring in health districts. The cases and declared deaths were compiled and the indicators of morbidity and mortality were then studied according to time site and individual features on the period of 2001 to 2005. From 2001 to 2005, 11,874 cases were notified with 564 deaths and a lethal rate of 4.7%. In 2001, from the initial source of infection, the civil jail, the epidemic of cholera disseminated itself through visitors in the whole city of Abidjan where 3250 cases were notified. Out of city, 20 outbreaks have been declared with a total of 3010 cases. The yearly highest impact, 37 living cases/100,000 inhabitants recorded in 2001, decreased regularly until 2005 with 0.2 living cases/100,000. After 2002, outbreaks were located mainly in the half south of the country which welcomed displaced populations from the north, preferably in transition or settling zones near the front line. The lethal rate in Abidjan (2.3%) was less important than that of other health districts (8.6%). The lethal rate globally increased as the impact decreased. Vibrio cholerae was responsible for the epidemics. The group of 15 years old and over was the most affected (12.69 living cases/100,000) whereas the highest lethal rate appeared in the group under 5 years old (6.6%). The reappearance and constant cholera epidemics in Côte d'Ivoire

  7. Ledantevirus: A Proposed New Genus in the Rhabdoviridae Has A Strong Ecological Association with Bats

    PubMed Central

    Blasdell, Kim R.; Guzman, Hilda; Widen, Steven G.; Firth, Cadhla; Wood, Thomas G.; Holmes, Edward C.; Tesh, Robert B.; Vasilakis, Nikos; Walker, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    The Le Dantec serogroup of rhabdoviruses comprises Le Dantec virus from a human with encephalitis and Keuriliba virus from rodents, each isolated in Senegal. The Kern Canyon serogroup comprises a loosely connected set of rhabdoviruses many of which have been isolated from bats, including Kern Canyon virus from California, Nkolbisson virus from Cameroon, Central African Republic, and Cote d'Ivoire, Kolente virus from Guinea, Mount Elgon bat and Fikirini viruses from Kenya, and Oita virus from Japan. Fukuoka virus isolated from mosquitoes, midges, and cattle in Japan, Barur virus from a rodent in India and Nishimuro virus from pigs in Japan have also been linked genetically or serologically to this group. Here, we analyze the genome sequences and phylogenetic relationships of this set of viruses. We show that they form three subgroups within a monophyletic group, which we propose should constitute the new genus Ledantevirus. PMID:25487727

  8. Approaching the Limit of Predictability in Human Mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xin; Wetter, Erik; Bharti, Nita; Tatem, Andrew J.; Bengtsson, Linus

    2013-10-01

    In this study we analyze the travel patterns of 500,000 individuals in Cote d'Ivoire using mobile phone call data records. By measuring the uncertainties of movements using entropy, considering both the frequencies and temporal correlations of individual trajectories, we find that the theoretical maximum predictability is as high as 88%. To verify whether such a theoretical limit can be approached, we implement a series of Markov chain (MC) based models to predict the actual locations visited by each user. Results show that MC models can produce a prediction accuracy of 87% for stationary trajectories and 95% for non-stationary trajectories. Our findings indicate that human mobility is highly dependent on historical behaviors, and that the maximum predictability is not only a fundamental theoretical limit for potential predictive power, but also an approachable target for actual prediction accuracy.

  9. Decree No. 88-103 setting the functions of the Minister of Waters and Forests, 27 January 1988.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    This Decree sets forth the functions of the Minister of Waters and Forest of the Ivory Coast. Among other things, the Minister is to take the initiative in developing activities relating to the conservation, renewal, and management of the State's forests; defining a national reforestation plan; controlling the exploitation of forest products; and protecting the soil, water, and vegetation by using rational methods to preserve the climate, to fight erosion and fires, to restore natural vegetal cover, and to ensure that natural resources last. Decree No. 88-104 of 27 January 1988 sets forth the organization of the Ministry of Waters and Forests. Among the divisions of the Ministry are the Directorate for Conservation of the State Forests and for Reforestation and the National Committee to Defend and Fight against Fires (Journal Officiel de la Republique de Cote d'Ivoire, No. 7, 18 February 1988, pp. 62-64).

  10. Ledantevirus: a proposed new genus in the Rhabdoviridae has a strong ecological association with bats.

    PubMed

    Blasdell, Kim R; Guzman, Hilda; Widen, Steven G; Firth, Cadhla; Wood, Thomas G; Holmes, Edward C; Tesh, Robert B; Vasilakis, Nikos; Walker, Peter J

    2015-02-01

    The Le Dantec serogroup of rhabdoviruses comprises Le Dantec virus from a human with encephalitis and Keuriliba virus from rodents, each isolated in Senegal. The Kern Canyon serogroup comprises a loosely connected set of rhabdoviruses many of which have been isolated from bats, including Kern Canyon virus from California, Nkolbisson virus from Cameroon, Central African Republic, and Cote d'Ivoire, Kolente virus from Guinea, Mount Elgon bat and Fikirini viruses from Kenya, and Oita virus from Japan. Fukuoka virus isolated from mosquitoes, midges, and cattle in Japan, Barur virus from a rodent in India and Nishimuro virus from pigs in Japan have also been linked genetically or serologically to this group. Here, we analyze the genome sequences and phylogenetic relationships of this set of viruses. We show that they form three subgroups within a monophyletic group, which we propose should constitute the new genus Ledantevirus.

  11. Opportunities in African power generation: A business briefing for industry and investment executives. Held in Baltimore, Maryland, June 21-22, 1995. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-21

    The report, prepared by the Institute of International Education, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The information contained in the report was compiled in part for a power generation conference held in Baltimore, Maryland. The focus of the report is the market created by electric power projects financed by multilateral development banks. The study contains country information and project profiles related to the energy sector for eleven countries: Benin, Botswana, Cote D`Ivoire, Ethiopia, Ghana, Malawi, Morocoo, Senegal, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The report also outlines the range of service opportunities in the region such as consulting, engineering, construction and project management, and equipment procurement. It is divided into the following sections: (1) Agenda/Program; (2) African Energy Sector Overview; (3) Project Profiles; (4) Country Information; and (5) Attendees.

  12. Drug companies, UNAIDS make drugs available.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    The United Nations AIDS (UNAIDS) initiative is working with several drug companies and four countries on a pilot program to build a health infrastructure that provides affordable drugs to insure that combination therapies are used appropriately. The countries involved in the program are Uganda, Chile, Vietnam and Cote d'Ivoire, and the drug companies are Glaxo Wellcome, Hoffmann-La Roche, and Virco NV. Each country agreed to form national HIV/AIDS drug advisory boards, and non-profit companies will act as clearinghouses. Financing will come from the pharmaceutical companies, local health ministries, and a $1 million grant from UNAIDS. The program will be evaluated in terms of improvements to overall health care delivery, number of people treated, the impact on emergency care, and the rate of illness and death.

  13. Guinea worm (Dracunculiasis) eradication: update on progress and endgame challenges.

    PubMed

    Al-Awadi, Abdul R; Al-Kuhlani, Abdulhakim; Breman, Joel G; Doumbo, Ogobara; Eberhard, Mark L; Guiguemde, Robert T; Magnussen, Pascal; Molyneux, David H; Nadim, Abolhassan

    2014-05-01

    The International Commission for the Certification of Dracunculiasis Eradication (ICCDE) met in December to review progress towards eradication. The status of the programme was presented by WHO and The Carter Center, Atlanta. The Commission received reports from international certification teams that Cote d'Ivoire, Niger and Nigeria were free of transmission and should be certified, while four countries, namely Chad, Ethiopia, Mali and South Sudan, remained endemic. The Commission certified that Somalia and South Africa were free of transmission. During 2013, there was a decline of about 78% in the numbers of cases reported in South Sudan. A report of the perplexing dracunculiasis epidemiology in Chad was also discussed, where dogs have been found to be infected with Dracunculus medinensis.

  14. Approaching the limit of predictability in human mobility.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xin; Wetter, Erik; Bharti, Nita; Tatem, Andrew J; Bengtsson, Linus

    2013-01-01

    In this study we analyze the travel patterns of 500,000 individuals in Cote d'Ivoire using mobile phone call data records. By measuring the uncertainties of movements using entropy, considering both the frequencies and temporal correlations of individual trajectories, we find that the theoretical maximum predictability is as high as 88%. To verify whether such a theoretical limit can be approached, we implement a series of Markov chain (MC) based models to predict the actual locations visited by each user. Results show that MC models can produce a prediction accuracy of 87% for stationary trajectories and 95% for non-stationary trajectories. Our findings indicate that human mobility is highly dependent on historical behaviors, and that the maximum predictability is not only a fundamental theoretical limit for potential predictive power, but also an approachable target for actual prediction accuracy. PMID:24113276

  15. [Buruli ulcer--Africa's latest mycobacterial scourge].

    PubMed

    Roupe, Gösta

    2003-11-01

    Buruliulcer is an extensive ulceration usually on the extremities. The ulcer can spread to subcutaneous fat, muscle and even bone causing osteomyelitis and death. It is the the third most common mycobacterial disease in humans after tuberculosis and leprosy. The bacterium grows in still standing water and infects children through small ulcerations in their skin. Mycobacterium ulcerans may also be transmitted by the bite of aquatic bugs (Naucordiae), which harbor the bacterium in their salivary glands. The disease affects poor people in rural, tropical areas where deforestation has led to flooding rivers, stagnant bodies of water and marsh. Benin, Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana in West Africa are seriously hit. Skin transplantation is the treatment of choice. Treatment with antibiotics has been disappointing. PMID:14650033

  16. Approaching the Limit of Predictability in Human Mobility

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xin; Wetter, Erik; Bharti, Nita; Tatem, Andrew J.; Bengtsson, Linus

    2013-01-01

    In this study we analyze the travel patterns of 500,000 individuals in Cote d'Ivoire using mobile phone call data records. By measuring the uncertainties of movements using entropy, considering both the frequencies and temporal correlations of individual trajectories, we find that the theoretical maximum predictability is as high as 88%. To verify whether such a theoretical limit can be approached, we implement a series of Markov chain (MC) based models to predict the actual locations visited by each user. Results show that MC models can produce a prediction accuracy of 87% for stationary trajectories and 95% for non-stationary trajectories. Our findings indicate that human mobility is highly dependent on historical behaviors, and that the maximum predictability is not only a fundamental theoretical limit for potential predictive power, but also an approachable target for actual prediction accuracy. PMID:24113276

  17. Short course of AZT halves HIV-1 perinatal transmission.

    PubMed

    Morris, K

    1998-02-28

    The ACTG 076 trial assessed the ability of zidovudine (AZT) to prevent the transmission of HIV from mother to child. In that trial, women received 100 mg of AZT 5 times daily beginning from 14-34 gestational weeks, then intravenous AZT during labor. This approach, followed by the administration of AZT to infants for 6 weeks, led to an 8% mother-to-child HIV transmission rate compared to 23% with placebo. Drug therapy proven in the ACTG 076 trial has now become the basis for current practice in developed countries. Placebo-controlled clinical trials were later launched in selected developing countries to assess the effect upon vertical transmission of providing only a short course of AZT therapy to HIV-infected mothers. In Thailand, 397 HIV-infected pregnant women were randomized to take orally either placebo or 300 mg of AZT twice daily from 36 weeks of gestation, then 300 mg every 3 hours during labor. Infants did not receive AZT and the women did not breast-feed. Kaplan-Meier analysis found a perinatal HIV-1 transmission rate of 18.6% in the placebo group and 9.2% in the treatment group. Based upon these preliminary data, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), who collaborated with the Thai Ministry of Public Health in the study, announced on February 18 that all women in the CDC's Cote d'Ivoire collaboration will now receive active AZT treatment. Use of a placebo group in the Cote d'Ivoire study helped to identify the effect of the country's limited obstetric services upon neonatal mortality. UNAIDS is hosting an international meeting in March to find ways of rapidly and effectively implementing these and other data. In future perinatal trials, placebo arms should either be dropped or replaced with the CDC short-course regimen. PMID:9500334

  18. Use of Lakes Waters in the Town of Yamousoukro for Industrial Boiler Rooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agboue, Akichi; Essi, Kra; Yobou, Bokra

    The industrialization of Cote D' Ivoire requires science an anticipation of the various projects of development. The town of Yamoussoukro, political capital of Cote D' Ivoire, is in the center of the country at 270 km in the North-East from Abidjan. It is situated at 6°7 ' of Northern latitude and 5°2 ' of Western longitude. Yamoussoukro is equipped with artificial lakes, which were created in 1970. This study dealt with ten of them numbered from 1 to 10. They are fed by two rivers and these rivers communicate between them. The analysis of 10 of the lakes of the city of Yamoussoukro reveals that the lakes have a relatively weak mineralization but that they stay polluted. It is the case of the hydrogen potential, turbidity and matters in suspension. The strong contents of these parameters make it difficult for these waters to be used in the industry. So, the analysis of the physicochemical parameters of the various lakes of the town of Yamoussoukro showed for a possible use in the boiler rooms The use of the waters of the 10 lakes of Yamoussoukro city in the industrial boiler room requires a double treatment: First is an environmental treatment and then a chemical treatment. The environmental treatment is a set of measures of regulation of the middle to reduce the organic pollution of waters. The chemical treatment consists, in a partial or total elimination of some raw water constituent by fixing, either by filtration, either by coagulation decanting. These methods, can contribute to the treatment of these lakes with success. Then, these waters could be used in the industry, notably in boiler room in order to obtain vapor which will use for infrastructures of the town.

  19. [Intra-keloid excision and deferred corticoid infiltration in the treatment of keloids. University Hospital Center of Treichville-Abidjan].

    PubMed

    Richard-Kadio, M; Dick, R; Malan, E; Kossoko, H; Keli, E; Yapo, P; Kangah, J M; N'Guessan, A H; Cornet, L

    1990-01-01

    On a series of 38 keloid surgery patients the authors noted a strong female predominance and the frequency of ear lobule keloid. After some rather unsuccessful excision-suture of the keloid they recommend the intra- keloid excision to be followed by a late corticoid infiltration but deferred until the 15th day. The results obtained were encouraging but some researches have to be made with regard to the etiology of this affection which might probably resolve the therapeutic problem.

  20. Chemical variability of Xylopia quintasii Engl. & Diels leaf oil from Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Yapi, Thierry Acafou; Boti, Jean Brice; Tonzibo, Zanahi Félix; Ahibo, Coffy Antoine; Bighelli, Ange; Casanova, Joseph; Tomi, Félix

    2014-02-01

    The chemical composition of 42 essential-oil samples isolated from the leaves of Xylopia quintasii harvested in three Ivoirian forests was investigated by GC-FID, including the determination of retention indices (RIs), and by (13) C-NMR analyses. In total, 36 components accounting for 91.9-92.6% of the oil composition were identified. The content of the main components varied drastically from sample to sample: (E)-β-caryophyllene (0.9-56.9%), (Z)-β-ocimene (0.3-54.6%), β-pinene (0.8-27.9%), α-pinene (0.1-22.8%), and furanoguaia-1,4-diene (0.0-17.6%). The 42 oil compositions were submitted to hierarchical cluster and principal components analysis, which allowed the distinction of three groups within the oil samples. The composition of the oils of the major group (22 samples) was dominated by (E)-β-caryophyllene. The oils of the second group (12 samples) contained β-pinene and α-pinene as the principal compounds, while the oils of the third group (8 samples) were dominated by (Z)-β-ocimene, germacrene D, (E)-β-ocimene, and furanoguaia-1,4-diene. The oil samples of Group I and II came from clay-soil forests, while the oil samples belonging to Group III were isolated from leaves harvested in a sandy-soil forest.

  1. [Evaluation of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment in Ivory Coast from 2008 to 2010].

    PubMed

    Ahui, B J-M; Horo, K; Bakayoko, A S; Kouassi, A B; Anon, J C; Brou-Gode, V C; Koffi, M O; Itchy, M V; N'Gom, A S; N'Goran, N B; Aka-Danguy, E

    2013-12-01

    This is a retrospective study conducted from January 2008 to December 2010 on sectional descriptive analysis of records of patients treated for MDR-TB and whose follow-up was in the thoracic department of Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) of Cocody in Abidjan Côte d'Ivoire. We selected eight patients who met the inclusion criteria of 21 MDR-TB patients registered during the study period. The average age was 29.25years ranging from 21 to 39. Males accounted for 75% of the patients (6 males and 2 females). The students represented the professional social layer most affected with 37.5% of the patients. All patients had a history of tuberculosis and only one patient was HIV positive under anti-retroviral (zidovudin, lamivudin and efavirenz). All cultures found Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The resistance profile in addition to isoniazid and rifampicin, found two cases of resistance to ethambutol and streptomycin. The chest radiograph at the time of initiation of second-line treatment showed essentially excavations in 75% of cases and infiltrates in 25%. The lesions were bilateral in 7 of 8 patients (87.5%). The main side effects observed during treatment were limited to cochleovestibular disorders (2 patients) and neuropsychiatric disorders (2 patients) and digestive disorders in half of the patients with removal of the offending molecule kanamycin. After 24months of treatment, it was numbered five cures (62.5%), two failures and one death.

  2. Liberia.

    PubMed

    1987-09-01

    Liberia, appropriately named since it became the first independent African republic in 1847, lies on the Atlantic coast between Sierra Leone and Cote d'Ivoire. The population of about 2 million people, of 16 ethnic groups including descendants of freed African slaves, and over 20 languages, is growing about 3% yearly. The infant mortality rate is estimated at 132/1000 and the life expectancy 49 years. Education to 6 years of primary school is compulsory but generally not available. Liberia's climate is tropical with a winter wet season throughout the country of coastal plains, although there are some low foothills and mountains near the northeast border. The economy is based on export of iron ore and rubber, with a lesser contribution of timber, diamonds, gold. The current government has been in power since 1985, voted in by contested elections after a 6-year period of martial law. Liberia has had a history since its founding of good relations with the U.S., and support of United Nations and African regional organizations. PMID:12177967

  3. WHO still reeling from racism charges.

    PubMed

    1995-06-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) is not as prestigious as it used to be. It operates on a relatively small annual budget of $1.8 billion, the WHO 1995 audit suggested irregularities in the way contracts were awarded and criticized a lack of control over funds at the WHO's African headquarters in the Congo, and its director, Hiroshi Nakajima, has been accused of being a racist against Africans. Nakajima complained during a January 1995 WHO board meeting that some African members had poor English skills. Delegates from several African nations to the annual World Health Assembly, which began in Geneva on May 1, subsequently raised the issue and called for the Japanese director to resign. The release of the recent WHO health report, "Bridging the Gaps," was an attempt by the organization to regain some its international respect, but little new was reported. Basic messages were that poverty is the most important cause of ill health, 60% of all new HIV infections occur among people aged 15-24 in many countries, 50% of people with HIV globally are younger than 25 years old, 60% of infections in women occur by age 20, and life expectancy is increasing in all countries except Cote d'Ivoire, Central African Republic, Congo, Uganda, and Zambia, all countries hard-hit by HIV/AIDS. For now, Nakajima has retained his position, although British and US donors stress that they will keep closer watch over the organization and that reforms must be made.

  4. The private sector and condom distribution: we can do more. Opinion.

    PubMed

    Frank, R A

    1995-02-01

    The correct and consistent use of latex condoms is known to reduce HIV transmission. The social marketing of condoms through the private sector for AIDS prevention has been very successful in Africa, Latin America, and the Caribbean. Examples are given from Zaire and Cote d'Ivoire. One significant advantage of social marketing projects is that they can be sustained even in the context of severe and prolonged political instability. Population Services International together with DOBACO, a Haitian pharmaceutical distributor, launched Pante brand condoms in Haiti in November 1990 as part of a new condom social marketing AIDS prevention effort. Condom sales increased from 30,000 per month in 1992 to a high of 600,000 in January 1994. More than 8 million condoms have been sold. This highly successful program is now undertaking a new Women's Protection Initiative to promote condom use among women. Lessons learned from such contraceptive social marketing experiences are now being applied in the US. PMID:12347573

  5. DHS Phase III activities underway.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    Activities and improvements in the third round of the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) are described for the first year of the five year DHS-III project during 1992-97. Underway are data quality assessments, identification of data needs, development of a new core questionnaire and modules, and fieldwork survey implementation. Data quality studies are conducted on respondent age, age at first marriage, birth history, knowledge and use of contraception, and health of children aged under 5 years. An analysis of reinterview subsamples for Pakistan and Nigeria will test reliability of data. Emerging data needs for the decade are identified through consultations with data users in the population and health fields. A variety of organizational representatives and recognized experts provide valuable inputs on questionnaire content and module topics. This article also reveals that a shorter questionnaire length will be considered. There will be new questionnaire topics on reliance on breast feeding for contraception, induced abortion and complications, and quality of care. Reductions are made in little used data and retrospective data longer than 3-5 years preceding the survey date. Revisions are made in the Interviewer's and Supervisor's Manuals, the Service Availability Questionnaire, the Male/Husbands Questionnaire, and fifteen modules. Fieldwork is either in progress of completion in Ghana, Kenya, the Philippines, and Turkey. Bangladesh and Bolivia are scheduled for 1993. In 1994 surveys will be administered in Burundi, Central African Republic, Cote d'Ivoire, Guatemala, Haiti, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Mali, Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zimbabwe. PMID:12287320

  6. Feasibility of local condom production examined.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    Despite Africa being the world region worst affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic, there is only 1 condom manufacturer on the continent, in Johannesburg. Hundreds of millions of condoms are donated and imported annually. For example, 500 million units were donated in 1996, of which 212 million came from the US Agency for International Development. A recently released study commissioned by the European Union's HIV/AIDS Program for Developing Countries determined that it would be technically viable to manufacture condoms in not only South Africa, but also in Mauritius, Cote d'Ivoire, and Kenya. All that is required is a factory, work force, water, and electricity, with the raw materials to be imported from Malaysia or Thailand regardless of where the factory is located. The financial returns of such an operation would depend upon the cost of labor, the type of factory and its output, and market demand. Benefits would include employment creation, potential exports, and foreign exchange savings. A typical condom plant, operating 24 hours a day with 2 production lines, can produce 160 million condom units per year. However, should such a factory be built and put into operation, managers must ensure that any condoms produced are of high quality.

  7. Oil and gas developments in central and southern Africa in 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, J.B.; Walker, T.L.

    1988-10-01

    Significant rightholding changes took place in central and southern Africa during 1987. Angola, Benin, Congo, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Mauritania, Seychelles, Somali Republic, Tanzania, Zaire, and Zambia announced awards or acreage open for bidding. Decreases in exploratory rightholdings occurred in Cameroon, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Kenya, Namibia, South Africa, and Tanzania. More wells and greater footage were drilled in 1987 than in 1986. Total wells increased by 18% as 254 wells were completed compared to 217 in 1986. Footage drilled during the year increased by 46% as about 1.9 million ft were drilled compared to about 1.3 million ft in 1986. The success rate for exploration wells in 1987 improved slightly to 36% compared to 34% in 1986. Significant discoveries were made in Nigeria, Angola, Congo, and Gabon. Seismic acquisition in 1987 was the major geophysical activity during the year. Total oil production in 1987 was 773 million bbl (about 2.1 million b/d), a decrease of 7%. The decrease is mostly due to a 14% drop in Nigerian production, which comprises 60% of total regional production. The production share of OPEC countries (Nigeria and Gabon) versus non-OPEC countries of 67% remained unchanged from 1986. 24 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Releasing the development potential of return migration: the case of Senegal.

    PubMed

    Diatta, M A; Mbow, N

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses return migration and evaluates the government's role in developing the potential of return migrants in Senegal. The three sections give a profile of return migrants, Senegal's pertinent official policies, and recommendations for action to improve reintegration into the local context. Although capital and goods flow freely in the global marketplace, globally, the flows of workers are constrained by restrictive immigration policies of host countries. Senegal and France have agreed to cooperate by containing migration flows and promoting migrants as agents of development, who can bring needed skills back to the countries of origin. Senegal has out-migration of about 50% of the poorest households. Receiving countries are scattered throughout the world. France receives about 105,000 and Cote d'Ivoire receives about 150,000. Migrants may be registered or unregistered. Migrants maintain close ties in their homeland and send remittances. Since 1980, France has provided specific training in Senegal and France for migrants willing voluntarily to return to Senegal. The aim is to involve migrants in national development. The Organization for Scientific and Technical Research is studying the impact of "brain drain" and seeks to enable native countries to reap rewards from their nationals without seeking repatriation.

  9. Cocoa Intensification Scenarios and Their Predicted Impact on CO2 Emissions, Biodiversity Conservation, and Rural Livelihoods in the Guinea Rain Forest of West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gockowski, Jim; Sonwa, Denis

    2011-08-01

    The Guinean rain forest (GRF) of West Africa, identified over 20 years ago as a global biodiversity hotspot, had reduced to 113,000 km2 at the start of the new millennium which was 18% of its original area. The principal driver of this environmental change has been the expansion of extensive smallholder agriculture. From 1988 to 2007, the area harvested in the GRF by smallholders of cocoa, cassava, and oil palm increased by 68,000 km2. Field results suggest a high potential for significantly increasing crop yields through increased application of seed-fertilizer technologies. Analyzing land-use change scenarios, it was estimated that had intensified cocoa technology, already developed in the 1960s, been pursued in Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Nigeria and Cameroon that over 21,000 km2 of deforestation and forest degradation could have been avoided along with the emission of nearly 1.4 billion t of CO2. Addressing the low productivity of agriculture in the GRF should be one of the principal objectives of REDD climate mitigation programs.

  10. Liberia.

    PubMed

    1987-09-01

    Liberia, appropriately named since it became the first independent African republic in 1847, lies on the Atlantic coast between Sierra Leone and Cote d'Ivoire. The population of about 2 million people, of 16 ethnic groups including descendants of freed African slaves, and over 20 languages, is growing about 3% yearly. The infant mortality rate is estimated at 132/1000 and the life expectancy 49 years. Education to 6 years of primary school is compulsory but generally not available. Liberia's climate is tropical with a winter wet season throughout the country of coastal plains, although there are some low foothills and mountains near the northeast border. The economy is based on export of iron ore and rubber, with a lesser contribution of timber, diamonds, gold. The current government has been in power since 1985, voted in by contested elections after a 6-year period of martial law. Liberia has had a history since its founding of good relations with the U.S., and support of United Nations and African regional organizations.

  11. Out of Africa: Uganda and UNAIDS advance a bold experiment.

    PubMed

    Zuniga, J

    1999-10-01

    The UNAIDS HIV Drug Access Initiative was launched in 1997 to aid four resource-limited countries: Chile, Cote d'Ivoire, Uganda, and Viet Nam. This multipronged initiative between pharmaceutical companies and government officials aims to expand access to HIV-related drugs on a small, sustainable scale in developing countries. Uganda's experience in the implementation of the UNAIDS HIV Drug Access Initiative is presented. Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni was struck by the reality of AIDS in 1986 when he learned that up to 25 percent of Ugandan troops might be HIV-infected. The overall Ugandan incidence of AIDS has been reduced since that time from 30 percent to about 14.5 percent due, in part, to cooperation between government and international institutions. Various charts are included, indicating cost estimates for the delivery of HIV care, and a flow chart diagrams drug procurement from six pharmaceutical companies for distribution to Ugandans living with HIV/AIDS. Minister of Health Crispus Kiyonga appointed a 15-member National Advisory Board in 1998 that established subcommittees on Drug Policy and Financing, Care and Practice, and Vertical Transmission to implement and oversee responsibilities. The establishment of Uganda's antiretroviral (ARV) treatment guidelines, standards, and educational and treatment efforts are discussed.

  12. Feasibility of local condom production examined.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    Despite Africa being the world region worst affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic, there is only 1 condom manufacturer on the continent, in Johannesburg. Hundreds of millions of condoms are donated and imported annually. For example, 500 million units were donated in 1996, of which 212 million came from the US Agency for International Development. A recently released study commissioned by the European Union's HIV/AIDS Program for Developing Countries determined that it would be technically viable to manufacture condoms in not only South Africa, but also in Mauritius, Cote d'Ivoire, and Kenya. All that is required is a factory, work force, water, and electricity, with the raw materials to be imported from Malaysia or Thailand regardless of where the factory is located. The financial returns of such an operation would depend upon the cost of labor, the type of factory and its output, and market demand. Benefits would include employment creation, potential exports, and foreign exchange savings. A typical condom plant, operating 24 hours a day with 2 production lines, can produce 160 million condom units per year. However, should such a factory be built and put into operation, managers must ensure that any condoms produced are of high quality. PMID:12295121

  13. Ray of hope in Uganda in war against HIV.

    PubMed

    1997-03-24

    According to an October 1996 report from the Ugandan Health Ministry's STD/AIDS Control Program (STD/ACP) on HIV prevalence among pregnant women at six hospitals between 1991 and 1995, HIV infection has been declining in parts of the country and Ugandans have significantly changed their sexual behavior to avoid infection. The health ministry still estimates that there are 1.5 million infected Ugandans and more than 48,000 cumulative cases of AIDS have been reported in Uganda since the mid-1980s. The actual number of AIDS cases could, however, be 5-10 times greater. Other African countries with HIV infection rates of more than 10% among pregnant women are Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, Tanzania, Zambia, and Cote d'Ivoire. The prevalence of infection among pregnant women will soon exceed 10% in Botswana and South Africa. Uganda has achieved some reduction in the incidence and prevalence of HIV infection by applying a multisectoral approach of coordinated efforts by the Uganda AIDS Commission's National Secretariat, ministries, districts, and village councils. Technical committees, task forces, steering committees, nongovernmental organizations, religious groups, academics and researchers, the media, the private sector, unions, workers, employers, herbalists, people living with HIV/AIDS, artists, and other groups are involved.

  14. The effectiveness of using carbonate isotope measurements of body tissues to infer diet in human evolution: Evidence from wild western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus).

    PubMed

    Fahy, Geraldine E; Boesch, Christophe; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Richards, Michael P

    2015-11-01

    Changes in diet throughout hominin evolution have been linked with important evolutionary changes. Stable carbon isotope analysis of inorganic apatite carbonate is the main isotopic method used to reconstruct fossil hominin diets; to test its effectiveness as a paleodietary indicator we present bone and enamel carbonate carbon isotope data from a well-studied population of modern wild western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) of known sex and age from Taï, Cote d'Ivoire. We found a significant effect of age class on bone carbonate values, with adult chimpanzees being more (13)C- and (18)O-depleted compared to juveniles. Further, to investigate habitat effects, we compared our data to existing apatite data on eastern chimpanzees (P. troglodytes schweinfurthii) and found that the Taï chimpanzees are significantly more depleted in enamel δ(13)Cap and δ(18)Oap compared to their eastern counterparts. Our data are the first to present a range of tissue-specific isotope data from the same group of wild western chimpanzees and, as such, add new data to the growing number of modern non-human primate comparative isotope datasets providing valuable information for the interpretation of diet throughout hominin evolution. By comparing our data to published isotope data on fossil hominins we found that our modern chimpanzee bone and enamel data support hypotheses that the trend towards increased consumption of C4 foods after 4 Ma (millions of years ago) is unique to hominins.

  15. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the central roles of two African countries in the evolution and worldwide spread of Zika virus.

    PubMed

    Shen, Shu; Shi, Junming; Wang, Jun; Tang, Shuang; Wang, Hualin; Hu, Zhihong; Deng, Fei

    2016-04-01

    Recent outbreaks of Zika virus (ZIKV) infections in Oceania's islands and the Americas were characterized by high numbers of cases and the spread of the virus to new areas. To better understand the origin of ZIKV, its epidemic history was reviewed. Although the available records and information are limited, two major genetic lineages of ZIKV were identified in previous studies. However, in this study, three lineages were identified based on a phylogenetic analysis of all virus sequences from GenBank, including those of the envelope protein (E) and non-structural protein 5 (NS5) coding regions. The spatial and temporal distributions of the three identified ZIKV lineages and the recombination events and mechanisms underlying their divergence and evolution were further elaborated. The potential migration pathway of ZIKV was also characterized. Our findings revealed the central roles of two African countries, Senegal and Cote d'Ivoire, in ZIKV evolution and genotypic divergence. Furthermore, our results suggested that the outbreaks in Asia and the Pacific islands originated from Africa. The results provide insights into the geographic origins of ZIKV outbreaks and the spread of the virus, and also contribute to a better understanding of ZIKV evolution, which is important for the prevention and control of ZIKV infections.

  16. Vaginal microbicides: how do you kick-start a global market?

    PubMed

    1996-10-01

    Efforts are underway to develop vaginal microbicides capable of protecting women against HIV and sexually transmitted disease. It was reported at the recent Vancouver international AIDS conference that 20 such products are in the preclinical stage, 13 in the early clinical stage, and two at the late clinical stage. The private sector, however, is not convinced of the commercial viability of vaginal microbicides, especially in developing countries. Johnson & Johnson has estimated there to be a US$40 million world market for vaginal microbicides, too small to garner the interest and involvement of the major research and development-based multinational pharmaceutical companies. The European Commission has therefore contracted Hillmark, a UK consultancy, to assess the market for such products in Cote d'Ivoire, Egypt, Kenya, South Africa, France, Poland, India, Thailand, Philippines, Brazil, and Venezuela. Corporate interest may be sparked by a convincing assessment of a higher market potential. Also at the Vancouver conference, the US Secretary of Health announced grant funding of US$100 million for research into microbicides.

  17. Usutu virus in Africa.

    PubMed

    Nikolay, Birgit; Diallo, Mawlouth; Boye, Cheikh Saad Bouh; Sall, Amadou Alpha

    2011-11-01

    Usutu virus (USUV) was discovered in South Africa in 1959. Since then, it has been reported in several African countries including Senegal, Central African Republic, Nigeria, Uganda, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, and Morocco. In 2001, USUV has been identified for the first time outside of Africa, namely in Europe, where it caused a significant mortality among blackbirds in Vienna, Austria. In 2009, the first two human cases of USUV infection in Europe have been reported in Italy, causing encephalitis in immunocompromised patients. The host range in Africa includes mainly Culex mosquitoes, birds, and also humans with one benign and one severe case. Given its role as a potential human pathogen and the similar appearance compared with other emerging arboviruses, it is essential to investigate the natural history and ecology of USUV in Africa. In this regard, we review the emergence of USUV in Africa, summarizing data about isolations, host range, and potential vectors, which should help to improve our understanding of the factors underlying the circulation of USUV in Europe and Africa. PMID:21767160

  18. Cost recovery shifts the brand image from Prudence to Protector.

    PubMed

    Winsbury, R

    1992-01-01

    Social marketing programs are underway in Africa. One program markets condoms in Zaire and Cote d'Ivoire under the brand name Prudence. While a cost element does exist, this program was largely designed to demonstrate the viability of social marketing programs. Emphasis has now been placed upon recovering costs, and condoms are marketed under the name of Protector. Since the US wants to reduce its role as the dominant funder of condom distribution in Africa, and governments and other donors want to be able to buy condoms more cheaply on the open market, the recent cost recovery version of the program will most likely displace the initial version. The Protector program strives toward achieving scale economies and financial self-sufficiency. Specifically, the program aims to standardize campaign materials across all participating countries, make private sector partner organizations in each country responsible for local distribution and marketing, and have earnings pay for a predefined part of program expenditures. Conceptually, Prudence is marketed to prevent AIDS, while Protector is promoted more broadly against sexually transmitted diseases and unwanted pregnancies. Social marketing programs are spreading and condom use is on the rise. The World Health Organization Global Program on AIDS sees its role as advocating condom use and encouraging donors to fund social marketing programs.

  19. Cocoa intensification scenarios and their predicted impact on CO₂ emissions, biodiversity conservation, and rural livelihoods in the Guinea rain forest of West Africa.

    PubMed

    Gockowski, Jim; Sonwa, Denis

    2011-08-01

    The Guinean rain forest (GRF) of West Africa, identified over 20 years ago as a global biodiversity hotspot, had reduced to 113,000 km² at the start of the new millennium which was 18% of its original area. The principal driver of this environmental change has been the expansion of extensive smallholder agriculture. From 1988 to 2007, the area harvested in the GRF by smallholders of cocoa, cassava, and oil palm increased by 68,000 km². Field results suggest a high potential for significantly increasing crop yields through increased application of seed-fertilizer technologies. Analyzing land-use change scenarios, it was estimated that had intensified cocoa technology, already developed in the 1960s, been pursued in Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Nigeria and Cameroon that over 21,000 km² of deforestation and forest degradation could have been avoided along with the emission of nearly 1.4 billion t of CO₂. Addressing the low productivity of agriculture in the GRF should be one of the principal objectives of REDD climate mitigation programs.

  20. New Women of the World publication features Francophone Africa.

    PubMed

    2000-06-01

    This article presents the publication ¿Women of the World--Francophone Africa: Laws and Policies Affecting their Reproductive Lives,¿ by Codou Bop, a Senegalese women's rights activist. This book contains a comprehensive review of the reproductive health and rights of women in Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali, Senegal, and Chad. It provides practical and legal guidelines for rights advocates and identifies problem issues in the region. Each country was examined in terms of its political framework, sources for governing laws, customary laws and health, population and family planning policies. Across the seven nations, similar problems in restrictive abortion laws, high maternal mortality rates, high HIV/AIDS prevalence rates, low contraceptive use and the continuation of harmful traditional practices were noted. Likewise, legal status of women in the context of their right to be free from discrimination and issues affecting adolescents were examined. During the launching of the book, representatives from the featured countries were able to discuss strategies for revising laws and adopting better policies to protect the rights and welfare of women. PMID:12322530

  1. Apport de la tomodensitométrie dans le diagnostic de la tuberculose vertébrale à propos de 496 cas à Abidjan

    PubMed Central

    Gbané-Koné, Mariam; Ouattara, Baly; Diomandé, Mohamed; Sessou, Viva; Kaboré, Fulgence; Djoko, Kouadio Flore; Traoré, Moriba; Eti, Edmond; Kouakou, N'zué Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Le mal de Pott est la forme la plus fréquente des tuberculoses ostéo articulaires, le diagnostic de certitude reste difficile. L'imagerie tient une place indéniable dans le diagnostic. L'objectif de cette étude était de déterminer la prévalence de la tuberculose vertébrale et l'apport de la TDM dans le diagnostic. Méthodes Nous avons mené une étude rétrospective sur dossiers de tuberculose vertébrale dans le service de Rhumatologie du CHU de Cocody de Janvier 2006 à Décembre 2013. N'ont pas été inclus dans l’étude, tous les dossiers ne comportant pas d'imagerie. Resultats La prévalence hospitalière de la tuberculose vertébrale était de 10,95%, elle représentait 90,2% de la tuberculose ostéoarticulaire. Elle concernait les 2 sexes, l’âge moyen était de 43,27 ans (4-88ans). L'atteinte dorsolombaire était la localisation la plus fréquente (95,13%). L'atteinte du rachis cervical était rare. La spondylodiscite était fréquente (92,14%). La spondylite (6%) et l'atteinte de l'arc postérieur (0,86%) étaient rares. La spondylodiscite était unique le plus souvent (70,05%), les formes multiétagées ont été notées dans 28,65% des cas, les atteintes mutifocales ont été notées dans14, 63% des cas. Les localisations inhabituelles étaient: atteinte sous occipitale (n=3), atteinte concomitante des 3 segments rachidiens (n=3), atteinte du sacrum (n=1), abcès isolés du psoas (n=4). La prévalence des abcès était de 85,91%, celle des épidurites était de 80,17%. La ponction scannoguidée des abcès a été réalisée dans 20 cas, la recherche de BAAR était positive dans 15 cas. Il existait une tuberculose viscérale évolutive dans 20% des cas. Conclusion La TDM est indéniable dans le diagnostic positif et lésionnel de la tuberculose vertébrale. Le retard au diagnostic explique l’étendue des lésions. PMID:26113932

  2. [Prevalence of dental caries in school milieu in the northwest of Côte d'Ivoire].

    PubMed

    Yao, K J; N'Da, N A; Koffi, N M

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of tooth decay and its correlation with dental care habits in northwestern Ivory Coast. Study was carried out in primary schools in the city of Odienne in January 1999. The study cohort comprised 500 students of both genders ranging in age from 4 to 15 years. The prevalence of tooth decay was 77.2% and the mean CAO index was 2.43. Dental care involved use of a chewing stick in 49% and a tooth brush in 50.8%. Only 5.6% of children cleaned their teeth three-times a day on a regular basis. Statistical analysis of study data demonstrated a correlation between the frequency of tooth cleaning and incidence of tooth decay. The incidence of tooth decay was 60.7% in students that cleaned their teeth three times a day versus 78.2% in students who cleaned their teeth less regularly. An educational campaign has been undertaken to inform students of the importance of oral hygiene in maintaining healthy teeth. A dental examination program would be useful to provide routine check-ups. A group study will be needed to monitor oral hygiene in students and evaluate the impact of these measures on tooth decay.

