Science.gov

Sample records for abies concolor gord

  1. Abies concolor growth responses to vegatation changes following shrub removal, northern Sierra Nevada, California. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Conard, S.G.; Sparks, S.R.

    1993-08-01

    Conifer productivity in western North America is often severely inhibited by competing vegetation. Abies concolor (Gord, and Glendl.) Lindl. (white fir) is an important species over much of this area, yet little information is available on response of A. concolor to vegetation management treatments. We revisited two sites in the northern Sierra Nevada to assess the responses of naturally regenerated A. concolor saplings to vegetation recovery 8-9 years after release treatments. Treatments caused major and persistent shifts in vegetation structure and composition on both sites. Differences in individual tree growth within treatments were strongly correlated with structure and composition of neighboring vegetation, even where no treatment effects were observed. Great variability in response between sites illustrates the strong effect of site characteristics on response to release treatments and the importance to managers of anticipating such differences before making treatment decisions.

  2. Growth rate predicts mortality of Abies concolor in both burned and unburned stands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Mantgem, Phillip J.; Stephenson, Nathan L.; Mutch, Linda S.; Johnson, Veronica G.; Esperanza, Annie M.; Parsons, David J.

    2003-01-01

    Tree mortality is often the result of both long-term and short-term stress. Growth rate, an indicator of long-term stress, is often used to estimate probability of death in unburned stands. In contrast, probability of death in burned stands is modeled as a function of short-term disturbance severity. We sought to narrow this conceptual gap by determining (i) whether growth rate, in addition to crown scorch, is a predictor of mortality in burned stands and (ii) whether a single, simple model could predict tree death in both burned and unburned stands. Observations of 2622 unburned and 688 burned Abies concolor (Gord. & Glend.) Lindl. (white fir) in the Sierra Nevada of California, U.S.A., indicated that growth rate was a significant predictor of mortality in the unburned stands, while both crown scorch and radial growth were significant predictors of mortality in the burned stands. Applying the burned stand model to unburned stands resulted in an overestimation of the unburned stand mortality rate. While failing to create a general model of tree death for A. concolor, our findings underscore the idea that similar processes may affect mortality in disturbed and undisturbed stands.

  3. Population differentiation in tree-ring growth response of white fir (Abies concolor) to climate: Implications for predicting forest responses to climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Deborah Bowne

    1993-01-01

    Forest succession models and correlative models have predicted 200--650 kilometer shifts in the geographic range of temperate forests and forest species as one response to global climate change. Few studies have investigated whether population differences may effect the response of forest species to climate change. This study examines differences in tree-ring growth, and in the phenotypic plasticity of tree-ring growth in 16-year old white fir, Abies concolor, from ten populations grown in four common gardens in the Sierra Nevada of California. For each population, tree-ring growth was modelled as a function of precipitation and degree-day sums. Tree-ring growth under three scenarios of doubled CO2 climates was estimated.

  4. Sierra San Pedro Mártir, Baja California, cool-season precipitation reconstructed from earlywood width of Abies concolor tree rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meko, D. M.; Touchan, R.; Díaz, J. Villanueva; Griffin, D.; Woodhouse, C. A.; Castro, C. L.; Carillo, C.; Leavitt, S. W.

    2013-12-01

    Tree ring data are analyzed for a multicentury record of drought history in the Sierra San Pedro Mártir (SSPM) of Baja California, Mexico. Climatic variation in the study area is of particular interest because the SSPM is a rich biotic environment at the southern limit of the California floristic province and the southern limit of the planetary jet stream. Future shifts in the jet stream would be expected to have amplified effect on this marginal environment. The study applies linear regression to tree ring indices of earlywood-width of Abies concolor to estimate a 353 year (1658-2010 C.E.) record of cool-season (October-April) precipitation, P, in SSPM. Time-nested regression models account for more than half the variance of grid point P in calibration periods of length 50-65 years. Cross-spectral analysis indicates strong tracking of observed P by the reconstruction over a broad range of frequencies. Robustness of the reconstruction is supported by synchrony of reconstructed P with tree ring variations in other tree species from SSPM. The reconstruction emphasizes the severity of the 1950s drought in a long-term context and the single-year intensity of droughts in the last decade: 2007 stands out as the driest reconstructed year, with a high percentage of missing rings in A. concolor. The reconstruction identifies the early twentieth century pluvial as the wettest epoch in the last 353 years in the SSPM. High-elevation tree species in SSPM may be especially well-suited to sensing snowpack-related moisture variations associated with a southerly branched jet stream and the types of weather systems active in the pluvial.

  5. ABI 007.

    PubMed

    2003-01-01

    ABI 007 is an albumin-stabilised nanoparticle formulation of paclitaxel designed to overcome insolubility problems encountered with paclitaxel. This then eliminates the need for toxic solvents like cremophor, which limits the dose of paclitaxel that can be administered and hence effect overall drug efficacy. ABI 007 is being developed for the treatment of a variety of tumour types by American Pharmaceutical Partners. In addition to the standard infusion formulation of ABI 007, oral and pulmonary delivery formulations are also being investigated. American Pharmaceutical Partners, a subsidiary of American BioScience, secured exclusive North American marketing and manufacturing rights to ABI 007 from American BioScience in November 2001. American BioScience completed a phase III study in the US in metastatic breast cancer patients in early 2003. An indication for which ABI 007 was granted fast track status in January 2003. The phase III study directly compared the efficacy of ABI 007 260 mg/m(2) with paclitaxel 175 mg/m(2). Both agents were administered every 3 weeks. ABI 007 was administered as a 30-minute infusion without steroid pretreatment. Paclitaxel-treated patients received steroid pretreatment and the drug was administered over 3 hours. In October 2002, a Data Monitoring Committee concluded that a sample size adjustment of the phase III trial would not be required and that the study can be continued to completion. Enrolment was completed in December 2002 with 460 first- and second-line metastatic breast cancer patients enrolled. The results were expected to be unblinded in mid-2003. A phase II trial of ABI 007 is also underway in metastatic breast cancer patients who have failed taxane therapy. The trial is evaluating a weekly rather than 3-weekly regimen of ABI 007. Earlier, in May 2003, American Pharmaceutical Partners reported that ABI 007 is also being evaluated for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer, ovarian cancer, melanoma and cervical cancers

  6. ABI 007.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    ABI 007 [Abraxane] is an albumin-stabilised nanoparticle formulation of paclitaxel designed to overcome insolubility problems encountered with paclitaxel. This then eliminates the need for toxic solvents like cremophor, which limits the dose of paclitaxel that can be administered and hence affect overall drug efficacy. Studies have shown that the albumin receptor-mediated paclitaxel-transport mechanism is analogous to the opening of a 'trapdoor' on the endothelial cell wall within blood vessels. This facilitates the passage of ABI 007 from the bloodstream via the blood vessels to the underlying tumour tissue. ABI 007 is being developed for the treatment of a variety of tumour types by American Pharmaceutical Partners. In addition to the standard infusion formulation of ABI 007, oral and pulmonary delivery formulations are also being investigated. American Pharmaceutical Partners, a subsidiary of American BioScience, secured exclusive North American marketing and manufacturing rights to ABI 007 from American BioScience in November 2001. In anticipation of product launch within the fourth quarter of 2004, the company formed Abraxis Oncology and recruited an experienced sales and marketing team. The company has also accumulated approximately 28 million US dollars of paclitaxel inventory. As such, American Pharmaceutical Partners anticipates pre-launch expenses to cost approximately 40 million US dollars, incurred over 2004. In addition, the company expects to make two milestone payments worth 10 million US dollars as well as 15 million US dollars, based upon US FDA acceptance of NDA filing in the second quarter of 2004 and subsequent US FDA approval, respectively. The milestone for US FDA approval would be capitalised and amortised over the estimated life of the product.Previously, American Pharmaceutical Partners reported that its rolling NDA submission for ABI 007 commenced in May 2003. In July 2003, the company announced that this was progressing on schedule and

  7. Effect of an acute intraluminal administration of capsaicin on oesophageal motor pattern in GORD patients with ineffective oesophageal motility.

    PubMed

    Grossi, L; Cappello, G; Marzio, L

    2006-08-01

    Ineffective oesophageal motility (IOM) is a functional disorder affecting about 50% of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) patients. This disease in a severe form limits the clearing ability of the oesophagus and is considered one of the predictive factors for poorer GORD resolution. Capsaicin, the active compound of red pepper, exerts a prokinetic effect on oesophageal motility in healthy subjects by increasing the amplitude of body waves, even if no evidence exists on its possible role in situations of reduced motility. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of an acute administration of capsaicin on the oesophageal motor pattern in a group of GORD patients affected by severe IOM. Twelve GORD patients with severe IOM received an intra-oesophageal administration of 2 mL of a red pepper-olive oil mixture and 2 mL of olive oil alone serving as a control during a stationary manometry. The motor patterns of the oesophageal body and lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS) were analysed at baseline and after the infusion of the two stimuli. The administration of capsaicin induced a significant improvement in oesophageal body contractility when compared with baseline. The velocity of propagation of waves and the LOS basal tone remained unchanged. The motor pattern was unaltered by the administration of olive oil alone. An acute administration of capsaicin seems to improve the motor performance of the oesophageal body in patients with ineffective motility. Whether this could represent the basis for further therapeutic approaches of GORD patients needs further study.

  8. Genomic reorganization in the concolor Gibbon (Hylobates concolor) revealed by chromosome painting

    SciTech Connect

    Koehler, U.; Wienberg, J.; Stanyon, R.

    1995-11-20

    We employed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of specific DNA libraries of all human chromosomes to establish homologies between the human karyotype and the karyotype of Hylobates concolor (2n = 52). Numerous intra- and interchromosomal rearrangements have led to a massive reorganization in the karyotype of H. concolor. There have been a minimum of 31 translocations. The 25 H. concolor autosomes are composed of 63-67 recognizable segments that show DNA homology to regions of the 22 human autosomes. Only 1 autosome, homologous to human chromosome 21, has not been involved in translocations. We compared the gene mapping data for H. concolor or with our in situ hybridization and found that in most cases these data are confirmed by our results. H. concolor presents a case in a primate closely related to humans, in which chromosome morphology and synteny are highly disturbed in a manner similar to that encountered in rodents. 23 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Malignant paraganglioma in a cougar (Puma concolor).

    PubMed

    Duhamelle, Alexis; Langlois, Isabelle; Pey, Pascaline; Tremblay, Josée; Ruel, Hélène; Parent, Joane; Lussier, Joanie; Doré, Monique

    2014-12-01

    A 7½-yr-old male cougar (Puma concolor) was presented with a 2-wk history of progressive hindlimb abnormalities. An abdominal mass was palpated on physical examination. Computed tomography of the abdomen showed a mass surrounding the left ureter. A postmortem diagnosis of paraganglioma was established.

  10. Proton pump inhibitors in GORD An overview of their pharmacology, efficacy and safety.

    PubMed

    Savarino, Vincenzo; Di Mario, Francesco; Scarpignato, Carmelo

    2009-03-01

    Gastric acid secretion is a complex phenomenon under nervous and hormonal influence. The stimulation of proton pump (H(+), K(+)-ATPase) in the parietal cell represents the final step of acid secretion and this knowledge has led to the development of a class of drugs, the proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), which are targeted at blocking this enzyme. Chemically, all the available PPIs consist of a benzimidazole ring and a pyridine ring, but vary in the specific side ring substitution. As a class, they are the most potent inhibitors of gastric acid secretion available. Although there are differences among PPIs concerning their pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, influence by food and antacids as well as potential for drug interactions, it is not always evident whether these often subtle differences are clinically relevant. A careful evaluation of the available studies reveals that rabeprazole and esomeprazole achieve more rapid acid inhibition than other PPIs. Also, the effect of rabeprazole is less dependent upon genetic make-up than all other PPIs, giving rise to less inter-subject variability and leading to a more predictable effect. Esomeprazole, by inhibiting its own catabolism, makes all patients slow metabolizers, but could expose them to potential drug interactions. PPIs are the mainstay of medical treatment of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD), in that they are able to provide 80-85% healing rate of oesophageal lesions, including ulcers, and to reduce the incidence of complications like strictures as well as dysplasia and adenocarcinoma in Barrett's oesophagus (BO). Also relief of symptoms can be achieved in about 80% of cases, even though this benefit is reduced by a factor of approximately 20% in patients with non-erosive reflux disease (NERD). Their effect on Barrett's oesophagus and the extra-oesophageal manifestations of GORD is much less consistent. In general, the tolerability profile of PPIs is good in both short- and long-term clinical trials

  11. Esophageal stricture in a cougar (Puma concolor).

    PubMed

    Desmarchelier, Marion; Lair, Stéphane; Defarges, Alice; Lécuyer, Manon; Langlois, Isabelle

    2009-06-01

    A 7-mo-old female cougar (Puma concolor) was presented with a 2-wk history of anorexia and a 1-wk history of regurgitation. Barium contrast esophagogram and gastroesophagoscopy revealed the presence of a segmental intraluminal esophageal stricture in the middle third of the esophagus. The stricture was potentially secondary to a previous anesthetic episode. Three endoscopic balloon dilations allowed increasing the luminal diameter to a size that enabled the cougar to eat food softened with water without any signs of discomfort or regurgitation. Two months after being discharged, the cougar was doing well, had gained weight and was eating horsemeat softened with water.

  12. Ectoparasites of hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor) from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Girisgin, Ahmet Onur; Senlik, Bayram; Aydin, Levent; Cirak, Veli Y

    2015-01-01

    Hedgehogs are small, nocturnal, spiny-coated animals that have been growing in popularity as exotic pets. However, these animals are host to a wide variety of viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites, some of which are of zoonotic character. Thus, because hedgehogs have a potential role to transmit zoonoses including arthropod-borne diseases, we examined them for their ectoparasites. The study was carried out on hedgehogs found dead mainly due to road casualties in the Bursa province of Turkey. The ectoparasites were collected by both insecticide spraying of the body and inspection on a white paper carefully. Totally three species of ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Hyalomma aegyptium, Haemophysalis parvo) and one flea species (Archeopsylla erinacei) were detected. The prevalence of mixed infestation with both ticks and fleas was 45.5%. Haemaphysalis parva was reported for the first time from hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor) in Turkey. The occurrence of ectoparasites and their potential role as vectors of certain zoonotic diseases are briefly discussed.

  13. Hepatic yersiniosis in a cougar (Felis concolor).

    PubMed

    Owston, Michael A; Wu, Ching Ching; Ramos-Vara, José A

    2006-09-01

    A cougar (Felis concolor) was diagnosed with hepatic yersiniosis by bacterial culture and histopathology. The animal had a 2-week history of anorexia and jaundice before its death. Grossly, the liver exhibited caseo-necrotic foci. Histopathologically, there was necrotizing and suppurative hepatitis, with large numbers of intralesional gram-negative coccobacilli. Additional hepatic lesions included central vein thrombosis, lymphoplasmacytic portal hepatitis, and capsulitis. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis coccobacilli were isolated in pure culture from the hepatic lesions. Because the hepatic lesions in this animal resemble those of other zoonotic diseases, such as plague and tularemia, veterinarians and laboratory personnel who handle samples should take adequate safety precautions. This report is the first to describe the pathology associated with hepatic yersiniosis in a cougar.

  14. Bothriocroton concolor (Acari: Ixodidae) on the Kangaroo Island kangaroo: a new host-parasite relationship.

    PubMed

    Oorebeek, M; Rismiller, P

    2007-09-01

    In 2006, we examined Kangaroo Island kangaroos, Macropusfuliginosusfuliginosus, for ticks. We collected three tick species: Ixodes hirsti Hassall, Hemaphysalis bancrofti Nuttall & Warburton, and Bothriocroton concolor (Neumann). Surprisingly, the specimens included eight females and one nymph of B. concolor, which had previously been considered strictly host specific to the echidna (Tachyglossus sp.). This is the first record of B. concolor on the Kangaroo Island kangaroo.

  15. Puma (Puma concolor) epididymal sperm morphometry

    PubMed Central

    Cucho, Hernán; Alarcón, Virgilio; Ordóñez, César; Ampuero, Enrique; Meza, Aydee; Soler, Carles

    2016-01-01

    The Andean puma (Puma concolor) has not been widely studied, particularly in reference to its semen characteristics. The aim of the present study was to define the morphometry of puma sperm heads and classify their subpopulations by cluster analysis. Samples were recovered postmortem from two epididymides from one animal and prepared for morphological observation after staining with the Hemacolor kit. Morphometric data were obtained from 581 spermatozoa using a CASA-Morph system, rendering 13 morphometric parameters. The principal component (PC) analysis was performed followed by cluster analysis for the establishment of subpopulations. Two PC components were obtained, the first related to size and the second to shape. Three subpopulations were observed, corresponding to elongated and intermediate-size sperm heads and acrosomes, to large heads with large acrosomes, and to small heads with short acrosomes. In conclusion, puma spermatozoa showed no uniform sperm morphology but three clear subpopulations. These results should be used for future work in the establishment of an adequate germplasm bank of this species. PMID:27678466

  16. Puma (Puma concolor) epididymal sperm morphometry.

    PubMed

    Cucho, Hernán; Alarcón, Virgilio; Ordóñez, César; Ampuero, Enrique; Meza, Aydee; Soler, Carles

    2016-01-01

    The Andean puma (Puma concolor) has not been widely studied, particularly in reference to its semen characteristics. The aim of the present study was to define the morphometry of puma sperm heads and classify their subpopulations by cluster analysis. Samples were recovered postmortem from two epididymides from one animal and prepared for morphological observation after staining with the Hemacolor kit. Morphometric data were obtained from 581 spermatozoa using a CASA-Morph system, rendering 13 morphometric parameters. The principal component (PC) analysis was performed followed by cluster analysis for the establishment of subpopulations. Two PC components were obtained, the first related to size and the second to shape. Three subpopulations were observed, corresponding to elongated and intermediate-size sperm heads and acrosomes, to large heads with large acrosomes, and to small heads with short acrosomes. In conclusion, puma spermatozoa showed no uniform sperm morphology but three clear subpopulations. These results should be used for future work in the establishment of an adequate germplasm bank of this species.

  17. Notoedric mange in the Florida panther (Felis concolor coryi).

    PubMed

    Maehr, D S; Greiner, E C; Lanier, J E; Murphy, D

    1995-04-01

    Notoedric mange (Notoedres cati) was found in a neonate Florida panther (Felis concolor coryi) and presumably its mother on 22 June 1992 and 8 February 1993, respectively, in Collier County, Florida (USA). Both infestations were treated successfully with 0.2 mg/kg ivermectin. This is the first known case of notoedric mange in the endangered Florida panther.

  18. ABI4: versatile activator and repressor.

    PubMed

    Wind, Julia J; Peviani, Alessia; Snel, Berend; Hanson, Johannes; Smeekens, Sjef C

    2013-03-01

    The ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE4 (ABI4) gene was discovered to be an abscisic acid (ABA) signaling responsive transcription factor active during seed germination. The evolutionary history of the ABI4 gene supports its role as an ABA signaling intermediate in land plants. Investigating the ABI4 protein-cis element interaction supports the proposal that ABI4 binding to its known CE1 cis-element competes with transcription factor binding to the overlapping G-Box element. Recent publications report on ABI4 as a regulatory factor in diverse processes. In developing seedlings, ABI4 mediates sugar signaling, lipid breakdown, and plastid-to-nucleus signaling. Moreover, ABI4 is a regulator of rosette growth, redox signaling, cell wall metabolism and the effect of nitrate on lateral root development.

  19. Capillaria hepatica in Puma concolor: first report in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Quadros, Rosiléia M; Pilati, Célso; Marques, Sandra M T; Mazzolli, Marcelo; Benedet, Rodrigo C

    2009-09-01

    Capillaria hepatica was detected by histopathologic diagnosis in two cougars that were shot in April 2008 in Painel, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Macroscopic analysis of their livers revealed the presence of diffuse granulomas, and the histopathologic analysis indicated the presence of C. hepatica eggs, surrounded by mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltrate, small foci of necrosis, and mild-to-moderate fibrosis. This is the first report of C. hepatica in cougars (Puma concolor) in Brazil.

  20. Development and use of bounding functions in a forest growth model. [Pinus lambertiana; Calocedrus decurrens; Pseudotsuga menziesii; Abies concolor

    SciTech Connect

    Dolph, K.L. ); Dixon, G.E. )

    1993-01-01

    Erroneous predictions of forest growth and yield may result when computer simulation models use extrapolated data in repeated or long-term projections or if the models are used outside the range of data on which they were built. Bounding functions that limit the predicted diameter and height growth of individual trees to maximum observed values were developed to constrain these erroneous predictions in a forest growth and yield simulator. Species studied included sugar pine, incense-cedar, Douglas-fir, and California white fir.

  1. Complete Genome Sequences of Two Novel Puma concolor Foamy Viruses from California.

    PubMed

    Kehl, Timo; Bleiholder, Anne; Roßmann, Florian; Rupp, Sebastian; Lei, Janet; Lee, Justin; Boyce, Walter; Vickers, Winston; Crooks, Kevin; Vandewoude, Sue; Löchelt, Martin

    2013-03-21

    We report two complete foamy retrovirus (FV) genomes isolated from Puma concolor, a large cat native to the Americas. Due to high overall genetic relatedness to known feline foamy viruses (FFVs), we propose the name Puma concolor FFV (FFVPc). The data confirm that felines are infected with distinct but closely related FVs.

  2. PHOTORECEPTOR DEGENERATION IN A MOUNTAIN LION CUB (PUMA CONCOLOR).

    PubMed

    DiSalvo, Andrew R; Reilly, Christopher M; Wiggans, K Tomo; Woods, Leslie W; Wack, Ray F; Clifford, Deana L

    2016-12-01

    An orphaned 4-mo-old female mountain lion cub ( Puma concolor ) was captured along the coastline in Montaña de Oro State Park in Los Osos, California, USA. Following suspicion that the cub was visually impaired, ophthalmic examination revealed diffuse bilateral retinal atrophy. Due to a poor prognosis, humane euthanasia was elected. Necropsy and histopathological findings were consistent with photoreceptor degeneration. Based on the cub's signalment, history, and histopathology, a genetic or nutritional etiology was suspected, with the former etiology more strongly supported. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of photoreceptor degeneration in a wild felid and should be considered in cases of blindness.

  3. Phylogeny, diversification rates and species boundaries of Mesoamerican firs (Abies, Pinaceae) in a genus-wide context.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Planter, Erika; Jaramillo-Correa, Juan P; Gómez-Acevedo, Sandra; Khasa, Damase P; Bousquet, Jean; Eguiarte, Luis E

    2012-01-01

    The genus Abies is distributed discontinuously in the temperate and subtropical montane forests of the northern hemisphere. In Mesoamerica (Mexico and northern Central America), modern firs originated from the divergence of isolated mountain populations of migrating North American taxa. However, the number of ancestral species, migratory waves and diversification speed of these taxa is unknown. Here, variation in repetitive (Pt30204, Pt63718, and Pt71936) and non-repetitive (rbcL, rps18-rpl20 and trnL-trnF) regions of the chloroplast genome was used to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships of the Mesoamerican Abies in a genus-wide context. These phylogenies and two fossil-calibrated scenarios were further employed to estimate divergence dates and diversification rates within the genus, and to test the hypothesis that, as in many angiosperms, conifers may exhibit accelerated speciation rates in the subtropics. All phylogenies showed five main clusters that mostly agreed with the currently recognized sections of Abies and with the geographic distribution of species. The Mesoamerican taxa formed a single group with species from southwestern North America of sections Oiamel and Grandis. However, populations of the same species were not monophyletic within this group. Divergence of this whole group dated back to the late Paleocene and the early Miocene depending on the calibration used, which translated in very low diversification rates (r(0.0)=0.026-0.054, r(0.9)=0.009-0.019 sp/Ma). Such low rates were a constant along the entire genus, including both the subtropical and temperate taxa. An extended phylogeographic analysis on the Mesoamerican clade indicated that Abies flinckii and A. concolor were the most divergent taxa, while the remaining species (A. durangensis, A. guatemalensis, A. hickelii, A. religiosa and A. vejari) formed a single group. Altogether, these results show that divergence of Mesoamerican firs coincides with a model of environmental stasis and

  4. Lagochilascaris minor (Nematoda: Ascarididae) from a Wild Cougar ( Puma concolor ) in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Falcón-Ordaz, Jorge; Iturbe-Morgado, José Carlos; Rojas-Martínez, Alberto Enrique; García-Prieto, Luis

    2016-07-01

    We document parasitation of a wild cougar ( Puma concolor ) by the nematode Lagochilascaris minor in Hidalgo State, Mexico. This finding contributes to our understanding of the epidemiology of this zoonotic agent in Mexico.

  5. Medium-grade astrocytoma in a cougar (Puma concolor).

    PubMed

    Kondo, Hirotaka; Leone, Angelique M; Erlacher-Reid, Claire; Gary, Joy; Kiupel, Matti; Farina, Lisa L; Abbott, Jeffrey R

    2012-12-01

    A 17-year-old, male castrated cougar (Puma concolor) was presented minimally responsive and severely depressed, with bilateral mydriasis and absent pupillary light response. On gross examination of the brain, there was a tan-to-gray, invasive mass with a central cavitation on the ventral aspect in the left cerebral hemisphere, rostral to the caudate nucleus. On histopathologic examination, the mass was composed of sheets of medium-sized, round-to-polygonal cells that were multifocally separated by islands of neuropil. Approximately 80% of the neoplastic cells showed strong cytoplasmic labeling for glial fibrillary acidic protein. These findings were consistent with a medium-grade astrocytoma. To the authors' knowledge, neoplastic disease of the central nervous system has not been previously reported in cougars.

  6. Helminth parasites found in hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor) from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cirak, Veli Y; Senlik, Bayram; Aydogdu, Ali; Selver, Melih; Akyol, Volkan

    2010-10-01

    Hedgehog diseases are becoming important issues for veterinary surgeons due to growing interest in this animal species among pet owners and an increase in cases of rescued hedgehogs requiring veterinary care. A parasitological study was carried out on hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor) in the Bursa province of Turkey, found dead mainly due to road casualties, to determine their helminth parasite burden. The detected helminths and their prevalences were as follows: Physaloptera clausa (72.2%), Crenosoma striatum (55.5%), Aonchotheca erinacei (55.5%), Hymenolepis erinacei (55.5%), Nephridiorhynchus major (50%) and Eucoleus aerophilus (22.2%). The number of parasites in infected animals varied from 1 to 203. The highest mean intensity of infection was observed with C. striatum, and the lowest was observed with N. major. The mean abundance of different species varied from 0.7 to 41.8, where E. aerophilus and C. striatum had the lowest and highest abundance, respectively. This study represents the first time N. major and E. aerophilus have been reported in hedgehogs in Turkey. The presence of E. aerophilus and its potential role as a zoonotic agent are discussed.

  7. Genomic ancestry of the American puma (Puma concolor).

    PubMed

    Culver, M; Johnson, W E; Pecon-Slattery, J; O'Brien, S J

    2000-01-01

    Puma concolor, a large American cat species, occupies the most extensive range of any New World terrestrial mammal, spanning 110 degrees of latitude from the Canadian Yukon to the Straits of Magellan. Until the recent Holocene, pumas coexisted with a diverse array of carnivores including the American lion (Panthera atrox), the North American cheetah (Miracynonyx trumani), and the saber toothed tiger (Smilodon fatalis). Genomic DNA specimens from 315 pumas of specified geographic origin (261 contemporary and 54 museum specimens) were collected for molecular genetic and phylogenetic analyses of three mitochondrial gene sequences (16S rRNA, ATPase-8, and NADH-5) plus composite microsatellite genotypes (10 feline loci). Six phylogeographic groupings or subspecies were resolved, and the entire North American population (186 individuals from 15 previously named subspecies) was genetically homogeneous in overall variation relative to central and South American populations. The marked uniformity of mtDNA and a reduction in microsatellite allele size expansion indicates that North American pumas derive from a recent (late Pleistocene circa 10,000 years ago) replacement and recolonization by a small number of founders who themselves originated from a centrum of puma genetic diversity in eastern South America 200,000-300,000 years ago. The recolonization of North American pumas was coincident with a massive late Pleistocene extinction event that eliminated 80% of large vertebrates in North America and may have extirpated pumas from that continent as well.

  8. Acute lead toxicosis via ingestion of spent ammunition in a free-ranging cougar (Puma concolor)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burco, Julia; Myers, Anne Mary; Schuler, Krysten; Gillin, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Lead toxicity has long been documented and acknowledged as a significant health issue of water birds and avian scavengers. However, few instances of toxic effects to higher mammalian carnivores have been documented. Here we present an acute case of lead toxicity in a free-ranging cougar (Puma concolor) in Oregon.

  9. Understanding the phylogeographic patterns of European hedgehogs, Erinaceus concolor and E. europaeus using the MHC.

    PubMed

    Berggren, K T; Ellegren, H; Hewitt, G M; Seddon, J M

    2005-07-01

    The genome of the European hedgehog, Erinaceus concolor and E. europaeus, shows a strong signal of cycles of restriction to glacial refugia and postglacial expansion. Patterns of expansion, however, differ for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and preliminary analysis of nuclear markers. In this study, we determine phylogeographic patterns in the hedgehog using two loci of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), isolated for the first time in hedgehogs. These genes show long persistence times and high polymorphism in many species because of the actions of balancing selection. Among 84 individuals screened for variation, only two DQA alleles were identified in each species, but 10 DQB alleles were found in E. concolor and six in E. europaeus. A strong effect of demography on patterns of DQB variability is observed, with only weak evidence of balancing selection. While data from mtDNA clearly subdivide both species into monophyletic subgroups, the MHC data delineate only E. concolor into distinct subgroups, supporting the preliminary findings of other nuclear markers. Together with differences in variability, this suggests that the refugia history and/or expansion patterns of E. concolor and E. europaeus differ.

  10. Acute lead toxicosis via ingestion of spent ammunition in a free-ranging cougar (Puma concolor).

    PubMed

    Burco, Julia; Myers, Anne Mary; Schuler, Krysten; Gillin, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Lead toxicity has long been documented and acknowledged as a significant health issue of water birds and avian scavengers. However, few instances of toxic effects to higher mammalian carnivores have been documented. Here we present an acute case of lead toxicity in a free-ranging cougar (Puma concolor) in Oregon.

  11. Detector level ABI spectral response function: FM4 analysis and comparison for different ABI modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efremova, Boryana; Pearlman, Aaron J.; Padula, Frank; Wu, Xiangqian

    2016-09-01

    A new generation of imaging instruments Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) is to be launched aboard the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites - R Series (GOES-R). Four ABI flight modules (FM) are planned to be launched on GOES-R,S,T,U, the first one in the fall of 2016. Pre-launch testing is on-going for FM3 and FM4. ABI has 16 spectral channels, six in the visible/near infrared (VNIR 0.47 - 2.25 μm), and ten in the thermal infrared (TIR 3.9 - 13.3 μm) spectral regions, to be calibrated on-orbit by observing respectively a solar diffuser and a blackbody. Each channel has hundreds of detectors arranged in columns. Operationally one Analytic Generation of Spectral Response (ANGEN) function will be used to represent the spectral response function (SRF) of all detectors in a band. The Vendor conducted prelaunch end-to-end SRF testing to compare to ANGEN; detector specific SRF data was taken for: i) best detector selected (BDS) mode - for FM 2,3, and 4; and ii) all detectors (column mode) - for four spectral bands in FM3 and FM4. The GOES-R calibration working group (CWG) has independently used the SRF test data for FM2 and FM3 to study the potential impact of detector-to-detector SRF differences on the ABI detected Earth view radiances. In this paper we expand the CWG analysis to include the FM4 SRF test data - the results are in agreement with the Vendor analysis, and show excellent instrument performance and compare the detector-to-detector SRF differences and their potential impact on the detected Earth view radiances for all of the tested ABI modules.

  12. 19 CFR 143.7 - Revocation of ABI participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Revocation of ABI participation. 143.7 Section 143... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) SPECIAL ENTRY PROCEDURES Automated Broker Interface § 143.7 Revocation of ABI... participant will be notified, electronically and in writing, by the applicable Director, of the...

  13. Spatial and temporal genetic homogeneity of the Monterey Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus concolor, in the Gulf of California

    PubMed Central

    Magallón-Gayón, Erika; Uribe-Alcocer, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    The genetic homogeneity of the Monterey Spanish mackerel Scomberomorus concolor population in the Gulf of California was confirmed using nine nuclear microsatellite loci in combination with mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences. Samples were collected from the upper and central Gulf areas, representing the two main biogeographical regions of the Gulf. The analyses support the existence of a single panmictic population of S. concolor inhabiting the Gulf of California which in terms of fishery management represents a single genetic stock. Additionally, the contemporary effective population size estimated for the S. concolor population (Ne = 3056.9) was high and similar to another pelagic species. The gene flow seems to be bidirectional between the upper and central Gulf, which coincides with the seasonal movements between both regions related to spawning and feeding activities. A population expansion event was detected, which agrees with a colonization-expansion hypothesis of the S. concolor population in the Gulf. PMID:27812405

  14. Feeding kinematics and performance of Hawaiian stream gobies, Awaous guamensis and Lentipes concolor: linkage of functional morphology and ecology.

    PubMed

    Maie, Takashi; Wilson, Megan P; Schoenfuss, Heiko L; Blob, Richard W

    2009-03-01

    Distributions of Hawaiian stream fishes are typically interrupted by waterfalls that divide streams into multiple segments. Larvae hatch upstream, are flushed into the ocean, and must climb these waterfalls to reach adult habitats when returning back to freshwater as part of an amphidromous life cycle. Stream surveys and studies of climbing performance show that Lentipes concolor Gill can reach fast-flowing upper stream segments but that Awaous guamensis Valenciennes reaches only slower, lower stream segments. Gut content analyses for these two species indicate considerable overlap in diet, suggesting that feeding kinematics and performance of these two species might be comparable. Alternatively, feeding kinematics and performance of these species might be expected to differ in relation to the different flow regimes in their habitat (feeding in faster stream currents for L. concolor versus in slower currents for A. guamensis). To test these alternative hypotheses, we compared food capturing kinematics and performance during suction feeding behaviors of A. guamensis and L. concolor using morphological data and high-speed video. Lentipes concolor showed both a significantly larger gape angle and faster jaw opening than A. guamensis. Geometric models calculated that despite the inverse relationship of gape size and suction pressure generation, the fast jaw motions of L. concolor allow it to achieve higher pressure differentials than A. guamensis. Such elevated suction pressure would enhance the ability of L. concolor to successfully capture food in the fast stream reaches it typically inhabits. Differences in jaw morphology may contribute to these differences in performance, as the lever ratio for jaw opening is about 10% lower in L. concolor compared with A. guamensis, suiting the jaws of L. concolor better for fast opening.

  15. Gastric ulcer associated with a Helicobacter-like organism in a cougar (Felis concolor).

    PubMed

    Hill, J E; Khanolkar, S S; Stadtländer, C T

    1997-01-01

    A 12-year-old captive female cougar (Felis concolor) died following perforation of a gastric ulcer. Histologically, erosions and ulcers were present in the antral area of the stomach. Fibroplasia and infiltrates of neutrophils bordered the ulcers. Modified Steiner silver stain revealed numerous tightly coiled helical bacteria. The bacteria stained positively with a rabbit polyclonal anti-Helicobacter pylori antibody. Morphology, location, and positive immunohistochemical staining suggests that the organism is a Helicobacter.

  16. Post-glacial population expansion of the Monterey Spanish mackerel Scomberomorus concolor in the Gulf of California.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-López, M; Díaz-Jaimes, P; Uribe-Alcocer, M; Quiñonez-Velázquez, C

    2015-03-01

    The level of genetic homogeneity and demographic history of the Monterey Spanish mackerel Scomberomorus concolor was assessed by analyses using sequences of the mitochondrial (mt)DNA-control region of samples from the two oceanographic regions of the Gulf of California in order to define the stock structure for this exploited vulnerable species. The data were consistent with a single homogeneous population and revealed the hallmark of fluctuations in population size; these fluctuations appear to have occurred during glacial events of the middle to late Pleistocene, which may in turn be related to the colonization and expansion of S. concolor populations in the gulf.

  17. Characterization of ten microsatellite loci in midget faded rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus concolor)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Parker, Joshua M.

    2010-01-01

    Primers for 10 microsatellite loci were developed for midget faded rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus concolor), a small bodied subspecies of the Western Rattlesnake, which is found in the Colorado Plateau of eastern Utah, western Colorado and southwestern Wyoming. In a screen of 23 individuals from the most northern portion of the subspecies range in southwestern Wyoming, the 10 loci were found to have levels of variability ranging from 4 to 11 alleles. No loci were found to be linked, although one locus revealed significant departures from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium. These microsatellite loci will be applicable for population genetic analyses, which will ultimately aid in management efforts for this rare subspecies of rattlesnake.

  18. Iatrogenic transmission of Cytauxzoon felis from a Florida panther (Felix concolor coryi) to a domestic cat.

    PubMed

    Butt, M T; Bowman, D; Barr, M C; Roelke, M E

    1991-04-01

    A laboratory cat died 12 days after intraperitoneal inoculation of a 1 ml suspension containing 1.5 x 10(6) blood mononuclear cells from a Florida panther (Felis concolor coryi). Gross, histologic and ultrastructural investigations revealed the cause of death to be infection by Cytauxzoon felis, a protozoal parasite known to cause a rapidly fatal disease (cytauxzoonosis) in domestic cats. The bobcat (Felis rufus) has been identified as a natural host for C. felis. This report implicates the Florida panther as another possible host for C. felis.

  19. Feline immunodeficiency virus and puma lentivirus in Florida panthers (Puma concolor coryi): epidemiology and diagnostic issues.

    PubMed

    Miller, D L; Taylor, S K; Rotstein, D S; Pough, M B; Barr, M C; Baldwin, C A; Cunningham, M; Roelke, M; Ingram, D

    2006-04-01

    This study documents the seroprevalence of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and puma lentivirus (PLV) in free-ranging and captive Florida panthers (Puma concolor coryi) (n = 51) and translocated Texas cougars (P. concolor stanleyana) (n = 10) from 1985 to 1998. The sera were tested for anti-FIV antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot tests. The ELISAs were read kinetically (KELA) and the sera were retrospectively examined by PLV peptide ELISA. Eleven panthers and one cougar were positive by KELA; 4 panthers and 4 cougars were equivocal; 35 panthers and 5 cougars were negative; and 1 panther had no data. Seven of the 11 KELA-positive panthers were also positive by Western blot tests and all but one were positive by PLV peptide ELISA. Ten KELA-negative and Western blot-negative cats, were positive by PLV peptide ELISA. KELA results varied within cats from one sample period to the next, but PLV peptide ELISA results were consistent. Territorial sympatry and mating behaviour, noted from radiotelemetry location data on the cats, may have contributed to viral transmission between seropositive animals. These findings suggest that Florida panthers and the introduced Texas cougars have been exposed to FIV and/or PLV.

  20. Differential abscisic acid regulation of guard cell slow anion channels in Arabidopsis wild-type and abi1 and abi2 mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Z M; Kuchitsu, K; Ward, J M; Schwarz, M; Schroeder, J I

    1997-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates vital physiological responses, and a number of events in the ABA signaling cascade remain to be identified. To allow quantitative analysis of genetic signaling mutants, patch-clamp experiments were developed and performed with the previously inaccessible Arabidopsis guard cells from the wild type and ABA-insensitive (abi) mutants. Slow anion channels have been proposed to play a rate-limiting role in ABA-induced stomatal closing. We now directly demonstrate that ABA strongly activates slow anion channels in wild-type guard cells. Furthermore, ABA-induced anion channel activation and stomatal closing were suppressed by protein phosphatase inhibitors. In abi1-1 and abi2-1 mutant guard cells, ABA activation of slow anion channels and ABA-induced stomatal closing were abolished. These impairments in ABA signaling were partially rescued by kinase inhibitors in abi1 but not in abi2 guard cells. These data provide cell biological evidence that the abi2 locus disrupts early ABA signaling, that abi1 and abi2 affect ABA signaling at different steps in the cascade, and that protein kinases act as negative regulators of ABA signaling in Arabidopsis. New models for ABA signaling pathways and roles for abi1, abi2, and protein kinases and phosphatases are discussed. PMID:9090884

  1. DNA footprints of European hedgehogs, Erinaceus europaeus and E. concolor: Pleistocene refugia, postglacial expansion and colonization routes.

    PubMed

    Seddon, J M; Santucci, F; Reeve, N J; Hewitt, G M

    2001-09-01

    European hedgehogs, Erinaceus europaeus and E. concolor, are among the many European plant and animal taxa that have been subjected to cyclical restriction to glacial refugia and interglacial expansion. An analysis of 95 mitotypes, comprising partial cytochrome b and control region sequences, shows deep divergence between the two hedgehog species. Three europaeus and two concolor clades are clearly identified and are consistent with previously identified refugia for Europe: the Iberian peninsula, Italy, and the Balkans. The degree of mitochondrial divergence among these clades suggests pre-Pleistocene separation of the refugial populations. In contrast, analysis of two nuclear introns clearly separates the two concolor clades, as in the mitochondrial data, but cannot discriminate the three europaeus clades. This discrepancy between nuclear and mitochondrial data is attributed to historical differences in the refugial population size of europaeus and concolor. The geographical distribution of mitotypes is analysed using nested clade analysis. This method, by including unobserved ('missing') mitotypes, can identify mitotype groupings that remain undetected in conventional analyses. However, the application of nested clade analysis to the study of refugial populations may be hampered by such factors as the loss of haplotypes from the refugial areas by repeated contractions of the population and the recent time scale of colonization relative to mutation rate.

  2. 19 CFR 143.7 - Revocation of ABI participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Revocation of ABI participation. 143.7 Section 143.7 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) SPECIAL ENTRY PROCEDURES Automated Broker Interface § 143.7 Revocation of...

  3. 19 CFR 143.7 - Revocation of ABI participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Revocation of ABI participation. 143.7 Section 143.7 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) SPECIAL ENTRY PROCEDURES Automated Broker Interface § 143.7 Revocation of...

  4. 19 CFR 143.7 - Revocation of ABI participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Revocation of ABI participation. 143.7 Section 143.7 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) SPECIAL ENTRY PROCEDURES Automated Broker Interface § 143.7 Revocation of...

  5. 19 CFR 143.7 - Revocation of ABI participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Revocation of ABI participation. 143.7 Section 143.7 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) SPECIAL ENTRY PROCEDURES Automated Broker Interface § 143.7 Revocation of...

  6. An ABI3-interactor of conifers responds to multiple hormones.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ying; Zhao, Tiehan; Kermode, Allison

    2013-11-01

    CnAIP2 (Callitropsis nootkatensis ABI3-Interacting Protein 2) was previously identified as a protein that interacts with the yellow-cedar ABI3 protein. CnAIP2 plays important roles during several key transitions of the plant lifecycle and acts as a global regulator with functions opposite to those of ABI3 proteins. Here we report that the CnAIP2 gene promoter is strongly upregulated by all of the major plant hormones. Young Arabidopsis seedlings expressing a chimeric CnAIP2pro-GUS construct were subjected to exogenously applied hormones; the maximum fold-enhancement of GUS activity was as high as 47-fold, and each hormone showed a distinctive cell/tissue-specific pattern of GUS induction. By far the greatest response was elicited by the synthetic auxin 2,4-D (47-fold induction); the other hormones tested stimulated GUS activities by 8- to 21-fold. The CnAIP2 promoter also responded to glucose and salt (NaCl), albeit to a lesser extent (2- to 3-fold induction). As well as acting in an antagonistic way to the global regulator ABI3, CnAIP2 appears to participate in multiple hormonal crosstalk pathways to carry out its functions.

  7. An ABI3-interactor of conifers responds to multiple hormones

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Ying; Zhao, Tiehan; Kermode, Allison R.

    2013-01-01

    CnAIP2 (Callitropsis nootkatensis ABI3-Interacting Protein 2) was previously identified as a protein that interacts with the yellow-cedar ABI3 protein. CnAIP2 plays important roles during several key transitions of the plant lifecycle and acts as a global regulator with functions opposite to those of ABI3 proteins. Here we report that the CnAIP2 gene promoter is strongly upregulated by all of the major plant hormones. Young Arabidopsis seedlings expressing a chimeric CnAIP2pro-GUS construct were subjected to exogenously applied hormones; the maximum fold-enhancement of GUS activity was as high as 47-fold, and each hormone showed a distinctive cell/tissue-specific pattern of GUS induction. By far the greatest response was elicited by the synthetic auxin 2,4-D (47-fold induction); the other hormones tested stimulated GUS activities by 8- to 21-fold. The CnAIP2 promoter also responded to glucose and salt (NaCl), albeit to a lesser extent (2- to 3-fold induction). As well as acting in an antagonistic way to the global regulator ABI3, CnAIP2 appears to participate in multiple hormonal crosstalk pathways to carry out its functions. PMID:23989243

  8. The Arabidopsis CROWDED NUCLEI genes regulate seed germination by modulating degradation of ABI5 protein.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wenming; Guan, Chunmei; Feng, Jian; Liang, Yan; Zhan, Ni; Zuo, Jianru; Ren, Bo

    2016-07-01

    In Arabidopsis, the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a vital role in inhibiting seed germination and in post-germination seedling establishment. In the ABA signaling pathway, ABI5, a basic Leu zipper transcription factor, has important functions in the regulation of seed germination. ABI5 protein localizes in nuclear bodies, along with AFP, COP1, and SIZ1, and was degraded through the 26S proteasome pathway. However, the mechanisms of ABI5 nuclear body formation and ABI5 protein degradation remain obscure. In this study, we found that the Arabidopsis CROWDED NUCLEI (CRWN) proteins, predicted nuclear matrix proteins essential for maintenance of nuclear morphology, also participate in ABA-controlled seed germination by regulating the degradation of ABI5 protein. During seed germination, the crwn mutants are hypersensitive to ABA and have higher levels of ABI5 protein compared to wild type. Genetic analysis suggested that CRWNs act upstream of ABI5. The observation that CRWN3 colocalizes with ABI5 in nuclear bodies indicates that CRWNs might participate in ABI5 protein degradation in nuclear bodies. Moreover, we revealed that the extreme C-terminal of CRWN3 protein is necessary for its function in the response to ABA in germination. Our results suggested important roles of CRWNs in ABI5 nuclear body organization and ABI5 protein degradation during seed germination.

  9. Toxoplasma gondii in Vancouver Island cougars (Felis concolor vancouverensis): serology and oocyst shedding.

    PubMed

    Aramini, J J; Stephen, C; Dubey, J P

    1998-04-01

    One of 12 necropsied cougars (Felis concolor vancouverensis) from Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada, shed Toxoplasma gondii oocysts confirmed by mouse bioassay. Eleven of the 12 cougars (92%) had antibodies to T. gondii by the modified agglutination test with titers of <1:25 (1 cougar), 1:50 (8 cougars), and 1:500 (3 cougars). One additional cougar fecal sample collected from the Victoria watershed environment also contained T. gondii oocysts. In 1995, the largest reported outbreak of human toxoplasmosis was linked to municipal drinking water in Victoria, British Columbia. This study supports the initial hypothesis at the time of the outbreak that not only domestic cats, but also cougars, pose a risk to Victoria's water supply.

  10. Human expansion precipitates niche expansion for an opportunistic apex predator (Puma concolor)

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Wynne E.; Alldredge, Mathew W.; Logan, Kenneth A.; Pauli, Jonathan N.

    2016-01-01

    There is growing recognition that developed landscapes are important systems in which to promote ecological complexity and conservation. Yet, little is known about processes regulating these novel ecosystems, or behaviours employed by species adapting to them. We evaluated the isotopic niche of an apex carnivore, the cougar (Puma concolor), over broad spatiotemporal scales and in a region characterized by rapid landscape change. We detected a shift in resource use, from near complete specialization on native herbivores in wildlands to greater use of exotic and invasive species by cougars in contemporary urban interfaces. We show that 25 years ago, cougars inhabiting these same urban interfaces possessed diets that were intermediate. Thus, niche expansion followed human expansion over both time and space, indicating that an important top predator is interacting with prey in novel ways. Thus, though human-dominated landscapes can provide sufficient resources for apex carnivores, they do not necessarily preserve their ecological relationships. PMID:28008961

  11. Esophageal hiatal hernia in three exotic felines--Lynx lynx, Puma concolore, Panthera leo.

    PubMed

    Hettlich, Bianca F; Hobson, H Phil; Ducoté, Julie; Fossum, Theresa W; Johnson, James H

    2010-03-01

    Hiatal hernia was diagnosed in three exotic felines-lynx (Lynx lynx), cougar (Puma concolore), and lion (Panthera leo). All cats had a history of anorexia. Thoracic and abdominal radiographs showed evidence of a soft tissue mass within the caudal mediastinum suggestive of a hiatal hernia in all animals. A barium esophagram was performed in one case. All animals underwent thoracic or abdominal surgery for hernia reduction. Surgical procedures included: intercostal thoracotomy with herniorrhaphy and esophagopexy (lynx and cougar), and incisional gastropexy (lion). Concurrent surgical procedures performed were gastrotomy for gastric foreign body removal and jejunostomy tube placement. Clinical signs related to the hiatal hernia disappeared after surgery and recurrence of signs was not reported for the time of follow-up.

  12. Human expansion precipitates niche expansion for an opportunistic apex predator (Puma concolor).

    PubMed

    Moss, Wynne E; Alldredge, Mathew W; Logan, Kenneth A; Pauli, Jonathan N

    2016-12-23

    There is growing recognition that developed landscapes are important systems in which to promote ecological complexity and conservation. Yet, little is known about processes regulating these novel ecosystems, or behaviours employed by species adapting to them. We evaluated the isotopic niche of an apex carnivore, the cougar (Puma concolor), over broad spatiotemporal scales and in a region characterized by rapid landscape change. We detected a shift in resource use, from near complete specialization on native herbivores in wildlands to greater use of exotic and invasive species by cougars in contemporary urban interfaces. We show that 25 years ago, cougars inhabiting these same urban interfaces possessed diets that were intermediate. Thus, niche expansion followed human expansion over both time and space, indicating that an important top predator is interacting with prey in novel ways. Thus, though human-dominated landscapes can provide sufficient resources for apex carnivores, they do not necessarily preserve their ecological relationships.

  13. Intralesional vincristine use for treatment of squamous cell carcinoma in a puma (Puma concolor).

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Blanca Juarez; Amat, Azlan Che'; Sabri, Jasni; Ramli, Mat Naim

    2013-12-01

    A 14-yr-old male puma (Puma concolor) was presented to the veterinary staff of the National Zoo in Malaysia for an auricular mass. Squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed by histologic examination of a biopsy. Systemic administration of chemotherapy using vincristine (0.5 mg/m2 i.v. q. 7 days for six treatments) and prednisolone (2 mg/kg i.m. q. 72 hr x 7 days) caused side effects of vomiting, weight loss, and alopecia and did not improve the size or appearance of the tumor. Intralesional vincristine injections (0.2 mg q. 7 days for two treatments) and prednisolone (2 mg/kg i.m. q. 72 hr x 15 days) were administered, resulting in complete tumor regression after 14 days of treatment.

  14. Molecular and morphological evidence of Taenia omissa in pumas (Puma concolor) in the Peruvian Highlands.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Puerta, Luis Antonio; Alarcon, Virgilio; Pacheco, Joel; Franco, Francisco; Lopez-Urbina, Maria Teresa; Gonzalez, Armando Emiliano

    2016-01-01

    A total of 41 cestodes were collected during necropsy examination on 2 pumas (Puma concolor) that were found in 2 communities in Canchis province, Cuzco region, Peru, at 4500 meters above sea level (Peruvian Andes). The cestodes were evaluated morphologically and molecularly. A fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) was used as a genetic marker. All the cestodes were identified as Taenia omissa. In the present report, we give a brief description by molecular and morphological diagnosis of the cestodes and compare nucleotide sequences with previous isolates from GenBank. Upon comparison, the sequences showed a difference in the cox1 gene of 5.1 to 5.3% with other teniids sequences. This finding constitutes the first report of T. omissa in Peru and expands the geographic distribution of this parasite.

  15. Dissecting thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm in a free-ranging Florida panther (felis concolor coryi).

    PubMed

    Rotstein, D S; Taylor, S K; Bossart, G D; Miller, D

    2000-06-01

    A 12-yr-old female free-ranging Florida panther (Felis concolor coryi) was found dead in good flesh. The panther had a ruptured thoracoabdominal aneurysm and 0.5 L of unclotted blood in its thorax. Intimal plaques 6.0 x 3.0 x 3.0 cm and 4.0 x 3.0 x 1.0 cm were present in the thoracic and abdominal aorta extending below the bifurcation of the renal arteries. Histologic examination revealed necrohemorrhagic aortitis with a mixed inflammatory infiltrate of lymphocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils. Death was almost certainly due to exsanguination and hypovolemic shock secondary to the ruptured aneurysm, and the aortitis with the resultant aneurysm may have been secondary to an infectious or a toxic process. This is the first reported death of a free-ranging mammal from a ruptured aortic aneurysm.

  16. Pathogenicity of the hookworm, Ancylostoma pluridentatum, in a Florida panther (Felis concolor coryi) kitten.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, M R; McLaughlin, G S; Murphy, D M; Cunningham, M W

    1994-10-01

    We evaluated clinical signs and administered anthelmintic treatment to a wild-caught, captive Florida panther (Felis concolor coryi) kitten from Big Cypress National Preserve, Florida (USA) infected with the hookworm, Ancylostoma pluridentatum. Clinical signs observed included poor body condition, lethargy, and below normal red blood cell numbers, hemoglobin concentration, and packed cell volume, and elevated eosinophil numbers. In addition, a maximum of 936 Ancylostoma sp. eggs/g of feces were found on Day 11 of captivity. Following oral administration of 20 mg/kg pyrantel pamoate on Day 11, 26 A. pluridentatum were collected from the feces. Based on the resolution of clinical signs, cessation of egg shedding, and a return to normal hematologic values following anthelmintic treatment, we believe that infection with A. pluridentatum was the primary cause of the stressed conditions in the panther kitten.

  17. Ecology and behavior of the Midget Faded Rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus concolor) in Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, J.M.; Anderson, S.H.

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a three-year study to describe the ecology and behavior of the Midget Faded Rattlesnake, Crotalus organus concolor. We encountered 426 and telemetered 50 C. o. concolor between 2000 and 2002. We found that their primary diet was lizards (associated with rock outcrops), though they will consume small mammals and birds. They den in aggregations, although in low numbers when compared to other subspecies. Movements and activity ranges were among the largest reported for rattlesnakes. Minimum convex polygon area was 117.8 ha for males, 63.9 ha for nongravid females, and 4.8 ha for gravid females. Mean distances traveled per year were 2122.0 m for males, 1956.0 m for nongravid females, and 296.7 m for gravid and postpartum females. Following emergence from hibernation, they spent several weeks shedding, often in aggregations before migration, and migrations occurred in early summer. Most snakes made straight-line movements to and from discrete summer activity ranges where short, multidirectional movements ensued, although others made multidirectional movements throughout the active season. We observed mating behavior between 21 July and 12 August. Gravid females gave birth during the third week of August. Mean clutch size was 4.17 (range 2-7). We found that the sex ratio was skewed favoring females 1:1.24, and they were sexually dimorphic in size (males SVL = 44.1 cm; females SVL = 40.8 cm). Our data further illustrate the diversity within the large group of Western Rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis). Copyright 2007 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  18. The complete plastid genome sequence of Abies koreana (Pinaceae: Abietoideae).

    PubMed

    Yi, Dong-Keun; Yang, Jong Cheol; So, Soonku; Joo, Minjung; Kim, Dong-Kap; Shin, Chang Ho; Lee, You-Mi; Choi, Kyung

    2016-07-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the chloroplast genome from Abies koreana is the first to have complete genome sequence from genus Abies of family Pinaceae. The circular double-stranded DNA, which consists of 121,373 base pairs (bp), contains a pair of very short inverted repeat regions (IRa and IRb) of 264 bp each, which are separated by a small and large single-copy regions (SSC and LSC) of 54,197 and 66,648 bp, respectively. The genome contents of 114 genes (68 peptide-encoding genes, 35 tRNA genes, four rRNA genes, six open reading frames and one pseudogene) are similar to the chloroplast DNA of other species of Abietoideae. Loss of ndh genes was also identified in the genome of A. koreana like other genomes in the family Pinaceae. Thirteen genes contain one (11 genes) or two (rps12 and ycf3 genes) introns. In phylogenetic analysis, the tree confirms that Abies, Keteleeria and Cedrus are strongly supported as monophyletic. Other inverted repeat sequences located in 42-kb inversion points (1186 bp) include trnS-psaM-ycf12- ψtrnG genes.

  19. ABI3 mediates dehydration stress recovery response in Arabidopsis thaliana by regulating expression of downstream genes.

    PubMed

    Bedi, Sonia; Sengupta, Sourabh; Ray, Anagh; Nag Chaudhuri, Ronita

    2016-09-01

    ABI3, originally discovered as a seed-specific transcription factor is now implicated to act beyond seed physiology, especially during abiotic stress. In non-seed plants, ABI3 is known to act in desiccation stress signaling. Here we show that ABI3 plays a role in dehydration stress response in Arabidopsis. ABI3 gene was upregulated during dehydration stress and its expression was maintained during subsequent stress recovery phases. Comparative gene expression studies in response to dehydration stress and stress recovery were done with genes which had potential ABI3 binding sites in their upstream regulatory regions. Such studies showed that several genes including known seed-specific factors like CRUCIFERIN1, CRUCIFERIN3 and LEA-group of genes like LEA76, LEA6, DEHYDRIN LEA and LEA-LIKE got upregulated in an ABI3-dependent manner, especially during the stress recovery phase. ABI3 got recruited to regions upstream to the transcription start site of these genes during dehydration stress response through direct or indirect DNA binding. Interestingly, ABI3 also binds to its own promoter region during such stress signaling. Nucleosomes covering potential ABI3 binding sites in the upstream sequences of the above-mentioned genes alter positions, and show increased H3 K9 acetylation during stress-induced transcription. ABI3 thus mediates dehydration stress signaling in Arabidopsis through regulation of a group of genes that play a role primarily during stress recovery phase.

  20. Associative learning for host-induced fruit volatiles in Psyttalia concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a koinobiont parasitoid of tephritid flies.

    PubMed

    Canale, A; Geri, S; Benelli, G

    2014-12-01

    Parasitic wasps are fascinating organisms that rely on a wide range of communication channels to locate their hosts. Associative learning for foraging kairomones has been demonstrated for various parasitic wasps, but little is known for parasitoids of Tephritidae flies. Psyttalia concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a koinobiont parasitoid able to attack at least 14 tephritid pests. Females are innately attracted by some host-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs), whereas others of the same bouquet are unattractive. We hypothesize that females may detect unattractive HIPVs in association with key resources, such as food and hosts, learning to respond favourably to these cues in consecutive experiences. We evaluated associative learning for HIPVs in P. concolor females, testing if they are able to associate a food reward with the presence of different dosages of three HIPVs, thus developing a preference for an odour innately unattractive. Results demonstrated that P. concolor responded favourably to the learned cue in consecutive experiences. For all tested HIPVs (nonanoic acid, decanoic acid and geranyl acetone), regardless of dosage, trained females preferred the reward-associated odour, whereas naïve did not. Both HIPV-trained and naïve females did not show consistent differences in latencies when choosing HIPVs over blank. HIPV-trained and naïve wasps did not spend more time on HIPVs over blank. Odour learning is of adaptive importance for this generalist parasitoid, since it enhances host location efficiency by reducing the time wasted on the decision of where to search for hosts. From an applied perspective, these HIPVs could be used to train mass-reared P. concolor in pre-release, to potentially improve its efficacy in the field.

  1. Arabidopsis SAG protein containing the MDN1 domain participates in seed germination and seedling development by negatively regulating ABI3 and ABI5.

    PubMed

    Chen, Changtian; Wu, Changai; Miao, Jiaming; Lei, Yunxue; Zhao, Dongxiao; Sun, Dan; Yang, Guodong; Huang, Jinguang; Zheng, Chengchao

    2014-01-01

    Three proteins containing a midasin homologue 1 (MDN1) domain from the yeast Solanum chacoense and Arabidopsis thaliana have important functions in yeast survival, seed development, and female gametogenesis. In this study, a novel protein containing the MDN1 domain from Arabidopsis negatively regulated abscisic acid (ABA) signalling during seed germination. Seeds of a T-DNA insertion line of this gene exhibited increased sensitivity to ABA during seed germination and seedling development (named sag). By contrast, seeds with overexpressed AtSAG (OX2) were less sensitive to ABA. The seeds of the sag mutant showed similar sensitivity to high concentrations of mannitol and NaCl during these stages. AtSAG was also highly expressed in germinating seeds. However, ABA-induced AtSAG expression remained almost unchanged. ABA-responsive marker genes, including ABI3, ABI5, Em1, Em6, RD29A, and RAB18, were upregulated in sag mutants but were downregulated in OX2. Genetic analyses indicated that the function of AtSAG in ABA signalling depended on ABI3 and ABI5. The expression of some target genes of ABI3 and ABI5, such as seed storage protein and oleosin genes, was induced higher by ABA in sag mutants than in wild-type germinated seeds, even higher than in abi5 mutants. This finding indicated that other regulators similar to ABI3 or ABI5 played a role during these stages. Taken together, these results indicate that AtSAG is an important negative regulator of ABA signalling during seed germination and seedling development.

  2. Terpenoids with anti-inflammatory activity from Abies chensiensis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qian-Qian; Wang, Shu-Fang; Li, Ya; Song, Qiu-Yan; Gao, Kun

    2016-06-01

    The phytochemical investigation of Abies chensiensis led to the isolation and identification of nine new compounds including eight triterpenoids (1-8) and a new abietane-type diterpene (9), along with three known compounds (10-12). The absolute configuration of 9 was assigned by X-ray diffraction analysis. Compounds 1-11 were evaluated for the anti-inflammatory activity. Among the tested compounds, 1, 2, 5 and 6 exhibited potent inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 15.97, 18.73, 20.18 and 10.97μM, respectively.

  3. Ticks and Fleas Infestation on East Hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor) in Van Province, Eastern Region of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Goz, Yaşar; Yilmaz, Ali Bilgin; Aydin, Abdulalim; Dicle, Yalçın

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ixodid ticks (Acari: İxodidae) and fleas (Siphonaptera) are the major vectors of pathogens threatening animals and human healths. The aim of our study was to detect the infestation rates of East Hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor) with ticks and fleas in Van Province, eastern region of Turkey. Methods: We examined fleas and ticks infestation patterns in 21 hedgehogs, collected from three suburbs with the greater of number gardens. In order to estimate flea and tick infestation of hedgehogs, we immobilized the ectoparasites by treatment the body with a insecticide trichlorphon (Neguvon®-Bayer). Results: On the hedgehogs, 60 ixodid ticks and 125 fleas were detected. All of the ixodid ticks were Rhipicephalus turanicus and all of the fleas were Archaeopsylla erinacei. Infestation rate for ticks and fleas was detected 66.66 % and 100 %, respectively. Conclusion: We detected ticks (R. turanicus) and fleas (A. erinacei) in hedgehogs at fairly high rates. Since many ticks and fleas species may harbor on hedgehogs and transmit some tick-borne and flea-borne patogens, this results are the important in terms of veterinary and public health. PMID:27047971

  4. Feline infectious peritonitis in a mountain lion (Puma concolor), California, USA.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Nicole; Swift, Pamela; Moeller, Robert B; Worth, S Joy; Foley, Janet

    2013-04-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal immune-mediated vasculitis of felids caused by a mutant form of a common feline enteric virus, feline enteric coronavirus. The virus can attack many organ systems and causes a broad range of signs, commonly including weight loss and fever. Regardless of presentation, FIP is ultimately fatal and often presents a diagnostic challenge. In May 2010, a malnourished young adult male mountain lion (Puma concolor) from Kern County, California, USA was euthanized because of concern for public safety, and a postmortem examination was performed. Gross necropsy and histopathologic examination revealed necrotizing, multifocal myocarditis; necrotizing, neutrophilic, and histiocytic myositis and vasculitis of the tunica muscularis layer of the small and large intestines; and embolic, multifocal, interstitial pneumonia. Feline coronavirus antigen was detected in both the heart and intestinal tissue by immunohistochemistry. A PCR for coronavirus performed on kidney tissue was positive, confirming a diagnosis of FIP. Although coronavirus infection has been documented in mountain lions by serology, this is the first confirmed report of FIP.

  5. Risk factors for exposure to feline pathogens in California mountain lions (Puma concolor).

    PubMed

    Foley, Janet E; Swift, Pamela; Fleer, Katryna A; Torres, Steve; Girard, Yvette A; Johnson, Christine K

    2013-04-01

    The primary challenge to mountain lion population viability in California is habitat loss and fragmentation. These habitat impacts could enhance disease risk by increasing contact with domestic animals and by altering patterns of exposure to other wild felids. We performed a serologic survey for feline pathogens in California mountain lions (Puma concolor) using 490 samples from 45 counties collected from 1990 to 2008. Most mountain lions sampled were killed because of depredation or public safety concerns and 75% were adults. Pathogens detected by serosurvey in sampled mountain lions included feline panleukopenia virus (39.0%), feline calicivirus (33.0%), feline coronavirus (FCoV, 15.1%), feline herpesvirus (13.0%), heartworm (12.4%), feline leukemia virus (5.4%), and canine distemper virus (3%). An outbreak of heartworm exposure occurred from 1995 to 2003 and higher than expected levels of FCoV-antibody-positive mountain lions were observed from 2005 to 2008, with foci in southern Mendocino and eastern Lake counties. We show that the majority of mountain lions were exposed to feline pathogens and may be at risk of illness or fatality, particularly kittens. Combined with other stressors, such as ongoing habitat loss, infectious disease deserves recognition for potential negative impact on mountain lion health and population viability.

  6. Livestock Predation by Puma (Puma concolor) in the Highlands of a Southeastern Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    Palmeira, Francesca Belem Lopes; Trinca, Cristiano Trapé; Haddad, Claudio Maluf

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated local opinion about reducing livestock losses to puma (Puma concolor) and the potential for conflict among livestock breeders inside a protected area in the highlands of a southeastern Brazilian Atlantic forest. We also quantified the number and type of livestock losses, and determined if predation by puma was correlated with property profile and landscape characteristics. We conducted semistructured interviews with 42 livestock breeders sampled in 36 rural properties. When asked how to reduce predation, 33% of livestock breeders refused to answer, 26% suggested improving livestock husbandry practices, 19% stated that there was no appropriate action, 17% favored removing the "problem" individual, and 5 % suggested killing the puma. Opinion on how to solve predation was independent of herd size and history of losses, and was correlated with respondent age class. Older respondents tended to suggest removing or killing pumas. Attitudes toward predation represented high potential for conflict among livestock breeders who demonstrated high discordance among responses. Horses were the most common prey (51%), followed by cattle (28%), sheep (17%), and goats (4%); totaling 47 animals attacked between 2004 and 2007. Annual predation was approximately 12 ± 5 animals, equivalent to 0.4% of the total livestock. Property elevation and distance from the urban center were the main predictors of predation probability. This survey used a novel approach that has not been addressed directly in other studies on livestock predation and demonstrated that the high potential for conflict among livestock breeders should be considered before implementing management actions.

  7. The Role of Scent Marking in Mate Selection by Female Pumas (Puma concolor)

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Maximilian L.; Wittmer, Heiko U.; Houghtaling, Paul; Smith, Justine; Elbroch, L. Mark; Wilmers, Christopher C.

    2015-01-01

    Mate selection influences individual fitness, is often based on complex cues and behaviours, and can be difficult to study in solitary species including carnivores. We used motion-triggered cameras at 29 community scrapes (i.e. scent marking locations used by multiple individuals) and home range data from 39 GPS-collared pumas (Puma concolor) to assess the relevance of communication behaviours for mate selection by female pumas in California. Female pumas visited community scrapes irregularly and visitation bouts appeared to be correlated with oestrus. Female pumas on average selected from 1.7 collared males, and selection was based on multiple cues that varied among the different time periods measured (i.e. the female’s visitation bout and in 90 days previous to the consorting event). Female mate selection over the course of a visitation bout was based on frequency of the male visitation, mass, and age. In the 90 days previous to consorting, the number of scrapes a male created was the most important contributor to selection, which was likely related to his residency status. We also found that at least 14% of females mated with multiple males, thus possibly confusing paternity. Our findings provide a mechanistic understanding of how female pumas use scent and auditory communication at community scrapes to select dominant resident males to mate with. PMID:26489008

  8. Proximity association in polygynous western black crested gibbons (Nomascus concolor jingdongensis): network structure and seasonality.

    PubMed

    Guan, Zhen-Hua; Huang, Bei; Ning, Wen-He; Ni, Qing-Yong; Jiang, Xue-Long

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the structure and seasonality of the proximity network in a group of polygynous western black crested gibbons (Nomascus concolor) using social network analysis. The spatial proximity changed seasonally and was affected by temperature and rainfall. Preferred proximity association was not distributed randomly among individuals. Kinship was one explanation for the social structure, as offspring preferred to maintain close proximity with their mothers. The proximity of infants to mothers decreased with age, and independent offspring had lower proximity to mothers than dependent ones. We found that the adult male had different proximity relationships with two different adult females. The frequency of proximity between the male and the infant-carrying female was significantly higher than that between the male and the female who had immigrated carrying one offspring of uncertain paternity into the group. Infanticide avoidance and/or predation protection for dependent infants might explain the proximity relationship differences. Temperature influenced group proximity association, with individual proximity increasing in the cold months and decreasing in the hot months. Group proximity decreased in months with higher anthropogenic disturbance.

  9. Evolution of puma lentivirus in bobcats (Lynx rufus) and mountain lions (Puma concolor) in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Justin S.; Bevins, Sarah N.; Serieys, Laurel E.K.; Vickers, Winston; Logan, Ken A.; Aldredge, Mat; Boydston, Erin E.; Lyren, Lisa M.; McBride, Roy; Roelke-Parker, Melody; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Troyer, Jennifer L.; Riley, Seth P.; Boyce, Walter M.; Crooks, Kevin R.; VandeWoude, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Mountain lions (Puma concolor) throughout North and South America are infected with puma lentivirus clade B (PLVB). A second, highly divergent lentiviral clade, PLVA, infects mountain lions in southern California and Florida. Bobcats (Lynx rufus) in these two geographic regions are also infected with PLVA, and to date, this is the only strain of lentivirus identified in bobcats. We sequenced full-length PLV genomes in order to characterize the molecular evolution of PLV in bobcats and mountain lions. Low sequence homology (88% average pairwise identity) and frequent recombination (1 recombination breakpoint per 3 isolates analyzed) were observed in both clades. Viral proteins have markedly different patterns of evolution; sequence homology and negative selection were highest in Gag and Pol and lowest in Vif and Env. A total of 1.7% of sites across the PLV genome evolve under positive selection, indicating that host-imposed selection pressure is an important force shaping PLV evolution. PLVA strains are highly spatially structured, reflecting the population dynamics of their primary host, the bobcat. In contrast, the phylogeography of PLVB reflects the highly mobile mountain lion, with diverse PLVB isolates cocirculating in some areas and genetically related viruses being present in populations separated by thousands of kilometers. We conclude that PLVA and PLVB are two different viral species with distinct feline hosts and evolutionary histories.

  10. Livestock Predation by Puma ( Puma concolor) in the Highlands of a Southeastern Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmeira, Francesca Belem Lopes; Trinca, Cristiano Trapé; Haddad, Claudio Maluf

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated local opinion about reducing livestock losses to puma ( Puma concolor) and the potential for conflict among livestock breeders inside a protected area in the highlands of a southeastern Brazilian Atlantic forest. We also quantified the number and type of livestock losses, and determined if predation by puma was correlated with property profile and landscape characteristics. We conducted semistructured interviews with 42 livestock breeders sampled in 36 rural properties. When asked how to reduce predation, 33 % of livestock breeders refused to answer, 26 % suggested improving livestock husbandry practices, 19 % stated that there was no appropriate action, 17 % favored removing the "problem" individual, and 5 % suggested killing the puma. Opinion on how to solve predation was independent of herd size and history of losses, and was correlated with respondent age class. Older respondents tended to suggest removing or killing pumas. Attitudes toward predation represented high potential for conflict among livestock breeders who demonstrated high discordance among responses. Horses were the most common prey (51 %), followed by cattle (28 %), sheep (17 %), and goats (4 %); totaling 47 animals attacked between 2004 and 2007. Annual predation was approximately 12 ± 5 animals, equivalent to 0.4 % of the total livestock. Property elevation and distance from the urban center were the main predictors of predation probability. This survey used a novel approach that has not been addressed directly in other studies on livestock predation and demonstrated that the high potential for conflict among livestock breeders should be considered before implementing management actions.

  11. Cycle and duration of the seminiferous epithelium in puma (Puma concolor).

    PubMed

    Leite, Flaviana Lima Guião; de Paula, Tarcízio Antônio Rego; da Matta, Sérgio Luis Pinto; Fonseca, Cláudio Cesar; das Neves, Marco Túlio David; de Barros, João Bosco Gonçalves

    2006-02-01

    Puma or sussuarana (Puma concolor) is the second largest feline in the American continent and has an ample latitudinal distribution in very diverse habitats. In relation to its conservation status, the puma is considered an extinction-threatened species. The study of the testis morphology and the spermatogenic process in a species is fundamental for establishing the physiologic patterns that will make possible the selection of the protocols for assisted reproduction. A number of peculiarities associated with the reproductive biology of specific species such as the duration of spermatogenic process can be used to determine the frequency of sperm collection. Nine adult male pumas maintained in captivity were used to determine the relative frequency of stages in the seminiferous epithelium cycle. Three of them received intra-testicular injections of 0.1ml tritiated thymidine to determine the duration of the seminiferous epithelium cycle, and were subjected to biopsy 7 days later. The cycle of the seminiferous epithelium in puma was didactically described into eight stages by the tubular morphology method. The total duration of one seminiferous epithelium cycle in puma was calculated to be 9.89 days, and approximately 44.5 days are required for development of spermatozoon from spermatogonia. The duration of spermiogenesis, prophase and other events of meiosis were 14.08, 15.20 and 1.79 days, respectively. The relative frequency of the pre-meiotic, meiotic and post-meiotic phases were 3.98, 1.79 and 4.12 days, respectively.

  12. Dental and Temporomandibular Joint Pathology of the California Mountain Lion (Puma concolor couguar).

    PubMed

    Aghashani, A; Kim, A S; Kass, P H; Verstraete, F J M

    Skulls from 91 California mountain lions (Puma concolor couguar) were examined macroscopically and radiographically. The majority of the skulls were from young adult animals (57.1%). The skull specimens were from 42 male (46.1%) and 34 female (37.4%) animals, while the gender was unknown for the remainder. The majority (94.5%) of teeth were present for examination. Only 11 teeth were identified as absent congenitally; five of these teeth were maxillary first molar teeth and three were maxillary second premolar teeth. Abnormal tooth morphology was identified in 3.5% of teeth. The most common abnormality in tooth form was abnormally large crowns of the maxillary first molar teeth. Teeth with an abnormal number of roots were uncommon (n = 21). Ninety-one teeth were found to have an abnormal number of roots, most often two-rooted maxillary first molar teeth instead of the expected one root. The most prevalent dental lesions found in the California mountain lion were attrition/abrasion (93.4%), tooth fractures (80.2%) and periodontitis (38.5%). Less common dental lesions were tooth resorption (n = 32 teeth) and endodontal disease (n = 29 teeth).

  13. Birth timing for mountain lions (Puma concolor); testing the prey availability hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Brian D; Jenks, Jonathan A

    2012-01-01

    We investigated potential advantages in birth timing for mountain lion (Puma concolor) cubs. We examined cub body mass, survival, and age of natal dispersal in relation to specific timing of birth. We also investigated the role of maternal age relative to timing of births. We captured mountain lion cubs while in the natal den to determine birth date, which allowed for precise estimates of the population birth pulse and age of natal dispersal. A birth pulse occurred during June-August. Body mass of cubs was related to litter size and timing of birth; heaviest cubs occurred in litters of 2, and those born after 1 July. Cubs born within pulse months exhibited similar survival to those born out of the pulse. We found that cubs born April-June dispersed at younger ages than those born after 1 July. There was less variation in birth timing for 1(st) litters of females than older females. We hypothesize that cubs born after the peak in births of neonate prey are advantaged by the abundance of vulnerable prey and those cubs and mothers realize an evolutionary advantage.

  14. Suspected secondary thiafentanil intoxication in a captive mountain lion (Puma concolor).

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Lisa L; Miller, Michael W

    2005-10-01

    Inadvertent ingestion of thiafentanil oxalate by a captive adult female mountain lion (Puma concolor) caused a prolonged clinical syndrome that included sedation and depression, muscle tension, and myopathy that was incompletely antagonized by naltrexone HCl. A serum chemistry profile revealed markedly elevated creatinine phosphokinase (CK; 490,450 IU/l), alanine aminotransferase (ALT; 1,896 IU/l), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST; 4,321 IU/l) 2 days after onset. The affected animal's condition gradually improved over the next 15 days in response to supportive therapy that included diazepam (5 mg as needed), Normasol R (3 l/day), dexamethasone (tapering dose starting at 1 mg/kg), and ketoprofen (1 mg/kg). She eventually recovered completely. Based on these observations, carcasses of animals immobilized with thiafentanil should be marked and disposed of properly to preclude opportunities for secondary exposure and potential intoxication in scavenging species. In addition, caution is advised when using thiafentanil in animals that could be preyed upon before full metabolism of the drug.

  15. Diagnosis and treatment of presumptive postobstructive pulmonary edema in a Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi).

