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Sample records for abidjan cote divoire

  1. [Onychomycosis mycological profile in Abidjan (Cote d'Ivoire)].

    PubMed

    Konate, A; Yavo, W; Kassi, K F; Djohan, V; Angora, K E; Bosson-Vanga, H; Barro-Kiki, P; E I H Menan

    2014-09-01

    The epidemiological profile of onychomycosis is poorly determined in Cote d'Ivoire. This study aimed to determine the fungal aetiologies of these onychomycosis in Abidjan. This cross-sectional study was conducted from February to August 2011 at the Department of Dermatology of the University Hospital of Treichville. All patients who consulted for onycholysis were interviewed. All samples were analyzed by direct examination and Sabouraud-chloramphenicol and Sabouraud-chloramphenicol-actidione culture was performed. Species identification was based on microscopic characteristics of the fungus observed. A total of 53 patients were included. The prevalence of onychomycosis was estimated at 66%. The unilateral lesions were statistically different from bilateral lesions (P=0.010). Women were more affected at the hands than men (P=0.010). Five species of yeasts and two dermatophytes species were identified. Yeasts species were essentially Candida tropicalis (36.4%) and Candida albicans (30.3%). Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton soudanense were the only dermatophytes isolated. No contributing factors were statistically related to the occurrence of onychomycosis in our series. The observed onychomycosis in Côte d'Ivoire are mainly caused by yeasts. Although in our series the risk factors have not been identified, hygiene of the nails should provide effective prevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Petroleum geology of Cote d`Ivoir (Abidjan margin)

    SciTech Connect

    Reymond, A.

    1995-08-01

    The Cote d`Ivoire sedimentary basin is part of a typical transform passive margin developed along the West African coast from Liberia to Ghana. It straddles the coastline and the sedimentary section expands dramatically South of the East-West trending Lagune Fault, with up to 10,000 metres of sediments from Aptian to Present in age. Albo-Aptian rift series, mainly continental clastics without evaporites, have accumulated progressively in a tilted semi-graben. The drift stage marks a widespread marine sedimentation organized in progradational sequences which blanket the Albian block-fault topography of the continental break-up. Reservoirs are mainly clastics and present in the section from Middle Albian to Maastrichtian. Sand bodies are associated with identified submarine fans, infill structures or channelized units deposited in a shelf or outer-shelf environment. Trapping opportunities are due to block-faulting in the rift section, or gravity tectonics in the drift section, often combined with sand pinch-outs to constitute mixed structural-stratigraphic traps. Thick top-seal units formed by marine shales are widespread. Source-rocks have been shown to belong mainly to the rift series and they have been characterized in terms of geochemistry and maturation timing. An efficient simulation model has been used to recontruct the expulsion, migration and trapping of hydrocarbons along a selected North-South cross-section and to better define the Petroleum Systems.

  3. Aetiologies and contributing factors of vulvovaginal candidiasis in Abidjan (Cote d'Ivoire).

    PubMed

    Konaté, A; Yavo, W; Kassi, F K; Djohan, V; Angora, E K; Barro-Kiki, P C; Bosson-Vanga, H; Soro, F; Menan, E I H

    2014-06-01

    In order to update the data and contribute to optimizing the management of vulvovaginal candidiasis, we conducted this study to determine their etiology (and hence the sensitivity of the isolated fungal organisms) and the factors contributing to their occurrence in Abidjan (Cote d'Ivoire). This cross-sectional survey involving 400 women with clinically vulvovaginitis was conducted from May to July 2011. It was carried out at the health centre for venereal diseases located at the National Institute of Public Hygiene in Abidjan. After a swab collecting, direct examination and culture on Sabouraud Chloramphenicol and Sabouraud Chloramphenicol Actidione media were implemented to research yeasts. After identifying yeast species through blastesis tests and auxanogram, its in vitro susceptibility to amphotericin B, 5-fluorocytosine, clotrimazole, miconazole, econazole and ketoconazole was assessed. As a whole, 172 patients suffered from vulvovaginal candidiasis i.e. an overall prevalence of 43%. Candida albicans was most frequently isolated (82.5%) followed by C. glabrata (10.5%). C. albicans and C. tropicalis were resistant to the 5-fluorocytosine (respectively 24.65 and 33.33%). Other molecules have shown excellent activity on all yeasts isolated. Type of housing, type of underwear and patients personal history were statistically associated with the presence of vulvovaginal candidiasis (respectively P=0.003; 0.010; 0.022). Vulvovaginal candidiasis is relatively frequent in Abidjan and antifungal compounds are in general still effective for treatment. Being knowledgeable of risk factors for this vulvovaginitis will ensure better prevention of their occurrence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Children's Domestic Work in Abidjan, Cote D'Ivoire: The Petites Bonnes Have the Floor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacquemin, Melanie Y.

    2004-01-01

    This article tries to analyse the evolution over the past 40 years of children's domestic work and its representations in urban Cote d'Ivoire, and, particularly, how these practices evolved from family work linked to educational processes, into the kind of wage work that exists today. Listening to the children themselves, the aim is to find out…

  5. Children's Domestic Work in Abidjan, Cote D'Ivoire: The Petites Bonnes Have the Floor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacquemin, Melanie Y.

    2004-01-01

    This article tries to analyse the evolution over the past 40 years of children's domestic work and its representations in urban Cote d'Ivoire, and, particularly, how these practices evolved from family work linked to educational processes, into the kind of wage work that exists today. Listening to the children themselves, the aim is to find out…

  6. [Buruli ulcer involving the head: outcomes and therapeutic aspects in 8 cases observed at the University Hospital Center in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire].

    PubMed

    Kouame, K; Ecra, E; Cisse, M; Gbery, I; Kacou, E; Kassi, K; Kouassi, A; Ahogo, C; Yoboue, P; Kanga, J M

    2008-12-01

    Infection due to Mycobacterium ulcerans or Buruli ulcer usually occurs on the limbs (70%) or trunk (20%). Involvement of the head and neck region is less frequent but can lead to serious sequels. The purpose of this report is to describe 8 patients including 7 children who were treated for Buruli ulcers on the head in the dermatology department of the University Hospital Center in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire. Eye lesions and visual impairment were the most frequent sequels.

  7. Effects of climatological parameters in modeling and forecasting seasonal influenza transmission in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    N'gattia, A K; Coulibaly, D; Nzussouo, N Talla; Kadjo, H A; Chérif, D; Traoré, Y; Kouakou, B K; Kouassi, P D; Ekra, K D; Dagnan, N S; Williams, T; Tiembré, I

    2016-09-13

    In temperate regions, influenza epidemics occur in the winter and correlate with certain climatological parameters. In African tropical regions, the effects of climatological parameters on influenza epidemics are not well defined. This study aims to identify and model the effects of climatological parameters on seasonal influenza activity in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire. We studied the effects of weekly rainfall, humidity, and temperature on laboratory-confirmed influenza cases in Abidjan from 2007 to 2010. We used the Box-Jenkins method with the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) process to create models using data from 2007-2010 and to assess the predictive value of best model on data from 2011 to 2012. The weekly number of influenza cases showed significant cross-correlation with certain prior weeks for both rainfall, and relative humidity. The best fitting multivariate model (ARIMAX (2,0,0) _RF) included the number of influenza cases during 1-week and 2-weeks prior, and the rainfall during the current week and 5-weeks prior. The performance of this model showed an increase of >3 % for Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and 2.5 % for Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) compared to the reference univariate ARIMA (2,0,0). The prediction of the weekly number of influenza cases during 2011-2012 with the best fitting multivariate model (ARIMAX (2,0,0) _RF), showed that the observed values were within the 95 % confidence interval of the predicted values during 97 of 104 weeks. Including rainfall increases the performances of fitted and predicted models. The timing of influenza in Abidjan can be partially explained by rainfall influence, in a setting with little change in temperature throughout the year. These findings can help clinicians to anticipate influenza cases during the rainy season by implementing preventive measures.

  8. The Epidemiology of HIV and Prevention Needs of Men Who Have Sex with Men in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Hakim, Avi J; Aho, Josephine; Semde, Gisele; Diarrassouba, Mamadou; Ehoussou, Konan; Vuylsteke, Bea; Murrill, Christopher S; Thiam, Marguerite; Wingate, Therese

    2015-01-01

    To determine HIV prevalence and associated risk factors among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. We conducted a cross-sectional RDS survey of MSM in Abidjan from October 2011 to February 2012. Eligibility criteria included age ≥ 18 years and having had oral or anal sex with another man in the last 12 months. Weighted data analysis was conducted with RDSAT and SAS. We enrolled 603 participants, of whom 601 (99.7%) completed the questionnaire and 581 (96.7%) consented to HIV testing. HIV population prevalence was estimated as 18.0% (95% CI: 13.0-23.1); 86.4% (95% CI: 75.1-94.9) of HIV-positive MSM were unaware of their serostatus. In multivariable analysis, adjusting for age, education, and income, HIV infection was associated with unprotected sex at last sex with a woman, more than two male anal sex partners in last 12 months, inconsistent condom use during anal sex with a man, self-perceived risk of HIV, history of forced sex, history of physical abuse due to MSM status, and not receiving last HIV test result prior to study. HIV prevalence among MSM in Abidjan is more than four times as high as that of general population men. MSM engage in high-risk sexual behavior and most HIV-positive MSM are unaware of their serostatus. Greater access to HIV prevention, care, and treatment services targeted to MSM is necessary.

  9. [Direct cost related to management and care provision for HIV-infected children in the asymptomatic stage in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire].

    PubMed

    Djohan, G; Kouakoussui, A; Msellati, P

    2005-12-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the direct cost of medical and psychological care provided to asymptomatic HIV-infected children in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire. For this purpose, a retrospective study was carried out among a group of asymptomatic HIV-infected children in Abidjan who were part of the "projet enfant Yopougon" (ANRS 1244/1278). The study reviewed these childrens' hospital records and files dating between October 2000 and March 2003. The follow up period for a total of 46 children represented a cumulative of 83.4 children years and showed that 8 potentially death-threatening medical events were recorded on average per child per year. The mean annual cost for the management and delivery of medical and psychological care per asymptomatic HIV-infected child was 132, 730 FCFA per year, or rather 11,000 FCFA (16.63 Euros) per month. This relatively low cost should be used to advocate for more financial support from governments and the international community to contribute to more effective management of care and services for HIV-infected children.

  10. Exploring risk behaviors and vulnerability for HIV among men who have sex with men in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire: poor knowledge, homophobia and sexual violence.

    PubMed

    Aho, Josephine; Hakim, Avi; Vuylsteke, Bea; Semde, Gisèle; Gbais, Honorat G; Diarrassouba, Mamadou; Thiam, Marguerite; Laga, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk of HIV. Few data are available on MSM and HIV-related risk behaviors in West Africa. We aimed to describe risk behaviors and vulnerability among MSM in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire. We conducted a cross-sectional respondent-driven sampling survey with 601 MSM in 2011-2012. Sociodemographic and behavioural data as well as data related to emotional state and stigma were collected. Population estimates with 95% confidence intervals were produced. Survey weighted logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with inconsistent condom use in the prior 12 months. Most MSM were 24 years of age or younger (63.9%) and had attained at least primary education (84.4%). HIV risk behaviors such as low condom and water-based lubricant use, high numbers of male and female sex partners, and sex work were frequently reported as well as verbal, physical and sexual abuse. Inconsistent condom use during anal sex with a male partner in the prior 12 months was reported by 66.0% of the MSM and was positively associated with history of forced sex, alcohol consumption, having a regular partner and a casual partner, having bought sex, and self-perception of low HIV risk. MSM in Abidjan exhibit multiple and frequent HIV-related risk behaviors. To address those behaviours, a combination of individual but also structural interventions will be needed given the context of stigma, homophobia and violence.

  11. Epidemiology of congenital abnormalities in West Africa: Results of a descriptive study in teaching hospitals in Abidjan: Cote d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Kouame, Bertin Dibi; N'guetta-Brou, Isabelle Ama; Kouame, Guy Serge Yapo; Sounkere, Moufidath; Koffi, Maxime; Yaokreh, Jean Baptiste; Odehouri-Koudou, Thierry; Tembely, Samba; Dieth, Gaudens Atafi; Ouattara, Ossenou; Dick, Ruffin

    2015-01-01

    Congenital abnormalities constitute one of the major causes of infant mortality, particularly in developing countries. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of congenital anomalies in Cote d'Ivoire. It was a multicentric study of three academic hospitals and the Heart Institute of Abidjan over 10 years. The epidemiologic Data concerned the Parturients, the annual frequency of congenital abnormalities. Distribution of the congenital abnormalities according to the organs, overall mortality and lethality of congenital abnormalities were evaluated. Over 10 years, 1.632 newborns with 1.725 congenital anomalies were recorded. Frequency was 172.5 congenital anomalies per annum. Parturients were less than 35 years in 33% of cases, multigravida in 20%, multiparous in 18% and had a low socio economic status in 96% of cases. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital anomalies was performed in 1.5%. Congenital anomalies were orthopedic in 34%, neurological in 17%, gastrointestinal in 15%, facial in 11.5%, parietal in 13%, urogenital in 9% and cardiac in 0.5% of cases. The overall mortality rate of congenital anomalies was 52% and gastroschisis was the most lethal disease with 100% mortality. This descriptive study reveals the low socio economic status of Parturients with congenital anomalies and their poor prenatal diagnosis. These factors explain the very high mortality of congenital anomalies due to a delay management in our country in which medical expenses were borne by parents and where technical platforms remain obsoletes for good resuscitation and neonatal surgery.

  12. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus among children and adolescents in the district of Abidjan in Cote d'Ivoire: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Agbre-Yace, Marie Laurette; Oyenusi, Elizabeth Eberechi; Oduwole, Abiola Olufunmilayo; Ake, Michèle Dominique; Abodo, Jacko Rhedoor

    2015-01-01

    World Health Organization has predicted a worldwide rise in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus. Cote d'Ivoire is not exempted as evidenced by such factors as obesity and sedentary life style amongst others. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) among children and adolescents in the district of Abidjan in Cote d'Ivoire. A cross-sectional descriptive survey using a multi-stage sampling approach was conducted from March to April 2013. 1572 children and adolescents aged 02-19 years were surveyed in 687 randomly selected households in three municipalities. Capillary fasting glucose was performed in all subjects, and when abnormal was followed by an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT). Definitions of Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG) and DM (Diabetes Mellitus) were according to International Society for Paediatric and Adolescent Diabetes (ISPAD) Guidelines. The prevalence of DM and IFG were 0.4 % and 14.5 % respectively. There was no significant differences between patients with different glycemic status in terms of ethnicity/nationality (p = 0.98) or gender (0.079). In the rural areas, 565 (81.1 %) subjects were normoglycaemic and 132 (18.9 %) subjects hyperglycaemic while there were 773 (88.3 %) normoglycaemic subjects and 102 (11.7 %) hyperglycaemic subjects respectively from the urban areas of residence and this difference was statistically significant (p = 0.000). The prevalence of diabetes mellitus was identical (0.4 %) in the two age groups (2-9 years and 10-19 years). Seventy-seven (4.9 %) children who participated in the study had at least one diabetic parent. The proportion of participants with a diabetic father (59, 3.8. %) was twice the proportion with a diabetic mother (30,1.9 %) and this was statistically significant (p = 0.002). Only 10 out of 228 patients with IFG reported for the follow up OGTT and no impaired glucose tolerance was identified in these patients. The prevalence rate of DM

  13. Spotlight: Cote d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Patriquin, W

    1987-11-01

    The Republic of Cote d'Ivoire's 1986 population was estimated at 10.8 million, with a 3.0% rate of natural increase. In 1986, there were 46 births/1000 population and 15 deaths/1000. The total fertility rate was 6.7. Infant mortality stood at 105/1000 live births, and life expectancy at birth was 52 years. Since independence in 1960, Cote d'Ivoire has been one of the most prosperous countries in Africa, with nearly 7% annual growth in the 1960-80 period. The agricultural sector, which employs about 3/4 of the labor force, produces coffee, cocoa, and timber for export. The country is also one of the world's largest producers of palm oil, and the government is seeking to achieve self-sufficiency in rice production by the end of 1987. The gross national product per capita was US$620 in 1986. The government aims to increase fertility through the provision of social welfare services such as child allowances and maternity benefits. The population growth rate has increased from 3.64/year in the 1965-75 period to 4.3%/year since 1975. If current trends persist, the population of Cote d'Ivoire will have doubled in 20 years. Immigration has also contributed to increase the overall rate of population growth, rising from 75,000/year in 1965-75 to a current figure of 94,000/year. The proportion of aliens in the population is expected to increase from 25% in 1980 to over 30% by 1990.

  14. Physico-chemical characterization of African urban aerosols (Abidjan in Cote d'Ivoire and Cotonou in Benin) and their toxic effects in human bronchial epithelial cells during the dry season 2016.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adon, Jacques; Liousse, Cathy; Yoboue, Veronique; Baeza, Armelle; Akpo, Aristide; Bahino, Julien; Chiron, Christelle; Galy-Lacaux, Corinne; Keita, Sékou

    2017-04-01

    This study is a contribution to the WP2-DACCIWA program with the aim to characterize particulate pollution on domestic fire site, traffic sites and waste burning site of two West-African capitals (Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire and Cotonou, Benin) and to study aerosol biological impacts on lung inflammation. Such an impact is still largely unknown, especially for the particles emitted by intense African traffic sources and domestic fires. In this context, fundamental research of this study is centered on the following key scientific question: what is the link between aerosol size differentiated composition and inflammation markers for the main combustion sources prevailing in South West Africa during dry and wet seasons? To tackle this question, intensive campaigns in Abidjan and Cotonou have been conducted in July 2015, January and July 2016, and January 2017. In this paper, we will present our first results for the campaign of January 2016. In terms of aerosol size differentiated composition, main aerosol components (mass, black carbon, organic carbon, water soluble particles ...) were measured. We may notice that PM measured for all the sites is generally higher than WHO norms. Organic carbon and dust particles are the two more important contributors for the ultra-fine and fine particle sizes with more organic carbon in Abidjan and dust particles in Cotonou respectively. In terms of in vitro biological studies on sampled aerosols on these sites, size-fractionated PM from the different sampling sites were compared for their ability to induce a proinflammatory response characterized by the release of the cytokine IL-6 by human bronchial epithelial cells. PM from waste burning site did not induce significant IL-6 release whatever the size fraction whereas PM from domestic fire were the most reactive especially the ultra-fine fraction. Ultra-fine particles from traffic (Abidjan and Cotonou) always induced a dose-dependent IL-6 release. A tentative cross-analysis between

  15. Female Genital Mutilation in Infants and Young Girls: Report of Sixty Cases Observed at the General Hospital of Abobo (Abidjan, Cote D'Ivoire, West Africa)

    PubMed Central

    Plo, Kouie; Asse, Kouadio; Seï, Dohagneron; Yenan, John

    2014-01-01

    The practice of female genital mutilations continues to be recurrent in African communities despite the campaigns, fights, and laws to ban it. A survey was carried out in infants and young girls at the General Hospital of Abobo in Cote D'Ivoire. The purpose of the study was to describe the epidemiological aspects and clinical findings related to FGM in young patients. Four hundred nine (409) females aged from 1 to 12 years and their mothers entered the study after their consent. The results were that 60/409 patients (15%) were cut. The majority of the young females came from Muslim families (97%); the earlier age at FGM procedure in patients is less than 5 years: 87%. Amongst 409 mothers, 250 women underwent FGM which had other daughters cut. Women were mainly involved in the FGM and their motivations were virginity, chastity, body cleanliness, and fear of clitoris similar to penis. Only WHO types I and II were met. If there were no incidental events occurred at the time of the procedure, the obstetrical future of these young females would be compromised. With FGM being a harmful practice, health professionals and NGOs must unite their efforts in people education to abandon the procedure. PMID:24729789

  16. Female genital mutilation in infants and young girls: report of sixty cases observed at the general hospital of abobo (abidjan, cote d'ivoire, west Africa).

    PubMed

    Plo, Kouie; Asse, Kouadio; Seï, Dohagneron; Yenan, John

    2014-01-01

    The practice of female genital mutilations continues to be recurrent in African communities despite the campaigns, fights, and laws to ban it. A survey was carried out in infants and young girls at the General Hospital of Abobo in Cote D'Ivoire. The purpose of the study was to describe the epidemiological aspects and clinical findings related to FGM in young patients. Four hundred nine (409) females aged from 1 to 12 years and their mothers entered the study after their consent. The results were that 60/409 patients (15%) were cut. The majority of the young females came from Muslim families (97%); the earlier age at FGM procedure in patients is less than 5 years: 87%. Amongst 409 mothers, 250 women underwent FGM which had other daughters cut. Women were mainly involved in the FGM and their motivations were virginity, chastity, body cleanliness, and fear of clitoris similar to penis. Only WHO types I and II were met. If there were no incidental events occurred at the time of the procedure, the obstetrical future of these young females would be compromised. With FGM being a harmful practice, health professionals and NGOs must unite their efforts in people education to abandon the procedure.

  17. [Descriptive epidemiology of cancers in Cote d'Ivoire].

    PubMed

    Effi, Ahoua Benjamin; Koffi, Kouakou Emmanuel; Aman, N'guiessan Alphonse; Doukouré, Brahima; N'dah, Kouamé Justin; Koffi, Kouadio Donatien; Kouyaté, Mohamed; Koui, Béossin Baumaney Sylvanus; Hondé, Michel; Diomandé, Mohenou Isidore Jean Marie

    2013-02-01

    The cancerous disease is a real pain in developed countries due to the ageing of the population. According to the World Report Cancer in 2000, cancer tends to be a major problem of public health in the developing nations. This study research aimed at describing the epidemiological features of cancers in Cote d'Ivoire. It is a 26-year retrospective and descriptive study focusing on all cancers confirmed histologically by using the data from the registers of Anatomic Pathology laboratory of Abidjan teaching hospitals. The parameters of the study were frequency, age, sex, site and histological type. We obtained 12,841 cancers within patients aged from 2 months to 107 years old along with 51.26-year median age and 0.9 as sex-ratio. The most important cancer locations are cervix (17.41%) followed by skin (15.81%), prostate (7.73%), breast (6.88%), and stomach (6.09%). With women, the median age was 49.23 years, and the most common cancers were cervical cancer (33.25%) followed by breast cancer (12.44%) and skin cancer (10.50%). With men, the median age was 53.95 years, and the most frequent cancers were skin cancer (21.29%) followed by prostate cancer (15.69%) and stomach cancer (8.71%). Burkitt lymphoma (33.95%), retinoblastoma (10.92%) and nephroblastoma (5.88%) are the most important cancers in children. Cancers are frequent in Cote d'Ivoire. Cervical cancer, skin cancer, and prostate are updated problems with a worse prognosis. Therefore, the screening and the early diagnosis remain the best conditions to improve the prognosis of cancer.

  18. Infant feeding practices before implementing alternatives to prolonged breastfeeding to reduce HIV transmission through breastmilk in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Becquet, Renaud; Castetbon, Katia; Viho, Ida; Ekouevi, Didier K.; Béquet, Laurence; Ehouo, Brigitte; Dabis, François; Leroy, Valériane

    2005-01-01

    SUMMARY The aim of this study was to describe baseline infant feeding practices in women of unknown HIV status in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire, before the implementation of infant feeding interventions aimed at the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV through breastmilk. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in March 2000 among 225 mothers attending community-run health facilities with their own child for either immunization or weighting. All but two children had ever been breastfed, of whom 94% were still being breastfed at six months of age. Exclusive breastfeeding was not practiced in this population since all women had given water to their child, starting in median one day after birth. Moreover, 20% of the mothers had introduced infant formula in median three weeks after delivery. This study provides useful information for planning purposes in this urban African population, where exclusive breastfeeding is rare and the use of infant formula relatively common. PMID:15967771

  19. Acceptability of exclusive breast-feeding with early cessation to prevent HIV transmission through breast milk, ANRS 1201/1202 Ditrame Plus, Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Becquet, Renaud; Ekouevi, Didier K.; Viho, Ida; Sakarovitch, Charlotte; Toure, Hassan; Castetbon, Katia; Coulibaly, Nacoumba; Timite-Konan, Marguerite; Bequet, Laurence; Dabis, François; Leroy, Valériane

    2005-01-01

    Objective We assessed the uptake of a nutritional intervention promoting exclusive breastfeeding with early cessation between three and four months of age to reduce postnatal transmission of HIV in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire. Design Between March 2001 and March 2003, HIV infected pregnant women who had received a perinatal antiretroviral prophylaxis were systematically offered prenatally two infant feeding interventions: either artificial feeding, or exclusive breastfeeding during three months then early cessation of breastfeeding. Mother-infant pairs were closely followed for a period of two years, with continuous nutritional counseling and detailed collection of feeding practices. Results Among the 557 mothers enrolled, 262 (47%) initiated breastfeeding. Of these women, the probability of practicing exclusive breastfeeding from birth was 18% and 10% at one and three months of age, respectively. Complete cessation of breastfeeding was obtained in 45% and 63% by four and six months of age, respectively. Environmental factors such as living with partner’s family were associated with failure to initiate early cessation of breastfeeding. Conclusions Acceptability of exclusive breastfeeding was low in this urban population. However, shortening the duration of breastfeeding appeared to be feasible. Further investigations are ongoing to fully evaluate the safety and effectiveness of this intervention in reducing breastmilk HIV transmission. PMID:16284538

  20. [Current situation of primary prophylaxis with isoniazid (INH) in children who are contacts of patients with bacillary pulmonary tuberculosis in Abidjan (Cote d'Ivoire)].

    PubMed

    Koné, Z; Coulibaly, G; Daix, A T J; Bakayoko, A S; Samaké, K; Kouassi, D P; Domoua, K M S

    2016-12-01

    The National tuberculosis program (NTP) in Ivory Coast recommends that children under 5 years living in a family environment with contagious tuberculosis patients, should receive Prophylactic treatment with INH (PTI), whatever the result of the tuberculin skin test (positive or negative) and their BCG status (vaccinated or not), at a dose of 5mg/kg/day for 6 months. We conducted this study to check the implementation of this recommendation in three support services of tuberculosis in Abidjan, the economic capital. We conducted a multicenter, cross-sectional and descriptive study over 3 years (2011-2013), on consented patients, adolescents and adults aged at least 15 years, with a first episode of infectious pulmonary tuberculosis, in order to look for information on the INH prophylaxis in children under 5 years living under the same roof. We made patients interviews during their visit for bacteriological sputum controls at the second month of TB treatment. Of a total of 412 patients (53% males and 47% females) with a mean age of 34.5 years and with a low level of instruction (66.5%), we noticed 639 children under 5 years living under the same roof with them. Information on the screening of contact children was given to 71% of interviewed patients (291/412). Of the 339 children examined among 639 contacts, 234 (69%) had received only an intradermoreaction (IDR) and PTI was finally administered to 64% of them (217/339). High proportion of contact children under 5 not examined is a major concern for the NTP and a missed opportunity to prevent additional cases of tuberculosis among children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. How to Certify Learning in a Country Split into Two by a Civil War: Governmental and Non-Governmental Initiatives in Cote d'Ivoire, 2002-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamer, Magali Chelpi-den

    2007-01-01

    Following political turmoil and rising socio-economic difficulties, Cote d'Ivoire has been split into two since September 2002. The rebellion controls the northern part of the country and the main towns of Bouake, Korhogo and Man, while the government controls the southern part with Abidjan, Yamoussoukro, Daloa and all the ports in the coastal…

  2. How to Certify Learning in a Country Split into Two by a Civil War: Governmental and Non-Governmental Initiatives in Cote d'Ivoire, 2002-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamer, Magali Chelpi-den

    2007-01-01

    Following political turmoil and rising socio-economic difficulties, Cote d'Ivoire has been split into two since September 2002. The rebellion controls the northern part of the country and the main towns of Bouake, Korhogo and Man, while the government controls the southern part with Abidjan, Yamoussoukro, Daloa and all the ports in the coastal…

  3. AIDS soap opera generates massive interest. Eye witness: Cote d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Dodd, R

    1995-12-01

    SIDA Dans La Cite (AIDS in the City) is a popular weekly soap opera first broadcast in Cote d'Ivoire in 1991 with 11 15-minute episodes. The series is part of a campaign by Population Services International (PSI) to raise awareness about AIDS among Ivorian youth. Actors worked for a nominal fee, editing studios were provided at substantial discounts, and filming equipment was borrowed for next to nothing. Production director realized how important the soap opera had become after the fourth episode. A study of 700 households in Abidjan found that of the 75% who had access to a television, two-thirds had seen at least one episode. Cote d'Ivoire may be one of the most religiously conservative countries in Africa. 10% of the adult population, however, is infected with HIV. All sectors of society therefore understand the need to openly understand and discuss sexual issues in the context of such high HIV prevalence. Studies indicate that virtually everyone in Cote d'Ivoire has heard of AIDS and knows that it is a sexually transmitted disease, but persuading people to change their behavior is difficult. PSI sells approximately 750,000 of its subsidized Prudence condoms. Prudence has the same brand recognition in the country as Nescafe and Toyota. A recent survey of sexually active teens found that 30% of girls and 45% of boys used condoms. A weekly radio show is broadcast live from one of the poorest ghettos of Abidjan. Guests include popular singers, comedians, and television personalities. The actors are often from SIDA Dans La Cite.

  4. Abidjan Journal (Editor's Choice).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruetten, Mary K.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the author's experiences as a Fulbright scholar and English-as-a-Foreign-Language lecturer at the National University of Cote d'Ivoire in Abidjan before and during teacher and student strikes in May 1991. Notes that the author experienced what education is like for many people in the world--education in Abidjan was serious and deadly.…

  5. Education and Conflict in Cote d'Ivoire. Special Report 235

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sany, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    This report studies the relationship between conflict and education in Cote d'Ivoire, and suggests policy and program approaches for analysts and those engaged with education and peacebuilding in societies affected by conflict. Although the situation in Cote d'Ivoire has evolved since the main recommendations of this report were written in early…

  6. Reggae, Resistance and the State: Television and Popular Music in the Cote d'Ivoire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Land, F. Mitchell

    1995-01-01

    Examines popular culture in terms of its position in social structures of power, looking at the Ivoirien music made popular by state television in Cote d'Ivoire. Focuses on Cote d'Ivoire's international singing star, Alpha Blondy, and how this singer and others negotiate the relationship between state television and the Ivoirien popular singer.…

  7. 78 FR 16030 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Cote d'Ivoire

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Cote d'Ivoire Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3... requirements of Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Cote d'Ivoire and I hereby waive of this...

  8. Assessment of a Clinical Pharmacy Activity in a Pediatric Inpatient Department in Cote D'ivoire.

    PubMed

    Abrogoua, Danho Pascal; Békégnran, César Pacôme; Gro, Bi Marius; Doffou, Elisée; Folquet, Madeleine Amorissani

    2016-12-01

    Clinical pharmacy activities in a pediatric inpatient department help to improve the management of patients clinically and economically. To assess the relevance of pharmaceutical interventions (PIs) in a pediatric inpatient department in Abidjan (Cote d'Ivoire). We carried out a cross-sectional, descriptive study from February to September 2014. The information collected was classified according to the classification of drug-related problems (DRPs) and PIs of the French Society of Clinical Pharmacy. The score assigned to each PI varied from PI0 (without direct clinical impact) to PI3 (vital clinical impact) as the importance of the potential clinical impact of the DRP was correlated to the severity of clinical consequences avoided by the PI. The relevance of PIs was assessed by their rate of acceptance by physicians and by the analysis of their clinical impact. A total of 116 PIs were performed with 31% performed during medical rounds, 68.1% during patients' records analysis, and 0.1% on patient's admission. The main DRPs were related to noncompliance with recommendations (24.1%), overdose (21.1%), and underdosing (13.8%). The most important PIs were dose adjustment (31.8%), accuracy of drugs administration modalities (29.3%), and proposals of therapeutic choice (27.6%). The acceptance rate of PIs was highly significant (94.8%). The majority of PIs (67.3%) was assessed as having a significant clinical impact (PI1) and 16.4% of PIs as very significant clinical impact (PI2). A single PI (0.9%) was found with vital clinical impact. PIs performed were relevant and contributed to the therapeutic optimization and the prevention of iatrogenic events in pediatric inpatients.

  9. Pay Differences between Teachers and Other Occupations: Some Evidence from Cote D'Ivoire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komenan, A. G.; Grootaert, C.

    1990-01-01

    Uses data from the 1985 Cote d'Ivoire Living Standards Survey to examine pay differences between teachers and other wage earners in the Ivory Coast. Results indicate that teachers' base salaries contain a rent component that disappears when the total remuneration plan is considered. Includes 20 references. (MLH)

  10. The Equity Impact of Public Finance of Private Education Provision in Cote d'Ivoire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakellariou, Chris; Patrinos, Harry Anthony

    2009-01-01

    The equity effects of public subsidization of private schools in Cote d'Ivoire are analyzed. The subsidy per student in private (and public) schools increases as one goes to higher household per capita expenditure groups. Students from families in the highest expenditure quartile receive twice the subsidy received by students from families in the…

  11. Groundwater vulnerability in the District of Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouame, Agnes; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Derron, Marc-Henri; Tacher, Laurent

    2014-05-01

    The District of Abidjan, located on the coastal sedimentary basin south of Côte d'Ivoire (West Africa) covers an area of 2,1 km2. This sedimentary basin is composed of continuous groundwater aquifers in Quaternary, Tertiary and Upper Cretaceous rocks. Our study focuses on the unconfined Quaternary groundwater called the Continental Terminal which formations are composed mainly of lenticular stratification of coarse sands, clays, ferruginous sandstone and iron ore. This Continental Terminal aquifer is the main source of drinking water for the city of Abidjan. Indeed, the city of Abidjan is facing various pollution problems such as illegal dumping of household waste, waste oils garages, domestic and industrial wastewater, gas stations, public discharge Akouédo and the spill of approximately 500 tons of toxic waste from the ship "Probo Koala" the night of 19 August 2006. These toxic wastes have killed more than 10 people and several infections. The infiltration of these contaminants under the influence of rainwater in the basement is a serious threat to groundwater from the District of Abidjan especially as the rains are very strong in this part of the country. What would be the fate of pollutants such as organochlorines, hydrogen sulfide, sulfides and hydrocarbons contained in toxic waste, knowing that this aquifer is the main source of supply of drinking water to the city of Abidjan? It therefore seems necessary to study the vulnerability of groundwater of Abidjan District. The overall objective of this study is to assess the risk of groundwater contamination by organochlorines, sulfides, hydrogen sulfide and hydrocarbons. This project is to develop groundwater flow and contaminant transport models such as organochlorines models, hydrogen sulfide and sulfides with two digital codes, Visual Modflow and Feflow. Then several scenarios with different pollutants are finally made to realize maps of groundwater vulnerability from Abidjan to these contaminants.

  12. Gender, Education, and Employment in Cote d'Ivoire. Social Dimensions of Adjustment in Sub-Saharan Africa. Working Paper No. 8. Policy Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appleton, Simon; And Others

    Recent survey data from Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) is used to investigate gender differences in education and labor market participation. Previous researchers believed that women in Cote d'Ivoire were less likely than men to work for wages because of child-related obligations and low wage rates. This report contradicts this commonly held view by…

  13. Zones of Difference, Boundaries of Access: Moral Geography and Community Mapping in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Thomann, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    In Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, 18% of men who have sex with men (MSM) are HIV-positive. Based on ethnographic research conducted among HIV peer educators and activists in Abidjan, I examine their narratives and hand-drawn maps of city space. I draw on a methodological process of map-making to examine research participants' evaluations of neighborhoods and link these evaluations to debates over national and cultural belonging in Côte d'Ivoire. I suggest a moral geography emerges from the maps and narratives and ask what the bioethical implications of moral geography are in the context of service delivery and activism among sexual minorities.

  14. Sociopolitical crisis and the reconstruction of sustainable periurban agriculture in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Babo, Alfred

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the effects of the post-2002 sociopolitical crisis in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, on urban and peri-urban agriculture. Based on the case study of Abidjan, it argues for a conceptualization of sustainability that includes social as well as environmental dimensions and focuses on coping strategies of producers and merchants. In Abidjan, these strategies included internal migration within the city and its periphery, the use of organic fertilizers, and changes in market structure. The study illustrates how such strategies allowed producers to continue to supply produce to the market, despite the difficulties of war.

  15. Development of Foxtrot offshore gas field Cote d'Ivoire. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    In December 1991, a definitional mission investigated a project to develop a natural gas field located offshore Cote d'Ivoire, and whether a grant to the Ivorian government should be made for the study. However, before the mission could be conducted, the character of the project changed from one which was primarily a gas-development venture to a power generation project in which the energy source was natural gas. It was concluded that the expanded project changed the focus of the definitional mission. In the project's original formulation in which the World Bank was to be the main lender, it was clear that U.S. firms would have an opportunity to bid on significant portions of the project due to the Bank's standard requirement for competitive bidding. But after French industrial and financial groups joined in the expanded project, it was not clear that a sufficient opportunity would still exist for the involvement of U.S. firms in the overall project. Therefore, the mission was modified to first assess the business and financial aspects of the project before making a decision on a mission to Cote d'Ivoire to conduct a technical review of the proposed development of the offshore gas field.

  16. The moment of sale: Treating malaria in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Granado, Stefanie; Obrist, Brigit; Manderson, Lenore; Tanner, Marcel

    2009-12-01

    Beyond home care without active treatment, the first step of home-based management of malaria (HMM) is the health provider-customer interactions that often lead to the purchase of drugs or herbs to treat symptoms. In Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, the quality and content of such interactions in pharmacies where antimalarials are sold officially, with illegal drug vendors and with herbal medicine sellers, vary considerably. Commercial encounters associated with adult illness episodes of locally identified malaria, observed in 2004-5, illustrate that customers present to sales points, on behalf of people who are ill, with a pre-established diagnosis and the intent of purchasing medication with which they have prior familiarity. Customers sought neither diagnosis nor clarification, and communication between vendor and customer was limited to minimal enquiries or suggestions. These findings have important implications related to the need for vendor training to support HMM and so ensure prompt and appropriate treatment outside clinical settings.

  17. A petroliferous transform-margin basin, Cote d`Ivoire, West Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Harms, J.C.; Bruso, J.M. Jr.; Wallace, R.L.; Canales, J.A.

    1996-12-31

    Break-up transform margins, formed by large dominantly strike-slip faults as continents separate, are distinct in structural style and stratigraphic sequence from subduction or purely extensional margins. A continental margin defined by such a transform zone is sharp, precipitous, and places an essentially complete continental crust abruptly against oceanic or highly attenuated continental crust. Structures develop in stress fields dominated by horizontal translation, with an overprint of uplift and subsidence related to thermal effects of a laterally migrating asthenosphere plume. Stratigraphic sequences begin with relatively deep-water lacustrine deposits and are followed by marine conditions as ocean connections develop. Because bathymetry tends to be steep across the transform zone, marine deposits along this zone represent slope environments with many erosional canyons and canyons fills, and these facies are vertically stacked through time. The offshore Cote d`Ivoire Basin is an excellent example of a transform margin documented by more than 110 wells, an extensive 2-D seismic grid, a growing number of 3-D surveys, and several productive fields. The sedimentary section exceeds 5000m, beginning with Aptian(?)-Albian deep lacustrine facies. Marine incursion occurred in the Albian, followed by deformation, uplift, and erosion in later Albian. A series of major uplifts developed offshore along strands of the St. Paul fracture zone. The uplifts contain many SE-trending normal splay faults. The uplifts and NE-tilted fault blocks are the major petroleum targets within the Albian section. Upper Cretaceous petroleum traps are mainly related to stratigraphic variations caused by submarine canyon cutting and filling. The Cote d`lvoire Basin provides a valuable model of transform margin processes and petroleum occurrences.

  18. A petroliferous transform-margin basin, Cote d'Ivoire, West Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Harms, J.C. ); Bruso, J.M. Jr.; Wallace, R.L.; Canales, J.A. )

    1996-01-01

    Break-up transform margins, formed by large dominantly strike-slip faults as continents separate, are distinct in structural style and stratigraphic sequence from subduction or purely extensional margins. A continental margin defined by such a transform zone is sharp, precipitous, and places an essentially complete continental crust abruptly against oceanic or highly attenuated continental crust. Structures develop in stress fields dominated by horizontal translation, with an overprint of uplift and subsidence related to thermal effects of a laterally migrating asthenosphere plume. Stratigraphic sequences begin with relatively deep-water lacustrine deposits and are followed by marine conditions as ocean connections develop. Because bathymetry tends to be steep across the transform zone, marine deposits along this zone represent slope environments with many erosional canyons and canyons fills, and these facies are vertically stacked through time. The offshore Cote d'Ivoire Basin is an excellent example of a transform margin documented by more than 110 wells, an extensive 2-D seismic grid, a growing number of 3-D surveys, and several productive fields. The sedimentary section exceeds 5000m, beginning with Aptian( )-Albian deep lacustrine facies. Marine incursion occurred in the Albian, followed by deformation, uplift, and erosion in later Albian. A series of major uplifts developed offshore along strands of the St. Paul fracture zone. The uplifts contain many SE-trending normal splay faults. The uplifts and NE-tilted fault blocks are the major petroleum targets within the Albian section. Upper Cretaceous petroleum traps are mainly related to stratigraphic variations caused by submarine canyon cutting and filling. The Cote d'lvoire Basin provides a valuable model of transform margin processes and petroleum occurrences.

  19. Histological analysis of the impact of lagoon pollution on Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus from Cote d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Tidou, Abiba Sanogo; Yapi, Armel-cyrille D; Kouamé, Victor K; Aoussi, Serge; Williams, David E

    2012-07-01

    Immunohistological and histopathological methods were used to highlight the importance of cell damages and some biomarkers for health risk assessment. A comparative study between 3 sites of the lagoons showed that the most polluted areas (Adiake and Ebrah), influenced by human activities, presented more damaged cells and stained cells in gills and livers of Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus than the less polluted area (Layo): gill cell hyperplasia and liver cells vacuolation were more evident in fish from Adiake than in fish from Ebrah and Layo. The percentage of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive cells in gill were 45.8 % ± 23.7 % for Adiake, 18.2 % ± 4.6 % for Ebrah and 11.4 % ± 6.51 % for Layo; The percentage of PCNA-positive in liver cells were 3.8 % ± 3.6 % for Adiake, 4.9 % ± 4.7 % for Ebrah and 2.6 % ± 2.5 % for Layo. Gills were more affected than livers. The Adiake site was the most contaminated area of the lagoon complex of Cote d'Ivoire.

  20. Psychosexual development among HIV-positive adolescents in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Aka Dago-Akribi, Hortense; Cacou Adjoua, Marie-Chantal

    2004-05-01

    Some 84,000 children with HIV/AIDS live in Côte d'Ivoire, where very little therapeutic or psychological help is available to them. The Yopougon Child Programme of the "Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le Sida" was launched in Abidjan in October 2000. It provides services for HIV-infected children and psychological consultations for children and their parents. This paper is about the psychosexual development of the HIV-positive adolescents in the Programme, 11 girls and 8 boys aged 13-17, their problems with HIV-related physiological and psychosexual changes, and relationships with their parents. The information was gathered in individual therapy sessions, group discussions and family support sessions. Bodily development was of major importance to these adolescents, particularly among those who had not yet developed secondary sexual characteristics and were shorter and weighed less than their peers. Those who had not achieved puberty were unable to participate in traditional rituals and worried whether they could ever marry or have children. In most cases, adolescents with HIV have been infected by a sexually transmitted virus without having had sexual relations themselves. They need support dealing with their sexual development and sexual feelings, along with medical care, in a context in which HIV infection is a secret, impossible to talk about with their peers.

  1. [Topography of ischemic strokes in Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire): a computed tomographic approach].

    PubMed

    Cowppli-Bony, Pascale; Yapi-Yapo, Paulette; Douayoua-Sonan, Thérèse; Kouamé, Blaise; Yapo, Félix Boa; Kouassi, Ernest Beugré

    2006-01-01

    The authors used computed tomography (CT) to assess and categorize the topography of ischemic strokes (IS) among blacks living in Abidjan, the commercial and administrative center of Côte d'Ivoire, in West Africa. This retrospective study analyzed CT data of patients admitted to the Sainte Anne Marie Polyclinic (the principal private hospital in the country) and to the neurology department of the university hospital center in Cocody, from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2001. The study included patients who met World Health Organisation criteria for stroke and had CT performed during the hospitalization for this stroke. We examined CT data to find early and late signs of IS, analyze lesion diameter (15 mm cutoff used to distinguish infarcts from lacuna), and determine their topography (cerebral arterial territory and localization, that is, brain lobes, basal ganglia and posterior cerebral fossa). We included 260 subjects (58% males) with a median age of 45 years (range: 20-80 years). CT findings were abnormal for 224 patients with infarcts (72.7%), lacuna (27.3%), or both (8%). As reported elsewhere, the anterior arterial territory was most often affected (83.9%) with a middle cerebral artery lesion in 79.4% of patients. Posterior territory (16.1%) lesions and lacuna were probably underestimated because CT exploration is reported to be less useful for this area than for the carotid area. On the other hand, CT diagnoses infarcts more easily than it does lacuna. CT was normal for 36 patients although performed no more than 3 days after IS. These patients did not undergo CT angiography, which might have shown cerebral artery occlusion. Our study included IS of all types and typography. Stroke registries in Africa would provide useful data for better assessment of prevalence for specific topographic and etiologic types of stroke.

  2. The Tradeoff between Number of Children and Child Schooling: Evidence from Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana. Living Standards Measurement Study (LSMS) Working Paper Number 112.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Mark; And Others

    This research paper explores the relationship between fertility and the investments made by parents in the schooling of their children in Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana (both in Africa). The tendency in developing nations research is that families with many children invest less in each, and families with fewer children make greater human capital…

  3. Dengue: etiology of acute febrile illness in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, in 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    L'Azou, Maïna; Succo, Tiphanie; Kamagaté, Mamadou; Ouattara, Abdoulaye; Gilbernair, Elia; Adjogoua, Edgar; Luxemburger, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Background The burden of dengue in Africa is not well understood. A prospective study was conducted in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire from December 2011 to December 2012 to estimate the proportion of dengue and malaria cases among febrile patients during a period when dengue was not known to be circulating in the region, and to describe the clinical and virological characteristics of laboratory-diagnosed dengue cases. Methods Blood samples were taken from febrile patients (body temperature ≥38°C) at two study sites. Patients with fever lasting more than 7 days, with fever of known origin and with jaundice were excluded. Thick blood film tests, ELISA for anti-dengue IgM and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) were performed. Results A total of 812 patients were enrolled (51.7% male [48.3% female]; 46.4% aged <10 years) of whom 796 (98.0%) provided IgM ELISA and RT-PCR data, and 807 (99.4%) had thick blood film results. Three (0.4%) patients had laboratory-diagnosed dengue (one with DENV-3 serotype), none of whom were diagnosed clinically, and 234 (28.8%) had confirmed malaria. Conclusions This study suggests that dengue virus circulates in Abidjan outside an epidemic and that there should be an increase in awareness of dengue as a possible diagnosis in cases of undifferentiated fever. These results stress the importance of implementing laboratory capacity to assess dengue burden in Africa. PMID:26385938

  4. Dengue: etiology of acute febrile illness in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, in 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    L'Azou, Maïna; Succo, Tiphanie; Kamagaté, Mamadou; Ouattara, Abdoulaye; Gilbernair, Elia; Adjogoua, Edgar; Luxemburger, Christine

    2015-11-01

    The burden of dengue in Africa is not well understood. A prospective study was conducted in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire from December 2011 to December 2012 to estimate the proportion of dengue and malaria cases among febrile patients during a period when dengue was not known to be circulating in the region, and to describe the clinical and virological characteristics of laboratory-diagnosed dengue cases. Blood samples were taken from febrile patients (body temperature ≥ 38°C) at two study sites. Patients with fever lasting more than 7 days, with fever of known origin and with jaundice were excluded. Thick blood film tests, ELISA for anti-dengue IgM and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) were performed. A total of 812 patients were enrolled (51.7% male [48.3% female]; 46.4% aged <10 years) of whom 796 (98.0%) provided IgM ELISA and RT-PCR data, and 807 (99.4%) had thick blood film results. Three (0.4%) patients had laboratory-diagnosed dengue (one with DENV-3 serotype), none of whom were diagnosed clinically, and 234 (28.8%) had confirmed malaria. This study suggests that dengue virus circulates in Abidjan outside an epidemic and that there should be an increase in awareness of dengue as a possible diagnosis in cases of undifferentiated fever. These results stress the importance of implementing laboratory capacity to assess dengue burden in Africa. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  5. Exploring Risk Behaviors and Vulnerability for HIV among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Abidjan, Cote d′Ivoire: Poor Knowledge, Homophobia and Sexual Violence

    PubMed Central

    Aho, Josephine; Hakim, Avi; Vuylsteke, Bea; Semde, Gisèle; Gbais, Honorat G.; Diarrassouba, Mamadou; Thiam, Marguerite; Laga, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk of HIV. Few data are available on MSM and HIV-related risk behaviors in West Africa. We aimed to describe risk behaviors and vulnerability among MSM in Abidjan, Cote d′Ivoire. We conducted a cross-sectional respondent-driven sampling survey with 601 MSM in 2011–2012. Sociodemographic and behavioural data as well as data related to emotional state and stigma were collected. Population estimates with 95% confidence intervals were produced. Survey weighted logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with inconsistent condom use in the prior 12 months. Most MSM were 24 years of age or younger (63.9%) and had attained at least primary education (84.4%). HIV risk behaviors such as low condom and water-based lubricant use, high numbers of male and female sex partners, and sex work were frequently reported as well as verbal, physical and sexual abuse. Inconsistent condom use during anal sex with a male partner in the prior 12 months was reported by 66.0% of the MSM and was positively associated with history of forced sex, alcohol consumption, having a regular partner and a casual partner, having bought sex, and self-perception of low HIV risk. MSM in Abidjan exhibit multiple and frequent HIV-related risk behaviors. To address those behaviours, a combination of individual but also structural interventions will be needed given the context of stigma, homophobia and violence. PMID:24959923

  6. Quantitative microbial risk assessment related to urban wastewater and lagoon water reuse in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Yapo, R I; Koné, B; Bonfoh, B; Cissé, G; Zinsstag, J; Nguyen-Viet, H

    2014-06-01

    We assessed the infection risks related to the use of wastewater in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, by using quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA). Giardia lamblia and Escherichia coli were isolated and identified in wastewater samples from the canal and lagoon. The exposure assessment was conducted using a cross-sectional survey by questionnaire with 150 individuals who were in contact with the wastewater during their daily activities of swimming, fishing, washing, and collecting materials for reuse. Risk was characterised using the Monte Carlo simulation with 10,000 iterations. Results showed high contamination of water by G. lamblia and E. coli (12.8 CFU/100 mL to 2.97 × 10(4)CFU/100 mL and from 0 cyst/L to 18.5 cysts/L, respectively). Estimates of yearly average infection risks for E. coli (90.07-99.90%, assuming that 8% of E. coli were E. coli O157:H7) and G. lamblia (9.4-34.78%) were much higher than the acceptable risk (10(-4)). These results suggest the need for wastewater treatment plants, raising awareness in the population in contact with urban wastewater and lagoon water. Our study also showed that QMRA is appropriate to study health risks in settings with limited data and budget resources.

  7. HIV Vulnerability and the Erasure of Sexual and Gender Diversity in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Thomann, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    In the fight against concentrated HIV epidemics, men who have sex with men (MSM) are often framed as a homogeneous population, with little attention paid to sexual and gender diversity and its impact on HIV vulnerability. This article draws on ethnographic research conducted in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire among les branchés – a local term encompassing several categories of same-sex desire and practice. In the context of increased HIV prevention programming targeting Ivoirian sexual and gender minorities, such diversity is effectively erased. This obfuscation of difference has particularly negative impacts for travestis, who may be at higher risk for HIV infection, though research and prevention efforts in which they are grouped with “MSM” render them underrepresented and make their vulnerability difficult to quantify. Branchés whose class and/or ethnic backgrounds compound their stigmatized status as sexual and gender minorities also bear the burden of this exclusion. Furthermore, some branchés deploy “MSM” as a form of self-identification, further complicating who such categories represent. By highlighting the ways in which constructions of gender and sexuality within HIV/AIDS programming obscure complex social realities, I aim to reorient thinking around the development of purposeful HIV programming that engages the complexity of sexual and gender minority experience. PMID:26894990

  8. Characteristics and outcome of living kidney donors after donation: A report from Cote d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Lagou, Delphine Amélie; Ackoundou-N'guessan, Kan Clément; Njapom, Tchakam Léopold; Sekongo, Yassongui Mamadou; Guei, Cyr Monley; Tia, Mélanie Weu; Gnionsahe, Daze Apollinaire

    2016-05-01

    Kidney transplantation from living kidney donors (LKDs) because of its good results represents a good option for the treatment of patients with the end-stage renal disease. Kidney donation is a relatively safe procedure according to several studies. We conducted this cross-sectional study in order to describe the demographic, clinical, and renal outcome of LKD in Côte d'Ivoire. From March to November 2014, LKD residing in Côte d'Ivoire at the time of investigation and having donated the kidney more than one year ago were considered for the study. They were evaluated through a questionnaire. Of the 29 LKD listed in Côte d'Ivoire, only 14 responded to the questionnaire. The mean age at donation was 43.29 ± 9.12 years (27-59) and 10 of the LKD were women. Eight were related to the recipients, and the remaining were spouses. Laparoscopic nephrectomy was performed in nine LKD. The left kidney was harvested in ten cases. The main motivation for donation in all donors was the desire to save a life. At the time of the survey, the average duration after the donation was 4.57 ± 2.56 years (1-8). Only five donors had a regular nephrological follow-up. Hypertension was observed in one donor, seven had significant proteinuria, and six had glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min but >30 mL/min. Significantly higher proteinuria was noted in donors under 45 years as compared to those over 45 years (0.43 ± 0.17 g/24 h vs. 0.22 ± 0.03 g/24 h, P = 0.01). Our study suggests that renal disease in LKD in Côte d'Ivoire is low after a mean follow-up period of four years. A donor registry is essential to ensure better follow-up of donors in order to detect potential adverse effects of kidney donation in the medium as well as in the long-term.

  9. [Detection of transfusion transmitted virus (TTV) DNA in sera among three different population groups in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire in 2001].

    PubMed

    Ekaza, E; Ogniangué, N C; Kouassi-M'Bengue, A; Kamtchueng, F M; Bankolé, H S; Ehuié, P; Lohoues-Kouacou, J; Faye-Ketté, H; Dosso, M

    2004-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the transfusion transmitted Virus (TTV) prevalence in three groups of population from Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. The A group contained 39 multitransfused patients, the B group contained 10 blood donors supposed to be healthy persons which have never been transfused and the group C contained 43 patients with chronic liver pathology. In this last group, 33 patients had HBV positive serology and the 10 others, HCV positive serology. We used PCR to investigate TTV in patients serum. Detection rates were comprised between 67% and 82%. This is the first study to provide information about the high portage of TTV in ivorian population.

  10. [Mycological profile of hand onychomycosis amongs "Garba" sellers in Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire)].

    PubMed

    Kiki-Barro, P C M; Konaté, A; Kassi, F K; Angora, E K; Bosson-Vanga, H; Bedia-Tanoh, A V; Djohan, V; Yavo, W; Menan, E I H

    2017-09-05

    The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and the fungi involved in onychomycosis located on fingers in Abidjan. This study includes the sellers of cooked cassava semolina served with fried tuna fish called "garba". Fines squames specimen was processed with 30% KOH for a direct microscope examination. Serous collection were done in physiological serum. Part of the original sample was cultured on Sabouraud medium with antibiotics (chloramphénicol, actidione). Species distribution and antifungal susceptibility by the technique on agar were noted. A total of 205 male sellers were involved. The Onychomycosis prevalence was 6.3%; (95% CI : 3.6-10.3). Five species of yeasts were identified. Candida spp were the most frequent (84.6%) and Candida albicans represented 30.8% of isolated yeasts. Trichosporon cutaneum were isolated in two case (15.4%). Susceptibility for amphotericin-B was 92.3% contrary to 5-fluorocytosine 30.8%. The subjects aged between 15 to 24 (69.2%), with a higher seniority (84.6%) and illiterate (69.2%) were the most affected. The main risk factors of fungal infections were the presence of previous fingernail onychomycosis (P<0.0001) and the frequent fingernail cutting (P=0.0009). Onychomycosis caused by yeast is infrequent among "garba" sellers in Abidjan. The main fungi involved in fingernail onychomycosis were Candida species. It is nevertheless necessary to implement sensitization for them on contributing factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. HIV counseling and testing: behavior and practices of women of childbearing age in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. DYSCER-CI Group.

    PubMed

    Ramon, R; La Ruche, G; Sylla-Koko, F; Boka-Yao, A; Bonard, D; Coulibaly, I M; Welffens-Ekra, C; Dabis, F

    1998-04-15

    We assessed factors associated with women's attitudes toward HIV test results in gynecology clinics in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. HIV testing was systematically offered to nonpregnant women attending two gynecology clinics in Abidjan. Individual pretest counseling was performed by trained midwives. Posttest counseling was given 2 weeks later to women who wished to know their HIV test results. HIV testing was offered to a total of 1482 women, of whom 1401 (94.5%) agreed to be screened. The prevalence of HIV infection was 21.3%. Of the women who participated, 10% failed to return. Youth, low educational level, and absence of genital infection were findings individually associated with failure by participants to return for their test results. Among the 1242 women who returned, 13.7% did not wish to know the results of their HIV test. A positive HIV test result, being native to Côte d'Ivoire, a high educational level, and knowing the existence of the asymptomatic stage of HIV infection were factors independently associated with declining to know the HIV test result. In conclusion, women who declined to know their HIV test results presented a specific profile at the time of HIV testing. This information can be used to improve pretest counseling and the efficacy of future HIV screening programs.

  12. HEALTH SURVEY INCLUDING SELECTED BLOOD PARAMETERS IN THE AFRICAN SLENDER SNOUTED CROCODILE (MECISTOPS CATAPHRACTUS) AT THE ABIDJAN ZOO IN CÔTE D'IVOIRE.

    PubMed

    Bradford, Carol; Eschenbrenner, Matt

    2017-06-01

    The Zoo National d'Abidjan (Abidjan Zoo) in Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa, holds the world's largest captive population of African slender-snouted crocodiles (Mecistops cataphractus, formerly Crocodylus cataphractus), at 36 adults, 16 yearlings, and 23 hatchlings. Twelve yearling and 12 adult slender-snouted crocodiles at the Abidjan Zoo were restrained for physical exam, body condition scoring, and venipuncture in September 2015. Blood samples collected from the supravertebral venous sinus were analyzed using a handheld blood analyzer (Abaxis® I-stat, Abaxis, Inc., Union City, California 94587, USA) with Chem8+ cartridges (CLIAwaived, Inc., San Diego, California 92130, USA). The adult crocodiles appeared in good general health and demonstrated blood values similar to those of other reptiles. The yearlings had low, ionized calcium values and low hematocrit and hemoglobin levels compared with the adult crocodiles and to other crocodile reference ranges. These findings may dramatically improve the health of the crocodiles and help to ensure a thriving captive population of this critically endangered species.

  13. [Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis: retrospective study of 185 cases in Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire)].

    PubMed

    Kourouma, S; Sangaré, A; Kaloga, M; Kouassi, I; Ecra, E; Gbery, I; Ahogo, C; Kouassi, A; Kassi, K; Camara, B

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous bullous adverse drug eruptions are a dreaded complication of drug use. The purpose of this study was to document the epidemiological features, outcomes, and causes of these reactions, in particular, Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis (Lyell disease), in a teaching hospital in Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire). A retrospective study reviewed the records of severe cutaneous drug reactions in patients managed in the dermatology department of the University Hospital of Treichville (Abidjan) over a period of ten years (from September 2000 through August 2010). These diseases were diagnosed in 185 patients during the study period. Their mean age was 31.8 years (range: 2-70 years) and the M/F sex ratio was 0.6 The most frequent reactions, as expected, were Stevens-Johnson syndrome (73%) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (27%). The drugs most commonly involved were the antibacterial sulfonamides (22.1%), followed by the antiviral nevirapine (11.1%), and the antimalarial agent, sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine. The fatality rate was 22.5%, including 46% of the patients with toxic epidermal necrolysis and 14.6% of those with Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Respiratory distress (39.5%) and dehydration (23.4%) were the primary direct causes of death. Antibacterial sulfonamides are the leading drugs implicated in the occurrence of bullous drug eruptions in Abidjan.

  14. An innovative fast-track development for Cote d`Ivoire

    SciTech Connect

    Kreider, G.J.; Barnes, J.E.; Smitherman, J.E.; McFarland, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    In May, 1994, approval was received for the development of the Panthere Gas Field and Lion Oil Field by UMC Petroleum Corporation as operator. At that time, UMC had drilled one well from a jackup at Panthere in 270 feet of water and had set a guyed caisson. Following the Panthere gas discovery, the Lion oil discovery well was drilled in 235 feet of water and another guyed caisson was set. Paragon Engineering Services had been hired in late 1993 to develop project scenarios and cost estimates and as the project evolved, detailed engineering, procurement and construction management services. Production equipment for 30,000 BOPD, 16,000 BWPD and 75 MMSCFD was to be installed on a jackup drilling rig converted to a Mobile Offshore Production Unit (MOPU) located at the Lion A caisson. Production from Panthere would flow through an 8-inch line to the MOPU. The production equipment on the MOPU would (1) separate oil, water and gas, (2) treat the oil for sale and the water for discharge, (3) pump the oil into an 8-inch pipeline to the refinery in Abidjan, (4) compress the oil well and gas well gas as needed, and (5) dehydrate it for sale. A CALM buoy with shuttle tanker was included in the original plan for early production and as a backup to the oil pipeline. It was also unknown at project initiation whether a gas sales contract would be successfully negotiated, and thus the project was to proceed on the basis of flaring produced gas with capability to add equipment at a later date for gas sales. This paper describes how the project was organized and how this organization allowed the project to accommodate changes and construction problems as they developed while completing the project on time.

  15. Occurrence of ochratoxin A in spices commercialized in Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire).

    PubMed

    Manda, Pierre; Adanou, Ketty Michele; Ardjouma, Dembelé; Adepo, Aholia Jean Baptiste; Dano, Djédjé Sébastien

    2016-08-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced mostly by several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium. OTA is nephrotoxic in all animal species in which it has been tested and is cancerogenic in rodents. It is associated with Balkan endemic nephropathy. It is naturally present in many crop products such as cereals (barley, wheat, maize) and dried fruits, spices, coffee, wine, olives, and cocoa. The aim of this study was to assess the contamination of three Ivoirian spices with OTA (ginger, chili, and pepper) widely consumed by the population. A total of 90 spice samples (ginger: n = 30; chili: n = 30; pepper n = 30) was taken from various sales outlets of Abidjan. OTA was quantified using an HPLC apparatus coupled with a fluorimetric detector. The chili and ginger samples were contaminated with OTA at a mean concentration of 57.48 ± 174 and 0.12 ± 0.15 μg/kg, respectively. No contamination of the pepper samples was detected. Eight (26.67 %) of the chili samples exceeded the maximum limit of 15 μg/kg established by European regulation. These results should serve as an alert on the risk to the consumer population of these products that are highly contaminated with OTA.

  16. The Epidemiology of HIV and Prevention Needs of Men Who Have Sex with Men in Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Hakim, Avi J; Aho, Josephine; Semde, Gisele; Diarrassouba, Mamadou; Ehoussou, Konan; Vuylsteke, Bea; Murrill, Christopher S.; Thiam, Marguerite; Wingate, Therese

    2015-01-01

    To determine HIV prevalence and associated risk factors among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire. We conducted a cross-sectional RDS survey of MSM in Abidjan from October 2011 to February 2012. Eligibility criteria included age ≥ 18 years and having had oral or anal sex with another man in the last 12 months. Weighted data analysis was conducted with RDSAT and SAS. We enrolled 603 participants, of whom 601 (99.7%) completed the questionnaire and 581 (96.7%) consented to HIV testing. HIV population prevalence was estimated as 18.0% (95% CI: 13.0-23.1); 86.4% (95% CI: 75.1-94.9) of HIV-positive MSM were unaware of their serostatus. In multivariable analysis, adjusting for age, education, and income, HIV infection was associated with unprotected sex at last sex with a woman, more than two male anal sex partners in last 12 months, inconsistent condom use during anal sex with a man, self-perceived risk of HIV, history of forced sex, history of physical abuse due to MSM status, and not receiving last HIV test result prior to study. HIV prevalence among MSM in Abidjan is more than four times as high as that of general population men. MSM engage in high-risk sexual behavior and most HIV-positive MSM are unaware of their serostatus. Greater access to HIV prevention, care, and treatment services targeted to MSM is necessary. PMID:25909484

  17. Perceptions and Experiences of Intimate Partner Violence in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Shuman, Sara J.; Falb, Kathryn L.; Cardoso, Lauren F.; Cole, Heather; Kpebo, Denise; Gupta, Jhumka

    2016-01-01

    Background Men and women’s perceptions of intimate partner violence (IPV) within crisis-affected populations are not well understood. This mixed-methods study examined the frequency of IPV against women in urban Cote d’Ivoire, and qualitatively explored how men and women perceive the impact of various forms of IPV on health, everyday activities, and feelings of shame. Methods A survey was administered to Ivorian women (N = 80) to measure the frequency of IPV, and ten focus group discussions were conducted with women (n = 46) and men (n = 45) to explore perceptions of different forms of IPV, including its impacts on disruptions to health, everyday activities, and experiences of shame. Results Half of all surveyed women (53.6%) reported past year exposure to physical, sexual, or emotional IPV. Of the multiple types of violence, emotional IPV was most common (46.4%), followed by sexual IPV (21.7%) and physical IPV (17.4%). Focus group participants identified additional forms of violence including economic IPV and community discrimination. Lack of financial resources and unemployment were common problems among crisis-affected women and were described as an underlying source of IPV. Both women and men reported that shame and stigma play a large role in how women experience the repercussions of IPV, regardless of the form of violence, with public episodes of IPV almost always seen as more detrimental than private episodes of IPV. Conclusions These results underscore the need for increased social support mechanisms for women to reduce the shame, stigma, and isolation associated with their experiences. The creation of safe and supportive spaces for women to talk about and challenge social norms may be an important first step in reducing community shaming and the secrecy that often surrounds IPV. Safe spaces along with broader societal outreach, including challenging men’s social positions and creating opportunities for increasing economic resources can, in turn

  18. Epidemiology of congenital abnormalities in West Africa: Results of a descriptive study in teaching hospitals in Abidjan: Cote d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Kouame, Bertin Dibi; N’guetta-Brou, Isabelle Ama; Kouame, Guy Serge Yapo; Sounkere, Moufidath; Koffi, Maxime; Yaokreh, Jean Baptiste; Odehouri-Koudou, Thierry; Tembely, Samba; Dieth, Gaudens Atafi; Ouattara, Ossenou; Dick, Ruffin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Congenital abnormalities constitute one of the major causes of infant mortality, particularly in developing countries. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of congenital anomalies in Cote d’Ivoire. Materials and Methods: It was a multicentric study of three academic hospitals and the Heart Institute of Abidjan over 10 years. The epidemiologic Data concerned the Parturients, the annual frequency of congenital abnormalities. Distribution of the congenital abnormalities according to the organs, overall mortality and lethality of congenital abnormalities were evaluated. Results: Over 10 years, 1.632 newborns with 1.725 congenital anomalies were recorded. Frequency was 172.5 congenital anomalies per annum. Parturients were less than 35 years in 33% of cases, multigravida in 20%, multiparous in 18% and had a low socio economic status in 96% of cases. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital anomalies was performed in 1.5%. Congenital anomalies were orthopedic in 34%, neurological in 17%, gastrointestinal in 15%, facial in 11.5%, parietal in 13%, urogenital in 9% and cardiac in 0.5% of cases. The overall mortality rate of congenital anomalies was 52% and gastroschisis was the most lethal disease with 100% mortality. Conclusion: This descriptive study reveals the low socio economic status of Parturients with congenital anomalies and their poor prenatal diagnosis. These factors explain the very high mortality of congenital anomalies due to a delay management in our country in which medical expenses were borne by parents and where technical platforms remain obsoletes for good resuscitation and neonatal surgery. PMID:25659551

  19. Ethnomedical study and iron content of some medicinal herbs used in traditional medicine in Cote d'Ivoire for the treatment of anaemia.

    PubMed

    Koné, W Mamidou; Koffi, A G; Bomisso, E L; Tra Bi, F H

    2012-01-01

    Medicinal plants have been a source of succour in the control of many diseases in developing countries and anaemia is no exception. In this study, ethnomedical survey was carried out for recording medicinal plants used in Northern and South-Eastern Côte d'Ivoire against anaemia. Also iron content was determined for some of the recorded plants using phenanthroline method. Thirty (30) medicinal plants, covering 28 genera and 22 families were recorded. These plants were used to prepare 30 receipts for the treatment of anaemia and aggravating factors such as malaria and gastro-intestinal helminthes. Eleven (11) of these medicinal plants showed presence of iron in various quantities. The most promising were Tectona grandis, Amaranthus spinosus and Stylosanthes erecta which contained the highest iron contents viz; 266.6, 236.6 and 206.6 mg/100 g respectively. They were followed by Hoslundia opposita, Imperata cylindrica, Cajanus cajan, Thalia geniculata and Milicia excelsa. These results lend credence to the traditional use of these plants in Cote d'Ivoire's ethnomedicine for the treatment of anaemia.

  20. High Awareness but Low Coverage of a Locally Produced Fortified Complementary Food in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Survey.

    PubMed

    Leyvraz, Magali; Rohner, Fabian; Konan, Amoin G; Esso, Lasme J C E; Woodruff, Bradley A; Norte, Augusto; Adiko, Adiko F; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Aaron, Grant J

    2016-01-01

    Poor complementary feeding practices among infants and young children in Côte d'Ivoire are major contributing factors to the country's high burden of malnutrition. As part of a broad effort to address this issue, an affordable, nutritious, and locally produced fortified complementary food product was launched in the Côte d'Ivoire in 2011. The objective of the current research was to assess various levels of coverage of the program and to identify coverage barriers. A cross-sectional household survey was conducted among caregivers of children less than 2-years of age living in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. Four measures of coverage were assessed: "message coverage" (i.e., has the caregiver ever heard of the product?), "contact coverage" (i.e., has the caregiver ever fed the child the product?), "partial coverage" (i.e., has the caregiver fed the child the product in the previous month?), and "effective coverage" (i.e., has the caregiver fed the child the product in the previous 7 days?). A total of 1,113 caregivers with children between 0 and 23 months of age were interviewed. Results showed high message coverage (85.0%), moderate contact coverage (37.8%), and poor partial and effective coverages (8.8% and 4.6%, respectively). Product awareness was lower among caregivers from poorer households, but partial and effective coverages were comparable in both poor and non-poor groups. Infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices were generally poor and did not appear to have improved since previous assessments. In conclusion, the results from the present study indicate that availability on the market and high awareness among the target population is not sufficient to achieve high and effective coverage. With market-based delivery models, significant efforts are needed to improve demand. Moreover, given the high prevalence of malnutrition and poor IYCF practices, additional modes of delivering IYCF interventions and improving IYCF practices should be considered.

  1. Recurrent selection of cocoa populations in Cote d'Ivoire: comparative genetic diversity between the first and second cycles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In Cote d'Ivore, the cocoa breeding programme has been based on the creation of hybrids between different genetic groups. From 1990 onward, a reciprocal recurrent selection programme has been set up with the purpose of improving simultaneously the characteristics of the two main genetic groups: Uppe...

  2. What Factors Contribute to Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in Urban, Conflict-Affected Settings? Qualitative Findings from Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, L F; Gupta, J; Shuman, S; Cole, H; Kpebo, D; Falb, K L

    2016-04-01

    Rapid urbanization is a key driver of the unique set of health risks facing urban populations. One of the most critical health hazards facing urban women is intimate partner violence (IPV). In post-conflict urban areas, women may face an even greater risk of IPV. Yet, few studies have examined the IPV experiences of urban-dwelling, conflict-affected women, including those who have been internally displaced. This study qualitatively examined the social and structural characteristics of the urban environment that contributed to the IPV experiences of women residing in post-conflict Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. Ten focus groups were conducted with men and women, both internally displaced (IDPs) and non-displaced. Lack of support networks, changing gender roles, and tensions between traditional gender norms and those of the "modern" city were reported as key contributors to IPV. Urban poverty and with it unemployment, food insecurity, and housing instability also played a role. Finally, IDPs faced heightened vulnerability to IPV as a result of displacement and discrimination. The relationship between economic strains and IPV are similar to other conflict-affected settings, but Abidjan's urban environment presented other unique characteristics contributing to IPV. Understanding these factors is crucial to designing appropriate services for women and for implementing IPV reduction interventions in urban areas. Strengthening formal and informal mechanisms for help-seeking, utilizing multi-modal interventions that address economic stress and challenge inequitable gender norms, as well as tailoring programs specifically for IDPs, are some considerations for IPV program planning focused on conflict-affected women in urban areas.

  3. [Eco-distribution and Trypanosoma infection of Glossina palpalis palpalis in the Banco forest of and its relics, Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire)].

    PubMed

    Allou, K; Acapovi-Yao, G; Kaba, D; Bosson-Vanga, H; Solano, P; N'Goran, K E

    2009-12-01

    In order to implement an anti-vector programme in the suburb of Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire), investigations were conducted to assess the tsetse fly densities as well as infection with trypanosomes. Catches were carried out during the rainy season and dry season with Vavoua traps laid during four consecutive days in different sites (Banco forest, Abidjan zoological park, area of the University of Abobo-Adjamé). One species of tsetse fly (Glossina polpalis palpalis) and two species of trypanosomes (Trypanosoma congolense, T. vivax) have been revealed. The apparent density per trap per day (DAP) is very high in the zoological park, 54.8 tsetse fly/trap/day during the dry season and 28.1 during the rainy season. At the University of Abobo-Adjamé, the DAP is respectively 13.5 and 8.1 tsetse fly/trap/day during the rainy season, and in the dry season it is only 0.9 and 0.8 in the Banco Forest. The physiological age on all sites is as follows: 57.5 % of old parous, 39% of young parous and 3.6 % of nulliparous in the rainy season. These proportions vary to 51.9% of young porous, 47.1% of old parous and 1% of nulliparous in the dry season. The overall infection rate is estimated at 20.7% in the rainy season and 20% in the dry season. Statistical analysis have showed a significant difference in the distribution of infection rates.

  4. Operational issues in preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, 1998-99.

    PubMed Central

    Msellati, P.; Hingst, G.; Kaba, F.; Viho, I.; Welffens-Ekra, C.; Dabis, F.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the feasibility, from the public health standpoint, of preventing mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in Africa. METHODS: Voluntary counselling and HIV serotesting were routinely provided in four health centres in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, for six months in 1998-99. Peripartum treatment with zidovudine and alternatives to breastfeeding were provided free to HIV-infected women. FINDINGS: Of the 4309 pregnant women in the study who attended their first antenatal care visit, 3756 benefited from individual counselling and pretesting (87.2%), and 3452 (80.1%) agreed to undergo HIV serotesting. Overall HIV prevalence was (12.89%) and 5% for women aged under 18 years. Among the 2998 HIV-negative women, 71% returned for their test result, whereas only 60% of the 445 HIV-positive women did so. A total of 124 HIV-positive women were informed of their serostatus and the possibility of preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV; 100 started treatment and 80 completed zidovudine prophylaxis. At 6 weeks of age, 36 of the 78 liveborn children were being breastfed (46%), two were being mixed-fed and 41 (52%) were being artificially fed. CONCLUSIONS: In Abidjan, voluntary counselling and HIV testing with a view to preventing mother-to-child transmission was feasible in antenatal care units and was well accepted by pregnant women. An insufficient proportion of women returned to obtain their test results. This was especially so among HIV-positive women, the target group for preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Additional staff were required in order to offer voluntary counselling and HIV testing to the study women. Close supervision and strong commitment of health workers were essential. Alternatives to breastfeeding were effectively proposed to HIV-positive women, with active follow-up of children and clinical, nutritional and social support. PMID:11477967

  5. Spatial dispersion and characterisation of mosquito breeding habitats in urban vegetable-production areas of Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Matthys, B; Koudou, B G; N'Goran, E K; Vounatsou, P; Gosoniu, L; Koné, M; Gissé, G; Utzinger, J

    2010-12-01

    Although urban agriculture (UA) in the developing world may enhance nutrition and local economies, it may also lead to higher densities of mosquito breeding sites and, consequently, to increased transmission of malarial parasites. If targeted interventions against malaria vectors are to be successful in urban areas, the habitats that support Anopheles breeding need to be identified and detected. Mosquito breeding sites have recently been characterised, and the factors associated with productive Anopheles habitats identified, in market gardens of Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. Two surveys were conducted in seven vegetable-production areas, one towards the end of the rainy season and one during the dry season. A standardized methodology was used for habitat characterisation and the detection of Anopheles larvae and mosquito pupae. Overall, 454 and 559 potential mosquito-breeding sites were recorded in the rainy-season and dry-season surveys, respectively. In the rainy season, Anopheles larvae and mosquito pupae were found in 29.7% and 5.5% of the potential breeding sites, respectively, whereas the corresponding percentages in the dry season were 24.3% and 8.6%. The potential breeding sites in an agricultural zone on the periphery of Abidjan were those least likely to be positive for Anopheles larvae and mosquito pupae whereas 'agricultural trenches' between seedbeds were the sites most likely to be positive. In a spatially-explicit Bayesian multivariate logistic-regression model, although one out of every five such wells was also found to harbour Anopheles larvae, irrigation wells were found to be the least productive habitats, of those sampled, for pupae. In the study area, simple and cost-effective strategies of larval control should be targeted at agricultural trenches, ideally with the active involvement of local stakeholders (i.e. urban farmers and urban agricultural extension services).

  6. [Epidemiological study of the malaria at the neonatal period in the teaching hospital of Yopougon--Republic of Cote d'Ivoire].

    PubMed

    Adja, E Akaffou; Dick, F Amon-Tanoh; N'guessan, R

    2009-01-01

    Malaria is rare at the newborn child's, even in zone of endemic disease, so that its research is not systematic at this age. Our study aims to describe the profile of the malaria during the neonatal period. The retrospective and descriptive study, concerned the files of the newborn children hospitalized from 2005/02/01 till 2006/03/31, in the department of Neonatology at the teaching hospital of Yopougon in Abidjan û Côte d'Ivoire. The criteria of inclusion were fever, associated or not with other symptoms and positive thick drop and or blood smear. The criterion of exclusion was the positivity of the biological explorations for infection. The studied parameters took into account epidemiology, symptomatology, biology and therapeutics. Prevalence of neonatal malaria was 0.98 per cent (6/615) according to our study. Except the fever which was a criterion of inclusion, the paleness was the dominant symptom. Four of our patients had a history of blood transfusion and 3 among these had a postnatal severe malaria, with highest parasitemia and lowest rates of haemoglobin. Quinine was the most used treatment. It is important in zone of endemic malaria disease, to make at the newborn child's, often and easily, thick drop and blood smear, especially when there is a history of blood transfusion.

  7. [Herpetological data and management of ophidian envenomation at university hospitals in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire].

    PubMed

    Djohan, V; Menan, E I H; Yavo, W; Barro, P C K; Vanga, H; Dempah, J A; N'Dri, D K; Mignonsin, D; Akaffou, M H; Koné, K

    2010-02-01

    This study was carried in the intensive care units of Abidjan university hospitals and in the herpetology department of Pasteur Institute between January 2001 and April 2003. The purpose was to identify ophidian species that were dangerous for man and to document cases of snakebite in Abidjan. The study was carried out in two phases, i.e., collection and identification of snake species followed by review of case records involving snake envenomation at Cocody and Treichville university hospitals. A total of 5 snake families, 14 genera and 17 species including some that were dangerous for man were identified. All species except Naja nigricollis live in forest areas. Most snakebites led to simple clinical signs that regressed within 72 hours with only symptomatic treatment. However, a few cases required immunotherapy. Traditional methods of snakebite treatment were used for first line treatment in 50% of cases.

