Science.gov

Sample records for abies fraseri pursh

  1. Clouds homogenize shoot temperatures, transpiration, and photosynthesis within crowns of Abies fraseri (Pursh.) Poiret.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Moreno, J Melissa; Bayeur, Nicole M; Coley, Harold D; Hughes, Nicole M

    2017-03-01

    Multiple studies have examined the effects of clouds on shoot and canopy-level microclimate and physiological processes; none have yet done so on the scale of individual plant crowns. We compared incident photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), leaf temperatures, chlorophyll fluorescence, and photosynthetic gas exchange of shoots in three different spatial locations of Abies fraseri crowns on sunny (clear to partly cloudy) versus overcast days. The field site was a Fraser fir farm (1038 m elevation) in the Appalachian mountains, USA. Ten saplings of the same age class were marked and revisited for all measurements. Sunny conditions corresponded with 5-10× greater sunlight incidence on south-facing outer shoots compared to south-facing inner and north-facing outer shoots, which were shaded and received only indirect (diffuse) sunlight. Differences in spatial distribution of irradiance were mirrored in differences in shoot temperatures, photosynthesis, and transpiration, which were all greater in south-facing outer shoots compared to more shaded crown locations. In contrast, overcast conditions corresponded with more homogeneous sunlight distribution between north and south-facing outer shoots, and similar shoot temperatures, chlorophyll fluorescence (ΦPSII), photosynthesis, and transpiration; these effects were observed in south-facing inner shoots as well, but to a lesser extent. There was no significant difference in conductance between different crown locations on sunny or overcast days, indicating spatial differences in transpiration under sunny conditions were likely driven by leaf temperature differences. We conclude that clouds can affect spatial distribution of sunlight and associated physiological parameters not only within forest communities, but within individual crowns as well.

  2. Thigmomorphogenesis: field and laboratory studies of Abies fraseri in response to wind or mechanical perturbation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Telewski, F. W.; Jaffe, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Field- and greenhouse-grown Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir. (Fraser fir) were analyzed for wind- or mechanically-induced flexure changes. These changes included inhibition of stem and needle elongation, reinforcement of branch bases around the stem, and increased radial growth in the direction of the mechanical perturbation (MP). Mature trees exposed to high wind conditions were severely flag-formed. These modified tree crowns had a lower drag than crowns of non-flag formed trees in wind-tunnel tests. In both field-grown and greenhouse-grown A. fraseri, MP induced a decrease in flexibility and increased elasticity of the stems. The increased radial growth of the stems overrode the increase in elasticity, resulting in the overall decrease in flexibility. The increase in radial growth caused by wind or mechanical flexure was due to greater cell divisions of the vascular cambium, resulting in increased numbers of tracheids. The decrease in stem elongation in these trees was due, at least in part, to a decrease in tracheid length. The potential biological and mechanical significance of these induced growth changes in trees are addressed. The data support the thigmomorphogenetic theory, which states that plants respond to wind and other mechanical perturbations in a way that is favorable to the plant for continued survival in windy environments.

  3. Thigmomorphogenesis: the role of ethylene in the response of Pinus taeda and Abies fraseri to mechanical perturbation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Telewski, F. W.; Jaffe, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Ethylene production was monitored for 48 h in two half-sibs of Pinus taeda L. grown in the greenhouse and given mechanical perturbation (MP) by flexing; and for 22 h in Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir. grown in the field and exposed to wind-mediated MP. Both species produced a peak of ethylene 18 h after MP. Seedlings of P. taeda exposed to MP for the duration of the growing season (preconditioned) produced less ethylene compared to non-MP controls, with a peak production at 8 h. One half-sib which responded to MP by an increase in radial growth produced 16 times more ethylene than another half-sib which had no significant change in radial growth. Preconditioned A. fraseri produced no significant quantities of ethylene after MP. The production of wound ethylene appears to be different from MP-induced ethylene. When an ethylene-generating solution was applied to P. taeda seedlings, it mimicked many of the morphological and mechanical characteristics of MP seedlings. The putative role of ethylene in the thigmomorphogenetic response is addressed.

  4. Two Novel Techniques to Screen Abies Seedlings for Resistance to the Balsam Woolly Adelgid, Adelges piceae

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Leslie; Frampton, John; Monahan, John; Goldfarb, Barry; Hain, Fred

    2011-01-01

    Since its introduction into the Southern Appalachians in the 1950s, the balsam woolly adelgid, Adelges piceae Ratzeburg (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), has devastated native populations of Fraser fir, Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir. (Pinales: Pinaceae), and has become a major pest in Christmas tree plantations requiring expensive chemical treatments. Adelges piceae—resistant Fraser fir trees would lessen costs for the Christmas tree industry and assist in the restoration of native stands. Resistance screening is an important step in this process. Here, four studies directed toward the development of time— and cost—efficient techniques for screening are reported. In the first study, three methods to artificially infest seedlings of different ages were evaluated in a shade—covered greenhouse. Two—year—old seedlings had much lower infestation levels than 7 year—old seedlings. Placing infested bark at the base of the seedling was less effective than tying infested bark to the seedling or suspending infested bolts above the seedling. Although the two latter techniques resulted in similar densities on the seedlings, they each have positive and negative considerations. Attaching bark to uninfested trees is effective, but very time consuming. The suspended bolt method mimics natural infestation and is more economical than attaching bark, but care must be taken to ensure an even distribution of crawlers falling onto the seedlings. The second study focused on the density and distribution of crawlers falling from suspended bolts onto paper gridded into 7.6 × 7.6 cm cells. Crawler density in a 30 cm band under and to each side of the suspended bolt ranged from 400 to over 3000 crawlers per cell (1 to 55 crawlers per cm2). In the third study, excised branches from 4 year—old A. fraseri and A. vetchii seedlings were artificially infested with A. piceae to determine whether this technique may be useful for early resistance screening. The excised A. fraseri branches supported

  5. Two novel techniques to screen Abies seedlings for resistance to the balsam woolly adelgid, Adelges piceae.

    PubMed

    Newton, Leslie; Frampton, John; Monahan, John; Goldfarb, Barry; Hain, Fred

    2011-01-01

    Since its introduction into the Southern Appalachians in the 1950s, the balsam woolly adelgid, Adelges piceae Ratzeburg (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), has devastated native populations of Fraser fir, Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir. (Pinales: Pinaceae), and has become a major pest in Christmas tree plantations requiring expensive chemical treatments. Adelges piceae-resistant Fraser fir trees would lessen costs for the Christmas tree industry and assist in the restoration of native stands. Resistance screening is an important step in this process. Here, four studies directed toward the development of time- and cost-efficient techniques for screening are reported. In the first study, three methods to artificially infest seedlings of different ages were evaluated in a shade-covered greenhouse. Two-year-old seedlings had much lower infestation levels than 7 year-old seedlings. Placing infested bark at the base of the seedling was less effective than tying infested bark to the seedling or suspending infested bolts above the seedling. Although the two latter techniques resulted in similar densities on the seedlings, they each have positive and negative considerations. Attaching bark to uninfested trees is effective, but very time consuming. The suspended bolt method mimics natural infestation and is more economical than attaching bark, but care must be taken to ensure an even distribution of crawlers falling onto the seedlings. The second study focused on the density and distribution of crawlers falling from suspended bolts onto paper gridded into 7.6 × 7.6 cm cells. Crawler density in a 30 cm band under and to each side of the suspended bolt ranged from 400 to over 3000 crawlers per cell (1 to 55 crawlers per cm²). In the third study, excised branches from 4 year-old A. fraseri and A. vetchii seedlings were artificially infested with A. piceae to determine whether this technique may be useful for early resistance screening. The excised A. fraseri branches supported complete

  6. Causes of forest damage in Europe: Major hypotheses and factors. [Picea rubens; Abies balsmea; Abies fraseri

    SciTech Connect

    Prinz, B. )

    1987-11-01

    Forest damage has become a major topic of public and scientific discussion in recent years. Significant controversy has developed regarding the causes of this damage. This is especially true in West Germany (Federal Republic of Germany), where forests are considered in both economic and emotional terms. The mythic bonds between man and forest go back into ancient history. This article first explains the difference between the novel character of recent forest damage and the classic form of smoke damage. The different forms of forest damage in Central Europe and North America are then compared, and evidence for and against several hypotheses of causation of chlorosis, or yellowing, of evergreen needles at upper elevations - the most important type of forest damage in Germany - is discussed in detail.

  7. ABI 007.

    PubMed

    2003-01-01

    ABI 007 is an albumin-stabilised nanoparticle formulation of paclitaxel designed to overcome insolubility problems encountered with paclitaxel. This then eliminates the need for toxic solvents like cremophor, which limits the dose of paclitaxel that can be administered and hence effect overall drug efficacy. ABI 007 is being developed for the treatment of a variety of tumour types by American Pharmaceutical Partners. In addition to the standard infusion formulation of ABI 007, oral and pulmonary delivery formulations are also being investigated. American Pharmaceutical Partners, a subsidiary of American BioScience, secured exclusive North American marketing and manufacturing rights to ABI 007 from American BioScience in November 2001. American BioScience completed a phase III study in the US in metastatic breast cancer patients in early 2003. An indication for which ABI 007 was granted fast track status in January 2003. The phase III study directly compared the efficacy of ABI 007 260 mg/m(2) with paclitaxel 175 mg/m(2). Both agents were administered every 3 weeks. ABI 007 was administered as a 30-minute infusion without steroid pretreatment. Paclitaxel-treated patients received steroid pretreatment and the drug was administered over 3 hours. In October 2002, a Data Monitoring Committee concluded that a sample size adjustment of the phase III trial would not be required and that the study can be continued to completion. Enrolment was completed in December 2002 with 460 first- and second-line metastatic breast cancer patients enrolled. The results were expected to be unblinded in mid-2003. A phase II trial of ABI 007 is also underway in metastatic breast cancer patients who have failed taxane therapy. The trial is evaluating a weekly rather than 3-weekly regimen of ABI 007. Earlier, in May 2003, American Pharmaceutical Partners reported that ABI 007 is also being evaluated for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer, ovarian cancer, melanoma and cervical cancers