    PubMed

    Fiorello, Christine V; Cunningham, Mark W; Cantwell, Shauna L; Levy, Julie K; Neer, Erin M; Conley, Kenneth; Rist, Paul M

    2007-06-01

    A free-ranging, adult male Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi) was immobilized and evaluated for hematuria following routine capture. Prior to anesthetic recovery, the panther was fitted with a telemetry collar. After an initially quiet recovery, the panther began thrashing in the transport cage, and was again immobilized. Pink foam was evident from the nostrils, and crackles were ausculted over the chest, indicating pulmonary edema. Postobstructive pulmonary edema was diagnosed based on history, clinical signs, radiographic evaluation, and blood gas analysis. The animal was treated intensively for several hours with diuretics, oxygen, and manual ventilation. The panther responded rapidly to therapy and was released back into the wild 48 hr after presentation. Postobstructive pulmonary edema, also called negative-pressure pulmonary edema, may be underrecognized in veterinary medicine. In this case, the telemetry collar, in conjunction with anesthetic recovery in a small transport crate, may have contributed to tracheal obstruction. Wildlife veterinarians and biologists should be aware of the risk of airway obstruction when placing tracking collars, and animals should be continuously monitored during anesthetic recovery to ensure the presence of a patent airway.

  16. Listeric meningoencephalomyelitis in a cougar (Felis concolor): characterization by histopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular methods.

    PubMed

    Langohr, I M; Ramos-Vara, J A; Wu, C C; Froderman, S F

    2006-05-01

    Listeria monocytogenes has been recognized as an important food-borne pathogen in animals. Records of the disease caused by this bacterium in large felids are, however, rare. The nervous form of listeriosis was diagnosed in a 12-year-old male cougar (Felis concolor) with a several-day history of neurologic disease characterized by excess salivation, head pressing, and circling that progressed to recumbency and death. Microscopically, the main alteration in the brain and spinal cord was a variably severe meningoencephalomyelitis composed mainly of mononuclear cell aggregates with fewer neutrophils. L. monocytogenes was isolated from the brain by microbiological culture, and L. monocytogenes antigen was detected in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of brain and spinal cord by immunohistochemical analysis. On the basis of the nucleotide sequence of the 16S rRNA gene, the isolated strain was determined to be serotype 1/2a. Food-borne transmission of the bacterium was suspected, but food was not available for testing.

  17. The Role of Scent Marking in Mate Selection by Female Pumas (Puma concolor).

    PubMed

    Allen, Maximilian L; Wittmer, Heiko U; Houghtaling, Paul; Smith, Justine; Elbroch, L Mark; Wilmers, Christopher C

    2015-01-01

    Mate selection influences individual fitness, is often based on complex cues and behaviours, and can be difficult to study in solitary species including carnivores. We used motion-triggered cameras at 29 community scrapes (i.e. scent marking locations used by multiple individuals) and home range data from 39 GPS-collared pumas (Puma concolor) to assess the relevance of communication behaviours for mate selection by female pumas in California. Female pumas visited community scrapes irregularly and visitation bouts appeared to be correlated with oestrus. Female pumas on average selected from 1.7 collared males, and selection was based on multiple cues that varied among the different time periods measured (i.e. the female's visitation bout and in 90 days previous to the consorting event). Female mate selection over the course of a visitation bout was based on frequency of the male visitation, mass, and age. In the 90 days previous to consorting, the number of scrapes a male created was the most important contributor to selection, which was likely related to his residency status. We also found that at least 14% of females mated with multiple males, thus possibly confusing paternity. Our findings provide a mechanistic understanding of how female pumas use scent and auditory communication at community scrapes to select dominant resident males to mate with.

  18. [Population and distribution of western black crested gibbon (Nomascus concolor) at Ailao Mountain, Xinping, Yunnan].

    PubMed

    Li, Guo-Song; Yang, Xian-Ming; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Li, Wei

    2011-12-01

    The western black crested gibbon (Nomascus concolor) is mainly distributed in Yunnan, China. Ailao Mountain is located in central Yunnan and divided into three prefectures and six counties. This mountain forms the principle distribution range for western black crested gibbon; however, there are no published data on the gibbon population inhabiting the Xinping administrative. Take the interview results conducted in 2007 and 2009 with local people as the reference, this study conducted an extensive field survey covering all possible habitats from November 2009 to January 2010 using call surveys. Among the one hundred and twenty-four gibbon groups which were confirmed across the Ailao Mountain, the largest known population of western black crested gibbons yet, 85 groups inhabit the national nature reserve and adjacent national forest, 30 groups inhabit the provincial nature reserve and nine groups inhabit the collective forest located outside the reserve and national forest. We found that the western black crested gibbons here have a patchy distribution pattern and occur at higher densities in certain areas. Moreover, the population distribution density and elevation gradient distribution decline from north to south. The results also demonstrated the importance of Ailao Mountain in the western black crested gibbon protection.

  19. Molecular cloning in Arabidopsis thaliana of a new protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) with homology to ABI1 and ABI2.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, P L; Leube, M P; Grill, E

    1998-11-01

    We report the cloning of both the cDNA and the corresponding genomic sequence of a new PP2C from Arabidopsis thaliana, named AtP2C-HA (for homology to ABI1/ABI2). The AtP2C-HA cDNA contains an open reading frame of 1536 bp and encodes a putative protein of 511 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 55.7 kDa. The AtP2C-HA protein is composed of two domains, a C-terminal PP2C catalytic domain and a N-terminal extension of ca. 180 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence is 55% and 54% identical to ABI1 and ABI2, respectively. Comparison of the genomic structure of the ABI1, ABI2 and AtP2C-HA genes suggests that they belong to a multigene family. The expression of the AtP2C-HA gene is up-regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) treatment.

  20. Psyttalia cf. concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) for biological control of olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Victoria Y; Rendón, Pedro A; Sivinski, John

    2008-06-01

    The larval parasitoid, Psyttalia cf. concolor (Szépligeti), reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Weidemann), by the USDA-APHIS-PPQ, Guatemala City, Guatemala, was imported into California for biological control of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in olives, Olea europaea L. Mean percentage parasitism of olive fruit fly third instars infesting fruit in field cages ranged from 7.0 in Grapevine to 59.7 in Santa Barbara and in free releases ranged from 0 in Grapevine to 10.6 in Santa Barbara after 4- to 6-d exposures. In the laboratory, more parasitoids developed to adults in olive fruit fly larvae that were 11-13 d old than in larvae 8-10 d old. Adult parasitoids lived significantly longer when provided with water than adults without water in environmental chambers at 5 degrees C, 85% RH; 15 degrees C, 65% RH; 25 degrees C, 25% RH; and 35 degrees C, 25% RH. Adult parasitoids lived for 48 d with honey for food and water and 32 d with food and sugar solution at 15 degrees C and 65% RH. Survival of adult parasitoids without food and water in greenhouse tests was approximately 4 d in a simulated coastal climate and 1 d in a simulated inland valley climate and was significantly increased by providing food and water. The parasitoid did not develop in the beneficial seedhead fly, Chaetorellia succinea (Costa), in yellow star thistle. The rate of parasitism of walnut husk fly, Rhagoletis completa Cresson, larvae in green walnut husks was 28.4% in laboratory no-choice tests. In choice tests, the rate of parasitism of walnut husk fly versus olive fruit fly larvae in olives was 11.5 and 24.2%, respectively.

  1. Fractured Genetic Connectivity Threatens a Southern California Puma (Puma concolor) Population

    PubMed Central

    Ernest, Holly B.; Vickers, T. Winston; Morrison, Scott A.; Buchalski, Michael R.; Boyce, Walter M.

    2014-01-01

    Pumas (Puma concolor; also known as mountain lions and cougars) in southern California live among a burgeoning human population of roughly 20 million people. Yet little is known of the consequences of attendant habitat loss and fragmentation, and human-caused puma mortality to puma population viability and genetic diversity. We examined genetic status of pumas in coastal mountains within the Peninsular Ranges south of Los Angeles, in San Diego, Riverside, and Orange counties. The Santa Ana Mountains are bounded by urbanization to the west, north, and east, and are separated from the eastern Peninsular Ranges to the southeast by a ten lane interstate highway (I-15). We analyzed DNA samples from 97 pumas sampled between 2001 and 2012. Genotypic data for forty-six microsatellite loci revealed that pumas sampled in the Santa Ana Mountains (n = 42) displayed lower genetic diversity than pumas from nearly every other region in California tested (n = 257), including those living in the Peninsular Ranges immediately to the east across I-15 (n = 55). Santa Ana Mountains pumas had high average pairwise relatedness, high individual internal relatedness, a low estimated effective population size, and strong evidence of a bottleneck and isolation from other populations in California. These and ecological findings provide clear evidence that Santa Ana Mountains pumas have been experiencing genetic impacts related to barriers to gene flow, and are a warning signal to wildlife managers and land use planners that mitigation efforts will be needed to stem further genetic and demographic decay in the Santa Ana Mountains puma population. PMID:25295530

  2. Individual, Contextual, and Age-Related Acoustic Variation in Simakobu (Simias concolor) Loud Calls

    PubMed Central

    Erb, Wendy M.; Hodges, J. Keith; Hammerschmidt, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Primate loud calls have the potential to encode information about the identity, arousal, age, or physical condition of the caller, even at long distances. In this study, we conducted an analysis of the acoustic features of the loud calls produced by a species of Asian colobine monkey (simakobu, Simias concolor). Adult male simakobu produce loud calls spontaneously and in response to loud sounds and other loud calls, which are audible more than 500 m. Individual differences in calling rates and durations exist, but it is unknown what these differences signal and which other acoustic features vary among individuals. We aimed to describe the structure and usage of calls and to examine acoustic features that vary within and among individuals. We determined the context of 318 loud calls and analyzed 170 loud calls recorded from 10 adult males at an undisturbed site, Pungut, Siberut Island, Indonesia. Most calls (53%) followed the loud call of another male, 31% were spontaneous, and the remaining 16% followed a loud environmental disturbance. The fundamental frequency (F0) decreased while inter-unit intervals (IUI) increased over the course of loud call bouts, possibly indicating caller fatigue. Discriminant function analysis indicated that calls were not well discriminated by context, but spontaneous calls had higher peak frequencies, suggesting a higher level of arousal. Individual calls were distinct and individuals were mainly discriminated by IUI, call duration, and F0. Loud calls of older males had shorter IUI and lower F0, while middle-aged males had the highest peak frequencies. Overall, we found that calls were individually distinct and may provide information about the age, stamina, and arousal of the calling male, and could thus be a way for males and females to assess competitors and mates from long distances. PMID:24376651

  3. Survival and Mortality of Pumas (Puma concolor) in a Fragmented, Urbanizing Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Vickers, T. Winston; Sanchez, Jessica N.; Johnson, Christine K.; Morrison, Scott A.; Botta, Randy; Smith, Trish; Cohen, Brian S.; Huber, Patrick R.; Ernest, Holly B.; Boyce, Walter M.

    2015-01-01

    Wide-ranging large carnivores pose myriad challenges for conservation, especially in highly fragmented landscapes. Over a 13-year period, we combined monitoring of radio collared pumas (Puma concolor) with complementary multi-generational genetic analyses to inform puma conservation in southern California, USA. Our goals were to generate survivorship estimates, determine causes of mortality, identify barriers to movement, and determine the genetic and demographic challenges to puma persistence among >20,000,000 people and extensive urban, suburban, and exurban development. Despite protection from hunting, annual survival for radio collared pumas was surprisingly low (55.8%), and humans caused the majority of puma deaths. The most common sources of mortality were vehicle collisions (28% of deaths), and mortalities resulting from depredation permits issued after pumas killed domestic animals (17% of deaths). Other human-caused mortalities included illegal shootings, public safety removals, and human-caused wildfire. An interstate highway (I-15) bisecting this study area, and associated development, have created a nearly impermeable barrier to puma movements, resulting in severe genetic restriction and demographic isolation of the small puma population (n ~ 17–27 adults) in the Santa Ana Mountains west of I-15. Highways that bisect habitat or divide remaining “conserved” habitat, and associated ongoing development, threaten to further subdivide this already fragmented puma population and increase threats to survival. This study highlights the importance of combining demographic and genetic analyses, and illustrates that in the absence of effective measures to reduce mortality and enhance safe movement across highways, translocation of pumas, such as was done with the endangered Florida panther (P. c. coryi), may ultimately be necessary to prevent further genetic decline and ensure persistence of the Santa Ana Mountains population. PMID:26177290

  4. Models of Regional Habitat Quality and Connectivity for Pumas (Puma concolor) in the Southwestern United States

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Brett G.; Roemer, Gary W.; McRae, Brad H.; Rundall, Jill M.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of landscape changes on the quality and connectivity of habitats for multiple wildlife species is of global conservation concern. In the southwestern United States, pumas (Puma concolor) are a well distributed and wide-ranging large carnivore that are sensitive to loss of habitat and to the disruption of pathways that connect their populations. We used an expert-based approach to define and derive variables hypothesized to influence the quality, location, and permeability of habitat for pumas within an area encompassing the entire states of Arizona and New Mexico. Survey results indicated that the presence of woodland and forest cover types, rugged terrain, and canyon bottom and ridgeline topography were expected to be important predictors of both high quality habitat and heightened permeability. As road density, distance to water, or human population density increased, the quality and permeability of habitats were predicted to decline. Using these results, we identified 67 high quality patches across the study area, and applied concepts from electronic circuit theory to estimate regional patterns of connectivity among these patches. Maps of current flow among individual pairs of patches highlighted possible pinch points along two major interstate highways. Current flow summed across all pairs of patches highlighted areas important for keeping the entire network connected, regardless of patch size. Cumulative current flow was highest in Arizona north of the Colorado River and around Grand Canyon National Park, and in the Sky Islands region owing to the many small habitat patches present. Our outputs present a first approximation of habitat quality and connectivity for dispersing pumas in the southwestern United States. Map results can be used to help target finer-scaled analyses in support of planning efforts concerned with the maintenance of puma metapopulation structure, as well as the protection of landscape features that facilitate the dispersal

  5. Evolution of puma lentivirus in bobcats (Lynx rufus) and mountain lions (Puma concolor) in North America.

    PubMed

    Lee, Justin S; Bevins, Sarah N; Serieys, Laurel E K; Vickers, Winston; Logan, Ken A; Aldredge, Mat; Boydston, Erin E; Lyren, Lisa M; McBride, Roy; Roelke-Parker, Melody; Pecon-Slattery, Jill; Troyer, Jennifer L; Riley, Seth P; Boyce, Walter M; Crooks, Kevin R; VandeWoude, Sue

    2014-07-01

    Mountain lions (Puma concolor) throughout North and South America are infected with puma lentivirus clade B (PLVB). A second, highly divergent lentiviral clade, PLVA, infects mountain lions in southern California and Florida. Bobcats (Lynx rufus) in these two geographic regions are also infected with PLVA, and to date, this is the only strain of lentivirus identified in bobcats. We sequenced full-length PLV genomes in order to characterize the molecular evolution of PLV in bobcats and mountain lions. Low sequence homology (88% average pairwise identity) and frequent recombination (1 recombination breakpoint per 3 isolates analyzed) were observed in both clades. Viral proteins have markedly different patterns of evolution; sequence homology and negative selection were highest in Gag and Pol and lowest in Vif and Env. A total of 1.7% of sites across the PLV genome evolve under positive selection, indicating that host-imposed selection pressure is an important force shaping PLV evolution. PLVA strains are highly spatially structured, reflecting the population dynamics of their primary host, the bobcat. In contrast, the phylogeography of PLVB reflects the highly mobile mountain lion, with diverse PLVB isolates cocirculating in some areas and genetically related viruses being present in populations separated by thousands of kilometers. We conclude that PLVA and PLVB are two different viral species with distinct feline hosts and evolutionary histories. Importance: An understanding of viral evolution in natural host populations is a fundamental goal of virology, molecular biology, and disease ecology. Here we provide a detailed analysis of puma lentivirus (PLV) evolution in two natural carnivore hosts, the bobcat and mountain lion. Our results illustrate that PLV evolution is a dynamic process that results from high rates of viral mutation/recombination and host-imposed selection pressure.

  6. [Food habits of Puma concolor (Carnivora: Felidae) in the Parque Nacional Natural Puracé, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Guzmán, Andrés; Payán, Esteban; Monroy-Vilchis, Octavio

    2011-09-01

    Neotropical puma (Puma concolor) diet is scarcely known, in particular that of mountain dwelling individuals from Northern South America. This is the first study on pumas from the paramo and the first puma diet analysis for Colombia. The puma diet was studied from 2007 to 2009 in the Puracé National Park in the South Colombian Andes. Paramos are unique neotropical high altitude ecosystems which store and regulate water, and are currently threatened by agricultural expansion and climate change. Seven latrines were monitored for three years and scat collected, washed and dried. Items in scat such as hair, bones, claws and others were separated. Hairs were inspected by microscopy and compared to voucher hair museum specimens. Bone fragments, claws and teeth were also compared to museum collections and identified wherever possible. Additionally, six cameras were set along game trails to document puma and potential prey presence in the area. Food items from five species were identified in 60 puma scats; Northern Pudu (Pudu mephistophiles) was the most important prey in their diet. A total of 354 camera trap-nights photographed a male and female puma, Northern pudu and Spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus). The main conclusion suggests a strong dependence of puma on the threatened and mysterious Northern Pudu in paramo habitats. This behavior might reflect restricted prey availability in the high Andes mountains of Colombia, and highlights the plasticity in the puma diet. Conservation actions in the paramo should thus, focus on focal wild species, and in particularly those that show a relationship, such as the one evidenced here with the dependence of puma on Northern Pudu. These findings contribute to increase the little known ecology of Andean puma populations and the species as a whole in Colombia. Baseline data on puma prey populations in different ecosystems throughout their range, is critical to understand the regional requirements for survival, and design

  7. Survival and Mortality of Pumas (Puma concolor) in a Fragmented, Urbanizing Landscape.

    PubMed

    Vickers, T Winston; Sanchez, Jessica N; Johnson, Christine K; Morrison, Scott A; Botta, Randy; Smith, Trish; Cohen, Brian S; Huber, Patrick R; Ernest, Holly B; Boyce, Walter M

    2015-01-01

    Wide-ranging large carnivores pose myriad challenges for conservation, especially in highly fragmented landscapes. Over a 13-year period, we combined monitoring of radio collared pumas (Puma concolor) with complementary multi-generational genetic analyses to inform puma conservation in southern California, USA. Our goals were to generate survivorship estimates, determine causes of mortality, identify barriers to movement, and determine the genetic and demographic challenges to puma persistence among >20,000,000 people and extensive urban, suburban, and exurban development. Despite protection from hunting, annual survival for radio collared pumas was surprisingly low (55.8%), and humans caused the majority of puma deaths. The most common sources of mortality were vehicle collisions (28% of deaths), and mortalities resulting from depredation permits issued after pumas killed domestic animals (17% of deaths). Other human-caused mortalities included illegal shootings, public safety removals, and human-caused wildfire. An interstate highway (I-15) bisecting this study area, and associated development, have created a nearly impermeable barrier to puma movements, resulting in severe genetic restriction and demographic isolation of the small puma population (n ~ 17-27 adults) in the Santa Ana Mountains west of I-15. Highways that bisect habitat or divide remaining "conserved" habitat, and associated ongoing development, threaten to further subdivide this already fragmented puma population and increase threats to survival. This study highlights the importance of combining demographic and genetic analyses, and illustrates that in the absence of effective measures to reduce mortality and enhance safe movement across highways, translocation of pumas, such as was done with the endangered Florida panther (P. c. coryi), may ultimately be necessary to prevent further genetic decline and ensure persistence of the Santa Ana Mountains population.

  8. Models of regional habitat quality and connectivity for pumas (Puma concolor) in the southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Brett G; Roemer, Gary W; McRae, Brad H; Rundall, Jill M

    2013-01-01

    The impact of landscape changes on the quality and connectivity of habitats for multiple wildlife species is of global conservation concern. In the southwestern United States, pumas (Puma concolor) are a well distributed and wide-ranging large carnivore that are sensitive to loss of habitat and to the disruption of pathways that connect their populations. We used an expert-based approach to define and derive variables hypothesized to influence the quality, location, and permeability of habitat for pumas within an area encompassing the entire states of Arizona and New Mexico. Survey results indicated that the presence of woodland and forest cover types, rugged terrain, and canyon bottom and ridgeline topography were expected to be important predictors of both high quality habitat and heightened permeability. As road density, distance to water, or human population density increased, the quality and permeability of habitats were predicted to decline. Using these results, we identified 67 high quality patches across the study area, and applied concepts from electronic circuit theory to estimate regional patterns of connectivity among these patches. Maps of current flow among individual pairs of patches highlighted possible pinch points along two major interstate highways. Current flow summed across all pairs of patches highlighted areas important for keeping the entire network connected, regardless of patch size. Cumulative current flow was highest in Arizona north of the Colorado River and around Grand Canyon National Park, and in the Sky Islands region owing to the many small habitat patches present. Our outputs present a first approximation of habitat quality and connectivity for dispersing pumas in the southwestern United States. Map results can be used to help target finer-scaled analyses in support of planning efforts concerned with the maintenance of puma metapopulation structure, as well as the protection of landscape features that facilitate the dispersal

  9. Development and validation of puma (Felis concolor) cytokine and lentivirus real-time PCR detection systems.

    PubMed

    Sondgeroth, Kerry; Leutenegger, Christian; Vandewoude, Sue

    2005-04-08

    Studies of immune correlates of disease outcome associate humoral immune response mediated by T-helper 2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-10) with more virulent disease relative to a cell-mediated response driven by T-helper 1 cytokines (IL-2, IFN-gamma), particularly in viral and other intra-cellular infections. Specifically, the kinetics of both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection are closely associated with Type 1 versus Type 2 cytokine profiles. Puma (Felis concolor) lentivirus (PLV) is closely related to FIV, but based on phylogenetic and clinical studies, is more ancient and less pathogenic. The aims of this study were to validate feline real-time PCR primer/probe systems for puma cytokines and PLV as sensitive, quantitative assays for use in investigations of PLV pathogenicity. We demonstrate that primer/probe systems for IL-4, IL-10, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, GAPDH, and the pol region of PLV-1695 amplify puma cytokines and PLV-1695 with high amplification efficiency and sensitivity. Detection of PLV-1695 provirus in experimentally inoculated domestic cats proved to be of equivalent sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value to co-culture of one million peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Evaluation of cytokine induction during naturally occurring PLV infection will allow insight into mechanisms of host control associated with apathogenic infection. In addition, determination of viral loads during different stages of PLV infection or in different tissues from domestic cats or pumas will further elucidate capacity of these viruses to replicate and establish infection.

  10. Functional responses of cougars (Puma concolor) in a multiple prey-species system.

    PubMed

    Soria-Díaz, Leroy; Fowler, Mike S; Monroy-Vilchis, Octavio; Oro, Daniel

    2017-03-06

    The study of predator-prey interactions is commonly analyzed using functional responses to gain an understanding of predation patterns and the impact they have on prey populations. Despite this, little is known about predator-prey systems with multiple prey species in sites near the equator. Here we studied the functional response of cougars (Puma concolor) in Sierra Nanchititla Natural Reserve (Mexico), in relation to their main prey, armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus), coati (Nasua narica) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Between 2004 and 2010, cougar scats were collected along five transects to estimate the consumption of different prey species. A relative abundance index (RAI) was calculated for each prey species and cougar using 18 camera traps. We compared Holling type I, II and III functional response models to determine patterns in prey consumption based on the relative abundance and biomass of each prey species consumed. The three main prey species comprised 55% (armadillo), 17% (coati) and 8% (white-tailed deer) of the diet. Type I and II functional responses described consumption of the two most common prey species armadillos and coati similarly well, while a type I response best characterized consumption of white-tailed deer. A negative correlation between the proportions of armadillo versus coati and white-tailed deer biomass in cougar scats suggests switching to consume alternative prey, confirming high foraging plasticity of this carnivore. This work represents one of the few studies to compare functional responses across multiple prey species, combined with evidence for prey-switching at low densities of preferred prey. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Laboratory findings in acute Cytauxzoon felis infection in cougars (Puma concolor couguar) in Florida.

    PubMed

    Harvey, John W; Dunbar, Mike R; Norton, Terry M; Yabsley, Michael J

    2007-06-01

    Intraerythrocytic piroplasms, morphologically indistinguishable from Cytauxzoon felis, were identified in stained blood films from more than one third of free-ranging cougars (Puma concolor couguar) in southern Florida in a study that failed to demonstrate negative effects of piroplasm infection on measured hematologic parameters. However, a recent study with a nested 18s rRNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay identified only 9% of the free-ranging cougars in southern Florida as infected with C. felis but found 83% of these animals were infected with an unnamed small Babesia sp. In this study, hematology and clinical chemistry parameters were determined during the initial appearance of piroplasms in stained blood films of three western cougars housed in northern Florida. One animal became ill, but the remaining two animals did not exhibit clinical signs of disease. The hematocrit decreased in all three cougars concomitant with the first recognized parasitemia. A regenerative response to anemia (increased polychromasia, increased mean cell volume, and increased red cell distribution width) was recognized in two cougars that were examined twice during the following 2 weeks. Thrombocytopenia and probable leukopenia occurred in one animal. The most consistent clinical chemistry findings were increased serum bilirubin concentrations and increased alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities at the time of initial recognition of parasitemia. Serum protein findings were not consistent in these cougars. The use of PCR and determination of 18S rRNA gene sequences in the blood from these three animals revealed infection with C. felis, but not with the Babesia sp. In this report, we demonstrate that mild hemolytic anemia, and probably liver injury, occurs concomitant with the initial discovery of C. felis piroplasms in stained blood films.

  12. Fractured genetic connectivity threatens a southern california puma (Puma concolor) population.

    PubMed

    Ernest, Holly B; Vickers, T Winston; Morrison, Scott A; Buchalski, Michael R; Boyce, Walter M

    2014-01-01

    Pumas (Puma concolor; also known as mountain lions and cougars) in southern California live among a burgeoning human population of roughly 20 million people. Yet little is known of the consequences of attendant habitat loss and fragmentation, and human-caused puma mortality to puma population viability and genetic diversity. We examined genetic status of pumas in coastal mountains within the Peninsular Ranges south of Los Angeles, in San Diego, Riverside, and Orange counties. The Santa Ana Mountains are bounded by urbanization to the west, north, and east, and are separated from the eastern Peninsular Ranges to the southeast by a ten lane interstate highway (I-15). We analyzed DNA samples from 97 pumas sampled between 2001 and 2012. Genotypic data for forty-six microsatellite loci revealed that pumas sampled in the Santa Ana Mountains (n = 42) displayed lower genetic diversity than pumas from nearly every other region in California tested (n = 257), including those living in the Peninsular Ranges immediately to the east across I-15 (n = 55). Santa Ana Mountains pumas had high average pairwise relatedness, high individual internal relatedness, a low estimated effective population size, and strong evidence of a bottleneck and isolation from other populations in California. These and ecological findings provide clear evidence that Santa Ana Mountains pumas have been experiencing genetic impacts related to barriers to gene flow, and are a warning signal to wildlife managers and land use planners that mitigation efforts will be needed to stem further genetic and demographic decay in the Santa Ana Mountains puma population.

  13. Dermatophyte infections in free-ranging Florida panthers (Felis concolor coryi).

    PubMed

    Rotstein, D S; Thomas, R; Helmick, K; Citino, S B; Taylor, S K; Dunbar, M R

    1999-06-01

    Three free-ranging Florida panthers (Felis concolor coryi) were diagnosed with clinical dermatophytosis; two were infected with Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and one was infected with Microsporum gypseum. Two of these panthers were juvenile males that were diagnosed with focal to focally coalescing dermatophytosis; one caused by M. gypseum and the other by T. mentagrophytes. These animals were not treated, and clinical signs resolved spontaneously over 6 mo. The third panther, an adult male from southern Florida, presented with a diffuse dermatophytosis due to T. mentagrophytes infection. Initially, the panther had alopecia, excoriations, ulcerations, and multifocal pyoderma of the head, ears, neck, rear limbs, and abdominal region that progressed to lichenification of the skin and loss of nails from two digits. When topical therapy applied in the field at 45-day intervals was ineffective in clearing the infection, the animal was placed in captivity for intensive oral therapy to prevent further development of dermal mycosis, loss of additional nails, and spread of infection to other panthers. The panther was treated orally with itraconazole (9.5 mg/ kg) in the food s.i.d. for 6 wk. After treatment, nail regrowth occurred but the multifocal areas of alopecia remained. The panther was released back into the wild after two skin biopsy cultures were negative for fungal growth. Temporary removal of a free-ranging animal of an endangered species from its habitat for systemic treatment of dermatophytosis requires consideration of factors such as age, reproductive potential, holding facilities, treatment regimen, and the potential for successful reintroduction of the animal.

  14. Genetic and phylogenetic divergence of feline immunodeficiency virus in the puma (Puma concolor).

    PubMed

    Carpenter, M A; Brown, E W; Culver, M; Johnson, W E; Pecon-Slattery, J; Brousset, D; O'Brien, S J

    1996-10-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus which causes an AIDS-like disease in domestic cats (Felis catus). A number of other felid species, including the puma (Puma concolor), carry a virus closely related to domestic cat FIV. Serological testing revealed the presence of antibodies to FIV in 22% of 434 samples from throughout the geographic range of the puma. FIV-Pco pol gene sequences isolated from pumas revealed extensive sequence diversity, greater than has been documented in the domestic cat. The puma sequences formed two highly divergent groups, analogous to the clades which have been defined for domestic cat and lion (Panthera leo) FIV. The puma clade A was made up of samples from Florida and California, whereas clade B consisted of samples from other parts of North America, Central America, and Brazil. The difference between these two groups was as great as that reported among three lion FIV clades. Within puma clades, sequence variation is large, comparable to between-clade differences seen for domestic cat clades, allowing recognition of 15 phylogenetic lineages (subclades) among puma FIV-Pco. Large sequence divergence among isolates, nearly complete species monophyly, and widespread geographic distribution suggest that FIV-Pco has evolved within the puma species for a long period. The sequence data provided evidence for vertical transmission of FIV-Pco from mothers to their kittens, for coinfection of individuals by two different viral strains, and for cross-species transmission of FIV from a domestic cat to a puma. These factors may all be important for understanding the epidemiology and natural history of FIV in the puma.

  15. Genetic and phylogenetic divergence of feline immunodeficiency virus in the puma (Puma concolor).

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, M A; Brown, E W; Culver, M; Johnson, W E; Pecon-Slattery, J; Brousset, D; O'Brien, S J

    1996-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus which causes an AIDS-like disease in domestic cats (Felis catus). A number of other felid species, including the puma (Puma concolor), carry a virus closely related to domestic cat FIV. Serological testing revealed the presence of antibodies to FIV in 22% of 434 samples from throughout the geographic range of the puma. FIV-Pco pol gene sequences isolated from pumas revealed extensive sequence diversity, greater than has been documented in the domestic cat. The puma sequences formed two highly divergent groups, analogous to the clades which have been defined for domestic cat and lion (Panthera leo) FIV. The puma clade A was made up of samples from Florida and California, whereas clade B consisted of samples from other parts of North America, Central America, and Brazil. The difference between these two groups was as great as that reported among three lion FIV clades. Within puma clades, sequence variation is large, comparable to between-clade differences seen for domestic cat clades, allowing recognition of 15 phylogenetic lineages (subclades) among puma FIV-Pco. Large sequence divergence among isolates, nearly complete species monophyly, and widespread geographic distribution suggest that FIV-Pco has evolved within the puma species for a long period. The sequence data provided evidence for vertical transmission of FIV-Pco from mothers to their kittens, for coinfection of individuals by two different viral strains, and for cross-species transmission of FIV from a domestic cat to a puma. These factors may all be important for understanding the epidemiology and natural history of FIV in the puma. PMID:8794304

  16. Abscisic Acid Antagonizes Ethylene Production through the ABI4-Mediated Transcriptional Repression of ACS4 and ACS8 in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhijun; Yu, Yanwen; Li, Shenghui; Wang, Juan; Tang, Saijun; Huang, Rongfeng

    2016-01-04

    Increasing evidence has revealed that abscisic acid (ABA) negatively modulates ethylene biosynthesis, although the underlying mechanism remains unclear. To identify the factors involved, we conducted a screen for ABA-insensitive mutants with altered ethylene production in Arabidopsis. A dominant allele of ABI4, abi4-152, which produces a putative protein with a 16-amino-acid truncation at the C-terminus of ABI4, reduces ethylene production. By contrast, two recessive knockout alleles of ABI4, abi4-102 and abi4-103, result in increased ethylene evolution, indicating that ABI4 negatively regulates ethylene production. Further analyses showed that expression of the ethylene biosynthesis genes ACS4, ACS8, and ACO2 was significantly decreased in abi4-152 but increased in the knockout mutants, with partial dependence on ABA. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative PCR assays showed that ABI4 directly binds the promoters of these ethylene biosynthesis genes and that ABA enhances this interaction. A fusion protein containing the truncated ABI4-152 peptide accumulated to higher levels than its full-length counterpart in transgenic plants, suggesting that ABI4 is destabilized by its C terminus. Therefore, our results demonstrate that ABA negatively regulates ethylene production through ABI4-mediated transcriptional repression of the ethylene biosynthesis genes ACS4 and ACS8 in Arabidopsis.

  17. Group structure and physical characteristics of Simakobu monkeys (Simias concolor) on the Mentawai Island of Siberut, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Susilo; Ziegler, Thomas; Hodges, J Keith

    2009-01-01

    We present data on group structure and physical characteristics from free-ranging Simias concolor. Mean group size (n = 3) was 8.7 +/- 1.1 individuals with an average adult male:female sex ratio of 1:3. All individuals were sexed and allocated into three categories (infants, juveniles plus subadults and adults) on the basis of their physical development. Within age categories, head-body lengths ranged from 19.6 to 25, 34 to 44 and 42 to 53 cm. Corresponding body weights ranged from 0.5 to 0.9, 2.35 to 4.4 and 5.2 to 7.85 kg, respectively; on average adult males were 13% larger and 23% heavier than adult females. Results indicate that for S. concolor living in undisturbed habitat (i) group sizes are larger than previously reported and (ii) polygyny is the most likely mating system. Both results support an earlier proposal that group size and social organization in Simakobu monkey are related to the degree of habitat disturbance.

  18. Landsat-ABI (L-ABI) Enables 8-day Revisits and Increased Science Content with a Single Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woody, L. M.; Griffith, P. C.; Wirth, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    In addition to the on-going uses of Landsat data for land use and land cover change assessment, crop monitoring, ecosystem evaluation, and water use mapping, the increasing number of severe environmental events (storms, droughts, floods, and fires) has intensified the demand for land imaging data. Users desire more data and, more importantly, more frequent data to better understand the trends and impacts of these extreme events. Additionally, the Sustainable Land Imaging (SLI) thrust faces the difficult task of providing continuity of measurements in a strict budget-constrained environment. To that end, the desire is to reduce the size, mass, and - most importantly - cost of future US land imaging capability, without impacting the continuity of the SLI data with past Landsat archives. During our exploration of possible alternatives for future Landsat missions, we re-opened the trade space to include scanned options. The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) has been delivered to NASA/NOAA for flight on GOES-R, and additional models are in fabrication for various customers. Adapting this in-production instrument to flight at low-Earth orbit is relatively straightforward, and leads to a simple, high-heritage (low-risk) concept for a full-spectrum Landsat instrument that would meet virtually all of the Landsat 8 Reference Performance Parameters at significantly lower cost than the Landsat-8 (LDCM) payload. It would also be smaller than the L-8 payload, about half the mass, and require lower power. In addition, it could offer the option for spectral enhancement of Landsat through additional LWIR and/or MWIR bands. Finally, the L-ABI can offer larger swath coverage, driving the SLI system towards the desired 8-day repeat coverage.

  19. VOCs-Mediated Location of Olive Fly Larvae by the Braconid Parasitoid Psyttalia concolor: A Multivariate Comparison among VOC Bouquets from Three Olive Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Giunti, Giulia; Benelli, Giovanni; Conte, Giuseppe; Mele, Marcello; Caruso, Giovanni; Gucci, Riccardo; Flamini, Guido; Canale, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Herbivorous activity induces plant indirect defenses, as the emission of herbivorous-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs), which could be used by parasitoids for host location. Psyttalia concolor is a larval pupal endoparasitoid, attacking a number of tephritid flies including B. oleae. In this research, we investigated the olfactory cues routing host location behavior of P. concolor towards B. oleae larvae infesting three different olive cultivars. VOCs from infested and healthy fruits were identified using GC-MS analyses. In two-choice behavioral assays, P. concolor females preferred infested olive cues, which also evoked ovipositional probing by female wasps. GC-MS analysis showed qualitative and quantitative differences among volatiles emitted by infested and healthy olives. Volatile emissions were peculiar for each cultivar analyzed. Two putative HIPVs were detected in infested fruits, regardless of the cultivar, the monoterpene (E)-β-ocimene, and the sesquiterpene (E-E)-α-farnesene. Our study adds basic knowledge to the behavioral ecology of P. concolor. From an applied point of view, the field application of the above-mentioned VOCs may help to enhance effectiveness of biological control programs and parasitoid mass-rearing techniques. PMID:26989691

  20. A new atypical genotype mouse virulent strain of Toxoplasma gondii isolated from the heart of a wild caught puma (Felis concolor) from Durango, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nothing is known of the genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii circulating in wildlife in Mexico. In the present study, a mouse virulent T. gondii strain was isolated from the heart of a wild puma (Felis concolor). The puma was found roaming in outskirt of Durango City, Mexico and tranquailized for ...

  1. Genome-Wide Analysis of the bZIP Gene Family Identifies Two ABI5-Like bZIP Transcription Factors, BrABI5a and BrABI5b, as Positive Modulators of ABA Signalling in Chinese Cabbage

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaochen; Sun, Congcong; Li, Yanlin; Wang, Dandan; Wang, Qinhu; Pei, Guoliang; Zhang, Yanfeng; Guo, Aiguang; Zhao, Huixian; Lu, Haibin; Mu, Xiaoqian; Hu, Jingjiang; Zhou, Xiaona; Xie, Chang Gen

    2016-01-01

    bZIP (basic leucine zipper) transcription factors coordinate plant growth and development and control responses to environmental stimuli. The genome of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa) encodes 136 putative bZIP transcription factors. The bZIP transcription factors in Brassica rapa (BrbZIP) are classified into 10 subfamilies. Phylogenetic relationship analysis reveals that subfamily A consists of 23 BrbZIPs. Two BrbZIPs within subfamily A, Bra005287 and Bra017251, display high similarity to ABI5 (ABA Insensitive 5). Expression of subfamily A BrbZIPs, like BrABI5a (Bra005287/BrbZIP14) and BrABI5b (Bra017251/BrbZIP13), are significantly induced by the plant hormone ABA. Subcellular localization assay reveal that both BrABI5a and BrABI5b have a nuclear localization. BrABI5a and BrABI5b could directly stimulate ABA Responsive Element-driven HIS (a HIS3 reporter gene, which confers His prototrophy) or LUC (LUCIFERASE) expression in yeast and Arabidopsis protoplast. Deletion of the bZIP motif abolished BrABI5a and BrABI5b transcriptional activity. The ABA insensitive phenotype of Arabidopsis abi5-1 is completely suppressed in transgenic lines expressing BrABI5a or BrABI5b. Overall, these results suggest that ABI5 orthologs, BrABI5a and BrABI5b, have key roles in ABA signalling in Chinese cabbage. PMID:27414644

  2. Adult neurogenesis in the hedgehog (Erinaceus concolor) and mole (Talpa europaea).

    PubMed

    Bartkowska, K; Turlejski, K; Grabiec, M; Ghazaryan, A; Yavruoyan, E; Djavadian, R L

    2010-01-01

    We investigated adult neurogenesis in two species of mammals belonging to the superorder Laurasiatheria, the southern white-breasted hedgehog (order Erinaceomorpha, species Erinaceus concolor) from Armenia and the European mole (order Soricomorpha, species Talpa europaea) from Poland. Neurogenesis in the brain of these species was examined immunohistochemically, using the endogenous markers doublecortin (DCX) and Ki-67, which are highly conserved among species. We found that in both the hedgehog and mole, like in the majority of earlier investigated mammals, neurogenesis continues in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles and in the dentate gyrus (DG). In the DG of both species, DCX-expressing cells and Ki-67-labeled cells were present in the subgranular and granular layers. In the mole, a strong bundle of DCX-labeled processes, presumably axons of granule cells, was observed in the center of the hilus. Proliferating cells (expressing Ki-67) were identified in the SVZ of lateral ventricles of both species, but neuronal precursor cells (expressing DCX) were also observed in the olfactory bulb (OB). In both species, the vast majority of cells expressing DCX in the OB were granule cells with radially orientated dendrites, although some periglomerular cells surrounding the glomeruli were also labeled. In addition, this paper is the first to show DCX-labeled fibers in the anterior commissure of the hedgehog and mole. These fibers must be axons of new neurons making interhemispheric connections between the two OB or piriform (olfactory) cortices. DCX-expressing neurons were observed in the striatum and piriform cortex of both hedgehog and mole. We postulate that in both species a fraction of cells newly generated in the SVZ migrates along the rostral migratory stream to the piriform cortex. This pattern of migration resembles that of the 'second-wave neurons' generated during embryonal development of the neocortex rather than the pattern observed during

  3. Historical and other patterns of monomethyl and inorganic mercury in the Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi).

    PubMed

    Newman, J; Zillioux, E; Rich, E; Liang, L; Newman, C

    2005-01-01

    Since the late 1980s, elevated levels of mercury have been reported in the tissues of the Florida panther (Puma concolor coryi) from the Florida Everglades. The extent, degree, and length of time of mercury contamination in the Florida panther are unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the historical and other patterns of monomethyl and inorganic mercury in the Florida panther by analysis of mercury in panther hair from museum collections. In addition, this study evaluated the effects of preservation of skins on mercury concentrations in hair and the representativeness of museum collections for evaluating historical trends of contamination in the Florida panther. Hair from 42 Florida panther specimens collected from 1896 to 1995 was analyzed for both monomethyl and inorganic mercury. Monomethyl mercury (MMHg) and inorganic mercury (IHg) were found in all specimens. Monomethyl mercury in hair from untanned skins was significantly higher than MMHg in hair from tanned skins. For untanned specimens, the mean MMHg concentration in hair was 1.62 +/- 1.87 mug/g (range 0.11 to 6.68 mug/g, n = 16). Monomethyl mercury accounted for 88% of the total mercury in untanned Florida panther hair. No sexual or geographical differences were found. Although MMHg is generally stable in hair, the tanning process appears to reduce the amount of MMHg in hair. In addition, exogenous IHg contamination of the panther hair was found in museum specimens, especially in older specimens. The implication of these and other factors in interpreting results of museum studies is discussed. The presence of MMHg in panther hair since the 1890s indicates long-term and widespread exposure of the Florida panther to mercury. Levels of MMHg are significantly greater in the 1990s than the 1890s. When combined with field studies of mercury in the Florida panther, considerable individual variability is observed, reflecting short-term changes in exposure of individual panthers to mercury. Although

  4. “Related to ABA-Insensitive3(ABI3)/Viviparous1 and AtABI5 transcription factor co-expression in cotton enhances drought stress adaptation”

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Amandeep; Gampala, Srinivas S. L.; Ritchie, Glen L.; Payton, Paxton; Burke, John J.; Rock, Christopher D.

    2014-01-01

    Drought tolerance is an important trait being pursued by the agbiotech industry. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a stress hormone that mediates a multitude of processes in growth and development, water use efficiency (WUE), and gene expression during seed development and in response to environmental stresses. Arabidopsis B3-domain transcription factor Related to ABA-Insensitive3 (ABI3)/Viviparous1 (namely, AtRAV2) and basic leucine zipper (bZIPs) AtABI5 or AtABF3 transactivated ABA- inducible promoter: GUS reporter expression in a maize mesophyll protoplast transient assay and showed synergies in reporter transactivation when co-expressed. Transgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) expressing AtRAV1/2 and/or AtABI5 showed resistance to imposed drought stress under field and greenhouse conditions and exhibited improved photosynthetic and WUEs associated with absorption through larger root system and greater leaf area. We observed synergy for root biomass accumulation in the greenhouse, intrinsic WUE in the field, and drought tolerance in stacked AtRAV and AtABI5 double-transgenic cotton. We assessed AtABI5 and AtRAV1/2 involvement in drought stress adaptations though reactive oxygen species scavenging and osmotic adjustment by marker gene expression in cotton. Deficit irrigation-grown AtRAV1/2 and AtABI5 transgenics had “less stressed” molecular and physiological phenotypes under drought, likely due to improved photoassimilation and root and shoot sink strengths and enhanced expression of endogenous GhRAV and genes for antioxidant and osmolyte biosynthesis. Over-expression of bZIP and RAV TFs could impact sustainable cotton agriculture and potentially other crops under limited irrigation conditions. PMID:24483851

  5. The Arabidopsis DELAY OF GERMINATION 1 gene affects ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 5 (ABI5) expression and genetically interacts with ABI3 during Arabidopsis seed development.

    PubMed

    Dekkers, Bas J W; He, Hanzi; Hanson, Johannes; Willems, Leo A J; Jamar, Diaan C L; Cueff, Gwendal; Rajjou, Loïc; Hilhorst, Henk W M; Bentsink, Leónie

    2016-02-01

    The seed expressed gene DELAY OF GERMINATION (DOG) 1 is absolutely required for the induction of dormancy. Next to a non-dormant phenotype, the dog1-1 mutant is also characterized by a reduced seed longevity suggesting that DOG1 may affect additional seed processes as well. This aspect however, has been hardly studied and is poorly understood. To uncover additional roles of DOG1 in seeds we performed a detailed analysis of the dog1 mutant using both transcriptomics and metabolomics to investigate the molecular consequences of a dysfunctional DOG1 gene. Further, we used a genetic approach taking advantage of the weak aba insensitive (abi) 3-1 allele as a sensitized genetic background in a cross with dog1-1. DOG1 affects the expression of hundreds of genes including LATE EMBRYOGENESIS ABUNDANT and HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN genes which are affected by DOG1 partly via control of ABI5 expression. Furthermore, the content of a subset of primary metabolites, which normally accumulate during seed maturation, was found to be affected in the dog1-1 mutant. Surprisingly, the abi3-1 dog1-1 double mutant produced green seeds which are highly ABA insensitive, phenocopying severe abi3 mutants, indicating that dog1-1 acts as an enhancer of the weak abi3-1 allele and thus revealing a genetic interaction between both genes. Analysis of the dog1 and dog1 abi3 mutants revealed additional seed phenotypes and therefore we hypothesize that DOG1 function is not limited to dormancy but that it is required for multiple aspects of seed maturation, in part by interfering with ABA signalling components.

  6. Hydrogen peroxide is a regulator of ABI1, a protein phosphatase 2C from Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Meinhard, M; Grill, E

    2001-11-23

    Protein phosphatases 2C (PP2Cs) exhibit diverse regulatory functions in signalling pathways of animals, yeast and plants. ABI1 is a PP2C of Arabidopsis that exerts negative control on signalling of the phytohormone abscissic acid (ABA). Characterisation of the redox sensitivity of ABI1 revealed a strong enzymatic inactivation by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) which has recently been implicated as a secondary messenger of ABA signalling. H2O2 reversibly inhibited ABI1 activity in vitro with an IC(50) of approximately 140 microM in the presence of physiological concentrations of glutathione. In addition, ABI1 was highly susceptible to inactivation by phenylarsine oxide (IC(50)=3-4 microM) indicative for the facile oxidation of vicinal cysteine residues. Thus, H2O2 generated during ABA signalling seems to inactivate the negative regulator of the ABA response.

  7. Aluminum biogeochemistry in a subalpine Abies amabilis ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlgren, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Aluminum biogeochemistry was examined in a naturally acidic subalpine ecosystem in the Washington Cascade Mountains. This ecosystem has a vegetative community consisting of Abies amabilis while the soil-forming processes are dominated by podzolization. Due to the potentially harmful biogeochemical link between Al and toxicity to vegetation, aquatic species and man, the factors regulating Al concentrations and mobility were studied. Toxicity and mobility are both related to the ligand to which Al is complexed. Therefore, Al fractionation was performed on soil solutions to differentiate organically bound and inorganic species. Vegetative and soil pools of Al and aluminum fluxes between pools were determined by simultaneous quantification of ecosystem waterflows, litterfall and vegetative uptake. Based on these results, a conceptual model was developed to integrate the hydrologic cycle, vegetation, and soil-forming processes. This model was employed to elucidate mechanisms involved in the process of podzolization and for predicting the effects of natural and man-induced perturbations. Soluble Al in the rooting zone occurs primarily as organically bound complexes, which are considered nontoxic.

  8. [Plants associated to Abies guatemalensis (Pinaceae) forests in Western Guatemala].

    PubMed

    Arévalo, José Vicente Martínez

    2013-03-01

    The fragments of Abies guatemalensis forests in Western Guatemala are the reservoirs of plant species that have been poorly documented, missing the opportunity to expand the knowledge of the local flora and its use in conservation planning. To assess this, a floristic study was done in areas between 2 950-3 360masl in Western Guatemala between 2010-2011. Ten locations were sampled: in each a 500m2 plot was surveyed, and plants were classified in four strata by plant height (0.05-30m). A total of 119 species, 92 genera and 50 families in four divisions were found. The families with more species were Asteraceae, Poaceae, Rosaceae, Lamiaceae, Apiaceae and Solanaceae, and the most abundant genera were Salvia, Alchemilla and Bidens. The number of species found by strata was: 33 (low herbaceous), 49 (high herbaceous), 30 (shrubs) and seven in the tree strata. Regarding geographical distribution, the biggest species group detected was from central Mexico to Central America with 67%, which compared to the forests of A. guatemalensis in central and Southern Mexico, showed high floristic affinity, especially at the family and genus level. However, even having families and genera in common in the general structure of the fir forests, their floristic particularities should be taken into account when making management and conservation plans, because these are influenced by soil, latitude and microclimate conditions.

  9. Wood formation in Abies balsamea seedlings subjected to artificial defoliation.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Sergio; Simard, Sonia; Deslauriers, Annie; Morin, Hubert

    2009-04-01

    We determined the cambial sensitivity and quantified the anatomical differences in xylem of Abies balsamea (L.) Mill. seedlings subjected to artificial defoliation to simulate spruce budworm feeding. Defoliation was performed by removing two-thirds of needles of all current-year shoots for up to four consecutive growth cycles to account for inter- and intra-annual xylem formation. In Experiment 1, xylem development was studied from May to October 2005 in seedlings defoliated at the end of June. In Experiment 2, anatomical features of the xylem were measured along the tree rings formed in 2005 and 2006 during the four cycles of growth and defoliation. Control and defoliated seedlings showed similar patterns of cambial activity and timing of xylem differentiation, although fewer enlarging cells were observed in August to September in defoliated seedlings. Tree-ring widths were similar in control and defoliated seedlings, with thinner rings produced in the greenhouse in winter. No effect of defoliation on cell lumen area was observed, and effects on radial cell diameter and wall thickness were found only occasionally. The results indicate that the A. balsamea seedlings produced all the resources required to maintain stem growth during the four cycles of defoliation.

  10. The abi proteins and their involvement in bacteriocin self-immunity.

    PubMed

    Kjos, Morten; Snipen, Lars; Salehian, Zhian; Nes, Ingolf F; Diep, Dzung B

    2010-04-01

    The Abi protein family consists of putative membrane-bound metalloproteases. While they are involved in membrane anchoring of proteins in eukaryotes, little is known about their function in prokaryotes. In some known bacteriocin loci, Abi genes have been found downstream of bacteriocin structural genes (e.g., pln locus from Lactobacillus plantarum and sag locus from Streptococcus pyogenes), where they probably are involved in self-immunity. By modifying the profile hidden Markov model used to select Abi proteins in the Pfam protein family database, we show that this family is larger than presently recognized. Using bacteriocin-associated Abi genes as a means to search for novel bacteriocins in sequenced genomes, seven new bacteriocin-like loci were identified in Gram-positive bacteria. One such locus, from Lactobacillus sakei 23K, was selected for further experimental study, and it was confirmed that the bacteriocin-like genes (skkAB) exhibited antimicrobial activity when expressed in a heterologous host and that the associated Abi gene (skkI) conferred immunity against the cognate bacteriocin. Similar investigation of the Abi gene plnI and the Abi-like gene plnL from L. plantarum also confirmed their involvement in immunity to their cognate bacteriocins (PlnEF and PlnJK, respectively). Interestingly, the immunity genes from these three systems conferred a high degree of cross-immunity against each other's bacteriocins, suggesting the recognition of a common receptor. Site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated that the conserved motifs constituting the putative proteolytic active site of the Abi proteins are essential for the immunity function of SkkI, and to our knowledge, this represents a new concept in self-immunity.

  11. A Novel RNA-Binding Protein Involves ABA Signaling by Post-transcriptionally Repressing ABI2

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jianwen; Chen, Yihan; Qian, Luofeng; Mu, Rong; Yuan, Xi; Fang, Huimin; Huang, Xi; Xu, Enshun; Zhang, Hongsheng; Huang, Ji

    2017-01-01

    The Stress Associated RNA-binding protein 1 (SRP1) repressed by ABA, salt and cold encodes a C2C2-type zinc finger protein in Arabidopsis. The knock-out mutation in srp1 reduced the sensitivity of seed to ABA and salt stress during germination and post-germinative growth stages. In contrast, SRP1-overexpressing seedlings were more sensitive to ABA and salt compared to wild type plants. In the presence of ABA, the transcript levels of ABA signaling and germination-related genes including ABI3. ABI5. EM1 and EM6 were less induced in srp1 compared to WT. Interestingly, expression of ABI2 encoding a protein phosphatase 2C protein were significantly up-regulated in srp1 mutants. By in vitro analysis, SRP1 was identified as a novel RNA-binding protein directly binding to 3′UTR of ABI2 mRNA. Moreover, transient expression assay proved the function of SRP1 in reducing the activity of luciferase whose coding sequence was fused with the ABI2 3’UTR. Together, it is suggested that SRP1 is involved in the ABA signaling by post-transcriptionally repressing ABI2 expression in Arabidopsis. PMID:28174577

  12. S-nitrosylation triggers ABI5 degradation to promote seed germination and seedling growth

    PubMed Central

    Albertos, Pablo; Romero-Puertas, María C.; Tatematsu, Kiyoshi; Mateos, Isabel; Sánchez-Vicente, Inmaculada; Nambara, Eiji; Lorenzo, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Plant survival depends on seed germination and progression through post-germinative developmental checkpoints. These processes are controlled by the stress phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). ABA regulates the basic leucine zipper transcriptional factor ABI5, a central hub of growth repression, while the reactive nitrogen molecule nitric oxide (NO) counteracts ABA during seed germination. However, the molecular mechanisms by which seeds sense more favourable conditions and start germinating have remained elusive. Here we show that ABI5 promotes growth via NO, and that ABI5 accumulation is altered in genetic backgrounds with impaired NO homeostasis. S-nitrosylation of ABI5 at cysteine-153 facilitates its degradation through CULLIN4-based and KEEP ON GOING E3 ligases, and promotes seed germination. Conversely, mutation of ABI5 at cysteine-153 deregulates protein stability and inhibition of seed germination by NO depletion. These findings suggest an inverse molecular link between NO and ABA hormone signalling through distinct posttranslational modifications of ABI5 during early seedling development. PMID:26493030

  13. Perspectives on evidence based practice in ABI rehabilitation. "Relevant Research": who decides?

    PubMed

    Wiseman-Hakes, Catherine; MacDonald, Sheila; Keightley, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that acquired brain injury (ABI) rehabilitation and research should be guided by a philosophy that focuses on: restoration, compensation, function and participation in all aspects of daily life. Such a broad, more pluralistic approach influences ABI rehabilitation research at a number of levels, including both the generation of evidence, and in searching for, critiquing and applying the evidence to practice. The objective of evidence based medicine/practice (EBM/EBP) is to apply and integrate clinical expertise with evidence gained through systematic research and scientific inquiry to medical/clinical practice. While there is abundant literature debating the practical and sociological implications of EBP, there has been limited examination of EBP within the inherently complex nature of ABI rehabilitation and rehabilitation research. This paper provides a framework for clinical decision making regarding evidence based practice in the context of ABI rehab including: 1. A discussion of the purpose of evidence based practice, 2. Levels of evidence relevant to ABI rehabilitation research, and 3. A rationale for incorporating a broader, more pluralistic concept of evidence or "person-centred EBP". We conclude with a series of key questions for the evaluation and application of systematic reviews of the evidence in the context of ABI rehabilitation.

  14. Ankle-brachial index (ABI), abdominal aortic calcification (AAC), and coronary artery calcification (CAC): the Jackson heart study.

    PubMed

    Tullos, Bobby W; Sung, Jung Hye; Lee, Jae Eun; Criqui, Michael H; Mitchell, Marc E; Taylor, Herman A

    2013-04-01

    To examine the associations of peripheral atherosclerosis, assessed by the ABI at baseline with the extent of AAC and with CAC measured by MDCT at follow-up examination in the Jackson Heart Study cohort. Four categories of ABI: <0.90, 0.90-0.99, 1.00-1.39; >1.40. Presence of CAC/AAC was defined as scoring above the 75th percentile among participants with non-zero CT calcium scores. We conducted multivariable log-binomial models for this analysis examining the relationship between ABI and the presence of CAC or AAC using normal ABI (1.0 ≤ ABI ≤ 1.39) as the reference group. We estimated prevalence ratios adjusted for age, smoking, HTN, DM, BMI, LDL, HDL, CRP, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and use of lipid-lowering medication. There were 2,398 patients in this analysis (women: 65 %, average age 55 years). AAC scores were not significantly different between sex. CAC scores were significantly higher in males than females regardless of ABI groups. The prevalence of significant AAC was 1.7 times higher for ABI < 0.90 (PR = 1.70; 95 % CI = 1.26-2.28; p = 0.0004) and 1.57 times higher for ABI 0.90-0.99 (PR = 1.57; 95 % CI = 1.20-2.03; p = 0.0008) than the normal ABI; AAC prevalence did not differ between subjects with ABI > 1.40 compared to those with normal ABI. The prevalence of the significant CAC was higher for ABI < 0.90 (PR = 1.55; 95 % CI = 1.12-2.14; p value = 0.0081) and ABI 0.90-0.99 (PR = 1.60; 95 % CI = 1.05-2.46; p = 0.0402) compared to normal ABI; CAC prevalence did not differ between subjects with ABI > 1.40 compared to those with normal ABI. Lower ABI was significantly associated with the extent of AAC and CAC in this cohort. ABI can provide clinicians with an inexpensive additional tool to assess vascular health and cardiovascular risk without exposing the patient to ionizing radiation.

  15. The Role and Regulation of ABI5 (ABA-Insensitive 5) in Plant Development, Abiotic Stress Responses and Phytohormone Crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Skubacz, Anna; Daszkowska-Golec, Agata; Szarejko, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    ABA Insensitive 5 (ABI5) is a basic leucine zipper transcription factor that plays a key role in the regulation of seed germination and early seedling growth in the presence of ABA and abiotic stresses. ABI5 functions in the core ABA signaling, which is composed of PYR/PYL/RCAR receptors, PP2C phosphatases and SnRK2 kinases, through the regulation of the expression of genes that contain the ABSCISIC ACID RESPONSE ELEMENT (ABRE) motif within their promoter region. The regulated targets include stress adaptation genes, e.g., LEA proteins. However, the expression and activation of ABI5 is not only dependent on the core ABA signaling. Many transcription factors such as ABI3, ABI4, MYB7 and WRKYs play either a positive or a negative role in the regulation of ABI5 expression. Additionally, the stability and activity of ABI5 are also regulated by other proteins through post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation, ubiquitination, sumoylation and S-nitrosylation. Moreover, ABI5 also acts as an ABA and other phytohormone signaling integrator. Components of auxin, cytokinin, gibberellic acid, jasmonate and brassinosteroid signaling and metabolism pathways were shown to take part in ABI5 regulation and/or to be regulated by ABI5. Monocot orthologs of AtABI5 have been identified. Although their roles in the molecular and physiological adaptations during abiotic stress have been elucidated, knowledge about their detailed action still remains elusive. Here, we describe the recent advances in understanding the action of ABI5 in early developmental processes and the adaptation of plants to unfavorable environmental conditions. We also focus on ABI5 relation to other phytohormones in the abiotic stress response of plants. PMID:28018412

  16. Embolism formation during freezing in the wood of Picea abies.

    PubMed

    Mayr, Stefan; Cochard, Hervé; Améglio, Thierry; Kikuta, Silvia B

    2007-01-01

    Freeze-thaw events can cause embolism in plant xylem. According to classical theory, gas bubbles are formed during freezing and expand during thawing. Conifers have proved to be very resistant to freeze-thaw induced embolism, because bubbles in tracheids are small and redissolve during thawing. In contrast, increasing embolism rates upon consecutive freeze-thaw events were observed that cannot be explained by the classical mechanism. In this study, embolism formation during freeze-thaw events was analyzed via ultrasonic and Cryo-scanning electron microscope techniques. Twigs of Picea abies L. Karst. were subjected to up to 120 freeze-thaw cycles during which ultrasonic acoustic emissions, xylem temperature, and diameter variations were registered. In addition, the extent and cross-sectional pattern of embolism were analyzed with staining experiments and Cryo-scanning electron microscope observations. Embolism increased with the number of freeze-thaw events in twigs previously dehydrated to a water potential of -2.8 MPa. In these twigs, acoustic emissions were registered, while saturated twigs showed low, and totally dehydrated twigs showed no, acoustic activity. Acoustic emissions were detected only during the freezing process. This means that embolism was formed during freezing, which is in contradiction to the classical theory of freeze-thaw induced embolism. The clustered pattern of embolized tracheids in cross sections indicates that air spread from a dysfunctional tracheid to adjacent functional ones. We hypothesize that the low water potential of the growing ice front led to a decrease of the potential in nearby tracheids. This may result in freezing-induced air seeding.

  17. Phylogeography of SW Mediterranean firs: different European origins for the North African Abies species.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Robles, Jose M; Balao, Francisco; Terrab, Anass; García-Castaño, Juan L; Ortiz, María A; Vela, Errol; Talavera, Salvador

    2014-10-01

    The current distribution of Western Mediterranean Abies species is a result of complex geodynamic processes and climatic oscillations that occurred in the past. Abies sect. Piceaster offers a good study model to explore how geo-climatic oscillations might have influenced its expansion and diversification on both sides of the W Mediterranean basin. We investigated the genetic variation within and among nine populations from five Abies species by molecular markers with high and low mutation rates and contrasting inheritance (AFLP and cpSSR). Analyses revealed the opening of the Strait of Gibraltar as an effective barrier against gene flow between the Southern Iberian (A. pinsapo) and North African (A. marocana and A. tazaotana) firs. The A. pinsapo populations in Spain and likewise those of the A. marocana - A. tazaotana population complex were not differentiated, and no evidence was found to distinguish A. tazaotana at the species level. Diversification of Abies across North Africa could occur by way of at least two vicariant events from Europe, in the west, giving rise to the A. marocana - A. tazaotana complex, and in the east, giving A. numidica. Secondary contacts among species from Abies sect. Piceaster (A. pinsapo and A. numidica), and with A. alba (Abies sect. Abies) are also indicated. However, there is a closer relationship between the Algerian fir (A. numidica) and the North Mediterranean widespread A. alba, than with the Moroccan firs (A. marocana and A. tazaotana) or the Southern Iberian (A. pinsapo). We also discuss the distribution range of these taxa in its paleogeological and paleoclimatic context, and propose that part of the modern geography of the South-Western Mediterranean firs might be traced back to the Tertiary.

  18. WRKY41 controls Arabidopsis seed dormancy via direct regulation of ABI3 transcript levels not downstream of ABA.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhong Jie; Yan, Jing Ying; Li, Gui Xin; Wu, Zhong Chang; Zhang, Shu Qun; Zheng, Shao Jian

    2014-09-01

    Although seed dormancy is an important agronomic trait, its molecular basis is poorly understood. ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3) plays an essential role in the establishment of seed dormancy. Here, we show that the lack of a seed-expressed WRKY transcription factor, WRKY41, confers reduced primary seed dormancy and thermoinhibition, phenotypes resembling those for a lack of ABI3. Loss-of-function abi3-17 and wrky41 alleles also both confer reduced sensitivity to ABA during germination and early seedling growth. Absence of WRKY41 decreases ABI3 transcript abundance in maturing and imbibed seeds, whereas transgenically overexpressing WRKY41 increases ABI3 expression. Moreover, transgenic overexpression of ABI3 completely restores seed dormancy phenotypes on wrky41. ChIP-qPCR and EMSA reveal that WRKY41 binds directly to the ABI3 promoter through three adjacent W-boxes, and a transactivation assay indicates that these W-boxes are essential for ABI3 expression. Whilst RT-qPCR analysis shows that the regulation of ABI3 by WRKY41 is not through ABA and other factors known to promote ABI3 transcription during seed maturation and germination, we also show that high concentrations of ABA might promote negative feedback regulation of WRKY41 expression. Finally, analysis of the wrky41 aba2 double mutant confirms that WRKY41 and ABA collaboratively regulate ABI3 expression and seed dormancy. In summary, our results demonstrate that WRKY41 is an important regulator of ABI3 expression, and hence of seed dormancy.

  19. Screening of Methanol Extract and Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Abies webbiana Lindl. for Neuropharmacological Activities

    PubMed Central

    Parkash, O.; Kumar, D.; Kumar, S.

    2015-01-01

    Despite a long traditional of use of Abies webbiana Lindl. (Talispatra; family-Pinaceae) in the treatment of mental disorders, the plant has not been investigated systematically to validate its traditional claims. Thus, the present investigation was undertaken with an objective to investigate neuropharmacological activities of methanol extract of Abies webbiana aerial parts and its ethyl acetate fraction. Properly identified aerial parts were defatted with petroleum ether and then extracted with methanol in a Soxhlet apparatus. Ethyl acetate fraction was prepared by partitioning methanol extract with ethyl acetate using standard procedure. In acute toxicity study, no mortality was observed in animals after oral administration of 2 g/kg dose of methanol extract. The methanol extract (200 or 400 mg/kg, p.o.) and ethyl acetate fraction (25 or 50 mg/kg, p.o.) were evaluated for antianxiety, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, sedative, antistress and analgesic activities using well established models. The methanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction of Abies webbiana aerial parts exhibited significant antianxiety, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, sedative, antistress and analgesic activities with respect to control. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed presence of flavonoids in bioactive ethyl acetate fraction of Abies webbiana aerial parts. It is finally concluded that flavonoids are the bioactive constituents responsible for most of neuropharmacological activities of Abies webbiana. PMID:26798167

  20. An Abbreviated Impulsiveness Scale (ABIS) Constructed through Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the BIS-11

    PubMed Central

    Coutlee, Christopher G.; Politzer, Cary S.; Hoyle, Rick H.; Huettel, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Impulsiveness is a personality trait that reflects an urge to act spontaneously, without thinking or planning ahead for the consequences of your actions. High impulsiveness is characteristic of a variety of problematic behaviors including attention deficit disorder, hyperactivity, excessive gambling, risk-taking, drug use, and alcoholism. Researchers studying attention and self-control often assess impulsiveness using personality questionnaires, notably the common Barratt Impulsiveness Scale version 11 (BIS-11; last revised in 1995). Advances in techniques for producing personality questionnaires over the last 20 years prompted us to revise and improve the BIS-11. We sought to make the revised scale shorter – so that it would be quicker to administer – and better matched to current behaviors. We analyzed responses from 1549 adults who took the BIS-11 questionnaire. Using a statistical technique called factor analysis, we eliminated 17 questions that did a poor job of measuring the three major types of impulsiveness identified by the scale: inattention, spontaneous action, and lack of planning. We constructed our ABbreviated Impulsiveness Scale (ABIS) using the remaining 13 questions. We showed that the ABIS performed well when administered to additional groups of 657 and 285 adults. Finally, we showed expected relationships between the ABIS and other personality measurements related to impulsiveness, and showed that the ABIS can help predict alcohol consumption. We present the ABIS as a useful and efficient tool for researchers interested in measuring impulsive personality. PMID:26258000

  1. Screening of Methanol Extract and Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Abies webbiana Lindl. for Neuropharmacological Activities.

    PubMed

    Parkash, O; Kumar, D; Kumar, S

    2015-01-01

    Despite a long traditional of use of Abies webbiana Lindl. (Talispatra; family-Pinaceae) in the treatment of mental disorders, the plant has not been investigated systematically to validate its traditional claims. Thus, the present investigation was undertaken with an objective to investigate neuropharmacological activities of methanol extract of Abies webbiana aerial parts and its ethyl acetate fraction. Properly identified aerial parts were defatted with petroleum ether and then extracted with methanol in a Soxhlet apparatus. Ethyl acetate fraction was prepared by partitioning methanol extract with ethyl acetate using standard procedure. In acute toxicity study, no mortality was observed in animals after oral administration of 2 g/kg dose of methanol extract. The methanol extract (200 or 400 mg/kg, p.o.) and ethyl acetate fraction (25 or 50 mg/kg, p.o.) were evaluated for antianxiety, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, sedative, antistress and analgesic activities using well established models. The methanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction of Abies webbiana aerial parts exhibited significant antianxiety, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, sedative, antistress and analgesic activities with respect to control. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed presence of flavonoids in bioactive ethyl acetate fraction of Abies webbiana aerial parts. It is finally concluded that flavonoids are the bioactive constituents responsible for most of neuropharmacological activities of Abies webbiana.

  2. No time for spruce: rapid dampening of circadian rhythms in Picea abies (L. Karst).

    PubMed

    Gyllenstrand, Niclas; Karlgren, Anna; Clapham, David; Holm, Karl; Hall, Anthony; Gould, Peter D; Källman, Thomas; Lagercrantz, Ulf

    2014-03-01

    The identification and cloning of full-length homologs of circadian clock genes from Picea abies represent a first step to study the function and evolution of the circadian clock in gymnosperms. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the sequences of key circadian clock genes are conserved between angiosperms and gymnosperms. though fewer homologous copies were found for most gene families in P. abies. We detected diurnal cycling of circadian clock genes in P. abies using quantitative real-time PCR; however, cycling appeared to be rapidly dampened under free-running conditions. Given the unexpected absence of transcriptional cycling during constant conditions, we employed a complementary method to assay circadian rhythmic outputs and measured delayed fluorescence in seedlings of Norway spruce. Neither of the two approaches to study circadian rhythms in Norway spruce could detect robust ∼24 h cycling behavior under constant conditions. These data suggest gene conservation but fundamental differences in clock function between gymnosperms and other plant taxa.

  3. The GOES-R ABI Wild Fire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, J.; Schmidt, C. C.; Prins, E. M.; Brunner, J. C.

    2011-12-01

    The global Wild Fire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (WF_ABBA) at the Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) provides fire detection and characterization using data from a global constellation of geostationary satellites, currently including GOES, MTSAT, and Meteosat. CIMSS continues to enhance the legacy of the WF_ABBA by adapting the algorithm to utilize the advanced spatial, spectral, and temporal capabilities of GOES-R ABI. A wide range of simulated ABI data cases have been generated and processed with the GOES-R fire detection and characterization algorithm. Simulated cases included MODIS derived projections as well as model derived simulations that span a variety of satellite zenith angles and ecosystems. The GOES-R ABI fire product development focuses on active fire detection and sub-pixel characterization, including fire radiative power (FRP) and instantaneous fire size and temperature. With the algorithm delivered to the system contractor, the focus has moved to developing innovative new validation techniques.

  4. Exploiting Measurement Uncertainty Estimation in Evaluation of GOES-R ABI Image Navigation Accuracy Using Image Registration Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, Evan; DeLuccia, Frank

    2016-01-01

    In evaluating GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) image navigation quality, upsampled sub-images of ABI images are translated against downsampled Landsat 8 images of localized, high contrast earth scenes to determine the translations in the East-West and North-South directions that provide maximum correlation. The native Landsat resolution is much finer than that of ABI, and Landsat navigation accuracy is much better than ABI required navigation accuracy and expected performance. Therefore, Landsat images are considered to provide ground truth for comparison with ABI images, and the translations of ABI sub-images that produce maximum correlation with Landsat localized images are interpreted as ABI navigation errors. The measured local navigation errors from registration of numerous sub-images with the Landsat images are averaged to provide a statistically reliable measurement of the overall navigation error of the ABI image. The dispersion of the local navigation errors is also of great interest, since ABI navigation requirements are specified as bounds on the 99.73rd percentile of the magnitudes of per pixel navigation errors. However, the measurement uncertainty inherent in the use of image registration techniques tends to broaden the dispersion in measured local navigation errors, masking the true navigation performance of the ABI system. We have devised a novel and simple method for estimating the magnitude of the measurement uncertainty in registration error for any pair of images of the same earth scene. We use these measurement uncertainty estimates to filter out the higher quality measurements of local navigation error for inclusion in statistics. In so doing, we substantially reduce the dispersion in measured local navigation errors, thereby better approximating the true navigation performance of the ABI system.

  5. Seed Source Significantly Influences Growth Rates and Disease Resistance of Abies Lasiocarpa Grown for Ornamental Nursery Stock and Christmas Trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trees from six corkbark fir (Abies lasiocarpa var. arizonica) and 10 subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa var. lasiocarpa) seed sources were grown at the University of Idaho (SREC) and three commercial nurseries in northern Idaho and northeastern Oregon. Post transplant mortality was highest during the f...

  6. Nuclear microsatellite primers for the endangered relict fir, Abies pinsapo (Pinaceae) and cross-amplification in related Mediterranean Species.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Robles, Jose M; Balao, Francisco; García-Castaño, Juan L; Terrab, Anass; Navarro-Sampedro, Laura; Talavera, Salvador

    2012-11-05

    Twelve nuclear microsatellite primers (nSSR) were developed for the endangered species Abies pinsapo Boiss. to enable the study of gene flow and genetic structure in the remaining distribution areas. Microsatellite primers were developed using next-generation sequencing (454) data from a single Abies pinsapo individual. Primers were applied to thirty individuals from the three extant localities. The number of alleles per locus ranged from one to four. Cross-amplification was tested for other Abies species from the Mediterranean Basin, and most of the loci showed higher polymorphisms in the Mediterranean species than in A. pinsapo. These microsatellite markers provide tools for conservation genetic studies in Abies pinsapo as well other Abies species from the Mediterranean Basin.

  7. Nuclear Microsatellite Primers for the Endangered Relict Fir, Abies pinsapo (Pinaceae) and Cross-Amplification in Related Mediterranean Species

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Robles, Jose M.; Balao, Francisco; García-Castaño, Juan L.; Terrab, Anass; Navarro-Sampedro, Laura; Talavera, Salvador

    2012-01-01

    Twelve nuclear microsatellite primers (nSSR) were developed for the endangered species Abies pinsapo Boiss. to enable the study of gene flow and genetic structure in the remaining distribution areas. Microsatellite primers were developed using next-generation sequencing (454) data from a single Abies pinsapo individual. Primers were applied to thirty individuals from the three extant localities. The number of alleles per locus ranged from one to four. Cross-amplification was tested for other Abies species from the Mediterranean Basin, and most of the loci showed higher polymorphisms in the Mediterranean species than in A. pinsapo. These microsatellite markers provide tools for conservation genetic studies in Abies pinsapo as well other Abies species from the Mediterranean Basin. PMID:23203061

  8. The relationship between tree growth patterns and likelihood of mortality: A study of two tree species in the Sierra Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Das, A.J.; Battles, J.J.; Stephenson, N.L.; van Mantgem, P.J.

    2007-01-01

    We examined mortality of Abies concolor (Gord. & Glend.) Lindl. (white fir) and Pinus lambertiana Dougl. (sugar pine) by developing logistic models using three growth indices obtained from tree rings: average growth, growth trend, and count of abrupt growth declines. For P. lambertiana, models with average growth, growth trend, and count of abrupt declines improved overall prediction (78.6% dead trees correctly classified, 83.7% live trees correctly classified) compared with a model with average recent growth alone (69.6% dead trees correctly classified, 67.3% live trees correctly classified). For A. concolor, counts of abrupt declines and longer time intervals improved overall classification (trees with DBH ???20 cm: 78.9% dead trees correctly classified and 76.7% live trees correctly classified vs. 64.9% dead trees correctly classified and 77.9% live trees correctly classified; trees with DBH <20 cm: 71.6% dead trees correctly classified and 71.0% live trees correctly classified vs. 67.2% dead trees correctly classified and 66.7% live trees correctly classified). In general, count of abrupt declines improved live-tree classification. External validation of A. concolor models showed that they functioned well at stands not used in model development, and the development of size-specific models demonstrated important differences in mortality risk between understory and canopy trees. Population-level mortality-risk models were developed for A. concolor and generated realistic mortality rates at two sites. Our results support the contention that a more comprehensive use of the growth record yields a more robust assessment of mortality risk. ?? 2007 NRC.

  9. Involvement of genes encoding ABI1 protein phosphatases in the response of Brassica napus L. to drought stress.

    PubMed

    Babula-Skowrońska, Danuta; Ludwików, Agnieszka; Cieśla, Agata; Olejnik, Anna; Cegielska-Taras, Teresa; Bartkowiak-Broda, Iwona; Sadowski, Jan

    2015-07-01

    In this report we characterized the Arabidopsis ABI1 gene orthologue and Brassica napus gene paralogues encoding protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C, group A), which is known to be a negative regulator of the ABA signaling pathway. Six homologous B. napus sequences were identified and characterized as putative PP2C group A members. To gain insight into the conservation of ABI1 function in Brassicaceae, and understand better its regulatory effects in the drought stress response, we generated transgenic B. napus plants overexpressing A. thaliana ABI1. Transgenic plants subjected to drought showed a decrease in relative water content, photosynthetic pigments content and expression level of RAB18- and RD19A-drought-responsive marker genes relative to WT plants. We present the characterization of the drought response of B. napus with the participation of ABI1-like paralogues. The expression pattern of two evolutionarily distant paralogues, BnaA01.ABI1.a and BnaC07.ABI1.b in B. napus and their promoter activity in A. thaliana showed differences in the induction of the paralogues under dehydration stress. Comparative sequence analysis of both BnaABI1 promoters showed variation in positions of cis-acting elements that are especially important for ABA- and stress-inducible expression. Together, these data reveal that subfunctionalization following gene duplication may be important in the maintenance and functional divergence of the BnaABI1 paralogues. Our results provide a framework for a better understanding of (1) the role of ABI1 as a hub protein regulator of the drought response, and (2) the differential involvement of the duplicated BnaABI1 genes in the response of B. napus to dehydration-related stresses.