  3. Assessing Household Economic Vulnerability in HIV-Affected Communities in Five Regions of Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Holly M.; Moret, Whitney; Field, Samuel; Chen, Mario; Zeng, Yanwu; Seka, Firmin M.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify and describe levels of household economic vulnerability in HIV-affected communities in Côte d’Ivoire, defined as those with a high prevalence of HIV and large numbers of orphans and vulnerable children. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 3,749 households in five health regions of Côte d’Ivoire. Using principal component analysis, we attempted to identify sets of correlated vulnerabilities and derive a small number of composite scores to create an index for targeting interventions to vulnerable populations. The 65 vulnerability measures examined did not cluster in ways that would allow for the creation of a small number of composite measures. Instead, we found that households face numerous unique pathways to vulnerability. PMID:27655530

  4. Update of ichthyofauna diversity and ecological status of a coastal River Nero (Côte d'Ivoire - West Africa).

    PubMed

    N'Zi, Konan Gervais; Yao, Stanislas Silvain; Gooré Bi, Gouli; Ndouba, Valentin

    2015-05-01

    The general aim of this study is to update the inventory of the fish species and to specify distribution patterns in the Nero River ichthyofauna in order to establish some basis for the conservation of these fish communities and their habitat. From February 2009 to January 2010, thirty-three sites were sampled monthly with gill nets and a backpack electrofisher, and environmental variables were recorded. Overall, 46 species included in 33 genuses, 24 families and 9 orders were collected. Eleven families and 30 species were the first records for the Nero River. Including all species previously listed in the literature, the number of species presently known in the Nero River and its tributaries is revised to 59. Four families, Alestidae (21%), Schilbeidae (19%), Cyprinidae (17%) and Cichlidae (16%) that made up 73% of the total number of the catches, were the most dominant. The most dominant numerical species were Schilbe mandibularis and Brycinus longipinnis. Fish species and sampling sites along with eight environmental variables were ordinated with canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) coupled to the Monte Carlo test. Ecological status based on fish assemblage according to environmental variables and anthropogenic pressures showed that miss dead wood leaves and roots, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, mud, nitrite, basin width, dissolved oxygen and pH, were the primary factors influencing fish distribution. The environmental tolerance index (ETI), ecological tolerance (tk ) and optima (uk ) values of 10 species to 8 different environmental variables were analyzed. Six species (Hemichromis fasciatus, Epiplatys chaperi, Barbus ablabes, B. longipinnis, Hemichromis bimaculatus and Chromidotilapia guntheri) have high ETI and a cosmopolitan distribution in the Nero River. In the tributaries of the middle course, high concentrations of nitrite in the water, added to the presence of a lot of tolerant species in the ichthyofauna are indications of disturbance of these areas. Subsequent recommendations were formulated for efficient restoration and conservation management of this River. PMID:25972747

  5. 3 CFR - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to Libya and Côte d'Ivoire

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs... Determination No. 2011-11 of June 8, 2011 Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to Libya and... Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 2(c)(1) of the Migration and...

  6. Missed opportunities of inclusion in a cohort of HIV-infected children to initiate antiretroviral treatment before the age of two in West Africa, 2011 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Dahourou, Désiré L; Amorissani-Folquet, Madeleine; Coulibaly, Malik; Avit-Edi, Divine; Meda, Nicolas; Timite-Konan, Marguerite; Arendt, Vic; Ye, Diarra; Amani-Bosse, Clarisse; Salamon, Roger; Lepage, Philippe; Leroy, Valériane

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The World Health Organization (WHO) 2010 guidelines recommended to treat all HIV-infected children less than two years of age. We described the inclusion process and its correlates of HIV-infected children initiated on early antiretroviral therapy (EART) at less than two years of age in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, and Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Methods All children with HIV-1 infection confirmed with a DNA PCR test of a blood sample, aged less than two years, living at a distance less than two hours from the centres and whose parents (or mother if she was the only legal guardian or the legal caregiver if parents were not alive) agreed to participate in the MONOD ANRS 12206 project were included in a cohort to receive EART based on lopinavir/r. We used logistic regression to identify correlates of inclusion. Results Among the 217 children screened and referred to the MONOD centres, 161 (74%) were included and initiated on EART. The main reasons of non-inclusion were fear of father's refusal (48%), mortality (24%), false-positive HIV infection test (16%) and other ineligibility reasons (12%). Having previously disclosed the child's and mother's HIV status to the father (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 3.20; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.55 to 6.69) and being older than 12 months (aOR: 2.05; 95% CI: 1.02 to 4.12) were correlates of EART initiation. At EART initiation, the median age was 13.5 months, 70% had reached WHO Stage 3/4 and 57% had a severe immune deficiency. Conclusions Fear of stigmatization by the father and early competing mortality were the major reasons for missed opportunities of EART initiation. There is an urgent need to involve fathers in the care of their HIV-exposed children and to promote early infant diagnosis to improve their future access to EART and survival. PMID:27015798

  7. Health Facility Characteristics and Their Relationship to Coverage of PMTCT of HIV Services across Four African Countries: The PEARL Study

    PubMed Central

    Ekouevi, Didier K.; Stringer, Elizabeth; Coetzee, David; Tih, Pius; Creek, Tracy; Stinson, Kathryn; Westfall, Andrew O.; Welty, Thomas; Chintu, Namwinga; Chi, Benjamin H.; Wilfert, Cathy; Shaffer, Nathan; Stringer, Jeff; Dabis, Francois

    2012-01-01

    Background Health facility characteristics associated with effective prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) coverage in sub-Saharan are poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted surveys in health facilities with active PMTCT services in Cameroon, Cote d'Ivoire, South Africa, and Zambia. Data was compiled via direct observation and exit interviews. We constructed composite scores to describe provision of PMTCT services across seven topical areas: antenatal quality, PMTCT quality, supplies available, patient satisfaction, patient understanding of medication, and infrastructure quality. Pearson correlations and Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) to account for clustering of facilities within countries were used to evaluate the relationship between the composite scores, total time of visit and select individual variables with PMTCT coverage among women delivering. Between July 2008 and May 2009, we collected data from 32 facilities; 78% were managed by the government health system. An opt-out approach for HIV testing was used in 100% of facilities in Zambia, 63% in Cameroon, and none in Côte d'Ivoire or South Africa. Using Pearson correlations, PMTCT coverage (median of 55%, (IQR: 33–68) was correlated with PMTCT quality score (rho = 0.51; p = 0.003); infrastructure quality score (rho = 0.43; p = 0.017); time spent at clinic (rho = 0.47; p = 0.013); patient understanding of medications score (rho = 0.51; p = 0.006); and patient satisfaction quality score (rho = 0.38; p = 0.031). PMTCT coverage was marginally correlated with the antenatal quality score (rho = 0.304; p = 0.091). Using GEE adjustment for clustering, the, antenatal quality score became more strongly associated with PMTCT coverage (p<0.001) and the PMTCT quality score and patient understanding of medications remained marginally significant. Conclusions/Results We observed a positive relationship between an

  8. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Koch, Photographer, Circa 1925 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Koch, Photographer, Circa 1925 DOVE COTE AND DOLL HOUSE - Angelina Plantation (Dove Cote & Doll House), State Highway 1, Mount Airy, St. John the Baptist Parish, LA

  9. Geology and total petroleum systems of the Gulf of Guinea province of West Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.

    2006-01-01

    The Gulf of Guinea Province as defined by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) consists of the coastal and offshore areas of Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Togo, and Benin, and the western part of the coast of Nigeria, from the Liberian border east to the west edge of the Niger Delta. The province includes the Ivory Coast, Tano, Central, Saltpond, Keta, and Benin Basins and the Dahomey Embayment. The area has had relatively little hydrocarbon exploration since 1968, with only 33 small to moderate-sized oil and gas fields having been discovered prior to the USGS assessment. Most discoveries to 1995 have been located in water depths less than 500 m. Since 1995, only eight new offshore discoveries have been made, with four of the discoveries in the deep-water area of the province. Although as many as five total petroleum systems exist in the Gulf of Guinea Province, only one, the Cretaceous Composite Total Petroleum System, and its assessment unit, the Coastal Plain and Offshore Assessment Unit, had sufficient data to allow assessment. The province shows two important differences compared to the passive-margin basins south of the Niger Delta: (1) the influence of transform tectonics, and (2) the absence of evaporites and salt deformation. The province also lacks long-lived, large deltaic systems that typically result in rapid source rock burial and abundant high-quality hydrocarbon reservoirs. The USGS assessed the potential for undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources in the Gulf of Guinea Province as part of its World Petroleum Assessment 2000, estimating a mean of 1,004 million barrels of conventional undiscovered oil, 10,071 billion cubic feet of gas, and 282 million barrels of natural gas liquids. Most of the hydrocarbon potential is postulated to be in the offshore, deeper waters of the province. Gas resources may be large, as well as accessible, in areas where the zone of hydrocarbon generation is relatively shallow.

  10. The development of cardiac surgery in West Africa--the case of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Edwin, Frank; Tettey, Mark; Aniteye, Ernest; Tamatey, Martin; Sereboe, Lawrence; Entsua-Mensah, Kow; Kotei, David; Baffoe-Gyan, Kofi

    2011-01-01

    West Africa is one of the poorest regions of the world. The sixteen nations listed by the United Nations in this sub-region have some of the lowest gross domestic products in the world. Health care infrastructure is deficient in most of these countries. Cardiac surgery, with its heavy financial outlay is unavailable in many West African countries. These facts notwithstanding, some West African countries have a proud history of open heart surgery not very well known even in African health care circles. Many African health care givers are under the erroneous impression that the cardiovascular surgical landscape of West Africa is blank. However, documented reports of open-heart surgery in Ghana dates as far back as 1964 when surface cooling was used by Ghanaian surgeons to close atrial septal defects. Ghana's National Cardiothoracic Center is still very active and is accredited by the West African College of Surgeons for the training of cardiothoracic surgeons. Reports from Nigeria indicate open-heart surgery taking place from 1974. Cote D'Ivoire had reported on its first 300 open-heart cases by 1983. Senegal reported open-heart surgery from 1995 and still runs an active center. Cameroon started out in 2009 with work done by an Italian group that ultimately aims to train indigenous surgeons to run the program. This review traces the development and current state of cardiothoracic surgery in West Africa with Ghana's National Cardiothoracic Center as the reference. It aims to dispel the notion that there are no major active cardiothoracic centers in the West African sub-region. PMID:22355425

  11. [Imported malaria in Tunisia: consequences on the risk of resurgence of the disease].

    PubMed

    Aoun, K; Siala, E; Tchibkere, D; Ben Abdallah, R; Zallagua, N; Chahed, M K; Bouratbine, A

    2010-02-01

    Although malaria has been eradicated in Tunisia since 1979, the disease is still a health issue due to the persistence of mosquitoes and coexistence with a potential parasite reservoir in the form of imported cases. From 1999 to 2006, 98 cases of imported malaria were diagnosed at the Pasteur Institute in Tunis where nearly 30% of national cases are recorded. Tunisians accounted for 24.5% of these cases versus 75.5% involving foreigners. The occurrence rate has steadily increased in volunteer workers, businessmen, diplomats and athletes who together accounted for 41.7% of cases in 1995 as compared to only 17.4% in 1980 (p<0.01). Most cases (96.5%) were imported from sub-Saharan Africa. The most frequent countries involved in importation were Cote d'Ivoire (23 cases) and Mali (8 cases) that are now linked to Tunisia by regular flights. About one third of patients were asymptomatic at the time of diagnosis. This finding underlines the importance of recommending systematic screening in high-risk groups. Fever (70.6%) and gastro-intestinal manifestations (27.9%) were the most frequent clinical findings in the 69 symptomatic cases. Plasmodium falciparum (71.4%) was the most common species followed by Plasmodium ovale (19.4%). Gametocytes were detected in 9.2% of subjects, thus creating a theoretical source of infection for mosquitoes especially since 60.2% of all cases were recorded between June and October when mosquitoes are active in Tunisia. Due to increasing exchange with endemic malaria areas in Africa that has resulted in a higher incidence of imported cases and a futher risk of introduction of tropical mosquito species as well as to global warming that promotes plasmodium transmission, greater vigilance is necessary to ensure eradication of malaria in Tunisia.

  12. Water saving through international trade of agricultural products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapagain, A. K.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    2005-11-01

    Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. The paper analyses the consequences of international virtual water flows on the global and national water budgets. The assessment shows that the total amount of water that would have been required in the importing countries if all imported agricultural products would have been produced domestically is 1605 Gm3/yr. These products are however being produced with only 1253 Gm3/yr in the exporting countries, saving global water resources by 352 Gm3/yr. This saving is 28% of the international virtual water flows related to the trade of agricultural products and 6% of the global water use in agriculture. National policy makers are however not interested in global water savings but in the status of national water resources. Egypt imports wheat and in doing so saves 3.6 Gm3/yr of its national water resources. Water use for producing export commodities can be beneficial, as for instance in Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana and Brazil, where the use of green water resources (mainly through rain-fed agriculture) for the production of stimulant crops for export has a positive economic impact on the national economy. However, export of 28 Gm3/yr of national water from Thailand related to rice export is at the cost of additional pressure on its blue water resources. Importing a product which has a relatively high ratio of green to blue virtual water content saves global blue water resources that generally have a higher opportunity cost than green water.

  13. Water saving through international trade of agricultural products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapagain, A. K.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Savenije, H. H. G.

    2006-06-01

    Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. The paper analyses the consequences of international virtual water flows on the global and national water budgets. The assessment shows that the total amount of water that would have been required in the importing countries if all imported agricultural products would have been produced domestically is 1605 Gm3/yr. These products are however being produced with only 1253 Gm3/yr in the exporting countries, saving global water resources by 352 Gm3/yr. This saving is 28 per cent of the international virtual water flows related to the trade of agricultural products and 6 per cent of the global water use in agriculture. National policy makers are however not interested in global water savings but in the status of national water resources. Egypt imports wheat and in doing so saves 3.6 Gm3/yr of its national water resources. Water use for producing export commodities can be beneficial, as for instance in Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana and Brazil, where the use of green water resources (mainly through rain-fed agriculture) for the production of stimulant crops for export has a positive economic impact on the national economy. However, export of 28 Gm3/yr of national water from Thailand related to rice export is at the cost of additional pressure on its blue water resources. Importing a product which has a relatively high ratio of green to blue virtual water content saves global blue water resources that generally have a higher opportunity cost than green water.

  14. "Ghana faces ecological disaster".

    PubMed

    Asmah, G F

    1990-05-01

    The rate of deforestation in Ghana is alarming and urgent steps need to be taken to reverse the trend, Robert D. Mann, a British tropical agriculturist, has warned. He says, "There will be further disintegration of the local climate, deterioration of soil fertility and reduced food-crop production, if the present trend of denudation by felling trees and uncontrolled bush fires is not halted and reversed." Mann, who has conducted research on "deforestation, drought and famine in Africa" was in Ghana recently to speak on the "role of the Church in West Africa in stimulating action to combat desertification". Representatives of protestant churches in Ghana, Togo, Liberia, Gambia, Nigeria, Cote d'Ivoire and Sierra Leone attended the 3-day conference which was organized by the Overseas Department of the British Methodist Church. It was to enable participants to share perspectives on the nature, scale and seriousness of the deforestation problem. Participants also exchanged experiences on village-based projects for promoting tree planting and agro-forestry, and developed strategies for the rural development programs. Robert Mann noted that Ghana was not only affected by its proximity to the Sahel, but also by its own deforestation. The situation in Ghana, once renowned for her extensive forests and woodland, has now drastically changed. By 1980/81 the area of closed forest had been reduced to 17,000 sq km from 47,9000 sq km in 1937/38. He said in 1939 the volume of wood exported from Ghana was 42,450 cubic meters but it rose to 1,471,600 cubic meters by 1987. Such activities, Mann said, put severe strain on the environment and affected both the economy and sociocultural basis of the country. PMID:12285641

  15. 76 FR 2193 - Designation Pursuant to Executive Order 13396 of February 7, 2006, “Blocking Property of Certain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ..., ``Blocking Property of Certain Persons Contributing to the Conflict in C te d'Ivoire'' AGENCY: Office of... Persons Contributing to the Conflict in C te d'Ivoire'' (the ``Order''). DATES: The designation by...

  16. Importance of protected areas for biodiversity conservation in central Côte D'ivoire: comparison of termite assemblages between two neighboring areas under differing levels of disturbance.

    PubMed

    Dosso, Kanvaly; Yéo, Kolo; Konaté, Souleymane; Linsenmair, Karl Eduard

    2012-01-01

    To highlight human impact on biodiversity in the Lamto region, termites were studied with regard to their use as bio-indicators of habitat change in the tropics. Using a standardized method, termites were sampled in the three most common habitat types, i.e., in semi-deciduous forest, savanna woodland, and annually burned savanna, all inside Lamto Reserve and its surrounding rural domain. Termite species richness fell from 25 species in the Lamto forest to 13 species in the rural area, involving strong modification in the species composition (species turnover = 59 %). In contrast, no significant change in diversity was found between the Lamto savannas and the rural ones. In addition, the relative abundance of termites showed a significantly greater decline in the rural domain, even in the species Ancistrotermes cavithorax (Sjöstedt) (Isoptera: Termitidae), which is known to be ecologically especially versatile. Overall, the findings of this study suggest further investigation around Lamto Reserve on the impact of human activities on biodiversity, focusing on forest conversion to land uses (e.g. agricultural and silvicultural systems). PMID:23448238

  17. Decrease in sexual risk behaviours after early initiation of antiretroviral therapy: a 24-month prospective study in Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Jean, Kévin; Gabillard, Delphine; Moh, Raoul; Danel, Christine; Desgrées-du-Loû, Annabel; N'takpe, Jean-Baptiste; Carrou, Jérôme Le; Badjé, Anani; Eholié, Serge; Lert, France; Anglaret, Xavier; Dray-Spira, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Whether early antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation could impact sexual risk behaviours remains to be documented. We aimed to investigate changes in sexual behaviours within the 24 months following an early versus standard ART initiation in HIV-positive adults with high CD4 counts. Methods We used data from a prospective behavioural study nested in a randomized controlled trial of early ART (Temprano-ANRS12136). Time trends in sexual behaviours from enrolment in the trial (M0) to 12-month (M12) and 24-month (M24) visits were measured and compared, using Generalized Estimating Equations models, between participants randomly assigned either to initiate ART immediately (early ART) or to defer ART initiation until on-going WHO starting criteria are met (standard ART). Indicators of sexual behaviours included 1) sexual activity in the past year, 2) multiple partnership in the past year, 3) unprotected sex at last intercourse and 4) risky sex (i.e. unprotected sex with a partner of HIV negative/unknown status) at last intercourse. Results Analyses included 1952 participants (975 with early ART and 977 with standard ART; overall median baseline CD4 count: 469/mm3). Among participants with early ART, significant decreases were found between M0 and M24 in sexual activity (Odds Ratio [OR] 0.72, 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI] 0.57–0.92), multiple partnership (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.41–0.79), unprotected sex (OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.47–0.75) and risky sex (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.45–0.76). Among participants with standard ART, sexual behaviours showed similar trends over time. These decreases mostly occurred within the 12 months following enrolment in the trial in both groups and prior to ART initiation in participants with standard ART. For unprotected sex and risky sex, decreases were or tended to be more pronounced among patients reporting that their last sexual partner was non-cohabiting. Conclusions In these sub-Saharan adults with high CD4 counts, entry into HIV care, rather than ART initiation, resulted in decreased sexual activity and risky sexual behaviours. We did not observe any evidence of a risk compensation phenomenon associated with early ART initiation. These results illustrate the potential behavioural preventive effect of early entry into care, which goes hand in hand with early ART initiation. PMID:24985779

  18. Effect of Early Antiretroviral Therapy on Sexual Behaviors and HIV-1 Transmission Risk Among Adults With Diverse Heterosexual Partnership Statuses in Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Jean, Kévin; Gabillard, Delphine; Moh, Raoul; Danel, Christine; Fassassi, Raïmi; Desgrées-du-Loû, Annabel; Eholié, Serge; Lert, France; Anglaret, Xavier; Dray-Spira, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Background. The effect of early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART; ie, at CD4+ T-cell counts >350 cells/mm3) on sexual behaviors and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) transmission risk has not been documented in populations other than HIV-serodiscordant couples in stable relationships. Methods. On the basis of data from a behavioral study nested in a randomized, controlled trial (Temprano-ANRS12136) of early ART, we compared proportions of risky sex (ie, unprotected sex with a partner of negative/unknown HIV status) reported 12 months after inclusion between participants randomly assigned to initiate ART immediately (hereafter, “early ART”) or according to ongoing World Health Organization criteria. Group-specific HIV transmission rates were estimated on the basis of sexual behaviors and viral load–specific per-act HIV transmission probabilities. The ratio of transmission rates was computed to estimate the protective effect of early ART. Results. Among 957 participants (baseline median CD4+ T-cell count, 478 cells/mm3), 46.0% reported sexual activity in the past month; of these 46.0%, sexual activity for 41.5% involved noncohabiting partners. The proportion of subjects who engaged in risky sex was 10.0% in the early ART group, compared with 12.8% in the standard ART group (P = .17). After accounting for sexual behaviors and viral load, we estimated that the protective effect of early ART was 90% (95% confidence interval, 81%–95%). Conclusion. Twelve months after inclusion, patients in the early and standard ART groups reported similar sexual behaviors. Early ART decreased the estimated risk of HIV transmission by 90%, suggesting a major prevention benefit among seronegative sex partners in stable or casual relationships with seropositive individuals. PMID:23990567

  19. Neoliberal policy, rural livelihoods, and urban food security in West Africa: A comparative study of The Gambia, Côte d'Ivoire, and Mali

    PubMed Central

    Moseley, William G.; Carney, Judith; Becker, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the impact of two decades of neoliberal policy reform on food production and household livelihood security in three West African countries. The rice sectors in The Gambia, Côte d’Ivoire, and Mali are scrutinized as well as cotton and its relationship to sorghum production in Mali. Although market reforms were intended to improve food production, the net result was an increasing reliance on imported rice. The vulnerability of the urban populations in The Gambia and Côte d’Ivoire became especially clear during the 2007–2008 global food crisis when world prices for rice spiked. Urban Mali was spared the worst of this crisis because the country produces more of its own rice and the poorest consumers shifted from rice to sorghum, a grain whose production increased steeply as cotton production collapsed. The findings are based on household and market surveys as well as on an analysis of national level production data. PMID:20339079

  20. Treatment of human late stage gambiense trypanosomiasis with alpha-difluoromethylornithine (eflornithine): efficacy and tolerance in 14 cases in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Doua, F; Boa, F Y; Schechter, P J; Miézan, T W; Diai, D; Sanon, S R; De Raadt, P; Haegele, K D; Sjoerdsma, A; Konian, K

    1987-11-01

    alpha-Difluoromethylornithine (DFMO; eflornithine), an inhibitor of polyamine biosynthesis, was used to treat 14 patients with late stage gambiense sleeping sickness, 12 cases having been previously treated with and considered refractory to melarsoprol. alpha-Difluoromethylornithine was administered intravenously at a dose of 400 mg/kg/day for 14 days followed by oral treatment, 300 mg/kg/day, for 21-28 days. In all patients treatment was associated with rapid disappearance of trypanosomes from body fluids (in several cases within 24 hr) and decreased cerebrospinal fluid white blood cell counts. In all but one patient, who died of a pulmonary infection during treatment, alpha-difluoromethylornithine produced a dramatic reversal of clinical signs and symptoms of the disease. Determination of drug concentrations in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of 5 patients demonstrated that alpha-difluoromethylornithine diffuses into the central nervous system with cerebrospinal fluid levels representing up to 51% of corresponding serum concentrations. Diarrhea, abdominal pain, and anemia were the most frequent side effects associated with therapy, but were reversible and did not necessitate discontinuation of treatment. Four patients have been followed for more than 2 years post-treatment without evidence of relapse.

  1. Effects of rainfalls variability and physical-chemical parameters on enteroviruses in sewage and lagoon in Yopougon, Côte d'Ivoire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momou, Kouassi Julien; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Traoré, Karim Sory; Akré, Djako Sosthène; Dosso, Mireille

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the variability of the content of nutrients, oxidizable organic and particulate matters in raw sewage and the lagoon on the effect of rainfall. Then evaluate the impact of these changes in the concentration of enteroviruses (EVs) in waters. The sewage samples were collected at nine sampling points along the channel, which flows, into a tropical lagoon in Yopougon. Physical-chemical parameters (5-day Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Chemical Oxygen Demand, Suspended Particulate Matter, Total Phosphorus, Orthophosphate, Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen and Nitrate) as well as the concentration of EV in these waters were determined. The average numbers of EV isolated from the outlet of the channel were 9.06 × 104 PFU 100 ml-1. Consequently, EV was present in 55.55 and 33.33 % of the samples in the 2 brackish lagoon collection sites. The effect of rainfall on viral load at the both sewage and brackish lagoon environments is significant correlate (two-way ANOVA, P < 0.05). Furthermore, in lagoon environment, nutrients (Orthophosphate, Total Phosphorus), 5-day Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Chemical Oxygen Demand and Suspended Particulate Matter were significant correlated with EVs loads (P < 0.05 by Pearson test). The overall results highlight the problem of sewage discharge into the lagoon and correlation between viral loads and water quality parameters in sewage and lagoon.

  2. Density estimates and nesting-site selection in chimpanzees of the Nimba Mountains, Côte d'Ivoire, and Guinea.

    PubMed

    Granier, Nicolas; Hambuckers, Alain; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Huynen, Marie-Claude

    2014-11-01

    We investigated nesting behavior of non habituated chimpanzees populating the Nimba Mountains to document their abundance and their criterions of nesting-site selection. During a 19-month study we walked 80 km of transects and recces each month, and recorded 764 nests (mean group size = 2.23 nests) along with characteristics of vegetation structure and composition, topography, and seasonality. Population density estimated with two nest count methods ranged between 0.14 and 0.65 chimpanzee/km(2) . These values are lower than previous estimates, emphasizing the necessity of protecting remaining wild ape populations. Chimpanzees built nests in 108 tree species out of 437 identified, but 2.3% of total species comprised 52% of nests. Despite they preferred nesting in trees of 25-29 cm DBH and at a mean height of 8.02 m, we recorded an important proportion of terrestrial nests (8.2%) that may reflect a cultural trait of Nimba chimpanzees. A logistic model of nest presence formulated as a function of 12 habitat variables revealed preference for gallery and mountain forests rather than lowland forest, and old-growth forest rather than secondary forests. They nested more frequently in the study area during the dry season (December-April). The highest probability of observing nests was at 770 m altitude, particularly in steep locations (mean ground declivity = 15.54%). Several of the reported nest characteristics combined with the existence of two geographically separated clusters of nest, suggest that the study area constitutes the non-overlapping peripheral areas of two distinct communities. This nest-based study led us to findings on the behavioral ecology of Nimba chimpanzees, which constitute crucial knowledge to implement efficient and purpose-built conservation. PMID:25099739

  3. Importance of Protected Areas for Biodiversity Conservation in Central Côte D'ivoire: Comparison of Termite Assemblages between Two Neighboring Areas Under Differing Levels of Disturbance

    PubMed Central

    Dosso, Kanvaly; Yéo, Kolo; Konaté, Souleymane; Linsenmair, Karl Eduard

    2012-01-01

    To highlight human impact on biodiversity in the Lamto region, termites were studied with regard to their use as bio-indicators of habitat change in the tropics. Using a standardized method, termites were sampled in the three most common habitat types, i.e., in semi-deciduous forest, savanna woodland, and annually burned savanna, all inside Lamto Reserve and its surrounding rural domain. Termite species richness fell from 25 species in the Lamto forest to 13 species in the rural area, involving strong modification in the species composition (species turnover = 59 %). In contrast, no significant change in diversity was found between the Lamto savannas and the rural ones. In addition, the relative abundance of termites showed a significantly greater decline in the rural domain, even in the species Ancistrotermes cavithorax (Sjöstedt) (Isoptera: Termitidae), which is known to be ecologically especially versatile. Overall, the findings of this study suggest further investigation around Lamto Reserve on the impact of human activities on biodiversity, focusing on forest conversion to land uses (e.g. agricultural and silvicultural systems). PMID:23448238

  4. 77 FR 6463 - Definition of the Term “Financial, Material, or Technological Support” Under the Côte d'Ivoire...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ... such as blueprints, plans, diagrams, models, formulae, tables, engineering designs and specifications..., plans, diagrams, models, formulae, tables, engineering designs and specifications, manuals, or other..., tables, engineering designs and specifications, manuals, or other recorded instructions. Dated:...

  5. Chemical variability of the leaf essential oil of Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A.Rich. from Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Yapi, Thierry Acafou; Boti, Jean Brice; Ahibo, Coffy Antoine; Bighelli, Ange; Castola, Vincent; Casanova, Joseph; Tomi, Félix

    2012-12-01

    The chemical composition of 48 essential-oil samples isolated from the leaves of Xylopia aethiopica harvested in six Ivoirian forests was investigated by GC-FID and (13) C-NMR analyses. In total, 23 components accounting for 82.5-96.1% of the oil composition were identified. The composition was dominated by the monoterpene hydrocarbons β-pinene (up to 61.1%) and α-pinene (up to 18.6%) and the sesquiterpene hydrocarbon germacrene D (up to 28.7%). Hierarchical cluster and principal component analyses allowed the distinction of two groups on the basis of the β-pinene and germacrene D contents. The chemical composition of the oils of Group I (38 oil samples) was clearly dominated by β-pinene, while those of Group II (10 samples) were characterized by the association of β-pinene and germacrene D. The leaves collected in the four inland forests produced β-pinene-rich oils (Group I), while the oil samples belonging to Group II were isolated from leaves harvested in forests located near the littoral.

  6. To Address or Not to Address the Violent Past in the Classroom? That Is the Question in Côte D'ivoire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuppens, Line; Langer, Arnim

    2016-01-01

    In the aftermath of violent conflict, divided societies have to answer the important question of whether, when and how to address their country's violent past within their educational system. Whereas some scholars within the field of peace education and transitional justice argue that addressing the violent past in the classroom is important for…

  7. Postoperative Morbidity and Mortality of Perforated Peptic Ulcer: Retrospective Cohort Study of Risk Factors among Black Africans in Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Gona, Soro Kountele; Marcellin, Koffi Gnangoran; Adama, Coulibaly; Toussaint, Assohoun; Manuela, Ehua Adjoba; Sylvain, Seu Gagon; Anthony, Afum-Adjei Awuah; Francis, Ehua Somian

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Surgical treatment of perforated peptic ulcer (PPU) is a challenge for surgeons in Africa. Aim. To determine risk factors of postoperative complications or mortality among black Ivoirian patients with PPU. Methods. All 161 patients (median age = 34 years, 90.7 male) operated on for PPU in the visceral and general surgery unit were enrolled in a retrospective cohort study. Variables were studied with Kaplan Meier and Cox proportional hazard models. Results. Among 161 patients operated on for PPU, 36 (27.5%) experienced complications and 31 (19.3%) died. Follow-up results were the incidence of complications and mortality of 6.4 (95% CI: 4.9–8.0) per 100 person-days and 3.0 (95% CI: 1.9–4.0) per 100 person-days for incidence of mortality. In multivariate analysis, risk factors of postoperative complications or mortality were comorbidities (HR = 2.1, P = 0.03), tachycardia (pulse rate > 100/minutes) (HR = 2.4, P = 0.02), purulent intra-abdominal fluid collection (HR = 2.1, P = 0.04), hyponatremia (median value ≤ 134 mEq/L) (HR = 2.3, P = 0.01), delayed time of hospital admission > 72 hours (HR = 2.6, P < 0.0001), and delayed time of surgical intervention between 24 and 48 hours (HR = 3.8, P < 0.0001). Conclusion. The delayed hospital admission or surgical intervention and hyponatremia may be considered as additional risk of postoperative complications or mortality in Black African patients with PPU. PMID:26925099

  8. Importance of protected areas for biodiversity conservation in central Côte D'ivoire: comparison of termite assemblages between two neighboring areas under differing levels of disturbance.

    PubMed

    Dosso, Kanvaly; Yéo, Kolo; Konaté, Souleymane; Linsenmair, Karl Eduard

    2012-01-01

    To highlight human impact on biodiversity in the Lamto region, termites were studied with regard to their use as bio-indicators of habitat change in the tropics. Using a standardized method, termites were sampled in the three most common habitat types, i.e., in semi-deciduous forest, savanna woodland, and annually burned savanna, all inside Lamto Reserve and its surrounding rural domain. Termite species richness fell from 25 species in the Lamto forest to 13 species in the rural area, involving strong modification in the species composition (species turnover = 59 %). In contrast, no significant change in diversity was found between the Lamto savannas and the rural ones. In addition, the relative abundance of termites showed a significantly greater decline in the rural domain, even in the species Ancistrotermes cavithorax (Sjöstedt) (Isoptera: Termitidae), which is known to be ecologically especially versatile. Overall, the findings of this study suggest further investigation around Lamto Reserve on the impact of human activities on biodiversity, focusing on forest conversion to land uses (e.g. agricultural and silvicultural systems).

  9. Les sous-prefectures de Sikensi et Dabakala, Cote-d'Ivoire. (The Regions of Sikensi and Dabakala, Ivory Coast.) Method de preparation de la carte scolaire: etudes de cas 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallak, J.; And Others

    This volume contains the results of the first study of the problems associated with using educational television in curriculum planning in the Ivory Coast. The study was conducted in two districts of this African country, one relatively developed and situated in the southern part of the country, and the other more characteristic of the poorer…

  10. Transitioning toward Sustainable Development Goals: The Role of Household Environment in Influencing Child Health in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia Using Recent Demographic Health Surveys.

    PubMed

    Anand, Ankit; Roy, Nobhojit

    2016-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals are now replaced by 17 sustainable development goals. The emphasis of old goals was on improving water, sanitation, and child mortality conditions in developing countries. The study explored the major question about the association between different household environment conditions with child survival and health in Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries in the current scenario. This paper estimated the risk of death, morbidity, and undernutrition among children living in households with the improved sources of water, sanitation, and non-solid cooking fuel. Two sources of information are explored in this study. First, data from World Health Statistics (WHS)-2014 for all of the Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries were used. Second, available standard Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) performed in the countries of Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia after 2010 was included in the study. It resulted in the inclusion of 15 countries which were Bangladesh (2011), Congo Republic (2013-2014), Cote d'Ivoire (2011-2012), Ethiopia (2011), Gambia (2013), Mali (2012-2013), Mozambique (2011), Namibia (2013), Nepal (2011), Niger (2012), Nigeria (2013), Pakistan (2012-2013), Sierra Leone (2013), Uganda (2011), and Zambia (2013). The scatter plot diagram was plotted, and the curve was fitted using the WHS-2014. Cox regression and logistic regression were used to estimate adjusted risks (odds ratio) of child mortality and health outcomes using DHSs. The use of non-solid cooking fuel was very high in most of the Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries. There was a positive correlation between improving access to safe drinking water and sanitation. The exponential curve fitted well with child mortality and household environmental indicators. The use of improved source of water and sanitation significantly related with the lower odds ratio of death, morbidity, and undernutrition among children aged 12-59 months. The risks were

  11. Revisiting sub-Saharan African countries' drug problems: health, social, economic costs, and drug control policy.

    PubMed

    Affinnih, Yahya H

    2002-02-01

    This article takes an international perspective on the drug problem in sub-Saharan Africa. This analysis borrows ideas from physical and economic geography as a heuristic device to conceptualize the global narcoscapes in which drug trafficking occurs. Both the legitimate and the illegal drug trade operate within the same global capitalist system and draw on the same technological innovations and business processes. Central to the paper's argument is evidence that sub-Saharan African countries are now integrated into the political economy of drug consumption due to the spill-over effect. These countries are now minor markets for "hard drugs" as the result of the activities of organizations and individual traffickers that use Africa as a staging point in their trade with Europe and the United States. As a result, sub-Saharan African countries have drug consumption problems that were essentially absent prior to 1980, along with associated health, social, and economic costs. The emerging drug problem has forced African countries to develop their own drug control policy. The sub-Saharan African countries mentioned below vary to some extent in the level of drug use and misuse problems: Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Reunion, Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Congo (Zaire), Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Sao Tome and Principe, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Cote d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo. As part of this effort, African countries are assessing the health, social, and economic costs of drug-use-related problems to pinpoint methods which are both effective and inexpensive, since their budgets for social programs are severely constrained. Many have progressed to the point of adopting anti

  12. Yellow fever vaccine: an effective vaccine for travelers.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ramesh; Khanna, Pardeep; Chawla, Suraj

    2014-01-01

    Yellow fever (YF) is an acute viral communicable disease transmitted by an arbovirus of the Flavivirus genus. It is primarily a zoonotic disease, especially the monkeys. Worldwide, an estimated 200,000 cases of yellow fever occurred each year, and the case-fatality rate is ~15%. Forty-five endemic countries in Africa and Latin America, with a population of close to 1 billion, are at risk. Up to 50% of severely affected persons from YF die without treatment. During 2009, 55 cases and 18 deaths were reported from Brazil, Colombia, and Peru. Brazil reported the maximum number of cases and death, i.e., 42 cases with 11 deaths. From January 2010 to March 2011, outbreaks of YF were reported to the WHO by Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Senegal, and Uganda. Cases were also reported in three northern districts of Abim, Agago, and Kitugun near the border with South Sudan. YF usually causes fever, muscle pain with prominent backache, headache, shivers, loss of appetite, and nausea or vomiting. Most patients improve, and their symptoms disappear after 3 to 4 d. Half of the patients who enter the toxic phase die within 10-14 d, while the rest recover without significant organ damage. Vaccination has been the single most important measure for preventing YF. The 17D-204 YF vaccine is a freeze-dried, live attenuated, highly effective vaccine. It is available in single-dose or multi-dose vials and should be stored at 2-8 °C. It is reconstituted with normal saline and should be used within 1 h of reconstitution. The 0.5 mL dose is delivered subcutaneously. Revaccination is recommended every 10 y for people at continued risk of exposure to yellow fever virus (YFV). This vaccine is available worldwide. Travelers, especially to Africa or Latin America from Asia, must have a certificate documenting YF vaccination, which is required by certain countries for entry under the International Health Regulations (IHR) of the WHO.

  13. Comparisons of complementary feeding indicators among children aged 6-23 months in Anglophone and Francophone West African countries.

    PubMed

    Issaka, Abukari I; Agho, Kingsley E; Page, Andrew N; Burns, Penelope L; Stevens, Garry J; Dibley, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Stunting, a consequence of suboptimal complementary feeding practices, continues to be a significant public health problem in West Africa. This paper aimed to compare rates of complementary feeding indicators among children aged 6-23 months between four Anglophone and seven Francophone West African countries. The data used for this study were the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys of the various countries, namely Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone (Anglophone countries), Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea, Mali, Niger and Senegal (Francophone countries) conducted between 2006 and 2013. The analyses were limited to last-born children aged 6-23 months and covered 34 999 children: 12 623 in the Anglophone countries and 22 376 children in the Francophone countries. Complementary feeding indicators were examined using the method proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2008. Introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods among children aged 6-23 months in the Anglophone countries ranged from 55.3% (Liberia) to 72.6% (Ghana). The corresponding rates for the Francophone countries ranged from 29.7% (Mali) to 65.9% (Senegal). The average rate of minimum dietary diversity for the Anglophone countries was 32.0% while that of the Francophone countries was only 10.6%. While the minimum meal frequency rates ranged between 42.0% (Sierra Leone) and 55.3% (Nigeria) for the Anglophone countries, the corresponding rates for the Francophone countries ranged between 25.1% (Mali) and 52.4% (Niger). Both the Anglophone and the Francophone countries reported alarmingly low rates of minimum acceptable diet, with the two groups of countries averaging rates of 19.9% (Anglophone) and 5.5% (Francophone). The rates of all four complementary feeding indicators across all the 11 countries fell short of the WHO's requirement for optimal complementary feeding practices. Intervention studies using cluster-randomised controlled trials are needed in order to improve

  14. Proposal for a revised taxonomy of the family Filoviridae: classification, names of taxa and viruses, and virus abbreviations

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Jens H.; Becker, Stephan; Ebihara, Hideki; Geisbert, Thomas W.; Johnson, Karl M.; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Lipkin, W. Ian; Negredo, Ana I.; Netesov, Sergey V.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Palacios, Gustavo; Peters, Clarence J.; Tenorio, Antonio; Volchkov, Viktor E.; Jahrling, Peter B.