  8. Prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis among prison inmates: A cross-sectional survey at the Correctional and Detention Facility of Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Séri, Benjamin; Koffi, Ange; Danel, Christine; Ouassa, Timothée; Blehoué, Marcel-Angora; Ouattara, Eric; Assemien, Jeanne-d'Arc; Masumbuko, Jean-Marie; Coffie, Patrick; Cartier, Nathalie; Laurent, Arnaud; Raguin, Gilles; Malvy, Denis; N'Dri-Yoman, Thérèse; Eholié, Serge P; Domoua, Serge K; Anglaret, Xavier; Receveur, Marie-Catherine

    2017-01-01

    In Côte d'Ivoire, a TB prison program has been developed since 1999. This program includes offering TB screening to prisoners who show up with TB symptoms at the infirmary. Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of pulmonary TB among inmates at the Correctional and Detention Facility of Abidjan, the largest prison of Côte d'Ivoire, 16 years after this TB program was implemented. Between March and September 2015, inmates, were screened for pulmonary TB using systematic direct smear microscopy, culture and chest X-ray. All participants were also proposed HIV testing. TB was defined as either confirmed (positive culture), probable (positive microscopy and/or chest X-ray findings suggestive of TB) or possible (signs or symptoms suggestive of TB, no X-Ray or microbiological evidence). Factors associated with confirmed tuberculosis were analysed using multivariable logistic regression. Among the 943 inmates screened, 88 (9.3%) met the TB case definition, including 19 (2.0%) with confirmed TB, 40 (4.2%) with probable TB and 29 (3.1%) with possible TB. Of the 19 isolated TB strains, 10 (53%) were TB drug resistant, including 7 (37%) with multi-resistance. Of the 10 patients with TB resistant strain, only one had a past history of TB treatment. HIV prevalence was 3.1% overall, and 9.6%among TB cases. Factors associated with confirmed TB were age ≥30 years (Odds Ratio 3.8; 95% CI 1.1-13.3), prolonged cough (Odds Ratio 3.6; 95% CI 1.3-9.5) and fever (Odds Ratio 2.7; 95% CI 1.0-7.5). In the country largest prison, pulmonary TB is still 10 (confirmed) to 44 times (confirmed, probable or possible) as frequent as in the Côte d'Ivoire general population, despite a long-time running symptom-based program of TB detection. Decreasing TB prevalence and limiting the risk of MDR may require the implementation of annual in-cell TB screening campaigns that systematically target all prison inmates.

  9. [Symptomatic and asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infection in children from 6 months to 6 years old in the Abobo general hospital (Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire)].

    PubMed

    Assoumou, A; Adoubryn, K D; Aboum, K S; Kouadio-Yapo, C G; Ouhon, J

    2008-02-01

    It is commonly admitted that people living in malarial zone are carrying asymptomatic Plasmodium. Côte d'Ivoire is one of these zones. The studies carried out on malaria in these areas have focused mainly on the clinical forms of the disease and effectiveness of the antimalarial drugs. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of the symptomatic and asymptomatic carriage of Plasmodium falciparum in children of 6 months to 180 months old in the Abidjan area. Over a period of twelve months, 902 feverish subjects and 681 non-feverish subjects were selected among the 7,017 people admitted in the paediatrics service of the Abobo general hospital for detection of malaria parasite. Among 1,583 selected subjects, 358 were carrying Plasmodium falciparum implying a total prevalence rate of 22.6%. The prevalence rate was 13.5% and 29.5% respectively in the asymptomatic subjects and symptomatic subjects. The highest proportions of positive thick smears were observed during the long rainy and dry seasons but, parasitaemia was the highest during the short dry season. In 31.5% of the cases, the asymptomatic carriers had a parasitic density higher or equal to 10,000 trophozoites/microl of blood and fever was not related to parasitic load. The prevalence rates of Plasmodium carriage and malaria were higher during the long rainy season. This study highlighted a considerable proportion of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum carriers. Improving environmental conditions should help to reduce this rate of carriage.

  10. Epidemiological aspects of genital ulcers at the STI center of the National Institute of Public Hygiene (Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire) 2008 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Gakoué, D Z; Tiembré, I

    2017-02-01

    Genital ulcers are among the seven syndromes of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) identified in Côte d'Ivoire. Ulcerative STIs present a public health problem because of their frequency and their role in the spread of HIV. Our objective was to investigate the epidemiological characteristics of genital ulcers observed in the STI center of the National Institute of Public Hygiene in Abidjan. This cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study examined cases seen at the center in 2008 through 2010. We retrospectively reviewed all files of clients aged 10 and older who sought care for the first time at the STI center and received a clinical diagnosis, confirmed by the laboratory, of a STI. Overall, we selected 2488 records. Men accounted for 52.30%. The patients' average age was 32 years. The prevalence of genital ulcers was 3.90%. Genital herpes was the diagnosed mentioned most often by doctors (71.43%), followed by scabies (19.39%) and chancroids (9.18%). Male sex and multiple sexual partners appeared to be risk factors for genital ulcers at this center. Genital ulcers are infrequent. Public awareness campaigns to encourage changes in behavior must continue and intensify. In particular, they must stress control of genital herpes by well-known prevention methods: regular and correct condom use and fewer sexual partners.

  11. Microfinance and HIV mitigation among people living with HIV in the era of anti-retroviral therapy: emerging lessons from Cote d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Kathleen; Winskell, Kate; Hennink, Monique; Chidiac, Sybil

    2011-01-01

    The effects of HIV/AIDS have been far-reaching in Africa. Beyond adverse health outcomes and the tremendous toll on life, AIDS has serious economic impacts on households, increasing livelihood insecurity while simultaneously depleting socio-economic resources. Although microfinance is believed to have the potential to mitigate the economic impacts of HIV by helping affected households and communities better prepare for and cope with HIV-related economic shocks, little empirical research exists on this subject. This qualitative study examines the socio-economic impacts of economic strengthening activities on people living with HIV (PLHIV) in the era of increased access to anti-retroviral therapy to determine if savings-led, community-managed microfinance is a justified activity for HIV programmes. Findings from a village savings and loan programme, implemented by CARE International in Cote d'Ivoire, revealed that when appropriate medical treatment is available PLHIV are capable of participating in and benefit from microfinance activities, which increased HIV-positive clients' access to money and economic self-sufficiency. By bringing individuals with similar experiences together, savings and loan groups also acted as self-support groups providing psychosocial support while reducing stigmatisation and increasing members' sense of dignity and self-worth.

  12. The use of motion detectors to estimate net usage by householders, in relation to mosquito density in central Cote d'Ivoire: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Koudou, Benjamin G; Malone, David; Hemingway, Janet

    2014-03-06

    The difficulty of accurately assessing LLIN use has led us to test electronic data logging motion detectors to provide quantitative data on household LLIN usage. The main movements associated with an LLIN when appropriately used for malaria control were characterised under laboratory conditions. Data output from motion detectors attached to the LLINs associated with these specific movements were collated. In preliminary field studies in central Cote d'Ivoire, a pre-tested and validated questionnaire was used to identify the number of days householders claimed to have slept under LLINs. This information was compared to data downloaded from the motion detectors. Output data recording movement on the x, y, and z axes from the data loggers was consistently associated with the specific net movements. Recall of LLIN usage reported by questionnaires after a week was overestimated by 13.6%. This increased to 22.8% after 2 weeks and 38.7% after a month compared to information from the data loggers. Rates of LLIN use were positively correlated with An.gambiae s.s biting density (LRT = 273.70; P < 0.001). This study showed that motion detectors can be used to provide a useful quantitative record of LLIN use. This new methodology provides a supplementary means of surveying bed net usage.

  13. [Pornography and sexual behaviour of schoolchildren in the Cocodydistrict of Abidjan].

    PubMed

    N Dri, Kouamé Mathias; Yaya, Issifou; Saka, Bayaki; Aboubakari, Abdoul Samadou; Kouassi, Damus Paquin; Ekou, Kokora Franck

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to document the influence of pornography on the sexual behaviour of school children in the Cocody district of Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire. This cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study was conducted from October to November 2013 with pupils from four schools in Cocody, Abidjan. A total of 398 pupils (224 boys and 174 girls) were interviewed: 14.3% of them had access to pornography on internet or television. 52.8% (210) of the 398 pupils interviewed were sexually active at the time of the survey, 41.9% (88/210) of whom had at least two sexual partners. On bivariate analysis,access to pornography was statistically associated with being sexually active (OR= 2.61; 95%CI [1.41; 4.83]), early onset of sexual intercourse (OR= 2.38; 95%CI = [1.19; 4.76]) and multiples exual partners (OR== 6.09; 95%CI= [2.79; 13.3])Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate that access to pornography had a negative influence on the sexual behaviour of school children in Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire].

  14. Costs of Care of HIV-Infected Children Initiating Lopinavir/Ritonavir-Based Antiretroviral Therapy before the Age of Two in Cote d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Desmonde, Sophie; Avit, Divine; Petit, Junie; Amorissani Folquet, Madeleine; Eboua, Francois Tanoh; Amani Bosse, Clarisse; Dainguy, Evelyne; Mea, Véronique; Timite-Konan, Marguerite; Ngbeché, Sylvie; Ciaranello, Andrea; Leroy, Valeriane

    2016-01-01

    To access the costs of care for Ivoirian children before and after initiating LPV/r-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) before the age of two. We assessed the direct costs of care for all HIV-infected children over the first 12 months on LPV/r-based ART initiated <2 years of age in Abidjan. We recorded all drug prescriptions, ART and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis delivery, medical analyses/examinations and hospital admissions. We compared these costs to those accrued in the month prior to ART initiation. Costs and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated per child-month, according to severe morbidity. Of the 114 children screened, 99 initiated LPV/r-based ART at a median age of 13.5 months (IQR: 6.8-18.6); 45% had reached World Health Organization stage 3 or 4. During the first 12 months on ART, 5% died and 3% were lost to follow-up. In the month before ART initiation, the mean cost of care per child-month reached $123.39 (95%CI:$121.02-$125.74). After ART initiation, it was $42.53 (95%CI:$42.15-$42.91); 50% were ART costs. The remaining costs were non-antiretroviral drugs (18%) and medical analyses/examinations (14%). Mean costs were significantly higher within the first three months on ART ($48.76, 95%CI:$47.95-$49.56) and in children experiencing severe morbidity ($49.76, 95%CI:$48.61-50.90). ART reduces the overall monthly cost of care of HIV-infected children < 2 years. Because children were treated at an advanced HIV disease stage, the additional costs of treating severe morbidity on ART remain substantial. Strategies for treating HIV-infected children as early as possible must remain a priority in Côte d'Ivoire.

  15. Characterization of Bacillus anthracis-like bacteria isolated from wild great apes from Cote d'Ivoire and Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Klee, Silke R; Ozel, Muhsin; Appel, Bernd; Boesch, Christophe; Ellerbrok, Heinz; Jacob, Daniela; Holland, Gudrun; Leendertz, Fabian H; Pauli, Georg; Grunow, Roland; Nattermann, Herbert

    2006-08-01

    We present the microbiological and molecular characterization of bacteria isolated from four chimpanzees and one gorilla thought to have died of an anthrax-like disease in Côte d'Ivoire and Cameroon. These isolates differed significantly from classic Bacillus anthracis by the following criteria: motility, resistance to the gamma phage, and, for isolates from Cameroon, resistance to penicillin G. A capsule was expressed not only after induction by CO(2) and bicarbonate but also under normal growth conditions. Subcultivation resulted in beta-hemolytic activity and gamma phage susceptibility in some subclones, suggesting differences in gene regulation compared to classic B. anthracis. The isolates from Côte d'Ivoire and Cameroon showed slight differences in their biochemical characteristics and MICs of different antibiotics but were identical in all molecular features and sequences analyzed. PCR and Southern blot analyses confirmed the presence of both the toxin and the capsule plasmid, with sizes corresponding to the B. anthracis virulence plasmids pXO1 and pXO2. Protective antigen was expressed and secreted into the culture supernatant. The isolates possessed variants of the Ba813 marker and the SG-749 fragment differing from that of classic B. anthracis strains. Multilocus sequence typing revealed a close relationship of our atypical isolates with both classic B. anthracis strains and two uncommonly virulent Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis isolates. We propose that the newly discovered atypical B. anthracis strains share a common ancestor with classic B. anthracis or that they emerged recently by transfer of the B. anthracis plasmids to a strain of the B. cereus group.

  16. Oxidative damage induced in A549 cells by physically and chemically characterized air particulate matter (PM2.5) collected in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Kouassi, Kouakou S; Billet, Sylvain; Garçon, Guillaume; Verdin, Anthony; Diouf, Amadou; Cazier, Fabrice; Djaman, Joseph; Courcot, Dominique; Shirali, Pirouz

    2010-05-01

    Exposure to high levels of air pollution particulate matter (PM) is strongly associated with increased pulmonary morbidity and mortality. However, the underlying mechanisms of action whereby PM cause adverse health effects are still unclear. In developing countries, like in the sub-Saharian region of Africa, people are often exposed to high PM levels. Hence, three PM(2.5) samples were collected in the District of Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire), under rural, urban or industrial influences. Their most toxicologically relevant physical and chemical characteristics were determined--thereby showing that most of them were equal or smaller than 2.5 microm--and the influence of both natural (Ca, Na, Mg, Ti, etc.) and anthropic (Al, Fe, Mn, Cr, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, benzene and its derivatives, paraffins, etc.) emission sources. The toxicity induced by the three PM samples was studied through 5-bromodeoxyuridine incorporation to DNA, mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity and extracellular lactate dehydrogenase activity. Hence, effect concentrations at 10 and 50% (EC(10) and EC(50), respectively) were as follows: (i) rural PM--EC(10) = 5.91 microg cm(-2) and EC(50) = 29.55 microg cm(-2); (ii) urban PM--EC(10) = 5.45 microg cm(-2) and EC(50) = 27.23 microg cm(-2); and (iii) industrial PM--EC(10) = 6.86 microg cm(-2) and EC(50) = 34.29 microg cm(-2). Moreover, PM-induced oxidative damage in A549 cells was observed through the induction of lipid peroxidation, the alteration of superoxide dismutase activity, and the disruption of glutathione status. Both the transition metals and the organic chemicals within the three collected PM samples under study might be involved in the oxidative damage and, therefore, the toxicity they induced in A549 cells. 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Oropharyngeal candidiasis prevalence among HIV-infected patients at the teaching hospital of Treichville (Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire).

    PubMed

    Konaté, A; Barro-Kiki, P C M; Kassi, K F; Angora, K E; Vanga-Bosson, H; Djohan, V; Bédia-Tanoh, A V; Miézan, A J S; Yavo, W; Menan, E I H

    2017-08-31

    The aim of this study was to determine the mycological profile of oropharyngeal candidiasis among HIV-infected patients from Internal Medicine, Infectious and Tropical Diseases, and Pneumo-Phthisiology Diseases departments of the Teaching Hospital of Treichville in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. This was a cross-sectional study carried out on patients with lesions suggestive of oropharyngeal candidiasis from October 2010 to April 2011. Oral swabs were cultured, and Candida species were identified using a germ tube test, a chlamydospore formation assay, and the API 20C system. A total of 286 patients were included, among whom 99.1% were infected with HIV. The prevalence of oropharyngeal candidiasis was 79.4% (CI95%=74.4-83.8). Five different species of Candida were identified, with the predominant species being Candida albicans (95.2%). Most affected patients were female (54.6%, P<0.0001) between the ages of 30 and 45 (78.4%, P<0.0001). The most lesion types observed were thrush (87.8%). Patients infected with HIV1 (95.6%), with a primary school level of education (52.8%), under antiretroviral therapy (88.5%) and with tuberculosis as an associated pathology (62.5%) were the most commonly affected. Patients were mostly under ART first line treatment (86.4%) and at the beginning of the treatment (86.4%). Oropharyngeal candidiasis is frequent among HIV-infected patients. Better and early management of this vulnerable population should allow for a reduction in the high prevalence observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Phenotypic Profile of Rh and Kell Blood Group Systems among Blood Donors in Cote d'Ivoire, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Siransy Bogui, L.; Dembele, B.; Sekongo, Y.; Abisse, S.; Konaté, S.; Sombo, M.

    2014-01-01

    Few countries in sub-Saharan Africa make systematic searches for antigens C, c, E, and e of the Rh and Kell system antigens in the donor and recipient, thereby exposing transfused patients. Purpose and Objectives. In this paper, we propose to determine the red cell Rh and Kell blood groups among blood donors from traditional techniques to improve medical care of transfused patients. This study will allow us to assess the frequency of blood group antigens in these systems. Study Design and Methods. We carried out a study on the red cell typing in the blood donor population of the National Blood Transfusion Center in Abidjan. This study was performed on 651 blood donors. Results. For the Rh system, the antigen frequencies of D, c, e, C, and E are, respectively, 92.93%, 99.85%, 99.85%, 21.97%, and 13.82%. K antigen is found in 0.77% of donors. Discussion and Conclusion. Although the frequencies of the most immunogenic antigens are lower than in the white race, lack of preventive measures makes the immunological risk high in Africa. Furthermore, Africa is full of specificities that are important to note for a better care of our patients. PMID:25328758

  19. The Potential of Food Fortification to Add Micronutrients in Young Children and Women of Reproductive Age - Findings from a Cross-Sectional Survey in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Rohner, Fabian; Leyvraz, Magali; Konan, Amoin G; Esso, Lasme J C E; Wirth, James P; Norte, Augusto; Adiko, Adiko F; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Aaron, Grant J

    2016-01-01

    Poor micronutrient intakes are a major contributing factor to the high burden of micronutrient deficiencies in Côte d'Ivoire. Large-scale food fortification is considered a cost-effective approach to deliver micronutrients, and fortification of salt (iodine), wheat flour (iron and folic acid), and vegetable oil (vitamin A) is mandatory in Côte d'Ivoire. A cross-sectional survey on households with at least one child 6-23 months was conducted to update coverage figures with adequately fortified food vehicles in Abidjan, the capital of and largest urban community in Côte d'Ivoire, and to evaluate whether additional iron and vitamin A intake is sufficient to bear the potential to reduce micronutrient malnutrition. Information on demographics and food consumption was collected, along with samples of salt and oil. Wheat flour was sampled from bakeries and retailers residing in the selected clusters. In Abidjan, 86% and 97% of salt and vegetable oil samples, respectively, were adequately fortified, while only 32% of wheat flour samples were adequately fortified, but all samples contained some added iron. There were no major differences in additional vitamin A and iron intake between poor and non-poor households. For vitamin A in oil, the additional percentage of the recommended nutrient intake was 27% and 40% for children 6-23 months and women of reproductive age, respectively, while for iron from wheat flour, only 13% and 19% could be covered. Compared to previous estimates, coverage has remained stable for salt and wheat flour, but improved for vegetable oil. Fortification of vegetable oil clearly provides a meaningful additional amount of vitamin A. This is not currently the case for iron, due to the low fortification levels. Iron levels in wheat flour should be increased and monitored, and additional vehicles should be explored to add iron to the Ivorian diet.

  20. [Malaria and intestinal parasitosis in pregnant woman at Abobo district (Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire)].

    PubMed

    Coulibaly, G; Yao, K P; Koffi, M; Ahouty, B A; Louhourignon, L K; N'Cho, M; N'Goran, E K

    2017-03-01

    A prospective study was carried out from 2010 to 2012 at the Hôpital Général d'Abobo (HGA) in Abidjan, in order to determine the impact of infectious and parasitic diseases on child cognitive development. Blood samples were examined by means of thick drop and blood smear; as for stool by direct examination and concentration by formalin-ether method. We evaluated the prevalence, the parasite load of malaria and gastrointestinal parasites; then we investigated the risk factors for these disorders. Overall, 331 pregnant women in the last trimester of their pregnancy were enrolled. The plasmodic index was 3.9% with infestation specific rates of P. falciparum from 100%. Concerning digestive protozoa, it has been observed 71.3% of nonpathogenic, against 9.7 % of pathogens, either an overall prevalence of 51.4% of digestive parasites. The calculated average parasitic loads revealed 3089.2 tpz/μl of blood (95 % CI: 591.1-5587.3) for malaria, 6.5 eggs per gram of stool (95 % CI: 0.4-13.4) for intestinal helminths and one parasite by microscopic field for protozoa (common infestation). It has been shown that the occurrence of malaria has been linked to the non-use of impregnated mosquito nets (x(2) = 0.012; p = 0.018), not to age. No link could be established between the presence of digestive parasites and the age of pregnant women, or socioeconomic conditions (level of education, profession, type of toilet). Malaria is less common in pregnant women while the rate of digestive parasites remains high.

  1. Longitudinal analysis of antibody responses in symptomatic malaria cases do not mirror parasite transmission in peri-urban area of Cote d'Ivoire between 2010 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Koffi, David; Varela, Marie-Louise; Loucoubar, Cheikh; Beourou, Sylvain; Vigan-Womas, Inès; Touré, Aissatou; Djaman, Joseph Allico; Touré, André Offianan; Perraut, Ronald

    2017-01-01

    In the agenda towards malaria eradication, assessment of both malaria exposure and efficacy of anti-vectorial and therapeutic strategies is a key component of management and the follow-up of field interventions. The simultaneous use of several antigens (Ags) as serological markers has the potential for accurate evaluation of malaria exposure. Here we aimed to measure the longitudinal evolution of the background levels of immunity in an urban setting in confirmed clinical cases of malaria. A retrospective serological cross-sectional study on was carried out using 234 samples taken from 2010 to 2013 in peri-urban sentinel facility of Cote d'Ivoire. Antibody responses to recombinant proteins or BSA-peptides, 8 Plasmodium falciparum (PfAMA1, PfMSP4, PfMSP1, PfEMP1-DBL1α1-PF13, PfLSA1-41, PfLSA3-NR2, PfGLURP and PfCSP), one P. malariae (PmCSP) and one Anopheles gambiae salivary (gSG6-P1) antigens were measured using magnetic bead-based multiplex immunoassay (MBA). Total anti- P. falciparum IgG responses against schizont lysate from african 07/03 strain (adapted to culture) and 3D7 strain was measured by ELISA. High prevalence (7-93%) and levels of antibody responses to most of the antigens were evidenced. However, analysis showed only marginal decreasing trend of Ab responses from 2010 to 2013 that did not parallel the reduction of clinical malaria prevalence following the implementation of intervention in this area. There was a significant inverse correlation between Ab responses and parasitaemia (P<10-3, rho = 0.3). The particular recruitment of asymptomatic individuals in 2011 underlined a high background level of immunity almost equivalent to symptomatic patients, possibly obscuring observable yearly variations. The use of cross-sectional clinical malaria surveys and MBA can help to identify endemic sites where control measures have unequal impact providing relevant information about population immunity and possible decrease of transmission. However, when immunity

  2. [Refusal of prenatal HIV-testing: a case study in Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire)].

    PubMed

    Desgrées du Loû, Annabel; Brou, Hermann; Djohan, Gérard; Tijou-Traoré, Annick

    2007-01-01

    One of the main obstacles to HIV prevention in Africa remains the insufficient number of HIV tests performed. The low percentage of individuals aware of their serostatus is due in part to the insufficient availability of HIV testing, but also to individuals' refusal to have the HIV test. Because affordable treatment is now available, it is possible to implement on a much greater scale programs of prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission, accompanied by the expansion of prenatal HIV testing. It is therefore important to understand the reasons women refuse these tests. Here we analyse the women who refused the offer of prenatal HIV testing in the DITRAME Plus research program, intended to prevent mother-to-child transmission in Abidjan from 2001 through 2005. Three groups of women were followed for two years after they were offered HIV counselling and testing during an antenatal consultation: 347 HIV-infected women, 393 seronegative women, and 62 women who refused HIV testing. Nine months after delivery, HIV testing was again offered to the latter group. We collected quantitative data on social and demographic characteristics, sexual behavior, and communication with their male partners about STIs, HIV, and HIV testing, before and after the pregnancy. In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 women who refused HIV-testing. We sought to determine if their sociodemographic and behavioural profile was closer to that of HIV-positive or seronegative women, to assess the effects of prenatal counselling and the offer of testing on their attitudes about HIV risk, and to measure the percentage of women who accepted testing when the offer was repeated 9 months postpartum. Women who refused HIV-testing had a sociodemographic profile similar to that of the women who accepted testing and were seronegative. They did not have more at-risk behaviours. These women offered several reasons for their refusal, including avoidance of the anguish of a positive test result and the

  3. Physical and Sexual Violence Affecting Female Sex Workers in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire: Prevalence, and the Relationship with the Work Environment, HIV, and Access to Health Services.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Carrie E; Grosso, Ashley; Drame, Fatou M; Ketende, Sosthenes; Diouf, Daouda; Ba, Ibrahima; Shannon, Kate; Ezouatchi, Rebecca; Bamba, Amara; Kouame, Abo; Baral, Stefan

    2017-05-01

    Violence is a human rights violation, and an important measure in understanding HIV among female sex workers (FSW). However, limited data exist regarding correlates of violence among FSW in Côte d'Ivoire. Characterizing prevalence and determinants of violence and the relationship with structural risks for HIV can inform development and implementation of comprehensive HIV prevention and treatment programs. FSW > 18 years were recruited through respondent driven sampling (RDS) in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. In total, 466 participants completed a socio-behavioral questionnaire and HIV testing. Prevalence estimates of violence were calculated using crude and RDS-adjusted estimates. Relationships between structural risk factors and violence were analyzed using χ tests and multivariable logistic regression. The prevalence of physical violence was 53.6% (250/466), and sexual violence was 43.2% (201/465) among FSW in this study. Police refusal of protection was associated with physical (adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR]: 2.8; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.7 to 4.4) and sexual violence (aOR: 3.0; 95% CI: 1.9 to 4.8). Blackmail was associated with physical (aOR: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.5 to 4.2) and sexual violence (aOR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.5 to 4.0). Physical violence was associated with fear (aOR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.3 to 3.1) and avoidance of seeking health services (aOR: 2.3; 95% CI: 1.5 to 3.8). Violence is prevalent among FSW in Abidjan and associated with features of the work environment and access to care. These relationships highlight layers of rights violations affecting FSW, underscoring the need for structural interventions and policy reforms to improve work environments, and to address police harassment, stigma, and rights violations to reduce violence and improve access to HIV interventions.

  4. [Neonatal and child tetanus morbidity and mortality in the University hospitals of Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire (2001-2010)].

    PubMed

    Aba, Y T; Cissé, L; Abalé, A K; Diakité, I; Koné, D; Kadiané, J; Diallo, Z; Kra, O; Oulaï, S; Bissagnéné, E

    2016-08-01

    The lack of data on neonatal tetanus and children in university hospitals (UH) in Abidjan for over a decade has motivated the realization of this study. The objective of this study is to evaluate the morbidity and mortality related to neonatal tetanus (NT) and child tetanus (CT) in Abidjan University Hospital from 2001 to 2010. It is a retrospective study, multicenter analysis with records of newborns and children suffering from tetanus in the three UH of Abidjan. The collection and analysis of data were made by the SPHINX 4.5 and EPI.INFO 6.0 software. In ten years, 242 cases of tetanus (53 NT cases and 189 CT cases) were collected with a predominance of cases after the fifth year of life (59.5%). The incidence rate of NT was less than 1 case per 1,000 live births. All mothers of the newborns were inhabiting the city of Abidjan. Their median age was 19 years [16-32] and 64% were teenagers. Gateways were dominated by umbilical wounds (77.3%) in the NTand skin wounds (59%) in CT. The cure rate was 30.2% in the NT and 60% in the CT. Lethality was 60% for NT and 22% for CT with a positive correlation with young age (neonates: p = 4.10-7, age <5 years: p = 0.01), lack of intraspinal injection of tetanus serum (p = 8.10-6), the absence of conventional antibiotic therapy (p = 0.023), the existence of metabolic complications (p = 2.10-5), the score of ≥ 4 Dakar (p = 0.005). Tetanus remains a real morbidly cause among children in Abidjan University Hospital with high lethality. However, the incidence of NT seems consistent with the incidence threshold desired by WHO.

  5. Malaria transmission and insecticide resistance of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) in the French military camp of Port-Bouët, Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire): implications for vector control.

    PubMed

    Girod, Romain; Orlandi-Pradines, Eve; Rogier, Christophe; Pages, Frederic

    2006-09-01

    An important vector control program is ongoing to lower the risk of malaria transmission in the French military camp of Port-Bouët, Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire). However, some autochthonous malaria cases are regularly suspected. An entomological survey was conducted in June 2004 in the camp to assess malaria transmission and evaluate the pyrethroid and organophosphate resistance of the malaria vectors. The average mosquito biting rate was 178.0 bites per person per night. Mosquitoes belonging to the Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) complex and the Anopheles funestus group were collected. An. gambiae s.s. molecular form M was the only species of the An. gambiae complex present. The average number of An. gambiae bites was approximately 44.3 per person per night. The circumsporozoite index was 0.38% and the entomological inoculation rate estimated to be 1.2 infective bites per week for the study period. The kdr and ace1 gene frequencies in the An. gambiae population were 0.70 and 0.15, respectively. Personnel living in the French barracks of Port-Bouët are thus at high risk of being bitten by parasite-infected mosquitoes. Such an entomological inoculation rate, usually found in African peri-urban environments, was unexpected considering the extensive effort deployed to control mosquitoes in the camp. Insecticide resistance could explain the inefficacy of the vector control program but the spraying strategy is also questionable.

  6. Neoliberal policy, rural livelihoods, and urban food security in West Africa: a comparative study of The Gambia, Cote d'Ivoire, and Mali.

    PubMed

    Moseley, William G; Carney, Judith; Becker, Laurence

    2010-03-30

    This study examines the impact of two decades of neoliberal policy reform on food production and household livelihood security in three West African countries. The rice sectors in The Gambia, Côte d'Ivoire, and Mali are scrutinized as well as cotton and its relationship to sorghum production in Mali. Although market reforms were intended to improve food production, the net result was an increasing reliance on imported rice. The vulnerability of the urban populations in The Gambia and Côte d'Ivoire became especially clear during the 2007-2008 global food crisis when world prices for rice spiked. Urban Mali was spared the worst of this crisis because the country produces more of its own rice and the poorest consumers shifted from rice to sorghum, a grain whose production increased steeply as cotton production collapsed. The findings are based on household and market surveys as well as on an analysis of national level production data.

  7. Notification of HIV status disclosure and its related factors in HIV-infected adolescents in 2009 in the Aconda program (CePReF, CHU Yopougon) in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, The PRADO-CI Study

    PubMed Central

    Meless, Guanga David; Aka-Dago-Akribi, Hortense; Cacou, Chantal; François Eboua, Tanoh; Edmond Aka, Addi; Maxime Oga, Aimé; Bouah, Belinda; Eugène, Messou; Moh, Corinne; Arrivé, Elise; Timité-Konan, Marguerite; Leroy, Valériane

    2013-01-01

    Introduction We studied the frequency of documentation of disclosure of HIV status in medical charts and its correlates among HIV-infected adolescents in 2009, in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. Methods The PRADO-CI is a cross-sectional study aimed at studying HIV-infected adolescents’ social, psychological, and behavioural difficulties and their determinants in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. In this study, we present specific analyses on disclosure. All HIV-infected adolescents aged 13–21 years and followed at least once in 2009 in two urban HIV-care centres in Abidjan (Cepref and Yopougon Teaching Hospital) were enrolled in the study. Standardized data were extracted from medical records to document if there was notification of disclosure of HIV status in the medical record. Frequency of notification of HIV disclosure was estimated with its 95% confidence interval (CI) and correlates were analyzed using logistic regression. Results In 2009, 229 adolescents were included: 126 (55%) males; 93% on antiretroviral therapy (ART), 61% on cotrimoxazole prophylaxis. Their median age was 15 years at the time of the study. Among the 193 patients for whom information on HIV status disclosure was documented (84%), only 63 (32.6%; 95% CI=26.0–39.3%) were informed of their status. The proportion of adolescents informed increased significantly with age: 19% for 13–15 years, 33% for 16–18 years and 86% for 19–21 years (p <0.0001). Adolescents on ART tended to be more likely to be informed of their HIV status (34.5%) than those not treated (13.3%) (p=0.11). Those on cotrimoxazole were significantly more likely to be informed (39.6%) than those not (21.9%) (p=0.01). Disclosure was significantly higher in adolescents with a history of ART regimen change (p=0.003) and in those followed in the Cepref (48.4%) compared to the Yopougon Teaching Hospital (24.8%), (p=0.001). In multivariate analyses, disclosed HIV status was significantly higher in those followed-up in the Cepref compared

  8. A Nation Struggling To Identify Itself Cote d’Ivoire As A Neopatrimonial State

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    Will Not Suffice.” Africa Briefing No 33, 12 October 2005. http://www.crisisgroup.org/en/regions/west-africa/ cote divoire /BO33- cote -divorie...AU/ACSC/NESTOR/AY12 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY A Nation Struggling to Identify Itself Cote d’Ivoire as...population.”1 This paper will show how the conflict in Cote d’Ivoire ignited in 2002 as a result of the breakdown of the neopatrimonial state. In order to

  9. Attitude of pregnant women towards HIV testing in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire and Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. DITRAME Study Group (ANRS 049 Clinical Trial). Diminution de la Transmission Mère Enfant du VIH. Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le SIDA.

    PubMed

    Cartoux, M; Msellati, P; Meda, N; Welffens-Ekra, C; Mandelbrot, L; Leroy, V; Van de Perre, P; Dabis, F

    1998-12-03

    To evaluate the attitude of pregnant women towards HIV testing in two cities of West Africa: Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire and Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. In the context of a clinical trial to prevent HIV vertical transmission, HIV counselling and testing was offered systematically to women attending antenatal clinics. Informed consent was obtained and test results were given anonymously. Multiple logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with refusal for testing and failure to return for test results. A total of 9724 pregnant women were interviewed from January 1995 to September 1996. In Abidjan (n=5766) and Bobo-Dioulasso (n=3958), 78 and 92.4% of the women consented to HIV testing, respectively, and 58.4 and 81.8% of them returned for the test results disclosure, respectively. In the two sites, the counsellors themselves and high educational level of the women appeared to be related to refusal of the test, whereas last trimester gestation was associated with failure to return for test results. In Abidjan, foreigners and employees were more likely to refuse testing, and HIV-infected women were three times less likely to return for results than uninfected women. Future implementation of interventions to reduce vertical transmission of HIV that require antenatal HIV testing and counselling will have to solve issue of acceptability of HIV testing by pregnant women.

  10. Determinants of glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes African patients monitored by physicians from 1991 to 2004 in Cote d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Oga, Serge S A; Lokrou, Adrien; Tebi, Ambroise; Malan, Anglade K; Papoz, Laure; Kouadio, Luc P

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to propose determinants of glycaemic control which are useful to adequately manage the healthcare of type 2 diabetes patients attending an out-patient clinic. A retrospective, descriptive research design was implemented at the Centre AntiDiabétique d'Abidjan in 2399 African patients. Glycaemic control was calculated from the average of at least 12 fasting plasma glucose levels measured during at least three years. Logistic and multiple linear regressions were performed at the limit of the glycaemia average of 6.7mmol/l (120mg/dl). The determinants of poor glycaemic control were: long duration of monitoring (odds ratio (OR)=1.66, then 2.68), annual frequency of visits outside the 2-3 per year interval (OR=3.25) and insulin treatment (OR=4.66) in 'non-obese men'; the aforementioned frequency of visits (OR=3.69) and insulin treatment (OR=3.72) in 'non-obese women'; the duration of monitoring reaching the 10-14 year interval (OR=3.48), the aforementioned frequency of visits (OR=2.51), insulin treatment (OR=26.16) and housewife status (OR=1.94) in 'obese women'. In 'obese men', insulin treatment was the sole determinant (r(2)=0.24). Healthcare parameters (treatment, frequency of visits, and duration of monitoring) seemed to be predominant as effective predictors of glycaemic control in our study context. These findings reveal the urgent need for both more concern and further research in diabetes management to improve the quality of care and tackle this health challenge.

  11. [Description of sexual practices of women who have sex with other women to HIV / AIDS in Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire)].

    PubMed

    Konan, Y E; Dagnan, N S; Tetchi, E O; Aké, O; Tiembré, I; Zengbé, P; Ekou, F K; Sablé, P S; Kpebo, D O D; Saraka, K W O; Kouamé, K S; Akani, B C; Anoma, C

    2014-12-01

    The response to HIV must be based on all situations of risk and vulnerability related to sexual behavior. Sexual practices of women who have sex with other women to HIV described in his study come within this framework. This transversal and descriptive study on the sexual practices of 150 women who have sex with other women to HIV was conducted from July to September 2010 in Abidjan. Mean age of the respondents was 26.6 years. Among them, 21.3% was illiterate, 41.4% had no earned income and 57.3% was Christians. At the time of data collection, the majority (70.7%) did not know their HIV status. The analysis of sexual practices has found 13.3% of lesbians, bisexual, 36% and 50.7% of women who say they are lesbian even if they have had sex with men. Women who have sex with other women had sexual risk behavior. It was mostly the non-systematic use of the condom during sexual relation (60%). Among the 26.7% of respondents who had lesbian practices with penetration, 40% took no precaution to prevent HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Taking into account these results could help to develop specific strategies to promote responsible sexual practices among women who have sex with other women.

  12. [Identification of malfunctioning in the treatment and quality of care of maternal morbidity in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire].

    PubMed

    Touré, B; Koffi, N M; Gohou, V; Dagnan, S; Diarra-Nama, A J

    2005-03-01

    A study was carried out using a clinical audit aimed at identifying the dysfunctions in the care of female patients with serious morbidity. The study was done at the University Hospital of Cocody (CHU de Codody) and in the health training unit in the southern part of Abobo (Abidjan) from January to May 2000. The study allowed us to track and record the frequency of women who nearly died (40.4%) in both of the sites during the period of the study. Malfunctions were found at all stages of the female patients' care. The provision of medical care during the patients' hospitalisation and care provided in the emergency room were the cases and situations wherein the most frequency was noted, with 42.8% and 39.6% of dysfunctions found respectively. The delay for patients to wait to receive care was long, varying from 80 minutes to 5 days coupled with a lack of follow-up and surveillance of patients. This data demonstrates the inadequacy of the quality of obstetrical care.

  13. Salt dual-fortified with iodine and micronized ground ferric pyrophosphate affects iron status but not hemoglobin in children in Cote d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Wegmüller, Rita; Camara, Fatoumata; Zimmermann, Michael B; Adou, Pierre; Hurrell, Richard F

    2006-07-01

    Deficiencies of iron and iodine are common in West Africa, and salt is one of very few food vehicles available for fortification. Salt dual-fortified with iodine and micronized ground ferric pyrophosphate (FePP) was tested for its efficacy in rural, tropical Côte d'Ivoire. First, salt and iron intakes, and iron bioavailability were estimated using 3-d weighed food records in 24 households. Local iodized salt was then fortified with 3 mg Fe/g salt as ground FePP (mean particle size = 2.5 mum), and stability, sensory and acceptability trials were done. The dual fortified salt (DFS) was distributed to households and its efficacy compared with that of iodized salt (IS) in a 6-mo, double-blind trial in 5- to 15-y-old iron-deficient children (n = 123). All children were dewormed at baseline. After 6 mo, serum ferritin (SF) and transferrin receptor (TfR) concentrations as well as body iron stores improved significantly in the DFS group but not in the IS GROUP (P < 0.05). Body iron increased from 4.6 +/- 2.7 to 5.9 +/- 2.7 mg/kg (mean +/- SD) in the DFS group; concentrations before and after treatment in the IS group were 5.5 +/- 2.9 and 5.6 +/- 3.1 mg/kg, respectively. The hemoglobin concentration and the prevalence of anemia did not change in either group. The prevalences of malaria, soil-transmitted helminths, and riboflavin deficiency were 55, 14, and 66%, respectively. In tropical West Africa, low-grade salt fortified with micronized ground FePP increased body iron stores but not hemoglobin in children. Iron utilization may have been impaired by the high prevalence of malaria and concurrent nutrient deficiencies.

  14. A first database for landslide studies in densely urbanized areas of the intertropical zone: Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnagne, Frédéric; Demoulin, Alain; Biemi, Jean; Dewitte, Olivier; Kouadio, Hélène; Lasm, Théophile

    2016-04-01

    Landslides, a natural phenomenon often enhanced by human misuse of the land, may be a considerable threat to urban communities and severely affect urban landscapes, taking its death toll, impacting livelihood, and causing economic and social damages. Our first results show that, in Abidjan city, Ivory Coast, landslides caused more than fifty casualties in the towns of Attecoube and Abobo during the last twenty years. Although informal landslide reports exist, map information and geomorphological characterization are at best restricted, or often simply lacking. Here, we aim at constituting a comprehensive landslide database (localization, nature and morphometry of the slides, slope material, human interference, elements at risk) in the town of Attecoube as case study in order to support a first analysis of landslide susceptibility in the area. The field inventory conducted so far contains 56 landslides. These are mainly translational debris and soil slides, plus a few deeper rotational soil slides. Affecting 10-25°-steep, less than 10-m-high slopes in Quaternary sand and mud, they are most often associated with wild constructions either loading the top or cutting the toe of the slopes. They were located by GPS and tentatively dated through inquiries during the survey. While 12 landslides were accurately dated that way from the main rain seasons of 2013 to 2015, newspapers analysis and municipal archive consultation allowed us to assign a part of the rest to the last decade. Field inquiries were also used to collect information about fatalities and the local conditions of landsliding. This first landslide inventory in Attecoube provides clues about the main potential controls on landsliding, natural and anthropogenic, and will help define adequately anthropogenic variables to be used in the susceptibility modelling.

  15. Cervical human papillomavirus and HIV infection in women of child-bearing age in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Jaquet, A; Horo, A; Charbonneau, V; Ekouevi, D K; Roncin, L; Toure, B; Coffie, P; Minga, A; Sasco, A J; Garrigue, I; Fleury, H; Dabis, F

    2012-01-01

    Background: We sought to document the association of Human immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and immunodeficiency with oncogenic Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection in women with no cervical neoplastic lesions identified through a cervical cancer screening programme in Côte d'Ivoire. Methods: A consecutive sample of women stratified on their HIV status and attending the national blood donor clinic or the closest HIV clinic was recruited during a cervical cancer screening programme based on the visual inspection. Diagnosis of HPV infection and genotype identification were based on the Linear Array; HPV test. Results: A total of 445 (254 HIV-positive and 191 HIV-negative) women were included. The prevalence of oncogenic HPV infection was 53.9% (95% confidence interval (CI) 47.9–59.9) in HIV-positive women and 33.7% (95% CI 27.1–40.3) in HIV-negative women (odds ratio (OR)=2.3 (95% CI 1.5–3.3)). In multivariate analysis, HIV-positive women with a CD4 count <200 cells mm3 or between 200 and 499 cells mm3 were more likely to harbour an oncogenic HPV compared with women with a CD4 count ⩾500 cells mm3 with OR of 2.8 (95% CI 1.1–8.1) and 1.7 (95% CI 1.0–2.9), respectively. Conclusion: A high prevalence of oncogenic HPV was found in women with no cervical neoplastic lesions, especially in HIV-positive women. Despite antiretroviral use, immunodeficiency was a main determinant of the presence of oncogenic HPV. PMID:22782349

  16. Language Planning in Cote d'Ivoire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Djite, Paulin G.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the language situation in the Ivory coast. Examines historical and sociopolitical processes and the language policies and language-in-education practices of the country. Shows that the debate on language policy over the last two decades has failed to lead to the adoption of a language plan that takes into account the current language…

  17. Low risk of nevirapine resistance mutations in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1: Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le SIDA Ditrame Plus, Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Chaix, Marie-Laure; Ekouevi, Didier Koumavi; Rouet, Francois; Tonwe-Gold, Besigin; Viho, Ida; Bequet, Laurence; Peytavin, Gilles; Toure, Hassane; Menan, Herve; Leroy, Valeriane; Dabis, Francois; Rouzioux, Christine

    2006-02-15

    The frequency of resistance mutations was estimated in the cohort of Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le SIDA Ditrame Plus, a study that evaluated the combination of short-course zidovudine (ZDV) plus lamivudine (3TC) and single-dose nevirapine (SD-NVP) followed by 3 days of postpartum ZDV plus 3TC for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). The frequency with which resistance mutations were detected in mothers at week 4 postpartum was 1.14% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.03%-6.17%) for NVP and 8.33% (95% CI, 3.66%-15.76%) for 3TC. In multivariate analysis, 3TC resistance was associated with a longer duration of ZDV plus 3TC prepartum prophylaxis (P=.009). This regimen, which is feasible in resource-limited settings, prevents most peripartum HIV-1 transmission and minimizes the development of NVP resistance.

  18. Apport de l'information geographique dans l'elaboration d'un indicateur de developpement urbain: Abidjan et l'ile de Montreal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoro, Emma-Georgina

    The objective of this project is to carry out a comparative analysis of two urban environments with remote sensing and Geographic Informations Systems, integrating multi-source data. The city of Abidjan (Cote d'Ivoire) and Montreal Island (Quebec) were selected. This study lies within the context of the strong demographic and space growths of urban environments. A supervised classification based on the theory of evidence allowed the identification of mixed pixels. However, the accuracy of this method is lower than that of the bayesian theory. Nevertheless, this method showed that the most credible classes (maximum believes in "closed world") are most probable (maximum probabilities) and thus confirms the bayesian maximum-likelihood decision. On the other hand, the contrary is not necessarily true because of the rules of combination. The urban cover map resulting from classification by the maximum likelihood method was then used to determine a relation between the residential surface and the number of inhabitants in a sector. Moreover, the area of green spaces was an input data (environmental component) for the Urban Development Indicator (IDU), the elaborated model for quantifying the quality of life in urban environment. Moreover, this indicator was defined to allow a total and efficient comparison of urban environments. Following a thorough bibliographical review, seven criteria were retained to describe the optimal conditions for the populations well-being. These criteria were then estimated from standardized indices. The choice of these criteria is a function of the availability of the data to be integrated into the GIS. As the criteria selected have not the same importance in the definition of the quality of urban life, one needed to rank by the method of multicriteria hierarchy and to normalize them in order to join them together in only one parameter. The composite indicator IDU thus obtained allowed to establish that Abidjan had an average development in

  19. Parametric and comparative study of the impact of waste pollutants in groundwater: the case of the district of Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire) and polluted site in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnès Kouamé, Amenan; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Derron, Marc-Henri

    2013-04-01

    Groundwater as natural resources is one of the main sources of water for agricultural, industrial and domestic in developed or developing countries. However this resource, which was considered of good quality, is now threatened by various sources of contamination by human activities. This is the case of the District of Abidjan which has been the victim of toxic waste in 2006 and of an alpine valley in Western Switzerland. Groundwater from these two sites is located in sandy and unconfined aquifers. In fact, the pollutant transport in porous media is influenced by a variety of physical, chemical or biological, complex and interdependent. In Switzerland, where data are available, we simulated steady-state flow and tetrachloroethene transport with a good result showing the tetrachloroethene plume. While in Abidjan, where the data are insufficient, we developed in steady and transient states, flow and contaminants transport models in order to predict the likely evolution of the contaminants in the basement. Contaminants are composed of a very high contents of hydrogen sulfide, organochlorines, sulfur, mercaptan sulfur, and hydrocarbons such as olefins, Paraffins. We made two parametric and comparative studies. The probability of contamination of groundwater is observed over time, taking into account the input parameters of the model and some assumptions.

  20. [Micronecta sp (Corixidae) and Diplonychus sp (Belostomatidae), two aquatic Hemiptera hosts and/or potential vectors of Mycobacterium ulcerans (pathogenic agent of Buruli ulcer) in Cote d'Ivoire].

    PubMed

    Doannio, J M C; Konan, K L; Dosso, F N; Koné, A B; Konan, Y L; Sankaré, Y; Ekaza, E; Coulibaly, N D; Odéhouri, K P; Dosso, M; Sess, E D; Marsollier, L; Aubry, J

    2011-02-01

    Buruli ulcer is currently a major public health problem in Côte d'Ivoire. It is a neglected tropical disease closely associated with aquatic environments. Aquatic insects of the Hemiptera order have been implicated in human transmission of Mycobacterium ulcerans, the pathogenic agent of Buruli ulcer. The purpose of this preliminary study using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was to evaluate aquatic insects in Sokrogbo, a village in the Tiassalé sanitary district where Buruli ulcer is endemic. Findings identified two water bugs hosting Mycobacterium ulcerans, i.e., one of the Micronecta genus in the Corixidae family and another of the Diplonychus genus in the Belostomatidae family. The PCR technique used revealed the molecular signatures of M. ulcerans in tissue from these two insects. Based on these findings, these two water bugs can be considered as potential hosts and/or vectors of M. ulcerans in the study zone. Unlike Diplonychus sp., this is the first report to describe Micronecta sp as a host of M. ulcerans. Further investigation will be needed to assess the role of these two water bugs in human transmission of M. ulcerans in Côte d'Ivoire.

  1. [Health care, needs and barriers in seeking medical care for global health and sexual and reproductive health, among students from Félix Houphouët-Boigny University, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire].

    PubMed

    Inghels, M; Coffie, P A; Larmarange, J

    2017-09-01

    In Ivory Coast, little is known about health needs and health access barriers among young people. The aim of this study was to describe health provision, health needs and barriers when seeking medical care, with an emphasis on sexual and reproductive health, and the acceptability of a medical examination for students attending their first year at the Houphouët-Boigny University, Abidjan, Ivory Coast. We conducted a representative cross-sectional study among second year students who were selected by two-stage equiprobable random sampling. In-depth interviews were conducted among students and the university health center staff. Five hundred and forty three students (322 men and 221 women) answered a questionnaire (participation rate 98.4%). Among women who ever had sex, 38.4% (95%CI [30.5%-47.0%]) had unmet contraception needs and 31.2% [23.7%-40.0%] had experienced an unwanted pregnancy. Fear about impaired fertility was the leading reason for non-use of hormonal contraception, the method of choice among most students. The main health problems among students, by order of frequency were malaria (54.3%), respiratory infection (44.6%), constipation (28.0%) and psychological problems (25.9%). High cost perception of services offered, despite their gratuity, were the main barriers against access to the university health center, indicating a lack of communication about this structure and its services. The majority of students favored the establishment of a medical examination during the first year at the university. Establishing a medical examination would improve health center visibility. The following services could be offered: (i) HIV, chlamydia and gonorrhea screening, (ii) hepatitis B virus screening and vaccination, (iii) provision and information about contraceptive methods, (iv) presentation of the university health center services. Dedicated spaces where students could have access to information about health-related topics (e.g. sexuality, nutrition, depression

  2. Implementing family-focused HIV care and treatment: the first 2 years' experience of the mother-to-child transmission-plus program in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Tonwe-Gold, Besigin; Ekouevi, Didier Koumavi; Amani-Bosse, Clarisse; Toure, Siaka; Koné, Mamadou; Becquet, Renaud; Leroy, Valériane; Toro, Patricia; Dabis, François; El Sadr, Wafaa M.; Abrams, Elaine J.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Objectives To describe a family-focused approach to HIV care and treatment and report on the first two years’ experience of implementing the MTCT-Plus program in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire. Program implementation New effective models of care are being sought to provide successful strategies to deliver safe, efficient and appropriate HIV care and treatment in resource limited settings. The MTCT-Plus Initiative aims to engage pregnant and postpartum women identified as HIV-infected to initiate comprehensive HIV care and treatment for the woman and her family. Main outcomes Between August 2003 and August 2005, 605 HIV-infected pregnant or post-partum women and 582 HIV-exposed infants were enrolled. Amongst 568 male partners reported alive by enrolled women, 300 (52%) were aware of their wife’s HIV status and 169 (30%) have been tested for HIV. Amongst these partners, 88 (53%) were found to be HIV-infected and 69 (78%) were enrolled into the program. Overall only 10% of the women were enrolled together with their infected partner. On the other hand, a success of the program was also to involve a significant number of seronegative men (half of those who came for VCT) in the care of their families. Amongst 1,624 children <15 years reported alive by their mothers (excluding the last newborn infants of the most recent pregnancy systematically screened for HIV), only 146 (10.8%) were brought in for HIV testing, of whom 18 (12.3%) were found to be HIV-infected. Lessons learned and challenges The family-focused model of HIV care pays attention to the needs of families and household members. The program was successful in enrolling HIV women, their partners and infants in continuous follow-up. However engaging partners and family members of newly enrolled women into care involves numerous challenges outlined in the cascade of necessary events that must take place to achieve this goal. This involves the difficult issue of disclosure of HIV status by women to their

  3. Fire seasonality changes in Côte d'Ivoire revealed through Landsat imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlovic, N. R.; Bassett, T. J.; Greenberg, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Fire plays a significant role in the savanna systems of West Africa, where a large proportion of the landscape burns annually. Previous research has suggested that shifts in land use and agricultural practices have modified the fire regime of Cote d'Ivoire over the past 30 years. Specifically, increasing pastoralism in north-central Cote d'Ivoire has been shown to coincide with a shift in fire seasonality toward fires earlier in the dry season. We investigated decadal trends in monthly fire occurrence across Cote d'Ivoire to determine whether similar processes of shifting fire seasonality are at play at the national scale. We assessed fire occurrence using remotely sensed Landsat imagery covering the entire extent of Cote d'Ivoire across a 30-year period from 1984 to 2014. The fine resolution of Landsat imagery makes possible the detection of small fires that commonly occur in heavily managed West African savannas. We investigated trends in the timing of both active fires and burned areas. Active fires were detected using shortwave infrared emissions of fire, and burned areas were identified based on spectral and temporal patterns distinctive to burn scars. The timing of fire occurrence influences fire intensity, and shifting fire seasonality has implications for land cover and terrestrial carbon budgets. Our findings point to temporal-spatial shifts in fire regimes over the past three decades and advance understanding of the contribution of West Africa's savannas to global greenhouse gas emissions.

  4. Questions and Answers about COTE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Vocational Journal, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Garfield Wilson, director of Florida's Council on Teacher Education (COTE), answers questions about present efforts to change teacher certification requirements, including rationale for the change, how the COTE model's twenty-three competencies were arrived at, their reliability as a measure of student learning and the system's possible effects on…

  5. [Analysis of the healthcare service decentralization process in Côte d'Ivoire].

    PubMed

    Soura, B D; Coulibaly, S S

    2014-01-01

    The decentralization of healthcare services is becoming increasingly important in strategies of public sector management. This concept is analyzed from various points of view, including legal, economic, political, and sociological. Several typologies have been proposed in the literature to analyze this decentralization process, which can take different forms ranging from simple deconcentration to more elaborate devolution. In some instances, decentralization can be analyzed by the degree of autonomy given to local authorities. This article applies these typologies to analyze the healthcare system decentralization process in Cote d'Ivoire. Special attention is paid to the new forms of community healthcare organizations. These decentralized structures enjoy a kind of autonomy, with characteristics closer to those of devolution. The model might serve as an example for population involvement in defining and managing healthcare problems in Cote d'Ivoire. We end with proposals for the improvement of the process.

  6. Stunting among children under 3 years of age in Côte d'Ivoire: spatial and temporal variations between 1994 and 2011.

    PubMed

    Barankanira, Emmanuel; Molinari, Nicolas; Msellati, Philippe; Laurent, Christian; Bork, Kirsten A

    2017-06-01

    To investigate spatial heterogeneity of stunting prevalence among children in Côte d'Ivoire and examine changes in stunting between 1994 and 2011, to assess the impact of the 2002-2011 civil war that led to temporary partitioning of the country. Data from 1994, 1998 and 2011 Côte d'Ivoire Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) were analysed using a geostatistical approach taking into account spatial autocorrelation. Stunting data were interpolated using ordinary kriging; spatial clusters with high and low stunting prevalence were identified using Kulldorff spatial scan statistics. Multilevel multivariable logistic regression was then carried out, with year of survey as the main independent variable and an interaction term for time by geographic zone (Abidjan, South, North). Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa. Children aged 0-35 months included in three DHS (n 6709). Overall stunting prevalence was 30·7, 28·7 and 27·8 % in 1994, 1998 and 2011, respectively (P=0·32). Clusters with high prevalence were found in 1994 (in the West region, P<0·001) and 1998 (in the West and North-West regions, P<0·01 and P=0·01, respectively), but not in 2011. Abidjan was included in a cluster with low prevalence in all surveys (P<0·05). Risk of stunting did not change between 1994 and 2011 at national level (adjusted OR; 95 % CI: 1·39; 0·72, 2·64), but decreased in the South (0·74; 0·58, 0·94) and increased from 1998 to 2011 in Abidjan (1·96; 1·06, 3·64). In Côte d'Ivoire, significant changes in stunting prevalence were observed at the sub-national level between 1994 and 2011.

  7. Parametric study of the impact of waste pollutants on groundwater: the case of Abidjan District (Ivory Coast)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnès Kouamé, Amenan; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Tacher, Laurent; Derron, Marc-Henri; Franz, Martin

    2015-04-01

    .4 and 2.9E-8 and 2.48E-5 m/s, respectively. These values of permeability are low. They were therefore multiplied by 10 in order to calibrate the model. This suggests that the environment of deposition of the sands is heterogeneous with coarse sand channels in places as it can be expected in such lagoon environment. The result of the model simulation in steady state indicates the groundwater flow direction (North-South) and the approach of pollutants plumes to some well fields after 20 years. References: Deh S. K. (2013). Contributions de l'évaluation de la vulnérabilité spécifique aux nitrates et d'un modèle de transport des organochlorés a la protection des eaux souterraines du district d'Abidjan (sud de la Côte d'Ivoire) 230p. Jourda J. P. (1987). Contribution à l'étude géologique et hydrogéologique de la région du Grand Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire). Thèse de doctorat de 3ème cycle, Université scientifique, technique et médicale de Grenoble, 319p. Kouamé K. J. (2007). Contribution à la Gestion Intégrée des Ressources en Eaux (GIRE) du District d'Abidjan (Sud de la Côte d'Ivoire) : Outils d'aide à la décision pour la prévention et la protection des eaux souterraines contre la pollution, Thèse de doctorat unique de l'Université de Cocody, 229p.

  8. [Occupational related burns in Abidjan].

    PubMed

    Kouassi, Y M; Tchicaya, A F; Aka, I N; Konan, K A H; Wognin, S B; Yéboué-Kouamé, B Y; Bonny, J S

    2011-01-01

    Occupation-related burns are important issue for public health area because of its socioeconomic impact for enterprises, victims and society. We performed this study in order to define the epidemiological characteristics of these accidents. We used a retrospective study that concerned occupation-related burns notified as work accident at the national insurance fund (CNPS) for private sector in Côte d'Ivoire. 363 files were selected. Men workers (95.6 %) and the age category from 20 to 39 (71 %) were more concerned. Most of victims were skilled workers (40.4 %) and unskilled workers (36.6 %). Burns occurred mainly in industrial sector than in others (70.8 %). Heat sources were involved in 238 cases of burns (65.6 %). Injuries were mostly superficial. Total temporary disability duration less than or equal to 28 days concerned 252 workers (70.4 %) and after effects with permanent partial disability concerned 64 workers. Most of victims return at the same workstation without modification (98.9 %). Prevention measures should be implemented in high burn risk factories through a program focused on fire safety, electric safety and chemical safety.

  9. Estimating the number of female sex workers in Côte d'Ivoire: results and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Vuylsteke, Bea; Sika, Lazare; Semdé, Gisèle; Anoma, Camille; Kacou, Elise; Laga, Marie

    2017-09-01

    To report on the results of three size estimations of the populations of female sex workers (FSW) in five cities in Côte d'Ivoire and on operational lessons learned, which may be relevant for key population programmes in other parts of the world. We applied three methods: mapping and census, capture-recapture and service multiplier. All were applied between 2008 and 2009 in Abidjan, San Pedro, Bouaké, Yamoussoukro and Abengourou. Abidjan was the city with the highest number of FSW by far, with estimations between 7880 (census) and 13 714 (service multiplier). The estimations in San Pedro, Bouaké and Yamoussoukro were very similar, with figures ranging from 1160 (Yamoussoukro, census) to 1916 (San Pedro, capture-recapture). Important operational lessons were learned, including strategies for mapping, the importance of involving peer sex workers for implementing the capture-recapture and the identification of the right question for the multiplier method. Successful application of three methods to estimate the population size of FSW in five cities in Côte d'Ivoire enabled us to make recommendations for size estimations of key population in low-income countries. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. [Oral health care practices in Abidjan].

    PubMed

    Samba, M; Guinan, J C; Sangare, A; Da-Danho, V; Bakayoko-Ly, R

    2004-09-01

    Abidjan, the economical capital of Ivory Coast has a CAO of 2.7 with index O practically nil. The professional density is one surgeon for 12.000 inhabitants. Abidjan population, despite the requirements in increasing care has not recourse to the dental surgeons for their assumption of responsibility. The general objective of our study is to describe the therapeutic itinerary in odonto-stomatology of the Abidjan population. We have realised a questionnaire survey beside of population sample. The results show that 25 per cent of our population gives up care despite the presence of pain or embarrassment. Our study has allowed highlighting all the other recourses to the care. Indeed, the people who give up the care have much other recourse which has be identified in order of importance: the modern and traditional self-medication. Let us note in our study, that the choice of dental surgeon knows a constant evolution from the first to the third recourse. The lack of financial means constitutes however the first obstacle at the accessibility to the oral care in Ivory Coast.

  11. Mineralogy of Clay Raw Materials from Cote d'ivoire: Case of the Deposit from Katiola

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kpangni, E. B.; Andji, Y. Y. J.; Adouby, K.; Oyetola, S.; Kra, G.; Yvon, J.

    This study deals with two clays referenced K1 and K2, used in the local and traditional manufacture of pottery ware at Katiola. Those samples were analysed by X-rays diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and thermal differential and chemical techniques. The results show that the samples (K1 and K2) are mainly composed of montmorillonite, kaolinite and illite. Only K1 is inter-stratified. The mineralogical balance achieved from the reflection (001) of the oriented film, indicate for K1: 74.5% of montmorillonite; 13.5% of inter-stratified clay; 7% of kaolinite and 5.4% of illite and for K2: 73.4% of montmorillonite; 23.5% of kaolinite and 3.1% of illite. The results also indicate that the raw material may not be use only for pottery. It can be consider in the protection of the environment, cosmetic industry, vegetable oil treatment, medicine etc.

  12. 3 CFR - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to Cote d'Ivoire

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Memorandum for the Secretary of State By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 2(c)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of... not to exceed $12.6 million from the United States Emergency Refugee and Migration Assistance...

  13. Educational Investments and Returns for Women and Men in Cote d'Ivoire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vijverberg, Wim P. M.

    1993-01-01

    Estimates of wage and nonfarm self-employment earnings in the Ivory Coast show that rates of return to education are high for both sexes, but men's wages exceed women's by a substantial margin for all but the most educated. (Author/SK)

  14. The Spread of Dyula and Popular French in Cote d'Ivoire: Implications for Language Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Djite, Paulin G.

    1988-01-01

    In the Ivory Coast, the official standard French has not been established as the language of the masses and is threatened by Dyula and a Popular French, two lingua francas that have potential as national languages even though the populations do not seem supportive of new language policy. (Author/MSE)

  15. [Assessment of measles diagnostic from gingival fluid in Côte d'Ivoire].

    PubMed

    Bénié, B V J; Attoh-Touré, H; Aka, L N B; Fofana, N; Tiembré, I; Dagnan, N S

    2015-10-01

    After the adoption of the Global Initiative for Measles Elimination in 2001, Côte d'Ivoire has created monitoring case by case. Thus, the diagnosis of measles from the gingival fluid was implemented, through a pilot project. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of this diagnostic test. We conducted a cross-sectional survey, in four health districts of Abidjan, during a period from July 2010 to December 2012. The study consisted in collecting gingival fluid and serum samples in all suspected measles children. These samples were analyzed by ELISA test at Pasteur Institute of Côte d'Ivoire. Standard formulas were used to calculate sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of oral fluid compared to serum taken as the "gold standard" and confidence intervals were estimated with error alpha risk (α =0.05). The concordance of kappa coefficient (k) was used to estimate agreement level between the results of oral fluid analysis and those of serum. The sensitivity and specificity of the test were 98% and 82% respectively while the positive predictive value and the negative predictive value were 84% and 98%. The comparison of oral fluid with the reference test showed high agreement, between 0.61 and 0.80. The diagnostic test on gingival fluid is acceptable because its sensitivity, specificity and negative predictive value had high level. Therefore it can be extended to all sanitary districts.

  16. Urban development and employment in Abidjan.

    PubMed

    Joshi, H; Lubell, H; Mouly, J

    1975-04-01

    The city of Abidjan in the Ivory Coast has grown physically, economically, and demographically at rates exceeding all reasonable expectation. Yet, as in many other development nations, the employment generated by Abidjan's rapid economic expansion has failed to keep pace with the increase in working population it has attracted. Consequently, economic success has been accompanied by a variety of social strains. Some of these have been discussed in earlier issues of the "International Labour Review" by Louis Roussel. This discussion expands on Roussel's earlier treatment by focusing more specifically on several facets of the urban employment problem created by the rapid growth of Abidjan. Attention is directed to labor supply and employment, factors affecting migration, foreign Africans in the Ivory Coast labor force; the urban informal sector; urban infrastructure and development; social problems of population pressure; employment policy options (current government policies and other policy options); and general issues and policy alternatives (motivations for rural urban migration, smaller urban centers as alternative growth poles, and distributing the gains from development). Several essential features of the employment problem stem from the rural urban distribution of the workforce. The rural labor force, including temporary seasonal workers from the savannah countries to the north, remains more or less in balance with increasing rural employment opportunities, since the migration of Ivory Coast nationals to the cities is balanced by the inflow of foreign workers. In contrast, the influx of migrants into urban areas has led to a more rapid increase in the urban labor force than in urban employment, with a consequent rise in unemployment. In 1970 the Abidjan rate of open unemployment was probably around 20%. At this time, most people's idea of a desirable job is one in the formal sector of the urban economy. If there is to be any hope of an eventual balance between

  17. Moving data off the shelf and into action: an intervention to improve data-informed decision making in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Nutley, Tara; Gnassou, Léontine; Traore, Moussa; Bosso, Abitche Edwige; Mullen, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Improving a health system requires data, but too often they are unused or under-used by decision makers. Without interventions to improve the use of data in decision making, health systems cannot meet the needs of the populations they serve. In 2008, in Côte d'Ivoire, data were largely unused in health decision-making processes. To implement and evaluate an intervention to improve the use of data in decision making in Cote d'Ivoire. From 2008 to 2012, Cote d'Ivoire sought to improve the use of national health data through an intervention that broadens participation in and builds links between data collection and decision-making processes; identifies information needs; improves data quality; builds capacity to analyze, synthesize, and interpret data; and develops policies to support data use. To assess the results, a Performance of Routine Information System Management Assessment was conducted before and after the intervention using a combination of purposeful and random sampling. In 2008, the sample consisted of the central level, 12 districts, and 119 facilities, and in 2012, the sample consisted of the central level, 20 districts, and 190 health facilities. To assess data use, we developed dichotomous indicators: discussions of analysis findings, decisions taken based on the analysis, and decisions referred to upper management for action. We aggregated the indicators to generate a composite, continuous index of data use. From 2008 to 2012, the district data-use score increased from 40 to 70%; the facility score remained the same - 38%. The central score is not reported, because of a methodological difference in the two assessments. The intervention improved the use of data in decision making at the district level in Côte d'Ivoire. This study provides an example of, and guidance for, implementing a large-scale intervention to improve data-informed decision making.

  18. Moving data off the shelf and into action: an intervention to improve data-informed decision making in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Nutley, Tara; Gnassou, Léontine; Traore, Moussa; Bosso, Abitche Edwige; Mullen, Stephanie

    2014-12-01

    Background Improving a health system requires data, but too often they are unused or under-used by decision makers. Without interventions to improve the use of data in decision making, health systems cannot meet the needs of the populations they serve. In 2008, in Côte d'Ivoire, data were largely unused in health decision-making processes. Objective To implement and evaluate an intervention to improve the use of data in decision making in Cote d'Ivoire. Design From 2008 to 2012, Cote d'Ivoire sought to improve the use of national health data through an intervention that broadens participation in and builds links between data collection and decision-making processes; identifies information needs; improves data quality; builds capacity to analyze, synthesize, and interpret data; and develops policies to support data use. To assess the results, a Performance of Routine Information System Management Assessment was conducted before and after the intervention using a combination of purposeful and random sampling. In 2008, the sample consisted of the central level, 12 districts, and 119 facilities, and in 2012, the sample consisted of the central level, 20 districts, and 190 health facilities. To assess data use, we developed dichotomous indicators: discussions of analysis findings, decisions taken based on the analysis, and decisions referred to upper management for action. We aggregated the indicators to generate a composite, continuous index of data use. Results From 2008 to 2012, the district data-use score increased from 40 to 70%; the facility score remained the same - 38%. The central score is not reported, because of a methodological difference in the two assessments. Conclusions The intervention improved the use of data in decision making at the district level in Côte d'Ivoire. This study provides an example of, and guidance for, implementing a large-scale intervention to improve data-informed decision making.

  19. Assessment of a Clinical Pharmacy Activity in a Pediatric Inpatient Department in Cote D’ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Abrogoua, Danho Pascal; Békégnran, César Pacôme; Gro, Bi Marius; Doffou, Elisée; Folquet, Madeleine Amorissani

    2016-01-01

    Background: Clinical pharmacy activities in a pediatric inpatient department help to improve the management of patients clinically and economically. Objective: To assess the relevance of pharmaceutical interventions (PIs) in a pediatric inpatient department in Abidjan (Cote d’Ivoire). Materials and Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional, descriptive study from February to September 2014. The information collected was classified according to the classification of drug-related problems (DRPs) and PIs of the French Society of Clinical Pharmacy. The score assigned to each PI varied from PI0 (without direct clinical impact) to PI3 (vital clinical impact) as the importance of the potential clinical impact of the DRP was correlated to the severity of clinical consequences avoided by the PI. The relevance of PIs was assessed by their rate of acceptance by physicians and by the analysis of their clinical impact. Results: A total of 116 PIs were performed with 31% performed during medical rounds, 68.1% during patients’ records analysis, and 0.1% on patient's admission. The main DRPs were related to noncompliance with recommendations (24.1%), overdose (21.1%), and underdosing (13.8%). The most important PIs were dose adjustment (31.8%), accuracy of drugs administration modalities (29.3%), and proposals of therapeutic choice (27.6%). The acceptance rate of PIs was highly significant (94.8%). The majority of PIs (67.3%) was assessed as having a significant clinical impact (PI1) and 16.4% of PIs as very significant clinical impact (PI2). A single PI (0.9%) was found with vital clinical impact. Conclusion: PIs performed were relevant and contributed to the therapeutic optimization and the prevention of iatrogenic events in pediatric inpatients. PMID:28104969

  20. Investigation of a Large Collection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Bacteriophages Collected from a Single Environmental Source in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Essoh, Christiane; Latino, Libera; Midoux, Cédric; Blouin, Yann; Loukou, Guillaume; Nguetta, Simon-Pierre A.; Lathro, Serge; Cablanmian, Arsher; Kouassi, Athanase K.; Vergnaud, Gilles; Pourcel, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Twenty two distinct bacteriophages were isolated from sewage water from five locations in the city of Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire over a two-year period, using a collection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains with diverse genotypes. The phages were characterized by their virulence spectrum on a panel of selected P. aeruginosa strains from cystic fibrosis patients and by whole genome sequencing. Twelve virions representing the observed diversity were visualised by electron microscopy. The combined observations showed that 17 phages, distributed into seven genera, were virulent, and that five phages were related to temperate phages belonging to three genera. Some showed similarity with known phages only at the protein level. The vast majority of the genetic variations among virulent phages from the same genus resulted from seemingly non-random horizontal transfer events, inside a population of P. aeruginosa phages with limited diversity. This suggests the existence of a single environmental reservoir or ecotype in which continuous selection is taking place. In contrast, mostly point mutations were observed among phages potentially capable of lysogenisation. This is the first study of P. aeruginosa phage diversity in an African city and it shows that a large variety of phage species can be recovered in a limited geographical site at least when different bacterial strains are used. The relative temporal and spatial stability of the Abidjan phage population might reflect equilibrium in the microbial community from which they are released. PMID:26115051

  1. Tumor size and stage of breast cancer in Côte d'Ivoire and Republic of Congo - Results from population-based cancer registries.

    PubMed

    Islami, Farhad; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Okello, Catherine; Adoubi, Innocent; Mbalawa, Charles Gombé; Ward, Elizabeth M; Parkin, D Maxwell; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2015-12-01

    Breast cancer is now the leading female cancer in sub-Saharan Africa, but there is relatively little information on breast cancer characteristics from this region. We studied, on a population basis, the size and stage of female breast cancer at diagnosis in Côte d'Ivoire and Republic of Congo. Data on tumor size and stage of breast cancer at diagnosis were collected by population-based cancer registries in Abidjan (the capital of Côte d'Ivoire; 141 cases) and Brazzaville (the capital of Republic of Congo; 139 cases) from a random group of female breast cancer cases that were diagnosed in 2008-2009 using the same protocol. The majority of breast cancers in both countries were advanced cancers. In Côte d'Ivoire, 68% of tumors were ≥5 cm in diameter and 74% of cancers were stage III or IV at diagnosis; the corresponding proportions in Republic of Congo were 63% and 81%. These results underscore the importance of increased awareness about early detection of breast cancer, as well as expansion of the capacity to provide appropriate diagnosis, treatment, and palliative care in sub-Saharan Africa. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Yersinia enterocolitica, a Neglected Cause of Human Enteric Infections in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Saraka, Daniel; Savin, Cyril; Kouassi, Stephane; Cissé, Bakary; Koffi, Eugène; Cabanel, Nicolas; Brémont, Sylvie; Faye-Kette, Hortense; Dosso, Mireille; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Yersinia circulate in the pig reservoir and are the third bacterial cause of human gastrointestinal infections in Europe. In West Africa, reports of human yersiniosis are rare. This study was conducted to determine whether pathogenic Yersinia are circulating in pig farms and are responsible for human infections in the Abidjan District. From June 2012 to December 2013, pig feces were collected monthly in 41 swine farms of the Abidjan district. Of the 781 samples collected, 19 Yersinia strains were isolated in 3 farms: 7 non-pathogenic Yersinia intermedia and 12 pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica bioserotype 4/O:3. Farm animals other than pigs and wild animals were not found infected. Furthermore, 2 Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 strains were isolated from 426 fecal samples of patients with digestive disorders. All 14 Y. enterocolitica strains shared the same PFGE and MLVA profile, indicating their close genetic relationship. However, while 6 of them displayed the usual phage type VIII, the other 8 had the highly infrequent phage type XI. Whole genome sequencing and SNP analysis of individual colonies revealed that phage type XI strains had unusually high rates of mutations. These strains displayed a hypermutator phenotype that was attributable to a large deletion in the mutS gene involved in DNA mismatch repair. This study demonstrates that pathogenic Y. enterocolitica circulate in the pig reservoir in Côte d'Ivoire and cause human infections with a prevalence comparable to that of many developed countries. The paucity of reports of yersiniosis in West Africa is most likely attributable to a lack of active detection rather than to an absence of the microorganism. The identification of hypermutator strains in pigs and humans is of concern as these strains can rapidly acquire selective advantages that may increase their fitness, pathogenicity or resistance to commonly used treatments.

  3. Health & Demographic Surveillance System Profile: The Taabo Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Koné, Siaka; Baikoro, Nahoua; N'Guessan, Yao; Jaeger, Fabienne N; Silué, Kigbafori D; Fürst, Thomas; Hürlimann, Eveline; Ouattara, Mamadou; Séka, Marie-Chantal Y; N'Guessan, Nicaise A; Esso, Emmanuel L J C; Zouzou, Fabien; Boti, Louis I; Gonety, Prosper T; Adiossan, Lukas G; Dao, Daouda; Tschannen, Andres B; von Stamm, Thomas; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Tanner, Marcel; Utzinger, Jürg; N'Goran, Eliézer K

    2015-02-01

    The Taabo Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) is located in south-central Côte d'Ivoire, approximately 150 km north-west of Abidjan. The Taabo HDSS started surveillance activities in early 2009 and the man-made Lake Taabo is a key eco-epidemiological feature. Since inception, there has been a strong interest in research and integrated control of water-associated diseases such as schistosomiasis and malaria. The Taabo HDSS has generated setting-specific evidence on the impact of targeted interventions against malaria, schistosomiasis and other neglected tropical diseases. The Taabo HDSS consists of a small town, 13 villages and over 100 hamlets. At the end of 2013, a total population of 42 480 inhabitants drawn from 6707 households was under surveillance. Verbal autopsies have been conducted to determine causes of death. Repeated cross-sectional epidemiological surveys on approximately 5-7% of the population and specific, layered-on haematological, parasitological and questionnaire surveys have been conducted. The Taabo HDSS provides a database for surveys, facilitates interdisciplinary research, as well as surveillance, and provides a platform for the evaluation of health interventions. Requests to collaborate and to access data are welcome and should be addressed to the secretariat of the Centre Suisse de Recherches Scientifiques en Côte d'Ivoire: [secretariat@csrs.ci]. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  4. Hypertension management in an outpatient clinic at the Institute of Cardiology of Abidjan (Ivory Coast).

    PubMed

    Kramoh, Euloge K; N'goran, Yves N K; Aké-Traboulsi, Evelyne; Anzouan-Kacou, Jean-Baptiste; Konin, Christophe K; Coulibaly, Iklo; Traoré, Fatoumata; Agbechi, Yao M; Guikahue, Maurice K

    2011-11-01

    Elevated blood pressure is one of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. To evaluate blood pressure management in Côte d'Ivoire. A retrospective study was conducted among 2575 hypertensive patients from the Institute of Cardiology of Abidjan, who were followed for at least 10 years, between January 2000 and December 2009. The patients' mean age ± standard deviation was 59.1 ± 12.5 years; 54.3% were women. At first presentation, hypertension was stage 1 in 21.7%, stage 2 in 32.3% and stage 3 in 46.0% of patients. According to the European guidelines' stratification of the cardiovascular risk-excess attributable to high blood pressure, 46.7% had a very high added risk, 37.8% had a high added risk and 14.9% had a low-to-moderate added risk. Pharmacological therapy was prescribed in 97.8% of patients; more than 66% were receiving at least two antihypertensive drugs, including fixed-dose combination drugs. The most common agents used were diuretics (59.7%) followed by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (59.6%). The most common agents for monotherapy were calcium antagonists. When two or more drugs were used, diuretics and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers were most commonly used. Blood pressure control was achieved in 43.7% of cases. In our series, severe hypertension with high added risk or very high added risk was very common. Treatment--mostly diuretics and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers--required at least two antihypertensive drugs to meet the recommended blood pressure target. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Management of hypertension in the elderly patient at abidjan cardiology institute (ivory coast).