  10. Variability in assays used for detection of lentiviral infection in bobcats (Lynx rufus), pumas (Puma concolor), and ocelots (Leopardus pardalis).

    PubMed

    Franklin, Samuel P; Troyer, Jennifer L; Terwee, Julie A; Lyren, Lisa M; Kays, Roland W; Riley, Seth P D; Boyce, Walter M; Crooks, Kevin R; Vandewoude, Sue

    2007-10-01

    Although lentiviruses similar to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) are known to infect numerous felid species, the relative utility of assays used for detecting lentiviral infection has not been compared for many of these hosts. We tested bobcats (Lynx rufus), pumas (Felis concolor), and ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) for exposure to lentivirus using five different assays: puma lentivirus (PLV), African lion lentivirus (LLV), and domestic cat FIV-based immunoblots, a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit, and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Puma lentivirus immunoblots identified more seropositive individuals than the other antibody-detection assays. The commercial ELISA provided a fair ability to recognize seropositive samples when compared with PLV immunoblot for screening bobcats and ocelots, but not pumas. Polymerase chain reaction identified fewer positive samples than PLV immunoblot for all three species. Immunoblot results were equivalent whether the sample tested was serum, plasma, or whole blood. The results from this study and previous investigations suggest that the PLV immunoblot has the greatest ability to detect reactive samples when screening wild felids of North America and is unlikely to produce false positive results. However, the commercial ELISA kit may provide an adequate alternative for screening of some species and is more easily adapted to field conditions.

  11. Variability in assays used for detection of lentiviral infection in bobcats (Lynx rufus), pumas (Puma concolor), and ocelots (Leopardus pardalis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franklin, S.P.; Troyer, J.L.; TerWee, J.A.; Lyren, L.M.; Kays, R.W.; Riley, S.P.D.; Boyce, W.M.; Crooks, K.R.; VandeWoude, S.

    2007-01-01

    Although lentiviruses similar to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) are known to infect numerous felid species, the relative utility of assays used for detecting lentiviral infection has not been compared for many of these hosts. We tested bobcats (Lynx rufus), pumas (Felis concolor), and ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) for exposure to lentivirus using five different assays: puma lentivirus (PLV), African lion lentivirus (LLV), and domestic cat FIV-based immunoblots, a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit, and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Puma lentivirus immunoblots identified more seropositive individuals than the other antibody-detection assays. The commercial ELISA provided a fair ability to recognize seropositive samples when compared with PLV immunoblot for screening bobcats and ocelots, but not pumas. Polymerase chain reaction identified fewer positive samples than PLV immunoblot for all three species. Immunoblot results were equivalent whether the sample tested was serum, plasma, or whole blood. The results from this study and previous investigations suggest that the PLV immunoblot has the greatest ability to detect reactive samples when screening wild felids of North America and is unlikely to produce false positive results. However, the commercial ELISA kit may provide ap adequate alternative for screening of some species and is more easily adapted to field conditions. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2007.

  12. First description of autumn migration of Sooty Falcon Falco concolor from the United Arab Emirates to Madagascar using satellite telemetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Javed, Salim; Douglas, David C.; Khan, Shahid Noor; Nazeer Shah, Junid; Ali Al Hammadi, Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    The movement and migration pattern of the 'Near Threatened' Sooty Falcon Falco concolor is poorly known. Sooty Falcons breed on the islands of the Arabian Gulf after arriving from their non-breeding areas that are mainly in Madagascar. In the first satellite tracking of the species we fitted a 9.5 g Argos solar powered transmitter on an adult breeding Sooty Falcon off the western coast of Abu Dhabi in the United Arab Emirates. The bird successfully undertook autumn migration to Madagascar, a known wintering area for the species. We document the Sooty Falcon's autumn migration route and stop-over sites. The adult Sooty Falcon initiated its migration at night and with tailwinds, and travelled mainly during daytime hours for 13 days over an inland route of more than 5,656 km. The three stop-over sites in East Africa were characterised by moderate to sparse shrub cover associated with potential sources of water. We discuss the migration pattern of the tracked bird in relation to importance of non-breeding areas for Sooty Falcons and recent declines in numbers in their breeding range.

  13. [Molecular phylogenetic analysis of the genus Abies (Pinaceae) based on the nucleotide sequence of chloroplast DNA].

    PubMed

    Semerikova, S A; Semerikov, V L

    2014-01-01

    A phylogenetic study of firs (Abies Mill.) was conducted using nucleotide sequences of several chloroplast DNA regions with a total length of 5580 bp. The analysis included 37 taxa, which represented the main evolutionary lineages of the genus, and Keteleeria daviana. According to phylogenetic reconstruction the Abies species were subdivided into six main groups, generally corresponding to their geographic distribution. The phylogenetic tree had three basal clades. All of these clades contained American species, and only one of them contained Eurasian species. The divergence time calibrations, based on paleobotanical data and the chloroplast DNA mutation rate estimates in Pinaceae, produced similar results..The age of diversification among the clades of the present-day Abies was estimated as the end of the Oligocene-beginning of Miocene. The age of the separation of Mediterranean firs from the Asian-North American branch corresponds to the Miocene. The age of diversification within the young groups of Mediterranean, Asian, and boreal American firs (A. lasiocarpa, A. balsamea, A. fraseri) was estimated as the Pliocene-Pleistocene. Based on the phylogenetic reconstruction obtained, the most plausible biogeographic scenarios were suggested. It is noted that the existing systematic classification of the genus Abies strongly contradicts with phylogenetic reconstruction and requires revision.

  14. Isolation and characterization of novel microsatellites for Abies koreana and A. nephrolepis (Pinaceae).

    PubMed

    Hong, J K; Lim, J; Lee, B Y; Kwak, M

    2016-04-28

    Abies koreana is an endemic and rare species from Korea and is classified as endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Although the genetic diversity assessment for current population of A. koreana needs to be performed urgently, no microsatellite markers have been developed for this species. In the present study, we developed 22 novel polymorphic microsatellite loci and the characteristics of these loci were determined in A. koreana as well as in Abies nephrolepis, the most closely related species, and these loci were compared with previously reported microsatellite markers developed for the Abies genus. Genomic sequence (161 Mbp; 325,776 reads) was obtained from one individual of A. koreana using Roche 454 GS-FLX Titanium sequencing and 19,258 repeat motifs were identified from it. A total of 288 primer pairs with high copy numbers of di-repeat motifs were evaluated for amplification in A. koreana and A. nephrolepis. A total of 71 primer pairs successfully amplified fragments, of which 22 showed polymorphisms in A. koreana and A. nephrolepis. The average expected diversity was 0.767 and 0.717 in A. koreana and A. nephrolepis, respectively; these heterozygosity levels were moderate compared to the previously reported microsatellite loci from Abies species. This is the first set of microsatellite markers developed for A. koreana as well as A. nephrolepis and further population genetic studies of both species and genetic delimitation can be carried out for the species conservation and management.

  15. [Genetic control of Silver fir isozymes (Abies alba Mill.) of the Ukrainian Carpathian Mountains].

    PubMed

    Korshikov, I I; Morozova, N N; Pirko, Ia V

    2003-01-01

    Genetic control of GOT, GDH, DIA, MDH, ME, SOD, FDH, ADH, ACP, LAP enzymes has been studied in the seed megagametophytes of Silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) from four natural populations of the Ukrainian Carpathian mountains. The distinct electrophoretic division has been obtained for the 21 loci products. The analysis of allele segregation in the heterozygous trees confirms monogenic inheritance of the revealed variants.

  16. Tree mortality patterns following prescribed fire for Pinus and Abies across the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Mantgem, Philip J.; Nesmith, Jonathan C. B.; Keifer, MaryBeth; Brooks, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    The reintroduction of fire to historically fire-prone forests has been repeatedly shown to reduce understory fuels and promote resistance to high severity fire. However, there is concern that prescribed fire may also have unintended consequences, such as high rates of mortality for large trees and fire-tolerant Pinus species. To test this possibility we evaluated mortality patterns for two common genera in the western US, Pinus and Abies, using observations from a national-scale prescribed fire effects monitoring program. Our results show that mortality rates of trees >50 DBH were similar for Pinus (4.6% yr-1) and Abies (4.0% yr-1) 5 years following prescribed fires across seven sites in the southwestern US. In contrast, mortality rates of trees >50 cm DBH differed between Pinus (5.7% yr-1) and Abies (9.0% yr-1). Models of post-fire mortality probabilities suggested statistically significant differences between the genera (after including differences in bark thickness), but accounting for these differences resulted in only small improvements in model classification. Our results do not suggest unusually high post-fire mortality for large trees or for Pinus relative to the other common co-occurring genus, Abies, following prescribed fire in the southwestern US.

  17. Development and Implementation of a Hierarchical Classification System for the ABI/INFORM Database.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, David K.

    A new search feature has been developed and implemented to enhance online information retrieval from the ABI/INFORM database, which includes abstracts from more than 500 journals covering all aspects of business and management. Published by Data Courier Inc., it includes material dating back to 1971. Because of the diverse nature of the database…

  18. MIG-10 functions with ABI-1 to mediate the UNC-6 and SLT-1 axon guidance signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; Quinn, Christopher C

    2012-01-01

    Extracellular guidance cues steer axons towards their targets by eliciting morphological changes in the growth cone. A key part of this process is the asymmetric recruitment of the cytoplasmic scaffolding protein MIG-10 (lamellipodin). MIG-10 is thought to asymmetrically promote outgrowth by inducing actin polymerization. However, the mechanism that links MIG-10 to actin polymerization is not known. We have identified the actin regulatory protein ABI-1 as a partner for MIG-10 that can mediate its outgrowth-promoting activity. The SH3 domain of ABI-1 binds to MIG-10, and loss of function of either of these proteins causes similar axon guidance defects. Like MIG-10, ABI-1 functions in both the attractive UNC-6 (netrin) pathway and the repulsive SLT-1 (slit) pathway. Dosage sensitive genetic interactions indicate that MIG-10 functions with ABI-1 and WVE-1 to mediate axon guidance. Epistasis analysis reveals that ABI-1 and WVE-1 function downstream of MIG-10 to mediate its outgrowth-promoting activity. Moreover, experiments with cultured mammalian cells suggest that the interaction between MIG-10 and ABI-1 mediates a conserved mechanism that promotes formation of lamellipodia. Together, these observations suggest that MIG-10 interacts with ABI-1 and WVE-1 to mediate the UNC-6 and SLT-1 guidance pathways.

  19. Degradation of Abies veitchii wave-regeneration on Mt. Misen in Ohmine Mountains: effects of sika deer population.

    PubMed

    Tsujino, Riyou; Matsui, Kiyoshi; Yamamoto, Kohdai; Koda, Ryosuke; Yumoto, Takakazu; Takada, Ken-Ichi

    2013-09-01

    How has the degradation of Abies veitchii wave-regeneration occurred under the sika deer (Cervus nippon) pressure? We conducted tree census and ground vegetation survey in a 1 ha plot in Mt. Misen (Nara prefecture, Japan). We found 15 tree species (over 50 cm in height). Abies accounted for 60.0 % of all living trees, and 46.9 % of Abies were damaged (herbivory, bark stripping and/or fraying) by deer. Spatial distribution of Abies trees showed Abies-wave, although there were few saplings in the dieback zone. Estimated deer population density in 2009 was 57.3 head/km(2). Number of living Abies and standing dead conifer trees, and ground vegetation cover for each quadrat (5 × 5 m) were used to assign the quadrats into 6 clusters. The hierarchical clustering-approach revealed that living Abies distributed mainly on the moss and/or Carex fernaldiana dominated quadrats, but did not on the Dennstaedtia scabra, or Brachypodium sylvaticum dominated quadrats. While standing dead conifer trees distributed mainly on the Carex dominated quadrats, they hardly occur on the moss, the Dennstaedtia or the Brachypodium dominated quadrats. Regeneration of Abies tree and thus the wave-regeneration is hindered for now owing to deer herbivory and bark-stripping. The ground vegetation under the dieback zone has changed from the moss and/or the Carex dominated one to the Carex, the Dennstaedtia or the Brachypodium covered vegetation with the canopy remained open and without Abies regeneration.

  20. Pride diaries: sex, brain size and sociality in the African lion (Panthera leo) and cougar (Puma concolor).

    PubMed

    Arsznov, Bradley M; Sakai, Sharleen T

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if differences in social life histories correspond to intraspecific variation in total or regional brain volumes in the African lion (Panthera leo) and cougar (Puma concolor). African lions live in gregarious prides usually consisting of related adult females, their dependent offspring, and a coalition of immigrant males. Upon reaching maturity, male lions enter a nomadic and often, solitary phase in their lives, whereas females are mainly philopatric and highly social throughout their lives. In contrast, the social life history does not differ between male and female cougars; both are solitary. Three-dimensional virtual endocasts were created using computed tomography from the skulls of 14 adult African lions (8 male, 6 female) and 14 cougars (7 male, 7 female). Endocranial volume and basal skull length were highly correlated in African lions (r = 0.59, p < 0.05) and in cougars (r = 0.67, p < 0.01). Analyses of total endocranial volume relative to skull length revealed no sex differences in either African lions or cougars. However, relative anterior cerebrum volume comprised primarily of frontal cortex and surface area was significantly greater in female African lions than males, while relative posterior cerebrum volume and surface area was greater in males than females. These differences were specific to the neocortex and were not found in the solitary cougar, suggesting that social life history is linked to sex-specific neocortical patterns in these species. We further hypothesize that increased frontal cortical volume in female lions is related to the need for greater inhibitory control in the presence of a dominant male aggressor.

  1. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Torenia concolor Lindley var. formosana Yamazaki and betulin in mice.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ying-Chih; Cheng, Hao-Yuan; Huang, Tai-Hung; Huang, Hsin-Wei; Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Peng, Wen-Huang

    2009-01-01

    The present study was intended to examine the analgesic effect of the 70% methanol extract of Torenia concolor Lindley var. formosana Yamazaki (TC(MeOH)) and betulin using models of acetic acid-induced writhing response and formalin test. In addition, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of TC(MeOH) and betulin using model of lambda-carrageenan-induced paw edema. We observed the activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPx and GR) in the liver and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) in the edema paw. The results showed that TC(MeOH) (1.0 and 2.0 g/kg) and betulin (30 and 90 mg/kg), significantly inhibited the acetic acid-induced writhing response. TC(MeOH) (2.0 g/kg) and betulin (30 and 90 mg/kg) significantly inhibited formalin-induced licking time during both the early and late phases. TC(MeOH) (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g/kg) and betulin (30 and 90 mg/kg) also significantly decreased the paw edema at the 4th hour after lambda-carrageenan injection. Furthermore, TC(MeOH) and betulin treatment also significantly increased the activities of SOD, GR and GPx in the liver while decreasing the level of MDA in the edema paw. Finally, betulin (30 and 90 mg/kg) also caused considerable reduction of NO level in the edema paw. Taken together, the present results indicated that TC(MeOH) and betulin possessed analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of TC(MeOH) and betulin may be related to decreasing the levels of MDA and NO in the edema paw by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the liver.

  2. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in American free-ranging or captive pumas (Felis concolor) and bobcats (Lynx rufus).

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Yoko; Chomel, Bruno B; Kasten, Rickie W; Martenson, Janice S; Swift, Pamela K; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2004-02-26

    Toxoplasma gondii is a major zoonotic agent infecting a wide range of mammals, including wild felids. Like domestic cats, wild felids are involved in the complete infective cycle of T. gondii, as they can host in their gastrointestinal tract sexually mature parasites and shed infective oocysts in their feces. In order to evaluate the importance of this wildlife reservoir, 438 serum samples collected between 1984 and 1999 from 438 pumas (Felis concolor) and from 58 bobcats (Lynx rufus) from North America, Central America and South America were screened for antibodies to T. gondii. The overall prevalence of T. gondii antibodies was 22.4% in pumas and 51.7% in bobcats, with regional variations. Adults were more likely to be seropositive than juveniles and kittens (prevalence ratio (PR) = 2.61; confidence interval (CI) = 1.15, 4.04). In the US, pumas from the southwestern states (Arizona, California and New Mexico) were more likely to be seropositive for T. gondii ( PR = 2.61; 95% CI = 1.32-5.18 ) than pumas from the northwestern and mountain states (Colorado, Idaho, Oregon, Utah and Wyoming). Male pumas from the US were more likely to be seropositive than females (PR = 2.08; 95% CI = 1.11-3.92), whereas female pumas from Mexico, Central America and South America were more likely to be seropositive than female pumas from Canada and the US (PR = 2.49; 95% CI = 1.09-5.69). Captive pumas were also more likely to be seropositive (21.7%, 29/92) for T. gondii than free-ranging animals (19.9%, 69/346) (PR = 1.85; 95% CI = 1.06, 3.17).

  3. Gastrointestinal helminths of free-ranging Florida panthers (Puma concolor coryi) and the efficacy of the current anthelmintic treatment protocol.

    PubMed

    Foster, Garry W; Cunningham, Mark W; Kinsella, John M; McLaughlin, Grace; Forrester, Donald J

    2006-04-01

    Thirty-five Florida panthers (Puma concolor coryi [Bangs, 1899]) collected from six counties in southern Florida between 1978 and 2003 were examined at necropsy for gastrointestinal helminths. The panthers were placed into two groups: 1) treated with anthelmintics (n = 17), and 2) untreated (n = 18). Nine species of helminths (one trematode, six nematodes, and two cestodes) were identified in the untreated panthers. The most prevalent helminths were Alaria marcianae (LaRue, 1917) (100%), Spirometra mansonoides (Mueller, 1935) (91%), and Ancylostoma pluridentatum (Alessandrini, 1905) (89%). Ancylostoma caninum (Ercolani, 1859) is reported from the Florida panther for the first time. The intensities of helminths with prevalences >10% did not differ between untreated panthers collected in 1978-1983 and 1996-2003. Treated panthers had helminth faunas similar to those of untreated panthers. The current anthelmintic treatment being used reduced the intensity of both A. marcianae and A. pluridentatum in panthers < or =6 mo posttreatment (PT); however, treated panthers between 6 and 9 mo PT, and >9 mo PT were similar to untreated panthers. Treatment was less effective on S. mansonoides and Taenia omissa Lühe, 1910. Treated panthers had slightly lower intensities of S. mansonoides at < or =6 mo PT; however, between 6 and 9 mo PT and >9 mo PT they had significantly higher intensities than untreated panthers. At all periods PT, the intensity of T. omissa for the treated panthers was similar to that of untreated panthers. We suggest that Mesocestoides sp. may not be present in the Florida panther population as reported earlier by Forrester et al. (1985), due to parasite misidentification by those authors.

  4. Cylicospirura species (Nematoda: Spirocercidae) and stomach nodules in cougars (Puma concolor) and bobcats (Lynx rufus) in Oregon.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Jayde A; Woodberry, Karen; Gillin, Colin M; Jackson, DeWaine H; Sanders, Justin L; Madigan, Whitney; Bildfell, Robert J; Kent, Michael L

    2011-01-01

    The stomachs and proximal duodena of 160 cougars (Puma concolor) and 17 bobcats (Lynx rufus), obtained throughout Oregon during 7 yr, were examined for Cylicospirura spp. and associated lesions. Prevalence in cougars was 73%, with a range in intensity of 1-562 worms. The mean diameter of nodules was 1.2 cm (SD=0.5), and many extended through the submucosa to the muscularis. About 83% of cougars had nodules; most nodules contained worms, but 14% of the smaller nodules (<0.2 cm) contained porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum) quills. A mean of 12.4 worms/nodule (SD=34.1) was observed, with a maximum of 340 worms/nodule. Prevalence in bobcats was 53%, with an intensity of 1-25 worms. About 65% of bobcats had nodules, which were slightly smaller than those in cougars but appeared to involve similar layers of gastrointestinal tissue. One to 25 Cylicospirura sp. were found in all but two small nodules in bobcats. Cougars killed for livestock damage or safety concerns had a significantly higher median worm intensity than did those that died of other causes. Also, the median worm intensity of older cougars was higher than that of younger lions. There were more males than females killed for livestock damage or safety concerns. The cylicospirurid from cougars was Cylicospirura subaequalis, and that of bobcats was Cylicospirura felineus. These two similar species were separated morphologically by differences in tooth and sex organ morphology. They were also differentiated by DNA sequence analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1). Worm sequences from cougars differed from those from bobcats by 11%, whereas essentially no difference was found among worms from the same host. Phylogenetic analysis showed that within the order Spirurida, both cylicospirurids were most closely related to Spirocerca lupi, based on this gene sequence.

  5. Seroprevalence of Bartonella infection in American free-ranging and captive pumas (Felis concolor) and bobcats (Lynx rufus).

    PubMed

    Chomel, Bruno B; Kikuchi, Yoko; Martenson, Janice S; Roelke-Parker, Melodie E; Chang, Chao-Chin; Kasten, Rickie W; Foley, Janet E; Laudre, John; Murphy, Kerry; Swift, Pamela K; Kramer, Vicki L; O'brien, Stephen J

    2004-01-01

    Bartonella henselae is the main agent of cat scratch disease in humans and domestic cats are the main reservoir of this bacterium. We conducted a serosurvey to investigate the role of American wild felids as a potential reservoir of Bartonella species. A total of 479 samples (439 serum samples and 40 Nobuto strips) collected between 1984 and 1999 from pumas (Felis concolor) and 91 samples (58 serum samples and 33 Nobuto strips) collected from bobcats (Lynx rufus) in North America, Central America and South America were screened for B. henselae antibodies. The overall prevalence of B. henselae antibodies was respectively 19.4% in pumas and 23.1% in bobcats, with regional variations. In the USA, pumas from the southwestern states were more likely to be seropositive for B. henselae (prevalence ratio (PR) = 2.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.55, 5.11) than pumas from the Northwest and Mountain states. Similarly, adults were more likely to be B. henselae seropositive than juveniles and kittens (PR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.07, 2.93). Adult pumas were more likely to have higher B. henselae antibody titers than juveniles and kittens (p = 0.026). B. henselae antibody prevalence was 22.4% (19/85) in bobcats from the USA and 33.3% (2/6) in the Mexican bobcats. In the USA, antibody prevalence varied depending on the geographical origin of the bobcats. In California, the highest prevalence was in bobcats from the coastal range (37.5%). These results suggest a potential role of wild felids in the epidemiological cycle of Bartonella henselae or closely related Bartonella species.

  6. Light acclimation of photosynthesis in two closely related firs (Abies pinsapo Boiss. and Abies alba Mill.): the role of leaf anatomy and mesophyll conductance to CO2

    PubMed Central

    Peguero-Pina, José Javier; Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Flexas, Jaume; Galmés, Jeroni; Niinemets, Ülo; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio

    2016-01-01

    Leaves growing in the forest understory usually present a decreased mesophyll conductance (gm) and photosynthetic capacity. The role of leaf anatomy in determining the variability in gm among species is known, but there is a lack of information on how the acclimation of gm to shade conditions is driven by changes in leaf anatomy. Within this context, we demonstrated that Abies pinsapo Boiss. experienced profound modifications in needle anatomy to drastic changes in light availability that ultimately led to differential photosynthetic performance between trees grown in the open field and in the forest understory. In contrast to A. pinsapo, its congeneric Abies alba Mill. did not show differences either in needle anatomy or in photosynthetic parameters between trees grown in the open field and in the forest understory. The increased gm values found in trees of A. pinsapo grown in the open field can be explained by occurrence of stomata at both needle sides (amphistomatous needles), increased chloroplast surface area exposed to intercellular airspace, decreased cell wall thickness and, especially, decreased chloroplast thickness. To the best of our knowledge, the role of such drastic changes in ultrastructural needle anatomy in explaining the response of gm to the light environment has not been demonstrated in field conditions. PMID:26543153

  7. Metabolite changes in conifer buds and needles during forced bud break in Norway spruce (Picea abies) and European silver fir (Abies alba)

    PubMed Central

    Dhuli, Priyanka; Rohloff, Jens; Strimbeck, G. Richard

    2014-01-01

    Environmental changes such as early spring and warm spells induce bud burst and photosynthetic processes in cold-acclimated coniferous trees and consequently, cellular metabolism in overwintering needles and buds. The purpose of the study was to examine metabolism in conifers under forced deacclimation (artificially induced spring) by exposing shoots of Picea abies (boreal species) and Abies alba (temperate species) to a greenhouse environment (22°C, 16/8 h D/N cycle) over a 9 weeks period. Each week, we scored bud opening and collected samples for GC/MS–based metabolite profiling. We detected a total of 169 assigned metabolites and 80 identified metabolites, comprising compounds such as mono- and disaccharides, Krebs cycle acids, amino acids, polyols, phenolics, and phosphorylated structures. Untargeted multivariate statistical analysis based on PCA and cluster analysis segregated samples by species, tissue type, and stage of tissue deacclimations. Similar patterns of metabolic regulation in both species were observed in buds (amino acids, Krebs cycle acids) and needles (hexoses, pentoses, and Krebs cycle acids). Based on correlation of bud opening score with compound levels, distinct metabolites could be associated with bud and shoot development, including amino acids, sugars, and acids with known osmolyte function, and secondary metabolites. This study has shed light on how elevated temperature affects metabolism in buds and needles of conifer species during the deacclimation phase, and contributes to the discussion about how phenological characters in conifers may respond to future global warming. PMID:25566281

  8. Spin-orbit coupling enhanced superconductivity in Bi-rich compounds ABi3 (A = Sr and Ba)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, D. F.; Luo, X.; Lu, W. J.; Hu, L.; Zhu, X. D.; Song, W. H.; Zhu, X. B.; Sun, Y. P.

    2016-02-01

    Recently, Bi-based compounds have attracted attentions because of the strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC). In this work, we figured out the role of SOC in ABi3 (A = Sr and Ba) by theoretical investigation of the band structures, phonon properties, and electron-phonon coupling. Without SOC, strong Fermi surface nesting leads to phonon instabilities in ABi3. SOC suppresses the nesting and stabilizes the structure. Moreover, without SOC the calculation largely underestimates the superconducting transition temperatures (Tc), while with SOC the calculated Tc are very close to those determined by measurements on single crystal samples. The SOC enhanced superconductivity in ABi3 is due to not only the SOC induced phonon softening, but also the SOC related increase of electron-phonon coupling matrix elements. ABi3 can be potential platforms to construct heterostructure of superconductor/topological insulator to realize topological superconductivity.

  9. Analysis of the Phialocephala subalpina Transcriptome during Colonization of Its Host Plant Picea abies

    PubMed Central

    Reininger, Vanessa; Schlegel, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Background Phialocephala subalpina belongs to the Phialocephala fortinii s.l.–Acepphala applanata species complex (PAC) forming one of the major groups belonging to the dark septate endophytes (DSE). Depending on the strain, PAC was shown to form neutral to pathogenic associations with its host plant Picea abies. To understand PACs lifestyle we investigated the effect of presence/absence of Picea abies on the transcriptome of strain 6_70_1. Materials and Methods PAC strain 6_70_1 was grown in liquid Pachlewski media either induced by its host plant Picea abies or without host plant as a control. Mycelia were harvested in a time course (1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 11, 18 days) with and without induction by the host plant and the fungal transcriptome revealed by Illumina sequencing. Differential gene expression analysis over the time course comparing control and treatment at each time point using the ‘edgeR glm approach’ and a gene enrichment analysis using GO categories were performed. Results The three main functional groups within differentially expressed genes were ‘metabolism’, ‘transport’ and ‘cell rescue, defense and virulence’. Additionally, genes especially involved in iron metabolism could be detected by gene set enrichment analysis. Conclusion In conclusion, we found PAC strain 6_70_1 to be metabolically very active during colonization of its host plant Picea abies. A major shift in functional groups over the time course of this experiment could not be observed but GO categories which were found to be enriched showed different emphasis depending in the day post induction. PMID:26954682

  10. [Genetic control of isozymes in European spruces (Picea abies (L) Karst) of the Ukrainian Carpathian mountains].

    PubMed

    Privalikhin, S N; Korshikov, I I; Pirko, N N; Velikorid'ko, T I; Pirko, Ia V

    2006-01-01

    Genetical control of the enzymes GOT, GDH, DIA, MDH, SOD, FDH, ADH, ACP and LAP has been studied in nine natural Carpathian populations of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) using polyacrylamide gel elecrophoresis and analysis of isozyme variability in 346 trees. Seventy one allel products of 20 gene loci have been clearly established. Segregation analysis of the revealed allele variants confirms their monogenic inheritance.

  11. Final Scientific/Technical report for "ABI8: Prototype of a novel signaling factor"

    SciTech Connect

    Finkelstein, Ruth R.

    2013-02-21

    The Arabidopsis thaliana ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE8 locus encodes a highly conserved plant-specific protein that mediates abscisic acid (ABA) and sugar responses essential for growth. Although initial database comparisons revealed no domains of predictable function, it has recently been re-annotated as a member of the Glycosyltransferase family A. However, this function has not been demonstrated experimentally and no specific substrates have been identified. Mutations affecting ABI8 are near-lethal due to pleiotropic yet specific effects including altered ABA signaling, sugar transport, cell wall synthesis, root meristem maintenance, vascular patterning, and male sterility. Because the predicted sequence initially provided no clues, we used a guilt by association strategy to address function of this protein by determining its subcellular localization and identifying interacting proteins. Our studies showed that ABI8 is localized to the endomembrane system and may interact with proteins implicated in Golgi trafficking, lignification, and stress signaling. We found that the root meristem arrest reflects decreased auxin accumulation and resulting decreases in regulators required for meristem identity, all of which can be rescued by added glucose. Further studies showed that this glucose-dependence reflects reduced glucose uptake as well as the decreased expression of sugar-mobilizing enzymes. This work suggests that ABI8 may regulate trafficking of membrane proteins such as auxin transporters and cellulose synthase, but this hypothesis has not yet been tested. The altered gene expression is likely to be a secondary or later effect of this pleiotropic mutation.

  12. OsTCP19 influences developmental and abiotic stress signaling by modulating ABI4-mediated pathways

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Pradipto; Tyagi, Akhilesh Kumar; Tyagi, Akhilesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Class-I TCP transcription factors are plant-specific developmental regulators. In this study, the role of one such rice gene, OsTCP19, in water-deficit and salt stress response was explored. Besides a general upregulation by abiotic stresses, this transcript was more abundant in tolerant than sensitive rice genotypes during early hours of stress. Stress, tissue and genotype-dependent retention of a small in-frame intron in this transcript was also observed. Overexpression of OsTCP19 in Arabidopsis caused upregulation of IAA3, ABI3 and ABI4 and downregulation of LOX2, and led to developmental abnormalities like fewer lateral root formation. Moreover, decrease in water loss and reactive oxygen species, and hyperaccumulation of lipid droplets in the transgenics contributed to better stress tolerance both during seedling establishment and in mature plants. OsTCP19 was also shown to directly regulate a rice triacylglycerol biosynthesis gene in transient assays. Genes similar to those up- or downregulated in the transgenics were accordingly found to coexpress positively and negatively with OsTCP19 in Rice Oligonucleotide Array Database. Interactions of OsTCP19 with OsABI4 and OsULT1 further suggest its function in modulation of abscisic acid pathways and chromatin structure. Thus, OsTCP19 appears to be an important node in cell signaling which crosslinks stress and developmental pathways. PMID:25925167

  13. An SK3 Channel/nWASP/Abi-1 Complex Is Involved in Early Neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Liebau, Stefan; Steinestel, Julie; Linta, Leonhard; Kleger, Alexander; Storch, Alexander; Schoen, Michael; Steinestel, Konrad; Proepper, Christian; Bockmann, Juergen; Schmeisser, Michael J.; Boeckers, Tobias M.

    2011-01-01

    Background The stabilization or regulated reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton is essential for cellular structure and function. Recently, we could show that the activation of the SK3-channel that represents the predominant SK-channel in neural stem cells, leads to a rapid local outgrowth of long filopodial processes. This observation indicates that the rearrangement of the actin based cytoskeleton via membrane bound SK3-channels might selectively be controlled in defined micro compartments of the cell. Principal Findings We found two important proteins for cytoskeletal rearrangement, the Abelson interacting protein 1, Abi-1 and the neural Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome Protein, nWASP, to be in complex with SK3- channels in neural stem cells (NSCs). Moreover, this interaction is also found in spines and postsynaptic compartments of developing primary hippocampal neurons and regulates neurite outgrowth during early phases of differentiation. Overexpression of the proteins or pharmacological activation of SK3 channels induces obvious structural changes in NSCs and hippocampal neurons. In both neuronal cell systems SK3 channels and nWASP act synergistic by strongly inducing filopodial outgrowth while Abi-1 behaves antagonistic to its interaction partners. Conclusions Our results give good evidence for a functional interplay of a trimeric complex that transforms incoming signals via SK3-channel activation into the local rearrangement of the cytoskeleton in early steps of neuronal differentiation involving nWASP and Abi-1 actin binding proteins. PMID:21464958

  14. Arabidopsis YL1/BPG2 Is Involved in Seedling Shoot Response to Salt Stress through ABI4

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peng-Cheng; Huang, Jin-Guang; Yu, Shao-Wei; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Sun, Peng; Wu, Chang-Ai; Zheng, Cheng-Chao

    2016-01-01

    The chloroplast-localized proteins play roles in plant salt stress response, but their mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, we screened a yellow leaf mutant, yl1-1, whose shoots exhibited hypersensitivity to salt stress. We mapped YL1 to AT3G57180, which encodes a YqeH-type GTPase. YL1, as a chloroplast stroma-localized protein, could be markedly reduced by high salinity. Upon exposure to high salinity, seedling shoots of yl1-1 and yl1-2 accumulated significantly higher levels of Na+ than wild type. Expression analysis of factors involved in plant salt stress response showed that the expression of ABI4 was increased and HKT1 was evidently suppressed in mutant shoots compared with the wild type under normal growth conditions. Moreover, salinity effects on ABI4 and HKT1 were clearly weakened in the mutant shoots, suggesting that the loss of YL1 function impairs ABI4 and HKT1 expression. Notably, the shoots of yl1-2 abi4 double mutant exhibited stronger resistance to salt stress and accumulated less Na+ levels after salt treatment compared with the yl1-2 single mutant, suggesting the salt-sensitive phenotype of yl1-2 seedlings could be rescued via loss of ABI4 function. These results reveal that YL1 is involved in the salt stress response of seedling shoots through ABI4. PMID:27444988

  15. Towards post-launch validation of GOES-R ABI SI traceability with high-altitude aircraft, small near surface UAS, and satellite reference measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padula, Francis; Pearlman, Aaron J.; Cao, Changyong; Goodman, Steve

    2016-09-01

    The GOES-R field campaign (planned for April - June 2017) is focused to support post-launch validation of the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) and Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM). Great emphasis has been placed in the development of methodologies to achieve the ABI GOES-R field campaign primary objective - validation of ABI L1b spectral radiance observations to ensure the SI traceability established pre-launch. An integrated approach using high altitude aircraft, near surface UAS, and satellite reference measurements was developed to achieve the ABI validation objectives of the GOES-R field campaign. The high-altitude aircraft measurements coupled with special ABI collections are planned to provide the primary pathway (direct comparison) to validate ABI SI traceability of all ABI operational detectors. Near surface Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) are planned to provide a secondary pathway to validate ABI SI traceability through coincident near surface measurements of Earth validation targets using the Earth's surface as a reference (indirect comparison). Satellite reference measurements obtained through special ABI collections and Simultaneous Nadir Overpass (SNO) of reference sensors will also provide a secondary pathway to validate ABI SI traceability. A detailed description of each validation approach, the critical components, and the preliminary expected uncertainties will be presented. The combined collections offer advanced post-launch validation capabilities and foster new perspectives for science teams during the post-launch validation and monitoring of NOAA's next generation of operational environmental satellites.

  16. Increased antitumor activity, intratumor paclitaxel concentrations, and endothelial cell transport of cremophor-free, albumin-bound paclitaxel, ABI-007, compared with cremophor-based paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Desai, Neil; Trieu, Vuong; Yao, Zhiwen; Louie, Leslie; Ci, Sherry; Yang, Andrew; Tao, Chunlin; De, Tapas; Beals, Bridget; Dykes, Donald; Noker, Patricia; Yao, Rosie; Labao, Elizabeth; Hawkins, Michael; Soon-Shiong, Patrick

    2006-02-15

    ABI-007, an albumin-bound, 130-nm particle form of paclitaxel, was developed to avoid Cremophor/ethanol-associated toxicities in Cremophor-based paclitaxel (Taxol) and to exploit albumin receptor-mediated endothelial transport. We studied the antitumor activity, intratumoral paclitaxel accumulation, and endothelial transport for ABI-007 and Cremophor-based paclitaxel. Antitumor activity and mortality were assessed in nude mice bearing human tumor xenografts [lung (H522), breast (MX-1), ovarian (SK-OV-3), prostate (PC-3), and colon (HT29)] treated with ABI-007 or Cremophor-based paclitaxel. Intratumoral paclitaxel concentrations (MX-1-tumored mice) were compared for radiolabeled ABI-007 and Cremophor-based paclitaxel. In vitro endothelial transcytosis and Cremophor inhibition of paclitaxel binding to cells and albumin was compared for ABI-007 and Cremophor-based paclitaxel. Both ABI-007 and Cremophor-based paclitaxel caused tumor regression and prolonged survival; the order of sensitivity was lung > breast congruent with ovary > prostate > colon. The LD(50) and maximum tolerated dose for ABI-007 and Cremophor-based paclitaxel were 47 and 30 mg/kg/d and 30 and 13.4 mg/kg/d, respectively. At equitoxic dose, the ABI-007-treated groups showed more complete regressions, longer time to recurrence, longer doubling time, and prolonged survival. At equal dose, tumor paclitaxel area under the curve was 33% higher for ABI-007 versus Cremophor-based paclitaxel, indicating more effective intratumoral accumulation of ABI-007. Endothelial binding and transcytosis of paclitaxel were markedly higher for ABI-007 versus Cremophor-based paclitaxel, and this difference was abrogated by a known inhibitor of endothelial gp60 receptor/caveolar transport. In addition, Cremophor was found to inhibit binding of paclitaxel to endothelial cells and albumin. Enhanced endothelial cell binding and transcytosis for ABI-007 and inhibition by Cremophor in Cremophor-based paclitaxel may account in

  17. A novel abi5 allele reveals the importance of the conserved Ala in the C3 domain for regulation of downstream genes and salt tolerance during germination in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Tezuka, Kenji; Taji, Teruaki; Hayashi, Takahisa; Sakata, Yoichi

    2013-03-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) signal transduction during Arabidopsis seed development and germination requires a Group A bZIP transcription factor encoded by ABA INSENSITIVE5 (ABI5). In addition to the basic leucine zipper DNA binding domain, Group A bZIPs are characterized by three N-terminal conserved regions (C1, C2 and C3) and one C-terminal conserved region (C4). These conserved regions are considered to play roles in ABI5 functions; however, except for the phosphorylation site, the importance of the highly conserved amino acids is unclear. Here, we report a novel abi5 recessive allele (abi5-9) that encodes an intact ABI5 protein with one amino acid substitution (A214G) in the C3 domain. The abi5-9 plants showed ABA insensitivity during germination and could germinate on medium containing 175 mM NaCl or 500 mM mannitol. Em1 and Em6--both encoding late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins and directly targeted by ABI5 regulation--were expressed at very low levels in abi5-9 plants compared with the wild type. In yeast, the abi5-9 protein exhibited greatly reduced interaction with ABI3 compared with ABI5. These data suggest that Ala214 in ABI5 contributes to the function of ABI5 via its interaction with ABI3.

  18. Identification of Salt Stress Biomarkers in Romanian Carpathian Populations of Picea abies (L.) Karst.

    PubMed Central

    Schiop, Sorin T.; Al Hassan, Mohamad; Sestras, Adriana F.; Boscaiu, Monica; Sestras, Radu E.; Vicente, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    The Norway spruce (Picea abies), the most important tree species in European forests, is relatively sensitive to salt and does not grow in natural saline environments. Yet many trees are actually exposed to salt stress due to the common practice of de-icing of mountain roads in winter, using large amounts of NaCl. To help develop strategies for an appropriate use of reproductive seed material on reforestation sites, ensuring better chances of seedling survival in salt-affected areas, we have studied the responses of young spruce seedlings to salt treatments. The specific aim of the work was to identify the optimal salt stress biomarkers in Picea abies, using as experimental material seedlings obtained by germination of seeds with origin in seven populations from the Romanian Carpathian Mountains. These responses included general, conserved reactions such as the accumulation of ions and different osmolytes in the seedlings needles, reduction in photosynthetic pigments levels, or activation of antioxidant systems. Although changes in the contents of different compounds involved in these reactions can be associated to the degree of stress affecting the plants, we propose that the (decreasing) levels of total phenolics or total carotenoids and the (increasing) levels of Na+ or K+ ions in Picea abies needles, should be considered as the most reliable and useful biomarkers for salt stress in this species. They all show very high correlation with the intensity of salt stress, independently of the genetic background of the seeds parental population, and relatively easy, quantitative assays are available to determine their concentrations, requiring simple equipment and little amount of plant material. PMID:26287687

  19. Identification of Salt Stress Biomarkers in Romanian Carpathian Populations of Picea abies (L.) Karst.

    PubMed

    Schiop, Sorin T; Al Hassan, Mohamad; Sestras, Adriana F; Boscaiu, Monica; Sestras, Radu E; Vicente, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    The Norway spruce (Picea abies), the most important tree species in European forests, is relatively sensitive to salt and does not grow in natural saline environments. Yet many trees are actually exposed to salt stress due to the common practice of de-icing of mountain roads in winter, using large amounts of NaCl. To help develop strategies for an appropriate use of reproductive seed material on reforestation sites, ensuring better chances of seedling survival in salt-affected areas, we have studied the responses of young spruce seedlings to salt treatments. The specific aim of the work was to identify the optimal salt stress biomarkers in Picea abies, using as experimental material seedlings obtained by germination of seeds with origin in seven populations from the Romanian Carpathian Mountains. These responses included general, conserved reactions such as the accumulation of ions and different osmolytes in the seedlings needles, reduction in photosynthetic pigments levels, or activation of antioxidant systems. Although changes in the contents of different compounds involved in these reactions can be associated to the degree of stress affecting the plants, we propose that the (decreasing) levels of total phenolics or total carotenoids and the (increasing) levels of Na+ or K+ ions in Picea abies needles, should be considered as the most reliable and useful biomarkers for salt stress in this species. They all show very high correlation with the intensity of salt stress, independently of the genetic background of the seeds parental population, and relatively easy, quantitative assays are available to determine their concentrations, requiring simple equipment and little amount of plant material.

  20. Critically reduced frost resistance of Picea abies during sprouting could be linked to cytological changes.

    PubMed

    Neuner, G; Beikircher, B

    2010-07-01

    Frost resistance of sprouting Picea abies shoots is insufficient for survival of naturally occurring late frosts. The cellular changes during sprouting appeared to be responsible for frost damage as frost events that damaged sprouting shoots did not damage older needles and stems. Whilst resting buds showed initial frost damage at -15.0 degrees C, 20 days later, current year's growth was damaged at -5.6 degrees C. The decrease in frost resistance in sprouting shoots of P. abies was accompanied by a significant reduction of the cellular solute concentration, indicated by much less negative Psi(oSAT) values (increase from -2.8 to -1.2 MPa). psi(oSAT) decreased again after the final cell volume was reached and cell wall thickening began. After bud break, ice nucleation temperature increased from -4.7 degrees C to -1.5 degrees C. This increase was probably caused by the loss of bud scales, the onset of expansion growth of the central cylinder and the development of vascular tissue permitting the spread of ice from the stem into the growing needles. The onset of mesophyll cell wall thickening coincided with the lowest frost resistances. Cell wall thickening caused an increase in the modulus of elasticity, epsilon, indicating a decrease in tissue elasticity and after that frost resistance increased again. Metabolic and cytological changes that evidently leave little leeway for frost hardening are responsible for the low frost resistance in current year's growth of P. abies. This low frost resistance will be significant in the future as the risk of frost damage due to earlier bud break is anticipated to even further increase.

  1. Decline of sacred fir (Abies religiosa) in a forest park south of Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Alvarado R, D; De Bauer, L I; Galindo A, J

    1993-01-01

    Decline of sacred fir (Abies religiosa) trees in the high elevation forest park, Desierto de los Leones, located south of Mexico City, is described. Trees located in the windward zone (exposed to air masses from Mexico City) were the most severely affected, especially trees at the distal ends of ravines. Examination of tree growth rings indicated decreases in ring widths for the past 30 years. Polluted air from Mexico City may be an important causal factor in fir decline. Drought, due to excessive removal of soil water, insects, mites and pathogens, and poor forest management are possible contributing and interactive factors in fir decline.

  2. The occurrence of Trichinella species in the cougar Puma concolor couguar from the state of Colorado and other regions of North and South America.

    PubMed

    Reichard, M V; Logan, K; Criffield, M; Thomas, J E; Paritte, J M; Messerly, D M; Interisano, M; Marucci, G; Pozio, E

    2017-05-01

    Trichinella species are zoonotic nematodes that infect wild carnivores and omnivores throughout the world. We examined the prevalence and species of Trichinella infections in cougars (Puma concolor couguar) from Colorado, United States. Tongues from cougars were examined by pepsin-HCl artificial digestion to detect Trichinella spp. larvae. The species or genotype of individual worms was identified by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Trichinella spp. larvae were detected in 17 of 39 cougars (43.6% (28.7-59.5%)). Five of the cougars (12.8%) were infected with T. murrelli, 3 (7.7%) were infected with T. pseudospiralis, and 1 (2.6%) had Trichinella genotype T6. Trichinella spp. larvae from eight cougars were not identified at the species level, due to degraded DNA. The high prevalence of Trichinella spp. in cougars from Colorado and reports of the parasite in other populations of Puma spp. suggest that this large predator is a key mammalian reservoir.

  3. Effects of Peganum harmala (Zygophyllaceae) seed extract on the olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and its larval parasitoid Psyttalia concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Rehman, Junaid Ur; Wang, Xin-Geng; Johnson, Marshall W; Daane, Kent M; Jilani, Ghulam; Khan, Mir A; Zalom, Frank G

    2009-12-01

    Peganum harmala L. (Zygophyllaceae) is an herb native to arid and semiarid regions of Central Asian deserts. This study investigated the effects of ethanol extracts of P. harmala seeds on the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae), i.e., adult repellency, reproductive activity, and larval growth, as well as parasitism levels by Psyttalia concolor (Szépligeti). Olive fruit treated with 2% extract reduced B. oleae oviposition. In choice tests, female B. oleae spent >99% of their time foraging on untreated fruit rather than P. harmala-treated fruit. These changes in ovipositional behavior resulted in a nearly 30-fold decrease in oviposition marks on treated fruit compared with untreated fruit during a 48 h exposure period. When female B. oleae were fed liquid diet containing 0.2% P. harmala extract, there was no effect on the number of ovipositional marks on exposed fruit, but up to 21.4% of the deposited eggs were deformed. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analyses of deformed eggs revealed that some protein bands were missing. Consequently, the number of offspring produced by treated females was lower than by untreated females. Neither the sex ratio nor body size of the fly's offspring were affected by adults fed diet containing 0.2% P. harmala extract. However, there was a slightly prolonged developmental time from egg to adult. Parasitism of larval B. oleae by P. concolor was not affected by infested fruit treatment with 2% P. harmala extract. P. harmala extracts as a potential control for insect pest species are discussed.

  4. Simulation of GOES-R ABI aerosol radiances using WRF-CMAQ: a case study approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christopher, S. A.

    2014-04-01

    In anticipation of the upcoming GOES-R launch we simulate visible and near-infrared reflectances of the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) for cases of high aerosol loading containing regional haze and smoke over the eastern United States. The simulations are performed using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF), Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE), and Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) models. Geostationary, satellite-derived, biomass-burning emissions are also included as an input to CMAQ. Using the CMAQ aerosol concentrations and Mie calculations, radiance is computed from the discrete ordinate atmospheric radiative transfer model. We present detailed methods for deriving aerosol extinction from WRF and CMAQ outputs. Our results show that the model simulations create a realistic set of reflectances in various aerosol scenarios. The simulated reflectances provide distinct spectral features of aerosols which are then compared to data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). We also present a simple technique to synthesize green band reflectance (which will not be available on the ABI), using the model-simulated blue and red band reflectance. This study is an example of the use of air quality modeling in improving products and techniques for Earth-observing missions.

  5. Simulation of GOES-R ABI aerosol radiances using WRF-CMAQ: a case study approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christopher, S. A.

    2013-07-01

    The primary focus of this paper is to simulate visible and near-infrared reflectances of the GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) for cases of high aerosol loading containing regional haze and smoke over the eastern United States. The simulations are performed using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF), Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE), and Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) models. Geostationary satellite-derived biomass burning emissions are also included as an input to CMAQ. Using the CMAQ aerosol concentrations and Mie calculations, radiance is computed from the discrete ordinate atmospheric radiative transfer model. We present detailed methods for deriving aerosol extinction from WRF and CMAQ outputs. Our results show that the model simulations create a realistic set of reflectance in various aerosol scenarios. The simulated reflectance provides distinct spectral features of aerosols which is then compared to data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). We also present a simple technique to synthesize green band reflectance (which will not be available on the ABI), using the model-simulated blue and red band reflectance. This study is an example of the use of air quality modeling in improving products and techniques for Earth observing missions.

  6. The hydraulic conductivity of the xylem in conifer needles (Picea abies and Pinus mugo).

    PubMed

    Charra-Vaskou, Katline; Mayr, Stefan

    2011-08-01

    Main resistances of the plant water transport system are situated in leaves. In contrast to angiosperm leaves, knowledge of conifer needle hydraulics and of the partitioning of resistances within needles is poor. A new technique was developed which enabled flow-meter measurements through needles embedded in paraffin and thus quantification of the specific hydraulic conductivity (K(s)) of the needle xylem. In Picea abies, xylem K(s) of needle and axes as well as in needles of different age were compared. In Pinus mugo, resistance partitioning within needles was estimated by measurements of xylem K(s) and leaf conductance (K(leaf), measured via 'rehydration kinetics'). Mean K(s) in P. abies needles was 3.5×10(-4) m(2) s(-1) MPa(-1) with a decrease in older needles, and over all similar to K(s) of corresponding axes xylem. In needles of P. mugo, K(s) was 0.9×10(-4) m(2) s(-1) MPa(-1), and 24% of total needle resistance was situated in the xylem. The results indicate species-specific differences in the hydraulic efficiency of conifer needle xylem. The vascular section of the water transport system is a minor but relevant resistance in needles.

  7. ABI domain-containing proteins contribute to surface protein display and cell division in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Frankel, Matthew B; Wojcik, Brandon M; DeDent, Andrea C; Missiakas, Dominique M; Schneewind, Olaf

    2010-10-01

    The human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus requires cell wall anchored surface proteins to cause disease. During cell division, surface proteins with YSIRK signal peptides are secreted into the cross-wall, a layer of newly synthesized peptidoglycan between separating daughter cells. The molecular determinants for the trafficking of surface proteins are, however, still unknown. We screened mutants with non-redundant transposon insertions by fluorescence-activated cell sorting for reduced deposition of protein A (SpA) into the staphylococcal envelope. Three mutants, each of which harboured transposon insertions in genes for transmembrane proteins, displayed greatly reduced envelope abundance of SpA and surface proteins with YSIRK signal peptides. Characterization of the corresponding mutations identified three transmembrane proteins with abortive infectivity (ABI) domains, elements first described in lactococci for their role in phage exclusion. Mutations in genes for ABI domain proteins, designated spdA, spdB and spdC (surface protein display), diminish the expression of surface proteins with YSIRK signal peptides, but not of precursor proteins with conventional signal peptides. spdA, spdB and spdC mutants display an increase in the thickness of cross-walls and in the relative abundance of staphylococci with cross-walls, suggesting that spd mutations may represent a possible link between staphylococcal cell division and protein secretion.

  8. Loader Lite: a new software tool for the ABI PRISM 3700 DNA sequencer.

    PubMed

    Scott, G B I; Steffen, D L; Edgar, D; Warren, J T; Kovár, C L; Scherer, S E; Havlak, P H; Gibbs, R A

    2002-06-01

    Here we describe the development of a novel software tool entitled Loader Lite that generates plate records or sample sheetsfor the ABI PRISMs 3700 DNA sequencer. The major advantage of this program is that it enables the ongoing operation of sequencing instruments without reference to external network(s). The autonomous operation of sequencing instruments is critical if sample throughput is to be maintained during periods of network outage. Loader Lite employs a deliberate strategy of inputting anonymous tray barcodes at run time. After sequencing, the barcodes are reconciled with relevant project details by reference to a database. This software takes advantage of barcode scanning technology by creating plate records directly on the local computer, serving an individual sequencer, immediately before importing and linking. This real-time synthesis of the plate records at the point of loading all but eliminates loading errors. Loader Lite is user-friendly, fully configurable, and permits the running of partial or full 384-well sample trays, using any standard combinations of run modules, dye sets, mobility files, analysis modules, etc. The 96-well format is not supported; however, this capability will appear in subsequent versions that are currently under development. This application is designed as an added value, adjunct program to the regular ABI PRISM 3700 Data Collection software. We have successfully used Loader Lite over the past six months to load approximately 7 million sequencing reactions and believe its utility and functionality will prove to be attractive to the wider sequencing community.

  9. Worm infestations and development of autoimmunity in children – The ABIS study

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Michael P.; Faresjö, Åshild

    2017-01-01

    Worm infestations influence the immune system and may therefore decrease the risk for autoimmune diseases. The aim of the study was to determine whether children who have developed autoimmune disease were less likely to have had worm infestations in childhood. The ABIS-study is a prospective population-based cohort study of children born in southeast Sweden 1997/99. 17.055 children participated. As of June 2014 116 individuals had developed Type 1 diabetes, 181 celiac disease, and 53 Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis. The parents answered questions on worm infestations when the children were 1, 5 and 8 years of age. The ABIS registry was connected to the National Registry of Drug Prescriptions, and national registries for diagnosis of the studied diseases. We found no differences in incidence of worm infestations at 1, 5 or 8 years of age between children who developed autoimmune disease(s) or healthy controls. At 8 years in total 20.0% of the general child population had experienced a worm infestation; children who developed Type 1 diabetes, 21,3%, celiac disease 19,5% and JRA 18,8%. There was no difference in prescriptions of drugs for treatment of worm infestations between those who had and who had not developed Type 1 diabetes, celiac disease, Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis. We found no associations indicating that worm infestations in childhood does not play a role in the development of autoimmune diseases in Sweden. PMID:28333965

  10. The Andean Biotic Index (ABI): revised tolerance to pollution values for macroinvertebrate families and index performance evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ríos-Touma, Blanca; Acosta, Raúl; Prat, Narcís

    2014-04-01

    Score-based biotic indices are widely used to evaluate the water quality of streams and rivers. Few adaptations of these indices have been done for South America because there is a lack of knowledge on macroinvertebrate taxonomy, distribution and tolerance to pollution in the region. Several areas in the Andes are densely populated and there is need for methods to assess the impact of increasing human pressures on aquatic ecosystems. Considering the unique ecological and geographical features of the Andes, macroinvertebrate indices used in other regions must be adapted with caution. Here we present a review of the literature on macroinvertebrate distribution and tolerance to pollution in Andean areas above 2,000 masl. Using these data, we propose an Andean Biotic Index (ABI), which is based on the BMWP index. In general, ABI includes fewer macroinvertebrate families than in other regions of the world where the BMWP index has been applied because altitude restricts the distribution of several families. Our review shows that in the high Andes, the tolerance of several macroinvertebrate families to pollution differs from those reported in other areas. We tested the ABI index in two basins in Ecuador and Peru, and compared it to other BMWP adaptations using the reference condition approach. The ABI index is extremely useful for detecting the general impairment of rivers but class quality boundaries should be defined independently for each basin because reference conditions may be different. The ABI is widely used in Ecuador and Peru, with high correlations with land-use pressures in several studies. The ABI index is an integral part of the new multimetric index designed for high Andean streams (IMEERA).

  11. Ophiostoma kryptum sp. nov. from Larix decidua and Picea abies in Europe, similar to O. minus.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Karin; Kirisits, Thomas

    2003-10-01

    An unknown species of Ophiostoma was isolated from European larch (Larix decidua) infested by Tetropium gabrieli (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) infested by Tetropium sp. in Austria. The fungus is similar to O. minus, but distinguished from it by the ecology, colony morphologies on OA and MEA, and phylogenetic analysis of aligned DNA sequences of the ITS region of the rDNA operon and the partial beta-tubulin gene. It is described here as O. kryptum sp. nov. The new species readily produces perithecia with short necks and reniform ascospores, and has Hyalorhinocladiella and Leptographium-like anamorphs. Circumstantial evidence suggests that Tetropium spp. act as vectors of O. kryptum. O. minus and O. kryptum represent additional examples of morphologically similar, yet genetically and ecologically distinct species in the genus Ophiostoma. The new combination, O. crenulatum comb. nov. (syn. CeratocYstiopsis crenulata), is also made.

  12. In vitro fungistatic effects of natural coniferous resin from Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Rautio, M; Sipponen, A; Lohi, J; Lounatmaa, K; Koukila-Kähkölä, P; Laitinen, K

    2012-08-01

    Resins (rosin, pitch) are natural products of the coniferous trees and are antimicrobial against a wide range of microbes. The antifungal effectiveness of resin, purified from Norway spruce (Picea abies), was studied against human pathogenic fungi and yeasts with the agar plate diffusion tests and electron microscopy (EM). The fungistatic effect of these resin mixtures (resin salves) was tested against a set of Candida yeasts, dermatophytes, and opportunistic fungi. Transmission and scanning EM was done from samples of fungi (Trichophyton mentagrophytes). In agar diffusion tests, the resin was strongly antifungal against all dermatophytes tested, e.g., against all fungi of the genus Trichophyton, but it was not antifungal against the Candida yeasts or against the opportunistic fungi tested. According to EM, resin caused damages in the cell hyphae and cell wall structures. We conclude that, in the agar plate diffusion test, coniferous resins are strongly fungistatic against the dermatophytic fungi only.

  13. Serendipitous Meta-Transcriptomics: The Fungal Community of Norway Spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Delhomme, Nicolas; Sundström, Görel; Zamani, Neda; Lantz, Henrik; Lin, Yao-Cheng; Hvidsten, Torgeir R; Höppner, Marc P; Jern, Patric; Van de Peer, Yves; Lundeberg, Joakim; Grabherr, Manfred G; Street, Nathaniel R

    2015-01-01

    After performing de novo transcript assembly of >1 billion RNA-Sequencing reads obtained from 22 samples of different Norway spruce (Picea abies) tissues that were not surface sterilized, we found that assembled sequences captured a mix of plant, lichen, and fungal transcripts. The latter were likely expressed by endophytic and epiphytic symbionts, indicating that these organisms were present, alive, and metabolically active. Here, we show that these serendipitously sequenced transcripts need not be considered merely as contamination, as is common, but that they provide insight into the plant's phyllosphere. Notably, we could classify these transcripts as originating predominantly from Dothideomycetes and Leotiomycetes species, with functional annotation of gene families indicating active growth and metabolism, with particular regards to glucose intake and processing, as well as gene regulation.

  14. Diterpenes from the Trunk of Abies holophylla and Their Potential Neuroprotective and Anti-inflammatory Activities.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chung Sub; Subedi, Lalita; Kim, Sun Yeou; Choi, Sang Un; Kim, Ki Hyun; Lee, Kang Ro

    2016-02-26

    Eleven new abietane-type diterpenes, holophyllins D-N (1-11), and 17 known analogues (12-28), were isolated from a MeOH extract of the trunk of Abies holophylla. The chemical structures of 1-11 were determined through spectroscopic data analysis, including NMR ((1)H and (13)C NMR, DEPT, (1)H-(1)H COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY) and HRFABMS methods. All isolated compounds (1-28) were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against four human tumor cell lines (A549, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2, and HCT-116), for their potential neuroprotective effects through induction of nerve growth factor in C6 glioma cells, and for their effects on nitric oxide levels in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine microglia BV2 cells.

  15. Effects of Abies sibirica terpenes on cancer- and aging-associated pathways in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Lipatova, Anastasiya; Alekseev, Boris; Maganova, Faniya; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail; Fedorova, Maria; Snezhkina, Anastasiya; Moskalev, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    A large number of terpenoids exhibit potential geroprotector and anti-cancer properties. Here, we studied whole transcriptomic effects of Abisil, the extract of fir (Abies sibirica) terpenes, on normal and cancer cell lines. We used early passaged and senescent none-immortalized fibroblasts as cellular aging models. It was revealed that in normal fibroblasts, terpenes induced genes of stress response, apoptosis regulation and tissue regeneration. The restoration of the expression level of some prolongevity genes after fir extract treatment was shown in old cells. In Caco-2 and AsPC-1 cancer cell lines, Abisil induced expression of both onco-suppressors (members of GADD45, DUSP, and DDIT gene families), and proto-oncogenes (c-Myc, c-Jun, EGR and others). Thus, the study demonstrates the potential anti-aging and anti-cancer effects of Abisil on senescent and cancer cell lines. PMID:27888805

  16. Antibacterial effects of home-made resin salve from Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Rautio, M; Sipponen, A; Peltola, R; Lohi, J; Jokinen, J J; Papp, A; Carlson, P; Sipponen, P

    2007-04-01

    Resin salve made from Norway spruce (Picea abies) is traditionally used in folk medicine to heal skin ulcers and infected wounds. Its antimicrobial properties were studied against certain human bacteria important in infected skin wounds. The sensitivity of the resin against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria was studied in vitro by methods that are routinely used in microbiology laboratories. The resin salve exhibited a bacteriostatic effect against all tested Gram-positive bacteria but only against Proteus vulgaris of the Gram-negative bacteria. Interestingly, the resin inhibited the growth of bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE), both on agar plates and in culture media. The study demonstrated antimicrobial activity of the resin salve and provided objective evidence of its antimicrobial properties. It gives some explanations why the traditional use of home-made resin salve from Norway spruce is experienced as being effective in the treatment of infected skin ulcers.

  17. Growing trees on completed sanitary landfills. [Nyssa sylvatica, Picea abies, Ginkgo biloba

    SciTech Connect

    Leone, I.A.; Gilman, E.F.; Flower, F.B.

    1983-01-01

    A 10-year old completed landfill in New Jersey consisting of 9 m (depth) of refuse covered with 15-25 cm of soil was cleared of debris and vegetation and covered with 30 cm of subsoil and 15-25 cm of topsoil. Nineteen coniferous and broadleaved species were planted on the landfill and on a control site in 1975, and trees were maintained and growth and condition monitored over 4 years. On the basis of shoot length and stem area increase, the most successful of the surviving trees were Nyssa sylvatica, Picea abies and Ginkgo biloba, in decreasing order of tolerance. Tolerance of landfill conditions appeared to be greatest in those species with low water requirements, a slow growth rate, high acid tolerance and a shallow root system. (Refs. 11).

  18. Measuring HER2-Receptor Expression In Metastatic Breast Cancer Using [68Ga]ABY-025 Affibody PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    Sörensen, Jens; Velikyan, Irina; Sandberg, Dan; Wennborg, Anders; Feldwisch, Joachim; Tolmachev, Vladimir; Orlova, Anna; Sandström, Mattias; Lubberink, Mark; Olofsson, Helena; Carlsson, Jörgen; Lindman, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging of HER2 expression could potentially be used to select patients for HER2-targed therapy, predict response based on uptake and be used for monitoring. In this phase I/II study the HER2-binding Affibody molecule ABY-025 was labeled with 68Ga-gallium ([68Ga]ABY-025) for PET to study effect of peptide mass, test-retest variability and correlation of quantified uptake in tumors to histopathology. Experimental design: Sixteen women with known metastatic breast cancer and on-going treatment were included and underwent FDG PET/CT to identify viable metastases. After iv injection of 212±46 MBq [68Ga]ABY-025 whole-body PET was performed at 1, 2 and 4 h. In the first 10 patients (6 with HER2-positive and 4 with HER2-negative primary tumors), [68Ga]ABY-025 PET/CT with two different doses of injected peptide was performed one week apart. In the last six patients (5 HER2-positive and 1 HER2-negative primary tumors), repeated [68Ga]ABY-025 PET were performed one week apart as a test-retest of uptake in individual lesions. Biopsies from 16 metastases in 12 patients were collected for verification of HER2 expression by immunohistochemistry and in-situ hybridization. Results: Imaging 4h after injection with high peptide content discriminated HER2-positive metastases best (p<0.01). PET SUV correlated with biopsy HER2-scores (r=0.91, p<0.001). Uptake was five times higher in HER2-positive than in HER2-negative lesions with no overlap (p=0.005). The test-retest intra-class correlation was r=0.996. [68Ga]ABY-025 PET correctly identified conversion and mixed expression of HER2 and targeted treatment was changed in 3 of the 16 patients. Conclusion: [68Ga]ABY-025 PET accurately quantifies whole-body HER2-receptor status in metastatic breast cancer. PMID:26877784

  19. Gladiolus hybridus ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 5 (GhABI5) is an important transcription factor in ABA signaling that can enhance Gladiolus corm dormancy and Arabidopsis seed dormancy

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jian; Seng, Shanshan; Sui, Juanjuan; Vonapartis, Eliana; Luo, Xian; Gong, Benhe; Liu, Chen; Wu, Chenyu; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Fengqin; He, Junna; Yi, Mingfang

    2015-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant development and is crucial for abiotic stress response. In this study, cold storage contributes to reducing endogenous ABA content, resulting in dormancy breaking of Gladiolus. The ABA inhibitor fluridone also promotes germination, suggesting that ABA is an important hormone that regulates corm dormancy. Here, we report the identification and functional characterization of the Gladiolus ABI5 homolog (GhABI5), which is a basic leucine zipper motif transcriptional factor (TF). GhABI5 is expressed in dormant vegetative organs (corm, cormel, and stolon) as well as in reproductive organs (stamen), and it is up-regulated by ABA or drought. Complementation analysis reveals that GhABI5 rescues the ABA insensitivity of abi5-3 during seed germination and induces the expression of downstream ABA response genes in Arabidopsis thaliana (EM1, EM6, and RD29B). Down-regulation of GhABI5 in dormant cormels via virus induced gene silence promotes sprouting and reduces the expression of downstream genes (GhLEA and GhRD29B). The results of this study reveal that GhABI5 regulates bud dormancy (vegetative organ) in Gladiolus in addition to its well-studied function in Arabidopsis seeds (reproductive organ). PMID:26579187

  20. Comparative venomics of Psyttalia lounsburyi and P. concolor, two olive fruit fly parasitoids: a hypothetical role for a GH1 β-glucosidase

    PubMed Central

    Mathé-Hubert, Hugo; Colinet, Dominique; Deleury, Emeline; Belghazi, Maya; Ravallec, Marc; Poulain, Julie; Dossat, Carole; Poirié, Marylène; Gatti, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    Venom composition of parasitoid wasps attracts increasing interest – notably molecules ensuring parasitism success on arthropod pests – but its variation within and among taxa is not yet understood. We have identified here the main venom proteins of two braconid wasps, Psyttalia lounsburyi (two strains from South Africa and Kenya) and P. concolor, olive fruit fly parasitoids that differ in host range. Among the shared abundant proteins, we found a GH1 β-glucosidase and a family of leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins. Olive is extremely rich in glycoside compounds that are hydrolyzed by β-glucosidases into defensive toxic products in response to phytophagous insect attacks. Assuming that Psyttalia host larvae sequester ingested glycosides, the injected venom GH1 β-glucosidase could induce the release of toxic compounds, thus participating in parasitism success by weakening the host. Venom LRR proteins are similar to truncated Toll-like receptors and may possibly scavenge the host immunity. The abundance of one of these LRR proteins in the venom of only one of the two P. lounsburyi strains evidences intraspecific variation in venom composition. Altogether, venom intra- and inter-specific variation in Psyttalia spp. were much lower than previously reported in the Leptopilina genus (Figitidae), suggesting it might depend upon the parasitoid taxa. PMID:27779241

  1. Diet of pumas (Puma concolor) in Sonora, Mexico, as determined by GPS kill sites and molecular identified scat, with comments on jaguar (Panthera onca) diet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cassaigne, Ivonne; Medellin, Rodrigo A.; Thompson, Ron W.; Culver, Melanie; Ochoa, Alexander; Vargas, Karla; Childs, Jack L.; Sanderson, Jim; List, Rurik; Torres-Gomez, Armando

    2016-01-01

    We documented puma (Puma concolor) and jaguar (Panthera onca) prey consumption in northeastern Sonora, Mexico, by investigating global positioning system cluster sites (n = 220), and conducting molecular analyses of scat (n = 116) collected between 2011 and 2013. We used camera trap data (n = 8,976 camera days) to estimate relative abundances of pumas and jaguars. Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) was the most frequent prey for puma found at kill sites (67%) and identified from scat (74%), although based on relative numbers of prey consumed, deer represented 45% and lagomorphs 20% of the proportion of all individuals eaten. A variety of small prey (weighing <15 kg) comprised the majority (52%) of the jaguar kill sites. From prey found at kill sites, jaguars killed calves (Bos taurus) at a lower frequency than previously reported, whereas pumas preyed on calves at a higher frequency than previously reported in the same area. In our study area, jaguars preyed on calves at approximately the same rate as pumas (jaguars 3.7 calves per year, pumas 4.9 calves per year). Calculated predation rates were limited only to collared animals within our study area and therefore should not be considered applicable to all pumas and jaguars in Sonora.

  2. Two new endemic species of Ameiva (Squamata: Teiidae) from the dry forest of northwestern Peru and additional information on Ameiva concolor Ruthven, 1924.

    PubMed

    Koch, Claudia; Venegas, Pablo J; Rödder, Dennis; Flecks, Morris; Böhme, Wolfgang

    2013-12-04

    We describe two new species of Ameiva Meyer, 1795 from the dry forest of the Northern Peruvian Andes. The new species Ameiva nodam sp. nov. and Ameiva aggerecusans sp. nov. share a divided frontal plate and are differentiated from each other and from their congeners based on genetic (12S and 16S rRNA genes) and morphological characteristics. A. nodam sp. nov. has dilated postbrachials, a maximum known snout-vent length of 101 mm, 10 longitudinal rows of ventral plates, 86-113 midbody granules, 25-35 lamellae under the fourth toe, and a color pattern with 5 longitudinal yellow stripes on the dorsum. Ameiva aggerecusans sp. nov. has not or only hardly dilated postbrachials, a maximum known snout-vent length of 99.3 mm, 10-12 longitudinal rows of ventral plates, 73-92 midbody granules, 31-39 lamellae under the fourth toe, and the females and juveniles of the species normally exhibit a cream-colored vertebral stripe on a dark dorsum ground color. We provide information on the intraspecific variation and distribution of A. concolor. Furthermore, we provide information on the environmental niches of the taxa and test for niche conservatism. 

  3. Noninvasive individual and species identification of jaguars (Panthera onca), pumas (Puma concolor) and ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) in Belize, Central America using cross-species microsatellites and faecal DNA.

    PubMed

    Wultsch, Claudia; Waits, Lisette P; Kelly, Marcella J

    2014-11-01

    There is a great need to develop efficient, noninvasive genetic sampling methods to study wild populations of multiple, co-occurring, threatened felids. This is especially important for molecular scatology studies occurring in challenging tropical environments where DNA degrades quickly and the quality of faecal samples varies greatly. We optimized 14 polymorphic microsatellite loci for jaguars (Panthera onca), pumas (Puma concolor) and ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) and assessed their utility for cross-species amplification. Additionally, we tested their reliability for species and individual identification using DNA from faeces of wild felids detected by a scat detector dog across Belize in Central America. All microsatellite loci were successfully amplified in the three target species, were polymorphic with average expected heterozygosities of HE = 0.60 ± 0.18 (SD) for jaguars, HE = 0.65 ± 0.21 (SD) for pumas and HE = 0.70 ± 0.13 (SD) for ocelots and had an overall PCR amplification success of 61%. We used this nuclear DNA primer set to successfully identify species and individuals from 49% of 1053 field-collected scat samples. This set of optimized microsatellite multiplexes represents a powerful tool for future efforts to conduct noninvasive studies on multiple, wild Neotropical felids.

  4. Observation of intra-group and extra-group copulation and reproductive characters in free ranging groups of western black crested gibbon (Nomascus concolor jingdongensis).

    PubMed

    Huang, Bei; Guan, Zhenghua; Ni, Qingyong; Orkin, Joseph D; Fan, Pengfei; Jiang, Xuelong

    2013-12-01

    Black crested gibbons (Nomascus concolor) are 1 of only 3 gibbon species that have been observed in long-term polygynous groups, but their mating behavior and reproductive characters have never been reported. Based on population monitoring over 7 years and direct observation for 26 months of the study groups in Wuliang Mountain, central Yunnan, we describe for the first time the copulation behavior and breeding pattern of free-ranging western black crested gibbons. The gestation period of black crested gibbons is estimated to be between 6 and 7 months. The average breeding interval is 3.5 years, with infant independence at approximately 2.5 years. We observed 2 intra-group copulations and 5 extra-group copulations. Copulations were initiated when a female gave a 'solicitation' gesture. When a male made any mating attempt, the female might refuse it. These results demonstrate direct female mate choice. Both male and female gibbons dispersed from their natal groups and sometimes replaced paired adults in other groups. We observed no evidence of infanticide during inter-group conflicts or after replacement of adults. Together with extra-group copulations, these phenomena indicate a flexible social organization and complex mating system. We also observed a male-biased sex ratio among offspring. More genetic work is necessary to describe the effects of inter-group copulation and the genetic diversity of this population.

  5. Dietary variability in the western black crested gibbon (Nomascus concolor) inhabiting an isolated and disturbed forest fragment in Southern Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Ni, Qing-Yong; Huang, Bei; Liang, Zong-Li; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Jiang, Xue-Long

    2014-03-01

    Forest fragmentation and isolation can reduce the size of available habitat and lead to lower food availability for some primate species. The persistence of nonhuman primates in fragments depends largely on their ability to adjust their diet in response environmental change. The western black crested gibbon (Nomascus concolor) is distributed in northern Vietnam, northwestern Laos, and southwestern China, but little is known about its diet except from studies in the well-protected forests of Mt. Wuliang and Mt. Ailao, central Yunnan. We studied food abundance and diet over 2 years in a small group surviving in an isolated and disturbed forest at Bajiaohe, southern Yunnan, and drew a comparison with the population at Dazhaizi in Mt. Wuliang. We found that gibbons at Bajiaohe consumed mostly fruit, but did not eat figs, unlike most other gibbon populations. Liana fruits and mature leaves were used as alternative foods during periods of tree fruit scarcity. Our results indicate that gibbons in Bajiaohe respond to habitat fragmentation and isolation by consuming a variety of plant species, depending on those that are locally available, and increasing time spent feeding on fruits of trees and lianas rather than increasing time spent consuming leaves.