    2011-01-01

    The taxonomy of the family Filoviridae (marburgviruses and ebolaviruses) has changed several times since the discovery of its members, resulting in a plethora of species and virus names and abbreviations. The current taxonomy has only been partially accepted by most laboratory virologists. Confusion likely arose for several reasons: species names that consist of several words or which (should) contain diacritical marks, the current orthographic identity of species and virus names, and the similar pronunciation of several virus abbreviations in the absence of guidance for the correct use of vernacular names. To rectify this problem, we suggest (1) to retain the current species names Reston ebolavirus, Sudan ebolavirus, and Zaire ebolavirus, but to replace the name Cote d'Ivoire ebolavirus [sic] with Taï Forest ebolavirus and Lake Victoria marburgvirus with Marburg marburgvirus; (2) to revert the virus names of the type marburgviruses and ebolaviruses to those used for decades in the field (Marburg virus instead of Lake Victoria marburgvirus and Ebola virus instead of Zaire ebolavirus); (3) to introduce names for the remaining viruses reminiscent of jargon used by laboratory virologists but nevertheless different from species names (Reston virus, Sudan virus, Taï Forest virus), and (4) to introduce distinct abbreviations for the individual viruses (RESTV for Reston virus, SUDV for Sudan virus, and TAFV for Taï Forest virus), while retaining that for Marburg virus (MARV) and reintroducing that used over decades for Ebola virus (EBOV). Paying tribute to developments in the field, we propose (a) to create a new ebolavirus species (Bundibugyo ebolavirus) for one member virus (Bundibugyo virus, BDBV); (b) to assign a second virus to the species Marburg marburgvirus (Ravn virus, RAVV) for better reflection of now available high-resolution phylogeny; and (c) to create a new tentative genus (Cuevavirus) with one tentative species (Lloviu cuevavirus) for the recently

  15. Comparisons of complementary feeding indicators among children aged 6-23 months in Anglophone and Francophone West African countries.

    PubMed

    Issaka, Abukari I; Agho, Kingsley E; Page, Andrew N; Burns, Penelope L; Stevens, Garry J; Dibley, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Stunting, a consequence of suboptimal complementary feeding practices, continues to be a significant public health problem in West Africa. This paper aimed to compare rates of complementary feeding indicators among children aged 6-23 months between four Anglophone and seven Francophone West African countries. The data used for this study were the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys of the various countries, namely Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone (Anglophone countries), Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea, Mali, Niger and Senegal (Francophone countries) conducted between 2006 and 2013. The analyses were limited to last-born children aged 6-23 months and covered 34 999 children: 12 623 in the Anglophone countries and 22 376 children in the Francophone countries. Complementary feeding indicators were examined using the method proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2008. Introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods among children aged 6-23 months in the Anglophone countries ranged from 55.3% (Liberia) to 72.6% (Ghana). The corresponding rates for the Francophone countries ranged from 29.7% (Mali) to 65.9% (Senegal). The average rate of minimum dietary diversity for the Anglophone countries was 32.0% while that of the Francophone countries was only 10.6%. While the minimum meal frequency rates ranged between 42.0% (Sierra Leone) and 55.3% (Nigeria) for the Anglophone countries, the corresponding rates for the Francophone countries ranged between 25.1% (Mali) and 52.4% (Niger). Both the Anglophone and the Francophone countries reported alarmingly low rates of minimum acceptable diet, with the two groups of countries averaging rates of 19.9% (Anglophone) and 5.5% (Francophone). The rates of all four complementary feeding indicators across all the 11 countries fell short of the WHO's requirement for optimal complementary feeding practices. Intervention studies using cluster-randomised controlled trials are needed in order to improve

  16. Transitioning toward Sustainable Development Goals: The Role of Household Environment in Influencing Child Health in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia Using Recent Demographic Health Surveys.

    PubMed

    Anand, Ankit; Roy, Nobhojit

    2016-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals are now replaced by 17 sustainable development goals. The emphasis of old goals was on improving water, sanitation, and child mortality conditions in developing countries. The study explored the major question about the association between different household environment conditions with child survival and health in Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries in the current scenario. This paper estimated the risk of death, morbidity, and undernutrition among children living in households with the improved sources of water, sanitation, and non-solid cooking fuel. Two sources of information are explored in this study. First, data from World Health Statistics (WHS)-2014 for all of the Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries were used. Second, available standard Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) performed in the countries of Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia after 2010 was included in the study. It resulted in the inclusion of 15 countries which were Bangladesh (2011), Congo Republic (2013-2014), Cote d'Ivoire (2011-2012), Ethiopia (2011), Gambia (2013), Mali (2012-2013), Mozambique (2011), Namibia (2013), Nepal (2011), Niger (2012), Nigeria (2013), Pakistan (2012-2013), Sierra Leone (2013), Uganda (2011), and Zambia (2013). The scatter plot diagram was plotted, and the curve was fitted using the WHS-2014. Cox regression and logistic regression were used to estimate adjusted risks (odds ratio) of child mortality and health outcomes using DHSs. The use of non-solid cooking fuel was very high in most of the Sub-Saharan African and South Asian countries. There was a positive correlation between improving access to safe drinking water and sanitation. The exponential curve fitted well with child mortality and household environmental indicators. The use of improved source of water and sanitation significantly related with the lower odds ratio of death, morbidity, and undernutrition among children aged 12-59 months. The risks were

  17. Impact of vaccines and vaccination on global control of avian influenza.

    PubMed

    Swayne, David E

    2012-12-01

    There are 30 recorded epizootics of H5 or H7 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) from 1959 to early 2012. The largest of these epizootics, affecting more birds and countries than the other 29 epizootics combined, has been the H5N1 HPAI, which began in Guangdong China in 1996, and has killed or resulted in culling of over 250 million poultry and/or wild birds in 63 countries. Most countries have used stamping-out programs in poultry to eradicate H5N1 HPAI. However, 15 affected countries have utilized vaccination as a part of the control strategy. Greater than 113 billion doses were used from 2002 to 2010. Five countries have utilized nationwide routine vaccination programs, which account for 99% of vaccine used: 1) China (90.9%), 2) Egypt (4.6%), 3) Indonesia (2.3%), 4) Vietnam (1.4%), and 5) Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (< 0.01%). Mongolia, Kazakhstan, France, The Netherlands, Cote d'Ivoire, Sudan, North Korea, Israel, Russia, and Pakistan used < 1% of the avian influenza (AI) vaccine, and the AI vaccine was targeted to either preventive or emergency vaccination programs. Inactivated AI vaccines have accounted for 95.5% of vaccine used, and live recombinant virus vaccines have accounted for 4.5% of vaccine used. The latter are primarily recombinant Newcastle disease vectored vaccine with H5 influenza gene insert. China, Indonesia, Egypt, and Vietnam implemented vaccination after H5N1 HPAI became enzootic in domestic poultry. Bangladesh and eastern India have enzootic H5N1 HPAI and have not used vaccination in their control programs. Clinical disease and mortality have been prevented in chickens, human cases have been reduced, and rural livelihoods and food security have been maintained by using vaccines during HPAI outbreaks. However, field outbreaks have occurred in vaccinating countries, primarily because of inadequate coverage in the target species, but vaccine failures have occurred following antigenic drift in field viruses within China, Egypt

  18. Revisiting sub-Saharan African countries' drug problems: health, social, economic costs, and drug control policy.

    PubMed

    Affinnih, Yahya H

    2002-02-01

    This article takes an international perspective on the drug problem in sub-Saharan Africa. This analysis borrows ideas from physical and economic geography as a heuristic device to conceptualize the global narcoscapes in which drug trafficking occurs. Both the legitimate and the illegal drug trade operate within the same global capitalist system and draw on the same technological innovations and business processes. Central to the paper's argument is evidence that sub-Saharan African countries are now integrated into the political economy of drug consumption due to the spill-over effect. These countries are now minor markets for "hard drugs" as the result of the activities of organizations and individual traffickers that use Africa as a staging point in their trade with Europe and the United States. As a result, sub-Saharan African countries have drug consumption problems that were essentially absent prior to 1980, along with associated health, social, and economic costs. The emerging drug problem has forced African countries to develop their own drug control policy. The sub-Saharan African countries mentioned below vary to some extent in the level of drug use and misuse problems: Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Reunion, Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Congo (Zaire), Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Sao Tome and Principe, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Cote d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo. As part of this effort, African countries are assessing the health, social, and economic costs of drug-use-related problems to pinpoint methods which are both effective and inexpensive, since their budgets for social programs are severely constrained. Many have progressed to the point of adopting anti

  19. No Association between Antenatal Common Mental Disorders in Low-Obstetric Risk Women and Adverse Birth Outcomes in Their Offspring: Results from the CDS Study in Ghana and Côte D'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Bonle, Marguerite Te; Appiah-Poku, John; Hinz, Rebecca; Barthel, Dana; Schoppen, Stefanie; Feldt, Torsten; Barkmann, Claus; Koffi, Mathurin; Loag, Wibke; Nguah, Samuel Blay; Eberhardt, Kirsten A.; Tagbor, Harry; N’Goran, Eliezer; Ehrhardt, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence linking common mental disorders (CMD) in pregnant women to adverse birth outcomes is inconsistent, and studies often failed to control for pregnancy complications. This study aimed to explore the association between antenatal depression and anxiety symptoms and birth outcomes in a low-obstetric risk sample of mother/child dyads in Ghana and Côte d’Ivoire. Methods In 2010-2011, a prospective cohort of 1030 women in their third trimester in Ghana and Côte d’Ivoire was enrolled. Depression and anxiety were assessed in the third trimester using the Patient Health Questionnaire depression module and the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale. 719 mother/child dyads were included in the analysis. We constructed multivariate regression models to estimate the association between CMD and low birth weight (LBW), and preterm birth (PTB) to control for potential confounders. Results The prevalence of depression and anxiety symptoms were 28.9% and 14.2% respectively. The mean birth weight was 3172.1g (SD 440.6) and the prevalence of LBW was 1.7%. The mean gestational age was 39.6 weeks and the proportion of PTB was 4%. Multivariate linear regression revealed no significant association between maternal depression (B=52.2, 95% CI -18.2 122.6, p=0.15) or anxiety (B=17.1, 95% CI -74.6 108.7, p=0.72) and birth weight. Yet, low socio-economic status, female sex of the child, and younger maternal age were associated with lower birth weight. Multivariate logistic regression suggested no significant association between maternal depression (OR: 2.1, 95% CI 0.8 5.6, p=0.15) or anxiety (OR: 1.8, 95% CI 0.6 5.5, p=0.29) with PTB. Conclusions Our data suggests that depression and/or anxiety in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy are not independent predictors of adverse birth outcomes in low obstetric risk women. The role of pregnancy complications as confounders or effect modifiers in studies of maternal CMD and their impact on birth outcomes should be investigated. PMID:24260460

  20. Effect of boiling time on chemical composition and physico-functional properties of flours from taro (Colocasia esculenta cv fouê) corm grown in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Amon, Anon Simplice; Soro, René Yadé; Assemand, Emma Fernande; Dué, Edmond Ahipo; Kouamé, Lucien Patrice

    2014-05-01

    Taro (Colocasia esculenta cv fouê) corm was subjected to different boiling times and the changes in chemical composition and physico-functional properties were investigated using standard method. The change in boiling time led to a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the moisture, reducing sugars, total sugars, crude fat, crude fibre, total phenolic compound contents and iodine affinity of starch, whereas the total carbohydrate content, water absorption capacity, water solubility index, paste clarity and foam capacity increased significantly (p < 0.05). The crude protein and total ash contents of the flours from taro corm were not affected significantly (p < 0.05) by the change in boiling time. Taro corm flours exhibited highest total carbohydrate, crude fibre, total ash contents, water absorption capacity, iodine affinity of starch and lowest crude protein and fat contents, foaming capacity and water solubility index. Principal component analysis showed that flours from taro corm boiled during 20 min and 15 min were located at the left of the score plot, while flours from raw and boiled taro corm during 10 min had a large positive score in the first principal component.

  1. Acceptabilité du test VIH proposé aux nourrissons dans les services pédiatriques, en Côte d'Ivoire, Significations pour la couverture du diagnostic pédiatrique

    PubMed Central

    Oga, Maxime; Brou, Hermann; Dago-Akribi, Hortense; Coffie, Patrick; Amani-Bossé, Clarisse; Ékouévi, Didier; Yapo, Vincent; Menan, Hervé; Ndondoki, Camille; Timité-Konan, M.; Leroy, Valériane

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Problème: Le dépistage VIH chez les enfants a rarement été au centre des préoccupations des chercheurs. Quand le dépistage pédiatrique a retenu l'attention, cela a été pour éclairer seulement sur les performances diagnostiques en ignorant même que le test pédiatrique comme bien d'autres peut s'accepter ou se refuser. Cet article met au cœur de son analyse les raisons qui peuvent expliquer qu'on accepte ou qu'on refuse de faire dépister son enfant. Objectif: Etudier chez les parents, les mères, les facteurs explicatifs de l'acceptabilité du test VIH des nourrissons de moins de six mois. Méthodes: Entretien semi-directif à passages répétés avec les parents de nourrissons de moins de six mois dans les formations sanitaires pour la pesée/vaccination et les consultations pédiatriques avec proposition systématique d'un test VIH pour leur nourrisson. Résultats: Nous retenons que la réalisation effective du test pédiatrique du VIH chez le nourrisson repose sur trois éléments. Primo, le personnel de santé par son discours (qui dénote de ses connaissances et perceptions même sur l'infection) orienté vers les mères influence leur acceptation ou non du test. Secundo, la mère qui par ses connaissances et perceptions même sur le VIH, dont le statut particulier, l'impression de bien-être chez elle et son enfant influence toute réalisation du test pédiatrique VIH. Tertio, l'environnement conjugal de la mère, particulièrement caractérisé par les rapports au sein du couple, sur la facilité de parler du test VIH et sa réalisation chez les deux parents ou chez la mère seulement sont autant de facteurs qui influencent la réalisation effective du dépistage du VIH chez l'enfant. Le principe préventif du VIH, et le désir de faire tester l'enfant ne suffisent pas à eux seuls pour aboutir à sa réalisation effective, selon certaines mères confrontées au refus du conjoint. A l'opposé, les autres mères refusant la réalisation du test pédiatrique disent s'y opposer ; bien entendu, même dans le cas où le conjoint l'accepterait. Discussion: Les mères sont les principales mises en cause et craignent les réprimandes et la stigmatisation. Le père, le conjoint peut être un obstacle, quand il s'oppose au test VIH du nourrisson, ou devenir le facilitateur de sa réalisation s'il est convaincu. Le positionnement du père demeure donc essentiel dans la question de l'acceptabilité du VIH pédiatrique. Les mères en ont conscience et présagent des difficultés à faire dépister ou non les enfants sans avis préalable du conjoint à la fois père, et chef de famille. Conclusion: La question du dépistage pédiatrique du VIH, au terme de notre analyse, met en face trois éléments qui exigent une gestion globale pour assurer une couverture effective. Ces trois éléments n'existeraient pas sans s'influencer, donc ils sont constamment en interaction et empêchent ou favorisent la réalisation ou non du test pédiatrique. Aussi, dans une intention d'aboutir à une couverture effective du dépistage VIH des nourrissons, faut-il tenir compte d'une gestion harmonieuse de ces trois éléments: La première, la mère seule (avec ses connaissances, ses perceptions), son environnement conjugal (de proposition du test intégrant 1- l’époux et / ou père de l'enfant avec ses perceptions et connaissances sur l'infection 2- la facilité de parler du test et sa réalisation chez les deux ou un des parents, la mère) et les connaissances, attitudes et pratiques du personnel de l’établissement sanitaire sur l'infection du VIH. Recommandations: Nos recommandations proposent une redéfinition de l'approche du VIH/sida vers des familles exposées au VIH et une intégration plus accentuée du père facilitant leur propre acceptation du test VIH et celle de leur enfant. PMID:25088574

  2. Effect of boiling time on chemical composition and physico-functional properties of flours from taro (Colocasia esculenta cv fouê) corm grown in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Amon, Anon Simplice; Soro, René Yadé; Assemand, Emma Fernande; Dué, Edmond Ahipo; Kouamé, Lucien Patrice

    2014-05-01

    Taro (Colocasia esculenta cv fouê) corm was subjected to different boiling times and the changes in chemical composition and physico-functional properties were investigated using standard method. The change in boiling time led to a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the moisture, reducing sugars, total sugars, crude fat, crude fibre, total phenolic compound contents and iodine affinity of starch, whereas the total carbohydrate content, water absorption capacity, water solubility index, paste clarity and foam capacity increased significantly (p < 0.05). The crude protein and total ash contents of the flours from taro corm were not affected significantly (p < 0.05) by the change in boiling time. Taro corm flours exhibited highest total carbohydrate, crude fibre, total ash contents, water absorption capacity, iodine affinity of starch and lowest crude protein and fat contents, foaming capacity and water solubility index. Principal component analysis showed that flours from taro corm boiled during 20 min and 15 min were located at the left of the score plot, while flours from raw and boiled taro corm during 10 min had a large positive score in the first principal component. PMID:24803691

  3. Prevalence and genetic diversity of simian immunodeficiency virus infection in wild-living red colobus monkeys (Piliocolobus badius badius) from the Taï forest, Côte d'Ivoire SIVwrc in wild-living western red colobus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Locatelli, Sabrina; Liegeois, Florian; Lafay, Bénédicte; Roeder, Amy D; Bruford, Michael W; Formenty, Pierre; Noë, Ronald; Delaporte, Eric; Peeters, Martine

    2008-01-01

    Numerous African primates are infected with simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs). It is now well established that the clade of SIVs infecting west-central African chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) and western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) represent the progenitors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), whereas HIV-2 results from different cross-species transmissions of SIVsmm from sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys atys). We present here the first molecular epidemiological survey of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVwrc) in wild-living western red colobus monkeys (Piliocolobus badius badius) which are frequently hunted by the human population and represent a favourite prey of western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus). We collected faecal samples (n=88) and we assessed individual discrimination by microsatellite analyses and visual observation. We tested the inferred 53 adult individuals belonging to two neighbouring habituated groups for presence of SIVwrc infection by viral RNA (vRNA) detection. We amplified viral polymerase (pol) (650 bp) and/or envelope (env) (570 bp) sequences in 14 individuals, resulting in a minimal prevalence of 26% among the individuals sampled, possibly reaching 50% when considering the relatively low sensitivity of viral RNA detection in faecal samples. With a few exceptions, phylogenetic analysis of pol and env sequences revealed a low degree of intragroup genetic diversity and a general viral clustering related to the social group of origin. However, we found a higher intergroup diversity. Behavioural and demographic data collected previously from these communities indicate that red colobus monkeys live in promiscuous multi-male societies, where females leave their natal group at the sub-adult stage of their lives and where extra-group copulations or male immigration have been rarely observed. The phylogenetic data we obtained seem to reflect these behavioural characteristics. Overall, our results indicate that wild-living red colobus represent a substantial reservoir of SIVwrc. Moreover, because of their frequent association with other monkey species, the predation pressure exerted by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) and by poachers around and inside the park, simian to simian and simian to human SIVwrc cross-species transmission cannot be excluded. PMID:17916449

  4. Acceptabilité du test VIH proposé aux nourrissons dans les services pédiatriques, en Côte d'Ivoire, Significations pour la couverture du diagnostic pédiatrique

    PubMed Central

    Oga, Maxime; Brou, Hermann; Dago-Akribi, Hortense; Coffie, Patrick; Amani-Bossé, Clarisse; Ékouévi, Didier; Yapo, Vincent; Menan, Hervé; Ndondoki, Camille; Timité-Konan, M.; Leroy, Valériane

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Problème: Le dépistage VIH chez les enfants a rarement été au centre des préoccupations des chercheurs. Quand le dépistage pédiatrique a retenu l'attention, cela a été pour éclairer seulement sur les performances diagnostiques en ignorant même que le test pédiatrique comme bien d'autres peut s'accepter ou se refuser. Cet article met au cœur de son analyse les raisons qui peuvent expliquer qu'on accepte ou qu'on refuse de faire dépister son enfant. Objectif: Etudier chez les parents, les mères, les facteurs explicatifs de l'acceptabilité du test VIH des nourrissons de moins de six mois. Méthodes: Entretien semi-directif à passages répétés avec les parents de nourrissons de moins de six mois dans les formations sanitaires pour la pesée/vaccination et les consultations pédiatriques avec proposition systématique d'un test VIH pour leur nourrisson. Résultats: Nous retenons que la réalisation effective du test pédiatrique du VIH chez le nourrisson repose sur trois éléments. Primo, le personnel de santé par son discours (qui dénote de ses connaissances et perceptions même sur l'infection) orienté vers les mères influence leur acceptation ou non du test. Secundo, la mère qui par ses connaissances et perceptions même sur le VIH, dont le statut particulier, l'impression de bien-être chez elle et son enfant influence toute réalisation du test pédiatrique VIH. Tertio, l'environnement conjugal de la mère, particulièrement caractérisé par les rapports au sein du couple, sur la facilité de parler du test VIH et sa réalisation chez les deux parents ou chez la mère seulement sont autant de facteurs qui influencent la réalisation effective du dépistage du VIH chez l'enfant. Le principe préventif du VIH, et le désir de faire tester l'enfant ne suffisent pas à eux seuls pour aboutir à sa réalisation effective, selon certaines mères confrontées au refus du conjoint. A l'opposé, les autres mères refusant la réalisation du test pédiatrique disent s'y opposer ; bien entendu, même dans le cas où le conjoint l'accepterait. Discussion: Les mères sont les principales mises en cause et craignent les réprimandes et la stigmatisation. Le père, le conjoint peut être un obstacle, quand il s'oppose au test VIH du nourrisson, ou devenir le facilitateur de sa réalisation s'il est convaincu. Le positionnement du père demeure donc essentiel dans la question de l'acceptabilité du VIH pédiatrique. Les mères en ont conscience et présagent des difficultés à faire dépister ou non les enfants sans avis préalable du conjoint à la fois père, et chef de famille. Conclusion: La question du dépistage pédiatrique du VIH, au terme de notre analyse, met en face trois éléments qui exigent une gestion globale pour assurer une couverture effective. Ces trois éléments n'existeraient pas sans s'influencer, donc ils sont constamment en interaction et empêchent ou favorisent la réalisation ou non du test pédiatrique. Aussi, dans une intention d'aboutir à une couverture effective du dépistage VIH des nourrissons, faut-il tenir compte d'une gestion harmonieuse de ces trois éléments: La première, la mère seule (avec ses connaissances, ses perceptions), son environnement conjugal (de proposition du test intégrant 1- l’époux et / ou père de l'enfant avec ses perceptions et connaissances sur l'infection 2- la facilité de parler du test et sa réalisation chez les deux ou un des parents, la mère) et les connaissances, attitudes et pratiques du personnel de l’établissement sanitaire sur l'infection du VIH. Recommandations: Nos recommandations proposent une redéfinit

  5. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 740 - Country Groups

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... 1 to Part 740, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of... (Democratic Republic of the) Congo (Republic of the) Costa Rica Cote d'lvoire Croatia Curaçao Cyprus...

  6. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 740 - Country Groups

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... 1 to Part 740, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of... (Democratic Republic of the) Congo (Republic of the) Costa Rica Cote d'lvoire Croatia Curaçao Cyprus...

  7. Composite Gauss-Legendre Quadrature with Error Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prentice, J. S. C.

    2011-01-01

    We describe composite Gauss-Legendre quadrature for determining definite integrals, including a means of controlling the approximation error. We compare the form and performance of the algorithm with standard Newton-Cotes quadrature. (Contains 1 table.)

  8. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Koch, Photographer, April, 1934 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Koch, Photographer, April, 1934 SOUTHWEST ELEVATION - Angelina Plantation (Dove Cote & Doll House), State Highway 1, Mount Airy, St. John the Baptist Parish, LA

  9. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Koch, Photographer, Circa 1925 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Koch, Photographer, Circa 1925 FIREPLACE IN DOLL HOUSE - Angelina Plantation (Dove Cote & Doll House), State Highway 1, Mount Airy, St. John the Baptist Parish, LA

  10. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Koch, Photographer, April, 1934 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Koch, Photographer, April, 1934 SOUTHWEST ELEVATION - Angelina Plantation (Dove Cote & Doll House), State Highway 1, Mount Airy, St. John the Baptist Parish, LA

  11. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Koch, Photographer, March, 1934 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Richard Koch, Photographer, March, 1934 VIEW FROM NORTH WEST - Angelina Plantation (Dove Cote & Doll House), State Highway 1, Mount Airy, St. John the Baptist Parish, LA

  12. Phenetic and genetic structure of tsetse fly populations (Glossina palpalis palpalis) in southern Ivory Coast

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sleeping sickness, transmitted by G. p. palpalis, is known to be present in the Ivory Coast. G. p. palpalis has recently been reported to occur in several places within the town of Abidjan, including: (i) the Banco forest, (ii) the Abobo Adjamé University campus and (iii) the zoological park. Could these three places be treated sequentially, as separate tsetse populations, or should they be taken as one area comprising a single, panmictic population? Methods The amount of gene flow between these places provides strategic information for vector control. It was estimated by the use of both microsatellite DNA and morphometric markers. The idea was to assess the interest of the faster and much less expensive morphometric approach in providing relevant information about population structure. Thus, to detect possible lack of insect exchange between these neighbouring areas of Abidjan, we used both genetic (microsatellite DNA) and phenetic (geometric morphometrics) markers on the same specimens. Using these same markers, we also compared these samples with specimens from a more distant area of south Ivory Coast, the region of Aniassué (186 km north from Abidjan). Results Neither genetic nor phenetic markers detected significant differentiation between the three Abidjan G. p. palpalis samples. Thus, the null hypothesis of a single panmictic population within the city of Abidjan could not be rejected, suggesting the control strategy should not consider them separately. The markers were also in agreement when comparing G. p. palpalis from Abidjan with those of Aniassué, showing significant divergence between the two sites. Conclusions Both markers suggested that a successful control of tsetse in Abidjan would require the three Abidjan sites to be considered together, either by deploying control measures simultaneously in all three sites, or by a continuous progression of interventions following for instance the "rolling carpet" principle. To compare the

  13. Antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities of twig extract from Cinnamomum osmophloeum.

    PubMed

    Lin, Gong-Min; Chen, Yu-Han; Yen, Pei-Ling; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2016-07-01

    This is the first report concerning the α-glucosidase, α-amylase and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitory activities of cinnamon twig extracts. Comparing the antihyperglycemic activity of renewable plant parts, indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum; tǔ ròu guì) twig extracts (CoTE) showed better α-glucosidase and α-amylase activities than leaf, 2-cm branch and 5-cm branch extracts. Chemotype of C. osmophloeum has no influence on the antihyperglycemic activities and proanthocyanidin contents of CoTE. Among four soluble fractions obtained from CoTE by following bioactivity-guided fractionation procedure, the n-butanol soluble fraction (BSF) with abundant proanthocyanidins and condensed tannins, exhibited the best antihyperglycemic and PTP1B inhibitory activities. In addition, the BSF displayed the excellent DPPH free-radical scavenging and ferrous ion-chelating activities. The antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities of all four soluble fractions from CoTE showed high correlation coefficient with their proanthocyanidin and condensed tannin contents. Furthermore, CoTE had no toxicity on 3T3-L1 preadiocytes. Results obtained demonstrated that CoTE has excellent antihyperglycemic, antioxidant and PTP1B inhibitory activities, and thus has great potential as a source for natural health products. PMID:27419094

  14. 31 CFR 543.201 - Prohibited transactions involving blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., 2005; (ii) To be responsible for serious violations of international law in Côte d'Ivoire; (iii) To... the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706) (“IEEPA”) explicitly...

  15. 31 CFR 543.201 - Prohibited transactions involving blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., 2005; (ii) To be responsible for serious violations of international law in Côte d'Ivoire; (iii) To... 2 to paragraph (a) of § 543.201: The International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C....

  16. 31 CFR 543.201 - Prohibited transactions involving blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., 2005; (ii) To be responsible for serious violations of international law in Côte d'Ivoire; (iii) To... 2 to paragraph (a) of § 543.201: The International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C....

  17. 31 CFR 543.201 - Prohibited transactions involving blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., 2005; (ii) To be responsible for serious violations of international law in Côte d'Ivoire; (iii) To... 2 to paragraph (a) of § 543.201: The International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C....

  18. 31 CFR 543.201 - Prohibited transactions involving blocked property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., 2005; (ii) To be responsible for serious violations of international law in Côte d'Ivoire; (iii) To... 2 to paragraph (a) of § 543.201: The International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C....

  19. 76 FR 4046 - Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    ...,'' Docket No. APHIS-2007-0014; 74 FR 18285-18288). That document changed Sec. 94.6(c) to create a protocol..., Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Ivory Coast (C te d'Ivoire), Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait,...

  20. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in or in Relation to Côte d...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... contributing to the conflict in Côte d'Ivoire, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50... Resolution 1572 of November 15, 2004, and subsequent resolutions, and has resulted in the massacre of...

  1. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in or in Relation to Côte d...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in or in Relation to Côte d'Ivoire Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of February 2, 2010 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in or in Relation to Côte d'Ivoire On February...

  2. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in or in Relation to Côte d...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in or in Relation to Côte d'Ivoire Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of February 3, 2012 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in or in Relation to Côte d'Ivoire On February...

  3. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in or in Relation to Côte d...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in or in Relation to Côte d'Ivoire Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of January 26, 2011 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in or in Relation to Côte d'Ivoire On February...

  4. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in or in Relation to Côte d...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in or in Relation to Côte d'Ivoire Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of February 4, 2013 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in or in Relation to Côte d'Ivoire On February...

  5. International Priorities for Teacher Education. World Assembly 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Council on Education for Teaching, Washington, DC.

    Four papers are included in this pamphlet, the proceedings of the World Assembly at Abidjan, Ivory Coast. The keynote address, "A Turning Point in History" by Jaime Benitez, President of the University of Puerto Rico, discusses the Apollo 11 moon landing as an object lesson on values with international implications for shifting educational…

  6. Distribution of organophosphate and carbamate resistance in Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Chandre, F; Darriet, F; Doannio, J M; Rivière, F; Pasteur, N; Guillet, P

    1997-11-01

    The distribution of organophosphate and carbamate resistance was investigated in 33 samples of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus Say from 25 cities in Côte d'Ivoire and Burkina Faso. Organophosphate resistance levels were higher in Côte d'Ivoire than in Burkina Faso. Chlorpyrifos resistance ratios at LC95 ranged from 4 to 30 times in Côte d'Ivoire and from 3 to 6 times in Burkina Faso. For temephos, ratios ranged from 3 to 18 and from 1 to 2, respectively. Of 27 samples from Côte d'Ivoire, 25 also displayed cross resistance to carbamates as shown by a mortality plateau in bioassays with propoxur and carbosulfan (similar to chlorpyrifos). Cross resistance to organophosphates and carbamates was caused by an insensitive acetylcholinesterase allele (AceR). This gene was absent from Burkina Faso, except in Niangoloko near the Côte d'Ivoire border. Organophosphate resistance also was associated with the presence of A2-B2 overproduced esterases which had higher frequencies in Côte d'Ivoire (75-100%) than in Burkina Faso (40-50%). Two other esterases with the same electrophoretic mobility as C2 from Puerto Rico and B1 from California were identified for the 1st time in West Africa. "C2" was widespread, whereas "B1" was present in only a few mosquitoes from Côte d'Ivoire. These differences in resistance patterns should be taken into consideration in planning urban mosquito control strategies within 2 countries.

  7. The Direct Interaction between Two Morphogenetic Proteins Is Essential for Spore Coat Formation in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Isticato, Rachele; Sirec, Teja; Vecchione, Stefano; Crispino, Anna; Saggese, Anella; Baccigalupi, Loredana; Notomista, Eugenio; Driks, Adam; Ricca, Ezio

    2015-01-01

    In Bacillus subtilis the protective layers that surround the mature spore are formed by over seventy different proteins. Some of those proteins have a regulatory role on the assembly of other coat proteins and are referred to as morphogenetic factors. CotE is a major morphogenetic factor, known to form a ring around the forming spore and organize the deposition of the outer surface layers. CotH is a CotE-dependent protein known to control the assembly of at least nine other coat proteins. We report that CotH also controls the assembly of CotE and that this mutual dependency is due to a direct interaction between the two proteins. The C-terminal end of CotE is essential for this direct interaction and CotH cannot bind to mutant CotE deleted of six or nine C-terminal amino acids. However, addition of a negatively charged amino acid to those deleted versions of CotE rescues the interaction. PMID:26484546

  8. Application de la méthode des simulations croisées à l'analyse de tendances dans la relation pluie-débit à partir du modèle GR2M : cas du bassin versant du N'zi-Bandama (Côte d'Ivoire)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouassi, Amani Michel; Bi, Tozan Michel N.'guessan; Kouamé, Koffi Fernand; Kouamé, Kassi Alexis; Okaingni, Jean-Claude; Biemi, Jean

    2012-05-01

    The study area is the N'zi watershed, sub-watershed of the Bandama River (Ivory Coast). The N'zi watershed is located between longitudes 3°49' and 5°22' West and latitudes 6°00' and 9°26' North and covers an area of 35,500 km2. This study aims to identify trends in the rainfall-runoff relationship by using a monthly conceptual model. The methodology has consisted on the one hand in highlighting the existence of interannual climate and hydrological variability by using the method of segmentation of Hubert, and on the other hand, in applying the crossed simulations method by using the GR2M model, over several 7-year sub-periods. The results of the application of the method of segmentation of Hubert have demonstrated the presence of a hydroclimatic variability in the N'zi watershed. The modifications of the climate and physical conditions of the flow resulted in a modification of the hydrological response of the watershed translated by a non-stationarity in the rainfall-runoff relation.

  9. Integrated water pollution assessment of the Ebrié Lagoon, Ivory Coast, West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheren, P. A. G. M.; Kroeze, C.; Janssen, F. J. J. G.; Hordijk, L.; Ptasinski, K. J.

    2004-01-01

    An environmental pollution assessment of the Ebrié lagoon, the largest coastal ecosystem in Western Africa, was executed by applying the Driving force-Pressure-State-Impacts-Response (DPSIR) framework. The domestic and industrial activities in Abidjan and agricultural activities in the wider catchment area were identified as the main driving forces. Two-thirds of Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) loads and 95% of total nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) loads of Abidjan are from domestic effluents, with industry making up the rest. Outside of the direct influence of Abidjan, nutrient levels in the lagoon are governed by the influx of nutrients from the rivers Comoé, Mé and Agnéby, with nutrient land runoff as the key factors. Total annual N loads to the lagoon for 2000 are estimated at 33 kt, of which 45% from urban sources, 42% from land runoff and 13% from atmospheric deposition. Estimates for P are 2.5 kt, 39%, 48% and 13%, respectively. Scenario analysis has shown that autonomous growth, without pollution reduction measures, would result in an estimated five-fold increase in nutrient inputs to the lagoon over the period 1980-2050. Nutrient concentrations in the lagoon would consequently increase by a factor of 3 1/2, which could escalate to a dramatic level of eutrophication for the complete system. Pollution reduction policies aimed at non-point sources would be most effective in reducing nutrient concentrations. Point-source pollution reduction would improve conditions around Abidjan, but not substantially in the other sections of the lagoon. The approach taken in this study has proven efficient under conditions of relative data scarceness, and sufficiently reliable to allow for policy level conclusions to be drawn.

  10. Origins of sulfur compounds in the atmosphere of a zone of high productivity (Gulf of Guinea)

    SciTech Connect

    Delmas, R.; Servant, J.

    1982-12-20

    Recent observations have suggested substantial emission of sulfur compounds by oceanic water which could explain the presence of SO/sub 2/ and SO/sup +//sub 4/ in the air above these waters. The emission is thought to increase with the productivity of the oceanic zones. This point is discussed in relation to the Gulf of Guinea, a zone of high productivity. During the first two campaigns between Dakar, Abidjan, and the Gulf of Guinea SO/sup +//sub 4/ concentrations were measured in the air. Between Abidjan and the Gulf of Guinea the atmospheric SO= /sub 4/ concentrations decreased from 800 to 400 ng m/sup -3/. During the third campaign, between Abidjan and the South Equatorial Current (latitude 1/sup 0/S), the H/sub 2/S and SO/sub 2/ concentrations were measured. The mean H/sub 2/S concentration was 20 ng m/sup -3/, and that of SO/sub 2/ varied between 120 and under 50 ng m/sup -3/. The origins of SO/sub 2/ and SO/sup +//sub 4/ in the air of this area are discussed through the daily variations of the H/sub 2/S content of the air and a contribution from the forested zones of West Africa.

  11. Utilisation of a Novel Test to Measure Severity and Treatment Efficacy of Posterior Blepharitis.

    PubMed

    Yun, Steven T H; Woo, David M; Chong, Calum W K; Liu, Ying; Francis, Katherine E; Shah, Saumil A; Agar, Ashish; Francis, Ian C

    2015-01-01

    Background. This study evaluated the effectiveness of managing posterior blepharitis (PB) using a novel Posterior Blepharitis Management Protocol (PBMP). Design. Prospective, consecutive case series with 100% followup to one month. Participants. 27 patients (54 eyes) with PB from an Ophthalmology practice in Sydney, Australia. Methods. Each patient's PB was assessed by grading the nature and expressibility of the central lower lid tarsal gland secretions on Compression Of The Eyelid (COTE). Patients were then instructed in detail to undertake daily PB management sessions at home using our modified PBMP. Main Outcome Measures. On a subjective scale, patients compared their symptoms at one month with baseline. COTE scores were reevaluated to assess the objective effectiveness of each individual's PBMP. COTE scoring was described as grades 1 (clear oil), 2 (pus, liquid), 3 (toothpaste-like secretions), and 4 (complete tarsal gland obstruction). Results. Patients reported a mean 77.8% ± 13.5% subjective improvement in symptoms. There was a trend towards improvement in COTE grading at one month compared with baseline: grades 1 (0 to 7.4%), 2a (22.2 to 16.6%), 2b (7.4 to 3.7%), 3 (18.5 to 27.7%), and 4 (51.8 to 44%). Conclusions. PBMP provided a rapid, inexpensive, simple, effective, and safe method of treating PB.

  12. Utilisation of a Novel Test to Measure Severity and Treatment Efficacy of Posterior Blepharitis

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Steven T. H.; Woo, David M.; Chong, Calum W. K.; Liu, Ying; Francis, Katherine E.; Shah, Saumil A.; Agar, Ashish; Francis, Ian C.