  8. ABI 007.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    ABI 007 [Abraxane] is an albumin-stabilised nanoparticle formulation of paclitaxel designed to overcome insolubility problems encountered with paclitaxel. This then eliminates the need for toxic solvents like cremophor, which limits the dose of paclitaxel that can be administered and hence affect overall drug efficacy. Studies have shown that the albumin receptor-mediated paclitaxel-transport mechanism is analogous to the opening of a 'trapdoor' on the endothelial cell wall within blood vessels. This facilitates the passage of ABI 007 from the bloodstream via the blood vessels to the underlying tumour tissue. ABI 007 is being developed for the treatment of a variety of tumour types by American Pharmaceutical Partners. In addition to the standard infusion formulation of ABI 007, oral and pulmonary delivery formulations are also being investigated. American Pharmaceutical Partners, a subsidiary of American BioScience, secured exclusive North American marketing and manufacturing rights to ABI 007 from American BioScience in November 2001. In anticipation of product launch within the fourth quarter of 2004, the company formed Abraxis Oncology and recruited an experienced sales and marketing team. The company has also accumulated approximately 28 million US dollars of paclitaxel inventory. As such, American Pharmaceutical Partners anticipates pre-launch expenses to cost approximately 40 million US dollars, incurred over 2004. In addition, the company expects to make two milestone payments worth 10 million US dollars as well as 15 million US dollars, based upon US FDA acceptance of NDA filing in the second quarter of 2004 and subsequent US FDA approval, respectively. The milestone for US FDA approval would be capitalised and amortised over the estimated life of the product.Previously, American Pharmaceutical Partners reported that its rolling NDA submission for ABI 007 commenced in May 2003. In July 2003, the company announced that this was progressing on schedule and

  9. Complete Genome Sequences of Legionella pneumophila subsp. fraseri Strains Detroit-1 and Dallas 1E.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Brian H; Kozak-Muiznieks, Natalia A; Morrison, Shatavia S; Mercante, Jeffrey W; Winchell, Jonas M

    2017-02-02

    We report here the complete genome sequences of two of the earliest known strains of Legionella pneumophila subsp. fraseri Detroit-1 is serogroup 1 and was isolated from a lung biopsy specimen in 1977. Dallas 1E is serogroup 5 and was isolated in 1978 from a cooling tower.

  10. Complete Genome Sequences of Legionella pneumophila subsp. fraseri Strains Detroit-1 and Dallas 1E

    PubMed Central

    Raphael, Brian H.; Kozak-Muiznieks, Natalia A.; Morrison, Shatavia S.; Mercante, Jeffrey W.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We report here the complete genome sequences of two of the earliest known strains of Legionella pneumophila subsp. fraseri. Detroit-1 is serogroup 1 and was isolated from a lung biopsy specimen in 1977. Dallas 1E is serogroup 5 and was isolated in 1978 from a cooling tower. PMID:28153889

  11. [Effects of shading on photosynthesis characteristics of Photinia x frasery and Aucuba japonica var. variegata].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cong-ying; Fang, Yan-ming; Ji, Hong-li; Ma, Cheng-tao

    2011-07-01

    This paper studied the effects of different shading (light transmittance 20%, 40%, 60%, and 100%) on the photosynthesis characteristics of two ornamental foliage plants Photinia x frasery and Aucuba japonica var. variegata. After shading for six weeks, the net photosynthesis rates of two plants measured ex situ under natural light enhanced, compared to those measured in situ, and, with the increase of shading degree, the net photosynthetic rates had an increasing trend, with the maximum being 9.7 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1) for Photinia x frasery and 8.3 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1) for Aucuba japonica var. variegata. In the meantime, the transpiration rates of the two plants increased significantly. Shading increased the chlorophyll a, b, and a+b contents and the chlorophyll/carotenoids ratio, decreased the chlorophyll a/b, but less affected the carotenoids content. The phenotypic plasticity index (PPI) of net photosynthesis rate and transpiration rate of Photinia x frasery and Aucuba japonica var. variegate was 2.08 and 3.21, and 0.55 and 1.60, respectively. The chlorophyll and carotenoids contents of the two plants were relatively stable, indicating the minor influence of external environment factors on pigments. Aucuba japonica var. variegata had a higher shading tolerance than Photinia x frasery.

  12. [Molecular phylogenetic analysis of the genus Abies (Pinaceae) based on the nucleotide sequence of chloroplast DNA].

    PubMed

    Semerikova, S A; Semerikov, V L

    2014-01-01

    A phylogenetic study of firs (Abies Mill.) was conducted using nucleotide sequences of several chloroplast DNA regions with a total length of 5580 bp. The analysis included 37 taxa, which represented the main evolutionary lineages of the genus, and Keteleeria daviana. According to phylogenetic reconstruction the Abies species were subdivided into six main groups, generally corresponding to their geographic distribution. The phylogenetic tree had three basal clades. All of these clades contained American species, and only one of them contained Eurasian species. The divergence time calibrations, based on paleobotanical data and the chloroplast DNA mutation rate estimates in Pinaceae, produced similar results..The age of diversification among the clades of the present-day Abies was estimated as the end of the Oligocene-beginning of Miocene. The age of the separation of Mediterranean firs from the Asian-North American branch corresponds to the Miocene. The age of diversification within the young groups of Mediterranean, Asian, and boreal American firs (A. lasiocarpa, A. balsamea, A. fraseri) was estimated as the Pliocene-Pleistocene. Based on the phylogenetic reconstruction obtained, the most plausible biogeographic scenarios were suggested. It is noted that the existing systematic classification of the genus Abies strongly contradicts with phylogenetic reconstruction and requires revision.

  13. Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine Penthorum chinense Pursh: A Phytochemical and Pharmacological Review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Anqi; Lin, Ligen; Wang, Yitao

    2015-01-01

    Penthorum chinense Pursh (ganhuangcao), a traditional Chinese medicine, is used for the prevention and treatment of liver diseases, including hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and alcoholic liver damage. A wide range of investigations have been carried out on this herbal medicine from pharmacognosy to pharmaceuticals, as well as pharmacology. The extract of P. chinense was reported to have significant liver protective effects through anti-oxidation, reduction of key enzyme levels, inhibition of hepatitis B virus DNA replication, and promotion of bile secretion. Based on the current knowledge, flavonoids and phenols are considered to be responsible for P. chinense's bioactivities. The main purpose of this review is to provide comprehensive and up-to-date knowledge of the phytochemical and pharmacological studies performed on P. chinense during the past few decades. Moreover, it intends to provide new insights into the research and development of this herbal medicine.

  14. Multielemental analysis of tree rings: a survey of coniferous trees in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. [Picea rubens; Abies fraseri; Tsuga canadensis; Pinus rigida; Pinus strobus

    SciTech Connect

    Baes, C.F. III; McLaughlin, S.B.

    1986-01-01

    Conifers were sampled at various locations in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP) to examine changes in growth rate and elemental composition of the tree rings as a function of tree species and location. Earlier studies in the park had indicated (1) recent increases in deposition of trace metals at high-elevation sites and (2) decreased tree ring widths and increased iron accumulation in short-leaf pine between 1863 and 1912 in trees at Cades Cove, which were thought to be influenced by emissions from copper smelters at Copperhill, Tennessee, 88 km upwind of the cove. Conifers were cored for multielement analysis growth analysis at nine locations throughout the GSMNP. Multielement analysis was performed for 31 elements, 21 of which were generally detected in the xylem: Al, B, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hf, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Si, Sr, Ti, and Zn. There was little evidence of a synchronous growth decline in conifers between 1863 and 1912 at the sites sampled. A comparison between raw ring widths averaged over the periods 1974 to 1983 and 1929 to 1958 showed that approximately 77, 83, and 88% of all red spruce, Fraser fir, and hemlock, respectively, had lower growth rates during the latter time period. The elemental concentrations found in wood suggest that the trees in the GSMNP are not exposed to levels of trace metals as high as are trees immediately downwind of smelters or fossil fuel plants. However, the patterns of Mn and Zn in Fraser fir at high-elevation sites and the temporal similarity between increases of Al, B, Cu, Fe, and Ni in wood and increases in fossil fuel emissions upwind of the GSMNP suggest that forests in the park are exposed to increasing levels of trace metal deposition or that trace metals are made more available for uptake by trees as a result of anthropogenic influences. 48 refs., 22 figs., 11 tabs.

  15. ABI4: versatile activator and repressor.

    PubMed

    Wind, Julia J; Peviani, Alessia; Snel, Berend; Hanson, Johannes; Smeekens, Sjef C

    2013-03-01

    The ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE4 (ABI4) gene was discovered to be an abscisic acid (ABA) signaling responsive transcription factor active during seed germination. The evolutionary history of the ABI4 gene supports its role as an ABA signaling intermediate in land plants. Investigating the ABI4 protein-cis element interaction supports the proposal that ABI4 binding to its known CE1 cis-element competes with transcription factor binding to the overlapping G-Box element. Recent publications report on ABI4 as a regulatory factor in diverse processes. In developing seedlings, ABI4 mediates sugar signaling, lipid breakdown, and plastid-to-nucleus signaling. Moreover, ABI4 is a regulator of rosette growth, redox signaling, cell wall metabolism and the effect of nitrate on lateral root development.

  16. The natural history of a fugitive prairie plant (Mirabilis hirsuta (Pursh) MacM.).

    PubMed

    Platt, William J

    1976-12-01

    Some perennial fugitive plants that colonize badger disturbances in xeric prairies have a limited dispersal capacity, and consequently propagules are dispersed over a small area. I hypothesized that high density-dependent mortality might occur early in the life history of such species, and thus increased survival might occur in subsequent age classes because intraspecific competition would be reduced. These hypotheses were tested using natural and experimental cohorts of Mirabilis hirsuta (Pursh) MacM. From these data and field observations, inferences were obtained concerning selective forces operating upon life history characteristics of this species.The distance between individuals of M. hirsuta increases in successive age classes; the greatest decrease in density occurs between the propagule and seedling age classes. Mortality of propagules due to predation by ants and mice was density-dependent. Predation rates were highest at high propagule densities and predation upon propagules located on badger disturbances was higher than the mortality of propagules at similar densities in undisturbed prairie. The results of mortality in the propagule age class are seedlings present only at low densities and located away from parent plants. Seedlings survive to maturity only if they are located on badger disturbances; this species apparently can not successfully compete with plants present in undistrubed prairie. On badger disturbances seedlings present at low densities have much higher survival (roughly 50%) to maturity than do seedlings present at high densities (essentially zero). Thus, if high densities of propagules occur on a disturbance, predation upon propagules results, indirectly, in increased survival of seedlings to maturity. Such predation potentially could have important effects upon interspecific competition of M. hirsuta with other fugitives also colonizing badger disturbances.Reproductive success of M. hirsuta on the Cayler Prairie Preserve is contingent

  17. Variation in lycopene and lycopenoates, antioxidant capacity, and fruit quality of buffaloberry (Shepherdia argentea [Pursh]Nutt.).