  6. Life and death of Picea abies after bark-beetle outbreak: ecological processes driving seedling recruitment.

    PubMed

    Macek, Martin; Wild, Jan; Kopecký, Martin; Červenka, Jaroslav; Svoboda, Miroslav; Zenáhlíková, Jitka; Brůna, Josef; Mosandl, Reinhard; Fischer, Anton

    2017-01-01

    The severity and spatial extent of bark-beetle outbreaks substantially increased in recent decades worldwide. The ongoing controversy about natural forest recovery after these outbreaks highlights the need for individual-based long-term studies, which disentangle processes driving forest regeneration. However, such studies have been lacking. To fill this gap, we followed the fates of 2,552 individual seedlings for 12 years after a large-scale bark-beetle outbreak that caused complete canopy dieback in mountain Norway spruce (Picea abies) forests in southeast Germany. We explore the contribution of advance, disturbance-related, and post-disturbance regeneration to forest recovery. Most seedlings originated directly within the three-year dieback of canopy trees induced by bark-beetle outbreak. After complete canopy dieback, the establishment of new seedlings was minimal. Surprisingly, advance regeneration formed only a minor part of all regeneration. However, because it had the highest survival rate, its importance increased over time. The most important factor influencing the survival of seedlings after disturbance was their height. Survival was further modified by microsite: seedlings established on dead wood survived best, whereas almost all seedlings surrounded by graminoids died. For 5 cm tall seedlings, annual mortality ranged from 20 to 50% according to the rooting microsite. However, for seedlings taller than 50 cm, annual mortality was below 5% at all microsites. While microsite modified seedling mortality, it did not affect seedling height growth. A model of regeneration dynamics based on short-term observations accurately predicts regeneration height growth, but substantially underestimates mortality rate, thus predicting more surviving seedlings than were observed. We found that P. abies forests were able to regenerate naturally even after severe bark-beetle outbreaks owing to advance and particularly disturbance-related regeneration. This, together

  7. Development of 32 EST-SSR markers for Abies firma (Pinaceae) and their transferability to related species1

    PubMed Central

    Uchiyama, Kentaro; Fujii, Sayaka; Ishizuka, Wataru; Goto, Susumu; Tsumura, Yoshihiko

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: We developed simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for Abies firma, a conifer endemic in Japan, to facilitate evaluation of the population genetic structure in this species. • Methods and Results: We designed primers for 153 EST-SSRs identified from 486322 ESTs from A. sachalinensis ESTs, and tested 96 of them for PCR amplification. Thirty-two primers provided clear amplification, and 14 of those 32 displayed clear polymorphic patterns in multiple populations of A. firma and in two closely related species. The number of alleles per locus and mean expected heterozygosity ranged from one to six and 0 to 0.476, respectively. • Conclusions: The EST-SSR markers developed in this study may be useful for phylogeography and population genetic studies of A. firma. Successful amplifications were obtained for two other Abies species, suggesting that these markers may also be useful for similar applications in other fir species. PMID:25202517

  8. Phylogenetic relationships, possible ancient hybridization, and biogeographic history of Abies (Pinaceae) based on data from nuclear, plastid, and mitochondrial genomes.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Qiao-Ping; Wei, Ran; Shao, Yi-Zhen; Yang, Zu-Yu; Wang, Xiao-Quan; Zhang, Xian-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Abies, the second largest genus of Pinaceae, consists of approximately 48 species occurring in the north temperate region. Previous molecular phylogenetic studies improved our understanding of relationships within the genus, but were limited by relying on only DNA sequence data from single genome and low taxonomic sampling. Here we use DNA data from three genomes (sequences of internal transcribed spacer of nrITS, three chloroplast DNA intergenic spacers, and two mitochondrial intergenic spacers) from 42 species to elucidate species relationships and construct the biogeographic history of Abies. We further estimated the divergence times of intercontinental disjunction using a relaxed molecular clock calibrated with three macro-fossils. Our phylogenetic analyses recovered six robust clades largely consistent with previous classifications of sections. A sister relationship between the eastern Asian and Europe-Mediterranean clades was highly supported. The monophyly of section Balsamea, disjunct in Far East and western North America, is supported by the nrITS data but not by the cpDNA data. Discordance on placement of section Balsamea between the paternally inherited cpDNA and maternally inherited mtDNA trees was also observed. The data suggested that ancient hybridization was likely involved in the origin of sect. Balsamea. Results from biogeographic analyses and divergence time estimation suggested an origin and early diversification of Abies in an area of high latitude around the Pacific during the Eocene. The present disjunction in eastern Asia and Europe-Mediterranean area of Abies was likely the result of southward migration and isolation by the Turgai Strait in the Late Eocene. An 'out-of-America' migration, for the origin of an eastern Asian and western North American disjunct species pairs in section Amabilis was supported. The results suggested a western North American origin of the section with subsequent dispersal across the Bering Land Bridge (BLB) to

  9. An Arabidopsis mitochondria-localized RRL protein mediates abscisic acid signal transduction through mitochondrial retrograde regulation involving ABI4.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xuan; Li, Juanjuan; Liu, Jianping; Liu, Kede

    2015-10-01

    The molecular mechanisms of abscisic acid (ABA) signalling have been studied for many years; however, how mitochondria-localized proteins play roles in ABA signalling remains unclear. Here an Arabidopsis mitochondria-localized protein RRL (RETARDED ROOT GROWTH-LIKE) was shown to function in ABA signalling. A previous study had revealed that the Arabidopsis mitochondria-localized protein RRG (RETARDED ROOT GROWTH) is required for cell division in the root meristem. RRL shares 54% and 57% identity at the nucleotide and amino acid sequences, respectively, with RRG; nevertheless, RRL shows a different function in Arabidopsis. In this study, disruption of RRL decreased ABA sensitivity whereas overexpression of RRL increased ABA sensitivity during seed germination and seedling growth. High expression levels of RRL were found in germinating seeds and developing seedlings, as revealed by β-glucuronidase (GUS) staining of ProRRL-GUS transgenic lines. The analyses of the structure and function of mitochondria in the knockout rrl mutant showed that the disruption of RRL causes extensively internally vacuolated mitochondria and reduced ABA-stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Previous studies have revealed that the expression of alternative oxidase (AOX) in the alternative respiratory pathway is increased by mitochondrial retrograde regulation to regain ROS levels when the mitochondrial electron transport chain is impaired. The APETALA2 (AP2)-type transcription factor ABI4 is a regulator of ALTERNATIVE OXIDASE1a (AOX1a) in mitochondrial retrograde signalling. This study showed that ABA-induced AOX1a and ABI4 expression was inhibited in the rrl mutant, suggesting that RRL is probably involved in ABI4-mediated mitochondrial retrograde signalling. Furthermore, the results revealed that ABI4 is a downstream regulatory factor in RRL-mediated ABA signalling in seed germination and seedling growth.

  10. Experimental vs. modeled water use in mature Norway spruce (Picea abies) exposed to elevated CO(2).

    PubMed

    Leuzinger, Sebastian; Bader, Martin K-F

    2012-01-01

    Rising levels of atmospheric CO(2) have often been reported to reduce plant water use. Such behavior is also predicted by standard equations relating photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and atmospheric CO(2) concentration, which form the core of dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs). Here, we provide first results from a free air CO(2) enrichment (FACE) experiment with naturally growing, mature (35 m) Picea abies (L.) (Norway spruce) and compare them to simulations by the DGVM LPJ-GUESS. We monitored sap flow, stem water deficit, stomatal conductance, leaf water potential, and soil moisture in five 35-40 m tall CO(2)-treated (550 ppm) trees over two seasons. Using LPJ-GUESS, we simulated this experiment using climate data from a nearby weather station. While the model predicted a stable reduction of transpiration of between 9% and 18% (at concentrations of 550-700 ppm atmospheric CO(2)), the combined evidence from various methods characterizing water use in our experimental trees suggest no changes in response to future CO(2) concentrations. The discrepancy between the modeled and the experimental results may be a scaling issue: while dynamic vegetation models correctly predict leaf-level responses, they may not sufficiently account for the processes involved at the canopy and ecosystem scale, which could offset the first-order stomatal response.

  11. Warming delays autumn declines in photosynthetic capacity in a boreal conifer, Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Stinziano, Joseph R; Hüner, Norman P A; Way, Danielle A

    2015-12-01

    Climate change, via warmer springs and autumns, may lengthen the carbon uptake period of boreal tree species, increasing the potential for carbon sequestration in boreal forests, which could help slow climate change. However, if other seasonal cues such as photoperiod dictate when photosynthetic capacity declines, warmer autumn temperatures may have little effect on when carbon uptake capacity decreases in these species. We investigated whether autumn warming would delay photosynthetic decline in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) by growing seedlings under declining weekly photoperiods and weekly temperatures either at ambient temperature or a warming treatment 4 °C above ambient. Photosynthetic capacity was relatively constant in both treatments when weekly temperatures were >8 °C, but declined rapidly at lower temperatures, leading to a delay in the autumn decline in photosynthetic capacity in the warming treatment. The decline in photosynthetic capacity was not related to changes in leaf nitrogen or chlorophyll concentrations, but was correlated with a decrease in the apparent fraction of leaf nitrogen invested in Rubisco, implicating a shift in nitrogen allocation away from the Calvin cycle at low autumn growing temperatures. Our data suggest that as the climate warms, the period of net carbon uptake will be extended in the autumn for boreal forests dominated by Norway spruce, which could increase total carbon uptake in these forests.

  12. Localization of phenolics in phloem parenchyma cells of Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng-Hong; Nagy, Nina Elisabeth; Hammerbacher, Almuth; Krokene, Paal; Niu, Xue-Mei; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Schneider, Bernd

    2012-12-21

    Norway spruce (Picea abies) bark contains specialized phloem parenchyma cells that swell and change their contents upon attack by the bark beetle Ips typographus and its microbial associate, the blue stain fungus Ceratocystis polonica. These cells exhibit bright autofluorescence after treatment with standard aldehyde fixatives, and so have been postulated to contain phenolic compounds. Laser microdissection of spruce bark sections combined with cryogenic NMR spectroscopy demonstrated significantly higher concentrations of the stilbene glucoside astringin in phloem parenchyma cells than in adjacent sieve cells. After infection by C. polonica, the flavonoid (+)-catechin also appeared in phloem parenchyma cells and there was a decrease in astringin content compared to cells from uninfected trees. Analysis of whole-bark extracts confirmed the results obtained from the cell extracts and revealed a significant increase in dimeric stilbene glucosides, both astringin and isorhapontin derivatives (piceasides A to H), in fungus-infected versus uninfected bark that might explain the reduction in stilbene monomers. Phloem parenchyma cells thus appear to be a principal site of phenolic accumulation in spruce bark.

  13. Patterns of nucleotide diversity at photoperiod related genes in Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst].

    PubMed

    Källman, Thomas; De Mita, Stéphane; Larsson, Hanna; Gyllenstrand, Niclas; Heuertz, Myriam; Parducci, Laura; Suyama, Yoshihisa; Lagercrantz, Ulf; Lascoux, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The ability of plants to track seasonal changes is largely dependent on genes assigned to the photoperiod pathway, and variation in those genes is thereby important for adaptation to local day length conditions. Extensive physiological data in several temperate conifer species suggest that populations are adapted to local light conditions, but data on the genes underlying this adaptation are more limited. Here we present nucleotide diversity data from 19 genes putatively involved in photoperiodic response in Norway spruce (Picea abies). Based on similarity to model plants the genes were grouped into three categories according to their presumed position in the photoperiod pathway: photoreceptors, circadian clock genes, and downstream targets. An HKA (Hudson, Kreitman and Aquade) test showed a significant excess of diversity at photoreceptor genes, but no departure from neutrality at circadian genes and downstream targets. Departures from neutrality were also tested with Tajima's D and Fay and Wu's H statistics under three demographic scenarios: the standard neutral model, a population expansion model, and a more complex population split model. Only one gene, the circadian clock gene PaPRR3 with a highly positive Tajima's D value, deviates significantly from all tested demographic scenarios. As the PaPRR3 gene harbours multiple non-synonymous variants it appears as an excellent candidate gene for control of photoperiod response in Norway spruce.

  14. Norway spruce (Picea abies) laccases: characterization of a laccase in a lignin-forming tissue culture.

    PubMed

    Koutaniemi, Sanna; Malmberg, Heli A; Simola, Liisa K; Teeri, Teemu H; Kärkönen, Anna

    2015-04-01

    Secondarily thickened cell walls of water-conducting vessels and tracheids and support-giving sclerenchyma cells contain lignin that makes the cell walls water impermeable and strong. To what extent laccases and peroxidases contribute to lignin biosynthesis in muro is under active evaluation. We performed an in silico study of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) laccases utilizing available genomic data. As many as 292 laccase encoding sequences (genes, gene fragments, and pseudogenes) were detected in the spruce genome. Out of the 112 genes annotated as laccases, 79 are expressed at some level. We isolated five full-length laccase cDNAs from developing xylem and an extracellular lignin-forming cell culture of spruce. In addition, we purified and biochemically characterized one culture medium laccase from the lignin-forming cell culture. This laccase has an acidic pH optimum (pH 3.8-4.2) for coniferyl alcohol oxidation. It has a high affinity to coniferyl alcohol with an apparent Km value of 3.5 μM; however, the laccase has a lower catalytic efficiency (V(max)/K(m)) for coniferyl alcohol oxidation compared with some purified culture medium peroxidases. The properties are discussed in the context of the information already known about laccases/coniferyl alcohol oxidases of coniferous plants.

  15. Metabolite profiling reveals clear metabolic changes during somatic embryo development of Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Businge, Edward; Brackmann, Klaus; Moritz, Thomas; Egertsdotter, Ulrika

    2012-02-01

    Progress on industrial-scale propagation of conifers by somatic embryogenesis has been hampered by the differences in developmental capabilities between cell lines, which are limiting the capture of genetic gains from breeding programs. In this study, we investigated the metabolic events occurring during somatic embryo development in Norway spruce to establish a better understanding of the fundamental metabolic events required for somatic embryo development. Three embryogenic cell lines of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) with different developmental capabilities were studied during somatic embryo development from proliferation of proembryogenic masses to mature somatic embryos. The three different cell lines displayed normal, aberrant and blocked somatic embryo development. Metabolite profiles from four development stages in each of the cell lines were obtained using combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Multivariate discriminant analyses of the metabolic data revealed significant metabolites (P  ≤  0.05) for each development stage and transition. The results suggest that endogenous auxin and sugar signaling affects initial stages of somatic embryo development. Furthermore, the results highlight the importance of a timed stress response and the presence of stimulatory metabolites during late stages of embryo development.

  16. Conserved function of core clock proteins in the gymnosperm Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst).

    PubMed

    Karlgren, Anna; Gyllenstrand, Niclas; Källman, Thomas; Lagercrantz, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    From studies of the circadian clock in the plant model species Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), a number of important properties and components have emerged. These include the genes CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED 1 (CCA1), GIGANTEA (GI), ZEITLUPE (ZTL) and TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1 (TOC1 also known as PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR 1 (PRR1)) that via gene expression feedback loops participate in the circadian clock. Here, we present results from ectopic expression of four Norway spruce (Picea abies) putative homologs (PaCCA1, PaGI, PaZTL and PaPRR1) in Arabidopsis, their flowering time, circadian period length, red light response phenotypes and their effect on endogenous clock genes were assessed. For PaCCA1-ox and PaZTL-ox the results were consistent with Arabidopsis lines overexpressing the corresponding Arabidopsis genes. For PaGI consistent results were obtained when expressed in the gi2 mutant, while PaGI and PaPRR1 expressed in wild type did not display the expected phenotypes. These results suggest that protein function of PaCCA1, PaGI and PaZTL are at least partly conserved compared to Arabidopsis homologs, however further studies are needed to reveal the protein function of PaPRR1. Our data suggest that components of the three-loop network typical of the circadian clock in angiosperms were present before the split of gymnosperms and angiosperms.

  17. Transcriptional responses of Norway spruce (Picea abies) inner sapwood against Heterobasidion parviporum.

    PubMed

    Oliva, J; Rommel, S; Fossdal, C G; Hietala, A M; Nemesio-Gorriz, M; Solheim, H; Elfstrand, M

    2015-09-01

    The white-rot fungus Heterobasidion parviporum Niemelä & Korhonen establishes a necrotrophic interaction with Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H.Karst.) causing root and butt rot and growth losses in living trees. The interaction occurs first with the bark and the outer sapwood, as the pathogen enters the tree via wounds or root-to-root contacts. Later, when the fungus reaches the heartwood, it spreads therein creating a decay column, and the interaction mainly occurs in the inner sapwood where the tree creates a reaction zone. While bark and outer sapwood interactions are well studied, little is known about the nature of the transcriptional responses leading to the creation of a reaction zone. In this study, we sampled bark and sapwood both proximal and distal to the reaction zone in artificially inoculated and naturally infected trees. We quantified gene expression levels of candidate genes in secondary metabolite, hormone biosynthesis and signalling pathways using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. An up-regulation of mainly the phenylpropanoid pathway and jasmonic acid biosynthesis was found at the inoculation site, when inoculations were compared with wounding. We found that transcriptional responses in inner sapwood were similar to those reported upon infection through the bark. Our data suggest that the defence mechanism is induced due to direct fungal contact irrespective of the tissue type. Understanding the nature of these interactions is important when considering tree breeding-based resistance strategies to reduce the spread of the pathogen between and within trees.

  18. Branch growth and biomass allocation in Abies amabilis saplings in contrasting light environments.

    PubMed

    King, D A

    1997-04-01

    Aboveground biomass allocation, and height and branch growth were studied in saplings of the shade-tolerant conifer, Abies amabilis Dougl. ex Forbes growing in large openings and in the understory of an old-growth forest in western Oregon. The presence of annual overwintering budscale scars was used to infer extension growth histories; annual growth rings in branches and stems were used in combination with extension histories to compute partitioning of new biomass among leaves, branches and stems. Saplings growing in large gaps had conical crowns, whereas understory saplings had umbrella shaped crowns as a result of much greater rates of branch extension than stem extension. Understory saplings grew slowly in height because of low rates of biomass production and low allocation of biomass to stem extension. About 40% of new biomass was allocated to foliage in both groups, but understory saplings allocated more of the remaining growth increment to branches and less to stem than did saplings growing in large gaps. These results differ from the patterns observed in shade-tolerant saplings of tropical forests, where allocation to foliage increases with shading and branch allocation is much lower than observed here. This difference in allocation may reflect mechanical constraints imposed by snow loads on the evergreen A. amabilis crowns, particularly on flat-crowned understory saplings.

  19. Resonance wood [Picea abies (L.) Karst.]--evaluation and prediction of violin makers' quality-grading.

    PubMed

    Buksnowitz, Christoph; Teischinger, Alfred; Müller, Ulrich; Pahler, Andreas; Evans, Robert

    2007-04-01

    The definition of quality in the field of resonance wood for musical instrument making has attracted considerable interest over decades but has remained incomplete. The current work compares the traditional knowledge and practical experience of violin makers with a material-science approach to objectively characterize the properties of resonance wood. Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] has earned a very high reputation for the construction of resonance tops of stringed instruments and resonance boards of keyboard instruments, and was therefore chosen as the focus of the investigation. The samples were obtained from numerous renowned resonance wood regions in the European Alps and cover the whole range of available qualities. A set of acoustical, anatomical, mechanical and optical material properties was measured on each sample. These measurements were compared with subjective quality grading by violin makers, who estimated the acoustical, optical and overall suitability for violin making. Multiple linear regression models were applied to evaluate the predictability of the subjective grading using the measured material characteristics as predictors. The results show that luthiers are able to estimate wood quality related to visible features, but predictions of mechanical and acoustical properties proved to be very poor.

  20. Comparison of phloem and xylem hydraulic architecture in Picea abies stems.

    PubMed

    Jyske, Tuula; Hölttä, Teemu

    2015-01-01

    The hydraulic properties of xylem and phloem differ but the magnitude and functional consequences of the differences are not well understood. Phloem and xylem functional areas, hydraulic conduit diameters and conduit frequency along the stems of Picea abies trees were measured and expressed as allometric functions of stem diameter and distance from stem apex. Conductivities of phloem and xylem were estimated from these scaling relations. Compared with xylem, phloem conduits were smaller and occupied a slightly larger fraction of conducting tissue area. Ten times more xylem than phloem was annually produced along the stem. Scaling of the conduit diameters and cross-sectional areas with stem diameter were very similar in phloem and xylem. Phloem and xylem conduits scaled also similarly with distance from stem apex; widening downwards from the tree top, and reaching a plateau near the base of the living crown. Phloem conductivity was estimated to scale similarly to the conductivity of the outermost xylem ring, with the ratio of phloem to xylem conductivity being c. 2%. However, xylem conductivity was estimated to increase more than phloem conductivity with increasing tree dimensions as a result of accumulation of xylem sapwood. Phloem partly compensated for its smaller conducting area and narrower conduits by having a slightly higher conduit frequency.

  1. Thigmomorphogenesis: field and laboratory studies of Abies fraseri in response to wind or mechanical perturbation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Telewski, F. W.; Jaffe, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Field- and greenhouse-grown Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir. (Fraser fir) were analyzed for wind- or mechanically-induced flexure changes. These changes included inhibition of stem and needle elongation, reinforcement of branch bases around the stem, and increased radial growth in the direction of the mechanical perturbation (MP). Mature trees exposed to high wind conditions were severely flag-formed. These modified tree crowns had a lower drag than crowns of non-flag formed trees in wind-tunnel tests. In both field-grown and greenhouse-grown A. fraseri, MP induced a decrease in flexibility and increased elasticity of the stems. The increased radial growth of the stems overrode the increase in elasticity, resulting in the overall decrease in flexibility. The increase in radial growth caused by wind or mechanical flexure was due to greater cell divisions of the vascular cambium, resulting in increased numbers of tracheids. The decrease in stem elongation in these trees was due, at least in part, to a decrease in tracheid length. The potential biological and mechanical significance of these induced growth changes in trees are addressed. The data support the thigmomorphogenetic theory, which states that plants respond to wind and other mechanical perturbations in a way that is favorable to the plant for continued survival in windy environments.

  2. Diverse ecological roles within fungal communities in decomposing logs of Picea abies.

    PubMed

    Ottosson, Elisabet; Kubartová, Ariana; Edman, Mattias; Jönsson, Mari; Lindhe, Anders; Stenlid, Jan; Dahlberg, Anders

    2015-03-01

    Fungal communities in Norway spruce (Picea abies) logs in two forests in Sweden were investigated by 454-sequence analyses and by examining the ecological roles of the detected taxa. We also investigated the relationship between fruit bodies and mycelia in wood and whether community assembly was affected by how the dead wood was formed. Fungal communities were highly variable in terms of phylogenetic composition and ecological roles: 1910 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were detected; 21% were identified to species level. In total, 58% of the OTUs were ascomycetes and 31% basidiomycetes. Of the 231 337 reads, 38% were ascomycetes and 60% basidiomycetes. Ecological roles were assigned to 35% of the OTUs, accounting for 62% of the reads. Wood-decaying fungi were the most common group; however, other saprotrophic, mycorrhizal, lichenized, parasitic and endophytic fungi were also common. Fungal communities in logs formed by stem breakage were different to those in logs originating from butt breakage or uprooting. DNA of specific species was detected in logs many years after the last recorded fungal fruiting. Combining taxonomic identification with knowledge of ecological roles may provide valuable insights into properties of fungal communities; however, precise ecological information about many fungal species is still lacking.

  3. Groundwater quality assessment using geoelectrical and geochemical approaches: case study of Abi area, southeastern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebong, Ebong D.; Akpan, Anthony E.; Emeka, Chimezie N.; Urang, Job G.

    2016-06-01

    The electrical resistivity technique which involved the Schlumberger depth sounding method and geochemical analyses of water samples collected from boreholes was used to investigate the suitability of groundwater aquifers in Abi for drinking and irrigation purposes. Fifty randomly located electrical resistivity data were collected, modeled, and interpreted after calibration with lithologic logs. Ten borehole water samples were collected and analysed to determine anion, cation concentrations and some physical and chemical parameters, such as water colour, temperature, total dissolved solids, and electrical conductivity. The results show that the lithostratigraphy of the study area is composed of sands, sandstones (fractured, consolidated and loosed), siltstones, shales (compacted and fractured) of the Asu River Group, Eze-Aku Formation which comprises the aquifer units, and the Nkporo Shale Formation. The aquifer conduits are known to be rich in silicate minerals, and the groundwater samples in some locations show a significant amount of Ca2+, Mg2+, and Na+. These cations balanced the consumption of H+ during the hydrolytic alteration of silicate minerals. The geochemical analysis of groundwater samples revealed dominant calcium-magnesium-carbonate-bicarbonate water facies. Irrigation water quality parameters, such as sodium absorption ratio, percentage of sodium, and permeability index, were calculated based on the physico-chemical analyses. The groundwater quality was observed to be influenced by the interaction of some geologic processes but was classified to be good to excellent, indicating its suitability for domestic and irrigation purposes.

  4. Species delimitation and biogeography of two fir species (Abies) in central China: cytoplasmic DNA variation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, J; Abbott, R J; Peng, Y L; Du, F K; Liu, J-Q

    2011-01-01

    It remains unclear how speciation history might contribute to species-specific variation and affect species delimitation. We examined concordance between cytoplasmic genetic variation and morphological taxonomy in two fir species, Abies chensiensis and A. fargesii, with overlapping distributions in central China. Range-wide genetic variation was investigated using mitochondrial (mt) and plastid (pt) DNA sequences, which contrast in their rates of gene flow. Four mtDNA haplotypes were recovered and showed no obvious species' bias in terms of relative frequency. In contrast, a high level of ptDNA variation was recorded in both species with 3 common ptDNA haplotypes shared between them and 21 rare ptDNA haplotypes specific to one or other species. We argue that the lack of concordance between morphological and molecular variation between the two fir species most likely reflects extensive ancestral polymorphism sharing for both forms of cytoplasmic DNA variation. It is feasible that a relatively fast mutation rate for ptDNA contributed to the production of many species-specific ptDNA haplotypes, which remained rare due to insufficient time passing for their spread and fixation in either species, despite high levels of intraspecific ptDNA gene flow. Our phylogeographic analyses further suggest that polymorphisms in both organelle genomes most likely originated during and following glacial intervals preceding the last glacial maximum, when species distributions became fragmented into several refugia and then expanded in range across central China. PMID:21448232

  5. Antioxidants and Manganese Deficiency in Needles of Norway Spruce (Picea abies L.) Trees 1

    PubMed Central

    Polle, Andrea; Chakrabarti, Krisanu; Chakrabarti, Sila; Seifert, Friederike; Schramel, Peter; Rennenberg, Heinz

    1992-01-01

    Chlorotic and green needles from Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) trees were sampled in the Calcareous Bavarian Alps in winter. The needles were used for analysis of the mineral and pigment contents, the levels of antioxidants (ascorbate, glutathione), and the activities of protective enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, monodehydroascorbate radical reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase, glutathione reductase). In addition, the activities of two respiratory enzymes (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, NAD-malate dehydrogenase), which might provide the NADPH necessary for functioning of the antioxidative system, were determined. We found that chlorotic needles were severely manganese deficient (3 to 6 micrograms Mn per gram dry weight as compared with up to 190 micrograms Mn per gram dry weight in green needles) but had a similar dry weight to fresh weight ratio, had a similar protein content, and showed no evidence for enhanced lipid peroxidation as compared with green needles. In chlorotic needles, the level of total ascorbate and the activities of superoxide dismutase, monodehydroascorbate radical reductase, NAD-malate dehydrogenase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were significantly increased, whereas the levels of ascorbate peroxidase, dehydroascorbate reductase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione were not affected. The ratio of ascorbate to dehydroascorbate was similar in both green and chlorotic needles. These results suggest that in spruce needles monodehydroascorbate radical reductase is the key enzyme involved in maintaining ascorbate in its reduced state. The reductant necessary for this process may have been supplied at the expense of photosynthate. PMID:16668974

  6. Sydowia polyspora associated with current season needle necrosis (CSNN) on true fir (Abies spp.).

    PubMed

    Talgø, Venche; Chastagner, Gary; Thomsen, Iben Margrete; Cech, Thomas; Riley, Kathy; Lange, Kurt; Klemsdal, Sonja Sletner; Stensvand, Arne

    2010-07-01

    Current season needle necrosis (CSNN) has been a serious foliage disorder on true fir Christmas trees and bough material in Europe and North America for more than 25y. Approximately 2-4 weeks after bud break, needles develop chlorotic spots or bands that later turn necrotic. The symptoms have been observed on noble fir (Abies procera), Nordmann fir (A. nordmanniana) and grand fir (A. grandis) on both continents. CSNN was reported as a physiological disorder with unknown aetiology from USA, Denmark, and Ireland, but was associated with the fungus Kabatina abietis in Germany, Austria and Norway. In 2007, a fungus that morphologically resembled K. abietis was isolated from symptomatic needle samples from Nordmann fir from Austria, Denmark, Germany, Norway, and USA. Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal DNA of these cultures, plus a K. abietis reference culture from Germany (CBS 248.93), resulted in Hormonema dematioides, the imperfect stage of Sydowia polyspora, and thus the taxonomy is further discussed. Inoculation tests on Nordmann fir seedlings and transplants with isolates of S. polyspora from all five countries resulted in the development of CSNN symptoms. In 2009, S. polyspora was also isolated from symptomatic needles from Nordmann fir collected in Slovakia.

  7. Physiology and growth of advance Picea rubens and Abies balsamea regeneration following different canopy openings.

    PubMed

    Dumais, Daniel; Prévost, Marcel

    2014-02-01

    We examined the ecophysiology and growth of 0.3-1.3 m tall advance red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) and balsam fir (Abies balsamea [L.] Mill.) regeneration during a 5-year period following the application of different harvest types producing three sizes of canopy openings: (i) small gaps (<100 m(2) in area; SMA) created by partial uniform single-tree harvest; (ii) irregular gaps of intermediate size (100-300 m(2); INT) created by group-selection harvest (removal of groups of trees, mainly balsam fir, with uniform partial removal between groups); and (iii) large circular gaps (700 m(2); LAR) created by patch-selection harvest (removal of trees in 30-m diameter circular areas with uniform partial removal between gaps). An unharvested control (CON) was monitored for comparison. At the ecophysiological level, we mainly found differences in light-saturated photosynthesis of red spruce and specific leaf area of balsam fir among treatments. Consequently, we observed good height growth of both species in CON and INT, but fir surpassed spruce in SMA and LAR. Results suggest that intermediate 100-300 m(2) irregular openings create microenvironmental conditions that may promote short-term ecophysiology and growth of red spruce, allowing the species to compete with balsam fir advance regeneration. Finally, results observed for spruce in large 700-m(2) openings confirm its inability to grow as rapidly as fir in comparable open conditions.

  8. A Molecular Fraction Collecting Tool for the ABI 310 Automated Sequencer

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ming-Tseh; Rich, Roy G.; Shipley, Royce F.; Hafez, Michael J.; Tseng, Li-Hui; Murphy, Kathleen M.; Gocke, Christopher D.; Eshleman, James R.

    2007-01-01

    Several methods exist to retrieve and purify DNA fragments after agarose or polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for subsequent analyses. However, molecules present in low concentration and molecules similar in size to their neighbors are difficult to purify. Capillary electrophoresis has become popular in molecular diagnostic laboratories because of its automation, excellent resolution, and high sensitivity. In the current study, the ABI Prism 310 Genetic Analyzer was reconfigured into a fraction collector by adapting the standard gel block to accommodate a collection tube at the distal end of capillary. The time to collect the desired peaks was estimated by extrapolating from standard capillary electrophoresis using the original gel block. Fraction collection from a mixture of DNA fragments amplified from wild type and several internal tandem duplication mutations of the FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (Flt3) gene yielded highly purified DNA fragments containing internal tandem duplication mutations and predictable electrokinetics using the reconstructed gel block. The reconfigured instrument could successfully isolate DNA amplicons from extremely low-amplitude peaks (110 relative fluorescent units), which were undetectable using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In addition, we successfully isolated bands that were only three bases apart that comigrated on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. DNA sequencing was used to confirm that the correct peaks were recovered at sufficient purity. PMID:17916601

  9. Cytogenetic and molecular characterization of the Abies alba genome and its relationship with other members of the Pinaceae.

    PubMed

    Puizina, J; Sviben, T; Krajacić-Sokol, I; Zoldos-Pećnik, V; Siljak-Yakovlev, S; Papes, D; Besendorfer, V

    2008-03-01

    Genome size, karyotype structure, heterochromatin distribution, position and number of ribosomal genes, as well as the ITS2 sequence of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) were analysed in silver fir (Abies alba Mill.). The analysis also included characterization of the Arabidopsis-type of telomeric repeats in silver fir and in related species. The results were compared with results from other species of the Pinaceae, to evaluate phylogeny and chromosomal and molecular evolution in the Pinaceae. Integrated chromosomal data provided insights into chromosome and karyotype evolution in the Pinaceae. The evolutionary trend for GC-rich heterochromatic blocks seems to involve loss of blocks that are not associated with rDNA. Similarly, numerous large blocks of interstitial plant telomeric repeats that are typical for all analysed species of the genus Pinus were not observed in the evolutionarily younger genera, such as Abies, Picea and Larix. On the contrary, the majority of telomeric sequences in these three genera appeared confined to the chromosome ends. We confirmed the current position of Abies and Tsuga in subfamily Abietoideae and the position of Pinus in the subfamily Pinoideae based on ITS2 sequences. Pseudotsuga is placed together with Larix into the subfamily Laricoideae. We conclude that the current position of the genus Picea in the subfamily Abietoideae should be reconsidered and, possibly, the genus Picea should be reclassified as a separate subfamily, Piceoideae, as recently proposed.

  10. General Toxicity and Antifungal Activity of a New Dental Gel with Essential Oil from Abies Sibirica L

    PubMed Central

    Noreikaitė, Aurelija; Ayupova, Rizvangul; Satbayeva, Elmira; Seitaliyeva, Aida; Amirkulova, Marzhan; Pichkhadze, Guram; Datkhayev, Ubaidilla; Stankeviandccaron;ius, Edgaras

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to analyze the antifungal activity and the general toxicity of a new dental gel containing essential oil from the tree Abies sibirica L., which grows in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Material/Methods The essential oil from Abies sibirica L. was obtained by microwave heating method using the STARTE Microwave Extraction System. Adjutants used to prepare the oil were carbomer 974P, glycerin, polysorbate 80, xylitol, triethanolamine, and purified water, all allowed for medical usage. The antifungal activity of the essential oil was assessed by monitoring the optical density of Candida albicans in a microplate reader. The safety was determined by analyzing the acute and subacute toxicity. Results The essential oil obtained by the microwave heating method revealed a higher antifungal activity in comparison with the essential oil obtained by the steam distillation method. No obvious changes were detected in guinea pigs following cutaneous application of the gel. Enteral administration of the essential oil caused minimal functional and histological changes in mice after 4 weeks. The new harmless dental gel containing pine oil from Abies sibirica L. was provided for the purposes of this particular clinical research. Conclusions The high antifungal activity of the gel is the basis for more in-depth studies on its safety and pharmacological activity. PMID:28132065

  11. General Toxicity and Antifungal Activity of a New Dental Gel with Essential Oil from Abies Sibirica L.

    PubMed

    Noreikaitė, Aurelija; Ayupova, Rizvangul; Satbayeva, Elmira; Seitaliyeva, Aida; Amirkulova, Marzhan; Pichkhadze, Guram; Datkhayev, Ubaidilla; Stankevičius, Edgaras

    2017-01-29

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to analyze the antifungal activity and the general toxicity of a new dental gel containing essential oil from the tree Abies sibirica L., which grows in the Republic of Kazakhstan. MATERIAL AND METHODS The essential oil from Abies sibirica L. was obtained by microwave heating method using the STARTE Microwave Extraction System. Adjutants used to prepare the oil were carbomer 974P, glycerin, polysorbate 80, xylitol, triethanolamine, and purified water, all allowed for medical usage. The antifungal activity of the essential oil was assessed by monitoring the optical density of Candida albicans in a microplate reader. The safety was determined by analyzing the acute and subacute toxicity. RESULTS The essential oil obtained by the microwave heating method revealed a higher antifungal activity in comparison with the essential oil obtained by the steam distillation method. No obvious changes were detected in guinea pigs following cutaneous application of the gel. Enteral administration of the essential oil caused minimal functional and histological changes in mice after 4 weeks. The new harmless dental gel containing pine oil from Abies sibirica L. was provided for the purposes of this particular clinical research. CONCLUSIONS The high antifungal activity of the gel is the basis for more in-depth studies on its safety and pharmacological activity.

  12. Mixed conifer forest mortality and establishment before and after prescribed fire in Sequoia National Park, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mutch, L.S.; Parsons, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    Pre-and post-burn tree mortality rates, size structure, basal area, and ingrowth were determined for four 1.0 ha mixed conifer forest stands in the Log Creek and Tharp's Creek watersheds of Sequoia National Park. Mean annual mortality between 1986 and 1990 was 0.8% for both watersheds. In the fall of 1990, the Tharp's Creek watershed was treated with a prescribed burn. Between 1991 and 1995, mean annual mortality was 1.4% in the unburned Log Creek watershed and 17.2% in the burned Tharp's Creek watershed. A drought from 1987 to 1992 likely contributed to the mortality increase in the Log Creek watershed. The high mortality in the Tharp's Creek watershed was primarily related to crown scorch from the 1990 fire and was modeled with logistic regression for white fir (Abies concolor [Gord. and Glend.]) and sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana [Dougl.]). From 1989 to 1994, basal area declined an average of 5% per year in the burned Tharp's Creek watershed, compared to average annual increases of less than 1% per year in the unburned Log Creek watershed and in the Tharp's watershed prior to burning. Post-burn size structure was dramatically changed in the Tharp's Creek stands: 75% of trees ???50 cm and 25% of trees >50 cm were killed by the fire.

  13. A Comparative Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Structure in Jaguars (Panthera onca), Pumas (Puma concolor), and Ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) in Fragmented Landscapes of a Critical Mesoamerican Linkage Zone

    PubMed Central

    Wultsch, Claudia; Waits, Lisette P.; Kelly, Marcella J.

    2016-01-01

    With increasing anthropogenic impact and landscape change, terrestrial carnivore populations are becoming more fragmented. Thus, it is crucial to genetically monitor wild carnivores and quantify changes in genetic diversity and gene flow in response to these threats. This study combined the use of scat detector dogs and molecular scatology to conduct the first genetic study on wild populations of multiple Neotropical felids coexisting across a fragmented landscape in Belize, Central America. We analyzed data from 14 polymorphic microsatellite loci in 1053 scat samples collected from wild jaguars (Panthera onca), pumas (Puma concolor), and ocelots (Leopardus pardalis). We assessed levels of genetic diversity, defined potential genetic clusters, and examined gene flow for the three target species on a countrywide scale using a combination of individual- and population-based analyses. Wild felids in Belize showed moderate levels of genetic variation, with jaguars having the lowest diversity estimates (HE = 0.57 ± 0.02; AR = 3.36 ± 0.09), followed by pumas (HE = 0.57 ± 0.08; AR = 4.20 ± 0.16), and ocelots (HE = 0.63 ± 0.03; AR = 4.16 ± 0.08). We observed low to moderate levels of genetic differentiation for all three target species, with jaguars showing the lowest degree of genetic subdivision across the country, followed by ocelots and pumas. Although levels of genetic diversity and gene flow were still fairly high, we detected evidence of fine-scale genetic subdivision, indicating that levels of genetic connectivity for wild felids in Belize are likely to decrease if habitat loss and fragmentation continue at the current rate. Our study demonstrates the value of understanding fine-scale patterns of gene flow in multiple co-occurring felid species of conservation concern, which is vital for wildlife movement corridor planning and prioritizing future conservation and management efforts within human-impacted landscapes. PMID:26974968

  14. Sleeping sites, sleeping trees, and sleep-related behaviors of black crested gibbons (Nomascus concolor jingdongensis) at Mt. Wuliang, Central Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Fan, Peng-Fei; Jiang, Xue-Long

    2008-02-01

    Data on sleep-related behaviors were collected for a group of central Yunnan black crested gibbons (Nomascus concolor jingdongensis) at Mt. Wuliang, Yunnan, China from March 2005 to April 2006. Members of the group usually formed four sleeping units (adult male and juvenile, adult female with one semi-dependent black infant, adult female with one dependent yellow infant, and subadult male) spread over different sleeping trees. Individuals or units preferred specific areas to sleep; all sleeping sites were situated in primary forest, mostly (77%) between 2,200 and 2,400 m in elevation. They tended to sleep in the tallest and thickest trees with large crowns on steep slopes and near important food patches. Factors influencing sleeping site selection were (1) tree characteristics, (2) accessibility, and (3) easy escape. Few sleeping trees were used repeatedly by the same or other members of the group. The gibbons entered the sleeping trees on average 128 min before sunset and left the sleeping trees on average 33 min after sunrise. The lag between the first and last individual entering the trees was on average 17.8 min. We suggest that sleep-related behaviors are primarily adaptations to minimize the risk of being detected by predators. Sleeping trees may be chosen to make approach and attack difficult for the predator, and to provide an easy escape route in the dark. In response to cold temperatures in a higher habitat, gibbons usually sit and huddle together during the night, and in the cold season they tend to sleep on ferns and/or orchids.

  15. A Comparative Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Structure in Jaguars (Panthera onca), Pumas (Puma concolor), and Ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) in Fragmented Landscapes of a Critical Mesoamerican Linkage Zone.

    PubMed

    Wultsch, Claudia; Waits, Lisette P; Kelly, Marcella J

    2016-01-01

    With increasing anthropogenic impact and landscape change, terrestrial carnivore populations are becoming more fragmented. Thus, it is crucial to genetically monitor wild carnivores and quantify changes in genetic diversity and gene flow in response to these threats. This study combined the use of scat detector dogs and molecular scatology to conduct the first genetic study on wild populations of multiple Neotropical felids coexisting across a fragmented landscape in Belize, Central America. We analyzed data from 14 polymorphic microsatellite loci in 1053 scat samples collected from wild jaguars (Panthera onca), pumas (Puma concolor), and ocelots (Leopardus pardalis). We assessed levels of genetic diversity, defined potential genetic clusters, and examined gene flow for the three target species on a countrywide scale using a combination of individual- and population-based analyses. Wild felids in Belize showed moderate levels of genetic variation, with jaguars having the lowest diversity estimates (HE = 0.57 ± 0.02; AR = 3.36 ± 0.09), followed by pumas (HE = 0.57 ± 0.08; AR = 4.20 ± 0.16), and ocelots (HE = 0.63 ± 0.03; AR = 4.16 ± 0.08). We observed low to moderate levels of genetic differentiation for all three target species, with jaguars showing the lowest degree of genetic subdivision across the country, followed by ocelots and pumas. Although levels of genetic diversity and gene flow were still fairly high, we detected evidence of fine-scale genetic subdivision, indicating that levels of genetic connectivity for wild felids in Belize are likely to decrease if habitat loss and fragmentation continue at the current rate. Our study demonstrates the value of understanding fine-scale patterns of gene flow in multiple co-occurring felid species of conservation concern, which is vital for wildlife movement corridor planning and prioritizing future conservation and management efforts within human-impacted landscapes.

  16. A new atypical genotype mouse virulent strain of Toxoplasma gondii isolated from the heart of a wild caught puma (Felis concolor) from Durango, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Alvarado-Esquivel, C; Herrera-Valenzuela, V H; Ortiz-Diaz, J J; Oliveira, S; Verma, S K; Choudhary, S; Kwok, O C H; Su, C

    2013-11-08

    Nothing is known of the genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii circulating in wildlife in Mexico. In the present study, a mouse virulent T. gondii strain was isolated from the heart of a wild puma (Felis concolor). The puma was found roaming in outskirt of Durango City, Mexico and tranquilized for moving to a zoo. The puma died during translocation and a necropsy examination was performed. The puma had an antibody titer for T. gondii of 200 by the modified agglutination test. Its heart and brain tissue were bioassayed into 2 outbred Swiss Webster (SW) and 1 gamma interferon gene knockout (KO) mouse. The KO mouse and the 2 SW mice that became infected after inoculation with homogenate of puma heart died of acute toxoplasmosis 12, 19 and 20 days p.i. respectively and tachyzoites were found in lungs of all 3 mice. None of the 4 SW and 1 KO mouse inoculated with digest of the puma brain became infected with T. gondii. Tachyzoites from the lungs of mice were propagated in cell cultures. Tachyzoites from cell culture were inoculated into 5 SW; the mice died or had to be killed 14 days p.i. and a cat fed tissues of these mice shed T. gondii oocysts. Results of mortality and infectivity of tachyzoites and oocysts in SW mice indicated that the puma T. gondii strain (designated TgPumaMe1) was virulent for outbred mice. DNA isolated from culture-derived tachyzoites was characterized using 11 PCR-RFLP markers (SAG1, 5'- and 3'-SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico) revealed a new genotype (ToxoDB PCR-RFLP #222). Isolation of atypical genotype T. gondii from wild puma indicates that mouse virulent strains are circulating in wildlife in Mexico.

  17. Apoplastic Peroxidases and Lignification in Needles of Norway Spruce (Picea abies L.).

    PubMed Central

    Polle, A.; Otter, T.; Seifert, F.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the correlation of soluble apoplastic peroxidase activity with lignification in needles of field-grown Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) trees. Apoplastic peroxidases (EC 1.11.1.7) were obtained by vacuum infiltration of needles. The lignin content of isolated cell walls was determined by the acetyl bromide method. Accumulation of lignin and seasonal variations of apoplastic peroxidase activities were studied in the first year of needle development. The major phase of lignification started after bud break and was terminated about 4 weeks later. This phase correlated with a transient increase in apoplastic guaiacol and coniferyl alcohol peroxidase activity. NADH oxidase activity, which is thought to sustain peroxidase activity by production of H2O2, peaked sharply after bud break and decreased during the lignification period. Histochemical localization of peroxidase with guaiacol indicated that high activities were present in lignifying cell walls. In mature needles, lignin was localized in walls of most needle tissues including mesophyll cells, and corresponded to 80 to 130 [mu]mol lignin monomers/g needle dry weight. Isoelectric focusing of apoplastic washing fluids and activity staining with guaiacol showed the presence of strongly alkaline peroxidases (isoelectric point [greater than or equal to] 9) in all developmental stages investigated. New isozymes with isoelectric points of 7.1 and 8.1 appeared during the major phase of lignification. These isozymes disappeared after lignification was terminated. A strong increase in peroxidase activity in autumn was associated with the appearance of acidic peroxidases (isoelectric point [less than or equal to] 3). These results suggest that soluble alkaline apoplastic peroxidases participate in lignin formation. Soluble acidic apoplastic peroxidases were apparently unrelated to developmentally regulated lignification in spruce needles. PMID:12232302

  18. Isoprene and terpenoid emissions from Abies alba: Identification and emission rates under ambient conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokorska, Olga; Dewulf, Jo; Amelynck, Crist; Schoon, Niels; Šimpraga, Maja; Steppe, Kathy; Van Langenhove, Herman

    2012-11-01

    In this study, biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from Abies alba were studied under ambient conditions in Flanders (Belgium). Emission patterns and rates were investigated from April till November 2010 by using the dynamic branch enclosure technique. The present work revealed that A. alba is an isoprene emitter, with isoprene accounting for 86-93% of total BVOC emissions, except during budburst (67%) in May. The emission spectrum of A. alba consisted of 27 compounds. Next to isoprene, the main emitted compounds were α-pinene, β-pinene, camphene and limonene. BVOC emissions showed a peak in June after development of the young needles, followed by a constant emission during summer months and September and a decrease in October. In all the samples isoprene was the most abundant compound with standardized emission rates between 27 μg g(dw)-1 h-1 in June and 4.6 μg g(dw)-1 h-1 in October, while the total standardized terpenoid emission rates ranged from 2.85 μg g(dw)-1 h-1 in June to 0.26 μg g(dw)-1 h-1 in October. The obtained average β coefficients according to the temperature dependent algorithm of Guenther et al. (1993) during April-June, July, August and September-October were as follows: for terpenoids 0.12 ± 0.03, 0.11 ± 0.05, 0.12 ± 0.04, 0.24 ± 0.01 K-1 and sesquiterpenes (SQTs) 0.09 ± 0.02, 0.11 ± 0.01, 0.10 ± 0.05, 0 K-1, respectively. Overall, isoprene detected in this study was never quantified in previous studies on A. alba and this finding could have a significant impact on the regional BVOCs budget. Therefore, the result of this study is very important for modeling and local air quality.

  19. Temporal variations of mobile carbohydrates in Abies fargesii at the upper tree limits.

    PubMed

    Dang, H S; Zhang, K R; Zhang, Q F; Xu, Y M

    2015-01-01

    Low temperatures are associated high-altitude treelines, but the functional mechanism of treeline formation remains controversial. The relative contributions of carbon limitation (source activity) and growth limitation (sink activity) require more tests across taxa and regions. We examined temporal variations of mobile carbon supply in different tissues of Abies fargesii across treeline ecotones on north- and south-facing slopes of the Qinling Mountains, China. Non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) concentrations in tissues along the altitudinal gradient on both slopes changed significantly in the early and late growing season, but not in the mid-growing season, indicating the season-dependent carbon supply status. Late in the growing season on both slopes, trees at the upper limits had the highest NSC concentrations and total soluble sugars and lowest starch concentrations compared to trees at the lower elevations. NSC concentrations tended to increase in needles and branches throughout the growing season with increasing elevation on both slopes, but declined in roots and stems. NSC concentrations across sampling dates also indicated increases in needles and branches, and decreases in roots and stem with increasing elevation. Overall altitudinal trends of NSC in A. fargesii revealed no depletion of mobile carbon reserves at upper elevation limits, suggesting limitation of sink activity dominates tree life across treeline ecotones in both north- and south-facing slopes. Carbon reserves in storage tissues (especially roots) in the late growing season might also play an important role in winter survival and early growth in spring at upper elevations on both slopes, which define the uppermost limit of A. fargesii.

  20. Effects of tree architecture on pollen dispersal and mating patterns in Abies pinsapo Boiss. (Pinaceae).

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Robles, Jose M; García-Castaño, Juan L; Balao, Francisco; Terrab, Anass; Navarro-Sampedro, Laura; Tremetsberger, Karin; Talavera, Salvador

    2014-12-01

    Plant architecture is crucial to pollination and mating in wind-pollinated species. We investigated the effect of crown architecture on pollen dispersal, mating system and offspring quality, combining phenotypic and genotypic analyses in a low-density population of the endangered species Abies pinsapo. A total of 598 embryos from three relative crown height levels (bottom, middle and top) in five mother plants were genotyped using eleven nuclear microsatellite markers (nSSRs). Paternity analysis and mating system models were used to infer mating and pollen dispersal parameters. In addition, seeds were weighed (N = 16 110) and germinated (N = 736), and seedling vigour was measured to assess inbreeding depression. Overall, A. pinsapo shows a fat-tailed dispersal kernel, with an average pollen dispersal distance of 113-227 m, an immigration rate of 0.84-26.92%, and a number of effective pollen donors (Nep ) ranging between 3.5 and 11.9. We found an effect of tree height and relative crown height levels on mating parameters. A higher proportion of seeds with embryo (about 50%) and a higher rate of self-fertilization (about 60%) were found at the bottom level in comparison with the top level. Seed weight and seedling vigour are positively related. Nevertheless, no differences were found in seed weight or in seedling-related variables such as weight and length of aerial and subterranean parts among the different relative crown height levels, suggesting that seeds from the more strongly inbred bottom level are not affected by inbreeding depression. Our results point to vertical isotropy for outcross-pollen and they suggest that self-pollen may ensure fertilization when outcross-pollen is not available in low-density population.

  1. Differential Gene Expression Reveals Candidate Genes for Drought Stress Response in Abies alba (Pinaceae).

    PubMed

    Behringer, David; Zimmermann, Heike; Ziegenhagen, Birgit; Liepelt, Sascha

    2015-01-01

    Increasing drought periods as a result of global climate change pose a threat to many tree species by possibly outpacing their adaptive capabilities. Revealing the genetic basis of drought stress response is therefore implemental for future conservation strategies and risk assessment. Access to informative genomic regions is however challenging, especially for conifers, partially due to their large genomes, which puts constraints on the feasibility of whole genome scans. Candidate genes offer a valuable tool to reduce the complexity of the analysis and the amount of sequencing work and costs. For this study we combined an improved drought stress phenotyping of needles via a novel terahertz water monitoring technique with Massive Analysis of cDNA Ends to identify candidate genes for drought stress response in European silver fir (Abies alba Mill.). A pooled cDNA library was constructed from the cotyledons of six drought stressed and six well-watered silver fir seedlings, respectively. Differential expression analyses of these libraries revealed 296 candidate genes for drought stress response in silver fir (247 up- and 49 down-regulated) of which a subset was validated by RT-qPCR of the twelve individual cotyledons. A majority of these genes code for currently uncharacterized proteins and hint on new genomic resources to be explored in conifers. Furthermore, we could show that some traditional reference genes from model plant species (GAPDH and eIF4A2) are not suitable for differential analysis and we propose a new reference gene, TPC1, for drought stress expression profiling in needles of conifer seedlings.

  2. Does carbon availability control temporal dynamics of radial growth in Norway spruce (Picea abies)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberhuber, Walter; Gruber, Andreas; Swidrak, Irene

    2015-04-01

    Intra-annual dynamics of cambial activity and wood formation of coniferous species exposed to soil dryness revealed early culmination of maximum growth in late spring prior to occurrence of more favourable environmental conditions, i.e., repeated high rainfall events during summer (Oberhuber et al. 2014). Because it is well known that plants can adjust carbon allocation patterns to optimize resource uptake under prevailing environmental constraints, we hypothesize that early decrease in radial stem growth is an adaptation to cope with drought stress, which might require an early switch of carbon allocation to belowground organs. Physical blockage of carbon transport in the phloem through girdling causes accumulation and depletion of carbohydrates above and below the girdle, respectively, making this method quite appropriate to investigate carbon relationships in trees. Hence, in a common garden experiment we will manipulate the carbon status of Norway spruce (Picea abies) saplings by phloem blockage at different phenological stages during the growing season. We will present the methodological approach and first results of the study aiming to test the hypothesis that carbon status of the tree affects temporal dynamics of cambial activity and wood formation in conifers under drought. Acknowledgment The research is funded by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF): P25643-B16 "Carbon allocation and growth of Scots pine". Reference Oberhuber W, A Gruber, W Kofler, I Swidrak (2014) Radial stem growth in response to microclimate and soil moisture in a drought-prone mixed coniferous forest at an inner Alpine site. Eur J For Res 133:467-479.

  3. Biomass and nutrient concentrations of sporocarps produced by mycorrhizal and decomposer fungi in Abies amabilis stands.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Kristiina A; Edmonds, Robert L; Grier, Charles C

    1981-08-01

    Sporocarps and sclerotia were collected for a one-year period in 23- and 180-year-old Abies amabilis stands in western Washington. All sporocarps were classified and chemically analyzed for N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na and Fe. Lactarius sp. and Cortinarius sp. contributed the largest proportion of the total annual epigeous sporocarp production in both stands. Annual epigeous production was 34 kg/ha in the young stand and 27 kg/ha in the mature stand. Hypogeous sporocarp production increased from 1 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) to 380 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) with increasing stand age. High sclerotia biomass occurred in the young (2,300 kg/ha) and mature (3,000 kg/ha) stands. Peak sclerotia and epigeous sporocarp biomass in the young stand and epigeous and hypogeous sporocarp biomass in the mature stand coincided with the fall peak of mycorrhizal root biomass.In the young stand, sporocarps produced by decomposer fungi concentrated higher levels of Ca and Mn than those produced by mycorrhizal fungi. In the mature stand, sporocarps of decomposer fungi concentrated higher levels of N, P, Mn, Ca and Fe than sporocarps of mycorrhizal fungi. Epigeous and hypogeous sporocarps concentrated higher levels of N, P, and K than sclerotia or mycelium. The highest concentration of N (4.36%), P (0.76%), K (3.22%) and Na (1,678 ppm) occurred in epigeous sporocarps. Highest Mn (740 ppm) and Ca (20,600 ppm) concentrations occurred in mycelium, while highest Mg (1,929 ppm) concentrations were in hypogeous sporocarps and highest Fe (4,153 ppm) concentrations were in sclerotia.

  4. Cardioprotective effects of silver fir (Abies alba) extract in ischemic-reperfused isolated rat hearts

    PubMed Central

    Drevenšek, Gorazd; Lunder, Mojca; Benković, Eva Tavčar; Štrukelj, Borut; Kreft, Samo

    2016-01-01

    Background Silver fir trunk extract (SFTE) is a complex mixture of antioxidative polyphenols (lignans and phenolic acids) from the trunks of silver fir trees (Abies alba, lignum). In our previous study, we have shown that SFTE exerts strong antioxidative and protective effects against atherogenic, diet-induced arterial wall damage. Objective The aim of the present study was to test the potential protective effects of SFTE and its compounds, two phenolic acids (p-coumaric and protocatechuic acids) in ischemia–reperfusion injury of isolated rat hearts. Design Isolated hearts of Wistar rats aged 4–8 weeks were exposed to perfusion, ischemia, and reperfusion periods. The experiments were performed using the following five groups: control, SFTE (10 µg/L), SFTE (100 µg/L), protocatechuic acid, and p-coumaric. Aortas were isolated to measure vascular responses in the presence of Nω-Nitro-L-arginine. Results SFTE dose-dependently reduced ischemic-reperfusion heart damage, which was indicated as the decrease in the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release rate and arrhythmias duration by 80% and an increase in coronary flow rate during the reperfusion period. Two tested compounds (p-coumaric and protocatechuic acids) acted less cardioprotective, since they decreased the duration of arrhythmias only by 40 and 45%, respectively, and did not decrease LDH release rates during the reperfusion period. Only p-coumaric acid increased coronary flow rates, whereas protocatechuic acid did not. Conclusions We conclude that the SFTE exerted the strongest cardioprotective effect, whereas its constituents (the p-coumaric and protocatechuic acids) were less effective in inducing cardioprotection. PMID:27756448

  5. In Planta Localization of Stilbenes within Picea abies Phloem1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Katsushi; Pranovich, Andrey; Roig-Juan, Sílvia; Aoki, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic stilbene glucosides (astringin, isorhapontin, and piceid) and their aglycons commonly accumulate in the phloem of Norway spruce (Picea abies). However, current knowledge about the localization and accumulation of stilbenes within plant tissues and cells remains limited. Here, we used an innovative combination of novel microanalytical techniques to evaluate stilbenes in a frozen-hydrated condition (i.e. in planta) and a freeze-dried condition across phloem tissues. Semiquantitative time-of-flight secondary ion-mass spectrometry imaging in planta revealed that stilbenes were localized in axial parenchyma cells. Quantitative gas chromatography analysis showed the highest stilbene content in the middle of collapsed phloem with decreases toward the outer phloem. The same trend was detected for soluble sugar and water contents. The specimen water content may affect stilbene composition; the glucoside-to-aglycon ratio decreased slightly with decreases in water content. Phloem chemistry was correlated with three-dimensional structures of phloem as analyzed by microtomography. The outer phloem was characterized by a high volume of empty parenchyma, reduced ray volume, and a large number of axial parenchyma with porous vacuolar contents. Increasing porosity from the inner to the outer phloem was related to decreasing compactness of stilbenes and possible secondary oxidation or polymerization. Our results indicate that aging-dependent changes in phloem may reduce cell functioning, which affects the capacity of the phloem to store water and sugar, and may reduce the defense potential of stilbenes in the axial parenchyma. Our results highlight the power of using a combination of techniques to evaluate tissue- and cell-level mechanisms involved in plant secondary metabolite formation and metabolism. PMID:27531441

  6. Differential Gene Expression Reveals Candidate Genes for Drought Stress Response in Abies alba (Pinaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Ziegenhagen, Birgit; Liepelt, Sascha

    2015-01-01

    Increasing drought periods as a result of global climate change pose a threat to many tree species by possibly outpacing their adaptive capabilities. Revealing the genetic basis of drought stress response is therefore implemental for future conservation strategies and risk assessment. Access to informative genomic regions is however challenging, especially for conifers, partially due to their large genomes, which puts constraints on the feasibility of whole genome scans. Candidate genes offer a valuable tool to reduce the complexity of the analysis and the amount of sequencing work and costs. For this study we combined an improved drought stress phenotyping of needles via a novel terahertz water monitoring technique with Massive Analysis of cDNA Ends to identify candidate genes for drought stress response in European silver fir (Abies alba Mill.). A pooled cDNA library was constructed from the cotyledons of six drought stressed and six well-watered silver fir seedlings, respectively. Differential expression analyses of these libraries revealed 296 candidate genes for drought stress response in silver fir (247 up- and 49 down-regulated) of which a subset was validated by RT-qPCR of the twelve individual cotyledons. A majority of these genes code for currently uncharacterized proteins and hint on new genomic resources to be explored in conifers. Furthermore, we could show that some traditional reference genes from model plant species (GAPDH and eIF4A2) are not suitable for differential analysis and we propose a new reference gene, TPC1, for drought stress expression profiling in needles of conifer seedlings. PMID:25924061

  7. Stand-structural effects on Heterobasidion abietinum-related mortality following drought events in Abies pinsapo.

    PubMed

    Linares, Juan Carlos; Camarero, Jesús Julio; Bowker, Matthew A; Ochoa, Victoria; Carreira, José Antonio

    2010-12-01

    Climate change may affect tree-pathogen interactions. This possibility has important implications for drought-prone forests, where stand dynamics and disease pathogenicity are especially sensitive to climatic stress. In addition, stand structural attributes including density-dependent tree-to-tree competition may modulate the stands' resistance to drought events and pathogen outbreaks. To assess the effects of stand structure on root-rot-related mortality after severe droughts, we focused on Heterobasidion abietinum mortality in relict Spanish stands of Abies pinsapo, a drought-sensitive fir. We compared stand attributes and tree spatial patterns in three plots with H. abietinum root-rot disease and three plots without root-rot. Point-pattern analyses were used to investigate the scale and extent of mortality patterns and to test hypotheses related to the spread of the disease. Dendrochronology was used to date the year of death and to assess the association between droughts and growth decline. We applied a structural equation modelling approach to test if tree mortality occurs more rapidly than predicted by a simple distance model when trees are subjected to high tree-to-tree competition and following drought events. Contrary to expectations of drought mortality, the effect of precipitation on the year of death was strong and negative, indicating that a period of high precipitation induced an earlier tree death. Competition intensity, related to the size and density of neighbour trees, also induced an earlier tree death. The effect of distance to the disease focus was negligible except in combination with intensive competition. Our results indicate that infected trees have decreased ability to withstand drought stress, and demonstrate that tree-to-tree competition and fungal infection act as predisposing factors of forest decline and mortality.

  8. Clouds homogenize shoot temperatures, transpiration, and photosynthesis within crowns of Abies fraseri (Pursh.) Poiret.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Moreno, J Melissa; Bayeur, Nicole M; Coley, Harold D; Hughes, Nicole M

    2017-03-01

    Multiple studies have examined the effects of clouds on shoot and canopy-level microclimate and physiological processes; none have yet done so on the scale of individual plant crowns. We compared incident photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), leaf temperatures, chlorophyll fluorescence, and photosynthetic gas exchange of shoots in three different spatial locations of Abies fraseri crowns on sunny (clear to partly cloudy) versus overcast days. The field site was a Fraser fir farm (1038 m elevation) in the Appalachian mountains, USA. Ten saplings of the same age class were marked and revisited for all measurements. Sunny conditions corresponded with 5-10× greater sunlight incidence on south-facing outer shoots compared to south-facing inner and north-facing outer shoots, which were shaded and received only indirect (diffuse) sunlight. Differences in spatial distribution of irradiance were mirrored in differences in shoot temperatures, photosynthesis, and transpiration, which were all greater in south-facing outer shoots compared to more shaded crown locations. In contrast, overcast conditions corresponded with more homogeneous sunlight distribution between north and south-facing outer shoots, and similar shoot temperatures, chlorophyll fluorescence (ΦPSII), photosynthesis, and transpiration; these effects were observed in south-facing inner shoots as well, but to a lesser extent. There was no significant difference in conductance between different crown locations on sunny or overcast days, indicating spatial differences in transpiration under sunny conditions were likely driven by leaf temperature differences. We conclude that clouds can affect spatial distribution of sunlight and associated physiological parameters not only within forest communities, but within individual crowns as well.

  9. Insights into Diterpene Cyclization from Structure of Bifunctional Abietadiene Synthase from Abies grandis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Ke; Gao, Yang; Hoy, Julie A.; Mann, Francis M.; Honzatko, Richard B.; Peters, Reuben J.

    2013-09-24

    Abietadiene synthase from Abies grandis (AgAS) is a model system for diterpene synthase activity, catalyzing class I (ionization-initiated) and class II (protonation-initiated) cyclization reactions. Reported here is the crystal structure of AgAS at 2.3 {angstrom} resolution and molecular dynamics simulations of that structure with and without active site ligands. AgAS has three domains ({alpha}, {beta}, and {gamma}). The class I active site is within the C-terminal {alpha} domain, and the class II active site is between the N-terminal {gamma} and {beta} domains. The domain organization resembles that of monofunctional diterpene synthases and is consistent with proposed evolutionary origins of terpene synthases. Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to determine the effect of substrate binding on enzymatic structure. Although such studies of the class I active site do lead to an enclosed substrate-Mg{sup 2+} complex similar to that observed in crystal structures of related plant enzymes, it does not enforce a single substrate conformation consistent with the known product stereochemistry. Simulations of the class II active site were more informative, with observation of a well ordered external loop migration. This 'loop-in' conformation not only limits solvent access but also greatly increases the number of conformational states accessible to the substrate while destabilizing the nonproductive substrate conformation present in the 'loop-out' conformation. Moreover, these conformational changes at the class II active site drive the substrate toward the proposed transition state. Docked substrate complexes were further assessed with regard to the effects of site-directed mutations on class I and II activities.

  10. Evaluation of growth disturbances of Picea abies (L.) Karst. to disturbances caused by landslide movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šilhán, Karel

    2017-01-01

    Dendrogeomorphic methods are frequently used in landslide analyses. Although methods of landslide dating based on tree rings are well developed, they still indicated many questions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequently used theoretical scheme based on the event-response relationship. Seventy-four individuals of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) exhibiting visible external disturbance, were sampled on the Girová landslide (the largest historical flow-like landslide in the Czech Republic). This landslide reactivated in May 2010, and post-landslide tree growth responses were studied in detail. These growth responses were compared with the intensity and occurrence of visible external tree disturbance: tilted stems, damaged root systems, and decapitation. Twenty-nine trees (39.2%) died within one to four years following the 2010 landslide movement. The trees that died following the landslide movement were significantly younger and displayed significantly greater stem tilting than the live trees. Abrupt growth suppression was a more-frequent response among the dead trees, whereas growth release dominated among the live trees. Only two trees (2.7%) created no reaction wood in response to the landslide movement. Forty-four percent of the trees started to produce reaction wood structure after a delay, which generally spanned one year. Some eccentric growth was evident in the tree rings of the landslide year and was significant in the first years following the landslide movement. Missing rings were observed only on the upper sides of the stems, and no false tree rings were observed. The results confirm the general validity of event-response relationship, nevertheless this study points out the limitations and uncertainties of this generally accepted working scheme.

  11. [Evaluation of the agreement of results obtained from ABI Prism 7000 and 7700 sequencers in the quantification of hepatitis B virus DNA].

    PubMed

    Sertöz, R Yazan; Erensoy, S; Pas, S; Niesters, H G M

    2005-04-01

    There are different methods and systems for quantification of HBV-DNA in clinical virology laboratories. The aim of this study was to evaluate the agreement of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol with ABI Prism 7000 instrument (PE Biosystems) which was designed and optimised for ABI Prism 7700 (PE Biosystems). Serum samples obtained from 168 chronic hepatitis B patients were treated with "High Pure Viral Nucleic Acid Kit" (Roche Applied Science, USA), and MagnaPure LC isolation station (Roche Applied Science, Germany) was used for HBV-DNA isolation. Real time PCR procedure which amplifies pre-S gene of HBV genome was performed. Amplification and detection steps of all samples were performed with ABI Prism 7700 and 7000 Sequence Detection Systems. Among 168 samples, results of 124 serum samples were found to be in dynamic ranges of the tests. The results of these 124 samples obtained from ABI 7000 and ABI 7700 were concordant. Among the rest of 44 samples; one yielded higher than 10(10) copies/mL with two of the systems; six samples gave results higher than 10(10) copies/mL only with 7700; thirty samples were found negative with both of the systems; seven samples were positive (320-1220 copies/mL) with 7000 but negative with 7700. As a result this PCR protocol can be used in ABI 7000 system according to viral quality control (VQC) results. However, since the results of samples with HBV-DNA less than 1 x 10(6) copy/ml were discordant with the results obtained by ABI 7700 system, it can be concluded that different systems must not be used for the management and monitoring of the same patient.

  12. Impact of Heterobasidion root-rot on fine root morphology and associated fungi in Picea abies stands on peat soils.

    PubMed

    Gaitnieks, Talis; Klavina, Darta; Muiznieks, Indrikis; Pennanen, Taina; Velmala, Sannakajsa; Vasaitis, Rimvydas; Menkis, Audrius

    2016-07-01

    We examined differences in fine root morphology, mycorrhizal colonisation and root-inhabiting fungal communities between Picea abies individuals infected by Heterobasidion root-rot compared with healthy individuals in four stands on peat soils in Latvia. We hypothesised that decreased tree vitality and alteration in supply of photosynthates belowground due to root-rot infection might lead to changes in fungal communities of tree roots. Plots were established in places where trees were infected and in places where they were healthy. Within each stand, five replicate soil cores with roots were taken to 20 cm depth in each root-rot infected and uninfected plot. Root morphological parameters, mycorrhizal colonisation and associated fungal communities, and soil chemical properties were analysed. In three stands root morphological parameters and in all stands root mycorrhizal colonisation were similar between root-rot infected and uninfected plots. In one stand, there were significant differences in root morphological parameters between root-rot infected versus uninfected plots, but these were likely due to significant differences in soil chemical properties between the plots. Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer of fungal nuclear rDNA from ectomycorrhizal (ECM) root morphotypes of P. abies revealed the presence of 42 fungal species, among which ECM basidiomycetes Tylospora asterophora (24.6 % of fine roots examined), Amphinema byssoides (14.5 %) and Russula sapinea (9.7 %) were most common. Within each stand, the richness of fungal species and the composition of fungal communities in root-rot infected versus uninfected plots were similar. In conclusion, Heterobasidion root-rot had little or no effect on fine root morphology, mycorrhizal colonisation and composition of fungal communities in fine roots of P. abies growing on peat soils.

  13. Holocene variability in the range distribution and abundance of Pinus, Picea abies, and Quercus in Romania; implications for their current status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feurdean, Angelica; Tanţău, Ioan; Fărcaş, Sorina

    2011-10-01

    This paper examines fourteen fossil pollen datasets from Romania. It aims to investigate the temporal and spatial variability in the range distribution and abundance of three forest taxa, Pinus, Picea abies, and Quercus, during the Holocene. This is essential for understanding their current status in the forests of Eastern Europe, the conditions under which they arose, and the timing and processes responsible for their variability. Results from this synthesis do not indicate any apparent time lag in the establishment of Pinus diploxylon type ( Pinus sylvestris and Pinus mugo), Pinus cembra, P. abies, and Quercus across Romania within the limits of the dating resolution. However, the onset of the mass expansion of P. abies was not uniform, spreading earlier from sites in the western and north-western Carpathians (11,000-10,500 yr BP) than in the east (10,000 yr BP). We found that sites from the western, north-western, and northern Carpathians contained higher abundances of P. abies, whilst Quercus was in higher abundances in sites from the east, but there was no regional distinctiveness in the abundance of Pinus across the study area. However, P. diploxylon type was found in much higher abundance than P. cembra. Additionally, results indicate a greater proportion of Pinus (mainly P. diplxylon type) at high elevations, P. abies at mid to high elevations, and Quercus at low elevations (<500 m). The dominance of Pinus in the early Holocene boreal forest is likely the legacy of its local glacial refugia, fast life history strategies, high stress tolerance, and large habitat availability. In contrast, Pinus exhibited poor competitive abilities and was quickly replaced with P. abies and temperate deciduous taxa after 10,500 yr BP. P. abies has persisted in large abundances at higher elevations (above 1000 m) until the present day, as a result of good competitive abilities, and resilience to climate change and disturbance. The long-term dominance of P. abies appears to

  14. Microdose fluorescence imaging of ABY-029 on an operating microscope adapted by custom illumination and imaging modules

    PubMed Central

    Dsouza, Alisha V.; Marra, Kayla; Pogue, Brian W.; Roberts, David W.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence guided surgery has the potential to positively impact surgical oncology; current operating microscopes and stand-alone imaging systems are too insensitive or too cumbersome to maximally take advantage of new tumor-specific agents developed through the microdose pathway. To this end, a custom-built illumination and imaging module enabling picomolar-sensitive near-infrared fluorescence imaging on a commercial operating microscope is described. The limits of detection and system specifications are characterized, and in vivo efficacy of the system in detecting ABY-029 is evaluated in a rat orthotopic glioma model following microdose injections, showing the suitability of the device for microdose phase 0 clinical trials. PMID:27699098

  15. Identification of Gibberellins in Norway Spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) by Combined Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Odén, Per Christer; Schwenen, Ludger; Graebe, Jan E.

    1987-01-01

    Gibberellins A1 (GA1), A3 and A9 were identified from extracts of shoots of 6-month old Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedlings by the use of sequential reverse and normal phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), bioassay, radioimmunoassay (RIA) and combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The bioassay and RIA were used after fractionation by HPLC to detect the GA-containing fractions, which were then examined by GC-MS. The GAs identified are considered to be endogenous. PMID:16665471

  16. Two Novel Techniques to Screen Abies Seedlings for Resistance to the Balsam Woolly Adelgid, Adelges piceae

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Leslie; Frampton, John; Monahan, John; Goldfarb, Barry; Hain, Fred

    2011-01-01

    Since its introduction into the Southern Appalachians in the 1950s, the balsam woolly adelgid, Adelges piceae Ratzeburg (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), has devastated native populations of Fraser fir, Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir. (Pinales: Pinaceae), and has become a major pest in Christmas tree plantations requiring expensive chemical treatments. Adelges piceae—resistant Fraser fir trees would lessen costs for the Christmas tree industry and assist in the restoration of native stands. Resistance screening is an important step in this process. Here, four studies directed toward the development of time— and cost—efficient techniques for screening are reported. In the first study, three methods to artificially infest seedlings of different ages were evaluated in a shade—covered greenhouse. Two—year—old seedlings had much lower infestation levels than 7 year—old seedlings. Placing infested bark at the base of the seedling was less effective than tying infested bark to the seedling or suspending infested bolts above the seedling. Although the two latter techniques resulted in similar densities on the seedlings, they each have positive and negative considerations. Attaching bark to uninfested trees is effective, but very time consuming. The suspended bolt method mimics natural infestation and is more economical than attaching bark, but care must be taken to ensure an even distribution of crawlers falling onto the seedlings. The second study focused on the density and distribution of crawlers falling from suspended bolts onto paper gridded into 7.6 × 7.6 cm cells. Crawler density in a 30 cm band under and to each side of the suspended bolt ranged from 400 to over 3000 crawlers per cell (1 to 55 crawlers per cm2). In the third study, excised branches from 4 year—old A. fraseri and A. vetchii seedlings were artificially infested with A. piceae to determine whether this technique may be useful for early resistance screening. The excised A. fraseri branches supported

  17. Are Early Somatic Embryos of the Norway Spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) Organised?

    PubMed Central

    Petrek, Jiri; Zitka, Ondrej; Adam, Vojtech; Bartusek, Karel; Anjum, Naser A.; Pereira, Eduarda; Havel, Ladislav; Kizek, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Background Somatic embryogenesis in conifer species has great potential for the forestry industry. Hence, a number of methods have been developed for their efficient and rapid propagation through somatic embryogenesis. Although information is available regarding the previous process-mediated generation of embryogenic cells to form somatic embryos, there is a dearth of information in the literature on the detailed structure of these clusters. Methodology/Principal Findings The main aim of this study was to provide a more detailed structure of the embryogenic tissue clusters obtained through the in vitro propagation of the Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). We primarily focused on the growth of early somatic embryos (ESEs). The data on ESE growth suggested that there may be clear distinctions between their inner and outer regions. Therefore, we selected ESEs collected on the 56th day after sub-cultivation to dissect the homogeneity of the ESE clusters. Two colourimetric assays (acetocarmine and fluorescein diacetate/propidium iodide staining) and one metabolic assay based on the use of 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride uncovered large differences in the metabolic activity inside the cluster. Next, we performed nuclear magnetic resonance measurements. The ESE cluster seemed to be compactly aggregated during the first four weeks of cultivation; thereafter, the difference between the 1H nuclei concentration in the inner and outer clusters was more evident. There were clear differences in the visual appearance of embryos from the outer and inner regions. Finally, a cluster was divided into six parts (three each from the inner and the outer regions of the embryo) to determine their growth and viability. The innermost embryos (centripetally towards the cluster centre) could grow after sub-cultivation but exhibited the slowest rate and required the longest time to reach the common growth rate. To confirm our hypothesis on the organisation of the ESE cluster, we

  18. Two novel techniques to screen Abies seedlings for resistance to the balsam woolly adelgid, Adelges piceae.

    PubMed

    Newton, Leslie; Frampton, John; Monahan, John; Goldfarb, Barry; Hain, Fred

    2011-01-01

    Since its introduction into the Southern Appalachians in the 1950s, the balsam woolly adelgid, Adelges piceae Ratzeburg (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), has devastated native populations of Fraser fir, Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir. (Pinales: Pinaceae), and has become a major pest in Christmas tree plantations requiring expensive chemical treatments. Adelges piceae-resistant Fraser fir trees would lessen costs for the Christmas tree industry and assist in the restoration of native stands. Resistance screening is an important step in this process. Here, four studies directed toward the development of time- and cost-efficient techniques for screening are reported. In the first study, three methods to artificially infest seedlings of different ages were evaluated in a shade-covered greenhouse. Two-year-old seedlings had much lower infestation levels than 7 year-old seedlings. Placing infested bark at the base of the seedling was less effective than tying infested bark to the seedling or suspending infested bolts above the seedling. Although the two latter techniques resulted in similar densities on the seedlings, they each have positive and negative considerations. Attaching bark to uninfested trees is effective, but very time consuming. The suspended bolt method mimics natural infestation and is more economical than attaching bark, but care must be taken to ensure an even distribution of crawlers falling onto the seedlings. The second study focused on the density and distribution of crawlers falling from suspended bolts onto paper gridded into 7.6 × 7.6 cm cells. Crawler density in a 30 cm band under and to each side of the suspended bolt ranged from 400 to over 3000 crawlers per cell (1 to 55 crawlers per cm²). In the third study, excised branches from 4 year-old A. fraseri and A. vetchii seedlings were artificially infested with A. piceae to determine whether this technique may be useful for early resistance screening. The excised A. fraseri branches supported complete

  19. Genetic Structure and Diversity of the Endangered Fir Tree of Lebanon (Abies cilicica Carr.): Implications for Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Lara; Fady, Bruno; Khater, Carla; Roig, Anne; Cheddadi, Rachid

    2014-01-01

    The threatened conifer Abies cilicica currently persists in Lebanon in geographically isolated forest patches. The impact of demographic and evolutionary processes on population genetic diversity and structure were assessed using 10 nuclear microsatellite loci. All remnant 15 local populations revealed a low genetic variation but a high recent effective population size. FST-based measures of population genetic differentiation revealed a low spatial genetic structure, but Bayesian analysis of population structure identified a significant Northeast-Southwest population structure. Populations showed significant but weak isolation-by-distance, indicating non-equilibrium conditions between dispersal and genetic drift. Bayesian assignment tests detected an asymmetric Northeast-Southwest migration involving some long-distance dispersal events. We suggest that the persistence and Northeast-Southwest geographic structure of Abies cilicica in Lebanon is the result of at least two demographic processes during its recent evolutionary history: (1) recent migration to currently marginal populations and (2) local persistence through altitudinal shifts along a mountainous topography. These results might help us better understand the mechanisms involved in the species response to expected climate change. PMID:24587219

  20. Inter- and intra-specific variation in drought sensitivity in Abies spec. and its relation to wood density and growth traits

    PubMed Central

    George, Jan-Peter; Schueler, Silvio; Karanitsch-Ackerl, Sandra; Mayer, Konrad; Klumpp, Raphael T.; Grabner, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Understanding drought sensitivity of tree species and its intra-specific variation is required to estimate the effects of climate change on forest productivity, carbon sequestration and tree mortality as well as to develop adaptive forest management measures. Here, we studied the variation of drought reaction of six European Abies species and ten provenances of Abies alba planted in the drought prone eastern Austria. Tree-ring and X-ray densitometry data were used to generate early- and latewood measures for ring width and wood density. Moreover, the drought reaction of species and provenances within six distinct drought events between 1970 and 2011, as identified by the standardized precipitation index, was determined by four drought response measures. The mean reaction of species and provenances to drought events was strongly affected by the seasonal occurrence of the drought: a short, strong drought at the beginning of the growing season resulted in growth reductions up to 50%, while droughts at the end of the growing season did not affect annual increment. Wood properties and drought response measures showed significant variation among Abies species as well as among A. alba provenances. Whereas A. alba provenances explained significant parts in the variation of ring width measures, the Abies species explained significant parts in the variation of wood density parameters. A consistent pattern in drought response across the six drought events was observed only at the inter-specific level, where A. nordmanniana showed the highest resistance and A. cephalonica showed the best recovery after drought. In contrast, differences in drought reaction among provenances were only found for the milder drought events in 1986, 1990, 1993 and 2000 and the ranking of provenances varied at each drought event. This indicates that genetic variation in drought response within A. alba is more limited than among Abies species. Low correlations between wood density parameters and

  1. Reconstitution of abscisic acid activation of SLAC1 anion channel by CPK6 and OST1 kinases and branched ABI1 PP2C phosphatase action.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Benjamin; Brodsky, Dennis E; Xue, Shaowu; Negi, Juntaro; Iba, Koh; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko; Ghassemian, Majid; Stephan, Aaron B; Hu, Honghong; Schroeder, Julian I

    2012-06-26

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is produced in response to abiotic stresses and mediates stomatal closure in response to drought via recently identified ABA receptors (pyrabactin resistance/regulatory component of ABA receptor; PYR/RCAR). SLAC1 encodes a central guard cell S-type anion channel that mediates ABA-induced stomatal closure. Coexpression of the calcium-dependent protein kinase 21 (CPK21), CPK23, or the Open Stomata 1 kinase (OST1) activates SLAC1 anion currents. However, reconstitution of ABA activation of any plant ion channel has not yet been attained. Whether the known core ABA signaling components are sufficient for ABA activation of SLAC1 anion channels or whether additional components are required remains unknown. The Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase CPK6 is known to function in vivo in ABA-induced stomatal closure. Here we show that CPK6 robustly activates SLAC1-mediated currents and phosphorylates the SLAC1 N terminus. A phosphorylation site (S59) in SLAC1, crucial for CPK6 activation, was identified. The group A PP2Cs ABI1, ABI2, and PP2CA down-regulated CPK6-mediated SLAC1 activity in oocytes. Unexpectedly, ABI1 directly dephosphorylated the N terminus of SLAC1, indicating an alternate branched early ABA signaling core in which ABI1 targets SLAC1 directly (down-regulation). Furthermore, here we have successfully reconstituted ABA-induced activation of SLAC1 channels in oocytes using the ABA receptor pyrabactin resistant 1 (PYR1) and PP2C phosphatases with two alternate signaling cores including either CPK6 or OST1. Point mutations in ABI1 disrupting PYR1-ABI1 interaction abolished ABA signal transduction. Moreover, by addition of CPK6, a functional ABA signal transduction core from ABA receptors to ion channel activation was reconstituted without a SnRK2 kinase.