    2015-01-01

    Background. This study evaluated the effectiveness of managing posterior blepharitis (PB) using a novel Posterior Blepharitis Management Protocol (PBMP). Design. Prospective, consecutive case series with 100% followup to one month. Participants. 27 patients (54 eyes) with PB from an Ophthalmology practice in Sydney, Australia. Methods. Each patient's PB was assessed by grading the nature and expressibility of the central lower lid tarsal gland secretions on Compression Of The Eyelid (COTE). Patients were then instructed in detail to undertake daily PB management sessions at home using our modified PBMP. Main Outcome Measures. On a subjective scale, patients compared their symptoms at one month with baseline. COTE scores were reevaluated to assess the objective effectiveness of each individual's PBMP. COTE scoring was described as grades 1 (clear oil), 2 (pus, liquid), 3 (toothpaste-like secretions), and 4 (complete tarsal gland obstruction). Results. Patients reported a mean 77.8% ± 13.5% subjective improvement in symptoms. There was a trend towards improvement in COTE grading at one month compared with baseline: grades 1 (0 to 7.4%), 2a (22.2 to 16.6%), 2b (7.4 to 3.7%), 3 (18.5 to 27.7%), and 4 (51.8 to 44%). Conclusions. PBMP provided a rapid, inexpensive, simple, effective, and safe method of treating PB. PMID:26347811

  13. Improving Teaching Effectiveness: Florida Essential Competency Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Garfield

    The Florida Council on Teacher Education (COTE) planned and conducted statewide involvement studies to determine competencies that are essential and acceptable to the profession. This included systematic involvement procedures for gaining professional agreement on identification, assessment, implementation, and other development and research on…

  14. Error Bounds for Quadrature Methods Involving Lower Order Derivatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelbrecht, Johann; Fedotov, Igor; Fedotova, Tanya; Harding, Ansie

    2003-01-01

    Quadrature methods for approximating the definite integral of a function f(t) over an interval [a,b] are in common use. Examples of such methods are the Newton-Cotes formulas (midpoint, trapezoidal and Simpson methods etc.) and the Gauss-Legendre quadrature rules, to name two types of quadrature. Error bounds for these approximations involve…

  15. Update on World Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Summarizes a wealth of statistical information concerning the economic development and debt for a number of developing nations. Includes statistics on the gross national product growth of Cote d'lvoire, Guatemala, Malaysia, Korea, Colombia, and Nigeria, as well as, the gross domestic product growth and debt service for Latin America, Africa, and…

  16. Matiere sombre : Radioscopie d'un monde invisible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jodra, S.; Harrois-Monin, F.; Bonnet-Bidaud, J. M.

    2002-05-01

    La face cachée de l'Univers est la cle de son evolution. Des resultats recents levent le voile sur l'energie sombre qui constitue la majeure partie du cote obscur du cosmos. Une bonne raison de faire le point sur l'autre composante invisible de l'Univers : la matiere "noire". Un portrait-robot circule deja.

  17. Identity in Africa's Internal Conflicts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Francis M.

    1996-01-01

    Identifies and defines four models of internal ethnic conflict and discusses those conflicts within various African nations. The corresponding models and countries include Integration Model: Botswana and Somalia; Managed Diversity Model: Ghana, Cote d'Ivorie, Kenya, and Nigeria; Ambivalent Accommodation Model: Ethiopia and Djibouti; and Acute…

  18. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (83rd, Phoenix, Arizona, August 9-12, 2000). Mass Communication and Society Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Mass Communication and Society Division section of the proceedings contains the following 12 papers: "Retreads: Recycling American Prime Time Television for Fun and Profit" (Chad Dell); "Partisan and Structural Balance of Election Stories on the 1998 Governor's Race in Michigan" (Frederick Fico and William Cote); "Newspaper Letters and…

  19. A Theory of Success for Disadvantaged Children: Reconceptualization of Social Capital in the Light of Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xiao Ying; DeBlois, Lucie; Deniger, Marc-Andre; Kamanzi, Canisius

    2008-01-01

    Social capital is a term widely used in diverse contexts and in diverse meanings. For the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD, 1998), social capital is defined as networks with shared norms and values that facilitate cooperation (Cote & Healy, 2001); for Putnam (1995), as networks, norms, and trust that enable members of…

  20. Utilisation of a Novel Test to Measure Severity and Treatment Efficacy of Posterior Blepharitis.

    PubMed

    Yun, Steven T H; Woo, David M; Chong, Calum W K; Liu, Ying; Francis, Katherine E; Shah, Saumil A; Agar, Ashish; Francis, Ian C

    2015-01-01

    Background. This study evaluated the effectiveness of managing posterior blepharitis (PB) using a novel Posterior Blepharitis Management Protocol (PBMP). Design. Prospective, consecutive case series with 100% followup to one month. Participants. 27 patients (54 eyes) with PB from an Ophthalmology practice in Sydney, Australia. Methods. Each patient's PB was assessed by grading the nature and expressibility of the central lower lid tarsal gland secretions on Compression Of The Eyelid (COTE). Patients were then instructed in detail to undertake daily PB management sessions at home using our modified PBMP. Main Outcome Measures. On a subjective scale, patients compared their symptoms at one month with baseline. COTE scores were reevaluated to assess the objective effectiveness of each individual's PBMP. COTE scoring was described as grades 1 (clear oil), 2 (pus, liquid), 3 (toothpaste-like secretions), and 4 (complete tarsal gland obstruction). Results. Patients reported a mean 77.8% ± 13.5% subjective improvement in symptoms. There was a trend towards improvement in COTE grading at one month compared with baseline: grades 1 (0 to 7.4%), 2a (22.2 to 16.6%), 2b (7.4 to 3.7%), 3 (18.5 to 27.7%), and 4 (51.8 to 44%). Conclusions. PBMP provided a rapid, inexpensive, simple, effective, and safe method of treating PB. PMID:26347811

  1. Promoting Lifelong Physical Activity and High Level Performance: Realising an Achievable Aim for Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacNamara, Aine; Collins, Dave; Bailey, Richard; Toms, Martin; Ford, Paul; Pearce, Gemma

    2011-01-01

    Background: Even though all school-aged children in most countries experience some form of curricular physical education many do not maintain a lifelong involvement in sport or physical activity. From a theoretical perspective, the development models that dominate sport are limited by their staged and linear approaches to development (e.g. Cote's…

  2. Seismic Anisotropy from the Core-Mantle Boundary to the Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynner, Colton Lee

    5, I focus on the dynamics of lowermost mantle. Shear wave splitting of SK(K)S phases is often used to examine upper mantle anisotropy. In specific cases, however, splitting of these phases may reflect anisotropy in the lowermost mantle. In both Chapters 4 and 5, I present splitting measurements of SK(K)S phases that sample the lowermost mantle beneath Africa. In Chapter 4, I present measurements of SKS and SKKS splitting at station DBIC in the Cote D'Ivoire. The splitting pattern is dominated by null measurements over a wide range of backazimuths, with non-null measurements found over a very limited backazimuthal range. Splitting at DBIC has previously been interpreted in terms of upper mantle anisotropy, but we argue that an apparently isotropic upper mantle can best explain this splitting pattern with a contribution from anisotropy in the lowermost mantle. In Chapter 5, I present SKS and SKKS splitting measurements that likely reflects a contribution from lowermost mantle anisotropy beneath Africa. The vast majority of discrepant pairs sample the boundary of the African large low shear-wave velocity province (LLSVP), which dominates the lower mantle structure beneath this region. In general, I observe little or no splitting of phases that have passed through the LLSVP itself and significant splitting for phases that have sampled the boundary of the LLSVP. I infer that the D" region just outside the LLSVP boundary is strongly deformed, while its interior remains undeformed (or weakly deformed). In Chapter 6, I examine the anisotropic structure of the mid-mantle (transition zone and uppermost lower mantle) beneath the Japan, Izu-Bonin, and South America subduction systems. In each region, I observe consistent splitting with delay times as large as 1 sec, indicating the presence of anisotropy at mid-mantle depths. Clear splitting of phases originating from depths as great as ~600km argues for a contribution from anisotropy in the uppermost lower mantle as well as

  3. 31 CFR 543.203 - Holding of funds in interest-bearing accounts; investment and reinvestment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Holding of funds in interest-bearing...´TE D'IVOIRE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 543.203 Holding of funds in interest-bearing... such funds in a blocked interest-bearing account located in the United States. (b)(1) For purposes...

  4. 31 CFR 543.203 - Holding of funds in interest-bearing accounts; investment and reinvestment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Holding of funds in interest-bearing...´TE D'IVOIRE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 543.203 Holding of funds in interest-bearing... such funds in a blocked interest-bearing account located in the United States. (b)(1) For purposes...

  5. 31 CFR 543.203 - Holding of funds in interest-bearing accounts; investment and reinvestment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Holding of funds in interest-bearing...´TE D'IVOIRE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 543.203 Holding of funds in interest-bearing... such funds in a blocked interest-bearing account located in the United States. (b)(1) For purposes...

  6. 31 CFR 543.203 - Holding of funds in interest-bearing accounts; investment and reinvestment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Holding of funds in interest-bearing accounts; investment and reinvestment. 543.203 Section 543.203 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... D'IVOIRE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 543.203 Holding of funds in interest-bearing...

  7. 31 CFR 543.203 - Holding of funds in interest-bearing accounts; investment and reinvestment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Holding of funds in interest-bearing accounts; investment and reinvestment. 543.203 Section 543.203 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... D'IVOIRE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 543.203 Holding of funds in interest-bearing...

  8. 76 FR 67033 - To Take Certain Actions Under the African Growth and Opportunity Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    .... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-28211 Filed 10-27-11; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F2-P ...), the Republic of Guinea (Guinea), and the Republic of Niger (Niger) meet the eligibility requirements set forth or referenced therein, and I have decided to designate C te d'Ivoire, Guinea, and Niger...

  9. 78 FR 8955 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Situation in or in Relation to C[ocirc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ..., February 4, 2013. [FR Doc. 2013-02857 Filed 2-5-13; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F3 ... Situation in or in Relation to C te d'Ivoire On February 7, 2006, by Executive Order 13396, the President declared a national emergency, pursuant to the International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C....

  10. Comparison of LASSO and GPS time transfers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, W.; Petit, G.; Baumont, F.; Fridelance, P.; Gaignebet, J.; Grudler, P.; Veillet, C.; Wiant, J.; Klepczynski, W. J.

    1994-01-01

    The LASSO is a technique which should allow the comparison of remote atomic clocks with sub-nanosecond precision and accuracy. The first successful time transfer using LASSO has been carried out between the Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur in France and the McDonald Observatory in Texas, United States. This paper presents a preliminary comparison of LASSO time transfer with GPS common-view time transfer.

  11. Polarimetric glucose sensing using the Brewster-reflection off the eye lens: theoretical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeckle, Stefan; Rovati, Luigi; Ansari, Rafat R.

    2002-05-01

    An important task of in vivo polarimetric glucose sensing is to find an appropriate way to optically access the aqueous humor of the human eye. In this paper two different approaches are analyzed theoretically and applied to the eye model of Le Grand. First approach is the tangential path of Cote et al., and the second is a new scheme of this paper of applying Brewster reflection off the eye lens.

  12. Wide Area Thermal Processing of Light Emitting Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Duty, Chad E; Joshi, Pooran C; Jellison Jr, Gerald Earle; Angelini, Joseph Attilio; Sabau, Adrian S

    2011-10-01

    Laboratory laser materials synthesis of wide bandgap materials has been successfully used to create white light emitting materials (LEMs). This technology development has progressed to the exploration on design and construction of apparatus for wide area doping and phase transformation of wide bandgap material substrates. The objective of this proposal is to develop concepts for wide area doping and phase transformation based on AppliCote Associates, LLC laser technology and ORNL high density pulsed plasma arc technology.

  13. A Theoretical Analysis of a New Polarimetric Optical Scheme for Glucose Sensing in the Human Eye

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rovati, Luigi L.; Boeckle, Stefan; Ansari, Rafat R.; Salzman, Jack A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The challenging task of in vivo polarimetric glucose sensing is the identification and selection of a scheme to optically access the aqueous humor of the human eye. In this short communication an earlier approach of Cote et al. is theoretically compared with our new optical scheme. Simulations of the new scheme using the eye model of Navarro, suggest that the new optical geometry can overcome the limitations of the previous approach for in vivo measurements of glucose in a human eye.

  14. [Quality control of the vaccines and cold chain during the national vaccination campaigns].

    PubMed

    Couacy-Hymann, E; Kodjo, A; Ouattara, M; Kanga, K; Diawara, S; Domenech, J

    1992-01-01

    During the two vaccination campaigns against rinderpest and contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in 1989 and 1990, 507 vaccine samples were collected for quality control at each step of the distribution chain from the Veterinary Pharmacy of Abidjan to the vaccinator on the field. Parallel to that, the quality of the cold chain was checked. A total of 463 titrations were performed. All the titration levels were above the OIE/FAO standards, i.e. 10(2.5) DICT50/ml for rinderpest Valence and 10(7) viable germs/ml for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia Valence.

  15. Ehrlichia canis in Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks in the Ivory Coast.

    PubMed

    Socolovschi, Cristina; Gomez, José; Marié, Jean-Lou; Davoust, Bernard; Guigal, Pierre-Michel; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2012-12-01

    Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis caused by Ehrlichia canis is distributed globally, but its prevalence in Africa is poorly known. In the study reported herein, 27% of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks collected from watchdogs in Abidjan, Ivory Coast, were positive for E. canis using quantitative real-time PCR. A new molecular strategy is proposed that can be used not only for epidemiological study, but also for the diagnosis of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis. Our findings show for the first time the presence of E. canis using molecular tools in the Ivory Coast, providing direct evidence for the presence of this pathogen.

  16. Dynamique socio-économique et crise familiale et éducative en côte-d'ivoire de 1960 a 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assy, Edmond Paul

    2003-09-01

    This article reflects on the crisis affecting the sphere of the family and education in Côte d'Ivoire between 1960 and 1990. The country's family structure has been shaken by the market economy, by the conventional school system and by the modern legal code. This has in turn engendered a crisis of parental authority and a variety of problems connected with the instability of marriages in Côte d'Ivoire. How, then, is it possible to redress the situation and establish a partnership between the family, the educational system and society? The author advances a series of propositions for creating a better coordination between the family and the educational sphere and for reinforcing the educative capacity of the family and of society as a whole.

  17. [Evaluation of cocoa oil for individual protection against Simulium damnosum s.i].

    PubMed

    Pitroipa, X; Sankara, D; Konan, L; Sylla, M; Doannio, J M C; Traore, S

    2002-01-01

    Thanks to larviciding and distribution of ivermectine, transmission of onchocerciasis was virtually halted in all countries covered by the WHO Onchocerciasis Control Program (OCP). However as a result of this success vector control has been stopped in most areas covered by the program and a recrudescence of files is an increasing problem. In some rural communities fly biting hinders normal agricultural activity. Since local farmers cannot afford ground larviciding, many rely on topical repellents. For this reason, development of an inexpensive method of individual protection is a major priority. The purpose of this study carried out in the savannah area of the Côte d'Ivoire was to assess the repellent properties of cocoa oil, which is frequently used in some rural areas of the Côte d'Ivoire to prevent fly biting. Results showed that cocoa oil provides excellent protection against Simulium damnosum s.l. PMID:12616944

  18. [Evaluation of cocoa oil for individual protection against Simulium damnosum s.i].

    PubMed

    Pitroipa, X; Sankara, D; Konan, L; Sylla, M; Doannio, J M C; Traore, S

    2002-01-01

    Thanks to larviciding and distribution of ivermectine, transmission of onchocerciasis was virtually halted in all countries covered by the WHO Onchocerciasis Control Program (OCP). However as a result of this success vector control has been stopped in most areas covered by the program and a recrudescence of files is an increasing problem. In some rural communities fly biting hinders normal agricultural activity. Since local farmers cannot afford ground larviciding, many rely on topical repellents. For this reason, development of an inexpensive method of individual protection is a major priority. The purpose of this study carried out in the savannah area of the Côte d'Ivoire was to assess the repellent properties of cocoa oil, which is frequently used in some rural areas of the Côte d'Ivoire to prevent fly biting. Results showed that cocoa oil provides excellent protection against Simulium damnosum s.l.

  19. 31 CFR 543.702 - Pre-Penalty Notice; settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pre-Penalty Notice; settlement. 543.702 Section 543.702 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CôTE D'IVOIRE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Penalties § 543.702 Pre-Penalty Notice;...

  20. [Pediatric colonoscopy at the University Hospital of Cocody (Ivory Coast)].

    PubMed

    Okon, J B; Assi, C; Diakité, M; Siaka, K; Ouattara, A; Soro, D; Coulibaly, A; Lohouès, M J; Camara, B M

    2012-01-01

    No published data are available on pediatric colonoscopy in Ivory Coast (and only one report on pediatric gastroscopy). We conducted a retrospective study of all colonoscopy reports of procedures performed from 1 September, 1991, to December 31, 2010, at the University Hospital of Cocody in Abidjan (Ivory Coast) and examined the epidemiological aspects, conditions of performance, indications, and results of colonoscopy in patients younger than 18 years. Eleven of the total of 1 159 colonoscopies were performed in in this age group (0.94%). The mean age of these 8 girls and 3 boys was 15 years (range: 10 to 17 years). All patients had been referred by a gastroenterologist. Bowel preparation was performed in all with a water enema. Premedication was performed exclusively with midazolam. A pediatric colonoscope was used. The colonoscopy was incomplete in 36% of cases (n=4). Rectal bleeding was the main indication. Results were abnormal in 72% of cases (n=8) and the lesions found were juvenile polyps, ulcerative colitis, sigmoid varices, rectocolitis due to a caustic product, and adenomatous polyps. The results of the examination were normal in 3 children. No complications were reported. In conclusion, although the pediatric colonoscopy practice at the University Hospital of Cocody in Abidjan is extremely small, its therapeutic and diagnostic yields are high, particularly in cases of rectal bleeding. Physicians (general practitioners and pediatricians) managing children should not hesitate to ask for a colonoscopy when appropriate.

  1. Mass Spectrometry and Multiplex Antigen Assays to Assess Microbial Quality and Toxin Production of Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Clinical and Food Samples

    PubMed Central

    Attien, Paul; Sina, Haziz; Moussaoui, Wardi; Zimmermann-Meisse, Gaëlle; Dadié, Thomas; Keller, Daniel; Riegel, Philippe; Edoh, Vincent; Kotchoni, Simeon O.; Djè, Marcellin; Prévost, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the microbial quality of meat products and on some clinical samples in Abidjan focused on Staphylococcus genus and the toxin production profile of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) isolated. Bacteria were collected from 240 samples of three meat products sold in Abidjan and 180 samples issued from clinical infections. The strains were identified by both microbiological and MALDI-TOF-MS methods. The susceptibility to antibiotics was determined by the disc diffusion method. The production of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin, LukE/D, and epidermolysins was screened using radial gel immunodiffusion. The production of staphylococcal enterotoxins and TSST-1 was screened by a Bio-Plex Assay. We observed that 96/240 of meat samples and 32/180 of clinical samples were contaminated by Staphylococcus. Eleven species were isolated from meats and 4 from clinical samples. Forty-two S. aureus strains were isolated from ours samples. Variability of resistance was observed for most of the tested antibiotics but none of the strains displays a resistance to imipenem and quinolones. We observed that 89% of clinical S. aureus were resistant to methicillin against 58% for those issued from meat products. All S. aureus isolates issued from meat products produce epidermolysins whereas none of the clinical strains produced these toxins. The enterotoxins were variably produced by both clinical and meat product samples. PMID:24987686

  2. [AIDS prevention by a youth association in Ivory Coast: impact, successes and disappointments].

    PubMed

    Deniaud, F; Fampou-Toundji, J C

    1999-01-01

    Over the last few years, the number of associations involved in AIDS prevention has dramatically increased in Ivory Coast, especially in Abidjan. This article describes an experiment in the prevention of AIDS and STDs among young people in Abidjan by means of peer education. It follows the management and progress of a youth organization for AIDS prevention, CESAM (Cellule Scolaire Anti-SIDA et MST), the School-based Anti-AIDS and STD Unit. Critical review of the activities of this association identifies a number of methodological, planning, human and material problems, which have received little attention in the past. CESAM is one of the first anti-AIDS associations in Ivory Coast to target young people and to have young members. This may be the reason for some of its successes and some of its failures and disappointments. The association's successes include the provision of information to more than 25,000 people between 1992 and 1996, and the overall satisfaction of the public and local AIDS institutions. The young people involved have taken on a new social identity, which has developed from the motivation of association members and the personal experiences of some with respect to AIDS, STDs and problems associated with contraception. However, this new identity is threatened by rivalry between members and the search for funding, as the substantial funding obtained in 1994-1995 can show it. PMID:10623875

  3. Factors Associated with Early Introduction of Formula and/or Solid, Semi-Solid or Soft Foods in Seven Francophone West African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Issaka, Abukari I.; Agho, Kingsley E.; Page, Andrew N.; Burns, Penelope L.; Stevens, Garry J.; Dibley, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with early introduction of formula and/or solid, semi-solid or soft foods to infants aged three to five months in seven Francophone West African countries. The sources of data for the analyses were the most recent Demographic and Health Survey datasets of the seven countries, namely Benin (BDHS, 2012), Burkina Faso (BFDHS, 2010), Cote d’Ivoire (CIDHS, 2011–2012), Guinea (GDHS, 2012), Mali (MDHS, 2012–2013), Niger (NDHS, 2012) and Senegal (SDHS, 2010). The study used multiple logistic regression methods to analyse the factors associated with early introduction of complementary feeding using individual-, household- and community-level determinants. The sample was composed of 4158 infants aged between three and five months with: 671 from Benin, 811 from Burkina Faso, 362 from Cote d’Ivoire, 398 from Guinea, 519 from Mali, 767 from Niger and 630 from Senegal. Multiple analyses indicated that in three of the seven countries (Benin, Guinea and Senegal), infants who suffered illnesses, such as diarrhoea and acute respiratory infection, were significantly more likely to be introduced to formula and/or solid, semi-solid or soft foods between the age of three and five months. Other significant factors included infants who: were born in second to fourth position (Benin), whose mothers did not attend any antenatal clinics (Burkina Faso and Niger), were male (Cote d’Ivoire and Senegal), lived in an urban areas (Senegal), or were delivered by traditional birth attendants (Guinea, Niger and Senegal). Programmes to discourage early introduction of formula and/or solid, semi-solid or soft foods in these countries should target the most vulnerable segments of the population in order to improve exclusive breastfeeding practices and reduce infant mortality. PMID:25647663

  4. Polarimetric Glucose Sensing Using Brewster Reflection off of Eye Lens: Theoretical Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boeckle, Stefan; Rovati, Luigi; Ansari, Rafat R.

    2002-01-01

    An important task of in vivo polarimetric glucose sensing is to find an appropriate way to optically access the aqueous humor of the human eye. In this paper two different approaches are analyzed theoretically and applied to the eye model of Le Grand. First approach is the tangential path of Cote, et al. (G.L. Cot6, M.D. Fox, and R.B. Northrop: Noninvasive Optical Polarimetric Glucose Sensing Using a True Phase Measurement Technique. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, vol. 39, no. 7, pp. 752-756, 1992.) and the second is a new scheme of this paper of applying Brewster reflection off the eye lens.

  5. Association of antepartum and postpartum depression in Ghanaian and Ivorian women with febrile illness in their offspring: a prospective birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Guo, Nan; Bindt, Carola; Te Bonle, Marguerite; Appiah-Poku, John; Hinz, Rebecca; Barthel, Dana; Koffi, Mathurin; Posdzich, Sarah; Deymann, Simon; Barkmann, Claus; Schlüter, Lisa; Jaeger, Anna; Blay Nguah, Samuel; Eberhardt, Kirsten A; N'Goran, Eliezer; Tagbor, Harry; Ehrhardt, Stephan

    2013-11-01

    In low-income countries, perinatal depression is common, but longitudinal data on its influence on child health are rare. We examined the association between maternal depression and febrile illness in children. There were 654 mother/child dyads in Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire that were enrolled in a prospective birth cohort in 2010-2011 and underwent 2-years of follow up. Mothers were examined for depression using the Patient Health Questionnaire depression module antepartum and 3 and 12 months postpartum. The hazard of febrile illness in children of depressed and nondepressed mothers was estimated using a recurrent event Cox proportional hazards model. The prevalences of antepartum depression in mothers from Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana were 28.3% and 26.3%, respectively. The prevalences of depression at 3 and 12 months postpartum were 11.8% and 16.1% (Côte d'Ivoire) and 8.9% and 7.2% (Ghana). The crude and adjusted (for country and socioeconomic status) hazard ratios of febrile illness in children of depressed mothers compared with those in children of nondepressed mothers were 1.57 (95% confidence interval: 1.20, 2.07) and 1.32 (95% confidence interval: 1.01, 1.74) respectively. Perinatal depression was frequent and associated with febrile illness in the offspring. Our results showed that a high prevalence of depression in sub-Saharan Africa may pose a serious public health threat to women and their offspring.

  6. Staphylococcus aureus complex from animals and humans in three remote African regions.

    PubMed

    Schaumburg, Frieder; Pauly, Maude; Anoh, Etile; Mossoun, Arsene; Wiersma, Lidewij; Schubert, Grit; Flammen, Arnaud; Alabi, Abraham S; Muyembe-Tamfum, Jean-Jacques; Grobusch, Martin P; Karhemere, Stomy; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Kremsner, Peter G; Mellmann, Alexander; Becker, Karsten; Leendertz, Fabian H; Peters, Georg

    2015-04-01

    Staphylococcus schweitzeri has been recently considered to be a highly divergent Staphylococcus aureus clade and usually colonises nonhuman primates and bats in sub-Saharan Africa. Its transmissibility to humans remains unclear. We therefore investigated the transmission of S. aureus and S. schweitzeri among humans, domestic animals, and wildlife in three remote African regions. A cross-sectional study on nasal and pharyngeal colonisation in humans (n = 1288) and animals (n = 698) was performed in Côte d'Ivoire, Gabon, and Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo). Isolates were subjected to spa typing and multilocus sequence typing. Antimicrobial susceptibility and selected virulence factors were tested. S. schweitzeri was found in monkeys from all study sites but no transmission to humans was evident, despite frequent contact of humans with wildlife. In contrast, human-associated S. aureus sequence types (ST1, ST6, ST15) were detected in domestic animals and nonhuman primates, pointing toward a human-to-monkey transmission in the wild. The proportion of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) among all S. aureus was 0% (Gabon), 1.7% (DR Congo), and 5.3% (Côte d'Ivoire). The majority of MRSA isolates belonged to the African clone ST88. In conclusion, we did not find any evidence for a transmission of S. schweitzeri from animals to humans. However, such a transmission might remain possible due to the close phylogenetic relation of humans and nonhuman primates. The ST88-MRSA clone was widespread in Côte d'Ivoire but not in Gabon and DR Congo.

  7. Association of antepartum and postpartum depression in Ghanaian and Ivorian women with febrile illness in their offspring: a prospective birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Guo, Nan; Bindt, Carola; Te Bonle, Marguerite; Appiah-Poku, John; Hinz, Rebecca; Barthel, Dana; Koffi, Mathurin; Posdzich, Sarah; Deymann, Simon; Barkmann, Claus; Schlüter, Lisa; Jaeger, Anna; Blay Nguah, Samuel; Eberhardt, Kirsten A; N'Goran, Eliezer; Tagbor, Harry; Ehrhardt, Stephan

    2013-11-01

    In low-income countries, perinatal depression is common, but longitudinal data on its influence on child health are rare. We examined the association between maternal depression and febrile illness in children. There were 654 mother/child dyads in Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire that were enrolled in a prospective birth cohort in 2010-2011 and underwent 2-years of follow up. Mothers were examined for depression using the Patient Health Questionnaire depression module antepartum and 3 and 12 months postpartum. The hazard of febrile illness in children of depressed and nondepressed mothers was estimated using a recurrent event Cox proportional hazards model. The prevalences of antepartum depression in mothers from Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana were 28.3% and 26.3%, respectively. The prevalences of depression at 3 and 12 months postpartum were 11.8% and 16.1% (Côte d'Ivoire) and 8.9% and 7.2% (Ghana). The crude and adjusted (for country and socioeconomic status) hazard ratios of febrile illness in children of depressed mothers compared with those in children of nondepressed mothers were 1.57 (95% confidence interval: 1.20, 2.07) and 1.32 (95% confidence interval: 1.01, 1.74) respectively. Perinatal depression was frequent and associated with febrile illness in the offspring. Our results showed that a high prevalence of depression in sub-Saharan Africa may pose a serious public health threat to women and their offspring. PMID:24013202

  8. Life promises and 'failed' family ties: expectations and disappointment within a clinical trial (Ivory Coast).

    PubMed

    Marcis, F Le

    2015-12-01

    Building on fieldwork carried out in a clinical trial looking at early antiretroviral treatment for HIV in Abidjan, this paper aims to analyse the way relations emerge during trials and the consequences of the end of participation. Instead of discussing it using the register of ethics, understood as a universal set of principles, the trial is analysed for what it means locally for its actors, mainly patients. From this standpoint, the trial can be defined as both a promise of life and of new possibilities embodied in what is often described as new family ties. How are such ties formed and what does it mean when these ties are broken at the end of patient participation? Discussing the failure of family ties commented upon by patients and dealt by physician researcher is a way to look at ethics from below.

  9. Life promises and 'failed' family ties: expectations and disappointment within a clinical trial (Ivory Coast).

    PubMed

    Marcis, F Le

    2015-12-01

    Building on fieldwork carried out in a clinical trial looking at early antiretroviral treatment for HIV in Abidjan, this paper aims to analyse the way relations emerge during trials and the consequences of the end of participation. Instead of discussing it using the register of ethics, understood as a universal set of principles, the trial is analysed for what it means locally for its actors, mainly patients. From this standpoint, the trial can be defined as both a promise of life and of new possibilities embodied in what is often described as new family ties. How are such ties formed and what does it mean when these ties are broken at the end of patient participation? Discussing the failure of family ties commented upon by patients and dealt by physician researcher is a way to look at ethics from below. PMID:26361643

  10. Socioeconomic inequalities in child mortality: comparisons across nine developing countries.

    PubMed

    Wagstaff, A

    2000-01-01

    This paper generates and analyses survey data on inequalities in mortality among infants and children aged under five years by consumption in Brazil, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Nepal, Nicaragua, Pakistan, the Philippines, South Africa, and Viet Nam. The data were obtained from the Living Standards Measurement Study and the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey. Mortality rates were estimated directly where complete fertility histories were available and indirectly otherwise. Mortality distributions were compared between countries by means of concentration curves and concentration indices: dominance checks were carried out for all pairwise intercountry comparisons; standard errors were calculated for the concentration indices; and tests of intercountry differences in inequality were performed.

  11. Risk of Vibrio Transmission Linked to the Consumption of Crustacean in Coastal Towns of Côte d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    TRAORÉ, S. G.; BONFOH, B.; KRABI, R.; ODERMATT, P.; UTZINGER, J.; ROSE, K.-N.; TANNER, M.; FREY, J.; QUILICI, M.-L.; KOUSSÉMON, M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of Vibrio spp. transmission from crustaceans to humans in two coastal towns of Côte d’Ivoire. Bacteriologic analysis was performed on 322 crustacean samples obtained from six markets in Abidjan and one in Dabou. Suspected colonies of Vibrio spp. were identified by morphological, cultural, biochemical and molecular tests, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to further characterize Vibrio strains. Additionally, a survey on consumption of crustaceans was conducted among 120 randomly selected households in Abidjan. Overall, Vibrio spp. were isolated from 7.8% of the crustacean samples studied, at concentrations as high as 6.3 Log colony forming unit per gram. Vibrio strains identified were divided into 40% Vibrio alginolyticus, 36% Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and 24% non-toxigenic Vibrio cholerae with the latter two species potentially causing mild to severe forms of seafood-associated gastroenteritis. Among interviewed households, 11.7% reported daily consumption of crustaceans, confirming the high probability of exposure of human population to Vibrio spp., and 7.5% reported symptoms of food poisoning after consumption of crustaceans. The absence of genes encoding major virulence factors in the studied strains, i.e., cholera toxin (ctxA and ctxB) for V. cholerae and thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh) and tdh-related haemolysin (trh) for V. parahaemolyticus, does not exclude the possibility of a potential exposure to pathogenic strains. However, food preparation practices prevent human infections, as most households boil crustaceans before consumption (96.7%), usually for at least 45 min (85.9%). PMID:22691466

  12. Musical and clothing invitations to protection.

    PubMed

    Deniaud, F

    1993-01-01

    The Chaussez Capote Project interviewed 48 youths in Abidjan and Dabou aged 14-25 years on how to best get individuals in their age group to use condoms. 251 individuals aged 15-25 were also surveyed in Abidjan on the same subject. While more than 80% of this latter group had already discussed AIDS, sexually transmitted disease (STD), and prevention with others, 90% still wanted advice on these themes from medical staff and the media. 40% who had already used condoms did so incorrectly, while approximately 33% had experienced condom breakage during use. Respondents felt that condom promotion should be associated with information on AIDS, STDs, and contraception or information on general health. In response to this feedback, the project commissioned the creation of a promotional music cassette with French and African songs of different musical styles. Lyrics imparted technical information and correct misconceptions related to condom use. Free distribution of the cassette commenced August 1992, and approximately 800 were given to organizations and businesses. The cassette also aired on radio and Ivorian television, but met with only limited success. It is thought that its impact was limited due to the small number of copies duplicated and inefficient distribution. A new version was therefore created with different songs and short messages by popular African singers for local duplication and sale at a subsidized price starting December 1993. As a 2nd intervention, clothing metaphors applied to condoms and condom use were applied to the development of a clothing promotion loincloth designed Spring 1993. The cloth was pretested and revised to ultimately consist of panels depicting 2 young couples, a condom, a panther, and the words Entre nous. The cloth has been ordered for use by the National AIDS Committee, a condom social marketing project, and the French agency for development cooperation. PMID:12345380

  13. Musical and clothing invitations to protection.

    PubMed

    Deniaud, F

    1993-01-01

    The Chaussez Capote Project interviewed 48 youths in Abidjan and Dabou aged 14-25 years on how to best get individuals in their age group to use condoms. 251 individuals aged 15-25 were also surveyed in Abidjan on the same subject. While more than 80% of this latter group had already discussed AIDS, sexually transmitted disease (STD), and prevention with others, 90% still wanted advice on these themes from medical staff and the media. 40% who had already used condoms did so incorrectly, while approximately 33% had experienced condom breakage during use. Respondents felt that condom promotion should be associated with information on AIDS, STDs, and contraception or information on general health. In response to this feedback, the project commissioned the creation of a promotional music cassette with French and African songs of different musical styles. Lyrics imparted technical information and correct misconceptions related to condom use. Free distribution of the cassette commenced August 1992, and approximately 800 were given to organizations and businesses. The cassette also aired on radio and Ivorian television, but met with only limited success. It is thought that its impact was limited due to the small number of copies duplicated and inefficient distribution. A new version was therefore created with different songs and short messages by popular African singers for local duplication and sale at a subsidized price starting December 1993. As a 2nd intervention, clothing metaphors applied to condoms and condom use were applied to the development of a clothing promotion loincloth designed Spring 1993. The cloth was pretested and revised to ultimately consist of panels depicting 2 young couples, a condom, a panther, and the words Entre nous. The cloth has been ordered for use by the National AIDS Committee, a condom social marketing project, and the French agency for development cooperation.

  14. Fatal Baylisascaris larva migrans in a colony of Japanese macaques kept by a safari-style zoo in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hiroshi; Une, Yumi; Kawakami, Shigehisa; Saito, Eriko; Kamiya, Haruo; Akao, Nobuaki; Furuoka, Hidefumi

    2005-06-01

    A colony of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata fuscata) kept by a safari-style zoo in Japan experienced 9 sporadic cases of fatal neurological diseases, such as epilepsy and posterior paralysis, during the 12 yr from 1989 to 2001. This macaque colony consisted of approximately 30 animals, on average, during this period, and the macaques shared their living space with II American black bears (Ursus americanus) harboring zoonotic roundworms (Baylisascaris transfuga). Close to this enclosure, a cote for 2-3 raccoons (Procyon lotor) was placed, and raw sewage from this cote ran into a shallow drain in the area for macaques and bears. However, fecal examinations in recent years did not detect the infection of raccoons with zoonotic roundworms (Baylisascaris procyonis). Postmortem histological examination of the latest 2 ill macaques detected multifocal malacia in the brain; 2 ascarid larvae of 60 microm maximum width were encapsulated in the cerebrum and lungs of 1 of the animals. To determine the causative ascarid species of the fatal larva migrans, we analyzed 2 additional encapsulated Baylisascaris larvae collected from formalin-fixed lungs by morphological and molecular approaches. This sporadic outbreak is the second record of Baylisascaris larva migrans in animals in Japan. PMID:16108577

  15. An oyster-associated hepatitis A outbreak in France in 2007.

    PubMed

    Guillois-Bécel, Y; Couturier, E; Le Saux, J C; Roque-Afonso, A M; Le Guyader, F S; Le Goas, A; Pernès, J; Le Bechec, S; Briand, A; Robert, C; Dussaix, E; Pommepuy, M; Vaillant, V

    2009-03-12

    Following the notification of nine hepatitis A cases clustered in the Cotes d Armor district in northwestern France, epidemiological, environmental and microbiological investigations were set up in order to identify the source and vehicle of contamination and implement control measures. In total, 111 cases were identified in the outbreak, all of whom lived or had stayed as tourists in the Cotes d Armor district. Of the cases, 87% had eaten raw shellfish, and 81% specifically oysters. Traceback investigations carried out on raw shellfish consumed by the cases showed that the raw shellfish originated from a single shellfish farm. The shellfish were probably contaminated either in the submersible tanks or in a depuration land-based tank where they were stored. The source of contamination was not identified but shellfish could have been tainted by sewage overflows or by wastewater releases from a polluted storm sewer close to the shellfish farm or from on-site sanitation facilities. To prevent future hepatitis A outbreaks due to shellfish consumption from this area, hazards specific to each farm should be analysed. Timely information on sewage overflows should also be part of communities efforts regarding sewage collection and treatment. PMID:19317985

  16. Validity of rapid estimates of household wealth and income for health surveys in rural Africa

    PubMed Central

    Morris, S.; Carletto, C.; Hoddinott, J.; Christiaensen, L.

    2000-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To test the validity of proxy measures of household wealth and income that can be readily implemented in health surveys in rural Africa.
DESIGN—Data are drawn from four different integrated household surveys. The assumptions underlying the choice of wealth proxy are described, and correlations with the true value are assessed in two different settings. The expenditure proxy is developed and then tested for replicability in two independent datasets representing the same population.
SETTING—Rural areas of Mali, Malawi, and Côte d'Ivoire (two national surveys).
PARTICIPANTS—Random sample of rural households in each setting (n=275, 707, 910, and 856, respectively).
MAIN RESULTS—In both Mali and Malawi, the wealth proxy correlated highly (r⩾0.74) with the more complex monetary value method. For rural areas of Côte d'Ivoire, it was possible to generate a list of just 10 expenditure items, the values of which when summed correlated highly with expenditures on all items combined (r=0.74, development dataset, r=0.72, validation dataset). Total household expenditure is an accepted alternative to household income in developing country settings.
CONCLUSIONS—It is feasible to approximate both household wealth and expenditures in rural African settings without dramatically lengthening questionnaires that have a primary focus on health outcomes.


Keywords: socioeconomic status; indicators; Africa PMID:10814660

  17. Newly Discovered Ebola Virus Associated with Hemorrhagic Fever Outbreak in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Towner, Jonathan S.; Sealy, Tara K.; Khristova, Marina L.; Albariño, César G.; Conlan, Sean; Reeder, Serena A.; Quan, Phenix-Lan; Lipkin, W. Ian; Downing, Robert; Tappero, Jordan W.; Okware, Samuel; Lutwama, Julius; Bakamutumaho, Barnabas; Kayiwa, John; Comer, James A.; Rollin, Pierre E.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Nichol, Stuart T.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, Zaire and Sudan ebolaviruses have been responsible for large hemorrhagic fever (HF) outbreaks with case fatalities ranging from 53% to 90%, while a third species, Côte d'Ivoire ebolavirus, caused a single non-fatal HF case. In November 2007, HF cases were reported in Bundibugyo District, Western Uganda. Laboratory investigation of the initial 29 suspect-case blood specimens by classic methods (antigen capture, IgM and IgG ELISA) and a recently developed random-primed pyrosequencing approach quickly identified this to be an Ebola HF outbreak associated with a newly discovered ebolavirus species (Bundibugyo ebolavirus) distantly related to the Côte d'Ivoire ebolavirus found in western Africa. Due to the sequence divergence of this new virus relative to all previously recognized ebolaviruses, these findings have important implications for design of future diagnostic assays to monitor Ebola HF disease in humans and animals, and ongoing efforts to develop effective antivirals and vaccines. PMID:19023410

  18. Glycaemic index and load values tested in normoglycemic adults for five staple foodstuffs: pounded yam, pounded cassava-plantain, placali, attieke and maize meal stiff porridge.