    PubMed

    Riedl, Ken M; Choksi, Krunal; Wyzgoski, Faith J; Scheerens, Joseph C; Schwartz, Steven J; Reese, R Neil

    2013-11-01

    Buffaloberry (Shepherdia argentea [Pursh] Nutt.) has historically been used as an important food source by North American indigenous peoples, but its commercial production has been limited. These plants produce fruits rich in carotenoid and phenolic antioxidants, which may have health benefits that may make buffaloberry commercially valuable. Here, we examined these constituents in the fruit of 7 Dakota-grown buffaloberry selections. Primary carotenoids were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectral analysis and by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to be lycopene (0.27 ± 0.02 g/kg FW) and methyl apo-6'-lycopenoate (MA6L; 0.32 ± 0.03/kg FW). MA6L comprised the greatest proportion (55%) of carotenoid antioxidants, but its role in human nutrition is still to be evaluated. The fruit contained high total phenolics concentrations (9.06 ± 0.71 g gallic acid equivalents/kg FW). Hydrophilic antioxidant capacity among the 7 selections averaged 49.0 ± 6.6 mmol trolox equivalents/kg FW, respectively, as measured by ferric reducing ability of plasma assay. The soluble solids and titratable acids concentrations were 21% and 2.2%, respectively. This species is adapted to poor soils and can tolerate drier climates. In the Dakotas, buffaloberry flourishes on the American Indian Tribal Reservations, yielding copious amounts of health-beneficial fruit for fresh and processing markets, making it a potentially valuable new crop for marginal lands.

  18. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect of Penthorum chinense Pursh extract against t-BHP-induced liver damage in L02 cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yangyang; Wang, Shengpeng; Wang, Anqi; Lin, Ligen; Chen, Meiwan; Wang, Yitao

    2015-04-10

    Penthorum chinense Pursh (P. chinense), a traditional Chinese medicine used by the Chinese Miao minority, has been used to treat liver diseases for a long time. However, the mechanism behind the liver protective effects of P. chinense remains unclear so far. The aim of the present study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of P. chinense and its possible mechanism(s). Immortalized normal human normal liver L02 cells were used to evaluate the protective effect of P. chinense aqueous extract against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced liver cell damage. Treatment with P. chinense aqueous extract significantly protected L02 cells from t-BHP-induced cytotoxicity, prevented t-BHP-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and decreased the percentage of apoptosis by inhibiting the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. This study demonstrates that P. chinense is a potential hepatoprotective agent in t-BHP-induced liver cell damage, which may benefit the further application of P. chinense in the clinic.

  19. Variation in Lycopene and Lycopenoates, Antioxidant Capacity, and Fruit Quality of Buffaloberry (Shepherdia argentea [Pursh]Nutt.)

    PubMed Central

    Riedl, Ken M.; Choksi, Krunal; Wyzgoski, Faith J.; Scheerens, Joseph C.; Schwartz, Steven J.; Reese, R. Neil

    2014-01-01

    Buffaloberry (Shepherdia argentea [Pursh] Nutt.) has historically been used as an important food source by North American indigenous peoples, but its commercial production has been limited. These plants produce fruits rich in carotenoid and phenolic antioxidants, which may have health benefits that may make buffaloberry commercially valuable. Here, we examined these constituents in the fruit of 7 Dakota-grown buffaloberry selections. Primary carotenoids were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectral analysis and by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to be lycopene (0.27 ± 0.02 g/kg FW) and methyl apo-6′-lycopenoate (MA6L; 0.32 ± 0.03/kg FW). MA6L comprised the greatest proportion (55%) of carotenoid antioxidants, but its role in human nutrition is still to be evaluated. The fruit contained high total phenolics concentrations (9.06 ± 0.71 g gallic acid equivalents/kg FW). Hydrophilic antioxidant capacity among the 7 selections averaged 49.0 ± 6.6 mmol trolox equivalents/kg FW, respectively, as measured by ferric reducing ability of plasma assay. The soluble solids and titratable acids concentrations were 21% and 2.2%, respectively. This species is adapted to poor soils and can tolerate drier climates. In the Dakotas, buffaloberry flourishes on the American Indian Tribal Reservations, yielding copious amounts of health-beneficial fruit for fresh and processing markets, making it a potentially valuable new crop for marginal lands. PMID:24245885

  20. Detector level ABI spectral response function: FM4 analysis and comparison for different ABI modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efremova, Boryana; Pearlman, Aaron J.; Padula, Frank; Wu, Xiangqian

    2016-09-01

    A new generation of imaging instruments Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) is to be launched aboard the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites - R Series (GOES-R). Four ABI flight modules (FM) are planned to be launched on GOES-R,S,T,U, the first one in the fall of 2016. Pre-launch testing is on-going for FM3 and FM4. ABI has 16 spectral channels, six in the visible/near infrared (VNIR 0.47 - 2.25 μm), and ten in the thermal infrared (TIR 3.9 - 13.3 μm) spectral regions, to be calibrated on-orbit by observing respectively a solar diffuser and a blackbody. Each channel has hundreds of detectors arranged in columns. Operationally one Analytic Generation of Spectral Response (ANGEN) function will be used to represent the spectral response function (SRF) of all detectors in a band. The Vendor conducted prelaunch end-to-end SRF testing to compare to ANGEN; detector specific SRF data was taken for: i) best detector selected (BDS) mode - for FM 2,3, and 4; and ii) all detectors (column mode) - for four spectral bands in FM3 and FM4. The GOES-R calibration working group (CWG) has independently used the SRF test data for FM2 and FM3 to study the potential impact of detector-to-detector SRF differences on the ABI detected Earth view radiances. In this paper we expand the CWG analysis to include the FM4 SRF test data - the results are in agreement with the Vendor analysis, and show excellent instrument performance and compare the detector-to-detector SRF differences and their potential impact on the detected Earth view radiances for all of the tested ABI modules.

  1. 19 CFR 143.7 - Revocation of ABI participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Revocation of ABI participation. 143.7 Section 143... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) SPECIAL ENTRY PROCEDURES Automated Broker Interface § 143.7 Revocation of ABI... participant will be notified, electronically and in writing, by the applicable Director, of the...

  2. Bio-assay guided identification of hepatoprotective polyphenols from Penthorum chinense Pursh on t-BHP induced oxidative stress injured L02 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Anqi; Wang, Shengpeng; Jiang, Yun; Chen, Meiwan; Wang, Yitao; Lin, Ligen

    2016-04-01

    Penthorum chinense Pursh (Ganhuangcao in Chinese) is traditionally used for liver protection and treatment of liver diseases, including hepatitis B, hepatitis C and alcoholic liver damage. We and others have disclosed the hepatoprotective effect of different extracts from P. chinense. To further explore the chemical principles responsible for its liver protective effect, a bioactivity guided isolation was carried out on the water extract of P. chinense, which led to the identification of an effective fraction (E50M60). Further isolation of the E50M60 fraction produced ten polyphenols. Among them, quercetin showed the most significant protective effect on tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) induced hepatocyte damage. Further study demonstrated that both the E50M60 fraction and quercetin attenuated t-BHP induced hepatocyte apoptosis through up-regulating the expression of B-cell lymphoma-2 protein (BCL-2) and BCL-xL, and down-regulating the cleaved products of caspase-7, -9 and nuclear poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Moreover, the E50M60 fraction and quercetin promoted nuclear factor-like 2 (NRF2), superoxide dismutase-2 (SOD-2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expressions and suppressed Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (KEAP-1) expression, resulting in resistance to the reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced mitochondrial oxidative stress. Altogether, both the active fraction and quercetin from P. chinense might be well developed as a novel functional food for liver protection.

  3. Differential abscisic acid regulation of guard cell slow anion channels in Arabidopsis wild-type and abi1 and abi2 mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Z M; Kuchitsu, K; Ward, J M; Schwarz, M; Schroeder, J I

    1997-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates vital physiological responses, and a number of events in the ABA signaling cascade remain to be identified. To allow quantitative analysis of genetic signaling mutants, patch-clamp experiments were developed and performed with the previously inaccessible Arabidopsis guard cells from the wild type and ABA-insensitive (abi) mutants. Slow anion channels have been proposed to play a rate-limiting role in ABA-induced stomatal closing. We now directly demonstrate that ABA strongly activates slow anion channels in wild-type guard cells. Furthermore, ABA-induced anion channel activation and stomatal closing were suppressed by protein phosphatase inhibitors. In abi1-1 and abi2-1 mutant guard cells, ABA activation of slow anion channels and ABA-induced stomatal closing were abolished. These impairments in ABA signaling were partially rescued by kinase inhibitors in abi1 but not in abi2 guard cells. These data provide cell biological evidence that the abi2 locus disrupts early ABA signaling, that abi1 and abi2 affect ABA signaling at different steps in the cascade, and that protein kinases act as negative regulators of ABA signaling in Arabidopsis. New models for ABA signaling pathways and roles for abi1, abi2, and protein kinases and phosphatases are discussed. PMID:9090884

  4. 19 CFR 143.7 - Revocation of ABI participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Revocation of ABI participation. 143.7 Section 143.7 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) SPECIAL ENTRY PROCEDURES Automated Broker Interface § 143.7 Revocation of...

  5. 19 CFR 143.7 - Revocation of ABI participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Revocation of ABI participation. 143.7 Section 143.7 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) SPECIAL ENTRY PROCEDURES Automated Broker Interface § 143.7 Revocation of...

  6. 19 CFR 143.7 - Revocation of ABI participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Revocation of ABI participation. 143.7 Section 143.7 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) SPECIAL ENTRY PROCEDURES Automated Broker Interface § 143.7 Revocation of...

  7. 19 CFR 143.7 - Revocation of ABI participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Revocation of ABI participation. 143.7 Section 143.7 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) SPECIAL ENTRY PROCEDURES Automated Broker Interface § 143.7 Revocation of...