    PubMed

    Kramoh, K E; Aké-Traboulsi, E; Konin, C; N'goran, Y; Coulibaly, I; Adoubi, A; Koffi, J; Anzouan-Kacou, J B; Guikahue, M

    2012-01-01

    Background. Since the treatment of hypertension is beneficial for the elderly, we have undertaken this study that aims to evaluate the management of hypertension in elderly patient in Côte d'Ivoire. Methods. A retrospective study was conducted among 854 hypertensive elderly patients of Abidjan Cardiology Institute who were followed for a minimum of one year, between January 2000 and December 2009. Results. The patients mean age was 73.1 ± 5.3 years, and 59% were women. At the first presentation, it was mostly systolic-diastolic hypertension (51.8%) and isolated systolic hypertension (38.5%). Mean blood pressure was 169.4 ± 28.4 mmHg for systolic, 95.3 ± 15.7 mmHg for diastolic, and 74.1 ± 22.8 mmHg for pulse pressure. Pulse pressure was ≥60 mmHg in 80.4%. According to the European Guidelines stratification of the cardiovascular risk-excess attributable to high blood pressure, 82.1% of the sample had a very high added risk. The pharmacological therapy was prescribed in 93.5%. More than 66% of patients were receiving ≥2 antihypertensive drugs including fixed-dose combination drugs. The most common agents used were diuretics (63.5%) followed by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers in 61.3%. The most common agents used for monotherapy were calcium antagonists. When ≥2 drugs were used, diuretics and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers were the most common. Blood pressure control was achieved in 42.6%. Conclusion. The control of elderly hypertension can be effective in Sub-Saharan Africa. He required at least two antihypertensive drugs to meet the recommended blood pressure target.

  6. Management of Hypertension in the Elderly Patient at Abidjan Cardiology Institute (Ivory Coast)

    PubMed Central

    Kramoh, K. E.; Aké-Traboulsi, E.; Konin, C.; N'goran, Y.; Coulibaly, I.; Adoubi, A.; Koffi, J.; Anzouan-Kacou, J. B.; Guikahue, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Since the treatment of hypertension is beneficial for the elderly, we have undertaken this study that aims to evaluate the management of hypertension in elderly patient in Côte d'Ivoire. Methods. A retrospective study was conducted among 854 hypertensive elderly patients of Abidjan Cardiology Institute who were followed for a minimum of one year, between January 2000 and December 2009. Results. The patients mean age was 73.1 ± 5.3 years, and 59% were women. At the first presentation, it was mostly systolic-diastolic hypertension (51.8%) and isolated systolic hypertension (38.5%). Mean blood pressure was 169.4 ± 28.4 mmHg for systolic, 95.3 ± 15.7 mmHg for diastolic, and 74.1 ± 22.8 mmHg for pulse pressure. Pulse pressure was ≥60 mmHg in 80.4%. According to the European Guidelines stratification of the cardiovascular risk-excess attributable to high blood pressure, 82.1% of the sample had a very high added risk. The pharmacological therapy was prescribed in 93.5%. More than 66% of patients were receiving ≥2 antihypertensive drugs including fixed-dose combination drugs. The most common agents used were diuretics (63.5%) followed by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers in 61.3%. The most common agents used for monotherapy were calcium antagonists. When ≥2 drugs were used, diuretics and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers were the most common. Blood pressure control was achieved in 42.6%. Conclusion. The control of elderly hypertension can be effective in Sub-Saharan Africa. He required at least two antihypertensive drugs to meet the recommended blood pressure target. PMID:22028955

  7. [Dental amalgams and mercury polemic in Abidjan].

    PubMed

    Avoaka-Boni, M-C; Adou-Assoumou, N M; Sinan, A A; Abouattier-Mansilla, E C

    2007-12-01

    Dental amalgam is metallic biomaterials which has raised a number of controversies in the past few years, because of mercury potential toxicity. Considering the significance of theses controversies, this study was carried out with a view to evaluating the behaviour of Abidjan-based practitioners with respect to dental amalgam. The contemplated objective is to determine the frequency in the use of dental amalgam, to identify the problems encountered using dental amalgam and to propose solutions for fighting mercury contamination. The results show that dental amalgam is used in 81.8% for posterior teeth restoration. The side effects mentioned are metallic taste, gingival tattoo, galvanic corrosion and tooth pain. This is why 21.8 % of practitioners believe that the controversy over dental amalgam has merits while 45.5% hold the contrary opinion because of lack of scientific arguments. However, considering the absence of means to treat amalgam waste, dentist practitioners and authorities have to get involved to fight against mercury contamination.

  8. Mapping malaria risk among children in Côte d'Ivoire using Bayesian geo-statistical models.

    PubMed

    Raso, Giovanna; Schur, Nadine; Utzinger, Jürg; Koudou, Benjamin G; Tchicaya, Emile S; Rohner, Fabian; N'goran, Eliézer K; Silué, Kigbafori D; Matthys, Barbara; Assi, Serge; Tanner, Marcel; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2012-05-09

    In Côte d'Ivoire, an estimated 767,000 disability-adjusted life years are due to malaria, placing the country at position number 14 with regard to the global burden of malaria. Risk maps are important to guide control interventions, and hence, the aim of this study was to predict the geographical distribution of malaria infection risk in children aged <16 years in Côte d'Ivoire at high spatial resolution. Using different data sources, a systematic review was carried out to compile and geo-reference survey data on Plasmodium spp. infection prevalence in Côte d'Ivoire, focusing on children aged <16 years. The period from 1988 to 2007 was covered. A suite of Bayesian geo-statistical logistic regression models was fitted to analyse malaria risk. Non-spatial models with and without exchangeable random effect parameters were compared to stationary and non-stationary spatial models. Non-stationarity was modelled assuming that the underlying spatial process is a mixture of separate stationary processes in each ecological zone. The best fitting model based on the deviance information criterion was used to predict Plasmodium spp. infection risk for entire Côte d'Ivoire, including uncertainty. Overall, 235 data points at 170 unique survey locations with malaria prevalence data for individuals aged <16 years were extracted. Most data points (n = 182, 77.4%) were collected between 2000 and 2007. A Bayesian non-stationary regression model showed the best fit with annualized rainfall and maximum land surface temperature identified as significant environmental covariates. This model was used to predict malaria infection risk at non-sampled locations. High-risk areas were mainly found in the north-central and western area, while relatively low-risk areas were located in the north at the country border, in the north-east, in the south-east around Abidjan, and in the central-west between two high prevalence areas. The malaria risk map at high spatial resolution gives an

  9. Malnutrition: prevalence and risk factors among the children younger than five years in a semi-urban area of Abidjan.

    PubMed

    Sackou Kouakou, J G; Aka, B S; Hounsa, A E; Attia, R; Wilson, R; Ake, O; Oga, S; Houenou, Y; Kouadio, L

    2016-08-01

    In Côte d'Ivoire, the prevalence of malnutrition among children younger than 5 years exceeded 5% in 2011 and was thus considered serious. This overall prevalence may nonetheless mask differences and specificities between regions and municipalities. This study sought to determine the prevalence and risk factors of malnutrition among children in this age group in a semi-urban area of Abidjan. This exhaustive, descriptive, cross-sectional survey took place from May 6 to July 31, 2010. The children's nutritional status was determined according to the WHO criteria. Univariate and multivariate analysis of factors associated with malnutrition (social and demographic characteristics, immunization status, children's eating practices, and household characteristics) were studied. We visited 668 households and recruited 809 children. The prevalence of malnutrition was 22.5%. Multivariate analysis showed that the introduction of porridge after 6 months halved the risk of malnutrition. Risk tripled for children whose father's occupation did not guarantee a regular income. Among the factors highlighted by this study, dietary practices seem the most amenable to corrective action. For example, the adoption of outreach programs by the Maternal and Child Protection services could improve nutritional practices in households.

  10. Modeling hydrodynamics in the Ebrié Lagoon (Côte d'Ivoire)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenon, I.; Mondé, S.; Pouvreau, N.; Maurin, J. C.

    2004-06-01

    A two-dimensional depth-averaged model for tide propagation is used to determine the respective impact of several forcings on water mass circulation in the Ebrié lagoon (Côte d'Ivoire). This lagoon is connected to the Atlantic through a narrow artificial channel and supplied with freshwater by a major river. A real tide is imposed at the seaward boundary through the main harmonic components. Tides propagate from the mouth of the channel. The tidal amplitude decreases with distance from the sea connection while the shallow water depth deforms the tidal wave. A large asymmetry in water circulation shows up throughout the lagoon: very limited to the western part of the lagoon, correlated with the freshwater discharge in the eastern part, fully tide-controlled in the central part. The trade winds (south-west direction) have been verified as an important driving force, acting in the whole lagoon and generating a set-up of the tide amplitude in the area of Abidjan harbour.

  11. Seven native cases of dengue in Abidjan, Ivory Coast.

    PubMed

    Aoussi, E B F; Ehui, E; Kassi, N A; Kouakou, G; Nouhou, Y; Adjogoua, E V; Eholié, S; Bissagnéné, E

    2014-09-01

    We had for aim to describe the epidemiological, clinical, biological, and outcome features of dengue fever in Abidjan, in 2010. We retrospectively studied the files of patients hospitalized for dengue fever in 2010, in Abidjan. The diagnosis was made on clinical symptoms and positive dengue PCR and/or IgM. Seven patients were included (5 men, 2 women, median age of 51years [31-65years]). They presented with a febrile pain syndrome (n=7), jaundice (n=3), rash (n=2), and hematemesis complicated by thrombocytopenia (n=6) and leukopenia (n=5). Three patients had a positive IgM serology and 4 had a positive dengue PCR for DENV-3. The outcome was favorable for 6 patients, and 1 patient died of severe hemorrhage. The authors advocate the implementation of epidemiological surveillance of dengue and vector control in the Ivory Coast. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. 76 FR 50284 - Request for Public Comments on Interim Review of Eligibility of Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea, and Niger...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ..., Guinea, and Niger for Benefits Under the African Growth and Opportunity Act AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: The African Growth and... Niger to receive the benefits of the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA). The Subcommittee...

  13. Surgical experience on chronic constrictive pericarditis in African setting: review of 35 years' experience in Cote d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Yangni-Angate, Koffi Herve; Tanauh, Yves; Meneas, Christophe; Diby, Florent; Adoubi, Anicet; Diomande, Manga

    2016-10-01

    Surgical experience with chronic constrictive pericarditis (CCP) is rarely documented in Africa; the aim of this study is therefore to review our African experience with CCP from 1977 to 2012 in terms of clinical and surgical outcomes and risk factors of early death after pericardiectomy. This retrospective study is related to 120 patients with CCP; there were 72 men and 48 women with an average age at 28.8±10.4 years standard deviation (SD) (8-51 years). The main etiology was tuberculosis (99%). Symptoms secondary to systemic venous congestion were always present: patient were functionally classified according New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional classification: 63 patients presented in class II NYHA and 57 in class III or IV NYHA. The diagnosis confirmed by surgical report was: sub-acute CCP (n=12; 10%), fibrous CCP (n=36; 30%), calcified CCP (n=72; 60%). A pericardiectomy including an epicardiectomy with a systematic release of the ventricles was carried out in every case. Median sternotomy was frequently performed (n=117; 97.5%). Fifteen early deaths (12.5%) were observed, the cause of hospital deaths was due to a low cardiac output (n=12) and to a hepatic failure (n=3). Class III or IV (NYHA) (P=0.01), mitral regurgitation (P<0.05), persistent a diastolic syndrome after surgery (P<0.05) and low cardiac index (CI) (P<0.02) were the important risk factors. Age, size of cardiac X-ray silhouette, right and left ventricular diastolic pressures, ejection fraction (EF), atrial fibrillation and pericardial calcifications had no impact on early survival. The average follow up was 4 years (1-10 years); we lost 22 patients during follow-up. Among survivors, there was no late death; the patients were in class I or II NYHA. Post-operative catheterization evaluation (n=30) shown a significant decrease of the right and left ventricular end-diastolic pressures (P<0.05), of the pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) (P<0.05) and of the right atrial pressure (RAP) (P<0.05) and a disappearance of the lack of ventricular diastolic distensibility. Based on our experience, CCP surgery can be performed safely with an acceptable hospital mortality and a significant improvement of patients' functional status at long term after surgery.

  14. The HRD Competencies as Perceived by the Human Resource Development Professionals in Banks in Cote d'Ivoire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konan, Affoue Zitagisele

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify how Ivorian HRD professionals in banks perceived their current expertise levels of the HRD competencies, and how these professionals perceived the importance of these competencies needed to be successful in their occupations. In addition, this study determined competencies that are perceived to have the…

  15. [Acceptability of HIV testing provided to infants in pediatric services in Cote d'Ivoire, meanings for pediatric diagnostic coverage].

    PubMed

    Oga, Maxime; Brou, Hermann; Dago-Akribi, Hortense; Coffie, Patrick; Amani-Bossé, Clarisse; Ekouévi, Didier; Yapo, Vincent; Menan, Hervé; Ndondoki, Camille; Timité-Konan, M; Leroy, Valériane

    2014-01-01

    HIV testing in children had rarely been a central concern for researchers. When pediatric tracking retained the attention, it was more to inform on the diagnosis tools' performances rather than the fact the pediatric test can be accepted or refused. This article highlights the parents' reasons which explain why pediatric HIV test is accepted or refused. To study among parents, the explanatory factors of the acceptability of pediatric HIV testing among infant less than six months. Semi-structured interview with repeated passages in the parents of infants less than six months attending in health care facilities for the pediatric weighing/vaccination and consultations. We highlight that the parents' acceptance of the pediatric HIV screening is based on three elements. Firstly, the health care workers by his speech (which indicates its own knowledge and perceptions on the infection) directed towards mothers' influences their acceptance or not of the HIV test. Secondly, the mother who by her knowledge and perceptions on HIV, whose particular status, give an impression of her own wellbeing for her and her child influences any acceptance of the pediatric HIV test. Thirdly, the marital environment of the mother, particularly characterized by the ease of communication within the couple, to speak about the HIV test and its realization for the parents or the mother only are many factors which influence the effective realization of the pediatric HIV testing. The preventive principle of HIV transmission and the desire to realize the test in the newborn are not enough alone to lead to its effective realization, according to certain mothers confronted with the father's refusal. On the other hand, the other mothers refusing the realization of the pediatric test told to be opposed to it; of course, even if their partner would accept it. The mothers are the principal facing the pediatric HIV question and fear the reprimands and stigma. The father, the partner could be an obstacle, when he is opposed to the infant HIV testing, or also the facilitator with his realization if he is convinced. The father position thus remains essential face to the question of pediatric HIV testing acceptability. The mothers are aware of this and predict the difficulties of achieving their infant to be tested without the preliminary opinion of their partner at the same time father, and head of the family. The issue of pediatric HIV testing, at the end of our analysis, highlights three elements which require a comprehensive management to improve the coverage of pediatric HIV test. These three elements would not exist without being influenced; therefore they are constantly in interaction and prevent or support the realization or not pediatric test. Also, with the aim to improve the pediatric HIV test coverage, it is necessary to take into account the harmonious management of these elements. Firstly, the mother alone (with her knowledge, and perceptions), its marital environment (with the proposal of the HIV test integrating (1) the partner and/or father with his perceptions and knowledge on HIV infection and (2) facility of speaking about the test and its realization at both or one about the parents, the mother) and of the knowledge, attitudes and practices about the infection of health care workers of the sanitary institution. Our recommendations proposed taking into account a redefinition of the HIV/AIDS approach towards the families exposed to HIV and a more accentuated integration of the father facilitating their own HIV test acceptation and that of his child.

  16. L'Enonce Toura-Cote d'Ivoire (The Spoken Language of Toura-Ivory Coast).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearth, Thomas

    The spoken language of Toura, a language spoken by nearly 20,000 inhabitants of a mountainous region situated in the north of Man, the administrative center of the West Ivory Coast, is systematically analyzed in this linguistic study. Sixteen major chapters include: (1) grammatical generalizations, (2) phonemic unities, (3) classification of…

  17. The HRD Competencies as Perceived by the Human Resource Development Professionals in Banks in Cote d'Ivoire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konan, Affoue Zitagisele

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify how Ivorian HRD professionals in banks perceived their current expertise levels of the HRD competencies, and how these professionals perceived the importance of these competencies needed to be successful in their occupations. In addition, this study determined competencies that are perceived to have the…

  18. Risk of Vibrio transmission linked to the consumption of crustaceans in coastal towns of Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Traoré, S G; Bonfoh, B; Krabi, R; Odermatt, P; Utzinger, J; Rose, K-N; Tanner, M; Frey, J; Quilici, M-L; Koussémon, M

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of Vibrio spp. transmission from crustaceans to humans in two coastal towns of Côte d'Ivoire. Bacteriologic analysis was performed on 322 crustacean samples obtained from six markets in Abidjan and one in Dabou. Suspected Vibrio colonies were identified by morphological, cultural, biochemical, and molecular tests and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. PCR assays were used to further characterize Vibrio strains. A survey on consumption of crustaceans was conducted among 120 randomly selected households in Abidjan. Overall, Vibrio spp. were isolated from 7.8% of the crustacean samples studied, at levels as high as 6.3 log CFU/g. Of the Vibrio strains identified, 40% were V. alginolyticus, 36% were V. parahaemolyticus, and 24% were nontoxigenic V. cholerae; the latter two species can cause mild to severe forms of seafood-associated gastroenteritis. Among interviewed households, 11.7% reported daily consumption of crustaceans, confirming the high probability of exposure of human population to Vibrio spp., and 7.5% reported symptoms of food poisoning after consumption of crustaceans. The absence of genes encoding major virulence factors in the studied strains, i.e., cholera toxin (ctxA and ctxB) in V. cholerae and thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh) and thermostable direct hemolysin-related hemolysin (trh) in V. parahaemolyticus, does not exclude the possibility of exposure to pathogenic strains. However, human infections are not common because most households (96.7%) boil crustaceans, usually for at least 45 min (85.9% of households) before consumption.

  19. [Epidemiology of otomycoses at the University Hospital of Yopougon (Abidjan-Ivory Coast)].

    PubMed

    Adoubryn, K D; N'Gattia, V K; Kouadio-Yapo, G C; Nigué, L; Zika, D K; Ouhon, J

    2014-06-01

    Otomycosis is a fungal infection, which leads to a damage of the external auditory meatus. The disease is worldwide in distribution but is said to be more common in tropical countries. Though otomycosis presumably occurs frequently in Africa, reports on its incidence and etiology are rare from Côte d'Ivoire. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of the disease and to identify aetiological agents as well as the risk factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out in the Otorhinolaryngology Department of the University Teaching Hospital of Yopougon from September 2007 to February 2008. For laboratory investigation, specimens were collected by means of a sterile swab. Samples were inoculated on Sabouraud's Dextrose Agar with and without antibiotics and incubated at 30°C for a period of 1 to 2 weeks. Identification was performed by direct microscopic examination on Cotton Blue Mount preparation and slide culture examination was used for differentiation of morphology. Biotyping was performed using Carbohydrate Fermentation tests, Carbohydrate Assimilation Tests (galerie Api 20 CAux TM - Sanofi Pasteur), Germ tube Test, detection of chlamydospore formation on corn meal agar. A total of 110 patients (sex-ratio=1.2) with suspected cases of otomycosis were investigated. Itching, otalgia, and hypoacusis were the symptoms reported by the patients and the apparent signs were debris in the ear, scabs and inflammation of the external auditory meatus. Of these, 88 cases (80%) were confirmed specifically of mycotic etiology on the basis of positive culture with 92 isolates consisting of yeasts (65.2%) and moulds (34.8%). The predominant etiological agents were Aspergillus flavus (28.4%), Candida guilliermondii (19.3%) and Candida parapsilosis (18.2%). The predisposing factors included previous otological pathology (P=0.010), frequent scratching of the external ear canal and use of ear drops (RR=3.47; IC 95%=1.3-9.27). This study revealed the great

  20. [Anaemia, iron index status and acute phase proteins in malaria (Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire)].

    PubMed

    Ahiboh, H; Oga, A S; Yapi, H F; Kouakou, G; Boua, K D; Edjeme, N; Monnet, D

    2008-02-01

    Clinical signs of malaria are the combined expression of several biological mechanisms. During this parasite infection, anaemia can be the consequence of several different pathogenic mechanisms. It can be an acute haemolytic anaemia due to a mechanical and immune action of the parasite or an inflammation. Besides, in Africa malaria matches with iron deficiency area. So, malarial anaemia in tropical area can be a characteristic of iron deficiency The purpose of this survey was to define the features of malarial anaemia and elucidate the link of all biological processes involved. A black population living in tropical urban areas, with fever and diagnosed Plasmodium-infection was assessed. Parasitaemia, haemoglobin, hematocrit, average corpuscular volume and average corpuscular haemoglobin were determined. For each patient, iron index status and acute phase protein were assessed with the plasmatic iron, ferritin, haptoglobin, transferrin and C-reactive protein. Regardless of gender and age, the characteristics of malarial anaemia are microcythaemia and hypochromia. Anaemia occurs as frequently as parasitaemia is high. When parasitaemia is low anaemia gets a haemolytic feature. When parasitaemia is high, anaemia gets haemolytic and inflammatory features. Anaemia occurs more often with a good iron index status.

  1. [Heterophile interference: an experimental method of depleting rheumatoid factor from sera in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire].

    PubMed

    N'Guessan, K; Dassé, S R; Yébouah, O R; Kouacou, A P V; Séka, S J

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatoid factor (RF) is a major source of interference in immunoassays. Several methods have been proposed to eliminate interference. We experimented with a new technique based on the depletion of rheumatoid factor from serum samples. Our study included 150 samples, 64 of them positive for RF. Depletion was performed by the adsorption of RF from the sample by latex beads sensitized with human IgG anti-RF. After precipitation of the complexes formed, the supernatant was tested for RF. Finally, we assessed the performance of this RF depletion method with two tests: ELISA Enzygnost Enzygnost anti-HBs micro-Behring and IFI falciparum Ref 75521 Biomerieux. We compared the percentages of false-negative and false-positive results of these tests before and after depletion of the RF-positive serum samples. Efficiency index is 92.2% and the performance of the two immunoassay tests improved significantly by a factor of 2 to 25 after depletion. In addition, this technique is easy, inexpensive, fast, and suitable to our limited resources as a developing country. It should be extended to other immunological tests for validation of the results.

  2. Spatial mapping and prediction of Plasmodium falciparum infection risk among school-aged children in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Houngbedji, Clarisse A; Chammartin, Frédérique; Yapi, Richard B; Hürlimann, Eveline; N'Dri, Prisca B; Silué, Kigbafori D; Soro, Gotianwa; Koudou, Benjamin G; Assi, Serge-Brice; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Fantodji, Agathe; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope; Raso, Giovanna

    2016-09-07

    In Côte d'Ivoire, malaria remains a major public health issue, and thus a priority to be tackled. The aim of this study was to identify spatially explicit indicators of Plasmodium falciparum infection among school-aged children and to undertake a model-based spatial prediction of P. falciparum infection risk using environmental predictors. A cross-sectional survey was conducted, including parasitological examinations and interviews with more than 5,000 children from 93 schools across Côte d'Ivoire. A finger-prick blood sample was obtained from each child to determine Plasmodium species-specific infection and parasitaemia using Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood films. Household socioeconomic status was assessed through asset ownership and household characteristics. Children were interviewed for preventive measures against malaria. Environmental data were gathered from satellite images and digitized maps. A Bayesian geostatistical stochastic search variable selection procedure was employed to identify factors related to P. falciparum infection risk. Bayesian geostatistical logistic regression models were used to map the spatial distribution of P. falciparum infection and to predict the infection prevalence at non-sampled locations via Bayesian kriging. Complete data sets were available from 5,322 children aged 5-16 years across Côte d'Ivoire. P. falciparum was the predominant species (94.5 %). The Bayesian geostatistical variable selection procedure identified land cover and socioeconomic status as important predictors for infection risk with P. falciparum. Model-based prediction identified high P. falciparum infection risk in the north, central-east, south-east, west and south-west of Côte d'Ivoire. Low-risk areas were found in the south-eastern area close to Abidjan and the south-central and west-central part of the country. The P. falciparum infection risk and related uncertainty estimates for school-aged children in Côte d'Ivoire represent the most up

  3. Cervical cancer prevention in reproductive health services: knowledge, attitudes and practices of midwives in Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Tchounga, Boris K; Jaquet, Antoine; Coffie, Patrick A; Horo, Apollinaire; Sauvaget, Catherine; Adoubi, Innocent; Guie, Privat; Dabis, François; Sasco, Annie J; Ekouevi, Didier K

    2014-04-11

    Cervical cancer is the most common cancer among women and the leading cause of cancer deaths in women in Côte d'Ivoire. Low resource countries can now prevent this cancer by using HPV vaccine and effective and affordable screening tests. However the implementation of these prevention strategies needs well-trained human resources. Part of the solution could come from midwives by integrating cervical cancer prevention into reproductive health services. The aim of this survey was to assess knowledge, attitudes and practices of midwives towards cervical cancer prevention in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, and to find out factors associated with appropriate knowledge. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among midwives in the urban district of Abidjan, using a self-administered questionnaire. Knowledge was assessed by two scores. Factors associated with appropriate knowledge were determined using a logistic regression analysis. Attitudes and practices were described and compare using the Chi2 test. A total of 592 midwives were enrolled, including 24.5% of final-year students. 55.7% of midwives had appropriate knowledge on cervical cancer, and 42.4% of them had appropriate knowledge on cervical cancer prevention strategies. Conferences, courses taken at school of midwifery and special training sessions on cervical cancer (OR = 4.9, 95% CI [1.9 to 12.6], p <0.01) were associated with good knowledge on the management of this disease. Among these midwives, 18.4% had already benefited from a screening test for themselves, 37.7% had already advised screening to patients and 8.4% were able to perform a visual inspection. 50.3% of midwives knew HPV vaccine as a preventive method; among them 70.8% usually recommended it to young girls. Despite sufficient knowledge about cervical cancer prevention, attitudes and practices of midwives should be improved by organizing capacity building activities. This would ensure the success of integration of cervical cancer prevention into

  4. Identification of yeasts during alcoholic fermentation of tchapalo, a traditional sorghum beer from Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    N'guessan, Kouadio Florent; Brou, Kouakou; Jacques, Noémie; Casaregola, Serge; Dje, Koffi Marcellin

    2011-05-01

    This study investigated the diversity and dynamics of yeasts involved in alcoholic fermentation of a traditional sorghum beer from Côte d'Ivoire, tchapalo. A total of 240 yeast strains were isolated from fermenting sorghum wort inoculated with dry yeast from two geographic regions of Côte d'Ivoire (Abidjan and Bondoukou). Initial molecular identification to the species level was carried out using RFLP of PCR-amplified internal transcribed spacers of rDNA (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2). Ten different profiles were obtained from the restriction of PCR products with the three endonucleases HaeIII, CfoI and HinfI. Sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rDNA and the ACT1 gene allowed us to assign these groups to six different species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae-like, Candida tropicalis, Pichia kudriavzevii, Pichia kluyveri, Kodamaea ohmeri and Meyerozyma caribbica. The most frequent species associated with tchapalo fermentation was S. cerevisiae-like (87.36%), followed by C. tropicalis (5.45%) and M. caribbica (2.71%). S. cerevisiae-like strains were diploid heterozygotes and exhibited three to four nucleotides divergence from the type strain in the D1/D2 domain and several indels in the more discriminant sequence of the intron of the ACT1 gene. During the process, the yeast species isolated and their frequencies varied according to the geographic origin of the dry yeast. The occurrence of some species was sporadic and only two non-Saccharomyces species were found in the final product.

  5. [Toxic waste and health effects in Abidjan City, Ivory Coast].

    PubMed

    Bohand, X; Monpeurt, C; Bohand, S; Cazoulat, A

    2007-12-01

    Accidental chemical pollution can have serious effects on human health. In 2006, the tanker vessel Probo Koala discharged hundreds of tons of toxic waste at many sites in Abidjan City, Ivory Coast. In the following days and weeks, thousands of people presented signs of poisoning. Analysis of the waste demonstrated the presence of toxic chemicals such as mercaptans and hydrogen sulfide. The final toll was 8 dead, dozens hospitalized, and about 100,000 seeking medical advice. This event provides evidence that, like international immigration, exportation of industrial waste can result in serious public health hazards.

  6. Beneficial effects of offering prenatal HIV counselling and testing on developing a HIV preventive attitude among couples. Abidjan, 2002-2005.

    PubMed

    Desgrées-Du-Loû, Annabel; Brou, Hermann; Djohan, Gérard; Becquet, Renaud; Ekouevi, Didier K; Zanou, Benjamin; Viho, Ida; Allou, Gerard; Dabis, Francois; Leroy, Valériane

    2009-04-01

    Prenatal HIV counselling and testing is mainly an entry-point to the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, but it may also play an important role in triggering the development of spousal communication about HIV and sexual risks and thus the adoption of a preventive attitude. In Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, we investigated couple communication on STIs and HIV, male partner HIV-testing and condom use at sex resumption after delivery among three groups of pregnant women who were offered prenatal counselling and HIV testing: HIV-infected women, uninfected women, and women who refused HIV-testing. The proportion of women who discussed STIs with their regular partner greatly increased after prenatal HIV counselling and testing in all three groups, irrespective of the women's serostatus and even in the case of test refusal. Spousal communication was related to more frequent male partner HIV-testing and condom use. Prenatal HIV counselling and testing proposal appears to be an efficient tool to sensitize women and their partner to safer sexual practices.

  7. [Impact of a targeted technical assistance to improve vaccine coverage in Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, and Mauritania in 2014].

    PubMed

    Ahanhanzo, Y Glèlè; Palenfo, D; Saussier, C; Gbèdonou, P; Tonda, A; Da Silva, A; Aplogan, A

    2016-08-01

    Within the framework of its strategic goal of vaccine coverage (VC) improvement, GAVI, The Vaccine Alliance has entrusted the Agence de médecine préventive (agency for preventive medicine, AMP) with technical assistance services to Cameroon, Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast), and Mauritania. This support was provided to selected priority districts (PDs) with the worst Penta3 coverage performances. In 2014, PDs benefited from technical and management capacities in vaccinology strengthening for district medical officers, supportive supervisions and technical assistance in health logistics, data management and quality. We analyzed the effects of the AMP technical assistance on the improvement of the cumulative Penta3 coverage, which is the key performance indicator of the expanded programme on immunization (EPI) performance. We compared Penta3 coverage between PDs and other non-priority districts (NPDs), Penta3 coverage evolution within each PD, and the distribution of PDs and NPDs according to Penta3 coverage category between January and December 2014. Technical assistance had a positive effect on the EPI performance. Indeed Penta3 coverage progression was higher in PDs than in NPDs throughout the period. Besides, between January and December 2014, the Penta3 VC increased in 70%, 100% and 86% of DPs in Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire and Mauritania, respectively. Furthermore, the increase in the number of PDs with a Penta3 coverage over 80% was higher in DPs than in NPDs: 20% versus 8% for Cameroon, 58% versus 29% for Côte d'Ivoire and 17% versus 8% for Mauritania. Despite positive and encouraging results, this technical assistance service can be improved and efforts are needed to ensure that all health districts have a VC above 80% for all EPI vaccines. The current challenge is for African countries to mobilize resources for maintaining the knowledge and benefits and scaling such interventions in the public health area.

  8. [Integration of demographic factors in the characterization of risk areas for sleeping sickness in Côte d'Ivoire].

    PubMed

    Fournet, F; Kone, A; Meda, A H; Traore, S; Hervouet, J P

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to classify the risk for transmission of African human trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) according to population and settlement densities in four different areas of Zoukougbeu, Cote d'Ivoire, where the exact location of cases reported since 1990 is known. Epidemiological risk indexes were calculated from entomological data obtained from three surveys and analyzed with respect to presence of patients and occupancy rate in each area. Results indicated that there was a risk of transmission near the village of Bahigbeu II where the population density is between 30 and 40 inhabitants per km2 and settlement density is 4 per km2. There was also a risk in less inhabited areas such as Ouatigbeu where the population density is less than 30 inhabitants per km2 and dwelling density less than 4 per km2. In fact, cases are regularly reported in Ouatigbeu but never in Bahigbeu II. Based on these findings, we conclude that, while land occupancy can be considered as a risk factor for sleeping sickness, other factors such as human mobility must be taken into account to characterize risk areas and predict outbreaks.

  9. Cervical cancer screening by visual inspection in Côte d'Ivoire, operational and clinical aspects according to HIV status

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer screening is not yet standard of care of women attending HIV care clinics in Africa and presents operational challenges that need to be addressed. Methods A cervical cancer screening program based on visual inspection methods was conducted in clinics providing antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. An itinerant team of midwives was in charge of proposing cervical cancer screening to all HIV-positive women enrolled in ART clinics as well as to HIV-negative women who were attending the Abidjan national blood donor clinic. Positively screened women were systematically referred to a colposcopic examination. A phone-based tracking procedure was implemented to reach positively screened women who did not attend the medical consultation. The association between HIV status and cervical cancer screening outcomes was estimated using a multivariate logistic model. Results The frequency of positive visual inspection was 9.0% (95% CI 8.0-10.0) in the 2,998 HIV-positive women and 3.9% (95% CI 2.7-5.1) in the 1,047 HIV-negative ones (p < 10-4). In multivariate analysis, HIV infection was associated with a higher risk of positive visual inspection [OR = 2.28 (95% CI 1.61-3.23)] as well as more extensive lesions involving the endocervical canal [OR = 2.42 (95% CI 1.15-5.08)]. The use of a phone-based tracking procedure enabled a significant reduction of women not attending medical consultation after initial positive screening from 36.5% to 19.8% (p < 10-4). Conclusion The higher frequency of positive visual inspection among HIV-positive women supports the need to extend cervical cancer screening program to all HIV clinics in West Africa. Women loss to follow-up after being positively screened is a major concern in cervical screening programs but yet, partly amenable to a phone tracking procedure. PMID:22443255

  10. Molecular Epidemiology of Malaria in Cameroon and Côte d'Ivoire. XXXI. Kelch 13 Propeller Sequences in Plasmodium falciparum Isolates before and after Implementation of Artemisinin-Based Combination Therapy.

    PubMed

    Djaman, Joseph Allico; Olefongo, Dagnogo; Ako, Aristide Berenger; Roman, Jocelyne; Ngane, Vincent Foumane; Basco, Leonardo K; Tahar, Rachida

    2017-07-01

    Artemisinin-resistant malaria has not been reported from Africa, but resistance can possibly spread from Asia or arise independently in Africa. The emergence of artemisinin resistance in Africa can be monitored by molecular assay of Kelch 13 (K13) propeller sequences. A total of 251 archived DNA samples of Plasmodium falciparum isolates collected in 2002, 2003, and 2006 in Yaounde, Cameroon, and 47 samples collected in 2006 and 2013 in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, were analyzed for K13-propeller sequence polymorphism. Only one isolate carried a mutant K13-propeller allele (E602D). None of the isolates carried the key mutant alleles (Y493H, R539T, I543T, and C580Y) associated with artemisinin resistance in Cambodia. The presence of the mutant allele was not correlated with in vitro response to dihydroartemisinin determined by the classical hypoxanthine incorporation assay. There was no evidence of K13 mutations associated with artemisinin resistance before and soon after the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapies in Cameroon and Côte d'Ivoire.

  11. No Paragonimus in high-risk groups in Côte d'Ivoire, but considerable prevalence of helminths and intestinal protozoon infections

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Paragonimiasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by an infection with lung flukes that is transmitted through the consumption of undercooked crabs. The disease is often confused with tuberculosis. Paragonimiasis is thought to be endemic in south-western Côte d'Ivoire. Methods Two cross-sectional surveys were carried out in the first half of 2009 in patients attending two tuberculosis centres of Abidjan. A third cross-sectional survey was conducted in May 2010 in children of two primary schools in Dabou, where crabs are frequently consumed. Patients with chronic cough provided three sputum samples plus one stool sample. Sputum samples were examined for tuberculosis with an auramine staining technique and for Paragonimus eggs using a concentration technique. Stool samples were subjected to the Ritchie technique. Schoolchildren provided a single stool sample, and samples were subjected to the Kato-Katz and an ether-concentration technique. A pre-tested questionnaire was administered to patients and schoolchildren to investigate food consumption habits. Additionally, between June 2009 and August 2010, shellfish were purchased from markets in Abidjan and Dabou and examined for metacercariae. Results No human case of paragonimiasis was diagnosed. However, trematode infections were seen in 32 of the 272 shellfish examined (11.8%). Questionnaire results revealed that crab and pig meat is well cooked before consumption. Among the 278 patients with complete data records, 62 had tuberculosis, with a higher prevalence in males than females (28.8% vs. 13.9%, χ2 = 8.79, p = 0.003). The prevalence of helminths and intestinal protozoa was 4.6% and 16.9%, respectively. In the school survey, among 166 children with complete data records, the prevalence of helminths and intestinal protozoa was 22.3% and 48.8%, respectively. Boys had significantly higher prevalences of helminths and intestinal protozoa than girls. Hookworm was the predominant helminth species and

  12. Epidemic in Ghana: "a very distinct profile".

    PubMed

    Decosas, J

    1995-06-01

    Sentinel surveillance for HIV among pregnant women in Ghana in 1992 pointed to an HIV prevalence of 3.2% in Koforidua and 4.2% in Kumasi; prevalence of 18%, however, was observed in rural Agomanya in the Eastern Region of the country. This relatively and absolutely high prevalence of HIV infection in the Eastern Region is closely related to the emigration of women to Cote d'Ivoire for work as prostitutes, and their ultimate return to their home villages in Eastern Ghana. It is hypothesized that the construction of the Volta river dam at Akosombe in the 1960s led to the establishment of a prostitution industry in that region. After the work was completed, the female prostitutes from Ghana followed the construction workers to their next site in Koussou, Cote d'Ivoire, and later moved to Abidjan. By 1990, an estimated 60% of the prostitutes in Abidjan were Ghanaian, one third of whom were from the Eastern Region. The national AIDS program of Cote d'Ivoire reported in 1992 that 86% of prostitutes in Abidjan were infected with HIV. Since 1986, these women have been returning to their villages in Ghana's Eastern Region to live out the last few months of their lives. Ghanaians are aware of this phenomenon and generally believe that HIV and AIDS affect only prostitutes from Abidjan. That, however, is not the case. The national AIDS program estimates that 2% of the adult population in the country is infected with HIV, mainly through sex with a Ghanaian in Ghana who is not a prostitute. All sexually active individuals in Ghana may therefore be at risk of contracting and transmitting HIV. This message must be communicated to the general public.

  13. Noncardiac thoracic surgery in Abidjan, from 1977 to 2015

    PubMed Central

    Kendja, Flavien; Yangni-Angate, Hervé; Demine, Blaise; Ouédé, Raphaël; Kouacou, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    Background To report and analyze noncardiac thoracic operations performed at the Cardiology Institute of Abidjan (Institut de Cardiologie d’Abidjan) from 1977 to 2015. Methods This is a retrospective and descriptive study covering 39 years, from 1977 to 2015. This study period was divided into three periods of 13 years each: P1 from 1977 to 1989, P2 from 1990 to 2002 and P3 from 2003 to 2015. Medical records of 2014 operated patients were analyzed: 414 patients for P1, 464 patients for P2, 1,136 patients for P3. The records destroyed in a fire in 1997 were not included in the study. The age, sex, pathologies, types of operations, post-operative complications and mortality were analyzed with usual statistical tests. Results The average age varied from 35 years in P1 to 31.6 years in P3. Men predominate in all periods. Distribution of important groups of pathologies observed varies significantly over the three periods; In particular, we note an increase in trauma cases (tripling between P1 and P2, 140% between P2 and P3), and a decrease in tumors percentages, and infections and pulmonary sequelae of tuberculosis. Surgical management of thoracic trauma has increased (56.9% in P3) followed by the pleural surgery (21.3%) and pulmonary resections (13.9%). Persistent air leak >7 days was the predominant complication over the three periods. Postoperative empyema increased in P3 (14.7%). Close chest drainage-irrigation is the most frequent procedure performed to sterilize a major complication like postoperative empyema without bronchopleural fistula. Overall mortality decreased from 5.3% in P1 to 3.4% in P3. Conclusions Noncardiac thoracic surgery operations still concern infections, pulmonary sequelae of tuberculosis, thoracic tumors and many more thoracic trauma caused by current armed conflicts and terrorist attacks. But access to thoracic surgical care remains difficult for our population secondary to low economic status, and lack of a health insurance system

  14. Aghien lagoon: a sustainable resource of fresh water for the city of Abidjan (Ivory Coast)? Description of the project and preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamagaté, Bamory; Effebi, Rose K.; Goula Bi, Tié Albert; Lanciné Goné, Droh; Noufé, Djibril; Diallo, Seydou; Ehouman, Serge K.; Koffi, Thierry; Zamblé Trabi, Armand; Lazare, Kouakou; Paturel, Jean Emmanuel; Perrin, Jean-Louis; Salles, Christian; Seguis, Luc; Tournoud, Marie-George; Karoui, Hela

    2016-04-01

    With more than 6 million inhabitants, Abidjan district faces tremendous difficulties in water supply. The aquifer of the Continental Terminal which is actually the only drinking water source of the city shows a decline of resources and water demand is increasing due to the population growth. Moreover significant evidences of chemical and biological pollution of the groundwater are observed The Aghien lagoon, the largest freshwater pool located near Abidjan, has been identified by the State of Côte d'Ivoire as a potential resource for the production of drinking water.. The main objective of this project is to assess the quantitative and qualitative capacity of the Aghien lagoon to complement the water supply of Abidjan city in the near future. The main components of the project are: • to assess the water budget of the lagoon and its tributaries, • to characterize the spatial and temporal variability of contaminant levels and fluxes from the tributaries toward the lagoon, • to assess the sustainability of the water resources (quantity and quality) of the lagoon according to land use changes in the catchments . The project started in January 2015. The first year was devoted to the set-up of hydro-meteorological gauges within the lagoon watershed. Three major tributaries of the lagoon are considered, the Mé (4000 km2), the Djibi (78 km2) and Bete (206 km2) rivers. Since the start of the project, bi-monthly hydrochemical sampling surveys have been carried out along the tributaries and in the lagoon. The data available from the surveys concern the physico-chemical parameters, trace elements, all the forms of nitrogen and phosphorus, organic carbon, suspended solids. The Djibi and Bete watersheds are partly urbanized while the Mé basin is mainly rural. Baseflow has been identified as the major contribution to streamflow at the annual scale. The Mé flows into a channel downstream to the Aghien lagoon but during the floods, water from the Mé River can flow up the

  15. Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium difficile in cooked beef sold in Côte d'Ivoire and their antimicrobial susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Kouassi, Kra Athanase; Dadie, Adjéhi Thomas; N'Guessan, Kouadio Florent; Dje, Koffi Marcellin; Loukou, Yao Guillaume

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens in cooked beef sold in the streets in Côte d'Ivoire and their antimicrobial susceptibility. A total of 395 kidney and flesh samples of cooked beef were collected from vendors at Abidjan and subjected to C. difficile and C. perfringens isolation and identification by using biochemical tests, API 20A system and PCR detection. Subsequently, the antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed for confirmed isolates. Our results showed the prevalence of 12.4% for C. difficile (11.04% in kidney and 13.45% in flesh) and 5.06% for C. perfringens (2.32% in kidney and 7.17% in flesh). Metronidazole and vancomycin remained the most potent antimicrobial agents against C. difficile while metronidazole and penicillin G were the most potent agents against C. perfringens. The resistance rates to tetracycline, doxycycline, chloramphenicol and erythromycin against C. difficile and C. perfringens isolates ranged from 2.05% to 8.16% and from 20% to 50%, respectively. Among all antimicrobial agents tested against C. difficile, percentages of resistance to quinolones ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and nalidixic acid as well as to gentamicin and cefotaxime were the highest. Eight resistant phenotypes were defined for C. difficile isolates and eleven resistant phenotypes for C. perfringens isolates. Clindamycin/gentamicin/cefotaxime/ciprofloxacin/norfloxacin/nalidixic acid resistance was the most common phenotype for C. difficile (55.10% of isolates) while norfloxacin/nalidixic acid resistance was the most common phenotype for C. perfringens (20% of isolates). Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Antiretroviral treatment changes in adults from Côte d'Ivoire: the roles of tuberculosis and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Messou, Eugène; Anglaret, Xavier; Duvignac, Julien; Konan-N'dri, Eric; Komena, Eric; Gnokoro, Joachim; Karcher, Sophie; Tanoh, Anthony; N'dri-Yoman, Thérèse; Seyler, Catherine

    2010-01-02

    To determine the rates and causes of first antiretroviral treatment changes in HIV-infected adults in Côte d'Ivoire. We evaluated adults who initiated antiretroviral treatment in an outpatient clinic in Abidjan. We recorded baseline and follow-up data, including drug prescriptions and reasons for changing to alternative first-line regimens (drug substitution for any reason but failure) or second-line regimens (switch for failure). Two thousand and twelve HIV-infected adults (73% women) initiated antiretroviral treatment. At baseline, 9% of all patients were on treatment for tuberculosis and 3% of women were pregnant. First-line antiretroviral treatment consisted of two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (58% stavudine-lamivudine, 42% zidovudine-lamivudine) and efavirenz (63%), nevirapine (32%) or indinavir (5%). Median follow-up time was 16.9 months. During this time, 205 (10%) patients died and 261 (13%) were lost to follow-up. Overall, the rate of treatment modifications was 20.7/100 patient-years. The most common modifications were drug substitutions for intolerance (12.4/100 patient-years), pregnancy (4.5/100 patient-years) and tuberculosis (2.5/100 patient-years). The rates of intolerance-related substitutions were 17.9/100 patient-years for stavudine, 6.3/100 patient-years for nevirapine, 3.9/100 patient-years for zidovudine and 0.1/100 patient-years for efavirenz. Twenty percent of efavirenz substitutions resulted from pregnancy and 18% of nevirapine substitutions were related to tuberculosis treatment. During the first months following antiretroviral treatment initiation, a third of all treatment changes occurred for reasons other than intolerance to the drug or treatment failure. In Africa, drug forecasting is crucial to ensuring the success of HIV treatment programmes. Drugs that do not require interruptions during pregnancy or tuberculosis treatment should be made more readily available as first-line drugs in sub-Saharan Africa.

  17. Glycemic Responses, Glycemic Index, and Glycemic Load Values of Some Street Foods Prepared from Plantain (Musa spp., AAB Genome) in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Kouamé, Camille Adam; Kouassi, Nestor Kouakou; N'dri, Denis Yao; Pereko, Kingsley Kwadwo Asare; Casiraghi, Maria Cristina; Rhedoor, Abodo Jacko; Amani, Georges N'guessan

    2017-09-16

    The glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) of four culinary preferences including five local street dishes prepared from three varieties of plantain at different maturity stages was determined. The GI was obtained following ISO/FDI 26642:2010 protocol, and the GL was calculated from test foods' GI, considering the amount of available carbohydrate in the traditional portion size. GI values were 44 for Klaclo (with Ameletiha variety at all black stage), 39 for Aloco (with Agnrin variety at full yellow stage), 39 for Aloco (with Agnrin variety at full yellow with black spots stage); 45 for Chips (with Ameletiha variety at green stage) and 89 for Banane braisée (with Afoto variety at light green stage). GI values were inversely correlated with the total sugar and carbohydrate in foods (p < 0.01), and no relationship existed between the GI values and the amount of protein (p = 0.89). Except for Chips (GL = 12), the GLs of the others foods were high (GL > 20). Contrary to Banane braisée, the consumption of Klaclo, Aloco, and Chips may promote the control of postprandial glucose response. Data provides the first GI published values of plantain-based foods commonly consumed in the urban area of Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire).

  18. Anthelmintic activity of medicinal plants used in Côte d'Ivoire for treating parasitic diseases.

    PubMed

    Koné, Witabouna Mamidou; Vargas, Mireille; Keiser, Jennifer

    2012-06-01

    Natural products play an important role in the discovery and development of new pharmaceuticals. In the present study, we assessed the anthelmintic properties of medicinal plants used in Cote d'Ivoire. Ethanolic extracts from 50 medicinal plants were tested in vitro against trematodes (Echinostoma caproni, Schistosoma mansoni) and nematodes (Ancylostoma ceylanicum, Heligmosomoides bakeri, Trichuris muris). Active extracts were evaluated for their cytotoxicity and followed up in vivo in mice harbouring adult S. mansoni, E. caproni and T. muris at single oral doses of 400 or 800 mg/kg. All extracts tested were active against at least one helminths species. Ten of the 65 extracts tested (15.4%) in vitro revealed activity against all helminths tested. Of 65 extracts tested in vitro at a concentration of 2 mg/ml, all caused death of schistosomula and 34.4% and 39.1% were lethal against adult S. mansoni and E. caproni 72 h post-incubation, respectively. The highest activity against A. ceylanicum in vitro was observed with Sclerocarya birrea at 2 mg/ml, which resulted in death of adult worms and inhibition of activity of third-stage larvae (L3). Of the extracts, 41.5% completely inhibited movement of H. bakeri L3 at minimal lethal concentration (MLC) values of 20-200 μg/ml 48 h post-incubation, and 15.4% paralysed adult H. bakeri at 200 μg/ml 72 h after incubation. Of the extracts, 19% resulted in death of adult T. muris at MLC values of 10-100 μg/ml. In vivo, none of the extracts tested revealed activity against E. caproni. Olax subscorpioidea achieved total and female worm burden reductions of 60% and 84%, respectively in S. mansoni-infected mice. Combretum mucronatum was the most active extracts in vivo against T. muris with a worm burden reduction of 85.3%. In conclusion, several of the medicinal plants used in Côte d'Ivoire are active against different helminths, hence might play a role in the treatment of helminthiases. Further studies are necessary to isolate

  19. [Diagnosis of hematochezia in Abidjan Cocody University Hospital (Ivory Coast)].

    PubMed

    Okon, J B; N'dri, N; Toth'o, A; Assi, C; Diakité, M; Soro, D; Ouattara, A; Allah-Kouadio, E; Lohouès, M J; Camara, B M

    2012-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of endoscopic lesions, according to age and location, in patients with rectal bleeding who underwent total colonoscopy. Retrospective observational study examining records from the hepatogastroenterology department at the Cocody University Hospital (Abidjan) of colonoscopies for rectal examination from September 1, 1991, through August 15, 2007. The data collected and analyzed from the records included age, sex and colonoscopy results. A p value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Of 1,158 colonoscopies, 270 (23.3%) were performed for hematochezia: 105 women (mean age: 48.8 years ± 19.9 years, range: 10-96 years) and 165 men (mean age: 46 ± 14.2, range: 21-83 years) with a sex-ratio (M/F) of 1.57. Because colorectal cancer seems to occur at a younger age in Africa, patients were divided into two groups (aged 45 years: 139 [51.5%] and above 45 years: 131 [48.5%]). The abnormalities found were consistent with anal pathologies (16.3%), polyps (10.4%), diverticular disease (11.1%), colorectal inflammatory lesions (21.5%) and carcinoma (7%). Diverticula were significantly more common in those older than 45 years and inflammatory lesions in the younger group (p < 10(-3)). More than two thirds of the significant lesions were found in the distal colon (p < 10(-3)). The predominance of distal colon lesions suggests that exploration by flexible sigmoidoscopy can be performed in patients with low to moderate risk of colorectal cancer, with total colonoscopy reserved for the population at high risk.

  20. [Socioeconomic aspects of fertility in an urban African setting: Abidjan].

    PubMed

    Lewis, B C

    1981-01-01

    This study examines whether changes in fertility behavior have occurred in Abidjan in recent years as a consequence of desire for smaller families and easy access to contraception. 720 married women aged 20-44 residing in upper or middle class districts and belonging to 3 different ethnic groups representative of the Ivory Coast population were interviewed concerning their desired number of children, contraceptive knowledge, and contraceptive practice. The age at 1st birth was 18.39 for illiterate women, 18.59 for those with 1-9 years of schooling, and 21.17 for those with 10 or more years of schooling. Educational attainment was not, however, associated with lower ultimate family size, as educated women continue childbearing to a later age, have shorter birth intervals, and lose fewer children in infancy. The average number of children desired was 6.2 but varied considerably by age and education. Women aged 20-29 desired fewer children than those aged 30-44 when educational level was held constant. Among less educated women, 52% of the younger and 38% of the older wanted fewer than 7 children, while among the more educated, 91% of younger and 78% of older women wanted fewer than 7. Younger age was associated only with a desire for fewer children, and was not associated with contraceptive knowledge or an attitude favorable to the use of contraception. Among the total sample, the pill and rhythm were the most widely known methods, with each recognized by over 50%, while IUDs, condoms, and withdrawal were the least well known. Education was clearly related to knowledge of modern contraceptive methods. At all levels of instruction, older women reported knowledge of more contraceptive methods than younger women. 19% of the total sample reported having used contraception at some time, of which 91% had used either the pill or rhythm. Among the most educated, 53% had used contraception, 28% desired to use it, and 19% stated they had no interest. Among illiterates, 82% had

  1. Cultural Myths in Stories about Human Resource Development: Analysing the Cross-Cultural Transfer of American Models to Germany and the Cote d'Ivoire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Carol D.

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of reactions of 14 German and 20 Ivory Coast managers to informant stories from 14 U.S. human resource professionals revealed differences in work myths that reflected national differences, e.g., individual versus collective orientation, business development patterns, and management approaches. Awareness of the ethnocentrism of work myths…

  2. Returns to Formal and Informal Vocational Education in Cote d'Ivoire: The Role of the Structure of the Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grooteart, Christiaan

    1990-01-01

    Compares graduates of the formal vocational and technical education (VTE) system in the Ivory Coast with those of informal apprenticeships, regarding job access, earnings, and the internal rate of return to investment in education. Promoting informal VTE could increase society's returns to educational expenditures and assist the informal sector's…

  3. Cultural Myths in Stories about Human Resource Development: Analysing the Cross-Cultural Transfer of American Models to Germany and the Cote d'Ivoire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Carol D.

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of reactions of 14 German and 20 Ivory Coast managers to informant stories from 14 U.S. human resource professionals revealed differences in work myths that reflected national differences, e.g., individual versus collective orientation, business development patterns, and management approaches. Awareness of the ethnocentrism of work myths…

  4. Universal HIV Screening at Postnatal Points of Care: Which Public Health Approach for Early Infant Diagnosis in Côte d'Ivoire?

    PubMed Central

    Ndondoki, Camille; Brou, Hermann; Timite-Konan, Marguerite; Oga, Maxime; Amani-Bosse, Clarisse; Menan, Hervé; Ekouévi, Didier; Leroy, Valériane

    2013-01-01

    Background Universal HIV pediatric screening offered at postnatal points of care (PPOC) is an entry point for early infant diagnosis (EID). We assessed the parents' acceptability of this approach in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. Methods In this cross-sectional study, trained counselors offered systematic HIV screening to all children aged 6–26 weeks attending PPOC in three community health centers with existing access to HAART during 2008, as well as their parents/caregivers. HIV-testing acceptability was measured for parents and children; rapid HIV tests were used for parents. Both parents' consent was required according to the Ivorian Ethical Committee to perform a HIV test on HIV-exposed children. Free HIV care was offered to those who were diagnosed HIV-infected. Findings We provided 3,013 HIV tests for infants and their 2,986 mothers. While 1,731 mothers (58%) accepted the principle of EID, only 447 infants had formal parental consent 15%; 95% confidence interval (CI): [14%–16%]. Overall, 1,817 mothers (61%) accepted to test for HIV, of whom 81 were HIV-infected (4.5%; 95% CI: [3.5%–5.4%]). Among the 81 HIV-exposed children, 42 (52%) had provided parental consent and were tested: five were HIV-infected (11.9%; 95% CI: [2.1%–21.7%]). Only 46 fathers (2%) came to diagnose their child. Parental acceptance of EID was strongly correlated with prenatal self-reported HIV status: HIV-infected mothers were six times more likely to provide EID parental acceptance than mothers reporting unknown or negative prenatal HIV status (aOR: 5.9; 95% CI: [3.3–10.6], p = 0.0001). Conclusions Although the principle of EID was moderately accepted by mothers, fathers' acceptance rate remained very low. Routine HIV screening of all infants was inefficient for EID at a community level in Abidjan in 2008. Our results suggest the need of focusing on increasing the PMTCT coverage, involving fathers and tracing children issued from PMTCT programs in low HIV prevalence countries

  5. Open-label, randomized, non-inferiority clinical trial of artesunate-amodiaquine versus artemether-lumefantrine fixed-dose combinations in children and adults with uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Toure, Offianan A; Assi, Serge B; N'Guessan, Tiacoh L; Adji, Gbessi E; Ako, Aristide B; Brou, Marie J; Ehouman, Marie F; Gnamien, Laeticia A; Coulibaly, M'Lanhoro A A; Coulibaly, Baba; Beourou, Sylvain; Bassinka, Issiaka; Soumahoro, Adama; Kadjo, Florence; Tano, Mea A

    2014-11-19

    Emergence of artemisinin resistance has raised concerns that the most potent anti-malarial drug may be under threat. Artesunate-amodiaquine (AS-AQ) and artemether-lumefantrine (AL) are, respectively, the first- and second-line treatments for uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Côte d'Ivoire. Constant monitoring by National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) of drug efficacy is an important tool in establishing rational anti-malarial drug policies in Côte d'Ivoire. In an open label, randomized controlled clinical trial, children and adults were randomized to receive AS-AQ or AL. Both drug regimens were given for three days, and follow-up was for 42 days. The primary endpoint was the 42-day cure rate and was defined as proportion of patients with PCR-corrected cure rate after 42 days of follow-up. A total of 383 patients who were attending the Anonkoua-koute (Abidjan), Petit Paris (Korhogo) and Libreville (Man) hospitals and presenting with symptomatic acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria were randomized to receive AS-AQ (188) and AL (195). The intention-to-treat analysis showed effectiveness rates of 94.7% and 96.4% for AS-AQ and AL, respectively on day 42. After adjustment for PCR, these rates were 96.8% and 99%, respectively. At day 42, in per-protocol analysis, Adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR) PCR uncorrected was 97.8% and 97.4% for AS-AQ and AL, respectively. The PCR adjusted ACPR was 100% for each combination and both regimens were well tolerated. This study has shown the high efficacy of AS-AQ in patients of all ages with acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria and AS-AQ was non-inferior to AL. Continuous efficacy monitoring is recommended.

  6. Antiretroviral chemoprophylaxis in children and adolescents victims of rape in Abidjan.

    PubMed

    Ehui, E; Couitchéré, L S; Kouakou, G A; Doumbia, A; Kassi, A N; Mossou, C M; Guié, P Y; Eholié, S

    2015-08-01

    We described the use of antiretroviral drugs to prevent HIV transmission among children and adolescents victims of rape in Abidjan (Ivory Coast). We conducted a retrospective and descriptive study on children (0-9 years) and adolescents (10-19 years) victims of rape between 2000 and 2013. We analyzed the patients' socio-demographic characteristics and the modality of the chemoprophylaxis. We included 10 children and 89 adolescents in the study. The median age was 16 years old (3-19 years). The median time to consultation was 23.5 hours (5-152 hours). The antiretroviral chemoprophylaxis was administered to 92 patients (93%). No HIV and HBV seroconversion was observed after a 3-month follow-up. A better management of rape victims is required in Abidjan. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Dengue Virus Exported from Côte d'Ivoire to Japan, June 2017.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tetsuya; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Taniguchi, Satoshi; Tajima, Shigeru; Maeki, Takahiro; Kato, Fumihiro; Lim, Chang-Kweng; Saijo, Masayuki; Tsuboi, Motoyuki; Yamamoto, Kei; Morioka, Shinichiro; Ishikane, Masahiro; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Kato, Yasuyuki; Ohmagari, Norio

    2017-10-01

    Since April 2017, a dengue fever outbreak has been ongoing in Côte d'Ivoire. We diagnosed dengue fever (type 2 virus) in a traveler returning to Japan from Côte d'Ivoire. Phylogenetic analysis revealed strain homology with the Burkina Faso 2016 strain. This case may serve as an alert to possible disease spread outside Africa.

  8. [Epidemiologic and clinical aspects of toxic waste poisoning in Abidjan].

    PubMed

    Tiembre, Issaka; Koné, Blaise A; Dongo, Kouassi; Tanner, Marcel; Zinsstag, Jakob; Cissé, Guéladio

    2009-01-01

    In the nights of 19 to 21 August, 2006, highly toxic waste products were dumped at various sites in Abidjan, and numerous cases of poisoning were reported to the health authorities, who were unprepared for such a problem. The research group on Environment and Health in Urban Environment from the Swiss Center of Scientific Research and its partners at the Swiss Tropical Institute undertook this study whose objectives were to: describe the epidemiologic profile of the people poisoned; identify the main clinical symptoms and the risk factors for poisoning; and recommend steps to attenuate the effects and to prevent intermediate- and long-term consequences. This cross-sectional study examined the populations living around the discharge sites (n=6). The sample size was calculated at 619 people per site, to identify a 1% risk and a standard error of 0.4%, because of variability of the human impact factor at the different sites. Households were chosen at each site by the transect technique. Six teams, each including a physician, a public health agent and a local guide collected the data, after specific training. A pilot investigation made it possible to validate the final questionnaire. Of 4573 people surveyed, 4344 people, about 95%, were home during the toxic waste discharge. In all, 2369 (51.8%) had signs of poisoning. Sex, district of residence, and presence at home at the time of the discharge were all statistically related to poisoning. The distribution of poison victims according to health centre shows that 1297 people (64.4%) visited a health center AA(3/4) 615 of them (about 47.4%) a public or official centre, and 778 (about 60%), an unofficial centre; 379 (29.2%) were managed by an NGO, 159 individuals (12.3%) by mobile units, 63 individuals (4.8%) by the unofficial public health centre, and 35 (2.7%) at an unspecified site. Of those who sought care, 673 people (about 51.8%) received a medical prescription, and 815 (or 62.7%) had been given the drug directly

  9. Immunity Status of Blood Donors Regarding Toxoplasma gondii Infection in a Low-Income District of Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Siransy, Liliane; Dasse, Sery Romuald; Dou Gonat, Serge Pacôme; Legbedji, Antoinette; N'guessan, Koffi; Kouacou, Patricia Ama; Yeboah, Richard; Menan, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    Background. Toxoplasmosis is a widespread cosmopolitan anthropozoonosis, which affects more than a third of the world population. Except the modes of transmission well known, Toxoplasma gondii can be transmitted during transplantation or blood transfusion. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of IgG and IgM Toxoplasma gondii and to estimate the potential risk by blood products. Methods. This is a cross-sectional study on the research for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies (IgG and IgM) blood donors performed by ELISA. Results. An overall seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii among blood donors recruited was 67.92% (n = 72). Among these, 68 have Toxoplasma gondii IgG (64.15%), 12 Toxoplasma gondii IgM (11.32%), and 4 (3.77%) both. The risk varies between 8 for 100000 and 172 for 100000 donations. Conclusion. The need to strengthen security measures for people multitransfused, immunocompromised, and pregnant women to reduce the transmission of toxoplasmosis is important.

  10. [Systematic controlled placenta birth: analysis of 200 cases recruited at the general hospital of Abobo (Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire)].

    PubMed

    Ecra, A Touré; Horo, A; Fanny, M; Ouattara, H; Adjoussou, S; Koné, M

    2008-02-01

    Haemorrhage of placenta birth is one of the main reasons of maternal mortality in developing countries. The control of this third stage of delivery remains one of the means to stem the scourge. This survey shows that controlled placenta birth is a safe mean to reach this objective: 200 women who had normal vaginal deliveries at the Abobo North hospital were included in the survey. Among them, one hundred women had a controlled placenta birth whereas 100 had a normal one. The analysis of the results showed that: the haemorrhage rates during placenta birth slightly decrease in the group with controlled placenta birth and are clearly lower in the group of patients with risks factors of haemorrhage in 10% of the cases; the delay of placenta birth is twice shorter in the group having a controlled placenta birth than in the group with normal placenta birth; blood loss in the group with controlled placenta birth is three times less important than in the other group. This study speaks in favour of a systematic controlled placenta birth during the third stage of labour as it is already performed elsewhere.

  11. Immunity Status of Blood Donors Regarding Toxoplasma gondii Infection in a Low-Income District of Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Dasse, Sery Romuald; Dou Gonat, Serge Pacôme; Legbedji, Antoinette; N'guessan, Koffi; Kouacou, Patricia Ama; Yeboah, Richard; Menan, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    Background. Toxoplasmosis is a widespread cosmopolitan anthropozoonosis, which affects more than a third of the world population. Except the modes of transmission well known, Toxoplasma gondii can be transmitted during transplantation or blood transfusion. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of IgG and IgM Toxoplasma gondii and to estimate the potential risk by blood products. Methods. This is a cross-sectional study on the research for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies (IgG and IgM) blood donors performed by ELISA. Results. An overall seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii among blood donors recruited was 67.92% (n = 72). Among these, 68 have Toxoplasma gondii IgG (64.15%), 12 Toxoplasma gondii IgM (11.32%), and 4 (3.77%) both. The risk varies between 8 for 100000 and 172 for 100000 donations. Conclusion. The need to strengthen security measures for people multitransfused, immunocompromised, and pregnant women to reduce the transmission of toxoplasmosis is important. PMID:27795962

  12. Can the Language of Rights Get Hold of the Complex Realities of Child Domestic Work?: The Case of Young Domestic Workers in Abidjan, Ivory Coast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacquemin, Melanie

    2006-01-01

    This review examines refractions of children's rights in development practice from an anthropological point of view and considers the case of young domestic girls working in Abidjan. The author argues that child labour legislation and the children's rights perspective in Abidjan is permeated by patriarchal values that mask the exploitation of work…

  13. Can the Language of Rights Get Hold of the Complex Realities of Child Domestic Work?: The Case of Young Domestic Workers in Abidjan, Ivory Coast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacquemin, Melanie

    2006-01-01

    This review examines refractions of children's rights in development practice from an anthropological point of view and considers the case of young domestic girls working in Abidjan. The author argues that child labour legislation and the children's rights perspective in Abidjan is permeated by patriarchal values that mask the exploitation of work…

  14. Pregnancy incidence and associated factors among HIV-infected female adolescents in HIV care in urban Côte d'Ivoire, 2009–2013

    PubMed Central

    Arikawa, Shino; Eboua, Tanoh; Kouakou, Kouadio; N'Gbeche, Marie-Sylvie; Amorissani-Folquet, Madeleine; Moh, Corinne; Amoussou-Bouah, Ursula Belinda; Coffie, Patrick Ahuatchi; Becquet, Renaud; Leroy, Valériane

    2016-01-01

    Objective Adolescents living with HIV are sexually active and engaged in risky sexual behaviors. Knowledge on how and to what extent adolescents in HIV care are affected by pregnancy is needed so as to adopt better preventive services. We estimated 4-year pregnancy incidence and correlates among HIV-infected female adolescents in HIV care in urban Côte d'Ivoire. Design We conducted retrospective analysis of a pediatric prospective cohort of the International epidemiological Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) West Africa Collaboration. Female patients with confirmed HIV infection aged 10–19 years, having at least one clinical visit in 2009 to health facilities participating in the pediatric IeDEA West African cohort in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, were included. Data on incident pregnancies were obtained through medical records and interviews with health professionals. Pregnancy incidence rate was estimated per 100 person-years (PY). Poisson regression models were used to identify factors associated with the first pregnancy and provided incidence rate ratios (IRR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results In 2009, 266 female adolescents were included, with a median age of 12.8 years (interquartile range, IQR: 10.0–15.0), CD4 cell counts of 506 cells/mm3 (IQR: 302–737), and 80% on antiretroviral treatment. At the 48th month, 17 new pregnancies were reported after 938 PY of follow-up: 13 girls had one pregnancy while 2 had two pregnancies. Overall incidence rate of pregnancy was 1.8/100 PY (95% CI: 1.1–2.9). High incidence was observed among those aged 15–19 years: 3.6/100 PY (95% CI: 2.2–5.9). Role of maternal death in the risk of pregnancy was at the limit of statistical significance (adjusted IRR: 3.1, 95% CI: 0.9–11.0; ref. non-maternal orphans). Conclusions Incidence of pregnancy among HIV-infected adolescents in care aged 15–19 years reached a level observed in adult cohorts in Sub-Saharan Africa. Health personnel in pediatric care have to

  15. Pregnancy incidence and associated factors among HIV-infected female adolescents in HIV care in urban Côte d'Ivoire, 2009-2013.

    PubMed

    Arikawa, Shino; Eboua, Tanoh; Kouakou, Kouadio; N'Gbeche, Marie-Sylvie; Amorissani-Folquet, Madeleine; Moh, Corinne; Amoussou-Bouah, Ursula Belinda; Coffie, Patrick Ahuatchi; Becquet, Renaud; Leroy, Valériane

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents living with HIV are sexually active and engaged in risky sexual behaviors. Knowledge on how and to what extent adolescents in HIV care are affected by pregnancy is needed so as to adopt better preventive services. We estimated 4-year pregnancy incidence and correlates among HIV-infected female adolescents in HIV care in urban Côte d'Ivoire. We conducted retrospective analysis of a pediatric prospective cohort of the International epidemiological Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) West Africa Collaboration. Female patients with confirmed HIV infection aged 10-19 years, having at least one clinical visit in 2009 to health facilities participating in the pediatric IeDEA West African cohort in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, were included. Data on incident pregnancies were obtained through medical records and interviews with health professionals. Pregnancy incidence rate was estimated per 100 person-years (PY). Poisson regression models were used to identify factors associated with the first pregnancy and provided incidence rate ratios (IRR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). In 2009, 266 female adolescents were included, with a median age of 12.8 years (interquartile range, IQR: 10.0-15.0), CD4 cell counts of 506 cells/mm(3) (IQR: 302-737), and 80% on antiretroviral treatment. At the 48th month, 17 new pregnancies were reported after 938 PY of follow-up: 13 girls had one pregnancy while 2 had two pregnancies. Overall incidence rate of pregnancy was 1.8/100 PY (95% CI: 1.1-2.9). High incidence was observed among those aged 15-19 years: 3.6/100 PY (95% CI: 2.2-5.9). Role of maternal death in the risk of pregnancy was at the limit of statistical significance (adjusted IRR: 3.1, 95% CI: 0.9-11.0; ref. non-maternal orphans). Incidence of pregnancy among HIV-infected adolescents in care aged 15-19 years reached a level observed in adult cohorts in Sub-Saharan Africa. Health personnel in pediatric care have to intensify their efforts to provide more realistic and age

  16. Risk Factors for Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia in HIV-Infected Women on Antiretroviral Treatment in Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Jaquet, Antoine; Horo, Apollinaire; Ekouevi, Didier K.; Toure, Badian; Coffie, Patrick A.; Effi, Benjamin; Lenaud, Severin; Messou, Eugene; Minga, Albert; Sasco, Annie J.; Dabis, François

    2014-01-01

    Background Facing the dual burden of invasive cervical cancer and HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, the identification of preventable determinants of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) in HIV-infected women is of paramount importance. Methods A cervical cancer screening based on visual inspection methods was proposed to HIV-infected women in care in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. Positively screened women were referred for a colposcopy to a gynaecologist who performed directed biopsies. Results Of the 2,998 HIV-infected women enrolled, 132 (4.4%) CIN of any grade (CIN+) were identified. Women had been followed-up for a median duration of three years [IQR: 1–5] and 76% were on antiretroviral treatment (ART). Their median most recent CD4 count was 452 [IQR: 301–621] cells/mm3. In multivariate analysis, CIN+ was associated with a most recent CD4 count >350 cells/mm3 (OR: 0.3; 95% CI: 0.2–0.6) or ≥200–350 cells/mm3 (OR 0.6; 95% CI 0.4–1.0) (Ref: <200 cells/mm3 CD4) (p<10−4). Conclusions The presence of CIN+ is less common among HIV-infected women with limited or no immune deficiency. Despite the potential impact of immunological recovery on the reduction of premalignant cervical lesions through the use of ART, cervical cancer prevention, including screening and vaccination remains a priority in West Africa while ART is rolled-out. PMID:24595037

  17. Status of pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae s. s. M form prior to the scaling up of Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLINs) in Adzopé, Eastern Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Ahoua Alou, Ludovic P; Koffi, Alphonsine A; Adja, Maurice A; Assi, Serge B; Kouassi, Philippe K; N'Guessan, Raphael

    2012-12-11

    The growing development of pyrethroid resistance constitutes a serious threat to malaria control programmes and if measures are not taken in time, resistance may compromise control efforts in the foreseeable future. Prior to Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLINs) distribution in Eastern Cote d'Ivoire, we conducted bioassays to inform the National Malaria Control Programme of the resistance status of the main malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s. s. and the need for close surveillance of resistance. Larvae of An. gambiae s. s. were collected in two areas of Adzopé (Port-Bouët and Tsassodji) and reared to adults. WHO susceptibility tests with impregnated filter papers were carried out to detect resistance to three pyrethroids commonly used to develop LLINs: permethrin 1%, deltamethrin 0.05% and lambda-cyhalothrin 0.05%. Molecular assays were conducted to detect M and S forms and the L1014F kdr allele in individual mosquitoes. Resistance, at various degrees was detected in both areas of Adzopé. Overall, populations of An. gambiae at both sites surveyed showed equivalent frequency of the L1014F kdr allele (0.67) but for all tested pyrethroids, there were significantly higher survival rates for mosquitoes from Tsassodji (32-58%) than those from Port-Bouët (3-32%) (p < 0.001), indicating the implication of resistance mechanisms other than kdr alone. During the survey period (May-June) in this forested area of Côte d'Ivoire, An. gambiae s. s. found were exclusively of the M form and were apparently selected for pyrethroid resistance through agricultural and household usage of insecticides. Prior to LLINs scaling up in Eastern Côte d'Ivoire, resistance was largely present at various levels in An. gambiae. Underlying mechanisms included the high frequency of the L1014F kdr mutation and other unidentified components, probably metabolic detoxifiers. Their impact on the efficacy of the planned strategy (LLINs) in the area should be investigated alongside careful

  18. Rapid Urban Malaria Appraisal (RUMA) III: epidemiology of urban malaria in the municipality of Yopougon (Abidjan).

    PubMed

    Wang, Shr-Jie; Lengeler, Christian; Smith, Thomas A; Vounatsou, Penelope; Cissé, Guéladio; Tanner, Marcel

    2006-04-04

    Currently, there is a significant lack of knowledge concerning urban malaria patterns in general and in Abidjan in particular. The prevalence of malaria, its distribution in the city and the fractions of fevers attributable to malaria in the health facilities have not been previously investigated. A health facility-based survey and health care system evaluation was carried out in a peripheral municipality of Abidjan (Yopougon) during the rainy season of 2002, applying a standardized Rapid Urban Malaria Appraisal (RUMA) methodology. According to national statistics, approximately 240,000 malaria cases (both clinical cases and laboratory confirmed cases) were reported by health facilities in the whole of Abidjan in 2001. They accounted for 40% of all consultations. In the health facilities of the Yopougon municipality, the malaria infection rates in fever cases for different age groups were 22.1% (under one year-olds), 42.8% (one to five years-olds), 42.0% (> five to 15 years-olds) and 26.8% (over 15 years-olds), while those in the control group were 13.0%. 26.7%, 21.8% and 14.6%, respectively. The fractions of malaria-attributable fever were 0.12, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.13 in the same age groups. Parasitaemia was homogenously detected in different areas of Yopougon. Among all children, 10.1% used a mosquito net (treated or not) the night before the survey and this was protective (OR = 0.52, 95% CI 0.29-0.97). Travel to rural areas within the last three months was frequent (31% of all respondents) and associated with a malaria infection (OR = 1.75, 95% CI 1.25-2.45). Rapid urbanization has changed malaria epidemiology in Abidjan and endemicity was found to be moderate in Yopougon. Routine health statistics are not fully reliable to assess the burden of disease, and the low level of the fractions of malaria-attributable fevers indicated substantial over-treatment of malaria.

  19. Rapid Urban Malaria Appraisal (RUMA) III: epidemiology of urban malaria in the municipality of Yopougon (Abidjan)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shr-Jie; Lengeler, Christian; Smith, Thomas A; Vounatsou, Penelope; Cissé, Guéladio; Tanner, Marcel

    2006-01-01

    Background Currently, there is a significant lack of knowledge concerning urban malaria patterns in general and in Abidjan in particular. The prevalence of malaria, its distribution in the city and the fractions of fevers attributable to malaria in the health facilities have not been previously investigated. Methods A health facility-based survey and health care system evaluation was carried out in a peripheral municipality of Abidjan (Yopougon) during the rainy season of 2002, applying a standardized Rapid Urban Malaria Appraisal (RUMA) methodology. Results According to national statistics, approximately 240,000 malaria cases (both clinical cases and laboratory confirmed cases) were reported by health facilities in the whole of Abidjan in 2001. They accounted for 40% of all consultations. In the health facilities of the Yopougon municipality, the malaria infection rates in fever cases for different age groups were 22.1% (under one year-olds), 42.8% (one to five years-olds), 42.0% (> five to 15 years-olds) and 26.8% (over 15 years-olds), while those in the control group were 13.0%. 26.7%, 21.8% and 14.6%, respectively. The fractions of malaria-attributable fever were 0.12, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.13 in the same age groups. Parasitaemia was homogenously detected in different areas of Yopougon. Among all children, 10.1% used a mosquito net (treated or not) the night before the survey and this was protective (OR = 0.52, 95% CI 0.29–0.97). Travel to rural areas within the last three months was frequent (31% of all respondents) and associated with a malaria infection (OR = 1.75, 95% CI 1.25–2.45). Conclusion Rapid urbanization has changed malaria epidemiology in Abidjan and endemicity was found to be moderate in Yopougon. Routine health statistics are not fully reliable to assess the burden of disease, and the low level of the fractions of malaria-attributable fevers indicated substantial over-treatment of malaria. PMID:16584575

  20. Performance of rapid tests and algorithms for HIV screening in Abidjan, Ivory Coast.

    PubMed

    Loukou, Y G; Cabran, M A; Yessé, Zinzendorf Nanga; Adouko, B M O; Lathro, S J; Agbessi-Kouassi, K B T

    2014-01-01

    Seven rapid diagnosis tests (RDTs) of HIV were evaluated by a panel group who collected serum samples from patients in Abidjan (HIV-1 = 203, HIV-2 = 25, HIV-dual = 25, HIV = 305). Kit performances were recorded after the reference techniques (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). The following RDTs showed a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity higher than 99%: Determine, Oraquick, SD Bioline, BCP, and Stat-Pak. These kits were used to establish infection screening strategies. The combination with 2 or 3 of these tests in series or parallel algorithms showed that series combinations with 2 tests (Oraquick and Bioline) and 3 tests (Determine, BCP, and Stat-Pak) gave the best performances (sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 100%). However, the combination with 2 tests appeared to be more onerous than the combination with 3 tests. The combination with Determine, BCP, and Stat-Pak tests serving as a tiebreaker could be an alternative to the HIV/AIDS serological screening in Abidjan.

  1. 76 FR 61135 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Côte d'Ivoire

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of C te d'Ivoire Pursuant to Section 7086(c)(2... Continuing Appropriations Act with respect to C te d'Ivoire and I hereby waive such restrictions....

  2. 3 CFR - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to Libya and Côte d'Ivoire

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Related to Libya and Côte d'Ivoire Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Presidential Determination No. 2011-11 of June 8, 2011 Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to Libya and... humanitarian crises resulting from the violence in Libya and Côte d'Ivoire. You are authorized and directed to...

  3. Acceptability of tetanus toxoid vaccine by pregnant women in two health centres in Abidjan (Ivory Coast).

    PubMed

    Ymba, Awa; Perrey, Christophe

    2003-07-28

    A study was conducted in two health centres in Abidjan, Ivory Coast (Abobo and Port Bouet) to compare the knowledge of pregnant women regarding tetanus and hepatitis B and to evaluate the acceptability of tetanus immunisation. A total of 124 women were interviewed. In spite of Information Education Communication (IEC) meetings held by midwives focusing on both diseases, knowledge about tetanus appeared to be substantially higher than that about hepatitis B. The acceptability of tetanus toxoid vaccine was good, the only barrier being the fear of useless injections. However, the risk of tetanus transmission during delivery should be better explained to women, who often give birth at home in the presence of traditional birth assistants. The awareness of men should also be raised by information campaigns, using different local networks.

  4. [Complete immunization coverage and reasons for non-vaccination in a periurban area of Abidjan].