  2. Ozone fumigation under dark/light conditions of Norway Spruce (Picea Abies) and Scots Pine (Pinus Sylvestris)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canaval, Eva; Jud, Werner; Hansel, Armin

    2015-04-01

    Norway Spruce (Picea abies) and Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) represent dominating tree species in the northern hemisphere. Thus, the understanding of their ozone sensitivity in the light of the expected increasing ozone levels in the future is of great importance. In our experiments we investigated the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of 3-4 year old Norway Spruce and Scots Pine seedlings under ozone fumigation (50-150 ppbv) and dark/light conditions. For the experiments the plants were placed in a setup with inert materials including a glass cuvette equipped with a turbulent air inlet and sensors for monitoring a large range of meteorological parameters. Typical conditions were 20-25°C and a relative humidity of 70-90 % for both plant species. A fast gas exchange rate was used to minimize reactions of ozone in the gas phase. A Switchable-Reagent-Ion-Time-of-Flight-MS (SRI-ToF-MS) was used to analyze the VOCs at the cuvette outlet in real-time during changing ozone and light levels. The use of H3O+ and NO+ as reagent ions allows the separation of certain isomers (e.g. aldehydes and ketones) due to different reaction pathways depending on the functional groups of the molecules. Within the Picea abies experiments the ozone loss, defined as the difference of the ozone concentration between cuvette inlet and outlet, remained nearly constant at the transition from dark to light. This indicates that a major part of the supplied ozone is depleted non-stomatally. In contrast the ozone loss increased by 50 % at the transition from dark to light conditions within Pinus sylvestris experiments. In this case the stomata represent the dominant loss channel. Since maximally 0.1% of the ozone loss could be explained by gas phase reactions with monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, we suggest that ozone reactions on the surface of Picea abies represent the major sink in this case and lead to an light-independent ozone loss. This is supported by the fact that we detected

  3. Protein phosphatase type 2C PP2CA together with ABI1 inhibits SnRK2.4 activity and regulates plant responses to salinity

    PubMed Central

    Krzywińska, Ewa; Kulik, Anna; Bucholc, Maria; Fernandez, Maria A.; Rodriguez, Pedro L.; Dobrowolska, Grażyna

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Protein phosphatases 2C (PP2Cs) are important regulators of plant responses to abiotic stress. It is established that clade A PP2Cs inhibit ABA-activated SNF1-related protein kinases 2 (SnRK2s). Our recently published results show that ABI1, a member of clade A of PP2C is also a negative regulator of SnRK2.4, a kinase not activated in response to ABA. Here, we show that another member of this clade - PP2CA, interacts with and inhibits SnRK2.4. The salt-induced SnRK2.4/SnRK2.10 activity is higher in abi1–2 pp2ca-1 mutant than in wild type or single abi1 or pp2ca mutants, indicating that both phosphatases are inhibitors of SnRK2.4 and are at least partially redundant. Moreover, PP2CA together with ABI1 and SnRK2.4 regulates root growth in response to salinity. PMID:27901636

  4. Abscisic Acid Regulates Early Seed Development in Arabidopsis by ABI5-Mediated Transcription of SHORT HYPOCOTYL UNDER BLUE1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Zhi Juan; Zhao, Xiang Yu; Shao, Xing Xing; Wang, Fei; Zhou, Chao; Liu, Ying Gao; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Xian Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Seed development includes an early stage of endosperm proliferation and a late stage of embryo growth at the expense of the endosperm in Arabidopsis thaliana. Abscisic acid (ABA) has known functions during late seed development, but its roles in early seed development remain elusive. In this study, we report that ABA-deficient mutants produced seeds with increased size, mass, and embryo cell number but delayed endosperm cellularization. ABSCISIC ACID DEFICIENT2 (ABA2) encodes a unique short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase that functions in ABA biosynthesis, and its expression pattern overlaps that of SHORT HYPOCOTYL UNDER BLUE1 (SHB1) during seed development. SHB1 RNA accumulation was significantly upregulated in the aba2-1 mutant and was downregulated by the application of exogenous ABA. Furthermore, RNA accumulation of the basic/region leucine zipper transcription factor ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE5 (ABI5), involved in ABA signaling, was decreased in aba2-1. Consistent with this, seed size was also increased in abi5. We further show that ABI5 directly binds to two discrete regions in the SHB1 promoter. Our results suggest that ABA negatively regulates SHB1 expression, at least in part, through the action of its downstream signaling component ABI5. Our findings provide insights into the molecular mechanisms by which ABA regulates early seed development. PMID:24619610

  5. Field testing of transgenic cotton expressing Arabidopsis ABA INSENSITIVE5 and B3- domain related to ABI3/VIVIPAROUS1 (RAV) transcription factors.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We conducted field trials for ABI5 and RAV transgenics under the most extreme heat and drought conditions on record. The data validate greenhouse experiments that show AtRAV1 and AtRAV2 overexpression results in an average of 9% increases in fiber length without yield penalty and with greater gin t...

  6. Age-dependent climate-growth relationships and regeneration of Picea abies in a drought-prone mixed coniferous forest in the Alps

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Roman; Oberhuber, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Within dry inner Alpine environments climate warming is expected to affect the development of forest ecosystems by changing species composition and inducing shifts in forest distribution. By applying dendroecological techniques we evaluated climate sensitivity of radial growth and establishment of Picea abies in a drought-prone mixed-coniferous forest in the Austrian Alps. Time series of annual increments were developed from > 220 trees and assigned to four age classes. While radial growth of old P. abies trees (mean age 121 and 174 yr) responded highly significant to May-June precipitation, young trees (mean age 28 and 53 yr) were insensitive to precipitation in the current year. Because tree age was closely correlated to height and diameter (r2 = 0.709 and 0.784, respectively), we relate our findings to the increase in tree size rather than age per se. Synchronicity found among trend in basal area increment and tree establishment suggests that canopy openings increased light and water availability, which favoured growth and establishment of moderately shade-tolerant P. abies. We conclude that although P. abies is able to regenerate at this drought prone site, increasing inter-tree competition for water in dense stands gradually lowers competitive strength and restricts scattered occurrence to dry-mesic sites. PMID:24027351

  7. Epidihydropinidine, the main piperidine alkaloid compound of Norway spruce (Picea abies) shows promising antibacterial and anti-Candida activity.

    PubMed

    Fyhrquist, Pia; Virjamo, Virpi; Hiltunen, Eveliina; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta

    2017-03-01

    This study reports for the first time promising antibacterial and antifungal effects of epidihydropinidine, the major piperidine alkaloid in the needles and bark of Norway spruce, Picea abies (L.) Karsten. Epidihydropinidine was growth inhibitory against all bacterial and fungal strains used in our investigation, showing the lowest MIC value of 5.37μg/mL against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Candida glabrata and C. albicans. Epidihydropinidine was nearly three times more active than tetracycline against P. aeruginosa and E. faecalis. Promising antibacterial effects were also recorded against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus (MIC 10.75μg/mL) as well as against Salmonella enterica (MIC and MBC 43μg/mL). Our preliminary results suggest that epidihydropinidine as well related alkaloids of Norway spruce could be powerful candidates for new antibiotics and for preventing food spoilage.

  8. [Cytogenetic abnormalities in seedlings of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) from the natural populations and introduction plantation].

    PubMed

    Korshikov, I I; Tkacheva, Iu A; Privalikhin, S N

    2012-01-01

    Comparative studies of the frequency and spectrum of pathological mitosis (PM), as well as of nucleoli number in the interphase cells of seedling roots have been performed in two natural populations of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) of Ukrainian Polesie and introduction plantation in the Donbass. Low levels of PM in the seed progeny populations (0.32-0.38%) and slightly higher in the progeny plantation (0.40%) have been installed. Number of nucleoli was slightly higher in the plants of natural populations (5.35-5.85) than that of the plantation (4.95). The frequency of PM in the offspring of low-heterozygous plants was higher (0.43%) than in highly heterozygous individuals (0.28%).

  9. The influence of climate and soil properties on calcium nutrition and vitality of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.).

    PubMed

    Potocić, Nenad; Cosić, Tomislav; Pilas, Ivan

    2005-10-01

    As a part of a broader research into the nutrition of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.), the variation of calcium concentrations was investigated in needles and soil in two subsequent, climatologically diverse years. Statistically significant differences between plots were determined in Ca concentrations in soils. Concentrations of Ca in needles were statistically different regarding plot, defoliation class, sampling date within the same year and also between years. Fir trees on acid-rock based soils had lower, often inadequate concentrations of Ca in needles; the opposite was true for trees growing on Ca-rich soils. Trees of lower vitality generally exhibited poor Ca nutrition. Drought in the second year of research caused poor absorption of Ca on all plots and in all defoliation classes, but the combined influence of climate and soil properties affected especially trees of low vitality on acid-rock based soils.

  10. Annotation and re-sequencing of genes from de novo transcriptome assembly of Abies alba (Pinaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Roschanski, Anna M.; Fady, Bruno; Ziegenhagen, Birgit; Liepelt, Sascha

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: We present a protocol for the annotation of transcriptome sequence data and the identification of candidate genes therein using the example of the nonmodel conifer Abies alba. • Methods and Results: A normalized cDNA library was built from an A. alba seedling. The sequencing on a 454 platform yielded more than 1.5 million reads that were de novo assembled into 25149 contigs. Two complementary approaches were applied to annotate gene fragments that code for (1) well-known proteins and (2) proteins that are potentially adaptively relevant. Primer development and testing yielded 88 amplicons that could successfully be resequenced from genomic DNA. • Conclusions: The annotation workflow offers an efficient way to identify potential adaptively relevant genes from the large quantity of transcriptome sequence data. The primer set presented should be prioritized for single-nucleotide polymorphism detection in adaptively relevant genes in A. alba. PMID:25202477

  11. A Picea abies Linkage Map Based on SNP Markers Identifies QTLs for Four Aspects of Resistance to Heterobasidion parviporum Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lind, Mårten; Källman, Thomas; Chen, Jun; Ma, Xiao-Fei; Bousquet, Jean; Morgante, Michele; Zaina, Giusi; Karlsson, Bo; Elfstrand, Malin; Lascoux, Martin; Stenlid, Jan

    2014-01-01

    A consensus linkage map of Picea abies, an economically important conifer, was constructed based on the segregation of 686 SNP markers in a F1 progeny population consisting of 247 individuals. The total length of 1889.2 cM covered 96.5% of the estimated genome length and comprised 12 large linkage groups, corresponding to the number of haploid P. abies chromosomes. The sizes of the groups (from 5.9 to 9.9% of the total map length) correlated well with previous estimates of chromosome sizes (from 5.8 to 10.8% of total genome size). Any locus in the genome has a 97% probability to be within 10 cM from a mapped marker, which makes the map suited for QTL mapping. Infecting the progeny trees with the root rot pathogen Heterobasidion parviporum allowed for mapping of four different resistance traits: lesion length at the inoculation site, fungal spread within the sapwood, exclusion of the pathogen from the host after initial infection, and ability to prevent the infection from establishing at all. These four traits were associated with two, four, four and three QTL regions respectively of which none overlapped between the traits. Each QTL explained between 4.6 and 10.1% of the respective traits phenotypic variation. Although the QTL regions contain many more genes than the ones represented by the SNP markers, at least four markers within the confidence intervals originated from genes with known function in conifer defence; a leucoanthocyanidine reductase, which has previously been shown to upregulate during H. parviporum infection, and three intermediates of the lignification process; a hydroxycinnamoyl CoA shikimate/quinate hydroxycinnamoyltransferase, a 4-coumarate CoA ligase, and a R2R3-MYB transcription factor. PMID:25036209

  12. LEA polypeptide profiling of recalcitrant and orthodox legume seeds reveals ABI3-regulated LEA protein abundance linked to desiccation tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Hundertmark, Michaela; Buitink, Julia

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to orthodox seeds that acquire desiccation tolerance during maturation, recalcitrant seeds are unable to survive drying. These desiccation-sensitive seeds constitute an interesting model for comparative analysis with phylogenetically close species that are desiccation tolerant. Considering the importance of LEA (late embryogenesis abundant) proteins as protective molecules both in drought and in desiccation tolerance, the heat-stable proteome was characterized in cotyledons of the legume Castanospermum australe and it was compared with that of the orthodox model legume Medicago truncatula. RNA sequencing identified transcripts of 16 homologues out of 17 LEA genes for which polypeptides are detected in M. truncatula seeds. It is shown that for 12 LEA genes, polypeptides were either absent or strongly reduced in C. australe cotyledons compared with M. truncatula seeds. Instead, osmotically responsive, non-seed-specific dehydrins accumulated to high levels in the recalcitrant cotyledons compared with orthodox seeds. Next, M. truncatula mutants of the ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3) gene were characterized. Mature Mtabi3 seeds were found to be desiccation sensitive when dried below a critical water content of 0.4g H2O g DW–1. Characterization of the LEA proteome of the Mtabi3 seeds revealed a subset of LEA proteins with severely reduced abundance that were also found to be reduced or absent in C. australe cotyledons. Transcripts of these genes were indeed shown to be ABI3 responsive. The results highlight those LEA proteins that are critical to desiccation tolerance and suggest that comparable regulatory pathways responsible for their accumulation are missing in both desiccation-sensitive genotypes, revealing new insights into the mechanistic basis of the recalcitrant trait in seeds. PMID:24043848

  13. Arabidopsis HY1-Modulated Stomatal Movement: An Integrative Hub Is Functionally Associated with ABI4 in Dehydration-Induced ABA Responsiveness1

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yanjie; Mao, Yu; Duan, Xingliang; Zhou, Heng; Lai, Diwen; Zhang, Yihua; Shen, Wenbiao

    2016-01-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO; EC 1.14.99.3) has recently been proposed as a novel component in mediating wide ranges of the plant adaptive signaling processes. However, the physiological significance and molecular basis underlying Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) HO1 (HY1) functioning in drought tolerance remained unclear. Here, we report that mutation of HY1 promoted, but overexpression of this gene impaired, Arabidopsis drought tolerance. This was attributed to the abscisic acid (ABA)-hypersensitive or -hyposensitive phenotypes, with the regulation of stomatal closure in particular. However, comparative transcriptomic profile analysis showed that the induction of numerous ABA/stress-dependent genes in dehydrated wild-type plants was differentially impaired in the hy1 mutant. In agreement, ABA-induced ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE4 (ABI4) transcript accumulation was strengthened in the hy1 mutant. Genetic analysis further identified that the hy1-associated ABA hypersensitivity and drought tolerance were arrested in the abi4 background. Moreover, the promotion of ABA-triggered up-regulation of RbohD abundance and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in the hy1 mutant was almost fully blocked by the mutation of ABI4, suggesting that the HY1-ABI4 signaling in the wild type involved in stomatal closure was dependent on the RbohD-derived ROS production. However, hy1-promoted stomatal closure was not affected by a nitric oxide scavenger. Correspondingly, ABA-insensitive behaviors in rbohD stomata were not affected by either the mutation of HY1 or its ectopic expression in the rbohD background, both of which responded significantly to exogenous ROS. These data indicate that HY1 functioned negatively and acted upstream of ABI4 in drought signaling, which was casually dependent on the RbohD-derived ROS in the regulation of stomatal closure. PMID:26704641

  14. Interlaboratory Validation for a Real-Time PCR Salmonella Detection Method Using the ABI 7500 FAST Real-Time PCR System.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chorng-Ming; Doran, Tara; Lin, Wen; Chen, Kai-Shun; Williams-Hill, Donna; Pamboukian, Ruiqing

    2015-06-01

    Sixteen FERN (Food Emergency Response Network) member laboratories collaborated in this study to verify extension of the real-time PCR Salmonella detection method originally designed for the single-tube Cepheid SmartCycler II and validated against the Salmonella method of the U. S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual to the Applied Biosystems (ABI) 7500 FAST Real-Time PCR system multiwell plate platform. Four foods were selected for this study: chili powder, soft cheese, fish, and tomatoes; these foods represent products that are commonly analyzed for the presence of Salmonella for regulatory purposes. Each food consisted of six uninoculated control samples, six samples inoculated with low Salmonella levels (target 1 to 5 CFU/25 g), and six samples inoculated with high levels (target 10 to 50 CFU/25 g). All samples were tested for Salmonella using the 24-h quantitative PCR (qPCR) method for detecting Salmonella, which utilizes modified buffered peptone water as the sole enrichment medium and an internal control for the qPCR. Each of these 18 samples was individually analyzed for Salmonella by the collaborating laboratories using both the ABI 7500 FAST system (alternative method) and the SmartCycler II system (reference method). Statistical analysis of the data revealed no significant difference (P ≥ 0.05) between these two qPCR platforms except for the chili powder samples. The differences noted with chili powder (P = 0.0455) were attributed to the enhanced sensitivity of the ABI 7500 FAST system compared with the SmartCycler II system. The detection limit of both qPCR methods was 0.02 to 0.15 CFU/g. These results provide a solid basis for extending the 24-h qPCR Salmonella method to the ABI 7500 FAST system for high-throughput detection of Salmonella in foods.

  15. Elucidating the Role of cAbl and the Abi-Family of cAbl Target Proteins in Cancer Development and Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-07-01

    s) and should not be construed as an official Department of the Army position , policy or decision unless so designated by other documentation...absence of supplemental histidine, and a lacZ reporter, conferring a blue color to yeast in a P-galactosidase assay (10). Positive interactions will be...elicited the loss Abi proteins following the onset of detectable Bcr-Abl expression. Examination of Ph’- positive leukemic cell lines and bone marrow from

  16. Arabidopsis ABA-Activated Kinase MAPKKK18 is Regulated by Protein Phosphatase 2C ABI1 and the Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway.

    PubMed

    Mitula, Filip; Tajdel, Malgorzata; Cieśla, Agata; Kasprowicz-Maluśki, Anna; Kulik, Anna; Babula-Skowrońska, Danuta; Michalak, Michal; Dobrowolska, Grazyna; Sadowski, Jan; Ludwików, Agnieszka

    2015-12-01

    Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events play an important role in the transmission of the ABA signal. Although SnRK2 [sucrose non-fermenting1-related kinase2] protein kinases and group A protein phosphatase type 2C (PP2C)-type phosphatases constitute the core ABA pathway, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are also involved in plant response to ABA. However, little is known about the interplay between MAPKs and PP2Cs or SnRK2 in the regulation of ABA pathways. In this study, an effort was made to elucidate the role of MAP kinase kinase kinase18 (MKKK18) in relation to ABA signaling and response. The MKKK18 knockout lines showed more vigorous root growth, decreased abaxial stomatal index and increased stomatal aperture under normal growth conditions, compared with the control wild-type Columbia line. In addition to transcriptional regulation of the MKKK18 promoter by ABA, we demonstrated using in vitro and in vivo kinase assays that the kinase activity of MKKK18 was regulated by ABA. Analysis of the cellular localization of MKKK18 showed that the active kinase was targeted specifically to the nucleus. Notably, we identified abscisic acid insensitive 1 (ABI1) PP2C as a MKKK18-interacting protein, and demonstrated that ABI1 inhibited its activity. Using a cell-free degradation assay, we also established that MKKK18 was unstable and was degraded by the proteasome pathway. The rate of MKKK18 degradation was delayed in the ABI1 knockout line. Overall, we provide evidence that ABI1 regulates the activity and promotes proteasomal degradation of MKKK18.

  17. Arabidopsis ABA-Activated Kinase MAPKKK18 is Regulated by Protein Phosphatase 2C ABI1 and the Ubiquitin–Proteasome Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Mitula, Filip; Tajdel, Malgorzata; Cieśla, Agata; Kasprowicz-Maluśki, Anna; Kulik, Anna; Babula-Skowrońska, Danuta; Michalak, Michal; Dobrowolska, Grazyna; Sadowski, Jan; Ludwików, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events play an important role in the transmission of the ABA signal. Although SnRK2 [sucrose non-fermenting1-related kinase2] protein kinases and group A protein phosphatase type 2C (PP2C)-type phosphatases constitute the core ABA pathway, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are also involved in plant response to ABA. However, little is known about the interplay between MAPKs and PP2Cs or SnRK2 in the regulation of ABA pathways. In this study, an effort was made to elucidate the role of MAP kinase kinase kinase18 (MKKK18) in relation to ABA signaling and response. The MKKK18 knockout lines showed more vigorous root growth, decreased abaxial stomatal index and increased stomatal aperture under normal growth conditions, compared with the control wild-type Columbia line. In addition to transcriptional regulation of the MKKK18 promoter by ABA, we demonstrated using in vitro and in vivo kinase assays that the kinase activity of MKKK18 was regulated by ABA. Analysis of the cellular localization of MKKK18 showed that the active kinase was targeted specifically to the nucleus. Notably, we identified abscisic acid insensitive 1 (ABI1) PP2C as a MKKK18-interacting protein, and demonstrated that ABI1 inhibited its activity. Using a cell-free degradation assay, we also established that MKKK18 was unstable and was degraded by the proteasome pathway. The rate of MKKK18 degradation was delayed in the ABI1 knockout line. Overall, we provide evidence that ABI1 regulates the activity and promotes proteasomal degradation of MKKK18. PMID:26443375

  18. Oleoresinosis in Grand Fir (Abies grandis) Saplings and Mature Trees (Modulation of this Wound Response by Light and Water Stresses).

    PubMed Central

    Lewinsohn, E.; Gijzen, M.; Muzika, R. M.; Barton, K.; Croteau, R.

    1993-01-01

    The stem content of diterpene resin acids (rosin) increases dramatically following wounding of grand fir (Abies grandis) saplings, but the level of monoterpene olefins (turpentine) in the stem decreases following injury, in spite of a significant increase in monoterpene cyclase (synthase) activity. However, this observation was explained when rapid evaporative losses of the volatile monoterpenes from the wound site was demonstrated by trapping experiments, a finding consistent with a role of turpentine as a solvent for the mobilization and deposition of rosin to seal the injury. Mature forest trees responded to stem wounding by the enhancement of monoterpene cyclization capacity in a manner similar to 2-year-old grand fir saplings raised in the greenhouse. Light and water stresses greatly reduced the constitutive level of monoterpene cyclase activity and abolished the wound-induced response. The diminution in monoterpene biosynthetic capacity was correlated with a dramatic decrease in cyclase protein as demonstrated by immunoblotting. Relief of stress conditions resulted in the restoration of cyclase activity (both constitutive and wound induced) to control levels. The results of these experiments indicate that grand fir saplings are a suitable model for studies of the regulation of defensive oleoresinosis in conifers. PMID:12231755

  19. Coping with low light under high atmospheric dryness: shade acclimation in a Mediterranean conifer (Abies pinsapo Boiss.).

    PubMed

    Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Peguero-Pina, José Javier; Flexas, Jaume; Herbette, Stéphane; Cochard, Hervé; Niinemets, Ülo; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio

    2014-12-01

    Plant species living in the understory increase carbon (C) allocation toward leaf production for maximizing light capture at the expense of roots and stems, with negative consequences for the whole-plant hydraulic conductance. Moreover, under some conditions, the high atmospheric evaporative demand occurring in Mediterranean areas may be not well buffered by the canopy, which might be the case for relict conifer Abies pinsapo Boiss. growing in the forest understory. We hypothesized that acclimation to combined understory shade and high atmospheric dryness can be achieved through the adjustment of water losses to cope with the restriction in water transport. The results reveal high structural plasticity in A. pinsapo that allows light harvesting of this species to maximize light capture in the forest understory, and maintain a positive C balance under low light conditions. However, growth in the understory resulted in reduced leaf-specific conductivity, up to approximately four to five times, implying decreased plant capacity to supply water to the leaves. In order to cope with the high atmospheric evaporative demand in the understory, there is an adjustment of the stomatal conductance to the hydraulic conductivity by means of a reduction in the stomatal density in understory individuals, which is due to the almost complete lack of stomata in the adaxial side of the needles. To the extent of our knowledge, such a drastic phenotypic response found in a conifer when growing under shaded conditions had not been previously reported.

  20. Effect of bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) attack on bark VOC emissions of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghimire, Rajendra P.; Kivimäenpää, Minna; Blomqvist, Minna; Holopainen, Toini; Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa, Päivi; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    2016-02-01

    Climate warming driven storms are evident causes for an outbreak of the European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) resulting in the serious destruction of mature Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) forests in northern Europe. Conifer species are major sources of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in the boreal zone. Climate relevant BVOC emissions are expected to increase when conifer trees defend against bark beetle attack by monoterpene (MT)-rich resin flow. In this study, BVOC emission rates from the bark surface of beetle-attacked and non-attacked spruce trees were measured from two outbreak areas, Iitti and Lahti in southern Finland, and from one control site at Kuopio in central Finland. Beetle attack increased emissions of total MTs 20-fold at Iitti compared to Kuopio, but decreased the emissions of several sesquiterpenes (SQTs) at Iitti. At the Lahti site, the emission rate of α-pinene was positively correlated with mean trap catch of bark beetles. The responsive individual MTs were tricyclene, α-pinene, camphene, myrcene, limonene, 1,8-cineole and bornyl acetate in both of the outbreak areas. Our results suggest that bark beetle outbreaks affect local BVOC emissions from conifer forests dominated by Norway spruce. Therefore, the impacts of insect outbreaks are worth of consideration to global BVOC emission models.

  1. Good manufacturing practice production of [68Ga]Ga-ABY-025 for HER2 specific breast cancer imaging

    PubMed Central

    Velikyan, Irina; Wennborg, Anders; Feldwisch, Joachim; Lindman, Henrik; Carlsson, Jörgen; Sörensen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Therapies targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2) have revolutionized breast cancer treatment, but require invasive biopsies and rigorous histopathology for optimal patient stratification. A non-invasive and quantitative diagnostic method such as positron emission tomography (PET) for the pre-therapeutic determination of the presence and density of the HER2 would significantly improve patient management efficacy and treatment cost. The essential part of the PET methodology is the production of the radiopharmaceutical in compliance with good manufacturing practice (GMP). The use of generator produced positron emitting 68Ga radionuclide would provide worldwide accessibility of the agent. GMP compliant, reliable and highly reproducible production of [68Ga]Ga-ABY-025 with control over the product peptide concentration and amount of radioactivity was accomplished within one hour. Two radiopharmaceuticals were developed differing in the total peptide content and were validated independently. The specific radioactivity could be kept similar throughout the study, and it was 6-fold higher for the low peptide content radiopharmaceutical. Intrapatient comparison of the two peptide doses allowed imaging optimization. The high peptide content decreased the uptake in healthy tissue, in particular liver, improving image contrast. The later imaging time points enhanced the contrast. The combination of high peptide content radiopharmaceutical and whole-body imaging at 2 hours post injection appeared to be optimal for routine clinical use. PMID:27186441

  2. Differential regulation of Knotted1-like genes during establishment of the shoot apical meristem in Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Larsson, Emma; Sitbon, Folke; von Arnold, Sara

    2012-06-01

    Establishment of the shoot apical meristem (SAM) in Arabidopsis embryos requires the KNOXI transcription factor SHOOT MERISTEMLESS. In Norway spruce (Picea abies), four KNOXI family members (HBK1, HBK2, HBK3 and HBK4) have been identified, but a corresponding role in SAM development has not been demonstrated. As a first step to differentiate between the functions of the four Norway spruce HBK genes, we have here analyzed their expression profiles during the process of somatic embryo development. This was made both under normal embryo development and under conditions of reduced SAM formation by treatment with the polar auxin transport inhibitor NPA. Concomitantly with the formation of an embryonic SAM, the HBK2 and HBK4 genes displayed a significant up-regulation that was delayed by NPA treatment. In contrast, HBK1 and HBK3 were up-regulated prior to SAM formation, and their temporal expression was not affected by NPA. Ectopic expression of the four HBK genes in transgenic Arabidopsis plants further supported similar functions of HBK2 and HBK4, distinct from those of HBK1 and HBK3. Together, the results suggest that HBK2 and HBK4 exert similar functions related to the SAM differentiation and somatic embryo development in Norway spruce, while HBK1 and HBK3 have more general functions during embryo development.

  3. ,* Copper transport and accumulation in spruce stems (picea abies(L.) Karsten) revelaed by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Krajcarova, Dr. Lucie; Novotny, Dr. Karel; Babula, Dr. Petr; Pravaznik, Dr Ivo; Kucerova, Dr. Petra; Vojtech, Dr. Adam; Martin, Madhavi Z; Kizek, Dr. Rene; Kaiser, Jozef

    2013-01-01

    Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) in double pulse configuration (DP LIBS) was used for scanning elemental spatial distribution in annual terminal stems of spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karsten). Cross sections of stems cultivated in Cu2+ solution of different concentrations were prepared and analyzed by DP LIBS. Raster scanning with 150 m spatial resolution was set and 2D (2-dimentional) maps of Cu and Ca distribution were created on the basis of the data obtained. Stem parts originating in the vicinity of the implementation of the cross sections were mineralized and subsequently Cu and Ca contents were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results provide quantitative information about overall concentration of the elements in places, where LIBS measurements were performed. The fluorescence pictures were created to compare LIBS distribution maps and the fluorescence intensity (or the increase in autofluorescence) was used for the comparison of ICP-MS quantitative results. Results from these three methods can be utilized for quantitative measurements of copper ions transport in different plant compartments in dependence on the concentration of cultivation medium and/or the time of cultivation.

  4. Development of growth media for solid substrate propagation of ectomycorrhizal fungi for inoculation of Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Vuorinen, Irmeli; Hamberg, Leena; Müller, Michael; Seiskari, Pekka; Pennanen, Taina

    2015-05-01

    A silica-based propagation medium was developed for large-scale production of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal inoculum by solid state fermentation. Development of the medium was started by screening for an optimal growth medium among six different semisynthetic agar media traditionally used in cultivation of ECM fungi. The majority (65 %) of the twenty tested ECM fungal strains that typically colonize Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedlings grew best on modified Melin-Norkrans (MMN) medium with reduced sugar content (½MMN). In order to develop a nutritionally similar medium for large-scale cultivation of the ECM fungi, we chose silica to form a solid matrix and light brewery malt extract to provide nutrients. The medium was supplemented with a commercial humic acid product that was shown to boost fungal growth. The optimal concentration of the constituents was screened for in two assays by determining the growth rates of seven potential inoculant ECM fungal strains (Amphinema sp., Cenococcum geophilum, Hebeloma sp., Meliniomyces bicolor, Paxillus involutus, Piloderma byssinum, and Tylospora asterophora). As a result, we composed a silica-based mass propagation medium (pH 5.8) containing 2.5 % brewery malt extract and 0.5 g/l humic acid product Lignohumate AM. This medium is easily produced and supported good growth of even the slowly growing and rarely studied Athelioid ECM strains. Furthermore, root systems of Norway spruce nursery seedlings were colonized by the tested ECM fungi by using solid inoculum formulated from the silica medium.

  5. Effect of debarking water from Norway spruce (Picea abies) on the growth of five species of wood-decaying fungi.

    PubMed

    Edfeldt, Amelie Fagerlund; Hedenström, Erik; Edman, Mattias; Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    Norway spruce (Picea abies) debarking water is an aqueous extract obtained as waste from the debarking of logs at paper mills. The debarking water contains a mixture of natural compounds that can exhibit diverse biological activities, potentially including fungicidal activity on some species of wood-decaying fungi. Thus, we investigated the growth rates of such fungi on agar plates to which debarking water extracts had been added. The experiment included five wood-decaying fungi, viz. Gloeophyllum sepiarium, Oligoporus lateritius, Ischnoderma benzoinum, Junghuhnia luteoalba, and Phlebia sp. Growth reduction was observed for all species at the highest tested concentrations of freeze-dried and ethanol-extracted debarking water, the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction and the diethyl ether-soluble fraction. However, the magnitude of the effect varied between different species and strains of individual species. The brown-rot fungi G. sepiarium and O. lateritius were generally the most sensitive species, with the growth of all tested strains being completely inhibited by the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction. These results indicate that development of antifungal wood-protecting agents from debarking water could potentially be a way to make use of a low-value industrial waste.

  6. Thigmomorphogenesis: the role of ethylene in the response of Pinus taeda and Abies fraseri to mechanical perturbation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Telewski, F. W.; Jaffe, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Ethylene production was monitored for 48 h in two half-sibs of Pinus taeda L. grown in the greenhouse and given mechanical perturbation (MP) by flexing; and for 22 h in Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir. grown in the field and exposed to wind-mediated MP. Both species produced a peak of ethylene 18 h after MP. Seedlings of P. taeda exposed to MP for the duration of the growing season (preconditioned) produced less ethylene compared to non-MP controls, with a peak production at 8 h. One half-sib which responded to MP by an increase in radial growth produced 16 times more ethylene than another half-sib which had no significant change in radial growth. Preconditioned A. fraseri produced no significant quantities of ethylene after MP. The production of wound ethylene appears to be different from MP-induced ethylene. When an ethylene-generating solution was applied to P. taeda seedlings, it mimicked many of the morphological and mechanical characteristics of MP seedlings. The putative role of ethylene in the thigmomorphogenetic response is addressed.

  7. Forest microsite effects on community composition of ectomycorrhizal fungi on seedlings of Picea abies and Betula pendula.

    PubMed

    Tedersoo, Leho; Suvi, Triin; Jairus, Teele; Kõljalg, Urmas

    2008-05-01

    Niche differentiation in soil horizons, host species and natural nutrient gradients contribute to the high diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi in boreal forests. This study aims at documenting the diversity and community composition of ectomycorrhizal fungi of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and silver birch (Betula pendula) seedlings in five most abundant microsites in three Estonian old-growth forests. Undisturbed forest floor, windthrow mounds and pits harboured more species than brown- and white-rotted wood. Several species of ectomycorrhizal fungi were differentially represented on either hosts, microsites and sites. Generally, the most frequent species in dead wood were also common in forest floor soil. Ordination analyses suggested that decay type determined the composition of EcM fungal community in dead wood. Root connections with in-growing mature tree roots from below affected the occurrence of certain fungal species on seedling roots systems in dead wood. This study demonstrates that ectomycorrhizal fungi differentially establish in certain forest microsites that is attributable to their dispersal and competitive abilities. Elevated microsites, especially decayed wood, act as seed beds for both ectomycorrhizal forest trees and fungi, thus affecting the succession of boreal forest ecosystems.

  8. Divergent climate response on hydraulic-related xylem anatomical traits of Picea abies along a 900-m altitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Castagneri, Daniele; Petit, Giai; Carrer, Marco

    2015-12-01

    Climate change can induce substantial modifications in xylem structure and water transport capacity of trees exposed to environmental constraints. To elucidate mechanisms of xylem plasticity in response to climate, we retrospectively analysed different cell anatomical parameters over tree-ring series in Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.). We sampled 24 trees along an altitudinal gradient (1200, 1600 and 2100 m above sea level, a.s.l.) and processed 2335 ± 1809 cells per ring. Time series for median cell lumen area (MCA), cell number (CN), tree-ring width (RW) and tree-ring-specific hydraulic conductivity (Kr) were crossed with daily temperature and precipitation records (1926-2011) to identify climate influence on xylem anatomical traits. Higher Kr at the low elevation site was due to higher MCA and CN. These variables were related to different aspects of intra-seasonal climatic variability under different environmental conditions, with MCA being more sensitive to summer precipitation. Winter precipitation (snow) benefited most parameters in all the sites. Descending the gradient, sensitivity of xylem features to summer climate shifted mostly from temperature to precipitation. In the context of climate change, our results indicate that higher summer temperatures at high elevations will benefit cell production and xylem hydraulic efficiency, whereas reduced water availability at lower elevations could negatively affect tracheids enlargement and thus stem capacity to transport water.

  9. Oribatid mite communities in the canopy of montane Abies amabilis and Tsuga heterophylla trees on Vancouver Island, British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Winchester, N N; Lindo, Z; Behan-Pelletier, V M

    2008-04-01

    To study the oribatid mite community inhabiting microhabitats in the canopy of montane Abies amabilis [(Douglas ex D. Don) Lindl.] and Tsuga heterophylla [(Raf.) Sarg] tree species across five elevational sites, we collected 180 branch tips and 180 foliose/crustose lichen samples over three time periods. Thirty-three species of oribatid mites were identified from the study area. Mite species richness and abundance was significantly affected by microhabitat, and this association was independent of sampling time. At the microhabitat scale, distinct species assemblages were associated with lichen and branch tip habitats, and to a lesser degree, tree species. Conifer specificity was most apparent in the closely related species of Jugatala, where Jugatala tuberosa Ewing was only found on branch tips from A. amabilis and Jugatala sp. was primarily found on branch tips from T. heterophylla. Microhabitat specificity was most pronounced in Dendrozetes sp. where most individuals were found on branch tips and Anachiperia geminus Lindo et al. that occurred primarily on lichens. Principal components analysis of oribatid mite community composition further showed a high degree of association with microhabitat and tree species. Habitat profiles are difficult to discern for many species because tree, microhabitat, and elevation preferences confound distribution patterns. Given the significant tree-microhabitat associations in species composition in this montane canopy study, we suggest that sampling multiple microhabitats across elevations to look for patterns in community structure offers opportunities to explicitly test organizing principles in community ecology.

  10. Influence of Binasal and Uninasal Inhalations of Essential Oil of Abies koreana Twigs on Electroencephalographic Activity of Human

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Min; Sowndhararajan, Kandhasamy

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The present work investigates the effect of essential oil from the twigs of Abies koreana on electroencephalographic (EEG) activity of human brain in order to understand the influence of binasal and uninasal inhalations. Methods. To accomplish this study, the essential oil from the twigs of A. koreana (AEO) was isolated by steam distillation and the EEG readings were recorded using QEEG-8 system from 8 grounding electrodes according to the International 10-20 System. Results. D-Limonene (25.29%), bornyl acetate (19.31%), camphene (12.48%), α-pinene (11.88%), β-pinene (6.45%), and eudesm-7(11)-en-ol (5.38%) were the major components in the essential oil. In the EEG study, the absolute alpha (left frontal and right parietal) and absolute fast alpha (right parietal) values significantly increased during the binasal inhalation of AEO. In the uninasal inhalation, absolute beta and theta values decreased significantly, especially in the right frontal and left and right parietal regions. The results revealed that the AEO produced different EEG power spectrum changes according to the nostril difference. Conclusion. The changes in EEG values due to the inhalation of AEO may contribute to the enhancement of relaxation (binasal inhalation) and alertness/attention (right uninasal inhalation) states of brain which could be used in aromatherapy treatments. PMID:28042202

  11. Mutational analysis of a monoterpene synthase reaction: altered catalysis through directed mutagenesis of (-)-pinene synthase from Abies grandis.

    PubMed

    Hyatt, David C; Croteau, Rodney

    2005-07-15

    Two monoterpene synthases, (-)-pinene synthase and (-)-camphene synthase, from grand fir (Abies grandis) produce different product mixtures despite having highly homologous amino acid sequences and, presumably, very similar three-dimensional structures. The major product of (-)-camphene synthase, (-)-camphene, and the major products of (-)-pinene synthase, (-)-alpha-pinene, and (-)-beta-pinene, arise through distinct mechanistic variations of the electrophilic reaction cascade that is common to terpenoid synthases. Structural modeling followed by directed mutagenesis in (-)-pinene synthase was used to replace selected amino acid residues with the corresponding residues from (-)-camphene synthase in an effort to identify the amino acids responsible for the catalytic differences. This approach produced an enzyme in which more than half of the product was channeled through an alternative pathway. It was also shown that several (-)-pinene synthase to (-)-camphene synthase amino acid substitutions were necessary before catalysis was significantly altered. The data support a model in which the collective action of many key amino acids, located both in and distant from the active site pocket, regulate the course of the electrophilic reaction cascade.

  12. [Responses of microbes in rhizospheric soil of Abies faxoniana to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ling; Wang, Kaiyun; Zhang, Yuanbin; Wu, Fuzhong; Lu, Yejiang

    2006-05-01

    With independent and top-enclosed chamber system, this paper studied the responses of culturable bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes in rhizospheric soil of Abies faxoniana sapling to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration (ambient +350( +/- 25) [micromol x mol(-1), EC), temperature (ambient + 2. 2 (+/- 0.5) degrees C; ET), and their combination (ECT) under high-frigid conditions of West Sichuan Province. The results showed that in comparing with the control, treatments EC and ET increased the number of rhizospheric bacteria by 35%, 164% and 312%, and 30%, 115% and 209% in June, August and October, respectively, but had little effects on the numbers of rhizospheric actinomycetes and fungi. In treatment ECT, the numbers of rhizospheric actinomycetes and fungi increased by 49%, 50% and 96% ,and 151%, 57% and 48% in June, August and October, respectively, while that of rhizospheric bacteria had little variation. EC, ET and ECT had significant effects on the total number of rhizospheric microbes, with the R/S being 1.93,1.27 and 1.46, respectively,but had little effects on non-rhizospheric microbes.

  13. Growth, allocation and tissue chemistry of Picea abies seedlings affected by nutrient supply during the second growing season.

    PubMed

    Kaakinen, Seija; Jolkkonen, Annika; Iivonen, Sari; Vapaavuori, Elina

    2004-06-01

    One-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedlings were grown hydroponically in a growth chamber to investigate the effects of low and high nutrient availability (LN; 0.25 mM N and HN; 2.50 mM N) on growth, biomass allocation and chemical composition of needles, stem and roots during the second growing season. Climatic conditions in the growth chamber simulated the mean growing season from May to early October in Flakaliden, northern Sweden. In the latter half of the growing season, biomass allocation changed in response to nutrient availability: increased root growth and decreased shoot growth led to higher root/shoot ratios in LN seedlings than in HN seedlings. At high nutrient availability, total biomass, especially stem biomass, increased, as did total nonstructural carbohydrate and nitrogen contents per seedling. Responses of stem chemistry to nutrient addition differed from those of adult trees of the same provenance. In HN seedlings, concentrations of alpha-cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin decreased in the secondary xylem. Our results illustrate the significance of retranslocation of stored nutrients to support new growth early in the season when root growth and nutrient uptake are still low. We conclude that nutrient availability alters allocation patterns, thereby influencing the success of 2-year-old Norway spruce seedlings at forest planting sites.

  14. The Transcription Factor ABI4 Is Required for the Ascorbic Acid–Dependent Regulation of Growth and Regulation of Jasmonate-Dependent Defense Signaling Pathways in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Kerchev, Pavel I.; Pellny, Till K.; Vivancos, Pedro Diaz; Kiddle, Guy; Hedden, Peter; Driscoll, Simon; Vanacker, Hélène; Verrier, Paul; Hancock, Robert D.; Foyer, Christine H.

    2011-01-01

    Cellular redox homeostasis is a hub for signal integration. Interactions between redox metabolism and the ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE-4 (ABI4) transcription factor were characterized in the Arabidopsis thaliana vitamin c defective1 (vtc1) and vtc2 mutants, which are defective in ascorbic acid synthesis and show a slow growth phenotype together with enhanced abscisic acid (ABA) levels relative to the wild type (Columbia-0). The 75% decrease in the leaf ascorbate pool in the vtc2 mutants was not sufficient to adversely affect GA metabolism. The transcriptome signatures of the abi4, vtc1, and vtc2 mutants showed significant overlap, with a large number of transcription factors or signaling components similarly repressed or induced. Moreover, lincomycin-dependent changes in LIGHT HARVESTING CHLOROPHYLL A/B BINDING PROTEIN 1.1 expression were comparable in these mutants, suggesting overlapping participation in chloroplast to nucleus signaling. The slow growth phenotype of vtc2 was absent in the abi4 vtc2 double mutant, as was the sugar-insensitive phenotype of the abi4 mutant. Octadecanoid derivative-responsive AP2/ERF-domain transcription factor 47 (ORA47) and AP3 (an ABI5 binding factor) transcripts were enhanced in vtc2 but repressed in abi4 vtc2, suggesting that ABI4 and ascorbate modulate growth and defense gene expression through jasmonate signaling. We conclude that low ascorbate triggers ABA- and jasmonate-dependent signaling pathways that together regulate growth through ABI4. Moreover, cellular redox homeostasis exerts a strong influence on sugar-dependent growth regulation. PMID:21926335

  15. Evaluating the usability of a single UK community acquired brain injury (ABI) rehabilitation service website: implications for research methodology and website design.

    PubMed

    Newby, Gavin; Groom, Christina

    2010-04-01

    Information provision is an important resource for those living with acquired brain injury (ABI) and their families. Web-based health information services are now common additions to health service provision. Ideally, they should be easy to use and provide useful, relevant and accurate information. ABI injuries do not affect individuals in the same way, and survivors can have a wide range of abilities and impairments. Therefore, any informational resource intended for this group should take account of their needs and help to compensate for their limitations. This pilot study recruited a group of individuals with ABI (of a median Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale rating of "lower moderate disability") who were clients of a UK National Health Service rehabilitation service and asked them to assess a specialised website provided by that service and hosted by their employing Primary Care Trust organisation. Participants completed a practical task and then gave their opinions on various aspects of website design, and content. They were also asked to suggest improvements and recommend additions. Overall the results were favourable. However, improvements in the legibility, layout and writing style were identified. There were also requests to add more information on the existing topics and add additional topics. The discussion also evaluates the utility of the methodology and the implications of the results for others considering constructing their own website.

  16. Affiliative and "self-as-doer" identities: Relationships between social identity, social support, and emotional status amongst survivors of acquired brain injury (ABI).

    PubMed

    Walsh, R Stephen; Muldoon, Orla T; Gallagher, Stephen; Fortune, Donal G

    2015-01-01

    Social support is an important factor in rehabilitation following acquired brain injury (ABI). Research indicates that social identity makes social support possible and that social identity is made possible by social support. In order to further investigate the reciprocity between social identity and social support, the present research applied the concepts of affiliative and "self-as-doer" identities to an analysis of relationships between social identity, social support, and emotional status amongst a cohort of 53 adult survivors of ABI engaged in post-acute community neurorehabilitation. Path analysis was used to test a hypothesised mediated model whereby affiliative identities have a significant indirect relationship with emotional status via social support and self-as-doer identification. Results support the hypothesised model. Evidence supports an "upward spiral" between social identity and social support such that affiliative identity makes social support possible and social support drives self-as-doer identity. Our discussion emphasises the importance of identity characteristics to social support, and to emotional status, for those living with ABI.

  17. The influence of O3, NO2 and SO2 on growth of Picea abies and Fagus sylvatica in the Carpathian Mountains.

    PubMed

    Muzika, R M; Guyette, R P; Zielonka, T; Liebhold, A M

    2004-07-01

    At 17 long-term pollution monitoring sites throughout the Carpathian Mountains, tree growth patterns and variation in growth rate were examined to determine relationship of tree growth to specific pollutants. Canopy dominant Picea abies and Fagus sylvatica were selected at each site. Basal area increment (BAI) values were calculated from raw ring widths and used as an estimate of tree growth. Across all sites, BAI chronologies were highly variable, therefore local conditions and forest structure accounted for considerable variation. Several significant relationships, however, implicated a role of pollutants on tree growth. Average levels (1997-1999) of NO(2) and SO(2) were inversely related to BAI means (1989-1999). Although average O(3) alone was not related to growth, the maximum O(3) value reported at the sites was negatively correlated with overall growth. A variable representing the combined effect of O(3), NO(2) and SO(2) was negatively correlated with both P. abies and F. sylvatica growth. Pollution data were used to categorize all sites into 'high' or 'low' pollution sites. Difference chronologies based on these categories indicated trends of decline in the 'high' pollution sites relative to 'low' pollution site. In the more heavily polluted sites, the BAI of Fagus sylvatica has declined approximately 50% and Picea abies has declined 20% over the past 45 years.

  18. Valorization of Romanian silver fir tree bark (Abies alba Mill.) wastes as low-cost sorbent of Cu(II) ions from polluted waters.

    PubMed

    Tofan, Lavinia; Paduraru, Carmen; Amalinei, Roxana Laura Mihailescu; Bunia, Ion; Miron, Anca

    2016-11-01

    Considering recycling as the first option in the hierarchy of sustainable waste management, and also the demand for efficient processes for wastewater treatment with reduced costs, the potential applicability of Romanian Abies alba bark, the main waste from the industrial processing of the wood of mature silver fir trees, as sorbent for Cu(II) has been studied in batch conditions. It was observed that the extent of Cu(II) sorption is strongly dependent on initial solution pH, sorbent dose, initial Cu(II) ion concentration, temperature and contact time. Equilibrium data fitted very well with both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The Langmuir maximum sorption capacity of Cu(II) ions on Abies alba bark waste was found to be 7.80 mg/g at 293 K. Kinetic studies showed a high affinity of the sorption experimental data to the pseudo-second order model. Gibbs free energy was spontaneous for all interactions and the sorption process exhibited endothermic enthalpy value. The waste of Abies alba bark was successfully used for the sorption removal of Cu(II) ions from industrial electroplating wastewaters.

  19. Altered HBK3 expression affects glutathione and ascorbate metabolism during the early phases of Norway spruce (Picea abies) somatic embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Belmonte, Mark F; Stasolla, Claudio

    2009-10-01

    Plant homeobox genes play an important role in plant development, including embryogenesis. Recently, the function of a class I homeobox of knox 3 gene, HBK3, has been characterized in the conifer Picea abies (L.) Karst (Norway spruce) [8]. During somatic embryogenesis, expression of HBK3 is required for the proper differentiation of proembryogenic masses into somatic embryos. This transition, fundamental for the overall embryogenic process, is accelerated in sense lines over-expressing HBK3 (HBK3-S) but precluded in antisense lines (HBK3-AS) where the expression of this gene is experimentally reduced. Altered HBK3 expression resulted in major changes of ascorbate and glutathione metabolism. During the initial phases of embryogeny the level of reduced GSH was higher in the HBK3-S lines compared to their control counterpart. An opposite profile was observed for the HBK3-AS lines where the glutathione redox state, i.e. GSH/GSH + GSSG, switched towards its oxidized form, i.e. GSSG. Very similar metabolic fluctuations were also measured for ascorbate, especially during the transition of proembryogenic masses into somatic embryos (7 days into hormone-free medium). At this stage the level of reduced ascorbate (ASC) in the HBK3-AS lines was about 75% lower compare to the untransformed line causing a switch of the ascorbate redox state, i.e. ASC/ASC + DHA + AFR, towards its oxidized forms, i.e. DHA + AFR. Changes in activities of several ascorbate and glutathione redox enzymes, including dehydroascorbate reductase (EC 1.8.5.1), ascorbate free radical reductase (EC 1.6.5.4) and glutathione reductase (GR; EC 1.6.4.2) were responsible for these metabolic differences. Data presented here suggest that HBK3 expression might regulate somatic embryo yield through alterations in glutathione and ascorbate metabolism, which have been previously implicated in controlling embryo development and maturation both in vivo and in vitro.

  20. Effect of season, needle age and elevated CO2 concentration on photosynthesis and Rubisco acclimation in Picea abies.

    PubMed

    Urban, Otmar; Hrstka, Miroslav; Zitová, Martina; Holišová, Petra; Sprtová, Mirka; Klem, Karel; Calfapietra, Carlo; De Angelis, Paolo; Marek, Michal V

    2012-09-01

    While downward photosynthetic acclimation in response to elevated CO(2) (EC) is frequently accompanied by reduction in Rubisco (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase), the exact mechanism behind this decrease and its dynamics are not well understood. We comprehensively studied Rubisco adjustment to EC in coniferous Picea abies using an electrophoretic (protein content), spectrophotometric (initial (RA(initial)) and total (RA(total)) in vitro Rubisco activities), and gas-exchange (maximum carboxylation activity in vivo (V(Cmax))) techniques. With respect to differing carbon sink strength and nitrogen remobilization, we hypothesized greater acclimation of photosynthesis in one-year-old as compared to current-year needles and at the end than at the beginning of the vegetation season. EC treatment led to a decrease in V(Cmax) values in current-year needles, but the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP)-limited rate of photosynthesis (J(max)) remained unaffected. Indeed, both V(Cmax) and J(max) were reduced by the EC treatment in one-year-old needles. The extent of photosynthetic acclimation in EC plants did not increase, however, during the vegetation season. EC decreased the activation state of Rubisco (RA(initial)/RA(total)) by 16% and 5% in current-year and one-year-old needles, respectively (averaged over the growing season). While during spring (short-term effect) EC treatment did not influence the Rubisco content per unit leaf area and decreased its specific activity (activity per unit Rubisco mass) in both needle age classes studied, exposure to EC during the entire vegetation season tended to reduce the Rubisco content while increasing its specific activity. Irrespective of CO(2) treatment and needle age, a hyperbolic-decay relationship was observed between Rubisco-specific activity and its content.

  1. Photosynthesis Decrease and Stomatal Control of Gas Exchange in Abies alba Mill. in Response to Vapor Pressure Difference

    PubMed Central

    Guehl, Jean-Marc; Aussenac, Gilbert

    1987-01-01

    The responses of steady state CO2 assimilation rate (A), transpiration rate (E), and stomatal conductance (gs) to changes in leaf-to-air vapor pressure difference (ΔW) were examined on different dates in shoots from Abies alba trees growing outside. In Ecouves, a provenance representative of wet oceanic conditions in Northern France, both A and gs decreased when ΔW was increased from 4.6 to 14.5 Pa KPa−1. In Nebias, which represented the dry end of the natural range of A. alba in southern France, A and gs decreased only after reaching peak levels at 9.0 and 7.0 Pa KPa−1, respectively. The representation of the data in assimilation rate (A) versus intercellular CO2 partial pressure (Ci) graphs allowed us to determine how stomata and mesophyll photosynthesis interacted when ΔW was increased. Changes in A were primarily due to alterations in mesophyll photosynthesis. At high ΔW, and especially in Ecouves when soil water deficit prevailed, A declined, while Ci remained approximately constant, which may be interpreted as an adjustment of gs to changes in mesophyll photosynthesis. Such a stomatal control of gas exchange appeared as an alternative to the classical feedforward interpretation of E versus ΔW responses with a peak rate of E. The gas exchange response to ΔW was also characterized by considerable deviations from the optimization theory of IR Cowan and GD Farquhar (1977 Symp Soc Exp Biol 31: 471-505). PMID:16665243

  2. Influence of low- and high-elevation plant genomes on the regulation of autumn cold acclimation in Abies sachalinensis.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Wataru; Ono, Kiyomi; Hara, Toshihiko; Goto, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    Boreal coniferous species with wide geographic distributions show substantial variation in autumn cold acclimation among populations. To determine how this variation is inherited across generations, we conducted a progeny test and examined the development of cold hardening in open-pollinated second-generation (F2) progeny of Abies sachalinensis. The F1 parents had different genetic backgrounds resulting from reciprocal interpopulational crosses between low-elevation (L) and high-elevation (H) populations: L × L, L × H, H × L, and H × H. Paternity analysis of the F2 progeny using molecular genetic markers showed that 91.3% of the fathers were located in surrounding stands of the F1 planting site (i.e., not in the F1 test population). The remaining fathers were assigned to F1 parents of the L × L cross-type. This indicates that the high-elevation genome in the F1 parents was not inherited by the F2 population via pollen flow. The timing of autumn cold acclimation in the F2 progeny depended on the cross-type of the F1 mother. The progeny of H × H mothers showed less damage in freezing tests than the progeny of other cross-types. Statistical modeling supported a linear effect of genome origin. In the best model, variation in freezing damage was explained by the proportion of maternally inherited high-elevation genome. These results suggest that autumn cold acclimation was partly explained by the additive effect of the responsible maternal genome. Thus, the offspring that inherited a greater proportion of the high-elevation genome developed cold hardiness earlier. Genome-based variation in the regulation of autumn cold acclimation matched the local climatic conditions, which may be a key factor in elevation-dependent adaptation.

  3. Comparative genome mapping among Picea glauca, P. mariana x P. rubens and P. abies, and correspondence with other Pinaceae.

    PubMed

    Pelgas, Betty; Beauseigle, Stéphanie; Acheré, Virginie; Jeandroz, Sylvain; Bousquet, Jean; Isabel, Nathalie

    2006-11-01

    A composite linkage map was constructed from four individual maps for the conifer Picea glauca (Moench) Voss, from anonymous and gene-specific markfers (714 AFLPs, 38 SSRs, and 53 ESTPs). A total of 12 linkage groups were delineated with an average marker density of 2.7 cM. Macro-synteny and macro-colinearity comparisons with two other composite linkage maps developed for the species complex P. mariana (Mill.) B.S.P. x P. rubens Sarg., and for P. abies (L.) Karst. revealed an identical number of linkage groups and a remarkable conservation of the gene content and gene order of linkage groups over the million years since the split between these taxa. Identical gene order among taxa was observed for 10 of the 12 assembled composite linkage groups. The discovery of one breakdown in synteny between P. glauca and the other two taxa indicated the occurrence of an inter-chromosomal rearrangement involving an insertional translocation. Analysis of marker colinearity also revealed a putative segmental duplication. The combined information from these three Picea genomes validated and improved large-scale genome comparisons at the inter-generic level in the family Pinaceae by allowing for the identification of 11 homoeologous linkage groups between Picea and Pinus, and nine such groups between Picea and Pseudotsuga menziesii. Notably, the analysis of synteny among the three genera revealed a putative case of chromosomal fission and an inter-chromosomal rearrangement in the genome of P. menziesii. Both of these changes are inter-connected, indicating much instability in this part of the P. menziesii genome. Overall, the macro-structure of the Pinaceae genome was well conserved, which is notable given the Cretaceous origin of its main lineages.

  4. Carbon dioxide concentration and nitrogen input affect the C and N storage pools in Amanita muscaria-Picea abies mycorrhizae.

    PubMed

    Turnau, K; Berger, A; Loewe, A; Einig, W; Hampp, R; Chalot, M; Dizengremel, P; Kottke, I

    2001-02-01

    We studied the influence of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) on the vacuolar storage pool of nitrogen-containing compounds and on the glycogen pool in the hyphal sheath of Amanita muscaria (L. ex Fr.) Hooker-Picea abies L. Karst. mycorrhizae grown with two concentrations of ammonium in the substrate. Mycorrhizal seedlings were grown in petri dishes on agar containing 5.3 or 53 mg N l(-1) and exposed to 350 or 700 microl CO2 l(-1) for 5 or 7 weeks, respectively. Numbers and area of nitrogen-containing bodies in the vacuoles of the mycorrhizal fungus were determined by light microscopy linked to an image analysis system. The relative concentration of nitrogen in the vacuolar bodies was measured by electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Glycogen stored in the cytosol was determined at the ultrastructural level by image analysis after staining the sections (PATAg test). Shoot dry weight, net photosynthesis and relative amounts of N in vacuolar bodies were greater at the higher N and CO2 concentrations. The numbers and areas of vacuolar N-containing bodies were significantly greater at the higher N concentration only at ambient [CO2]. In the same treatment the percentage of hyphae containing glycogen declined to nearly zero. We conclude that, in the high N/low [CO2] treatment, the mycorrhizal fungus had an insufficient carbohydrate supply, partly because of increased amino acid synthesis by the non-mycorrhizal rootlets. When [CO2] was increased, the equilibrium between storage of glycogen and N-containing compounds was reestablished.

  5. The influence of Ceratocystis polonica inoculation and methyl jasmonate application on terpene chemistry of Norway spruce, Picea abies.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tao; Krokene, Paal; Björklund, Niklas; Långström, Bo; Solheim, Halvor; Christiansen, Erik; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

    2010-08-01

    Constitutive and inducible terpene production is involved in conifer resistance against bark beetles and their associated fungi. In this study 72 Norway spruce (Picea abies) were randomly assigned to methyl jasmonate (MJ) application, inoculation with the bluestain fungus Ceratocystis polonica, or no-treatment control. We investigated terpene levels in the stem bark of the trees before treatment, 30 days and one year after treatment using GC-MS and two-dimensional GC (2D-GC) with a chiral column, and monitored landing and attack rates of the spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus, on the trees by sticky traps and visual inspection. Thirty days after fungal inoculation the absolute amount and relative proportion of (+)-3-carene, sabinene, and terpinolene increased and (+)-alpha-pinene decreased. Spraying the stems with MJ tended to generally increase the concentration of most major terpenes with minor alteration to their relative proportions, but significant increases were only observed for (-)-beta-pinene and (-)-limonene. Fungal inoculation significantly increased the enantiomeric ratio of (-)-alpha-pinene and (-)-limonene 1 month after treatment, whereas MJ only increased that of (-)-limonene. One year after treatment, both MJ and fungal inoculation increased the concentration of most terpenes relative to undisturbed control trees, with significant changes in (-)-beta-pinene, (-)-beta-phellandrene and some other compounds. Terpene levels did not change in untreated stem sections after treatment, and chemical induction by MJ and C. polonica thus seemed to be restricted to the treated stem section. The enantiomeric ratio of (-)-alpha-pinene was significantly higher and the relative proportions of (-)-limonene were significantly lower in trees that were attractive to bark beetles compared to unattractive trees. One month after fungal inoculation, the total amount of diterpenes was significantly higher in putative resistant trees with shorter lesion lengths than in

  6. A possible biochemical basis for fructose-induced inhibition of embryo development in Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Businge, Edward; Egertsdotter, Ulrika

    2014-06-01

    Sugars play an important role in various physiological processes during plant growth and development; however, the developmental roles and regulatory functions of hexoses other than glucose are still largely unclear. Recent studies suggest that blocked embryo development in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) is associated with accumulation of fructose. In the present study, the potential biochemical regulatory mechanism of glucose and fructose was studied during development of somatic embryos of Norway spruce from pro-embryogenic masses to mature embryos. The changes in protein fluorescence, a marker of the Maillard reaction, were monitored in two cell lines of Norway spruce that were grown on media containing sucrose (control), glucose or fructose. Manual time-lapse photography showed that growth of embryogenic cultures on medium containing sucrose was characterized by normal development of mature embryos whereas the embryogenic cultures that were grown on media containing glucose or fructose did not develop mature embryos. The biochemical analyses of embryogenic samples collected during embryo development showed that: (i) the content of glucose and fructose in the embryogenic cultures increased significantly during growth on each medium, respectively; (ii) the accumulation of Maillard products in the embryogenic cultures was highly correlated with the endogenous content of fructose but not glucose; and (iii) the embryogenic cultures grown on fructose displayed the highest protein carbonyl content and DNA damage whereas the highest content of glutathione was recorded in the embryogenic cultures that had grown on sucrose. Our data suggest that blocked development of embryos in the presence of fructose may be associated with the Maillard reaction.

  7. Shoot-level terpenoids emission in Norway spruce (Picea abies) under natural field and manipulated laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Raffaela; Lusini, Ilaria; Kristýna Večeřová; Petra Holišová; Pallozzi, Emanuele; Guidolotti, Gabriele; Urban, Otmar; Calfapietra, Carlo

    2016-11-01

    Norway spruce (Picea abies) is a strong emitter of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). In the present study we investigated how shoot canopy position and high levels of stressors such as high temperature and ozone concentration, affect BVOC emission rates by means of in-situ and ex-situ experimental measurements. Therefore, BVOC emission from current-year spruce shoots was investigated under field and manipulated (temperature, ozone) laboratory conditions. Emitted BVOCs were sampled on desorption tubes, coupled with gas-exchange measurements of CO2 assimilation rate and stomatal conductance, and detected by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Total BVOC emission rates from sun shoots under standard conditions were higher than those from shade shoots, although this was significant only in July, on the contrary, only α-pinene and γ-terpinene emission rates showed significant differences between sun and shade acclimated shoots in August. Limonene, α-pinene, β-pinene, and myrcene were identified as the most abundant BVOCs in both campaigns with emission rates above 0.2 nmol m(-2) s(-1). Ex-situ measurements revealed a significantly higher total BVOC emissions under high temperature level (40 °C) by ca. 175% as compared with standard temperature (30 °C), while a short-term fumigation of acute O3 concentration (200 ppb) had no effect on BVOC emissions and its spectrum. These findings might have a relevance considering the role of these compounds in protecting against oxidative stress and their possible stimulation in particular stressful conditions. Implication of such results into emission models may contribute to a more accurate estimation of BVOC emissions for Central European mountain regions dominated by Norway spruce forests and their rate under predicted climate change.

  8. Secondary metabolites of the lichen Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. and their presence in spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) bark.

    PubMed

    Latkowska, Ewa; Bober, Beata; Chrapusta, Ewelina; Adamski, Michal; Kaminski, Ariel; Bialczyk, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Lichen species typically have a characteristic profile of secondary metabolites. Dense populations of Hypogymnia physodes growing frequently as epiphytes on tree branches have harmful effects on the host, likely due to their secondary compounds, which were undetected in tree tissues until now. The aim of the present study was to re-characterise the suite of secondary metabolites of H. physodes thalli and to estimate their translocation into spruce (Picea abies) bark. Thallus and bark extracts were compared using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The compounds were identified based on their UV, MS and MS/MS spectra as well as retention factors of their TLC analysis. In addition to the previously described secondary metabolites (protocetraric, physodalic, 3-hydroxyphysodic, physodic, and 2'-O-methylphysodic acids, atranorin and chloroatranorin) of H. physodes, further three were identified in its thalli: conphysodalic, 4-O-methylphysodic and α-alectoronic acids. Fragmentation patterns from the negative ionisation of each compound were proposed, some of which were described for the first time. Among all of the detected lichen substances, a few, e.g., physodalic, 3-hydroxyphysodic, physodic acids and atranorin, were present in the bark of spruce branches that were abundantly colonised by lichen. The newly identified compounds of H. physodes thalli may belong to its constant or accessory secondary metabolites. These compounds may be useful in the chemotaxonomic classification of this species. The presence of some lichen substances in spruce bark confirmed their ability to penetrate host tissues. These data suggest that H. physodes compounds may cause long-term effects on spruces in nature.

  9. Clavulina-Membranomyces is the most important lineage within the highly diverse ectomycorrhizal fungal community of Abies religiosa.

    PubMed

    Argüelles-Moyao, Andrés; Garibay-Orijel, Roberto; Márquez-Valdelamar, Laura Margarita; Arellano-Torres, Elsa

    2017-01-01

    Abies religiosa is an endemic conifer of Mexico, where its monodominant forests are the winter refuge of the monarch butterfly. Due to climate change, it has been estimated that by 2090, A. religiosa populations will decline by 96.5 %. To achieve success, reforestation programs should consider its ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi. We used ITS nrDNA sequences to identify the ECM fungi associated with A. religiosa and, based on its abundance and frequency, determined the diversity and community structure in a pure A. religiosa forest near Mexico City. Using sequence metadata, we inferred the species geographic distribution and host preferences. We conducted phylogenetic analyses of the Clavulinaceae (the most important family). The ECM community held 83 species, among which the richest genera were Inocybe (21 species), Tomentella (10 species), and Russula (8 species). Besides its low species richness, the Clavulina-Membranomyces lineage was the most dominant family. Clavulina cf. cinerea and Membranomyces sp. exhibited the highest relative abundance and relative frequency values. Phylogenetic analyses placed the Clavulinaceae genotypes in three different clades: one within Membranomyces and two within Clavulina. A meta-analysis showed that the majority of the ECM fungi (45.78 %) associated with A. religiosa in Mexico have also been sequenced from North America and are shared by Pinaceae and Fagaceae. In contrast, because they have not been sequenced previously, 32.2 % of the species have a restricted distribution. Here, we highlight the emerging pattern that the Clavulina-Membranomyces lineage is dominant in several ECM communities in the Neotropics, including Aldinia and Dicymbe legume tropical forests in the Guyana Shield, the Alnus acuminata subtropical communities, and the A. religiosa temperate forests in Mexico.

  10. Influence of low- and high-elevation plant genomes on the regulation of autumn cold acclimation in Abies sachalinensis

    PubMed Central

    Ishizuka, Wataru; Ono, Kiyomi; Hara, Toshihiko; Goto, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    Boreal coniferous species with wide geographic distributions show substantial variation in autumn cold acclimation among populations. To determine how this variation is inherited across generations, we conducted a progeny test and examined the development of cold hardening in open-pollinated second-generation (F2) progeny of Abies sachalinensis. The F1 parents had different genetic backgrounds resulting from reciprocal interpopulational crosses between low-elevation (L) and high-elevation (H) populations: L × L, L × H, H × L, and H × H. Paternity analysis of the F2 progeny using molecular genetic markers showed that 91.3% of the fathers were located in surrounding stands of the F1 planting site (i.e., not in the F1 test population). The remaining fathers were assigned to F1 parents of the L × L cross-type. This indicates that the high-elevation genome in the F1 parents was not inherited by the F2 population via pollen flow. The timing of autumn cold acclimation in the F2 progeny depended on the cross-type of the F1 mother. The progeny of H × H mothers showed less damage in freezing tests than the progeny of other cross-types. Statistical modeling supported a linear effect of genome origin. In the best model, variation in freezing damage was explained by the proportion of maternally inherited high-elevation genome. These results suggest that autumn cold acclimation was partly explained by the additive effect of the responsible maternal genome. Thus, the offspring that inherited a greater proportion of the high-elevation genome developed cold hardiness earlier. Genome-based variation in the regulation of autumn cold acclimation matched the local climatic conditions, which may be a key factor in elevation-dependent adaptation. PMID:26557131

  11. [Effects of snow pack on soil nitrogen transformation enzyme activities in a subalpine Abies faxioniana forest of western Sichuan, China].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Li; Xu, Zhen-Feng; Wu, Fu-Zhong; Yang, Wan-Qin; Yin, Rui; Li, Zhi-Ping; Gou, Xiao-Lin; Tang, Shi-Shan

    2014-05-01

    This study characterized the dynamics of the activities of urease, nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase in both soil organic layer and mineral soil layer under three depths of snow pack (deep snowpack, moderate snowpack and shallow snowpack) over the three critical periods (snow formed period, snow stable period, and snow melt period) in the subalpine Abies faxoniana forest of western Sichuan in the winter of 2012 and 2013. Throughout the winter, soil temperature under deep snowpack increased by 46.2% and 26.2%, respectively in comparison with moderate snowpack and shallow snowpack. In general, the three nitrogen-related soil enzyme activities under shallow snowpack were 0.8 to 3.9 times of those under deep snowpack during the winter. In the beginning and thawing periods of seasonal snow pack, shallow snowpack significantly increased the activities of urease, nitrate and nitrite reductase enzyme in both soil organic layer and mineral soil layer. Although the activities of the studied enzymes in soil organic layer and mineral soil layer were observed to be higher than those under deep- and moderate snowpacks in deep winter, no significant difference was found under the three snow packs. Meanwhile, the effects of snowpack on the activities of the measured enzymes were related with season, soil layer and enzyme type. Significant variations of the activities of nitrogen-related enzymes were found in three critical periods over the winter, and the three measured soil enzymes were significantly higher in organic layer than in mineral layer. In addition, the activities of the three measured soil enzymes were closely related with temperature and moisture in soils. In conclusion, the decrease of snow pack induced by winter warming might increase the activities of soil enzymes related with nitrogen transformation and further stimulate the process of wintertime nitrogen transformation in soils of the subalpine forest.

  12. Synthesis, crystal structure, and photocatalytic activity of the new three-layer aurivillius phases, Bi{sub 2}ASrTi{sub 2}TaO{sub 12} (A=Bi, La)

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Dong; Tang Kaibin; Liang Zhenhua; Zheng Huagui

    2010-02-15

    Two new three-layer Aurivillius phases Bi{sub 2}ASrTi{sub 2}TaO{sub 12} (A=Bi, La) have been synthesized. The detailed structure determination of Bi{sub 2}ASrTi{sub 2}TaO{sub 12} (A=Bi, La) performed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and selected area electron microscopy (SAED) shows that they all crystallize in the space group I/4mmm. UV-visible diffuse reflection spectrum of the prepared Bi{sub 2}ASrTi{sub 2}TaO{sub 12} (A=Bi, La) indicates that it had absorption in the ultraviolet (UV) region. The photocatalytic activity of the Bi{sub 2}ASrTi{sub 2}TaO{sub 12} (A=Bi, La) powders was evaluated by degradation of rhodamine B (RB) molecules in water under UV light irradiation. The results showed that Bi{sub 2}ASrTi{sub 2}TaO{sub 12} (A=Bi, La) has high photocatalytic activity at room temperature. Therefore, the preparation and properties studies of Bi{sub 2}ASrTi{sub 2}TaO{sub 12} (A=Bi, La) with a three-layer Aurivillius structure suggest potential future applications in photocatalysis. - Graphical abstract: Two new three-layer Aurivillius phases Bi{sub 2}ASrTi{sub 2}TaO{sub 12} (A=Bi, La) have been synthesized by a conventional solid state reaction method. And this is the crystal structure of the three-layer Aurivillius phases, Bi{sub 2}ASrTi{sub 2}TaO{sub 12}.

  13. Comparative Studies of Delignification Caused by Ganoderma Species †

    PubMed Central

    Adaskaveg, J. E.; Gilbertson, R. L.; Blanchette, R. A.

    1990-01-01

    Isolates of six species of Ganoderma in the G. lucidum complex were evaluated for their ability to decay wood of Quercus hypoleucoides A. Camus and Abies concolor (Gord. and Glend.) Lindl. ex. Hildebr. by using in vitro agar block decay tests. Morphological, ultrastructural, and chemical studies of decayed wood were used to determine the extent of delignification or simultaneous decay caused by each species of Ganoderma. All species decayed both white fir and oak wood; however, less percent weight loss (%WL) occurred in white fir than oak. In white fir, isolates of two undescribed Ganoderma species (RLG16161, RLG16162, JEA615, and JEA625) caused significantly higher%WL (21 to 26%) than that in G. colossum, G. oregonense, G. meredithiae, and G. zonatum (10 to 16%). Only Ganoderma sp. isolates JEA615 and JEA625 caused delignification, with JEA615 causing a lignin-to-glucose gram loss ratio of 1.6:1. Morphological and ultrastructural studies confirmed delignification by this fungus and showed that some delignification had occurred by all of the species, although areas of delignification were limited to small regions adjacent to simultaneously decayed cells. In oak, G. colossum caused significantly less%WL (22 to 35%) than the other species (38 to 52%). All of the species, except G. meredithiae, caused delignification with lignin-to-glucose gram loss ratios ranging from 1.4 to 4.9:1. Extensive delignification by isolates of G. colossum and G. oregonense was observed; moderate delignification was caused by the other species. Ganoderma meredithiae caused a simultaneous decay, with only small localized regions of cells delignified, while delignification by G. zonatum was irregular, with specific zones within the cell wall delignified. The thermophilic and chlamydosporic G. colossum has the capacity to cause extensive delignification and appears ideally suited for use in lignin degradation studies and biotechnological applications of lignin-degrading fungi. Images PMID

  14. Litter dynamics in two Sierran mixed conifer forests. I. Litterfall and decomposition rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.