    PubMed

    Kouamé, Adam C; Kouassi, Kouakou N; N'dri, Yao D; Amani, N'guessan G

    2015-02-16

    There is currently an increased global interest in the published glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) values of foods. However, data on the GI and GL values of different varieties of foods within Côte d'Ivoire are very limited. The study therefore aimed at finding the GI and GL of the main food staples in Côte d'Ivoire. Following the International Standard Organisation's protocol (ISO/FDI 26642:2010), a selection of five staple foodstuffs were tested for their GI and GL. Fasted healthy subjects were given 50 g of available carbohydrate servings of a glucose reference, which was tested twice, and test foods which were tested once, on separate occasions. Excepted attieke (GI 63), the majority of foods tested have a high GI (GI>70). Attieke (agbodjama) had a high GL (GL 29) while placali (GL 17) and maize meal stiff porridge (GL 16) had medium GLs. The GLs of pounded cassava-plantain and pounded yam are 26 and 22. Consumption of attieke could minimize postprandial blood glucose spikes, in spite of high GL and potentially have benefit in the management and prevention of some chronic diseases.

  19. Mobile Phone Call Data as a Regional Socio-Economic Proxy Indicator

    PubMed Central

    Šćepanović, Sanja; Mishkovski, Igor; Hui, Pan; Nurminen, Jukka K.; Ylä-Jääski, Antti

    2015-01-01

    The advent of publishing anonymized call detail records opens the door for temporal and spatial human dynamics studies. Such studies, besides being useful for creating universal models for mobility patterns, could be also used for creating new socio-economic proxy indicators that will not rely only on the local or state institutions. In this paper, from the frequency of calls at different times of the day, in different small regional units (sub-prefectures) in Côte d'Ivoire, we infer users' home and work sub-prefectures. This division of users enables us to analyze different mobility and calling patterns for the different regions. We then compare how those patterns correlate to the data from other sources, such as: news for particular events in the given period, census data, economic activity, poverty index, power plants and energy grid data. Our results show high correlation in many of the cases revealing the diversity of socio-economic insights that can be inferred using only mobile phone call data. The methods and the results may be particularly relevant to policy-makers engaged in poverty reduction initiatives as they can provide an affordable tool in the context of resource-constrained developing economies, such as Côte d'Ivoire's. PMID:25897957

  20. Satellite Detection of Ebola River Hemorrhagic Fever Epidemics Trigger Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Compton J.; Pinzon, Jorge E.

    2006-01-01

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever, named after the Ebola River in Central Africa, first appeared in June 1976, during an outbreak in Nzara and Maridi, Sudan. In September 1976, a separate outbreak was recognized in Yambuku, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). One fatal case was identified in Tandala, DRC, in June 1977, followed by another outbreak in Nzara, Sudan, in July 1979. Ebola hemorrhagic fever outbreaks results in a very high mortality of patients who contract the disease: from 50 to 80% of infected people perish from this highly virulent disease. Death is gruesome, with those afflicted bleeding to death from massive hemorrhaging of organs and capillaries. The disease was not identified again until the end of 1994, when three outbreaks occurred almost simultaneously in Africa. In October, an outbreak was identified in a chimpanzee community studied by primatologists in Tal, Cote d'lvoire, with one human infection. The following month, multiple cases were reported in northeast Gabon in the gold panning camps of Mekouka, Andock, and Minkebe. Later that same month, the putative index case of the 1995 Kikwit, DRC, outbreak was exposed through an unknown mechanism while working in a charcoal pit. In Gabon, two additional outbreaks were reported in February and JuIy,1996, respectively, in Mayibout II, a village 40 km south of the original outbreak in the gold panning camps, and a logging camp between Ovan and Koumameyong, near Booue. The largest Ebola hemorrhagic fever epidemic occurred in Gulu District, Uganda from August 2000 to January 2001. In December 2001, Ebola reappeared in the Ogooue-lvindo Province, Gabon with extension into Mbomo District, The Republic of the Congo lasting until July 2002. Since 2002 there have been several outbreaks of Ebola hemorrhagic fever in Gabon and adjacent areas of Congo. Of interest is the seasonal context and occasional temporal clustering of Ebola hemorrhagic fever outbreaks. Near simultaneous appearances of Ebola epidemics in

  1. Anti-Adhesion Elastomer Seal Coatings for Ultraviolet and Atomic Oxygen Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Groh, Henry C., III; Puleo, Bernadette J.; Waters, Deborah L.; Miller, Sharon K.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation blocking sunscreen coatings have been developed for the protection of elastomer seals used in low-Earth-orbit (LEO). The coatings protect the seals from ultraviolet (UV) radiation and atomic oxygen (AO) damage. The coatings were developed for use on NASA docking seals. Docking seal damage from the UV and AO present in LEO can constrain mission time-line, flight mode options, and increases risk. A low level of adhesion is also required for docking seals so undocking push-off forces can be low. The coatings presented also mitigate this unwanted adhesion. Greases with low collected volatile condensable materials (CVCM) and low total mass loss (TML) were mixed with slippery and/or UV blocking powders to create the protective coatings. Coatings were applied at rates up to 2 milligrams per square centimeter. Coated seals were exposed to AO and UV in the NUV (near-UV) and UV-C wavelength ranges (300 to 400 nanometers and 254 nanometers, respectively). Ground based ashers were used to simulate the AO of space. The Sun's UV energy was mimicked assuming a nose forward flight mode, resulting in an exposure rate of 2.5 megajoules per square meter per day. Exposures between 0 and 147 megajoules per square meter (UV-C) and 245 megajoules per square meter (NUV) were accomplished. The protective coatings were durable, providing protection from UV after a simulated docking and undocking cycle. The level of protection begins to decline at coverage rates less than 0.9 milligrams per square centimeter. The leakage of seals coated with Braycote plus 20 percent Z-cote ZnO sunscreen increased by a factor of 40 after moderate AO exposure; indicating that this coating might not be suitable due to AO intolerance. Seals coated with DC-7-16.4 percent Z-cote ZnO sunscreen were not significantly affected by combined doses of 2 x 10 (sup 21) atoms per square AO with 73 megajoules per square meter UV-C. Unprotected seals were significantly damaged at UV-C exposures of 0.3 megajoules per

  2. Significance of ODP results on deepwater hydrocarbon exploration Eastern equatorial Atlantic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Barry Jay

    2006-11-01

    Scientific ocean drilling has provided access to samples of potential hydrocarbon source rocks in a number of deepwater regions around the globe. The samples are often well constrained stratigraphically and normally free from organic drilling fluid contamination. The focus of this study is the results obtained on one of the Ocean Drilling Program's (ODP) legs - Leg 159, which was located along the Equatorial portion of the West African margin, a region of considerable hydrocarbon exploration interest. Four drilling sites were included in Leg 159 along the continental margins of Côte d'Ivorie and Ghana. Drilling at these sites recovered sediments of Albian to Pleistocene age. Prior studies revealed the presence of a number of organic-rich zones capable of yielding significant quantities of hydrocarbons within both the Cretaceous and Tertiary sections. These intervals could act as hydrocarbon sources, if suitable maturity levels were obtained. Both oil and gas would be expected as their primary products. A shore-based study which focused on Site 959 and to a lesser degree Site 962 provided an opportunity to expand upon the original dataset and to further characterize the organic matter. Detailed characterization of the bitumen fractions from Site 959, provided not only information on the geochemical character of these specific sediments, but permitted them to be placed into a more regional context by comparing them to oils from the Equatorial portion of the West African margin. These data reveal a similarity, but not necessarily a genetic relationship, between the Cretaceous sediments and the majority of the Côte d'Ivoire oils. The Paleogene extracts display similar geochemical attributes as the deepwater oils from the Niger Delta. Although this study is not attempting to establish a definitive correlation, the data suggest a Tertiary source rock system for the deepwater Niger Delta, where deposition occurred under oxic to sub-oxic conditions. This contrasts with

  3. KSC-03PD-1064

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- In the Orbiter Processing Facility, United Space Alliance employee Mike Cote installs Thermal Protection System tiles on a test panel. The test panel and sections of Space Shuttle orbiter Enterprise (OV-101) will be transferred to the Southwest Research Institute for testing after the tile installation is complete. The testing has been requested by the Columbia Accident Investigation Board. Sections of Enterprise were borrowed from the Smithsonian Institution's Air and Space Museum where the orbiter is being stored at the Washington Dulles International Airport. Enterprise was the first orbiter built in the Shuttle fleet and was used to conduct the Approach and Landing Test Program before the first powered Shuttle flight.

  4. KSC-03PD-1086

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- In the Orbiter Processing Facility, United Space Alliance employees (from left) Harrell Watts, Mike Cote, and Jason Levandusky install Thermal Protection System tiles on a main landing gear door of Space Shuttle orbiter Enterprise (OV-101). Sections of Enterprise were borrowed from the Smithsonian Institution's Air and Space Museum where the orbiter is being stored at the Washington Dulles International Airport. Enterprise was the first orbiter built in the Shuttle fleet and was used to conduct the Approach and Landing Test Program before the first powered Shuttle flight. After the tile installation is complete, the sections will be transferred to the Southwest Research Institute for testing requested by the Columbia Accident Investigation Board.

  5. Estimation of the Gini coefficient for the lognormal distribution of income using the Lorenz curve.

    PubMed

    Darkwah, Kwasi A; Nortey, Ezekiel N N; Lotsi, Anani

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of the study is to compare the Newton-Cotes methods such as the Trapezium rule, Simpson 1/3 rule and Simpson 3/8 rule to estimate the area under the Lorenz curve and Gini coefficient of income using polynomial function with degree 5. Comparing the Gini coefficients of income computed from the Polynomial function with degree 5 for the Trapezium, Simpson 1/3 and Simpson 3/8 methods using the relative errors showed that the trapezium rule, Simpson's 1/3 rule and Simpson's 3/8 rule show negative biases with the Simpson 1/3 rule yielding the lowest absolute relative true error of 4.230711 %. PMID:27516934

  6. Wide-Area Thermal Processing of Light-Emitting Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Duty, C.; Quick, N.

    2011-09-30

    Silicon carbide based materials and devices have been successfully exploited for diverse electronic applications. However, they have not achieved the same success as Si technologies due to higher material cost and higher processing temperatures required for device development. Traditionally, SiC is not considered for optoelectronic applications because it has an indirect bandgap. However, AppliCote Associates, LLC has developed a laser-based doping process which enables light emission in SiC through the creation of embedded p-n junctions. AppliCote laser irradiation of silicon carbide allows two different interaction mechanisms: (1) Laser conversion or induced phase transformation which creates carbon rich regions that have conductive properties. These conductive regions are required for interconnection to the light emitting semiconducting region. (2) Laser doping which injects external dopant atoms into the substrate that introduces deep level transition states that emit light when electrically excited. The current collaboration with AppliCote has focused on the evaluation of ORNL's unique Pulse Thermal Processing (PTP) technique as a replacement for laser processing. Compared to laser processing, Pulse Thermal Processing can deliver similar energy intensities (20-50 kW/cm2) over a much larger area (up to 1,000 cm2) at a lower cost and much higher throughput. The main findings of our investigation; which are significant for the realization of SiC based optoelectronic devices, are as follows: (1) The PTP technique is effective in low thermal budget activation of dopants in SiC similar to the laser technique. The surface electrical conductivity of the SiC samples improved by about three orders of magnitude as a result of PTP processing which is significant for charge injection in the devices; (2) The surface composition of the SiC film can be modified by the PTP technique to create a carbon-rich surface (increased local C:Si ratio from 1:1 to 2.9:1). This is

  7. Threat of Marburg and Ebola viral haemorrhagic fevers in Africa.

    PubMed

    Tukei, P M

    1996-01-01

    Marburg and Ebola viruses are members of the filovirus family that can be regarded as recently emerged. These viruses have caused sporadic outbreaks of fatal haemorrhagic disease in Africa, Europe and recently in the USA. The case fatality rates rank among the highest ranging from 33-80%. The mode of transmission of these viruses are clearly through close contact with blood and body fluids. Disease outbreaks have been amplified in hospital situations with poor blood precautions. In villages disease has been amplified through contamination with blood and fluids during nursing the sick and burial rituals. The source of the viruses has eluded discovery and new theories regarding the nature of these viruses are being entertained. The threat of new outbreaks in Africa is real since serological evidence of the presence of the virus has been documented in Kenya, Sudan, Zaire, Zimbabwe, Gabon, Cote-d'Ivoire and Gabon.

  8. Fourth-Order Method for Numerical Integration of Age- and Size-Structured Population Models

    SciTech Connect

    Iannelli, M; Kostova, T; Milner, F A

    2008-01-08

    In many applications of age- and size-structured population models, there is an interest in obtaining good approximations of total population numbers rather than of their densities. Therefore, it is reasonable in such cases to solve numerically not the PDE model equations themselves, but rather their integral equivalents. For this purpose quadrature formulae are used in place of the integrals. Because quadratures can be designed with any order of accuracy, one can obtain numerical approximations of the solutions with very fast convergence. In this article, we present a general framework and a specific example of a fourth-order method based on composite Newton-Cotes quadratures for a size-structured population model.

  9. KSC-03PD-1085

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- In the Orbiter Processing Facility, United Space Alliance employees (from left) Mike Cote, Tom Baggitt, and Jason Levandusky install Thermal Protection System tiles on a main landing gear door of Space Shuttle orbiter Enterprise (OV-101). Sections of Enterprise were borrowed from the Smithsonian Institution's Air and Space Museum where the orbiter is being stored at the Washington Dulles International Airport. Enterprise was the first orbiter built in the Shuttle fleet and was used to conduct the Approach and Landing Test Program before the first powered Shuttle flight. After the tile installation is complete, the sections will be transferred to the Southwest Research Institute for testing requested by the Columbia Accident Investigation Board.

  10. Development of Carbon Based optically Transparent Electrodes from Pyrolyzed Photoresist for the Investigation of Phenomena at Electrified Carbon-Solution Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Donner, Sebastian

    2007-01-01

    The work presented herein describes a fundamental investigations of carbon as electrode material by using the pyrolysis of photoresist to create an optically transparent material. The development of these carbon-based optically transparent electrodes (C-OTEs) enables investigations of molecular interactions within the electrical double layer, processes that are central to a wide range of important phenomena, including the impact of changes in the surface charge density on adsorption. The electrochemical importance of carbon cannot be understated, having relevance to separations and detection by providing a wide potential window and low background current in addition to being low cost and light weight. The interactions that govern the processes at the carbon electrode surface has been studied extensively. A variety of publications from the laboratories of McCreery and Kinoshita provide in depth summaries about carbon and its many applications in electrochemistry. These studies reveal that defects, impurities, oxidation, and a variety of functional groups create adsorption sites on carbon surfaces with different characteristics. The interest in C-OTEs was sparked by the desire to study and understand the behavior of individual molecules at electrified interfaces. It draws on the earlier development of Electrochemically Modulated Liquid Chromatography (EMLC), which uses carbon as the stationary phase. EMLC takes advantage of changing the applied potential to the carbon electrode to influence the retention behavior of analytes. However, perspectives gained from, for example, chromatographic measurements reflect the integrated response of a large ensemble of potentially diverse interactions between the adsorbates and the carbon electrode. Considering the chemically and physically heterogeneous surface of electrode materials such as glassy carbon, the integrated response provides little insight into the interactions at a single molecule level. To investigate individual

  11. A high-order fast method for computing convolution integral with smooth kernel

    SciTech Connect

    Qiang, Ji

    2009-09-28

    In this paper we report on a high-order fast method to numerically calculate convolution integral with smooth non-periodic kernel. This method is based on the Newton-Cotes quadrature rule for the integral approximation and an FFT method for discrete summation. The method can have an arbitrarily high-order accuracy in principle depending on the number of points used in the integral approximation and a computational cost of O(Nlog(N)), where N is the number of grid points. For a three-point Simpson rule approximation, the method has an accuracy of O(h{sup 4}), where h is the size of the computational grid. Applications of the Simpson rule based algorithm to the calculation of a one-dimensional continuous Gauss transform and to the calculation of a two-dimensional electric field from a charged beam are also presented.

  12. The Cool Surfaces of Binaries Near-Earth Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delbo, Marco; Walsh, K.; Mueller, M.

    2008-09-01

    We present results from thermal-infrared observations of binary near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). These objects, in general, have surface temperatures cooler than the average values for non-binary NEAs. We discuss how this may be evidence of higher-than-average surface thermal inertia. The comparison of these binary NEAs with all NEAs and rapidly rotating NEAs suggests a binary formation mechanism capable of altering surface properties, possibly removing regolith: an obvious candidate is the YORP effect. --- Acknowledgments This research was carried out while Marco Delbo and Kevin Walsh were Henri Poincare Fellows at the Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur. The Henri Poincare Fellowship is funded by the CNRS-INSU, the Conseil General des Alpes-Maritimes and the Rotary International -- District 1730.

  13. Sensitivity of inelastic response to numerical integration of strain energy. [for cantilever beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamat, M. P.

    1976-01-01

    The exact solution to the quasi-static, inelastic response of a cantilever beam of rectangular cross section subjected to a bending moment at the tip is obtained. The material of the beam is assumed to be linearly elastic-linearly strain-hardening. This solution is then compared with three different numerical solutions of the same problem obtained by minimizing the total potential energy using Gaussian quadratures of two different orders and a Newton-Cotes scheme for integrating the strain energy of deformation. Significant differences between the exact dissipative strain energy and its numerical counterpart are emphasized. The consequence of this on the nonlinear transient responses of a beam with solid cross section and that of a thin-walled beam on elastic supports under impulsive loads are examined.

  14. Airborne measurements of surface layer turbulence over the ocean during cold air outbreaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Shu-Shien; Yeh, Eueng-Nan

    1987-01-01

    The spectral characteristics of surface layer turbulence for the near-shore cloud street regions over the Atlantic Ocean were examined using 50-m level data of airborne measurements of atmospheric turbulence spectra above the western Atlantic Ocean during cold air outbreaks. The present study, performed for the Mesoscale Air-Sea Exchange (MASEX) experiment, extends and completes the preliminary analyses of Chou and Yeh (1987). In the inertial subrange, a near 4/3 ratio was observed between velocity spectra normal to and those along the aircraft heading. A comparison of the turbulent kinetic energy budgets with those of Wyngaard and Cote (1971) and Caughey and Wyngaard (1979) data indicates that the turbulent kinetic energy in the surface layer is dissipated less in the MASEX data than in data obtained by the previous groups.

  15. Interpretation of leaching data for cementitious waste forms using analytical solutions based on mass transport theory and empiricism

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, R.D.; Godbee, H.W.; Tallent, O.K.; McDaniel, E.W.; Nestor, C.W.

    1991-01-01

    Despite the demonstrated importance of diffusion control in leaching, other mechanisms have been observed to play a role and leaching from porous solid bodies is not simple diffusion. Only simple diffusion theory has been developed well enough for extrapolation, as yet. The well developed diffusion theory, used in data analysis by ANSI/ANS-16.1 and the NEWBOX program, can help in trying to extrapolate and predict the performance of solidified waste forms over decades and centuries, but the limitations and increased uncertainty must be understood in so doing. Treating leaching as a semi-infinite medium problem, as done in the Cote model, results in simpler equations, but limits, application to early leaching behavior when less than 20% of a given component has been leached. 18 refs., 2 tabs.

  16. A fast high-order method to calculate wakefield forces in an electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Qiang, Ji; Mitchell, Chad; Ryne, Robert D.

    2012-03-22

    In this paper we report on a high-order fast method to numerically calculate wakefield forces in an electron beam given a wake function model. This method is based on a Newton-Cotes quadrature rule for integral approximation and an FFT method for discrete summation that results in an O(Nlog(N)) computational cost, where N is the number of grid points. Using the Simpson quadrature rule with an accuracy of O(h4), where h is the grid size, we present numerical calculation of the wakefields from a resonator wake function model and from a one-dimensional coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) wake model. Besides the fast speed and high numerical accuracy, the calculation using the direct line density instead of the first derivative of the line density avoids numerical filtering of the electron density function for computing the CSR wakefield force. I. INTRODUCTION

  17. Decomposing Wealth-Based Inequalities in Under-Five Mortality in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    BADO, Aristide Romaric; APPUNNI, Sathiya Susuman

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to analysis the inequalities of mortality of children under 5 years in West Africa by examining the determinants and contributing factors to the overall inequality concentration in these countries. Method: Data used came from the DHS surveys conducted in the six countries in West Africa: Burkina Faso (2010), Benin (2006), Cote d’Ivoire 2011), Ghana (2008), Mali (2006), Nigeria (2008) and Niger (2012). The concentration index (CI) and Generalized Linear Model (GLM) with logit link were used to access inequality. Results: The results show that in all countries, the poorest Q1 have the highest proportions of deaths: Nigeria (31.4%), Cote d’Ivoire (30.4%) and Ghana (36.4%), over 30% of deaths of children under 5 years are among the children of the poorest (Q1) and the absolute differences of proportions Q1–Q5 are more than 20 points (25.8 in Ghana and 23.6 in Nigeria). The contributing factors of inequalities of child mortality were birth order, maternal age, parity and household size. Our findings also showed that the intensity of inequality varies from one country to another. Conclusion: The most important conclusion of this study is to reduce mortality in children under 5 years, it is needed to reduce economic and social inequalities and improve the country’s economic and social condition. There is a need for monitoring and assessment inequalities by leading causes of death and morbidity among children in the region in order to advance in understanding the gaps and finding a way to reduce them in West Africa countries. PMID:26576370

  18. N-Body Model of High-Energy Collisions with Inter-Particle Cohesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Kevin J.; Michel, P.; Richardson, D. C.; Schwartz, S. R.

    2009-09-01

    We present a study of high-speed collisions with an N-body particle representation of targets and impactors. The targets are constructed of hard spherical particles where collisions between particles are modeled and energy dissipation during collisions is regulated by a coefficient of restitution. The targets also incorporate a simple model of cohesion based on a spring-like restoring force between adjacent particles. The "springs" are parameterized by the Young's modulus (which determines spring strength) and stress limit (maximum distension before breaking). Once a spring breaks, it remains broken and, in this work, each spring has identical parameters. To explore this model's behavior in high-energy impacts in the strength regime (negligible gravity), the primary simulations presented are designed to calibrate our model against the laboratory experiments of Nakamura and Fujiwara (1991) [Nakamura and Fujiwara, Icarus, 92, 132 (1991)] who characterized the velocity distribution of fragments following a 3.3 km/s collision of a 7 mm diameter nylon sphere into a 6 cm basalt sphere. The target bodies are constructed of 1000, 2000 or 5000 particles with each individual particle having 10 - 107 Pascal bonding with, on average, 10 nearby particles. Values of coefficient of restitution, target particle packing and impactor structure (single particle or rubble pile) are also explored. The simulations are compared to the results of the laboratory experiments in remnant size distribution and morphology. KJW is supported by the Henri Poincaré fellowship at the Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, Nice, France. PM had the support of the French Programme National de Planetologie. DCR and SRS acknowledge support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant No. NNX08AM39G issued through the Office of Space Science and by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. AST0708110. We acknowledge the use of the Mesocentre de Calcul-SIGAMM at the Observatoire de la

  19. Assessment of Mycotoxin Exposure in Côte d’ivoire (Ivory Coast) Through Multi-Biomarker Analysis and Possible Correlation with Food Consumption Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Kouadio, James Halbin; Lattanzio, Veronica M. T.; Ouattara, Djeneba; Kouakou, Brou; Visconti, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    Scope: The aim of the presented study was to investigate the mycotoxin exposure of Ivorian population related to the consumption patterns of maize, peanuts, millet, and cassava product (attiéké). Materials and Methods: Maize flour samples (n = 51) were purchased from all Abidjan local markets, in the south of Ivory Coast, and urine (n = 99) was collected during the same reference period (July–September 2011) from volunteers living in Abidjan and Daloa cities. Reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) was used to analyze aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, and AFG2), ochratoxin A (OTA), fumonisins (FB1, FB2), deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEA), and T-2 and HT-2 toxins in maize flour samples, and their relevant biomarkers (AFM1, DON, DON + de-epoxydeoxynivalenol (DOM-1), FB1, α-zearalenol (ZOL), β-ZOL, and OTA) in urine samples. Results: Critical maize contamination was observed by AFs occurrence (total AFs 4.5 – 330.0 μg/kg) while OTA was found in 13% of samples analyzed. AFM1 was detected in 40% of urines samples (0.06 – 14.11 ng/ml), OTA in 37% (0.01 – 0.42 ng/ml), FB1 in 27% (0.07 to 15.31 ng/ml) and, DON was found in 21% of samples at levels up to 10.0 ng/ml. The correlation coefficients (R2) obtained by plotting the percentage of biomarker occurrence (positive samples) versus the frequency of food consumption revealed maize, peanuts, millet and attiéké were strongly linked to AFB1 and OTA exposure with values of R2 ranged from 0.462 to 0.956. Conclusion: The present study provided data on mycotoxin risk in Ivory Coast, revealing a frequent co-exposure to the major mycotoxins such as AFs, OTA, and fumonisins, which appeared to be related to the frequency of peanuts, maize, millet and attiéké consumption. PMID:25948962

  20. PubMed Central

    Rioche, M.; Dubreuil, P.; Kouassi-Samgare, A.; Akran, V.; Nordmann, P.; Pillot, J.

    1997-01-01

    The first well-documented outbreak of viral hepatitis E in Africa was described in 1986 in Côte d'lvoire. Subsequently, no other outbreaks have been observed in the country. Côte d'lvoire therefore offers an excellent opportunity to evaluate the prevalence of sporadic viral hepatitis E in a country where the frequency of non-A, non-B, non-C viral hepatitis appears to be high. The study was carried out in Abidjan, the most populous city, and involved 111 hospitalized patients suffering from non-A, non-B and presumed non-C acute viral hepatitis. Screening for leptospirosis or a toxic etiology was carried out and the risk of including such patients eliminated. Diagnosis of viral hepatitis A was excluded from the absence of IgM anti-HAV antibodies. Patients with HBsAg and anti-HCV antibodies were not included in the study, although co-infection in asymptomatic HBV carriers or subsequent infection in patients who had recovered from a past HCV infection remained possible. There was a risk that some patients with late appearance of anti-HCV antibodies were included since PCR tests could not be performed. Cytomegalovirus or Epstein-Barr virus was not involved, since no specific IgMs against these viruses were detectable. Large discrepancies between the two commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) available for serological diagnosis of hepatitis E (Abbott and Genelabs) were observed. Among the 53 sera screened using both tests, only 20 gave positive results in both, and all such sera were confirmed using a domestic immunological test involving inhibition of labelled, well-documented anti-HEV-specific human IgG. Immunological confirmation was obtained for only half of the sera with discordant results in the commercial ELISAs. Full agreement between both commercial tests was observed for only 59% of the sera studied. The minimal incidence of sporadic viral hepatitis E among hospitalized patients in Abidjan with an acute hepatitis was estimated to be 27%. PMID

  1. [Human African trypanosomiasis in Ivory Coast: biological characteristics after treatment. 812 cases treated in the Daloa focus (Ivory Coast)].

    PubMed

    Miezan, T W; Dje, N N; Doua, F; Boa, F

    2002-12-01

    The treatment and post therapeutic follow up of patients diagnosed with HAT are important for HAT control. A longitudinal survey was implemented in the focus of Daloa (Côte d'Ivoire). A total of 812 patients infected with Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in meningoencephalitic stage and treated with melarsoprol were included, this study pointed out the biological characteristics of patients after treatment. The relapse occurs between 1 and 24 months after treatment. It is essentially neurological, and characterised by the presence in the CSF of antibodies, by the increase of cell count compared with value immediately after treatment, or by the presence of trypanosomes. The cure can be confirmed from 18 months after treatment, and is characterised by the absence of antibodies and trypanosomes in the CSF, by a normal cell count and a normal proteinorachy. Biological scares were recorded on some of the patients after 18 months of follow up, but no relapse occurred among them.

  2. [Doping practices and behaviours among Ivorian soccer players].

    PubMed

    Dah, Cyrille; Bogui, Pascal; Yavo, Jean-Claude; Gourouza, Issa; Ouattara, Soualiho; Keita, Mustapha

    2002-01-01

    We have conducted a survey of doping among soccer players in Côte d'Ivoire with a representative sample of 150 soccer players who filled out an anonymous questionnaire. The aim of this survey was to get a clearer picture of doping in Ivorian soccer in order to suggest preventive actions against doping. The results of this study showed that doping was known by the Ivorian soccer players; about 18.7% admitted to the use of doping substances, 42% recognised that they felt tempted by doping, while 38% knew another soccer player who had already used a doping substance. Government and sports organisations should recognize the importance of education and information in the antidoping campaign and agree on effective preventive as well as repressive strategies.

  3. Fighting rabies in Africa: the Africa Rabies Expert Bureau (AfroREB).

    PubMed

    Dodet, Betty; Adjogoua, E V; Aguemon, A R; Amadou, O H; Atipo, A L; Baba, B A; Ada, S Bara; Boumandouki, P; Bourhy, H; Diallo, M K; Diarra, L; Diop, B M; Diop, S A; Fesriry, B; Gosseye, S; Hassar, M; Kingé, T; Kombila Nzamba, T E; Yandoko, E Nakouné; Nzengué, E; Ramahefalalao, E F; Ratsitorahina, M; Simpore, L; Soufi, A; Tejiokem, M; Thiombano, R; Tiembré, I; Traoré, A K; Wateba, M I

    2008-11-25

    Rabies experts from 14 francophone African countries met in Grand Bassam (Côte d'Ivoire), 10-13 March 2008. They presented the situation in their respective countries, acknowledging the lack of rabies awareness among the population, health care workers and health authorities. They recognized that infrastructure for the management of rabies exposure is scarce, modern vaccines are in limited quantity and immunoglobulins are lacking in most of their countries. They defined as a priority the need to have reliable figures on the disease burden, which is necessary for informed decision making and priority setting, and for applying for aid in controlling the disease. This meeting sealed the establishment of the Africa Rabies Expert Bureau (AfroREB). PMID:18617294

  4. A little help from my friends: caring for premature babies in a war zone

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Heather

    2007-01-01

    This paper is a narrative of some aspects of my work as a midwife with Médecins Sans Frontieres (MSF) in West Africa. I was situated in an isolated north-western regional hospital in an area under rebel military control in 2004–2005 in the Côte d'Ivoire during the civil war which divides the north and south of the country. Access to health care is severely curtailed in this politically unstable environment resulting in much avoidable illness including many premature births. It is a short account of methods used to care for premature babies in a resource poor setting. Equipment was basic, necessitating a creative use of available resources. Providing warmth, oxygen and adequate feeding were often sufficient for a successful outcome for many premature babies. This paper is a combination of descriptions of health care interspersed with case studies. PMID:17274826

  5. 4,300-Year-old chimpanzee sites and the origins of percussive stone technology

    PubMed Central

    Mercader, Julio; Barton, Huw; Gillespie, Jason; Harris, Jack; Kuhn, Steven; Tyler, Robert; Boesch, Christophe

    2007-01-01

    Archaeological research in the African rainforest reveals unexpected results in the search for the origins of hominoid technology. The ancient Panin sites from Côte d'Ivoire constitute the only evidence of prehistoric ape behavior known to date anywhere in the world. Recent archaeological work has yielded behaviorally modified stones, dated by chronometric means to 4,300 years of age, lodging starch residue suggestive of prehistoric dietary practices by ancient chimpanzees. The “Chimpanzee Stone Age” pre-dates the advent of settled farming villages in this part of the African rainforest and suggests that percussive material culture could have been inherited from an common human–chimpanzee clade, rather than invented by hominins, or have arisen by imitation, or resulted from independent technological convergence. PMID:17360606

  6. Moving forward on human resources for health: next steps for scaling up toward universal access to HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment, and care.

    PubMed

    Gormley, Wilma; McCaffery, James; Quain, Estelle E

    2011-08-01

    In 2008, the Global Health Workforce Alliance commissioned a technical working group to examine the human resources for health implications of scaling up to reach the Millennium Development Goal 6 of universal access to HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment, care, and support by 2010. The analysis and interventions recommended in the working group report, which was launched at the Second Global Forum on Human Resources for Health in Bangkok, Thailand, in January 2011, are based on two research methods: literature reviews covering the period from 2000 to 2008 and a rapid situational analysis produced by teams working in 5 countries (Côte d'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Mozambique, Thailand, and Zambia). The authors' intent in this article is to assist the Alliance in maintaining the momentum of the forum and the enthusiasm generated by the working group's report to make a difference at the country level by moving from recommendation to action.

  7. Socioeconomic inequalities in child mortality: comparisons across nine developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Wagstaff, A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper generates and analyses survey data on inequalities in mortality among infants and children aged under five years by consumption in Brazil, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Nepal, Nicaragua, Pakistan, the Philippines, South Africa, and Viet Nam. The data were obtained from the Living Standards Measurement Study and the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey. Mortality rates were estimated directly where complete fertility histories were available and indirectly otherwise. Mortality distributions were compared between countries by means of concentration curves and concentration indices: dominance checks were carried out for all pairwise intercountry comparisons; standard errors were calculated for the concentration indices; and tests of intercountry differences in inequality were performed. PMID:10686730

  8. [Apropos of 5 new cases of onchocerciasis edema].

    PubMed

    Nozais, J P; Caumes, E; Datry, A; Bricaire, F; Danis, M; Gentilini, M

    1997-01-01

    We report 5 cases of onchocerciasis presenting as limb's swelling collected in the tropical disease unit of a parisian hospital between 1982 and 1993. They are 5 men which have lived between 3 weeks and 4 years in forested areas of Cameroon in four cases and Côte d'Ivoire in one case. The incubation period varied from 5 months to 2 years. The limb oedema was always located to one arm. It was associated with a blood eosinophilia above 2000/mm3 in 4 of 5 patients. The skin detection of microfilaria of Onchocerca volvulus was positive in every case. The serodiagnostic tests were negative for indirect immunoflurescent assay and immunoelectrophoresis with exception of one patient. These patients were cured with ivermectine and/or diethylcarbamazine. In addition, 26 other cases described in the literature are discussed. PMID:9507765

  9. Remotely sensed surrogates of meteorological data for the study of the distribution and abundance of arthropod vectors of disease.

    PubMed

    Hay, S I; Tucker, C J; Rogers, D J; Packer, M J

    1996-02-01

    This paper gives an overview of how certain meteorological data used in studies of the population dynamics of arthropod vectors of disease may be predicted using remotely sensed, satellite data. Details are given of the stages of processing necessary to convert digital data arising from satellite sensors into ecologically meaningful information. Potential sources of error in these processing steps are also highlighted. Relationships between ground-measured meteorological variables (saturation deficit, ground temperature and rainfall) and data from both the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's, polar-orbiting, meteorological satellites and the geostationary, Meteosat satellite are defined and examples detailed for Africa. Finally, the current status of existing satellite platforms and future satellite missions are reviewed and potential data availability discussed. How such satellite-based predictions have proved valuable in understanding the distribution of tsetse fly species in Côte d'Ivoire and Burkina Faso will be the subject of a future review.

  10. Dynamics of Socioeconomic Risk Factors for Neglected Tropical Diseases and Malaria in an Armed Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Fürst, Thomas; Raso, Giovanna; Acka, Cinthia A.; Tschannen, Andres B.; N'Goran, Eliézer K.; Utzinger, Jürg

    2009-01-01

    Background Armed conflict and war are among the leading causes of disability and premature death, and there is a growing share of civilians killed or injured during armed conflicts. A major part of the civilian suffering stems from indirect effects or collateral impact such as changing risk profiles for infectious diseases. We focused on rural communities in the western part of Côte d'Ivoire, where fighting took place during the Ivorian civil war in 2002/2003, and assessed the dynamics of socioeconomic risk factors for neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) and malaria. Methodology The same standardized and pre-tested questionnaires were administered to the heads of 182 randomly selected households in 25 villages in the region of Man, western Côte d'Ivoire, shortly before and after the 2002/2003 armed conflict. Principal Findings There was no difference in crowding as measured by the number of individuals per sleeping room, but the inadequate sanitation infrastructure prior to the conflict further worsened, and the availability and use of protective measures against mosquito bites and accessibility to health care infrastructure deteriorated. Although the direct causal chain between these findings and the conflict are incomplete, partially explained by the very nature of working in conflict areas, the timing and procedures of the survey, other sources and anecdotal evidence point toward a relationship between an increased risk of suffering from NTDs and malaria and armed conflict. Conclusion New research is needed to deepen our understanding of the often diffuse and neglected indirect effects of armed conflict and war, which may be worse than the more obvious, direct effects. PMID:19907632

  11. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma palmicola', associated with a lethal yellowing-type disease of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Nigel A; Davis, Robert E; Oropeza, Carlos; Helmick, Ericka E; Narváez, María; Eden-Green, Simon; Dollet, Michel; Dickinson, Matthew

    2014-06-01

    In this study, the taxonomic position and group classification of the phytoplasma associated with a lethal yellowing-type disease (LYD) of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) in Mozambique were addressed. Pairwise similarity values based on alignment of nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences (1530 bp) revealed that the Mozambique coconut phytoplasma (LYDM) shared 100% identity with a comparable sequence derived from a phytoplasma strain (LDN) responsible for Awka wilt disease of coconut in Nigeria, and shared 99.0-99.6% identity with 16S rRNA gene sequences from strains associated with Cape St Paul wilt (CSPW) disease of coconut in Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire. Similarity scores further determined that the 16S rRNA gene of the LYDM phytoplasma shared <97.5% sequence identity with all previously described members of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma'. The presence of unique regions in the 16S rRNA gene sequence distinguished the LYDM phytoplasma from all currently described members of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma', justifying its recognition as the reference strain of a novel taxon, 'Candidatus Phytoplasma palmicola'. Virtual RFLP profiles of the F2n/R2 portion (1251 bp) of the 16S rRNA gene and pattern similarity coefficients delineated coconut LYDM phytoplasma strains from Mozambique as novel members of established group 16SrXXII, subgroup A (16SrXXII-A). Similarity coefficients of 0.97 were obtained for comparisons between subgroup 16SrXXII-A strains and CSPW phytoplasmas from Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire. On this basis, the CSPW phytoplasma strains were designated members of a novel subgroup, 16SrXXII-B.

  12. Genetic diversity of newcastle disease virus in wild birds and pigeons in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Snoeck, Chantal J; Adeyanju, Adeniyi T; Owoade, Ademola A; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Alkali, Bello R; Ottosson, Ulf; Muller, Claude P

    2013-12-01

    In West and Central Africa, virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains of the recently identified genotypes XIV, XVII, and XVIII are enzootic in poultry, representing a considerable threat to the sector. The increasing number of reports of virulent strains in wild birds at least in other parts of the world raised the question of a potential role of wild birds in the spread of virulent NDV in sub-Saharan Africa as well. We investigated 1,723 asymptomatic birds sampled at live-bird markets and sites important for wild-bird conservation in Nigeria and 19 sick or dead wild birds in Côte d'Ivoire for NDV class I and II. Typical avirulent wild-type genotype I strains were found in wild waterfowl in wetlands in northeastern Nigeria. They were unrelated to vaccine strains, and the involvement of inter- or intracontinental migratory birds in their circulation in the region is suggested. Phylogenetic analyses also revealed that genotype VI strains found in pigeons, including some putative new subgenotype VIh and VIi strains, were introduced on multiple separate occasions in Nigeria. A single virulent genotype XVIII strain was found in a dead wild bird in Côte d'Ivoire, probably as a result of spillover from sick poultry. In conclusion, screening of wild birds and pigeons for NDV revealed the presence a variety of virulent and avirulent strains in West Africa but did not provide strong evidence that wild birds play an important role in the spread of virulent strains in the region.