  8. An ABI3-interactor of conifers responds to multiple hormones.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ying; Zhao, Tiehan; Kermode, Allison

    2013-11-01

    CnAIP2 (Callitropsis nootkatensis ABI3-Interacting Protein 2) was previously identified as a protein that interacts with the yellow-cedar ABI3 protein. CnAIP2 plays important roles during several key transitions of the plant lifecycle and acts as a global regulator with functions opposite to those of ABI3 proteins. Here we report that the CnAIP2 gene promoter is strongly upregulated by all of the major plant hormones. Young Arabidopsis seedlings expressing a chimeric CnAIP2pro-GUS construct were subjected to exogenously applied hormones; the maximum fold-enhancement of GUS activity was as high as 47-fold, and each hormone showed a distinctive cell/tissue-specific pattern of GUS induction. By far the greatest response was elicited by the synthetic auxin 2,4-D (47-fold induction); the other hormones tested stimulated GUS activities by 8- to 21-fold. The CnAIP2 promoter also responded to glucose and salt (NaCl), albeit to a lesser extent (2- to 3-fold induction). As well as acting in an antagonistic way to the global regulator ABI3, CnAIP2 appears to participate in multiple hormonal crosstalk pathways to carry out its functions.

  9. An ABI3-interactor of conifers responds to multiple hormones

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Ying; Zhao, Tiehan; Kermode, Allison R.

    2013-01-01

    CnAIP2 (Callitropsis nootkatensis ABI3-Interacting Protein 2) was previously identified as a protein that interacts with the yellow-cedar ABI3 protein. CnAIP2 plays important roles during several key transitions of the plant lifecycle and acts as a global regulator with functions opposite to those of ABI3 proteins. Here we report that the CnAIP2 gene promoter is strongly upregulated by all of the major plant hormones. Young Arabidopsis seedlings expressing a chimeric CnAIP2pro-GUS construct were subjected to exogenously applied hormones; the maximum fold-enhancement of GUS activity was as high as 47-fold, and each hormone showed a distinctive cell/tissue-specific pattern of GUS induction. By far the greatest response was elicited by the synthetic auxin 2,4-D (47-fold induction); the other hormones tested stimulated GUS activities by 8- to 21-fold. The CnAIP2 promoter also responded to glucose and salt (NaCl), albeit to a lesser extent (2- to 3-fold induction). As well as acting in an antagonistic way to the global regulator ABI3, CnAIP2 appears to participate in multiple hormonal crosstalk pathways to carry out its functions. PMID:23989243

  10. The Arabidopsis CROWDED NUCLEI genes regulate seed germination by modulating degradation of ABI5 protein.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wenming; Guan, Chunmei; Feng, Jian; Liang, Yan; Zhan, Ni; Zuo, Jianru; Ren, Bo

    2016-07-01

    In Arabidopsis, the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a vital role in inhibiting seed germination and in post-germination seedling establishment. In the ABA signaling pathway, ABI5, a basic Leu zipper transcription factor, has important functions in the regulation of seed germination. ABI5 protein localizes in nuclear bodies, along with AFP, COP1, and SIZ1, and was degraded through the 26S proteasome pathway. However, the mechanisms of ABI5 nuclear body formation and ABI5 protein degradation remain obscure. In this study, we found that the Arabidopsis CROWDED NUCLEI (CRWN) proteins, predicted nuclear matrix proteins essential for maintenance of nuclear morphology, also participate in ABA-controlled seed germination by regulating the degradation of ABI5 protein. During seed germination, the crwn mutants are hypersensitive to ABA and have higher levels of ABI5 protein compared to wild type. Genetic analysis suggested that CRWNs act upstream of ABI5. The observation that CRWN3 colocalizes with ABI5 in nuclear bodies indicates that CRWNs might participate in ABI5 protein degradation in nuclear bodies. Moreover, we revealed that the extreme C-terminal of CRWN3 protein is necessary for its function in the response to ABA in germination. Our results suggested important roles of CRWNs in ABI5 nuclear body organization and ABI5 protein degradation during seed germination.

  11. The complete plastid genome sequence of Abies koreana (Pinaceae: Abietoideae).

    PubMed

    Yi, Dong-Keun; Yang, Jong Cheol; So, Soonku; Joo, Minjung; Kim, Dong-Kap; Shin, Chang Ho; Lee, You-Mi; Choi, Kyung

    2016-07-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the chloroplast genome from Abies koreana is the first to have complete genome sequence from genus Abies of family Pinaceae. The circular double-stranded DNA, which consists of 121,373 base pairs (bp), contains a pair of very short inverted repeat regions (IRa and IRb) of 264 bp each, which are separated by a small and large single-copy regions (SSC and LSC) of 54,197 and 66,648 bp, respectively. The genome contents of 114 genes (68 peptide-encoding genes, 35 tRNA genes, four rRNA genes, six open reading frames and one pseudogene) are similar to the chloroplast DNA of other species of Abietoideae. Loss of ndh genes was also identified in the genome of A. koreana like other genomes in the family Pinaceae. Thirteen genes contain one (11 genes) or two (rps12 and ycf3 genes) introns. In phylogenetic analysis, the tree confirms that Abies, Keteleeria and Cedrus are strongly supported as monophyletic. Other inverted repeat sequences located in 42-kb inversion points (1186 bp) include trnS-psaM-ycf12- ψtrnG genes.

  12. ABI3 mediates dehydration stress recovery response in Arabidopsis thaliana by regulating expression of downstream genes.

    PubMed

    Bedi, Sonia; Sengupta, Sourabh; Ray, Anagh; Nag Chaudhuri, Ronita

    2016-09-01

    ABI3, originally discovered as a seed-specific transcription factor is now implicated to act beyond seed physiology, especially during abiotic stress. In non-seed plants, ABI3 is known to act in desiccation stress signaling. Here we show that ABI3 plays a role in dehydration stress response in Arabidopsis. ABI3 gene was upregulated during dehydration stress and its expression was maintained during subsequent stress recovery phases. Comparative gene expression studies in response to dehydration stress and stress recovery were done with genes which had potential ABI3 binding sites in their upstream regulatory regions. Such studies showed that several genes including known seed-specific factors like CRUCIFERIN1, CRUCIFERIN3 and LEA-group of genes like LEA76, LEA6, DEHYDRIN LEA and LEA-LIKE got upregulated in an ABI3-dependent manner, especially during the stress recovery phase. ABI3 got recruited to regions upstream to the transcription start site of these genes during dehydration stress response through direct or indirect DNA binding. Interestingly, ABI3 also binds to its own promoter region during such stress signaling. Nucleosomes covering potential ABI3 binding sites in the upstream sequences of the above-mentioned genes alter positions, and show increased H3 K9 acetylation during stress-induced transcription. ABI3 thus mediates dehydration stress signaling in Arabidopsis through regulation of a group of genes that play a role primarily during stress recovery phase.

  13. Arabidopsis SAG protein containing the MDN1 domain participates in seed germination and seedling development by negatively regulating ABI3 and ABI5.

    PubMed

    Chen, Changtian; Wu, Changai; Miao, Jiaming; Lei, Yunxue; Zhao, Dongxiao; Sun, Dan; Yang, Guodong; Huang, Jinguang; Zheng, Chengchao

    2014-01-01

    Three proteins containing a midasin homologue 1 (MDN1) domain from the yeast Solanum chacoense and Arabidopsis thaliana have important functions in yeast survival, seed development, and female gametogenesis. In this study, a novel protein containing the MDN1 domain from Arabidopsis negatively regulated abscisic acid (ABA) signalling during seed germination. Seeds of a T-DNA insertion line of this gene exhibited increased sensitivity to ABA during seed germination and seedling development (named sag). By contrast, seeds with overexpressed AtSAG (OX2) were less sensitive to ABA. The seeds of the sag mutant showed similar sensitivity to high concentrations of mannitol and NaCl during these stages. AtSAG was also highly expressed in germinating seeds. However, ABA-induced AtSAG expression remained almost unchanged. ABA-responsive marker genes, including ABI3, ABI5, Em1, Em6, RD29A, and RAB18, were upregulated in sag mutants but were downregulated in OX2. Genetic analyses indicated that the function of AtSAG in ABA signalling depended on ABI3 and ABI5. The expression of some target genes of ABI3 and ABI5, such as seed storage protein and oleosin genes, was induced higher by ABA in sag mutants than in wild-type germinated seeds, even higher than in abi5 mutants. This finding indicated that other regulators similar to ABI3 or ABI5 played a role during these stages. Taken together, these results indicate that AtSAG is an important negative regulator of ABA signalling during seed germination and seedling development.

  14. Terpenoids with anti-inflammatory activity from Abies chensiensis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qian-Qian; Wang, Shu-Fang; Li, Ya; Song, Qiu-Yan; Gao, Kun

    2016-06-01

    The phytochemical investigation of Abies chensiensis led to the isolation and identification of nine new compounds including eight triterpenoids (1-8) and a new abietane-type diterpene (9), along with three known compounds (10-12). The absolute configuration of 9 was assigned by X-ray diffraction analysis. Compounds 1-11 were evaluated for the anti-inflammatory activity. Among the tested compounds, 1, 2, 5 and 6 exhibited potent inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 15.97, 18.73, 20.18 and 10.97μM, respectively.

  15. Legionella pneumophila serogroup Lansing 3 isolated from a patient with fatal pneumonia, and descriptions of L. pneumophila subsp. pneumophila subsp. nov., L. pneumophila subsp. fraseri subsp. nov., and L. pneumophila subsp. pascullei subsp. nov.