    PubMed

    Sackou, K J; Oga, A S S; Desquith, A A; Houenou, Y; Kouadio, K L

    2012-10-01

    An immunization coverage survey was conducted among children aged 12-59 months in a suburban neighbourhood in Abidjan. The objective was to determine the complete immunization coverage, the reasons for non-vaccination and factors influencing the immunization status of children. The method of exhaustive sampling enabled us to interview the mothers of 669 children using a questionnaire. Overall vaccination coverage was 68.6% with 1.2%, with 1.2% of children never having received vaccine. The logistic regression analysis showed that the level of education, knowledge of the immunization schedule and the marital status of mothers, as well as the type of habitat, were associated with full immunization of children. These determinants must be taken into account to improve vaccination coverage.

  5. Distribution and conservation status of catarrhine primates in Côte d'Ivoire (West Africa).

    PubMed

    Gonedelé Bi, Sery; Koné, Inza; Bitty, Anderson E; Béné Koffi, J C; Akpatou, Bertin; Zinner, Dietmar

    2012-01-01

    Côte d'Ivoire holds 18 catarrhine taxa, with 3 endemic to Côte d'Ivoire and neighbouring Ghana. Nine of the taxa occurring in Côte d'Ivoire are listed as threatened at the global level. However, information on their conservation status within the country is available for only a limited number of taxa. In order to assess the current distribution of primates and their conservation status, we conducted foot surveys and interviews in protected forests in the southern part of Côte d'Ivoire. Our data suggest that 22 out of 23 surveyed forests have lost 25-100% of the primate taxa expected to occur in these areas. The only exception is the Taï National Park where all of the expected primate taxa were encountered. Based on our surveys, we propose an updated national list according to the IUCN Red List criteria for all diurnal primate species of Côte d'Ivoire. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. [The epidemiological profile of subjects exposed to rabies in Abidjan, Ivory Coast].

    PubMed

    Tiembré, Issaka; Vroh Benié Bi, Joseph; N'Cho Dagnan, Simplice; Kouadio Ekra, Daniel; Zebe, Sonia; Tagliante-Saracino, Janine

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the epidemiological profile of subjects exposed to rabies in the anti-rabies center of Abidjan in Ivory Coast. The paper is based on a cross-sectional study conducted among all people exposed to the risk of rabies and followed in the anti-rabies center from January to December 2008. During the study period, 2,673 subjects were exposed, i.e. 5 exposures for every 10,000 persons. 1,534 patients (57.4%) were male. The most exposed age groups were the 0-9 and 10-19 age groups (22.4% and 29.5% respectively). In Abidjan, 608 individuals (22.7%) were exposed in Cocody, 471 individuals (17.6%) in Abobo, and 310 individuals (11.6%) in Yopougon. Exposure occurred in 76.9% of cases (2,055 subjects) at home and exclusively concerned visitors of the family. Exposures by animal bites represented 88.1% (2,354 subjects) of all cases, while 23.2% (620 subjects) of exposures were category III. The average period between exposure and consultation was 10 days. Subjects were exposed as a result of contact with a dog in 92.1 % of cases (2,462 subjects). The animal was found alive in 74.9% (2,002 cases) and was not immunized in 87.2% of cases (2,331). Post-exposure prophylaxis was given up by 1,470 persons (55.2%). 13 subjects were received at the stage of clinical rabies. Increased knowledge of the epidemiological profile of rabies exposure will contribute to improving the management of the disease in Ivory Coast.

  7. [In vitro susceptibility of vaginal Candida albicans to antifungal drugs in Abidjan (Ivory Coast)].

    PubMed

    Djohan, V; Angora, K E; Vanga-Bosson, A H; Konaté, A; Kassi, F K; Yavo, W; Kiki-Barro, P C; Menan, H; Koné, M

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro susceptibility of vaginal Candida albicans to common antifungal drugs in Abidjan, Ivory Coast. From January to September 2008, 150 women with leucorrhoea were sampled for vaginal mycosis at the Pasteur Institute (Ivory Coast). Samples were analyzed by direct examination, Sabouraud-chloramphenicol and Sabouraud-chloramphenicol-actidione culture. C. albicans was identified after blastesis, chlamydosporulation and auxanogram tests. The susceptibility of this fungus to amphotericine B, 5-fluorocytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole was evaluated by a semi-solid medium microdilution technique: ATB(®) Fungus 3. Among 62 yeasts strains isolated, C. albicans represented 45 cases or 72.6%. Vaginal itching (P=0.04) and urinary burning (P=0.002) was statistically correlated with vaginal candidosis. We observed a range of susceptibility of C. albicans strains to antifungals: 100% to amphotericine B (CMI90=0.5μg/mL); 98% to 5-fluorocytosine (CMI90=4μg/mL); 86.7% to voriconazole (CMI50=0.06μg/mL) and 80% to fluconazole (CMI50=2μg/mL and CMI90=32μg/mL). However, only 46.7% of C. albicans strains were sensitive to itraconazole (CMI50=0.125μg/mL). These results show that vaginal C. albicans remain sensitive to the most commonly antifungal drugs used in Abidjan. However, this susceptibility should be regularly monitored. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. [Fungal aetiologies and contributing factors of interdigital tinea pedis among policemen in Abidjan (Ivory Coast)].

    PubMed

    Kiki-Barro, P C M; Konaté, A; Angora, E K; Kassi, F K; Bosson-Vanga, H; Bedia-Tanoh, A V; Djohan, V; Yavo, W; Menan, E I H

    2017-09-05

    Fungal interdigital tinea pedis are poorly documented in Ivory Coast. This study aimed to determine the distribution of fungal species and contributing factors of the disease among policemen in Abidjan. Our cross-sectional study was carried out at the police school in Abidjan. Our patients consisted of symptomatic or non-symptomatic police students. Samples of scales or serosities taken from inter-toes spaces were examinated with KOH mount and cultured on Sabouraud-chloramphenicol and Sabouraud-chloramphenicol-actidione media. The method of identification depended on the observed fungus. Among the 303 police students with clinical lesions of the inter-toe folds, 233 (76.9%; IC 95%=71.9-81.4) had a positive diagnosis after mycological examination. Lesions were predominantly located in the 3rd and 4th interdigital plantar spaces, with desquamation (100%) followed by maceration (82.5%) as the predominant functional sign. Dermatophytes accounted for 86.3% of the strains isolated with as majority species : Trichophyton interdigitale (40.3%), Microsporum langeronii (30.0%) and Trichophyton rubrum (15.5%). Yeasts accounted for 13.7% of the strains with Candida albicans (7.7%) as the most found species. The duration at the police school (P=0.004) and the practice of sports activities (P=0.0001) were statistically associated with the occurrence of the disease. A good hygiene of feet would reduce the incidence of the disease among the defense and security forces. Also, investigations for the influence of the seasons in the occurrence of interdigital tinea pedis will allow a better understand of epidemiology of this dermatomycosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. [Socioeconomic factors influencing exclusive breastfeeding among primiparous women in Abidjan (Ivory Coast)].

    PubMed

    Coulibaly, Amed; Ake Tano, Odile; Bénié Bi Vroh, Joseph; Traoré, Youssouf; Dagnan, N'Cho Simplice

    2014-01-01

    To ensure complete adhesion of primiparous women with exclusive breastfeeding, we need to understand the factors influencing this practice. The objective of this study was to determine the socioeconomic factors related to exclusive breastfeeding of infants less than six months old born to primiparous mothers. This cross-sectional descriptive and analytical study was conducted over a two-month period from 4 June to 6 August 2012 in three health facilities in the city of Abidjan. A total of 188 primiparous women were surveyed by a direct face-to-face questionnaire-based interview technique. The mean age of primiparous women was 26.56 ± 5.05 years. The majority (76.60%) were in a couple relationship and 40.43% had completed higher education. 36.17% of women were working, while 23.94% were students. Only 33.51% of women performed exclusive breastfeeding. Exclusive breastfeeding rates decreased progressively with increasing age of the infant, from 46.67% at the age of one month to 16.67% at the age of six months. Factors associated with failure to perform exclusive breastfeeding were marriage, working in the public or private sector, delivery in a private health facility, delivery by caesarean section, living in Cocody, and lack of knowledge concerning exclusive breastfeeding. It is essential to take socio-economic factors into account when developing strategies designed to increase exclusive breastfeeding rates and maintenance of exclusive breastfeeding until the age of six months among primiparous women in Abidjan.

  10. [Clinical manifestations in patients exposed to an environmental toxic accident (Abidjan, Ivory Coast 2006)].

    PubMed

    Kouassi, B; Horo, K; Godé, C; Ahui, B; Kouassi, M N; Achi, V; Anon, J-C; Koffi, N; N'Gom, A; Aka-Danguy, E; Koffi, M O; Itchy, M; Koné, K; Manewa, S

    2015-01-01

    In 2006, 528 tons of petroleum toxic waste have been released in Abidjan (Ivory Coast) during a major environmental accident. This study was aimed to describe the clinical manifestations provoked by these toxic waste. We have analysed the records of patients admitted to the university hospital of Cocody (Abidjan) following exposure to toxic waste. All the information were recorded on specific files or on notification files created by the physicians of the National Institute of Public Health, the authority charged with the supervision of this exercise. The files were completed by the physician in the course of the examination of the patient. Over a period of 3-month-period, 10,598 patients were examined. The clinical manifestations affected all age groups. They were dominated by respiratory symptoms: pulmonary (74.5%) and upper respiratory (31.0%). Pulmonary symptoms included cough (48.8%), chest pain (37.9%), dyspnoea (9.5%) and a few cases of hemoptysis. Digestive symptoms mainly comprised abdominal pain (36.2%), diarrhea (23.0%), abdominal distension (19.9%) and vomiting (9.9%). The other symptoms were neurological, ophthalmic, cardiovascular and gynaecological. More than 96% of patients presented with at least two symptoms. The respiratory symptoms were significantly more frequent in patients over the age of 17 while diarrhea and vomiting were more often found in patients less than 17 years old. Chest pain was significantly more common in men while abdominal pain and vomiting predominated in women (P=0.001). The clinical consequences of toxic waste exposure were varied and sometimes serious. A medium- and long-term evaluation of the subjects is required. Copyright © 2014 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. The Long Forgotten Compound: CoTe, and its Epitaxial Film Growth and Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhiwei; Zhu, Zhihai; Hines, William A.; Budnick, Joseph I.; Wells, Barrett O.

    As part of our investigation of Co-doped, Fe-chalcogenide superconductors, we have synthesized films of CoTe; a long forgotten binary compound. Using pulsed laser deposition, we have grown epitaxial films on MgO, CaF2, and SrTiO3 and have found that careful control of growth conditions allows for the synthesis of either (001) or (101) oriented films. X-ray diffraction shows the structure of the films is hexagonal. However, we also find the surprising presence of the nominally disallowed (001) peak. We also report temperature dependent transport and magnetic properties. This material may be of interest as a magnetic semiconductor and for its relationship to chemically doping Fe-based superconductors. DOE/BES Contract DE-FG02-00ER45801.

  12. Tropical Atlantic and rainfall variability in Côte d'Ivoire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouadio, Yves K.; Ochou, Delfin A.; Servain, Jacques

    2003-03-01

    A statistical analysis is performed between the rainfall anomalies in Côte d'Ivoire (West Africa) and those of sea surface temperature and pseudo-wind stress in the tropical Atlantic. The correlation structures show that the coastal and northern regions of Côte d'Ivoire are differently related to the meteo-oceanic variables. While the main rainy seasons of these two Ivorian regions are both related to a negative SST/rain correlation pattern, itself strongly linked to the abnormal position of the intertropical convergence zone, the dry season of the littoral zone is related to a positive SST/rain correlation pattern which remains offshore of Côte d'Ivoire. Our study illustrates the inverse climatic behaviour observed between the northern and the littoral zones during the two ``Atlantic's El Niños'' of 1968 and 1984.

  13. [Evaluation of midwives' practices for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B in Abidjan (Ivory Coast)].

    PubMed

    Bagny, A; Bathaix Yao, F; Bangoura, D; Kouame, D H; Kacou Ya Kissi-Anzouan, H; De, O; Diallo, K; Lawson-Ananisoh, L M; Mahassadi, K A; Attia Koffi, A; Ndri-Yoman, T

    2015-01-01

    Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) assumes and requires good practices by midwives. The objective of this study was to evaluate their practices for this prevention. This prospective, descriptive study in Abidjan took place from January 2 to May 31, 2014 and included the midwives in Abidjan (recruited from university hospitals, general hospitals, and peripheral health care facilities) at the time of the survey who agreed to complete this written survey. Univariate analyses were done with Pearson Chi 2 tests or Fisher's test, as appropriate, P<0.05 was defined as significant. The study included 197 of the 220 midwives approached (89.5%), 88 (44.6%) of whom worked in the university hospital delivery rooms. Overall, 59% performed HBsAg tests during the second trimester, and 47.72% vaccinated newborns of HBsAg-positive mothers at birth. Hospital-based midwives had the best prevention practices, including HBsAg testing (P = 0.023) and immunization of the newborn at birth (P = 0.005). Midwives' practices for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HBV in Abidjan are improving.

  14. Two-year morbidity-mortality and alternatives to prolonged breast-feeding among children born to HIV-infected mothers in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Becquet, Renaud; Bequet, Laurence; Ekouevi, Didier K; Viho, Ida; Sakarovitch, Charlotte; Fassinou, Patricia; Bedikou, Gédéon; Timite-Konan, Marguerite; Dabis, François; Leroy, Valériane

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the long-term safety of infant feeding interventions aimed at reducing breast milk HIV transmission in Africa. In 2001-2005, HIV-infected pregnant women having received in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, a peripartum antiretroviral prophylaxis were presented antenatally with infant feeding interventions: either artificial feeding, or exclusive breast-feeding and then early cessation from 4 mo of age. Nutritional counseling and clinical management were provided for 2 y. Breast-milk substitutes were provided for free. The primary outcome was the occurrence of adverse health outcomes in children, defined as validated morbid events (diarrhea, acute respiratory infections, or malnutrition) or severe events (hospitalization or death). Hazards ratios to compare formula-fed versus short-term breast-fed (reference) children were adjusted for confounders (baseline covariates and pediatric HIV status as a time-dependant covariate). The 18-mo mortality rates were also compared to those observed in the Ditrame historical trial, which was conducted at the same sites in 1995-1998, and in which long-term breast-feeding was practiced in the absence of any specific infant feeding intervention. Of the 557 live-born children, 262 (47%) were breast-fed for a median of 4 mo, whereas 295 were formula-fed. Over the 2-y follow-up period, 37% of the formula-fed and 34% of the short-term breast-fed children remained free from any adverse health outcome (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.87-1.38; p = 0.43). The 2-y probability of presenting with a severe event was the same among formula-fed (14%) and short-term breast-fed children (15%) (adjusted HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.75-1.91; p = 0.44). An overall 18-mo probability of survival of 96% was observed among both HIV-uninfected short-term and formula-fed children, which was similar to the 95% probability observed in the long-term breast-fed ones of the Ditrame trial. The 2-y rates of adverse health

  15. Anal Intercourse Among Female Sex Workers in Côte d'Ivoire: Prevalence, Determinants, and Model-Based Estimates of the Population-Level Impact on HIV Transmission.

    PubMed

    Maheu-Giroux, Mathieu; Baral, Stefan; Vesga, Juan F; Diouf, Daouda; Diabaté, Souleymane; Alary, Michel; Abo, Kouamé; Boily, Marie-Claude

    2017-06-14

    Current evidence suggests that anal intercourse (AI) during sex work is common in sub-Saharan Africa, but few studies investigated the contribution of heterosexual AI to HIV epidemics. Using a respondent-driven sampling survey of female sex workers (FSW) in Abidjan (2014), we estimated AI prevalence and frequency. Poisson regressions were used to identify AI determinants. About 20% of FSW (N = 466) engaged in AI during a normal week (95% confidence intervals: 15-26%). Women who performed AI were generally younger, had been selling sex for longer, were born in Côte d'Ivoire, reported higher sex-work income, more frequent sex in public places, and violence from clients than women not reporting AI. Condom use was lower, condom breakage/slippage more frequent, and use of water-based lubricants was less frequently reported for AI than for vaginal intercourse. Using a dynamic transmission model, we estimated that 22% (95% credible intervals: 11-37%) of new HIV infections could have been averted among FSW during 2000-2015 if AI had been substituted for vaginal intercourse acts. Despite representing a small fraction of all sex acts, AI is an underestimated source of HIV transmission. Increasing availability/uptake of condoms, lubricants, and pre-exposure prophylaxis for women engaging in AI could help mitigate HIV risk. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Eliciting preferences for reimbursed drugs selection criteria in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Diaby, Vakaramoko; Dié Kakou, Henri; Lachaine, Jean

    2011-01-01

    Côte d'Ivoire, a West African country, has decided to set up a formulary as part of its universal health insurance (UHI) program. One of its goals will be to facilitate access to safe and efficacious drugs. To guarantee transparency throughout the formulary listing process, it is important to select and value relevant decision criteria for that purpose. To investigate the preferences of healthcare professionals (physicians) when selecting reimbursable drugs and to analyze trade-offs between criteria for formulary listing in Côte d'Ivoire. Choice sets based on four attributes (cost effectiveness of treatments, severity of the disease for which the treatments are indicated, age of the population affected by diseases considered, and social class affected by diseases considered [poor, rich]) were presented in a self-completion questionnaire. Analysis of questionnaire responses showed that 'cost effectiveness', 'severity of disease', and 'social class' were significant attributes in responder's preferences for reimbursable drugs. More specifically, respondents' choices were more sensitive to drugs that are very cost effective, that target very severe disease, and that target diseases in poor people. This explorative study enabled us to elicit the preferences of a sample of healthcare professionals (physicians) for reimbursed drug selection criteria in Côte d'Ivoire using the discrete-choice experiment method. Further work is required to achieve the ultimate objective of developing a formulary for Côte d'Ivoire.

  17. Breast cancer in men in Cote d'Or (France): epidemiological characteristics, treatments and prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Dabakuyo, T S; Dialla, O; Gentil, J; Poillot, M-L; Roignot, P; Cuisenier, J; Arveux, P

    2012-11-01

    Breast cancer in men is rare, and clinical trials are thus not feasible. This study aimed to describe the epidemiological characteristics, treatment and prognostic factors of breast cancer in men. A population-based study was performed using data from the Cote d'Or breast and gynaecological cancer registry. Data on male breast cancer diagnosed from 1982 to 2008 were provided. Relative survival rates were estimated at 5 years according to the characteristics of the patient and tumour, and treatment. Prognostic factors of survival in men with breast cancer were identified using a generalised linear model. Seventy-five men with invasive breast cancer were registered. Mean age at diagnosis was 66 years. The use of adjuvant chemotherapy (P= 0.013) and hormone therapy (P < 0.0001) increased over time. Relative survival rate at 5 years was 69% for the whole population. Analysis of relative survival according to the treatment showed that survival was longer for patients treated with surgery + radiotherapy + hormone therapy: 89% at 5 years. Scarff, Bloom and Richardson grade was independent prognostic factor of survival. Male breast cancer is a rare disease with a poor prognosis, and diagnosis is often made at an advanced stage. Early diagnosis and better knowledge of the disease would certainly lead to improvements in the prognosis. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. [Self-medication with antibiotics obtained from private pharmacies in Abidjan, Ivory Coast].

    PubMed

    Hounsa, A; Kouadio, L; De Mol, P

    2010-06-01

    Self-medication with antibiotics is all the more disturbing in developing countries where this type of medication is easily available, and often without any prescription. The authors wanted to assess and describe self-medication with antibiotics and identify the factors and public perception associated with this type of self-medication. Eighteen private pharmacies were randomly selected in Abidjan. Data was collected through structured questionnaires and reports. Group meetings were organized for private pharmacy clients and the pharmacy staff. Two hundred and forty-two out of 1,123 purchases of antibiotics were for self-medication (21.5 %). Out of the 1,765 people interviewed, 1,054 (59.7 %) had bought antibiotics for self-medication in the 12 months prior to our study. Pharmacy staff very rarely provided any information to purchasers concerning dose, when to take the medicine, or treatment duration. A logistic regression analysis showed that the probability of self-medication with antibiotics increased with several factors: age, education level, and the possibility of purchasing antibiotics on the marketplace. However, this risk decreased when patients were covered by medical insurance, when the public perceived the risks of self-medication, and when bacterial resistance was clearly defined. This study was the first in the Ivory Coast to analyze the factors involved in antibiotic self-medication. It stressed the need to establish sustainable interventions to control the antibiotic use.

  19. [Pediatric lymphomas diagnosis after needle biopsy in Abidjan: value of cytology versus MYC translocation examination].

    PubMed

    Yao, Gnangoran Victor; Toutain, Jérôme; Enoh, Jacob; Tre-Yavo, Mireille; Dachary, Dominique; Couitchere, Line; Koffi, Kouakou Emmanuel; Doukoure, Brahima; Ando, Joseph; De Mascarel, Antoine; Merlio, Jean-Philippe

    2012-02-01

    In Africa, lymphomas are widely represented by pediatric Burkitt lymphomas. In Abidjan, cytology performed after needle biopsy may be an examination of choice for pediatric lymphomas because of its low cost. We evaluated the value of this cytological examination in comparison with MYC rearrangement assessment. A cytological examination was performed after needle biopsy of masses suspected for lymphoma. The reliability of this cytological examination was assessed versus a cytogenetic technique of fluorescence in situ hybridization with a probe targeting locus 8q24 (MYC) which is recurrently rearranged in Burkitt lymphomas. Thirty-four patients were enrolled in this study. The median age was 8 years old. The main locations of the suspicious masses were maxillofacial and abdominal. Thirty cytological examinations identified cytological aspects of Burkitt lymphoma. Among these cases, the cytogenetic technique identified 24 cytogenetic rearrangements compatible with a translocation involving MYC as described in Burkitt lymphoma. Six cytological examinations identified cytological aspects of Burkitt lymphoma without MYC translocation. Two cytological examinations were not compatible with Burkitt lymphoma and a normal MYC status was observed. Two cytological examinations were technically not contributive. The cytological examination showed good performance, notably with excellent sensitivity. The cytological examinations compatible with a Burkitt lymphoma without MYC translocation (6/30=20.0%) could be explained by the absence of translocation involving locus 8q24 (MYC) in some endemic Burkitt lymphomas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. [Prevalence and risk factors for otomycosis treated in the hospital setting in Abidjan (Ivory Coast)].

    PubMed

    Yavo, W; Kassi, R R; Kiki-Barro, P C; Bamba, A; Kplé, T; Menan, E I; Ehouo, F; Koné, M

    2004-01-01

    Otomycosis is frequently encountered in tropical and subtropical zones. In Ivory Coast diagnosis of this disease is often based solely on the clinical symptoms. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence, predisposing factors, and etiologic agents associated with otomycosis at the Treichville University Hospital Center in Abidjan, Ivory Coast. Mycological examinations were performed on specimens obtained from 115 patients presenting with external otitis at the d'Oto-Rhino-Laryngology Department. Fungi-positive cultures were obtained in 49 patients for an overall otomycosis prevalence of 42.6 (95% Confidence Interval (CI), 34.4-52.2). Univariate analysis showed that the predisposing factors for otomycosis were frequent swimming in natural or artificial pools (Relative Risk (RR) 3.7; CI 1.7-8.1), daily ear cleaning (RR 3.5; CI 1.8-6.8) and excessive use of eardrops containing antibiotics and corticoids (RR = 9.3; IC95% = 4.3-20.1). The most common etiologic agents were Aspergillus flavus (20.4%), Candida albicans (16.3%), Candida parapsilosis (14.3%), and Aspergillus niger (12.2%). A combination of two agents was found in five cases. These data show that otomycosis is endemic in Ivory Coast. Management of otomycosis must include mycological examination for diagnosis as well as changing behavior patterns leading to infection.

  1. Forces and Kinetics of the Bacillus subtilis Spore Coat Proteins CotY and CotX Binding to CotE Inspected by Single Molecule Force Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huiqing; Krajcikova, Daniela; Wang, Nan; Zhang, Zhe; Wang, Hongda; Barak, Imrich; Tang, Jilin

    2016-02-18

    Spores are uniquely stable cell types that are produced when bacteria encounter nutrient limitations. Spores are encased in a complex multilayered coat, which provides protection against environmental insults. The spore coat of Bacillus subtilis is composed of around 70 individual proteins that are organized into four distinct layers. Here we explored how morphogenetic protein CotE guides formation of the outermost layer of the coat, the crust, around the forespore by focusing on three proteins: CotE, CotY, and CotX. Single molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) was used to investigate the interactions among CotE, CotY, and CotX at the single-molecule level. Direct interactions among these three proteins were observed. Additionally, the dissociation kinetics was also studied by measuring the unbinding forces of the complexes at different loading rates. A series of kinetic data of these complexes were acquired. It was found that the interaction of CotE and CotY was stronger than that of CotE and CotX.

  2. Numerical performance of half-sweep SOR method for solving second order composite closed Newton-Cotes system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthuvalu, Mohana Sundaram; Aruchunan, Elayaraja; Akhir, Mohd Kamalrulzaman Md; Sulaiman, Jumat; Karim, Samsul Ariffin Abdul

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, application of the Half-Sweep Successive Over-Relaxation (HSSOR) iterative method is extended by solving second order composite closed Newton-Cotes quadrature (2-CCNC) system. The performance of HSSOR method in solving 2-CCNC system is comparatively studied by their application on linear Fredholm integral equations of the second kind. The derivation and implementation of the method are discussed. In addition, numerical results by solving two test problems are included and compared with the standard Gauss-Seidel (GS) and Successive Over-Relaxation (SOR) methods. Numerical results demonstrate that HSSOR method is an efficient method among the tested methods.

  3. [Gingival displacement techniques in daily practice. Survey among dental surgeons in Abidjan, Ivory Coast].

    PubMed

    Pesson, D M; Bakou, O D; Didia, E L E; Kouame, A; Blohoua, M R J J; Djeredou, K B

    2015-12-01

    Access to cervical margins allows the practitioner to record the entire cervical margin in order to provide a true copy to the technician. This requires a gingival displacement obtainable by different techniques. This study aimed to assess the implementation of gingival displacement methods prior to impression taking in fixed prosthodontics. This is a descriptive and cross-sectional survey of sample of 71 dentists practising in Abidjan, Ivory Coast; which ran from October 2nd, 2010 to November 14th, 2010. A survey form was administered to dentists. The questionnaire was organised around the following headings: identification of dentists and practice of gingival displacement methods. The data processing done using software Epi Info 6 and Excel XP on Window XP, allowed calculation of frequencies, means and proportions and the establishment of connection between variables with the chi2 test. The significance level was set at p < 0.05. The results of the survey indicate that non-surgical methods of gingival displacement, including retraction cords and temporary crowns are those they use most frequently (76.4%) because the vast majority of practitioners (87.22%) believe the most traumatic to the periodontium are surgical methods. Our study showed that the gingival displacement methods are frequently carried out in daily practice, regardless of the topography of the abutment teeth and their number, but with a preference for non-surgical methods, particularly those using retraction cords and temporary crowns. The use of injectable gingival displacement paste is not harmful to the periodontal tissues, easy to use and have a very efficient haemostatic action. It should also be known and practiced.

  4. [Cutaneous depigmentation in black female population for cosmetic purposes: results of a KAP survey conducted in Abidjan (Ivory Coast)].

    PubMed

    Kourouma, Sarah; Gbery, Ildevert Patrice; Kaloga, Mamadou; Ecra, Elidjé Joseph; Sangaré, Abdoulaye; Kouassi, Isidore Yao; Kassi, Komenan; Kouassi, Alexandre Kouamé; Yoboué, Pauline Yao

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous depigmentation for cosmeticis purposes is a widespread practice among black African women. It has many complications that have been well documented for decades. However, the reasons of practitioners are not well known. The aim of our study was to understand the motivating reasons of these women in order to conduct a communication campaign for behavior change. We performed a cross-sectional KAP survey (Knowledge/Attitudes/Practices) at the Dermatology Department of the University Hospital of Treichville (Abidjan) Data were analyzed using Epi Info 3.5.1. and 6.04 software. Practitioners were mostly young urban single, literate and professionally active women (20-40 years). Cutaneous depigmentation and its consequences were known to women, however, they thought that women with the lightest complexion were more attractive. They were influenced by media and friends. The most frequently observed complications were exogenous ochronosis and stretch marks. The local means of communication remained what essentially sustained the information needs of these women, because they help them to change their behavior. The development of local communication strategies for behavior change seems necessary to stop the phenomenon of cutaneous depigmentation for cosmetic purposes in black female population in Abidjan.

  5. [Epidemiology of induced abortion in Côte d'Ivoire].

    PubMed

    Vroh, Joseph Benie Bi; Tiembre, Issaka; Attoh-Toure, Harvey; Kouadio, Daniel Ekra; Kouakou, Lucien; Coulibaly, Lazare; Kouakou, Hyacinthe Andoh; Tagliante-Saracino, Janine

    2012-06-08

    The objective of this study was to examine induced abortion in Côte d'Ivoire. A nationwide cross-sectional descriptive study of induced abortion was carried out in 2007 among 3,057 women aged 15-49 years. The study showed that induced abortion is a widespread practice in Côte d'Ivoire, with a prevalence estimated at 42.5%. The women who had undergone an abortion were generally under 25, unmarried, and illiterate, and had used contraception. More than half (52.1%) of all induced abortions were performed at home by traditional abortionists or were self-induced with plants or decoctions. The main reasons for induced abortion were concern about the reaction of parents (27.7%), age (22.2%), a lack of financial resources (21.3%) and the desire of women to continue their education. More than half of the participants (55.8%) stated that they had suffered complications, which were more common after a home abortion than after a hospital abortion. Political and legal measures or reforms aimed at changing abortion laws in Côte d'Ivoire and better access to family planning are required in order to prevent or treat the social issue of induced abortion.

  6. No Evidence of Gouléako and Herbert Virus Infections in Pigs, Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana.

    PubMed

    Junglen, Sandra; Marklewitz, Marco; Zirkel, Florian; Wollny, Robert; Meyer, Benjamin; Heidemann, Hanna; Metzger, Sonja; Annan, Augustina; Dei, Dickson; Leendertz, Fabian H; Oppong, Samuel; Drosten, Christian

    2015-12-01

    A recent report suggested that 2 novel bunyaviruses discovered in insects in Côte d'Ivoire caused lethal disease in swine in South Korea. We conducted cell culture studies and tested serum from pigs exposed to mosquitoes in Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana and found no evidence for infection in pigs.

  7. Using a Software Package to Publish EAD Encoded Finding Aids: A Practical Approach and Gradual Implementation at the Archives Departementales de la Cote-d'Or, France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devarrewaere, Anthony; Roelly, Aude

    2005-01-01

    The Archives Departementales de la Cote-d'Or chose as a priority for its automation plan the acquisition of a search engine, to publish online archival descriptions and the library catalogue. The Archives deliberately opted for a practical approach, using for the encoding of the finding aids an automatic data export from an archival management…

  8. Using a Software Package to Publish EAD Encoded Finding Aids: A Practical Approach and Gradual Implementation at the Archives Departementales de la Cote-d'Or, France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devarrewaere, Anthony; Roelly, Aude

    2005-01-01

    The Archives Departementales de la Cote-d'Or chose as a priority for its automation plan the acquisition of a search engine, to publish online archival descriptions and the library catalogue. The Archives deliberately opted for a practical approach, using for the encoding of the finding aids an automatic data export from an archival management…

  9. Sporulation Temperature Reveals a Requirement for CotE in the Assembly of both the Coat and Exosporium Layers of Bacillus cereus Spores

    PubMed Central

    Bressuire-Isoard, Christelle; Bornard, Isabelle; Henriques, Adriano O.; Carlin, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    The Bacillus cereus spore surface layers consist of a coat surrounded by an exosporium. We investigated the interplay between the sporulation temperature and the CotE morphogenetic protein in the assembly of the surface layers of B. cereus ATCC 14579 spores and on the resulting spore properties. The cotE deletion affects the coat and exosporium composition of the spores formed both at the suboptimal temperature of 20°C and at the optimal growth temperature of 37°C. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that ΔcotE spores had a fragmented and detached exosporium when formed at 37°C. However, when produced at 20°C, ΔcotE spores showed defects in both coat and exosporium attachment and were susceptible to lysozyme and mutanolysin. Thus, CotE has a role in the assembly of both the coat and exosporium, which is more important during sporulation at 20°C. CotE was more represented in extracts from spores formed at 20°C than at 37°C, suggesting that increased synthesis of the protein is required to maintain proper assembly of spore surface layers at the former temperature. ΔcotE spores formed at either sporulation temperature were impaired in inosine-triggered germination and resistance to UV-C and H2O2 and were less hydrophobic than wild-type (WT) spores but had a higher resistance to wet heat. While underscoring the role of CotE in the assembly of B. cereus spore surface layers, our study also suggests a contribution of the protein to functional properties of additional spore structures. Moreover, it also suggests a complex relationship between the function of a spore morphogenetic protein and environmental factors such as the temperature during spore formation. PMID:26497467

  10. Prevalence and risk factors associated with HIV and tuberculosis in people who use drugs in Abidjan, Ivory Coast.

    PubMed

    Bouscaillou, Julie; Evanno, Jérome; Prouté, Myrtille; Inwoley, André; Kabran, Mathieu; N'Guessan, Thierry; Djé-Bi, Samedi; Sidibé, Souleymane; Thiam-Niangoin, Marguerite; N'guessan, Badou Roger; Blanchetière, Pascale; Luhmann, Niklas

    2016-04-01

    The number of people who use drugs (PWUD) has dramatically increased in West Africa over the last 15 years, but targeted interventions are falling behind, notably because of the lack of awareness of the health needs of PWUD. We aimed to assess prevalence and factors associated with HIV and other infections in PWUD in Abidjan, Ivory Coast, one of the countries most affected by HIV in Western Africa. We used respondent-driven-sampling to obtain a representative sample of heroin or cocaine/crack users aged 18 years or more. Socio-behavioral data were obtained by face-to-face questionnaires. Blood samples were collected and tested for HIV. Two sputa were obtained in tuberculosis (TB) symptomatic participants for acid-fast-bacilli (AFB) smear testing. After a descriptive analysis, crude prevalence were calculated, then weighted to take account of the sampling method. Factors associated with HIV and TB were studied using adjusted log-binomial regression. Population size was estimated by capture-recapture. 450 PWUD were recruited in May 2014. The mean age was 33.5 years; 10.9% were women. Smoking was the main mode of consumption, ever injecting was reported by 12.7% of the participants (3.6% in the past month). Sex work was reported by 15.8% of the PWUD (13.7% of the men), and 10.2% of the men reported sexual relationships with other men (MSM). We found a weighted prevalence of 9.5% for HIV. Women were 3.4 times more likely to be infected than men. Among men, being a sex worker (SW) (adjusted OR 2.9 [95CI 1.06-7.98]) or MSM (adjusted OR 11.5 [95CI 4.22-31.42]) were the main factors associated with HIV infection in adjusted analysis. Injection was not associated with HIV. TB weighted prevalence was 1.8%, associated with poor living arrangements in adjusted analysis. We estimated that 3521; 95CI 3049-3993 PWUD live in Abidjan. PWUD in Abidjan are at high risk of HIV due to sexual transmission, especially in women, SW and MSM who also use drugs. Interventions should be

  11. Two-Year Morbidity–Mortality and Alternatives to Prolonged Breast-Feeding among Children Born to HIV-Infected Mothers in Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Becquet, Renaud; Bequet, Laurence; Ekouevi, Didier K; Viho, Ida; Sakarovitch, Charlotte; Fassinou, Patricia; Bedikou, Gédéon; Timite-Konan, Marguerite; Dabis, François; Leroy, Valériane

    2007-01-01

    Background Little is known about the long-term safety of infant feeding interventions aimed at reducing breast milk HIV transmission in Africa. Methods and Findings In 2001–2005, HIV-infected pregnant women having received in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, a peripartum antiretroviral prophylaxis were presented antenatally with infant feeding interventions: either artificial feeding, or exclusive breast-feeding and then early cessation from 4 mo of age. Nutritional counseling and clinical management were provided for 2 y. Breast-milk substitutes were provided for free. The primary outcome was the occurrence of adverse health outcomes in children, defined as validated morbid events (diarrhea, acute respiratory infections, or malnutrition) or severe events (hospitalization or death). Hazards ratios to compare formula-fed versus short-term breast-fed (reference) children were adjusted for confounders (baseline covariates and pediatric HIV status as a time-dependant covariate). The 18-mo mortality rates were also compared to those observed in the Ditrame historical trial, which was conducted at the same sites in 1995–1998, and in which long-term breast-feeding was practiced in the absence of any specific infant feeding intervention. Of the 557 live-born children, 262 (47%) were breast-fed for a median of 4 mo, whereas 295 were formula-fed. Over the 2-y follow-up period, 37% of the formula-fed and 34% of the short-term breast-fed children remained free from any adverse health outcome (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 1.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.87–1.38; p = 0.43). The 2-y probability of presenting with a severe event was the same among formula-fed (14%) and short-term breast-fed children (15%) (adjusted HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.75–1.91; p = 0.44). An overall 18-mo probability of survival of 96% was observed among both HIV-uninfected short-term and formula-fed children, which was similar to the 95% probability observed in the long-term breast-fed ones of the Ditrame

  12. Characteristics and Results of the Treatment of Multiple Myeloma in the Subject under the Age of 65 at the University Hospital of Yopougon in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Tolo, Diebkilé Aïssata; Sawadogo, Duni; Nanho, Danho Clotaire; Kouakou, Boidy; Méité, N'Dogomo; Ayémou, Roméo; Kouéhion, Paul; Konan, Mozart; Sékongo, Yassongui Mamadou; N'Dhatz, Emeraude; Kamara, Ismaël; Silué, Alexis; Koffi, Kouassi Gustave; Sanogo, Ibrahima

    2013-01-01

    We retrospectively studied 30 cases of multiple myeloma in patients under the age of 65, diagnosed from 1991 to 2005 in the clinical hematology department of the University Hospital of Yopougon that is a hospital incidence of 2.9 cases/year. The age of patients ranged from 34 to 64 years, with a mean age of 49 years and a sex ratio of 1.73. The professional activity was variable with 3% of radiographers and 10% of farmers. Clinically, the dominant sign was bone pain in 83% of cases. Myeloma was secretory in 93% of cases. It was Ig G-type in 86%, kappa-type in 66% of cases. 86% of patients were anemic, 20% had creatinine >20 mg/L, and 10% had serum calcium >120 mg/L. Geodes were found in 80% of cases. 53% were at stage III of DURIE and SALMON. Complications were infectious (33%), renal (20%), and hemorrhagic (7%). Chemotherapy regimens were VAD (10%), VMCP (30%), and VMCP/VBAP (60%) with 47% of partial responses, 33% of stable disease, and 7% of very good quality partial responses. The outcome developed towards death in 37% and causes of death were renal in 46% of cases. The median survival was only 5.1 months. PMID:24454380

  13. Characteristics and Results of the Treatment of Multiple Myeloma in the Subject under the Age of 65 at the University Hospital of Yopougon in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Tolo, Diebkilé Aïssata; Sawadogo, Duni; Nanho, Danho Clotaire; Kouakou, Boidy; Méité, N'dogomo; Ayémou, Roméo; Kouéhion, Paul; Konan, Mozart; Sékongo, Yassongui Mamadou; N'dhatz, Emeraude; Kamara, Ismaël; Silué, Alexis; Koffi, Kouassi Gustave; Sanogo, Ibrahima

    2013-01-01

    We retrospectively studied 30 cases of multiple myeloma in patients under the age of 65, diagnosed from 1991 to 2005 in the clinical hematology department of the University Hospital of Yopougon that is a hospital incidence of 2.9 cases/year. The age of patients ranged from 34 to 64 years, with a mean age of 49 years and a sex ratio of 1.73. The professional activity was variable with 3% of radiographers and 10% of farmers. Clinically, the dominant sign was bone pain in 83% of cases. Myeloma was secretory in 93% of cases. It was Ig G-type in 86%, kappa-type in 66% of cases. 86% of patients were anemic, 20% had creatinine >20 mg/L, and 10% had serum calcium >120 mg/L. Geodes were found in 80% of cases. 53% were at stage III of DURIE and SALMON. Complications were infectious (33%), renal (20%), and hemorrhagic (7%). Chemotherapy regimens were VAD (10%), VMCP (30%), and VMCP/VBAP (60%) with 47% of partial responses, 33% of stable disease, and 7% of very good quality partial responses. The outcome developed towards death in 37% and causes of death were renal in 46% of cases. The median survival was only 5.1 months.

  14. Socio-economic and health characteristics of HIV-infected patients seeking care in relation to access to the Drug Access Initiative and to antiretroviral treatment in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Msellati, Philippe; Juillet-Amari, Anne; Prudhomme, Joanne; Akribi, Hortense Aka-Dago; Coulibaly-Traore, Djénéba; Souville, Marc; Moatti, Jean-Paul

    2003-07-01

    To compare socio-economic and health characteristics of HIV-infected patients in Côte d'Ivoire whether or not they had access to the Drug Access Initiative (DAI) and to antiretroviral drug (ARV) treatment. Cross-sectional survey using medical files, blood sampling for CD4 cell counts and face-to-face interviews among all patients, informed of their HIV status, who attended during a 6-week period in the five DAI referral centres and three additional centres in charge of HIV care in Abidjan and Bouaké (participation rate = 65.4%). Multiple logistic regression using generalized estimating equations (GEE) to identify factors related to non-access to DAI and to ARV treatment. Among the 711 respondents, 23.0% were ARV-treated, 14.2% had been included in the DAI but were still waiting for initiation of ARV, and 62.7% were neither part of the DAI nor ARV-treated. In this latter group, less than one-third (29.6%) declared that they knew about the existence of the DAI. Among the 164 ARV-treated patients, 59.1% had benefited from DAI public subsidies partially covering the costs of drugs. In the non-DAI-non-ARV-treated group, 86% could have qualified for ARV treatment according to the DAI medical criteria (CD4 cell counts < 500 x 10(6) cells/l), and only 32.9% of those medically eligible were prescribed cotrimoxazole prophylaxis. In multivariate analysis, not being in the DAI and not being ARV-treated was related to: being a male, not having health care insurance, having a low level of education, living in poor housing conditions (absence of refrigerator in the household, absence of ventilation in patient's bedroom), and not being under cotrimoxazole prophylaxis. The Ivoirian DAI has facilitated access to ARV treatment for a significant number of patients with limited ability to pay. The majority of HIV-infected patients seeking care however face persisting socio-economic and informational barriers to access to these treatments.

  15. Surface display of bacterial tyrosinase on spores of Bacillus subtilis using CotE as an anchor protein.

    PubMed

    Hosseini-Abari, Afrouzossadat; Kim, Byung-Gee; Lee, Sang-Hyuk; Emtiazi, Giti; Kim, Wooil; Kim, June-Hyung

    2016-12-01

    Tyrosinases, copper-containing monooxygenases, are widely used enzymes for industrial, medical, and environmental applications. We report the first functional surface display of Bacillus megaterium tyrosinase on Bacillus subtilis spores using CotE as an anchor protein. Flow Cytometry was used to verify surface expression of tyrosinase on the purified spores. Moreover, tyrosinase activity of the displayed enzyme on B. subtilis spores was monitored in the presence of L-tyrosine (substrate) and CuSO4 (inducer). The stability of the spore-displayed tyrosinase was then evaluated after 15 days maintenance of the spores at room temperature, and no significant decrease in the enzyme activity was observed. In addition, the tyrosinase-expressing spores could be repeatedly used with 62% retained enzymatic activity after six times washing with Tris-HCl buffer. This genetically immobilized tyrosinase on the spores would make a new advance in industrial, medical, and environmental applications.

  16. Synthesis and Magnetic Properties of NiSe, NiTe, CoSe, and CoTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umeyama, Norio; Tokumoto, Madoka; Yagi, Shota; Tomura, Masatoshi; Tokiwa, Kazuyasu; Fujii, Takenori; Toda, Ryo; Miyakawa, Nobuaki; Ikeda, Shin-Ichi

    2012-05-01

    Polycrystalline NiSe, NiTe, CoSe, and CoTe have been synthesized by two methods, i.e., (1) the solid-state reaction in an evacuated quartz ampoule (QA) and (2) the high-pressure (HP) technique (HP) in a Au capsule using a cubic anvil cell. All the obtained samples have the nickel arsenide-type hexagonal crystal structure, except CoTe (HP), and their estimated lattice parameters, a and c, show almost the same values within 0.8% in comparison between samples prepared by the QA method and those by the HP method. On the other hand, a distinct difference between samples prepared by QA and HP processes is found in the magnetization of NiSe and NiTe. In particular, for NiTe, the temperature dependence of magnetization indicates two transition temperatures at about 20 and 130 K in samples prepared by the HP process. However, samples of NiTex (x = 0.5, 0.66, 0.82, 1, 1.22, and 2) and NiTe containing Au prepared by QA process do not show similar magnetic orders in the temperature range between 2 and 300 K. Also, samples of NiSe (HP) show magnetic transition at ˜20 K, while those of NiSe (QA) show a magnetic inflection point at ˜10 K. To the best of our knowledge the remarkable difference in magnetic properties caused by the method of synthesis has not been reported. In this paper, we present comparative experimental results of magnetic, electric, and specific heat measurements of samples prepared by the two methods. A possible explanation for such a substantial difference in magnetic interaction will be discussed.

  17. Childhood cancer in Côte d'Ivoire, 1995 - 2004: challenges and hopes.

    PubMed

    Yao, J J A; Couitchere, L; Atimere, Y; Koné, D; Azagoh-Kouadio, R; Oulai, M S; Stefan, D C

    2012-11-08

    There is insufficient research into the state of paediatric oncology in African countries. The purpose of this study was to analyse the state of paediatric oncology between 1995 and 2004 in Côte d'Ivoire. This retrospective descriptive study analysed all patients under the age of 18 who were diagnosed with cancer in Côte d'Ivoire over a period of 10 years (January 1995 - December 2004) with regard to demographics, types of pathology, delay in diagnosis and treatment, treatment modalities, abandonment of treatment and survival rate. Of 405 patients diagnosed with cancer, 331 were included in the study. Burkitt's lymphoma was the most common malignancy (73.6%), followed by nephroblastoma (14.5%) and acute leukaemia (4%). Delay in diagnosis occurred in 38.7% of cases and ranged from 1 to 3 months; the average delay from diagnosis to starting treatment was 18 days. An abdominal mass and swelling of the jaw were the most common clinical presentations. Almost half of the patients (48.6%) were lost to follow-up and over a third (39.3%) died shortly after admission owing to advanced disease. The overall survival rate was 9.4%. Cancer in children in Côte d'Ivoire was dominated by Burkitt's lymphoma. The rate of loss to follow-up of almost 50% is grounds for concern. The overall survival rate of 9.4% is very low, but such figures are not uncommon for African countries. Collaboration within the Franco-African Group of Paediatric Oncology has contributed to improving the management of children with cancer.

  18. Long-term trends in Anopheles gambiae insecticide resistance in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Edi, Constant A V; Koudou, Benjamin G; Bellai, Louise; Adja, Akre M; Chouaibou, Mouhamadou; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Barry, Sarah J E; Johnson, Paul C D; Müller, Pie; Dongus, Stefan; N'Goran, Eliezer K; Ranson, Hilary; Weetman, David

    2014-11-28

    Malaria control is heavily dependent on the use of insecticides that target adult mosquito vectors via insecticide treated nets (ITNs) or indoor residual spraying (IRS). Four classes of insecticide are approved for IRS but only pyrethroids are available for ITNs. The rapid rise in insecticide resistance in African malaria vectors has raised alarms about the sustainability of existing malaria control activities. This problem might be particularly acute in Côte d'Ivoire where resistance to all four insecticide classes has recently been recorded. Here we investigate temporal trends in insecticide resistance across the ecological zones of Côte d'Ivoire to determine whether apparent pan-African patterns of increasing resistance are detectable and consistent across insecticides and areas. We combined data on insecticide resistance from a literature review, and bioassays conducted on field-caught Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes for the four WHO-approved insecticide classes for ITN/IRS. The data were then mapped using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and the IR mapper tool to provide spatial and temporal distribution data on insecticide resistance in An. gambiae sensu lato from Côte d'Ivoire between 1993 and 2014. Bioassay mortality decreased over time for all insecticide classes, though with significant spatiotemporal variation, such that stronger declines were observed in the southern ecological zone for DDT and pyrethroids than in the central zone, but with an apparently opposite effect for the carbamate and organophosphate. Variation in relative abundance of the molecular forms, coupled with dramatic increase in kdr 1014F frequency in M forms (An. coluzzii) seems likely to be a contributory factor to these patterns. Although records of resistance across insecticide classes have become more common, the number of classes tested in studies has also increased, precluding a conclusion that multiple resistance has also increased. Our analyses attempted synthesis of 22

  19. 76 FR 14269 - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to C[ocirc]te d'Ivoire

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to C te d'Ivoire Memorandum for the Secretary of State..., including section 2(c)(1) of the Migration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1962 (the ``Act''), as amended, (22... from the United States Emergency Refugee and Migration Assistance Fund, for the purpose of...

  20. The Effects of Topical Agent (Kelo-Cote or Contractubex) Massage on the Thickness of Post-Burn Scar Tissue Formed in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Won Jin; Suh, Bum Sin; Kim, Hyeon A; Heo, Woo Hoe; Choi, Gum Ha; Lee, Seo Ul

    2013-01-01

    Background We conducted an experimental study to compare the effect of massage using topical agents (Kelo-cote or Contractubex) on scar formation by massaging the healed burn wound on the dorsal area of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Methods Four areas of second degree contact burn were made on the dorsal area of each of 15 SD rats, using a soldering iron 15 mm in diameter. After gross epithelialization in the defect, 15 SD rats were randomly divided into four groups: the Kelo-cote group, Contractubex group, Vaseline group, and control group. Rats in three of the groups (all but the Control group) were massaged twice per day for 5 minutes each day, while those in the Control group were left unattended. For histologic analysis, we performed a biopsy and evaluated the thickness of scar tissue. Results In the Kelo-cote and Contractubex groups, scar tissue thicknesses showed a significant decrease, compared with the Vaseline and control groups. However, no significant differences were observed between the Kelo-cote and Contractubex groups. In the Vaseline group, scar tissue thicknesses showed a significant decrease, compared with the control groups. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest that massage using a topical agent is helpful in the prevention of scar formation and that massage only with lubricant (no use of a topical agent) also has a considerable effect, although not as much as the use of a topical agent. Thus, we recommend massage with a topical agent on the post-burn scar as an effective method for decreasing the scar thickness. PMID:24286041

  1. Reading Culture: Using Literature To Develop C2 Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Virginia M.; Huntington, Julie A.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a qualitative research project designed to explore the relationship between the study of a foreign language literary text and the development of competence in a second culture (C2). Compared the attitudes and performances of students who read a fact sheet about Cote d'Ivoire to students who studied a poem about Cote d'Ivoire. Students…

  2. Possible Correlations of Multinational Military Operations and State Stability, and Application to State Building in Iraq

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    TANZANIA COTE DIVOIRE MAURITANIA TUNISIA D. R. CONGO MOROCCO UGANDA ERITREA MOZAMBIQUE ZAMBIA ETHIOPIA NAMIBIA ZIMBABWE With a large number of...UNOCI COTE DIVOIRE 2004-2009 UNMIL LIBERIA 2003-2009 MONUC DR CONGO 1999-2009 MINUSTAH HAITI 2004-2009 UNMIT TIMOR LESTE 2006-2009 UNFICYP

  3. Mental health impacts of reproductive coercion among women in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    McCauley, Heather L; Falb, Kathryn L; Streich-Tilles, Tara; Kpebo, Denise; Gupta, Jhumka

    2014-10-01

    To assess the independent associations of partner-perpetrated reproductive coercion, intimate partner violence (IPV), in-law reproductive coercion, and in-law abuse with recent probable post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and to test their relationship with PTSD symptoms when controlling for the other types of abuse among partnered women in rural Côte d'Ivoire. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted using logistic generalized estimating equations, which accounted for village-level clustering. Data were drawn from baseline data from a randomized controlled trial among 24 villages in rural Côte d'Ivoire (n=953 partnered women). Three adjusted models were used to test associations of reproductive coercion and abuse with probable PTSD. Partner-perpetrated reproductive coercion was experienced by 176 (18.5%) women. In model 3, which accounted for the co-occurrence of abuses, partner-perpetrated reproductive coercion (odds ratio [OR] 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-3.9) and partner-perpetrated IPV (OR 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1-2.7) were the most significant predictors of past-week probable PTSD (P<0.05). Reproductive coercion may be a significant contributor to poor mental health. The mental health impacts of reproductive coercion and IPV should be considered within psychosocial programming for rural Ivorian communities to address the full range of traumatic experiences that may have been experienced by women. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  4. Seroprevalence of Cytomegalovirus Infection Among a Rural Population of Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Anoh, Augustin Etile; Mossoun, Arsène; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Pauly, Maude; Leendertz, Siv-Aina; Kouakou N'goran, Eliezer; Schubert, Grit; Weiss, Sabrina; Hofmann, Jörg; Leendertz, Fabian H; Ehlers, Bernhard

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a betaherpesvirus that can be pathogenic to humans. In particular, immunocompromised patients can develop life-threatening symptoms. In the present study, HCMV seroprevalence was investigated in a rural population of Western Côte d'Ivoire. Plasma samples collected from 166 apparently healthy subjects living in 8 villages surrounding the Taï Forest National Park were tested for anti-HCMV immunoglobulin G and M antibody with two commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Prevalence of anti-HCMV IgG and IgM antibody was 100% and 5.4%, respectively. Anti-HCMV IgM positive was 10.2% (5/49) of the children and adolescents and 3.4% (4/117) of the adults. This observed decrease of IgM seropositivity and the seroprevalence difference between males and females (3.8% vs. 6.1%) was not statistically significant. In plasma of one IgM-positive participant, a low CMV load was detected indicating low-level replication. A second IgM-positive participant showed signs of local CMV replication. The other seven IgM-positive plasma samples likely reacted nonspecifically or due to polyclonal stimulation. Taken together, the results indicate that HCMV infection is hyperendemic in Côte d'Ivoire.

  5. [Prevalence of rhino-pharyngeal disease in the presence of malocclusion in school children in the village of Abidjan].

    PubMed

    Beugre, J B; Beugre-Kouassi, A M L; Bileya, A M L; Sonan, N K; Adjoua, R; Bamba, M; Djaha, K

    2005-06-01

    An epidemiological survey of randomly selected school children led to Abidjan in three public schools made it possible to determine the prevalence of the rhinopharyngeal diseases in presence of malocclusions. It is an exploratory study jointly undertaken by two teams of specialists in ORL and Orthodontics within a sample of African schoolchildren old of 5 to 21 years. The results showed the presence of malocclusions in 73.30% of the cases (N = 220). The rhinopharyngeal diseases account for 38.3% (N = 115). At the subjects carrying a malocclusion the rhinopharyngeal diseases are 48.30% and they are dominated by the allergic chronic rhinitis (40%) followed obstructive hypertrophic tonsillitis (16.5%). However, these states which cause certainly a nasal obstruction involving an oral breathing do not cause inevitably malocclusion. We cannot thus affirm unambiguous a bond between malocclusions and rhinopharyngeal diseases (p > 0.05). They are nevertheless as many indications to question the patient on other symptoms and to refer to an ORL specialist. Our investigation being limited to the occlusal study, it seems essential to us to continue these analyses to detect the possible predisposition of certain patients to develop dento-skeletal anomalies in the presence of rhinopharyngic diseases.

  6. Ten years of limnological monitoring of a modified natural lake in the tropics: Cote Lake, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Umaña, Gerardo

    2014-06-01

    It is located 650m above sea level along the boundary between the North Caribbean and Pacific slopes, near the Southern end of the volcanic Guanacaste mountain range. In the early 1980s the lake's main outlet was dammed and the outflow was diverted into Arenal Reservoir. Lake Cote was first studied in 1990-1991, and later in 2001, before it was again modified by raising its dam by one meter to use its outflow for hydroelectricity. From 2002 to 2010 it has been monitored twice a year for changes in its limnology. Here I present a summary of its basic characteristics and an analysis of their changes through time. The lake is discontinuous polymictic, and sometimes develops a thermocline at 6m depth that may last for several days as evidenced by the occasional development of an anoxic layer close to the bottom. Since its modification for hydropower production, the surface water temperature has attained higher values than before. Oxygen levels in the lake show periods of hypoxia to anoxia in the hypolimnion, that have become more frequent since modification. Despite its turbid water, the lake has low levels of nutrient concentrations and of chlorophyll a. The trend in these parameters in recent times is a reduction in chlorophyll a and an increase in water transparency, implying a reduction in primary productivity. These changes are discussed in relationship with anthropogenic factors such as the modification of the lake and its management, changes in landscape around the lake and global climate change.

  7. Mortality from neonatal tetanus in rural Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Sokal, D. C.; Imboua-Bogui, G.; Soga, G.; Emmou, C.; Jones, T. S.

    1988-01-01

    A 30-cluster survey was carried out in order to estimate the incidence of neonatal tetanus in rural Côte d'Ivoire. Births in the 19 months preceding the survey were enumerated by interviewers in house-to-house visits. If a child born in that period had died, the interviewer asked a series of questions to establish a presumptive diagnosis of neonatal tetanus. A total of 41 deaths from neonatal tetanus was found in the study area among 2324 live births that occurred from 1 January 1981 to 31 July 1982. This gives a neonatal tetanus mortality rate of about 2%. Most deliveries and almost all deaths occurred at home, and only about 2% of neonatal tetanus cases were reported through the routine health information system. Birth in a clinic and antiseptic care of the umbilical cord protected infants from neonatal tetanus. Tetanus immunization of all women of child-bearing age is recommended as a preventive measure. PMID:2838194

  8. Landscape Diversity Related to Buruli Ulcer Disease in Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Elguero, Eric; Asse, Henri; Guegan, Jean-François

    2008-01-01

    Background Buruli ulcer disease (BU), due to the bacteria Mycobacterium ulcerans, represents an important and emerging public health problem, especially in many African countries. Few elements are known nowadays about the routes of transmission of this environmental bacterium to the human population. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we have investigated the relationships between the incidence of BU in Côte d'Ivoire, western Africa, and a group of environmental variables. These environmental variables concern vegetation, crops (rice and banana), dams, and lakes. Using a geographical information system and multivariate analyses, we show a link between cases of BU and different environmental factors for the first time on a country-wide scale. As a result, irrigated rice field cultures areas, and, to a lesser extent, banana fields as well as areas in the vicinity of dams used for irrigation and aquaculture purposes, represent high-risk zones for the human population to contract BU in Côte d'Ivoire. This is much more relevant in the central part of the country. Conclusions/Significance As already suspected by several case-control studies in different African countries, we strengthen in this work the identification of high-risk areas of BU on a national spatial scale. This first study should now be followed by many others in other countries and at a multi-year temporal scale. This goal implies a strong improvement in data collection and sharing in order to achieve to a global picture of the environmental conditions that drive BU emergence and persistence in human populations. PMID:18665259

  9. Blastocystis in Côte d'Ivoire: molecular identification and epidemiological data.

    PubMed

    D'Alfonso, R; Santoro, M; Essi, D; Monsia, A; Kaboré, Y; Glé, C; Di Cave, D; Sorge, R P; Di Cristanziano, V; Berrilli, F

    2017-07-04

    Blastocystis is an enteric protozoan infecting humans and animals in both developed and developing countries at all latitudes. Despite this, data on Blastocystis infection are not available for several geographical areas, including many African countries. In this study, a survey was conducted on Blastocystis among humans and domestic animals in rural and urban localities in Côte d'Ivoire, in order to investigate the prevalence, the subtype distribution, and the zoonotic potential in association with sociodemographic factors, seasonality, symptoms, and co-infections. A total of 110 fecal samples were collected from patients living in four localities. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses were conducted for Blastocystis detection and subtyping. Positive samples from symptomatic patients were tested by Luminex xTAG® Gastrointestinal Pathogen Panel (GPP) to evidence the presence of other common intestinal pathogens. Overall, a prevalence of 58.2% was observed in humans and subtypes ST1(50.0%), ST2 (22.0%) and ST3 (28.1%) were identified. The prevalence values varied significantly among the sites but not in relation to the subtype. The seasonal rains significantly increase the infection rate in all localities. No significant differences in the ST distribution between asymptomatic and symptomatic subjects were observed. As regard the zoonotic transmission, an additional sampling was conducted in another village where fecal samples were simultaneously collected from humans and animals. Blastocystis STs 1-3 and ST7 were identified in eight humans and four chickens, respectively. This study provides the first exhaustive data on the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of Blastocystis in Côte d'Ivoire.

  10. Genetic identification of cytomegaloviruses in a rural population of Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Anoh, Augustin Etile; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Pauly, Maude; Schubert, Grit; Mossoun, Arsène; Weiss, Sabrina; Leendertz, Siv Aina J; Jarvis, Michael A; Leendertz, Fabian H; Ehlers, Bernhard

    2015-10-05

    Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) are herpesviruses that infect many mammalian species, including humans. Infection generally passes undetected, but the virus can cause serious disease in individuals with impaired immune function. Human CMV (HCMV) is circulating with high seroprevalence (60-100 %) on all continents. However, little information is available on HCMV genoprevalence and genetic diversity in subsaharan Africa, especially in rural areas of West Africa that are at high risk of human-to-human HCMV transmission. In addition, there is a potential for zoonotic spillover of pathogens through bushmeat hunting and handling in these areas as shown for various retroviruses. Although HCMV and nonhuman CMVs are regarded as species-specific, potential human infection with CMVs of non-human primate (NHP) origin, shown to circulate in the local NHP population, has not been studied. Analysis of 657 human oral swabs and fecal samples collected from 518 individuals living in 8 villages of Côte d'Ivoire with generic PCR for identification of human and NHP CMVs revealed shedding of HCMV in 2.5 % of the individuals. Determination of glycoprotein B sequences showed identity with strains Towne, AD169 and Toledo, respectively. NHP CMV sequences were not detected. HCMV is actively circulating in a proportion of the rural Côte d'Ivoire human population with circulating strains being closely related to those previously identified in non-African countries. The lack of NHP CMVs in human populations in an environment conducive to cross-species infection supports zoonotic transmission of CMVs to humans being at most a rare event.

  11. Multiple Pathogens Including Potential New Species in Tick Vectors in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Ehounoud, Cyrille Bilé; Yao, Kouassi Patrick; Dahmani, Mustapha; Achi, Yaba Louise; Amanzougaghene, Nadia; Kacou N'Douba, Adèle; N'Guessan, Jean David; Raoult, Didier; Fenollar, Florence; Mediannikov, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    Our study aimed to assess the presence of different pathogens in ticks collected in two regions in Côte d'Ivoire. Real-time PCR and standard PCR assays coupled to sequencing were used. Three hundred and seventy eight (378) ticks (170 Amblyomma variegatum, 161 Rhipicepalus microplus, 3 Rhipicephalus senegalensis, 27 Hyalomma truncatum, 16 Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, and 1 Hyalomma impressum) were identified and analyzed. We identified as pathogenic bacteria, Rickettsia africae in Am. variegatum (90%), Rh. microplus (10%) and Hyalomma spp. (9%), Rickettsia aeschlimannii in Hyalomma spp. (23%), Rickettsia massiliae in Rh. senegalensis (33%) as well as Coxiella burnetii in 0.2%, Borrelia sp. in 0.2%, Anaplasma centrale in 0.2%, Anaplasma marginale in 0.5%, and Ehrlichia ruminantium in 0.5% of all ticks. Potential new species of Borrelia, Anaplasma, and Wolbachia were detected. Candidatus Borrelia africana and Candidatus Borrelia ivorensis (detected in three ticks) are phylogenetically distant from both the relapsing fever group and Lyme disease group borreliae; both were detected in Am. variegatum. Four new genotypes of bacteria from the Anaplasmataceae family were identified, namely Candidatus Anaplasma ivorensis (detected in three ticks), Candidatus Ehrlichia urmitei (in nine ticks), Candidatus Ehrlichia rustica (in four ticks), and Candidatus Wolbachia ivorensis (in one tick). For the first time, we demonstrate the presence of different pathogens such as R. aeschlimannii, C. burnetii, Borrelia sp., A. centrale, A. marginale, and E. ruminantium in ticks in Côte d'Ivoire as well as potential new species of unknown pathogenicity.

  12. Intra-host diversity and evolution of hepatitis C virus endemic to Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Forbi, Joseph C; Campo, David S; Purdy, Michael A; Dimitrova, Zoya E; Skums, Pavel; Xia, Guo-liang; Punkova, Lili T; Ganova-Raeva, Lilia M; Vaughan, Gilberto; Ben-Ayed, Yousr; Switzer, William M; Khudyakov, Yury E

    2014-05-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection presents an important, but underappreciated public health problem in Africa. In Côte d'Ivoire, very little is known about the molecular dynamics of HCV infection. Plasma samples (n = 608) from pregnant women collected in 1995 from Côte d'Ivoire were analyzed in this study. Only 18 specimens (∼3%) were found to be HCV PCR-positive. Phylogenetic analysis of the HCV NS5b sequences showed that the HCV variants belong to genotype 1 (HCV1) (n = 12, 67%) and genotype 2 (HCV2) (n = 6, 33%), with a maximum genetic diversity among HCV variants in each genotype being 20.7% and 24.0%, respectively. Although all HCV2 variants were genetically distant from each other, six HCV1 variants formed two tight sub-clusters belonging to HCV1a and HCV1b. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that the genetic structure of HCV isolates from West Africa with Côte d'Ivoire included were significantly different from Central African strains (P = 0.0001). Examination of intra-host viral populations using next-generation sequencing of the HCV HVR1 showed a significant variation in intra-host genetic diversity among infected individuals, with some strains composed of sub-populations as distant from each other as viral populations from different hosts. Collectively, the results indicate a complex HCV evolution in Côte d'Ivoire, similar to the rest of West Africa, and suggest a unique HCV epidemic history in the country. Published 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Pattern of the evolution of HIV-1 enν gene in Côte d׳Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Sery Gonedelé; Sokouri, Didier P; Tiékoura, Kouakou; N׳Nan, Oulo Alla; Lolo, Marcel; Gnangbé, Félix; N׳Guetta, Assanvo SP

    2014-01-01

    Cête d׳Ivoire continues to have the highest HIV-1 prevalence rate in West Africa, although the infection number is in constant decline. The external envelope protein of the viruses is a likely site of selection, and responsible for receptor binding and entry into host cells, and therefore constitutes an ideal region with which to investigate the evolutionary processes acting on HIV-1. In this study, we analyse 189 envelope glycoprotein V3 loop region sequences of viruse isolates from 1995 to 2009, from HIV-1 untreated patients living in Cête d׳Ivoire, to decipher the temporal relationship between disease diversity, divergence and selection. Our analyses show that the nonsynonymous and synonymous ratio (dN/dS) was lower than 1 for viral populations analysed within 15 years, which showed the sequences did not undergo adequate immune pressure. The phylogenetic tree of the sequences analysed demonstrated distinctly long internal branches and short external branches, suggesting that only a small number of viruses infected the new host cell at each transmission. In addition to identifying sites under purifying selection, we also identified neutral sites that can cause false positive inference of selection. These sites presented form a resource for future studies of selection pressures acting on HIV-1 enν gene in Cête d׳Ivoire and other West African countries. PMID:25512682

  14. Pattern of the evolution of HIV-1 enν gene in Côte d׳Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Bi, Sery Gonedelé; Sokouri, Didier P; Tiékoura, Kouakou; NNan, Oulo Alla; Lolo, Marcel; Gnangbé, Félix; NGuetta, Assanvo Sp

    2014-01-01

    Cête d׳Ivoire continues to have the highest HIV-1 prevalence rate in West Africa, although the infection number is in constant decline. The external envelope protein of the viruses is a likely site of selection, and responsible for receptor binding and entry into host cells, and therefore constitutes an ideal region with which to investigate the evolutionary processes acting on HIV-1. In this study, we analyse 189 envelope glycoprotein V3 loop region sequences of viruse isolates from 1995 to 2009, from HIV-1 untreated patients living in Cête d׳Ivoire, to decipher the temporal relationship between disease diversity, divergence and selection. Our analyses show that the nonsynonymous and synonymous ratio (dN/dS) was lower than 1 for viral populations analysed within 15 years, which showed the sequences did not undergo adequate immune pressure. The phylogenetic tree of the sequences analysed demonstrated distinctly long internal branches and short external branches, suggesting that only a small number of viruses infected the new host cell at each transmission. In addition to identifying sites under purifying selection, we also identified neutral sites that can cause false positive inference of selection. These sites presented form a resource for future studies of selection pressures acting on HIV-1 enν gene in Cête d׳Ivoire and other West African countries.

  15. [Effects of war on control of tuberculosis in Côte d'Ivoire from 2002 to 2007].

    PubMed

    Daix, A T J; Bakayoko, A S; Coulibaly, G; Samaké, K; Koné, Z; Coulibaly, T N; Diakité, A; Pitta, M; Kouassi, F; Kouamé, A; Kouakou, A O; Kouakou, J; Domoua, K

    2013-10-01

    To specify consequences of armed conflict in Côte d'Ivoire from 2002 to 2007 on treatment outcomes of new cases of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB+) and retreatment cases. Retrospective analysis of treatment outcomes and reprocessing notified to the National Program against Tuberculosis from 2001 to 2008. Totally, 7,4232 cases of TPM+ and 5094 cases of reprocessing had been declared during the war period in Côte d'Ivoire. The global average rate of therapeutic success was 72% with a lower average rate of success in retreatment in Center, Northern et Western (CNO) zone (54%) than in Southern zone (73%). The average rate of lost sight was higher in CNO zone than in the South with respectively 27% and 11%. The average rate of success in retreatment was 60% on the national level with a lower rate in CNO zone (48%) than in the South zone (62%) and the average rate of lost sight in retreatment was higher in CNO zone than in the South zone (28% versus 16%). Our results show that there was no early epidemic of tuberculosis during the armed conflict in Côte d'Ivoire which has although severely disrupted activities of tuberculosis management in ex-nongovernmental zone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Developpement D'un Modele Climatique Regional: Fizr Simulation des Conditions de Janvier de la Cote Ouest Nord Americaine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyette, Stephane

    1995-11-01

    Le sujet de cette these concerne la modelisation numerique du climat regional. L'objectif principal de l'exercice est de developper un modele climatique regional ayant les capacites de simuler des phenomenes de meso-echelle spatiale. Notre domaine d'etude se situe sur la Cote Ouest nord americaine. Ce dernier a retenu notre attention a cause de la complexite du relief et de son controle sur le climat. Les raisons qui motivent cette etude sont multiples: d'une part, nous ne pouvons pas augmenter, en pratique, la faible resolution spatiale des modeles de la circulation generale de l'atmosphere (MCG) sans augmenter a outrance les couts d'integration et, d'autre part, la gestion de l'environnement exige de plus en plus de donnees climatiques regionales determinees avec une meilleure resolution spatiale. Jusqu'alors, les MCG constituaient les modeles les plus estimes pour leurs aptitudes a simuler le climat ainsi que les changements climatiques mondiaux. Toutefois, les phenomenes climatiques de fine echelle echappent encore aux MCG a cause de leur faible resolution spatiale. De plus, les repercussions socio-economiques des modifications possibles des climats sont etroitement liees a des phenomenes imperceptibles par les MCG actuels. Afin de circonvenir certains problemes inherents a la resolution, une approche pratique vise a prendre un domaine spatial limite d'un MCG et a y imbriquer un autre modele numerique possedant, lui, un maillage de haute resolution spatiale. Ce processus d'imbrication implique alors une nouvelle simulation numerique. Cette "retro-simulation" est guidee dans le domaine restreint a partir de pieces d'informations fournies par le MCG et forcee par des mecanismes pris en charge uniquement par le modele imbrique. Ainsi, afin de raffiner la precision spatiale des previsions climatiques de grande echelle, nous developpons ici un modele numerique appele FIZR, permettant d'obtenir de l'information climatique regionale valide a la fine echelle spatiale

  17. [First therapeutic recourse of the teenagers received to the service of Mental Hygiene of the INSP of Abidjan].

    PubMed

    Yao, Y P; Yeo-Tenena, Y J M; Tetchi, E O; Assi-Sedji, C; Bombo, Y F P; Kouame, L M; Soro, S J C; Delafosse, R C J

    2008-01-01

    The care of health in Africa is characterized more and more by an increasing offer, as well by its volume as by the diversity of its forms ("traditional" care, practise therapeutic related to the religion, medicine of the Western type). The request for psychiatric care is high at the teenager (25.34%) and causes the description of the therapeutic route of the teenagers to the Dispensary of Mental Hygiene. The exploratory study with descriptive aiming proceeded with the Service of Mental Hygiene of the INSP of Abidjan of July 1 at November 31, 2005. The data socio epidemiologic, clinical, paraclinic and therapeutic were analyzed at 27 teenagers received in ambulatory consultation in 2004. It arises from the structured interviews, the following observations: a male prevalence (66.7%); the majority of the teenagers (63%) was pupils and students, of Christian religion (55.6%); 63% of the teenagers were referred by their families frequently for are delirious (22.2%) and insomnia (22.2%); a prevalence of the schizophrenic subjects (40.7%) followed disorders of mood 25.9%; No patient had had resort as a first intention with the DHM; the first recourse being dominated by the tradithérapie (33.3%) followed centers of conventional care (25.5%) and churches and camps of prayers (18.5%). He comes out from this study that the profile of the teenagers was of male sex, for the majority of the pupils and the students. Also, the majority of the patients were referred by their family and schizophrenia represents principal pathology. The tendency to choose in first resort the healers should challenge the authorities on the need into practice for putting recommendations of consensus to improve the mental health of the teenagers.

  18. [Etiologies of non tuberculous empyema in adult patients infected with HIV in a service of pneumology, Abidjan (Ivory Coast)].

    PubMed

    Achi, V H; Brou Ahui, J C; Anon, J C; Kouassi, A B; Bi Djè, H; Horo, K; N'dhatz, M S; Koffi, N; Aka Danguy, E

    2013-06-01

    To identify the main bacteria that cause thoracic empyema of HIV-infected patients. Retrospective study analyzing the etiology of thoracic empyema in patients admitted to the pneumology clinic of the university hospital center in Abidjan from January 1998 to December 2010. We included all patients with bacteriologically confirmed thoracic empyema and had serological test for HIV. We compared the different pathogens based on HIV status. There were 42 patients of thoracic empyema composed of 24 (63.3%) HIV-infected patients [15 (62.5%) males and nine (37.5%) women] and 18 (36.7%) HIV-negative patients [13 (72.22%) men and five (27.78%) women]. The average age of HIV-infected patients was 41.2 years and 44.8 years for HIV-negative patients. HIV status was known only for 4.76% patients at admission, and most of them had a severe stage of immune suppression, (the average T CD4 cell count was 96/mm(3)). Pleurisy was monomicrobial in 83.33% HIV-infected patients and 94.4% HIV-negative patients. It was polymicrobial in 16.67% immunocompromised patients and 5.56% HIV-negative patient. Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from 58.33% HIV-infected patients. Streptococcus Pneumoniae was observed in 61.11% HIV-negative patients. Gram-negative bacteria are the main causes of thoracic empyema in patients HIV-infected. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  19. [Nasal carriage of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among health care personnel in Abidjan (Côte d'lvoire)].

    PubMed

    Akoua Koffi, C; Dje, K; Toure, R; Guessennd, N; Acho, B; Faye Kette, H; Loukou, Y G; Dosso, M

    2004-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of méticillino-résistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among health care personnel in Abidjan teaching hospitals as well as their resistance profile against other antibiotics, 592 health care personnel from various surgical and medical services: the intensive care unit, gynaecology and obstetrics and third-degree burns services of the Cocody, Treichville and Yopougon Teaching Hospitals were included. The previous nasal pits of each subject included were swabbed. The isolation of S. aureus strains was run in a Chapman medium followed by Identification based on morphological and biochemical characteristics. The resistance profile of the strains to antibiotics was determined by standard Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method and a 1 microg disc of oxacillin was used for the detection of meticillin-resistance S. aureus strains according to NCCLS (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards) guidelines. 269 members of the studied personnel were carriers of S. aureus, either a rate of portage of 45.4%. Among the 269 S. aureus isolates, 38.7% were MRSA strains and the carriage rate of MRSA in the population was 17.8%. The health care personnel working in surgery was the more colonized (36.7%) follow-up of those of the medical services (31.4%) and of the the intensive care unit (12.4%). A variable proportion of strains of MRSA also expressed resistances to the other families of antibiotics: 27% to aminosids of which 13.5% of phénotype kanamycine, tobramycine, gentamycine (KTG), 58.7% to macrolids and related (MLS), 37.5% to fluoroquinolons, 14.4% to cyclines and 40% to the cotrimoxazole. This confirms their multi-resistant character. The prevalence of MRSA carriage among health care personnel is high; this personnel constitutes an infectious risk for the hospitalized patients who are so exposed to nosocomial infections caused by MRSA.

  20. [Transthoracic echocardiography in a heart institute in Abidjan (Ivory Coast): Indications and evaluation of the request appropriateness].

    PubMed

    Anzouan-Kacou, J B; Siransy, E; Nchoh-Mottoh, M P; Ekou, A; Bamba-Kamagaté, D; Kadio, E M

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical situations motivating indications of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) in a cardiology institute in Côte d'Ivoire and to assess the appropriateness of indications. This is a prospective and observational study conducted over a period of 6 months. The 1733 enrolled were classified according to the indications and their relevance defined by the American College of Cardiology Foundation Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force, the American Society of Echocardiography and the American Heart Association (ACCF/ASE/AHA). In five cases (0.3%), indications were not listed in the document ACCF/ASE/AHA. The most common indication was the initial evaluation of hypertension (HTA) and suspicion of hypertensive heart disease (47.3%). All indications, the assessment in the context of hypertension represented 853 examinations (49.2%). Heart failure accounted for 5.3% of indications, but consisted of 302 applications (17.4%) when was associated hypertension with signs suggestive of heart failure. Requests were considered as appropriate in 95.3%, inappropriate in 3.2% and uncertain in 1.6%. In the group of inappropriate indications patients were significantly younger, and were examinations more often normal and less often absolutely abnormal. The profile of cardiovascular morbidity in our institution is dominated by the spectrum of hypertension and heart failure. Each indication must be balanced for the profitability of the ETT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Genetic Polymorphism of msp1 and msp2 in Plasmodium falciparum Isolates from Côte d'Ivoire versus Gabon.

    PubMed

    Yavo, William; Konaté, Abibatou; Mawili-Mboumba, Denise Patricia; Kassi, Fulgence Kondo; Tshibola Mbuyi, Marie L; Angora, Etienne Kpongbo; Menan, Eby I Hervé; Bouyou-Akotet, Marielle K

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The characterization of genetic profile of Plasmodium isolates from different areas could help in better strategies for malaria elimination. This study aimed to compare P. falciparum diversity in two African countries. Methods. Isolates collected from 100 and 73 falciparum malaria infections in sites of Côte d'Ivoire (West Africa) and Gabon (Central Africa), respectively, were analyzed by a nested PCR amplification of msp1 and msp2 genes. Results. The K1 allelic family was widespread in Côte d'Ivoire (64.6%) and in Gabon (56.6%). For msp2, the 3D7 alleles were more prevalent (>70% in both countries) compared to FC27 alleles. In Côte d'Ivoire, the frequencies of multiple infections with msp1 (45.1%) and msp2 (40.3%) were higher than those found for isolates from Gabon, that is, 30.2% with msp1 and 31.4% with msp2. The overall complexity of infection was 1.66 (SD = 0.79) in Côte d'Ivoire and 1.58 (SD = 0.83) in Gabon. It decreased with age in Côte d'Ivoire in contrast to Gabon. Conclusion. Differences observed in some allelic families and in complexity profile may suggest an impact of epidemiological facies as well as immunological response on genetic variability of P. falciparum.