    1988-01-01

    Litterfall was measured for 4 years and leaf litter decomposition rates were studied for 3.6 years in two mixed conifer forest (giant sequoia-fir and fir-pine) in the southern Sierra Nevada of California. The giant sequoia-fir forest (GS site) was dominated by giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum (Lindl.) Buchh.), white fir (Abies concolor Lindl. & Gord.), and sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana Dougl.). The fir-pine forest (FP site) was dominated by white fir, sugar pine, and incense cedar (Calocedrus decurrens (Torr.) Florin). Litterfall, including large woody debris -1•year-1 compared with 4355 kg•ha-1•year-1 at the FP site (3.4:1). In the GS site, leaf litter decomposition after 3.6 years was slowest for giant sequoia (28.2% mass loss), followed by sugar pine (34.3%) and white fie (45.1%). In the FP site, mass loss was slowest for sugar pine (40.0%), followed by white fir (45.1%), while incense cedar showed the greatest mass loss (56.9%) after 3.6 years. High litterfall rates of large woody debris (i.e., 2.5-15.2 cm diameter) and slow rates of leaf litter decomposition in the giant sequoia-fir forest type may result in higher litter accumulation rates than in the fir-pine type. Leaf litter times to 95% decay for the GS and FP sites were 30 and 27 years, respectively, if the initial 0.7-year period (a short period of rapid mass decay) was ignored in the calculation. A mass balance approach for total litterfall (<15.2 cm diameter) decomposition yielded lower decay constants than did the litterbag study and therefore longer times to 95% decay (57 years for the GS site and 62 years for the FP site).

  15. Comparative studies of delignification caused by ganoderma species.

    PubMed

    Adaskaveg, J E; Gilbertson, R L; Blanchette, R A

    1990-06-01

    Isolates of six species of Ganoderma in the G. lucidum complex were evaluated for their ability to decay wood of Quercus hypoleucoides A. Camus and Abies concolor (Gord. and Glend.) Lindl. ex. Hildebr. by using in vitro agar block decay tests. Morphological, ultrastructural, and chemical studies of decayed wood were used to determine the extent of delignification or simultaneous decay caused by each species of Ganoderma. All species decayed both white fir and oak wood; however, less percent weight loss (%WL) occurred in white fir than oak. In white fir, isolates of two undescribed Ganoderma species (RLG16161, RLG16162, JEA615, and JEA625) caused significantly higher%WL (21 to 26%) than that in G. colossum, G. oregonense, G. meredithiae, and G. zonatum (10 to 16%). Only Ganoderma sp. isolates JEA615 and JEA625 caused delignification, with JEA615 causing a lignin-to-glucose gram loss ratio of 1.6:1. Morphological and ultrastructural studies confirmed delignification by this fungus and showed that some delignification had occurred by all of the species, although areas of delignification were limited to small regions adjacent to simultaneously decayed cells. In oak, G. colossum caused significantly less%WL (22 to 35%) than the other species (38 to 52%). All of the species, except G. meredithiae, caused delignification with lignin-to-glucose gram loss ratios ranging from 1.4 to 4.9:1. Extensive delignification by isolates of G. colossum and G. oregonense was observed; moderate delignification was caused by the other species. Ganoderma meredithiae caused a simultaneous decay, with only small localized regions of cells delignified, while delignification by G. zonatum was irregular, with specific zones within the cell wall delignified. The thermophilic and chlamydosporic G. colossum has the capacity to cause extensive delignification and appears ideally suited for use in lignin degradation studies and biotechnological applications of lignin-degrading fungi.

  16. High-Throughput Sequencing Reveals Drastic Changes in Fungal Communities in the Phyllosphere of Norway Spruce (Picea abies) Following Invasion of the Spruce Bud Scale (Physokermes piceae).

    PubMed

    Menkis, Audrius; Marčiulynas, Adas; Gedminas, Artūras; Lynikienė, Jūratė; Povilaitienė, Aistė

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the diversity and composition of fungal communities in damaged and undamaged shoots of Norway spruce (Picea abies) following recent invasion of the spruce bud scale (Physokermes piceae) in Lithuania. Sampling was done in July 2013 and included 50 random lateral shoots from ten random trees in each of five visually undamaged and five damaged 40-50-year-old pure stands of P. abies. DNA was isolated from 500 individual shoots, subjected to amplification of the internal transcribed spacer of fungal ribosomal DNA (ITS rDNA), barcoded and sequenced. Clustering of 149,426 high-quality sequences resulted in 1193 non-singleton contigs of which 1039 (87.1 %) were fungal. In total, there were 893 fungal taxa in damaged shoots and 608 taxa in undamaged shoots (p < 0.0001). Furthermore, 431 (41.5 %) fungal taxa were exclusively in damaged shoots, 146 (14.0 %) were exclusively in undamaged shoots, and 462 (44.5 %) were common to both types of samples. Correspondence analysis showed that study sites representing damaged and undamaged shoots were separated from each other, indicating that in these fungal communities, these were largely different and, therefore, heavily affected by P. piceae. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that invasive alien tree pests may have a profound effect on fungal mycobiota associated with the phyllosphere of P. abies, and therefore, in addition to their direct negative effect owing physical damage of the tissue, they may also indirectly determine health, sustainability and, ultimately, distribution of the forest tree species.

  17. FERONIA interacts with ABI2-type phosphatases to facilitate signaling cross-talk between abscisic acid and RALF peptide in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jia; Yu, Feng; Liu, Ying; Du, Changqing; Li, Xiushan; Zhu, Sirui; Wang, Xianchun; Lan, Wenzhi; Rodriguez, Pedro L.; Liu, Xuanming; Li, Dongping; Chen, Liangbi; Luan, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Receptor-like kinase FERONIA (FER) plays a crucial role in plant response to small molecule hormones [e.g., auxin and abscisic acid (ABA)] and peptide signals [e.g., rapid alkalinization factor (RALF)]. It remains unknown how FER integrates these different signaling events in the control of cell growth and stress responses. Under stress conditions, increased levels of ABA will inhibit cell elongation in the roots. In our previous work, we have shown that FER, through activation of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1 (GEF1)/4/10-Rho of Plant 11 (ROP11) pathway, enhances the activity of the phosphatase ABA Insensitive 2 (ABI2), a negative regulator of ABA signaling, thereby inhibiting ABA response. In this study, we found that both RALF and ABA activated FER by increasing the phosphorylation level of FER. The FER loss-of-function mutant displayed strong hypersensitivity to both ABA and abiotic stresses such as salt and cold conditions, indicating that FER plays a key role in ABA and stress responses. We further showed that ABI2 directly interacted with and dephosphorylated FER, leading to inhibition of FER activity. Several other ABI2-like phosphatases also function in this pathway, and ABA-dependent FER activation required PYRABACTIN RESISTANCE (PYR)/PYR1-LIKE (PYL)/REGULATORY COMPONENTS OF ABA RECEPTORS (RCAR)–A-type protein phosphatase type 2C (PP2CA) modules. Furthermore, suppression of RALF1 gene expression, similar to disruption of the FER gene, rendered plants hypersensitive to ABA. These results formulated a mechanism for ABA activation of FER and for cross-talk between ABA and peptide hormone RALF in the control of plant growth and responses to stress signals. PMID:27566404

  18. Different Alleles of a Gene Encoding Leucoanthocyanidin Reductase (PaLAR3) Influence Resistance against the Fungus Heterobasidion parviporum in Picea abies.

    PubMed

    Nemesio-Gorriz, Miguel; Hammerbacher, Almuth; Ihrmark, Katarina; Källman, Thomas; Olson, Åke; Lascoux, Martin; Stenlid, Jan; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Elfstrand, Malin

    2016-08-01

    Despite the fact that fungal diseases are a growing menace for conifers in modern silviculture, only a very limited number of molecular markers for pathogen resistance have been validated in conifer species. A previous genetic study indicated that the resistance of Norway spruce (Picea abies) to Heterobasidion annosum s.l., a pathogenic basidiomycete species complex, is linked to a quantitative trait loci that associates with differences in fungal growth in sapwood (FGS) that includes a gene, PaLAR3, which encodes a leucoanthocyanidin reductase. In this study, gene sequences showed the presence of two PaLAR3 allelic lineages in P. abies. Higher resistance was associated with the novel allele, which was found in low frequency in the four P. abies populations that we studied. Norway spruce plants carrying at least one copy of the novel allele showed a significant reduction in FGS after inoculation with Heterobasidion parviporum compared to their half-siblings carrying no copies, indicating dominance of this allele. The amount of (+) catechin, the enzymatic product of PaLAR3, was significantly higher in bark of trees homozygous for the novel allele. Although we observed that the in vitro activities of the enzymes encoded by the two alleles were similar, we could show that allele-specific transcript levels were significantly higher for the novel allele, indicating that regulation of gene expression is responsible for the observed effects in resistance, possibly caused by differences in cis-acting elements that we observe in the promoter region of the two alleles.

  19. Ancestry and divergence of subtropical montane forest isolates: molecular biogeography of the genus Abies (Pinaceae) in southern México and Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo-Correa, Juan P; Aguirre-Planter, Erika; Khasa, Damase P; Eguiarte, Luis E; Piñero, Daniel; Furnier, Glenn R; Bousquet, Jean

    2008-05-01

    The genus Abies has a complex history in southern México and Guatemala. In this region, four closely related species, Abies flinckii, A. guatemalensis, A. hickelii, and A. religiosa, are distributed in fragmented and isolated montane populations. Range-wide genetic variation was investigated across species using cytoplasmic DNA markers with contrasted inheritance. Variation at two maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA markers was low. All species shared two of the nine mitotypes detected, while the remaining seven mitochondrial DNA types were restricted to a few isolated stands. Mitochondrial genetic differentiation across taxa was high (G(ST) = 0.933), it was not related to the taxonomic identity (amova; P > 0.05) of the populations, and it was not phylogeographically structured (G(ST) approximately N(ST)). In contrast, variation at three paternally inherited chloroplast DNA microsatellites was high. Chloroplast genetic differentiation was lower (G(ST) = 0.402; R(ST) = 0.547) than for mitochondrial DNA, but it was significantly related to taxonomy (amova; P < 0.001), and exhibited a significant phylogeographical structure (G(ST) < R(ST)). Different analyses of population structure indicated that A. flinckii was the most divergent taxon, while the remaining three species formed a relatively homogeneous group. However, a small number of the populations of these three taxa, all located at the limits of their respective ranges or in the Transverse Volcanic Belt, diverged from this main cluster. These trends suggest that the Mesoamerican Abies share a recent common ancestor and that their divergence and speciation is mainly driven by genetic drift and isolation during the warm interglacial periods.

  20. Water content and bark thickness of Norway spruce (Picea abies) stems: phloem water capacitance and xylem sap flow.

    PubMed

    Gall, Rolf; Landolt, W; Schleppi, P; Michellod, V; Bucher, J B

    2002-06-01

    To determine the relationship between phloem transport and changes in phloem water content, we measured temporal and spatial variations in water content and sucrose, glucose and fructose concentrations in phloem samples and phloem exudates of 70- and 30-year-old Norway spruce trees (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). Large temporal and spatial variations in phloem water content (1.4-2.6 mg mg(dw)(-1)) and phloem total sugar concentration (31-70 mg g(dw)(-1)) paralleled each other (r(2) = 0.83, P < 0.0001 for the temporal profile and r(2) = 0.96, P < 0.008 for the spatial profile), indicating that phloem water content depends on the total amount of sugar to be transferred. Changes in phloem water content were unrelated to changes in bark thickness. Maximum changes in phloem water content calculated from dendrometer readings were only 8-11% of the maximum measured changes in phloem water content, indicating that reversible changes in bark thickness did not reflect changes in internal water relations. We also studied the relationship between xylem sap velocity and changes in bark thickness in 70-year-old trees during summer 1999 and winter 1999-2000. Sap flow occurred sporadically throughout the winter, but there was no relationship between bark shrinkage or swelling and sap velocity. In winter, mean daily xylem sap velocity was significantly correlated with mean daily vapor pressure deficit and air temperature (P < 0.0001, in both cases). Changes in bark thickness corresponded with both short- and long-term changes in relative humidity, in both winter and summer. Under controlled conditions at > 0 degrees C, changes in relative humidity alone caused changes in thickness of boiled bark samples. Because living bark of Norway spruce trees contains large areas with crushed and dead sieve cell zones-up to 24% of the bark is air-filled space-we suggest that this space can compensate for volume changes in living phloem cells independently of total tissue water content. We conclude

  1. [Response of Picea purpurea and Abies faxoniana tree rings at different slope aspects to rapid warming in western Sichuan, China].

    PubMed

    Guo, Bin-de; Zhang, Yuan-dong; Wang, Xiao-chun

    2016-02-01

    By using an empirical 'signal-free' standardization approach, we constructed four Picea purpurea and Abies faxoniana tree-ring chronologies at southeast and northwest slope aspects of Erdaohai and east slope aspect of Zharisi, Songpan, west Sichuan, China. The response analysis and multivariate analysis of variance between tree rings and climatic variables were conducted to explore the divergent responses of tree growth at different slope aspects to the recent warming climate. Results showed that tree growth of P. purpurea at east slope aspect was obviously accelerated (0.011 a-1) since rapid warming in 1980, whereas those at northwest slope aspect was significantly reduced (-0.006 a-1). Tree growth of P. purpurea at southeast slope aspect and A. faxoniana at northwest slope aspect decreased in significantly. With the rapid warming, growth-climate relationships of P. purpurea and A. faxoniana at different slope aspects changed significantly. After rapid warming in 1980, the promoting effects of growing season temperature (GST) on P. purpurea growth at east slope increased significantly, while the inhibitory effects of GST on its growth at southeast and northwest slopes also increased significantly. However, the effects of GST on A. faxoniana growth at northwest slope did not change significantly before and after rapid warming. The effects of precipitation in May (PM) on P. purpurea growth at east slope was changed from inhibition before rapid warming to significant promotion after rapid warming, while the inhibitory effects of PM on P. purpurea growth at southeast and northwest slopes increased significantly. For A. faioniana at northwest slope, however, it did not change obviously before and after rapid warming. The response analysis between tree growth and the Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) showed that soil moisture variations at different slope aspects were an important reason of tree-ring growth response difference since rapid warming. In addition, the

  2. Population dynamics and genetic changes of Picea abies in the South Carpathians revealed by pollen and ancient DNA analyses

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Studies on allele length polymorphism designate several glacial refugia for Norway spruce (Picea abies) in the South Carpathian Mountains, but infer only limited expansion from these refugia after the last glaciation. To better understand the genetic dynamics of a South Carpathian spruce lineage, we compared ancient DNA from 10,700 and 11,000-year-old spruce pollen and macrofossils retrieved from Holocene lake sediment in the Retezat Mountains with DNA extracted from extant material from the same site. We used eight primer pairs that amplified short and variable regions of the spruce cpDNA. In addition, from the same lake sediment we obtained a 15,000-years-long pollen accumulation rate (PAR) record for spruce that helped us to infer changes in population size at this site. Results We obtained successful amplifications for Norway spruce from 17 out of 462 pollen grains tested, while the macrofossil material provided 22 DNA sequences. Two fossil sequences were found to be unique to the ancient material. Population genetic statistics showed higher genetic diversity in the ancient individuals compared to the extant ones. Similarly, statistically significant Ks and Kst values showed a considerable level of differentiation between extant and ancient populations at the same loci. Lateglacial and Holocene PAR values suggested that population size of the ancient population was small, in the range of 1/10 or 1/5 of the extant population. PAR analysis also detected two periods of rapid population growths (from ca. 11,100 and 3900 calibrated years before present (cal yr BP)) and three bottlenecks (around 9180, 7200 and 2200 cal yr BP), likely triggered by climatic change and human impact. Conclusion Our results suggest that the paternal lineages observed today in the Retezat Mountains persisted at this site at least since the early Holocene. Combination of the results from the genetic and the PAR analyses furthermore suggests that the higher level of genetic

  3. Airborne fungal colonisation of coarse woody debris in North Temperate Picea abies forest: impact of season and local spatial scale.

    PubMed

    Vasiliauskas, Rimvydas; Lygis, Vaidotas; Larsson, Karl-Henrik; Stenlid, Jan

    2005-04-01

    Coarse woody debris is important for mycodiversity in forest ecosystems, but its availability in managed stands is reduced. Leaving dead wood during felling is suggested as an option to sustain and restore the diversity. However, little is known what fungi would colonise freshly cut wood left on managed sites, and how the colonisation process is influenced by ecological factors. During summer and autumn, 120 freshly cut Picea abies stem sections over 8 cm in diameter were placed upright in mapped locations over two discrete plots separated by 100 m in a north-temperate forest. After seven weeks the sections were collected, and isolation and identification of fungi was done from their upper surfaces. In all 943 fungal strains were isolated, representing 97 species. Species richness in the summer survey was 42.5% higher than during the autumn survey. Low species similarity characterized the different seasons (Sorensen indices: S(S) = 0.36 and S(N) = 0.34) and for 21 species (22%) observation frequency was significantly affected by season. As a result, community structures in summer and autumn differed notably (z-test; P < 0.001). Species richness between the two plots differed by less than 10%, but there were 64 species (66%) found only in one of them, thus qualitative similarity was low (S(S) = 0.49). Quantitative similarity was higher (S(N) = 0.63), indicating that the dominant species colonised wood to a similar extent in both areas. Fungal community structure differed significantly among the two plots (z-test; P < 0.001). Our data showed that freshly cut CWD contributed to mycodiversity in managed north-temperate forest, providing habitats for numerous individuals from over 100 species. The fungal community within a single stand differed markedly both across small distances and over the seasons. In order to sustain and enhance mycodiversity in managed stands. coarse wood should always be left during harvesting. This study also demonstrates the importance of

  4. Tree growth and competition in an old-growth Picea abies forest of boreal Sweden: influence of tree spatial patterning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fraver, Shawn; D'Amato, Anthony W.; Bradford, John B.; Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar; Jönsson, Mari; Esseen, Per-Anders

    2013-01-01

    Question: What factors best characterize tree competitive environments in this structurally diverse old-growth forest, and do these factors vary spatially within and among stands? Location: Old-growth Picea abies forest of boreal Sweden. Methods: Using long-term, mapped permanent plot data augmented with dendrochronological analyses, we evaluated the effect of neighbourhood competition on focal tree growth by means of standard competition indices, each modified to include various metrics of trees size, neighbour mortality weighting (for neighbours that died during the inventory period), and within-neighbourhood tree clustering. Candidate models were evaluated using mixed-model linear regression analyses, with mean basal area increment as the response variable. We then analysed stand-level spatial patterns of competition indices and growth rates (via kriging) to determine if the relationship between these patterns could further elucidate factors influencing tree growth. Results: Inter-tree competition clearly affected growth rates, with crown volume being the size metric most strongly influencing the neighbourhood competitive environment. Including neighbour tree mortality weightings in models only slightly improved descriptions of competitive interactions. Although the within-neighbourhood clustering index did not improve model predictions, competition intensity was influenced by the underlying stand-level tree spatial arrangement: stand-level clustering locally intensified competition and reduced tree growth, whereas in the absence of such clustering, inter-tree competition played a lesser role in constraining tree growth. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that competition continues to influence forest processes and structures in an old-growth system that has not experienced major disturbances for at least two centuries. The finding that the underlying tree spatial pattern influenced the competitive environment suggests caution in interpreting traditional tree

  5. Raman Spectroscopic Online Investigation of Respiratory Quotients in Pinus Sylvestris and Picea Abies during Drought and Shading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanf, S.; Fischer, S.; Hartmann, H.; Trumbore, S.; Popp, J.; Frosch, T.

    2014-12-01

    Drought and heat waves have been linked to forest mortality event across the globe. The underlying physiological processes are still not elucidated but both tree carbon and water relations have been identified as the driving forces. While studies on tree hydraulics are straightforward, studies on the tree carbon balance are not. For example, the use of different carbon compounds for maintenance respiration during drought cannot be assessed with measurements of carbon pools but requires real-time analyses of respiration stoichiometry. However, so far there were no technical solutions for such applications. Here we introduce cavity-enhanced Raman spectrometry (CERS) for simultaneous real-time monitoring of O2 and CO2 and rapid and continuous quantification of dark respiration rates and the respiratory quotient (RQ), i.e. the ratio of CO2 produced over O2 consumed during respiration. This ratio indicates the proportions of different substrates (carbohydrates [COH], lipids, proteins) used during respiration and allows fundamental insights into tree physiology. CERS combines high temporal resolution with a high dynamic concentration range for all important gases, ranging from few ppm to 100 vol. % with a single measurement every few seconds. The respiration analysis of tree branches was performed in a closed chamber for two species of different drought tolerance, Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies. We applied not only drought but also a shading treatment because both cause reductions in carbon assimilation rates but have different effects on tree hydraulics. Declines in RQ during shading in both species indicate a switch from pure COH metabolism to a mixture of COH, lipids and proteins. During drought such declines occurred only in the drought-tolerant pine but not in spruce and the underlying more dynamic carbon use strategy in pine may provide a physiological basis for its drought tolerance, more detailed investigation still pending. Our study highlights the suitability

  6. Comparison of the ABI 7700 System (TaqMan) and Competitive PCR for Quantification of IS6110 DNA in Sputum during Treatment of Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Desjardin, L. e.; Chen, Y.; Perkins, M. D.; Teixeira, L.; Cave, M. D.; Eisenach, K. D.

    1998-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis can persist in sputum for long periods of time after the initiation of antituberculosis chemotherapy. The purpose of this study was to determine whether quantitative estimates of M. tuberculosis DNA in sputum correlate with the numbers of viable bacilli and thus measure the therapeutic response of patients during treatment. Two methods of M. tuberculosis DNA quantification were examined by using DNA isolated from sputum specimens serially collected during the course of chemotherapy. A competitive PCR assay was compared to an automated system of real-time quantification with the ABI Prism 7700 Sequence Detection System (TaqMan). The ABI 7700 system uses standard PCR in conjunction with a fluorogenic probe in which the intensity of fluorescence is proportional to the amount of target DNA present. The results showed that both PCR systems are reproducible and accurate. The amounts of M. tuberculosis DNA quantified in sputum corresponded well with the numbers of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) counted by microscopy. Before initiation of antituberculosis therapy, measures of AFB, M. tuberculosis DNA, and cultivable bacilli were similar, suggesting that quantification of DNA is a good method for measuring the initial bacillary load. However, the rate of disappearance of both AFB and M. tuberculosis DNA did not correlate with the decline in cultivable bacilli in the specimen; therefore, these tests are not appropriate for monitoring treatment efficacy. PMID:9650945

  7. Terpenoid-based defenses in conifers: cDNA cloning, characterization, and functional expression of wound-inducible (E)-α-bisabolene synthase from grand fir (Abies grandis)

    PubMed Central

    Bohlmann, Jörg; Crock, John; Jetter, Reinhard; Croteau, Rodney

    1998-01-01

    (E)-α-Bisabolene synthase is one of two wound-inducible sesquiterpene synthases of grand fir (Abies grandis), and the olefin product of this cyclization reaction is considered to be the precursor in Abies species of todomatuic acid, juvabione, and related insect juvenile hormone mimics. A cDNA encoding (E)-α-bisabolene synthase was isolated from a wound-induced grand fir stem library by a PCR-based strategy and was functionally expressed in Escherichia coli and shown to produce (E)-α-bisabolene as the sole product from farnesyl diphosphate. The expressed synthase has a deduced size of 93.8 kDa and a pI of 5.03, exhibits other properties typical of sesquiterpene synthases, and resembles in sequence other terpenoid synthases with the exception of a large amino-terminal insertion corresponding to Pro81–Val296. Biosynthetically prepared (E)-α-[3H]bisabolene was converted to todomatuic acid in induced grand fir cells, and the time course of appearance of bisabolene synthase mRNA was shown by Northern hybridization to lag behind that of mRNAs responsible for production of induced oleoresin monoterpenes. These results suggest that induced (E)-α-bisabolene biosynthesis constitutes part of a defense response targeted to insect herbivores, and possibly fungal pathogens, that is distinct from induced oleoresin monoterpene production. PMID:9618485

  8. Constitutive Equations and ANN Approach to Predict the Flow Stress of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy Based on ABI Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fuzeng; Zhao, Jun; Zhu, Ningbo

    2016-11-01

    The flow behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy was studied by automated ball indentation (ABI) tests in a wide range of temperatures (293, 493, 693, and 873 K) and strain rates (10-6, 10-5, and 10-4 s-1). Based on the experimental true stress-plastic strain data derived from the ABI tests, the Johnson-Cook (JC), Khan-Huang-Liang (KHL) and modified Zerilli-Armstrong (ZA) constitutive models, as well as artificial neural network (ANN) methods, were employed to predict the flow behavior of Ti-6Al-4V. A comparative study was made on the reliability of the four models, and their predictability was evaluated in terms of correlation coefficient ( R) and mean absolute percentage error. It is found that the flow stresses of Ti-6Al-4V alloy are more sensitive to temperature than strain rate under current experimental conditions. The predicted flow stresses obtained from JC model and KHL model show much better agreement with the experimental results than modified ZA model. Moreover, the ANN model is much more efficient and shows a higher accuracy in predicting the flow behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy than the constitutive equations.

  9. Needle life span, photosynthetic rate and nutrient concentration of Picea glehnii, P. jezoensis and P. abies planted on serpentine soil in northern Japan.

    PubMed

    Kayama, Masazumi; Sasa, Kaichiro; Koike, Takayoshi

    2002-07-01

    We investigated the adaptation of three spruce species (Picea glehnii Masters, P. jezoensis Carr. and P. abies Karst.) to growth in northern Japan on serpentine soils (characterized by high concentrations of heavy metals and Mg, a low Ca/Mg ratio and low fertility) and fertile brown forest soils. Among species, seedling survival on serpentine soil was highest in P. glehnii. Shoot growth of P. glehnii was similar whether grown on serpentine or brown forest soil, whereas shoot growth of the other species was significantly less on serpentine soil than on brown forest soil. On serpentine soil, needle life span of P. glehnii was at least 3 years longer than that of the other two species. Needle area per shoot of P. glehnii was significantly higher on serpentine soil than on brown forest soil up to a shoot age of 8 years. In all three species, light-saturated photosynthetic rate (Pmax) decreased with needle age independently of soil type. However, on serpentine soil, Pmax in P. glehnii was higher, particularly in older needles, than in the other species. Furthermore, on serpentine soil, needle concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus were higher in P. glehnii than in the other species. We conclude that P. glehnii is better adapted to serpentine soil than P. jezoensis and P. abies at least in part because of its greater needle life span and higher needle nutrient concentrations.

  10. Age-related effects on leaf area/sapwood area relationships, canopy transpiration and carbon gain of Norway spruce stands (Picea abies) in the Fichtelgebirge, Germany.

    PubMed

    Köstner, B; Falge, E; Tenhunen, J D

    2002-06-01

    Stand age is an important structural determinant of canopy transpiration (E(c)) and carbon gain. Another more functional parameter of forest structure is the leaf area/sapwood area relationship, A(L)/A(S), which changes with site conditions and has been used to estimate leaf area index of forest canopies. The interpretation of age-related changes in A(L)/A(S) and the question of how A(L)/A(S) is related to forest functions are of current interest because they may help to explain forest canopy fluxes and growth. We conducted studies in mature stands of Picea abies (L.) Karst. varying in age from 40 to 140 years, in tree density from 1680 to 320 trees ha(-1), and in tree height from 15 to 30 m. Structural parameters were measured by biomass harvests of individual trees and stand biometry. We estimated E(c) from scaled-up xylem sap flux of trees, and canopy-level fluxes were predicted by a three-dimensional microclimate and gas exchange model (STANDFLUX). In contrast to pine species, A(L)/A(S) of P. abies increased with stand age from 0.26 to 0.48 m(2) cm(-2). Agreement between E(c) derived from scaled-up sap flux and modeled canopy transpiration was obtained with the same parameterization of needle physiology independent of stand age. Reduced light interception per leaf area and, as a consequence, reductions in net canopy photosynthesis (A(c)), canopy conductance (g(c)) and E(c) were predicted by the model in the older stands. Seasonal water-use efficiency (WUE = A(c)/E(c)), derived from scaled-up sap flux and stem growth as well as from model simulation, declined with increasing A(L)/A(S) and stand age. Based on the different behavior of age-related A(L)/A(S) in Norway spruce stands compared with other tree species, we conclude that WUE rather than A(L)/A(S) could represent a common age-related property of all species. We also conclude that, in addition to hydraulic limitations reducing carbon gain in old stands, a functional change in A(L)/A(S) that is related to

  11. Combined analysis by GC (RI), GC-MS and 13C NMR of the supercritical fluid extract of Abies alba twigs.

    PubMed

    Duquesnoy, Emilie; Marongiu, Bruno; Castola, Vincent; Piras, Alessandra; Porcedda, Silvia; Casanova, Joseph

    2010-12-01

    Two samples (leaves and twigs) of Abies alba Miller from Corsica were extracted using supercritical CO2 and their chemical compositions were compared with those of the essential oils obtained from the same batch of plant material. In total 45 components were identified using combined analysis by GC (RI), GC-MS and 13C NMR. It was observed that the contents of monoterpenes (mainly represented by limonene, alpha-pinene and camphene) were significantly lower in the supercritical fluid extract (SFE) than in the essential oil (EO). Conversely, the proportions of sesquiterpenes were much higher in CO2 extracts than in essential oils (around 30% vs 4%). Cis-abienol, a diterpene alcohol, was identified only in SFE, and the proportions of this constituent (7.5% and 17.3%) were determined using quantitative 13C NMR since it was under estimated using the standard conditions of GC.

  12. The mycorrhizal fungus Amanita muscaria induces chitinase activity in roots and in suspension-cultured cells of its host Picea abies.

    PubMed

    Sauter, M; Hager, A

    1989-08-01

    A cell-wall fraction of the mycorrhizal fungus Amanita muscaria increased the chitinase activity in suspension-cultured cells of spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) which is a frequent host of Amanita muscaria in nature. Chitinase activity was also increased in roots of spruce trees upon incubation with the fungal elicitor. Non-induced levels of chitinase activity in spruce were higher in suspension cells than in roots whereas the elicitorinduced increase of chitinase activity was higher in roots. Treatment of cells with hormones (auxins and cytokinin) resulted in a severalfold depression of enzyme activity. However, the chitinase activity of hormone-treated as well as hormone-free cells showed an elicitor-induced increase. Suspension cells of spruce secreted a large amount of enzyme into the medium. It is postulated that chitinases released from the host cells in an ectomycorrhizal system partly degrade the fungal cell walls, thus possibly facilitating the exchange of metabolites between the symbionts.

  13. PSII photochemistry in vegetative buds and needles of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) probed by OJIP chlorophyll a fluorescence measurement.

    PubMed

    Katanić, Zorana; Atić, Lejla; Ferhatović, Dž; Cesar, Vera; Lepeduš, H

    2012-06-01

    Vegetative buds represent developmental stage of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) needles where chloroplast biogenesis and photosynthetic activity begin. We used the analyses of polyphasic chlorophyll a fluorescence rise (OJIP) to compare photosystem II (PSII) functioning in vegetative buds and fully photosynthetically active mature current-year needles. Considerably decreased performance index (PIABS) in vegetative buds compared to needles pointed to their low photosynthetic efficiency. Maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) in buds was slightly decreased but above limited value for functionality indicating that primary photochemistry of PSII is not holdback of vegetative buds photosynthetic activity. The most significant difference observed between investigated developmental stages was accumulation of reduced primary quinine acceptor of PSII (QA-) in vegetative buds, as a result of its limited re-oxidation by passing electrons to secondary quinone acceptor, QB. We suggest that reduced electron transfer from QA- to QB could be the major limiting factor of photosynthesis in vegetative buds.

  14. Holophyllane A: A Triterpenoid Possessing an Unprecedented B-nor-3,4-seco-17,14-friedo-lanostane Architecture from Abies holophylla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chung Sub; Oh, Joonseok; Subedi, Lalita; Kim, Sun Yeou; Choi, Sang Un; Lee, Kang Ro

    2017-03-01

    A novel triterpenoid, holophyllane A (1), featuring a B-nor-3,4-seco-17,14-friedo-lanostane, along with its putative precursor, compound 2 were isolated from the methanol extract of the trunks of Abies holophylla. The 2D structure and relative configuration of 1 were initially determined via analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data and the assignment was confirmed by quantum mechanics-based NMR chemical shift calculations. The absolute configuration was established by comparison of the experimental and simulated ECD data generated at different theory levels. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited moderate to weak cytotoxicity and significant inhibitory activity against nitric oxide (NO) production.

  15. Holophyllane A: A Triterpenoid Possessing an Unprecedented B-nor-3,4-seco-17,14-friedo-lanostane Architecture from Abies holophylla

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chung Sub; Oh, Joonseok; Subedi, Lalita; Kim, Sun Yeou; Choi, Sang Un; Lee, Kang Ro

    2017-01-01

    A novel triterpenoid, holophyllane A (1), featuring a B-nor-3,4-seco-17,14-friedo-lanostane, along with its putative precursor, compound 2 were isolated from the methanol extract of the trunks of Abies holophylla. The 2D structure and relative configuration of 1 were initially determined via analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data and the assignment was confirmed by quantum mechanics-based NMR chemical shift calculations. The absolute configuration was established by comparison of the experimental and simulated ECD data generated at different theory levels. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited moderate to weak cytotoxicity and significant inhibitory activity against nitric oxide (NO) production. PMID:28252664

  16. Cadmium Accumulation in Tissues of Sarotherodon melanotheron (Rüppel, 1852) from the Aby Lagoon System in Côte d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Cyrille, Yapi Dope Armel; Victor, Kouame; Sanogo, Tidou Abiba; Boukary, Sawadogo; Joseph, Wethe

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the concentrations of cadmium in the gills, livers and muscles of a commercially important tilapia fish (Sarotherodon melanotheron) from Aby Lagoon in Adiaké, Côte d’Ivoire, between January and December, 2010. The organisms were grouped into two composite samples (juvenile and adult) of five individuals. Levels of cadmium were determined in tissues using Perkin-Elmer (AAnalyst 200) Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) after a digestion method. Fish muscle appeared to have a significantly higher tendency to accumulate cadmium (1.19–5.18 µg/g dw) while gills and livers had minimum concentrations (0.07–1.32 and 0.12–1.25 µg/g dw). This study has revealed that the concentrations of Cd in Sarotherodon melanotheron muscle tissue were above the maximum acceptable concentrations for human consumption, thus precautions need to be taken in order to prevent future contamination. PMID:22690166

  17. Cadmium accumulation in tissues of Sarotherodon melanotheron (Rüppel, 1852) from the Aby Lagoon system in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Cyrille, Yapi Dope Armel; Victor, Kouame; Sanogo, Tidou Abiba; Boukary, Sawadogo; Joseph, Wethe

    2012-03-01

    This study assessed the concentrations of cadmium in the gills, livers and muscles of a commercially important tilapia fish (Sarotherodon melanotheron) from Aby Lagoon in Adiaké, Côte d'Ivoire, between January and December, 2010. The organisms were grouped into two composite samples (juvenile and adult) of five individuals. Levels of cadmium were determined in tissues using Perkin-Elmer (AAnalyst 200) Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) after a digestion method. Fish muscle appeared to have a significantly higher tendency to accumulate cadmium (1.19-5.18 µg/g dw) while gills and livers had minimum concentrations (0.07-1.32 and 0.12-1.25 µg/g dw). This study has revealed that the concentrations of Cd in Sarotherodon melanotheron muscle tissue were above the maximum acceptable concentrations for human consumption, thus precautions need to be taken in order to prevent future contamination.

  18. Soil acidity reconstruction based on tree ring information of a dominant species Abies fabri in the subalpine forest ecosystems in southwest China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Wu, Fei-Hua; Liu, Ting-Wu; Chen, Juan; Li, Zhen-Ji; Pei, Zhen-Ming; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2010-10-01

    To assess the suitability of dendrochemistry as an indicator of soil acidification, soil chemistry and tree ring information of Abies fabri were measured at two distinct sites (severe acid deposition site-Emei Mountain and clean site-Gongga Mountain) of the subalpine forest ecosystems of western Sichuan, southwest China. The actual soil acidity (pH) was significantly correlated with some of the recent xylem cation (Ca, Mg, Mn, Al, Sr and Ba) concentrations and their molar ratios. Xylem Ca/Mg and Ca/Mn of A. fabri were ultimately selected to reconstruct the historical changes of soil pH in Emei Mountain and Gongga Mountain, respectively. The validity of those rebuild was also verified to a certain extent. We conclude that xylem cation molar ratios of A. fabri were superior to the single cation concentrations in soil acidity rebuild at the study sites due to normalizing for concentration fluctuations.

  19. Past and future evolution of Abies alba forests in Europe - comparison of a dynamic vegetation model with palaeo data and observations.

    PubMed

    Ruosch, Melanie; Spahni, Renato; Joos, Fortunat; Henne, Paul D; van der Knaap, Willem O; Tinner, Willy

    2016-02-01

    Information on how species distributions and ecosystem services are impacted by anthropogenic climate change is important for adaptation planning. Palaeo data suggest that Abies alba formed forests under significantly warmer-than-present conditions in Europe and might be a native substitute for widespread drought-sensitive temperate and boreal tree species such as beech (Fagus sylvatica) and spruce (Picea abies) under future global warming conditions. Here, we combine pollen and macrofossil data, modern observations, and results from transient simulations with the LPX-Bern dynamic global vegetation model to assess past and future distributions of A. alba in Europe. LPX-Bern is forced with climate anomalies from a run over the past 21 000 years with the Community Earth System Model, modern climatology, and with 21st-century multimodel ensemble results for the high-emission RCP8.5 and the stringent mitigation RCP2.6 pathway. The simulated distribution for present climate encompasses the modern range of A. alba, with the model exceeding the present distribution in north-western and southern Europe. Mid-Holocene pollen data and model results agree for southern Europe, suggesting that at present, human impacts suppress the distribution in southern Europe. Pollen and model results both show range expansion starting during the Bølling-Allerød warm period, interrupted by the Younger Dryas cold, and resuming during the Holocene. The distribution of A. alba expands to the north-east in all future scenarios, whereas the potential (currently unrealized) range would be substantially reduced in southern Europe under RCP8.5. A. alba maintains its current range in central Europe despite competition by other thermophilous tree species. Our combined palaeoecological and model evidence suggest that A. alba may ensure important ecosystem services including stand and slope stability, infrastructure protection, and carbon sequestration under significantly warmer

  20. Convergence of leaf display and photosynthetic characteristics of understory Abies amabilis and Tsuga heterophylla in an old-growth forest in southwestern Washington State, USA.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Hiroaki; Yoshimura, Ken-Ichi; Mori, Akira

    2009-08-01

    We compared the morphological and physiological characteristics of understory trees of Abies amabilis (Dougl. ex Loud.) Dougl. ex J. Forbes and Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. growing adjacent to each other in an old-growth forest in southwestern Washington State, USA. We hypothesized that, despite contrasting branching patterns and crown architectures, the two species should exhibit convergence in leaf display and photosynthetic gain per light intercepting area, because these are important properties determining their survival in the light-limited understory. The branching pattern of A. amabilis was regular (normal shoot-length distribution, less variable branching angle and bifurcation ratio), whereas that of T. heterophylla was more plastic (positively skewed shoot-length distribution, more variable branching angle and bifurcation ratio). The two species had similar shoot morphologies: number of leaves per unit shoot length and leaf to axis dry mass ratio. Leaf morphology, in contrast, was significantly different. Leaves of A. amabilis were larger and heavier than those of T. heterophylla, which resulted in lower mass-based photosynthetic rate for A. amabilis. Despite these differences, the two species had similar levels of leaf overlap and area-based photosynthetic characteristics. Needle longevity of A. amabilis was nearly twice that of T. heterophylla. The leaf N contents of current and 1-year-old leaves were lower for A. amabilis than for T. heterophylla. However, the leaf N content of A. amabilis did not change from current leaves to 6-year-old leaves, whereas that of T. heterophylla decreased with increasing leaf age. Abies amabilis had deeper crowns than T. heterophylla and retained branches with low relative growth rates. Longer branch retention may compensate for the lower branch-level assimilation rate of A. amabilis. We inferred that the convergence of leaf display and photosynthetic characteristics between A. amabilis and T. heterophylla may

  1. Using CALIPSO to explore the sensitivity to cirrus height in the infrared observations from NPOESS/VIIRS and GOES-R/ABI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidinger, A. K.; Pavolonis, M. J.; Holz, R. E.; Baum, Bryan A.; Berthier, S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how the availability of specific infrared channels impacts the ability of two future meteorological satellite imagers to estimate cloud-top pressure. Both of the imagers are planned for launch by the United States, one for a geostationary platform and the other for a polar-orbiting platform. The geostationary imager, the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), will be flown first on the GOES-R platform. In addition to the split window channels at 11 and 12 μm, it has one spectral channel located at 13.3 μm where there is relatively strong absorption of H2O and CO2. The polar-orbiting imager, called the Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) and flown on the National Polar-Orbiting Environmental satellite Suite (NPOESS), has spectral channels in window regions only. The lack of an absorbing channel on VIIRS is shown to have negative consequences for the inference of cloud-top pressure. This paper investigates the impact on the ability of a satellite imager such as VIIRS to confidently estimate cloud-top pressure due to the absence of infrared absorption channels. The solution space is defined as the depth of the atmospheric layer in which a cloud can be placed where the calculated top-of-atmosphere radiances match the measurements used in the cloud-top pressure retrieval. For optically thin cirrus, the channels used by the operational VIIRS algorithm provide a solution space of over 200 hPa. However, the inclusion of the single CO2 channel at 13.3 μm on the ABI narrows the solution space to under 30 hPa. Our imager-based analysis is performed using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, which provides the relevant channel information with sufficient spatial resolution and radiometric accuracy. Additional results are provided using data from the current GOES and POES imagers. Active lidar data from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation/Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization

  2. Carbon Allocation into Different Fine-Root Classes of Young Abies alba Trees Is Affected More by Phenology than by Simulated Browsing

    PubMed Central

    Endrulat, Tina; Buchmann, Nina; Brunner, Ivano

    2016-01-01

    Abies alba (European silver fir) was used to investigate possible effects of simulated browsing on C allocation belowground by 13CO2 pulse-labelling at spring, summer or autumn, and by harvesting the trees at the same time point of the labelling or at a later season for biomass and for 13C-allocation into the fine-root system. Before budburst in spring, the leader shoots and 50% of all lateral shoots of half of the investigated 5-year old Abies alba saplings were clipped to simulate browsing. At harvest, different fine-root classes were separated, and starch as an important storage compartment was analysed for concentrations. The phenology had a strong effect on the allocation of the 13C-label from shoots to roots. In spring, shoots did not supply the fine-roots with high amounts of the 13C-label, because the fine-roots contained less than 1% of the applied 13C. In summer and autumn, however, shoots allocated relatively high amounts of the 13C-label to the fine roots. The incorporation of the 13C-label as structural C or as starch into the roots is strongly dependent on the root type and the root diameter. In newly formed fine roots, 3–5% of the applied 13C was incorporated, whereas 1–3% in the ≤0.5 mm root class and 1–1.5% in the >0.5–1.0 mm root class were recorded. Highest 13C-enrichment in the starch was recorded in the newly formed fine roots in autumn. The clipping treatment had a significant positive effect on the amount of allocated 13C-label to the fine roots after the spring labelling, with high relative 13C-contents observed in the ≤0.5 mm and the >0.5–1.0 mm fine-root classes of clipped trees. No effects of the clipping were observed after summer and autumn labelling in the 13C-allocation patterns. Overall, our data imply that the season of C assimilation and, thus, the phenology of trees is the main determinant of the C allocation from shoots to roots and is clearly more important than browsing. PMID:27123860

  3. Mesure des stades de developpement du sapin baumier (Abies balsamea [L.] Mill.) par teledetection des maxima locaux sur images a tres haute resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demers, Alain

    L'objectif principal de cette these est d'identifier les parametres cles pour lier le developpement morphologique de la cime du sapin baumier (Abies balsamea [L.] Mill.) aux patrons de reflectance qu'elle genere sur une image aerienne a haute resolution. La quantite et la distribution spatiale des aiguilles dans le sapin dependent de la structure des branches. Un mecanisme de ramification particulier (la reiteration) ressort comme le parametre cle pour lier l'augmentation de la biomasse foliaire et la forme de la branche. Les reiterats forment des agglomerats de feuillage qui engendrent des inegalites dans les patrons de reflectance de la cime. La reflectance est plus elevee ou il y a une forte concentration de reiterats (maximum local). On demontre que le developpement du sapin baumier se mesure au moyen de l'analyse des maxima locaux de la cime sur une image. La biomasse de l'arbre se mesure par la teledetection et l'analyse des patrons de reflectance de la cime, c'est-a-dire la mesure du niveau de reiteration par le decompte des maxima locaux de la cime. Cette etude demontre qu'il est possible de proceder a l'inventaire du volume de bois d'un peuplement par la teledetection de l'architecture des arbres.

  4. Abietane diterpenes from the cones of Abies numidica de Lannoy ex Carrière (Pinaceae) and in vitro evaluation of their antimicrobial properties.

    PubMed

    Belhadj Mostefa, Maya; Abedini, Amin; Voutquenne-Nazabadioko, Laurence; Gangloff, Sophie C; Kabouche, Ahmed; Kabouche, Zahia

    2017-03-01

    Eight known abietane diterpenes (1-8) were isolated for the first time from Abies numidica cones (Pinaceae). The structures of all compounds were established by means of 1D and 2D NMR, and UV spectral analyses. The hydromethanolic extract of A. numidica cones was tested for its antimicrobial activity against 17 gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and against five yeasts by the use of liquid and solid medium and bioautography methods. The best antimicrobial activity was found against gram-positive bacteria (MIC ≤ 0.3 mg/mL) Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 1034, Staphylococcus aureus 8325.4, S. aureus CIP 53.154, Micrococcus luteus and Listeria innocua and against Candida yeasts. The determination of MIC's of isolated products showed a high activity of compounds 4 and 6 against S. aureus, L. innocua (MIC = 62.5 μg/mL) and E. faecalis (MIC = 125 μg/mL).

  5. [Spatial Distribution of Intron 2 of nad1 Gene Haplotypes in Populations of Norway and Siberian Spruce (Picea abies-P. obovata) Species Complex].

    PubMed

    Mudrik, E A; Polyakova, T A; Shatokhina, A V; Bondarenko, G N; Politov, D V

    2015-10-01

    The length and sequence variations among intron 2 haplotypes of the mitochondrial DNA nad1 gene have been studied in the Norway and Siberian spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.-P. obovata Ledeb.) species complex. Twenty-two native populations and 15 provenances were analyzed. The distribution of the northern European haplogroup (haplotypes 721, 755, 789, 823, 857, 891, and 925) is delimited in the west by the Ural region inclusively. Haplotype 712 is widespread in populations of Siberia, in the Far East and in northeastern Russia. A novel variant of the Siberian haplogroup (780) containing three copies of the first minisatellite motif (34 bp) was found for the first time. The absence of an admixture of the northern European and Siberian haplotypes in the zone of spruce species introgression previously marked by morphological traits and nuclear allozyme loci was demonstrated. This may be evidence of the existence of a sharper geographic boundary between the two haplogroups, as compared to a boundary based on phenotypic and allozyme data. A high proportion of the interpopulation component of variation (65%) estimated by AMOVA indicates a substantial genetic subdivision of European and Siberian populations of the Palearctic spruce complex by mtDNA, which can be putatively explained by natural barriers to gene flow with seeds related, for instance, to the woodless regions of the western Siberian Plain in the Pleistocene and the probable floodplains of large rivers.

  6. The impact of long-term CO2 enrichment on sun and shade needles of Norway spruce (Picea abies): photosynthetic performance, needle anatomy and phenolics accumulation.

    PubMed

    Lhotáková, Zuzana; Urban, Otmar; Dubánková, Marianna; Cvikrová, Milena; Tomášková, Ivana; Kubínová, Lucie; Zvára, Karel; Marek, Michal V; Albrechtová, Jana

    2012-06-01

    Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst) grown under ambient (365-377 μmol(CO(2)) mol(-1); AC) and elevated (700 μmol(CO(2)) mol(-1); EC) CO(2) concentrations within glass domes with automatically adjustable windows and on an open-air control site were studied after 8 years of treatment. The effect of EC on photosynthesis, mesophyll structure and phenolics accumulation in sun and shade needles was examined. Photosynthetic assimilation and dark respiration rates were measured gasometrically; the structural parameters of mesophyll were determined using confocal microscopy and stereological methods. The contents of total soluble phenolics and lignin were assessed spectrophotometrically, and localizations of different phenolic groups were detected histochemically on needle cross-sections. EC enhanced the light-saturated CO(2) assimilation rate and reduced dark respiration in the current-year needles. No effects of CO(2) enrichment on mesophyll structural parameters were observed. Similarly, the accumulation and localization of phenolics and lignin remained unaffected by EC treatment. Needles differentiated into sun and shade ecotypes in the same manner and to the same extent irrespective of CO(2) treatment. Based on these results, it is apparent that the EC-induced enhancement of photosynthesis is not related to changes in the examined structural parameters of mesophyll and accumulation of phenolic compounds.

  7. Bio-Guided Isolation of Methanol-Soluble Metabolites of Common Spruce (Picea abies) Bark by-Products and Investigation of Their Dermo-Cosmetic Properties.

    PubMed

    Angelis, Apostolis; Hubert, Jane; Aligiannis, Nektarios; Michalea, Rozalia; Abedini, Amin; Nuzillard, Jean-Marc; Gangloff, Sophie C; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Renault, Jean-Hugues

    2016-11-21

    Common spruce (Picea abies L.) is a fast-growing coniferous tree, widely used in several countries for the production of sawn wood, timber and pulp. During this industrial exploitation, large quantities of barks are generated as waste materials. The aim of this study was the bio-guided investigation and the effective recovery of methanol-soluble metabolites of common spruce bark for the development of new dermo-cosmetic agents. The active methanol extract was initially fractionated by Centrifugal Partition Chromatography (CPC) using a triphasic solvent system in a step-gradient elution mode. All resulting fractions were evaluated for their antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity and their capability to inhibit tyrosinase, elastase and collagenase activity. In parallel, the chemical composition of each fraction was established by combining a (13)C-NMR dereplication approach and 2D-NMR analyses. As a result, fourteen secondary metabolites corresponding to stilbene, flavonoid and phenolic acid derivatives were directly identified in the CPC fractions. A high amount (0.93 g) of E-astringin was recovered from 3 g of crude extract in a single 125 min run. E-Astringin significantly induced the tyrosinase activity while E-piceid, taxifolin, and taxifolin-3'-O-glucopyranoside exhibited significant anti-tyrosinase activity. The above compounds showed important anti-collagenase and antimicrobial activities, thus providing new perspectives for potential applications as cosmetic ingredients.

  8. Targeted proteomics using selected reaction monitoring reveals the induction of specific terpene synthases in a multi-level study of methyl jasmonate-treated Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Zulak, Katherine G; Lippert, Dustin N; Kuzyk, Michael A; Domanski, Dominik; Chou, Tina; Borchers, Christoph H; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2009-12-01

    Induction of terpene synthase (TPS) gene expression and enzyme activity is known to occur in response to various chemical and biological stimuli in several species of spruce (genus Picea). However, high sequence identity between TPS family members has made it difficult to determine the induction patterns of individual TPS at the protein and transcript levels and whether specific TPS enzymes respond differentially to treatment. In the present study we used a multi-level approach to measure the induction and activity of TPS enzymes in protein extracts of Norway spruce (Picea abies) bark tissue following treatment with methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Measurements were made on the transcript, protein, enzyme activity and metabolite levels. Using a relatively new proteomics application, selective reaction monitoring (SRM), it was possible to differentiate and quantitatively measure the abundance of several known TPS proteins and three 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (DXS) isoforms in Norway spruce. Protein levels of individual TPS and DXS enzymes were differentially induced upon MeJA treatment and good correlation was generally observed between induction of transcripts, proteins, and enzyme activities. Most of the mono- and diterpenoid metabolites accumulated with similar temporal patterns of induction as part of the coordinated multi-compound chemical defense response. Protein and enzyme activity levels of the monoTPS (+)-3-carene synthase and the corresponding accumulation of (+)-3-carene was induced to a higher fold change than any other TPS or metabolite measured, indicating an important role in the induced terpenoid defense response in Norway spruce.

  9. Induction of isoprenyl diphosphate synthases, plant hormones and defense signalling genes correlates with traumatic resin duct formation in Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Axel; Nagel, Raimund; Krekling, Trygve; Christiansen, Erik; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Krokene, Paal

    2011-12-01

    Norway spruce (Picea abies) defends itself against herbivores and pathogens by formation of traumatic resin ducts filled with terpenoid-based oleoresin. An important group of enzymes in terpenoid biosynthesis are the short-chain isoprenyl diphosphate synthases which produce geranyl diphosphate (C(10)), farnesyl diphosphate (C(15)), and geranylgeranyl diphosphate (C(20)) as precursors of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and diterpene resin acids, respectively. After treatment with methyl jasmonate (MJ) we investigated the expression of all isoprenyl diphosphate synthase genes characterized to date from Norway spruce and correlated this with formation of traumatic resin ducts and terpene accumulation. Formation of traumatic resin ducts correlated with higher amounts of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and diterpene resin acids and an upregulation of isoprenyl diphosphate synthase genes producing geranyl diphosphate or geranylgeranyl diphosphate. Among defense hormones, jasmonate and jasmonate-isoleucine conjugate accumulated to higher levels in trees with extensive traumatic resin duct formation, whereas salicylate did not. Jasmonate and ethylene are likely to both be involved in formation of traumatic resin ducts based on elevated transcripts of genes encoding lipoxygenase and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase associated with resin duct formation. Other genes involved in defense signalling in other systems, mitogen-activated protein kinase3 and nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related gene1, were also associated with traumatic resin duct formation. These responses were detected not only at the site of MJ treatment, but also systemically up to 60 cm above the site of treatment on the trunk.

  10. Molecular control of normal and acrocona mutant seed cone development in Norway spruce (Picea abies) and the evolution of conifer ovule-bearing organs.

    PubMed

    Carlsbecker, Annelie; Sundström, Jens F; Englund, Marie; Uddenberg, Daniel; Izquierdo, Liz; Kvarnheden, Anders; Vergara-Silva, Francisco; Engström, Peter

    2013-10-01

    Reproductive organs in seed plants are morphologically divergent and their evolutionary history is often unclear. The mechanisms controlling their development have been extensively studied in angiosperms but are poorly understood in conifers and other gymnosperms. Here, we address the molecular control of seed cone development in Norway spruce, Picea abies. We present expression analyses of five novel MADS-box genes in comparison with previously identified MADS and LEAFY genes at distinct developmental stages. In addition, we have characterized the homeotic transformation from vegetative shoot to female cone and associated changes in regulatory gene expression patterns occurring in the acrocona mutant. The analyses identified genes active at the onset of ovuliferous and ovule development and identified expression patterns marking distinct domains of the ovuliferous scale. The reproductive transformation in acrocona involves the activation of all tested genes normally active in early cone development, except for an AGAMOUS-LIKE6/SEPALLATA (AGL6/SEP) homologue. This absence may be functionally associated with the nondeterminate development of the acrocona ovule-bearing scales. Our morphological and gene expression analyses give support to the hypothesis that the modern cone is a complex structure, and the ovuliferous scale the result of reductions and compactions of an ovule-bearing axillary short shoot in cones of Paleozoic conifers.

  11. Profiling functions of ectomycorrhizal diversity and root structuring in seedlings of Norway spruce (Picea abies) with fast- and slow-growing phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Velmala, Sannakajsa M; Rajala, Tiina; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Taylor, Andy F S; Pennanen, Taina

    2014-01-01

    We studied the role of taxonomical and functional ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal diversity in root formation and nutrient uptake by Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedlings with fast- and slow-growing phenotypes. Seedlings were grown with an increasing ECM fungal diversity gradient from one to four species and sampled before aboveground growth differences between the two phenotypes were apparent. ECM fungal colonization patterns were determined and functional diversity was assayed via measurements of potential enzyme activities of eight exoenzymes probably involved in nutrient mobilization. Phenotypes did not vary in their receptiveness to different ECM fungal species. However, seedlings of slow-growing phenotypes had higher fine-root density and thus more condensed root systems than fast-growing seedlings, but the potential enzyme activities of ectomycorrhizas did not differ qualitatively or quantitatively. ECM species richness increased host nutrient acquisition potential by diversifying the exoenzyme palette. Needle nitrogen content correlated positively with high chitinase activity of ectomycorrhizas. Rather than fast- and slow-growing phenotypes exhibiting differing receptiveness to ECM fungi, our results suggest that distinctions in fine-root structuring and in the belowground growth strategy already apparent at early stages of seedling development may explain later growth differences between fast- and slow-growing families.

  12. Updating beliefs and combining evidence in adaptive forest management under climate change: a case study of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst) in the Black Forest, Germany.

    PubMed

    Yousefpour, Rasoul; Temperli, Christian; Bugmann, Harald; Elkin, Che; Hanewinkel, Marc; Meilby, Henrik; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    2013-06-15

    We study climate uncertainty and how managers' beliefs about climate change develop and influence their decisions. We develop an approach for updating knowledge and beliefs based on the observation of forest and climate variables and illustrate its application for the adaptive management of an even-aged Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst) forest in the Black Forest, Germany. We simulated forest development under a range of climate change scenarios and forest management alternatives. Our analysis used Bayesian updating and Dempster's rule of combination to simulate how observations of climate and forest variables may influence a decision maker's beliefs about climate development and thereby management decisions. While forest managers may be inclined to rely on observed forest variables to infer climate change and impacts, we found that observation of climate state, e.g. temperature or precipitation is superior for updating beliefs and supporting decision-making. However, with little conflict among information sources, the strongest evidence would be offered by a combination of at least two informative variables, e.g., temperature and precipitation. The success of adaptive forest management depends on when managers switch to forward-looking management schemes. Thus, robust climate adaptation policies may depend crucially on a better understanding of what factors influence managers' belief in climate change.

  13. WAVE2-Abi2 complex controls growth cone activity and regulates the multipolar-bipolar transition as well as the initiation of glia-guided migration.

    PubMed

    Xie, Min-Jue; Yagi, Hideshi; Kuroda, Kazuki; Wang, Chen-Chi; Komada, Munekazu; Zhao, Hong; Sakakibara, Akira; Miyata, Takaki; Nagata, Koh-Ichi; Oka, Yuichiro; Iguchi, Tokuichi; Sato, Makoto

    2013-06-01

    Glia-guided migration (glia-guided locomotion) during radial migration is a characteristic yet unique mode of migration. In this process, the directionality of migration is predetermined by glial processes and not by growth cones. Prior to the initiation of glia-guided migration, migrating neurons transform from multipolar to bipolar, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this multipolar-bipolar transition and the commencement of glia-guided migration are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that the multipolar-bipolar transition is not solely a cell autonomous event; instead, the interaction of growth cones with glial processes plays an essential role. Time-lapse imaging with lattice assays reveals the importance of vigorously active growth cones in searching for appropriate glial scaffolds, completing the transition, and initiating glia-guided migration. These growth cone activities are regulated by Abl kinase and Cdk5 via WAVE2-Abi2 through the phosphorylation of tyrosine 150 and serine 137 of WAVE2. Neurons that do not display such growth cone activities are mispositioned in a more superficial location in the neocortex, suggesting the significance of growth cones for the final location of the neurons. This process occurs in spite of the "inside-out" principle in which later-born neurons are situated more superficially.

  14. Chemical composition and biological activity of Abies alba and A. koreana seed and cone essential oils and characterization of their seed hydrolates.

    PubMed

    Wajs-Bonikowska, Anna; Sienkiewicz, Monika; Stobiecka, Agnieszka; Maciąg, Agnieszka; Szoka, Łukasz; Karna, Ewa

    2015-03-01

    The chemical composition, including the enantiomeric excess of the main terpenes, the antimicrobial and antiradical activities, as well as the cytotoxicity of Abies alba and A. koreana seed and cone essential oils were investigated. Additionally, their seed hydrolates were characterized. In the examined oils and hydrolates, a total of 174 compounds were identified, which comprised 95.6-99.9% of the volatiles. The essential oils were mainly composed of monoterpene hydrocarbons, whereas the composition of the hydrolates, differing from the seed oils of the corresponding fir species, consisted mainly of oxygenated derivatives of sesquiterpenes. The seed and cone essential oils of both firs exhibited DPPH-radical-scavenging properties and low antibacterial activity against the bacterial strains tested. Moreover, they evoked only low cytotoxicity towards normal fibroblasts and the two cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MBA-231. At concentrations up to 50 μg/ml, all essential oils were safe in relation to normal fibroblasts. Although they induced cytotoxicity towards the cancer cells at concentrations slightly lower than those required for the inhibition of fibroblast proliferation, their influence on cancer cells was weak, with IC50 values similar to those observed towards normal fibroblasts.

  15. Purification of Two Superoxide Dismutase Isozymes and Their Subcellular Localization in Needles and Roots of Norway Spruce (Picea abies L.) Trees 1

    PubMed Central

    Kröniger, Werner; Rennenberg, Heinz; Polle, Andrea

    1992-01-01

    Two isozymes of superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC 1.15.1.1) were purified from Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) needles to apparent electrophoretic homogeneity. Purification factors were 354 for SOD I and 265 for SOD II. The native molecular mass of both purified enzymes was approximately 33 kD, as determined by gel filtration. The subunit molecular weights, as estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, were 20,000 for SOD I and 16,000 for SOD II in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol, and 15,800 and 15,000, respectively, in its absence. These results indicate that the native enzymes were homodimers whose subunits contained intrachain disulfide bonds. Isoelectric points determined by nondenaturing isoelectric focusing were 4.5 and 5.5 for SOD I and II, respectively. NH2-terminal sequence analysis of the first 22 to 23 amino acids revealed 70 to 75% sequence identity with chloroplastic CuZn SODs from other plant species for SOD I, and 75% sequence identity with the cytosolic CuZn SOD from Scots pine for SOD II. SOD I was the major activity in needles and it was associated with chloroplasts. SOD II activity was dominant in roots. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:16652966

  16. Composition and Properties of Hydrogen Peroxide Decomposing Systems in Extracellular and Total Extracts from Needles of Norway Spruce (Picea abies L., Karst.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Polle, Andrea; Chakrabarti, Krisanu; Schürmann, Wolfgang; Renneberg, Heinz

    1990-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging systems of spruce (Picea abies) needles were investigated in both extracts obtained from the extracellular space and extracts of total needles. As assessed by the lack of activity of symplastic marker enzymes, the extracellular washing fluid was free from intracellular contaminations. In the extracellular washing fluid ascorbate, glutathione, cysteine, and high specific activities of guaiacol peroxidases were observed. Guaiacol peroxidases in the extracellular washing fluid and needle homogenates had the same catalytic properties, i.e. temperature optimum at 50°C, pH optimum in the range of pH 5 to 6 and low affinity for guaiacol (apparent Km = 40 millimolar) and H2O2 (apparent Km = 1-3 millimolar). Needle homogenates contained ascorbate peroxidase, dehydroascorbate reductase, monodehydroascorbate reductase, glutathione reductase, and catalase, but not glutathione peroxidase activity. None of these activities was detected in the extracellular washing fluid. Ascorbate and glutathione related enzymes were freeze sensitive; ascorbate peroxidase was labile in the absence of ascorbate. The significance of extracellular antioxidants for the detoxification of injurious oxygen species is discussed. PMID:16667703

  17. Modeling intraspecific adaptation of Abies sachalinensis to local altitude and responses to global warming, based on a 36-year reciprocal transplant experiment.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Wataru; Goto, Susumu

    2012-04-01

    Intraspecific adaptation in Abies sachalinensis was examined using models based on long-term monitoring data gathered during a reciprocal transplant experiment with eight seed source populations and six transplantation sites along an altitudinal gradient. The consequence of local adaptation was evaluated by testing the home-site advantage for upslope and downslope transplants at five ages. The populations' fitness-linked trait was set as their productivity (tree height × survival rate) at each age. The effects of global warming were evaluated on the basis of the 36-year performance of downslope transplants. Evidence was found for adaptive genetic variation affecting both height and survival from an early age. Increasing the distance between seed source and planting site significantly reduced productivity for both upslope and downslope transplantation, demonstrating the existence of a significant home-site advantage. The decrease in productivity was most distinct for upslope transplantations, indicating strong local adaptation to high altitudes. Global warming is predicted to increase the productivity of high-altitude populations. However, owing to their existing local adaptation, all tested populations exhibited lower productivity under warming than demes that were optimal for the new climate. These negative predictions should be considered when planning the management of locally adapted plant species such as A. sachalinensis.

  18. A teachable moment for the teachable moment? A prospective study to evaluate delivery of a workshop designed to increase knowledge and skills in relation to alcohol brief interventions (ABIs) amongst final year nursing and occupational therapy undergraduates.

    PubMed

    O'May, Fiona; Gill, Jan; McWhirter, Eleanor; Kantartzis, Sarah; Rees, Cheryl; Murray, Kerry

    2016-09-01

    The perceived value of Alcohol Brief Interventions as a tool to address alcohol misuse in Scotland has supported the establishment of a Health Improvement, Efficiency, Access and Treatment, HEAT: H4 Standard to deliver ABIs within certain health care settings. This requires that nursing, medical and allied health professionals are appropriately skilled to deliver these interventions. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes regarding alcohol misuse and related interventions among two cohorts of final year nursing and occupational therapy undergraduate students before, during and following participation in a workshop devoted to ABI delivery. While relatively good knowledge around recommended limits for daily consumption was evident, this did not translate into competence relating to drink unit content. Although there was overwhelming agreement for the role of each profession in ABI delivery, less than half of students in each cohort at the outset of the workshop agreed that they had the appropriate knowledge to advise patients about responsible drinking. In both cohorts, at the three month follow-up stage, this percentage had almost doubled. Newly qualified practitioners perceived a wider role for motivational interviewing, and endorsed interactive delivery of alcohol education throughout all levels of the curriculum.

  19. Spring-temperature variability and eutrophication history inferred from sedimentary pigments in the varved sediments of Lake Żabińskie, NE Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amann, Benjamin; Lobsiger, Simon; Tylmann, Wojciech; Filipiak, Janusz; Grosjean, Martin

    2014-05-01

    High-resolution, well-calibrated records of lake sediments are fundamental for assessments of climatic and environmental changes. Varved lake sediments are particularly robust archives in this context, providing quantitative insights into climate-state variables at annual resolution. However, due to the multitude of responses within lake ecosystems, the key issue is to understand how climate variability interacts with other environmental pressures such as eutrophication, particularly during the 20th century. Here we present a multi-proxy record of sedimentary pigments and geochemical data from Lake Żabińskie (Masurian Lake District, North-East Poland) with the aim to detect and differentiate climate-driven changes from other environmental controls. The lake is dimictic, 44-meter deep and ice-covered from January to early March. It exhibits biogeochemical varves with a high content of organic matter (terrestrial and aquatic, macrophytes, algae and bacteria), a simple inorganic composition (predominantly summer-precipitated endogenous calcite) and high sedimentation rates (5 - 8 mm/yr). We analyzed a 51-cm long sediment core from the deepest part of the lake basin covering the last 100 years. Pigments were extracted at 1-cm resolution using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). We also measured pigments with Visible Reflectance Spectroscopy (VIS-RS; 380 - 730 nm) to assess whether the down-core resolution could be increased with this rapid non-destructive technique. We show that the recent eutrophication of Lake Żabińskie can be discriminated from climate-driven change for the period 1907-2008 AD. The eutrophication signal is evidenced by a recent change in the algal community from green algae (rich in chlorophyll a) to more competitive blue-green algae (rich in ß-carotene), which leads to an environment with light-limiting conditions for chlorophyte growth. This provides a basis for the preservation of the climate signal in the sediments. Using

  20. E3B1, a human homologue of the mouse gene product Abi-1, sensitizes activation of Rap1 in response to epidermal growth factor

    SciTech Connect

    Jenei, Veronika; Andersson, Tommy; Jakus, Judit; Dib, Karim . E-mail: k.dib@qub.ac.uk

    2005-11-01

    E3B1, a human homologue of the mouse gene product Abi-1, has been implicated in growth-factor-mediated regulation of the small GTPases p21{sup Ras} and Rac. E3b1 is a regulator of Rac because it can form a complex with Sos-1 and eps8, and such a Sos-1-e3B1-eps8 complex serves as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rac. In the present study, we found that overexpression of e3B1 in NIH3T3/EGFR cells sensitized EGF-induced activation of Rac1, whereas it had no impact on EGF-induced activation of p21{sup Ras}. Remarkably, we found that EGF-induced activation of the p21{sup Ras}-related GTPase Rap1 was also sensitized in NIH3T3/EGFR-e3B1 cells. Thus, in NIH3T3/EGFR-e3B1 cells, maximal EGF-induced activation of Rap1 occurs with a dose of EGF much lower than in NIH3T3/EGFR cells. We also report that overexpression of e3B1 in NIH3T3/EGFR cells renders EGF-induced activation of Rap1 completely dependent on Src tyrosine kinases but not on c-Abl. However, EGF-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the Rap GEF C3G occurred regardless of whether e3B1 was overexpressed or not, and this did not involve Src tyrosine kinases. Accordingly, we propose that overexpression of e3B1 in NIH3T3/EGFR cells leads to mobilization of Src tyrosine kinases that participate in EGF-induced activation of Rap1 and inhibition of cell proliferation.

  1. Morphological plasticity of ectomycorrhizal short roots in Betula sp and Picea abies forests across climate and forest succession gradients: its role in changing environments.

    PubMed

    Ostonen, Ivika; Rosenvald, Katrin; Helmisaari, Heljä-Sisko; Godbold, Douglas; Parts, Kaarin; Uri, Veiko; Lõhmus, Krista

    2013-01-01

    Morphological plasticity of ectomycorrhizal (EcM) short roots (known also as first and second order roots with primary development) allows trees to adjust their water and nutrient uptake to local environmental conditions. The morphological traits (MTs) of short-living EcM roots, such as specific root length (SRL) and area, root tip frequency per mass unit (RTF), root tissue density, as well as mean diameter, length, and mass of the root tips, are good indicators of acclimation. We investigated the role of EcM root morphological plasticity across the climate gradient (48-68°N) in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) and (53-66°N) birch (Betula pendula Roth., B. pubescens Ehrh.) forests, as well as in primary and secondary successional birch forests assuming higher plasticity of a respective root trait to reflect higher relevance of that characteristic in acclimation process. We hypothesized that although the morphological plasticity of EcM roots is subject to the abiotic and biotic environmental conditions in the changing climate; the tools to achieve the appropriate morphological acclimation are tree species-specific. Long-term (1994-2010) measurements of EcM roots morphology strongly imply that tree species have different acclimation-indicative root traits in response to changing environments. Birch EcM roots acclimated along latitude by changing mostly SRL [plasticity index (PI) = 0.60], while spruce EcM roots became adjusted by modifying RTF (PI = 0.68). Silver birch as a pioneer species must have a broader tolerance to environmental conditions across various environments; however, the mean PI of all MTs did not differ between early-successional birch and late-successional spruce. The differences between species in SRL, and RTF, diameter, and length decreased southward, toward temperate forests with more favorable growth conditions. EcM root traits reflected root-rhizosphere succession across forest succession stages.

  2. Throughfall deposition and canopy exchange processes along a vertical gradient within the canopy of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst).

    PubMed

    Adriaenssens, Sandy; Hansen, Karin; Staelens, Jeroen; Wuyts, Karen; De Schrijver, An; Baeten, Lander; Boeckx, Pascal; Samson, Roeland; Verheyen, Kris

    2012-03-15

    To assess the impact of air pollution on forest ecosystems, the canopy is usually considered as a constant single layer in interaction with the atmosphere and incident rain, which could influence the measurement accuracy. In this study the variation of througfall deposition and derived dry deposition and canopy exchange were studied along a vertical gradient in the canopy of one European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) tree and two Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) trees. Throughfall and net throughfall deposition of all ions other than H(+) increased significantly with canopy depth in the middle and lower canopy of the beech tree and in the whole canopy of the spruce trees. Moreover, throughfall and net throughfall of all ions in the spruce canopy decreased with increasing distance to the trunk. Dry deposition occurred mainly in the upper canopy and was highest during the growing season for H(+), NH(4)(+), NO(3)(-) and highest during the dormant season for Na(+), Cl(-), SO(4)(2-) (beech and spruce) and K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) (spruce only). Canopy leaching of K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) was observed at all canopy levels and was higher for the beech tree compared to the spruce trees. Canopy uptake of inorganic nitrogen and H(+) occurred mainly in the upper canopy, although significant canopy uptake was found in the middle canopy as well. Canopy exchange was always higher during the growing season compared to the dormant season. This spatial and temporal variation indicates that biogeochemical deposition models would benefit from a multilayer approach for shade-tolerant tree species such as beech and spruce.

  3. Assessing the impacts of climate change and nitrogen deposition on Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst) growth in Austria with BIOME-BGC.

    PubMed

    Eastaugh, Chris S; Pötzelsberger, Elisabeth; Hasenauer, Hubert

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine whether a detectable impact of climate change is apparent in Austrian forests. In regions of complex terrain such as most of Austria, climatic trends over the past 50 years show marked geographic variability. As climate is one of the key drivers of forest growth, a comparison of growth characteristics between regions with different trends in temperature and precipitation can give insights into the impact of climatic change on forests. This study uses data from several hundred climate recording stations, interpolated to measurement sites of the Austrian National Forest Inventory (NFI). Austria as a whole shows a warming trend over the past 50 years and little overall change in precipitation. The warming trends, however, vary considerably across certain regions and regional precipitation trends vary widely in both directions, which cancel out on the national scale These differences allow the delineation of 'climatic change zones' with internally consistent climatic trends that differ from other zones. This study applies the species-specific adaptation of the biogeochemical model BIOME-BGC to Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) across a range of Austrian climatic change zones, using input data from a number of national databases. The relative influence of extant climate change on forest growth is quantified, and compared with the far greater impact of non-climatic factors. At the national scale, climate change is found to have negligible effect on Norway spruce productivity, due in part to opposing effects at the regional level. The magnitudes of the modeled non-climatic influences on aboveground woody biomass increment increases are consistent with previously reported values of 20-40 kg of added stem carbon sequestration per kilogram of additional nitrogen deposition, while climate responses are of a magnitude difficult to detect in NFI data.

  4. Disentangling the roles of history and local selection in shaping clinal variation of allele frequencies and gene expression in Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Källman, Thomas; Ma, Xiaofei; Gyllenstrand, Niclas; Zaina, Giusi; Morgante, Michele; Bousquet, Jean; Eckert, Andrew; Wegrzyn, Jill; Neale, David; Lagercrantz, Ulf; Lascoux, Martin

    2012-07-01

    Understanding the genetic basis of local adaptation is challenging due to the subtle balance among conflicting evolutionary forces that are involved in its establishment and maintenance. One system with which to tease apart these difficulties is clines in adaptive characters. Here we analyzed genetic and phenotypic variation in bud set, a highly heritable and adaptive trait, among 18 populations of Norway spruce (Picea abies), arrayed along a latitudinal gradient ranging from 47°N to 68°N. We confirmed that variation in bud set is strongly clinal, using a subset of five populations. Genotypes for 137 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) chosen from 18 candidate genes putatively affecting bud set and 308 control SNPs chosen from 264 random genes were analyzed for patterns of genetic structure and correlation to environment. Population genetic structure was low (F(ST) = 0.05), but latitudinal patterns were apparent among Scandinavian populations. Hence, part of the observed clinal variation should be attributable to population demography. Conditional on patterns of genetic structure, there was enrichment of SNPs within candidate genes for correlations with latitude. Twenty-nine SNPs were also outliers with respect to F(ST). The enrichment for clinal variation at SNPs within candidate genes (i.e., SNPs in PaGI, PaPhyP, PaPhyN, PaPRR7, and PaFTL2) indicated that local selection in the 18 populations, and/or selection in the ancestral populations from which they were recently derived, shaped the observed cline. Validation of these genes using expression studies also revealed that PaFTL2 expression is significantly associated with latitude, thereby confirming the central role played by this gene in the control of phenology in plants.

  5. Structural studies of TiO2/wood coatings prepared by hydrothermal deposition of rutile particles from TiCl4 aqueous solutions on spruce (Picea Abies) wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pori, Pavel; Vilčnik, Aljaž; Petrič, Marko; Sever Škapin, Andrijana; Mihelčič, Mohor; Šurca Vuk, Angela; Novak, Urban; Orel, Boris

    2016-05-01

    A low temperature approach was developed for the deposition of rutile TiO2 particles on a wood surface by hydrolysis of TiCl4 in aqueous solutions acidified with HCl, and crystallization at 75 and 90 °C (1 h). Prior to hydrothermal treatment, Picea Abies wood was first soaked in a 0.5 mmol/l aqueous solution containing anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS, Sigma Aldrich) for 2 h at 80 °C. The crystal structure of the hydrothermally made rutile particles was determined with XRD, while the morphology of the deposited TiO2 particles and their distribution in the wood were examined with SEM and EDX measurements. The penetration and amount of deposited rutile particles could be modified by changing the deposition conditions. Thicker layers were obtained from more concentrated aqueous TiCl4 solutions with and without added HCl, and with longer deposition times and higher temperatures of the hydrothermal treatment. The interaction of TiO2 particles with hemicellulose and lignin in wood was established from infrared attenuated total reflection (FT-IR ATR) and Raman spectra measurements, from which the spectra of wood were subtracted. Analysis of the subtraction spectra showed the presence of titania particles on the wood surface, revealing also the establishment of TiO2-wood coordinative bonds of titanium ions with hemicellulose and lignin. The red frequency shift of the OH stretching modes suggested interaction of the TiO2 particles with water molecules of wood. TiO2 deposited on wood treated with SDS became hydrophobic (water contact angles (WCA) of 150°), contrasting the properties of untreated wood with a deposited TiO2 particle coating, which remained hydrophilic.

  6. The extent and meaning of hybridization and introgression between Siberian spruce (Picea obovata) and Norway spruce (Picea abies): cryptic refugia as stepping stones to the west?