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, D J; Steigerwalt, A G; Epple, P; Bibb, W F; McKinney, R M; Starnes, R W; Colville, J M; Selander, R K; Edelstein, P H; Moss, C W

    1988-01-01

    Previous DNA relatedness and enzyme electrophoretic mobility studies indicated heterogeneity among strains of Legionella pneumophila serogroups 1, 4, 5, and Lansing 3 (a new, as yet unnumbered serogroup). In this study 60 L. pneumophila strains were studied by DNA hybridization (hydroxyapatite method) to assess their genomic relatedness. These strains were also studied biochemically and serologically to determine whether they formed one or more phenotypic groups. DNA relatedness studies identified three groups. DNA group 1 contained the type strain Philadelphia 1 and strains from serogroups 1 through 14 of L. pneumophila. The average relatedness of DNA group 1 strains was 88% at 60 degrees C with 1.1% divergence in related sequences and 85% at 75 degrees C. DNA group 2 contained strain Los Angeles 1, the reference strain of serogroup 4, and strains of serogroups 1, 4, 5, and Lansing 3, an unnumbered serogroup. Average relatedness of DNA group 2 strains was 84% at 60 degrees C with 0.7% divergence and 87% at 75 degrees C. Reciprocal relatedness of DNA groups 1 and 2 was approximately 67% at 60 degrees C with 6.0% divergence and 48% at 75 degrees C. DNA group 3 strains were in serogroup 5. They were 98% related at 60 degrees C with 0.5% divergence and 97% related at 75 degrees C. Reciprocal relatedness of DNA group 3 and DNA group 1 was approximately 74% at 60 degrees C with 5.3% divergence and 43% at 75 degrees C, and reciprocal relatedness of DNA groups 3 and 2 was 66% at 60 degrees C with 5.7% divergence and 55% at 75 degrees C. The DNA groups could not be separated biochemically or serologically or by cell wall fatty acid and isoprenoid quinone composition. Three subspecies of L. pneumophila are proposed to accommodate the three DNA groups: L. pneumophila subsp. pneumophila subsp. nov. for DNA group 1, L. pneumophila subsp. fraseri subsp. nov. for DNA group 2, and pneumophila subsp. pascullei subsp. nov. for DNA group 3. PMID:3053773

  16. Molecular cloning in Arabidopsis thaliana of a new protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) with homology to ABI1 and ABI2.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, P L; Leube, M P; Grill, E

    1998-11-01

    We report the cloning of both the cDNA and the corresponding genomic sequence of a new PP2C from Arabidopsis thaliana, named AtP2C-HA (for homology to ABI1/ABI2). The AtP2C-HA cDNA contains an open reading frame of 1536 bp and encodes a putative protein of 511 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 55.7 kDa. The AtP2C-HA protein is composed of two domains, a C-terminal PP2C catalytic domain and a N-terminal extension of ca. 180 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence is 55% and 54% identical to ABI1 and ABI2, respectively. Comparison of the genomic structure of the ABI1, ABI2 and AtP2C-HA genes suggests that they belong to a multigene family. The expression of the AtP2C-HA gene is up-regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) treatment.

  17. Abscisic Acid Antagonizes Ethylene Production through the ABI4-Mediated Transcriptional Repression of ACS4 and ACS8 in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhijun; Yu, Yanwen; Li, Shenghui; Wang, Juan; Tang, Saijun; Huang, Rongfeng

    2016-01-04

    Increasing evidence has revealed that abscisic acid (ABA) negatively modulates ethylene biosynthesis, although the underlying mechanism remains unclear. To identify the factors involved, we conducted a screen for ABA-insensitive mutants with altered ethylene production in Arabidopsis. A dominant allele of ABI4, abi4-152, which produces a putative protein with a 16-amino-acid truncation at the C-terminus of ABI4, reduces ethylene production. By contrast, two recessive knockout alleles of ABI4, abi4-102 and abi4-103, result in increased ethylene evolution, indicating that ABI4 negatively regulates ethylene production. Further analyses showed that expression of the ethylene biosynthesis genes ACS4, ACS8, and ACO2 was significantly decreased in abi4-152 but increased in the knockout mutants, with partial dependence on ABA. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative PCR assays showed that ABI4 directly binds the promoters of these ethylene biosynthesis genes and that ABA enhances this interaction. A fusion protein containing the truncated ABI4-152 peptide accumulated to higher levels than its full-length counterpart in transgenic plants, suggesting that ABI4 is destabilized by its C terminus. Therefore, our results demonstrate that ABA negatively regulates ethylene production through ABI4-mediated transcriptional repression of the ethylene biosynthesis genes ACS4 and ACS8 in Arabidopsis.

  18. Landsat-ABI (L-ABI) Enables 8-day Revisits and Increased Science Content with a Single Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woody, L. M.; Griffith, P. C.; Wirth, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    In addition to the on-going uses of Landsat data for land use and land cover change assessment, crop monitoring, ecosystem evaluation, and water use mapping, the increasing number of severe environmental events (storms, droughts, floods, and fires) has intensified the demand for land imaging data. Users desire more data and, more importantly, more frequent data to better understand the trends and impacts of these extreme events. Additionally, the Sustainable Land Imaging (SLI) thrust faces the difficult task of providing continuity of measurements in a strict budget-constrained environment. To that end, the desire is to reduce the size, mass, and - most importantly - cost of future US land imaging capability, without impacting the continuity of the SLI data with past Landsat archives. During our exploration of possible alternatives for future Landsat missions, we re-opened the trade space to include scanned options. The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) has been delivered to NASA/NOAA for flight on GOES-R, and additional models are in fabrication for various customers. Adapting this in-production instrument to flight at low-Earth orbit is relatively straightforward, and leads to a simple, high-heritage (low-risk) concept for a full-spectrum Landsat instrument that would meet virtually all of the Landsat 8 Reference Performance Parameters at significantly lower cost than the Landsat-8 (LDCM) payload. It would also be smaller than the L-8 payload, about half the mass, and require lower power. In addition, it could offer the option for spectral enhancement of Landsat through additional LWIR and/or MWIR bands. Finally, the L-ABI can offer larger swath coverage, driving the SLI system towards the desired 8-day repeat coverage.

  19. Genome-Wide Analysis of the bZIP Gene Family Identifies Two ABI5-Like bZIP Transcription Factors, BrABI5a and BrABI5b, as Positive Modulators of ABA Signalling in Chinese Cabbage

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaochen; Sun, Congcong; Li, Yanlin; Wang, Dandan; Wang, Qinhu; Pei, Guoliang; Zhang, Yanfeng; Guo, Aiguang; Zhao, Huixian; Lu, Haibin; Mu, Xiaoqian; Hu, Jingjiang; Zhou, Xiaona; Xie, Chang Gen

    2016-01-01

    bZIP (basic leucine zipper) transcription factors coordinate plant growth and development and control responses to environmental stimuli. The genome of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa) encodes 136 putative bZIP transcription factors. The bZIP transcription factors in Brassica rapa (BrbZIP) are classified into 10 subfamilies. Phylogenetic relationship analysis reveals that subfamily A consists of 23 BrbZIPs. Two BrbZIPs within subfamily A, Bra005287 and Bra017251, display high similarity to ABI5 (ABA Insensitive 5). Expression of subfamily A BrbZIPs, like BrABI5a (Bra005287/BrbZIP14) and BrABI5b (Bra017251/BrbZIP13), are significantly induced by the plant hormone ABA. Subcellular localization assay reveal that both BrABI5a and BrABI5b have a nuclear localization. BrABI5a and BrABI5b could directly stimulate ABA Responsive Element-driven HIS (a HIS3 reporter gene, which confers His prototrophy) or LUC (LUCIFERASE) expression in yeast and Arabidopsis protoplast. Deletion of the bZIP motif abolished BrABI5a and BrABI5b transcriptional activity. The ABA insensitive phenotype of Arabidopsis abi5-1 is completely suppressed in transgenic lines expressing BrABI5a or BrABI5b. Overall, these results suggest that ABI5 orthologs, BrABI5a and BrABI5b, have key roles in ABA signalling in Chinese cabbage. PMID:27414644

  20. “Related to ABA-Insensitive3(ABI3)/Viviparous1 and AtABI5 transcription factor co-expression in cotton enhances drought stress adaptation”

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Amandeep; Gampala, Srinivas S. L.; Ritchie, Glen L.; Payton, Paxton; Burke, John J.; Rock, Christopher D.

    2014-01-01

    Drought tolerance is an important trait being pursued by the agbiotech industry. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a stress hormone that mediates a multitude of processes in growth and development, water use efficiency (WUE), and gene expression during seed development and in response to environmental stresses. Arabidopsis B3-domain transcription factor Related to ABA-Insensitive3 (ABI3)/Viviparous1 (namely, AtRAV2) and basic leucine zipper (bZIPs) AtABI5 or AtABF3 transactivated ABA- inducible promoter: GUS reporter expression in a maize mesophyll protoplast transient assay and showed synergies in reporter transactivation when co-expressed. Transgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) expressing AtRAV1/2 and/or AtABI5 showed resistance to imposed drought stress under field and greenhouse conditions and exhibited improved photosynthetic and WUEs associated with absorption through larger root system and greater leaf area. We observed synergy for root biomass accumulation in the greenhouse, intrinsic WUE in the field, and drought tolerance in stacked AtRAV and AtABI5 double-transgenic cotton. We assessed AtABI5 and AtRAV1/2 involvement in drought stress adaptations though reactive oxygen species scavenging and osmotic adjustment by marker gene expression in cotton. Deficit irrigation-grown AtRAV1/2 and AtABI5 transgenics had “less stressed” molecular and physiological phenotypes under drought, likely due to improved photoassimilation and root and shoot sink strengths and enhanced expression of endogenous GhRAV and genes for antioxidant and osmolyte biosynthesis. Over-expression of bZIP and RAV TFs could impact sustainable cotton agriculture and potentially other crops under limited irrigation conditions. PMID:24483851

  1. The Arabidopsis DELAY OF GERMINATION 1 gene affects ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 5 (ABI5) expression and genetically interacts with ABI3 during Arabidopsis seed development.

    PubMed

    Dekkers, Bas J W; He, Hanzi; Hanson, Johannes; Willems, Leo A J; Jamar, Diaan C L; Cueff, Gwendal; Rajjou, Loïc; Hilhorst, Henk W M; Bentsink, Leónie

    2016-02-01

    The seed expressed gene DELAY OF GERMINATION (DOG) 1 is absolutely required for the induction of dormancy. Next to a non-dormant phenotype, the dog1-1 mutant is also characterized by a reduced seed longevity suggesting that DOG1 may affect additional seed processes as well. This aspect however, has been hardly studied and is poorly understood. To uncover additional roles of DOG1 in seeds we performed a detailed analysis of the dog1 mutant using both transcriptomics and metabolomics to investigate the molecular consequences of a dysfunctional DOG1 gene. Further, we used a genetic approach taking advantage of the weak aba insensitive (abi) 3-1 allele as a sensitized genetic background in a cross with dog1-1. DOG1 affects the expression of hundreds of genes including LATE EMBRYOGENESIS ABUNDANT and HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN genes which are affected by DOG1 partly via control of ABI5 expression. Furthermore, the content of a subset of primary metabolites, which normally accumulate during seed maturation, was found to be affected in the dog1-1 mutant. Surprisingly, the abi3-1 dog1-1 double mutant produced green seeds which are highly ABA insensitive, phenocopying severe abi3 mutants, indicating that dog1-1 acts as an enhancer of the weak abi3-1 allele and thus revealing a genetic interaction between both genes. Analysis of the dog1 and dog1 abi3 mutants revealed additional seed phenotypes and therefore we hypothesize that DOG1 function is not limited to dormancy but that it is required for multiple aspects of seed maturation, in part by interfering with ABA signalling components.