  2. Physical Interaction between Coat Morphogenetic Proteins SpoVID and CotE Is Necessary for Spore Encasement in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    de Francesco, Melissa; Jacobs, Jake Z.; Nunes, Filipa; Serrano, Mónica; McKenney, Peter T.; Chua, Ming-Hsiu; Henriques, Adriano O.

    2012-01-01

    Endospore formation by Bacillus subtilis is a complex and dynamic process. One of the major challenges of sporulation is the assembly of a protective, multilayered, proteinaceous spore coat, composed of at least 70 different proteins. Spore coat formation can be divided into two distinct stages. The first is the recruitment of proteins to the spore surface, dependent on the morphogenetic protein SpoIVA. The second step, known as encasement, involves the migration of the coat proteins around the circumference of the spore in successive waves, a process dependent on the morphogenetic protein SpoVID and the transcriptional regulation of individual coat genes. We provide genetic and biochemical evidence supporting the hypothesis that SpoVID promotes encasement of the spore by establishing direct protein-protein interactions with other coat morphogenetic proteins. It was previously demonstrated that SpoVID directly interacts with SpoIVA and the inner coat morphogenetic protein, SafA. Here, we show by yeast two-hybrid and pulldown assays that SpoVID also interacts directly with the outer coat morphogenetic protein, CotE. Furthermore, by mutational analysis, we identified a specific residue in the N-terminal domain of SpoVID that is essential for the interaction with CotE but dispensable for the interaction with SafA. We propose an updated model of coat assembly and spore encasement that incorporates several physical interactions between the principal coat morphogenetic proteins. PMID:22773792

  3. Physics and agriculture: applied optics to plant fertilization and breeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diomandé, K.; Soro, P. A.; Zoro, G. H.; Krou, V. A.

    2011-08-01

    The economy of Côte d'Ivoire rests on the agriculture. In order to contribute to the development of this agriculture, we have oriented our research field on applied optics to agriculture. Then, our research concerns mainly the Laser Induced chlorophyll fluorescence in plants. A simple laser-induced fluorescence set up has been designed and built at the Laboratory of Crystallography and Molecular Physics (LaCPM) at the University of Cocody (Abidjan, COTE D'IVOIRE). With this home set up we first have studied the fluorescence spectra of the "chlorophyll" to characterize the potassium deficiency in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq,). However, we found that the results differed for samples along terraced plots. The study of this phenomenon called "border effect", has enabled us to realize that sampling should be done after two rows of safety in each plot. We also applied the Laser Induced chlorophyll fluorescence technique to improve the plant breeding. For this, we have characterized the rubber tree seedlings in nurseries. And so we have highlighted those sensible to drought and resistant ones.

  4. Efavirenz-based simplification after successful early lopinavir-boosted-ritonavir-based therapy in HIV-infected children in Burkina Faso and Côte d'Ivoire: the MONOD ANRS 12206 non-inferiority randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Dahourou, Désiré Lucien; Amorissani-Folquet, Madeleine; Malateste, Karen; Amani-Bosse, Clarisse; Coulibaly, Malik; Seguin-Devaux, Carole; Toni, Thomas; Ouédraogo, Rasmata; Blanche, Stéphane; Yonaba, Caroline; Eboua, François; Lepage, Philippe; Avit, Divine; Ouédraogo, Sylvie; Van de Perre, Philippe; N'Gbeche, Sylvie; Kalmogho, Angèle; Salamon, Roger; Meda, Nicolas; Timité-Konan, Marguerite; Leroy, Valériane

    2017-04-24

    The 2016 World Health Organization guidelines recommend all children <3 years start antiretroviral therapy (ART) on protease inhibitor-based regimens. But lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) syrup has many challenges in low-income countries, including limited availability, requires refrigeration, interactions with anti-tuberculous drugs, twice-daily dosing, poor palatability in young children, and higher cost than non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) drugs. Successfully initiating LPV/r-based ART in HIV-infected children aged <2 years raises operational challenges that could be simplified by switching to a protease inhibitor-sparing therapy based on efavirenz (EFV), although, to date, EFV is not recommended in children <3 years. The MONOD ANRS 12026 study is a phase 3 non-inferiority open-label randomised clinical trial conducted in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, and Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso (ClinicalTrial.gov registry: NCT01127204). HIV-1-infected children who were tuberculosis-free and treated before the age of 2 years with 12-15 months of suppressive twice-daily LPV/r-based ART (HIV-1 RNA viral load (VL) <500 copies/mL, confirmed) were randomised to two arms: once-daily combination of abacavir (ABC) + lamivudine (3TC) + EFV (referred to as EFV) versus continuation of the twice-daily combination zidovudine (ZDV) or ABC + 3TC + LPV/r (referred to as LPV). The primary endpoint was the difference in the proportion of children with virological suppression by 12 months post-randomisation between arms (14% non-inferiority bound, Chi-squared test). Between May 2011 and January 2013, 156 children (median age 13.7 months) were initiated on ART. After 12-15 months on ART, 106 (68%) were randomised to one of the two treatment arms (54 LPV, 52 EFV); 97 (91%) were aged <3 years. At 12 months post-randomisation, 46 children (85.2%) from LPV versus 43 (82.7%) from EFV showed virological suppression (defined as a VL <500 copies/mL; difference

  5. Cardiac surgery in Africa: a thirty-five year experience on open heart surgery in Cote d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Meneas, Christophe; Diby, Florent; Diomande, Manga; Adoubi, Anicet; Tanauh, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Background Few centers for open heart surgery (OHS) are in Sub-Saharan Africa. Lack of OHS results is also noted. By reporting our African experience on OHS, the aim of this study was to fill the gap. Methods It is a retrospective study on 2,612 patients who were subject to an OHS between 1978 and 2013. Data were collected from demographical, clinical, investigative studies, surgical and outcomes parameters. Results There were 1,475 cases of rheumatic heart diseases (RHD), 126 endomyocardial fibrosis (EMF), 741 congenital heart diseases (CHDs) and 270 various affections. Related to rheumatic valvular surgery we enumerated 1,175 monovalvular (mitral n=778, aortic n=336, tricuspid n=61); 280 bivalvular (mitral + aortic n=150, mitral + tricuspid n=130) and 20 trivalvular. For RHD, average age was 26±10.1 years (4–69 years) and 60% of our patients presented a functional class III or IV according to New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification. A total of 1,481 valvular replacements (bioprostheses n=489, mechanical prostheses n=992) and 445 valvular repair were carried out with a global and late mortality surgery respectively at 7% and 8%. One hundred and twenty-six [126] cases of EMF with right sided form 39, left sided form 40, and bilateral form 47 were colligated. Average age was 12±0.6 years (2–15 years). All patients with EMF underwent surgery; an endocardectomy in all patients combined with valvular reconstruction (n=36) or valvular replacement (n=90) was carried out with a hospital mortality at 16% (n=20). Concerning CHD, the most frequent were ventricular septal defect (VSD) (n=240), atrial septal defect (ASD) (n=200), partial atrio-ventricular sepal defect (n=30) and tetralogy of Fallot (T4F) (n=220), a total correction was performed for those CHD with an early mortality at 6.4% (n=44). Conclusions OHS in Cote d’Ivoire was successfully performed in most of our patients, the spectrum of acquired valvular heart diseases and CHDs in our country is

  6. [Socio-economic impact at the household level of the health consequences of toxic waste discharge in Abidjan in 2006].

    PubMed

    Koné, B A; Tiembré, I; Dongo, K; Tanner, M; Zinsstag, J; Cissé, G

    2011-02-01

    In August 2006, toxic wastes were discharged in the district of Abidjan, causing important health consequences in many households in the area. In order to appreciate the socio-economic impact of the consequences of toxic waste discharge on the households and of the measures taken by the authorities to deal with this catastrophe, and to appreciate the spatial extent of the pollution, we undertook a multidisciplinary transversal investigation at the sites of discharge of oxic waste, from October the 19th to December the 8th, 2006, using a transect sampling methodology. This paper presents the results related to the socio-economic aspects of the survey while the environmental and epidemiological results are presented in two other published papers. The socioeconomics investigation, conducted using a questionnaire, concerned 809 households across the various sites of discharge of toxic waste. More than 62% of households had at least one person who had been affected by toxic waste (affected households). 62.47% of these households were in Cocody district (with 2 sites and 4 points of discharge), 30.14% in Abobo district (with 2 sites and 3 points) and 7.39% in Koumassi district (with 1 site and 1 point). To escape the bad smell and the nuisance, 22.75% of the 501 "affected" households had left their houses. To face the health consequences generated by the toxic waste, 30.54% of the "affected" households engaged expenses. Those were on average of 92 450 FCFA (€141), with a minimum of 1 000 FCFA (€1.5) and a maximum of 1500000 FCFA (€2.287), in spite of the advertisement of the exemption from payment treatment fees made by the government. The decision of destroying cultures and farms near the points of discharge of the toxic products in a radius of 200 meters, taken by the authorities, touched 2.22% of the households. For these households, it did nothing but worsen their state of poverty, since the zone of influence of the toxic waste went well beyond the 200 meters

  7. Effects of human dynamics on epidemic spreading in Côte d'Ivoire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ruiqi; Wang, Wenxu; Di, Zengru

    2017-02-01

    Understanding and predicting outbreaks of contagious diseases are crucial to the development of society and public health, especially for underdeveloped countries. However, challenging problems are encountered because of complex epidemic spreading dynamics influenced by spatial structure and human dynamics (including both human mobility and human interaction intensity). We propose a systematical model to depict nationwide epidemic spreading in Côte d'Ivoire, which integrates multiple factors, such as human mobility, human interaction intensity, and demographic features. We provide insights to aid in modeling and predicting the epidemic spreading process by data-driven simulation and theoretical analysis, which is otherwise beyond the scope of local evaluation and geometrical views. We show that the requirement that the average local basic reproductive number to be greater than unity is not necessary for outbreaks of epidemics. The observed spreading phenomenon can be roughly explained as a heterogeneous diffusion-reaction process by redefining mobility distance according to the human mobility volume between nodes, which is beyond the geometrical viewpoint. However, the heterogeneity of human dynamics still poses challenges to precise prediction.

  8. Phytotherapy against buruli ulcer in the Health District of Yamoussoukro (Cote d'Ivoire) : Identification, description, and symbolic functions of the plants and recipes used.

    PubMed

    Adjet, A A; Kouame, D; Fokou, G

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to describe the plants and recipes proposed by traditional healers against Buruli ulcer in Côte d'Ivoire and to analyze their symbolic aspects. Buruli ulcer is an increasingly serious health problem in Côte d'Ivoire. The ivorian state through the National Buruli Ulcer Control Programme and its partners, has developed various actions to fight that disease. Medical and surgical treatments are offered free of charge to patients. Hundreds of health centers in different health districts have been converted into Buruli ulcer management centers. Despite these actions, traditional treatment continues to dominate the treatment journey. In rural areas, traditional healers provide management for Buruli ulcer. This qualitative and descriptive study studied 4 traditional healers and 37 patients at the Kongouanou care center. The traditional healers offer patients products that are disinfectants and ointments prepared from leaves, bark, roots, and fruits of different plants. The modes of treatment are supported by both dietary restrictions and a set of symbolic elements. Several reasons explain the predominance of traditional medicine in patients' treatment routes, although none of the patients interviewed was cured. It is, however, appropriate to establish collaboration with traditional healers to promote early detection and immediate recourse to specialized treatment centers.

  9. Task-sharing with nurses to enhance access to HIV treatment in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    McNairy, Margaret L; Bashi, Jules B; Chung, Hannah; Wemin, Louise; Lorng, Marie-Nicole Akpro; Brou, Hermann; Nioble, Cyprien; Lokossue, A; Abo, Kouame; Achi, Delphine; Ouattara, Kiyali; Sess, Daniel; Sanogo, Pongathie Adama; Ekra, Alexandre; Ettiegne-Traore, Virginie; Diabate, Conombo J; Abrams, Elaine J; El-Sadr, Wafaa M

    2017-04-01

    We report the first national programme in Côte d'Ivoire to evaluate the feasibility of nurse-led HIV care as a model of task-sharing with nurses to increase coverage and decentralisation of HIV services. Twenty-six public HIV facilities implemented either a nurse-with-onsite-physician or a nurse-with-visiting-physician model of HIV task-sharing. Routinely collected patient data were reviewed to analyse patient characteristics of those enrolling in care and initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART). Retention, loss to programme and death were compared across facility-level characteristics. A total of 1224 patients enrolled in HIV care, with 666 initiating ART, from January 2012 to May 2013 (median follow-up 13 months). The majority (94%) were adults ≥15 years. Fourteen facilities provided ART initiation for the first time during the pilot period; 20 facilities were primary level. Nurse-led care with a visiting physician was provided in 14 of the primary-level facilities. Nurse-led ART care with an onsite physician was provided in all secondary-level facilities and six of the primary-level facilities. During the pilot, 567 (85%) of patients were retained, 28 (4.2%) died, 47 (7.1%) were lost to follow-up, and 24 (3.6%) transferred. Five deaths (10.9%) were recorded among children as compared to 23 deaths (3.7%) among adults (P = 0.037). There were no differences in retention by model of nurse-led ART care. Task-sharing of HIV care and ART initiation with nurses in Côte d'Ivoire is feasible. This pilot illustrates two models of nurse-led HIV care and has informed national policy on nurse-led HIV care in Côte d'Ivoire. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Epidemiology of malaria in the Taabo health and demographic surveillance system, south-central Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Bassa, Fidèle K; Ouattara, Mamadou; Silué, Kigbafori D; Adiossan, Lukas G; Baikoro, Nahoua; Koné, Siaka; N'Cho, Moussan; Traoré, Mahamadou; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Utzinger, Jürg; N'Goran, Eliézer K

    2016-01-06

    A deep understanding of the local epidemiology of malaria is essential for the design and implementation of setting-specific control and elimination efforts. In Côte d'Ivoire, new initiatives are underway to reduce the burden of malaria, which requires high-quality longitudinal data. The epidemiology of malaria was studied in the Taabo health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) in south-central Côte d'Ivoire and implications for control are discussed. Two cross-sectional surveys were carried out in the rainy season of June/July in 2010 and 2011. Inhabitants of approximately 7% of randomly selected households in the Taabo HDSS were invited to participate. People were clinically examined, ear temperature was measured and spleen size determined. Finger-prick blood samples were collected and subjected to a rapid diagnostic test (RDT). Additionally, thick and thin blood films were prepared on microscope slides and diagnosed under a microscope for Plasmodium infection and parasitaemia. Haemoglobin (Hb) level was determined using a HemoCue device. A total of 1187 and 1264 people in 2010 and 2011, respectively, had complete data records. The prevalence of Plasmodium infection was 46.0% in 2010 and 56.6% in 2011, owing to a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05). Males showed a higher Plasmodium infection prevalence than females (49.6 and 62.8% versus 42.6 and 51.2%; respectively, in 2010 and 2011; both p < 0.05). The highest malaria prevalence was observed among infants and young children (aged ≤9 years). The risk of Plasmodium infection was significantly higher in villages compared to small hamlets and urban settings (p < 0.05). Fever, Hb level and splenomegaly were associated with parasitaemia. Malaria is highly endemic in the Taabo HDSS in south-central Côte d'Ivoire with considerable spatial heterogeneity of Plasmodium infection. There is a pressing need to scale-up control interventions against malaria.

  11. Human seroprevalence indicating hantavirus infections in tropical rainforests of Côte d'Ivoire and Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Witkowski, Peter T; Leendertz, Siv A J; Auste, Brita; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Schubert, Grit; Klempa, Boris; Muyembe-Tamfum, Jean-Jacques; Karhemere, Stomy; Leendertz, Fabian H; Krüger, Detlev H

    2015-01-01

    Hantaviruses are members of the Bunyaviridae family carried by small mammals and causing human hemorrhagic fevers worldwide. In Western Africa, where a variety of hemorrhagic fever viruses occurs, indigenous hantaviruses have been molecularly found in animal reservoirs such as rodents, shrews, and bats since 2006. To investigate the human contact to hantaviruses carried by these hosts and to assess the public health relevance of hantaviruses for humans living in the tropical rainforest regions of Western and Central Africa, we performed a cross-sectional seroprevalence study in the region of Taï National Park in Côte d'Ivoire and the Bandundu region near the Salonga National Park in the Democratic Republic (DR) of Congo. Serum samples were initially screened with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using nucleoproteins of several hantaviruses as diagnostic antigens. Positive results were confirmed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence testing. Seroprevalence rates of 3.9% (27/687) and 2.4% (7/295), respectively, were found in the investigated regions in Côte d'Ivoire and the DR Congo. In Côte d'Ivoire, this value was significantly higher than the seroprevalence rates previously reported from the neighboring country Guinea as well as from South Africa. Our study indicates an exposure of humans to hantaviruses in West and Central African tropical rainforest areas. In order to pinpoint the possible existence and frequency of clinical disease caused by hantaviruses in this region of the world, systematic investigations of patients with fever and renal or respiratory symptoms are required.

  12. The epidemiology of polyparasitism and implications for morbidity in two rural communities of Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Hürlimann, Eveline; Yapi, Richard B; Houngbedji, Clarisse A; Schmidlin, Thomas; Kouadio, Bernadette A; Silué, Kigbafori D; Ouattara, Mamadou; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Utzinger, Jürg; Raso, Giovanna

    2014-02-25

    Polyparasitism is still widespread in rural communities of the developing world. However, the epidemiology of polyparasitism and implications for morbidity are poorly understood. We studied patterns of multiple species parasite infection in two rural communities of Côte d'Ivoire, including associations and interactions between infection, clinical indicators and self-reported morbidity. Between August and September 2011, two purposely selected rural communities in southern Côte d'Ivoire were screened for helminth, intestinal protozoa and Plasmodium infection, using a suite of quality-controlled diagnostic methods. Additionally, participants were examined clinically and we measured haemoglobin level, height, weight and mid-upper arm circumference to determine nutritional status. An anamnestic questionnaire was administered to assess people's recent history of diseases and symptoms, while a household questionnaire was administered to heads of household to collect socioeconomic data. Multivariate logistic regression models were applied for assessment of possible associations between parasitic (co-)infections and morbidity outcomes. 912/1,095 (83.3%) study participants had complete parasitological data and 852 individuals were considered for in-depth analysis. The rate of polyparasitism was high, with Plasmodium falciparum diagnosed as the predominant species, followed by Schistosoma haematobium, Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm. There were considerable differences in polyparasitic infection profiles among the two settings. Clinical morbidity such as anaemia, splenomegaly and malnutrition was mainly found in young age groups, while in adults, self-reported morbidity dominated. High parasitaemia of P. falciparum was significantly associated with several clinical manifestations such as anaemia, splenomegaly and fever, while light-intensity helminth infections seemed to have beneficial effects, particularly for co-infected individuals. Clinical morbidity is disturbingly

  13. Epidemiology of community-onset bloodstream infections in Bouaké, central Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Akoua-Koffi, C; Tia, H; Plo, J K; Monemo, P; Cissé, A; Yao, C; Yenan, P J; Touré, F S; Ilupeju, V; Bogoch, I I; Utzinger, J; Herrmann, M; Becker, S L

    2015-09-01

    Bacterial bloodstream infections (BSI) account for considerable morbidity worldwide, but epidemiological data from resource-constrained tropical settings are scarce. We analysed 293 blood cultures from patients presenting to a regional referral hospital in Bouaké, central Côte d'Ivoire, to determine the aetiology of community-onset BSI. The prevalence of bacteraemia was 22.5%, with children being most commonly affected. Enterobacteriaceae (predominantly Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella enterica) accounted for 94% of BSI. Staphylococcus aureus was the only relevant Gram-positive pathogen. Clinical signs and symptoms were not significantly associated with blood culture positivity after controlling for malaria.

  14. First ecotoxicological assessment assay in a hydroelectric reservoir: the Lake Taabo (Côte d'Ivoire).

    PubMed

    Roche, Hélène; Tidou, Abiba

    2009-03-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) contamination was assessed in marketable species, two fishes (tilapia and catfish) and a prawn from the Lake Taabo (Côte d'Ivoire). Lindane and endosulfan were the main contaminants, suggesting their current use. DDT, endrin, heptachlor plus traces of chlordane, aldrin and fipronil were also detected. In fishes and in prawns, enzymatic biomarkers exhibited significant correlations with OCPs levels, showing the feasibility of a biomonitoring. The transfer of OCPs along the aquatic food web and their immunosuppressive effects in human are discussed. This preliminary study highlights that the pesticide contamination was concomitant with the increase in infectious diseases in the bordering population of this African lake.

  15. Rice irrigation and schistosomiasis in savannah and forest areas of Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Yapi, Y G; Briët, O J T; Diabate, S; Vounatsou, P; Akodo, E; Tanner, M; Teuscher, T

    2005-02-01

    Prevalence and intensity of infection of Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni were studied in relation to irrigated rice cultivation in Côte d'Ivoire. Urine and stool samples were collected from 4 to 15-year-old children in 24 villages in the savannah zone and 21 villages in the forest zone. Villages were classified according to surrounding inland valleys into three agro-ecosystems: (R2) full or partial water control allowing two rice cycles per year; (R1) no or partial water control allowing one harvest per year and (R0) absence of rice growing. In the savannah zone, S. haematobium prevalence was 4.8%, 2.3% and 0.7% and S. mansoni prevalence was 16.1%, 11.9% and 2.1% in R2, R1 and R0, respectively. In the forest zone, S. haematobium prevalence was 0.9%, 4.4% and 1.7% and S. mansoni prevalence was 61.3%, 46.6% and 17.5% in R2, in R1 and R0, respectively. Prevalences of S. mansoni adjusted for village effects were significantly different between agro-ecosystems in both zones. Significance of differences between agro-ecosystems of S. haematobium infection were strongly influenced by outlying villages. In savannah rice growing villages, negative binomial regression on infection intensity of each species showed significant positive relations to the surface of rice cultivated inland valleys, whereas uncultivated inland valleys showed no significant relation. However, in forest rice growing villages, S. mansoni infection intensity showed significant positive relations to the surface of uncultivated inland valleys, whereas surface water on rice cultivated land showed significant negative relations with infection intensity of each schistosomiasis species.

  16. Traditional practices and medicinal plants use during pregnancy by Anyi-Ndenye women (Eastern Côte d'Ivoire).

    PubMed

    Malan, Djah F; Neuba, Danho F R

    2011-03-01

    The use of plants during pregnancy is a common practice in Africa. In Côte d'Ivoire, despite modern antenatal medical prescriptions, most pregnant women resort to traditional medicine to ensure foetus development and facilitate childbirth. Yet, there is not enough research on the African traditional medicine concerning this aspect of health. Therefore, the plants used by pregnant women need to be better known in order to offer integrated antenatal care. This study analyzes the salience of plants used, the associated practices and reasons of such practices by pregnant women in Yakassé-Féyassé, an Anyi-Ndenye town of the Eastern Côte d'Ivoire. Methods include an ethnobotany survey (freelist method, interview with pregnant women during their antenatal consultation and with specialists). The survey led to a list of 75 plants distributed in 3 class of salience. In addition, 90.3 % of pregnant women use these practices which are nevertheless ignored by Midwives during antenatal visits.

  17. First report of the East African kdr mutation in an Anopheles gambiae mosquito in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Chouaïbou, Mouhamadou; Kouadio, Fodjo Behi; Tia, Emmanuel; Djogbenou, Luc

    2017-02-09

    Background. The intensive use of insecticides in public health and agriculture has led to the development of insecticide resistances in malaria vectors across sub-Saharan Africa countries in the last two decades. The kdr target site point mutation which is among the best characterised resistance mechanisms seems to be changing its distribution patterns on the African continent. The 1014F  kdr mutation originally described only in West Africa is spreading to East Africa while the 1014S  kdr mutation originally described in East Africa, is spreading to West and Central Africa. However, the East-kdr mutation has not been reported in Côte d'Ivoire so far. Methods. Immature stages of Anopheles gambiae s.l. were collected from breeding sites at the outskirts of Yamoussoukro, Côte d'Ivoire. Emerging 3-5 day old adult female mosquitoes were tested for susceptibility to deltamethrin 0.05%, malathion 5%, bendiocarb 1% and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) 4% according to WHO standard procedures. A total of 50 An. gambiae s.l. specimens were drawn at random for DNA extraction and identification down to the species level. A subsample of 30 mosquitoes was tested for the East-African kdr mutation using a Taqman assay. Results. The tested mosquito population appeared to be strongly resistant to deltamethrin (1.03% mortality), bendiocarb (38.46% mortality) and DDT (0% mortality) with probable resistance observed for malathion (92.47%). Among the 41 mosquitoes that were successfully characterized, An. coluzzii was predominant (68.3%) followed by An. gambiae  s.s. (19.5%) and a few hybrids (7.3%). Out of 30 specimens genotyped for East-kdr, a single hybrid mosquito appeared to be heterozygous for the mutation. Conclusion. The present study revealed the presence of the East-kdr mutation in Côte d'Ivoire for the first time in An. gambiae and highlights the urgent need to start monitoring the allele and genotype frequencies.

  18. The epidemiology of malaria and anaemia in the Bonikro mining area, central Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Knoblauch, Astrid M; Winkler, Mirko S; Archer, Colleen; Divall, Mark J; Owuor, Milka; Yapo, Raoul M; Yao, Pokou A; Utzinger, Jürg

    2014-05-27

    The epidemiology of malaria and anaemia is characterized by small-scale spatial and temporal heterogeneity, which might be influenced by human activities, such as mining and related disturbance of the environment. Private sector involvement holds promise to foster public health, including the prevention and control of malaria and anaemia. Here, results from a cross-sectional epidemiological survey, conducted in communities that might potentially be affected by the Bonikro Gold Mine (BGM) in Côte d'Ivoire, are reported. In December 2012, a cross-sectional survey was carried out in seven communities situated within a 20-km radius of the BGM in central Côte d'Ivoire. Capillary blood samples were obtained from children aged six to 59 months. Samples were subjected to a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for Plasmodium falciparum detection, whilst haemoglobin (Hb) was measured to determine anaemia. Additionally, mothers were interviewed with a malaria-related knowledge, attitudes and practices questionnaire. A total of 339 children and 235 mothers participated in the surveys. A positive RDT for P. falciparum was found in 69% of the children, whilst 72% of the children were anaemic (Hb <11 g/dl). Plasmodium falciparum infection was significantly associated with anaemia (odds ratio (OR) 7.43, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.97-13.89), access to a health facility (OR 5.59, 95% CI 1.81-17.32) and age (OR 0.04, 95% CI 0.01-0.12; youngest (six to 11 months) versus oldest (48-59 months) age group). Less than a quarter of mothers knew that malaria is uniquely transmitted by mosquitoes (22.3%, 95% CI 16.8-27.7%). Misconceptions were common; most of the mothers believe that working in the sun can cause malaria. Malaria and anaemia are highly endemic in the surveyed communities around the BGM project area in Côte d'Ivoire. The data presented here provide a rationale for designing setting-specific interventions and can be utilized as a benchmark for longitudinal monitoring of potential

  19. Dual Simian Foamy Virus/Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infections in Persons from Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Switzer, William M; Tang, Shaohua; Zheng, HaoQiang; Shankar, Anupama; Sprinkle, Patrick S; Sullivan, Vickie; Granade, Timothy C; Heneine, Walid

    2016-01-01

    Zoonotic transmission of simian retroviruses in West-Central Africa occurring in primate hunters has resulted in pandemic spread of human immunodeficiency viruses (HIVs) and human T-lymphotropic viruses (HTLVs). While simian foamy virus (SFV) and simian T- lymphotropic virus (STLV)-like infection were reported in healthy persons exposed to nonhuman primates (NHPs) in West-Central Africa, less is known about the distribution of these viruses in Western Africa and in hospitalized populations. We serologically screened for SFV and STLV infection using 1,529 specimens collected between 1985 and 1997 from Côte d'Ivoire patients with high HIV prevalence. PCR amplification and analysis of SFV, STLV, and HIV/SIV sequences from PBMCs was used to investigate possible simian origin of infection. We confirmed SFV antibodies in three persons (0.2%), two of whom were HIV-1-infected. SFV polymerase (pol) and LTR sequences were detected in PBMC DNA available for one HIV-infected person. Phylogenetic comparisons with new SFV sequences from African guenons showed infection likely originated from a Chlorocebus sabaeus monkey endemic to Côte d'Ivoire. 4.6% of persons were HTLV seropositive and PCR testing of PBMCs from 15 HTLV seroreactive persons identified nine with HTLV-1 and one with HTLV-2 LTR sequences. Phylogenetic analysis showed that two persons had STLV-1-like infections, seven were HTLV-1, and one was an HTLV-2 infection. 310/858 (53%), 8/858 (0.93%), and 18/858 (2.1%) were HIV-1, HIV-2, and HIV-positive but undifferentiated by serology, respectively. No SIV sequences were found in persons with HIV-2 antibodies (n = 1) or with undifferentiated HIV results (n = 7). We document SFV, STLV-1-like, and dual SFV/HIV infection in Côte d'Ivoire expanding the geographic range for zoonotic simian retrovirus transmission to West Africa. These findings highlight the need to define the public health consequences of these infections. Studying dual HIV-1/SFV infections in

  20. Étude de quelques palynomorphes du crétace supérieur du bassin offshore de Côte d'Ivoire: implications biostratigraphiques et paléoenvironnementalesStudy of some Upper Cretaceous palynomorphs from the Côté d'Ivoire offshore basin: biostratigraphical and palaeoenvironmental implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tea-Yass, Juliette; Digbehi, Zéli Bruno; Yao, Konan Raphael; Glohi, Boblai Victor

    1999-12-01

    The palynological analysis of the core samples from the interval 1722-1777 m of well IVCO-25, located in the Abidjan margin, has revealed a rich microflora composed of Pteridophyta and Chlorophyta spores combined with Palmaceae and Proteaceae pollen grains. This palynoflora suggests a vegetation developed under a hot and humid tropical climate, suggestive of estuarine conditions. The microplankton, composed of various species of dinocysts, were indicative of a Campanian age for the studied interval.

  1. Tracing health system challenges in post-conflict Côte d'Ivoire from 1893 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Gaber, Sabrina; Patel, Preeti

    2013-07-01

    While scholarship on health in conflict-affected countries is growing, there has been relatively little analysis of how armed conflict affects health systems in specific African countries, especially former French colonies. There is even less literature on the role of history in shaping health systems and how historical factors such as inequity may influence health impacts of armed conflict. Based on Côte d'Ivoire, this article argues that historical multidisciplinary analysis can provide valuable insight into the macro-level political, economic and social determinants of the health system over time. It explores how armed conflict has affected health services and exacerbates historically inherited challenges to the health system including unequal distribution of health services, bias towards curative care in urban areas, inadequate human resources and weak health governance. In the post-conflict period, this understanding may assist governments and other stakeholders to develop more appropriate health policies that address both urgent and long-term health needs.

  2. Emergence in Western African Countries of MDR-TB, Focus on Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Ekaza, Euloge; N'Guessan, Raymond Kouassi; Kacou-N'Douba, Adèle; Aka, N'Guetta; Kouakou, Jacquemin; Le Vacon, Françoise; Altare, Fréderic; Potel, Gilles; de-La-Cochetiere, Marie-France

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is responsible for a high mortality rate (2.5%) worldwide, mainly in developing countries with a high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The emergence of multiresistant strains of TB poses an extreme risk for TB outbreaks and highlights the need for global TB control strategies. Among Western African countries, Côte d'Ivoire (CI) represents a specific example of a country with great potential to prevent TB. Specifically, CI has a promising healthcare system for monitoring diseases, including vaccination programs. However, military and political conflict in CI favors the spread of infectious diseases, TB being among the most devastating. Compilation of the studies identifying common causes of TB would be extremely beneficial for the development of treatment and prevention strategies. Therefore, the purpose of this comprehensive review is to evaluate the epidemiology of TB in CI, describe the factors involved in pathogenesis, and suggest simple and applicable prevention strategies. PMID:24093098

  3. Two Major Clades of Bradyrhizobia Dominate Symbiotic Interactions with Pigeonpea in Fields of Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Fossou, Romain K.; Ziegler, Dominik; Zézé, Adolphe; Barja, François; Perret, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    In smallholder farms of Côte d'Ivoire, particularly in the northeast of the country, Cajanus cajan (pigeonpea) has become an important crop because of its multiple beneficial facets. Pigeonpea seeds provide food to make ends meet, are sold on local markets, and aerial parts serve as forage for animals. Since it fixes atmospheric nitrogen in symbiosis with soil bacteria collectively known as rhizobia, C. cajan also improves soil fertility and reduces fallow time. Yet, seed yields remain low mostly because farmers cannot afford chemical fertilizers. To identify local rhizobial strains susceptible to be used as bio-inoculants to foster pigeonpea growth, root nodules were collected in six fields of three geographically distant regions of Côte d'Ivoire. Nodule bacteria were isolated and characterized using various molecular techniques including matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) and DNA sequencing. These molecular analyses showed that 63 out of 85 nodule isolates belonged to two major clades of bradyrhizobia, one of which is known as the Bradyrhizobium elkanii super clade. Phylogenies of housekeeping (16S-ITS-23S, rpoB) and symbiotic (nifH) genes were not always congruent suggesting that lateral transfer of nitrogen fixation genes also contributed to define the genome of these bradyrhizobial isolates. Interestingly, no field-, plant-, or cultivar-specific effect was found to shape the profiles of symbiotic strains. In addition, nodule isolates CI-1B, CI-36E, and CI-41A that belong to distinct species, showed similar symbiotic efficiencies suggesting that any of these strains might serve as a proficient inoculant for C. cajan. PMID:27891120

  4. Effects of hygiene and defecation behavior on helminths and intestinal protozoa infections in Taabo, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Schmidlin, Thomas; Hürlimann, Eveline; Silué, Kigbafori D; Yapi, Richard B; Houngbedji, Clarisse; Kouadio, Bernadette A; Acka-Douabélé, Cinthia A; Kouassi, Dongo; Ouattara, Mamadou; Zouzou, Fabien; Bonfoh, Bassirou; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Utzinger, Jürg; Raso, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    More than 1 billion people are currently infected with soil-transmitted helminths and schistosomes. The global strategy to control helminthiases is the regular administration of anthelmintic drugs to at-risk populations. However, rapid re-infection occurs in areas where hygiene, access to clean water, and sanitation are inadequate. In July 2011, inhabitants from two villages and seven hamlets of the Taabo health demographic surveillance system in south-central Côte d'Ivoire provided stool and urine samples. Kato-Katz and ether-concentration methods were used for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni, soil-transmitted helminths (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm), and intestinal protozoa. Urine samples were subjected to a filtration method for the diagnosis of Schistosoma haematobium. A questionnaire was administered to households to obtain information on knowledge, attitude, practice, and beliefs in relation to hygiene, sanitation, and defecation behavior. Logistic regression models were employed to assess for associations between questionnaire data and parasitic infections. A total of 1,894 participants had complete data records. Parasitological examinations revealed prevalences of hookworm, S. haematobium, T. trichiura, S. mansoni, and A. lumbricoides of 33.5%, 7.0%, 1.6%, 1.3% and 0.8%, respectively. Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar were detected in 15.0% and 14.4% of the participants, respectively. Only one out of five households reported the presence of a latrine, and hence, open defecation was common. Logistic regression analysis revealed that age, sex, socioeconomic status, hygiene, and defecation behavior are determinants for helminths and intestinal protozoa infections. We found that inadequate sanitation and hygiene behavior are associated with soil-transmitted helminths and intestinal protozoa infections in the Taabo area of south-central Côte d'Ivoire. Our data will serve as a benchmark to monitor the

  5. Two Major Clades of Bradyrhizobia Dominate Symbiotic Interactions with Pigeonpea in Fields of Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Fossou, Romain K; Ziegler, Dominik; Zézé, Adolphe; Barja, François; Perret, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    In smallholder farms of Côte d'Ivoire, particularly in the northeast of the country, Cajanus cajan (pigeonpea) has become an important crop because of its multiple beneficial facets. Pigeonpea seeds provide food to make ends meet, are sold on local markets, and aerial parts serve as forage for animals. Since it fixes atmospheric nitrogen in symbiosis with soil bacteria collectively known as rhizobia, C. cajan also improves soil fertility and reduces fallow time. Yet, seed yields remain low mostly because farmers cannot afford chemical fertilizers. To identify local rhizobial strains susceptible to be used as bio-inoculants to foster pigeonpea growth, root nodules were collected in six fields of three geographically distant regions of Côte d'Ivoire. Nodule bacteria were isolated and characterized using various molecular techniques including matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) and DNA sequencing. These molecular analyses showed that 63 out of 85 nodule isolates belonged to two major clades of bradyrhizobia, one of which is known as the Bradyrhizobium elkanii super clade. Phylogenies of housekeeping (16S-ITS-23S, rpoB) and symbiotic (nifH) genes were not always congruent suggesting that lateral transfer of nitrogen fixation genes also contributed to define the genome of these bradyrhizobial isolates. Interestingly, no field-, plant-, or cultivar-specific effect was found to shape the profiles of symbiotic strains. In addition, nodule isolates CI-1B, CI-36E, and CI-41A that belong to distinct species, showed similar symbiotic efficiencies suggesting that any of these strains might serve as a proficient inoculant for C. cajan.

  6. Species composition and population dynamics of Aedes mosquitoes, potential vectors of arboviruses, at the container terminal of the autonomous port of Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Konan, Yao Lucien; Coulibaly, Zanakoungo Ibrahim; Koné, Atiuomounan Blaise; Ekra, Kouadio Daniel; Doannio, Julien Marie-Christian; Dosso, Mirielle; Odéhouri-Koudou, Paul

    2013-01-01

    An entomological survey of Aedes mosquitoes was initiated at the container terminal of the Autonomous Port of Abidjan in 2009 following the occurrence of two outbreaks of yellow fever in less than 10 years and dengue cases reported in 2008 among expatriates returning from Côte d’Ivoire (Ivory Coast). It was based on regular monitoring of ovitraps from July 2009 to June 2010. A total of 4,739 adult mosquitoes represented by four species of Aedes (97% of total) and one unexpected species of Culex (3%) were obtained. Aedes aegypti was dominant with 98% of total Aedes (n = 4,594). Its density variation was closely related to the amount of rainfall. The other species of Aedes were collected in the second half of the major rainy season including Ae. albopictus (1.17% of Aedes) and Ae. angustus (0.13%) whose presence was discovered for the first time in Côte d’Ivoire. PMID:23567057

  7. [Culex quinquefasciatus sensitivity to insecticides in relation to the urbanization level and sewage water in Yopougon, a township of Abidjan (Côte-d'Ivoire)].

    PubMed

    Fofana, D; Koné, A B; Koné, N; Konan, Y-L; Doannio, J M C; N'goran, K E

    2012-08-01

    This survey, conducted from July 2003 to June 2004, was to assess the variation of the level of sensitivity of Cx. quinquefasciatus to the pyrethroids recommended for the impregnation of the mosquito nets, in the township of Yopougon situated in the Northwest of Abidjan city in relation with the bed of a drainage channel of sewage water that passes through the township from the north to the south. Five districts have been chosen along this channel according to the level of urbanization, for the withdrawal of the pre-imaginal populations of Cx. quinquefasciatus in collections of stagnant sewage water of this township. The female Cx. quinquefasciatus aged three to five days from the exits of the insectarium have been exposed to papers impregnated with deltamethrin 0.05%, permethrin 1% and DDT 4% in view of the diagnosis of a possible resistance of these populations to these insecticides. The populations of Cx. quinquefasciatus proved to be resistant to the three insecticides used, in four districts. On the other hand, the population of Cx. quinquefasciatus from the district "Zone industrielle," situated upstream of the channel, proved to be sensitive to permethrin 1%, and a drastic decrease of sensitivity of the same mosquito has been observed with deltamethrin 0.05% and DDT 4%.

  8. Sensitivity and Specificity of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Rapid Serologic Assays and Testing Algorithms in an Antenatal Clinic in Abidjan, Ivory Coast

    PubMed Central

    Koblavi-Dème, Stéphania; Maurice, Chantal; Yavo, Daniel; Sibailly, Toussaint S.; N′guessan, Kabran; Kamelan-Tano, Yvonne; Wiktor, Stefan Z.; Roels, Thierry H.; Chorba, Terence; Nkengasong, John N.

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate serologic testing algorithms for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) based on a combination of rapid assays among persons with HIV-1 (non-B subtypes) infection, HIV-2 infection, and HIV-1–HIV-2 dual infections in Abidjan, Ivory Coast, a total of 1,216 sera with known HIV serologic status were used to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of four rapid assays: Determine HIV-1/2, Capillus HIV-1/HIV-2, HIV-SPOT, and Genie II HIV-1/HIV-2. Two serum panels obtained from patients recently infected with HIV-1 subtypes B and non-B were also included. Based on sensitivity and specificity, three of the four rapid assays were evaluated prospectively in parallel (serum samples tested by two simultaneous rapid assays) and serial (serum samples tested by two consecutive rapid assays) testing algorithms. All assays were 100% sensitive, and specificities ranged from 99.4 to 100%. In the prospective evaluation, both the parallel and serial algorithms were 100% sensitive and specific. Our results suggest that rapid assays have high sensitivity and specificity and, when used in parallel or serial testing algorithms, yield results similar to those of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based testing strategies. HIV serodiagnosis based on rapid assays may be a valuable alternative in implementing HIV prevention and surveillance programs in areas where sophisticated laboratories are difficult to establish. PMID:11325995

  9. ABO/Rh Blood Groups and Risk of HIV Infection and Hepatitis B Among Blood Donors of Abidjan, Côte D’ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Siransy, Liliane Kouabla; Nanga, Zizendorf Yves; Zaba, Flore Sandrine; Tufa, Nyasenu Yawo; Dasse, Sery Romuald

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B and HIV infection are two viral infections that represent real global public health problems. In order to improve their management, some hypotheses suggest that genetic predispositions like ABO and Rh blood groups would influence the occurrence of these diseases. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between ABO and Rhesus blood groups and the susceptibility to HIV infection and hepatitis B. We conducted a cross-sectional and analytical study in a population of voluntary blood donors in the Blood Transfusion Center of Abidjan. All blood donors who donated blood between January and June 2014 were tested for HBs antigen and anti-HIV antibodies (ELISA tests) and were ABO typed. The total number of examined blood donors during this period was 45,538, of which 0.32% and 8.07% were respectively infected with HIV and hepatitis B virus. O-group donors were more infected than non-O donors. Our study is an outline concerning the search for a link between ABO and Rh blood groups and hepatitis B and HIV infection. Further studies should be conducted to confirm the interaction between these two infections and contribute to the search for new therapeutic approaches. PMID:26495131

  10. Bayesian risk mapping and model-based estimation of Schistosoma haematobium-Schistosoma mansoni co-distribution in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Chammartin, Frédérique; Houngbedji, Clarisse A; Hürlimann, Eveline; Yapi, Richard B; Silué, Kigbafori D; Soro, Gotianwa; Kouamé, Ferdinand N; N Goran, Eliézer K; Utzinger, Jürg; Raso, Giovanna; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2014-12-01

    Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni are blood flukes that cause urogenital and intestinal schistosomiasis, respectively. In Côte d'Ivoire, both species are endemic and control efforts are being scaled up. Accurate knowledge of the geographical distribution, including delineation of high-risk areas, is a central feature for spatial targeting of interventions. Thus far, model-based predictive risk mapping of schistosomiasis has relied on historical data of separate parasite species. We analyzed data pertaining to Schistosoma infection among school-aged children obtained from a national, cross-sectional survey conducted between November 2011 and February 2012. More than 5,000 children in 92 schools across Côte d'Ivoire participated. Bayesian geostatistical multinomial models were developed to assess infection risk, including S. haematobium-S. mansoni co-infection. The predicted risk of schistosomiasis was utilized to estimate the number of children that need preventive chemotherapy with praziquantel according to World Health Organization guidelines. We estimated that 8.9% of school-aged children in Côte d'Ivoire are affected by schistosomiasis; 5.3% with S. haematobium and 3.8% with S. mansoni. Approximately 2 million annualized praziquantel treatments would be required for preventive chemotherapy at health districts level. The distinct spatial patterns of S. haematobium and S. mansoni imply that co-infection is of little importance across the country. We provide a comprehensive analysis of the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis risk among school-aged children in Côte d'Ivoire and a strong empirical basis for a rational targeting of control interventions.

  11. Use of Landsat TM imagery as a tool for mangrove forest mapping ; a case study of Ehotile island in Côte d'Ivoire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwassi, A.; Blivi, A.

    The integrated management of coastal zone requires a good coastal landscape knowledge. Mangroves in Côte d'Ivoire are valuable economic resources because of their high biomass production and their being a prolific fish habitat. They also play major role in the food chains and the fight against coastal erosion. However, mangroves are considered a hostile environment and thus are often cut down by man. Many restoration and protection efforts are underway. The present study is a remote sensing approach to map the mangroves of the Ehotilé Islands (Iles Ehotilé) in Côte d'Ivoire from the Landsat 7 scene 195-56 acquired on February 2nd, 2000. A multispectral analysis (Principal Component Analysis, Colour composites, Vegetation indices) was performed on the digital image which was later classified into nine (9) information classes (mangroves, swampy forest, forest, degraded forest, farmlands and/or fallows, grasslands, urban areas, seashore, water). The overall accuracy of the supervised classification is estimated at 93 percent. On the final classified image, areas predominantly covered by mangroves (Rhizophora racemosa) amount to 848 ha out of the 5715 ha of the study area. Remote sensing offers a valuable tool to monitor and map the mangrove ecosystems and land cover in tropical regions. Keywords: Mangroves, Remote sensing, Mapping, Classification, Landsat 7, Côte d'Ivoire, Iles Ehotilé, Land cover, coastal zone.

  12. Epidemiology of paediatric meningitis in central Côte d'Ivoire after the implementation of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccination.

    PubMed

    Touré, Fidèle S; Kouame, Samson; Tia, Honoré; Monemo, Pacôme; Cissé, Amadou; Diané, Bamourou; Becker, Sören L; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal

    2017-05-17

    Infectious meningitis accounts for enormous morbidity worldwide, but there is a paucity of data on its regional epidemiology in resource-constrained settings of sub-Saharan Africa. Here, we present a study on the aetiology of paediatric meningitis in central Côte d'Ivoire. Between June 2012 and December 2013, all cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples drawn at the University Teaching Hospital Bouaké were examined for the presence of bacterial and fungal pathogens. A causative agent was detected in 31 out of 833 CSF specimens (3.7%), with the most prevalent pathogens being Streptococcus pneumoniae (n=15) and Neisseria meningitidis (n=5). With the exception of neonates, these two bacteria were the most common agents in all age groups. Of note, only a single case of Haemophilus influenzae meningitis was detected. Hence, this study reports a considerable shift in the epidemiology of paediatric meningitis in central Côte d'Ivoire. Following the implementation of a nation-wide childhood vaccination programme against H. influenzae type b, this pathogen was much less frequently reported than in previous studies. The integration of specific vaccines against S. pneumoniae and N. meningitidis into the childhood vaccination programme in Côte d'Ivoire holds promise to further reduce the burden due to infectious meningitis.

  13. Surveillance for avian influenza and Newcastle disease in backyard poultry flocks in Côte d'Ivoire, 2007-2009.

    PubMed

    Couacy-Hymann, E; Kouakou, A V; Kouamé, C K; Kouassi, A L; Koffi, Y M; Godji, P; Nana, P; Tarnagda, Z; Akoua-Koffi, C

    2012-12-01

    Between 2007 and 2009, active surveys were conducted on backyard poultry (chickens, guinea fowls and ducks) in four areas of Côte d'Ivoire, including two areas where avian influenza H5N1 outbreaks occurred in 2006. Each bird underwent clinical examination. In total, 5,578 sera, 4,580 tracheal swabs and 5,120 cloacal swabs were collected, plus tissues from 35 sick chickens. Using the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test, 277 and 36 serum samples were positive for H5 and H7, respectively; all were negative for H9. All samples were negative by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. These results confirm the circulation of H5 and H7 influenza subtypes in backyard poultry in Côte d'Ivoire. Given that the seropositive birds were healthy, the circulating subtypes may be low pathogenicity avian influenza strains. Half (2,680) of the sera collected from chickens were tested by HI for Newcastle disease virus (NDV) antibody: 531 were positive. The seroprevalence of 19.8% confirms the endemic status of NDV, but may underestimate its true prevalence in Côte d'Ivoire.

  14. Costs of Care of HIV-Infected Children Initiating Lopinavir/Ritonavir-Based Antiretroviral Therapy before the Age of Two in Cote d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Desmonde, Sophie; Avit, Divine; Petit, Junie; Amorissani Folquet, Madeleine; Eboua, Francois Tanoh; Amani Bosse, Clarisse; Dainguy, Evelyne; Mea, Véronique; Timite-Konan, Marguerite; Ngbeché, Sylvie; Ciaranello, Andrea; Leroy, Valeriane

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To access the costs of care for Ivoirian children before and after initiating LPV/r-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) before the age of two. Methods We assessed the direct costs of care for all HIV-infected children over the first 12 months on LPV/r-based ART initiated <2 years of age in Abidjan. We recorded all drug prescriptions, ART and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis delivery, medical analyses/examinations and hospital admissions. We compared these costs to those accrued in the month prior to ART initiation. Costs and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated per child-month, according to severe morbidity. Results Of the 114 children screened, 99 initiated LPV/r-based ART at a median age of 13.5 months (IQR: 6.8–18.6); 45% had reached World Health Organization stage 3 or 4. During the first 12 months on ART, 5% died and 3% were lost to follow-up. In the month before ART initiation, the mean cost of care per child-month reached $123.39 (95%CI:$121.02-$125.74). After ART initiation, it was $42.53 (95%CI:$42.15-$42.91); 50% were ART costs. The remaining costs were non-antiretroviral drugs (18%) and medical analyses/examinations (14%). Mean costs were significantly higher within the first three months on ART ($48.76, 95%CI:$47.95–$49.56) and in children experiencing severe morbidity ($49.76, 95%CI:$48.61–50.90). Conclusion ART reduces the overall monthly cost of care of HIV-infected children < 2 years. Because children were treated at an advanced HIV disease stage, the additional costs of treating severe morbidity on ART remain substantial. Strategies for treating HIV-infected children as early as possible must remain a priority in Côte d’Ivoire. PMID:27935971

  15. An application of a proposed framework for formulary listing in low-income countries: the case of Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Diaby, Vakaramoko; Lachaine, Jean

    2011-11-01

    The General Mutual Benefit Fund for Civil Servants and State Employees of Côte d'Ivoire (MUGEFCI; Mutuelle Générale des Fonctionnaires et Agents de l'État de Côte d'Ivoire) is a health mutual fund providing coverage (medical consultations, laboratory tests and treatment) for its enrolees (government officials and agents). This organization aims to improve its current drug reimbursement process because of budgetary constraints. One method of achieving this is to implement a formulary-listing framework specifically developed for low-income countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of developing a new formulary for the MUGEFCI in Côte d'Ivoire, by implementing a formulary-listing framework specifically designed for under-researched settings. The application of this formulary-listing framework (based on multi-criteria decision analysis [MCDA]) consisted of four steps. First, relevant formulary-listing criteria and their levels of variation were identified and weighted according to their importance in the decision making around drug reimbursement. Second, a set of priority treatments to be assessed was determined. Once the treatments eligible for reimbursement were determined, scores were assigned to these treatments according to their performance on the formulary-listing criteria levels. Finally, a composite league table (weighted matrix) was constructed to rank the set of treatments by priority order of reimbursement. A budget-impact analysis (BIA) was also conducted to appraise the economic implications of the new composite drugs league table. The extent to which the new priority list of reimbursable drugs was affordable for the MUGEFCI was then measured. Policy makers in Côte d'Ivoire considered severity of disease and cost effectiveness of treatment to be the most significant criteria for priority reimbursement of drugs. This translated into a general preference for antimalarials, treatments for asthma and antibacterials for urinary

  16. Sleep-wake cycle of adolescents in Côte d'Ivoire: influence of age, gender, religion and occupation.

    PubMed

    Borchers, Claudia; Randler, Christoph

    2012-12-01

    The human sleep-wake cycle is characterized by significant individual differences. Those differences in the sleep-wake cycle are partially heritable but are also influenced by environmental factors like the light/dark cycle or social habits. In this study we analyse for the first time the sleep-wake rhythm of adolescent pupils and working adolescents in a less industrialised country in West Africa near the equator. The aim of this study was to explore the sleep wake cycle in this geographical region, using Côte d'Ivoire as an example. Data collection took place between 2nd of March and 10th of June 2009. 588 adolescents (338 girls, 250 boys) between 10 and 15 years (mean ± SD: 12.72 ± 1.63) participated in this study. We collected data on the religion of the participants (Christian (N = 159), Muslim (N = 352), other/no religion (N = 77)) and their occupation. Participants were either pupils attending school (N = 336) or adolescents that were already working (N = 252) and not attending school. The interviewer filled in the questionnaire. We found significant effects of age (p < 0.001), gender (p < 0.001), occupation (p = 0.002), religion (p < 0.001) and region (p < 0.001). The midpoint of sleep was on average 1:26 (SD: 00:30) on weekdays and 1:37 (SD: 00:42) on weekend days. There are significant differences between weekdays and weekend days, but these were only small. Sleep duration suggests that adolescents in Côte d'Ivoire may gain sufficient sleep during week and weekend days, and thus, may live more in accordance with their own biological clock than adolescents in the northern hemisphere. In contrast, the data can be interpreted that adolescents live in a permanent 'jetlag'. Factors may be the more continuous light/dark cycle in the tropics, low amount of ambient light and less electricity.

  17. [Dynamic transmission of Schistosoma by Biomphalaria pfeifferi in the region of Man in Côte d'Ivoire].

    PubMed

    Yapi Yapi, G; Touré, M; Boka, O M; Tia, E; Boby, O A-M

    2014-12-01

    Intestinal schistosomiasis by Schistosoma mansoni is a parasitary affection transmitted in West Africa by the mollusc Biomphalaria pfeifferi. Transmission dynamic of schistosomiasis by Biomphalaria pfeifferi has seldom been investigated in Côte d'Ivoire. In the framework of a research project on the epidemiology of schistosomiasis in the natural forest ecosystems, this study was performed longitudinally over a period of three years in Man region, in western Côte d'Ivoire. The trial set up from 1986 to 1989 and the project was funded by the World Health Organization. The general objective is to design a strategy of schistosomiasis control based on chemotherapy. The approach aims at interrupting or considerably reducing the reinfections, prolonging in that way the duration of the positive effects of the chemotherapy. The specific objectives assigned to the work consisted in studying the dynamic of the B. pfeifferi population and the infection of B. pfeifferi. To achieve our objectives, diverse methods (i: the molluscs sampling by two prospectors during 15 minutes per study site and ii: individual isolation of molluscs in test tubes with 5 or 10 mL of filtered water and exposure to light) have been used. They enabled us in the sampling of the intermediary host molluscs of Schistosoma and seek their infections. The results show that apparent high densities of B. pfeifferi can be observed at the end of the dry season and at the beginning of rainy seasons. In addition, the variation of relative abundance of intermediary host molluscs of Schistosoma is significantly influenced by rainfall and the system of water ways. The period of transmission of the infection to man is six months at Gueupleu village and ten months at Botonguiné village. In order to optimize the effect of chemotherapy in these sites of transmission characterized by a high level of endemy (68 %), an extreme mobility of human populations and a multiplicity of contamination sites, this study should not

  18. [Causes of fever in adults infected by HIV-1. Ambulatory follow-up in the ANRS 059 trial in Abidjan, Ivory Coast].

    PubMed

    Dakoury-Dogbo, N; Anglaret, X; Ouassa, T; Toure, S; Bonard, D; Gourvellec, G; Messou, E; Menan, H; Chêne, G; Combe, P; Dabis, F; Salamon, R; N'Dri-Yoman, T

    2001-11-17

    Describe the causes of fever in HIV-1 infected adults in Abidjan, Ivory Coast. Exhaustive analysis of all the morbid episodes with raise in temperature to above 37.5 degrees C in patients followed-up prospectively, within the framework of the ANRS 059 study from April 1996 to March 1998. One hundred and four patients presented 269 episodes of fever. At the start of these episodes, the mean CD4 count was of 311/mm3, fever had lasted a mean of 3.4 days and mean body temperature was 38.7 degrees C. The 269 episodes lead to 288 diagnoses: 152 specific etiologic diagnoses and 136 non-specific syndrome diagnoses. Community bacterial infections represented 55% of the specific diagnoses, followed by malaria (16%) and tuberculosis (12%). The mean CD4 count during the bacterial episodes was 208/mm3, in malaria 384/mm3 and in tuberculosis 245/mm3. Non-typhi salmonella, pneumococci and Escherischia coli represented 37%, 32%, and 15% respectively of the bacteria isolated. The mean duration between the first and last day of fever was 8.4 days. This time lapse was superior or equal to 30 days in 22 episodes (8%), 50% of which were mycobacterioses (36% tuberculosis and 14% atypic mycobacterioses). Nineteen episodes (7%) lead to death within a mean delay of 58 days. The first cause of death was atypic mycobacteriosis (26%). Death was significantly associated with a CD4 count < 200/mm3 and to prolongation of fever for more than 30 days. Other than the frequently described role of tuberculosis in HIV morbidity in sub-Saharian Africa, the role of bacterial diseases, responsible for early death, potentially severe, but curable should be underlined. The diffusion of antibiotic treatment algorithms adapted to the principle clinical syndromes encountered, might improve the treatment of adults infected by HIV consulting in sub-Saharian Africa.

  19. Spatial risk prediction and mapping of Schistosoma mansoni infections among schoolchildren living in western Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Raso, G; Matthys, B; N'Goran, E K; Tanner, M; Vounatsou, P; Utzinger, J

    2005-07-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to examine risk factors for Schistosoma mansoni infection among schoolchildren living in western Côte d'Ivoire, and (2) to carry forward spatial risk prediction and mapping at non-sampled locations. First, demographic and socio-economic data were obtained from 3818 children, aged 6-16 years, from 55 schools. Second, a single stool sample was examined from each child by the Kato-Katz technique to assess infection status of S. mansoni and its intensity. Third, remotely sensed environmental data were derived from satellite imagery and digitized ground maps. With these databases a comprehensive geographical information system was established. Bayesian variogram models were applied for spatial risk modelling and prediction. The infection prevalence of S. mansoni was 38.9%, ranging from 0% to 89.3% among schools. Results showed that age, sex, the richest wealth quintile, elevation and rainfall explained the geographical variation of the school prevalences of S. mansoni infection. The goodness of fit of different spatial models revealed that age, sex and socio-economic status had a stronger influence on infection prevalence than environmental covariates. The generated risk map can be used by decision-makers for the design and implementation of schistosomiasis control in this setting. If successfully validated elsewhere, this approach can guide control programmes quite generally.

  20. Stable isotope canopy effects for sympatric monkeys at Taï Forest, Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Krigbaum, John; Berger, Michael H.; Daegling, David J.; McGraw, W. Scott

    2013-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that vertical habitat preferences of different monkey species inhabiting closed canopy rainforest are reflected in oxygen isotopes. We sampled bone from seven sympatric cercopithecid species in the Taï forest, Côte d'Ivoire, where long-term study has established taxon-specific patterns of habitat use and diet. Modern rib samples (n = 34) were examined for oxygen (δ18Oap) and carbon (δ13Cap) from bone apatite (‘bioapatite’), and carbon (δ13Cco) and nitrogen (δ15Nco) from bone collagen. Results are consistent for C3 feeders in a closed canopy habitat. Low irradiance and evapotranspiration, coupled with high relative humidity and recycled CO2 in forest understory, contribute to observed isotopic variability. Both δ13Cco and δ13Cap results reflect diet; however, δ13C values are not correlated with species preference for canopy height. By contrast, δ18Oap results are correlated with mean observed height and show significant vertical partitioning between taxa feeding at ground, lower and upper canopy levels. This oxygen isotope canopy effect has important palaeobiological implications for reconstructing vertical partitioning among sympatric primates and other species in tropical forests. PMID:23843220

  1. Molecular phylogeny of hantaviruses harbored by insectivorous bats in Côte d'Ivoire and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Gu, Se Hun; Lim, Burton K; Kadjo, Blaise; Arai, Satoru; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Nicolas, Violaine; Lalis, Aude; Denys, Christiane; Cook, Joseph A; Dominguez, Samuel R; Holmes, Kathryn V; Urushadze, Lela; Sidamonidze, Ketevan; Putkaradze, Davit; Kuzmin, Ivan V; Kosoy, Michael Y; Song, Jin-Won; Yanagihara, Richard

    2014-04-29

    The recent discovery of genetically distinct hantaviruses in multiple species of shrews and moles prompted a further exploration of their host diversification by analyzing frozen, ethanol-fixed and RNAlater®-preserved archival tissues and fecal samples from 533 bats (representing seven families, 28 genera and 53 species in the order Chiroptera), captured in Asia, Africa and the Americas in 1981-2012, using RT-PCR. Hantavirus RNA was detected in Pomona roundleaf bats (Hipposideros pomona) (family Hipposideridae), captured in Vietnam in 1997 and 1999, and in banana pipistrelles (Neoromicia nanus) (family Vespertilionidae), captured in Côte d'Ivoire in 2011. Phylogenetic analysis, based on the full-length S- and partial M- and L-segment sequences using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, demonstrated that the newfound hantaviruses formed highly divergent lineages, comprising other recently recognized bat-borne hantaviruses in Sierra Leone and China. The detection of bat-associated hantaviruses opens a new era in hantavirology and provides insights into their evolutionary origins.

  2. Changing tracks as situations change: humanitarian and health response along the Liberia-Côte d'Ivoire border.

    PubMed

    Derderian, Katharine

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, protracted crises and fragile post-conflict settings have challenged the co-existence, and even the linear continuum, of relief and development aid. Forced migration has tested humanitarian and development paradigms where sudden-onset emergencies, violence and displacement arise alongside ongoing development work. Drawing on Médecins Sans Frontières interventions in the region from December 2010 to May 2011, this paper examines aid and healthcare responses to displacement in Côte d'Ivoire and Liberia; it focuses on challenges to the maintenance of preparedness for such foreseeable emergencies and to adaptation in response to changing situations of displacement and insecurity. This 'backsliding' from development to emergency remains a substantial challenge to aid; yet, in exactly such cases, it also presents the opportunity to ensure access to medical care that is much more urgently needed in times of crisis, including the suspension of user fees for medical care. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.

  3. Assessment of Regional Climate Models over Côte d'Ivoire and Analysis of Future Projections over West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouadio, K.; Konare, A.; Diawara, A.; Dje, B. K.; Ajayi, V. O.; Diedhiou, A.

    2015-12-01

    The ability of six Regional Climate Models (RCMs) used in AMMA-ENSEMBLES project is assessed over six meteorological stations in Côte d'Ivoire. The ensemble mean of the models is also used for the prediction of climate change over West Africa. The study focused on two periods: the period 1995-2005, the present-day simulations, is used to evaluate the skills of the models over the country and the years 2010-2013, for assessment of the future climate change scenario used. The results show that the skills of the models vary from one station to another and from one season to another. None of the models considered, presents an excellent performance over the entire country and in all the seasons. Generally, the ensemble mean of all the models presents better results when compared with the observation. These results suggest that the choice of any model for study over the country may depend on the focus of interest: intensity or variability of the rain and also on area of interest. The projection for 2020-2040, future climate change over West Africa shows that the Sahel exhibits a tendency to be drier while wetter Guinean coast is observed

  4. Origin and prevention of airport malaria in France.

    PubMed

    Guillet, P; Germain, M C; Giacomini, T; Chandre, F; Akogbeto, M; Faye, O; Kone, A; Manga, L; Mouchet, J

    1998-09-01

    Since 1969, 63 cases of airport malaria have been reported in Western Europe, 24 of which occurred in France. Most were due to Plasmodium falciparum. In 1994, 7 cases occurred in and around Roissy Charles de Gaulle airport (CDG), showing 4 types of contamination: among employees working on airstrips or opening containers, among residents living near the airport, among people living at some distance from the airport after a secondary transport of vectors, and by vectors transported in luggage. In-flight or stop-over infection is not considered as airport malaria. The infective anophelines originated from airports where malaria transmission occurs, mostly in subsaharan Africa. A tentative list is given taking into account aerial traffic with France. Surveys in the airports of Dakar (Senegal), Cotonou (Benin), Abidjan (Cote d'Ivoire) and Yaoundé (Cameroun) found potential vectors in all of these from July to September. After 1994, the Contrôle Sanitaire aux Frontières (CSF) in charge at CDG concentrated its efforts on the flights at risk, as well as information and sensitization of airline companies, which resulted in 73% and 87% of the flights at risk being properly disinsected in 1995 and 1996. Despite pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae s.s. in West Africa, the efficacy of aircraft spraying with permethrin aerosols is still acceptable. However, surveillance of resistance should be improved and search for nonpyrethroid insecticides suitable for aircraft strongly encouraged.

  5. Re-Visiting Insecticide Resistance Status in Anopheles gambiae from Côte d'Ivoire: A Nation-Wide Informative Survey

    PubMed Central

    Koffi, Alphonsine A.; Ahoua Alou, Ludovic P.; Kabran, Jean-Paul K.; N'Guessan, Raphael; Pennetier, Cédric

    2013-01-01

    Insecticide resistance constitutes a major threat that may undermine current gain in malaria control in most endemic countries. National Malaria Control Programmes (NMCPs) need as much information as possible on the resistance status of malaria vectors and underlying mechanisms in order to implement the most relevant and efficient control strategy. Bioassays, biochemical and molecular analysis were performed on An. gambiae collected in six sentinel sites in Côte d'Ivoire. The sites were selected on the basis of their bioclimatic status and agricultural practices. An. gambiae populations across sites showed high levels of resistance to organochloride, pyrethroid and carbamate insecticides. The kdr and ace-1R mutations were detected in almost all sentinel sites with mosquitoes on the coastal and cotton growing areas mostly affected by these mutations. At almost all sites, the levels of detoxifying enzymes (mixed-function oxidases (MFOs), non-specific esterases (NSE) and glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs)) in An. gambiae populations were significantly higher than the levels found in the susceptible strain Kisumu. Pre-exposure of mosquitoes to PBO, an inhibitor of MFOs and NSEs, significantly increased mortality rates to pyrethroids and carbamates in mosquitoes but resistance in most cases was not fully synergised by PBO, inferring a residual role of additional mechanisms, including kdr and ace-1 site insensitivity. The large distribution of resistance in Côte d'Ivoire raises an important question of whether to continue to deploy pyrethroid-based long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and insecticide residual spraying (IRS) towards which resistance continues to rise with no guarantee that the level of resistance would not compromise their efficacy. Innovative strategies that combine insecticide and synergists in LLINs or spatially LLIN and an effective non-pyrethroid insecticide for IRS could be in the short term the best practice for the NMCP to manage insecticide

  6. Epidemiology of brucellosis, Q Fever and Rift Valley Fever at the human and livestock interface in northern Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Kanouté, Youssouf B; Gragnon, Biégo G; Schindler, Christian; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Schelling, Esther

    2017-01-01

    Northern Côte d'Ivoire is the main livestock breeding zone and has the highest livestock cross-border movements in Côte d'Ivoire. The aim of this study was to provide updated epidemiological data on three neglected zoonotic diseases, namely brucellosis, Q Fever and Rift Valley Fever (RVF). We conducted three-stage cross-sectional cluster surveys in livestock and humans between 2012 and 2014 in a random selection of 63 villages and a sample of 633 cattle, 622 small ruminants and 88 people. We administered questionnaires to capture risk factors and performed serological tests including the Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT), Brucella spp. indirect and competitive ELISAs, Coxiella burnetii indirect ELISA and RVF competitive ELISA. The human seroprevalence for Brucella spp. was 5.3%. RBPT-positive small ruminants tested negative by the indirect ELISA. The seroprevalence of Brucella spp. in cattle adjusted for clustering was 4.6%. Cattle aged 5-8 years had higher odds of seropositivity (OR=3.5) than those aged ≤4years. The seropositivity in cattle was associated with having joint hygromas (OR=9), sharing the pastures with small ruminants (OR=5.8) and contact with pastoralist herds (OR=11.3). The seroprevalence of Q Fever was 13.9% in cattle, 9.4% in sheep and 12.4% in goats. The seroprevalence of RVF was 3.9% in cattle, 2.4% in sheep and 0% in goats. Seropositive ewes had greater odds (OR=4.7) of abortion than seronegative ones. In cattle, a shorter distance between the night pens and nearest permanent water bodies was a protective factor (OR=0.1). The study showed that the exposure to the three zoonoses is rather low in northern Côte d'Ivoire. Within a One Health approach, cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness of control measures should be assessed for an integrated control.

  7. Detection and characterization of enteroviruses and parechoviruses in healthy people living in the South of Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Cristanziano, Veronica Di; Veronica, Di Cristanziano; Böttcher, Sindy; Sindy, Böttcher; Diedrich, Sabine; Sabine, Diedrich; Timmen-Wego, Monika; Monika, Timmen-Wego; Knops, Elena; Elena, Knops; Lübke, Nadine; Nadine, Lübke; Kaiser, Rolf; Rolf, Kaiser; Pfister, Herbert; Herbert, Pfister; Kaboré, Yolande; Yolande, Kaboré; D'Alfonso, Rossella; Rossella, D'Alfonso

    2015-10-01

    Human enteroviruses (EVs) and parechoviruses (HPeVs) belong to the family Picornaviridae. Although most EV and HPeV infections remain asymptomatic, both pathogens can cause a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from respiratory or gastrointestinal symptoms to myocarditis, neonatal sepsis, and infections of the central nervous system. Aim of the present study was to investigate the spectrum of EVs and HPeVs in apparently healthy adults and children living in the South of Côte d'Ivoire. The study included 105 stool samples obtained from healthy individuals aged 0-53 years between June 2013 and December 2014 in the Sud-Como region of Côte d'Ivoire. After collection and shipment to Germany, the samples were analyzed by real-time PCR for the presence of EVs and HPeVs RNA. Molecular typing and virus isolation of all samples were performed.''é Out of 105 samples, 24 (22.8%) were EV positive and six (5.2%) were HPeV positive. Twenty-one EV positive samples could be characterized with serotypes belonging to EV group A-C, while three could not be further specified. Interestingly, several rarely described serotypes were identified, e.g., EV-C99, EV-B93, EV-C116, and EV-A119. Typing of HPeV positive samples resulted in HPeV-1 and -5 detections, while one isolate could not be assigned to the known HPeV types. This study showed a large variety of EV strains in healthy people in the South of Côte d'Ivoire and provided the first available data about HPeV infections in a sub-Saharan African country. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Causes of death in the Taabo health and demographic surveillance system, Côte d'Ivoire, from 2009 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Koné, Siaka; Fürst, Thomas; Jaeger, Fabienne N; Esso, Emmanuel L J C; Baïkoro, Nahoua; Kouadio, Kouamé A; Adiossan, Lukas G; Zouzou, Fabien; Boti, Louis I; Tanner, Marcel; Utzinger, Jürg; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Dao, Daouda; N'Goran, Eliézer K

    2015-01-01

    Current vital statistics from governmental institutions in Côte d'Ivoire are incomplete. This problem is particularly notable for remote rural areas that have limited access to the health system. To record all deaths from 2009 to 2011 and to identify the leading causes of death in the Taabo health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) in south-central Côte d'Ivoire. Deaths recorded in the first 3 years of operation of the Taabo HDSS were investigated by verbal autopsy (VA), using the InterVA-4 model. InterVA-4 is based on the World Health Organization 2012 VA tool in terms of input indicators and categories of causes of death. Overall, 948 deaths were recorded, of which 236 (24.9%) had incomplete VA data. Among the 712 deaths analyzed, communicable diseases represented the leading causes (58.9%), with most deaths attributed to malaria (n=129), acute respiratory tract infections (n=110), HIV/AIDS (n=80), and pulmonary tuberculosis (n=46). Non-communicable diseases accounted for 18.9% of the deaths and included mainly acute abdomen (n=38), unspecified cardiac diseases (n=15), and digestive neoplasms (n=13). Maternal and neonatal conditions accounted for 8.3% of deaths, primarily pneumonia (n=19) and birth asphyxia (n=16) in newborns. Among the 3.8% of deaths linked to trauma and injury, the main causes were assault (n=6), accidental drowning (n=4), contact with venomous plants/animals (n=4), and traffic-related accidents (n=4). No clear causes were determined in 10.0% of the analyzed deaths. Communicable diseases remain the predominant cause of death in rural Côte d'Ivoire. Based on these findings, measures are now being implemented in the Taabo HDSS. It will be interesting to monitor patterns of mortality and causes of death in the face of rapid demographic and epidemiological transitions in this part of West Africa.

  9. Re-visiting insecticide resistance status in Anopheles gambiae from Côte d'Ivoire: a nation-wide informative survey.

    PubMed

    Koffi, Alphonsine A; Ahoua Alou, Ludovic P; Kabran, Jean-Paul K; N'Guessan, Raphael; Pennetier, Cédric

    2013-01-01

    Insecticide resistance constitutes a major threat that may undermine current gain in malaria control in most endemic countries. National Malaria Control Programmes (NMCPs) need as much information as possible on the resistance status of malaria vectors and underlying mechanisms in order to implement the most relevant and efficient control strategy. Bioassays, biochemical and molecular analysis were performed on An. gambiae collected in six sentinel sites in Côte d'Ivoire. The sites were selected on the basis of their bioclimatic status and agricultural practices. An. gambiae populations across sites showed high levels of resistance to organochloride, pyrethroid and carbamate insecticides. The kdr and ace-1(R) mutations were detected in almost all sentinel sites with mosquitoes on the coastal and cotton growing areas mostly affected by these mutations. At almost all sites, the levels of detoxifying enzymes (mixed-function oxidases (MFOs), non-specific esterases (NSE) and glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs)) in An. gambiae populations were significantly higher than the levels found in the susceptible strain Kisumu. Pre-exposure of mosquitoes to PBO, an inhibitor of MFOs and NSEs, significantly increased mortality rates to pyrethroids and carbamates in mosquitoes but resistance in most cases was not fully synergised by PBO, inferring a residual role of additional mechanisms, including kdr and ace-1 site insensitivity. The large distribution of resistance in Côte d'Ivoire raises an important question of whether to continue to deploy pyrethroid-based long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and insecticide residual spraying (IRS) towards which resistance continues to rise with no guarantee that the level of resistance would not compromise their efficacy. Innovative strategies that combine insecticide and synergists in LLINs or spatially LLIN and an effective non-pyrethroid insecticide for IRS could be in the short term the best practice for the NMCP to manage insecticide

  10. Sustaining control of schistosomiasis mansoni in moderate endemicity areas in western Côte d'Ivoire: a SCORE study protocol.

    PubMed

    Assaré, Rufin K; Knopp, Stefanie; N'Guessan, Nicaise A; Yapi, Ahoua; Tian-Bi, Yves-Nathan T; Yao, Patrick K; Coulibaly, Jean T; Ouattara, Mamadou; Meïté, Aboulaye; Fenwick, Alan; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Utzinger, Jürg

    2014-12-17

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease that occurs in the tropics and subtropics. The mainstay of control is preventive chemotherapy with praziquantel. In Africa, an estimated 230 million people require preventive chemotherapy. In western Côte d'Ivoire, infections with Schistosoma mansoni are widespread. To provide an evidence-base for programme decisions about preventive chemotherapy to sustain control of schistosomiasis, a 5-year multi-country study with different treatment arms has been designed by the Schistosomiasis Consortium for Operational Research and Evaluation (SCORE) and is currently being implemented in various African settings, including Côte d'Ivoire. We report the study protocol, including ethics statement and insight from a large-scale eligibility survey carried out in four provinces in western Côte d'Ivoire. The study protocol has been approved by the ethics committees of Basel and Côte d'Ivoire. A total of 12,110 children, aged 13-14 years, from 264 villages were screened for S. mansoni using duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears from single stool samples. Among the schools with a S. mansoni prevalence of 10-24%, 75 schools were selected and randomly assigned to one of three treatment arms. In each school, three stool samples are being collected from 100 children aged 9-12 years annually and one stool sample from 100 first-year students at baseline and in the final year and subjected to duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears. Cost and coverage data for the different intervention arms, along with environmental, political and other characteristics that might impact on the infection prevalence and intensity will be recorded in each study year, using a pretested village inventory form. The study will document changes in S. mansoni infection prevalence and intensity according to different treatment schemes. Moreover, factors that determine the effectiveness of preventive chemotherapy will be identified. These factors will help to develop reasonable measures

  11. Bayesian risk profiling of soil-transmitted helminth infections and estimates of preventive chemotherapy for school-aged children in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Yapi, Richard B; Chammartin, Frédérique; Hürlimann, Eveline; Houngbedji, Clarisse A; N'Dri, Prisca B; Silué, Kigbafori D; Utzinger, Jürg; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Vounatsou, Penelope; Raso, Giovanna

    2016-03-21

    Soil-transmitted helminthiasis affects more than a billion people in the world and accounts for a global burden of 5.1 million disability-adjusted life years. The objectives of this study were (i) to map and predict the risk of soil-transmitted helminth infections among school-aged children in Côte d'Ivoire; (ii) to estimate school-aged children population-adjusted risk; and (iii) to estimate annual needs for preventive chemotherapy. In late 2011/early 2012, a cross-sectional survey was carried out among school-aged children in 92 localities of Côte d'Ivoire. Children provided a single stool sample that was subjected to duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears for the diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminths. A Bayesian geostatistical variable selection approach was employed to identify environmental and socioeconomic risk factors for soil-transmitted helminth infections. Bayesian kriging was used to predict soil-transmitted helminth infections on a grid of 1 × 1 km spatial resolution. The number of school-aged children infected with soil-transmitted helminths and the amount of doses needed for preventive chemotherapy according to World Health Organization guidelines were estimated. Parasitological data were available from 5246 children aged 5-16 years. Helminth infections with hookworm were predominant (17.2 %). Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura were rarely found; overall prevalences were 1.9 % and 1.2 %, respectively. Bayesian geostatistical variable selection identified rural setting for hookworm, soil acidity and soil moisture for A. lumbricoides, and rainfall coefficient of variation for T. trichiura as main predictors of infection. The estimated school-aged children population-adjusted risk of soil-transmitted helminth infection in Côte d'Ivoire is 15.5 % (95 % confidence interval: 14.2-17.0 %). We estimate that approximately 1.3 million doses of albendazole or mebendazole are required for school-based preventive chemotherapy, and we provide school

  12. Longitudinal analysis of antibody responses in symptomatic malaria cases do not mirror parasite transmission in peri-urban area of Cote d’Ivoire between 2010 and 2013

    PubMed Central

    Loucoubar, Cheikh; Beourou, Sylvain; Vigan-Womas, Inès; Touré, Aissatou; Djaman, Joseph Allico

    2017-01-01

    Background In the agenda towards malaria eradication, assessment of both malaria exposure and efficacy of anti-vectorial and therapeutic strategies is a key component of management and the follow-up of field interventions. The simultaneous use of several antigens (Ags) as serological markers has the potential for accurate evaluation of malaria exposure. Here we aimed to measure the longitudinal evolution of the background levels of immunity in an urban setting in confirmed clinical cases of malaria. Methods A retrospective serological cross-sectional study on was carried out using 234 samples taken from 2010 to 2013 in peri-urban sentinel facility of Cote d’Ivoire. Antibody responses to recombinant proteins or BSA-peptides, 8 Plasmodium falciparum (PfAMA1, PfMSP4, PfMSP1, PfEMP1-DBL1α1-PF13, PfLSA1-41, PfLSA3-NR2, PfGLURP and PfCSP), one P. malariae (PmCSP) and one Anopheles gambiae salivary (gSG6-P1) antigens were measured using magnetic bead-based multiplex immunoassay (MBA). Total anti- P. falciparum IgG responses against schizont lysate from african 07/03 strain (adapted to culture) and 3D7 strain was measured by ELISA. Results High prevalence (7–93%) and levels of antibody responses to most of the antigens were evidenced. However, analysis showed only marginal decreasing trend of Ab responses from 2010 to 2013 that did not parallel the reduction of clinical malaria prevalence following the implementation of intervention in this area. There was a significant inverse correlation between Ab responses and parasitaemia (P<10−3, rho = 0.3). The particular recruitment of asymptomatic individuals in 2011 underlined a high background level of immunity almost equivalent to symptomatic patients, possibly obscuring observable yearly variations. Conclusion The use of cross-sectional clinical malaria surveys and MBA can help to identify endemic sites where control measures have unequal impact providing relevant information about population immunity and possible

  13. Aspects épidémiologiques des accidents vasculaires cérébraux (AVC) aux urgences de l'institut de cardiologie d'Abidjan (ICA)

    PubMed Central

    N'goran, Yves N'da Kouakou; Traore, Fatou; Tano, Micesse; Kramoh, Kouadio Euloge; Kakou, Jean-Baptiste Anzouan; Konin, Christophe; Kakou, Maurice Guikahue

    2015-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif de notre étude était de décrire les caractéristiques sociodémographiques et les Facteurs de Risque cardio-Vasculaires (FRV) des patients admis pour accidents vasculaires cérébraux (AVC) dans un service autre que celui de la neurologie. Méthodes Étude transversale rétrospective sur une période de 2 ans (janv. 2010 et déc. 2011), réalisée aux urgences de l'institut de cardiologie d'Abidjan. Résultats Il s'agissait de 176 adultes avec un âge moyen de 60 ans, une prédominance féminine. Les facteurs de risque majeurs retrouvés étaient l'hypertension artérielle dans 86,4% des cas, le diabète dans 11,4% des cas, le tabagisme dans 2,2% des cas. Les motifs de consultation étaient la perte de connaissance dans 36,4% des cas, l'hémiplégie dans 31,8% des cas, les céphalées dans 17,4% des cas, les vertiges dans 10,9% et les palpitations dans 2,2% des cas. La tension artérielle systolique moyenne était à 174 mmHg, la tension artérielle diastolique moyenne était à 105 mmHg et la pression pulsée moyenne était à 70 mmHg. Les AVC étaient associés à une arythmie complète par fibrillation auriculaire dans 11,4% des cas. Les AVC ischémiques représentaient 84,1%. L’évolution aux urgences a été marquée par un décès dans 17% (30) des cas. Conclusion Les AVC constituent un problème majeur de santé publique. Malgré sa prédominance féminine, ils (AVC) touchaient 44% des hommes dans notre étude lorsqu'on sait qu'en Afrique l'activité sociale repose sur les hommes. Ils restent une pathologie grave par la forte létalité. PMID:26327997

  14. When Do HIV-Infected Women Disclose Their HIV Status to Their Male Partner and Why? A Study in a PMTCT Programme, Abidjan

    PubMed Central

    Brou, Hermann; Djohan, Gérard; Becquet, Renaud; Allou, Gérard; Ekouevi, Didier K; Viho, Ida; Leroy, Valériane; Desgrées-du-Loû, Annabel

    2007-01-01

    Background In Africa, women tested for HIV during antenatal care are counselled to share with their partner their HIV test result and to encourage partners to undertake HIV testing. We investigate, among women tested for HIV within a prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programme, the key moments for disclosure of their own HIV status to their partner and the impact on partner HIV testing. Methods and Findings Within the Ditrame Plus PMTCT project in Abidjan, 546 HIV-positive and 393 HIV-negative women were tested during pregnancy and followed-up for two years after delivery. Circumstances, frequency, and determinants of disclosure to the male partner were estimated according to HIV status. The determinants of partner HIV testing were identified according to women's HIV status. During the two-year follow-up, disclosure to the partner was reported by 96.7% of the HIV-negative women, compared to 46.2% of HIV-positive women (χ2 = 265.2, degrees of freedom [df] = 1, p < 0.001). Among HIV-infected women, privileged circumstances for disclosure were just before delivery, during early weaning (at 4 mo to prevent HIV postnatal transmission), or upon resumption of sexual activity. Formula feeding by HIV-infected women increased the probability of disclosure (adjusted odds ratio 1.54, 95% confidence interval 1.04–2.27, Wald test = 4.649, df = 1, p = 0.031), whereas household factors such as having a co-spouse or living with family reduced the probability of disclosure. The proportion of male partners tested for HIV was 23.1% among HIV-positive women and 14.8% among HIV-negative women (χ2 = 10.04, df = 1, p = 0.002). Partners of HIV-positive women who were informed of their wife's HIV status were more likely to undertake HIV testing than those not informed (37.7% versus 10.5%, χ2 = 56.36, df = 1, p < 0.001). Conclusions In PMTCT programmes, specific psychosocial counselling and support should be provided to women during the key moments of disclosure

  15. High Awareness but Low Coverage of a Locally Produced Fortified Complementary Food in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Leyvraz, Magali; Rohner, Fabian; Konan, Amoin G.; Esso, Lasme J. C. E.; Woodruff, Bradley A.; Norte, Augusto; Adiko, Adiko F.; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Aaron, Grant J.