  13. Genetic Diversity of Newcastle Disease Virus in Wild Birds and Pigeons in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Snoeck, Chantal J.; Adeyanju, Adeniyi T.; Owoade, Ademola A.; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Alkali, Bello R.; Ottosson, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    In West and Central Africa, virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains of the recently identified genotypes XIV, XVII, and XVIII are enzootic in poultry, representing a considerable threat to the sector. The increasing number of reports of virulent strains in wild birds at least in other parts of the world raised the question of a potential role of wild birds in the spread of virulent NDV in sub-Saharan Africa as well. We investigated 1,723 asymptomatic birds sampled at live-bird markets and sites important for wild-bird conservation in Nigeria and 19 sick or dead wild birds in Côte d'Ivoire for NDV class I and II. Typical avirulent wild-type genotype I strains were found in wild waterfowl in wetlands in northeastern Nigeria. They were unrelated to vaccine strains, and the involvement of inter- or intracontinental migratory birds in their circulation in the region is suggested. Phylogenetic analyses also revealed that genotype VI strains found in pigeons, including some putative new subgenotype VIh and VIi strains, were introduced on multiple separate occasions in Nigeria. A single virulent genotype XVIII strain was found in a dead wild bird in Côte d'Ivoire, probably as a result of spillover from sick poultry. In conclusion, screening of wild birds and pigeons for NDV revealed the presence a variety of virulent and avirulent strains in West Africa but did not provide strong evidence that wild birds play an important role in the spread of virulent strains in the region. PMID:24123735

  14. High Genetic Diversity of Newcastle Disease Virus in Poultry in West and Central Africa: Cocirculation of Genotype XIV and Newly Defined Genotypes XVII and XVIII

    PubMed Central

    Snoeck, Chantal J.; Owoade, Ademola A.; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Alkali, Bello R.; Okwen, Mbah P.; Adeyanju, Adeniyi T.; Komoyo, Giscard F.; Nakouné, Emmanuel; Le Faou, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Despite rampant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) outbreaks in Africa for decades, the information about the genetic characteristics of the virulent strains circulating in West and Central Africa is still scarce. In this study, 96 complete NDV fusion gene sequences were obtained from poultry sampled in Cameroon, Central African Republic, Côte d'Ivoire, and Nigeria between 2006 and 2011. Based on rational criteria recently proposed for the classification of NDV strains into classes, genotypes, and subgenotypes, we revisited the classification of virulent strains, in particular those from West and Central Africa, leading to their grouping into genotype XIV and newly defined genotypes XVII and XVIII, each with two subgenotypes. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that several (sub)genotypes are found in almost every country. In Cameroon, most strains were related to vaccine strains, but a single genotype XVII strain was also found. Only three highly similar genotype XVII strains were detected in Central African Republic. Subgenotypes XVIIa, XVIIIa, and XVIIIb cocirculated in Côte d'Ivoire, while subgenotypes XIVa, XIVb, XVIIa, XVIIb, and XVIIIb were found in Nigeria. While these genotypes are so far geographically restricted, local and international trade of domestic and exotic birds may lead to their spread beyond West and Central Africa. A high genetic diversity, mutations in important neutralizing epitopes paired with suboptimal vaccination, various levels of clinical responses of poultry and wild birds to virulent strains, strains with new cleavage sites, and other genetic modifications found in these genotypes tend to undermine and complicate NDV management in Africa. PMID:23658271

  15. Vulnerability to climate change of cocoa in West Africa: Patterns, opportunities and limits to adaptation.

    PubMed

    Schroth, Götz; Läderach, Peter; Martinez-Valle, Armando Isaac; Bunn, Christian; Jassogne, Laurence

    2016-06-15

    The West African cocoa belt, reaching from Sierra Leone to southern Cameroon, is the origin of about 70% of the world's cocoa (Theobroma cacao), which in turn is the basis of the livelihoods of about two million farmers. We analyze cocoa's vulnerability to climate change in the West African cocoa belt, based on climate projections for the 2050s of 19 Global Circulation Models under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change intermediate emissions scenario RCP 6.0. We use a combination of a statistical model of climatic suitability (Maxent) and the analysis of individual, potentially limiting climate variables. We find that: 1) contrary to expectation, maximum dry season temperatures are projected to become as or more limiting for cocoa as dry season water availability; 2) to reduce the vulnerability of cocoa to excessive dry season temperatures, the systematic use of adaptation strategies like shade trees in cocoa farms will be necessary, in reversal of the current trend of shade reduction; 3) there is a strong differentiation of climate vulnerability within the cocoa belt, with the most vulnerable areas near the forest-savanna transition in Nigeria and eastern Côte d'Ivoire, and the least vulnerable areas in the southern parts of Cameroon, Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire and Liberia; 4) this spatial differentiation of climate vulnerability may lead to future shifts in cocoa production within the region, with the opportunity of partially compensating losses and gains, but also the risk of local production expansion leading to new deforestation. We conclude that adaptation strategies for cocoa in West Africa need to focus at several levels, from the consideration of tolerance to high temperatures in cocoa breeding programs, the promotion of shade trees in cocoa farms, to policies incentivizing the intensification of cocoa production on existing farms where future climate conditions permit and the establishment of new farms in already deforested areas. PMID:26974571

  16. Genetic diversity of newcastle disease virus in wild birds and pigeons in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Snoeck, Chantal J; Adeyanju, Adeniyi T; Owoade, Ademola A; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Alkali, Bello R; Ottosson, Ulf; Muller, Claude P

    2013-12-01

    In West and Central Africa, virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains of the recently identified genotypes XIV, XVII, and XVIII are enzootic in poultry, representing a considerable threat to the sector. The increasing number of reports of virulent strains in wild birds at least in other parts of the world raised the question of a potential role of wild birds in the spread of virulent NDV in sub-Saharan Africa as well. We investigated 1,723 asymptomatic birds sampled at live-bird markets and sites important for wild-bird conservation in Nigeria and 19 sick or dead wild birds in Côte d'Ivoire for NDV class I and II. Typical avirulent wild-type genotype I strains were found in wild waterfowl in wetlands in northeastern Nigeria. They were unrelated to vaccine strains, and the involvement of inter- or intracontinental migratory birds in their circulation in the region is suggested. Phylogenetic analyses also revealed that genotype VI strains found in pigeons, including some putative new subgenotype VIh and VIi strains, were introduced on multiple separate occasions in Nigeria. A single virulent genotype XVIII strain was found in a dead wild bird in Côte d'Ivoire, probably as a result of spillover from sick poultry. In conclusion, screening of wild birds and pigeons for NDV revealed the presence a variety of virulent and avirulent strains in West Africa but did not provide strong evidence that wild birds play an important role in the spread of virulent strains in the region. PMID:24123735

  17. Vulnerability to climate change of cocoa in West Africa: Patterns, opportunities and limits to adaptation.

    PubMed

    Schroth, Götz; Läderach, Peter; Martinez-Valle, Armando Isaac; Bunn, Christian; Jassogne, Laurence

    2016-06-15

    The West African cocoa belt, reaching from Sierra Leone to southern Cameroon, is the origin of about 70% of the world's cocoa (Theobroma cacao), which in turn is the basis of the livelihoods of about two million farmers. We analyze cocoa's vulnerability to climate change in the West African cocoa belt, based on climate projections for the 2050s of 19 Global Circulation Models under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change intermediate emissions scenario RCP 6.0. We use a combination of a statistical model of climatic suitability (Maxent) and the analysis of individual, potentially limiting climate variables. We find that: 1) contrary to expectation, maximum dry season temperatures are projected to become as or more limiting for cocoa as dry season water availability; 2) to reduce the vulnerability of cocoa to excessive dry season temperatures, the systematic use of adaptation strategies like shade trees in cocoa farms will be necessary, in reversal of the current trend of shade reduction; 3) there is a strong differentiation of climate vulnerability within the cocoa belt, with the most vulnerable areas near the forest-savanna transition in Nigeria and eastern Côte d'Ivoire, and the least vulnerable areas in the southern parts of Cameroon, Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire and Liberia; 4) this spatial differentiation of climate vulnerability may lead to future shifts in cocoa production within the region, with the opportunity of partially compensating losses and gains, but also the risk of local production expansion leading to new deforestation. We conclude that adaptation strategies for cocoa in West Africa need to focus at several levels, from the consideration of tolerance to high temperatures in cocoa breeding programs, the promotion of shade trees in cocoa farms, to policies incentivizing the intensification of cocoa production on existing farms where future climate conditions permit and the establishment of new farms in already deforested areas.

  18. AllAboard: Visual Exploration of Cellphone Mobility Data to Optimise Public Transport.

    PubMed

    Di Lorenzo, G; Sbodio, M; Calabrese, F; Berlingerio, M; Pinelli, F; Nair, R

    2016-02-01

    The deep penetration of mobile phones offers cities the ability to opportunistically monitor citizens' mobility and use data-driven insights to better plan and manage services. With large scale data on mobility patterns, operators can move away from the costly, mostly survey based, transportation planning processes, to a more data-centric view, that places the instrumented user at the center of development. In this framework, using mobile phone data to perform transit analysis and optimization represents a new frontier with significant societal impact, especially in developing countries. In this paper we present AllAboard, an intelligent tool that analyses cellphone data to help city authorities in visually exploring urban mobility and optimizing public transport. This is performed within a self contained tool, as opposed to the current solutions which rely on a combination of several distinct tools for analysis, reporting, optimisation and planning. An interactive user interface allows transit operators to visually explore the travel demand in both space and time, correlate it with the transit network, and evaluate the quality of service that a transit network provides to the citizens at very fine grain. Operators can visually test scenarios for transit network improvements, and compare the expected impact on the travellers' experience. The system has been tested using real telecommunication data for the city of Abidjan, Ivory Coast, and evaluated from a data mining, optimisation and user prospective.

  19. [Analysis of new criteria for increasing the specificity of commercial Western blots].

    PubMed

    Gershy-Damet, G M; Koffi, K; Soro, B; Sanon, S; Traore, M; Assoa, A; N'Goran, K; N'Gom, A

    1992-01-01

    We examined the frequency of serum cross-reactivity on Western blot for HIV1 and HIV2. 661 patients with tuberculosis in Abidjan, and 4,899 asymptomatic persons for HIV1 and HIV2 infections were tested. All specimens positive on ELISA for HIV1 or HIV2 were further characterized by synthetic peptide based tests. Confirmed positive samples were tested by HIV1 and HIV2 specific Western blot criteres utilisis. Dual serologic reactivity on synthetic peptide tests was significantly more frequent in HIV positive patients with tuberculosis than asymptomatic subjects. Positive HIV1 Western blots were seen in 61%-86% of specimens positive for HIV2 only on synthetic peptide tests. [Cross-reactivity, to HIV2 Western blots by HIV1 positive specimens was significantly more frequent in patients with tuberculosis than in asymptomatic subjects.] Using recently recommended criteria for HIV1 and HIV2 Western blot interpretation (presence of 2 env bands) reduced the overall proportion of HIV1 positive specimens having a positive HIV2 Western blot from 39% to 14% and HIV2 positive specimens having a positive HIV1 Western blot from 31% to 8%.

  20. [Comparison of platelet activity, fibrinolysis and environmental factors in 50 Africans and 50 Europeans. Role of fish consumption].

    PubMed

    Bertrand, E; Cloitre, B; Ticolat, R; Darracq, R; Rain, S F

    1987-01-01

    The authors have studied 50 Ivorians and 50 Europeans people, all living in Abidjan for at least 10 years. Platelet aggregability with increasing ADP concentration (0.6, 1.2, 2.4 mumoles/l), collagen (0.4 mg/l), or ristocetin (1 g/l) was examined. Fibrinolysis and the euglobulin test were also studied before and after anoxia. Other blood parameters measured were: hematocrit, hemoglobin level, platelet count, bleeding time, Howell coagulation test, cephalin tests, prothrombin activity ratio, fibrinogen level. Metabolic tests included: glycemia, cholesterolemia, triglyceridemia, uricemia, A1 and B apoproteins, protidemia, gamma globulinemia. Environmental factors such as physical activity, alcohol and smoking habits, fish consumption, chloroquine prophylaxis were evaluated. The most evident result was lower platelet aggregability in Ivorian people as compared to Europeans. A more precocious and important fibrinolysis activity, either spontaneous or after anoxia was noted in the Ivorian group. Lower platelet number, fibrinogen level, and prothrombin activity were present in the Ivorian group as compared to the European people. The authors eliminated the influence of age, and considered environmental factors as predominant in the genesis of such difference, i.e., hypocholesterolemia, lower smoking and drinking levels. They emphasized the higher fish consumption in Ivorian people. PMID:2827101

  1. AllAboard: Visual Exploration of Cellphone Mobility Data to Optimise Public Transport.

    PubMed

    Di Lorenzo, G; Sbodio, M; Calabrese, F; Berlingerio, M; Pinelli, F; Nair, R

    2016-02-01

    The deep penetration of mobile phones offers cities the ability to opportunistically monitor citizens' mobility and use data-driven insights to better plan and manage services. With large scale data on mobility patterns, operators can move away from the costly, mostly survey based, transportation planning processes, to a more data-centric view, that places the instrumented user at the center of development. In this framework, using mobile phone data to perform transit analysis and optimization represents a new frontier with significant societal impact, especially in developing countries. In this paper we present AllAboard, an intelligent tool that analyses cellphone data to help city authorities in visually exploring urban mobility and optimizing public transport. This is performed within a self contained tool, as opposed to the current solutions which rely on a combination of several distinct tools for analysis, reporting, optimisation and planning. An interactive user interface allows transit operators to visually explore the travel demand in both space and time, correlate it with the transit network, and evaluate the quality of service that a transit network provides to the citizens at very fine grain. Operators can visually test scenarios for transit network improvements, and compare the expected impact on the travellers' experience. The system has been tested using real telecommunication data for the city of Abidjan, Ivory Coast, and evaluated from a data mining, optimisation and user prospective. PMID:26731450

  2. Ocean thermal energy conversion: Historical highlights, status, and forecast

    SciTech Connect

    Dugger, G.L.; Avery, W.H.; Francis, E.J.; Richards, D.

    1983-07-01

    In 1881, d'Arsonval conceived the closed-Rankine-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) system in which a working fluid is vaporized by heat exchange with cold water drawn from a 700-1200 m depth. In 1930, Claude demonstrated an open-cycle process in Cuba. Surface water was flash-vaporized at 3 kPa to drive a turbine directly (no secondary working fluid) and then was condensed by direct contact with water drawn from a 700-m depth through a 1.6m-diam, 1.75-km-long cold-water pipe (CWP). From a delta T of 14/sup 0/C his undersized turbine generated 22 kW. In 1956 a French team designed a 3.5-MW (net) open-cycle plant for installation off Abidjan on the Ivory Coast of Africa and demonstrated the necessary CWP deployment. The at-sea demonstrations by Mini-OTEC and OTEC-1 and other recent advances in OTEC technology summarized herein represent great progress. All of the types of plants proposed for the DOE's PON program may be worthy of development; certainly work on a grazing plant is needed. Our estimates indicate that the U.S. goals established by Public Law 96-310 leading to 10 GW of OTEC power and energy product equivalents by 1999 are achievable, provided that adequate federal financial incentives are retained to assure the building of the first few plants.

  3. Risk factors for chronic renal failure in Ivory Coast: a prospective study of 280 patients.

    PubMed

    Ackoundou-N'Guessan, K C; Lagou, D A; Tia, M W; Gnionsahe, D A; Guei, M C

    2011-01-01

    Chronic renal failure (CRF) represents the major cause of mortality in the nephrology unit in Ivory Coast because the means for appropriate management are lacking. The present study was performed to investigate the risk factors for CRF so that strategies for prevention could be elaborated. A case-control study was performed prospectively at the Yopougon Teaching Hospital in Abidjan from January 2006 to December 2006. Factors known to cause CRF were investigated in patients and controls. Their prevalence rates were compared with the general population. A total of 280 patients and 113 controls were recruited. The mean age of the patients was 37.88 ± 13.33 years and that of the controls was 41.5 ± 9.72 years. Both genders were equally represented. The main causes of CRF were chronic glomerulonephritis (47.48%), with HIV infection accounting for 15% of them, and essential hypertension (HTA) (25%). Essential HTA represented the only factor which, if untreated, inevitably leads to CRF. Thus, our study indicates that HTA is a major public health concern. All efforts should be implemented to reduce the high prevalence of HTA and the deleterious effect of this disorder in Ivory Coast.

  4. [Determinants of street drug use in urban areas].

    PubMed

    Angbo-Effi, Kachi Odile; Kouassi, Damus Paquin; Yao, Gnissan Henri Auguste; Douba, Alfred; Secki, Richmond; Kadjo, Alphonse

    2011-01-01

    A descriptive and analytical cross-sectional study was conducted to assess street drug use in an urban setting. The study was conducted in Abidjan city center (Adjamé). The general aim of the study was to contribute to the fight against street drug consumption by identifying the determinants of drug use. The objectives of this paper are to describe the socio-demographic characteristics of street drug users, to determine the type of drugs purchased, and to identify the factors influencing drug purchase. Based on a sample of 300 individuals, the study found that the use of street drugs is a widespread phenomenon, as shown by its prevalence in the surveyed population (216 individuals out of a total of 300, i.e. 72% of the surveyed population). The study found that most drug users were young, male (32%) and worked in the informal sector. More than half of the drug users (58%) had a monthly income below 50,000 CFA and had no health insurance. The low cost of drugs was found to be the main reason for drug use (69%). The most commonly used drugs were analgesics (75%), antimalarial drugs (72%) and antibiotics (48%). Because of the lack of medical knowledge of drug sellers, drug users are exposed to serious health risks. The results of this study suggest the need for greater public awareness of the dangers of street drugs and emphasize the importance of promoting access to essential generic drugs. PMID:22365044

  5. Determinants of maternal deaths in induced abortion complications in Ivory Coast.

    PubMed

    Thonneau, Patrick; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Goyaux, Nathalie; Djanhan, Yao; Yace-Soumah, Frederique; Welffens, Christiane

    2004-10-01

    Persistently high levels of maternal mortality have been reported in Abidjan, the capital of Ivory Coast, with a high prevalence of deaths related to complications of induced abortion. In order to assess the determinants of maternal deaths in induced-abortion complications, this study investigated women admitted to the gynecological departments of four reference hospitals throughout Ivory Coast. Information concerning abortion events was collected by means of a questionnaire during a confidential, face-to-face interview. Medical records were used to collect clinical data and final vital status. In our series, 60% of women declared that they induced abortion themselves at their home; a large majority mentioned "insertion of objects into the vagina" or "ingestion of traditional plants" for this purpose. On the other hand, 40% declared that abortion had been performed by a health worker, mostly at a health facility and by using surgical methods (dilatation and curettage). Less-educated women were more likely to have chosen to induce abortion themselves at home, and more-educated women had undergone abortion through a health professional. Our findings highlight the role of both women and health professionals in responsibility for induced abortion complications.

  6. [Fattening diet and metabolic syndrome in Ivory Coast].

    PubMed

    Hauhouot-Attoungbré, Marie Laure; Yayo, Eric Sagou; Konan, Jean-Louis; Koné, Fatoumata; Siara, Eugénie; Monnet, Dagui

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a particular state of morbidity characterized by the association of several factors contributing to the increase in the cardiovascular risk. This constellation of factors associates the glucose intolerance and its corollary the hyperglycemia, the overweight, the hypertriglyceridemia, the fall of the HDL-cholesterol and arterial hypertension. In Africa, it is difficult to evaluate in the actual prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. The present study aims was to determine the prediction and prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in a group of nurse--lactating mothers--in Abidjan (Ivory Coast), who were submitted at a particularly rich food lipids. Our populations were composed to 100 lactating women, and we used the definition of « National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III ». The results obtained showed that the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is 7%, and 30% of them are presented an abdominal obesity. Our populations were composed to 100 lactating women, which belong to the Ethie where the habit are to eat, after giving birth, high foods lipids for 6 months. We used the definition of "National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III" to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in this population and see if the diet has a negative influence. The results obtained showed that the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is 7%, and 30% of them are presented an abdominal obesity. The risk to develop a metabolic syndrome in this specific population of nurse is particularly big and it's linked to their eating habits.

  7. Prevalence and comparison of Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus in raw and fermented dairy products from East and West Africa.

    PubMed

    Jans, Christoph; Kaindi, Dasel Wambua Mulwa; Böck, Désirée; Njage, Patrick Murigu Kamau; Kouamé-Sina, Sylvie Mireille; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo

    2013-10-15

    Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius (Sii) and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus are members of the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC) associated with human infections. SBSEC-related endocarditis was furthermore associated with rural residency in Southern Europe. SBSEC members are increasingly isolated as predominant species from fermented dairy products in Europe, Asia and Africa. African variants of Sii displayed dairy adaptations to lactose metabolism paralleling those of Streptococcus thermophilus including genome decay. In this study, the aim was to assess the prevalence of Sii and possibly other SBSEC members in dairy products of East and West Africa in order to identify their habitat, estimate their importance in dairy fermentation processes and determine geographic areas affected by this potential health risk. Presumptive SBSEC members were isolated on semi-selective M17 and SM agar media. Subsequent genotypic identification of isolates was based on rep-PCR fingerprinting and SBSEC-specific16S rRNA gene PCR assay. Detailed identification was achieved through application of novel primers enhancing the binding stringency in partial groES/groEL gene amplification and subsequent DNA sequencing. The presence of S. thermophilus-like lacS and lacZ genes in the SBSEC isolates was determined to elucidate the prevalence of this dairy adaptation. Isolates (n = 754) were obtained from 72 raw and 95 fermented milk samples from Côte d'Ivoire and Kenya on semi-selective agar media. Colonies of Sii were not detected from raw milk despite high microbial titers of approximately 10(6)CFU/mL on M17 agar medium. However, after spontaneous milk fermentation Sii was genotypically identified in 94.1% of Kenyan samples and 60.8% of Kenyan isolates. Sii prevalence in Côte d'Ivoire displayed seasonal variations in samples from 32.3% (June) to 40.0% (Dec/Jan) and isolates from 20.5% (June) to 27.7% (Dec/Jan) present at titers of 10

  8. Prevalence and comparison of Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus in raw and fermented dairy products from East and West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Jans, Christoph; Kaindi, Dasel Wambua Mulwa; Böck, Désirée; Njage, Patrick Murigu Kamau; Kouamé-Sina, Sylvie Mireille; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius (Sii) and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus are members of the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC) associated with human infections. SBSEC-related endocarditis was furthermore associated with rural residency in Southern Europe. SBSEC members are increasingly isolated as predominant species from fermented dairy products in Europe, Asia and Africa. African variants of Sii displayed dairy adaptations to lactose metabolism paralleling those of Streptococcus thermophilus including genome decay. In this study, the aim was to assess the prevalence of Sii and possibly other SBSEC members in dairy products of East and West Africa in order to identify their habitat, estimate their importance in dairy fermentation processes and determine geographic areas affected by this potential health risk. Presumptive SBSEC members were isolated on semi-selective M17 and SM agar media. Subsequent genotypic identification of isolates was based on rep-PCR fingerprinting and SBSEC-specific16S rRNA gene PCR assay. Detailed identification was achieved through application of novel primers enhancing the binding stringency in partial groES/groEL gene amplification and subsequent DNA sequencing. The presence of S. thermophilus-like lacS and lacZ genes in the SBSEC isolates was determined to elucidate the prevalence of this dairy adaptation. Isolates (n = 754) were obtained from 72 raw and 95 fermented milk samples from Côte d'Ivoire and Kenya on semi-selective agar media. Colonies of Sii were not detected from raw milk despite high microbial titers of approximately 106 CFU/mL on M17 agar medium. However, after spontaneous milk fermentation Sii was genotypically identified in 94.1% of Kenyan samples and 60.8% of Kenyan isolates. Sii prevalence in Côte d'Ivoire displayed seasonal variations in samples from 32.3% (June) to 40.0% (Dec/Jan) and isolates from 20.5% (June) to 27.7% (Dec/Jan) present at titers of 106–108

  9. [New statuses of women and urbanization in Africa].

    PubMed

    Antoine, P; Nanitelamio, J

    1990-01-01

    Statistical representations of demographic phenomena are imperfect mirrors of social practices at a given time. In Africa, where traditional marital customs are influenced by western ways and where new modes of male-female relations are becoming established, the classic demographic categories of marital status do not reflect the diversity of forms of union encountered in large cities. Data from Brazzaville, Abidjan, and Dakar are the basis for some hypotheses concerning the development of new statuses of women. The discussion of female statuses is conducted in terms of an analysis of the different markets, or places of exchange, where women compete: the labor market, the marriage market, and the sexual market. In the labor market, most African women are in occupations that are directly related to traditional sexual division of labor. But the modern sector offers women the means of achieving a more independent economic status, although the proportion of women with high salaries is still small. The marriage market has been strongly influenced by changes underway in African cities. The status of single, which used to be a status of waiting, has become definitive for some women. The number of women living alone or heads of households has become high in some African cities. Increasing age at marriage and female employment opportunities in cities have increased the phenomenon of relations between men and women not dictated by the family group. Polygamy is still found at all social levels. A debate is underway in the Abidjan press concerning the new status "mistress", which is sometimes interpreted as a western form of polygamy. The practice exists in all social categories; what changes is the nature and value of the gifts given to the woman. The 2 defining features of the mistress phenomenon are its economic aspects and its existence at the margin of the matrimonial system. It can be said to belong to the sexual market, which includes all physical and affective relations

  10. Early upper digestive tract side effects of zidovudine with tenofovir plus emtricitabine in West African adults with high CD4 counts

    PubMed Central

    Ouattara, Eric; Danel, Christine; Moh, Raoul; Gabillard, Delphine; Peytavin, Gilles; Konan, Romuald; Carrou, Jérome Le; Bohoussou, Franck; Eholie, Serge P; Anglaret, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Tenofovir (TDF) with emtricitabine (FTC) and zidovudine (ZDV) is a recognized alternate first-line antiretroviral (ART) regimen for patients who cannot start treatment with non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). Clinical studies comparing TDF+FTC+ZDV to other regimens are lacking. Methods Participants in a trial of early ART in Côte d'Ivoire (Temprano ANRS 12136) started treatment with TDF/FTC plus either efavirenz (EFV) or ZDV (HIV-1+2 dually infected patients and women refusing contraception or previously treated with nevirapine). We compared rates of upper digestive serious adverse events (sAEs) between TDF/FTC+EFV and TDF/FTC+ZDV patients during the first six months of treatment. sAEs were defined as either grade 3–4 AEs or persistent grade 1–2 AEs leading to drug discontinuation. Results A total of 197 patients (76% women, median CD4 count 395/mm3) started therapy with TDF/FTC, 126 with EFV and 71 with ZDV. During the first six months of ART, 94 patients had digestive AEs (nausea/vomiting) of any grade (EFV 36/126, 29%; ZDV 58/71, 82%, p<0.0001), including 20 sAEs (EFV 3/126, 5%; ZDV 17/71, 24%, p<0.0001). In-patients on TDF/FTC+ZDV with digestive AEs, the median time to the first symptom was two days (IQR: 1–4). Plasma ZDV (Cmax) distributions and pill ZDV dosages were normal. Patients with digestive AEs had higher haemoglobin levels and tended to have higher body mass indices and more frequent past histories of cotrimoxazole (CTX) prophylaxis. Conclusions We observed an unexpectedly high rate of digestive sAEs in West African adults, mostly women, who started a 3-nuc ART with TDF/FTC+ZDV in Côte d'Ivoire. These adults were participating in a trial of early ART and had much higher CD4 counts than those who currently routinely start ART in sub-Saharan Africa. They all received CTX concomitantly with ZDV. We suggest that further early prescriptions of TDF+XTC+ZDV should be carefully monitored and that whenever possible

  11. PubMed Central

    Cordellier, R.

    1991-01-01

    Observations made during the epidemics in Côte d'Ivoire (1982), Burkina Faso (1983), Nigeria (1986 and 1987) and Mali (1987), together with studies conducted in the last 10 years, particularly in Côte d'Ivoire, now make it possible, without calling into question the dynamics of yellow fever virus circulation in space and time, to redefine some features of the pattern suggested in 1977 and refined on a number of occasions up to 1983. The endemicity area is still the region of epizootic and enzootic sylvatic circulation, and contains the natural focus and the endemic emergence zone. --The natural focus is no longer confined to the forest alone, now that transovarial transmission has been demonstrated. --The endemic emergence zone is tending to become conterminous with the endemicity area on account of increasing deforestation. Emergence in forest regions, due to Aedes africanus, is still few and isolated, unlike that observed in savanna regions where A. furcifer is the major vector. The different behaviour of these two vectors and their population dynamics determine the quality of the man-vector contact and are responsible for these two patterns of emergence. --The emergence front limits the endemicity area in the north. Its position varies and depends on annual rainfall patterns. The epidemicity area, where the virus does not circulate before an epidemic and where the immunity status of unvaccinated populations is low, is geographically heterogeneous. It consists of regions to the north of the emergence front and of towns anywhere. It is characterized by high potentials for the development of A. aegypti populations. Only man can introduce the virus into this area. Three types of epidemic are distinguished, depending on the vectors: --Urban epidemics resulting from transmission by a domestic vector. These epidemics always occur within the epidemicity area, either in dry savanna (rural subtype) or in towns (urban subtype). The virus is introduced into the ecosystem

  12. Short-course eflornithine in Gambian trypanosomiasis: a multicentre randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed Central

    Pépin, J.; Khonde, N.; Maiso, F.; Doua, F.; Jaffar, S.; Ngampo, S.; Mpia, B.; Mbulamberi, D.; Kuzoe, F.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A randomized controlled trial was conducted to determine whether 7 days of intravenous eflornithine (100 mg/kg every 6 h) was as effective as the standard 14-day regimen in the treatment of late-stage Trypanosoma brucei gambiense trypanosomiasis. METHODS: A total of 321 patients (274 new cases, 47 relapsing cases) were randomized at four participating centres in Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Uganda to one of these treatment regimens and followed up for 2 years. RESULTS: Six patients died during treatment, one of whom was on the 7-day regimen, whereas the other five had been on the 14-day regimen (P = 0.2). The response to eflornithine differed markedly between Uganda and other countries. Among new cases in Uganda, the 2-year probability of cure was 73% on the 14-day course compared with 62% on the 7-day regimen (hazard ratio (HR) for treatment failure, 7-day versus 14-day regimen: 1.45, 95% CI: 0.7, 3.1, P = 0.3). Among new cases in Côte d'Ivoire, Congo, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo combined, the 2-year probability of cure was 97% on the 14-day course compared with 86.5% on the 7-day regimen (HR for treatment failure, 7-day vs 14-day: 6.72, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.5, 31.0, P = 0.003). Among relapsing cases in all four countries, the 2-year probability of cure was 94% with 7 days and 100% with 14 days of treatment. Factors associated with a higher risk of treatment failure were: a positive lymph node aspirate (HR 4.1; 95% CI: 1.8-9.4), a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) white cell count > or = 100/mm3 (HR 3.5; 95% CI: 1.1-10.9), being treated in Uganda (HR 2.9; 95% CI: 1.4-5.9), and CSF trypanosomes (HR 1.9; 95% CI: 0.9-4.1). Being stuporous on admission was associated with a lower risk of treatment failure (HR 0.18; 95% CI: 0.02-1.4) as was increasing age (HR 0.977; 95% CI: 0.95-1.0, for each additional year of age). DISCUSSION: The 7-day course of eflornithine is an effective treatment of relapsing cases

  13. Increasing Use of Postpartum Family Planning and the Postpartum IUD: Early Experiences in West and Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Pleah, Tsigue; Hyjazi, Yolande; Austin, Suzanne; Diallo, Abdoulaye; Dao, Blami; Waxman, Rachel; Karna, Priya

    2016-08-11

    A global resurgence of interest in the intrauterine device (IUD) as an effective long-acting reversible contraceptive and in improving access to a wide range of contraceptive methods, as well as an emphasis on encouraging women to give birth in health care facilities, has led programs to introduce postpartum IUD (PPIUD) services into postpartum family planning (PPFP) programs. We describe strategic, organizational, and technical elements that contributed to early successes of a regional initiative in West and Central Africa to train antenatal, maternity, and postnatal care providers in PPFP counseling for the full range of available methods and in PPIUD service delivery. In November 2013, the initiative provided competency-based training in Guinea for providers from the main public teaching hospital in 5 selected countries (Benin, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Niger, and Senegal) with no prior PPFP counseling or PPIUD capacity. The training was followed by a transfer-of-learning visit and monitoring to support the trained providers. One additional country, Togo, replicated the initiative's model in 2014. Although nascent, this initiative has introduced high-quality PPFP and PPIUD services to the region, where less than 1% of married women of reproductive age use the IUD. In total, 21 providers were trained in PPFP counseling, 18 of whom were also trained in PPIUD insertion. From 2014 to 2015, more than 15,000 women were counseled about PPFP, and 2,269 women chose and received the PPIUD in Benin, Côte d'Ivoire, Niger, Senegal, and Togo. (Introduction of PPIUD services in Chad has been delayed.) South-South collaboration has been central to the initiative's accomplishments: Guinea's clinical centers of excellence and qualified trainers provided a culturally resonant example of a PPFP/PPIUD program, and trainings are creating a network of regional trainers to facilitate expansion. Two of the selected countries (Benin and Niger) have expanded their PPFP/PPUID training

  14. Rapid urban malaria appraisal (RUMA) in sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shr-Jie; Lengeler, Christian; Smith, Thomas A; Vounatsou, Penelope; Cissé, Guéladio; Diallo, Diadie A; Akogbeto, Martin; Mtasiwa, Deo; Teklehaimanot, Awash; Tanner, Marcel

    2005-01-01

    Background The rapid urban malaria appraisal (RUMA) methodology aims to provide a cost-effective tool to conduct rapid assessments of the malaria situation in urban sub-Saharan Africa and to improve the understanding of urban malaria epidemiology. Methods This work was done in Yopougon municipality (Abidjan), Cotonou, Dar es Salaam and Ouagadougou. The study design consists of six components: 1) a literature review, 2) the collection of available health statistics, 3) a risk mapping, 4) school parasitaemia surveys, 5) health facility-based surveys and 6) a brief description of the health care system. These formed the basis of a multi-country evaluation of RUMA's feasibility, consistency and usefulness. Results A substantial amount of literature (including unpublished theses and statistics) was found at each site, providing a good overview of the malaria situation. School and health facility-based surveys provided an overview of local endemicity and the overall malaria burden in different city areas. This helped to identify important problems for in-depth assessment, especially the extent to which malaria is over-diagnosed in health facilities. Mapping health facilities and breeding sites allowed the visualization of the complex interplay between population characteristics, health services and malaria risk. However, the latter task was very time-consuming and required special expertise. RUMA is inexpensive, costing around 8,500–13,000 USD for a six to ten-week period. Conclusion RUMA was successfully implemented in four urban areas with different endemicity and proved to be a cost-effective first approach to study the features of urban malaria and provide an evidence basis for planning control measures. PMID:16153298

  15. Interaction Of Mesoscale Convective Systems With The Land - Sea Breezes Along The Guinea Coast Of West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulibaly, A.; Omotosho, B. J.; Sylla, M. B.; Fink, A. H.

    2015-12-01

    1-3 hourly METARS/SYNOP observation data of wind (speed and direction), air temperature over land, covering the period 1983-2012, were used in order to characterize land-sea breezes (LSB) over five coastline stations (Abidjan, Accra, Lomé, Cotonou and Ikeja-Lagos) in the Guinean Coast, West Africa. In additional to this, 8 years (2003-2010) sea surface temperature (SST) data from adjacent Atlantic Ocean and monthly METARS/SYNOP observation data of precipitation (1983-2012) were also used. Based on wind speed and direction, the wind roses of all months over all stations have been plotted. These wind roses reveal that, globally, the northerly winds occurred rarely for the months of February, March, and April at Cotonou (Benin Republic).This is seen for other stations (Lomé and Accra). The night/morning time northerly winds appear at all stations, except Accra where there is no northerly wind or is very weak. According to the stations basis, the period of that night/morning northerly winds varies, except in summer period (July - September), where the normal s/w monsoon winds can weaken override at all stations. Set criteria based on the diurnal reversal of wind direction, and the thermal gradient necessary to drive the wind circulation, was used to identify land-sea breeze days. On station-wide basis, sea-breezes occur, at least all period of year, but less frequent in the summer months, where the minimum value of monthly mean temperature gradient is observed for selected stations.

  16. [The migration policy of the Ivory Coast].

    PubMed

    Brou, K; Charbit, Y

    1994-01-01

    Migration policies adopted by the Ivory Coast at independence were essentially a continuation of colonial policies aimed at providing manpower for the coffee and cacao plantations of the south, whose exports were to form the basis of the national development strategy. Instead of forced labor, the government facilitated installation of migrants in agricultural areas by means of laws assuring their access to lands not currently in use. Massive immigration of workers resulted in an age and sex distribution favorable to the needs of the plantation economy. The concentration of development efforts in the forest zone of the south, including Abidjan, encouraged thousands of workers from the savannah to migrate south in search of higher incomes and better living conditions. Bilateral accords with the former Upper Volta and with France and multilateral accords with the Economic Community of the West African states regulated the migratory movement. The Ivory Coast's migration policy succeeded in populating the forest zone and permitted the Ivory Coast to construct a powerful economy. But the policy produced sometimes violent opposition among natives overwhelmed by foreigners in search of lands. The loss of labor force in the savannah threatened the nation's food supply and demographic balance. In the forest zone itself, many of the immigrant workers left the plantations to seek greater success in the cities, swelling the ranks of the urban unemployed and leaving much of the rural area short of labor. In prosperous times, when prices for southern goods were high, the system worked reasonably well. When economic conditions worsened, the inefficiency of the policy became clear. At those times the international conventions failed to control the influx because of the conflicting interests of the countries. Ethnic and regional tensions mounted, the rural exodus continued despite attempts to encourage regional development, and conflicts over land tenure intensified.

  17. Origins and dispersal of the mitochondrial DNA region V 9 bp deletion and insertion in Nigeria and the Ivory Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Merriwether, D.A.; Huston, S.L.; Bunker, C.A.

    1994-09-01

    An intergenic region V Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) 9 bp deletion located between the genes for tRNA{sup LYS} and cytochrome oxidase II was discovered in a small percentage of Nigerian and Ivory Coast natives. Previously this deletion has been described as Asian-specific and has been reported throughout the New World, Asia, S.E. Asia, and the Pacific Islands at frequencies ranging from 0% to 100%. In the New World and the Pacific Islands, the deletion is almost always accompanied by an Hae III restriction site gain at nt 16517. All 9 occurrences of the deletion observed in Africa (from four different populations) co-occur with the Hae III 16517 site gain, indicating that the African deletion probably shares a common origin with the deletion described as {open_quotes}Asian-specific{close_quotes}. The deletion was found in Benin and Sokoto, Nigeria in 2/54 Edo Bini, 1/2 Edo Ishan, 3/99 Hausa, 0/18 Fulani, and 0/16 other Nigerians. The deletion was also detected in 3/115 Ivory Coast natives from Abidjan. A 9 bp insertion (triplication) was observed in 1/115 Ivory Coast natives. The triplicated individual also possessed the Hae III 16517 site gain. The fragment containing the African deletion was sequenced and found to be identical in sequence to the Asian deletion region. D-loop sequence of nts 15975 to 00048 revealed that 2 of the 3 Ivory Coast deleted individuals and 1 of the 6 Nigerians deleted (Hausa) had a T-C transition at nt position 16189 which is common in New World-deleted individuals. These results raise the possibility that the occurrence of this deletion predates the separation of Asian and African populations from a common ancestral populations, or that the deletion has occurred more than once in human evolution. Either explanation requires that caution be exercised when using the 9 bp deletion as a population marker.