  2. Hydrogen peroxide is a regulator of ABI1, a protein phosphatase 2C from Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Meinhard, M; Grill, E

    2001-11-23

    Protein phosphatases 2C (PP2Cs) exhibit diverse regulatory functions in signalling pathways of animals, yeast and plants. ABI1 is a PP2C of Arabidopsis that exerts negative control on signalling of the phytohormone abscissic acid (ABA). Characterisation of the redox sensitivity of ABI1 revealed a strong enzymatic inactivation by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) which has recently been implicated as a secondary messenger of ABA signalling. H2O2 reversibly inhibited ABI1 activity in vitro with an IC(50) of approximately 140 microM in the presence of physiological concentrations of glutathione. In addition, ABI1 was highly susceptible to inactivation by phenylarsine oxide (IC(50)=3-4 microM) indicative for the facile oxidation of vicinal cysteine residues. Thus, H2O2 generated during ABA signalling seems to inactivate the negative regulator of the ABA response.

  3. Aluminum biogeochemistry in a subalpine Abies amabilis ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlgren, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Aluminum biogeochemistry was examined in a naturally acidic subalpine ecosystem in the Washington Cascade Mountains. This ecosystem has a vegetative community consisting of Abies amabilis while the soil-forming processes are dominated by podzolization. Due to the potentially harmful biogeochemical link between Al and toxicity to vegetation, aquatic species and man, the factors regulating Al concentrations and mobility were studied. Toxicity and mobility are both related to the ligand to which Al is complexed. Therefore, Al fractionation was performed on soil solutions to differentiate organically bound and inorganic species. Vegetative and soil pools of Al and aluminum fluxes between pools were determined by simultaneous quantification of ecosystem waterflows, litterfall and vegetative uptake. Based on these results, a conceptual model was developed to integrate the hydrologic cycle, vegetation, and soil-forming processes. This model was employed to elucidate mechanisms involved in the process of podzolization and for predicting the effects of natural and man-induced perturbations. Soluble Al in the rooting zone occurs primarily as organically bound complexes, which are considered nontoxic.

  4. [Plants associated to Abies guatemalensis (Pinaceae) forests in Western Guatemala].

    PubMed

    Arévalo, José Vicente Martínez

    2013-03-01

    The fragments of Abies guatemalensis forests in Western Guatemala are the reservoirs of plant species that have been poorly documented, missing the opportunity to expand the knowledge of the local flora and its use in conservation planning. To assess this, a floristic study was done in areas between 2 950-3 360masl in Western Guatemala between 2010-2011. Ten locations were sampled: in each a 500m2 plot was surveyed, and plants were classified in four strata by plant height (0.05-30m). A total of 119 species, 92 genera and 50 families in four divisions were found. The families with more species were Asteraceae, Poaceae, Rosaceae, Lamiaceae, Apiaceae and Solanaceae, and the most abundant genera were Salvia, Alchemilla and Bidens. The number of species found by strata was: 33 (low herbaceous), 49 (high herbaceous), 30 (shrubs) and seven in the tree strata. Regarding geographical distribution, the biggest species group detected was from central Mexico to Central America with 67%, which compared to the forests of A. guatemalensis in central and Southern Mexico, showed high floristic affinity, especially at the family and genus level. However, even having families and genera in common in the general structure of the fir forests, their floristic particularities should be taken into account when making management and conservation plans, because these are influenced by soil, latitude and microclimate conditions.

  5. Wood formation in Abies balsamea seedlings subjected to artificial defoliation.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Sergio; Simard, Sonia; Deslauriers, Annie; Morin, Hubert

    2009-04-01

    We determined the cambial sensitivity and quantified the anatomical differences in xylem of Abies balsamea (L.) Mill. seedlings subjected to artificial defoliation to simulate spruce budworm feeding. Defoliation was performed by removing two-thirds of needles of all current-year shoots for up to four consecutive growth cycles to account for inter- and intra-annual xylem formation. In Experiment 1, xylem development was studied from May to October 2005 in seedlings defoliated at the end of June. In Experiment 2, anatomical features of the xylem were measured along the tree rings formed in 2005 and 2006 during the four cycles of growth and defoliation. Control and defoliated seedlings showed similar patterns of cambial activity and timing of xylem differentiation, although fewer enlarging cells were observed in August to September in defoliated seedlings. Tree-ring widths were similar in control and defoliated seedlings, with thinner rings produced in the greenhouse in winter. No effect of defoliation on cell lumen area was observed, and effects on radial cell diameter and wall thickness were found only occasionally. The results indicate that the A. balsamea seedlings produced all the resources required to maintain stem growth during the four cycles of defoliation.

  6. The abi proteins and their involvement in bacteriocin self-immunity.

    PubMed

    Kjos, Morten; Snipen, Lars; Salehian, Zhian; Nes, Ingolf F; Diep, Dzung B

    2010-04-01

    The Abi protein family consists of putative membrane-bound metalloproteases. While they are involved in membrane anchoring of proteins in eukaryotes, little is known about their function in prokaryotes. In some known bacteriocin loci, Abi genes have been found downstream of bacteriocin structural genes (e.g., pln locus from Lactobacillus plantarum and sag locus from Streptococcus pyogenes), where they probably are involved in self-immunity. By modifying the profile hidden Markov model used to select Abi proteins in the Pfam protein family database, we show that this family is larger than presently recognized. Using bacteriocin-associated Abi genes as a means to search for novel bacteriocins in sequenced genomes, seven new bacteriocin-like loci were identified in Gram-positive bacteria. One such locus, from Lactobacillus sakei 23K, was selected for further experimental study, and it was confirmed that the bacteriocin-like genes (skkAB) exhibited antimicrobial activity when expressed in a heterologous host and that the associated Abi gene (skkI) conferred immunity against the cognate bacteriocin. Similar investigation of the Abi gene plnI and the Abi-like gene plnL from L. plantarum also confirmed their involvement in immunity to their cognate bacteriocins (PlnEF and PlnJK, respectively). Interestingly, the immunity genes from these three systems conferred a high degree of cross-immunity against each other's bacteriocins, suggesting the recognition of a common receptor. Site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated that the conserved motifs constituting the putative proteolytic active site of the Abi proteins are essential for the immunity function of SkkI, and to our knowledge, this represents a new concept in self-immunity.

  7. The response of male and female black poplar (Populus nigra L. subspecies betulifolia (Pursh) W. Wettst.) cuttings to different water table depths and sediment types: implications for flow management and river corridor biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Francine M. R.; Barsoum, Nadia; Richards, Keith S.; Winfield, Mark; Hayes, Adrian

    2000-10-01

    Management of river flows has altered the pattern of flood arrival times and reduced their frequency and duration on many European floodplains. Floodplain tree species depend on floods both to provide new sites for their regeneration and to recharge water tables at various depths in the rooting zone. A reduction in floods is one factor that has led to loss of river corridor biodiversity, with early successional tree species from the Salicaceae being particularly adversely affected. Members of the Salicaceae are dioecious and it is possible that the males and females of these species have measurably different water table requirements, which might lead to spatial segregation of the sexes on a floodplain. This paper describes an investigation that was carried out into the response of male and female black poplar (Populus nigra L. subspecies betulifolia (Pursh) W. Wettst.) to different soil moisture conditions. An experiment was set up on an alluvial island in the River Great Ouse (UK) in which cuttings of male and female black poplar were grown in different sediment types with different water table levels. The experiment was carried out over two field seasons in 1997 and 1998. Results showed that females tended to prefer wetter and more nutrient-rich sites than males but that there was considerable overlap in their requirements. A complementary genetic study showed very little genetic variation in the experimental population, which may also partially explain the relatively low level of variation between the two sexes found in the study. It is suggested that some limited spatial segregation of the sexes does occur in response to soil moisture availability and that river flow management which aims to maintain or increase river corridor biodiversity may need to take this into account.

  8. A Novel RNA-Binding Protein Involves ABA Signaling by Post-transcriptionally Repressing ABI2

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jianwen; Chen, Yihan; Qian, Luofeng; Mu, Rong; Yuan, Xi; Fang, Huimin; Huang, Xi; Xu, Enshun; Zhang, Hongsheng; Huang, Ji

    2017-01-01

    The Stress Associated RNA-binding protein 1 (SRP1) repressed by ABA, salt and cold encodes a C2C2-type zinc finger protein in Arabidopsis. The knock-out mutation in srp1 reduced the sensitivity of seed to ABA and salt stress during germination and post-germinative growth stages. In contrast, SRP1-overexpressing seedlings were more sensitive to ABA and salt compared to wild type plants. In the presence of ABA, the transcript levels of ABA signaling and germination-related genes including ABI3. ABI5. EM1 and EM6 were less induced in srp1 compared to WT. Interestingly, expression of ABI2 encoding a protein phosphatase 2C protein were significantly up-regulated in srp1 mutants. By in vitro analysis, SRP1 was identified as a novel RNA-binding protein directly binding to 3′UTR of ABI2 mRNA. Moreover, transient expression assay proved the function of SRP1 in reducing the activity of luciferase whose coding sequence was fused with the ABI2 3’UTR. Together, it is suggested that SRP1 is involved in the ABA signaling by post-transcriptionally repressing ABI2 expression in Arabidopsis. PMID:28174577