    2016-01-01

    Poor complementary feeding practices among infants and young children in Côte d’Ivoire are major contributing factors to the country’s high burden of malnutrition. As part of a broad effort to address this issue, an affordable, nutritious, and locally produced fortified complementary food product was launched in the Côte d’Ivoire in 2011. The objective of the current research was to assess various levels of coverage of the program and to identify coverage barriers. A cross-sectional household survey was conducted among caregivers of children less than 2-years of age living in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire. Four measures of coverage were assessed: “message coverage” (i.e., has the caregiver ever heard of the product?), “contact coverage” (i.e., has the caregiver ever fed the child the product?), “partial coverage” (i.e., has the caregiver fed the child the product in the previous month?), and “effective coverage” (i.e., has the caregiver fed the child the product in the previous 7 days?). A total of 1,113 caregivers with children between 0 and 23 months of age were interviewed. Results showed high message coverage (85.0%), moderate contact coverage (37.8%), and poor partial and effective coverages (8.8% and 4.6%, respectively). Product awareness was lower among caregivers from poorer households, but partial and effective coverages were comparable in both poor and non-poor groups. Infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices were generally poor and did not appear to have improved since previous assessments. In conclusion, the results from the present study indicate that availability on the market and high awareness among the target population is not sufficient to achieve high and effective coverage. With market-based delivery models, significant efforts are needed to improve demand. Moreover, given the high prevalence of malnutrition and poor IYCF practices, additional modes of delivering IYCF interventions and improving IYCF practices should

  16. Social and cultural aspects of 'malaria' and its control in central Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Essé, Clémence; Utzinger, Jürg; Tschannen, Andres B; Raso, Giovanna; Pfeiffer, Constanze; Granado, Stefanie; Koudou, Benjamin G; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Cissé, Guéladio; Girardin, Olivier; Tanner, Marcel; Obrist, Brigit

    2008-01-01

    Background A sound local understanding of preventive measures and health-seeking behaviour is important for the effective control of malaria. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes, practices and beliefs of 'malaria' and its control in two rural communities of central Côte d'Ivoire, and to examine associations between 'malaria' and the households' socioeconomic status. Methods A cross-sectional household survey was carried out, using a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods. People's socioeconomic status was estimated, employing a household asset-based approach. Results Malaria was identified as djèkouadjo, the local folk name of the disease. Although people were aware of malaria-related symptoms and their association with mosquitoes, folk perceptions were common. In terms of treatment, a wide array of modern and traditional remedies was employed, often in combination. Individuals with a sound knowledge of the causes and symptoms of malaria continued to use traditional treatments and only a few people sleep under bed nets, whereas folk beliefs did not necessarily translate into refusal of modern treatments. Perceived causes of malaria were linked to the household's socioeconomic status with wealthier individuals reporting mosquitoes more frequently than poorer households. Bed nets were more frequently used in wealthier social strata, whereas other protective measures – perceived to be cheaper – were more prominent among the poorest. Conclusion Equitable access to resources at household, community and health system levels are essential in order to enable community members to prevent and treat malaria. There is a need for community-based approaches that match health care services with poor people's needs and resources. PMID:18973663

  17. Parasitic worms: knowledge, attitudes, and practices in Western Côte d'Ivoire with implications for integrated control.

    PubMed

    Acka, Cinthia A; Raso, Giovanna; N'goran, Eliézer K; Tschannen, Andres B; Bogoch, Isaac I; Séraphin, Essane; Tanner, Marcel; Obrist, Brigit; Utzinger, Jürg

    2010-12-21

    In the developing world where parasitic worm infections are pervasive, preventive chemotherapy is the key strategy for morbidity control. However, local knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of parasitic worms are poorly understood, although such information is required for prevention and sustainable control. We carried out KAP surveys in two rural communities of Côte d'Ivoire that were subjected to school-based and community-based research and control activities. We used qualitative and quantitative methods. The former included observations, in-depth interviews with key informants, and focus group discussions with school children and adults. Quantitative methods consisted of a structured questionnaire administered to household heads. Access to clean water was lacking in both communities and only a quarter of the households had functioning latrines. There was a better understanding of soil-transmitted helminthiasis than intestinal schistosomiasis, but community-based rather than school-based interventions appeared to improve knowledge of schistosomiasis. In the villages with community-based interventions, three-quarters of household interviewees knew about intestinal schistosomiasis compared to 14% in the village where school-based interventions were implemented (P<0.001). Whereas two-thirds of respondents from the community-based intervention village indicated that the research and control project was the main source of information, only a quarter of the respondents cited the project as the main source. Preventive chemotherapy targeting school-aged children has limitations, as older population segments are neglected, and hence lack knowledge about how to prevent and control parasitic worm infections. Improved access to clean water and sanitation is necessary, along with health education to make a durable impact against helminth infections.

  18. The spatial distribution of Schistosoma mansoni infection in four regions of western Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Assaré, Rufin K; Lai, Ying-Si; Yapi, Ahoua; Tian-Bi, Yves-Nathan T; Ouattara, Mamadou; Yao, Patrick K; Knopp, Stefanie; Vounatsou, Penelope; Utzinger, Jürg; N'Goran, Eliézer K

    2015-06-03

    Schistosomiasis poses a considerable public health burden in sub- Saharan Africa and a sound understanding of the spatial distribution facilitates to better target control interventions. The objectives of this study were i) to assess the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni among school-aged children in four regions of western Côte d'Ivoire; ii) to determine demographic, climatic and environmental factors that influence the distribution of S. mansoni; and iii) to map and predict the distribution of S. mansoni in non-sampled locations. Parasitological surveys were carried out in 264 schools from June to December 2011. In each school, we aimed to examine 50 children for S. mansoni infection using duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears. Schools were georeferenced using a hand-held global positioning system receiver. Demographic data were obtained from readily available school lists, while climatic and environmental data were extracted from open-access remote sensing databases. Multivariable, binary non-spatial models and a Bayesian geostatistical logistic regression model were used to identify demographic, climatic and environmental risk factors for S. mansoni infection. Risk maps were developed based on observed S. mansoni prevalences and using Bayesian geostatistical models to predict prevalences at non-sampled locations. Overall, 12,462 children provided a sufficiently large stool sample to perform at least one Kato-Katz thick smear. The observed overall prevalence of S. mansoni infection was 39.9%, ranging from 0 to 100% at the unit of the school. Bayesian geostatistical analysis revealed that age, sex, altitude and difference between land surface temperature at day and night were significantly associated with S. mansoni infection. The S. mansoni risk map presented here is being been used by the national schistosomiasis control programme for spatial targeting of praziquantel and other interventions.

  19. [Major sickle cell anaemia and hypoacusia: about 112 cases in Yopougon, Côte d'Ivoire].

    PubMed

    Elola, A; Hien, F M; Ouattara, M; FataoFataho, B; Kouassi, B

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of major sickle cell anaemia on the auditory function of the patients. It was a prospective survey conducted in the university hospital of Yopougon (Republic of Côte d'Ivoire). The auditory function of 112 major sickle cell anaemia patients 5- to 40-five-years-old, was compared with 112 healthy controls. 17% (19/112) of major sickle cell anaemia patients presented hearing loss from 30 dB to 65 dB versus 4% of controls. The average age of deaf patients was 26-years-old (7 years to 40-years-old). The sex-ratio was 0,73. The SC form with 47% (9/19) of deafness was the form the most frequently found followed by form SS, 37% (7/19) and form S beta+ thalassaemia 16% (3/19). The form S beta 0 thalassaemia did not record deafness patients. However the form having shown the highest rate of attack was the form S beta+ thalassaemia with 25% (3/12) followed by form SC 21% (9/43) and form SS 14% (7/51) of deafness. Deafness was generally light 73, 7% of the cases and often bilateral (52.6% of the cases). The audiometric loss affected both extremes of the hearing range, but was more significant in lower tones (58% of cases). Higher tones represented 5% of the cases. It was often sensorineural hearing loss 58% of the cases. Mixed hearing loss represented 42% of the cases.

  20. Rapid screening for Schistosoma mansoni in western Côte d'Ivoire using a simple school questionnaire.

    PubMed Central

    Utzinger, J.; N'Goran, E. K.; Ossey, Y. A.; Booth, M.; Traoré, M.; Lohourignon, K. L.; Allangba, A.; Ahiba, L. A.; Tanner, M.; Lengeler, C.

    2000-01-01

    The distribution of schistosomiasis is focal, so if the resources available for control are to be used most effectively, they need to be directed towards the individuals and/or communities at highest risk of morbidity from schistosomiasis. Rapid and inexpensive ways of doing this are needed, such as simple school questionnaires. The present study used such questionnaires in an area of western Côte d'Ivoire where Schistosoma mansoni is endemic; correctly completed questionnaires were returned from 121 out of 134 schools (90.3%), with 12,227 children interviewed individually. The presence of S. mansoni was verified by microscopic examination in 60 randomly selected schools, where 5047 schoolchildren provided two consecutive stool samples for Kato-Katz thick smears. For all samples it was found that 54.4% of individuals were infected with S. mansoni. Moreover, individuals infected with S. mansoni reported "bloody diarrhoea", "blood in stools" and "schistosomiasis" significantly more often than uninfected children. At the school level, Spearman rank correlation analysis showed that the prevalence of S. mansoni significantly correlated with the prevalence of reported bloody diarrhoea (P = 0.002), reported blood in stools (P = 0.014) and reported schistosomiasis (P = 0.011). Reported bloody diarrhoea and reported blood in stools had the best diagnostic performance (sensitivity: 88.2%, specificity: 57.7%, positive predictive value: 73.2%, negative predictive value: 78.9%). The study, which is probably the largest of its kind ever undertaken in Africa, revealed a moderate diagnostic performance of questionnaires for identifying individuals and/or communities at high risk from S. mansoni. PMID:10812739

  1. Composition and Chemical Variability of Cleistopholis patens Trunk Bark Oil from Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Ouattara, Zana A; Boti, Jean Brice; Ahibo, Coffy Antoine; Bekro, Yves-Alain; Janat, Mamyrbekova; Casanova, Joseph; Tomi, Félix; Bighelli, Ange

    2017-02-01

    The chemical composition of trunk bark oil from Cleistopholis patens (Benth.) Engl. & Diels, growing wild in Côte d'Ivoire, has been investigated by GC (FID) in combination with retention indices, GC/MS and (13) C-NMR. Moreover, one oil sample has been subjected to CC and all the fractions analyzed by GC (RI) and (13) C-NMR. In total, 61 components have been identified, including various sesquiterpene esters scarcely found in essential oils. (13) C-NMR was particularly efficient for the identification of a component not eluted on GC and for the quantification of heat-sensitive compounds. Then, 36 oil samples, isolated from trunk bark harvested in six Ivoirian forests have been analyzed. The content of the main components varied drastically from sample to sample: (E)-β-caryophyllene (0.4 - 69.1%), β-pinene (0 - 57%), α-phellandrene (0 - 33.2%), α-pinene (0.1 - 30.6%), β-elemol (0.1 - 29.9%), germacrene D (0 - 25.4%), juvenile hormone III (0 - 22.9%), germacrene B (0 - 20.6%) and sabinene (tr-20.3%). Statistical analysis, hierarchical clustering and principal components analysis, carried out on the 36 compositions evidenced a fair chemical variability of the stem bark oil of this species. Indeed, three clusters have been distinguished: the composition of group I (ten samples) was dominated by β-pinene and α-pinene, group II (nine samples) was represented by α-phellandrene and p-cymene and group III (16 samples) by β-elemol. A sample displayed an atypical composition dominated by (E)-β-caryophyllene.

  2. Preventing gender-based violence engendered by conflict: The case of Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Blay-Tofey, Morkeh; Lee, Bandy X

    2015-12-01

    Despite a growing awareness of the increased prevalence of intimate partner violence and sexual violence in conflict and post-conflict settings, much less is known about the dynamics, as well as the interventions that would be effective at individual, relational, and structural levels. In addition to the human capital lost by conflict violence, gender-based violence (GBV) poses a grave threat to the post-conflict rehabilitation process. With regard to violence that occurs during and post conflict, research must take into consideration the different types of violence that share similar causes as the larger conflict as well as become widespread as a result of the conflict and use existing frameworks to build future interventions. Researchers are trying to understand the interplay of personal, situational, and socio-cultural factors in conflict settings that combine to cause GBV and lead to guidelines for program planning to address the health and social needs of survivors as well as to prevent further GBV. These actions result from a growing recognition that violence represents a serious public health problem, is an important cause of many physical and psychological illnesses, and can cause social disruptions that impede reconstruction efforts for generations. This review studies the manifestations of GBV during and following the Ivoirian Civil War, juxtaposes them against narratives, as well as lists relevant interventions at the individual, relational, community, and institutional levels. Part of a growing literature that aims to better understand the nature of violence during and after conflict and to plan effective responses to it, this study hopes to suggest solutions for the situation of Côte d'Ivoire and elsewhere. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Calculation of greenhouse gas emissions of jatropha oil and jatropha biodiesel as alternative fuels for electricity production in Côte d'Ivoire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atta, Pascal Atta; N'guessan, Yao; Morin, Celine; Voirol, Anne Jaecker; Descombes, Georges

    2017-02-01

    The electricity in Côte d'Ivoire is mainly produced from fossil energy sources. This causes damages on environment due to greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). The aim of this paper is to calculate the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of jatropha oil and jatropha biodiesel as alternative fuels for electricity production in Côte d'Ivoire by using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. The functional unit in this LCA is defined as 1 kWh of electricity produced by the combustion of jatropha oil or jatropha biodiesel in the engine of a generator. Two scenarios, called short chain and long chain, were examined in this LCA. The results show that 0.132 kg CO2 equivalent is emitted for the scenario 1 with jatropha oil as an alternative fuel against 0.6376 kg CO2 equivalent for the scenario 2 with jatropha biodiesel as an alternative fuel. An 87 % reduction of kg CO2 equivalent is observed in scenario 1 and a 37 % reduction of kg CO2 equivalent is observed in the scenario 2, when compared with a Diesel fuel.

  4. Nutritive Evaluation of the Bambara Groundnut Ci12 Landrace [Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc. (Fabaceae)] Produced in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Yao, Denis N'Dri; Kouassi, Kouakou Nestor; Erba, Daniela; Scazzina, Francesca; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Casiraghi, Maria Cristina

    2015-09-07

    The nutritional evaluation of the Bambara groundnut Ci12 landrace (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) seeds produced in Côte d'Ivoire shows a 19% content of protein, containing all the essential amino acids with tryptophan as the limiting amino acid, a total dietary fiber level of 10%, with a low soluble fraction content, and a fat content of 1.4%, with a high proportion of total unsaturated fatty acids (61%) of which 36% were n-6 fatty acids. This legume contains phosphorus, as the major mineral, followed by magnesium and calcium, and trace elements (iron, copper and zinc). It is characterized by the same amount of α-tocopherol and antioxidant capacity as common legumes. The high concentration of essential amino acids, n-6 fatty acids and minerals, mainly Fe, in the Ci12 landrace of Bambara groundnut indicates that this local legume has the potentiality to improve the nutritional status in Côte d'Ivoire and it could be regarded as a nutrient dense food.

  5. Co-occurrence of aflatoxin B1, fumonisin B1, ochratoxin A and zearalenone in cereals and peanuts from Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Sangare-Tigori, Béatrice; Moukha, Serge; Kouadio, H James; Betbeder, Anne-Marie; Dano, Djédjé Sébastien; Creppy, E Edmond

    2006-10-01

    This survey examined 30 samples of rice (n = 10), maize (n = 10) and peanuts (n = 10) from Côte d'Ivoire for aflatoxin B1, fumonisin B1 and zearalenone using immunoassays, and ochratoxin A using a validated HPLC method with fluorescence detection. In Côte d'Ivoire, as in other countries, several mycotoxins are present in the same commodities. These mycotoxins are from different structural families: aflatoxin B1, fumonisin B1, zearalenone and ochratoxin A, normally produced by fungal species from Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium genera. Some samples contained four mycotoxins (86%). Four peanuts samples did not show ochratoxin A (14%), whereas they contained aflatoxin B1 concentrations above the EU regulatory limits. Concentrations of ochratoxin A, zearalenone and fumonisin B1 were low and may not cause problems per se; however, fears remain that the tolerable daily intake may be exceeded due to eating habits and synergistic effects could be important with the combination of several mycotoxins. Investigations in this direction are underway, together with isolation and characterization of the fungal species involved.

  6. Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis control in Cameroon and Côte d'Ivoire: implementing control on a limited budget.

    PubMed

    Tchuenté, L A Tchuem; N'goran, E K

    2009-11-01

    Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis occur throughout the developing world and remain a major public health problem in the poorest communities with enormous consequences for development. The extent of the problem has long been neglected because these diseases rarely kill at a young age and also because of their insidious nature. Today there exists a momentum and an unprecedented opportunity for a cost-effective control of these neglected tropical diseases. The control of these diseases has become a priority on the agenda of many governments, donors and international agencies. This paper highlights the progress made and future control activities in Cameroon and Côte d'Ivoire, where schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis control measures have been implemented over the past decade with limited budgets. In Cameroon, deworming activities were increased to encompass all ten regions in 2007 as a result of a co-ordinated effort of the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Education with national and international partners. In Côte d'Ivoire, focal control activities were achieved with support from various partners. Prospects, opportunities and challenges for the control of neglected tropical diseases in these two countries are discussed.

  7. Spectrum and impact of health problems during deployment: a prospective, multicenter study of French soldiers operating in Afghanistan, Lebanon and Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Aoun, Olivier; Roqueplo, Cédric; Rapp, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    More than 15 000 French soldiers are continuously deployed abroad. Along with combat-related injuries, they are exposed to non-combat-related diseases with an underestimated burden. Our objectives were to assess the incidence and impact of health problems on their operating capacity. A prospective multicenter study was conducted over more than three months in Lebanon, Côte d'Ivoire and Afghanistan including exclusively French soldiers. We collected 4349 consultations (Afghanistan {n = 719}, Lebanon {n = 1401} and Côte d'Ivoire {n = 2229}) encompassing 4600 health problems. Injuries (21%), diarrhea (19%), dermatoses (17.5%) and respiratory tract infections (10.45%) were the most frequent health issues. Infectious diseases represented 41% of all health problems. Almost nine out of ten patients were managed as outpatients. Ten combat-related deaths were observed. We reported 68 (1.5%) medical repatriations of which 28 and 26 were psychiatric and trauma cases respectively. Partial or complete incapacity was estimated 724 days/1000 men/month. Etiological spectrum was similar in all three countries however, the incidence of diarrhea (p < 0.05) as well as inpatient management and medical evacuation rates were higher (p < 0.0001) in Afghanistan. There was a wide spectrum of health problems occurring during military deployments with a predominance of common infections. Non-combat-related pathology represented an important burden for the loss of operating capacity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Update on a neglected tropical disease from the routine health information system in Côte d'Ivoire: Yaws, 2001 to 2011].

    PubMed

    Konan, D J P; Aka, J; Yao, K J; Kouassi-Gohou, V; Yao, K E; Faye-Kette, H

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to describe the epidemiological characteristics of yaws in Côte d'Ivoire from 2001 to 2011, by data from the routine health information system. This retrospective study was conducted from available health statistics from 2001 to 2011. From 2001 to 2006, the completeness of the regional health statistics was below 50%, while afterwards it exceeded 70% in all regions. The incidence rate of yaws in hospitals has declined from 44 to 14.8 per 100 000 population from 2002 to 2011. Two regional offices still reported highly endemic areas rates, four times higher than the national incidence. It appears that the action of donors has helped to improve the performance of the routine health information system in Côte d'Ivoire. Additionally, yaws remains endemic. The reduced incidence in hospitals is probably due to the reduction in their use by the population; the real population incidence is undoubtedly higher. A seroprevalence survey would make it possible to focus more accurately the upcoming mass treatment campaigns, under the aegis of WHO, to eradicate yaws.

  9. Reproductive coercion and intimate partner violence among rural women in Côte d'Ivoire: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Falb, Kathryn L; Annan, Jeannie; Kpebo, Denise; Gupta, Jhumka

    2014-12-01

    A growing body of U.S.-based research demonstrates that reproductive coercion is an important consideration regarding the negative health impacts of intimate partner violence (IPV). However, less work on IPV and reproductive coercion has been done in West African settings. Cross-sectional data of 981 women who participated in the baseline survey of a randomized-controlled trial in rural, Côte d'Ivoire in October 2010 were analyzed for specific reports of reproductive coercion. Half (49.8%) of all women reported lifetime physical or sexual IPV, and nearly 1 in 5 (18.6%) reported experiencing reproductive coercion. In the final adjusted analyses, lifetime IPV was associated with a 3.7 increase in odds of reporting reproductive coercion (95% CI: 2.4-5.8) compared to women who did not report such victimization. Study findings underscore the importance of reducing IPV in order to improve reproductive health among women in rural Côte d'Ivoire.

  10. The Use of MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry, Ribotyping and Phenotypic Tests to Identify Lactic Acid Bacteria from Fermented Cereal Foods in Abidjan (Côte d’Ivoire)

    PubMed Central

    Soro-Yao, Amenan A; Schumann, Peter; Thonart, Philippe; Djè, Koffi M; Pukall, Rüdiger

    2014-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) protein analysis, automated ribotyping, and phenotypic tests (e.g., cell morphology, gas production from glucose, growth and acid production on homofermemtative-heterofermentative differential (HHD) agar medium, sugar fermentation patterns) were used to identify 23 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from fermented cereal foods available in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire. Pediococcus acidilactici (56.5%), Lactobacillus fermentum (30.4%), L. salivarius (4.3%), P. pentosaceus (4.3%) and L. plantarum subsp. plantarum (4.3%) were the species and subspecies identified. Protein based identification was confirmed by automated ribotyping for selected isolates and was similar to that provided by the phenotypic characterization. MALDI-TOF MS protein analysis provided a high level of discrimination among the isolates and could be used for the rapid screening of LAB starter cultures. PMID:25279017

  11. The Potential of Food Fortification to Add Micronutrients in Young Children and Women of Reproductive Age – Findings from a Cross-Sectional Survey in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Rohner, Fabian; Leyvraz, Magali; Konan, Amoin G.; Esso, Lasme J. C. E.; Wirth, James P.; Norte, Augusto; Adiko, Adiko F.; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Aaron, Grant J.

    2016-01-01

    Poor micronutrient intakes are a major contributing factor to the high burden of micronutrient deficiencies in Côte d’Ivoire. Large-scale food fortification is considered a cost-effective approach to deliver micronutrients, and fortification of salt (iodine), wheat flour (iron and folic acid), and vegetable oil (vitamin A) is mandatory in Côte d’Ivoire. A cross-sectional survey on households with at least one child 6–23 months was conducted to update coverage figures with adequately fortified food vehicles in Abidjan, the capital of and largest urban community in Côte d’Ivoire, and to evaluate whether additional iron and vitamin A intake is sufficient to bear the potential to reduce micronutrient malnutrition. Information on demographics and food consumption was collected, along with samples of salt and oil. Wheat flour was sampled from bakeries and retailers residing in the selected clusters. In Abidjan, 86% and 97% of salt and vegetable oil samples, respectively, were adequately fortified, while only 32% of wheat flour samples were adequately fortified, but all samples contained some added iron. There were no major differences in additional vitamin A and iron intake between poor and non-poor households. For vitamin A in oil, the additional percentage of the recommended nutrient intake was 27% and 40% for children 6–23 months and women of reproductive age, respectively, while for iron from wheat flour, only 13% and 19% could be covered. Compared to previous estimates, coverage has remained stable for salt and wheat flour, but improved for vegetable oil. Fortification of vegetable oil clearly provides a meaningful additional amount of vitamin A. This is not currently the case for iron, due to the low fortification levels. Iron levels in wheat flour should be increased and monitored, and additional vehicles should be explored to add iron to the Ivorian diet. PMID:27384762

  12. Contribution of Remote Sensing and GIS for Sustainable Forest Management in Côte d'Ivoire; Case of the classified Forest of TENE in the department of OUME (Côte d'Ivoire).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, N. A.

    2015-12-01

    protected against logging in order to do not disturb them because they are refuge environments for fauna as well as flora conservation. This study will enable the manager of the classified forest of TENE to target those sites considered sensitive to preserve for a sustainable management. Keywords: Spectral signature, Forest, Wetland, Remote Sensing, GIS, Côte d'Ivoire.

  13. Déterminants de la calcémie néonatale dans une maternité périphérique à Abidjan

    PubMed Central

    Konan, Diby Jean-Paul; Amon-Tanoh-Dick, Flore; Aka, Joseph; Daniel, Sess Essiagne

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Le transfert du calcium de la mère au nouveau-né est nécessaire pour la constitution de la charpente osseuse. L'hypocalcémie néonatale reste peu documentée en Afrique. En 1993, il a été observé au service de néonatologie du Centre hospitalo-universitaire de Yopougon à Abidjan une proportion d'hypocalcémie asymptomatique de 26.9%. L'objectif de ce travail était de préciser la prévalence de l'hypocalcémie néonatale dans une maternité périphérique de Yopougon et en déterminer les facteurs de risque. Méthodes Une étude transversale a été menée à la formation sanitaire de de Yopougon de février à mai 2012 auprès de 145 parturientes et leurs nouveau-nés. Les caractéristiques des mères et des nouveau-nés ont été recueillies. Les prélèvements de sang maternel et du cordon ont permis le dosage des paramètres du métabolisme phosphocalcique. Une régression linéaire multiple a été faite pour apprécier les éléments de prédilection de la calcémie néonatale. Résultats Les valeurs moyennes étaient de 2,271 mmol/l pour la calcémie, 1,169 mmol/l pour le phosphore, 0,735 mmol/l pour le magnésium et 69 g/l pour les protides totaux chez les mères. La durée moyenne du travail était de 499 minutes. L’âge gestationnel moyen était de 39 semaines. Les constantes anthropométriques et cliniques des nouveau-nés étaient normales. Les paramètres phosphocalciques étaient en moyenne normaux (calcémie = 2,52 mmol/l, phosphorémie = 1,668 mmol/l, magnesémie = 0,777 mmol/l, protidémie = 63 g/l). Six gestantes (4,1%) étaient hypocalcémiques contre 12 nouveau-nés (8,1%). La durée du travail influençait la calcémie néonatale (p = 0,02). En analyse multivariée, 34% de la variabilité de la calcémie néonatale était expliqué par la calcémie maternelle et la durée du travail. Conclusion L'hypocalcémie néonatale est rare en zone tropicale. Dans cette étude, la proportion était de 8,1%. La durée du travail

  14. L’echographie trans-oesophagienne (ETO ) à l’Institut de cardiologie d’Abidjan: indications, resultats et rentabilité diagnostique

    PubMed Central

    Anzouan-Kacou, Jean-Baptiste; Konin, Christophe; Zobo, Charles-Philippe; Bamba-Kamagaté, Djenamba; N’cho-Mottoh, Marie-Paule; Boka, Bénédicte

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objectifs Préciser les indications, les principaux résultats et la rentabilité diagnostique de l’échographie trans-oesophagienne (ETO) à l’Institut de Cardiologie d’Abidjan (ICA). Méthode Analyse rétrospective de 103 compte-rendus d’ETO réalisés consécutivement de février 2007 à janvier 2011 à l’ICA. L’analyse a porté sur les caractéristiques d’âge, de sexe, la qualité des médecins prescripteurs, les indications et la rentabilité diagnostique (proportion de diagnostics confirmés soit le ratio anomalie retrouvée/nombre d’examen réalisés dans l’indication). Résultats La série se composait de 47 femmes (45.6%) et de 56 hommes (54.4%) d’âge moyen 37.9 ± 16.4 ans. Les médecins prescripteurs étaient majoritairement des cardiologues (n = 57 soit 55.4%). Les indications étaient dominées par la recherche ou l’évaluation d’une communication inter-auriculaire (34.9%), la recherche de thrombus dans un trouble du rythme supra-ventriculaire avant cardioversion (18.4%), le bilan étiologique d’un accident vasculaire cérébral ischémique (13.5%) et l’évaluation d’une insuffisance mitrale (bilan lésionnel, mécanisme et/ou quantification 9.7%). Dans la recherche d’une CIA, l’ETO était contributive dans 17.3% et dans la recherche de thrombus dans 21% des cas. Aucune étiologie embolique n’a été retrouvée dans les accidents vasculaires cérébraux ischémiques. Trois examens ont été réalisés en per opératoire pour évaluation du fonctionnement des valves mécaniques et de la qualité de plasties mitrales. Aucun incident ni accident n’a été signalé au cours des 103 examens. Conclusion Du fait du nombre élevé des cardiopathies congénitales découvertes à l’âge adulte, des troubles du rythme et des valvulopathies, l’ETO est appelée à se développer. Les indications doivent être bien posées de façon obtenir une rentabilité diagnostique optimale. Les prescriptions devraient toucher

  15. Silica in invasive wetland plant species of lagoons, Côte d'Ivoire: Spatio-temporal patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    José-mathieu Koné, Yéfanlan; Schoelynck, Jonas

    2017-04-01

    Tropical wetlands are known to accumulate a large quantity of Biogenic Silica (BSi) produced by wetland plant species (Struyf et al., 2015), and approximately 70-80% of the total supply of Dissolved Si (DSi) to the coastal zone occurs in (sub) tropical river systems (Jennerjahn et al. 2006). However, the data at these latitudes are limited. Here, we present the BSi concentration from eleven invasive macrophyte species randomly collected in three small ( 800ha) lagoons of Côte d'Ivoire during 12 months. Our data showed a large spatio-temporal variability of BSi in the three lagoons with no consistent trends. In general, the BSi concentrations obtained were high and values ranged from 0 to 54 mg g-1 through the entire sampling period, with the highest values found in Acroceras zizaniodes (emergent species of Poaceae). In general, free floating species had significantly less BSi than emergent species (P<0.0001) which corroborates with the earlier findings of Schoelynck and Struyf (2016). However, the concentrations of BSi found in Salvinia molesta (a free floating species of fern, Salviniaceae) at the young stage were similar to those found in the emergent species. Based on yearly averages, highest BSi values were observed in Kodjoboué lagoon, and the lowest in the Ono lagoon that is 80% covered by macrophytes. Moreover, the dissolved silica (DSi) concentrations were systematically higher in Ono Lagoon than in Kodjoboué Lagoon. We conclude that in an eutrophic system Si accumulating in aquatic macrophytes is not related to Si availability but to other environmental factors. Jennerjahn, T.C., Knoppers, B.A., de Souze, W.F.L., Brunskill, G.J., Silva, E.I.L., Adi, S. et al., 2006. Factors controlling dissolved silica in tropical rivers. In: Ittekot, V. (ed) The silicon cycle. Island Press, Washington, D. C, pp 29-51 Schoelynck J and Struyf E, 2016. Silicon in aquatic vegetation. Functional Ecology. 30: 1323-1330. Struyf, E., Mosimane, K., Van Pelt, D., Murray

  16. Water quantity and quality impacts in a tropical basin, Côte d'Ivoire linked to climatic variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jean-Jacques Koua, Tanoh; Jourda, Jean-Patrice; Lane, Stuart

    2013-04-01

    Under climate change scenarios, it is clear that systematic changes in temperature and precipitation will be superimposed upon both existing climatic variability but also changing climatic variability. Whilst possible climate futures and their hydrological impacts are becoming better-established, this is much less the case in tropical environments and over large spatial scales. Further, much less work has considered how such changes might propagate into processes that are known to be hydrologically-driven, such as the transfer of sediments and solutes from hillslopes to rivers and lakes. This paper has used the SWAT model to determine water quantity and quality impacts, for both current and possible climate futures for the tropic river basin "N'Zo". This is a large drainage basin (7350 km2) that feeds into the Buyo lake in the Côte d'Ivoire. At this spatial scale, effective model application has to be sensitive to the serious difficulty of assimilating large amounts of spatial data in a region that is historically data sparse. This requires close attention to be given to the uncertainities in model predictions. Here we use SWAT-CUP (the SWAT Calibration and Uncertainty Procedure) to assess, given data concerns, what is the magnitude of the change in model predictions necessary to separate climate driven signals in water quantity and quality from the uncertainty associated with model application. Given the spatial scale of the basin, the hydrological response considered is the monthly mean river flow and the water quality response, using the upon point samples of inorganic nitrate and phosphate concentrations. Model predictions are evaluated using a series of four Objective Functions. Initial sensitivity analysis was used to identify important parameters. These were then used in SWAT-CUP to automatically identifiy model parameters and their uncertainty. Prediction uncertainty was then established using a range of sampling methods as applied to these parameters. The

  17. Effect on blood pressure of a dietary supplement containing traditional medicinal plants of Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Abrogoua, Danho Pascal; Dano, Djédjé Sébastien; Manda, Pierre; Adepo, Aholia Jean-Baptiste; Kablan, Brou Jérôme; Goze, Nomane Bernard; Ehoulé, Kroa

    2012-06-14

    A medicinal composition containing salt (sodium chloride) is given as a traditional dietary supplement to hypertensive patients (TDSHP) in Côte d'Ivoire. It consists of whole plant of Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae) and fresh leaves of Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae). The aim of this study was to establish the scientific basis for the use of this traditional recipe rich in sodium chloride in hypertension settings. We used a total aqueous extract of this traditional dietary supplement containing medicinal plants (Bidens pilosa, Moringa oleifera) and salt (sodium chloride). Experiment was carried out to evaluate its effect on arterial blood pressure of rabbits. The experimental device used for recording blood pressure in rabbits is based on the principle of Ludwig mercury manometer. TDSHP between 5×10(-8) and 5×10(-2) mg/kg caused a dose-dependent hypotension. TDSHP elicited drops in blood pressure ranging between 7.14±4 and 100±7.5%, compared to normal blood pressure of rabbits. Fifty percent effective dose of TDSHP was 3.95×10(-4) mg/kg. Similarly as the hypotension induced by acetylcholine, the one caused by TDSHP at dose of 3.95×10(-4) mg/kg in rabbit was progressively inhibited by atropine, dosed between 5×10(-4) to 5×10(-2) mg/kg. The percentage drop of recorded blood pressure ranged from 50.3±1.87 to 3.71±1.09% compared to the normal value of blood pressure. In the presence of atropine, TDSHP effect was partially inhibited. The same increasing doses of TDSHP reduced significantly the increase of blood pressure induced by adrenaline dosed at 4.76×10(-4) mg/kg from 89.3±2.19 to 1.19±0.59%. The consumption of this traditional dietary supplement is justified in hypertensive patients according to its composition and its ability to reduce blood pressure has been demonstrated experimentally. TDSHP should not be considered as an antihypertensive drug, it remains to us a salt substitute to be taken with moderation with strict adherence to the traditional dose

  18. Spatial and temporal variation of malaria entomological parameters at the onset of a hydro-agricultural development in central Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Diakité, Nana R; Guindo-Coulibaly, Négnorogo; Adja, Akré M; Ouattara, Mamadou; Coulibaly, Jean T; Utzinger, Jürg; N'Goran, Eliézer K

    2015-09-05

    A deeper understanding of the ecology and small-scale heterogeneity of malaria transmission is essential for the design of effective prevention, control and elimination interventions. The spatial and temporal distribution of malaria vectors was investigated in five villages in close proximity to a hydro-agricultural system in Côte d'Ivoire over the course of construction and the early phase of irrigated rice farming. The study was carried out in five villages (Raffierkro, N'Douakro, Ahougui, Kpokahankro, Koffikro) near Bouaké, central Côte d'Ivoire, between early 2007 and late 2009. In each village, mosquitoes were collected by human landing catches and identified morphologically at genus and species level, and entomological parameters were determined. Plasmodium infection was assessed by dissection and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A total of 19,404 mosquitoes belonging to the genus Anopheles were sampled during 328 human-night catches. Before the construction of the hydro-agricultural system, comparable densities of Anopheles gambiae were observed in all villages. In subsequent years, densities in Raffierkro and Ahougui were significantly higher than the other villages [Kruskal-Wallis (KW) test = 31.13, p < 0.001]. The density of Anopheles funestus in the five villages was comparable in the early stage of the project, while a high density was reported in Koffikro at the end (KW test = 11.91, p = 0.018). Transmission of Plasmodium falciparum is perennial in the study area. Over the course of the study, high entomological inoculation rates (EIRs) were found: 219-328 infectious bites per person per year with An. gambiae. For An. funestus considerably lower EIRs were observed (5.7-39.4). Changing patterns of An. gambiae were not correlated with malaria transmission. In this study setting, located in the bioclimatic transition zone of Côte d'Ivoire, rice cultivation was not observed to increase malaria transmission. The entomological parameters

  19. Coverage of intermittent prevention treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine among pregnant women and congenital malaria in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Vanga-Bosson, Henriette A; Coffie, Patrick A; Kanhon, Serge; Sloan, Caroline; Kouakou, Firmin; Eholie, Serge P; Kone, Moussa; Dabis, François; Menan, Hervé; Ekouevi, Didier K

    2011-04-29

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends using insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs) and intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPT-SP) to prevent malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. Data on IPT-SP coverage and factors associated with placental malaria parasitaemia and low birth weight (LBW) are scarce in Côte d'Ivoire. A multicentre, cross-sectional survey was conducted in Côte d'Ivoire from March to September 2008 at six urban and semi-urban antenatal clinics. Standardized forms were used to collect the demographic information and medical histories of women and their offspring. IPT-SP coverage (≥2 doses) as well as placental and congenital malaria prevalence parasitaemia were estimated. Regression logistics were used to study factors associated with placental malaria and LBW (birth weight of alive babies < 2,500 grams). Overall, 2,044 women with a median age of 24 years were included in this study. Among them 1017 (49.8%) received ≥2 doses of IPT-SP and 694 (34.0%) received one dose. A total of 99 mothers (4.8%) had placental malaria, and of them, four cases of congenital malaria were diagnosed. Factors that protected from maternal placental malaria parasitaemia were the use of one dose (adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 0.32; 95%CI: 0.19-0.55) or ≥2 doses IPT-SP (aOR: 0.18; 95%CI: 0.10-0.32); the use of ITNs (aOR: 0.47; 95%CI: 0.27-0.82). LBW was associated with primigravidity and placental malaria parasitaemia. IPT-SP decreases the rate of placental malaria parasitaemia and has a strong dose effect. Despite relatively successful IPT-SP coverage in Côte d'Ivoire, substantial commitments from national authorities are urgently required for such public health campaigns. Strategies, such as providing IPT-SP free of charge and directly observing treatment, should be implemented to increase the use of IPT-SP as well as other prophylactic methods.

  20. Urbanization is a main driver for the larval ecology of Aedes mosquitoes in arbovirus-endemic settings in south-eastern Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Zahouli, Julien B Z; Koudou, Benjamin G; Müller, Pie; Malone, David; Tano, Yao; Utzinger, Jürg

    2017-07-01

    Failure in detecting naturally occurring breeding sites of Aedes mosquitoes can bias the conclusions drawn from field studies, and hence, negatively affect intervention outcomes. We characterized the habitats of immature Aedes mosquitoes and explored species dynamics along a rural-to-urban gradient in a West Africa setting where yellow fever and dengue co-exist. Between January 2013 and October 2014, we collected immature Aedes mosquitoes in water containers in rural, suburban, and urban areas of south-eastern Côte d'Ivoire, using standardized sampling procedures. Immature mosquitoes were reared in the laboratory and adult specimens identified at species level. We collected 6,159, 14,347, and 22,974 Aedes mosquitoes belonging to 17, 8, and 3 different species in rural, suburban, and urban environments, respectively. Ae. aegypti was the predominant species throughout, with a particularly high abundance in urban areas (99.374%). Eleven Aedes larval species not previously sampled in similar settings of Côte d'Ivoire were identified: Ae. albopictus, Ae. angustus, Ae. apicoargenteus, Ae. argenteopunctatus, Ae. haworthi, Ae. lilii, Ae. longipalpis, Ae. opok, Ae. palpalis, Ae. stokesi, and Ae. unilineatus. Aedes breeding site positivity was associated with study area, container type, shade, detritus, water turbidity, geographic location, season, and the presence of predators. We found proportionally more positive breeding sites in urban (2,136/3,374, 63.3%), compared to suburban (1,428/3,069, 46.5%) and rural areas (738/2,423, 30.5%). In the urban setting, the predominant breeding sites were industrial containers (e.g., tires and discarded containers). In suburban areas, containers made of traditional materials (e.g., clay pots) were most frequently encountered. In rural areas, natural containers (e.g., tree holes and bamboos) were common and represented 22.1% (163/738) of all Aedes-positive containers, hosting 18.7% of the Aedes fauna. The predatory mosquito species

  1. Reprint of "Epidemiology of brucellosis, Q Fever and Rift Valley Fever at the human and livestock interface in northern Côte d'Ivoire".

    PubMed

    Kanouté, Youssouf B; Gragnon, Biégo G; Schindler, Christian; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Schelling, Esther

    2017-09-01

    Northern Côte d'Ivoire is the main livestock breeding zone and has the highest livestock cross-border movements in Côte d'Ivoire. The aim of this study was to provide updated epidemiological data on three neglected zoonotic diseases, namely brucellosis, Q Fever and Rift Valley Fever (RVF). We conducted three-stage cross-sectional cluster surveys in livestock and humans between 2012 and 2014 in a random selection of 63 villages and a sample of 633 cattle, 622 small ruminants and 88 people. We administered questionnaires to capture risk factors and performed serological tests including the Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT), Brucella spp. indirect and competitive ELISAs, Coxiella burnetii indirect ELISA and RVF competitive ELISA. The human seroprevalence for Brucella spp. was 5.3%. RBPT-positive small ruminants tested negative by the indirect ELISA. The seroprevalence of Brucella spp. in cattle adjusted for clustering was 4.6%. Cattle aged 5-8 years had higher odds of seropositivity (OR=3.5) than those aged ≤4years. The seropositivity in cattle was associated with having joint hygromas (OR=9), sharing the pastures with small ruminants (OR=5.8) and contact with pastoralist herds (OR=11.3). The seroprevalence of Q Fever was 13.9% in cattle, 9.4% in sheep and 12.4% in goats. The seroprevalence of RVF was 3.9% in cattle, 2.4% in sheep and 0% in goats. Seropositive ewes had greater odds (OR=4.7) of abortion than seronegative ones. In cattle, a shorter distance between the night pens and nearest permanent water bodies was a protective factor (OR=0.1). The study showed that the exposure to the three zoonoses is rather low in northern Côte d'Ivoire. Within a One Health approach, cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness of control measures should be assessed for an integrated control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Causes of death in the Taabo health and demographic surveillance system, Côte d'Ivoire, from 2009 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Koné, Siaka; Fürst, Thomas; Jaeger, Fabienne N; Esso, Emmanuel L J C; Baïkoro, Nahoua; Kouadio, Kouamé A; Adiossan, Lukas G; Zouzou, Fabien; Boti, Louis I; Tanner, Marcel; Utzinger, Jürg; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Dao, Daouda; N'Goran, Eliézer K

    2015-01-01

    Background Current vital statistics from governmental institutions in Côte d'Ivoire are incomplete. This problem is particularly notable for remote rural areas that have limited access to the health system. Objective To record all deaths from 2009 to 2011 and to identify the leading causes of death in the Taabo health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) in south-central Côte d'Ivoire. Design Deaths recorded in the first 3 years of operation of the Taabo HDSS were investigated by verbal autopsy (VA), using the InterVA-4 model. InterVA-4 is based on the World Health Organization 2012 VA tool in terms of input indicators and categories of causes of death. Results Overall, 948 deaths were recorded, of which 236 (24.9%) had incomplete VA data. Among the 712 deaths analyzed, communicable diseases represented the leading causes (58.9%), with most deaths attributed to malaria (n=129), acute respiratory tract infections (n=110), HIV/AIDS (n=80), and pulmonary tuberculosis (n=46). Non-communicable diseases accounted for 18.9% of the deaths and included mainly acute abdomen (n=38), unspecified cardiac diseases (n=15), and digestive neoplasms (n=13). Maternal and neonatal conditions accounted for 8.3% of deaths, primarily pneumonia (n=19) and birth asphyxia (n=16) in newborns. Among the 3.8% of deaths linked to trauma and injury, the main causes were assault (n=6), accidental drowning (n=4), contact with venomous plants/animals (n=4), and traffic-related accidents (n=4). No clear causes were determined in 10.0% of the analyzed deaths. Conclusions Communicable diseases remain the predominant cause of death in rural Côte d'Ivoire. Based on these findings, measures are now being implemented in the Taabo HDSS. It will be interesting to monitor patterns of mortality and causes of death in the face of rapid demographic and epidemiological transitions in this part of West Africa.

  3. Oviposition ecology and species composition of Aedes spp. and Aedes aegypti dynamics in variously urbanized settings in arbovirus foci in southeastern Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Zahouli, Julien B Z; Utzinger, Jürg; Adja, Maurice A; Müller, Pie; Malone, David; Tano, Yao; Koudou, Benjamin G

    2016-09-29

    Aedes mosquito-transmitted outbreaks of dengue and yellow fever have been reported from rural and urban parts of Côte d'Ivoire. The present study aimed at assessing Aedes spp. oviposition ecology in variously urbanized settings within arbovirus foci in southeastern Côte d'Ivoire. Aedes spp. eggs were sampled using a standard ovitrap method from January 2013 to April 2014 in different ecosystems of rural, suburban and urban areas. Emerged larvae were reared until the adult stage for species identification. Aedes spp. oviposition ecology significantly varied from rural-to-urban areas and according to the ecozones and the seasons. Species richness of Aedes spp. gradually decreased from rural (eight species) to suburban (three species) and urban (one species) areas. Conversely, emerged adult Aedes spp. mean numbers were higher in the urban (1.97 Aedes/ovitrap/week), followed by the suburban (1.44 Aedes/ovitrap/week) and rural (0.89 Aedes/ovitrap/week) areas. Aedes aegypti was the only species in the urban setting (100 %), and was also the predominant species in suburban (85.5 %) and rural (63.3 %) areas. The highest Ae. aegypti mean number was observed in the urban (1.97 Ae. aegypti/ovitrap/week), followed by the suburban (1.20 Ae. aegypti/ovitrap/week) and rural (0.57 Ae. aegypti/ovitrap/week) areas. Aedes africanus (9.4 %), Ae. dendrophilus (8.0 %), Ae. metallicus (1.3 %) in the rural, and Ae. vittatus (6.5 %) and Ae. metallicus (1.2 %) in the suburban areas each represented more than 1 % of the total Aedes fauna. In all areas, Aedes species richness and abundance were higher in the peridomestic zones and during the rainy season, with stronger variations in species richness in the rural and in abundance in the urban areas. Besides, the highest Culex quinquefasciatus abundance was found in the urban areas, while Eretmapodites chrysogaster was restricted to the rural areas. Urbanization correlates with a substantially higher abundance in Aedes mosquitoes and

  4. Sexual abstinence behavior among never-married youths in a generalized HIV epidemic country: evidence from the 2005 Côte d'Ivoire AIDS indicator survey

    PubMed Central

    Koffi, Alain K; Kawahara, Kazuo

    2008-01-01

    Background Sexual abstinence is the best available option for preventing both pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS. Identifying the factors associated with sexual abstinence among youths would have meaningful implications in a generalized HIV epidemic country such as the Côte d'Ivoire. Thus, we explored sexual abstinence behavior among never-married individuals aged 15 to 24 in Côte d'Ivoire and assessed factors that predict sexual abstinence. Methods We obtained data from the nationally representative and population-based 2005 Côte d'Ivoire AIDS Indicator Survey, conducted from September 2004 to October 2005. Our sample included 3041 never-married people aged 15 to 24. Of these, 990 reported never having sexual intercourse (primary abstinence) and 137 reported sexual experience but not in the 12 months prior to the survey (secondary abstinence). In all, 1127 youths reported sexual abstinence practice. Results Of the 3041 never-married youths, 54.4% were male and 45.6% were female. About 33.0%, 6.7%, and 37.1% of them were practicing primary, secondary, and sexual abstinence behavior, respectively. Females of higher education level were significantly 11.14 times as likely as those of no education to practice either primary or secondary abstinence. Males who were animists, had no religion, or were practicing religions other than Christianity or Muslim were significantly less likely than other male youths to practice sexual abstinence (OR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.30–0.95). Living in the north-west region of the country significantly decreased the odds of sexual abstinence among female youths. Similarly, female youths living in rural areas were significantly 0.42 times as likely as those in the urban zones to practice sexual abstinence. Conclusion HIV/AIDS prevention program components could include media campaigns, educational intervention improvement, as well as promoting policies that shape female youth livelihoods. Likewise, youth

  5. Cadmium accumulation in tissues of Sarotherodon melanotheron (Rüppel, 1852) from the Aby Lagoon system in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Cyrille, Yapi Dope Armel; Victor, Kouame; Sanogo, Tidou Abiba; Boukary, Sawadogo; Joseph, Wethe

    2012-03-01

    This study assessed the concentrations of cadmium in the gills, livers and muscles of a commercially important tilapia fish (Sarotherodon melanotheron) from Aby Lagoon in Adiaké, Côte d'Ivoire, between January and December, 2010. The organisms were grouped into two composite samples (juvenile and adult) of five individuals. Levels of cadmium were determined in tissues using Perkin-Elmer (AAnalyst 200) Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) after a digestion method. Fish muscle appeared to have a significantly higher tendency to accumulate cadmium (1.19-5.18 µg/g dw) while gills and livers had minimum concentrations (0.07-1.32 and 0.12-1.25 µg/g dw). This study has revealed that the concentrations of Cd in Sarotherodon melanotheron muscle tissue were above the maximum acceptable concentrations for human consumption, thus precautions need to be taken in order to prevent future contamination.

  6. The ecology of primate retroviruses - an assessment of 12 years of retroviral studies in the Taï national park area, Côte d׳Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Gogarten, Jan F; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Calvignac-Spencer, Sebastien; Leendertz, Siv Aina J; Weiss, Sabrina; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Koné, Inza; Peeters, Martine; Wittig, Roman M; Boesch, Christophe; Hahn, Beatrice H; Leendertz, Fabian H

    2014-07-01

    The existence and genetic make-up of most primate retroviruses was revealed by studies of bushmeat and fecal samples from unhabituated primate communities. For these, detailed data on intra- and within-species contact rates are generally missing, which makes identification of factors influencing transmission a challenging task. Here we present an assessment of 12 years of research on primate retroviruses in the Taï National Park area, Côte d'Ivoire. We discuss insights gained into the prevalence, within- and cross-species transmission of primate retroviruses (including towards local human populations) and the importance of virus-host interactions in determining cross-species transmission risk. Finally we discuss how retroviruses ecology and evolution may change in a shifting environment and identify avenues for future research.

  7. [Approaches of the Expanded Programme of Immunization (EPI) and analysis of its failures in the sanitary district of Bouna (Northeast of Côte d'Ivoire)].

    PubMed

    Boa, A

    2006-12-01

    The anthropological study of the approach of target diseases in the Expanded Programme of Immunization (EPI) in Bouna, a semi-rural district of Northeast Côte d'Ivoire, shows that the population is well-informed about each disease named in this programme as well as for modern vaccination but its objectives remain completely unknown. Populations' reluctances towards vaccination can be explained by several "organizational" causes: overestimated cost of vaccination records, incoherence in the follow-up of vaccination and disruption in the cold chain. These organizational problems are induced by the programme itself and appear more determining than those corresponding to cultural opposition to explain the poor results of the EPI in Bouna. Therefore improvement of these results is linked to the quality of the health cares which can be provided.

  8. Assessment of Mycotoxin Exposure in Côte d'ivoire (Ivory Coast) Through Multi-Biomarker Analysis and Possible Correlation with Food Consumption Patterns.

    PubMed

    Kouadio, James Halbin; Lattanzio, Veronica M T; Ouattara, Djeneba; Kouakou, Brou; Visconti, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the presented study was to investigate the mycotoxin exposure of Ivorian population related to the consumption patterns of maize, peanuts, millet, and cassava product (attiéké). Maize flour samples (n = 51) were purchased from all Abidjan local markets, in the south of Ivory Coast, and urine (n = 99) was collected during the same reference period (July-September 2011) from volunteers living in Abidjan and Daloa cities. Reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) was used to analyze aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, and AFG2), ochratoxin A (OTA), fumonisins (FB1, FB2), deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEA), and T-2 and HT-2 toxins in maize flour samples, and their relevant biomarkers (AFM1, DON, DON + de-epoxydeoxynivalenol (DOM-1), FB1, α-zearalenol (ZOL), β-ZOL, and OTA) in urine samples. Critical maize contamination was observed by AFs occurrence (total AFs 4.5 - 330.0 μg/kg) while OTA was found in 13% of samples analyzed. AFM1 was detected in 40% of urines samples (0.06 - 14.11 ng/ml), OTA in 37% (0.01 - 0.42 ng/ml), FB1 in 27% (0.07 to 15.31 ng/ml) and, DON was found in 21% of samples at levels up to 10.0 ng/ml. The correlation coefficients (R(2)) obtained by plotting the percentage of biomarker occurrence (positive samples) versus the frequency of food consumption revealed maize, peanuts, millet and attiéké were strongly linked to AFB1 and OTA exposure with values of R(2) ranged from 0.462 to 0.956. The present study provided data on mycotoxin risk in Ivory Coast, revealing a frequent co-exposure to the major mycotoxins such as AFs, OTA, and fumonisins, which appeared to be related to the frequency of peanuts, maize, millet and attiéké consumption.

  9. Mild riboflavin deficiency is highly prevalent in school-age children but does not increase risk for anaemia in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Rohner, Fabian; Zimmermann, Michael B; Wegmueller, Rita; Tschannen, Andreas B; Hurrell, Richard F

    2007-05-01

    There are few data on the prevalence of riboflavin deficiency in sub-Saharan Africa, and it remains unclear whether riboflavin status influences the risk for anaemia. The aims of this study were to: (1) measure the prevalence of riboflavin deficiency in children in south-central Côte d'Ivoire; (2) estimate the riboflavin content of the local diet; and (3) determine if riboflavin deficiency predicts anaemia and/or iron deficiency. In 5- to 15-year-old children (n 281), height, weight, haemoglobin (Hb), whole blood zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), erythrocyte glutathione reductase activity coefficient (EGRAC), serum retinol, C-reactive protein (CRP) and prevalence of Plasmodium spp. (asymptomatic malaria) and Schistosoma haematobium (bilharziosis) infections were measured. Three-day weighed food records were kept in twenty-four households. Prevalence of anaemia in the sample was 52%; 59% were iron-deficient based on an elevated ZPP concentration, and 36% suffered from iron deficiency anaemia. Plasmodium parasitaemia was found in 49% of the children. Nineteen percent of the children were infected with S. haematobium. Median riboflavin intake in 5- to 15-year-old children from the food records was 0.42 mg/d, approximately 47% of the estimated average requirement for this age group. Prevalence of riboflavin deficiency was 65%, as defined by an EGRAC value > 1.2. Age, elevated CRP and iron deficiency were significant predictors of Hb. Riboflavin-deficient children free of malaria were more likely to be iron deficient (odds ratio; 3.07; 95% CI 1.12, 8.41). In conclusion, nearly two-thirds of school-age children in south-central Côte d'Ivoire are mildly riboflavin deficient. Riboflavin deficiency did not predict Hb and/or anaemia, but did predict iron deficiency among children free of malaria.

  10. A Measure of the Forest Protected Areas Benefits for the Surrounding Population: A Case Study of the Bouaflé Protected Forest (CÔTE D'IVOIRE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouame, B. N. P.

    2015-12-01

    Côte d'Ivoire located in West Africa, registers high level of biodiversity which occurs mainly in forest land. The country has suffered severe deforestation. However, deforestation and forest degradation release Greenhouse Gases into the atmosphere which contributes to Climate Change. In order to address the deforestation, many actions are taken, one of which is the implementation of protected areas within countries. These measures put restrictions on the access of local communities to forest services. However, local communities supplement their daily livelihood from forests, especially from timber and non-timber forest products. What are the effects of forests conservation in protected areas on surrounding population? This study focuses on the Bouaflé protected forest (foret classée de Bouaflé) in the western part of Côte d'Ivoire. The forest is 20350 ha and was made a protected forest in 1974. It is one of the most deforested protected areas in the country. Firstly, we described the perception of forest benefits by the population. Secondly, we estimated the benefits of forest conservation using a contingent valuation approach, particularly the Willingness to Pay (WTP) methodology. From our sample size of 156 households, it appears that most of the individuals are aware of the importance of the forest (94 % against 6%). According to the estimate of the benefits, it results on average, people are willing to pay 1658.491F CFA (2.53 Euros). The median WTP is 1000 FCFA. This study will be helpful by adding to the scientific literature and for inducing local people implication in conservation.

  11. Scope and Limits of an anamnestic questionnaire in a control-induced low-endemicity helminthiasis setting in south-central Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Fürst, Thomas; Ouattara, Mamadou; Silué, Kigbafori D; N'Goran, Dje N; Adiossan, Lukas G; Bogoch, Isaac I; N'Guessan, Yao; Koné, Siaka; Utzinger, Jürg; N'Goran, Eliézer K

    2014-01-01

    Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis are two high-burden neglected tropical diseases. In highly endemic areas, control efforts emphasize preventive chemotherapy. However, as morbidity, infection, and transmission begin to decrease, more targeted treatment is likely to become more cost-effective, provided that comparatively cheap diagnostic methods with reasonable accuracy are available. Adults were administered an anamnestic questionnaire in mid-2010 during a cross-sectional epidemiological survey in the Taabo health demographic surveillance system in south-central Côte d'Ivoire. Questions pertaining to risk factors and signs and symptoms for schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis were included. The individuals' helminth infection status and their belonging to three different anthelmintic treatment groups were compared with the questionnaire results (i) to inform the local health authorities about the epidemiological and clinical footprint of locally prevailing helminthiases, and (ii) to explore the scope and limits of an anamnestic questionnaire as monitoring tool, which eventually could help guiding the control of neglected tropical diseases in control-induced low-endemicity settings. Our study sample consisted of 195 adults (101 males, 94 females). We found prevalences of hookworm, Trichuris trichiura, Schistosoma haematobium, and Schistosoma mansoni of 39.0%, 2.7%, 2.1%, and 2.1%, respectively. No Ascaris lumbricoides infection was found. Helminth infection intensities were generally very low. Seven, 74 and 79 participants belonged to three different treatment groups. Multivariable logistic regression models revealed statistically significant (p<0.05) associations between some risk factors, signs, and symptoms, and the different helminth infections and treatment groups. However, the risk factors, signs, and symptoms showed weak diagnostic properties. The generally low prevalence and intensity of helminth infection in this part of

  12. Antepartum Depression and Anxiety Associated with Disability in African Women: Cross-Sectional Results from the CDS Study in Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Bindt, Carola; Appiah-Poku, John; Te Bonle, Marguerite; Schoppen, Stefanie; Feldt, Torsten; Barkmann, Claus; Koffi, Mathurin; Baum, Jana; Nguah, Samuel Blay; Tagbor, Harry; Guo, Nan; N'Goran, Eliezer; Ehrhardt, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    Background Common mental disorders, particularly unipolar depressive disorders, rank among the top 5 with respect to the global burden of disease. As a major public health concern, antepartum depression and anxiety not only affects the individual woman, but also her offspring. Data on the prevalence of common mental disorders in pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce. We provide results from Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire. Methods We subsequently recruited and screened n = 1030 women in the third trimester of their pregnancy for depressed mood, general anxiety, and perceived disability using the Patient Health Questionnaire depression module (PHQ-9), the 7-item Anxiety Scale (GAD-7), and the World Health Organisation Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS 2.0, 12-item version). In addition to estimates of means and prevalence, a hierarchical linear regression model was calculated to determine the influence of antepartum depression and anxiety on disability. Results In Ghana, 26.6% of women showed substantially depressed mood. In Côte d'Ivoire, this figure was even higher (32.9%). Clear indications for a generalized anxiety disorder were observed in 11.4% and 17.4% of pregnant women, respectively. Comorbidity of both conditions was common, affecting about 7.7% of Ghanaian and 12.6% of Ivorian participants. Pregnant women in both countries reported a high degree of disability regarding everyday activity limitations and participation restrictions. Controlled for country and age, depression and anxiety accounted for 33% of variance in the disability score. Conclusions Antepartum depression and anxiety were highly prevalent in our sample and contributed substantially to perceived disability. These serious threats to health must be further investigated and more data are needed to comprehensively quantify the problem in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:23110236

  13. Characteristics and epidemiological profile of Buruli ulcer in the district of Tiassalé, south Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    N'krumah, Raymond T A S; Koné, Brama; Cissé, Guéladio; Tanner, Marcel; Utzinger, Jürg; Pluschke, Gerd; Tiembré, Issaka

    2016-12-27

    Buruli ulcer (BU) is a cutaneous infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. It is the third most common mycobacterial disease in the world in the immunocompetent patient and second in Côte d'Ivoire after tuberculosis. This study aimed to assess the characteristics and epidemiological profile of BU in the district of Tiassalé, an important focus of the disease in south Côte d'Ivoire, in order to better direct actions for prevention and control. Retrospective clinical data of BU cases in the period 2005-2010 from all 19 district health centres were collected and linked with geographical and environmental survey data. A total of 1145 cases of BU were recorded between 2005 and 2010 in the district of Tiassalé. Children under the age of 15 years were the most affected (53.0%) with a higher prevalence among males compared to females (54.7% versus 45.3%). Among individuals aged 15-49 years, females had a higher prevalence than males (54.2% versus 45.8%). The villages of Ahondo, Léléblé and Taabo, located in close proximity to the man-made Lake Taabo that was constructed in the late 1970s by damming the Bandama River, and the village of Sokrogbo located downstream of the dam, showed the highest BU rates in the sub-prefecture of Taabo. In the sub-prefecture of Tiassalé, the villages of Affikro, Morokro and N'Zianouan, located near N'Zi River, a tributary of the Bandama River, were the most affected. The distribution of BU is associated with environmental patterns (i.e. distance between village and Lake Taabo or Bandama River and its tributary N'Zi River). Awareness campaigns, coupled with early diagnosis and improved clinical management of BU, have been implemented in the district of Tiassalé and the incidence of BU has declined.

  14. Characterization of Bacillus anthracis-Like Bacteria Isolated from Wild Great Apes from Côte d'Ivoire and Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Klee, Silke R.; Özel, Muhsin; Appel, Bernd; Boesch, Christophe; Ellerbrok, Heinz; Jacob, Daniela; Holland, Gudrun; Leendertz, Fabian H.; Pauli, Georg; Grunow, Roland; Nattermann, Herbert

    2006-01-01

    We present the microbiological and molecular characterization of bacteria isolated from four chimpanzees and one gorilla thought to have died of an anthrax-like disease in Côte d'Ivoire and Cameroon. These isolates differed significantly from classic Bacillus anthracis by the following criteria: motility, resistance to the gamma phage, and, for isolates from Cameroon, resistance to penicillin G. A capsule was expressed not only after induction by CO2 and bicarbonate but also under normal growth conditions. Subcultivation resulted in beta-hemolytic activity and gamma phage susceptibility in some subclones, suggesting differences in gene regulation compared to classic B. anthracis. The isolates from Côte d'Ivoire and Cameroon showed slight differences in their biochemical characteristics and MICs of different antibiotics but were identical in all molecular features and sequences analyzed. PCR and Southern blot analyses confirmed the presence of both the toxin and the capsule plasmid, with sizes corresponding to the B. anthracis virulence plasmids pXO1 and pXO2. Protective antigen was expressed and secreted into the culture supernatant. The isolates possessed variants of the Ba813 marker and the SG-749 fragment differing from that of classic B. anthracis strains. Multilocus sequence typing revealed a close relationship of our atypical isolates with both classic B. anthracis strains and two uncommonly virulent Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis isolates. We propose that the newly discovered atypical B. anthracis strains share a common ancestor with classic B. anthracis or that they emerged recently by transfer of the B. anthracis plasmids to a strain of the B. cereus group. PMID:16855222

  15. Antepartum depression and anxiety associated with disability in African women: cross-sectional results from the CDS study in Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Bindt, Carola; Appiah-Poku, John; Te Bonle, Marguerite; Schoppen, Stefanie; Feldt, Torsten; Barkmann, Claus; Koffi, Mathurin; Baum, Jana; Nguah, Samuel Blay; Tagbor, Harry; Guo, Nan; N'Goran, Eliezer; Ehrhardt, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    Common mental disorders, particularly unipolar depressive disorders, rank among the top 5 with respect to the global burden of disease. As a major public health concern, antepartum depression and anxiety not only affects the individual woman, but also her offspring. Data on the prevalence of common mental disorders in pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce. We provide results from Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire. We subsequently recruited and screened n = 1030 women in the third trimester of their pregnancy for depressed mood, general anxiety, and perceived disability using the Patient Health Questionnaire depression module (PHQ-9), the 7-item Anxiety Scale (GAD-7), and the World Health Organisation Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS 2.0, 12-item version). In addition to estimates of means and prevalence, a hierarchical linear regression model was calculated to determine the influence of antepartum depression and anxiety on disability. In Ghana, 26.6% of women showed substantially depressed mood. In Côte d'Ivoire, this figure was even higher (32.9%). Clear indications for a generalized anxiety disorder were observed in 11.4% and 17.4% of pregnant women, respectively. Comorbidity of both conditions was common, affecting about 7.7% of Ghanaian and 12.6% of Ivorian participants. Pregnant women in both countries reported a high degree of disability regarding everyday activity limitations and participation restrictions. Controlled for country and age, depression and anxiety accounted for 33% of variance in the disability score. Antepartum depression and anxiety were highly prevalent in our sample and contributed substantially to perceived disability. These serious threats to health must be further investigated and more data are needed to comprehensively quantify the problem in sub-Saharan Africa.

  16. Gut microbiota related to Giardia duodenalis, Entamoeba spp. and Blastocystis hominis infections in humans from Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Iebba, Valerio; Santangelo, Floriana; Totino, Valentina; Pantanella, Fabrizio; Monsia, Anatole; Di Cristanziano, Veronica; Di Cave, David; Schippa, Serena; Berrilli, Federica; D'Alfonso, Rossella

    2016-09-30

    Literature data provide little information about protozoa infections and gut microbiota compositional shifts in humans. This preliminary study aimed to describe the fecal bacterial community composition of people from Côte d'Ivoire harboring Giardia duodenalis, Entamoeba spp., and Blastocystis hominis, in trying to discover possible alterations in their fecal microbiota structure related to the presence of such parasites. Twenty fecal samples were collected from people inhabiting three different localities of Côte d'Ivoire for copromicroscopic analysis and molecular identification of G. duodenalis, Entamoeba spp., and B. hominis. Temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE) was used to obtain a fingerprint of the overall bacterial community; quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to define the relative abundances of selected bacterial species/group, and multivariate statistical analyses were employed to correlate all data. Cluster analysis revealed a significant separation of TTGE profiles into four clusters (p < 0.0001), with a marked difference for G. duodenalis-positive samples in relation to the others (p = 5.4×10-6). Interestingly, qPCR data showed how G. duodenalis-positive samples were related to a dysbiotic condition that favors potentially harmful species (such as Escherichia coli), while Entamoeba spp./B. hominis-positive subjects were linked to a eubiotic condition, as shown by a significantly higher Faecalibacterium prausnitzii-Escherichia coli ratio. This preliminary investigation demonstrates a differential fecal microbiota structure in subjects infected with G. duodenalis or Entamoeba spp./B. hominis, paving the way for using further next-generation DNA technologies to better understand host-parasite-bacteria interactions, aimed at identifying potential indicators of microbiota changes.

  17. Coverage and efficacy of intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine pyrimethamine against malaria in pregnancy in Côte d'Ivoire five years after its implementation.

    PubMed

    Toure, Offianan A; Kone, Penali L; Coulibaly, M'Lanhoro A A; Ako, Berenger A A; Gbessi, Eric A; Coulibaly, Baba; N' Guessan, Landry T; Koffi, David; Beourou, Sylvain; Soumahoro, Adama; Bassinka, Issiaka; Nogbou, Messoun; Swa, Tidjane; Gba, Bernadin; Esmel, Beugre; Bokossa, Ernestine M

    2014-11-20

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends for sub-Saharan Africa a package of prompt and effective case-management combined with the delivery of insecticide-treated nets (ITN) and intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy (IPTp) with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) through the national antenatal care (ANC) programs. Implemented in Côte d'Ivoire around 2005, few Data on IPTp coverage and efficacy in the country are available. A multicentre, cross-sectional survey was conducted in Côte d'Ivoire from September 2009 to May 2010 at six urban and rural antenatal clinics. IPTp-sp coverage, Socio-economic and obstetrical data of mothers and neonate birth weights were documented. Peripheral blood as well as placental and cord blood were used to prepare thick and thin blood films. In addition, pieces of placental tissues were used to prepare impression smears and maternal haemoglobin concentration was measured. Regression logistics were used to study factors associated with placental malaria and LBW (<2.500 grams). A total of 1317 delivered women were enrolled with a median age of 26 years. A proportion of 43.28% of the women had received at least two doses of IPTsp during the current pregnancy although a high proportion (90.4%) of women received antenatal care and made enough visits (≥2). Variability in the results was observed depending on the type of area (rural/urban). Plasmodium falciparum was detected in the peripheral blood of 97 women (7.3%) and in the placenta of 119 women (9%). LBW infants were born to 18.8% (22/107) of women with placental malaria and 8.5% (103/1097) of women without placental malaria. LBW was associated with placental malaria. This study found relative low coverage of IPTp in the study areas which supported findings that high ANC attendance does not guarantee high IPTp coverage. Urgent efforts are required to improve service delivery of this important intervention.

  18. The Kleine-Levin Syndrome: A Rare Disease with Often Delayed Diagnosis—A Report of Two Cases in the Department of Neurology of the University Hospital of Cocody (Côte d'Ivoire)

    PubMed Central

    Assi, Berthe; Yapo-Ehounoud, Constance; Baby, Mohamed Ben Allaoui; Aka-Diarra, Evelyne; Amon-Tanoh, Muriel; Tanoh, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The Kleine-Levin syndrome is a rare pathology characterized by recurrent episodes of hypersomnia associated with behavioral and cognitive disorders with, among others, hyperphagia and hypersexuality. The disease mainly affects young males. A few studies mention cases that occurred in Africa, especially in Côte d'Ivoire. In this paper, we report the very first two cases observed in the Neurology Department of the University Hospital of Cocody. The diagnosis was clinical, based on the recurrence of hypersomnia, cognitive and behavioral disorders during the periods of hypersomnia, and the return of patients to normal state between episodes. This diagnosis was delayed due to failure to understand the pathology, thereby leading patients to wandering. In fact, the two patients were consulted, respectively, 3 years and 6 years after the hypersomnia began. The objective was to report the very first cases observed in the Neurology Department of the University Hospital of Cocody, Côte d'Ivoire. PMID:26989535

  19. Dépigmentation cutanée cosmétique des femmes noires: résultats d’une enquête CAP à Abidjan (Côte d’Ivoire)

    PubMed Central

    Kourouma, Sarah; Gbery, Ildevert Patrice; Kaloga, Mamadou; Ecra, Elidjé Joseph; Sangaré, Abdoulaye; Kouassi, Isidore Yao; Kassi, Komenan; Kouassi, Alexandre Kouamé; Yoboué, Pauline Yao

    2016-01-01

    Introduction La dépigmentation cutanée cosmétique est une pratique largement répandue chez les femmes noires en Afrique. Elle comporte de nombreuses complications bien décrites depuis des décennies. Cependant, les motivations des pratiquantes ne sont pas bien connues. Notre étude avait pour objectif d'appréhender les raisons et les motivations de ces femmes afin de pouvoir mener une action de communication en vue d'un changement de comportement. Méthodes Nous avons mené une étude transversale qui a consisté en une enquête CAP (Connaissances/Attitudes/Pratiques) au centre de Dermatologie du CHU de Treichville d'Abidjan. Les données ont été analysées par les logiciels Epi Info 3.5.1. et 6.04. Résultats Les pratiquantes étaient surtout des femmes urbaines jeunes (20-40 ans), célibataires, lettrées et professionnellement actives. La dépigmentation cutanée et ses conséquences étaient connues des femmes Cependant, elles désiraient être plus belles grâce à un teint plus clair et étaient influencées par les médias et leurs amies proches. Les complications les plus fréquemment observées étaient l'ochronose exogène et les vergetures. Les moyens de communication de proximité étaient les plus souhaités par les utilisatrices pour les aider à changer de comportement. Conclusion L'élaboration de stratégies de communication de proximité visant un changement de comportement semble nécessaire pour enrayer le phénomène de dépigmentation cosmétique des femmes à Abidjan. PMID:27795757

  20. Detection of Enteroviruses in Water Samples from Yopougon, Côte d'Ivoire by Cell Culture and Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    PubMed

    Momou, K J; Akoua-Koffi, C; Dosso, M

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare sensitivities of enterovirus isolation from wastewater in different cell lines as well as to compare the sensitivity and specificity of isolation in cell culture with direct detection by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Sixty-eight samples of wastewaters were collected between September 2008 and January 2009 in Yopougon, Abidjan. Enteroviruses were concentrated according to World Health Organization recommendations. Viruses were inoculated into various cell lines while direct RT-PCR was performed on water concentrates. The buffalo green monkey kidney cell line was the most sensitive with 58.8 % of viral isolation. This was followed by the rhabdomyosarcoma cell line with sensitivity of 51.6 %, with human epidermoid carcinoma cell line showing sensitivity of 50 % and fibroblastic cells derived from transgenic mice LTK-1 (L20B) cell showing 23.50 % sensitivity. However, a lower specificity of 2.9 % was observed with the L20B cell line. 44.1 % of the samples were positive by direct RT-PCR detection while 51.47 % samples were positive by using RT-PCR on infected cell cultures. No difference in percentage positivity was observed using RT-PCR on infected tissue culture isolates or using RT-PCR directly on wastewater samples.