  18. Exocrine pancreatic function of children from the Ivory Coast compared to French children. Effect of kwashiorkor.

    PubMed

    Sauniere, J F; Sarles, H; Attia, Y; Lombardo, A; Yoman, T N; Laugier, R; Manlan, K; Sahel, J

    1986-05-01

    One hundred nineteen children, either French or from the Ivory Coast, aged 1-8 years, were submitted to pancreatic function testing by duodenal aspiration. Trypsin, chymotrypsin, lipase, phospholipase, amylase, volume, bicarbonate, chloride, and calcium were estimated before and after an intravenous injection of 1 CU secretin + 3 CHR units pancreozymin per kilogram of body weight. Sixty-two patients were normal European children, and 11 were normal African children. Twenty-five African children presented with kwashiorkor and 10 African children had presented with kwashiorkor but had recovered at the time of the test. Three cases of recurrent kwashiorkor are also included. In the normal group of African children, phospholipase concentration, volume, and bicarbonate were significantly decreased but chymotrypsin and trypsin concentrations were not, when compared to the normal European population. In kwashiorkor patients, lipase, amylase, phospholipase, and chymotrypsin concentration were significantly decreased compared to normal Africans. Trypsin, volume, and bicarbonate were not affected. These modifications disappeared after refeeding. In cases of recurrent kwashiorkor, all enzymes, including trypsin, were decreased. Calcium was never modified. These modifications were very different from those observed in chronic alcoholic and hypercalcemic pancreatitis. In a two-year study, chronic calcifying pancreatitis (CCP) was diagnosed in 14 patients (13 males), hospitalized in Abidjan. The mean age at onset of the disease was 41 years (SD 12.71), which is very similar to European cases. The most frequent cause was alcoholism, as in Occidental countries. The nutrition of the population was low in protein, calories being provided mostly by manioc, but no apparent symptoms of malnutrition were observed in the parents of our patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Disease patterns and causes of death of hospitalized HIV-positive adults in West Africa: a multicountry survey in the antiretroviral treatment era

    PubMed Central

    Lewden, Charlotte; Drabo, Youssoufou J; Zannou, Djimon M; Maiga, Moussa Y; Minta, Daouda K; Sow, Papa S; Akakpo, Jocelyn; Dabis, François; Eholié, Serge P

    2014-01-01

    Objective We aimed to describe the morbidity and mortality patterns in HIV-positive adults hospitalized in West Africa. Method We conducted a six-month prospective multicentre survey within the IeDEA West Africa collaboration in six adult medical wards of teaching hospitals in Abidjan, Ouagadougou, Cotonou, Dakar and Bamako. From April to October 2010, all newly hospitalized HIV-positive patients were eligible. Baseline and follow-up information until hospital discharge was recorded using standardized forms. Diagnoses were reviewed by a local event validation committee using reference definitions. Factors associated with in-hospital mortality were studied with a logistic regression model. Results Among 823 hospitalized HIV-positive adults (median age 40 years, 58% women), 24% discovered their HIV infection during the hospitalization, median CD4 count was 75/mm3 (IQR: 25–177) and 48% had previously received antiretroviral treatment (ART). The underlying causes of hospitalization were AIDS-defining conditions (54%), other infections (32%), other diseases (8%) and non-specific illness (6%). The most frequent diseases diagnosed were: tuberculosis (29%), pneumonia (15%), malaria (10%) and cerebral toxoplasmosis (10%). Overall, 315 (38%) patients died during hospitalization and the underlying cause of death was AIDS (63%), non-AIDS-defining infections (26%), other diseases (7%) and non-specific illness or unknown cause (4%). Among them, the most frequent fatal diseases were: tuberculosis (36%), cerebral toxoplasmosis (10%), cryptococcosis (9%) and sepsis (7%). Older age, clinical WHO stage 3 and 4, low CD4 count, and AIDS-defining infectious diagnoses were associated with hospital fatality. Conclusions AIDS-defining conditions, primarily tuberculosis, and bacterial infections were the most frequent causes of hospitalization in HIV-positive adults in West Africa and resulted in high in-hospital fatality. Sustained efforts are needed to integrate care of these disease

  20. Disruption of endocrine rhythms in sleeping sickness with preserved relationship between hormonal pulsatility and the REM-NREM sleep cycles.

    PubMed

    Brandenberger, G; Buguet, A; Spiegel, K; Stanghellini, A; Muanga, G; Bogui, P; Dumas, M

    1996-09-01

    In human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), sleep and wake episodes are sporadically distributed throughout the day and the night. To determine whether these sleep disturbances affect the 24-h hormone profiles and the normal relationships between hormone pulsatility and sleep stages, polygraphic sleep recordings and concomitant hormone profiles were obtained in 6 African patients with sleeping sickness and in 5 healthy African subjects selected from Abidjan on the Ivory Coast. Polysomnographic recordings were continuous, and blood was taken every 10 min throughout the 24-h period. Plasma was analyzed for cortisol, prolactin, and plasma renin activity (PRA). The 24-h rhythm of cortisol, considered to be an endogenous circadian rhythm, was attenuated in all of the patients except one. However, as in normal subjects, slow wave sleep (SWS) remained associated with the declining phases of the cortisol secretory episodes. Prolactin and PRA profiles, which are strongly influenced by the sleep-wake cycle, did not manifest the nocturnal increase normally associated with the sleep period; instead, they reflected a sporadic distribution of the sleep and wake episodes throughout the 24-h period. In patients with sleeping sickness as in normal subjects, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep began during the descending phases of prolactin pulses. In both groups, PRA reflected the sleep stage distribution with non REM (NREM) sleep occurring during the ascending phases and REM sleep during the descending phases of the PRA oscillations. However, in sleeping sickness patients, the marked sleep fragmentation often did not allow sufficient time for PRA to increase significantly, as is normally the case in subjects with regular NREM-REM sleep cycles. These results demonstrate that, together with the disruption of the sleep-wake cycle, there are profound differences in the temporal organization of the 24-h hormone profiles in humans with African trypanosomiasis. However, the

  1. [Maintenance of the relation between the pulsed secretion of hormones and the internal sleep structure in human African trypanosomiasis].

    PubMed

    Brandenberger, G; Buguet, A; Spiegel, K; Stanghellini, A; Mouanga, G; Bogui, P; Montmayeur, A; Dumas, M

    1994-01-01

    In order to determine whether sleep disturbances would affect the hormonal patterns and the normal relationships between hormone pulses and sleep stages, the 24-hour profiles of cortisol, prolactin and plasma renin activity (PRA) were analysed in 6 sleeping sickness patients studied at Brazzaville and in 5 healthy African controls studied in Abidjan. Polysomnographic recordings were done continuously and blood was taken every 10 minutes throughout the 24-hour period. Plasma was analyzed for cortisol, prolactin and PRA. The circadian rhythm of cortisol, considered as an example of an endogenous rhythm was attenuated in all the patients but one, but as in normal subjects, slow wave sleep (SWS) remained associated with the declining phases of the secretory episodes. Prolactin and PRA profiles, which are strongly influenced by the sleep-wake cycle did not show the increase normally associated with long sleep periods and reflected the spreading of sleep and wakefulness throughout the 24-hour period. However, rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep began in sleeping sickness patients, as in normal subjects, during the descending phases of prolactin pulses. In both groups, PRA reflected the sleep stage distribution with non rapid-eye movement (NREM) sleep occurring during the ascending phases and REM sleep during the descending phases of the oscillations. However, in sleeping sickness patients, the marked sleep fragmentation often did not allow sufficient time for PRA to increase significantly, as observed with regular NREM-REM sleep cycles. These results demonstrate that, together with the disruption of the sleep-wake cycle, there are profound differences in the temporal organization of the 24 hour hormone profiles in human African trypanosomiasis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Impact of genotypic drug resistance mutations on clinical and immunological outcomes in HIV-infected adults on HAART in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Seyler, Catherine; Adjé-Touré, Christiane; Messou, Eugène; Dakoury-Dogbo, Nicole; Rouet, François; Gabillard, Delphine; Nolan, Monica; Toure, Siaka; Anglaret, Xavier

    2007-01-01

    Background The impact of HIV-1 drug resistance mutations in African adults on HAART has never been reported. Methods In 2004 in Abidjan, 106 adults on HAART had plasma viral load (VL) measurements. Patients with detectable VL had resistance genotypic tests. Patients were followed-up until 2006. Main outcomes were serious morbidity and immunological failure (CD4 count < 200/mm3). Results At study entry, the median previous time on HAART was 37 months and the median CD4 count 266/mm3; 58% of patients had undetectable VL, 20% detectable VL with no major resistance mutations, and 22% detectable VL with ≥1 major mutations. At study termination, 20% of patients had <200 CD4/mm3. Factors associated with immunological failure were a low baseline CD4 count (p=0.007) and ≥1 resistance mutations at baseline (p=0.04). Compared with patients with undetectable VL, those with detectable VL without mutations and those with ≥1 mutations had adjusted hazard ratios of immunological failure of 2.56 (95%CI 0.76–8.54) and 4.32 (1.38–13.57), respectively. In patients with undetectable VL and detectable VL without and with mutations, the median change in CD4 count between study entry and termination was +129/mm3, +51/mm3 and +3/mm3, respectively. One patient died. The 18-months probability of remaining free of morbidity was 0.79 in patients with undetectable VL and 0.69 in those with resistance mutations (p=0.19). Conclusion In this setting with restricted access to second-line HAART regimens, patients with major resistance mutations had higher rates of immunological failure, but most of them maintained stable CD4 count and stayed alive during 20 months. PMID:17502726

  3. Nanoporous hollow transition metal chalcogenide nanosheets synthesized via the anion-exchange reaction of metal hydroxides with chalcogenide ions.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Weiwei; Zhang, Chao; Geng, Feiyang; Zhuo, Sifei; Zhang, Bin

    2014-10-28

    Nanoporous hollow transition metal chalcogenides are of special interest for a variety of promising applications. Although some advanced synthetic methods have been reported, the development of a facile and general strategy to fabricate porous hollow nanostructures of transition metal chalcogenides, especially with enhanced electrocatalytic performance, still remains highly challenged. Herein, we report a facile chemical transformation strategy to prepare nanoporous hollow Co3S4 nanosheets via the anion exchange reaction of Co(OH)2 with sulfide ions. The chemical transformation mechanism involves the as-formed layer of nanoporous cobalt sulfide on Co(OH)2 driven by the anion-exchange-reaction and lattice mismatch induced quick strain release, a following diffusion-effect-dominated core-shell hollow intermediate with hollow interiors, and subsequent Ostwald ripening growth of hollow nanosheets at elevated temperatures. This anion-exchange strategy of transition metal hydroxides with chalcogenide ions is also suitable for fabricating nanoporous hollow nanosheets of other metal chalcogenides (e.g., CoSe2, CoTe2, CdS, and NiS). The as-prepared nanoporous hollow Co3S4 nanosheets are found to be highly active and stable for electrocatalytic oxygen evolution reaction.

  4. Nonconservative extension of Keplerian integrals and a new class of integrable system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roa, Javier

    2016-09-01

    The invariance of the Lagrangian under time translations and rotations in Kepler's problem yields the conservation laws related to the energy and angular momentum. Noether's theorem reveals that these same symmetries furnish generalized forms of the first integrals in a special nonconservative case, which approximates various physical models. The system is perturbed by a biparametric acceleration with components along the tangential and normal directions. A similarity transformation reduces the biparametric disturbance to a simpler uniparametric forcing along the velocity vector. The solvability conditions of this new problem are discussed, and closed-form solutions for the integrable cases are provided. Thanks to the conservation of a generalized energy, the orbits are classified as elliptic, parabolic, and hyperbolic. Keplerian orbits appear naturally as particular solutions to the problem. After characterizing the orbits independently, a unified form of the solution is built based on the Weierstrass elliptic functions. The new trajectories involve fundamental curves such as cardioids and logarithmic, sinusoidal, and Cotes' spirals. These orbits can represent the motion of particles perturbed by solar radiation pressure, of spacecraft with continuous thrust propulsion, and some instances of Schwarzschild geodesics. Finally, the problem is connected with other known integrable systems in celestial mechanics.

  5. Conclusive evidence for panmixia in the American eel.

    PubMed

    Pujolar, Jose M

    2013-04-01

    Eels are unique species in the biological world. The two North Atlantic eel species, the American eel (Anguilla rostrata) and the European eel (A. anguilla), occupy a broad range of habitats from the Caribbean to Greenland in the western Atlantic and from Morocco to Iceland in the eastern Atlantic, respectively. North Atlantic eels have a catadromous life cycle, spawning only in the Sargasso Sea and spending the majority of their lives in continental (fresh, brackish and coastal) waters. Despite such a wide distribution range, North Atlantic eels have been regarded as a textbook example of panmictic species. In contrast with the large amount of population genetic studies testing the panmixia hypothesis in the European eel, a relatively modest effort has been given to study the population structure of the American eel. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, C^ote et al. (2013) present the most comprehensive American eel data set to date, which includes samples of different life stages obtained throughout all its distribution range in North America. Results show a total lack of genetic differentiation among samples and provide decisive evidence for panmixia in the American eel.

  6. Modelling of the equatorial ionospheric E-layer based on cos ξ index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazeem, A. K.; Adeniyi, J. O.; Adediji, A. T.

    2014-06-01

    Daytime hourly values of the critical frequency of the ionospheric E-layer, f oE, obtained at Ouagadougou Ionospheric Observatory (12.4°N, 1.5°W) in Burkina Faso, West Africa, an equatorial station, during the solar cycle 22 (1985-1995) have been used to develop a model based on solar zenith angle through cos ξ index factor using the relation f oE = a (cos ξ)n, The average value of the diurnal cos ξ index, n, at Ouagadougou was found to be 0.30 for both low and high solar activity. The model was tested with f oE data from Korhogo (9.3°N, 5.4°W) in Cote-d'Ivoire, another equatorial station, and there is good agreement between the model and observations. The validity of the f oE model was also compared with predicted values by IRI-2012 model and good agreement has been observed. The percentage difference, when f oE observed compared with IRI-2012 model, was found to be within f ±10% for both equinoxes and solstices for the two levels of solar activity.

  7. Characterization of high order spatial discretizations and lumping techniques for discontinuous finite element SN transport

    SciTech Connect

    Maginot, P. G.; Ragusa, J. C.; Morel, J. E.

    2013-07-01

    We examine several possible methods of mass matrix lumping for discontinuous finite element discrete ordinates transport using a Lagrange interpolatory polynomial trial space. Though positive outflow angular flux is guaranteed with traditional mass matrix lumping in a purely absorbing 1-D slab cell for the linear discontinuous approximation, we show that when used with higher degree interpolatory polynomial trial spaces, traditional lumping does yield strictly positive outflows and does not increase in accuracy with an increase in trial space polynomial degree. As an alternative, we examine methods which are 'self-lumping'. Self-lumping methods yield diagonal mass matrices by using numerical quadrature restricted to the Lagrange interpolatory points. Using equally-spaced interpolatory points, self-lumping is achieved through the use of closed Newton-Cotes formulas, resulting in strictly positive outflows in pure absorbers for odd power polynomials in 1-D slab geometry. By changing interpolatory points from the traditional equally-spaced points to the quadrature points of the Gauss-Legendre or Lobatto-Gauss-Legendre quadratures, it is possible to generate solution representations with a diagonal mass matrix and a strictly positive outflow for any degree polynomial solution representation in a pure absorber medium in 1-D slab geometry. Further, there is no inherent limit to local truncation error order of accuracy when using interpolatory points that correspond to the quadrature points of high order accuracy numerical quadrature schemes. (authors)

  8. Conclusive evidence for panmixia in the American eel.

    PubMed

    Pujolar, Jose M

    2013-04-01

    Eels are unique species in the biological world. The two North Atlantic eel species, the American eel (Anguilla rostrata) and the European eel (A. anguilla), occupy a broad range of habitats from the Caribbean to Greenland in the western Atlantic and from Morocco to Iceland in the eastern Atlantic, respectively. North Atlantic eels have a catadromous life cycle, spawning only in the Sargasso Sea and spending the majority of their lives in continental (fresh, brackish and coastal) waters. Despite such a wide distribution range, North Atlantic eels have been regarded as a textbook example of panmictic species. In contrast with the large amount of population genetic studies testing the panmixia hypothesis in the European eel, a relatively modest effort has been given to study the population structure of the American eel. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, C^ote et al. (2013) present the most comprehensive American eel data set to date, which includes samples of different life stages obtained throughout all its distribution range in North America. Results show a total lack of genetic differentiation among samples and provide decisive evidence for panmixia in the American eel. PMID:23620904

  9. A very deep IRAS survey at l(II) = 97 deg, b(II) = +30 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hacking, Perry; Houck, James R.

    1987-01-01

    A deep far-infrared survey is presented using over 1000 scans made of a 4 to 6 sq. deg. field at the north ecliptic pole by the IRAS. Point sources from this survey are up to 100 times fainter than the IRAS point source catalog at 12 and 25 micrometers, and up to 10 times fainter at 60 and 100 micrometers. The 12 and 25 micrometer maps are instrumental noise-limited, and the 60 and 100 micrometer maps are confusion noise-limited. The majority of the 12 micrometer point sources are stars within the Milky Way. The 25 micrometer sources are composed almost equally of stars and galaxies. About 80% of the 60 micrometer sources correspond to galaxies on Palomar Observatory Sky Survey (POSS) enlargements. The remaining 20% are probably galaxies below the POSS detection limit. The differential source counts are presented and compared with what is predicted by the Bahcall and Soneira Standard Galaxy Model using the B-V-12 micrometer colors of stars without circumstellar dust shells given by Waters, Cote and Aumann. The 60 micrometer source counts are inconsistent with those predicted for a uniformly distributed, nonevolving universe. The implications are briefly discussed.

  10. Development of cellulose-polypyrrole microfiber membranes and assessment of their capability on water softening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrera, C.; Arrieta, A.; Escobar, N.; Gañan, P.; Castro, C.

    2013-11-01

    The application of conducting polymer composite for water softening is based on the use of pyrrole's electrochemical properties joined with the flexibility and relatively high surface areas associated with cellulose fibers, to develop a new hybrid material that exhibits the inherent proprieties of both components. This hybrid would allow to promote an ion exchange reaction between the composite membrane and the hard water. The cellulose membranes obtained from banana plant agricultural waste (raquis), were uniform with individual and well separated fibers. The fibers were encapsulated by a continuous coating of polypyrrole by an in situ oxidative chemical polymerization. The amount of polypyrrole deposited on the fiber increased by increasing the monomer concentration, behavior that was identified through the observation of differences on the intensity of the light to dark color shift that coated the fibers after the polymerization. The ion removal capability of the membrane coted with the conducting polymer was tested using an experimental device, finding reductions on the conductivity for hard water within 23 to 66 μs/cm after 6 hours of the assay.

  11. Métastase atypique du cuir chevelu et surrénalienne d'un carcinome urothelial de la vessie

    PubMed Central

    Dossou, Serpos; James, Laurianne; Afif, Mohammed; Rahali, Leila; Bazine, Amine; Irigo, Joelle; Ogandaga, Etienne; Kebdani, Tayeb; Kettani, Fouad; Benjaafar, Noureddine

    2014-01-01

    Les métastases du cuir chevelu et surrénaliennes d'un carcinome urothélial de la vessie sont rares, peu de cas ont été rapportés dans la littérature, et la chimiothérapie est le traitement de choix. Nous rapportons le cas d'une femme de 60 ans qui présente un carcinome urothélial stade IV avec métastases surrénaliennes, pulmonaire et osseuses (cotes et scapula). Deux lignes de chimiothérapies ont été instaurées et la patiente bénéficia d'une radiothérapie palliative antalgique sur la scapula. Après la première ligne de chimiothérapie, une masse du cuir chevelu augmentant progressivement de volume apparue, une biopsie fut faite et le diagnostic de métastase d'un carcinome urothélial de la vessie fut confirmé par l'histologie. PMID:25722782

  12. Diverse supramolecular structures formed by self‐assembling proteins of the B acillus subtilis spore coat

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shuo; Wan, Qiang; Krajcikova, Daniela; Tang, Jilin; Tzokov, Svetomir B.; Barak, Imrich

    2015-01-01

    Summary Bacterial spores (endospores), such as those of the pathogens C lostridium difficile and B acillus anthracis, are uniquely stable cell forms, highly resistant to harsh environmental insults. B acillus subtilis is the best studied spore‐former and we have used it to address the question of how the spore coat is assembled from multiple components to form a robust, protective superstructure. B . subtilis coat proteins (CotY, CotE, CotV and CotW) expressed in E scherichia coli can arrange intracellularly into highly stable macro‐structures through processes of self‐assembly. Using electron microscopy, we demonstrate the capacity of these proteins to generate ordered one‐dimensional fibres, two‐dimensional sheets and three‐dimensional stacks. In one case (CotY), the high degree of order favours strong, cooperative intracellular disulfide cross‐linking. Assemblies of this kind could form exquisitely adapted building blocks for higher‐order assembly across all spore‐formers. These physically robust arrayed units could also have novel applications in nano‐biotechnology processes. PMID:25872412

  13. (T2L2) Time Transfer by Laser Link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veillet, Christian; Fridelance, Patricia

    1995-01-01

    T2L2 (Time Transfer by Laser Link) is a new generation time transfer experiment based on the principles of LASSO (Laser Synchronization from Synchronous Orbit) and used with an operational procedure developed at OCA (Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur) during the active intercontinental phase of LASSO. The hardware improvements could lead to a precision better than 10 ps for time transfer (flying clock monitoring or ground based clock comparison). Such a package could fly on any spacecraft with a stable clock. It has been developed in France in the frame of the PHARAO project (cooled atom clock in orbit) involving CNES and different laboratories. But T2L2 could fly on any spacecraft carrying a stable oscillator. A GPS satellite would be a good candidate, as T2L2 could allow to link the flying clock directly to ground clocks using light, aiming to important accuracy checks, both for time and for geodesy. Radioastron (a flying VLBI antenna with a H-maser) is also envisioned, waiting for a PHARAO flight. The ultimate goal of T2L2 is to be part of more ambitious missions, as SORT (Solar Orbit Relativity Test), aiming to examine aspects of the gravitation in the vicinity of the Sun.

  14. Two body and multibody interaction in a cold Rydberg gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jianing; Gallagher, Tom

    2009-05-01

    Cold Rydberg atoms trapped in a Magneto Optical Trap (MOT) are not isolated and they tend to bond through dipole-dipole and multiple-multiple interactions between Rydberg atoms. The dipole-dipole interaction and van der Waals interaction between two atoms have been intensively studied. However, the fact that the dipole-dipole interaction and van der Waals interaction show the same size of broadening, studied by Raithel's group, and there is transition between two molecular states, studied by Farooqi and Overstreet, can not be explained by the two atom picture. The purpose of this paper is to show the multibody nature of a dense cold Rydberg gas by studying the molecular state microwave spectrum. Specifically, single body, two body and three body interaction regions are separated. Moreover, the multibody energy levels for selected geometries are calculated. In addition, multibody blockade will be discussed. [3pt] [1] A. Reinhard, K. C. Younge, T. Cubel Liebisch, B. Knuffman, P. R. Berman, and G. Raithel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 233201 (2008).[0pt] [2] S.M. Farooqi, D. Tong, S. Krishnan, J. Stanojevic,Y.P. Zhang, J.R. Ensher, A.S. Estrin, C. Boisseau, R. Cote, E.E. Eyler, and P.L. Gould, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 183002 (2003).[0pt] [3] K. Richard Overstreet, Arne Schwettmann, Jonathan Tallant, and James P. Shaffer, Phys. Rev. A 76, 011403 (2007).

  15. Surface ozone pollution in Poland - observations and modelling support for a two-year assessment 2012-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struzewska, Joanna; Kaminski, Jacek W.; Durka, Pawel

    2015-04-01

    The concentrations of near-surface ozone in terms of long term objectives and target values are exceeded at many monitoring sites in Poland. At the request of the Chief Inspectorate of Environmental Protection, an assessment of ozone impact on human health and ecosystems in Poland was undertaken, based on the GEM-AQ model calculations for the period 2012-2013. GEM-AQ (Kaminski et al., 2008) is a comprehensive chemical weather model where air quality processes (chemistry and aerosols) are implemented on-line in the operational weather prediction model developed at Environment Canada (Cote et al., 1998). For this project the model was run in a self-nesting mode with the target grid centered over Poland with the resolution of 5 km. The EMEP emission inventory was refined based on GIS information. Modelling results were evaluated against ozone and NO2 measurements from available monitoring stations in Poland using the DeltaTool developed in the scope of FAIRMODE. We will present exposure levels to high ozone concentrations in terms of number of days with exceeded target values as well as indices AOT40 and SOMO35. Differences between exposure diagnostics in 2012 and 2013 will be discussed.

  16. Ambulatory home oxygen: what is the evidence for benefit, and who does it help?

    PubMed

    Criner, Gerard J

    2013-01-01

    The beneficial effects of ambulatory home oxygen have been demonstrated since the 1950s, when Cotes and Gibson gave oxygen to ambulatory COPD patients from small portable high pressures cylinders in the United Kingdom. Over the ensuing 7 decades, oxygen has been prescribed to millions of COPD patients in the home setting. Additionally, it is common clinical practice to prescribe supplemental oxygen when chronic hypoxemic respiratory failure not due to COPD (eg, interstitial lung disease, pulmonary hypertension, kyphoscoliosis, and cystic fibrosis) is present or in patients with hypoxemia at hospital discharge following flares of their underlying chronic respiratory disorder, without any substantial evidence. Despite the importance of long-term oxygen therapy in clinical home management, there are many gaps in our current knowledge regarding its mechanisms of action, indications for prescription, and its effects on important patient outcomes. Research conducted in the 1970s and 1980s still provides the basis for clinical decision making and insurance coverage policies regarding long-term oxygen administration. Remarkably, little current research is being conducted to extend our knowledge regarding the indications, mechanisms, and benefits of long-term oxygen therapy. This review will focus on our current knowledge of the end points for supplemental oxygen at home, such as mortality, effects on functional performance, sensation of dyspnea, cognitive function, and quality of life, and highlight areas where future research is needed. PMID:23271819

  17. Stability regions of equilibrium points in restricted four-body problem with oblateness effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari, Reena; Kushvah, Badam Singh

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we extend the basic model of the restricted four-body problem introducing two bigger dominant primaries m 1 and m 2 as oblate spheroids when masses of the two primary bodies ( m 2 and m 3) are equal. The aim of this study is to investigate the use of zero velocity surfaces and the Poincaré surfaces of section to determine the possible allowed boundary regions and the stability orbit of the equilibrium points. According to different values of Jacobi constant C, we can determine boundary region where the particle can move in possible permitted zones. The stability regions of the equilibrium points expanded due to presence of oblateness coefficient and various values of C, whereas for certain range of t (100≤ t≤200), orbits form a shape of cote's spiral. For different values of oblateness parameters A 1 (0< A 1<1) and A 2 (0< A 2<1), we obtain two collinear and six non-collinear equilibrium points. The non-collinear equilibrium points are stable when the mass parameter μ lies in the interval (0.0190637,0.647603). However, basins of attraction are constructed with the help of Newton Raphson method to demonstrate the convergence as well as divergence region of the equilibrium points. The nature of basins of attraction of the equilibrium points are less effected in presence and absence of oblateness coefficients A 1 and A 2 respectively in the proposed model.

  18. Diverse supramolecular structures formed by self-assembling proteins of the Bacillus subtilis spore coat.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shuo; Wan, Qiang; Krajcikova, Daniela; Tang, Jilin; Tzokov, Svetomir B; Barak, Imrich; Bullough, Per A

    2015-07-01

    Bacterial spores (endospores), such as those of the pathogens Clostridium difficile and Bacillus anthracis, are uniquely stable cell forms, highly resistant to harsh environmental insults. Bacillus subtilis is the best studied spore-former and we have used it to address the question of how the spore coat is assembled from multiple components to form a robust, protective superstructure. B. subtilis coat proteins (CotY, CotE, CotV and CotW) expressed in Escherichia coli can arrange intracellularly into highly stable macro-structures through processes of self-assembly. Using electron microscopy, we demonstrate the capacity of these proteins to generate ordered one-dimensional fibres, two-dimensional sheets and three-dimensional stacks. In one case (CotY), the high degree of order favours strong, cooperative intracellular disulfide cross-linking. Assemblies of this kind could form exquisitely adapted building blocks for higher-order assembly across all spore-formers. These physically robust arrayed units could also have novel applications in nano-biotechnology processes.

  19. (T2L2) Time Transfer by Laser Link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veillet, Christian; Fridelance, Patricia

    1995-05-01

    T2L2 (Time Transfer by Laser Link) is a new generation time transfer experiment based on the principles of LASSO (Laser Synchronization from Synchronous Orbit) and used with an operational procedure developed at OCA (Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur) during the active intercontinental phase of LASSO. The hardware improvements could lead to a precision better than 10 ps for time transfer (flying clock monitoring or ground based clock comparison). Such a package could fly on any spacecraft with a stable clock. It has been developed in France in the frame of the PHARAO project (cooled atom clock in orbit) involving CNES and different laboratories. But T2L2 could fly on any spacecraft carrying a stable oscillator. A GPS satellite would be a good candidate, as T2L2 could allow to link the flying clock directly to ground clocks using light, aiming to important accuracy checks, both for time and for geodesy. Radioastron (a flying VLBI antenna with a H-maser) is also envisioned, waiting for a PHARAO flight. The ultimate goal of T2L2 is to be part of more ambitious missions, as SORT (Solar Orbit Relativity Test), aiming to examine aspects of the gravitation in the vicinity of the Sun.

  20. Recent abuse from in-laws and associations with adverse experiences during the crisis among rural Ivorian women: extended families as part of the ecological model.

    PubMed

    Falb, Kathryn L; Annan, Jeannie; Hossain, Mazeda; Topolska, Monika; Kpebo, Denise; Gupta, Jhumka

    2013-01-01

    Violence against women in the aftermath of conflict represents a growing area of concern. However, little is known about violence perpetrated by a woman's in-laws and how these experiences may be related to adverse experiences during a crisis. Therefore, guided by the ecological model, the objectives of the following analysis were to (1) document adverse experiences during the crisis among rural Ivorian women and (2) investigate the association between such experiences and abuse perpetrated by partners' extended families, among a sample of women residing in rural Côte d'Ivoire. Utilising data from a baseline survey conducted in 2010, we generated descriptive statistics and used generalised estimating equations to assess the relationships of interest. Women whose family was victimised during the crisis had 1.7 times the odds of reporting past-year in-law abuse compared to those women whose families did not experience such adversity (95% CI: 1.1-2.4), and women who experienced a personal form of adversity had twice the odds of reporting past-year in-law abuse compared to women who did not report victimisation (95% CI: 1.2-3.2). Being forced to flee was not statistically associated with in-law abuse. Findings underscore the importance of addressing in-law abuse in order to promote women's health in post-conflict settings. PMID:23826969

  1. Conventional parasitology and DNA-based diagnostic methods for onchocerciasis elimination programmes.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Melanie M; Gilbert, Rebecca; Taha, Nathalie Tebao; Weil, Gary J; Meite, Aboulaye; Kouakou, Ilunga M M; Fischer, Peter U

    2015-06-01

    Commonly used methods for diagnosing Onchocerca volvulus infections (microscopic detection of microfilariae in skin snips and nodule palpation) are insensitive. Improved methods are needed for monitoring and evaluation of onchocerciasis elimination programmes and for clinical diagnosis of individual patients. A sensitive probe-based qPCR assay was developed for detecting O. volvulus DNA, and this was tested with samples collected from an endemic area in eastern Côte d'Ivoire. The new test was evaluated with dried skin snip pairs from 369 subjects and compared to routine skin snip microscopy and nodule palpation results from the same individuals. Onchocerciasis prevalence for these samples by qPCR, skin snip microscopy, and nodule palpation were 56.9%, 26.0%, and 37.9%, respectively. Furthermore, the combination of all three tests produced an infection prevalence of 72.9%, which was significantly higher than 53.1% detected by microscopy plus nodule palpation without qPCR. However, the qPCR assay was negative for 54 of 229 individuals with palpable nodules. qPCR could be a useful tool for detecting residual O. volvulus infections in human populations as prevalence decreases in areas following community-directed treatment with ivermectin. PMID:25818324

  2. Bacillus cereus Biovar Anthracis Causing Anthrax in Sub-Saharan Africa-Chromosomal Monophyly and Broad Geographic Distribution.

    PubMed

    Antonation, Kym S; Grützmacher, Kim; Dupke, Susann; Mabon, Philip; Zimmermann, Fee; Lankester, Felix; Peller, Tianna; Feistner, Anna; Todd, Angelique; Herbinger, Ilka; de Nys, Hélène M; Muyembe-Tamfun, Jean-Jacques; Karhemere, Stomy; Wittig, Roman M; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Grunow, Roland; Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien; Corbett, Cindi R; Klee, Silke R; Leendertz, Fabian H

    2016-09-01

    Through full genome analyses of four atypical Bacillus cereus isolates, designated B. cereus biovar anthracis, we describe a distinct clade within the B. cereus group that presents with anthrax-like disease, carrying virulence plasmids similar to those of classic Bacillus anthracis. We have isolated members of this clade from different mammals (wild chimpanzees, gorillas, an elephant and goats) in West and Central Africa (Côte d'Ivoire, Cameroon, Central African Republic and Democratic Republic of Congo). The isolates shared several phenotypic features of both B. anthracis and B. cereus, but differed amongst each other in motility and their resistance or sensitivity to penicillin. They all possessed the same mutation in the regulator gene plcR, different from the one found in B. anthracis, and in addition, carry genes which enable them to produce a second capsule composed of hyaluronic acid. Our findings show the existence of a discrete clade of the B. cereus group capable of causing anthrax-like disease, found in areas of high biodiversity, which are possibly also the origin of the worldwide distributed B. anthracis. Establishing the impact of these pathogenic bacteria on threatened wildlife species will require systematic investigation. Furthermore, the consumption of wildlife found dead by the local population and presence in a domestic animal reveal potential sources of exposure to humans.

  3. Benchmarks for health expenditures, services and outcomes in Africa during the 1990s.

    PubMed Central

    Peters, D. H.; Elmendorf, A. E.; Kandola, K.; Chellaraj, G.

    2000-01-01

    There is limited information on national health expenditures, services, and outcomes in African countries during the 1990s. We intend to make statistical information available for national level comparisons. National level data were collected from numerous international databases, and supplemented by national household surveys and World Bank expenditure reviews. The results were tabulated and analysed in an exploratory fashion to provide benchmarks for groupings of African countries and individual country comparison. There is wide variation in scale and outcome of health care spending between African countries, with poorer countries tending to do worse than wealthier ones. From 1990-96, the median annual per capita government expenditure on health was nearly US$ 6, but averaged US$ 3 in the lowest-income countries, compared to US$ 72 in middle-income countries. Similar trends were found for health services and outcomes. Results from individual countries (particularly Ethiopia, Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire and Gabon) are used to indicate how the data can be used to identify areas of improvement in health system performance. Serious gaps in data, particularly concerning private sector delivery and financing, health service utilization, equity and efficiency measures, hinder more effective health management. Nonetheless, the data are useful for providing benchmarks for performance and for crudely identifying problem areas in health systems for individual countries. PMID:10916913

  4. Use of an ecologically relevant modelling approach to improve remote sensing-based schistosomiasis risk profiling.

    PubMed

    Walz, Yvonne; Wegmann, Martin; Leutner, Benjamin; Dech, Stefan; Vounatsou, Penelope; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Raso, Giovanna; Utzinger, Jürg

    2015-11-30

    Schistosomiasis is a widespread water-based disease that puts close to 800 million people at risk of infection with more than 250 million infected, mainly in sub-Saharan Africa. Transmission is governed by the spatial distribution of specific freshwater snails that act as intermediate hosts and the frequency, duration and extent of human bodies exposed to infested water sources during human water contact. Remote sensing data have been utilized for spatially explicit risk profiling of schistosomiasis. Since schistosomiasis risk profiling based on remote sensing data inherits a conceptual drawback if school-based disease prevalence data are directly related to the remote sensing measurements extracted at the location of the school, because the disease transmission usually does not exactly occur at the school, we took the local environment around the schools into account by explicitly linking ecologically relevant environmental information of potential disease transmission sites to survey measurements of disease prevalence. Our models were validated at two sites with different landscapes in Côte d'Ivoire using high- and moderate-resolution remote sensing data based on random forest and partial least squares regression. We found that the ecologically relevant modelling approach explained up to 70% of the variation in Schistosoma infection prevalence and performed better compared to a purely pixel-based modelling approach. Furthermore, our study showed that model performance increased as a function of enlarging the school catchment area, confirming the hypothesis that suitable environments for schistosomiasis transmission rarely occur at the location of survey measurements.

  5. Surveillance of wildlife as a tool for monitoring rinderpest and peste des petits ruminants in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Couacy-Hymann, E; Bodjo, C; Danho, T; Libeau, G; Diallo, A

    2005-12-01

    The authors provide a report on the surveillance of rinderpest virus (RPV) and peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) in the wildlife population in Côte d'Ivoire. For this purpose, 266 animals from nine different species, selected according to susceptibility and abundance, were captured and sampled from Comoé, Marahoué and Lamto Parks. Two hundred and forty seven sera and 214 nasal swabs were collected and analysed by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) and reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) techniques, respectively. Serological data demonstrated that RPV was not circulating within the national Parks and estimated the PPR seroprevalence to be less than 1%. The analysis of the nasal swabs revealed no cases of RPV infection, but PPRV infection was detected in four species, including buffalo. To minimise the cost of the study without affecting the sensitivity of the test, samples were pooled into different groups and submitted to RT-PCR using nucleoprotein gene specific primers. The RT-PCR used in this study, which was derived from the method developed by Couacy-Hymann et al. in 2002, was followed by a hybridisation step using internal specific probes to confirm the identity of the deoxyribonucleic acid product. When used in conjunction with a cELISA this method accurately demonstrated the absence of rinderpest viral persistence in Côte-d'Ivoire.

  6. A New Flavivirus and a New Vector: Characterization of a Novel Flavivirus Isolated from Uranotaenia Mosquitoes from a Tropical Rain Forest▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Junglen, Sandra; Kopp, Anne; Kurth, Andreas; Pauli, Georg; Ellerbrok, Heinz; Leendertz, Fabian H.

    2009-01-01

    A novel flavivirus was isolated from Uranotaenia mashonaensis, a mosquito genus not previously known to harbor flaviviruses. Mosquitoes were caught in the primary rain forest of the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. The novel virus, termed nounané virus (NOUV), seemed to grow only on C6/36 insect cells and not on vertebrate cells. Typical enveloped flavivirus-like particles of 60 to 65 nm in diameter were detected by electron microscopy in the cell culture supernatant of infected cells. The full genome was sequenced, and potential cleavage and glycosylation sites and cysteine residues were identified, suggesting that the processing of the NOUV polyprotein is similar to that of other flaviviruses. Phylogenetic analyses of the whole polyprotein and the NS3 protein showed that the virus forms a distinct cluster within the clade of mosquito-borne flaviviruses. Only a distant relationship to other known flaviviruses was found, indicating that NOUV is a novel lineage within the Flaviviridae. PMID:19224998

  7. Dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease) eradication.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Hopkins, Donald R

    2006-01-01

    Since the seminal review by Ralph Muller about Dracunculus and dracunculiasis in this serial publication in 1971, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and The Carter Center forged, during the 1980s, a coalition of organizations to support a campaign to eradicate dracunculiasis. Eighteen of 20 countries were known in 1986 to have endemic dracunculiasis, i.e., Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Ghana, India, Kenya, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Senegal, Sudan, Togo, and Uganda. Transmission of the disease in Yemen was documented in 1995, and the World Health Organization (WHO) declared Central African Republic endemic in 1995. As of the end of 2004, a total of 16026 cases of dracunculiasis were reported from 12 endemic countries (91% of these cases were reported from Ghana and Sudan, combined), a reduction greater than 99% from the 3.5 million cases of dracunculiasis estimated in 1986 to occur annually; the number of endemic villages has been reduced by >91%, from the 23475 endemic villages in 1991; disease transmission has been interrupted in 9 of the 20 endemic countries; and WHO has certified 168 countries free of dracunculiasis, including Pakistan (1996), India (2000), Senegal and Yemen (2004). Asia is now free of dracunculiasis. PMID:16735167

  8. Avian influenza surveillance in Central and West Africa, 2010-2014.

    PubMed

    Fuller, T L; Ducatez, M F; Njabo, K Y; Couacy-Hymann, E; Chasar, A; Aplogan, G L; Lao, S; Awoume, F; Téhou, A; Langeois, Q; Krauss, S; Smith, T B

    2015-07-01

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is an important zoonotic pathogen, resulting in global human morbidity and mortality and substantial economic losses to the poultry industry. Poultry and wild birds have transmitted AIV to humans, most frequently subtypes H5 and H7, but also different strains and subtypes of H6, H9, and H10. Determining which birds are AIV reservoirs can help identify human populations that have a high risk of infection with these viruses due to occupational or recreational exposure to the reservoir species. To assess the prevalence of AIV in tropical birds, from 2010 to 2014, we sampled 40 099 birds at 32 sites in Central Africa (Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo-Brazzaville, Gabon) and West Africa (Benin, Côte d'Ivoire, Togo). In Central Africa, detection rates by real-time RT-PCR were 16·6% in songbirds (eight passerine families, n = 1257), 16·4% in kingfishers (family Alcedinidae, n = 73), 8·2% in ducks (family Anatidae, n = 564), and 3·65% in chickens (family Phasianidae, n = 1042). Public health authorities should educate human cohorts that have high exposure to these bird populations about AIV and assess their adherence to biosecurity practices, including Cameroonian farmers who raise small backyard flocks.

  9. Temephos-resistant larvae of Simulium sanctipauli associated with a distinctive new chromosome inversion in untreated rivers of south-western Ghana.