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Yoshiaki; Chen, Jun; Stocks, Michael; Källman, Thomas; Sønstebø, Jørn Henrik; Parducci, Laura; Semerikov, Vladimir; Sperisen, Christoph; Politov, Dmitry; Ronkainen, Tiina; Väliranta, Minna; Vendramin, Giovanni Giuseppe; Tollefsrud, Mari Mette; Lascoux, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Boreal species were repeatedly exposed to ice ages and went through cycles of contraction and expansion while sister species alternated periods of contact and isolation. The resulting genetic structure is consequently complex, and demographic inferences are intrinsically challenging. The range of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Siberian spruce (Picea obovata) covers most of northern Eurasia; yet their geographical limits and histories remain poorly understood. To delineate the hybrid zone between the two species and reconstruct their joint demographic history, we analysed variation at nuclear SSR and mitochondrial DNA in 102 and 88 populations, respectively. The dynamics of the hybrid zone was analysed with approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) followed by posterior predictive structure plot reconstruction and the presence of barriers across the range tested with estimated effective migration surfaces. To estimate the divergence time between the two species, nuclear sequences from two well-separated populations of each species were analysed with ABC. Two main barriers divide the range of the two species: one corresponds to the hybrid zone between them, and the other separates the southern and northern domains of Norway spruce. The hybrid zone is centred on the Urals, but the genetic impact of Siberian spruce extends further west. The joint distribution of mitochondrial and nuclear variation indicates an introgression of mitochondrial DNA from Norway spruce into Siberian spruce. Overall, our data reveal a demographic history where the two species interacted frequently and where migrants originating from the Urals and the West Siberian Plain recolonized northern Russia and Scandinavia using scattered refugial populations of Norway spruce as stepping stones towards the west.

  7. Online investigation of respiratory quotients in Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies during drought and shading by means of cavity-enhanced Raman multi-gas spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hanf, Stefan; Fischer, Sarah; Hartmann, Henrik; Keiner, Robert; Trumbore, Susan; Popp, Jürgen; Frosch, Torsten

    2015-07-07

    Photosynthesis and respiration are major components of the plant carbon balance. During stress, like drought, carbohydrate supply from photosynthesis is reduced and the Krebs cycle respiration must be fueled with other stored carbon compounds. However, the dynamics of storage use are still unknown. The respiratory quotient (RQ, CO2 released per O2 consumed during respiration) is an excellent indicator of the nature of the respiration substrate. In plant science, however, online RQ measurements have been challenging or even impossible so far due to very small gas exchange fluxes during respiration. Here we apply cavity-enhanced multi-gas Raman spectrometry (CERS) for online in situ RQ measurements in drought-tolerant pine (Pinus sylvestris [L.]) and drought-intolerant spruce (Picea abies [L. H. Karst]). Two different treatments, drought and shading, were applied to reduce photosynthesis and force dependency on stored substrates. Changes in respiration rates and RQ values were continuously monitored over periods of several days with low levels of variance. The results show that both species switched from COH-dominated respiration (RQ = 1.0) to a mixture of substrates during shading (RQ = 0.77-0.81), while during drought only pine did so (RQ = 0.75). The gas phase measurements were complemented by concentration measurements of non-structural carbohydrates and lipids. These first results suggest a physiological explanation for greater drought tolerance in pine. CERS was proven as powerful technique for non-consumptive and precise real-time monitoring of respiration rates and respirational quotients for the investigation of plant metabolism under drought stress conditions that are predicted to increase with future climate change.

  8. Altitudinal vs Latitudinal Climactic Drivers: A Comparison of a Relict Picea and Abies Forest in the Southern Appalachians versus the Hemi-Boreal Transition Zone off Southern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, A.; Lafon, C. W.

    2015-12-01

    Identification of biotic and abiotic determinants of tree species range limits is critical for understanding the effects of climate change on species distributions. Upward shifts of species distributions in montane areas have been widely reported but there have been few reports of latitudinal range retractions. Previous studies have indicated that southern latitudinal limits of a species range are dictated by biotic factors such as competition while others have suggested that abiotic factors, such as temperature, dictate these limits. We investigated the potential climatic gradients at the southern latitudinal limit of the Spruce (Picea) and Fir (Abies) species that dominate the Canadian boreal forest community as well as relict boreal forests containing similar species found in the high elevation areas of the Southern Appalachians. Existing research has suggested that relict ecosystems are more sensitive to climate change and can be indicative of future changes at latitudinal range limits. Expanding on this literature, we hypothesized that we would see similar gradients in climatic variables at the southern latitudinal limit of the Canadian boreal forest and those in the relict boreal forests southern Appalachians acting as controlling factors of these species distributions. We used forty years of climate data from weather stations along the southern edge of the boreal forest in the Canadian Shield provinces, species distribution data from the Canadian National Forest Inventory, (CNFI) geospatial data from the National Park Service (NPS), and historical weather data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to perform our analysis. Our results indicate different climate variables act as controls of warm edge range limits of the Canadian boreal forest than those of the relict boreal forest of the southern Appalachians. However, we believe range retractions of the relict forest may be indicative of a more gradual response of similar species

  9. Haplotype variation in a mitochondrial tandem repeat of Norway spruce (Picea abies) populations suggests a serious founder effect during postglacial re-colonization of the western Alps.

    PubMed

    Gugerli, F; Sperisen, C; Büchler, U; Magni, F; Geburek, T; Jeandroz, S; Senn, J

    2001-05-01

    Populations from 13 elevational transects of Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst] across the Alpine range were sampled to elucidate the geographical pattern of genetic variation in relation to postglacial re-colonization and to study elevational effects on haplotypic diversity. We assessed fragment length variation in a tandem repeat region of the mitochondrial (mt) nad1 intron 2. This maternally inherited genetic marker is suited to infer migration as it is dispersed by seed only. A total of 10 haplotypes was found, most of which were due to repeat copy number variation. An analysis of molecular variance (amova) showed that overall population differentiation was high (F(ST)=0.41), and it revealed a significant differentiation between monomorphic western and moderately to highly variable eastern Alpine populations. This phylogeographic pattern may be explained by a founder effect during postglacial re-colonization. An early arriving haplotype, assumed to originate from a western Carpathian refugium, could expand into suitable habitats, reducing the chances for establishment of subsequently arriving haplotypes. On the other hand, the high variation in populations within an Italian transect of the south-eastern Alps may be the consequence of merging migration pathways from and close distance to putative glacial refugia, most likely those assumed in the Carpathian mountains and on the Balkan peninsula or possibly in the central plains of Italy. An effect of elevation on haplotypic diversity was not evident, though a low, but significant, partition of total genetic variation was attributed to among-population variation in one Italian transect. Various factors, such as vertical seed dispersal and forest management, may account for blurring an otherwise established pattern of genetic variation on a small geographical scale.

  10. Resilience, rapid transitions and regime shifts: fingerprinting the responses of Lake Żabińskie (NE Poland) to climate variability and human disturbance since 1000 AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tylmann, Wojciech; Hernández-Almeida, Iván; Grosjean, Martin; José Gómez Navarro, Juan; Larocque-Tobler, Isabelle; Bonk, Alicja; Enters, Dirk; Ustrzycka, Alicja; Piotrowska, Natalia; Przybylak, Rajmund; Wacnik, Agnieszka; Witak, Małgorzata

    2016-04-01

    Rapid ecosystem transitions and adverse effects on ecosystem services as responses to combined climate and human impacts are of major concern. Yet few quantitative observational data exist, particularly for ecosystems that have a long history of human intervention. Here, we combine quantitative summer and winter climate reconstructions, climate model simulations and proxies for three major environmental pressures (land use, nutrients and erosion) to explore the system dynamics, resilience, and the role of disturbance regimes in varved eutrophic Lake Żabińskie since AD 1000. Comparison between regional and global climate simulations and quantitative climate reconstructions indicate that proxy data capture noticeably natural forced climate variability, while internal variability appears as the dominant source of climate variability in the climate model simulations during most parts of the last millennium. Using different multivariate analyses and change point detection techniques, we identify ecosystem changes through time and shifts between rather stable states and highly variable ones, as expressed by the proxies for land-use, erosion and productivity in the lake. Prior to AD 1600, the lake ecosystem was characterized by a high stability and resilience against considerable observed natural climate variability. In contrast, lake-ecosystem conditions started to fluctuate at high frequency across a broad range of states after AD 1600. The period AD 1748-1868 represents the phase with the strongest human disturbance of the ecosystem. Analyses of the frequency of change points in the multi-proxy dataset suggests that the last 400 years were highly variable and flickering with increasing vulnerability of the ecosystem to the combined effects of climate variability and anthropogenic disturbances. This led to significant rapid ecosystem transformations.

  11. Effect of Forest Management of Picea abies and Fagus sylvatica with Different Types of Felling on Carbon and Economic Balances in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plch, Radek; Pulkrab, Karel; Bukáček, Jan; Sloup, Roman; Cudlín, Pavel

    2016-10-01

    The selection of the most sustainable forest management under given site conditions needs suitable criteria and indicators. For this purpose, carbon and economic balance assessment, completed with environmental impact computation using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) were used. The aim of this study was to compare forestry operations and wood production of selected forest stands with different i) tree species composition (Norway spruce - Picea abies and European beech - Fagus sylvatica) and ii) type of felling (chainsaw and harvester). Carbon and economic balance methods consist in the comparison of quantified inputs (fossil fuels, electricity, used machinery, fertilizers, etc., converted into emission units of carbon in Mg of C- CO2-eq. or EUR) with quantified outputs (biomass production in Mg of carbon or EUR). In this contribution, similar forest stands (“forest site complexes”) in the 4th forest vegetation zone (in the Czech Republic approximately 400-700 m above sea-level) were selected. Forestry operations were divided into 5 main stages: i) seedling production, ii) stand establishment and pruning, iii) thinning and final cutting, iv) skidding, and v) secondary timber transport and modelled for one rotation period of timber production (ca. 100 years). The differences between Norway spruce and European beech forest stands in the carbon efficiency were relatively small while higher differences were achieved in the economic efficiency (forest stands with Norway spruce had a higher economic efficiency). Concerning the comparison of different types of felling in Norway spruce forest stands, the harvester use proved to induce significantly higher environmental impacts (emission of carbon) and lower economic costs. The comparison of forestry operation stages showed that the main part of carbon emissions, originating from fuel production and combustion, is connected with a thinning and final cutting, skidding and secondary timber transport in relations to

  12. Functional identification and differential expression of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase in induced terpenoid resin formation of Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Phillips, Michael A; Walter, Michael H; Ralph, Steven G; Dabrowska, Paulina; Luck, Katrin; Urós, Eva Maria; Boland, Wilhelm; Strack, Dieter; Rodríguez-Concepción, Manuel; Bohlmann, Jörg; Gershenzon, Jonathan

    2007-10-01

    Conifers produce terpenoid-based oleoresins as constitutive and inducible defenses against herbivores and pathogens. Much information is available about the genes and enzymes of the late steps of oleoresin terpenoid biosynthesis in conifers, but almost nothing is known about the early steps which proceed via the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway. Here we report the cDNA cloning and functional identification of three Norway spruce (Picea abies) genes encoding 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (DXS), which catalyzes the first step of the MEP pathway, and their differential expression in the stems of young saplings. Among them are representatives of both types of plant DXS genes. A single type I DXS gene is constitutively expressed in bark tissue and not affected by wounding or fungal application. In contrast, two distinct type II DXS genes, PaDXS2A and PaDXS2B, showed increased transcript abundance after these treatments as did two other genes of the MEP pathway tested, 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR) and 4-hydroxyl 3-methylbutenyl diphosphate reductase (HDR). We also measured gene expression in a Norway spruce cell suspension culture system that, like intact trees, accumulates monoterpenes after treatment with methyl jasmonate. These cell cultures were characterized by an up-regulation of monoterpene synthase gene transcripts and enzyme activity after elicitor treatment, as well as induced formation of octadecanoids, including jasmonic acid and 12-oxophytodienoic acid. Among the Type II DXS genes in cell cultures, PaDXS2A was induced by treatment with chitosan, methyl salicylate, and Ceratocystis polonica (a bark beetle-associated, blue-staining fungal pathogen of Norway spruce). However, PaDXS2B was induced by treatment with methyl jasmonate and chitosan, but was not affected by methyl salicylate or C. polonica. Our results suggest distinct functions of the three DXS genes in primary and defensive terpenoid metabolism in Norway

  13. Monsoon Season Moisture Deficit Limits Growth in Co-Occurring Alpine Shrub (Cassiope fastigata) and Tree (Abies spectabilis) Species in the Central Himalayas, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayback, S. A.; Shrestha, K. B.; Hofgaard, A.

    2015-12-01

    Recent evidence indicates changing climatological conditions in the Nepalese Himalayas including decreasing precipitation, a weakening Indian monsoon and rising temperatures. Trees and shrubs found at treeline are considered to be highly sensitive to climate, but the climatic effects on these ecotone species in the Himalayas are not well understood. Dendrochronological techniques applied to co-occurring shrubs and trees up-and down-slope of treeline extend our understanding of vegetation response at range margins and into tree-less environments. We developed tree-ring width and annual height increment chronologies for Abies spectabilis (Himalayan fir) and the first annual growth increment and annual production of leaves chronologies for Cassiope fastigata (Himalayan heather) at a high elevation site in central Nepal. C. fastigata chronologies showed moisture availability in late pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons of the previous year are critical to stem elongation and leaf production (AGI and previous May-August SPEI-12, r = 0.790; LEAF and previous June-September SPEI-12, r = 0.708) A. spectabilis chronologies were significantly and negatively correlated with monsoon season temperature during the current year (tree-ring width and June mean temperature, r = -0.677; height-increment and Sept maximum temperature, r = -0.605). In addition to both long-term and recent declines in moisture in the Himalayas, moisture deficit may be further exacerbated at high elevation sites via run-off and higher levels of evapotranspiration resulting in growth reductions, dieback and even death of these species. These results highlight that not all mid-latitude, high elevation treelines are limited by temperature as previously thought and that severe drought stress may initiate downslope treeline retraction. Understanding the response of co-occurring tree and shrub species to climate, now and in the future, may help to elucidate the physiological mechanisms controlling local and

  14. Development of an Advanced Technique for Mapping and Monitoring Sea and Lake Ice in Preparation for GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazari, R.; Temimi, M.; Khanbilvardi, R.; Romanov, P.

    2008-05-01

    In recent years, the uniqueness of the Earth's ice covered regions and their importance to the world is being increasingly recognized. They are considered vital and valuable for a variety of economic, environmental, and social reasons. Ice information can also improve weather and climate predictions. Observations show that Arctic ice is decreasing in both thickness and extent which will lead to the change in absorption of solar radiation and temperature of the earth. The increasing activity in ice-affected waters has led to a growing requirement for ice information and better mapping systems with improvements in both time and spatial resolution. A variety of Earth Observation sensors are used to map ice covered areas. Visible-Infrared sensors at moderate-resolution from polar orbiting satellites (NOAA-AVHRR, MODIS Aqua/ Terra) have been used extensively because of their easy accessibility. However, clouds, fog and low time resolutions limit the use of this type of sensor to fully meet operational ice mapping requirements, particularly in cloud- and fog ice zones. The primary objective of this research is to explore the potentials of mapping ice with the geostationary satellites which can provide a reasonably good time resolution and satisfactory spatial resolutions. The aim of this ongoing project is to develop an automated ice-mapping algorithm, which would make maximum use of GOES-R ABI's improved observing capabilities and to be the pioneer of creating daily ice maps from a geostationary satellite. Data collected by SEVIRI instrument onboard of Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite have been used as a prototype. The Northern region of the Caspian Sea has been selected for algorithm development and calibration. The approach used in the algorithm development includes daily cloud-clear image compositing as well as pixel-by-pixel image classification using spectral criteria. All available spectral channels (reflectance and temperature) have been tested and used

  15. Abietoid seed fatty acid compositions--a review of the genera Abies, Cedrus, Hesperopeuce, Keteleeria, Pseudolarix, and Tsuga and preliminary inferences on the taxonomy of Pinaceae.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Robert L; Lavialle, Olivier; Pédrono, Frédérique; Pasquier, Elodie; Destaillats, Frederic; Marpeau, Anne M; Angers, Paul; Aitzetmüller, Kurt

    2002-01-01

    The seed fatty acid (FA) compositions of Abietoids (Abies, Cedrus, Hesperopeuce, Keteleeria, Pseudolarix, and Tsuga) are reviewed in the present study in conclusion to our survey of Pinaceae seed FA compositions. Many unpublished data are given. Abietoids and Pinoids (Pinus, Larix, Picea, and Pseudotsuga)-constituting the family Pinaceae-are united by the presence of several delta5-olefinic acids, taxoleic (5,9-18:2), pinolenic (5,9,12-18:3), coniferonic (5,9,12,15-1 8:4), keteleeronic (5,11-20:2), and sciadonic (5,11,14-20:3) acids, and of 14-methyl hexadecanoic (anteiso-17:0) acid. These acids seldom occur in angiosperm seeds. The proportions of individual delta5-olefinic acids, however, differ between Pinoids and Abietoids. In the first group, pinolenic acid is much greater than taxoleic acid, whereas in the second group, pinolenic acid is greater than or equal to taxoleic acid. Moreover, taxoleic acid in Abietoids is much greater than taxoleic acid in Pinoids, an apparent limit between the two subfamilies being about 4.5% of that acid relative to total FA. Tsuga spp. appear to be a major exception, as their seed FA compositions are much like those of species from the Pinoid group. In this respect, Hesperopeuce mertensiana, also known as Tsuga mertensiana, has little in common with Abietoids and fits the general FA pattern of Pinoids well. Tsuga spp. and H. mertensiana, from their seed FA compositions, should perhaps be separated from the Abietoid group and their taxonomic position revised. It is suggested that a "Tsugoid" subfamily be created, with seed FA in compliance with the Pinoid pattern and other botanical and immunological criteria of the Abietoid type. All Pinaceae genera, with the exception of Pinus, are quite homogeneous when considering their overall seed FA compositions, including delta5-olefinic acids. In all cases but one (Pinus), variations from one species to another inside a given genus are of small amplitude. Pinus spp., on the other hand

  16. Allocation of freshly assimilated carbon into primary and secondary metabolites after in situ ¹³C pulse labelling of Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Steffen; Dippold, Michaela A; Werner, Christiane; Wiesenberg, Guido L B; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Glaser, Bruno

    2015-11-01

    Plants allocate carbon (C) to sink tissues depending on phenological, physiological or environmental factors. We still have little knowledge on C partitioning into various cellular compounds and metabolic pathways at various ecophysiological stages. We used compound-specific stable isotope analysis to investigate C partitioning of freshly assimilated C into tree compartments (needles, branches and stem) as well as into needle water-soluble organic C (WSOC), non-hydrolysable structural organic C (stOC) and individual chemical compound classes (amino acids, hemicellulose sugars, fatty acids and alkanes) of Norway spruce (Picea abies) following in situ (13)C pulse labelling 15 days after bud break. The (13)C allocation within the above-ground tree biomass demonstrated needles as a major C sink, accounting for 86% of the freshly assimilated C 6 h after labelling. In needles, the highest allocation occurred not only into the WSOC pool (44.1% of recovered needle (13)C) but also into stOC (33.9%). Needle growth, however, also caused high (13)C allocation into pathways not involved in the formation of structural compounds: (i) pathways in secondary metabolism, (ii) C-1 metabolism and (iii) amino acid synthesis from photorespiration. These pathways could be identified by a high (13)C enrichment of their key amino acids. In addition, (13)C was strongly allocated into the n-alkyl lipid fraction (0.3% of recovered (13)C), whereby (13)C allocation into cellular and cuticular exceeded that of epicuticular fatty acids. (13)C allocation decreased along the lipid transformation and translocation pathways: the allocation was highest for precursor fatty acids, lower for elongated fatty acids and lowest for the decarbonylated n-alkanes. The combination of (13)C pulse labelling with compound-specific (13)C analysis of key metabolites enabled tracing relevant C allocation pathways under field conditions. Besides the primary metabolism synthesizing structural cell compounds, a complex

  17. Ground-level ozone differentially affects nitrogen acquisition and allocation in mature European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) trees.

    PubMed

    Weigt, R B; Häberle, K H; Millard, P; Metzger, U; Ritter, W; Blaschke, H; Göttlein, A; Matyssek, R

    2012-10-01

    Impacts of elevated ground-level ozone (O(3)) on nitrogen (N) uptake and allocation were studied on mature European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) in a forest stand, hypothesizing that: (i) chronically elevated O(3) limits nutrient uptake, and (ii) beech responds more sensitively to elevated O(3) than spruce, as previously found for juvenile trees. Tree canopies were exposed to twice-ambient O(3) concentrations (2 × O(3)) by a free-air fumigation system, with trees under ambient O(3) serving as control. After 5 years of O(3) fumigation, (15)NH(4)(15)NO(3) was applied to soil, and concentrations of newly acquired N (N(labelled)) and total N (N(total)) in plant compartments and soil measured. Under 2 × O(3), N(labelled) and N(total) were increased in the bulk soil and tended to be lower in fine and coarse roots of both species across the soil horizons, supporting hypothesis (i). N(labelled) was reduced in beech foliage by up to 60%, and by up to 50% in buds under 2 × O(3). Similarly, N(labelled) in stem bark and phloem was reduced. No such reduction was observed in spruce, reflecting a stronger effect on N acquisition in beech in accordance with hypothesis (ii). In spruce, 2 × O(3) tended to favour allocation of new N to foliage. N(labelled) in beech foliage correlated with cumulative seasonal transpiration, indicating impaired N acquisition was probably caused by reduced stomatal conductance and, hence, water transport under elevated O(3). Stimulated fine root growth under 2 × O(3) with a possible increase of below-ground N sink strength may also have accounted for lowered N allocation to above-ground organs. Reduced N uptake and altered allocation may enhance the use of stored N for growth, possibly affecting long-term stand nutrition.

  18. Effects of open-field experimental warming on the growth of two-year-old Pinus densiflora and Abies holophylla seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, S.; Son, Y.; Lee, S.; Jo, W.; Yoon, T.; Park, C.; Ko, S.; Kim, J.; Han, S.; Jung, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Temperature increase due to climate change is expected to affect tree growth and distribution [Way and Oren, 2010]. The responses of trees to warming vary with tree species, ontogenic stages, tree life forms, and biomes. Especially, seedling stage is a vulnerable period for tree survival and competition [Saxe et al., 2007] and thus research on effects of temperature increase on seedling stage is needed. We aimed to examine the responses of coniferous seedlings to future temperature increase by conducting an open-field warming experiment. An experimental warming set-up using infra-red heater was built in 2011 and the temperature in warming plots has been regulated to 3°C higher than that of control plots constantly. The seeds of Pinus densiflora and Abies holophylla were planted in each 1 m × 1 m plot (n=3) in April, 2012. Seedling growth, root collar diameter (RCD) and height of 45 individuals of each plot were measured in June and July, 2012. The survival rate of seedlings was also measured. Survival rate of P. densiflora was lower in warming plots (93.3%) than in control plots (100.0%, p<0.05) and that of A. holophylla was also decreased in warming plots (79.3%) than in control plots (97.0%, p<0.01). RCD and height of P. densiflora seedlings were not significantly different between control and warming plots, however, height of A. holophylla was significantly higher in warming plots in June and July (p<0.01). Comparatively, RCD of A. holophylla was only higher in control plots in June. While there is still a lack of case studies on the growth of seedlings under experimental warming, a few studies reported increased seedling growth [Yin et al., 2008] or and no difference [Han et al., 2009] in warming plots. Different responses of seedling growth between two species of the current study might be derived from species-specific acclimation to temperature increase and/or other limiting factors [Way and Oren, 2010]. This result is, to our knowledge, unprecedented and

  19. Indicators of climate change effects: Relationships between crown transparency and butt rot in silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) in Middle Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Aprile, Fabrizio; Tapper, Nigel

    2014-05-01

    Climatic analysis conducted on the trends and changes in temperature and rainfall during the 20th century in the Tuscan Apennine Alps (Middle Italy) have highlighted the possibility that these changes have a significant impact on the growth and/or health conditions or stress in silver fir (Abies alba Mill.). In this framework, identification of appropriate indicators to verify relationships between stress symptoms, which are frequently caused by climate adverse conditions, and pathological phenomena is a necessary step functional to the identification of climatic-environmental impacts on forests. The presence of butt rot pathology - a complex disease that causes rotting of the trunk internally - in silver fir is known the time as well as its severity. Nonetheless, very little research on the potential effects of changing climate conditions on the diffusion and intensity of butt rot seems available; thus, effects of climate change seem to be not excluded nor verified. No research or studies that quantify distribution and incidence or, especially, relationships of butt rot with adverse climatic and/or environmental factors were found. However, climatic alterations can have an impact on the intensity and spread of serious disease complexes and therefore it is of great importance to investigate the relationships between climate changing conditions, diffusion and incidence of butt rot in silver fir forests for their conservation and the management of species and biodiversity associated. As butt rot unlikely could be directly related to climate variables, crown transparency has been used as a proxy for tree growth, where climate variability is assumed to be the main driver of silver fir growth and stress. Actually, crown transparency is considered to be a main factor associated to tree growth, and healthier trees are assumed to grow faster than less-healthy trees. Thus, theoretically denser crowns would correspond to faster growing and healthier trees and indicate better

  20. Growth enhancement of Picea abies trees under long-term, low-dose N addition is due to morphological more than to physiological changes.

    PubMed

    Krause, Kim; Cherubini, Paolo; Bugmann, Harald; Schleppi, Patrick

    2012-12-01

    Human activities have drastically increased nitrogen (N) inputs into natural and near-natural terrestrial ecosystems such that critical loads are now being exceeded in many regions of the world. This implies that these ecosystems are shifting from natural N limitation to eutrophication or even N saturation. This process is expected to modify the growth of forests and thus, along with management, to affect their carbon (C) sequestration. However, knowledge of the physiological mechanisms underlying tree response to N inputs, especially in the long term, is still lacking. In this study, we used tree-ring patterns and a dual stable isotope approach (δ(13)C and δ(18)O) to investigate tree growth responses and the underlying physiological reactions in a long-term, low-dose N addition experiment (+23 kg N ha(-1) a(-1)). This experiment has been conducted for 14 years in a mountain Picea abies (L.) Karst. forest in Alptal, Switzerland, using a paired-catchment design. Tree stem C sequestration increased by ∼22%, with an N use efficiency (NUE) of ca. 8 kg additional C in tree stems per kg of N added. Neither earlywood nor latewood δ(13)C values changed significantly compared with the control, indicating that the intrinsic water use efficiency (WUE(i)) (A/g(s)) did not change due to N addition. Further, the isotopic signal of δ(18)O in early- and latewood showed no significant response to the treatment, indicating that neither stomatal conductance nor leaf-level photosynthesis changed significantly. Foliar analyses showed that needle N concentration significantly increased in the fourth to seventh treatment year, accompanied by increased dry mass and area per needle, and by increased tree height growth. Later, N concentration and height growth returned to nearly background values, while dry mass and area per needle remained high. Our results support the hypothesis that enhanced stem growth caused by N addition is mainly due to an increased leaf area index (LAI

  1. Carbon assimilation, translocation and respiration in Fagus sylvatica and Abies alba stands measured by gas exchange and isotopic techniques during two contrasting climatic years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrichkova, Olga; Scartazza, Andrea; Zampedri, Roberto; Cavagna, Mauro; Sottocornola, Matteo; Matteucci, Giorgio; Brugnoli, Enrico

    2014-05-01

    Global warming is tremendously influencing the climate of mountain areas through constantly rising temperatures and changes in local hydrological cycle. Increase of precipitation extremes, seasonal shifts of rainfall regime, heat waves are becoming more and more frequent events here. Vulnerability and plasticity of the local individual tree species under changing climate has still to be evaluated under field conditions. Two consecutive years, 2012 and 2013 were quite distinct in the climatic conditions during the plant growing season. Summer 2012 was characterized by a prolonged summer drought with almost no precipitation in central Italy from the end of May up to the end of August. The situation was aggravated by a very dry winter during this year. Mean annual temperatures in 2012 were 2oC higher in respect to the temperatures measured in the last 10 years. Conversely, year 2013 was milder with occasional rain events also during the summer months and temperatures close to the average values. In the Alpine zone the difference between two years were less pronounced with 2012 being slightly warmer than average and 2013 was characterized by unusually abundant spring precipitations. Taking advantage of these two contrasting years, we have monitored a functional response of one deciduous and one coniferous mountain forest stands growing in different mountain climate zones to variations in the local climate. The first, a deciduous European beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest, is located in the Appennine region of Italy at 1700 m height (Collelongo site, AQ) and characterized by a Mountain-Mediterranean climate. The second is a mixed forest dominated by Silver fir (Abies alba) which was chosen as a target species for our study. The site is located at 1350m height in the south-eastern Alps (Lavarone, TN) and is characterized by a mountain temperate climate. Sampling of plant material and point flux measurements were performed in the beginning, middle and the end of the growing

  2. Spring temperature variability and eutrophication history inferred from sedimentary pigments in the varved sediments of Lake Żabińskie, north-eastern Poland, AD 1907-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amann, Benjamin; Lobsiger, Simon; Fischer, Daniela; Tylmann, Wojciech; Bonk, Alicja; Filipiak, Janusz; Grosjean, Martin

    2014-12-01

    Varved lake sediments are excellent natural archives providing quantitative insights into climatic and environmental changes at very high resolution and chronological accuracy. However, due to the multitude of responses within lake ecosystems it is often difficult to understand how climate variability interacts with other environmental pressures such as eutrophication, and to attribute observed changes to specific causes. This is particularly challenging during the past 100 years when multiple strong trends are superposed. Here we present a high-resolution multi-proxy record of sedimentary pigments and other biogeochemical data from the varved sediments of Lake Żabińskie (Masurian Lake District, north-eastern Poland, 54°N-22°E, 120 m a.s.l.) spanning AD 1907 to 2008. Lake Żabińskie exhibits biogeochemical varves with highly organic late summer and winter layers separated by white layers of endogenous calcite precipitated in early summer. The aim of our study is to investigate whether climate-driven changes and anthropogenic changes can be separated in a multi-proxy sediment data set, and to explore which sediment proxies are potentially suitable for long quantitative climate reconstructions. We also test if convoluted analytical techniques (e.g. HPLC) can be substituted by rapid scanning techniques (visible reflectance spectroscopy VIS-RS; 380-730 nm). We used principal component analysis and cluster analysis to show that the recent eutrophication of Lake Żabińskie can be discriminated from climate-driven changes for the period AD 1907-2008. The eutrophication signal (PC1 = 46.4%; TOC, TN, TS, Phe-b, high TC/CD ratios total carotenoids/chlorophyll-a derivatives) is mainly expressed as increasing aquatic primary production, increasing hypolimnetic anoxia and a change in the algal community from green algae to blue-green algae. The proxies diagnostic for eutrophication show a smooth positive trend between 1907 and ca 1980 followed by a very rapid increase

  3. [Effects of snow pack removal on soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen and the number of soil culturable microorganisms during wintertime in alpine Abies faxoniana forest of western Sichuan, Southwest China].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu-Lian; Wu, Fu-Zhong; He, Zhen-Hua; Xu, Zhen-Feng; Liu, Yang; Yang, Wan-Qin; Tan, Bo

    2012-07-01

    To understand the effects of the lack of snow pack under global warming on the characteristics of soil microorganisms during wintertime, a snow-shading experiment was conducted in a primary fir (Abies faxoniana) forest after snow pack removal, with the soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN) and soil culturable microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) at the stages of snow forming, snow covering, and snow melting investigated. Snow pack removal had significant effects on the soil MBC and MBN and the number of soil culturable bacteria and fungi, but the responses of the culturable microorganisms differed with the stages of snow-shading. Under the condition of snow pack removal, the MBC and MBN in soil organic layer decreased significantly at the early stages of snow forming and snow melting but increased significantly at snow covering stage and at the later stage of snow melting, and the number of culturable bacteria decreased significantly from the early stage of snow forming to the stage of snow covering while that of culturable fungi had a significant increase from the early stage of snow forming to the stage of snow melting. After snow melting, the MBC and the number of culturable fungi in soil organic layer had a significant decrease, the number of cultural bacteria was in adverse, but the MBN had less change. The MBC and MBN and the number of culturable microorganisms in soil mineral layer had the similar variation trends as those in soil organic layer, but the fluctuations were smaller. It was suggested that snow pack removal changed the ratio of culturable bacteria to culturable fungi, showing positive effects on the number of soil culturable fungi during wintertime in alpine Abies faxoniana forest of western Sichuan.

  4. Reduced climate sensitivity of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen stable isotope ratios in tree-ring cellulose of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) influenced by background SO2 in Franconia (Germany, Central Europe).

    PubMed

    Boettger, Tatjana; Haupt, Marika; Friedrich, Michael; Waterhouse, John S

    2014-02-01

    The climate sensitivity of carbon (δ(13)C), oxygen (δ(18)O) and hydrogen (δ(2)H) isotope signatures in tree-ring cellulose of Abies alba Mill. from a marginally industrialized area of Franconia (Germany) was analysed for the last 130 years. All isotopes preserve climatic signals up to c. 1950 AD. After 1950 we observe a clear reduction in climate sensitivity of δ(13)C and δ(2)H while δ(18)O - climate relations remain well pronounced. Nevertheless statistical tests implied that SO2 background emissions of West Germany had influenced isotope signatures long before 1950. The relationships between isotope values and concentrations of SO2, dust, O3 and NO2 at the regional level during the period 1979-2006 indicate that δ(13)C and δ(18)O were influenced primarily by SO2. The impact of SO2 on δ(2)H was negligible, but the observed reduction of climate sensitivity may be caused by synergic influences. The results have significant implications if isotope signatures from tree-rings from anthropogenic influenced regions are used to reconstruct past climate.

  5. Regulation of liver cell glucose homeostasis by dehydroabietic acid, abietic acid and squalene isolated from balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) a plant of the Eastern James Bay Cree traditional pharmacopeia.

    PubMed

    Nachar, Abir; Saleem, Ammar; Arnason, John T; Haddad, Pierre S

    2015-09-01

    In our previous study, Abies balsamea (L.) Mill., a plant used in Cree traditional medicine, had a strong effect on the regulation of glucose homeostasis in liver cells. This study aimed to isolate and identify its active constituents using a bioassay-guided fractionation approach as well as to elucidate their mechanism(s) of action. The effect of the crude extract and its constituents was evaluated on the activity of Glucose-6-Phosphatase (G6Pase) and Glycogen Synthase (GS) and phosphorylation of three kinases, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), Akt and Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (GSK-3). Three compounds, abietic acid, dehydroabietic acid and squalene, were isolated from the most active fraction in the bioassays (hexane). The compounds were able to decrease the activity of G6Pase and to stimulate GS. Their effect on G6Pase activity involved both Akt and AMPK phosphorylation with significant correlations between insulin-dependent and -independent pathways and the bioassay. In addition, the compounds were able to stimulate GS through GSK-3 phosphorylation with a significant correlation between the signaling pathway and the bioassay. Dehydroabietic acid stood out for its strongest effect in all the experiments close to that of the crude extract. These compounds may have potential applications in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance.

  6. Seasonal dynamics in the stable carbon isotope composition δ¹³C from non-leafy branch, trunk and coarse root CO₂ efflux of adult deciduous (Fagus sylvatica) and evergreen (Picea abies) trees.

    PubMed

    Kuptz, Daniel; Matyssek, Rainer; Grams, Thorsten E E

    2011-03-01

    Respiration is a substantial driver of carbon (C) flux in forest ecosystems and stable C isotopes provide an excellent tool for its investigation. We studied seasonal dynamics in δ¹³C of CO₂ efflux (δ¹³C(E)) from non-leafy branches, upper and lower trunks and coarse roots of adult trees, comparing deciduous Fagus sylvatica (European beech) with evergreen Picea abies (Norway spruce). In both species, we observed strong and similar seasonal dynamics in the δ¹³C(E) of above-ground plant components, whereas δ¹³C(E) of coarse roots was rather stable. During summer, δ¹³C(E) of trunks was about -28.2‰ (Beech) and -26.8‰ (Spruce). During winter dormancy, δ¹³C(E) increased by 5.6-9.1‰. The observed dynamics are likely related to a switch from growth to starch accumulation during fall and remobilization of starch, low TCA cycle activity and accumulation of malate by PEPc during winter. The seasonal δ¹³C(E) pattern of branches of Beech and upper trunks of Spruce was less variable, probably because these organs were additionally supplied by winter photosynthesis. In view of our results and pervious studies, we conclude that the pronounced increases in δ¹³C(E) of trunks during the winter results from interrupted access to recent photosynthates.

  7. Seasonal patterns of carbon allocation to respiratory pools in 60-yr-old deciduous (Fagus sylvatica) and evergreen (Picea abies) trees assessed via whole-tree stable carbon isotope labeling.

    PubMed

    Kuptz, Daniel; Fleischmann, Frank; Matyssek, Rainer; Grams, Thorsten E E

    2011-07-01

    • The CO(2) efflux of adult trees is supplied by recent photosynthates and carbon (C) stores. The extent to which these C pools contribute to growth and maintenance respiration (R(G) and R(M), respectively) remains obscure. • Recent photosynthates of adult beech (Fagus sylvatica) and spruce (Picea abies) trees were labeled by exposing whole-tree canopies to (13) C-depleted CO(2). Label was applied three times during the year (in spring, early summer and late summer) and changes in the stable C isotope composition (δ(13) C) of trunk and coarse-root CO(2) efflux were quantified. • Seasonal patterns in C translocation rate (CTR) and fractional contribution of label to CO(2) efflux (F(Label-Max)) were found. CTR was fastest during early summer. In beech, F(Label-Max) was lowest in spring and peaked in trunks during late summer (0.6 ± 0.1, mean ± SE), whereas no trend was observed in coarse roots. No seasonal dynamics in F(Label-Max) were found in spruce. • During spring, the R(G) of beech trunks was largely supplied by C stores. Recent photosynthates supplied growth in early summer and refilled C stores in late summer. In spruce, CO(2) efflux was constantly supplied by a mixture of stored (c. 75%) and recent (c. 25%) C. The hypothesis that R(G) is exclusively supplied by recent photosynthates was rejected for both species.

  8. Acoustical and functional analysis of Mountain lion (Puma concolor) vocalizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, Jacquelyn

    2002-05-01

    A 2-year study resulted in acoustic analysis of the structure of over 900 mountain lion vocalizations recorded in a seminatural setting at Wildlife Prairie Park near Peoria, Illinois. A vocal repertoire was obtained by describing quantitative variables about the sounds, i.e., frequency of the dominant part of the sound (beginning, ending, maximum, and minimum), duration, and number of components. Other variables described the tonal, harmonic, and wideband qualities of the sounds. Behavioral data were collected during the same period. Further analysis of both acoustic and behavioral data was completed to develop a correlation matrix between vocalizations and behavior. This study also looked at the effects of seasons on vocal behavior. Correlations were found between vocalization types and rates of usage with specific behaviors. Vocalization type and the usage rate also varied by season.

  9. Causes of mortality in the Florida panther (Felis concolor coryi).

    PubMed

    Buergelt, C D; Homer, B L; Spalding, M G

    2002-10-01

    Panthers necropsied at the University of Florida ranged between 2 weeks and 14 years of age; there were 38 males and 17 females in the cohort. Main categories of causes of death included trauma inflicted from either vehicular collisions (43%) or territorial fights (16%). Specific endogenous diseases involved the respiratory system in 13%, the urinary system in 4%, and the central nervous system in 2%. Ostium secundum atrial septal defects (ASD) were diagnosed in 11% of the panthers necropsied. Seventeen (54%) of the 38 male panthers had either unilateral or bilateral cryptorchidism. Cause of death remained undetermined in 11% of the total cohort.

  10. Evaluation of the RapidHIT™ 200 System: A comparative study of its performance with Maxwell(®) DNA IQ™/Identifiler(®) Plus/ABI 3500xL workflow.

    PubMed

    Thong, Zhonghui; Phua, Yong Han; Loo, Eileen Shuzhen; Goh, Sze Kae; Ang, Jiatian; Looi, Woan Foon; Syn, Christopher Kiu Choong

    2015-11-01

    RapidHIT(™) System is a rapid DNA instrument that is capable of processing forensic samples from extraction through to capillary electrophoresis and profile generation within two hours. Evaluation of the RapidHIT(™) 200 System was conducted to examine several key performance indicators of the instrument, including reproducibility, contamination, sensitivity, versatility and the possibility of sample re-extraction. Results indicated that the RapidHIT(™) 200 System was capable of generating high quality DNA profiles which were comparable to those from the standard protocol comprising of Maxwell(®) 16 DNA IQ(™) System, Identifiler(®) Plus and ABI 3500xL. No contamination was detected during the studies. Results also showed that the instrument was able to generate DNA profiles from samples containing lower amounts of DNA (0.5 μl of blood) albeit with more allele and locus dropouts when compared to the standard protocol. The ability to process blood swabs, blood-stained FTA punches, semen swabs, buccal swabs, product of conception (POC), bone marrow, fingernail clippings and cigarette butts at a good success rate indicated the robustness and versatility of the RapidHIT(™) 200 System. Furthermore, additional alleles could be recovered via re-analysis of the failed samples using the standard protocol. In summary, our results showed that the RapidHIT(™) 200 System was able to process casework samples for the purpose of providing rapid intelligence through DNA database searches and reference matching. Confirmative DNA results can be obtained through either concurrent processing of duplicate samples via standard protocol or re-extraction of samples retrieved from the RapidHIT(™) sample cartridge.

  11. Heterologous Array Analysis in Pinaceae: Hybridization of Pinus Taeda cDNA Arrays With cDNA From Needles and Embryogenic Cultures of P. Taeda, P. Sylvestris or Picea Abies

    PubMed Central

    van Zyl, Leonel; von Arnold, Sara; Bozhkov, Peter; Chen, Yongzhong; Egertsdotter, Ulrika; MacKay, John; Sederoff, Ronald R.; Shen, Jing; Zelena, Lyubov

    2002-01-01

    Hybridization of labelled cDNA from various cell types with high-density arrays of expressed sequence tags is a powerful technique for investigating gene expression. Few conifer cDNA libraries have been sequenced. Because of the high level of sequence conservation between Pinus and Picea we have investigated the use of arrays from one genus for studies of gene expression in the other. The partial cDNAs from 384 identifiable genes expressed in differentiating xylem of Pinus taeda were printed on nylon membranes in randomized replicates. These were hybridized with labelled cDNA from needles or embryogenic cultures of Pinus taeda, P. sylvestris and Picea abies, and with labelled cDNA from leaves of Nicotiana tabacum. The Spearman correlation of gene expression for pairs of conifer species was high for needles (r2 = 0.78 − 0.86), and somewhat lower for embryogenic cultures (r2 = 0.68 − 0.83). The correlation of gene expression for tobacco leaves and needles of each of the three conifer species was lower but sufficiently high (r2 = 0.52 − 0.63) to suggest that many partial gene sequences are conserved in angiosperms and gymnosperms. Heterologous probing was further used to identify tissue-specific gene expression over species boundaries. To evaluate the significance of differences in gene expression, conventional parametric tests were compared with permutation tests after four methods of normalization. Permutation tests after Z-normalization provide the highest degree of discrimination but may enhance the probability of type I errors. It is concluded that arrays of cDNA from loblolly pine are useful for studies of gene expression in other pines or spruces. PMID:18629264

  12. Non-functional plastid ndh gene fragments are present in the nuclear genome of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karsch): insights from in silico analysis of nuclear and organellar genomes.

    PubMed

    Ranade, Sonali Sachin; García-Gil, María Rosario; Rosselló, Josep A

    2016-04-01

    Many genes have been lost from the prokaryote plastidial genome during the early events of endosymbiosis in eukaryotes. Some of them were definitively lost, but others were relocated and functionally integrated to the host nuclear genomes through serial events of gene transfer during plant evolution. In gymnosperms, plastid genome sequencing has revealed the loss of ndh genes from several species of Gnetales and Pinaceae, including Norway spruce (Picea abies). This study aims to trace the ndh genes in the nuclear and organellar Norway spruce genomes. The plastid genomes of higher plants contain 11 ndh genes which are homologues of mitochondrial genes encoding subunits of the proton-pumping NADH-dehydrogenase (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase) or complex I (electron transport chain). Ndh genes encode 11 NDH polypeptides forming the Ndh complex (analogous to complex I) which seems to be primarily involved in chloro-respiration processes. We considered ndh genes from the plastidial genome of four gymnosperms (Cryptomeria japonica, Cycas revoluta, Ginkgo biloba, Podocarpus totara) and a single angiosperm species (Arabidopsis thaliana) to trace putative homologs in the nuclear and organellar Norway spruce genomes using tBLASTn to assess the evolutionary fate of ndh genes in Norway spruce and to address their genomic location(s), structure, integrity and functionality. The results obtained from tBLASTn were subsequently analyzed by performing homology search for finding ndh specific conserved domains using conserved domain search. We report the presence of non-functional plastid ndh gene fragments, excepting ndhE and ndhG genes, in the nuclear genome of Norway spruce. Regulatory transcriptional elements like promoters, TATA boxes and enhancers were detected in the upstream regions of some ndh fragments. We also found transposable elements in the flanking regions of few ndh fragments suggesting nuclear rearrangements in those regions. These evidences

  13. Causes of forest damage in Europe: Major hypotheses and factors. [Picea rubens; Abies balsmea; Abies fraseri

    SciTech Connect

    Prinz, B. )

    1987-11-01

    Forest damage has become a major topic of public and scientific discussion in recent years. Significant controversy has developed regarding the causes of this damage. This is especially true in West Germany (Federal Republic of Germany), where forests are considered in both economic and emotional terms. The mythic bonds between man and forest go back into ancient history. This article first explains the difference between the novel character of recent forest damage and the classic form of smoke damage. The different forms of forest damage in Central Europe and North America are then compared, and evidence for and against several hypotheses of causation of chlorosis, or yellowing, of evergreen needles at upper elevations - the most important type of forest damage in Germany - is discussed in detail.

  14. Spatial elements of mortality risk in old-growth forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Das, Adrian; Battles, John; van Mantgem, Phillip J.; Stephenson, Nathan L.

    2008-01-01

    For many species of long-lived organisms, such as trees, survival appears to be the most critical vital rate affecting population persistence. However, methods commonly used to quantify tree death, such as relating tree mortality risk solely to diameter growth, almost certainly do not account for important spatial processes. Our goal in this study was to detect and, if present, to quantify the relevance of such processes. For this purpose, we examined purely spatial aspects of mortality for four species, Abies concolor, Abies magnifica, Calocedrus decurrens, and Pinus lambertiana, in an old-growth conifer forest in the Sierra Nevada of California, USA. The analysis was performed using data from nine fully mapped long-term monitoring plots.In three cases, the results unequivocally supported the inclusion of spatial information in models used to predict mortality. For Abies concolor, our results suggested that growth rate may not always adequately capture increased mortality risk due to competition. We also found evidence of a facilitative effect for this species, with mortality risk decreasing with proximity to conspecific neighbors. For Pinus lambertiana, mortality risk increased with density of conspecific neighbors, in keeping with a mechanism of increased pathogen or insect pressure (i.e., a Janzen-Connell type effect). Finally, we found that models estimating risk of being crushed were strongly improved by the inclusion of a simple index of spatial proximity.Not only did spatial indices improve models, those improvements were relevant for mortality prediction. For P. lambertiana, spatial factors were important for estimation of mortality risk regardless of growth rate. For A. concolor, although most of the population fell within spatial conditions in which mortality risk was well described by growth, trees that died occurred outside those conditions in a disproportionate fashion. Furthermore, as stands of A. concolor become increasingly dense, such spatial

  15. Biogeography of Pleistocene conifer species from the Ziegler Reservoir fossil site, Snowmass Village, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Dane M.; Miller, Ian M.; Jackson, Stephen T.

    2014-11-01

    Pleistocene biogeography of conifer species is poorly known in much of western North America. We conducted morphological studies on 201 conifer cones and cone fragments recovered from Pleistocene sediments at the Ziegler Reservoir fossil site (2705 m) near Snowmass Village, Colorado. The basin, formed ~ 155-130 ka, contains fossil-bearing lacustrine, palustrine, and colluvial sediments spanning approximately 85 ka. Using a suite of morphological characters, particularly cone-scale bracts, we differentiated species of Abies, Picea, and Pseudotsuga. All fossil Abies specimens were assignable based on bract morphology to Abies concolor, which is currently absent from central Colorado (nearest populations are 160 km southwest of the site). A. concolor occurs only in sediments of MIS 5d and 5c. Pseudotsuga menziesii and Picea engelmannii cones occurred in sediments corresponding to MIS 5e, 5d, 5c, and 5a. A fourth conifer species, occurring in sediments of MIS 5e, 5d, 5c, and 5a, is difficult to assign to any extant species. Bract morphology is similar to Picea pungens, which grows near the site today, but scale morphology is unlike P. pungens. These fossils may represent ancestral P. pungens, an extinct variant, or an extinct sister species.

  16. Effect of acidification on metal uptake of Picea abies seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Paeivaerinta, J.; Lodenius, M. )

    1994-03-01

    The effects of air pollutants on forest ecosystems are based on complex interactions where no single dominating factor has been found. The reasons for forest die-back are extremely difficult to determine because of the lack of long-term data and the difficulties in determining the [open quotes]normal[close quotes] state of the forest ecosystems. The forest die-back in central Europe has been interpreted by many different theories. According to the stress hypothesis all stress factors are summed together so that the limits of biological stress tolerance of different organisms can be exceeded. One potential stress factor is soil acidification. Anthropogenic pollutants increase soil acidification, which is known to increase the solubility of many metals. This has raised the question whether metals could be one potential stress factor to forest organisms. Root growth and the uptake of nutrients and water are in some cases sensible parameters of metal toxicity. Although metals are not the main factor in forest decline, it is important to understand the role of metals as a stress factor on forest ecosystems. Metal uptake by different plant species, especially trees, is unclear. For example the synergistic and antagonistic effects of different metals in plant tissues and the availability of organic metal complexes are still unknown. Plant roots also play an important active role in mobilizing metals from soil particles by producing organic compounds that are effective in releasing substances bound to soil particles. It is important to study the quantities of metals taken up by forest plants because plants are one way for soil metals to enter forest food chains. It is also important to know whether metals can accumulate into plants in concentrations harmful to the plant itself. This study was designed to determine whether metal uptake by Norway spruce is dependent on acidification or humus content of the soil. 20 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Molecular evidence for a recent demographic expansion in the puma (Puma concolor) (Mammalia, Felidae)

    PubMed Central

    Matte, Eunice M.; Castilho, Camila S.; Miotto, Renata A.; Sana, Denis A.; Johnson, Warren E.; O’Brien, Stephen J.; de Freitas, Thales R. O.; Eizirik, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    The puma is an iconic predator that ranges throughout the Americas, occupying diverse habitats. Previous phylogeographic analyses have revealed that it exhibits moderate levels of genetic structure across its range, with few of the classically recognized subspecies being supported as distinct demographic units. Moreover, most of the species’ molecular diversity was found to be in South America. To further investigate the phylogeographic structure and demographic history of pumas we analyzed mtDNA sequences from 186 individuals sampled throughout their range, with emphasis on South America. Our objectives were to refine the phylogeographic assessment within South America and to investigate the demographic history of pumas using a coalescent approach. Our results extend previous phylogeographic findings, reassessing the delimitation of historical population units in South America and demonstrating that this species experienced a considerable demographic expansion in the Holocene, ca. 8,000 years ago. Our analyses indicate that this expansion occurred in South America, prior to the hypothesized re-colonization of North America, which was therefore inferred to be even more recent. The estimated demographic history supports the interpretation that pumas suffered a severe demographic decline in the Late Pleistocene throughout their distribution, followed by population expansion and re-colonization of the range, initiating from South America. PMID:24385863

  18. Behavioral effects of environmental enrichment on harbor seals (Phoca vitulina concolor) and gray seals (Halichoerus grypus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunter, S.A.; Bay, M.S.; Martin, M.L.; Hatfield, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    Zoos and aquariums have been incorporating environmental enrichment into their animal care programs for the past 30 years to increase mental stimulation and promote natural behaviors. However, most attempts to document the effects of enrichment on animal behavior have focused on terrestrial mammals. Staff at the National Aquarium in Baltimore conducted an investigation of the behavioral effects of enrichment on the seven harbor seals and two gray seals housed in the aquarium's outdoor seal exhibit. We expected that enrichment would change the amount of time the animals spent engaged in specific behaviors. The behaviors recorded were: resting in water, resting hauled out, maintenance, breeding display, breeding behavior, aggression, pattern swimming, random swimming, exploration, and out of sight. Activity levels (random swimming and exploration) were expected to increase, while stereotypic behaviors (pattern swimming) were expected to decrease. The frequency and duration of behaviors were documented for 90 hr in both the control phase (without enrichment) and the experimental phase (with enrichment). Statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) in the time spent in pattern swimming, random swimming, exploration, and out of sight were observed between the two phases. With enrichment, pattern swimming and out of sight decreased, while random swimming and exploration behavior increased. These findings demonstrate that enrichment can promote behaviors (random swimming and exploration) that are likely to be normal for phocids in the wild, and that may contribute to the behavioral complexity of these seals in captivity. ?? 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Behavioral effects of environmental enrichment on harbor seals (Phoca vitulina concolor) and gray seals (Hafichoerus grypus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunter, S.A.; Bay, M.S.; Martin, M.L.; Hatfield, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    Zoos and aquariums have been incorporating environmental enrichment into their animal care programs for the past 30 years to increase mental stimulation and promote natural behaviors. However, most attempts to document the effects of enrichment on animal behavior have focused on terrestrial mammals. Staff at the National Aquarium in Baltimore conducted an investigation of the behavioral effects of enrichment on the seven harbor seals and two gray seals housed in the aquarium's outdoor seal exhibit. We expected that enrichment would change the amount of time the animals spent engaged in specific behaviors. The behaviors recorded were: resting in water, resting hauled out, maintenance, breeding display, breeding behavior, aggression, pattern swimming, random swimming, exploration, and out of sight. Activity levels (random swimming and exploration) were expected to increase, while stereotypic behaviors (pattern swimming) were expected to decrease. The frequency and duration of behaviors were documented for 90 hr in both the control phase (without enrichment) and the experimental phase (with enrichment). Statistically significant differences (P<0.05) in the time spent in pattern swimming, random swimming, exploration, and out of sight were observed between the two phases. With enrichment, pattern swimming and out of sight decreased, while random swimming and exploration behavior increased. These findings demonstrate that enrichment can promote behaviors (random swimming and exploration) that are likely to be normal for phocids in the wild, and that may contribute to the behavioral complexity of these seals in captivity.

  20. Evaluating Landscape Connectivity for Puma concolor and Panthera onca Among Atlantic Forest Protected Areas.

    PubMed

    Castilho, Camila S; Hackbart, Vivian C S; Pivello, Vânia R; dos Santos, Rozely F

    2015-06-01

    Strictly Protected Areas and riparian forests in Brazil are rarely large enough or connected enough to maintain viable populations of carnivores and animal movement over time, but these characteristics are fundamental for species conservation as they prevent the extinction of isolated animal populations. Therefore, the need to maintain connectivity for these species in human-dominated Atlantic landscapes is critical. In this study, we evaluated the landscape connectivity for large carnivores (cougar and jaguar) among the Strictly Protected Areas in the Atlantic Forest, evaluated the efficiency of the Mosaics of Protected Areas linked to land uses in promoting landscape connectivity, identified the critical habitat connections, and predicted the landscape connectivity status under the implementation of legislation for protecting riparian forests. The method was based on expert opinion translated into land use and land cover maps. The results show that the Protected Areas are still connected by a narrow band of landscape that is permeable to both species and that the Mosaics of Protected Areas increase the amount of protected area but fail to increase the connectivity between the forested mountain ranges (Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira). Riparian forests greatly increase connectivity, more than tripling the cougars' priority areas. We note that the selection of Brazilian protected areas still fails to create connectivity among the legally protected forest remnants. We recommend the immediate protection of the priority areas identified that would increase the structural landscape connectivity for these large carnivores, especially paths in the SE/NW direction between the two mountain ranges.

  1. Zoonotic vector-borne bacterial pathogens in California mountain lions (Puma concolor), 1987-2010.

    PubMed

    Girard, Yvette A; Swift, Pamela; Chomel, Bruno B; Kasten, Rickie W; Fleer, Katryna; Foley, Janet E; Torres, Steven G; Johnson, Christine K

    2012-11-01

    Sera collected from 442 mountain lions in 48 California counties between the years of 1987 and 2010 were tested using immunofluorescence assays and agglutination tests for the presence of antibodies reactive to Yersinia pestis, Francisella tularensis, Bartonella henselae, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum antigens. Data were analyzed for spatial and temporal trends in seropositivity. Seroprevalences for B. burgdorferi (19.9%) and B. henselae (37.1%) were relatively high, with the highest exposure in the Central Coast region for B. henselae. B. henselae DNA amplified in mountain lion samples was genetically similar to human-derived Houston-1 and domestic cat-derived U4 B. henselae strains at the gltA and ftsZ loci. The statewide seroprevalences of Y. pestis (1.4%), F. tularensis (1.4%), and A. phagocytophilum (5.9%), were comparatively low. Sera from Y. pestis- and F. tularensis-seropositive mountain lions were primarily collected in the Eastern and Western Sierra Nevada, and samples reactive to Y. pestis antigen were collected exclusively from adult females. Adult age (≥ 2 years) was a risk factor for B. burgdorferi exposure. Over 70% of tested animals were killed on depredation permits, and therefore were active near areas with livestock and human residential communities. Surveillance of mountain lions for these bacterial vector-borne and zoonotic agents may be informative to public health authorities, and the data are useful for detecting enzootic and peridomestic pathogen transmission patterns, particularly in combination with molecular characterization of the infecting organisms.

  2. Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation and phylogeography of Neotropic pumas (Puma concolor).

    PubMed

    Caragiulo, Anthony; Dias-Freedman, Isabela; Clark, J Alan; Rabinowitz, Salisa; Amato, George

    2014-08-01

    Pumas occupy the largest latitudinal range of any New World terrestrial mammal. Human population growth and associated habitat reduction has reduced their North American range by nearly two-thirds, but the impact of human expansion in Central and South America on puma populations is not clear. We examined mitochondrial DNA diversity of pumas across the majority of their range, with a focus on Central and South America. Four mitochondrial gene regions (1140 base pairs) revealed 16 unique haplotypes differentiating pumas into three geographic groupings: North America, Central America and South America. These groups were highly differentiated as indicated by significant pairwise FST values. North American samples were genetically homogenous compared to Central and South American samples, and South American pumas were the most diverse and ancestral. These findings support an earlier hypothesis that North America was recolonized by founding pumas from Central and South America.

  3. Molecular evidence for a recent demographic expansion in the puma (Puma concolor) (Mammalia, Felidae).

    PubMed

    Matte, Eunice M; Castilho, Camila S; Miotto, Renata A; Sana, Denis A; Johnson, Warren E; O'Brien, Stephen J; de Freitas, Thales R O; Eizirik, Eduardo

    2013-12-01

    The puma is an iconic predator that ranges throughout the Americas, occupying diverse habitats. Previous phylogeographic analyses have revealed that it exhibits moderate levels of genetic structure across its range, with few of the classically recognized subspecies being supported as distinct demographic units. Moreover, most of the species' molecular diversity was found to be in South America. To further investigate the phylogeographic structure and demographic history of pumas we analyzed mtDNA sequences from 186 individuals sampled throughout their range, with emphasis on South America. Our objectives were to refine the phylogeographic assessment within South America and to investigate the demographic history of pumas using a coalescent approach. Our results extend previous phylogeographic findings, reassessing the delimitation of historical population units in South America and demonstrating that this species experienced a considerable demographic expansion in the Holocene, ca. 8,000 years ago. Our analyses indicate that this expansion occurred in South America, prior to the hypothesized re-colonization of North America, which was therefore inferred to be even more recent. The estimated demographic history supports the interpretation that pumas suffered a severe demographic decline in the Late Pleistocene throughout their distribution, followed by population expansion and re-colonization of the range, initiating from South America.

  4. Historical contamination of mercury in the Florida panther (Felix concolor cori) and its prey

    SciTech Connect

    Zillioux, E.J.; Newman, J.R.; Rich, E.R.; Robertson, W.B. Jr.; Atkeson, T.D.; Whitten, M.L.

    1994-12-31

    High levels of mercury have been found in the Florida panther, a top carnivore of the Everglades. Similarly high levels have been found in other mammals, birds and fish from the Everglades and other parts of south Florida. The principal route of mercury contamination in the panther is through the aquatic food web. The time period and the source or sources of this contamination are not known. The purpose of this study is to investigate the historical contamination of mercury in the Florida panther and other wildlife species by (1) determining whether mercury contamination has changed over the past century and (2), if change has occurred, to investigate possible correlations between this historical record (i.e., mercury content in hair and feathers) and anthropogenic activities involving mercury in Florida. In addition to the Florida panther, twenty bioindicator species have been identified for tissue sampling and analysis from both aquatic and terrestrial food webs. Specimens from the 1900s to the present day have been collected and analyzed and reflect periods of generally different anthropogenic activities potentially contributing to mercury contamination in south Florida. The mercury content in some museum samples (e.g., late 1940s) is similar to present day high values. The implications of this historical contamination is discussed in light of man`s activities over the past 100 years and current spacial patterns of mercury concentrations in fish tissue.

  5. [Identification of individual jaguars (Panthera onca) and pumas (Puma concolor) based on footprint morphometry (Carnivora: Felidae)].

    PubMed

    Isasi-Catalá, Emiliana; Barreto, Guillermo R

    2008-12-01

    Estimating feline abundance becomes particularly difficult, sometimes impossible, due to their elusive behavior and extensive space requirements. Available techniques are expensive and/or poorly efficient, therefore alternative methods are needed. The objective of this study was to assess the possibility of identifying individual jaguars and pumas based on morphometric analyses of their tracks. The footprints of five jaguars and four pumas were drawn and the foot (hind or fore foot, left or right foot) and the substrate were recorded. We took 16 measures from each footprint including lengths, widths, areas and angles. Variables were analyzed by using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and substituted by the first Principal Component (PC) (> 70% variance). We assessed the effect of the substrate and type of foot by means of paired t-student tests, and found differences between fore and hind feet and footprints from the same individual when made on soil or sand. No differences were found between right or left feet. The footprints changed over time as revealed by Multiple ANOVA. Different individuals could be identifyied based on discriminant analyses with more than 70% confidence. We conclude that this method is feasible and can be useful when studying endangered felines.

  6. Tracking the source of mercury in coastal populations of California Cougars (puma concolor)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss-Penzias, P. S.; Wilmers, C.; Yovovich, V.; Houghtaling, P.; Torregrosa, A.

    2015-12-01

    As part of a project on the cycling of mercury (Hg) from the ocean to fog and deposition to land in coastal California, the whiskers of pumas from coastal and inland populations in California were analyzed for total Hg (HgT). Previous studies have shown that fog water in coastal California contains enhanced concentrations of monomethyl Hg (MMHg) compared to rain water. The likely source of fog MMHg is from evasion and demethylation of dimethyl Hg (DMHg) from coastal ocean upwelling. The California coast receives seasonal inputs of fog drip, and we hypothesized that if fog water deposition of MMHg was making an impact, the observable effects might be seen in high trophic level predators of the terrestrial ecosystem. Puma whiskers from 88 individuals from the Santa Cruz Mountains, a sub-range of the California Coast Range, were obtained and compared with puma whiskers from 12 individuals from the foothills of the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Mean total Hg in puma whiskers from the coastal population is 1.0 ± 1.5 ug Hg / g whisker (ppm), whereas mean HgT from the inland puma population is 0.13 ± 0.09 ppm. The difference between these means is significant to the 95% confidence level. For the coastal puma population, the whiskers from 10 individuals had HgT concentrations > 2.0 ppm and 3 individuals had HgT > 4 ppm, which exceeds the U.S. EPA reference dose for humans (1 ppm) approaches a level of concern found for other large mammals such as polar bears (5 ppm). The study is ongoing and HgT concentrations will be determined in the fur and flesh of deer from the same locations as the puma whiskers, since deer comprise ~95% of the puma diet. Samples of plants that are likely fed upon by deer that span the coastal-inland transect will also be analyzed for HgT. Estimates of fog frequency spatial patterns, derived from weather satellite observations and topographic modeling, will be compared with the HgT content of plant and animal tissue in coastal California to quantify relationships between biological uptake of HgT and summertime fog frequencies.

  7. Evaluating Landscape Connectivity for Puma concolor and Panthera onca Among Atlantic Forest Protected Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castilho, Camila S.; Hackbart, Vivian C. S.; Pivello, Vânia R.; dos Santos, Rozely F.

    2015-06-01

    Strictly Protected Areas and riparian forests in Brazil are rarely large enough or connected enough to maintain viable populations of carnivores and animal movement over time, but these characteristics are fundamental for species conservation as they prevent the extinction of isolated animal populations. Therefore, the need to maintain connectivity for these species in human-dominated Atlantic landscapes is critical. In this study, we evaluated the landscape connectivity for large carnivores (cougar and jaguar) among the Strictly Protected Areas in the Atlantic Forest, evaluated the efficiency of the Mosaics of Protected Areas linked to land uses in promoting landscape connectivity, identified the critical habitat connections, and predicted the landscape connectivity status under the implementation of legislation for protecting riparian forests. The method was based on expert opinion translated into land use and land cover maps. The results show that the Protected Areas are still connected by a narrow band of landscape that is permeable to both species and that the Mosaics of Protected Areas increase the amount of protected area but fail to increase the connectivity between the forested mountain ranges (Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira). Riparian forests greatly increase connectivity, more than tripling the cougars' priority areas. We note that the selection of Brazilian protected areas still fails to create connectivity among the legally protected forest remnants. We recommend the immediate protection of the priority areas identified that would increase the structural landscape connectivity for these large carnivores, especially paths in the SE/NW direction between the two mountain ranges.

  8. Oocyte recovery, maturation and fertilization in vitro in the puma (Felis concolor).

    PubMed

    Miller, A M; Roelke, M E; Goodrowe, K L; Howard, J G; Wildt, D E

    1990-01-01

    Eight female pumas were treated i.m. with 1000 (N = 5) or 2000 (N = 3) i.u. PMSG followed 84 h later by 800 i.u. hCG. Eggs were recovered 24-26 h after hCG from ovarian follicles by using laparoscopy and transabdominal aspiration. Mature eggs were inseminated in vitro 4-6 h later whereas immature eggs were cultured for 24 h and then inseminated. Electroejaculates from 3 pumas were diluted with mKRB before insemination to evaluate the influence of sperm concentration on fertilization. Seven of 8 pumas responded with follicle development, and 140 eggs were recovered from 145 follicles (96.6%; 77 mature, 43 immature, 20 degenerate eggs; mean +/- s.e.m., 20.0 +/- 5.9 eggs/female). Overall fertilization rate was 43.5% (total eggs fertilized = 40) despite using inseminates containing 82-99% pleiomorphic spermatozoa. Of the 36 immature oocytes matured in vitro and inseminated, 12 were fertilized even though 50% of the inseminating spermatozoa contained an acrosomal defect. Fertilization rate of mature oocytes collected from follicles appeared unrelated (P greater than 0.05) to PMSG dose or number of spermatozoa/inseminate. This study demonstrates that a high proportion of follicular eggs can be recovered laparoscopically from adult pumas treated with PMSG and hCG. These gametes are capable of being fertilized in vitro (immediately or after maturation in vitro) even with low quality semen with a high incidence of sperm pleiomorphisms.

  9. A comparative field study of growth and survival of Sierran conifer seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Kern, R.A.

    1996-12-31

    This study is a comparison of seedling growth and survival of seven species of conifers that make up the mid-elevation Sierra Nevada mixed conifer forest--Abies concolor, Abies magnifica, Calocedrus decurrens, Pinus jeffreyi, Pinus lambertiana, Pinus ponderosa, and Sequoiadendron giganteum. The field experiment was designed to test the hypothesis that seedling demography is affected by the study species` relatively shade and drought tolerances. Six discrete treatments were created in the first experiment by using three elevations (1,600 m, 1,900, m, and 2,200 m) and two natural light levels (closed canopy shade and open gap sun) at each elevation. One or two-year old seedlings were planted in the ground in replicate plots in each treatment and followed for two growing seasons. Four responses were analyzed--survival, height growth, diameter growth, and mass growth (total mass as well as root mass and shoot mass separately).

  10. Vegetation Response to Holocene Variations in Climate and Fire Activity in Southwestern Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, A.; Briles, C.; Whitlock, C. L.

    2014-12-01

    Past ecosystem responses to fire and climate change have been well studied in many parts of the Pacific Northwest, but forest history of the southern Cascades is poorly understood. Pollen and charcoal records from Hobart Lake (42.099°N, 122.482°W, 1458m) in southwestern Oregon were analyzed to reconstruct past changes in vegetation and fire activity. The watershed today supports mixed conifer forest of Abies, Pseudotsuga, Cupressaceae, and Pinus. From 8000 to 3500 cal yr BP, the forest had more xerophytic species, such as Pinus and Cupressaceae, and higher frequency of fires than at present, suggesting a climate that was warmer and drier than current conditions. The last 3500 cal years was characterized by increasing mesophytic taxa, such as Abies and Pseudotsuga, and decreasing fire activity; these trends are consistent with the establishment of cooler wetter conditions in the late Holocene. Changes in the abundance of Abies and Pseudotsuga pollen were compared at multiple sites to better understand their history in relation to long-term variations in climate and local disturbance. The pollen record suggests that Abies (i.e., Abies concolor, A. magnifica, A. amabilis or A. grandis) was abundant during the late-glacial period in a widespread subalpine forest that was present at all elevations. The genus declined in abundance during the early Holocene when it was best represented at higher elevations. Abies species gradually became more widespread and abundant during the mid- and late Holocene consistent with cooler conditions and expansion of closed mesic forest. Pseudotsuga was most abundant at low-elevation sites in the Coast and Cascade ranges during the early Holocene and then most abundant in more southern, mid-elevation sites in the Klamath and southern Cascade ranges in the late Holocene. Thus, the regional conifer history was strongly governed by variations in the summer insolation as they relate to changes in summer effective moisture.

  11. Gastroduodenal adenocarcinomas and rectal adenoma in a cougar (Felis concolor) infected with Helicobacter-like organisms and spirochetes.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Yoshikazu; Aono, Itsushi; Ohya, Tatsuo; Shibahara, Tomoyuki; Kadota, Koichi

    2002-02-01

    A 14-year-old female cougar died from gastroduodenal adenocarcinomas and rectal adenoma. At necropsy, polypoid tumor masses of various sizes were scattered on the mucosal surfaces of the stomach, duodenum, and rectum. Histologically, the gastric tumor was diagnosed as an intestinal type adenocarcinoma and the tumor cells metastasized to the mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, and lung. Helicobacter-like organisms were detected in the lumina lined by foveolar epithelium. In the duodenum, the carcinoma cells were localized in the limina propria and many of them were intensely positive for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). In contrast, the rectal adenoma had a lower number of PCNA-positive cells. In the rectum, chronic inflammation with numerous spirochetes was also noted. These results indicated that the occurrence of the gastrointestinal tumors might be associated with the bacterial infection described above.

  12. Enlargement of cultivated olive fruit reduces the efficiency of the larval olive fruit fly parasitoid Psyttalia concolor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated olive fruit are greatly enlarged as a result of domestication. In this study, we examined the effects of fruit size within a cultivar (Sevillano) and across four different-sized cultivars (in order of decreasing size: Sevillano, Ascolano, Manzanillo, and Mission) grown in California on th...

  13. Related to ABA-Insensitive3(ABI3)/Viviparous1 and AtABI5 transcription factor coexpression in cotton enhances drought stress adaptation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought tolerance is an important trait being pursued by the agbiotech industry. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a stress hormone that mediates a multitude of processes in growth and development, water use efficiency and gene expression during seed development and in response to environmental stresses. Arabi...

  14. Cooper pair localization in a-Bi thin films near the superconductor-insulator transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollen, S. M.; Nguyen, H. Q.; Rudisaile, E.; Shainline, J.; Fernandes, G.; Xu, J. M.; Valles, J. M., Jr.

    2011-03-01

    Ultrathin films near the Superconductor-Insulator Transition (SIT) can exhibit Cooper pair transport in their insulating phase. This Cooper Pair Insulator state is achieved in amorphous Bi films patterned with a nanohoneycomb array of holes. We will present evidence from a number of experiments on these substrates supporting that 1) thickness variations, which result in variations in Tc and Δ , serve to localize the Cooper pairs; 2) the weak links between these superconducting islands control the SIT. Finally, we will discuss our most recent experiments that aim to characterize this Cooper pair insulator state and confirm the role of the thickness variations in the localization of Cooper pairs. This work was supported by the NSF through No. DMR-0907357, by the AFRL, and by the ONR.

  15. Ecosystems: Issues and problems. (Latest citations from the ABI/Inform database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning issues and problems relating to ecosystems in different parts of the world. Preservation of resources, environmental protection, industrial impacts on ecosystems, ecological economics, biodiversity of specific ecosystems, and effects of deforestation and erosion are examined. Citations review impacts of human inhabitants, eco-tourism, and alien species on an ecosystem. The relationship to an ecosystem of pests and microbial infections is covered, and long-range planning for ecosystems is cited. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  16. Morphological, anatomical, and chemical characteristics of needle and branch samples of Siberian fir (Abies Siberica)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rock, B. N.; Williams, D. L.; Kharuk, V. I.; Wessman, C. A.; Moss, D. M.

    1992-01-01

    In August, 1991, needle and branch samples of Siberian fir were collected from undisturbed forest stands along an elevation gradient ranging from 2300 ft to 4450 ft. Four study sites were selected on west-facing slopes, and a standard set of measurements and collections was made. First-, second-, and third-year needles were collected for anatomical assessment. A visual assessment of the forest stand conditions at each site included an evaluation of canopy morphology needle, coloration, increment growth, and the state of health of a specific type of lichen. The heaviest damage to forest stands (extensive foliar loss, needle discoloration, dieback of terminal growth) occurs at an intermediate elevation site (3400 ft/1037 m). The least amount of damage was recorded at the lowest elevation site (2300 ft/701 m). Only slight damage occurs at the highest elevation site (4450 ft/1357 m). Some degree of flagging occurs at all sites. Several lines of evidence suggest that the damage occurring in this area is recent in origin (incipient).

  17. Toxic components of motor vehicle emissions for the spruce Picea abies.

    PubMed

    Kammerbauer, H; Selinger, H; Römmelt, R; Ziegler-Jöns, A; Knoppik, D; Hock, B

    1987-01-01

    Six-year-old Norway spruce trees were exposed for 30 min under standardised conditions to the exhaust from an Otto engine running on lead-free petrol. Gas-exchange measurements in an open system using an infrared gas analyser showed a sudden, severe drop in CO(2) assimilation and transpiration rates. By using filters which absorbed different fractions of the exhaust it could be demonstrated that the toxic effects can be attributed to the NO(x) fraction.

  18. Identifying Genetic Signatures of Natural Selection Using Pooled Population Sequencing in Picea abies

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jun; Källman, Thomas; Ma, Xiao-Fei; Zaina, Giusi; Morgante, Michele; Lascoux, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The joint inference of selection and past demography remain a costly and demanding task. We used next generation sequencing of two pools of 48 Norway spruce mother trees, one corresponding to the Fennoscandian domain, and the other to the Alpine domain, to assess nucleotide polymorphism at 88 nuclear genes. These genes are candidate genes for phenological traits, and most belong to the photoperiod pathway. Estimates of population genetic summary statistics from the pooled data are similar to previous estimates, suggesting that pooled sequencing is reliable. The nonsynonymous SNPs tended to have both lower frequency differences and lower FST values between the two domains than silent ones. These results suggest the presence of purifying selection. The divergence between the two domains based on synonymous changes was around 5 million yr, a time similar to a recent phylogenetic estimate of 6 million yr, but much larger than earlier estimates based on isozymes. Two approaches, one of them novel and that considers both FST and difference in allele frequencies between the two domains, were used to identify SNPs potentially under diversifying selection. SNPs from around 20 genes were detected, including genes previously identified as main target for selection, such as PaPRR3 and PaGI. PMID:27172202

  19. Superoxide Dismutase Activity in Needles of Norwegian Spruce Trees (Picea abies L.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Polle, Andrea; Krings, Brigitte; Rennenberg, Heinz

    1989-01-01

    The activity of superoxide dismutase was investigated in needles of spruce trees. To obtain maximum activity, needles were homogenized in the presence of Triton X-100 and polyvinylpyrrolidone. Superoxide dismutase activity was measured in dialyzed extracts with a modified epinephrine assay (HP Misra, I Fridovich [1972] J Biol Chem 247: 3170-3175) at pH 10.2. The extracts contained 70 to 120 units of superoxide dismutase per milligram protein. One unit of superoxide dismutase was completely inhibited in the presence of 20 micromolar NaCN. On native polyacrylamide gels three electromorphs were visualized after staining for activity. All three species were sensitive to CN− and H2O2 and were therefore assumed to be Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutases. Superoxide dismutase activity was dependent on the age of the needles and declined by approximately 25% within 3 to 4 years. Images Figure 4 PMID:16666928

  20. Last interglacial plant macrofossils and climates from Ziegler Reservoir, Snowmass Village, Colorado, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strickland, Laura E.; Baker, Richard G.; Thompson, Robert S.; Miller, Dane M.