  1. Disparities of Plasmodium falciparum infection, malaria-related morbidity and access to malaria prevention and treatment among school-aged children: a national cross-sectional survey in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Houngbedji, Clarisse A; N'Dri, Prisca B; Hürlimann, Eveline; Yapi, Richard B; Silué, Kigbafori D; Soro, Gotianwa; Koudou, Benjamin G; Acka, Cinthia A; Assi, Serge-Brice; Vounatsou, Penelope; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Fantodji, Agathe; Utzinger, Jürg; Raso, Giovanna

    2015-01-05

    There is limited knowledge on the malaria burden of school-aged children in Côte d'Ivoire. The aim of this study was to assess Plasmodium falciparum infection, malaria-related morbidity, use of preventive measures and treatment against malaria, and physical access to health structures among school-aged children across Côte d'Ivoire. A national, cross-sectional study was designed, consisting of clinical and parasitological examinations and interviews with schoolchildren. More than 5,000 children from 93 schools in Côte d'Ivoire were interviewed to determine household socioeconomic status, self-reported morbidity and means of malaria prevention and treatment. Finger-prick blood samples were collected and Plasmodium infection and parasitaemia determined using Giemsa-stained blood films and a rapid diagnostic test (RDT). Haemoglobin levels and body temperature were measured. Children were classified into wealth quintiles using household assets and principal components analysis (PCA). The concentration index was employed to determine significant trends of health variables according to wealth quintiles. Logistic and binomial negative regression analyses were done to investigate for associations between P. falciparum prevalence and parasitaemia and any health-related variable. The prevalence of P. falciparum was 73.9% according to combined microscopy and RDT results with a geometric mean of parasitaemia among infected children of 499 parasites/μl of blood. Infection with P. falciparum was significantly associated with sex, socioeconomic status and study setting, while parasitaemia was associated with age. The rate of bed net use was low compared to the rate of bed net ownership. Preventive measures (bed net ownership, insecticide spray and the reported use of malaria treatment) were more frequently mentioned by children from wealthier households who were at lower risk of P. falciparum infection. Self-reported morbidity (headache) and clinical morbidity (anaemia) were

  2. Abcès cérébral compliquant une cardiopathie congénitale: à propos de 7 cas à l'institut de cardiologie d'Abidjan

    PubMed Central

    N'goran, Yves N'da Kouakou; Tano, Micesse; Traore, Fatoumata; Angoran, Inès; Roland, N'guetta; Traboulsi, Aké Evelyne; Yao, Konan Serge; Kramoh, Kouadio Euloge; Kakou, Maurice Guikahue

    2015-01-01

    Le diagnostic précoce des cardiopathies congénitales (C.C) a une incidence positive sur leur évolution. En effet diagnostiquées tard ou non traitées elles peuvent se compliquer. L'abcès cérébral est une complication des C.C cyanogènes qui est rare dans les pays développés. Notre objectif était d'analyser à travers une revue bibliographique les particularités de 7 cas de C.C compliquées d'abcès cérébral découvertes et prises en charge dans un service de cardiologie pédiatrique de l'Institut de Cardiologie d'Abidjan. La tétralogie de Fallot était la cardiopathie congénitale la plus fréquente. Le traitement a été médical et/ou chirurgical. Seule la réalisation de la cure complète des cardiopathies congénitales peut permettre la prévention de l'abcès cérébral. PMID:26848356

  3. Effect of Schistosomiasis and Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections on Physical Fitness of School Children in Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Ivan; Coulibaly, Jean T.; Fürst, Thomas; Knopp, Stefanie; Hattendorf, Jan; Krauth, Stefanie J.; Stete, Katarina; Righetti, Aurélie A.; Glinz, Dominik; Yao, Adrien K.; Pühse, Uwe; N'Goran, Eliézer K.; Utzinger, Jürg

    2011-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis are important public health problems in sub-Saharan Africa causing malnutrition, anemia, and retardation of physical and cognitive development. However, the effect of these diseases on physical fitness remains to be determined. Methodology We investigated the relationship between schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis and physical performance of children, controlling for potential confounding of Plasmodium spp. infections and environmental parameters (i.e., ambient air temperature and humidity). A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 156 school children aged 7–15 years from Côte d'Ivoire. Each child had two stool and two urine samples examined for helminth eggs by microscopy. Additionally, children underwent a clinical examination, were tested for Plasmodium spp. infection with a rapid diagnostic test, and performed a maximal multistage 20 m shuttle run test to assess their maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) as a proxy for physical fitness. Principal Findings The prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium, Plasmodium spp., Schistosoma mansoni, hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides infections was 85.3%, 71.2%, 53.8%, 13.5% and 1.3%, respectively. Children with single, dual, triple, quadruple and quintuple species infections showed VO2 max of 52.7, 53.1, 52.2, 52.6 and 55.6 ml kg−1 min−1, respectively. The VO2 max of children with no parasite infections was 53.5 ml kg−1 min−1. No statistically significant difference was detected between any groups. Multivariable analysis revealed that VO2 max was influenced by sex (reference: female, coef. = 4.02, p<0.001) and age (years, coef. = −1.23, p<0.001), but not by helminth infection and intensity, Plasmodium spp. infection, and environmental parameters. Conclusion/Significance School-aged children in Côte d'Ivoire showed good physical fitness, irrespective of their helminth infection status. Future studies on children's physical fitness

  4. Effect of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth infections on physical fitness of school children in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Müller, Ivan; Coulibaly, Jean T; Fürst, Thomas; Knopp, Stefanie; Hattendorf, Jan; Krauth, Stefanie J; Stete, Katarina; Righetti, Aurélie A; Glinz, Dominik; Yao, Adrien K; Pühse, Uwe; N'goran, Eliézer K; Utzinger, Jürg

    2011-07-01

    Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis are important public health problems in sub-Saharan Africa causing malnutrition, anemia, and retardation of physical and cognitive development. However, the effect of these diseases on physical fitness remains to be determined. We investigated the relationship between schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis and physical performance of children, controlling for potential confounding of Plasmodium spp. infections and environmental parameters (i.e., ambient air temperature and humidity). A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 156 school children aged 7-15 years from Côte d'Ivoire. Each child had two stool and two urine samples examined for helminth eggs by microscopy. Additionally, children underwent a clinical examination, were tested for Plasmodium spp. infection with a rapid diagnostic test, and performed a maximal multistage 20 m shuttle run test to assess their maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2) max) as a proxy for physical fitness. The prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium, Plasmodium spp., Schistosoma mansoni, hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides infections was 85.3%, 71.2%, 53.8%, 13.5% and 1.3%, respectively. Children with single, dual, triple, quadruple and quintuple species infections showed VO(2) max of 52.7, 53.1, 52.2, 52.6 and 55.6 ml kg(-1) min(-1), respectively. The VO(2) max of children with no parasite infections was 53.5 ml kg(-1) min(-1). No statistically significant difference was detected between any groups. Multivariable analysis revealed that VO(2) max was influenced by sex (reference: female, coef. = 4.02, p<0.001) and age (years, coef. = -1.23, p<0.001), but not by helminth infection and intensity, Plasmodium spp. infection, and environmental parameters. School-aged children in Côte d'Ivoire showed good physical fitness, irrespective of their helminth infection status. Future studies on children's physical fitness in settings where helminthiasis and malaria co-exist should

  5. Results from a rapid national assessment of services for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Granato, S Adam; Gloyd, Stephen; Robinson, Julia; Dali, Serge A; Ahoba, Irma; Aka, David; Kouyaté, Seydou; Billy, Doroux A; Kalibala, Samuel; Koné, Ahoua

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Loss-to-follow-up (LTFU) in the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) programmes can occur at multiple stages of antenatal and follow-up care. This paper presents findings from a national assessment aimed at identifying major bottlenecks in Côte d'Ivoire's PMTCT cascade, and to distinguish characteristics of high- and low-performing health facilities. Methods This cross-sectional study, based on a nationally representative sample of 30 health facilities in Côte d'Ivoire used multiple data sources (registries, patient charts, patient booklets, interviews) to determine the magnitude of LTFU in PMTCT services. A composite measure of retention – based on child prophylaxis, maternal treatment and infant testing – was used to identify high- and low-performing sites and determine significant differences using Student's t-tests. Results Among 1,741 pregnant women newly recorded as HIV-positive between June 2011 and May 2012, 43% had a CD4 count taken, 77% received appropriate prophylaxis and 70% received prophylaxis intended for their infant. During that time, 1,054 first infant HIV tests were recorded. A conservative rate of adherence to antiretroviral therapy was estimated at 50% (n=219 patient charts). Significant differences between high- and low-performing sites included: duration of time elapsed between HIV testing and CD4 results (29.5 versus 56.3 days, p=0.001); and density (number per 100 first antenatal care visits) of full-time physicians (6.7 versus 1.7, p=0.04), laboratory technicians (2.3 versus 0.7, p=0.046), staff trained in PMTCT (10.7 versus 4.7, p=0.01), and staff performing patient follow-up activities (7.9 versus 2.5, p=0.02). Key informants highlighted staff presence and training, the availability of medical supplies and equipment (i.e., on-site CD4 machine), and the adequacy of infrastructure (i.e., space and ventilation) as perceived key factors positively and negatively impacting retention in care. Conclusions

  6. Presence of susceptible wild strains of Anopheles gambiae in a large industrial palm farm located in Aboisso, South-Eastern of Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Sadia-Kacou, Cécile M A; Alou, Ludovic P Ahoua; Edi, Ako V C; Yobo, Celine M; Adja, Maurice A; Ouattara, Allassane F; Malone, David; Koffi, Alphonsine A; Tano, Yao; Koudou, Benjamin G

    2017-04-20

    The effectiveness of malaria control programmes through implementation of vector control activities is challenged by the emergence of insecticide resistance. In the South-Eastern region of Côte d'Ivoire, where palm oil plantations remain the predominant agricultural crop, the susceptibility of wild Anopheles gambiae sensu lato species is still unknown and thus requires a particular attention. The current study was carried out to address the gap by in-depth characterization of susceptibility level of An. gambiae mosquitoes from Ehania-V1 to WHO-recommended doses of six insecticides belonging to available classes and also to screen a subset for target site mutations and possible inhibition of P450 enzymes. Overall results showed variable resistance profile across WHO-recommended insecticides tested. Mortalities ranged from 8.3% (the lowest mortality was recorded with DDT) to 98% (the highest mortality was recorded with fenitrothion). Importantly, mortality to deltamethrin, an important pyrethroid used in public health for impregnation of mosquito nets was close to 98%, precluding a possible susceptibility to this insecticide, albeit further investigations are required. Pre-exposure of An. gambiae s.l. to PBO did not show any significant variation across insecticides (p = 0.002), although a partial increase was detected for alphacypermethrin and bendiocarb, suggesting a low of activity of cytochrome P450 enzymes (p = 0.277). High frequency of kdr L1014F was recorded in both Anopheles coluzzii (91%) and in An. gambiae (96%), associated with ace-1 (R) G119S mutation at low frequency (<20%). The high mortality rate to deltamethrin, organophosphate and the non-detection of P450 activity in resistance observed in Ehania-V1 appears as a positive outcome for further control strategies as metabolic-based P450 resistance remains major challenge to manage. These results should help the National Malaria Control Programme when designing strategies for vector control in palm

  7. Dynamics of freshwater snails and Schistosoma infection prevalence in schoolchildren during the construction and operation of a multipurpose dam in central Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Diakité, Nana R; Winkler, Mirko S; Coulibaly, Jean T; Guindo-Coulibaly, Négnorogo; Utzinger, Jürg; N'Goran, Eliézer K

    2017-05-04

    The construction and operation of small multipurpose dams in Africa have a history of altering the transmission of water-based diseases, including schistosomiasis. The current study was designed to investigate the abundance and dynamics of schistosomiasis intermediate host snails and Schistosoma infections in humans during the construction and the first years of operation of a small multipurpose dam in Côte d'Ivoire. The study was carried out in Raffierkro and four neighbouring villages in central Côte d'Ivoire between 2007 and 2012. Snails were collected by two experienced investigators using scoops and forceps for 15 min at each site. Snails were identified at genera and, whenever possible, species level, and subjected to testing for cercarial shedding. Schoolchildren aged 6-15 years were examined once every year for Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni infection, using urine filtration and duplication Kato-Katz thick smears, respectively. Additionally, 551 adults were examined for Schistosoma infection before (June 2007) and 359 individuals 2 years after dam construction (June 2009). Overall, 1 700 snails belonging to nine different genera were collected from 19 sampling sites. Bulinus (potential intermediate host snails of S. haematobium) and Pila were the most common genera, whereas Biomphalaria (potential intermediate host snail of S. mansoni), Lymnaea, Physa and Melanoides were found in two villages. During the first-year sampling period, 65 snails were collected, of which 13 (20%) were schistosomiasis intermediate hosts. In subsequent years, out of 1 635 snails collected, 1 079 (66%) were identified as potential intermediate host for schistosomiasis, but none were shedding cercariae. The prevalence of S. mansoni among adults in the study area was low (0.4% in 2007 and 0.3% in 2009), whereas the prevalence of S. haematobium declined from 13.9% to 2.9% in this two-year period. The low prevalence of schistosomiasis in humans and the absence of infected

  8. Results from a rapid national assessment of services for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Granato, S Adam; Gloyd, Stephen; Robinson, Julia; Dali, Serge A; Ahoba, Irma; Aka, David; Kouyaté, Seydou; Billy, Doroux A; Kalibala, Samuel; Koné, Ahoua

    2016-01-01

    Loss-to-follow-up (LTFU) in the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) programmes can occur at multiple stages of antenatal and follow-up care. This paper presents findings from a national assessment aimed at identifying major bottlenecks in Côte d'Ivoire's PMTCT cascade, and to distinguish characteristics of high- and low-performing health facilities. This cross-sectional study, based on a nationally representative sample of 30 health facilities in Côte d'Ivoire used multiple data sources (registries, patient charts, patient booklets, interviews) to determine the magnitude of LTFU in PMTCT services. A composite measure of retention - based on child prophylaxis, maternal treatment and infant testing - was used to identify high- and low-performing sites and determine significant differences using Student's t-tests. Among 1,741 pregnant women newly recorded as HIV-positive between June 2011 and May 2012, 43% had a CD4 count taken, 77% received appropriate prophylaxis and 70% received prophylaxis intended for their infant. During that time, 1,054 first infant HIV tests were recorded. A conservative rate of adherence to antiretroviral therapy was estimated at 50% (n=219 patient charts). Significant differences between high- and low-performing sites included: duration of time elapsed between HIV testing and CD4 results (29.5 versus 56.3 days, p=0.001); and density (number per 100 first antenatal care visits) of full-time physicians (6.7 versus 1.7, p=0.04), laboratory technicians (2.3 versus 0.7, p=0.046), staff trained in PMTCT (10.7 versus 4.7, p=0.01), and staff performing patient follow-up activities (7.9 versus 2.5, p=0.02). Key informants highlighted staff presence and training, the availability of medical supplies and equipment (i.e., on-site CD4 machine), and the adequacy of infrastructure (i.e., space and ventilation) as perceived key factors positively and negatively impacting retention in care. Patient LTFU occurred throughout the PMTCT

  9. Virological response and resistances over 12 months among HIV-infected children less than two years receiving first-line lopinavir/ritonavir-based antiretroviral therapy in Cote d’Ivoire and Burkina Faso: the MONOD ANRS 12206 cohort

    PubMed Central

    Amani-Bosse, Clarisse; Dahourou, Désiré Lucien; Malateste, Karen; Amorissani-Folquet, Madeleine; Coulibaly, Malik; Dattez, Sophie; Emieme, Arlette; Barry, Mamadou; Rouzioux, Christine; N’gbeche, Sylvie; Yonaba, Caroline; Timité-Konan, Marguerite; Mea, Véronique; Ouédraogo, Sylvie; Blanche, Stéphane; Meda, Nicolas; Seguin-Devaux, Carole; Leroy, Valériane

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Lopinavir/ritonavir-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) is recommended for all HIV-infected children less than three years. However, little is known about its field implementation and effectiveness in West Africa. We assessed the 12-month response to lopinavir/ritonavir-based antiretroviral therapy in a cohort of West African children treated before the age of two years. Methods: HIV-1-infected, ART-naive except for a prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT), tuberculosis-free, and less than two years of age children with parent’s consent were enrolled in a 12-month prospective therapeutic cohort with lopinavir/ritonavir ART and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis in Ouagadougou and Abidjan. Virological suppression (VS) at 12 months (viral load [VL] <500 copies/mL) and its correlates were assessed. Results: Between May 2011 and January 2013, 156 children initiated ART at a median age of 13.9 months (interquartile range: 7.8–18.4); 63% were from Abidjan; 53% were girls; 37% were not exposed to any PMTCT intervention or maternal ART; mother was the main caregiver in 81%; 61% were classified World Health Organization Stage 3 to 4. After 12 months on ART, 11 children had died (7%), 5 were lost-to-follow-up/withdrew (3%), and VS was achieved in 109: 70% of children enrolled and 78% of those followed-up. When adjusting for country and gender, the access to tap water at home versus none (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 2.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09–6.94), the mother as the main caregiver versus the father (aOR: 2.82, 95% CI: 1.03–7.71), and the increase of CD4 percentage greater than 10% between inclusion and 6 months versus <10% (aOR: 2.55, 95% CI: 1.05–6.18) were significantly associated with a higher rate of VS. At 12 months, 28 out of 29 children with VL ≥1000 copies/mL had a resistance genotype test: 21 (75%) had ≥1 antiretroviral (ARV) resistance (61% to lamivudine, 29% to efavirenz, and 4% to zidovudine and lopinavir

  10. Giardia duodenalis genotypes and Cryptosporidium species in humans and domestic animals in Côte d'Ivoire: occurrence and evidence for environmental contamination.

    PubMed

    Berrilli, Federica; D'Alfonso, Rossella; Giangaspero, Annunziata; Marangi, Marianna; Brandonisio, Olga; Kaboré, Yolande; Glé, Christoph; Cianfanelli, Cristina; Lauro, Renato; Di Cave, David

    2012-03-01

    Giardia duodenalis genotypes and Cryptosporidium species were studied in humans and free-ranging animals living in closed enclaves in Côte d'Ivoire. Three hundred and seven stool samples were tested from humans, and 47 from freely roaming domestic animals (dogs, goats, ducks, chickens). Molecular characterization of the isolates was performed by sequence analysis of a portion of the SSU-rDNA for Giardia and the COWP gene for Cryptosporidium, and a β-giardin SYBR-green real-time PCR was also used to confirm the assignment of Giardia isolates to Assemblages. In humans, genotyping of Giardia assigned many of the sequences (43/56 by the SSU-rDNA gene, and 36/61 by the β-giardin gene) to Assemblage B. The animal species harboured only zoonotic Assemblages A and B, except for dogs, in which host specific Assemblages C and D were also detected. Cryptosporidium meleagridis, C. parvum and C. hominis were detected in humans, while among the animals only chickens were found positive for oocysts, identified as C. meleagridis and C. parvum. The results provide further evidence about the role of free-ranging domestic animals living closely with humans in the environmental dissemination and potential transmission of these anthropozoonotic pathogens to humans.

  11. Bayesian spatial risk prediction of Schistosoma mansoni infection in western Côte d'Ivoire using a remotely-sensed digital elevation model.

    PubMed

    Beck-Wörner, Christian; Raso, Giovanna; Vounatsou, Penelope; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Rigo, Gergely; Parlow, Eberhard; Utzinger, Jürg

    2007-05-01

    An important epidemiologic feature of schistosomiasis is the focal distribution of the disease. Thus, the identification of high-risk communities is an essential first step for targeting interventions in an efficient and cost-effective manner. We used a remotely-sensed digital elevation model (DEM), derived hydrologic features (i.e., stream order, and catchment area), and fitted Bayesian geostatistical models to assess associations between environmental factors and infection with Schistosoma mansoni among more than 4,000 school children from the region of Man in western Côte d'Ivoire. At the unit of the school, we found significant correlations between the infection prevalence of S. mansoni and stream order of the nearest river, water catchment area, and altitude. In conclusion, the use of a freely available 90 m high-resolution DEM, geographic information system applications, and Bayesian spatial modeling facilitates risk prediction for S. mansoni, and is a powerful approach for risk profiling of other neglected tropical diseases that are pervasive in the developing world.

  12. Novel Arenavirus Sequences in Hylomyscus sp. and Mus (Nannomys) setulosus from Côte d'Ivoire: Implications for Evolution of Arenaviruses in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kouassi, Stéphane K.; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Becker-Ziaja, Beate; Rieger, Toni; Ölschläger, Stephan; Dosso, Hernri; Denys, Christiane; ter Meulen, Jan; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Günther, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to identify new arenaviruses and gather insights in the evolution of arenaviruses in Africa. During 2003 through 2005, 1,228 small mammals representing 14 different genera were trapped in 9 villages in south, east, and middle west of Côte d'Ivoire. Specimens were screened by pan-Old World arenavirus RT-PCRs targeting S and L RNA segments as well as immunofluorescence assay. Sequences of two novel tentative species of the family Arenaviridae, Menekre and Gbagroube virus, were detected in Hylomyscus sp. and Mus (Nannomys) setulosus, respectively. Arenavirus infection of Mus (Nannomys) setulosus was also demonstrated by serological testing. Lassa virus was not found, although 60% of the captured animals were Mastomys natalensis. Complete S RNA and partial L RNA sequences of the novel viruses were recovered from the rodent specimens and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. Gbagroube virus is a closely related sister taxon of Lassa virus, while Menekre virus clusters with the Ippy/Mobala/Mopeia virus complex. Reconstruction of possible virus–host co-phylogeny scenarios suggests that, within the African continent, signatures of co-evolution might have been obliterated by multiple host-switching events. PMID:21695269

  13. Ecohealth approach to urban waste management: exposure to environmental pollutants and health risks in Yamoussoukro, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Kouamé, Parfait K; Dongo, Kouassi; Nguyen-Viet, Hung; Zurbrügg, Christian; Lüthi, Christoph; Hattendorf, Jan; Utzinger, Jürg; Biémi, Jean; Bonfoh, Bassirou

    2014-10-02

    Poor waste management is a key driver of ill-health in urban settlements of developing countries. The current study aimed at assessing environmental and human health risks related to urban waste management in Yamoussoukro, the political capital of Côte d'Ivoire. We undertook trans-disciplinary research within an Ecohealth approach, comprised of a participatory workshop with stakeholders and mapping of exposure patterns. A total of 492 randomly selected households participated in a cross-sectional survey. Waste deposit sites were characterised and 108 wastewater samples were subjected to laboratory examinations. The physico-chemical parameters of the surface water (temperature, pH, conductivity, potential oxidise reduction, BOD5, COD, dissolved oxygen, nitrates, ammonia and total Kendal nitrogen) did not comply with World Health Organization standards of surface water quality. Questionnaire results showed that malaria was the most commonly reported disease. Diarrhoea and malaria were associated with poor sanitation. Households having dry latrines had a higher risk of diarrhoea (odds ratio (OR) = 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-2.7) compared to latrines with septic tanks and also a higher risk for malaria (OR = 1.9, 95% (CI) 1.1-3.3). Our research showed that combining health and environmental assessments enables a deeper understanding of environmental threats and disease burdens linked to poor waste management. Further study should investigate the sanitation strategy aspects that could reduce the environmental and health risks in the study area.

  14. A novel Coltivirus-related virus isolated from free-tailed bats from Côte d'Ivoire is able to infect human cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Sabrina; Dabrowski, Piotr Wojtek; Kurth, Andreas; Leendertz, Siv Aina J; Leendertz, Fabian H

    2017-09-18

    Zoonotic transmission events play a major role in the emergence of novel diseases. While such events are virtually impossible to predict, wildlife screening for potential emerging pathogens can be a first step. Driven by recent disease epidemics like severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and Ebola, bats have gained special interest as reservoirs of emerging viruses. As part of a bigger study investigating pathogens in African bats we screened animals for the presence of known and unknown viruses. We isolated and characterised a novel reovirus from blood of free-tailed bats (Chaereophon aloysiisabaudiae) captured in 2006 in Côte d'Ivoire. The virus showed closest relationship with two human pathogenic viruses, Colorado tick fever virus and Eyach virus, and was able to infect various human cell lines in vitro. The study shows the presence of a coltivirus-related virus in bats from Sub-Sahara Africa. Serological studies could help to assess its impact on humans or wildlife health.

  15. Living in the paddies: a social science perspective on how inland valley irrigated rice cultivation affects malaria in Northern Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    De Plaen, Renaud; Geneau, Robert; Teuscher, Thomas; Koutoua, Amalaman; Seka, Marie-Louise

    2003-05-01

    The potential impact of irrigated agriculture on water-related vector-borne diseases has been an increasing source of concern for researchers from the bio-medical sector. While most research on the potential impacts of irrigation on the health of local populations focuses on vector densities, levels of exposures, health services and technologies (prophylaxis, mosquito nets), we argue that it is essential to enlarge the scope of investigation and consider the complex mechanisms by which factors such as agriculture-generated changes in ecosystems, gender repositioning in the family organization as a result of access to new crops, and production activities combine together in increasing disease risks and producing new scenarios in the management of disease. This paper presents the results of an investigation of how transformations induced on the local society by the intensification of inland valley irrigated rice cultivation influence malaria health care systems and modulate risks to the health of local populations, within well-defined geographical boundaries in northern Côte d'Ivoire. Our results indicate that socio-economic transformations and gender repositioning induced, or facilitated, by the intensification of inland valley irrigated rice cultivation lead to a reduction of the capacity of women to manage disease episodes, contributing therefore to increase malaria incidence among farming populations.

  16. Evaluation of Malaria Diagnoses Using a Handheld Light Microscope in a Community-Based Setting in Rural Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Coulibaly, Jean T.; Ouattara, Mamadou; Keiser, Jennifer; Bonfoh, Bassirou; N'Goran, Eliézer K.; Andrews, Jason R.; Bogoch, Isaac I.

    2016-01-01

    Portable microscopy may facilitate quality diagnostic care in resource-constrained settings. We compared a handheld light microscope (Newton Nm1) with a mobile phone attachment to conventional light microscopy for the detection of Plasmodium falciparum in a cross-sectional study in rural Côte d'Ivoire. Single Giemsa-stained thick blood film from 223 individuals were prepared and read by local laboratory technicians on both microscopes under 1,000× magnification with oil. Of the 223 samples, 162 (72.6%) were P. falciparum positive, and the overall mean parasite count was 1,392/μL of blood. Sensitivity and specificity of the handheld microscope was 80.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 73.1–85.9%) and 100.0% (95% CI: 92.6–100.0%), respectively, with a positive and negative predictive value of 100.0% (95% CI: 96.4–100.0%) and 65.6% (95% CI: 54.9–74.9%), respectively. If sensitivity can be improved, handheld light microscopy may become a valuable public health tool for P. falciparum diagnosis. PMID:27527637

  17. Sustaining the Control of Schistosoma mansoni in Western Côte d'Ivoire: Baseline Findings before the Implementation of a Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Assaré, Rufin K.; Hürlimann, Eveline; Ouattara, Mamadou; N'Guessan, Nicaise A.; Tian-Bi, Yves-Nathan T.; Yapi, Ahoua; Yao, Patrick K.; Coulibaly, Jean T.; Knopp, Stefanie; N'Goran, Eliézer K.; Utzinger, Jürg

    2016-01-01

    We report baseline findings before the implementation of a 4-year intervention trial designed to assess the impact of three different school-based treatment schedules with praziquantel to sustain the control of intestinal schistosomiasis. The baseline survey was conducted in 75 schools of western Côte d'Ivoire previously identified with moderate Schistosoma mansoni endemicity (prevalence: 10–24% in children aged 13–14 years). Three stool samples collected over consecutive days were subjected to duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears each. A questionnaire was administered to collect village-specific information that is relevant for schistosomiasis transmission. Overall, 4,953 first graders (aged 5–8 years) and 7,011 school children (aged 9–12 years) had complete parasitologic data. The overall prevalence of S. mansoni was 5.4% among first graders and 22.1% in 9- to 12-year-old children. Open defecation was practiced in all villages. The current baseline findings will be important to better understand the dynamics of S. mansoni prevalence and intensity over the course of this trial that might be governed by village characteristics and specific treatment interventions. PMID:26598571

  18. [Knowledge, and attitudes of Civil Society Organizations in the implementation of the Expanded Program on Immunization in Côte d'Ivoire].

    PubMed

    Yao, Gnissan Henri Auguste; Aka, Lepri Bernadin Nicaise; Manouan, Nogbou Jean Marc; Effi, Odile Angbo; Douba, Alfred; Zengbé-Acray, Pétronille; Traoré, Youssouf; Soumahoro, Sory Ibrahim; Ak, Koko Aude; Dagnan, N'Cho Simplice

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the level of involvement of leaders of Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) in implementation of routine EPI activities. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of the knowledge and attitudes of CSOs concerning implementation of routine EPI activities in the health district of Adiaké (Côte d'Ivoire). This study shows that 77.1% of CSO leaders were literate and 92.9% of them were practicing Catholics or Muslims. They had a good knowledge of the existence of EPI (97.1%) and EPI target diseases, but were ignorant about the immunization schedule (82%). 90% of CSO leaders considered EPI to be an important activity for the prevention of childhood diseases. They considered the reception in immunization units to be satisfactory (60%) and believed that rumours about the sterility of women were the cause of refusal of vaccination by communities. Although 41.4% of leaders had participated in social mobilization activities, none had participated in the mobilization of resources. Vaccination was not rejected by CSO leaders, but their lack of participation in implementation of EPI could induce errors and lead them to believe the rumours and refuse vaccination of their community. The effective integration of the socio-cultural bases of communities in which immunization programmes are conducted will promote the adhesion of the people responsible for these programmes.

  19. Novel arenavirus sequences in Hylomyscus sp. and Mus (Nannomys) setulosus from Côte d'Ivoire: implications for evolution of arenaviruses in Africa.

    PubMed

    Coulibaly-N'Golo, David; Allali, Bernard; Kouassi, Stéphane K; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Becker-Ziaja, Beate; Rieger, Toni; Olschläger, Stephan; Dosso, Hernri; Denys, Christiane; Ter Meulen, Jan; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Günther, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to identify new arenaviruses and gather insights in the evolution of arenaviruses in Africa. During 2003 through 2005, 1,228 small mammals representing 14 different genera were trapped in 9 villages in south, east, and middle west of Côte d'Ivoire. Specimens were screened by pan-Old World arenavirus RT-PCRs targeting S and L RNA segments as well as immunofluorescence assay. Sequences of two novel tentative species of the family Arenaviridae, Menekre and Gbagroube virus, were detected in Hylomyscus sp. and Mus (Nannomys) setulosus, respectively. Arenavirus infection of Mus (Nannomys) setulosus was also demonstrated by serological testing. Lassa virus was not found, although 60% of the captured animals were Mastomys natalensis. Complete S RNA and partial L RNA sequences of the novel viruses were recovered from the rodent specimens and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. Gbagroube virus is a closely related sister taxon of Lassa virus, while Menekre virus clusters with the Ippy/Mobala/Mopeia virus complex. Reconstruction of possible virus-host co-phylogeny scenarios suggests that, within the African continent, signatures of co-evolution might have been obliterated by multiple host-switching events.

  20. The impact of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative on the financing of routine immunization: case studies in Bangladesh, C te d'Ivoire, and Morocco.

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Ann; Ram, Sujata; Kaddar, Miloud

    2002-01-01

    To determine if the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (PEI) affected financing of routine immunization programmes, we compared sources and uses of funds for routine immunization programmes and PEI activities in Bangladesh, C te d'Ivoire, and Morocco for the years 1993-98. We also examined funding trends for these years in these countries and assessed the effect of the initiative on the availability of specific resources in national immunization programmes, such as cold-chain equipment and personnel time spent on activities related to national immunization days and surveillance of poliomyelitis and acute flaccid paralysis. We found that all three governments and the majority of donors and international organizations continued to fund routine immunization programmes at levels similar to those before the PEI. Trend analysis also indicated that financing for routine immunization in each of the countries continued to increase after the PEI was introduced. The results show that the PEI did not reduce funding for routine immunizations in these countries. PMID:12471404

  1. The paddy, the vector and the caregiver: lessons from an ecosystem approach to irrigation and malaria in Northern Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    De Plaen, Renaud; Seka, Marie-Louise; Koutoua, Amalaman

    2004-01-01

    Malaria is one of the most serious public health problems in the world. For the last few decades, numerous studies have focused on the potential links between environmental transformations (such as the expansion of irrigation) and malaria occurrence. Most of these studies have been based on relatively simple models outlining the interactions of the host-vector-parasite triad. In this paper, we investigate the links between the intensification of irrigated rice cultivation and malaria. In an attempt to complement biomedical and entomological approaches we propose a model that recognises the influence of human-vector contacts on transmission processes, but stresses the importance of taking into consideration socio-economic and cultural factors in the management of disease episodes, and how these can be affected by transformations of natural resource management strategies. Using a case study in Northern Côte d'Ivoire, we investigated the complex mechanisms by which agriculture-generated changes in ecosystems and socio-economic organisation influence disease risks and produce new scenarios in the management of disease. Our results show that the socio-economic transformation and gender repositioning induced, or facilitated, by the intensification of lowland irrigated rice cultivation influence the health care system for malaria in the study area. They lead to a reduction of the capacity of women to manage malaria episodes among children and influence their vulnerability to the disease. We argue that these elements contribute to higher malaria prevalence in villages involved in double cropping of rice annually.

  2. Molecular and culture-based diagnosis of Clostridium difficile isolates from Côte d'Ivoire after prolonged storage at disrupted cold chain conditions.

    PubMed

    Becker, Sören L; Chatigre, Justin K; Coulibaly, Jean T; Mertens, Pascal; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Herrmann, Mathias; Kuijper, Ed J; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Utzinger, Jürg; von Müller, Lutz

    2015-10-01

    Although Clostridium difficile is a major cause of diarrhoea, its epidemiology in tropical settings is poorly understood. Strain characterisation requires work-up in specialised laboratories, often after prolonged storage without properly maintained cold chain. We screened 298 human faecal samples from Côte d'Ivoire using a rapid test for C. difficile glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH). GDH-positive samples were aerobically stored at disrupted cold chain conditions (mean duration: 11 days) before transfer to a reference laboratory for anaerobic culture, susceptibility testing, PCR assays and ribotyping. Sixteen samples (5.4%) had a positive GDH screening test. C. difficile infection was confirmed in six specimens by culture and PCR, while no nucleic acids of C. difficile were detected in the culture-negative samples. Further analysis of stool samples harbouring toxigenic C. difficile strains confirmed that both GDH and toxins remained detectable for at least 28 days, regardless of storage conditions (aerobic storage at 4°C or 20°C). Storage conditions only minimally affect recovery of C. difficile and its toxins in stool culture. A rapid GDH screening test and subsequent transfer of GDH-positive stool samples to reference laboratories for in-depth characterisation may improve our understanding of the epidemiology of C. difficile in the tropics. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Poor Validity of Noninvasive Hemoglobin Measurements by Pulse Oximetry Compared with Conventional Absorptiometry in Children in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Bogoch, Isaac I; Coulibaly, Jean T; Rajchgot, Jason; Andrews, Jason R; Kovac, Jana; Utzinger, Jürg; Panic, Gordana; Keiser, Jennifer

    2017-01-11

    Anemia remains a major public health issue in many African communities. We compared a novel, commercially available noninvasive hemoglobin (Hb)-measuring device to direct Hb measurements by finger-prick samples in a pediatric cohort in rural Côte d'Ivoire. Noninvasive Hb measurements were attempted in 191 children 2-15 years of age and obtained in 102 (53.5%) children. The median Hb for the 102 children was 12.0 g/dL (interquartile range [IQR] = 11.3-12.7 g/dL) for conventional absorptiometry and 13.3 g/dL (IQR = 12.1-14.2 g/dL) for noninvasive measurements. A Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated a median bias of +1.1 g/dL (IQR = 0.4-2.0 g/dL), with greater overestimation of Hb by noninvasive testing occurring at low Hb values. This overestimation of the noninvasive Hb-measuring device to direct Hb measurements persisted across preschool- and school-aged children, and both sexes. The Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.50 for children 4-9 years of age, and 0.33 for children 10-15 years of age. Further study and development of noninvasive Hb devices is necessary prior to implementation in African pediatric populations. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  4. Molecular Characterization of Mycolactone Producing Mycobacteria from Aquatic Environments in Buruli Ulcer Non-Endemic Areas in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Tano, Marcellin B; Dassi, Christelle; Mosi, Lydia; Koussémon, Marina; Bonfoh, Bassirou

    2017-02-11

    Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), particularly mycolactone producing mycobacteria (MPM), are bacteria found in aquatic environments causing skin diseases in humans like Buruli ulcer (BU). Although the causative agent for BU, Mycobacterium ulcerans has been identified and associated with slow-moving water bodies, the real transmission route is still unknown. This study aimed to characterize MPMs from environmental aquatic samples collected in a BU non-endemic community, Adiopodoumé, in Côte d'Ivoire. Sixty samples were collected in four types of matrices (plant biofilms, water filtrate residues, plant detritus and soils) from three water bodies frequently used by the population. Using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), MPMs were screened for the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) mycobacterial gene, the IS2404 insertion sequence, and MPM enoyl reductase (ER) gene. Variable Number Tandem Repeat (VNTR) typing with loci 6, 19, mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit 1 (MIRU1) and sequence type 1(ST1) was performed to discriminate between different MPMs. Our findings showed 66.7%, 57.5% and 43.5% of positivity respectively for 16S rRNA, IS2404 and ER. MPM discrimination using VNTR typing did not show any positivity and therefore did not allow precise MPM distinction. Nevertheless, the observed contamination of some water bodies in a BU non-endemic community by MPMs suggests the possibility of pathogen dissemination and transmission to humans. These aquatic environments could also serve as reservoirs that should be considered during control and prevention strategies.

  5. Sustaining the Control of Schistosoma mansoni in Western Côte d'Ivoire: Baseline Findings Before the Implementation of a Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Assaré, Rufin K; Hürlimann, Eveline; Ouattara, Mamadou; N'Guessan, Nicaise A; Tian-Bi, Yves-Nathan T; Yapi, Ahoua; Yao, Patrick K; Coulibaly, Jean T; Knopp, Stefanie; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Utzinger, Jürg

    2016-02-01

    We report baseline findings before the implementation of a 4-year intervention trial designed to assess the impact of three different school-based treatment schedules with praziquantel to sustain the control of intestinal schistosomiasis. The baseline survey was conducted in 75 schools of western Côte d'Ivoire previously identified with moderate Schistosoma mansoni endemicity (prevalence: 10-24% in children aged 13-14 years). Three stool samples collected over consecutive days were subjected to duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears each. A questionnaire was administered to collect village-specific information that is relevant for schistosomiasis transmission. Overall, 4,953 first graders (aged 5-8 years) and 7,011 school children (aged 9-12 years) had complete parasitologic data. The overall prevalence of S. mansoni was 5.4% among first graders and 22.1% in 9- to 12-year-old children. Open defecation was practiced in all villages. The current baseline findings will be important to better understand the dynamics of S. mansoni prevalence and intensity over the course of this trial that might be governed by village characteristics and specific treatment interventions.

  6. Changes in human schistosomiasis levels after the construction of two large hydroelectric dams in central Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed Central

    N'Goran, E. K.; Diabate, S.; Utzinger, J.; Sellin, B.

    1997-01-01

    The construction of large dams has been shown to increase the prevalence and intensity of human schistosomiasis. However, until now no study had been carried out to assess the impact of such a project in Côte d'Ivoire. For Kossou and Taabo, two large dams which became operational in the 1970s, baseline data are available on schistosomiasis prevalence in the surrounding area before dam construction, so that the changes in schistosomiasis levels can be assessed. We re-evaluated the prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni in November 1992, by analysing 548 urine and 255 stool samples, respectively, from schoolchildren from five villages around each lake. A marked increase in the overall prevalence of S. haematobium was observed, from 14% to 53% around Lake Kossou and from 0 to 73% around Lake Taabo. Baseline data for S. mansoni are only available for Lake Taabo, where a prevalence of 3% was found in 1979 and where the prevalence in 1992 was still low at 2%. The construction of these two large dams therefore led to little change in S. mansoni prevalence but to a significant increase in that of S. haematobium. PMID:9509626

  7. Risk factors and spatial patterns of hookworm infection among schoolchildren in a rural area of western Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Raso, Giovanna; Vounatsou, Penelope; Gosoniu, Laura; Tanner, Marcel; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Utzinger, Jürg

    2006-02-01

    This study is aimed at investigating the risk factors for hookworm infection among schoolchildren in a rural area of western Côte d'Ivoire and predicting and mapping the spatial distribution of infection. We used demographic and socio-economic data from a cross-sectional survey of 6-16-year-old schoolchildren from 56 schools. Infection with hookworm was determined by microscopic examination of stool samples employing the Kato-Katz technique and an ether-concentration method. Environmental data were derived from satellite images and digitised maps. Bayesian variogram models were applied to investigate the variation of hookworm infection in relation to demographic, socio-economic and environmental factors. The overall hookworm infection prevalence, based on the pooled microscopic diagnoses, was 43.3% and ranged from 5.4 to 79.1% in the schools surveyed. Bivariate analyses showed that sex, age, socio-economic status, elevation, rainfall and land cover were significantly associated with the spatial distribution of hookworm infection. The final multivariate spatial model consisted of the covariates age, sex, socio-economic status, elevation and land cover. When assuming non-stationary underlying spatial dependency, the results of the model suggested that spatial correlation depended on the location only marginally. We conclude that, at the current resolution, it seems more reasonable to target interventions based on well-established epidemiologic risk factors, rather than on spatial factors.

  8. Effect of agricultural activities on prevalence rates, and clinical and presumptive malaria episodes in central Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Koudou, Benjamin G; Tano, Yao; Keiser, Jennifer; Vounatsou, Penelope; Girardin, Olivier; Klero, Kouassi; Koné, Mamadou; N'goran, Eliézer K; Cissé, Guéladio; Tanner, Marcel; Utzinger, Jürg

    2009-09-01

    Agricultural activities, among other factors, can influence the transmission of malaria. In two villages of central Côte d'Ivoire (Tiémélékro and Zatta) with distinctively different agro-ecological characteristics, we assessed Plasmodium prevalence rates, fever and clinically confirmed malaria episodes among children aged 15 years and below by means of repeated cross-sectional surveys. Additionally, presumptive malaria cases were monitored in dispensaries for a 4-year period. In Tiémélékro, we observed a decrease in malaria prevalence rates from 2002 to 2005, which might be partially explained by changes in agricultural activities from subsistence farming to cash crop production. In Zatta, where an irrigated rice perimeter is located in close proximity to human habitations, malaria prevalence rates in 2003 were significantly lower than in 2002 and 2005, which coincided with the interruption of irrigated rice farming in 2003/2004. Although malaria transmission differed by an order of magnitude in the two villages in 2003, there was no statistically significant difference between the proportions of severe malaria episodes (i.e. axillary temperature>37.5 degrees C plus parasitaemia>5000 parasites/microl blood). Our study underscores the complex relationship between malaria transmission, prevalence rate and the dynamics of malaria episodes. A better understanding of local contextual determinants, including the effect of agricultural activities, will help to improve the local epidemiology and control of malaria.

  9. Exposure to the 'SIDA dans la Cité' AIDS prevention television series in Côte' d'Ivoire, sexual risk behaviour and condom use.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, D; Meekers, D; Tambashe, B

    2003-06-01

    This study assesses factors associated with viewing of 'SIDA dans la Cite', a weekly television soap opera on AIDS in Côte d'Ivoire, and the relationship between 'SIDA dans la Cite' viewing, sexual risk behaviour and condom use. The study uses across-sectional survey of 2150 respondents aged 15-49 in three regions. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the effect of'SIDA dans la Cite' exposure on condom use. The results show that 65% of the sample had seen at least one 'SIDA dans la Cite' episode. Among viewers, 27% of males and 41% of females had seen ten or more episodes. Persons who had risky sexual partners were particularly likely to watch the programme. Women who had seen ten or more episodes were 1.4 times more likely than non-viewers to have used a condom in last sex. Men who had seen ten or more episodes were 2. 7 times more likely to have used a condom. We conclude that television soap operas on AIDS, such as 'SIDA dans la Cite',can be an important tool for promoting condom use. The programme was most appealing to viewers who engaged in risky behaviour, who are the core transmitters of the virus. HIV prevention programmes that provide continuous information, through multiple media channels or through series of broadcasts, are likely to have the greatest impact on condom use.

  10. Evaluation of Malaria Diagnoses Using a Handheld Light Microscope in a Community-Based Setting in Rural Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Coulibaly, Jean T; Ouattara, Mamadou; Keiser, Jennifer; Bonfoh, Bassirou; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Andrews, Jason R; Bogoch, Isaac I

    2016-10-05

    Portable microscopy may facilitate quality diagnostic care in resource-constrained settings. We compared a handheld light microscope (Newton Nm1) with a mobile phone attachment to conventional light microscopy for the detection of Plasmodium falciparum in a cross-sectional study in rural Côte d'Ivoire. Single Giemsa-stained thick blood film from 223 individuals were prepared and read by local laboratory technicians on both microscopes under 1,000× magnification with oil. Of the 223 samples, 162 (72.6%) were P. falciparum positive, and the overall mean parasite count was 1,392/μL of blood. Sensitivity and specificity of the handheld microscope was 80.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 73.1-85.9%) and 100.0% (95% CI: 92.6-100.0%), respectively, with a positive and negative predictive value of 100.0% (95% CI: 96.4-100.0%) and 65.6% (95% CI: 54.9-74.9%), respectively. If sensitivity can be improved, handheld light microscopy may become a valuable public health tool for P. falciparum diagnosis. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  11. Safety and acceptability of vaginal disinfection with benzalkonium chloride in HIV infected pregnant women in west Africa: ANRS 049b phase II randomized, double blinded placebo controlled trial. DITRAME Study Group

    PubMed Central

    Msellati, P.; Meda, N.; Leroy, V.; Likikouet, R.; Van de Perre, P.; Cartoux, M.; Bonard, D.; Ouangre, A.; Combe, P.; Gautier-Charpenti..., L.; Sylla-Koko, F.; Lassalle, R.; Dosso, M.; Welffens-Ekra, C.; Dabis, F.; Mandelbrot, L.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the tolerance and acceptability in Africa of a perinatal intervention to prevent vertical HIV transmission using benzalkonium chloride disinfection. DESIGN: A randomized, double blinded phase II trial. SETTING: Prenatal care units in Abidjan (Cote d'Ivoire) and Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso). PATIENTS: Women accepting testing and counselling who were seropositive for HIV-1 and under 37 weeks of pregnancy were eligible. A total of 108 women (54 in each group) enrolled from November 1996 to April 1997, with their informed consent. INTERVENTION: Women self administered daily a vaginal suppository of 1% benzalkonium chloride or matched placebo from 36 weeks of pregnancy, and a single intrapartum dose. The neonate was bathed with 1% benzalkonium chloride solution or placebo within 30 minutes after birth. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Adverse events were recorded weekly, with a questionnaire and speculum examination in women through delivery, and examination of the neonate through day 30. The incidence of genital signs and symptoms in the women and cutaneous or ophthalmological events in newborns were compared between groups on an intent to treat basis. RESULTS: The median duration of prepartum treatment was 21 days (range 0-87 days). Compliance was 87% for prepartum and 69% for intrapartum treatment, and 88% for the neonatal bath, without differences between the two groups. In women, the most frequent event was leucorrhoea; the incidence of adverse events did not differ between treatment groups. In children, the incidence of dermatitis and conjunctivitis did not differ between the benzalkonium chloride and placebo groups (p = 0.16 and p = 0.29, respectively). CONCLUSION: Vaginal disinfection with benzalkonium chloride is a feasible and well tolerated intervention in west Africa. Its efficacy in preventing vertical HIV transmission remains to be demonstrated. 


 PMID:10754950

  12. Rapid and simple screening and supplemental testing for HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections in west Africa.

    PubMed

    Brattegaard, K; Kouadio, J; Adom, M L; Doorly, R; George, J R; De Cock, K M

    1993-06-01

    Researchers from an AIDS research project took blood samples from 1000 consecutive women during childbirth at a maternal and child health center in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire, and from 185 hospitalized patients to compare the results of a combination of synthetic peptide-based rapid tests (product names, Testpack and Genie), which check for HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies, with those of the Western Blot-based test. They also wanted to see whether the rapid test-based strategy could replace the Western Blot-based test as a supplemental test. The Western Blot indicated the HIV-1 and/or HIV-2 prevalence to be 13% among the new mothers and 78% among the hospitalized patients for an overall prevalence of 23%. 3.3% of all people were positive for both HIV-1 and HIV-2. 17.4% tested positive for just HIV-1. 2.1% were positive for HIV-2. The rapid tests had a sensitivity of 99.6% and a specificity of 99.9%. The positive predictive value was 99.6% and the negative predictive value was 99.9%. The rapid tests identified 4% of the HIV-2 positive samples and 1% of the HIV-1 samples to be dually reactive. These findings demonstrated that rapid synthetic peptide-based assays reliably detect HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies and can be supplemental tests. High quality HIV serology can be performed in a setting without running water and electricity which was the case in this study. A further advantage of this strategy is that each test takes only 10 minutes. These tests would have significant effects on HIV testing and counseling, diagnosis, and screening of blood for transfusion in rural areas of developing countries.

  13. Access to, and use of, water by populations living in a schistosomiasis and fascioliasis co-endemic area of northern Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Krauth, Stefanie J; Musard, Capucine; Traoré, Seïdinan I; Zinsstag, Jakob; Achi, Louise Y; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Utzinger, Jürg

    2015-09-01

    Water is an essential element of life, but it can also be a source of disease. Apart from direct consumption of unsafe water, direct contact and indirect consumption puts people at risk of many different types of pathogens. Employing a mixed methods approach, consisting of questionnaires and direct observations, we assessed access to, and use of, different water sources by the participants of the district des Savanes in northern Côte d'Ivoire. The use of water sources was put in relation to the potential risk of acquiring schistosomiasis and fascioliasis. Overall, 489 people aged 8 to 82 years participated. While all participants had access to safe water, 63% were in direct contact with unimproved water and 31% directly consumed unsafe water. More than a third of the people who otherwise reported using only improved water for all activities came in contact with unimproved water through crossing open water when going to their workplace, school or other destinations. Self-reported blood in urine - a marker for Schistosoma haematobium with reasonable sensitivity and specificity - was reported by 6% (n=30), self-reported blood in stool - an unspecific marker for Schistosoma mansoni - was reported by 7% (n=35), while blood co-occurring in both urine and stool was reported by another 10% (n=48) of participants. Accessing unimproved water for any activity (including crossing) was associated with higher odds of reporting blood in urine and/or blood in stool (odds ratio: 1.90; 95% confidence interval: 1.07-3.36). Our results have important rami-fications for intervention programmes targeting neglected tropical diseases, and emphasize the need for a wider supply of safe water to rural populations, since the water supply at the workplace needs to be considered as well next to the water supply at home. Crossing of open water sources is an important risk factor for sustained transmission of schistosomiasis.

  14. Schistosomiasis, Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis, and Sociodemographic Factors Influence Quality of Life of Adults in Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Fürst, Thomas; Silué, Kigbafori D.; Ouattara, Mamadou; N'Goran, Dje N.; Adiossan, Lukas G.; N'Guessan, Yao; Zouzou, Fabian; Koné, Siaka; N'Goran, Eliézer K.; Utzinger, Jürg

    2012-01-01

    Background Burden of disease estimates are widely used for priority setting in public health and disability-adjusted life years are a powerful “currency” nowadays. However, disability weights, which capture the disability incurred by a typical patient of a certain condition, are fundamental to such burden calculation and their determination remains a widely debated issue. Methodology A cross-sectional epidemiological survey was conducted in the recently established Taabo health demographic surveillance system (HDSS) in south-central Côte d'Ivoire, to provide new, population-based evidence on the disability caused by schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis. Parasitological results from stool, urine, and blood examinations were juxtaposed to quality of life (QoL) questionnaire results from 187 adults. A multivariable linear regression model with stepwise backward elimination was used to identify significant associations, considering also sociodemographic characteristics obtained from the Taabo HDSS database. Principal Findings Prevalences for hookworm, Plasmodium spp., Trichuris trichiura, Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni were 39.0%, 18.2%, 2.7%, 2.1% and 2.1%, respectively. S. mansoni and T. trichiura infections of any intensity reduced the participants' self-rated QoL by 16 points (95% confidence interval (CI): 4–29 points) and 13 points (95% CI: 1–24 points), respectively, on a scale from 0 (worst QoL) to 100 points (best QoL). The only other statistically significant effect was a 1-point (95% CI: 0.1–2 points) increase on the QoL scale per one unit increase in a calculated wealth index. Conclusions/Significance We found consistent and significant results on the negative effects of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis on adults' self-rated QoL, also when taking sociodemographic characteristics into account. Our results warrant further investigation on the disability incurred by helmintic infections and the

  15. Differential Impacts of an Intimate Partner Violence Prevention Program Based on Child Marriage Status in Rural Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Falb, Kathryn L; Annan, Jeannie; Kpebo, Denise; Cole, Heather; Willie, Tiara; Xuan, Ziming; Raj, Anita; Gupta, Jhumka

    2015-11-01

    Little is known about whether effectiveness of intimate partner violence prevention programming varies for women who were married as child brides, given their additional social vulnerabilities. This subanalysis sought to assess treatment heterogeneity based on child marriage status for an intervention seeking to reduce intimate partner violence. A randomized controlled trial assessing the incremental effectiveness of gender dialogue groups in addition to group savings on changing past-year intimate partner violence was conducted in Côte d'Ivoire (2010-2012). Stratified models were constructed based on child marriage status to assess for effect modification. Analysis was restricted to married women with data on age at marriage (n = 682). For child brides (N = 202), there were no statistically or marginally significant decreases in physical and/or sexual violence, physical violence, or sexual violence. The odds of reporting economic abuse in the past year were lower in the intervention arm for child brides relative to control group child brides (odds ratio [OR] = .33; 95% confidence interval [CI] = .13-.85; p = .02). For nonchild brides (N = 480), women were less likely to report physical and/or sexual violence (OR = .54; 95% CI = .28-1.04; p = .06), emotional violence (OR = .44; 95% CI = .25-.77; p = .004), and economic abuse (OR = .36; 95% CI = .20-.66; p = .001) in the combined intervention arm than their group savings-only counterparts. Findings suggest that intervention participants with a history of child marriage may have greater difficulty benefiting from interventions that seek to reduce intimate partner violence. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis, and sociodemographic factors influence quality of life of adults in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Fürst, Thomas; Silué, Kigbafori D; Ouattara, Mamadou; N'Goran, Dje N; Adiossan, Lukas G; N'Guessan, Yao; Zouzou, Fabian; Koné, Siaka; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Utzinger, Jürg

    2012-01-01

    Burden of disease estimates are widely used for priority setting in public health and disability-adjusted life years are a powerful "currency" nowadays. However, disability weights, which capture the disability incurred by a typical patient of a certain condition, are fundamental to such burden calculation and their determination remains a widely debated issue. A cross-sectional epidemiological survey was conducted in the recently established Taabo health demographic surveillance system (HDSS) in south-central Côte d'Ivoire, to provide new, population-based evidence on the disability caused by schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis. Parasitological results from stool, urine, and blood examinations were juxtaposed to quality of life (QoL) questionnaire results from 187 adults. A multivariable linear regression model with stepwise backward elimination was used to identify significant associations, considering also sociodemographic characteristics obtained from the Taabo HDSS database. Prevalences for hookworm, Plasmodium spp., Trichuris trichiura, Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni were 39.0%, 18.2%, 2.7%, 2.1% and 2.1%, respectively. S. mansoni and T. trichiura infections of any intensity reduced the participants' self-rated QoL by 16 points (95% confidence interval (CI): 4-29 points) and 13 points (95% CI: 1-24 points), respectively, on a scale from 0 (worst QoL) to 100 points (best QoL). The only other statistically significant effect was a 1-point (95% CI: 0.1-2 points) increase on the QoL scale per one unit increase in a calculated wealth index. We found consistent and significant results on the negative effects of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis on adults' self-rated QoL, also when taking sociodemographic characteristics into account. Our results warrant further investigation on the disability incurred by helmintic infections and the usefulness of generic QoL questionnaires in this endeavor.

  17. Longitudinal course of ante- and postpartum generalized anxiety symptoms and associated factors in West-African women from Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Barthel, Dana; Kriston, Levente; Barkmann, Claus; Appiah-Poku, John; Te Bonle, Marguerite; Esther Doris, Kra Yao; Carine Esther, Bony Kotchi; Jean Armel, Koffi Ekissi; Mohammed, Yasmin; Osei, Yaw; Fordjour, Daniel; Owusu, Dorcas; Eberhardt, Kirsten A; Hinz, Rebecca; Koffi, Mathurin; N'Goran, Eliezer; Nguah, Samuel Blay; Tagbor, Harry; Schoppen, Stefanie; Ehrhardt, Stephan; Bindt, Carola

    2016-06-01

    Little is known about the course of perinatal anxiety, particularly in low and middle income countries. This study aimed at examining trajectories of ante- and postpartum generalized anxiety symptoms in West-African women and their associations with mother and child characteristics. 778 women from Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana were investigated between 04/2010 and 03/2014. Anxiety symptoms were measured using the seven-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7) at three months antepartum and three, 12 and 24 months postpartum. Growth mixture modeling was applied to identify latent trajectory classes of anxiety. Multinomial logistic regression was used to investigate the associations of psychosocial, sociodemographic, obstetric and clinical characteristics with different trajectories. Four distinct trajectories of anxiety were identified. The majority of women (79.8%) had consistent low anxiety symptoms, while 11.4% had elevated anxiety scores before and around childbirth that decreased gradually. 5.4% of women showed increasing anxiety symptoms over time. Few women (3.3%) had transient anxiety with elevated scores at three and 12 months postpartum. Risk factors for elevated anxiety levels around childbirth were antepartum depressive symptoms, higher levels of stress (economic, marital and social stress), lower child birth weight, and multiparity. Partner support was found to be protective. Anxiety symptoms were assessed using a screening instrument and not through a formal diagnostic classification system. Some putative risk factors were not investigated, and some psychosocial factors were assessed retrospectively. The presence of different trajectories underline the importance of monitoring anxiety symptoms in pregnant women and in mothers with infants/toddlers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Psychometric properties of the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale in antepartum women from Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Barthel, Dana; Barkmann, Claus; Ehrhardt, Stephan; Bindt, Carola

    2014-12-01

    To explore the psychometric properties of the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7) in West African pregnant women. In a cross-sectional study, the GAD-7, the PHQ-9 (depression module of the Patient Health Questionnaire) and the WHO-DAS II (12-item World Health Organization Disability Scale) were administered to n=647 Ivorian and n=395 Ghanaian antepartum women with low-risk pregnancies (third trimester; gestational age range: 28-40 weeks) in 2010-2011. Statistical analyses combined classical test theory (CTT) and item response theory (IRT). Cronbach׳s α was close to acceptable (α=.69 in Côte d'Ivoire; α=.67 in Ghana). Construct validity was demonstrated by correlations between the GAD-7 and both the PHQ-9 and the WHO-DAS II. Results regarding factorial validity were ambiguous: confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses indicated that the data fit the unidimensionality assumption; however, the explained variance was low. IRT methods suggested excellent item infit and outfit measures. Yet, residual principal component analyses showed a lack of unidimensionality. Rasch analyses revealed that the response options were not used as intended. Item-person-fit was not optimal since the items did not discriminate well on the range of the latent construct where most of the women drawn from the general population were located. Both samples were somewhat homogenous regarding gestational age and urban residence; test-retest reliability was not investigated. The GAD-7 met the requirements of CTT. However, applying the stricter criteria of IRT suggested areas for potential improvements. Cross-cultural adaption and a dichotomized response format might ameliorate the GAD-7 for the use in sub-Saharan countries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Screening for depression in pregnant women from Côte d׳Ivoire and Ghana: Psychometric properties of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9.

    PubMed

    Barthel, Dana; Barkmann, Claus; Ehrhardt, Stephan; Schoppen, Stefanie; Bindt, Carola

    2015-11-15

    Major depression in antepartum women is a considerable health problem. This article aims at exploring the psychometric properties of the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) in West African pregnant women. In a cross-sectional survey, the PHQ-9 was administered to n=639 Ivorian and n=389 Ghanaian women in their last trimester of pregnancy (gestational age range: 28-40 weeks) in 2010-11. Statistical analysis applied methods from both classical test theory (CTT) and item response theory (IRT). Internal consistency was Cronbach׳s α=.65 in Côte d׳Ivoire and α=.68 in Ghana. Investigation of factorial validity by confirmatory factor analyses showed that unidimensionality of the PHQ-9 was sufficient. Rasch analyses resulted in excellent item infit and outfit measures. Yet, unidimensionality was questionable in residual principal component analyses. IRT analyses suggested that the response categories were not utilized as intended. Analysis of differential item functioning revealed interviewer-related item bias for several items in both samples. Item-person-fit was not ideal because the PHQ-9 items showed a low discriminability in the region of the latent trait where the majority of the women from the general population were located. Convergent validity was demonstrated by correlations between the PHQ-9 and two measures assessing anxiety and perceived disability. Both samples were quite homogenous regarding residence in urban areas and gestational age. In our samples of African pregnant women, depression measured with the PHQ-9 does not appear as an entirely homogenous construct. However, the use of the sum score of the PHQ-9 is appropriate for depression screening purposes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Feeding of Acartia clausi and Pseudodiaptomus hessei (Copepoda: Calanoida) on natural particles in a tropical lagoon (Ebrié, Côte d'Ivoire)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagano, M.; Kouassi, E.; Saint-Jean, L.; Arfi, R.; Bouvy, M.

    2003-03-01

    Grazing of the copepods Acartia clausi and Pseudodiaptomus hessei on natural particles was studied from on board experiments during several 24 h time series performed between 1993 and 1997 in four sites of the Ebrié Lagoon (Côte d'Ivoire). Ingestion rates of both species increased linearly with food concentration until a concentration threshold (5.5×10 9 μm 3 l -1 for A. clausi and 5.2×10 9 mm 3 l -1 for P. hessei) beyond which the relation presented a plateau. Both species poorly selected the peak of available particles (range 3-6 mm equivalent spherical diameter, ESD) but A. clausi seek preferentially smaller particles (6-21 μm ESD) than P. hessei (9-33 μm ESD). When the proportion of the preferred particles in the food offered decreased, A. clausi extended its selectivity towards both smaller and larger particles whereas P. hessei extended its selectivity towards larger particles only. As a consequence of these patterns, the useful particle concentration (UPC) was higher for A. clausi than for P. hessei. In addition, the ratio of the UPC for the two species showed a positive relationship with the ratio of their respective biomass. The significance of these results for the adaptation capacities of the two species and for the ecosystem functioning are discussed. A. clausi which is more suited than P. hessei to exploit smaller particles (3-6 μm) which dominate the seston, has a food competitive advantage. The inadequacy between the seston food-size composition and the selective patterns of the two main zooplankton species of the Ebrié Lagoon explains that they could be food limited despite the high trophic level of the lagoon. It could also partly explain the low transfer efficiency between phytoplankton and zooplankton in this ecosystem.

  1. Human quarantine: Toward reducing infectious pressure on chimpanzees at the Taï Chimpanzee Project, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Grützmacher, Kim; Keil, Verena; Leinert, Vera; Leguillon, Floraine; Henlin, Arthur; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Köndgen, Sophie; Lang, Alexander; Deschner, Tobias; Wittig, Roman M; Leendertz, Fabian H

    2017-01-17

    Due to their genetic relatedness, great apes are highly susceptible to common human respiratory pathogens. Although most respiratory pathogens, such as human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) and human metapneumovirus (HMPV), rarely cause severe disease in healthy human adults, they are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality in wild great apes habituated to humans for research or tourism. To prevent pathogen transmission, most great ape projects have established a set of hygiene measures ranging from keeping a specific distance, to the use of surgical masks and establishment of quarantines. This study investigates the incidence of respiratory symptoms and human respiratory viruses in humans at a human-great ape interface, the Taï Chimpanzee Project (TCP) in Côte d'Ivoire, and consequently, the effectiveness of a 5-day quarantine designed to reduce the risk of potential exposure to human respiratory pathogens. To assess the impact of quarantine as a preventative measure, we monitored the quarantine process and tested 262 throat swabs for respiratory viruses, collected during quarantine over a period of 1 year. Although only 1 subject tested positive for a respiratory virus (HRSV), 17 subjects developed symptoms of infection while in quarantine and were subsequently kept from approaching the chimpanzees, preventing potential exposure in 18 cases. Our results suggest that quarantine-in combination with monitoring for symptoms-is effective in reducing the risk of potential pathogen exposure. This research contributes to our understanding of how endangered great apes can be protected from human-borne infectious disease. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Associations between exposure to intimate partner violence, armed conflict, and probable PTSD among women in rural Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Jhumka; Falb, Kathryn L; Carliner, Hannah; Hossain, Mazeda; Kpebo, Denise; Annan, Jeannie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives were to assess associations between intimate partner violence (IPV), violence during armed conflict (i.e. crisis violence), and probable post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Using a sample of 950 women in rural Côte d'Ivoire, logistic generalized estimating equations assessed associations between IPV and crisis violence exposures with past-week probable PTSD. Over one in 5 (23.4%) women reported past-year IPV, and over one in 4 women (26.5%) reported experiencing IPV prior to the past year (i.e. remote IPV). Crisis violence was experienced by 72.6% of women. In adjusted models including demographics, crisis violence (overall and specific forms), and IPV (remote and past-year), women who reported past-year IPV had 3.1 times the odds of reporting probable past-week PTSD (95%CI: 1.8-5.3) and those who reported remote IPV had 1.6 times the odds (95%CI: 0.9-2.7). Violent exposures during the crisis were not significantly associated with probable PTSD (any crisis violence: aOR: 1.04 (0.7-1.5); displacement: aOR: 0.9 (95%CI: 0.5-1.7); family victimization during crisis: aOR: 1.1 (95%CI: 0.8-1.7); personal victimization during crisis: aOR: 1.7 (95%CI: 0.7-3.7)). Past-year IPV was more strongly associated with past-week probable PTSD than remote IPV and violence directly related to the crisis. IPV must be considered within humanitarian mental health and psychosocial programming.

  3. Spatial cohesion of adult male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Eckhardt, Nadin; Polansky, Leo; Boesch, Christophe

    2015-02-01

    Group living animals can exhibit fission-fusion behavior whereby individuals temporarily separate to reduce the costs of living in large groups. Primates living in groups with fission-fusion dynamics face numerous challenges in maintaining spatial cohesion, especially in environments with limited visibility. Here we investigated the spatial cohesion of adult male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) living in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, to better understand the mechanisms by which individuals maintain group cohesion during fission-fusion events. Over a 3-year period, we simultaneously tracked the movements of 2-4 males for 4-12 hr on up to 12 consecutive days using handheld GPS devices that recorded locations at one-minute intervals. Analyses of the male's inter-individual distance (IID) showed that the maximum, median, and mean IID values across all observations were 7.2 km, 73 m, and 483 m, respectively. These males (a) had maximum daily IID values below the limits of auditory communication (<1 km) for 63% of the observation time, (b) remained out of visual range (≥100 m) for 46% of observation time, and (c) remained within auditory range for 70% of the time when they were in different parties. We compared the observed distribution of IIDs with a random distribution obtained from permutations of the individuals' travel paths using Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests. Observation IID values were significantly smaller than those generated by the permutation procedure. We conclude that these male chimpanzees actively maintain cohesion when out of sight, and that auditory communication is one likely mechanism by which they do so. We discuss mechanisms by which chimpanzees may maintain the level of cohesion observed. This study provides a first analysis of spatial group cohesion over large distances in forest chimpanzees using high-resolution tracking, and illustrates the utility of such data for quantifying socio-ecological processes in primate ecology.

  4. Vertical Migrations and Feeding Rhythms of Acartia clausi and Pseudodiaptomus hessei (Copepoda: Calanoida) in a Tropical Lagoon (Ebrié, Côte d'Ivoire)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouassi, E.; Pagano, M.; Saint-Jean, L.; Arfi, R.; Bouvy, M.

    2001-06-01

    Diel changes in vertical distribution and gut pigment contents of Acartia clausi and Pseudodiaptomus hessei were studied during several 24-h time series performed between 1993 and 1997 in four sites of the Ebrié Lagoon (Côte d'Ivoire). The sites differed by their morphology and their hydrological structure and by the vertical distribution of chlorophyll biomass. Both species showed classical diel vertical migrations (DVM). Copepodites and adult stages of P. hessei were almost benthic during the day and evenly distributed through the water column at night. The amplitude of DVM of A. clausi increased from copepodites I-III to adults. Copepodites and adults of A. clausi increased significantly their gut fluorescence at night, whereas those of P. hessei showed no clear diel feeding rhythm (DFR). These results suggest that A. clausi feed mostly at night on phytoplanktonic particles and P. hessei feed mostly on benthic algal particles during the day and on sestonic particles at night. No relationship was observed between DFR and DVM because both patterns occurred when food was either vertically homogeneous or vertically stratified. The daily average gut fluorescence of A. clausi increased with ambient chlorophyll concentration until around 12-15 μg l -1, whereas no relationship was found for P. hessei. The implication of these patterns on the adaptation capacities and the behaviour of the two species are discussed. The DVM of P. hessei should explain its rarity in the estuarine area. The comparison of our results with previous ones suggests an evolution of A. clausi DFR between 1981-1982 and 1996-1997, in relation to an intensification of eutrophication.

  5. Molecular evolution of Azagny virus, a newfound hantavirus harbored by the West African pygmy shrew (Crocidura obscurior) in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hae Ji; Kadjo, Blaise; Dubey, Sylvain; Jacquet, François; Yanagihara, Richard

    2011-07-28

    Tanganya virus (TGNV), the only shrew-associated hantavirus reported to date from sub-Saharan Africa, is harbored by the Therese's shrew (Crocidura theresae), and is phylogenetically distinct from Thottapalayam virus (TPMV) in the Asian house shrew (Suncus murinus) and Imjin virus (MJNV) in the Ussuri white-toothed shrew (Crocidura lasiura). The existence of myriad soricid-borne hantaviruses in Eurasia and North America would predict the presence of additional hantaviruses in sub-Saharan Africa, where multiple shrew lineages have evolved and diversified. Lung tissues, collected in RNAlater®, from 39 Buettikofer's shrews (Crocidura buettikoferi), 5 Jouvenet's shrews (Crocidura jouvenetae), 9 West African pygmy shrews (Crocidura obscurior) and 21 African giant shrews (Crocidura olivieri) captured in Côte d'Ivoire during 2009, were systematically examined for hantavirus RNA by RT-PCR. A genetically distinct hantavirus, designated Azagny virus (AZGV), was detected in the West African pygmy shrew. Phylogenetic analysis of the S, M and L segments, using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, under the GTR+I+Γ model of evolution, showed that AZGV shared a common ancestry with TGNV and was more closely related to hantaviruses harbored by soricine shrews than to TPMV and MJNV. That is, AZGV in the West African pygmy shrew, like TGNV in the Therese's shrew, did not form a monophyletic group with TPMV and MJNV, which were deeply divergent and basal to other rodent- and soricomorph-borne hantaviruses. Ancestral distributions of each hantavirus lineage, reconstructed using Mesquite 2.74, suggested that the common ancestor of all hantaviruses was most likely of Eurasian, not African, origin. Genome-wide analysis of many more hantaviruses from sub-Saharan Africa are required to better understand how the biogeographic origin and radiation of African shrews might have contributed to, or have resulted from, the evolution of hantaviruses.

  6. Major variations in malaria exposure of travellers in rural areas: an entomological cohort study in western Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Orlandi-Pradines, Eve; Rogier, Christophe; Koffi, Bernard; Jarjaval, Fanny; Bell, Melissa; Machault, Vanessa; Pons, Christophe; Girod, Romain; Boutin, Jean-Paul; Pagès, Frédéric

    2009-01-01

    Background Malaria remains a major threat, to both travellers and military personnel deployed to endemic areas. The recommendations for travellers given by the World Health Organization is based on the incidence of malaria in an area and do not take the degree of exposure into account. The aim of this article is to evaluate the exposure of travellers by entomologic methods, which are the commonly used measures of the intensity of malaria transmission. Methods From February 2004 to June 2004, five groups of 30 military personnel were stationed in up to 10 sites in western Côte d'Ivoire, from one week to several months. Adult mosquitoes were collected by human landing catches at each site during the five months and the level of exposure to malaria transmission of each group was estimated. Results The level of transmission varied from one site to another one from less than one to approximately more than 100 infective bites per month. In the majority of sites, at least two anopheline species were involved in transmission. The cumulative EIR over the study period varied according to the groups from 29 infected bites per person/per mission to 324. Conclusion The level of malaria transmission and malaria risk varies widely (varying by a factor of eleven) between groups of travellers travelling in the same region and at the same time. Physicians involved in travel medicine or supporting expatriated populations or refugees should consider this heterogeneity and emphasize the importance of combining appropriate measures, such as chemoprophylaxis and protective measures against mosquitoes. PMID:19638219

  7. Implementation and Operational Research: Impact of a Systems Engineering Intervention on PMTCT Service Delivery in Côte d'Ivoire, Kenya, Mozambique: A Cluster Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Rustagi, Alison Silvis; Gimbel, Sarah; Nduati, Ruth; Cuembelo, Maria de Fatima; Wasserheit, Judith N; Farquhar, Carey; Gloyd, Stephen; Sherr, Kenneth

    2016-07-01

    Efficacious interventions to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) have not translated well into effective programs. Previous studies of systems engineering applications to PMTCT lacked comparison groups or randomization. Thirty-six health facilities in Côte d'Ivoire, Kenya, and Mozambique were randomized to usual care or a systems engineering intervention, stratified by country and volume. The intervention guided facility staff to iteratively identify and then rectify barriers to PMTCT implementation. Registry data quantified coverage of HIV testing during first antenatal care visit, antiretrovirals (ARVs) for HIV-positive pregnant women, and screening HIV-exposed infants (HEI) for HIV by 6-8 weeks. We compared the change between baseline (January 2013-January 2014) and postintervention (January 2015-March 2015) periods using t-tests. All analyses were intent-to-treat. ARV coverage increased 3-fold [+13.3% points (95% CI: 0.5 to 26.0) in intervention vs. +4.1 (-12.6 to 20.7) in control facilities] and HEI screening increased 17-fold [+11.6 (-2.6 to 25.7) in intervention vs. +0.7 (-12.9 to 14.4) in control facilities]. In prespecified subgroup analyses, ARV coverage increased significantly in Kenya [+20.9 (-3.1 to 44.9) in intervention vs. -21.2 (-52.7 to 10.4) in controls; P = 0.02]. HEI screening increased significantly in Mozambique [+23.1 (10.3 to 35.8) in intervention vs. +3.7 (-13.1 to 20.6) in controls; P = 0.04]. HIV testing did not differ significantly between arms. In this first randomized trial of systems engineering to improve PMTCT, we saw substantially larger improvements in ARV coverage and HEI screening in intervention facilities compared with controls, which were significant in prespecified subgroups. Systems engineering could strengthen PMTCT service delivery and protect infants from HIV.

  8. Combined stool-based multiplex PCR and microscopy for enhanced pathogen detection in patients with persistent diarrhoea and asymptomatic controls from Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Becker, S L; Chatigre, J K; Gohou, J-P; Coulibaly, J T; Leuppi, R; Polman, K; Chappuis, F; Mertens, P; Herrmann, M; N'Goran, E K; Utzinger, J; von Müller, L

    2015-06-01

    Infectious diarrhoea ranks among the leading causes of morbidity worldwide. Although most acute diarrhoeal episodes are self-limiting, the diagnosis and treatment of persistent diarrhoea (≥2 weeks) are cumbersome and require laboratory identification of the causative pathogen. Stool-based PCR assays have greatly improved the previously disappointing pathogen detection rates in high-income countries, but there is a paucity of quality data from tropical settings. We performed a case-control study to elucidate the spectrum of intestinal pathogens in patients with persistent diarrhoea and asymptomatic controls in southern Côte d'Ivoire. Stool samples from 68 patients and 68 controls were obtained and subjected to molecular multiplex testing with the Luminex(®) Gastrointestinal Pathogen Panel (GPP), microscopy and rapid antigen detection tests for the diagnosis of diarrhoeagenic pathogens. Overall, 20 different bacteria, parasites and viruses were detected by the suite of diagnostic methods employed. At least one pathogen was observed in 84% of the participants, and co-infections were observed in >50% of the participants. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (32%), Giardia intestinalis (29%) and Shigella species (20%) were the predominant pathogens, and Strongyloides stercoralis (10%) was the most prevalent helminth. Pathogen frequencies and numbers of co-infections were similar in patients and controls. Although the Luminex(®) GPP detects a broad range of pathogens, microscopy for helminths and intestinal protozoa remains necessary to cover the full aetiological spectrum in tropical settings. We conclude that highly sensitive multiplex PCR assays constitute a useful screening tool, but that positive results might need to be confirmed by independent methods to discriminate active infection from asymptomatic faecal shedding of nucleic acids. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  9. Identification of yeasts isolated from raffia wine (Raphia hookeri) produced in Côte d'Ivoire and genotyping of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains by PCR inter-delta.

    PubMed

    Tra Bi, Charles Y; N'guessan, Florent K; Kouakou, Clémentine A; Jacques, Noemie; Casaregola, Serge; Djè, Marcellin K

    2016-08-01

    Raffia wine is a traditional alcoholic beverage produced in several African countries where it plays a significant role in traditional customs and population diet. Alcoholic fermentation of this beverage is ensured by a complex natural yeast flora which plays a decisive role in the quality of the final product. This present study aims to evaluate the distribution and the diversity of the yeast strains isolated in raffia wine from four sampling areas (Abengourou, Alépé, Grand-Lahou and Adzopé) in Côte d'Ivoire. Based on the D1/D2 domain of the LSU rDNA sequence analysis, nine species belonging to six genera were distinguished. With a percentage of 69.5 % out of 171 yeast isolates, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the predominant species in the raffia wine, followed by Kodamaea ohmeri (20.4 %). The other species isolated were Candida haemulonii (4.1 %), Candida phangngensis (1.8 %), Pichia kudriavzevii (1.2 %), Hanseniaspora jakobsenii (1.2 %), Candida silvae (0.6 %), Hanseniaspora guilliermondii (0.6 %) and Meyerozyma caribbica (0.6 %). The molecular characterization of S. cerevisiae isolates at the strain level using the PCR-interdelta method revealed the presence of 21 profiles (named I to XXI) within 115 isolates. Only four profiles (I, III, V and XI) were shared by the four areas under study. Phenotypic characterization of K. ohmeri strains showed two subgroups for sugar fermentation and no diversity for the nitrogen compound assimilations and the growth at different temperatures.

  10. [Detection of the IS2404 insertion sequence and ketoreductase produced by Mycobacterium ulcerans in the aquatic Heteroptera in the health districts of Dabou and Tiassalé in Côte d'Ivoire].

    PubMed

    Konan, K L; Doannio, J M C; Coulibaly, N G D; Ekaza, E; Marion, E; Assé, H; Kouassi, D; N'Goran, K E; Dosso, M; Marsollier, L; Aubry, J

    2015-01-01

    Buruli ulcer (BU) disease, caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, is a major public health problem in Côte d'Ivoire. Until now, the mode of BU transmission was unknown, but recent studies implicate aquatic Heteroptera in the chain of transmission. This study was launched in Côte d'Ivoire to search for specific genetic markers for M. ulcerans in these bugs, including the insertion sequence IS2404 and ketoreductase (Kr), both involved in the synthesis of mycolactone, a toxin produced by these mycobacteria. Samples of aquatic Heteroptera were collected monthly with deep nets from ponds near villages in the health districts of Dabou and Tiassalé. After identification and enumeration of the bugs, batches of the same taxon underwent real-time PCR to search for the IS2404 target and Kr. Saliva of 69 specimens of Diplonychus sp randomly selected in the samples was also analyzed by PCR. In all, 283 single-taxon batches were created. Thus, PCR identified 26 batches belonging to the families of Belostomatidae, Naucoridae, Corixidae, Ranatridae, and Nepidae as positive for both targets. The IS2404 insertion sequence and Kr were present in 6 of the 69 samples analyzed in the saliva of Diplonychus sp. These aquatic Heteroptera suspected of infection by M. ulcerans might release it into the environment because of their ability to fly. They might thus be the source of human contamination.

  11. 7 CFR 319.37-2 - Prohibited articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Prohibited articles. 319.37-2 Section 319.37-2.... Brazil Cotton Anthocyanosis agent. Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka Bhendi yellow vein mosaic agent. Cote d'Ivoire, Nigeria Okra mosaic virus. Iraq Okra yellow leaf curl agent. Papua New Guinea, Trinidad...