    PubMed

    Osei-Atweneboana, M Y; Wilson, M D; Post, R J; Boakye, D A

    2001-03-01

    Larvae of the Simulium damnosum Theobald complex (Diptera: Simuliidae) were sampled in June 1996 from two sites in south-west Ghana where larviciding has not been applied: Sutri Rapids on the Tano river (05 degrees 23 minutes N 02 degrees 38 minures W) and Sekyere-Heman on the Pra river (05 degrees 11 minutes N 01 degrees 35 minutes W). All specimens were identified as Simulium sanctipauli Vajime & Dunbar sensu stricto (Diptera: Simuliidae). Bioassays with temephos (organophosphorus larvicide employed by the Onchocerciasis Programme for systematic treatment of most rivers across West Africa since the 1970s) showed about five-fold resistance in the Tano population (LC95 2.37-3.14 mg/L) and slight tolerance to temephos in the Pra population (LC95 0.67-0.76 mg/L), vs. the diagnostic concentration of 0.625 mg/L. Larval salivary polytene chromosomes of S. sanctipauli showed fixed inversions 1S-24/24, standard IIL-6 and a new inversion IL/36 polymorphism at Sutri on the Tano. These karyotype characteristics differ from those of temephos-resistant S. sanctipauli in rivers of C te d'Ivoire and other sites on the Tano in Ghana. Thus, temephos resistance in S. sanctipauli at Sutri is associated with distinct chromosomal configurations, showing that immigration was unlikely. This resistance could have been locally selected by exposure of S. sanctipauli larval populations to agrochemicals run-off from cocoa, coffee and oil plantations flanking the rivers.

  10. Should I stay or should I go? Initiation of joint travel in mother-infant dyads of two chimpanzee communities in the wild.

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, Marlen; Wittig, Roman M; Pika, Simone

    2016-05-01

    It is well established that great apes communicate via intentionally produced, elaborate and flexible gestural means. Yet relatively little is known about the most fundamental steps into this communicative endeavour-communicative exchanges of mother-infant dyads and gestural acquisition; perhaps because the majority of studies concerned captive groups and single communities in the wild only. Here, we report the first systematic, quantitative comparison of communicative interactions of mother-infant dyads in two communities of wild chimpanzees by focusing on a single communicative function: initiation of carries for joint travel. Over 156 days of observation, we recorded 442 actions, 599 cases of intentional gesture production, 51 multi-modal combinations and 80 vocalisations in the Kanyawara community, Kibale National Park, Uganda, and the Taï South community, Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. Our results showed that (1) mothers and infants differed concerning the signal frequency and modality employed to initiate joint travel, (2) concordance rates of mothers' gestural production were relatively low within but also between communities, (3) infant communicative development is characterised by a shift from mainly vocal to gestural means, and (4) chimpanzee mothers adjusted their signals to the communicative level of their infants. Since neither genetic channelling nor ontogenetic ritualization explains our results satisfactorily, we propose a revised theory of gestural acquisition, social negotiation, in which gestures are the output of social shaping, shared understanding and mutual construction in real time by both interactants. PMID:26833496

  11. [Geographic distribution of trypanosomiasis treated in Ivory Coast from 1993 to 2000].

    PubMed

    Dje, N N; Miezan, T W; N'guessan, P; Brika, P; Doua, F; Boa, F

    2002-12-01

    Human African Trypanosomosis (HAT, or sleeping sickness) caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense develops chronically in Côte d'Ivoire. From 1993 to 2000, a total of 1616 patients were taken in charge in the three treatment centres of the country, which means an average of 202 patients a year. The patients came from two main areas in the Centre West of the country in the Marahoué region: the districts of Sinfra, South of Bouaflé, and Bonon, West of Bouaflé. In the Centre West and in the South East of the country (Aboisso-Ayamé), patients are still struck by the disease, although these foci are less active. The remaining foci seem to be controlled, although no active survey has been carried out. The areas where the greatest number of patients were recorded are the ones where rental crops are located (cocoa and coffee mainly) and where rural activities tend to bring humans and tsetse flies in contact. In this study, are figured the number of treated patients, the endemic and risk areas. It will help to design control strategies and decision makers to know where priority control programs should be implemented.

  12. Epidemiological pattern of imported malaria in Jordan from 2007 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Jamain, H M; Abu Shaqra, Q A; Kanani, K A

    2013-12-01

    Imported malaria is of major health concern to countries considered as free from this infection and Jordan is no exception. The aim of this study was to highlight various epidemiological aspects of imported malaria into Jordan over a period of five years. Information pertinent to all malaria cases registered in the Ministry of Health (Jordan) from January 2007 to November 2011 was retrieved from the database of the Department of Parasitic and Zoonotic Diseases. Data was grouped according to age, gender, country of acquisition and etiologic agents. During the study period, a total of 304 malaria cases were registered, 192 cases among Jordanians returning home and the remaining were detected among foreign nationals who arrived in the country for work or tourism. The majority of infections were due to Plasmodium falciparum (199 cases) followed by Plasmodium vivax (93) and then Plasmodium malariae (8). Mixed infection was detected in just 4 cases. The origin of these imported cases was in a descending order; Eritrea, Côte d'Ivoire, India, Sudan, Liberia and Pakistan. These countries contributed to 86.5% of cases while the remaining were acquired from other areas. It is believed that most Jordanians with imported malaria were military personnel who participated in Peace Keeping Forces with the United Nations. It is concluded that with the exception of imported cases reported herein, Jordan remains a malaria free country. Continuous vigilance by health authorities is needed to avoid reintroduction of the disease into the kingdom.

  13. Molecular Evolution of Zika Virus during Its Emergence in the 20th Century

    PubMed Central

    Iamarino, Atila; Faye, Ousmane; de Oliveira, Juliana Velasco C.; Diallo, Mawlouth; Zanotto, Paolo M. A.; Sall, Amadou Alpha

    2014-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus first isolated in Uganda in 1947. Although entomological and virologic surveillance have reported ZIKV enzootic activity in diverse countries of Africa and Asia, few human cases were reported until 2007, when a Zika fever epidemic took place in Micronesia. In the context of West Africa, the WHO Collaborating Centre for Arboviruses and Hemorrhagic Fever at Institut Pasteur of Dakar (http://www.pasteur.fr/recherche/banques/CRORA/) reports the periodic circulation of ZIKV since 1968. Despite several reports on ZIKV, the genetic relationships among viral strains from West Africa remain poorly understood. To evaluate the viral spread and its molecular epidemiology, we investigated 37 ZIKV isolates collected from 1968 to 2002 in six localities in Senegal and Côte d'Ivoire. In addition, we included strains from six other countries. Our results suggested that these two countries in West Africa experienced at least two independent introductions of ZIKV during the 20th century, and that apparently these viral lineages were not restricted by mosquito vector species. Moreover, we present evidence that ZIKV has possibly undergone recombination in nature and that a loss of the N154 glycosylation site in the envelope protein was a possible adaptive response to the Aedes dalzieli vector. PMID:24421913

  14. The consequences of crowned eagle central-place foraging on predation risk in monkeys.

    PubMed Central

    Shultz, Susanne; Noë, Ronald

    2002-01-01

    The African crowned eagle (Stepahnoaetus coronatus) is the primary predator for arboreal primates throughout sub-Saharan forests. Monkeys typically respond with alarm calls when they are aware of the presence of crowned eagles and such calls can be considered a corollary of predation risk within primate groups. Alarm calls from six species of monkeys were recorded across the home range of an eagle pair in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. Spatial and temporal variation in primate alarm calling was found to be related to eagle ranging behaviour according to the predictions of central-place foraging models. Radio-tracking data indicate that eagle activity is higher in the centre of their home range and monkey alarm-calling rates are correspondingly elevated near eagle nests as opposed to farther away. Alarm-calling rates are also temporally coupled with measures of eagle activity. There were considerable differences between the species in both rates and spatial patterns of alarm calling. The variation we measure in predation risk is expected to have consequences at the behavioural and population level. PMID:12350267

  15. Pre-Columbian monkey tools.

    PubMed

    Haslam, Michael; Luncz, Lydia V; Staff, Richard A; Bradshaw, Fiona; Ottoni, Eduardo B; Falótico, Tiago

    2016-07-11

    Stone tools reveal worldwide innovations in human behaviour over the past three million years [1]. However, the only archaeological report of pre-modern non-human animal tool use comes from three Western chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus) sites in Côte d'Ivoire, aged between 4.3 and 1.3 thousand years ago (kya) [2]. This anthropocentrism limits our comparative insight into the emergence and development of technology, weakening our evolutionary models [3]. Here, we apply archaeological techniques to a distinctive stone tool assemblage created by a non-human animal in the New World, the Brazilian bearded capuchin monkey (Sapajus libidinosus). Wild capuchins at Serra da Capivara National Park (SCNP) use stones to pound open defended food, including locally indigenous cashew nuts [4], and we demonstrate that this activity dates back at least 600 to 700 years. Capuchin stone hammers and anvils are therefore the oldest non-human tools known outside of Africa, opening up to scientific scrutiny questions on the origins and spread of tool use in New World monkeys, and the mechanisms - social, ecological and cognitive - that support primate technological evolution. PMID:27404235

  16. Unpeeling the layers of language: Bonobos and chimpanzees engage in cooperative turn-taking sequences.

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, Marlen; Kuchenbuch, Paul; Müller, Gudrun; Fruth, Barbara; Furuichi, Takeshi; Wittig, Roman M; Pika, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Human language is a fundamentally cooperative enterprise, embodying fast-paced and extended social interactions. It has been suggested that it evolved as part of a larger adaptation of humans' species-unique forms of cooperation. Although our closest living relatives, bonobos and chimpanzees, show general cooperative abilities, their communicative interactions seem to lack the cooperative nature of human conversation. Here, we revisited this claim by conducting the first systematic comparison of communicative interactions in mother-infant dyads living in two different communities of bonobos (LuiKotale, DRC; Wamba, DRC) and chimpanzees (Taï South, Côte d'Ivoire; Kanyawara, Uganda) in the wild. Focusing on the communicative function of joint-travel-initiation, we applied parameters of conversation analysis to gestural exchanges between mothers and infants. Results showed that communicative exchanges in both species resemble cooperative turn-taking sequences in human conversation. While bonobos consistently addressed the recipient via gaze before signal initiation and used so-called overlapping responses, chimpanzees engaged in more extended negotiations, involving frequent response waiting and gestural sequences. Our results thus strengthen the hypothesis that interactional intelligence paved the way to the cooperative endeavour of human language and suggest that social matrices highly impact upon communication styles. PMID:27211477

  17. [Epidemiology and management of snake envenomations in the Dano health district, Ioba province (Burkina Faso) from 1981 to 2000].

    PubMed

    Somé, N; Poda, J N; Guissou, I P

    2002-08-01

    A series of investigations concerning snakebites and management of envenomations was carried out from 1981 to 2000 in the medical District of Dano, Province of loba in Burkina Faso. Viper bites were more frequent than Elapid ones. The seasonal distribution of the envenomations reflected the cycle of field work and other specific activities. Care seeking within the Traditional System of Health Care (STSS) was more frequent than within the Conventional System of Health Care (SCSS). Lethality was higher at STSS level in cases of viper bites and, conversely, higher in SCSS in the cases of Elapid envenomations. This highlighted the interest in medicinal plants for treating snakebites particularly in case of neurotoxic envenomation. We classified several dozens medicinal plants within an inventory. Some of them have been studied and deemed worthy of interest. Others are used for the treatment of other types of poisoning (pesticides, plants toxic) and/or used in traditional rites. We hope to follow the Côte d'Ivoire experience such that African snake venom, neutralised by modern antivenom, might also be neutralised by the African natural resources.

  18. Obstetric audit in resource-poor settings: lessons from a multi-country project auditing 'near miss' obstetrical emergencies.

    PubMed

    Filippi, Veronique; Brugha, Ruairi; Browne, Edmund; Gohou, Valerie; Bacci, Alberta; De Brouwere, Vincent; Sahel, Amina; Goufodji, Sourou; Alihonou, Eusebe; Ronsmans, Carine

    2004-01-01

    This paper outlines the practical steps involved in setting up and running multi-professional, in-depth case reviews of 'near miss' obstetrical complications. It draws on lessons learned in 12 referral hospitals in Benin, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana and Morocco. A range of feasibility indicators are presented which measured the implementation and frequency of audit activities, the quality of participation, adherence to the planned protocol for the near-miss audits, the quality of audit discussions and the sustainability of the project. Although the principles of the audit approach were well accepted and implemented everywhere, near-miss audits appeared most successful in first referral level hospitals. Contextual factors that determine the successful implementation of near-miss audit include staff finding adequate time for audit activities, financial incentives to groups rather than individuals, involvement of senior staff and hospital managers, the ease of communication in smaller units, the employment of social workers for the incorporation of women's views at audits, and the strength of external support provided by the research team. The poor quality of information recorded in case notes was recognized everywhere as a deficiency, but did not present a major obstacle to effective case reviews. Ownership and leadership within the hospital, more easily achieved in the first-level referral hospitals, were probably the most important determinants of successful implementation. Sustainability requires a commitment to audit from policy makers and managers at higher levels of the health system and some devolution of resources for implementing recommendations.

  19. PubMed Central

    Miezan, T.; Doua, F.; Cattand, P.; de Raadt, P.

    1991-01-01

    The Testryp CATT was performed on dried blood samples on filter-paper and on diluted blood using a microtechnique. This method was applied to both sample collection techniques and was evaluated in parallel with the classical Testryp CATT on whole blood, as described in the instructions provided with the reagents by the manufacturer. A total of 2087 people were tested; 453 samples were tested in the laboratory and 1634 during a field survey in 5 villages of a trypanosomiasis focus in Daloa, Côte d'Ivoire. This study has demonstrated that the Testryp CATT micromethod on either type of sample collection gives results comparable to the Testryp CATT on whole blood. The collection of dried blood samples on filter-paper can be performed by non-specialized staff in trypanosomiasis control programmes of the national health services. In addition, a flask of CATT reagent will allow testing of 6 times more people by the micromethod than by the classical whole-blood method. The micromethod is suitable in the implementation of programmes for the serological surveillance of populations at risk. PMID:1959162

  20. Primate archaeology reveals cultural transmission in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus).

    PubMed

    Luncz, Lydia V; Wittig, Roman M; Boesch, Christophe

    2015-11-19

    Recovering evidence of past human activities enables us to recreate behaviour where direct observations are missing. Here, we apply archaeological methods to further investigate cultural transmission processes in percussive tool use among neighbouring chimpanzee communities in the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa. Differences in the selection of nut-cracking tools between neighbouring groups are maintained over time, despite frequent female transfer, which leads to persistent cultural diversity between chimpanzee groups. Through the recovery of used tools in the suggested natal territory of immigrants, we have been able to reconstruct the tool material selection of females prior to migration. In combination with direct observations of tool selection of local residents and immigrants after migration, we uncovered temporal changes in tool selection for immigrating females. After controlling for ecological differences between territories of immigrants and residents our data suggest that immigrants abandoned their previous tool preference and adopted the pattern of their new community, despite previous personal proficiency of the same foraging task. Our study adds to the growing body of knowledge on the importance of conformist tendencies in animals.

  1. Development of the Côte Ivoire Basin: reading provenance, sediment dispersal, and geodynamic implications from heavy minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wozazek, Stefan; Krawinkel, Hannelore

    2002-05-01

    The combined approach of conventional and varietal heavy mineral analysis was applied to constrain changes in source rock area, dispersal routes of detritus, and geodynamic setting of the Upper Cretaceous to Neogene Côte d'Ivoire basin. The heavy mineral assemblage of Albian to Turonian sediments reflect a narrow source rock area and short transport distances. A prominent change in the heavy mineral association of Late Cenomanian to Neogene sediments indicates enlargement of source area and longer fluvial transport distances, or longer storage of sediment within the littoral energy fence. The sudden change within the heavy mineral associations marks the transition from the late syn-rift stage to the early passive margin stage of the Southern Atlantic. During Albian to Late Cenomanian time, the basin geometry was mainly controlled by steep slopes and sediments were transported directly to the depocenter. The situation changed in Late Cenomanian time. A small shelf area developed where sediments from different sources were mixed and reworked before deposition. We believe that the W-E direction of the long-shore drift, which transports today huge quantities of near-shore sand, was established at the end of the Paleogene. This resulted from the drifting of southern West Africa across the paleoequator and subsequent change in surface wind directions.

  2. Remotely measuring populations during a crisis by overlaying two data sources

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Nita; Lu, Xin; Bengtsson, Linus; Wetter, Erik; Tatem, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Societal instability and crises can cause rapid, large-scale movements. These movements are poorly understood and difficult to measure but strongly impact health. Data on these movements are important for planning response efforts. We retrospectively analyzed movement patterns surrounding a 2010 humanitarian crisis caused by internal political conflict in Côte d'Ivoire using two different methods. Methods We used two remote measures, nighttime lights satellite imagery and anonymized mobile phone call detail records, to assess average population sizes as well as dynamic population changes. These data sources detect movements across different spatial and temporal scales. Results The two data sources showed strong agreement in average measures of population sizes. Because the spatiotemporal resolution of the data sources differed, we were able to obtain measurements on long- and short-term dynamic elements of populations at different points throughout the crisis. Conclusions Using complementary, remote data sources to measure movement shows promise for future use in humanitarian crises. We conclude with challenges of remotely measuring movement and provide suggestions for future research and methodological developments. PMID:25733558

  3. Bacillus cereus Biovar Anthracis Causing Anthrax in Sub-Saharan Africa-Chromosomal Monophyly and Broad Geographic Distribution.

    PubMed

    Antonation, Kym S; Grützmacher, Kim; Dupke, Susann; Mabon, Philip; Zimmermann, Fee; Lankester, Felix; Peller, Tianna; Feistner, Anna; Todd, Angelique; Herbinger, Ilka; de Nys, Hélène M; Muyembe-Tamfun, Jean-Jacques; Karhemere, Stomy; Wittig, Roman M; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Grunow, Roland; Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien; Corbett, Cindi R; Klee, Silke R; Leendertz, Fabian H

    2016-09-01

    Through full genome analyses of four atypical Bacillus cereus isolates, designated B. cereus biovar anthracis, we describe a distinct clade within the B. cereus group that presents with anthrax-like disease, carrying virulence plasmids similar to those of classic Bacillus anthracis. We have isolated members of this clade from different mammals (wild chimpanzees, gorillas, an elephant and goats) in West and Central Africa (Côte d'Ivoire, Cameroon, Central African Republic and Democratic Republic of Congo). The isolates shared several phenotypic features of both B. anthracis and B. cereus, but differed amongst each other in motility and their resistance or sensitivity to penicillin. They all possessed the same mutation in the regulator gene plcR, different from the one found in B. anthracis, and in addition, carry genes which enable them to produce a second capsule composed of hyaluronic acid. Our findings show the existence of a discrete clade of the B. cereus group capable of causing anthrax-like disease, found in areas of high biodiversity, which are possibly also the origin of the worldwide distributed B. anthracis. Establishing the impact of these pathogenic bacteria on threatened wildlife species will require systematic investigation. Furthermore, the consumption of wildlife found dead by the local population and presence in a domestic animal reveal potential sources of exposure to humans. PMID:27607836

  4. Pasteurella multocida Involved in Respiratory Disease of Wild Chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Köndgen, Sophie; Leider, Michaela; Lankester, Felix; Bethe, Astrid; Lübke-Becker, Antina; Leendertz, Fabian H.; Ewers, Christa

    2011-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida can cause a variety of diseases in various species of mammals and birds throughout the world but nothing is known about its importance for wild great apes. In this study we isolated P. multocida from wild living, habituated chimpanzees from Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. Isolates originated from two chimpanzees that died during a respiratory disease outbreak in 2004 as well as from one individual that developed chronic air-sacculitis following this outbreak. Four isolates were subjected to a full phenotypic and molecular characterisation. Two different clones were identified using pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) enabled the identification of previous unknown alleles and two new sequence types, ST68 and ST69, were assigned. Phylogenetic analysis of the superoxide dismutase (sodA) gene and concatenated sequences from seven MLST-housekeeping genes showed close clustering within known P. multocida isolated from various hosts and geographic locations. Due to the clinical relevance of the strains described here, these results make an important contribution to our knowledge of pathogens involved in lethal disease outbreaks among endangered great apes. PMID:21931664

  5. Hunting, law enforcement, and African primate conservation.

    PubMed

    N'Goran, Paul K; Boesch, Christophe; Mundry, Roger; N'Goran, Eliezer K; Herbinger, Ilka; Yapi, Fabrice A; Kühl, Hjalmar S

    2012-06-01

    Primates are regularly hunted for bushmeat in tropical forests, and systematic ecological monitoring can help determine the effect hunting has on these and other hunted species. Monitoring can also be used to inform law enforcement and managers of where hunting is concentrated. We evaluated the effects of law enforcement informed by monitoring data on density and spatial distribution of 8 monkey species in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. We conducted intensive surveys of monkeys and looked for signs of human activity throughout the park. We also gathered information on the activities of law-enforcement personnel related to hunting and evaluated the relative effects of hunting, forest cover and proximity to rivers, and conservation effort on primate distribution and density. The effects of hunting on monkeys varied among species. Red colobus monkeys (Procolobus badius) were most affected and Campbell's monkeys (Cercopithecus campbelli) were least affected by hunting. Density of monkeys irrespective of species was up to 100 times higher near a research station and tourism site in the southwestern section of the park, where there is little hunting, than in the southeastern part of the park. The results of our monitoring guided law-enforcement patrols toward zones with the most hunting activity. Such systematic coordination of ecological monitoring and law enforcement may be applicable at other sites.

  6. Current perspectives on conventional and novel vaccines against peste des petits ruminants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fuxiao; Wu, Xiaodong; Liu, Wenhua; Li, Lin; Wang, Zhiliang

    2014-12-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an acute or subacute, highly contagious viral disease of small ruminants, characterized by fever, oculonasal discharges, stomatitis, diarrhoea and pneumonia. This disease is included in the OIE (Office International des Epizooties) list of notifiable terrestrial animal diseases. PPR was first described in the early 1940s in Côte d'Ivoire, and at present, PPR is mainly circulating in Western and Central Africa, the Arabian Peninsula and Southern Asia. Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), the etiological agent of PPR, is classified into the genus Morbillivirus in the family Paramyxoviridae, as its biological and physicochemical features are closely related to the other morbilliviruses. The first homologous PPR vaccine was developed by an artificially attenuated PPRV, named as Nigeria 75/1, which has been widely used in the production of live attenuated vaccines to protect small ruminants. A new generation of PPR vaccine candidates can be genetically modified to differentiate infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA), which nevertheless is difficult to achieve by conventional vaccines. In this review, we systematically discussed a broad range of vaccines against PPR, including commercially available vaccines and potential vaccine candidates, and further DIVA strategies for immunization with the new generation vaccines.

  7. Statistical genetics in traditionally cultivated crops.

    PubMed

    Artoisenet, Pierre; Minsart, Laure-Anne

    2014-11-01

    Traditional farming systems have attracted a lot of attention over the past decades as they have been recognized to supply an important component in the maintenance of the genetic diversity worldwide. A broad spectrum of traditionally managed crops has been studied to investigate how reproductive properties in combination with husbandry characteristics shape the genetic structure of the crops over time. However, traditional farms typically involve populations of small size whose genetic evolution is overwhelmed with statistic fluctuations inherent to the stochastic nature of the crossings. Hence there is generally no one-to-one mapping between crop properties and measured genotype data, and claims regarding crop properties on the basis of the observed genetic structure must be stated within a confidence level to be estimated by means of a dedicated statistical analysis. In this paper, we propose a comprehensive framework to carry out such statistical analyses. We illustrate the capabilities of our approach by applying it to crops of C. lanatus var. lanatus oleaginous type cultivated in Côte d׳Ivoire. While some properties such as the effective field size considerably evade the constraints from experimental data, others such as the mating system turn out to be characterized with a higher statistical significance. We discuss the importance of our approach for studies on traditionally cultivated crops in general. PMID:24992232

  8. High levels of endemism in suckermouth catfishes (Mochokidae: Chiloglanis) from the Upper Guinean forests of West Africa.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Ray C; Bart, Henry L; Pezold, Frank

    2016-07-01

    Freshwater systems are under threat globally, yet the biodiversity in many areas is still unknown. This is especially true for the aquatic biodiversity of the Upper Guinean forests of Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Côte d'Ivoire. Access to this area is largely restricted, though recent surveys by the authors are allowing us to reassess the area's diversity. This area has vast mineral reserves and hydroelectric potential. As the area emerges from civil strife and the recent public health crisis, policy makers and resource managers require accurate accounts of biodiversity to evaluate future development projects. Here we look at the diversity of the suckermouth catfishes (Chiloglanis) populations from the area; inferred from mitochondrial (cyt b) and nuclear (Growth Hormone intron) markers. The phylogenies revealed additional lineages, independent of the currently recognized taxa, suggesting the presence of ten new candidate species. These new taxa are largely endemic and allopatrically distributed in rivers of the Upper Guinean forests. Our results suggest that the aquatic diversity within the Upper Guinean forests is currently underestimated. This study provides the foundation for elucidating the historical biogeography of the region and highlights the endemism within rivers in the Upper Guinean forests and surrounding areas. PMID:27090447

  9. A new flavivirus and a new vector: characterization of a novel flavivirus isolated from uranotaenia mosquitoes from a tropical rain forest.

    PubMed

    Junglen, Sandra; Kopp, Anne; Kurth, Andreas; Pauli, Georg; Ellerbrok, Heinz; Leendertz, Fabian H

    2009-05-01

    A novel flavivirus was isolated from Uranotaenia mashonaensis, a mosquito genus not previously known to harbor flaviviruses. Mosquitoes were caught in the primary rain forest of the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. The novel virus, termed nounané virus (NOUV), seemed to grow only on C6/36 insect cells and not on vertebrate cells. Typical enveloped flavivirus-like particles of 60 to 65 nm in diameter were detected by electron microscopy in the cell culture supernatant of infected cells. The full genome was sequenced, and potential cleavage and glycosylation sites and cysteine residues were identified, suggesting that the processing of the NOUV polyprotein is similar to that of other flaviviruses. Phylogenetic analyses of the whole polyprotein and the NS3 protein showed that the virus forms a distinct cluster within the clade of mosquito-borne flaviviruses. Only a distant relationship to other known flaviviruses was found, indicating that NOUV is a novel lineage within the Flaviviridae.

  10. [Role of patient travel in transmission of human African trypanosomiasis in a highly endemic area of the Ivory Coast].

    PubMed

    Solano, P; Kone, A; Garcia, A; Sane, B; Michel, V; Michel, J F; Coulibaly, B; Jamonneau, V; Kaba, D; Dupont, S; Fournet, F

    2003-01-01

    Human African trypanosomosis (HAT) remains a major public health problem in Subsaharan Africa. The region around the town of Bonon in middle western Côte d'Ivoire is a highly endemic HAT zone. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of travelling of infected patients in transmission of HAT. The study population included a total of 96 patients in whom HAT had been diagnosed actively or passively between 1999 and 2000. Information on each patient's residence and workplaces, i.e. water site, and farm field, was used to calculate the mean distance traveled and mean number of places visited daily by each patient. Findings indicated that both parameters, i.e., distance traveled and number of places visited, were significantly higher for patients living in Bonon than those living in hamlets or homesteads. Based on analysis of patient movements the endemic zone could be divided into three subdivisions with different modes of disease transmission. This study was performed as a preliminary step for a larger investigation designed to allow specific targeting of HAT hot spots based mainly on a geographic information system.

  11. Imatinib Mesylate Effectiveness in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia with Additional Cytogenetic Abnormalities at Diagnosis among Black Africans.

    PubMed

    Aïssata, Tolo Diebkilé; Sawadogo, Duni; Nanho, Clotaire; Kouakou, Boidy; Meité, N'dogomo; Emeuraude, N'dhatz; Roméo, Ayémou; Yassongui Mamadou, Sekongo; Kouéhion, Paul; Mozart, Konan; Koffi, Gustave; Sanogo, Ibrahima

    2013-01-01

    Imatinib mesylate provides good results in the treatment of CML in general. But what about the results of this treatment in CML associated with additional cytogenetic abnormalities at diagnosis among black Africans? For this, we retrospectively studied 27 cases of CML associated with additional cytogenetic abnormalities, diagnosed in the department of clinical hematology of the University Hospital of Yopougon in Côte d'Ivoire, from May 2005 to October 2011. The age of patients ranged from 13 to 68 years, with a mean age of 38 years and a sex ratio of 2. Patients were severely symptomatic with a high Sokal score of 67%. CML in chronic phase accounted for 67%. The prevalence of additional cytogenetic abnormalities was 29.7%. There were variants of the Philadelphia chromosome (18.5%), trisomy 8 (14.8%), complex cytogenetic abnormalities (18.5%), second Philadelphia chromosome (14.8%), and minor cytogenetic abnormalities (44.4%). Complete hematologic remission was achieved in 59%, with 52% of major cytogenetic remission. The outcome was fatal in 37% of patients. Death was related in 40% to hematologic toxicity and in 30% to acutisation. The median survival was 40 months.

  12. Globalization, democracy, and child health in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Welander, Anna; Lyttkens, Carl Hampus; Nilsson, Therese

    2015-07-01

    Good health is crucial for human and economic development. In particular poor health in childhood is of utmost concern since it causes irreversible damage and has implications later in life. Recent research suggests globalization is a strong force affecting adult and child health outcomes. Yet, there is much unexplained variation with respect to the globalization effect on child health, in particular in low- and middle-income countries. One factor that could explain such variation across countries is the quality of democracy. Using panel data for 70 developing countries between 1970 and 2009 this paper disentangles the relationship between globalization, democracy, and child health. Specifically the paper examines how globalization and a country's democratic status and historical experience with democracy, respectively, affect infant mortality. In line with previous research, results suggest that globalization reduces infant mortality and that the level of democracy in a country generally improves child health outcomes. Additionally, democracy matters for the size of the globalization effect on child health. If for example Côte d'Ivoire had been a democracy in the 2000-2009 period, this effect would translate into 1200 fewer infant deaths in an average year compared to the situation without democracy. We also find that nutrition is the most important mediator in the relationship. To conclude, globalization and democracy together associate with better child health in developing countries.

  13. The extent of cultural variation between adjacent chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus) communities; a microecological approach.

    PubMed

    Luncz, Lydia V; Boesch, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Chimpanzees show cultural differences among populations across Africa but also between neighboring communities. The extent of these differences among neighbors, however, remains largely unknown. Comparing three neighboring chimpanzee community in the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, we found 27 putative cultural traits, including tool use, foraging, social interaction, communication and hunting behavior, exceeding by far previously known diversity. As foraging behavior is predominantly influenced by the environment, we further compared in detail ecological circumstances underlying insectivore feeding behavior to analyze whether foraging differences on Dorylus ants and Thoracotermes termites seen between neighboring chimpanzee communities were caused by environmental factors. Differences in the prey characteristics of Dorylus ants (aggression level, running speed, and nest structure) that could influence the behavior of chimpanzees were excluded, suggesting that the observed group-specific variation is not ecologically driven. Only one community preyed on Thoracotermes termites despite a similar abundance of termite mounds in all three territories, supporting the idea that this difference is also not shaped by the environment. Therefore, our study suggests that transmission of cultural knowledge plays a role in determining insectivory prey behavior. This behavioral plasticity, independent of ecological conditions, can lead to large numbers of cultural diversification between neighboring chimpanzee communities. These findings not only deepen our understanding of the cultural abilities of chimpanzees in the wild but also open up possible future comparisons of the origin of cultural diversification among humans and chimpanzees.

  14. Improvement and Comparative Assessment of a New Hydrological Modelling Approach for the Ouémé River Basin (Bénin), West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GABA, C. O. U.

    2015-12-01

    Assessing water resources is still an important issue especially in the context of climatic changes. Although numerous hydrological models exist, new approaches are still under investigation. In this context, we propose a new modelling approach based on the Physics Principle of Least Action. A first version of a Least Action based model, in its deterministic version has already given very good results on simulating the Bétérou catchment in the Ouémé basin, Benin. The paper presents new hypotheses to go further in the model development with a view of widening its application. The improved version of the model MODYPMA was applied on 22 subcatchments in Africa, in Bénin, Côte d'Ivoire, Ethiopia; in Europe, and in the USA. Its performance was compared to two well known lumped conceptual models, the GR4J and HBV models. The model could be successfully calibrated and validated; it shows a good performance for a range of scales but a limited applicability to catchments smaller than 500 km2 . The analysis revealed that the three models have similar performance and timing errors. The parameter uncertainty was analysed using the GLUE methodology. It is concluded that model uncertainty is higher during high flows and that uncertainty analysis should include the uncertainty of the discharge data. Finally, some aspects that further research must address are brought out.

  15. Molecular evolution of Zika virus during its emergence in the 20(th) century.

    PubMed

    Faye, Oumar; Freire, Caio C M; Iamarino, Atila; Faye, Ousmane; de Oliveira, Juliana Velasco C; Diallo, Mawlouth; Zanotto, Paolo M A; Sall, Amadou Alpha

    2014-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus first isolated in Uganda in 1947. Although entomological and virologic surveillance have reported ZIKV enzootic activity in diverse countries of Africa and Asia, few human cases were reported until 2007, when a Zika fever epidemic took place in Micronesia. In the context of West Africa, the WHO Collaborating Centre for Arboviruses and Hemorrhagic Fever at Institut Pasteur of Dakar (http://www.pasteur.fr/recherche/banques/CRORA/) reports the periodic circulation of ZIKV since 1968. Despite several reports on ZIKV, the genetic relationships among viral strains from West Africa remain poorly understood. To evaluate the viral spread and its molecular epidemiology, we investigated 37 ZIKV isolates collected from 1968 to 2002 in six localities in Senegal and Côte d'Ivoire. In addition, we included strains from six other countries. Our results suggested that these two countries in West Africa experienced at least two independent introductions of ZIKV during the 20(th) century, and that apparently these viral lineages were not restricted by mosquito vector species. Moreover, we present evidence that ZIKV has possibly undergone recombination in nature and that a loss of the N154 glycosylation site in the envelope protein was a possible adaptive response to the Aedes dalzieli vector.

  16. Yellow fever virus exhibits slower evolutionary dynamics than dengue virus.

    PubMed

    Sall, Amadou A; Faye, Ousmane; Diallo, Mawlouth; Firth, Cadhla; Kitchen, Andrew; Holmes, Edward C

    2010-01-01

    Although yellow fever has historically been one of the most important viral infections of humans, relatively little is known about the evolutionary processes that shape its genetic diversity. Similarly, there is limited information on the molecular epidemiology of yellow fever virus (YFV) in Africa even though it most likely first emerged on this continent. Through an analysis of complete E gene sequences, including a newly acquired viral collection from Central and West Africa (Senegal, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Côte d'Ivoire, Mali, and Mauritania), we show that YFV exhibits markedly lower rates of evolutionary change than dengue virus, despite numerous biological similarities between these two viruses. From this observation, along with a lack of clock-like evolutionary behavior in YFV, we suggest that vertical transmission, itself characterized by lower replication rates, may play an important role in the evolution of YFV in its enzootic setting. Despite a reduced rate of nucleotide substitution, phylogenetic patterns and estimates of times to common ancestry in YFV still accord well with the dual histories of colonialism and the slave trade, with areas of sylvatic transmission (such as Kedougou, Senegal) acting as enzootic/epidemic foci.

  17. Regional-scale climate-variability synchrony of cholera epidemics in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Constantin de Magny, Guillaume; Guégan, Jean-François; Petit, Michel; Cazelles, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    Background The relationship between cholera and climate was explored in Africa, the continent with the most reported cases, by analyzing monthly 20-year cholera time series for five coastal adjoining West African countries: Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Togo, Benin and Nigeria. Methods We used wavelet analyses and derived methods because these are useful mathematical tools to provide information on the evolution of the periodic component over time and allow quantification of non-stationary associations between time series. Results The temporal variability of cholera incidence exhibits an interannual component, and a significant synchrony in cholera epidemics is highlighted at the end of the 1980's. This observed synchrony across countries, even if transient through time, is also coherent with both the local variability of rainfall and the global climate variability quantified by the Indian Oscillation Index. Conclusion Results of this study suggest that large and regional scale climate variability influence both the temporal dynamics and the spatial synchrony of cholera epidemics in human populations in the Gulf of Guinea, as has been described for two other tropical regions of the world, western South America and Bangladesh. PMID:17371602

  18. Dental calculus evidence of Taï Forest Chimpanzee plant consumption and life history transitions.

    PubMed

    Power, Robert C; Salazar-García, Domingo C; Wittig, Roman M; Freiberg, Martin; Henry, Amanda G

    2015-01-01

    Dental calculus (calcified dental plaque) is a source of multiple types of data on life history. Recent research has targeted the plant microremains preserved in this mineralised deposit as a source of dietary and health information for recent and past populations. However, it is unclear to what extent we can interpret behaviour from microremains. Few studies to date have directly compared the microremain record from dental calculus to dietary records, and none with long-term observation dietary records, thus limiting how we can interpret diet, food acquisition and behaviour. Here we present a high-resolution analysis of calculus microremains from wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) of Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. We test microremain assemblages against more than two decades of field behavioural observations to establish the ability of calculus to capture the composition of diet. Our results show that some microremain classes accumulate as long-lived dietary markers. Phytolith abundance in calculus can reflect the proportions of plants in the diet, yet this pattern is not true for starches. We also report microremains can record information about other dietary behaviours, such as the age of weaning and learned food processing techniques like nut-cracking. PMID:26481858

  19. Diversity of malaria in rice growing areas of the Afrotropical region.

    PubMed

    Carnevale, P; Guillet, P; Robert, V; Fontenille, D; Doannio, J; Coosemans, M; Mouchet, J

    1999-09-01

    It is well known that 'in many instances the rice agrosystem perfectly fits the ecological requirements of pathogens or vectors' and in fact 'malaria, schistosomiasis and Japanese encephalitis are important vector-borne diseases associated with rice production in developing countries' (IRRI, 1987). In spite of these fears, rice cultivation has been on the increase in the African region in response to demographic and economic pressures. However, although rice fields provide suitable breeding places for Anopheles mosquitoes and rice cultivation leads to an increase in the biting rates, the species which are adapted to these sites are not the same in all parts of Africa. Several examples illustrate this phenomenon: An. funestus in the rice fields of Madagascar, An. pharoensis in saline water rice fields in the delta of the Senegal river, An. arabiensis in northern Cameroon and Burundi, An. gambiae Mopti form in the Kou Valley (Burkina Faso) and An. gambiae Savanna form in the rice fields of Kafine near Bouaké (Côte d'Ivoire). The vectorial capacities of these species are not the same and malaria inoculation rates are not necessarily increased in the riceland agroecosystem. The consequences for malaria of introducing rice cultivation depend on the situation before its introduction: it could be worsened in unstable malaria areas but not in stable malaria areas. Therefore, sound epidemiological and entomological knowledge are needed before causing any environmental modifications for agricultural purposes and there should be regular monitoring to avoid any outbreak.

  20. Taï chimpanzees anticipate revisiting high-valued fruit trees from further distances.

    PubMed

    Ban, Simone D; Boesch, Christophe; Janmaat, Karline R L

    2014-11-01

    The use of spatio-temporal memory has been argued to increase food-finding efficiency in rainforest primates. However, the exact content of this memory is poorly known to date. This study investigated what specific information from previous feeding visits chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus), in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, take into account when they revisit the same feeding trees. By following five adult females for many consecutive days, we tested from what distance the females directed their travels towards previously visited feeding trees and how previous feeding experiences and fruit tree properties influenced this distance. To exclude the influence of sensory cues, the females' approach distance was measured from their last significant change in travel direction until the moment they entered the tree's maximum detection field. We found that chimpanzees travelled longer distances to trees at which they had previously made food grunts and had rejected fewer fruits compared to other trees. In addition, the results suggest that the chimpanzees were able to anticipate the amount of fruit that they would find in the trees. Overall, our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that chimpanzees act upon a retrieved memory of their last feeding experiences long before they revisit feeding trees, which would indicate a daily use of long-term prospective memory. Further, the results are consistent with the possibility that positive emotional experiences help to trigger prospective memory retrieval in forest areas that are further away and have fewer cues associated with revisited feeding trees.