    2014-01-01

    Ninety plant macrofossil taxa from the Ziegler Reservoir fossil site near Snowmass Village, Colorado, record environmental changes at high elevation (2705 m asl) in the Rocky Mountains during the Last Interglacial Period. Present-day vegetation is aspen forest (Populus tremuloides) intermixed with species of higher (Picea, Abies) and lower (Artemisia, Quercus) elevations. Stratigraphic units 4–13 contain montane forest taxa found near the site today and several species that today generally live at lower elevations within (Abies concolor, Lycopus americanus) and outside Colorado (Najas flexilis). These data suggest near-modern climatic conditions, with slightly warmer summer and winter temperatures. This montane forest period was succeeded by a shorter treeless interval (Unit 14) representing colder and/or drier conditions. In units 15–16, conifer trees reoccur but deciduous and herb taxa are lacking, suggesting a return to warmer conditions, although cooler than during the earlier forest period. Comparison of these inferred paleoclimatic changes with the site's geochronologic framework indicates that the lower interval of sustained warmth correlates with late MIS 6–early 5b (~ 138–94 ka), the cold interval with MIS 5b (~ 94–87 ka), and the uppermost cool assemblages with MIS 5a (~ 87–77 ka).

  1. Last interglacial plant macrofossils and climates from Ziegler Reservoir, Snowmass Village, Colorado, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strickland, Laura E.; Baker, Richard G.; Thompson, Robert S.; Miller, Dane M.

    2014-11-01

    Ninety plant macrofossil taxa from the Ziegler Reservoir fossil site near Snowmass Village, Colorado, record environmental changes at high elevation (2705 m asl) in the Rocky Mountains during the Last Interglacial Period. Present-day vegetation is aspen forest (Populus tremuloides) intermixed with species of higher (Picea, Abies) and lower (Artemisia, Quercus) elevations. Stratigraphic units 4-13 contain montane forest taxa found near the site today and several species that today generally live at lower elevations within (Abies concolor, Lycopus americanus) and outside Colorado (Najas flexilis). These data suggest near-modern climatic conditions, with slightly warmer summer and winter temperatures. This montane forest period was succeeded by a shorter treeless interval (Unit 14) representing colder and/or drier conditions. In units 15-16, conifer trees reoccur but deciduous and herb taxa are lacking, suggesting a return to warmer conditions, although cooler than during the earlier forest period. Comparison of these inferred paleoclimatic changes with the site's geochronologic framework indicates that the lower interval of sustained warmth correlates with late MIS 6-early 5b (~ 138-94 ka), the cold interval with MIS 5b (~ 94-87 ka), and the uppermost cool assemblages with MIS 5a (~ 87-77 ka).

  2. Forest reproduction along a climatic gradient in the Sierra Nevada, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Mantgem, P.J.; Stephenson, N.L.; Keeley, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    To elucidate broad-scale environmental controls of coniferous forest reproduction in the Sierra Nevada, California, we monitored reproduction for 5 years in 47 plots arrayed across a steep elevational (climatic) gradient. We found that both absolute seedling densities (stems < 1.37 m) and seedling densities relative to overstory parent tree basal area declined sharply with elevation. Rates of seedling turnover (the average of birth and death rates) also declined with elevation. In contrast, seed production was not predicted by elevation and was highly variable from year to year. During a mast year of seed production, the intensity of masting was uneven among plots. Seedling densities were elevated only during the single year immediately following the mast year, suggesting reproduction in our forests may be primarily limited by abiotic factors such as the availability of suitable sites and weather. Disturbance also clearly affected reproduction; plots that had recently burned had significantly higher seedling to parent tree ratios for Abies species, suggesting that even though established Abies concolor may be relatively susceptible to fire, the species can recover rapidly through prolific reproduction. Since reproductive failures may be our earliest signal of changing forest conditions, seedling dynamics could provide a sensitive, if variable, indicator of environmental changes. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. ISOLATION AND GENETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII FROM RACCOONS (PROCYON LOTOR), CATS (FELIS DOMESTICUS), STRIPED SKUNK (MEPHITIS MEPHITIS), BLACK BEAR (URSUS AMERICANUS), AND COUGAR (PUMA CONCOLOR) FROM CANADA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Viable Toxoplasma gondii was isolated by bioassay in mice from tissues of 2 feral cats ( Felis domesticus), 2 raccoons (Procyon lotor), a skunk (Mephitis mephitis) trapped in remote locations in Manitoba, Canada, and a black bear (Ursus americanus ) from Kuujjuaq, northern Quebec, Canada. Geno...

  4. The challenge of monitoring elusive large carnivores: An accurate and cost-effective tool to identify and sex pumas (Puma concolor) from footprints

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Acquiring reliable data on large felid populations is crucial for effective conservation and management. However, large felids, typically solitary, elusive and nocturnal, are difficult to survey. Tagging and following individuals with VHF or GPS technology is the standard approach, but costs are high and these methodologies can compromise animal welfare. Such limitations can restrict the use of these techniques at population or landscape levels. In this paper we describe a robust technique to identify and sex individual pumas from footprints. We used a standardized image collection protocol to collect a reference database of 535 footprints from 35 captive pumas over 10 facilities; 19 females (300 footprints) and 16 males (235 footprints), ranging in age from 1–20 yrs. Images were processed in JMP data visualization software, generating one hundred and twenty three measurements from each footprint. Data were analyzed using a customized model based on a pairwise trail comparison using robust cross-validated discriminant analysis with a Ward’s clustering method. Classification accuracy was consistently > 90% for individuals, and for the correct classification of footprints within trails, and > 99% for sex classification. The technique has the potential to greatly augment the methods available for studying puma and other elusive felids, and is amenable to both citizen-science and opportunistic/local community data collection efforts, particularly as the data collection protocol is inexpensive and intuitive. PMID:28273159

  5. Do attacks by jaguars Panthera onca and pumas Puma concolor (Carnivora: Felidae) on livestock correlate with species richness and relative abundance of wild prey?

    PubMed

    Burgas, Albert; Amit, Ronit; Lopez, Bernat C

    2014-12-01

    Abstract: Attacks by big cats on livestock are one of the major causes of human-felid conflicts and, therefore, an important factor in the conservation of these species. It has been argued that a reduction in natural prey abundance promotes attacks on domestic species, but few studies have tested this statement, and some have delivered contradictory results. We investigated whether the occurrence of attacks to livestock by jaguar and puma relates to the abundance and richness of their natural prey. In the rainy season 2009, we tracked potential prey species counting signs of presence along linear transects in 14 non-attacked cattle farms (control) and in 14 attacked cattle farms in NW Costa Rica. There was a negative relationship between the occurrence of attacks and both species richness (p = 0.0014) and abundance (p = 0.0012) of natural prey. Our results support the establishment of actions to promote support and recovery of natural prey, in order to diminish attacks on livestock, while maintaining jaguar and puma populations.

  6. Oxygen isotope composition of North American bobcat (Lynx rufus) and puma (Puma concolor) bone phosphate: implications for provenance and climate reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Pietsch, Stephanie J; Tütken, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Feline carnivores are threatened by illegal wildlife trade. Tracing the provenance of unknown felid tissues via stable isotope analysis could provide important information in wildlife crime investigations. The oxygen isotope composition of mammalian skeletal phosphate (δ(18)Op) is widely applied to trace the origin of animal remains and to reconstruct migratory patterns in palaeontological, archaeological, ecological and wildlife forensic applications. Teeth and bones of terrestrial mammals form at constant body temperature in isotope equilibrium with body water, which is predominantly controlled by ingested meteoric water (δ(18)Ow) that varies systematically with latitude, altitude and climate. Here we analysed δ(18)Op of 106 North American puma and bobcat bones of known geographic origin to establish the first δ(18)Op-δ(18)Ow regression for feline carnivores: δ(18)Op = 0.40(±0.04) * δ(18)Ow + 20.10(±0.40) (R(2) = 0.46, n = 106). This was compared with those from their respective prey species (deer and rabbit), a canid carnivore (fox) and other placental mammals. Effects of species, sex and relative humidity on the feline δ(18)Op-δ(18)Ow correlation were analysed and additional intra-individual tissue comparisons (hair δ(18)Oh vs. bone δ(18)Op) were performed for some bobcat individuals. Bobcats and pumas exhibited only a moderate δ(18)Op-δ(18)Ow correlation, which differed from canid carnivores and other placental mammals. However, feline δ(18)Op values revealed a moderate relation with δ(18)Ow, which lacks for the δ(18)Oh of hair from the same bobcat individuals. This indicates a difference in oxygen isotope routing from body water to bioapatite and hair. Most herbivores and omnivores track δ(18)Ow in their bioapatite δ(18)Op values much better, whereas δ(18)Op and especially δ(18)Oh values of feline carnivores are less precise proxies for meteoric water δ(18)Ow values and thus for provenance determination in wildlife forensics and palaeoclimate reconstructions. Oxygen isotope fingerprinting of bobcat and puma is biased by factors related to their diet, behaviour and metabolism that need to be better understood.

  7. Anatomical study of the forearm and hand nerves of the domestic cat ( Felis catus), puma ( Puma concolor) and jaguar ( Panthera onca).

    PubMed

    Sánchez, H L; Silva, L B; Rafasquino, M E; Mateo, A G; Zuccolilli, G O; Portiansky, E L; Alonso, C R

    2013-04-01

    The innervation of the forearm and hand regions of cats has not been well described despite its importance for any surgery or any neurological disorder. It is probably the main area where disorders of peripheral nerves in this species are observed. In felines, the forelimbs facilitate the jump and represent the most important way for capturing prey. The main muscles and nerves involved in this activity are located in the region of the forearm and hand. The aim of the present study was to provide a detailed description of the innervation of the forearm and hand regions of the jaguar and puma, in comparison with that of the domestic cat, contributing thus with the anatomical knowledge of the area for applying it to surgery and pathology. The forearms of three pumas and two jaguars (all of them fixed in formalin) and of six domestic cats (fresh) were dissected. The nerves path and their forearm distribution patterns of all three species were described. The analysed results indicate that the observed variations between species are minimal; thus, the anatomy described for domestic cats can be widely applied to American wild felids.

  8. The challenge of monitoring elusive large carnivores: An accurate and cost-effective tool to identify and sex pumas (Puma concolor) from footprints.

    PubMed

    Alibhai, Sky; Jewell, Zoe; Evans, Jonah

    2017-01-01

    Acquiring reliable data on large felid populations is crucial for effective conservation and management. However, large felids, typically solitary, elusive and nocturnal, are difficult to survey. Tagging and following individuals with VHF or GPS technology is the standard approach, but costs are high and these methodologies can compromise animal welfare. Such limitations can restrict the use of these techniques at population or landscape levels. In this paper we describe a robust technique to identify and sex individual pumas from footprints. We used a standardized image collection protocol to collect a reference database of 535 footprints from 35 captive pumas over 10 facilities; 19 females (300 footprints) and 16 males (235 footprints), ranging in age from 1-20 yrs. Images were processed in JMP data visualization software, generating one hundred and twenty three measurements from each footprint. Data were analyzed using a customized model based on a pairwise trail comparison using robust cross-validated discriminant analysis with a Ward's clustering method. Classification accuracy was consistently > 90% for individuals, and for the correct classification of footprints within trails, and > 99% for sex classification. The technique has the potential to greatly augment the methods available for studying puma and other elusive felids, and is amenable to both citizen-science and opportunistic/local community data collection efforts, particularly as the data collection protocol is inexpensive and intuitive.

  9. Isolation and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from raccoons (Procyon lotor), cats (Felis domesticus), striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis), black bear (Ursus americanus), and cougar (Puma concolor) from Canada.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Quirk, T; Pittt, J A; Sundar, N; Velmurugan, G V; Kwok, O C H; Leclair, D; Hill, R; Su, C

    2008-02-01

    Viable Toxoplasma gondii was isolated by bioassay in mice from tissues of 2 feral cats (Felis domesticus), 2 raccoons (Procyon lotor), a skunk (Mephitis mephitis) trapped in remote locations in Manitoba, Canada, and a black bear (Ursus americanus) from Kuujjuaq, northern Quebec, Canada. Genotyping of these T. gondii isolates using polymorphisms at 10 nuclear markers including SAGI, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and an apicoplast marker Apico revealed 4 genotypes. None of the isolates was clonal archetypal Types I, II, and III found in the United States. These results are in contrast with the Type II genotype that is widespread in domestic animals and humans throughout the United States and Europe. This is the first genotyping of T. gondii isolates from this part of North America.

  10. Specific dyspeptic symptoms are associated with poor response to therapy in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease

    PubMed Central

    D’Alessandro, A; Zito, FP; Pesce, M; Andreozzi, P; Efficie, E; Cargiolli, M; Maione, F; De Palma, GD; Cuomo, R

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GORD), co-existence of functional dyspepsia (FD) is known to be associated with poor response to proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), but the contribution of specific dyspepsia symptoms has not yet been systematically investigated. Objective We aimed to characterize the impact of dyspepsia symptoms on response to PPIs in patients with GORD. Methods The enrolled subjects were consecutive patients with a diagnosis of GORD. All patients underwent a 24 hour pH–impedance test, while on PPI therapy. Patients were divided into two groups, refractory and responders, according to the persistence of GORD symptoms. A standardized questionnaire for FD was also administered to assess presence of dyspepsia symptoms. Results In the subgroup of refractory patients FD was more prevalent than in responders, with post-prandial fullness, nausea, vomiting, early satiation and epigastric pain being significantly prevalent in refractory GORD patients. In the multivariate analysis only early satiation and vomiting were significantly associated with poor response to PPIs. Conclusion Co-existence of FD is associated with refractory GORD. We showed that only early satiation and vomiting are risk factors for poor response to therapy with PPIs. Our findings suggest that symptoms of early satiation and vomiting would help to identify the subset of PPI-refractory GORD patients.

  11. Effects of age and food source on secondary chemistry of larvae of Lymantria species (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae).

    PubMed

    Deml, R

    2004-04-01

    Haemolymph and osmeterial secretions of caterpillars of Lymantria monacha (Linnaeus) and L. concolor Walker were analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for low molecular weight secondary metabolites. The similarities of their chemical compositions were determined by means of cluster analysis techniques in order to characterize possible chemical variations related to developmental stage or food of the larvae. For this purpose, two dissimilarity coefficients (Euclidean distances, Canberra metrics) and four clustering methods (UPGMA, WPGMA, WPGMC, single linkage) were combined. The patterns of secondary compounds obtained from the haemolymph and osmeterial secretions studied did not differ statistically significantly between two groups of L. monacha larvae fed with either larch, Larix decidua Mil., or Norway spruce, Picea abies (L.), indicating no relevant influence of plant chemistry. However, haemolymph of penultimate instar larvae of L. concolor fed on Rhododendron contained a mixture of compounds differing statistically significantly from that of last instar caterpillars. The total compositions of the corresponding gland secretions were statistically identical though the presence/amounts of individual compounds varied. This suggested that the haemolymph composition reflected changing physiological requirements of the successive instars, whereas the composition of the defensive mixtures remained comparatively constant, possibly due to a constant spectrum of potential enemies. A more pronounced age-dependence of larval chemistry was shown by a similar analysis of data from various developmental stages of L. dispar (Linnaeus) and one of its food plants. This analysis suggested plant composition affected the secondary chemistry of early larval instars of L. dispar. The results are discussed in terms of the roles of secondary metabolites in defence against natural enemies.

  12. Twentieth-century decline of large-diameter trees in Yosemite National Park, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lutz, J.A.; van Wagtendonk, J.W.; Franklin, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    Studies of forest change in western North America often focus on increased densities of small-diameter trees rather than on changes in the large tree component. Large trees generally have lower rates of mortality than small trees and are more resilient to climate change, but these assumptions have rarely been examined in long-term studies. We combined data from 655 historical (1932-1936) and 210 modern (1988-1999) vegetation plots to examine changes in density of large-diameter trees in Yosemite National Park (3027 km2). We tested the assumption of stability for large-diameter trees, as both individual species and communities of large-diameter trees. Between the 1930s and 1990s, large-diameter tree density in Yosemite declined 24%. Although the decrease was apparent in all forest types, declines were greatest in subalpine and upper montane forests (57.0% of park area), and least in lower montane forests (15.3% of park area). Large-diameter tree densities of 11 species declined while only 3 species increased. Four general patterns emerged: (1) Pinus albicaulis, Quercus chrysolepis, and Quercus kelloggii had increases in density of large-diameter trees occur throughout their ranges; (2) Pinus jeffreyi, Pinus lambertiana, and Pinus ponderosa, had disproportionately larger decreases in large-diameter tree densities in lower-elevation portions of their ranges; (3) Abies concolor and Pinus contorta, had approximately uniform decreases in large-diameter trees throughout their elevational ranges; and (4) Abies magnifica, Calocedrus decurrens, Juniperus occidentalis, Pinus monticola, Pseudotsuga menziesii, and Tsuga mertensiana displayed little or no change in large-diameter tree densities. In Pinus ponderosa-Calocedrus decurrens forests, modern large-diameter tree densities were equivalent whether or not plots had burned since 1936. However, in unburned plots, the large-diameter trees were predominantly A. concolor, C. decurrens, and Q. chrysolepis, whereas P. ponderosa

  13. Evolution of the Cooper Pair Insulator Phase in a-Bi Films Grown on Nanohoneycomb Substrates with Varying Surface Topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joy, J. C.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, C.; Hollen, S. M.; Valles, J. M., Jr.; Fernandes, G.; Xu, J. M.

    2014-03-01

    The Cooper Pair Insulator (CPI) phase has been observed in a variety of systems close to both the disorder and field tuned Superconductor to Insulator Transition (SIT) in two dimensions. A number of recent experimental and theoretical studies suggest that the CPI phase arises due to inhomogeneities in the superconducting coupling constant on the nanoscale. Anodized Aluminum Oxide (AAO) substrates provide a convenient experimental platform for studying the influence of inhomogeneity on the CPI state, as the substrates exhibit both a nanohoneycomb structure which allows flux periodic behavior to be measured, as well as a controllable morphology which permits control of the level of inhomogeneity present. We will discuss recent experiments and analyses which examine the behavior of the CPI phase as the level of inhomogeneity in the films is reduced. We will also examine the potential implications of this work in understanding the extent of the CPI phase in two-dimensional systems. This work was supported by the NSF through grants No. DMR-1307290 and DMR-0907357 and by the AFRL, the ONR, and the AFOSR. Currently at Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xian, China.

  14. Mechanisms of Abnormal Growth Regulation in Prostatic Adenocarcinoma Using Abi1/Hssh3bp1 Conditional Knockout Mouse Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    2008). Hence library containing SH2 domains was used in the screening. These experiments were done in collaboration with Dr. Bruce Mayer and Dr...Machida (University of Connecticut Health Science Center, Farmington, CT) using the overlay method developed by Dr. Mayer laboratory (Machida et al...Shin, and B.J. Mayer . 2007. High-throughput phosphotyrosine profiling using SH2 domains. Mol Cell. 26:899-915. Macoska, J.A., J. Xu, D. Ziemnicka, T.S

  15. Accumulation of ammonium in Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedlings measured by in vivo 14N-NMR.

    PubMed

    Aarnes, H; Eriksen, A B; Petersen, D; Rise, F

    2007-01-01

    (14)N-NMR and (31)P-NMR have been used to monitor the in vivo pH in roots, stems, and needles from seedlings of Norway spruce, a typical ammonium-tolerant plant. The vacuolar and cytoplasmic pH measured by (31)P-NMR was found to be c. pH 4.8 and 7.0, respectively, with no significant difference between plants growing with ammonium or nitrate as the N-source. The (1)H-coupled (14) NH 4+ resonance is pH-sensitive: at alkaline pH it is a narrow singlet line and below pH 4 it is an increasing multiplet line with five signals. The pH values in ammonium-containing compartments measured by (14)N-NMR ranged from 3.7 to 3.9, notably lower than the estimated pH values of the P(i) pools. This suggests that, in seedlings of Norway spruce, ammonium is stored in vacuoles with low pH possibly to protect the seedlings against the toxic effects of ammonium ( NH 4+) or ammonia (NH3). It was also found that concentrations of malate were 3-6 times higher in stems than in roots and needles, with nitrate-grown plants containing more malate than plants grown with ammonium.

  16. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals that Red and Blue Light Regulate Growth and Phytohormone Metabolism in Norway Spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst].

    PubMed

    OuYang, Fangqun; Mao, Jian-Feng; Wang, Junhui; Zhang, Shougong; Li, Yue

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms by which different light spectra regulate plant shoot elongation vary, and phytohormones respond differently to such spectrum-associated regulatory effects. Light supplementation can effectively control seedling growth in Norway spruce. However, knowledge of the effective spectrum for promoting growth and phytohormone metabolism in this species is lacking. In this study, 3-year-old Norway spruce clones were illuminated for 12 h after sunset under blue or red light-emitting diode (LED) light for 90 d, and stem increments and other growth traits were determined. Endogenous hormone levels and transcriptome differences in the current needles were assessed to identify genes related to the red and blue light regulatory responses. The results showed that the stem increment and gibberellin (GA) levels of the seedlings illuminated by red light were 8.6% and 29.0% higher, respectively, than those of the seedlings illuminated by blue light. The indoleacetic acid (IAA) level of the seedlings illuminated by red light was 54.6% lower than that of the seedlings illuminated by blue light, and there were no significant differences in abscisic acid (ABA) or zeatin riboside [ZR] between the two groups of seedlings. The transcriptome results revealed 58,736,166 and 60,555,192 clean reads for the blue-light- and red-light-illuminated samples, respectively. Illumina sequencing revealed 21,923 unigenes, and 2744 (approximately 93.8%) out of 2926 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were found to be upregulated under blue light. The main KEGG classifications of the DEGs were metabolic pathway (29%), biosynthesis of secondary metabolites (20.49%) and hormone signal transduction (8.39%). With regard to hormone signal transduction, AUXIN-RESISTANT1 (AUX1), AUX/IAA genes, auxin-inducible genes, and early auxin-responsive genes [(auxin response factor (ARF) and small auxin-up RNA (SAUR)] were all upregulated under blue light compared with red light, which might have yielded the higher IAA level. DELLA and phytochrome-interacting factor 3 (PIF3), involved in negative GA signaling, were also upregulated under blue light, which may be related to the lower GA level. Light quality also affects endogenous hormones by influencing secondary metabolism. Blue light promoted phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, phenylalanine metabolism, flavonoid biosynthesis and flavone and flavonol biosynthesis, accompanied by upregulation of most of the genes in their pathways. In conclusion, red light may promote stem growth by regulating biosynthesis of GAs, and blue light may promote flavonoid, lignin, phenylpropanoid and some hormones (such as jasmonic acid) which were related to plant defense in Norway spruce, which might reduce the primary metabolites available for plant growth.

  17. High-efficiency Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenck, A. R.; Quinn, M.; Whetten, R. W.; Pullman, G.; Sederoff, R.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer is the method of choice for many plant biotechnology laboratories; however, large-scale use of this organism in conifer transformation has been limited by difficult propagation of explant material, selection efficiencies and low transformation frequency. We have analyzed co-cultivation conditions and different disarmed strains of Agrobacterium to improve transformation. Additional copies of virulence genes were added to three common disarmed strains. These extra virulence genes included either a constitutively active virG or extra copies of virG and virB, both from pTiBo542. In experiments with Norway spruce, we increased transformation efficiencies 1000-fold from initial experiments where little or no transient expression was detected. Over 100 transformed lines expressing the marker gene beta-glucuronidase (GUS) were generated from rapidly dividing embryogenic suspension-cultured cells co-cultivated with Agrobacterium. GUS activity was used to monitor transient expression and to further test lines selected on kanamycin-containing medium. In loblolly pine, transient expression increased 10-fold utilizing modified Agrobacterium strains. Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer is a useful technique for large-scale generation of transgenic Norway spruce and may prove useful for other conifer species.

  18. Effects of physical blockage of axial phloem transport on growth of Norway spruce (Picea abies) saplings under drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberhuber, Walter; Gruber, Andreas; Winkler, Andrea; Lethaus, Gina; Wieser, Gerhard

    2016-04-01

    Early culmination of maximum radial growth in late spring was found in several coniferous species in a dry inner Alpine environment (Oberhuber et al. 2014). We hypothesized that early decrease in radial stem growth is an adaptation to cope with drought stress, which might require an early switch of carbon allocation to belowground organs. To test this hypothesis we manipulated tree carbon status by physical blockage of phloem transport and soil water availability of Norway spruce saplings (tree height c. 1.5 m) in a common garden experiment to investigate influence of carbon availability and drought on above- and belowground growth. Girdling occurred at different phenological stages during the growing season, i.e., before growth onset, and during earlywood and latewood formation. Non-structural carbohydrates (NSC, soluble sugars and starch) were determined before and after the growing season to evaluate change in tree carbon status. Tree ring analysis revealed that compared to non-girdled controls earlywood width above girdling strikingly increased by c. 170 and 440 %, while latewood width decreased by c. 85 and 55 % in watered and drought stressed trees, respectively. Below girdling no xylem formation was detected. Unexpectedly, preliminary analyses of carbon status revealed striking reduction (c. -80 %) of NSC above and below girdling. Most likely due to reductions in xylem hydraulic conductance, girdling before growth onset reduced leader shoot growth compared to non-girdled controls by c. 45 %, irrespective of water availability. Root dry mass of girdled trees was significantly reduced compared to non-girdled controls (c. 30 % in drought stressed and 45 % in watered trees; p < 0.001). Results suggest that in Norway spruce saplings (1) carbon availability affects radial stem growth, (2) higher basipetal carbon transport occurs under drought supporting our hypothesis of early switch of carbon allocation to belowground when drought stress prevails and (3) minor acropetal transport of carbon from carbon stores in the root system to the stem. We conclude that physical manipulation of carbon availability by disruption of phloem transport is a valuable tool to study relevance of carbon status for tree growth exposed to environmental stress. This study was funded by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF): P25643-B16 "Carbon allocation and growth of Scots pine". Reference Oberhuber W, A Gruber, W Kofler, I Swidrak (2014) Radial stem growth in response to microclimate and soil moisture in a drought-prone mixed coniferous forest at an inner Alpine site. Eur J For Res 133:467-479.

  19. Distribution of long-range linkage disequilibrium and Tajima's D values in Scandinavian populations of Norway Spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Larsson, Hanna; Källman, Thomas; Gyllenstrand, Niclas; Lascoux, Martin

    2013-05-20

    The site frequency spectrum of mutations (SFS) and linkage disequilibrium (LD) are the two major sources of information in population genetics studies. In this study we focus on the levels of LD and the SFS and on the effect of sample size on summary statistics in 10 Scandinavian populations of Norway spruce. We found that previous estimates of a low level of LD were highly influenced by both sampling strategy and the fact that data from multiple loci were analyzed jointly. Estimates of LD were in fact heterogeneous across loci and increased within individual populations compared with the estimate from the total data. The variation in levels of LD among populations most likely reflects different demographic histories, although we were unable to detect population structure by using standard approaches. As in previous studies, we also found that the SFS-based test Tajima's D was highly sensitive to sample size, revealing that care should be taken to draw strong conclusions from this test when sample size is small. In conclusion, the results from this study are in line with recent studies in other conifers that have revealed a more complex and variable pattern of LD than earlier studies suggested and with studies in trees and humans that suggest that Tajima's D is sensitive to sample size. This has large consequences for the design of future association and population genetic studies in Norway spruce.

  20. Contrasting carbon allocation responses of juvenile European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) to competition and ozone.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Wilma; Lehmeier, Christoph Andreas; Winkler, Jana Barbro; Matyssek, Rainer; Edgar Grams, Thorsten Erhard

    2015-01-01

    Allocation of recent photoassimilates of juvenile beech and spruce in response to twice-ambient ozone (2 × O(3)) and plant competition (i.e. intra vs. inter-specific) was examined in a phytotron study. To this end, we employed continuous (13)CO(2)/(12)CO(2) labeling during late summer and pursued tracer kinetics in CO(2) released from stems. In beech, allocation of recent photoassimilates to stems was significantly lowered under 2 × O(3) and increased in spruce when grown in mixed culture. As total tree biomass was not yet affected by the treatments, C allocation reflected incipient tree responses providing the mechanistic basis for biomass partitioning as observed in longer experiments. Compartmental modeling characterized functional properties of substrate pools supplying respiratory C demand. Respiration of spruce appeared to be exclusively supplied by recent photoassimilates. In beech, older C, putatively located in stem parenchyma cells, was a major source of respiratory substrate, reflecting the fundamental anatomical disparity between angiosperm beech and gymnosperm spruce.

  1. Cellulose microfibril orientation of Picea abies and its variability at the micron-level determined by Raman imaging.

    PubMed

    Gierlinger, Notburga; Luss, Saskia; König, Christian; Konnerth, Johannes; Eder, Michaela; Fratzl, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The functional characteristics of plant cell walls depend on the composition of the cell wall polymers, as well as on their highly ordered architecture at scales from a few nanometres to several microns. Raman spectra of wood acquired with linear polarized laser light include information about polymer composition as well as the alignment of cellulose microfibrils with respect to the fibre axis (microfibril angle). By changing the laser polarization direction in 3 degrees steps, the dependency between cellulose and laser orientation direction was investigated. Orientation-dependent changes of band height ratios and spectra were described by quadratic linear regression and partial least square regressions, respectively. Using the models and regressions with high coefficients of determination (R(2) > 0.99) microfibril orientation was predicted in the S1 and S2 layers distinguished by the Raman imaging approach in cross-sections of spruce normal, opposite, and compression wood. The determined microfibril angle (MFA) in the different S2 layers ranged from 0 degrees to 49.9 degrees and was in coincidence with X-ray diffraction determination. With the prerequisite of geometric sample and laser alignment, exact MFA prediction can complete the picture of the chemical cell wall design gained by the Raman imaging approach at the micron level in all plant tissues.

  2. Antitussive activity of Abies webbiana Lindl. leaf extract against sulphur dioxide-induced cough reflex in mice.

    PubMed

    Nayak, S S; Ghosh, A K; Srikanth, K; Debnath, B; Jha, T

    2003-09-01

    The methanol extract of A. webbiana Lindl was evaluated for its effect on a cough model induced by sulphur dioxide gas in mice. When administered orally it exhibited significant antitussive activity compared with the control in a dose dependent manner. The antitussive activity of the extract was compared with that of codeine phosphate, a prototype antitussive agent. The A. webbiana leaf extract (400 and 600 mg/kg) showed maximum inhibition of cough frequency by 71.69% and 78.67%, respectively, when compared with the control group and was comparable in effect to codeine phosphate.

  3. Tracing the allocation of recently assimilated C into key metabolites in Norway spruce (Picea abies) shortly after bud break

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Steffen; Dippold, Michaela; Werner, Christiane; Wiesenberg, Guido; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Glaser, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    Plants allocate carbon (C) to sink tissues depending on phenological, physiological or environmental factors. We still have little knowledge on C partitioning into various cellular compounds and metabolic pathways, especially during tree growth after bud break. Here we investigated C partitioning of freshly assimilated C in Norway spruce by in-situ 13C short-term pulse labeling 15 days after bud break. We quantified 13C incorporation into tree compartments (needles, branches, stem) and into water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) by elemental analyzer-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-IRMS). In addition, we determined 13C allocation into key metabolites of amino acids, hemicellulose sugars, fatty acids and alkanes by compound-specific 13C analysis via gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS). The 13C allocation within the trees reflected the needles as major C sink accounting for 86% of the freshly assimilated C. After 6 h 13C was distributed over a broad spectrum of plant metabolites but not homogenously. Highest allocation was observed into structurally relevant compound classes of hemicellulose-derived sugars and proteinogenic amino acids (0.6% and 10% of needle 13C, respectively). However, needle growth also caused high C allocation into pathways not involved in formation of structural compounds like pathways in secondary metabolism, C-1 metabolism or amino acid synthesis from photorespiratory acitivity. C allocation into such pathways could be identified due to the high enrichment of key metabolites within the amino acids. In addition, high 13C allocation was found into the n-alkyl lipid biosynthesis (0.2 % of needle 13C) with 1) higher allocation into intracellular than cuticular fatty acids, presumably for thylakoide membrane formation and 2) decreasing 13C allocation along the lipid transformation and translocation pathways (precursor fatty acids (C16 & C18) > elongated long chain fatty acids > decarbonylated n-alkanes). Consequently, the combination of 13C pulse labeling with compound-specific 13C analysis of key metabolites enabled identification of relevant C allocation pathways during needle growth after bud break. Besides primary metabolism, synthesizing structural cell compounds, a complex network of various pathways consumed the freshly assimilated 13C and kept the majority of the assimilated C in the growing needles.

  4. Department of Defense (DOD) Automated Biometric Identification System (ABIS) Version 1.2: Initial Operational Test and Evaluation Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    v1.2 did not experience any system aborts or failures exceeding 15 minutes duration during the 27 days of record test in the IOT&E; hence, the system...Desk operations. Although no system aborts were recorded during the 27 days of record test, 17 Essential Function Failures (EFF) required system...Failures that count against MTBF are termed system aborts . Essential Function Failures (EFF) that are at least 15 minutes in duration as termed system

  5. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals that Red and Blue Light Regulate Growth and Phytohormone Metabolism in Norway Spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.

    PubMed Central

    OuYang, Fangqun; Mao, Jian-Feng; Wang, Junhui; Zhang, Shougong; Li, Yue

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms by which different light spectra regulate plant shoot elongation vary, and phytohormones respond differently to such spectrum-associated regulatory effects. Light supplementation can effectively control seedling growth in Norway spruce. However, knowledge of the effective spectrum for promoting growth and phytohormone metabolism in this species is lacking. In this study, 3-year-old Norway spruce clones were illuminated for 12 h after sunset under blue or red light-emitting diode (LED) light for 90 d, and stem increments and other growth traits were determined. Endogenous hormone levels and transcriptome differences in the current needles were assessed to identify genes related to the red and blue light regulatory responses. The results showed that the stem increment and gibberellin (GA) levels of the seedlings illuminated by red light were 8.6% and 29.0% higher, respectively, than those of the seedlings illuminated by blue light. The indoleacetic acid (IAA) level of the seedlings illuminated by red light was 54.6% lower than that of the seedlings illuminated by blue light, and there were no significant differences in abscisic acid (ABA) or zeatin riboside [ZR] between the two groups of seedlings. The transcriptome results revealed 58,736,166 and 60,555,192 clean reads for the blue-light- and red-light-illuminated samples, respectively. Illumina sequencing revealed 21,923 unigenes, and 2744 (approximately 93.8%) out of 2926 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were found to be upregulated under blue light. The main KEGG classifications of the DEGs were metabolic pathway (29%), biosynthesis of secondary metabolites (20.49%) and hormone signal transduction (8.39%). With regard to hormone signal transduction, AUXIN-RESISTANT1 (AUX1), AUX/IAA genes, auxin-inducible genes, and early auxin-responsive genes [(auxin response factor (ARF) and small auxin-up RNA (SAUR)] were all upregulated under blue light compared with red light, which might have yielded the higher IAA level. DELLA and phytochrome-interacting factor 3 (PIF3), involved in negative GA signaling, were also upregulated under blue light, which may be related to the lower GA level. Light quality also affects endogenous hormones by influencing secondary metabolism. Blue light promoted phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, phenylalanine metabolism, flavonoid biosynthesis and flavone and flavonol biosynthesis, accompanied by upregulation of most of the genes in their pathways. In conclusion, red light may promote stem growth by regulating biosynthesis of GAs, and blue light may promote flavonoid, lignin, phenylpropanoid and some hormones (such as jasmonic acid) which were related to plant defense in Norway spruce, which might reduce the primary metabolites available for plant growth. PMID:26237749

  6. Bi3+ Luminescence in ABiO2Cl (A = Sr, Ba) and BaBiO2Br

    SciTech Connect

    Porter-Chapman, Yetta D.; Bourret-Courchesne, Edith E.; Derenzo,Stephen E.

    2007-01-18

    Trivalent bismuth luminescence is reported in three Sillenbismuth oxyhalide phases, SrBiO2Cl, BaBiO2Cl, and BaBiO2Br. Thesecompounds exhibit Bi 6s6->6 s2 emission under UV and X-ray radiation.At room temperature, BaBiO2Cl shows the most intense light emission, withspectral and decay properties similar to those found in Bi4Ge3O12 (BGO).At low temperatures, each phase show an increase in the photoluminescenceintensities and a narrowing of the emission peaks. In contrast to thetemperature dependence of BGO, X-ray excited luminescence intensities ofall three phases remain relatively constant throughout the temperaturerange 10 - 295 K. This result indicates that the Sillen phases undergoless thermal quenching than BGO. The low temperature and room temperatureradio-luminescence decay times were determined from pulsed x-raymeasurements. At room temperature, SrBiO2Cl exhibits faster decays thanBGO, while, BaBiO2Cl and BaBiO2Br have decay times similar toBGO.

  7. TEMPERATURE-RESPIRATION RELATIONSHIPS DIFFER IN MYCORRHIZAL AND NON-MYCORRHIZAL ROOT SYSTEMS OF PICEA ABIES (L.) KARST.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Root respiration has been shown to increase with temperature, but less is known about how this relation ship is affected by the fungal partner in mycorrhizal root systems. In order to test respiratory temperature dependence, in particular Q10 of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal r...

  8. Cellulose microfibril orientation of Picea abies and its variability at the micron-level determined by Raman imaging

    PubMed Central

    Gierlinger, Notburga; Luss, Saskia; König, Christian; Konnerth, Johannes; Eder, Michaela; Fratzl, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The functional characteristics of plant cell walls depend on the composition of the cell wall polymers, as well as on their highly ordered architecture at scales from a few nanometres to several microns. Raman spectra of wood acquired with linear polarized laser light include information about polymer composition as well as the alignment of cellulose microfibrils with respect to the fibre axis (microfibril angle). By changing the laser polarization direction in 3° steps, the dependency between cellulose and laser orientation direction was investigated. Orientation-dependent changes of band height ratios and spectra were described by quadratic linear regression and partial least square regressions, respectively. Using the models and regressions with high coefficients of determination (R2 > 0.99) microfibril orientation was predicted in the S1 and S2 layers distinguished by the Raman imaging approach in cross-sections of spruce normal, opposite, and compression wood. The determined microfibril angle (MFA) in the different S2 layers ranged from 0° to 49.9° and was in coincidence with X-ray diffraction determination. With the prerequisite of geometric sample and laser alignment, exact MFA prediction can complete the picture of the chemical cell wall design gained by the Raman imaging approach at the micron level in all plant tissues. PMID:20007198

  9. Attributional Bias Instrument (ABI): Validation of a Measure to Assess Ability and Effort Explanations for Math Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinoza, Penelope P.; Quezada, Stephanie A.; Rincones, Rodolfo; Strobach, E. Natalia; Gutierrez, Maria Armida Estrada

    2012-01-01

    The present work investigates the validation of a newly developed instrument, the attributional bias instrument, based on achievement attribution theories that distinguish between effort and ability explanations of behavior. The instrument further incorporates the distinction between explanations for success versus failure in academic performance.…

  10. Controlled Burning of Forest Detritus Altering Spectroscopic Characteristics and Chlorine Reactivity of Dissolved Organic Matter: Effects of Temperature and Oxygen Availability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun-Jian; Dahlgren, Randy A; Chow, Alex T

    2015-12-15

    Forest fires occur with increasing frequency and severity in the western United States, potentially altering the chemistry and quantity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and disinfection byproduct (DBP) precursors exported from forested watersheds. However, little is known concerning effects of the fire triangle (heat, oxygen, and fuel) on DOM alteration. Using detritus from Pinus ponderosa and Abies concolor (dominant species in forests in the western United States), we prepared DOM from unburned and burned detritus under hypoxic (pyrolysis) and oxic conditions (thermal oxidation) at 250 and 400 °C. DOM characteristics and chlorine reactivity were evaluated by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy and chlorination-based DBP formation potential tests. Spectroscopic results suggest that burned-detritus extracts had lower molecular weight (reflected by increased E2:E3 and fluorescence index) and divergent aromaticity (reflected by SUVA254) depending on oxygen availability. Temperature and oxygen availability interacted to alter the chlorine reactivity of fire-affected DOM. Increasing temperature from 50 to 400 °C resulted in decreased reactivities for trihalomethane and chloral hydrate formation and divergent reactivities for haloacetonitrile formation (unchanged for pyrolysis and increased for oxidation) and haloketone formation (increased for pyrolysis and decreased for oxidation). We demonstrate that DBP precursors in fire-affected forest detritus are highly dependent on temperature and oxygen availability.

  11. Monitoring temporal change in riparian vegetation of Great Basin National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beever, Erik A.; Pyke, David A.; Chambers, Jeanne C.; Landau, Fred; Smith, S.D.

    2005-01-01

    Disturbance in riparian areas of semiarid ecosystems involves complex interactions of pulsed hydrologic flows, herbivory, fire, climatic effects, and anthropogenic influences. We resampled riparian vegetation within ten 10-m × 100-m plots that were initially sampled in 1992 in 4 watersheds of the Snake Range, east central Nevada. Our finding of significantly lower coverage of grasses, forbs, and shrubs within plots in 2001 compared with 1992 was not consistent with the management decision to remove livestock grazing from the watersheds in 1999. Change over time in cover of life-forms or bare ground was not predicted by scat counts within plots in 2001. Cover results were also not well explained by variability between the 2 sampling periods in either density of native herbivores or annual precipitation. In contrast, Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) exhibited reduced abundance at all but the highest-elevation plot in which it occurred in 1992, and the magnitude of change in abundance was strongly predicted by plot elevation. Abundance of white fir (Abies concolor) individuals increased while aspen (Populus tremuloides) individuals decreased at 4 of 5 sites where they were sympatric, and changes in abundance in the 2 species were negatively correlated across those sites. Utility of monitoring data to detect change over time and contribute to adaptive management will vary with sample size, observer bias, use of repeatable or published methods, and precision of measurements, among other factors.

  12. Response of tree growth to climatic variation and stand dynamics: Implications for modeling stand dynamics under varying climatic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Graumlich, L.J.; Holmes, R.L. )

    1994-06-01

    We used tree-ring data to assess the relative importance of regional climate vs. stand-level processes in controlling tree growth for seven forest dominants of the mixed conifer forest of the Sierra Nevada. For each species, increment cores were collected from at least 20 canopy dominants at several sites arrayed along elevational gradients extending from lower to upper elevational limits. Species sampled include ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), Jeffrey pine (P. jeffreyi), sugar pine (P. lambertina), white fir (Abies concolor), red fir (A. magnifica), incense cedar (Calocedrus decurrens), and black oak (Quercus keloggii). Stand-level processes generate low to medium frequency variation in growth that is not held in common among trees within a site or between sites. Stand-level processes are most important for white and red fir and least important for ponderosa pine. Regional climatic variation generates medium to high frequency variation that is coherent among trees of the same species (and often same genera). Results such as these have utility for parameterizing and validating stand simulation models, especially for use in climatic change scenarios.

  13. Woody riparian vegetation of Great Basin National Park. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, C.L.; Smith, S.D.; Murray, K.J.; Landau, F.H.; Sala, A.

    1994-07-01

    The community composition and population structure of the woody riparian vegetation in Great Basin National Park are described. Community analyses were accomplished by sampling 229 plots placed in a systematic random fashion along elevational gradients of 8 major stream systems (Baker, Big Wash, Lehman, Pine, Pole, Shingle, Snake, and Strawberry Creeks) in the Park using the releve method. Stand demographics were determined for the four dominant tree species in the Park, based on absolute stem counts at 15 sites along 6 major watersheds. Elevational ranges of the dominant tree and shrub species along 8 major streams were determined via transect analysis and systematic reconnaissance efforts. TWINSPAN (two-way indicator analysis) indentified 4 primary species groups and 8 stand groups in the Park. Because of the homogeneity of riparian zones, both presence and abundance of species were important parameters in determining species groups. Although species such as Populus tremuloides (aspen), Abies concolor (white fir) and Rosa woodsii (Woods rose) are very common throughout the Park, they are particularly abundant at higher, upper intermediate, and lower intermediate elevations.

  14. Can climate change increase fire severity independent of fire intensity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Mantgem, P.; Nesmith, J.; Keifer, M.; Knapp, E.; Flint, A. L.; Flint, L. E.

    2013-12-01

    There is a growing realization that regional warming may be linked to increasing fire size and frequency in forests of the western US, a trend occurring in concert with increased fuel loads in forests that historically experienced frequent surface fires. Recent studies have also suggested that warming temperatures are correlated with increased fire severity (post-fire tree mortality). The mechanism whereby fire severity might increase in response to warming is presumed to be increasing probabilities of hazardous fire weather (higher air temperature, lower relative humidity and fuel moisture). While likely true, this view does not consider the biological context of the fire event. Here we present evidence that trees subject to environmental stress are more sensitive to subsequent fire damage. Tree growth records, used as an index of health for individuals, show that for two tree species (Abies concolor and Pinus lambertiana) in the Sierra Nevada of California poor growth leads to increased probabilities of mortality following fire. Plot-based fire monitoring databases from over 300 sites across the western US demonstrate that indices of drought stress are strongly predictive of post-fire tree survivorship. In sum, these results suggest that recent climatic trends may lead to a de facto increase in fire severity, even when there is no change in fire intensity.

  15. Effects of acid fog and ozone on conifers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bytnerowicz, A.; Olszyk, D.M.; Takemoto, B.K.; McCool, P.M.; Musselman, R.C.

    1989-05-01

    This study evaluated the effects of acidic fog (pH 2.0, 3.0, or 4.0) on the physiological, biochemical, and growth responses of two coniferous tree species (Pinus ponderosa and Abies concolor), and determined if exposure to acidic fog predisposed the tree seedlings to the phytotoxic effects of ozone (O{sub 3}). Results provide evidence that the growth and metabolic responses of two coniferous tree species could be altered by multiple applications of acidic fog, and by exposure to ambient O{sub 3}. In general, the alterations were slight to modest, which may be attributed to the low degree of stress severity, and the slow rate of tree growth. The findings indicate that exposure to acidic fog followed by O{sub 3} does not cause detectable changes in conifer seedling growth within a single-growing season. Nevertheless, it is clear that acidic fog and O{sub 3} cause temporal alterations in seedling physiology and biochemistry.

  16. Long-term effects of fire severity on oak-conifer dynamics in the southern Cascades.

    PubMed

    Cocking, Matthew I; Varner, J Morgan; Knapp, Eric E

    2014-01-01

    We studied vegetation composition and structure in a mixed conifer-oak ecosystem across a range of fire severity 10 years following wildfire. Sample plots centered on focal California black oaks (Quercus kelloggii) were established to evaluate oak and neighboring tree and shrub recovery across a gradient of fire severity in the southern Cascade Range, USA. Shrub and oak resprouting was strongest around focal oaks where conifer mortality was greatest. Linear modeling revealed negative relationships between California black oak sprout height or basal area and residual overstory tree survival, primarily white fir (Abies concolor). The two dominant competing species, California black oak and white fir, showed opposite responses to fire severity. Sprouting California black oak and associated shrubs dominated in severely burned areas, while surviving, non-sprouting white fir maintained dominance by its height advantage and shading effects in areas that burned with low fire severity. Our results indicate that high-severity fire promotes persistence and restoration of ecosystems containing resprouting species, such as California black oak, that are increasingly rare due to widespread fire exclusion in landscapes that historically experienced more frequent fire. We present a conceptual model based on our results and supported by a synthesis of postfire resprouting dynamics literature. Our results and conceptual model help illuminate long-term postfire vegetation responses and the potential ability of fire to catalyze formation of alternate vegetation community structures that may not be apparent in studies that evaluate postfire effects at shorter time-since-fire intervals or at coarser scales.

  17. Modeling of Soil and Tree Water Status Dynamics in a Mixed-Conifer Forest of the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopmans, J. W.; Rings, J.; Kamai, T.; Mollaei Kandelous, M.; Hartsough, P. C.; Vrugt, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Trees play a key role in controlling the water and energy balance at the land-air surface. By changing water content of soil and atmosphere, trees influence meteorological, climatological and hydrological cycles. Numerical models allow simulating the relevant hydrological processes; most importantly the movement of water as it is transported through the soil, taken up by roots into the tree and ultimately transpired into the atmosphere along water potential gradients across the soil-root-tree-atmosphere continuum (SPAC). The results of a multi-year deployment of soil moisture sensors to study the hydrologic/biotic interactions in a mixed-conifer forest in the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory (CZO) will be presented. To better understand root-soil water interactions, a mature white fir (Abies concolor) and the surrounding root zone was continuously monitored (sap flow, canopy stem water potential, soil moisture, soil water potential and temperature), to characterize the hydraulics SPAC. In addition, we present a hydrodynamic model, simulating unsaturated flow in the soil and tree with stress functions controlling spatially distributed root uptake and canopy transpiration. To parameterize the in-situ tree water relationships, we combine the numerical model with observational data in an optimization framework, minimizing residuals between modeled and measured observational data.

  18. Instrumenting the Conifers: A Look at Daily Tree Growth and Locally Observed Environmental Conditions Across Four Mountain Sites in the Central Great Basin, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strachan, S.; Biondi, F.; Johnson, B. G.

    2012-12-01

    Tree growth is often used as a proxy for past environmental conditions or as an indicator of developing trends. Reconstructions of drought, precipitation, temperature, and other phenomena derived from tree-growth indices abound in scientific literature aimed at informing policy makers. Observations of tree recruitment or death in treeline populations are frequently tied to climatic fluctuation in cause-effect hypotheses. Very often these hypotheses are based on statistical relationships between annual-to-seasonal tree growth measurements and some environmental parameter measured or modeled off-site. Observation of daily tree growth in conjunction with in-situ environmental measurements at similar timescales takes us one step closer to quantifying the uncertainty in reconstruction or predictive studies. In four separate sites in two different mountain ranges in the central Great Basin, co-located observations of conifer growth activity and local atmospheric and soils conditions have been initiated. Species include Pinus longaeva (Great Basin bristlecone pine), Pinus flexilis (limber pine), Picea engelmannii (Engelmann spruce), Pinus monophylla (singleleaf pinyon pine), Pinus ponderosa (ponderosa pine), Abies concolor (white fir), and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir). Measurements of sub-hourly tree radial length change and sap flow activity are compared with a suite of in-situ observations including air temperature, precipitation, photosynthetically-active radiation (PAR), relative humidity, soil temperature, and soil moisture/water content. Subalpine study site located at 3360 m elevation in the Snake Range, Nevada

  19. Arabidopsis seed germination responses to osmotic stress involve the chromatin modifier PICKLE.

    PubMed

    Belin, Christophe; Lopez-Molina, Luis

    2008-07-01

    pkl mutant seed germination is hypersensitive to ABA treatment due to abnormally high and persistent ABI3 and ABI5 expression. PKL, a putative chromatin modifier, is instrumental to associate ABI3 and ABI5 with silent chromatin in response to ABA. Thus, PKL prevents exaggerated germination arrest responses by shutting off ABI3 and ABI5 expression in response to mild stresses.

  20. Ecological importance of large-diameter trees in a temperate mixed-conifer forest.

    PubMed

    Lutz, James A; Larson, Andrew J; Swanson, Mark E; Freund, James A

    2012-01-01

    Large-diameter trees dominate the structure, dynamics and function of many temperate and tropical forests. Although both scaling theory and competition theory make predictions about the relative composition and spatial patterns of large-diameter trees compared to smaller diameter trees, these predictions are rarely tested. We established a 25.6 ha permanent plot within which we tagged and mapped all trees ≥1 cm dbh, all snags ≥10 cm dbh, and all shrub patches ≥2 m(2). We sampled downed woody debris, litter, and duff with line intercept transects. Aboveground live biomass of the 23 woody species was 507.9 Mg/ha, of which 503.8 Mg/ha was trees (SD = 114.3 Mg/ha) and 4.1 Mg/ha was shrubs. Aboveground live and dead biomass was 652.0 Mg/ha. Large-diameter trees comprised 1.4% of individuals but 49.4% of biomass, with biomass dominated by Abies concolor and Pinus lambertiana (93.0% of tree biomass). The large-diameter component dominated the biomass of snags (59.5%) and contributed significantly to that of woody debris (36.6%). Traditional scaling theory was not a good model for either the relationship between tree radii and tree abundance or tree biomass. Spatial patterning of large-diameter trees of the three most abundant species differed from that of small-diameter conspecifics. For A. concolor and P. lambertiana, as well as all trees pooled, large-diameter and small-diameter trees were spatially segregated through inter-tree distances <10 m. Competition alone was insufficient to explain the spatial patterns of large-diameter trees and spatial relationships between large-diameter and small-diameter trees. Long-term observations may reveal regulation of forest biomass and spatial structure by fire, wind, pathogens, and insects in Sierra Nevada mixed-conifer forests. Sustaining ecosystem functions such as carbon storage or provision of specialist species habitat will likely require different management strategies when the functions are performed primarily by

  1. Ecological Importance of Large-Diameter Trees in a Temperate Mixed-Conifer Forest

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, James A.; Larson, Andrew J.; Swanson, Mark E.; Freund, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Large-diameter trees dominate the structure, dynamics and function of many temperate and tropical forests. Although both scaling theory and competition theory make predictions about the relative composition and spatial patterns of large-diameter trees compared to smaller diameter trees, these predictions are rarely tested. We established a 25.6 ha permanent plot within which we tagged and mapped all trees ≥1 cm dbh, all snags ≥10 cm dbh, and all shrub patches ≥2 m2. We sampled downed woody debris, litter, and duff with line intercept transects. Aboveground live biomass of the 23 woody species was 507.9 Mg/ha, of which 503.8 Mg/ha was trees (SD = 114.3 Mg/ha) and 4.1 Mg/ha was shrubs. Aboveground live and dead biomass was 652.0 Mg/ha. Large-diameter trees comprised 1.4% of individuals but 49.4% of biomass, with biomass dominated by Abies concolor and Pinus lambertiana (93.0% of tree biomass). The large-diameter component dominated the biomass of snags (59.5%) and contributed significantly to that of woody debris (36.6%). Traditional scaling theory was not a good model for either the relationship between tree radii and tree abundance or tree biomass. Spatial patterning of large-diameter trees of the three most abundant species differed from that of small-diameter conspecifics. For A. concolor and P. lambertiana, as well as all trees pooled, large-diameter and small-diameter trees were spatially segregated through inter-tree distances <10 m. Competition alone was insufficient to explain the spatial patterns of large-diameter trees and spatial relationships between large-diameter and small-diameter trees. Long-term observations may reveal regulation of forest biomass and spatial structure by fire, wind, pathogens, and insects in Sierra Nevada mixed-conifer forests. Sustaining ecosystem functions such as carbon storage or provision of specialist species habitat will likely require different management strategies when the functions are performed primarily by a

  2. Lifestyle measures in the management of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: clinical and pathophysiological considerations

    PubMed Central

    Kang, J.H.-E.

    2015-01-01

    Several lifestyle and dietary factors are commonly cited as risk factors for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) and modification of these factors has been advocated as first-line measures for the management of GORD. We performed a systematic review of the literature from 2005 to the present relating to the effect of these factors and their modification on GORD symptoms, physiological parameters of reflux as well as endoscopic appearances. Conflicting results existed for the association between smoking, alcohol and various dietary factors in the development of GORD. These equivocal findings are partly due to methodology problems. There is recent good evidence that weight reduction and smoking cessation are beneficial in reducing GORD symptoms. Clinical and physiological studies also suggest that some physical measures as well as modification of meal size and timing can also be beneficial. However, there is limited evidence for the role of avoiding alcohol and certain dietary ingredients including carbonated drinks, caffeine, fat, spicy foods, chocolate and mint. PMID:25729556

  3. On-demand and intermittent therapy for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: economic considerations.

    PubMed

    Inadomi, John M

    2002-01-01

    Since gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) is a prevalent condition characterised by frequent relapses, long-term costs of management for this disease are high. Thus, strategies to decrease resource expenditures without impairing patient quality of life are desirable. On-demand therapy (one-dose when symptoms occur) and intermittent therapy (short course of medication when symptoms occur) are attractive since pharmaceutical expenditures may be decreased, and many patients self-employ this strategy. The purpose of this paper was to examine the economic implications of on-demand or intermittent therapy for GORD. A review of selected studies evaluating medication suitable for on-demand or intermittent administration was performed. A complete search for published studies on the cost effectiveness of on-demand or intermittent therapy for GORD was conducted, and the results discussed in detail. Antacids, alginates, topically active agents, histamine(2)-receptor antagonists, and proton pump inhibitors have all demonstrable efficacy compared with placebo when administered on-demand. Proton pump inhibitors constitute the most effective pharmacological means to treat GORD. Although step-up strategies initially using less potent medication may decrease resource use, cost-effectiveness analysis illustrates that on-demand or intermittent therapy with proton pump inhibitors may be reasonable options. Further work that defines quality of life and patient preferences associated with GORD may allow for proper allocation of resources for the management of this condition.

  4. Development and testing of an optimized method for DNA-based identification of jaguar (Panthera onca) and puma (Puma concolor) faecal samples for use in ecological and genetic studies.

    PubMed

    Haag, Taiana; Santos, Anelisie S; De Angelo, Carlos; Srbek-Araujo, Ana Carolina; Sana, Dênis A; Morato, Ronaldo G; Salzano, Francisco M; Eizirik, Eduardo

    2009-07-01

    The elusive nature and endangered status of most carnivore species imply that efficient approaches for their non-invasive sampling are required to allow for genetic and ecological studies. Faecal samples are a major potential source of information, and reliable approaches are needed to foster their application in this field, particularly in areas where few studies have been conducted. A major obstacle to the reliable use of faecal samples is their uncertain species-level identification in the field, an issue that can be addressed with DNA-based assays. In this study we describe a sequence-based approach that efficiently distinguishes jaguar versus puma scats, and that presents several desirable properties: (1) considerably high amplification and sequencing rates; (2) multiple diagnostic sites reliably differentiating the two focal species; (3) high information content that allows for future application in other carnivores; (4) no evidence of amplification of prey DNA; and (5) no evidence of amplification of a nuclear mitochondrial DNA insertion known to occur in the jaguar. We demonstrate the reliability and usefulness of this approach by evaluating 55 field-collected samples from four locations in the highly fragmented Atlantic Forest biome of Brazil and Argentina, and document the presence of one or both of these endangered felids in each of these areas.

  5. [Diagnosis and treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease in the mentally retarded: guidelines of a multidisciplinary consensus work group. Dutch Association of Physicians in Care of Mentally Handicapped].

    PubMed

    Gimbel, H

    2000-06-10

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GORD) is more frequent among people with intellectual disability than among the intellectually normal population. Also GORD is more serious in this population. The diagnosis is often missed, because most intellectually disabled cannot express their complaints of GORD. For that reason a multidisciplinary working group of the Dutch Association of physicians active in the care of persons with a mental handicap has developed guidelines. The working group recommends endoscopy in case of a (alarm) symptoms: haematemesis, prolonged vomiting, irondeficiency anaemia e.c.i., and a 24 hour oesophageal pH test in case of b (aspecific) symptoms: recurrent pneumonia, refusal of food, regurgitation, rumination, dental erosions. In general most patients are cured with drug treatment (omeprazol or another proton pump inhibitor). If symptoms are not improved after 6 months of optimal treatment, surgical treatment may be considered.

  6. Proton pump inhibitor failure in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: a perspective aided by the Gartner hype cycle.

    PubMed

    Heading, Robert C

    2017-04-01

    Some patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) experience symptoms despite proton pump inhibitor (PPI) treatment. In the early years of their availability, these drugs were thought to be a highly effective treatment for GORD and realisation that symptom relief was often incomplete came as a disappointment. This review considers the evolution of thinking with the aid of the Gartner hype cycle - a graphical depiction of the process of innovation, evolution and adoption of new technologies. Acknowledging that over-simplistic concepts of GORD have been largely responsible for inflated expectations of PPI therapy is an important step forward in establishing how patients with persistent symptoms, despite PPIs, should be assessed and treated.

  7. Changes in the relationships between climate and silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) growth during the 20th century in the Tuscan Apennine Alps (Middle Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Aprile, F.; Tapper, N.; Baker, P.; Bartolozzi, L.; Bottacci, A.

    2012-04-01

    In the Tuscan Apennine Alps, recent research has shown that similarity in trends of monthly climate variables (i.e., temperature and rainfall) is non-stationary amongst sites during the 20th century even between sites that differ little in elevation and at a relatively short distance from each other (D'Aprile et al., 2010; D'Aprile et al., 2011). Moreover, the level of correlation between series of monthly climate variables varies irregularly from highly positive to negative over time. We hypothesised that those changing climate conditions, even at the local level, could cause different tree-ring growth responses in silver fir amongst sites. The hypothesis was tested by dendroclimatological analysis, which was applied to study stands in silver fir forests close to the meteorological stations where climate analysis has been made. Results show that the influences of both monthly mean temperature and monthly rainfall on silver fir growth vary greatly during the 20th century in the Tuscan Apennine Alps, and the ways that they change differ with month and amongst sites. Within sites, differences in the relationships between climate variables and silver fir tree-ring growth appear small in spite of different elevation of the study stands. These results contribute a changing point in forest planning and management especially in consideration of the need to adapt forest management and interventions to changing climate conditions and mitigate the impacts on silver fir forests. Moreover, they introduce climate variability as a key parameter in sustainable forest management for biodiversity conservation, socially responsible uses, nature conservation, and survival of the only conifer tree species typical of mountain mixed forest ecosystems in the Apennine Alps.

  8. Estrogenic activity of 7-hydroxymatairesinol potassium acetate (HMR/lignan) from Norway spruce (Picea abies) knots and of its active metabolite enterolactone in MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Cosentino, Marco; Marino, Franca; Ferrari, Marco; Rasini, Emanuela; Bombelli, Raffaella; Luini, Alessandra; Legnaro, Massimiliano; Delle Canne, Marco Gioacchino; Luzzani, Marcello; Crema, Francesca; Paracchini, Silvano; Lecchini, Sergio

    2007-08-01

    Lignans are plant polyphenols which may possess anticancer, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities. In particular, the lignan 7-hydroxymatairesinol (HMR/lignan, HMR) is a novel precursor of the mammalian lignan enterolactone (EL). In the present study, we investigated the estrogenicity of HMR and of EL in comparison to estradiol (E2), by measuring their effects on growth and apoptotic markers in the human estrogen-sensitive cell line MCF-7. HMR, EL and E2 concentration-dependently increased the percentage of MCF-7 cells in the S phase of the cell cycle, with the following relative potencies: E2 congruent with EL>HMR, and efficacies: E2>HMR>EL. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with either HMR, EL or E2 also increased the Bcl-2/Bax mRNA ratio. The effects of HMR and EL were reduced in the presence of the estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist tamoxifene. We conclude that both HMR and its metabolite EL are endowed with estrogenic activity, which is likely to be exerted through the contribution of ER-dependent pathways and to target the same intracellular mechanisms acted upon by E2. The estrogenicity of HMR and EL is however milder than that of E2, as indicated by the lower potencies and efficacies of both lignans. The present results support the notion that dietary supplementation with HMR may result in a mild estrogenic activity, both directly and by providing a suitable source for endogenous EL.

  9. Elucidating the Role of cAb1 and the Abi-Family of cAB1 Target Proteins in Cancer Development and Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-07-01

    were independent of generated cytokine-independent mono- myeloproliferative syndrome referred to growth factors. The 3 Bcr-Abl proteins cyte/myeloid...p185 Bcr-Abl-expressing murine myeloproliferative disease (J. P. Miller and W. S. Pear, unpublished hematopoietic cells expanded with cytokines alone...were able to data). However, p230 Bcr-Abl caused a myeloproliferative disease rapidly form tumors when injected subcutaneously into SCID mice with a

  10. Interactions of thinning and stem height on the drought response of radial stem growth and isotopic composition of Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Sohn, Julia A; Kohler, Martin; Gessler, Arthur; Bauhus, Jürgen

    2012-10-01

    Radial stem growth and the isotopic composition of growth rings are commonly used to quantify the effects of droughts on trees. However, often these parameters are quantified only at one stem height, e.g., 1.3 m, and it is not known how representative this is for the whole stem. This study investigated radial growth at four stem heights (1.3, 5.5, 9.8 and 14 m) of 21, and wood Δ(13)C and δ(18)O at two heights (1.3 and 14 m) of 10 (co-)dominant Norway spruce trees from heavily (HT) and moderately thinned (MT) stands to assess whether different thinning intensities influenced the drought response of stems at different tree heights. Annual basal area increments (BAIs) and stable isotopes in earlywood and latewood were compared between thinning treatments and among the different stem heights. For BAIs, linear correlations with climate were analysed as well. The response of radial growth and isotopic composition to drought was similar at different stem heights in HT trees, but varied with height in MT trees, which were also more sensitive to climatic variations. Recovery of radial growth after drought was more rapid in trees from HT compared with MT stands, except for the topmost height. Basal area increments at breast height (1.3 m) provided good estimates of the volume growth response to drought for the whole stem, but not for its recovery. The faster recovery of radial growth at 1.3 m height of HT compared with MT trees after the 2003 drought was not accompanied by differences in recovery of isotopic composition. However, this is likely to be related to differences between treatments in remobilization of stored C and in tree structure (leaf area, root systems).

  11. Belowground effects of enhanced tropospheric ozone and drought in a beech/spruce forest (Fagus sylvatica L./Picea abies [L.] Karst).

    PubMed

    Nikolova, Petia S; Andersen, Christian P; Blaschke, Helmut; Matyssek, Rainer; Häberle, Karl-Heinz

    2010-04-01

    The effects of experimentally elevated O(3) on soil respiration rates, standing fine-root biomass, fine-root production and delta(13)C signature of newly produced fine roots were investigated in an adult European beech/Norway spruce forest in Germany during two subsequent years with contrasting rainfall patterns. During humid 2002, soil respiration rate was enhanced under elevated O(3) under beech and spruce, and was related to O(3)-stimulated fine-root production only in beech. During dry 2003, the stimulating effect of O(3) on soil respiration rate vanished under spruce, which was correlated with decreased fine-root production in spruce under drought, irrespective of the O(3) regime. delta(13)C signature of newly formed fine-roots was consistent with the differing g(s) of beech and spruce, and indicated stomatal limitation by O(3) in beech and by drought in spruce. Our study showed that drought can override the stimulating O(3) effects on fine-root dynamics and soil respiration in mature beech and spruce forests.

  12. ABI1 and PP2CA Phosphatases Are Negative Regulators of Snf1-Related Protein Kinase1 Signaling in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Américo; Adamo, Mattia; Crozet, Pierre; Margalha, Leonor; Confraria, Ana; Martinho, Cláudia; Elias, Alexandre; Rabissi, Agnese; Lumbreras, Victoria; González-Guzmán, Miguel; Antoni, Regina; Rodriguez, Pedro L.; Baena-González, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Plant survival under environmental stress requires the integration of multiple signaling pathways into a coordinated response, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this integration are poorly understood. Stress-derived energy deprivation activates the Snf1-related protein kinases1 (SnRK1s), triggering a vast transcriptional and metabolic reprogramming that restores homeostasis and promotes tolerance to adverse conditions. Here, we show that two clade A type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), established repressors of the abscisic acid (ABA) hormonal pathway, interact with the SnRK1 catalytic subunit causing its dephosphorylation and inactivation. Accordingly, SnRK1 repression is abrogated in double and quadruple pp2c knockout mutants, provoking, similarly to SnRK1 overexpression, sugar hypersensitivity during early seedling development. Reporter gene assays and SnRK1 target gene expression analyses further demonstrate that PP2C inhibition by ABA results in SnRK1 activation, promoting SnRK1 signaling during stress and once the energy deficit subsides. Consistent with this, SnRK1 and ABA induce largely overlapping transcriptional responses. Hence, the PP2C hub allows the coordinated activation of ABA and energy signaling, strengthening the stress response through the cooperation of two key and complementary pathways. PMID:24179127

  13. Multielemental analysis of tree rings: a survey of coniferous trees in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. [Picea rubens; Abies fraseri; Tsuga canadensis; Pinus rigida; Pinus strobus

    SciTech Connect

    Baes, C.F. III; McLaughlin, S.B.

    1986-01-01

    Conifers were sampled at various locations in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP) to examine changes in growth rate and elemental composition of the tree rings as a function of tree species and location. Earlier studies in the park had indicated (1) recent increases in deposition of trace metals at high-elevation sites and (2) decreased tree ring widths and increased iron accumulation in short-leaf pine between 1863 and 1912 in trees at Cades Cove, which were thought to be influenced by emissions from copper smelters at Copperhill, Tennessee, 88 km upwind of the cove. Conifers were cored for multielement analysis growth analysis at nine locations throughout the GSMNP. Multielement analysis was performed for 31 elements, 21 of which were generally detected in the xylem: Al, B, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hf, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Si, Sr, Ti, and Zn. There was little evidence of a synchronous growth decline in conifers between 1863 and 1912 at the sites sampled. A comparison between raw ring widths averaged over the periods 1974 to 1983 and 1929 to 1958 showed that approximately 77, 83, and 88% of all red spruce, Fraser fir, and hemlock, respectively, had lower growth rates during the latter time period. The elemental concentrations found in wood suggest that the trees in the GSMNP are not exposed to levels of trace metals as high as are trees immediately downwind of smelters or fossil fuel plants. However, the patterns of Mn and Zn in Fraser fir at high-elevation sites and the temporal similarity between increases of Al, B, Cu, Fe, and Ni in wood and increases in fossil fuel emissions upwind of the GSMNP suggest that forests in the park are exposed to increasing levels of trace metal deposition or that trace metals are made more available for uptake by trees as a result of anthropogenic influences. 48 refs., 22 figs., 11 tabs.

  14. Phase transition in ABi4Ti4O15 (A=Ca,Sr,Ba) Aurivillius oxides prepared through a soft chemical route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rout, S. K.; Sinha, E.; Hussian, A.; Lee, J. S.; Ahn, C. W.; Kim, I. W.; Woo, S. I.

    2009-01-01

    A series of compounds, CaBi4Ti4O15 (CBT), SrBi4Ti4O15 (SBT), and BaBi4Ti4O15 (BBT), belonging to the Aurivillus-type structure (four layers) has been prepared by a modified chemical route. Different oxalates were precipitated from their respective nitrate solution onto the surface of TiO2 powders. The room temperature x-ray diffraction study reveled that the compounds were having orthorhombic symmetry. Considering the tolerance factor, a significant deformation of the perovskite block is observed and that decreases with increase in ionic radius of A site atom. Temperature dependent dielectric study showed normal ferroelectric to paraelectric transition well above the room temperature except for BBT. The BBT ceramic showed a relaxorlike behavior near phase transition. The quantitative characterization and comparison of relaxor behavior were based on empirical parameters γ and ΔTres. The dielectric relaxation rate follows the Vogel-Fulcher relation with activation energy=0.02 eV and freezing temperature=362 °C. All these measurements confirmed its relaxorlike phase transition.

  15. Screening of abscisic acid insensative (ABI) and low phosphorous efficiency (LPE) mutants from some sequenced lines in the sorghum TILLING population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum population for Targeting Induced Local Lesion IN Genome (TILLING) was generated from BTx623 in 2005 and publicly available in 2009. After releasing to the public, this population was intensively screened by morphological observation in the field and a number of mutants with useful traits wer...

  16. Whole-tree seasonal nitrogen uptake and partitioning in adult Fagus sylvatica L. and Picea abies L. [Karst.] trees exposed to elevated ground-level ozone.

    PubMed

    Weigt, R B; Häberle, K H; Rötzer, T; Matyssek, R

    2015-01-01

    The effect of long-term exposure of twice-ambient O(3) (2 × O(3)) on whole-tree nitrogen (N) uptake and partitioning of adult beech and spruce was studied in a mixed forest stand, SE-Germany. N uptake as (15)N tracer and N pools were calculated using N concentrations and biomass of tree compartments. Whole-tree N uptake tended to be lower under 2 × O(3) in both species compared to trees under ambient O(3) (1 × O(3)). Internal partitioning in beech showed significantly higher allocation of new N to roots, with mycorrhizal root tips and fine roots together receiving about 17% of new N (2 × O(3)) versus 7% (1 × O(3)). Conversely, in spruce, N allocation to roots was decreased under 2 × O(3). These contrasting effects on belowground N partitioning and pool sizes, being largely consistent with the pattern of N concentrations, suggest enhanced N demand and consumption of stored N with higher relevance for tree-internal N cycling in beech than in spruce.

  17. Moderate effects of reforestation with Norway spruce (Picea abies) on carbon storage and turnover in a Swiss sub-alpine pasture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiltbrunner, D.; Hagedorn, F.; Niklaus, P. A.; Zimmermann, S.; Schmidt, M. W. I.

    2012-04-01

    In alpine regions the forested area is strongly increasing through woody plant encroachment on abandoned pastures or by man-made afforestations. These natural or artificial reforestations, in fact, have several implications on the nutrient cycling between plants and soils and thus, are likely to affect carbon turnover. Although afforestations are to be accounted as a sink according to the Kyoto protocol, there are still uncertainties about their effects on the soil carbon storage. In the present study, we assessed soils under pasture, an adjacent chronosequence of spruce afforestations (25-45 years) and a mature spruce forest (older than 120 years) on a homogenous slope in a Swiss sub-alpine ecosystem. While the soil bulk densities were not affected by the land use change, carbon concentrations in the mineral soil decreased 25-45 years after tree establishment. However, no differences between pasture and the mature forest were apparent, indicating that the C-loss after land use conversion was only transient. Up to 2.5kg m-2 C was additionally stored in the organic layer of the oldest stands, resulting in a net C gain in the old forest soils. C:N-ratios of the soil organic matter (SOM) considerably increased with stand age in the uppermost soil layer, displaying the distinct chemical composition of the plant input. In accordance, a shift of the δ13C natural abundance of the SOM in the uppermost mineral layer towards a less negative signal was observed with tree development. The abundance of soil microorganisms, as identified by their phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA), was only moderately affected by vegetation type in the mineral soils. In contrast, a strong alteration of the microbial community composition with a decreasing proportion of fungi from the organic layers to the uppermost mineral layer was observable. Our results show that afforestation with spruce trees on an extensively used sub-alpine pasture only led to a transient loss of C in the mineral soils. In contrast, the accumulation of additional C in the organic layer resulted in higher C-stocks in the old forest as compared to the pasture. Therefore, afforestation with coniferous trees is likely to increase the total amount of C stored, particularly if also the plant biomass is taken into account.

  18. Short-term effects of whole-tree and stem-only harvesting on C and N fluxes in two Picea abies stands, Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janne Kjønaas, O.; Clarke, Nicholas; Eldhuset, Toril; Hietala, Ari; Cross, Hugh; Holt Hanssen, Kjersti; Økland, Tonje; Lange, Holger; Frode Nordbakken, Jørn; Røsberg, Ingvald

    2015-04-01

    Tree harvest and different harvesting methods may affect the soil carbon (C) pool in forest ecosystems. In conventional stem-only timber harvesting (SOH), branches and tops that are left in the forests may contribute to the build-up of the soil carbon pool. In whole-tree harvesting (WTH), inputs of organic matter from branches and tops are strongly reduced. We established field experiments at Gaupen, SE and Vindberg, SW Norway, to study the short-term effects of SOH and WTH on processes affecting the accumulation and loss of soil C. Logging residues on the WTH plots were collected in piles that were removed after 6 months, rendering two sub treatments (WTH-pile and WTH-removal areas). We weighed selected trees and logging residues, surveyed understorey biomass production, quantified pre-harvest soil C and nutrient pools down to 30 cm. Soil respiration was measured and soil water sampled monthly during the growing season, while temperature and moisture were measured continuously. Organic and mineral horizons were incubated at different temperatures to estimate potential C and N mineralization, and deep sequencing of the ITS2 barcode region of fungal DNA was performed on the samples. Litterbags were deployed in the SOH plots. The logging residues amounted to 2.2-2.4 kg C m-2. At Gaupen, the mean in situ soil respiration rates increased following harvest with all treatments, but were significantly higher in WTH-pile and SOH relative to the WTH-removal areas in the first year as well as the fourth year of treatment. The former rates included aboveground decomposing needles and twigs but excluded coarser branches. The observed increase in the WTH-removal areas may be related to decomposing roots, as well as to increased C mineralization partly due to the higher soil temperatures following harvest. Soil temperature was the single most important factor explaining the variability in soil respiration rates over all treatments. At Vindberg, a decrease in soil respiration was observed with all treatments in the second and third years following harvest. At both sites, decomposition of logging residues from needles was more rapid relative to twigs and fine roots. The decomposing residues released a substantial amount of nitrogen which was gradually reflected in the soil water at 30 cm soil depth. A considerable increase in the NO3-N concentration also in the WTH-removal areas in the second year following harvest suggests an increase in N availability from decomposing fine roots and/or soil organic matter. The increased N availability in the WTH-removal areas was supported by results from short term lab incubations of undisturbed soil from the forest floor. The changes in the WTH-removal areas were also reflected in the soil fungal diversity: saprophytic ascomycetes on decaying plant material showed a striking increase in all treatments. For the WTH-removal areas, this may, again, be related to the increased input of root litter; however, the decrease in mycorrhizal basidiomycete species and the vigorous increase of ascomycetes following harvest may also affect the C mineralization of soil organic matter.

  19. Below-ground effects of enhanced tropospheric ozone and drought in a beech/spruce forest (Fagus sylvatica L. / Picea abies [L.] Karst)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of experimentally elevated O3 on soil respiration rates, standing fine-root biomass, fine-root production and δ13C signature of newly produced fine roots were investigated in an adult European beech/Norway spruce forest in Germany during two subsequent years with cont...

  20. Stable isotope record in annually laminated lake sediments from Lake Żabińskie (NE Poland) for the last millennium.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabryś, Alicja; Piotrowska, Natalia; Tylmann, Wojciech; Bonk, Alicja; Filipiak, Janusz; Wacnik, Agnieszka; Hernandez-Almeida, Ivan; Grosjean, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Stable isotope record of carbon (13C) and oxygen (18O) has been analysed from an annually laminated sediment from Lake Zabinskie (Mazurian Lakeland, NE Poland) with high resolution (1-3 yrs). The sediment layers which were formed in each year during the last millennium contain information about environmental changes in the past. The calcite layers are formed in lake sediment in warm months of the year, therefore the reconstruction of summer climate variables in the past is potentially possible. The investigation of correlation between isotope dataset and instrumental climate data for years 1897-2008 AD confirmed that theory. The record of temperature, precipitation and SPEI (Standardised Precipitation Evaporation Index) coefficient, which is a combination of both temperature and precipitation, was tested. The strongest linear correlations were found for most samples for