  12. The Origin and Development of the African Evaluation Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouge, Jean-Charles

    2004-01-01

    In May 1990, the first evaluation seminar in Africa took place in Cote d'Ivoire. It was the first in a series of regional seminars on evaluation planned by the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The seminar was jointly presented by the DAC and African Development Bank (ADB).…

  13. Memories of an Aid Worker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daoust, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    The author had come to Cote d'Ivoire in April 1999 to work for the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), an independent humanitarian organization dedicated to persuading governments to respect the rules of international humanitarian law (IHL), which are found in the Geneva Conventions. These rules provide impartial protection for the…

  14. French-African Cultures: A Resource Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Barbara

    This resource unit concerns French-African cultures and their influence on other cultures. The materials may be incorporated into Levels 3, 4, and 5 French classes. Topics in the outline include environmental aspects; historical background; and cultural differences expressed in Senegal, Guinee, Mali, Cote d'Ivoire, Haute Volta, Togo, Dahomey,…

  15. Cultural Issues in Secondary Education Development in West Africa: Away from Colonial Survivals, towards Neocolonial Influences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quist, Hubert O.

    2001-01-01

    In urban Ghana and Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast), cultural factors arising from West Africa's "triple cultural heritage" (African, Euro-Christian, and Islamic) and globalization place considerable strains on secondary education and have implications for postcolonial nation-building and development. Surveys of 200 secondary students in the…

  16. Financing Higher Education in Francophone West Africa. An EDI Policy Seminar Report, Number 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ransom, Angela

    Meetings were held in Senegal in 1985, in Cote d'Ivoire in 1986, and in Zimbabwe in 1987, concerning the current state of higher education finance in Africa, the structure of unit costs, and the role of development assistance agencies and other sources of financial support. Reports are presented concerning the macroeconomic perspective, internal…

  17. Aspects of the Phonology-Syntax Interface in Akan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marfo, Charles Ofosu

    This paper discusses the phonology-syntax interface in Akan, a language spoken in Ghana and the Cote d'Ivoire, describing a medium of exchange between phonology and syntax. Studies in lexical phonology have distinguished two levels in phonology--lexical and post-lexical--based on how and where phonological rules apply, although some phonological…

  18. English as a Second Language: An Educational Overview for Multicultural and Bilingual West African Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ubadigbo, Fidelis N.

    This paper describes cultural and educational characteristics of West African countries that may have implications for West Africans studying and learning English in the United States. Countries discussed include Nigeria, Ghana, Sierra Leone, Benin, Niger, Gambia, Senegal, Cote d'Ivoire, and Mali. The structures of the systems of elementary,…

  19. The Educational Community Running the School System: The Example of School Management Committees (COGES)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Gbo; Aka, Rene Goubo

    2006-01-01

    Since 2001 the school system in Cote d'Ivoire has evolved with the advent of the second Republic and the rise to power of the Ivorian Popular Front (Front Populaire Ivoirien, FPI). The Government has introduced reforms in the education system making use of past experience and extending its benefits. Most of the innovations implemented as part of…

  20. Memories of an Aid Worker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daoust, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    The author had come to Cote d'Ivoire in April 1999 to work for the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), an independent humanitarian organization dedicated to persuading governments to respect the rules of international humanitarian law (IHL), which are found in the Geneva Conventions. These rules provide impartial protection for the…

  1. Basic Education in Ivory Coast: From Education for All to Compulsory Education, Challenges and Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyeniran, Rassidy

    2017-01-01

    Ivorian authorities, for years, are employing various strategies as part of reforms to ensure universal education in Ivory Coast (Cote d'Ivoire). In this regard, great efforts are done each year through public funding and partnership development support to face the challenge of Education for All whose term of the implementation was 2015. The…

  2. Cultural Issues in Secondary Education Development in West Africa: Away from Colonial Survivals, towards Neocolonial Influences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quist, Hubert O.

    2001-01-01

    In urban Ghana and Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast), cultural factors arising from West Africa's "triple cultural heritage" (African, Euro-Christian, and Islamic) and globalization place considerable strains on secondary education and have implications for postcolonial nation-building and development. Surveys of 200 secondary students in the…

  3. The Origin and Development of the African Evaluation Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouge, Jean-Charles

    2004-01-01

    In May 1990, the first evaluation seminar in Africa took place in Cote d'Ivoire. It was the first in a series of regional seminars on evaluation planned by the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The seminar was jointly presented by the DAC and African Development Bank (ADB).…

  4. Maternal education and marital fertility in four African countries.

    PubMed

    Chimere-dan, O

    1993-01-01

    World fertility data were used for Cote d'Ivoire, Cameroon, Ghana, and Nigeria. Estimates of marital fertility and its proportional reduction owing to the proximate determinants were computed using Fertility Exposure Analysis (FEA). Eight exposure states were identified in an interval of 3 years before the survey. Proximate determinants were estimated from an equation for subsequent regression analysis, which also included socioeconomic variables, e.g., place of residence, religion, work pattern, and husband's education. Except for the 25-29 age group in Cameroon and Cote d'Ivoire and the 15-19 age group in Cote d'Ivoire, age specific marital fertility was higher for women who had between 4 and 6 years of formal education than for those who had 7 or more years of schooling. Marital age specific fertility was higher for women who had 4-6 years of education than for uneducated women, except from the 2 oldest age groups in Cote d'Ivoire and the oldest age groups in Ghana. On the other hand, lower fertility also existed in poorly educated women in Cameroon, in the 15-19 age group in Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana, and also in 20-24 and 30-34 age groups in Nigeria. Women with no education had lower fertility than those with 1-3 years and 4-6 years of education. Breastfeeding made the greatest contribution to the reduction of marital fertility for the educational categories except for the most educated women in Cote d'Ivoire. Contraception had a weak effect on fertility in Nigeria and Cameroon but a strong effect in Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana. Postpartum abstinence had a small effect since the 1970s except in Nigeria where it depressed marital fertility by over 10%. In these 4 countries differences existed in the patterns of educational differentials in fertility-reducing impacts of the proximate determinants. The impact of maternal education on marital fertility is not uniformly predictable in all African countries.

  5. Effect of an armed conflict on relative socioeconomic position of rural households: case study from western Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Current conceptual frameworks on the interrelationship between armed conflict and poverty are based primarily on aggregated macro-level data and/or qualitative evidence and usually focus on adherents of warring factions. In contrast, there is a paucity of quantitative studies about the socioeconomic consequences of armed conflict at the micro-level, i.e., noncommitted local households and civilians. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of data pertaining to risk factors for malaria and neglected tropical diseases. Standardized questionnaires were administered to 182 households in a rural part of western Côte d'Ivoire in August 2002 and again in early 2004. Between the two surveys, the area was subject to intensive fighting in the Ivorian civil war. Principal component analysis was applied at the two time points for constructing an asset-based wealth-index and categorizing the households in wealth quintiles. Based on quintile changes, the households were labeled as 'worse-off', 'even' or 'better-off'. Statistical analysis tested for significant associations between the socioeconomic fates of households and head of household characteristics, household composition, village characteristics and self-reported events associated with the armed conflict. Most-poor/least-poor ratios and concentration indices were calculated to assess equity changes in households' asset possession. Results Of 203 households initially included in the first survey, 21 were lost to follow-up. The population in the remaining 182 households shrunk from 1,749 to 1,625 persons due to migration and natural population changes. However, only weak socioeconomic dynamics were observed; every seventh household was defined as 'worse-off' or 'better-off' despite the war-time circumstances. Analysis of other reported demographic and economic characteristics did not clearly identify more or less resilient households, and only subtle equity shifts were noted. However, the results indicate

  6. Efficacy of ICON® Maxx in the laboratory and against insecticide-resistant Anopheles gambiae in central Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Mirko S; Tchicaya, Emile; Koudou, Benjamin G; Donzé, Jennifer; Nsanzabana, Christian; Müller, Pie; Adja, Akré M; Utzinger, Jürg

    2012-05-15

    Long-lasting treatment kits, designed to transform untreated nets into long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs), may facilitate high coverage with LLINs where non-treated nets are in place. In this study, the efficacy of ICON® Maxx (Syngenta) was evaluated under laboratory conditions and in an experimental hut trial in central Côte d'Ivoire, where Anopheles gambiae s.s. are resistant to pyrethroid insecticides. In the laboratory, polyester and polyethylene net samples were treated with ICON® Maxx, washed up to 20 times and their efficacy determined in World Health Organization (WHO) cone assays against a susceptible laboratory An. gambiae s.s. colony. Over a 12-month period, the polyester nets were evaluated in a hut trial to determine mosquito deterrence, induced exophily, blood-feeding inhibition and mortality. In the laboratory, ICON® Maxx-treated polyethylene nets showed higher efficacy against pyrethroid-susceptible mosquitoes than polyester nets. After 20 washings, insecticidal efficacy in bioassays was 59.4% knockdown (KD) and 22.3% mortality for polyethylene, and 55.3% KD and 17.9% mortality for polyester nets. In experimental huts, treated nets showed strong deterrence, induced exophily and an over three-fold reduction in blood-fed mosquitoes. More than half (61.8%) of the mosquitoes entering the huts with treated nets were found dead the next morning despite high levels of KD resistance. After washing the treated nets, KD and mortality rates were close to or exceeded predefined WHO thresholds in cone bioassays. In contrast to previous laboratory investigation, ICON® Maxx-treated nets showed only moderate KD and mortality rates. However, under semi-field conditions, in an area where mosquitoes are resistant to pyrethroids, ICON® Maxx showed high deterrence, induced exophily and provided a significant reduction in blood-feeding rates; features that are likely to have a positive impact in reducing malaria transmission. The WHO cone test may not always be

  7. Towards understanding the presence/absence of Human African Trypanosomosis in a focus of Côte d'Ivoire: a spatial analysis of the pathogenic system

    PubMed Central

    Courtin, Fabrice; Jamonneau, Vincent; Oké, Emmanuel; Coulibaly, Bamoro; Oswald, Yohan; Dupont, Sophie; Cuny, Gérard; Doumenge, Jean-Pierre; Solano, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    Background This study aimed at identifying factors influencing the development of Human African Trypanosomosis (HAT, or sleeping sickness) in the focus of Bonon, located in the mesophile forest of Côte d'Ivoire. A previous study mapping the main daytime activity sites of 96 patients revealed an important disparity between the area south of the town- where all the patients lived- and the area north of the town, apparently free of disease. In order to explain this disparity, we carried out a spatial analysis of the key components of the pathogenic system, i.e. the human host, the tsetse vector and the trypanosomes in their environment using a geographic information system (GIS). Results This approach at the scale of a HAT focus enabled us to identify spatial patterns which linked to the transmission and the dissemination of this disease. The history of human settlement (with the rural northern area exploited much earlier than the southern one) appears to be a major factor which determines the land use pattern, which itself may account for differences found in vector densities (tsetse were found six times more abundant in the southern rural area than in the northern). Vector density, according to the human and environmental context in which it is found (here an intense mobility between the town of Bonon and the rural areas), may explain the observed spatial differences in HAT prevalence. Conclusion This work demonstrates the role of GIS analyses of key components of the pathogenic system in providing a better understanding of transmission and dissemination of HAT. Moreover, following the identification of the most active transmission areas, and of an area unfavourable to HAT transmission, this study more precisely delineates the boundaries of the Bonon focus. As a follow-up, targeted tsetse control activities starting north of Bonon (with few chances of reinvasion due to very low densities) going south, and additional medical surveys in the south will be proposed to

  8. Cost-Effectiveness of Preventing Loss to Follow-up in HIV Treatment Programs: A Côte d'Ivoire Appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Losina, Elena; Touré, Hapsatou; Uhler, Lauren M.; Anglaret, Xavier; Paltiel, A. David; Balestre, Eric; Walensky, Rochelle P.; Messou, Eugène; Weinstein, Milton C.; Dabis, François; Freedberg, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Data from HIV treatment programs in resource-limited settings show extensive rates of loss to follow-up (LTFU) ranging from 5% to 40% within 6 mo of antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. Our objective was to project the clinical impact and cost-effectiveness of interventions to prevent LTFU from HIV care in West Africa. Methods and Findings We used the Cost-Effectiveness of Preventing AIDS Complications (CEPAC) International model to project the clinical benefits and cost-effectiveness of LTFU-prevention programs from a payer perspective. These programs include components such as eliminating ART co-payments, eliminating charges to patients for opportunistic infection-related drugs, improving personnel training, and providing meals and reimbursing for transportation for participants. The efficacies and costs of these interventions were extensively varied in sensitivity analyses. We used World Health Organization criteria of <3× gross domestic product per capita (3× GDP per capita = US$2,823 for Côte d'Ivoire) as a plausible threshold for “cost-effectiveness.” The main results are based on a reported 18% 1-y LTFU rate. With full retention in care, projected per-person discounted life expectancy starting from age 37 y was 144.7 mo (12.1 y). Survival losses from LTFU within 1 y of ART initiation ranged from 73.9 to 80.7 mo. The intervention costing US$22/person/year (e.g., eliminating ART co-payment) would be cost-effective with an efficacy of at least 12%. An intervention costing US$77/person/year (inclusive of all the components described above) would be cost-effective with an efficacy of at least 41%. Conclusions Interventions that prevent LTFU in resource-limited settings would substantially improve survival and would be cost-effective by international criteria with efficacy of at least 12%–41%, depending on the cost of intervention, based on a reported 18% cumulative incidence of LTFU at 1 y after ART initiation. The commitment to start

  9. "Koko et les lunettes magiques": An educational entertainment tool to prevent parasitic worms and diarrheal diseases in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Essé, Clémence; Koffi, Véronique A; Kouamé, Abel; Dongo, Kouassi; Yapi, Richard B; Moro, Honorine M; Kouakou, Christiane A; Palmeirim, Marta S; Bonfoh, Bassirou; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Utzinger, Jürg; Raso, Giovanna

    2017-09-21

    Integrated control programs, emphasizing preventive chemotherapy along with health education, can reduce the incidence of soil-transmitted helminthiasis and schistosomiasis. The aim of this study was to develop an educational animated cartoon to improve school children's awareness regarding soil-transmitted helminthiasis, diarrheal diseases, and related hygiene practices in Côte d'Ivoire. The key messages included in the cartoon were identified through prior formative research to specifically address local knowledge gaps. In a first step, preliminary research was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes, practices, and beliefs of school-aged children regarding parasitic worm infections and hygiene, to identify key health messages to be included in an animated cartoon. Second, an animated cartoon was produced, which included the drafting of the script and story board, and the production of the cartoon's initial version. Finally, the animated cartoon was pilot tested in eight selected schools and further fine-tuned. According to the questionnaire results, children believed that the consumption of sweet food, eating without washing their hands, sitting on the floor, and eating spoiled food were the main causes of parasitic worm infections. Abdominal pain, diarrhea, lack of appetite, failure to grow, and general fatigue were mentioned as symptoms of parasitic worm infections. Most of the children knew that they should go to the hospital for treatment if they experienced symptoms of parasitic worm diseases. The animated cartoon titled "Koko et les lunettes magiques" was produced by Afrika Toon, in collaboration with a scientific team composed of epidemiologists, civil engineers, and social scientists, and the local school children and teachers. Pilot testing of the animated cartoon revealed that, in the short term, children grasped and kept key messages. Most of the children who were shown the cartoon reported to like it. Acceptance of the animated cartoon was high

  10. Characterizing the HIV risks and potential pathways to HIV infection among transgender women in Côte d'Ivoire, Togo and Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Stahlman, Shauna; Liestman, Benjamin; Ketende, Sosthenes; Kouanda, Seni; Ky-Zerbo, Odette; Lougue, Marcel; Diouf, Daouda; Anato, Simplice; Tchalla, Jules; Bamba, Amara; Drame, Fatou Maria; Ezouatchi, Rebecca; Kouamé, Abo; Baral, Stefan D

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Transgender women are at high risk for the acquisition and transmission of HIV. However, there are limited empiric data characterizing HIV-related risks among transgender women in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of these analyses is to determine what factors, including sexual behaviour stigma, condom use and engagement in sex work, contribute to risk for HIV infection among transgender women across three West African nations. Methods Data were collected via respondent-driven sampling from men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women during three- to five-month intervals from December 2012 to October 2015 across a total of six study sites in Togo, Burkina Faso and Côte d'Ivoire. During the study visit, participants completed a questionnaire and were tested for HIV. Chi-square tests were used to compare the prevalence of variables of interest between transgender women and MSM. A multilevel generalized structural equation model (GSEM) was used to account for clustering of observations within study sites in the multivariable analysis, as well as to estimate mediated associations between sexual behaviour stigma and HIV infection among transgender women. Results In total, 2456 participants meeting eligibility criteria were recruited, of which 453 individuals identified as being female/transgender. Transgender women were more likely than MSM to report selling sex to a male partner within the past 12 months (p<0.01), to be living with HIV (p<0.01) and to report greater levels of sexual behaviour stigma as compared with MSM (p<0.05). In the GSEM, sexual behaviour stigma from broader social groups was positively associated with condomless anal sex (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.33, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.09, 1.62) and with selling sex (AOR=1.23, 95% CI=1.02, 1.50). Stigma from family/friends was also associated with selling sex (AOR=1.42, 95% CI=1.13, 1.79), although no significant associations were identified with prevalent HIV infection

  11. Sustaining Control of Schistosomiasis Mansoni in Western Côte d'Ivoire: Results from a SCORE Study, One Year after Initial Praziquantel Administration.

    PubMed

    Assaré, Rufin K; Tian-Bi, Yves-Nathan T; Yao, Patrick K; N'Guessan, Nicaise A; Ouattara, Mamadou; Yapi, Ahoua; Coulibaly, Jean T; Meïté, Aboulaye; Hürlimann, Eveline; Knopp, Stefanie; Utzinger, Jürg; N'Goran, Eliézer K

    2016-01-01

    The Schistosomiasis Consortium for Operational Research and Evaluation (SCORE) has launched several large-scale trials to determine the best strategies for gaining and sustaining control of schistosomiasis and transitioning toward elimination. In Côte d'Ivoire, a 5-year cluster-randomized trial is being implemented in 75 schools to sustain the control of schistosomiasis mansoni. We report Schistosoma mansoni infection levels in children one year after the initial school-based treatment (SBT) with praziquantel and compare with baseline results to determine the effect of the intervention. The baseline cross-sectional survey was conducted in late 2011/early 2012 and the first follow-up in May 2013. Three consecutive stool samples were collected from 9- to 12-year-old children in 75 schools at baseline and 50 schools at follow-up. Stool samples were subjected to duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears. Directly observed treatment (DOT) coverage of the SBT was assessed and the prevalence and intensity of S. mansoni infection compared between baseline and follow-up. The S. mansoni prevalence in the 75 schools surveyed at baseline was 22.1% (95% confidence interval (CI): 19.5-24.4%). The DOT coverage was 84.2%. In the 50 schools surveyed at baseline and one year after treatment, the overall prevalence of S. mansoni infection decreased significantly from 19.7% (95% CI: 18.5-20.8%) to 12.8% (95% CI: 11.9-13.8%), while the arithmetic mean S. mansoni eggs per gram of stool (EPG) among infected children slightly increased from 92.2 EPG (95% CI: 79.2-105.3 EPG) to 109.3 EPG (95% CI: 82.7-135.9 EPG). In two of the 50 schools, the prevalence increased significantly, despite a DOT coverage of >75%. One year after the initial SBT, the S. mansoni prevalence had decreased. Despite this positive trend, an increase was observed in some schools. Moreover, the infection intensity among S. mansoni-infected children was slightly higher at the 1-year follow-up compared to the baseline situation

  12. Tsetse flies, biodiversity and the control of sleeping sickness. Structure of a Glossina guild in southwest Côte d'Ivoire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouteux, Jean-Paul; Jarry, Marc

    1998-10-01

    Tsetse fly guilds usually comprise two or three species. However, the presence of only one species often indicates that anthropic modifications have occurred in the habitat. On the other hand, more than three species are seldom observed in the same zone and the presence of five is extremely rare. Previous detailed studies have always focused on a single species, without taking into account interactions between species. The authors present the results of observations carried out in Côte d'Ivoire on a guild consisting of Glossina palpalis, G. pallicera, G. nigrofusca, G. longipalpis and G. fusca. Glossina have unusual physiological characteristics: both sexes feed exclusively on blood, they have a highly developed larviparity associated with a slow rhythm of reproduction (one larva about every ten days) and a long life expectancy (up to nine months). The authors report on the size of the flies, the hosts, feeding habits, ecodistribution, resting-places, flying heights, circadian activity and seasonal dynamics of tsetse fly populations in order to understand the organization of this guild. Each species feeds indiscriminately on a wide spectrum of hosts without a particular preference. Different species shared habitat (ecodistribution) and time (circadian and annual cycles). Thus, during an annual cycle, there is always a slight time-lag between the density peaks of G. palpalis and G. pallicera, the peak of the dominant species immediately preceding that of the dominated species. In a village area, 77% of the variations in density of G. pallicera were accounted for by the previous variations in density of the dominant species ( G. palpalis). Experiments show that G. pallicera and G. nigrofusca immediately invade anthropic areas from which G. palpalis has been partially removed by trapping. These species thus appear to confront each other in a global dynamic equilibrium. This suggests that there is a 'conflicting coexistence' between the cohabiting species. Whereas the

  13. Characterizing the HIV risks and potential pathways to HIV infection among transgender women in Côte d'Ivoire, Togo and Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Stahlman, Shauna; Liestman, Benjamin; Ketende, Sosthenes; Kouanda, Seni; Ky-Zerbo, Odette; Lougue, Marcel; Diouf, Daouda; Anato, Simplice; Tchalla, Jules; Bamba, Amara; Drame, Fatou Maria; Ezouatchi, Rebecca; Kouamé, Abo; Baral, Stefan D

    2016-01-01

    Transgender women are at high risk for the acquisition and transmission of HIV. However, there are limited empiric data characterizing HIV-related risks among transgender women in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of these analyses is to determine what factors, including sexual behaviour stigma, condom use and engagement in sex work, contribute to risk for HIV infection among transgender women across three West African nations. Data were collected via respondent-driven sampling from men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women during three- to five-month intervals from December 2012 to October 2015 across a total of six study sites in Togo, Burkina Faso and Côte d'Ivoire. During the study visit, participants completed a questionnaire and were tested for HIV. Chi-square tests were used to compare the prevalence of variables of interest between transgender women and MSM. A multilevel generalized structural equation model (GSEM) was used to account for clustering of observations within study sites in the multivariable analysis, as well as to estimate mediated associations between sexual behaviour stigma and HIV infection among transgender women. In total, 2456 participants meeting eligibility criteria were recruited, of which 453 individuals identified as being female/transgender. Transgender women were more likely than MSM to report selling sex to a male partner within the past 12 months (p<0.01), to be living with HIV (p<0.01) and to report greater levels of sexual behaviour stigma as compared with MSM (p<0.05). In the GSEM, sexual behaviour stigma from broader social groups was positively associated with condomless anal sex (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.33, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.09, 1.62) and with selling sex (AOR=1.23, 95% CI=1.02, 1.50). Stigma from family/friends was also associated with selling sex (AOR=1.42, 95% CI=1.13, 1.79), although no significant associations were identified with prevalent HIV infection. These data suggest that

  14. [Intestinal helminthiasis among school children: preliminary results of a prospective study in Agboville in Southern Côte d'Ivoire].

    PubMed

    Agbaya, Stephane Serge Oga; Yavo, William; Menan, Ebi Ignace Hervé; Attey, M'boya Armelle; Kouadio, Luc Philippe; Koné, Moussa

    2004-01-01

    Intestinal helminthiasis affects the health and academic performance of children in developing countries. To highlight a few socio-economic factors that impact the presence and upholding of intestinal helminthiasis, a cohort study was performed from February to June 2001. This study took place in Agboville in Southern Côte d'Ivoire on 363 children, under the age of 15, regularly enrolled in school and selected by two-step clustered sampling. After the survey was completed, their stools were examined using 3 methods: direct exam, Kato's technique, and Graham's anal scotch-test. Infected students received an appropriate anti-helminthic treatment. After performing a test two weeks later, a new sample of 348 parasite-free children was made up and re-examined after three months, through the aforementioned techniques. In this sample, we assumed that students who were infested in the initial exam were "exposed", while those who were not infested in the first place were deemed to be "not exposed". The results showed that 135 students out of the 360 admitted for the first exam were infested; or a 37.5% of intestinal helminthiasis prevalence (IC95%=30.5-45). The prevalent parasite species were Necator americanus (15%), Trichuris trichiura (13.6%), Schistosoma mansoni (10%). Twenty-eight per cent of 135 infested students were infected by more than one parasite. After three months, the incidence rate of intestinal helminthiasis calculated out of the remaining 336 students was 7.7% (IC95%=4.4-13.1). The likelihood of re-infestation amounted to 3.4 (IC95%=1.5-7.3). The pattern of re-infestation rates according to socio-economic factors differed from that of infested prevalence. The prevalent parasites in re-infested patients were Trichuris trichiura (16.3%), Schistosoma mansoni (12.5%). All intestinal nematodes and Schistosoma mansoni were observed. The most frequent parasites species where those transmitted cutaneously. The high re-infestation rate suggests that intestinal

  15. Accuracy of Mobile Phone and Handheld Light Microscopy for the Diagnosis of Schistosomiasis and Intestinal Protozoa Infections in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Coulibaly, Jean T; Ouattara, Mamadou; D'Ambrosio, Michael V; Fletcher, Daniel A; Keiser, Jennifer; Utzinger, Jürg; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Andrews, Jason R; Bogoch, Isaac I

    2016-06-01

    Handheld light microscopy using compact optics and mobile phones may improve the quality of health care in resource-constrained settings by enabling access to prompt and accurate diagnosis. Laboratory technicians were trained to operate two handheld diagnostic devices (Newton Nm1 microscope and a clip-on version of the mobile phone-based CellScope). The accuracy of these devices was compared to conventional light microscopy for the diagnosis of Schistosoma haematobium, S. mansoni, and intestinal protozoa infection in a community-based survey in rural Côte d'Ivoire. One slide of 10 ml filtered urine and a single Kato-Katz thick smear from 226 individuals were subjected to the Newton Nm1 microscope and CellScope for detection of Schistosoma eggs and compared to conventional microscopy. Additionally, 121 sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin (SAF)-fixed stool samples were examined by the Newton Nm1 microscope and compared to conventional microscopy for the diagnosis of intestinal protozoa. The prevalence of S. haematobium, S. mansoni, Giardia intestinalis, and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar, as determined by conventional microscopy, was 39.8%, 5.3%, 20.7%, and 4.9%, respectively. The Newton Nm1 microscope had diagnostic sensitivities for S. mansoni and S. haematobium infection of 91.7% (95% confidence interval (CI) 59.8-99.6%) and 81.1% (95% CI 71.2-88.3%), respectively, and specificities of 99.5% (95% CI 97.0-100%) and 97.1% (95% CI 92.2-99.1%), respectively. The CellScope demonstrated sensitivities for S. mansoni and S. haematobium of 50.0% (95% CI 25.4-74.6%) and 35.6% (95% CI 25.9-46.4%), respectively, and specificities of 99.5% (95% CI 97.0-100%) and 100% (95% CI 86.7-100%), respectively. For G. intestinalis and E. histolytica/E. dispar, the Newton Nm1 microscope had sensitivity of 84.0% (95% CI 63.1-94.7%) and 83.3% (95% CI 36.5-99.1%), respectively, and 100% specificity. Handheld diagnostic devices can be employed in community-based surveys in resource

  16. Accuracy of Urine Circulating Cathodic Antigen (CCA) Test for Schistosoma mansoni Diagnosis in Different Settings of Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Coulibaly, Jean T.; Knopp, Stefanie; N'Guessan, Nicaise A.; Silué, Kigbafori D.; Fürst, Thomas; Lohourignon, Laurent K.; Brou, Jean K.; N'Gbesso, Yve K.; Vounatsou, Penelope; N'Goran, Eliézer K.; Utzinger, Jürg

    2011-01-01

    Background Promising results have been reported for a urine circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) test for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni. We assessed the accuracy of a commercially available CCA cassette test (designated CCA-A) and an experimental formulation (CCA-B) for S. mansoni diagnosis. Methodology We conducted a cross-sectional survey in three settings of Côte d'Ivoire: settings A and B are endemic for S. mansoni, whereas S. haematobium co-exists in setting C. Overall, 446 children, aged 8–12 years, submitted multiple stool and urine samples. For S. mansoni diagnosis, stool samples were examined with triplicate Kato-Katz, whereas urine samples were tested with CCA-A. The first stool and urine samples were additionally subjected to an ether-concentration technique and CCA-B, respectively. Urine samples were examined for S. haematobium using a filtration method, and for microhematuria using Hemastix dipsticks. Principal Findings Considering nine Kato-Katz as diagnostic ‘gold’ standard, the prevalence of S. mansoni in setting A, B and C was 32.9%, 53.1% and 91.8%, respectively. The sensitivity of triplicate Kato-Katz from the first stool and a single CCA-A test was 47.9% and 56.3% (setting A), 73.9% and 69.6% (setting B), and 94.2% and 89.6% (setting C). The respective sensitivity of a single CCA-B was 10.4%, 29.9% and 75.0%. The ether-concentration technique showed a low sensitivity for S. mansoni diagnosis (8.3–41.0%). The specificity of CCA-A was moderate (76.9–84.2%); CCA-B was high (96.7–100%). The likelihood of a CCA-A color reaction increased with higher S. mansoni fecal egg counts (odds ratio: 1.07, p<0.001). A concurrent S. haematobium infection or the presence of microhematuria did not influence the CCA-A test results for S. mansoni diagnosis. Conclusion/Significance CCA-A showed similar sensitivity than triplicate Kato-Katz for S. mansoni diagnosis with no cross-reactivity to S. haematobium and microhematuria. The low sensitivity of

  17. Safety of a fixed-dose combination of artesunate and amodiaquine for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in real-life conditions of use in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Assi, Serge-Brice; Aba, Yapo Thomas; Yavo, Jean Claude; Nguessan, Abouo Franklin; Tchiekoi, N'cho Bertin; San, Koffi Moïse; Bissagnéné, Emmanuel; Duparc, Stephan; Lameyre, Valérie; Tanoh, Mea Antoine

    2017-01-03

    In many malaria-endemic, sub-Saharan African countries, existing pharmacovigilance systems are not sufficiently operational to document reliably the safety profile of anti-malarial drugs. This study describes the implantation of a community-based pharmacovigilance system in Côte d'Ivoire and its use to document the safety of ASAQ Winthrop(®) (artesunate-amodiaquine). This prospective, longitudinal, descriptive, non-comparative, non-interventional study on the use of artesunate-amodiaquine in real-life conditions of use was conducted in seven Community Health Centres of the Agboville district in Côte d'Ivoire. Twenty trained Health Centre employees and 70 trained community health workers were involved in data collection in the field. All patients with suspected uncomplicated falciparum malaria, seeking treatment at one of the participating Health Centres, and treated with artesunate-amodiaquine could be enrolled. Two visits were planned, one for inclusion at the Health Centre and a second at home, performed by a community health worker 3-10 days after the inclusion visit. Administration of artesunate-amodiaquine was unsupervised. Adverse events (AEs) were documented at the home visit or during any unexpected visit to the Health Centre or to the hospital and coded and adjudicated by a local pharmacovigilance committee. Symptoms suggestive of hepatic failure, severe neutropaenia, extrapyramidal disorders and retinopathy were considered a priori as AEs of special interest. Some 15,228 malaria episodes in 12,198 patients were evaluated; 2545 AEs were documented during 1978 malaria episodes (13.0%). The most frequently observed events were asthenia (682 cases), vomiting (482 cases) and somnolence (174 cases). Most reported AEs were of mild or moderate intensity and resolved without corrective treatment. One-hundred and five (105) AEs reported during 100 episodes (0.7%) were considered as serious. Three serious cases of transient extrapyramidal disorders, identified

  18. Polymorphisms of the Pfatpase 6 and Pfcrt gene and their relationship with the in vitro susceptibility to dihydroartemisinin and chloroquine of Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Abobo, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Bla, Brice K; Yavo, William; Trébissou, Jonhson; Kipré, Rolland G; Yapi, Félix H; N'guessan, Jean D; Djaman, Joseph A

    2014-01-01

    As a result of widespread resistance to chloroquine (CQ) and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has been recommended as a first-line anti-malarial regimen in Côte d'Ivoire since 2005. A thorough understanding of the molecular bases of P. falciparum resistance to existing drugs is therefore needed. The aims of this study were to analyze the in vitro sensitivity of P. falciparum field isolates from Abobo to CQ, pyronaridine (PYR) and dihydroartemisinine (DHA), and to investigate the polymorphisms associated with drug resistance. The standard in vitro drug sensitivity microtechnique recommended by the WHO was used to assess the sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum isolates collected in December 2006. The Pfcrt haplotype 76 was analysed by PCR-RFLP while Pfatpase 6 amplification products were sequenced. Associations between drug sensitivity and parasite gene polymorphisms were evaluated with Cohen's kappa test. The correlation between the IC50 values for different drugs was assessed by the coefficient of determination (r²). Significance was assumed at p<0.05. Of 128 in vitro tests performed, 112 (87.5%) were successful. Of the isolates, 56.2% were resistant for CQ and 48% for PYR. One isolate (3.6%) demonstrated reduced DHA sensitivity (IC50 higher than 10 nM). The mutant K76T pfcrt codon, present in 90% of DNA fragments analyzed, was associated with CQ-R (ĸ=0.76). The N669Y (16.1%), D734Y (28.6%) and D734H (1.8%) isolates were found to have mutant Pfatpase6, however, these mutations were not associated with diminished DHA sensitivity (k=0.01). These high levels of antimalarial drug resistance in Abobo (Côte d'Ivoire) demand further studies of drug efficacy across the whole country.

  19. Comparison of a possession score and a poverty index in predicting anaemia and undernutrition in pre-school children and women of reproductive age in rural and urban Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Rohner, Fabian; Tschannen, Andres B; Northrop-Clewes, Christine; Kouassi-Gohou, Valérie; Bosso, Patrice E; Mascie-Taylor, C G Nicholas

    2012-09-01

    To determine whether a possession score or a poverty index best predicts undernutrition and anaemia in women of reproductive age (15-49 years; WRA) and children aged 6-59 months living in Côte d'Ivoire. Anthropometric measurements were converted to Z-scores to assess stunting, wasting and underweight in children, and converted to BMI in WRA. A venous blood sample was drawn, and Hb concentration and Plasmodium spp. infection were determined. A possession score was generated with categories of zero to four possessions. A five-point (quintile) poverty index using household assets was created using principal component analysis. These socio-economic measures were compared for their ability to predict anaemia and malnutrition. Data were from a nationally representative survey conducted in Côte d'Ivoire in 2007. A sample of 768 WRA and 717 children aged 6-59 months was analysed. Overall, 74·9 % of children and 50·2 % of WRA were anaemic; 39·5 % of the children were stunted, 28·1 % underweight and 12·8 % wasted, while 7·4 % of WRA had BMI < 18·5 kg/m2. In general, there were more stunted and underweight children and thin WRA in rural areas. The poverty index showed a stronger relationship with nutritional status than the possession score; mean Hb difference between the poorest and wealthiest quintiles in children and WRA was 8·2 g/l and 6·5 g/l, respectively (13·9 % and 19·8 % difference in anaemia, respectively; P < 0·001), and Z-scores and BMI were significantly better in the wealthiest quintile (P < 0·001). The poverty index was generally a better predictor of undernutrition in WRA and pre-school children than the possession score.

  20. Prevalence and public health relevance of micronutrient deficiencies and undernutrition in pre-school children and women of reproductive age in Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Rohner, Fabian; Northrop-Clewes, Christine; Tschannen, Andres B; Bosso, Patrice E; Kouassi-Gohou, Valérie; Erhardt, Juergen G; Bui, Mai; Zimmermann, Michael B; Mascie-Taylor, C G Nicholas

    2014-09-01

    To provide nationally representative data on the prevalence of anaemia, vitamin A and Fe deficiencies among pre-school age children (pre-SAC) and non-pregnant women of reproductive age (WRA), and on vitamin B₁₂ and folate deficiencies in WRA, and the influence of inflammation on their interpretation. A cross-sectional survey to measure anthropometry, malaria parasitaemia and micronutrient status. Specifically, blood samples were analysed for Hb, plasma ferritin, soluble transferrin receptors, C-reactive protein, α₁-acid glycoprotein, retinol-binding protein, vitamin B₁₂ and folate. Côte d'Ivoire in 2007. Nine hundred and twenty-eight WRA and 879 pre-SAC. In WRA, prevalence of Plasmodium parasitaemia (5 %) was low, but inflammation (34 %) was higher. Anaemia was a severe public health problem and prevalence differed by residency and eco-region. Inflammation-adjusted Fe deficiency was highest in urban areas (20 %). Nationally, folate deficiency was 86 %, higher in urban areas and varied by eco-region. Prevalence of vitamin B₁₂ deficiency was low but higher in the rural areas and the north. Inflammation-adjusted vitamin A deficiency was very low (1 %). In pre-SAC, prevalence of inflammation (67 %) and Plasmodium parasites (25 %) was high; the latter was associated with poverty, rural residency and higher ferritin concentrations. Anaemia was classified as a severe public health problem (72 %), and was higher in rural areas (76 %) and the north (87 %). A quarter of pre-SAC suffered from vitamin A deficiency (inflammation-adjusted) and prevalence of undernutrition was high. Prevalence of inflammation, Plasmodium parasitaemia and micronutrient deficiencies were high in Côte d'Ivoire, particularly in pre-SAC. Nutritional interventions should be accompanied by strategies to reduce exposure to infections.

  1. Prevalence of iron deficiency with and without concurrent anemia in population groups with high prevalences of malaria and other infections: a study in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Asobayire, F S; Adou, P; Davidsson, L; Cook, J D; Hurrell, R F

    2001-12-01

    Iron deficiency is highly prevalent in most developing countries. However, its detection is often obscured by infections and inflammatory disorders that are common in the same populations. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of iron deficiency with or without concurrent anemia in different population groups from Côte d'Ivoire and to evaluate the influence of infectious and inflammatory disorders on iron-status indexes. Blood samples from 1573 children, women, and men were analyzed for hemoglobin, serum ferritin, zinc protoporphyrin, and serum transferrin receptor. C-reactive protein was used as the indicator of inflammation or infection, and samples were screened for malarial parasites and hemoglobinopathies. Iron deficiency was defined as 2 of 3 iron-status indexes outside the cutoff values, and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) was defined as iron deficiency with concurrent anemia. Pearson's correlation coefficients were used to evaluate the influence of malaria and inflammation on iron-status indexes. The prevalence of iron deficiency was 41-63% in the women and children and 13% in the men, whereas the prevalence of IDA was 20-39% in the women and children and 4% in the men. The detection of iron deficiency and IDA was obscured by the high prevalence of inflammatory disorders. Iron deficiency and IDA are highly prevalent in the women and children in Côte d'Ivoire. Iron deficiency was detected in approximately 50% of anemic women and children, which indicates that hemoglobin alone is not a good indicator of iron status when inflammatory disorders are highly prevalent. The serum transferrin receptor is the most useful single indicator of iron deficiency because it was the only iron-status index unaffected by malaria or inflammation.

  2. Field Evaluation of a Combination of Monospecific Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays for Type-Specific Diagnosis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-2 Infections in HIV-Seropositive Persons in Abidjan, Ivory Coast

    PubMed Central

    Nkengasong, John N.; Maurice, Chantal; Koblavi, Stéphania; Kalou, Mireille; Bile, Celestin; Yavo, Daniel; Boateng, Emmanuel; Wiktor, Stefan Z.; Greenberg, Alan E.

    1998-01-01

    Serologic distinction between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-2 infection is made difficult because of the cross-reactivity and high cost of existing differentiation assays. An evaluation of a strategy based on a combination of monospecific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) (CME), was carried out in Abidjan, Ivory Coast, where both HIV-1 and HIV-2 are present, to determine its accuracy and cost-effectiveness. A total of 1,608 (428 HIV-1-positive, 361 HIV-2-positive, 371 dually HIV-1 and HIV-2 [HIV-D] reactive, and 448 HIV-negative) sera that had been serotyped by a line immunoassay (Peptilav) were tested retrospectively by an HIV-1-monospecific (Wellcozyme HIV Recombinant ELISA) and an HIV-2-monospecific (ICE*-HIV-2) assay. The CME strategy gave concordant results for all of the 428 sera scored as HIV-1 by Peptilav. Of the 361 sera scored as HIV-2 by Peptilav, 316 (87.5%) were scored as HIV-2 by CME; the remaining 45 sera were positive by both monospecific ELISAs (mean optical density ratios, 1.36 for Wellcozyme and 11.30 for ICE*-HIV-2) and were classified as HIV-D by CME. Of the 371 sera classified as HIV-D by Peptilav, 344 (92.7%), 21, and 6 were scored as HIV-D, HIV-1, and HIV-2, respectively, by CME. Additional testing of the discrepant samples by two HIV differentiation assays (RIBA and INNO-LIA) gave results that agreed with those by CME for most of the sera. In addition, 267 other sera were tested prospectively by both CME and Peptilav. In the prospective evaluation, CME results agreed with those by Peptilav for all 106 HIV-1 sera and 40 of the 41 HIV-2 sera. However, of the 120 sera scored as HIV-D by Peptilav, 69 (57.5%), 47 (39.2%), and 4 (3.3%) were scored as HIV-D, HIV-1 only, and HIV-2 only, respectively, by CME. All 47 samples scored as HIV-1 by CME and two of four HIV-2 sera gave concordant results by RIBA, whereas 29 of 47 sera scored as HIV-1 by CME and all four HIV-2 sera gave concordant results by INNO-LIA. The

  3. Gender norms and economic empowerment intervention to reduce intimate partner violence against women in rural Côte d'Ivoire: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Jhumka; Falb, Kathryn L; Lehmann, Heidi; Kpebo, Denise; Xuan, Ziming; Hossain, Mazeda; Zimmerman, Cathy; Watts, Charlotte; Annan, Jeannie

    2013-11-01

    Gender-based violence against women, including intimate partner violence (IPV), is a pervasive health and human rights concern. However, relatively little intervention research has been conducted on how to reduce IPV in settings impacted by conflict. The current study reports on the evaluation of the incremental impact of adding "gender dialogue groups" to an economic empowerment group savings program on levels of IPV. This study took place in north and northwestern rural Côte d'Ivoire. Between 2010 and 2012, we conducted a two-armed, non-blinded randomized-controlled trial (RCT) comparing group savings only (control) to "gender dialogue groups" added to group savings (treatment). The gender dialogue group consisted of eight sessions that targeted women and their male partner. Eligible Ivorian women (18+ years, no prior experience with group savings) were invited to participate. 934 out of 981 (95.2%) partnered women completed baseline and endline data collection. The primary trial outcome measure was an overall measure of past-year physical and/or sexual IPV. Past year physical IPV, sexual IPV, and economic abuse were also separately assessed, as were attitudes towards justification of wife beating and a woman's ability to refuse sex with her husband. Intent to treat analyses revealed that compared to groups savings alone, the addition of gender dialogue groups resulted in a slightly lower odds of reporting past year physical and/or sexual IPV (OR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.58, 1.47; not statistically significant). Reductions in reporting of physical IPV and sexual IPV were also observed (not statistically significant). Women in the treatment group were significantly less likely to report economic abuse than control group counterparts (OR = 0.39; 95% CI: 0.25, 0.60, p < .0001). Acceptance of wife beating was significantly reduced among the treatment group (β = -0.97; 95% CI: -1.67, -0.28, p = 0.006), while attitudes towards refusal of sex did not significantly change Per

  4. Olyset Net efficacy against pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus after 3 years' field use in C te d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    N'Guessan, R; Darriet, F; Doannio, J M; Chandre, F; Carnevale, P

    2001-03-01

    Pyrethroid-impregnated bednets are advocated for personal protection against malaria vectors. To avoid the need for periodic re-treatment, it would be advantageous to have nets that retain insecticidal efficacy for years and withstand repeated washing. Such a type of commercially produced bednet with permethrin 2% incorporated in polyethylene fibres (trademark Olyset Net supplied by Sumika Life-Tech Co., Osaka, Japan) was evaluated against mosquitoes in veranda-trap huts at Yaokoffikro, near Bouaké, C te d'Ivoire, by standard WHOPES phase II procedures. Four Olyset Nets were compared with a standard untreated polyester net as control. They comprised three examples previously used in a village for over 3 years (one washed, one dirty, one very dirty) and a previously unused Olyset Net, newly unwrapped, from the same original batch. Bioassays with 3 min exposure of susceptible Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) gave >99% mortality of female mosquitoes tested on the 'new' Olyset Net. The used Olyset Nets gave mortality rates averaging 83% for the washed net, 85% for the dirty net and 55% for the very dirty net (within 24-h following 3 min exposure). Thus, Olyset Nets were found to remain remarkably effective against susceptible An. gambiae for at least 3 years under field conditions. Wild pyrethroid-resistant populations of Culex quinquefasciatus Say and An. gambiae (savanna cytotype with 96% kdr) were assessed during June-August 1999 for their responses to sleepers protected by nets in the experimental huts. With regard to hut entry by foraging female mosquitoes, Olyset Nets showed some deterrency against An. gambiae (44% reduction by the new net, approximately 20% by the dirty nets, none by the washed net), but not against Cx. quinquefasciatus. Among mosquitoes entering the hut with untreated control net, 30-34% tried to leave (exophily) but were caught in the verandah trap. The permethrin repellency of Olyset Nets increased exophily by 19% for An. gambiae

  5. Effect of deworming on school-aged children's physical fitness, cognition and clinical parameters in a malaria-helminth co-endemic area of Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Hürlimann, Eveline; Houngbedji, Clarisse A; N'Dri, Prisca B; Bänninger, Dominique; Coulibaly, Jean T; Yap, Peiling; Silué, Kigbafori D; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Raso, Giovanna; Utzinger, Jürg

    2014-07-25

    Malaria and helminth infections are thought to negatively affect children's nutritional status and to impair their physical and cognitive development. Yet, the current evidence-base is weak. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of deworming against soil-transmitted helminthiasis and schistosomiasis on children's physical fitness, cognition and clinical parameters in a malaria-helminth co-endemic setting of Côte d'Ivoire. We designed an intervention study with a 5-month follow-up among schoolchildren aged 5-14 years from Niablé, eastern Côte d'Ivoire. In late 2012, a baseline cross-sectional survey was conducted. Finger-prick blood, stool and urine samples were subjected to standardised, quality-controlled techniques for the diagnosis of Plasmodium spp., Schistosoma spp., soil-transmitted helminths and intestinal protozoa infections. Haemoglobin level was determined and anthropometric measurements were taken for appraisal of anaemia and nutritional status. Children underwent memory (digit span) and attention (code transmission) cognitive testing, and their physical fitness and strength were determined (20 m shuttle run, standing broad jump and grip strength test). All children were treated with albendazole (against soil-transmitted helminthiasis) and praziquantel (against schistosomiasis) after the baseline cross-sectional survey and again 2 months later. Five months after the initial deworming, the same battery of clinical, cognitive and physical fitness tests was performed on the same children. Lower scores in strength tests were significantly associated with children with harbouring nutritional deficiencies. Surprisingly, boys infected with Schistosoma mansoni achieved longer jumping distances than their non-infected counterparts. Light-intensity infection with S. mansoni was associated with slightly better aerobic capacity. Deworming showed no effect on haemoglobin levels and anaemia, but children with moderate- to heavy-intensity Schistosoma

  6. Low rates of antimicrobial-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in wildlife in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, surrounded by villages with high prevalence of multiresistant ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in people and domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Albrechtova, Katerina; Papousek, Ivo; De Nys, Helene; Pauly, Maude; Anoh, Etile; Mossoun, Arsene; Dolejska, Monika; Masarikova, Martina; Metzger, Sonya; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Wittig, Roman M; Klimes, Jiri; Cizek, Alois; Leendertz, Fabian H; Literak, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance genes can be found in all ecosystems, including those where antibiotic selective pressure has never been exerted. We investigated resistance genes in a collection of faecal samples of wildlife (non-human primates, mice), people and domestic animals (dogs, cats) in Côte d'Ivoire; in the chimpanzee research area of Taï National Park (TNP) and adjacent villages. Single bacteria isolates were collected from antibiotic-containing agar plates and subjected to molecular analysis to detect Enterobacteriaceae isolates with plasmid-mediated genes of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR). While the prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli in the villages was 27% in people (n = 77) and 32% in dogs (n = 38), no ESBL-producer was found in wildlife of TNP (n = 75). PMQR genes, mainly represented by qnrS1, were also present in human- and dog-originating isolates from the villages (36% and 42% in people and dogs, respectively), but no qnrS has been found in the park. In TNP, different variants of qnrB were detected in Citrobacter freundii isolates originating non-human primates and mice. In conclusion, ESBL and PMQR genes frequently found in humans and domestic animals in the villages were rather exceptional in wildlife living in the protected area. Although people enter the park, the strict biosecurity levels they are obliged to follow probably impede transmission of bacteria between them and wildlife.

  7. The Effects of an Oil and Wheat Flour Fortification Program on Pre-School Children and Women of Reproductive Age Living in Côte d'Ivoire, a Malaria-Endemic Area.

    PubMed

    Rohner, Fabian; Raso, Giovanna; Aké-Tano, Sassor Odile P; Tschannen, Andreas B; Mascie-Taylor, Christopher Guy Nicholas; Northrop-Clewes, Christine A

    2016-03-07

    Anemia and micronutrient deficiencies are widespread in sub-Saharan Africa, but the impact of food fortification is still debated. The objective of this study was to estimate the iron and vitamin A status of preschool children (PSC) and women of reproductive age (WRA) in households consuming fortified oil and wheat flour. The survey was cross-sectional in a rural and an urban area. Data on demographics, socioeconomic status, and fortified foods were collected at households. Hemoglobin (Hb), retinol binding protein (RBP), ferritin, soluble transferrin receptors (sTfR), subclinical inflammation, and Plasmodium spp. infection data were collected. In PSC, vitamin A deficiency (VAD) was prevalent, but for each 1 mg retinol equivalents (RE)/kg of oil consumed, RBP increased by 0.37 μmol/L (p = 0.03). In WRA, there was no significant VAD in the population (0.7%). Anemia was found in 92.2% of rural and 56.3% of urban PSC (p < 0.001). PSC with access to adequately fortified flour had Hb concentrations 15.7 g/L higher than those who did not (p < 0.001). Hb levels increased by +0.238 g/L per mg/kg increase in iron fortification levels (p < 0.001). The national program fortifying vegetable oil with vitamin A and wheat flour with iron and folic acid may have contributed to improved micronutrient status of PSC from two areas in Côte d'Ivoire.

  8. Efficacy of Olyset® Duo, a permethrin and pyriproxyfen mixture net against wild pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae s.s. from Côte d'Ivoire: an experimental hut trial.

    PubMed

    Koffi, Alphonsine A; Ahoua Alou, Ludovic P; Djenontin, Armel; Kabran, Jean-Paul K; Dosso, Youssouf; Kone, Aboubacar; Moiroux, Nicolas; Pennetier, Cedric

    2015-01-01

    Pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors has spread across sub-Saharan Africa. Alternative tools and molecules are urgently needed for effective vector control. One of the most promising strategies to prevent or delay the development of resistance is to use at least two molecules having unrelated modes of action in combination in the same bed net. We evaluated in experimental huts in Côte d'Ivoire, a new polyethylene long-lasting insecticidal net (LN) product, Olyset® Duo, incorporating permethrin (PER) and pyriproxyfen (PPF), an insect growth regulator (IGR). PPF alone or in combination with permethrin had a significant impact on fertility (7-12% reduction relative to control) and no effect on fecundity of wild multi-resistant An. gambiae s.s. These results triggered crucial research questions on the behaviour of targeted mosquitoes around the LN. To maximize the sterilizing effect of PPF in the combination, there would be a need for a trade-off between the necessary contact time of the insect with PPF and the surface content of the pyrethroid insecticide that is bioavailable and induces excito-repellency. © A.A. Koffi et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2015.

  9. Evidence for selection of insecticide resistance due to insensitive acetylcholinesterase by carbamate-treated nets in Anopheles gambiae s.s. (Diptera: Culicidae) from Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Corbel, Vincent; Hougard, Jean-Marc; N'Guessan, Raphael; Chandre, Fabrice

    2003-11-01

    Pyrethroid-treated nets are an efficient tool for reducing malaria transmission and morbidity. The recent evolution of pyrethroid resistance in several Anopheles species represents a major threat for the future success of roll back malaria in Africa. The possible use of nonpyrethroid insecticides, such as carbamates, on nets is a promising alternative solution because these insecticides are effective against susceptible and pyrethroid-resistant populations of Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes. Unfortunately, carbamate resistance as a result of insensitive acetylcholinesterase has recently been detected in Anopheles gambiae s.s. populations from Côte d'Ivoire. Using biochemical assays on surviving Anopheles mosquitoes from an experimental hut trial, we showed evidence for selection for an insensitive acetylcholinesterase mechanism by carbamate impregnated bednets. However, no such selection has been found with nets treated with pyrethroid alone or pyrethroid/carbamate "two-in-one" -treated nets. Because pyrethroid-impregnated nets were suspected to select for the Kdr mutation in An. gambiae, we propose that use of two-in-one nets could be a promising alternative strategy for the management of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors.

  10. Stage determination and therapeutic decision in human African trypanosomiasis: value of polymerase chain reaction and immunoglobulin M quantification on the cerebrospinal fluid of sleeping sickness patients in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Jamonneau, V; Solano, P; Garcia, A; Lejon, V; Djé, N; Miezan, T W; N'Guessan, P; Cuny, G; Büscher, P

    2003-07-01

    In human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), two disease stages are defined: the first, or haemo-lymphatic stage, and the second, or meningo-encephalitic stage. Stage determination forms the basis of therapeutic decision and is of prime importance, as the drug used to cure second-stage patients has considerable side-effects. However, the tests currently used for stage determination have low sensitivity or specificity. Two new tests for stage determination in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were evaluated on 73 patients diagnosed with HAT in Côte d'Ivoire. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detecting trypanosome DNA (PCR/CSF) is an indirect test for trypanosome detection whereas the latex agglutination test detecting immunoglobulin M (LATEX/IgM) is an indicator for neuro-inflammation. Both tests were compared with classically used tests, double centrifugation and white blood cell count of the CSF. PCR/CSF appeared to be the most sensitive test (96%), and may be of use to improve stage determination. However, its value for therapeutic decision appears limited, as patients whose CSF was positive with PCR were successfully treated with pentamidine. This result confirms those of previous works that showed that some patients with trypanosomes in the CSF could be treated successfully with pentamidine. LATEX/IgM, which depending on the cut-off, showed lower sensitivity of 76% and 88%, but higher specificity of 83% and 71% for LATEX/IgM 16 and LATEX/IgM 8 respectively, appears more appropriate for therapeutic decision making.

  11. The use of insecticide-treated nets for reducing malaria morbidity among children aged 6-59 months, in an area of high malaria transmission in central Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are an important tool for controlling malaria. Much attention has been devoted to determine both the effect of LLINs on the reduction of Plasmodium infection rate and on clinically-confirmed malaria cases in sub-Saharan Africa. We carried out an epidemiological study to investigate whether LLINs impact on Plasmodium prevalence rate and the proportion of clinically-confirmed malaria cases, in five villages in the district of Toumodi, central Côte d'Ivoire. Methods From April 2007 to November 2008, a community-based malaria control programme was implemented in the study villages, which involved large-scale distribution of LLINs, and training and sensitization activities within the community. We determined the effect of this programme on Plasmodium prevalence rate, clinically-confirmed malaria cases and proportion of high parasitaemia rates in children aged 6-59 months through a series of cross-sectional surveys starting in April 2007 and repeated once every 6 months. Results We observed a significant decrease in the mean P. falciparum prevalence rate from April 2007 to April 2008 (p = 0.029). An opposite trend was observed from November 2007 to November 2008 when P. falciparum prevalence rate increased significantly (p = 0.003). Highly significant decreases in the proportions of clinical malaria cases were observed between April 2007 and April 2008 (p < 0.001), and between November 2007 and November 2008 (p = 0.001). Conclusions Large-scale distribution of LLINs, accompanied by training and sensitization activities, significantly reduced Plasmodium prevalence rates among young children in the first year of the project, whereas overall clinical malaria rates dropped over the entire 18-month project period. A decrease in community motivation to sleep under bed nets, perhaps along with changing patterns of malaria transmission, might explain the observed increase in the Plasmodium prevalence rate between November 2007

  12. [Evaluation of the efficacity of coconut (Cocos nucifera), palm nut (Eleais guineensis) and gobi (Carapa procera) lotions and creams in indivirual protection against Simulium damnosum s.l. bites in Côte d'Ivoire].

    PubMed

    Sylla, M; Konan, L; Doannio, J M; Traoré, S

    2003-05-01

    With the interruption of larva treatments done by OCP as part of onchocerciasis control in West Africa, Simulium came back in abundance in forest regions and savannah fertile valleys. In addition to the severe discomfort, nuisance by Simulium is in certain cases incompatible with land use. Since ground treatment of larval breading sites using insecticides is not always possible or efficient, it is therefore a necessity to develop other methods among which individual protection against Simulium bites. The general objective of our study was to evaluate different vegetable oil compound repellent formulas against Simulium bites. Activities were carried out in savannah zone (Niakaramandougou) and in forest zone (Soubré) in Côte d'Ivoire. The methodology consisted in catching blackflies on volunteers whose legs were rubbed with a repellent. Gobi raw oil and coconut, palm nut and gobi formulas (lotions and creams) were tested. During each session, which lasted from 07:00 am to 12:00 and from 03:00 pm to 06:00 pm, one person did not apply any repellent and was used as the control person. The results of our experimentations show that for a given zone (savannah, forest), a repellent (coconut, palm nut, gobi) and a compound (shea butter, vaseline), there is no significant difference between protection rates obtained with lotions (maximum: 21 bites/person/day) and those obtained with creams (maximum: 30 bites/person/day). In other respects, the lotion of a given repellent seems to be efficient in savannah as in the forest, in protecting against Simulium bites. It is the same situation with creams. So, repellents can be an efficient solution against Simulium nuisance. However, experimentations should continue to confirm the high repellency of tested formulas, proceed to the identification of principles and evaluate the toxicity and irritant effect of repellents to be applied on the skin.

  13. Assessments of serum copper and zinc concentration, and the Cu/Zn ratio determination in patients with multidrug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Bahi, Gnogbo Alexis; Boyvin, Lydie; Méité, Souleymane; M'Boh, Gervais Melaine; Yeo, Kadjowely; N'Guessan, Kouassi Raymond; Bidié, Alain Dit Philippe; Djaman, Allico Joseph

    2017-04-11

    In Côte d'Ivoire, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a serious public health problem with a prevalence estimated at 2.5% in 2006. Zinc and copper are essential Trace element needed to strengthen the immune system and also useful in the fight against tuberculosis. The Cu / Zn ratio is a good indicator of oxidative stress. The principal aim of this study was to evaluate the serum concentration of some trace element and determine the Cu / Zn ratio in patients with multidrug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis (MDR-TB) before and after second line treatment of TB. Blood samples were obtained from 100 MDR-TB patients after confirmation of their status through the microscopic and molecular diagnosis of resistance to Isoniazid and Rifampicin by GeneXpert. The concentration level of zinc and copper were determined using flame air / acetylene atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS) Type Varian Spectr AA-20 Victoria, Australlia. A significant decrease in zinc levels (P < 0.05) and an increased Cu / Zn ratio (P < 0.05) was observed in MDR-TB patients compared to controls TB free. During treatment a significant reduction in Cu / Zn ratio (P < 0.05) was observed compared to the initial result. The decrease in serum zinc level and the high Cu / Zn ratio could explain the immune system dysfunction and the high level of oxidative stress in patients with MDR-TB. Therefore the evaluation of the zinc and copper status could represent essential parameters in monitoring of TB second line treatment for better treatment management.

  14. Real-time PCR for detection of Strongyloides stercoralis in human stool samples from Côte d'Ivoire: diagnostic accuracy, inter-laboratory comparison and patterns of hookworm co-infection.

    PubMed

    Becker, Sören L; Piraisoody, Nivetha; Kramme, Stefanie; Marti, Hanspeter; Silué, Kigbafori D; Panning, Marcus; Nickel, Beatrice; Kern, Winfried V; Herrmann, Mathias; Hatz, Christoph F; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Utzinger, Jürg; von Müller, Lutz

    2015-10-01

    Human infections with the helminth species Strongyloides stercoralis encompass a wide clinical spectrum, ranging from asymptomatic carriage to life-threatening disease. The diagnosis of S. stercoralis is cumbersome and the sensitivity of conventional stool microscopy is low. New molecular tools have been developed to increase sensitivity. We compared the diagnostic accuracy of real-time PCR with microscopy for the detection of S. stercoralis and hookworm in human stool samples, and investigated the inter-laboratory agreement of S. stercoralis-specific real-time PCR in two European laboratories. Stool specimens from 256 randomly selected individuals in rural Côte d'Ivoire were examined using three microscopic techniques (i.e. Kato-Katz, Koga agar plate (KAP) and Baermann (BM)). Additionally, ethanol-fixed stool aliquots were subjected to molecular diagnosis. The prevalence of S. stercoralis and hookworm infection was 21.9% and 52.0%, respectively, whilst co-infections were detected in 35 (13.7%) participants. The diagnostic agreement between real-time PCR and microscopy was excellent when both KAP and BM tested positive for S. stercoralis, but was considerably lower when only one microscopic technique was positive. The sensitivity of KAP, BM and real-time PCR for detection of S. stercoralis as compared to a combination of all diagnostic techniques was 21.4%, 37.5% and 76.8%, respectively. The inter-laboratory agreement of S. stercoralis-specific PCR was substantial (κ=0.63, p<0.001). We conclude that a combination of real-time PCR and stool microscopy shows high accuracy for S. stercoralis diagnosis. Besides high sensitivity, PCR may also enhance specificity by reducing microscopic misdiagnosis of morphologically similar helminth larvae (i.e. hookworm and S. stercoralis) in settings where both helminth species co-exist.

  15. Effects of inflammation and Plasmodium falciparum infection on soluble transferrin receptor and plasma ferritin concentration in different age groups: a prospective longitudinal study in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Righetti, Aurélie A; Wegmüller, Rita; Glinz, Dominik; Ouattara, Mamadou; Adiossan, Lukas G; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Utzinger, Jürg; Hurrell, Richard F

    2013-06-01

    Iron deficiency (ID) is a major cause of anemia, along with other nutritional, parasitic, and genetic factors. Accurate biomarkers are needed to estimate the relative contribution of ID to anemia. Soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) is thought to be unaffected by inflammation. The objectives were to determine the difference in sTfR and plasma ferritin (PF) concentrations among infants (6-23 mo of age), school-age children (6-8 y of age), and women (15-25 y of age) with and without inflammation and with and without Plasmodium falciparum infection and to assess the effect of adjusting sTfR and PF for inflammation or for P. falciparum infection on the estimated prevalence of ID. The data were derived from a 14-mo prospective longitudinal survey on anemia, which was conducted in the Taabo area, south-central Côte d'Ivoire. At baseline, sTfR concentration was significantly higher in infants and school-age children with either inflammation or P. falciparum infection than in control individuals without inflammation or without P. falciparum infection. Individuals with inflammation had significantly higher PF concentrations than did subjects without inflammation. Adjustments in sTfR concentrations for inflammation or P. falciparum infection in infants and school-age children resulted in significantly lower ID prevalence. Adjustment of PF for inflammation and Plasmodium infection resulted in a higher ID prevalence in infants and women. In Ivorian infants and school-age children, ID prevalence was considerably lower after adjustment of sTfR for inflammation. However, as the prevalence estimates for ID differed widely if based on sTfR or PF, caution is still needed when estimating ID prevalence in areas with a high prevalence of inflammation or malaria. This trial was registered at controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN02181959.

  16. First highlights of the Dynamics-Aerosol-Chemistry-Cloud Interactions in West Africa (DACCIWA) field campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liousse, C.; Knippertz, P.; Flamant, C.; Adon, J.; Akpo, A.; Annesi-Maesano, I.; Assamoi, E.; Baeza, A.; Julien, B.; Bedou, M.; Brooks, B. J.; Chiu, J. Y. C.; Chiron, C.; Coe, H.; Danuor, S.; Djossou, J.; Evans, M. J.; Fayomi, B.; Fink, A. H.; Galy-Lacaux, C.; Gardrat, E.; Jegede, O.; Kalthoff, N.; Kedote, M.; Keita, S.; Kouame, K.; Konare, A.; Leon, J. F.; Mari, C. H.; Lohou, F.; Roblou, L.; Schlager, H.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Toure, E. N.; Veronique, Y.

    2016-12-01

    The EU-funded project DACCIWA (Dynamics-Aerosol-Chemistry-Cloud Interactions in West Africa) is investigating the relationship between weather, climate, air pollution and health in southern West Africa. The air over the coastal region of West Africa is a unique mixture of natural and anthropogenic gases, liquids and particles, emitted in an environment, in which multi-layer cloud decks frequently form. These exert a large influence on the local weather and climate, which has never been studied in detail over West Africa: this information is currently not included in the majority of weather and climate models. For the first time, the entire chain of impacts of natural and manmade emissions on the West African atmosphere was investigated in a coordinated field campaign. As part of this campaign, three research aircraft (Falcon 20, Twin Otter and ATR) based in Lomé (Togo) flew targeted 50 missions over West Africa from 27 June to 16 July 2016. In that campaign also, three highly instrumented measuring sites inland were set up with weather balloons launched several times a day across the region. The main objective was to build robust statistics of cloud properties in southern West Africa in different chemical landscapes (background state, ship/flaring emissions, polluted megacities, agricultural and forest areas, dust from the Sahel/Sahara). In addition, DACCIWA scientists working on measurements of urban emissions, air pollution, and health have set up four urban sites in Abidjan (Cote d'Ivoire) and Cotonou (Benin) focusing on main specific regional combustion sources (domestic fires, traffic and waste burning). Long-term measurements of gases and particles and census of hospital admissions for respiratory diseases were started in January 2015 and will continue until March 2017 to determine the links between human health and air pollution. Intensive measurement periods took place in July 2015, January 2016, and July 2016 (a final one is planned for January 2017) in

  17. Africa: Prosperous times

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    Political instability and corruption is the rule, rather than the exception, in Africa`s main producing regions, but exploration and production prospects there are bright and attractive to foreign operators. The paper discusses exploration, drilling, resource development, and production in Nigeria, Libya, Algeria, Egypt, Angola, Congo, Gabon, and Tunisia. The other countries of Africa are briefly mentioned, i.e., Cameroon, Cote D`Ivoire, South Africa, Sudan, Namibia, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Zaire, Mozambique, Ghana, Niger, and Seychelles.

  18. Chemical composition of Ivorian Artabotrys insignis leaf oil. Combined analysis including (13)C NMR, to quantify germacrene A and β-elemene.

    PubMed

    Gooré, Stéphane G; Ouattara, Zana A; Yapi, Thierry A; Békro, Yves-Alain; Tomi, Pierre; Paoli, Mathieu; Tomi, Félix

    2017-02-20

    The chemical composition of leaf essential oil from Artabotrys insignis Engler & Diels collected from Cote d'Ivoire was determined by GC(FID), GC-MS and (13)C NMR. The main compounds were β-elemene (66.8%) and germacrene A (17.1%). The true content of germacrene A/β-elemene was obtained by combining GC(FID) and (13)C NMR data.

  19. Youth access to cigarettes in six sub-Saharan African countries.

    PubMed

    Chandora, Rachna; Song, Yang; Chaussard, Martine; Palipudi, Krishna Mohan; Lee, Kyung Ah; Ramanandraibe, Nivo; Asma, Samira

    2016-10-01

    Tobacco smoking is initiated and established mostly during adolescence. The World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) Article 16 outlines the obligation of parties to prohibit the sale of tobacco products to minors. This study examined where and how student smokers obtain cigarettes. We examined Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data from 2009 to 2011 on cigarette access among students aged 13-15 in six sub-Saharan African countries. In all countries analyzed, over 20% of student smokers obtained their cigarettes in a store or shop (52.6% in South Africa, 37.7% in Republic of Congo, 28.2% in Swaziland, 27.4% in Cote d'Ivoire, 26.9% in Ghana, and 22.6% in Uganda). In Cote d'Ivoire and South Africa, 68.9% and 68.7% of student cigarette smokers, respectively, were not refused the sale of cigarettes because of age. The percentage of students who were offered free cigarettes by a tobacco company representative ranged from 4.7% in Cote d'Ivoire to 12.1% in South Africa. The method of obtaining cigarettes and access to cigarettes among students varies among sub-Saharan African countries. Adopting and enforcing interventions that prevent youth from accessing tobacco products could be an effective strategy for reducing smoking initiation among youth in sub-Saharan African countries. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Drought in West Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Drought settled over West Africa's Ivory Coast region when wet season rains came late in 2007. Instead of beginning in February, the rainy season didn't start until March, and steady rains didn't start until late March, said the Famine Early Warning System Network. Though the rain had started to alleviate the drought, vegetation was still depressed in parts of Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) between March 22 and April 6, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured the data used to make this image. The image shows current vegetation conditions compared to average conditions recorded since 2000. Areas where plants are growing more slowly or more sparsely than average are brown, while areas where vegetation is denser than average are green. The brown tint that dominates the image indicates that plants through most of the country are more sparse than normal. Among the crops affected by the lack of rain was West Africa's cocoa crop. About 70 percent of the world's cocoa comes from West Africa, and Cote d'Ivoire is a top grower, said Reuters. Cocoa prices climbed as the crop fell short. Farmers called the drought the worst in living memory, Reuters said. The delay in rainfall also led to water shortages in parts of Cote d'Ivoire, according to the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.

  1. Migration as a risk factor for measles after a mass vaccination campaign, Burkina Faso, 2002.

    PubMed

    Yaméogo, K Robert; Perry, Robert T; Yaméogo, André; Kambiré, Chantal; Kondé, M Kader; Nshimirimana, Déogratias; Kezaala, Robert; Hersh, Bradley S; Cairns, K Lisa; Strebel, Peter

    2005-06-01

    Shortly after a measles supplementary immunization activity (SIA) targeting children from 9 months to 14 years of age that achieved high coverage, Burkina Faso had a large, serologically confirmed measles outbreak. To investigate the causes of this first reported failure of a widely successful measles control strategy we conducted a case-control study. Serologically confirmed measles cases aged > or =9 months at the time of the SIA in 6 heavily affected districts were frequency matched on age to 3 controls recruited from people frequenting health centres in the same districts. Between January and July 2002, 1287 measles cases were reported throughout Burkina Faso. Of the 707 cases that were serologically confirmed, 358 (51%) were from 9 months to 14 years of age and 265 (37%) were > or =15 years of age. Among cases and controls from 9 months to 14 years of age significant risk factors for measles were lack of measles vaccination and, in the unvaccinated, recent travel to Cote d'Ivoire. Of the recent measles cases in Cote d'Ivoire 54% were there when exposed to measles. Among adults, risk factors included non-vaccination and the lack of school attendance during childhood. Vaccine effectiveness was estimated to be 98%. Migration of children between Cote d'Ivoire and Burkina Faso played a major role in the failure of the SIA to interrupt measles transmission. Synchronization of measles control activities should be a high priority in countries with regions where much migration occurs.

  2. Drought in West Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Drought settled over West Africa's Ivory Coast region when wet season rains came late in 2007. Instead of beginning in February, the rainy season didn't start until March, and steady rains didn't start until late March, said the Famine Early Warning System Network. Though the rain had started to alleviate the drought, vegetation was still depressed in parts of Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) between March 22 and April 6, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured the data used to make this image. The image shows current vegetation conditions compared to average conditions recorded since 2000. Areas where plants are growing more slowly or more sparsely than average are brown, while areas where vegetation is denser than average are green. The brown tint that dominates the image indicates that plants through most of the country are more sparse than normal. Among the crops affected by the lack of rain was West Africa's cocoa crop. About 70 percent of the world's cocoa comes from West Africa, and Cote d'Ivoire is a top grower, said Reuters. Cocoa prices climbed as the crop fell short. Farmers called the drought the worst in living memory, Reuters said. The delay in rainfall also led to water shortages in parts of Cote d'Ivoire, according to the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.

  3. 27 CFR 12.31 - List of approved names by country.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Vougeot, Corton, Corton-Charlemagne, Cote de Beaune, Cote de Beaune-Villages, Cote de Brouilly, Cote de Nuits, Cote de Nuits-Villages, Cote Rotie, Coteaux du Layon, Cotes du Rhone, Echezeaux, Entre-Deux-Mers...

  4. Population-level impact of an accelerated HIV response plan to reach the UNAIDS 90-90-90 target in Côte d'Ivoire: Insights from mathematical modeling.

    PubMed

    Maheu-Giroux, Mathieu; Vesga, Juan F; Diabaté, Souleymane; Alary, Michel; Baral, Stefan; Diouf, Daouda; Abo, Kouamé; Boily, Marie-Claude

    2017-06-01

    National responses will need to be markedly accelerated to achieve the ambitious target of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). This target aims for 90% of HIV-positive individuals to be aware of their status, for 90% of those aware to receive antiretroviral therapy (ART), and for 90% of those on treatment to have a suppressed viral load by 2020, with each individual target reaching 95% by 2030. We aimed to estimate the impact of various treatment-as-prevention scenarios in Côte d'Ivoire, one of the countries with the highest HIV incidence in West Africa, with unmet HIV prevention and treatment needs, and where key populations are important to the broader HIV epidemic. An age-stratified dynamic model was developed and calibrated to epidemiological and programmatic data using a Bayesian framework. The model represents sexual and vertical HIV transmission in the general population, female sex workers (FSW), and men who have sex with men (MSM). We estimated the impact of scaling up interventions to reach the UNAIDS targets, as well as the impact of 8 other scenarios, on HIV transmission in adults and children, compared to our baseline scenario that maintains 2015 rates of testing, ART initiation, ART discontinuation, treatment failure, and levels of condom use. In 2015, we estimated that 52% (95% credible intervals: 46%-58%) of HIV-positive individuals were aware of their status, 72% (57%-82%) of those aware were on ART, and 77% (74%-79%) of those on ART were virologically suppressed. Reaching the UNAIDS targets on time would avert 50% (42%-60%) of new HIV infections over 2015-2030 compared to 30% (25%-36%) if the 90-90-90 target is reached in 2025. Attaining the UNAIDS targets in FSW, their clients, and MSM (but not in the rest of the population) would avert a similar fraction of new infections (30%; 21%-39%). A 25-percentage-point drop in condom use from the 2015 levels among FSW and MSM would reduce the impact of reaching the UNAIDS targets

  5. Comparative efficacy of uncontrolled and controlled intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy (IPTp) with combined use of LLTNs in high resistance area to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Offianan, A Toure; Penali, Louis K; Coulibaly, Ma; Tiacoh, Nl; Ako, Aab; Adji, Eg; Coulibaly, B; Koffi, D; Sarr, D; Jambou, R; Kone, M

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, intermittent preventive treatment for pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) has become policy in much of sub-Saharan Africa. But resistance to SP has been spreading across sub-Saharan Africa and thus the effectiveness of IPTp-SP has been questioned. The present study therefore sought to assess the incidence of placental malaria, low birth weight, and anemia of two IPTp-SP approaches (directly observed treatment scheme versus no directly observed treatment) in Anonkoua-Kouté and Samo, Côte d'Ivoire where the reported prevalence of dfr single mutant 108 was 62% and 52.2%, respectively. The study was a longitudinal design involving pregnant women and was conducted in Anonkoua-Kouté, a suburban area, and Samo, a rural area, from January 2008 through March 2009. Women of a pregnancy less than 28 weeks duration were randomized to receive SP (1.5 g/0.075 g SP) in a single intake twice and were followed up monthly until delivery. Doses were administered under supervision in the controlled IPTp group, while SP was given free to women in the uncontrolled IPTp group with a recommendation to take it at home. The primary end point was the proportion of low birth weight infants (body weight < 2500 g) and the secondary end point was the rate of severe anemia and placental malaria detected at delivery. A total of 420 pregnant women were enrolled (212 and 208, respectively, in the controlled and uncontrolled groups). Delivery outcome was available for 378 women. In the modified intention-to-treat analysis, low birth weight infants were born from 15.5% of women of the uncontrolled IPTp group and from 11.9% of women in the controlled IPTp group (P = 0.31). The per-protocol population analysis showed consistent results. The proportion of women with placental malaria infection, moderate anemia (hemoglobin < 11 g/dL), and severe anemia (hemoglobin < 8 g/dL) at delivery were similar between the two groups (P > 0.05). The study showed that the two

  6. 6Questionnaire-based approach to assess schoolchildren's physical fitness and its potential role in exploring the putative impact of helminth and Plasmodium spp. infections in Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Disability weights (DWs) are important for estimating burden of disease in terms of disability-adjusted life years. The previous practice of eliciting DWs by expert opinion has been challenged. More recent approaches employed quality of life (QoL) questionnaires to establish patient-based DWs, but results are ambiguous. Methods In early 2010, we administered a questionnaire pertaining to physical fitness to 200 schoolchildren in Côte d'Ivoire. Helminth and Plasmodium spp. infections were determined and schoolchildren's physical fitness objectively measured in a maximal multistage 20 m shuttle run test. Associations between objectively measured and self-reported physical fitness and between self-reported physical fitness and infection status were determined. Spearman rank correlation coefficient, uni- and multivariable linear regression models adjusting for children's age and sex, ambient air temperature and humidity, Fisher's test, χ² and t-test statistics were used for statistical analysis. Results The prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium, Plasmodium spp., Schistosoma mansoni, hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides in 167 children with complete parasitological results was 84.4%, 74.9%, 54.5%, 14.4% and 1.2%, respectively. High infection intensities and multiple species parasite infections were common. In the 137 children with complete data also from the shuttle run test, we found statistically significant correlations between objectively measured and self-reported physical fitness. However, no statistically significant correlation between the children's parasitic infection status and self-reported physical fitness was identified. An attrition analysis revealed considerably lower self-reported physical fitness scores of parasitized children who were excluded from shuttle run testing due to medical concerns in comparison to parasitized children who were able to successfully complete the shuttle run test. Conclusions Our QoL questionnaire proofed valid to

  7. [Prevalence and polyparasitism of intestinal protozoa and spatial distribution of Entamoeba histolytica, E. dispar and Giardia intestinalis from pupils in the rural zone of Man in Côte d'Ivoire].

    PubMed

    Ouattara, Mamadou; Silué, Kigbafori Dieudonné; N'Guéssan, Aya Nicaise; Yapi, Ahoua; Barbara, Matthys; Raso, Giovanna; Utzinger, Juerg; N'Goran, Eliezer

    2008-01-01

    Diseases caused by environmental contamination by micro-organisms, including intestinal helminths and protozoa, are prevalent in developing countries. According to some authors, their strong expansion in some zones of these countries is due primarily to favourable climatic conditions, combined with inadequate hygiene measures and cleaning and the generally low socio-economic level. Progress in disease control has resulted from new studies that improve our understanding of the epidemiology of helminthiases and from the availability of simple tools that are inexpensive and effective against these diseases (chemotherapy with albendazole and mebendazole). On the other hand, surprisingly few such studies have looked at intestinal protozoa, although the WHO reports that approximately 480 million individuals throughout the world are infested by amoebiasis caused by the protozoon Entamoeba histolytica and that 40,000-110,000 people die from it each year. Giardiasis, a cosmopolitan parasitosis, is due to another intestinal protozoon called Giardia intestinalis. To help develop a database on these parasites, we conducted a cross-sectional epidemiological survey in the Man region in western Côte d'Ivoire. Its objectives were to determine the prevalence of intestinal protozoa, to evaluate polyparasitism and to assess the spatial distribution of the pathogenic protozoal species, E. histolytica and G. intestinalis. Overall, 4466 stools samples taken from pupils aged 6 to 16 years of age at 57 different schools were analyzed under an optical microscope by the formol-ether stool concentration method, after preservation in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin (SAF). The most common protozoa species in this area wer