  9. S-nitrosylation triggers ABI5 degradation to promote seed germination and seedling growth

    PubMed Central

    Albertos, Pablo; Romero-Puertas, María C.; Tatematsu, Kiyoshi; Mateos, Isabel; Sánchez-Vicente, Inmaculada; Nambara, Eiji; Lorenzo, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Plant survival depends on seed germination and progression through post-germinative developmental checkpoints. These processes are controlled by the stress phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). ABA regulates the basic leucine zipper transcriptional factor ABI5, a central hub of growth repression, while the reactive nitrogen molecule nitric oxide (NO) counteracts ABA during seed germination. However, the molecular mechanisms by which seeds sense more favourable conditions and start germinating have remained elusive. Here we show that ABI5 promotes growth via NO, and that ABI5 accumulation is altered in genetic backgrounds with impaired NO homeostasis. S-nitrosylation of ABI5 at cysteine-153 facilitates its degradation through CULLIN4-based and KEEP ON GOING E3 ligases, and promotes seed germination. Conversely, mutation of ABI5 at cysteine-153 deregulates protein stability and inhibition of seed germination by NO depletion. These findings suggest an inverse molecular link between NO and ABA hormone signalling through distinct posttranslational modifications of ABI5 during early seedling development. PMID:26493030

  10. Perspectives on evidence based practice in ABI rehabilitation. "Relevant Research": who decides?

    PubMed

    Wiseman-Hakes, Catherine; MacDonald, Sheila; Keightley, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that acquired brain injury (ABI) rehabilitation and research should be guided by a philosophy that focuses on: restoration, compensation, function and participation in all aspects of daily life. Such a broad, more pluralistic approach influences ABI rehabilitation research at a number of levels, including both the generation of evidence, and in searching for, critiquing and applying the evidence to practice. The objective of evidence based medicine/practice (EBM/EBP) is to apply and integrate clinical expertise with evidence gained through systematic research and scientific inquiry to medical/clinical practice. While there is abundant literature debating the practical and sociological implications of EBP, there has been limited examination of EBP within the inherently complex nature of ABI rehabilitation and rehabilitation research. This paper provides a framework for clinical decision making regarding evidence based practice in the context of ABI rehab including: 1. A discussion of the purpose of evidence based practice, 2. Levels of evidence relevant to ABI rehabilitation research, and 3. A rationale for incorporating a broader, more pluralistic concept of evidence or "person-centred EBP". We conclude with a series of key questions for the evaluation and application of systematic reviews of the evidence in the context of ABI rehabilitation.

  11. Ankle-brachial index (ABI), abdominal aortic calcification (AAC), and coronary artery calcification (CAC): the Jackson heart study.

    PubMed

    Tullos, Bobby W; Sung, Jung Hye; Lee, Jae Eun; Criqui, Michael H; Mitchell, Marc E; Taylor, Herman A

    2013-04-01

    To examine the associations of peripheral atherosclerosis, assessed by the ABI at baseline with the extent of AAC and with CAC measured by MDCT at follow-up examination in the Jackson Heart Study cohort. Four categories of ABI: <0.90, 0.90-0.99, 1.00-1.39; >1.40. Presence of CAC/AAC was defined as scoring above the 75th percentile among participants with non-zero CT calcium scores. We conducted multivariable log-binomial models for this analysis examining the relationship between ABI and the presence of CAC or AAC using normal ABI (1.0 ≤ ABI ≤ 1.39) as the reference group. We estimated prevalence ratios adjusted for age, smoking, HTN, DM, BMI, LDL, HDL, CRP, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and use of lipid-lowering medication. There were 2,398 patients in this analysis (women: 65 %, average age 55 years). AAC scores were not significantly different between sex. CAC scores were significantly higher in males than females regardless of ABI groups. The prevalence of significant AAC was 1.7 times higher for ABI < 0.90 (PR = 1.70; 95 % CI = 1.26-2.28; p = 0.0004) and 1.57 times higher for ABI 0.90-0.99 (PR = 1.57; 95 % CI = 1.20-2.03; p = 0.0008) than the normal ABI; AAC prevalence did not differ between subjects with ABI > 1.40 compared to those with normal ABI. The prevalence of the significant CAC was higher for ABI < 0.90 (PR = 1.55; 95 % CI = 1.12-2.14; p value = 0.0081) and ABI 0.90-0.99 (PR = 1.60; 95 % CI = 1.05-2.46; p = 0.0402) compared to normal ABI; CAC prevalence did not differ between subjects with ABI > 1.40 compared to those with normal ABI. Lower ABI was significantly associated with the extent of AAC and CAC in this cohort. ABI can provide clinicians with an inexpensive additional tool to assess vascular health and cardiovascular risk without exposing the patient to ionizing radiation.

  12. The Role and Regulation of ABI5 (ABA-Insensitive 5) in Plant Development, Abiotic Stress Responses and Phytohormone Crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Skubacz, Anna; Daszkowska-Golec, Agata; Szarejko, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    ABA Insensitive 5 (ABI5) is a basic leucine zipper transcription factor that plays a key role in the regulation of seed germination and early seedling growth in the presence of ABA and abiotic stresses. ABI5 functions in the core ABA signaling, which is composed of PYR/PYL/RCAR receptors, PP2C phosphatases and SnRK2 kinases, through the regulation of the expression of genes that contain the ABSCISIC ACID RESPONSE ELEMENT (ABRE) motif within their promoter region. The regulated targets include stress adaptation genes, e.g., LEA proteins. However, the expression and activation of ABI5 is not only dependent on the core ABA signaling. Many transcription factors such as ABI3, ABI4, MYB7 and WRKYs play either a positive or a negative role in the regulation of ABI5 expression. Additionally, the stability and activity of ABI5 are also regulated by other proteins through post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation, ubiquitination, sumoylation and S-nitrosylation. Moreover, ABI5 also acts as an ABA and other phytohormone signaling integrator. Components of auxin, cytokinin, gibberellic acid, jasmonate and brassinosteroid signaling and metabolism pathways were shown to take part in ABI5 regulation and/or to be regulated by ABI5. Monocot orthologs of AtABI5 have been identified. Although their roles in the molecular and physiological adaptations during abiotic stress have been elucidated, knowledge about their detailed action still remains elusive. Here, we describe the recent advances in understanding the action of ABI5 in early developmental processes and the adaptation of plants to unfavorable environmental conditions. We also focus on ABI5 relation to other phytohormones in the abiotic stress response of plants. PMID:28018412

  13. Embolism formation during freezing in the wood of Picea abies.

    PubMed

    Mayr, Stefan; Cochard, Hervé; Améglio, Thierry; Kikuta, Silvia B

    2007-01-01

    Freeze-thaw events can cause embolism in plant xylem. According to classical theory, gas bubbles are formed during freezing and expand during thawing. Conifers have proved to be very resistant to freeze-thaw induced embolism, because bubbles in tracheids are small and redissolve during thawing. In contrast, increasing embolism rates upon consecutive freeze-thaw events were observed that cannot be explained by the classical mechanism. In this study, embolism formation during freeze-thaw events was analyzed via ultrasonic and Cryo-scanning electron microscope techniques. Twigs of Picea abies L. Karst. were subjected to up to 120 freeze-thaw cycles during which ultrasonic acoustic emissions, xylem temperature, and diameter variations were registered. In addition, the extent and cross-sectional pattern of embolism were analyzed with staining experiments and Cryo-scanning electron microscope observations. Embolism increased with the number of freeze-thaw events in twigs previously dehydrated to a water potential of -2.8 MPa. In these twigs, acoustic emissions were registered, while saturated twigs showed low, and totally dehydrated twigs showed no, acoustic activity. Acoustic emissions were detected only during the freezing process. This means that embolism was formed during freezing, which is in contradiction to the classical theory of freeze-thaw induced embolism. The clustered pattern of embolized tracheids in cross sections indicates that air spread from a dysfunctional tracheid to adjacent functional ones. We hypothesize that the low water potential of the growing ice front led to a decrease of the potential in nearby tracheids. This may result in freezing-induced air seeding.

  14. Phylogeography of SW Mediterranean firs: different European origins for the North African Abies species.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Robles, Jose M; Balao, Francisco; Terrab, Anass; García-Castaño, Juan L; Ortiz, María A; Vela, Errol; Talavera, Salvador

    2014-10-01

    The current distribution of Western Mediterranean Abies species is a result of complex geodynamic processes and climatic oscillations that occurred in the past. Abies sect. Piceaster offers a good study model to explore how geo-climatic oscillations might have influenced its expansion and diversification on both sides of the W Mediterranean basin. We investigated the genetic variation within and among nine populations from five Abies species by molecular markers with high and low mutation rates and contrasting inheritance (AFLP and cpSSR). Analyses revealed the opening of the Strait of Gibraltar as an effective barrier against gene flow between the Southern Iberian (A. pinsapo) and North African (A. marocana and A. tazaotana) firs. The A. pinsapo populations in Spain and likewise those of the A. marocana - A. tazaotana population complex were not differentiated, and no evidence was found to distinguish A. tazaotana at the species level. Diversification of Abies across North Africa could occur by way of at least two vicariant events from Europe, in the west, giving rise to the A. marocana - A. tazaotana complex, and in the east, giving A. numidica. Secondary contacts among species from Abies sect. Piceaster (A. pinsapo and A. numidica), and with A. alba (Abies sect. Abies) are also indicated. However, there is a closer relationship between the Algerian fir (A. numidica) and the North Mediterranean widespread A. alba, than with the Moroccan firs (A. marocana and A. tazaotana) or the Southern Iberian (A. pinsapo). We also discuss the distribution range of these taxa in its paleogeological and paleoclimatic context, and propose that part of the modern geography of the South-Western Mediterranean firs might be traced back to the Tertiary.

  15. WRKY41 controls Arabidopsis seed dormancy via direct regulation of ABI3 transcript levels not downstream of ABA.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhong Jie; Yan, Jing Ying; Li, Gui Xin; Wu, Zhong Chang; Zhang, Shu Qun; Zheng, Shao Jian

    2014-09-01

    Although seed dormancy is an important agronomic trait, its molecular basis is poorly understood. ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3) plays an essential role in the establishment of seed dormancy. Here, we show that the lack of a seed-expressed WRKY transcription factor, WRKY41, confers reduced primary seed dormancy and thermoinhibition, phenotypes resembling those for a lack of ABI3. Loss-of-function abi3-17 and wrky41 alleles also both confer reduced sensitivity to ABA during germination and early seedling growth. Absence of WRKY41 decreases ABI3 transcript abundance in maturing and imbibed seeds, whereas transgenically overexpressing WRKY41 increases ABI3 expression. Moreover, transgenic overexpression of ABI3 completely restores seed dormancy phenotypes on wrky41. ChIP-qPCR and EMSA reveal that WRKY41 binds directly to the ABI3 promoter through three adjacent W-boxes, and a transactivation assay indicates that these W-boxes are essential for ABI3 expression. Whilst RT-qPCR analysis shows that the regulation of ABI3 by WRKY41 is not through ABA and other factors known to promote ABI3 transcription during seed maturation and germination, we also show that high concentrations of ABA might promote negative feedback regulation of WRKY41 expression. Finally, analysis of the wrky41 aba2 double mutant confirms that WRKY41 and ABA collaboratively regulate ABI3 expression and seed dormancy. In summary, our results demonstrate that WRKY41 is an important regulator of ABI3 expression, and hence of seed dormancy.

  16. Screening of Methanol Extract and Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Abies webbiana Lindl. for Neuropharmacological Activities

    PubMed Central

    Parkash, O.; Kumar, D.; Kumar, S.

    2015-01-01

    Despite a long traditional of use of Abies webbiana Lindl. (Talispatra; family-Pinaceae) in the treatment of mental disorders, the plant has not been investigated systematically to validate its traditional claims. Thus, the present investigation was undertaken with an objective to investigate neuropharmacological activities of methanol extract of Abies webbiana aerial parts and its ethyl acetate fraction. Properly identified aerial parts were defatted with petroleum ether and then extracted with methanol in a Soxhlet apparatus. Ethyl acetate fraction was prepared by partitioning methanol extract with ethyl acetate using standard procedure. In acute toxicity study, no mortality was observed in animals after oral administration of 2 g/kg dose of methanol extract. The methanol extract (200 or 400 mg/kg, p.o.) and ethyl acetate fraction (25 or 50 mg/kg, p.o.) were evaluated for antianxiety, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, sedative, antistress and analgesic activities using well established models. The methanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction of Abies webbiana aerial parts exhibited significant antianxiety, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, sedative, antistress and analgesic activities with respect to control. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed presence of flavonoids in bioactive ethyl acetate fraction of Abies webbiana aerial parts. It is finally concluded that flavonoids are the bioactive constituents responsible for most of neuropharmacological activities of Abies webbiana. PMID:26798167

  17. An Abbreviated Impulsiveness Scale (ABIS) Constructed through Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the BIS-11

    PubMed Central

    Coutlee, Christopher G.; Politzer, Cary S.; Hoyle, Rick H.; Huettel, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Impulsiveness is a personality trait that reflects an urge to act spontaneously, without thinking or planning ahead for the consequences of your actions. High impulsiveness is characteristic of a variety of problematic behaviors including attention deficit disorder, hyperactivity, excessive gambling, risk-taking, drug use, and alcoholism. Researchers studying attention and self-control often assess impulsiveness using personality questionnaires, notably the common Barratt Impulsiveness Scale version 11 (BIS-11; last revised in 1995). Advances in techniques for producing personality questionnaires over the last 20 years prompted us to revise and improve the BIS-11. We sought to make the revised scale shorter – so that it would be quicker to administer – and better matched to current behaviors. We analyzed responses from 1549 adults who took the BIS-11 questionnaire. Using a statistical technique called factor analysis, we eliminated 17 questions that did a poor job of measuring the three major types of impulsiveness identified by the scale: inattention, spontaneous action, and lack of planning. We constructed our ABbreviated Impulsiveness Scale (ABIS) using the remaining 13 questions. We showed that the ABIS performed well when administered to additional groups of 657 and 285 adults. Finally, we showed expected relationships between the ABIS and other personality measurements related to impulsiveness, and showed that the ABIS can help predict alcohol consumption. We present the ABIS as a useful and efficient tool for researchers interested in measuring impulsive personality. PMID:26258000

  18. Screening of Methanol Extract and Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Abies webbiana Lindl. for Neuropharmacological Activities.

    PubMed

    Parkash, O; Kumar, D; Kumar, S

    2015-01-01

    Despite a long traditional of use of Abies webbiana Lindl. (Talispatra; family-Pinaceae) in the treatment of mental disorders, the plant has not been investigated systematically to validate its traditional claims. Thus, the present investigation was undertaken with an objective to investigate neuropharmacological activities of methanol extract of Abies webbiana aerial parts and its ethyl acetate fraction. Properly identified aerial parts were defatted with petroleum ether and then extracted with methanol in a Soxhlet apparatus. Ethyl acetate fraction was prepared by partitioning methanol extract with ethyl acetate using standard procedure. In acute toxicity study, no mortality was observed in animals after oral administration of 2 g/kg dose of methanol extract. The methanol extract (200 or 400 mg/kg, p.o.) and ethyl acetate fraction (25 or 50 mg/kg, p.o.) were evaluated for antianxiety, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, sedative, antistress and analgesic activities using well established models. The methanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction of Abies webbiana aerial parts exhibited significant antianxiety, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, sedative, antistress and analgesic activities with respect to control. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed presence of flavonoids in bioactive ethyl acetate fraction of Abies webbiana aerial parts. It is finally concluded that flavonoids are the bioactive constituents responsible for most of neuropharmacological activities of Abies webbiana.

  19. No time for spruce: rapid dampening of circadian rhythms in Picea abies (L. Karst).

    PubMed

    Gyllenstrand, Niclas; Karlgren, Anna; Clapham, David; Holm, Karl; Hall, Anthony; Gould, Peter D; Källman, Thomas; Lagercrantz, Ulf

    2014-03-01

    The identification and cloning of full-length homologs of circadian clock genes from Picea abies represent a first step to study the function and evolution of the circadian clock in gymnosperms. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the sequences of key circadian clock genes are conserved between angiosperms and gymnosperms. though fewer homologous copies were found for most gene families in P. abies. We detected diurnal cycling of circadian clock genes in P. abies using quantitative real-time PCR; however, cycling appeared to be rapidly dampened under free-running conditions. Given the unexpected absence of transcriptional cycling during constant conditions, we employed a complementary method to assay circadian rhythmic outputs and measured delayed fluorescence in seedlings of Norway spruce. Neither of the two approaches to study circadian rhythms in Norway spruce could detect robust ∼24 h cycling behavior under constant conditions. These data suggest gene conservation but fundamental differences in clock function between gymnosperms and other plant taxa.

  20. The GOES-R ABI Wild Fire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, J.; Schmidt, C. C.; Prins, E. M.; Brunner, J. C.

    2011-12-01

    The global Wild Fire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (WF_ABBA) at the Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) provides fire detection and characterization using data from a global constellation of geostationary satellites, currently including GOES, MTSAT, and Meteosat. CIMSS continues to enhance the legacy of the WF_ABBA by adapting the algorithm to utilize the advanced spatial, spectral, and temporal capabilities of GOES-R ABI. A wide range of simulated ABI data cases have been generated and processed with the GOES-R fire detection and characterization algorithm. Simulated cases included MODIS derived projections as well as model derived simulations that span a variety of satellite zenith angles and ecosystems. The GOES-R ABI fire product development focuses on active fire detection and sub-pixel characterization, including fire radiative power (FRP) and instantaneous fire size and temperature. With the algorithm delivered to the system contractor, the focus has moved to developing innovative new validation techniques.

  1. Exploiting Measurement Uncertainty Estimation in Evaluation of GOES-R ABI Image Navigation Accuracy Using Image Registration Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, Evan; DeLuccia, Frank

    2016-01-01

    In evaluating GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) image navigation quality, upsampled sub-images of ABI images are translated against downsampled Landsat 8 images of localized, high contrast earth scenes to determine the translations in the East-West and North-South directions that provide maximum correlation. The native Landsat resolution is much finer than that of ABI, and Landsat navigation accuracy is much better than ABI required navigation accuracy and expected performance. Therefore, Landsat images are considered to provide ground truth for comparison with ABI images, and the translations of ABI sub-images that produce maximum correlation with Landsat localized images are interpreted as ABI navigation errors. The measured local navigation errors from registration of numerous sub-images with the Landsat images are averaged to provide a statistically reliable measurement of the overall navigation error of the ABI image. The dispersion of the local navigation errors is also of great interest, since ABI navigation requirements are specified as bounds on the 99.73rd percentile of the magnitudes of per pixel navigation errors. However, the measurement uncertainty inherent in the use of image registration techniques tends to broaden the dispersion in measured local navigation errors, masking the true navigation performance of the ABI system. We have devised a novel and simple method for estimating the magnitude of the measurement uncertainty in registration error for any pair of images of the same earth scene. We use these measurement uncertainty estimates to filter out the higher quality measurements of local navigation error for inclusion in statistics. In so doing, we substantially reduce the dispersion in measured local navigation errors, thereby better approximating the true navigation performance of the ABI system.

  2. Foliar uptake, carbon fluxes and water status are affected by the timing of daily fog in saplings from a threatened cloud forest.

    PubMed

    Berry, Z Carter; White, Joseph C; Smith, William K

    2014-05-01

    In cloud forests, foliar uptake (FU) of water has been reported for numerous species, possibly acting to relieve daily water and carbon stress. While the prevalence of FU seems common, how daily variation in fog timing may affect this process has not been studied. We examined the quantity of FU, water potentials, gas exchange and abiotic variation at the beginning and end of a 9-day exposure to fog in a glasshouse setting. Saplings of Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir. and Picea rubens Sarg. were exposed to morning (MF), afternoon (AF) or evening fog (EF) regimes to assess the ability to utilize fog water at different times of day and after sustained exposure to simulated fog. The greatest amount of FU occurred during MF (up to 50%), followed by AF (up to 23%) and then EF, which surprisingly had no FU. There was also a positive relationship between leaf conductance and FU, suggesting a role of stomata in FU. Moreover, MF and AF lead to the greatest improvements in daily water balance and carbon gain, respectively. Foliar uptake was important for improving plant ecophysiology but was influenced by diurnal variation in fog. With climate change scenarios predicting changes to cloud patterns and frequency that will likely alter diurnal patterns, cloud forests that rely on this water subsidy could be affected.

  3. Seed Source Significantly Influences Growth Rates and Disease Resistance of Abies Lasiocarpa Grown for Ornamental Nursery Stock and Christmas Trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trees from six corkbark fir (Abies lasiocarpa var. arizonica) and 10 subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa var. lasiocarpa) seed sources were grown at the University of Idaho (SREC) and three commercial nurseries in northern Idaho and northeastern Oregon. Post transplant mortality was highest during the f...

  4. Nuclear microsatellite primers for the endangered relict fir, Abies pinsapo (Pinaceae) and cross-amplification in related Mediterranean Species.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Robles, Jose M; Balao, Francisco; García-Castaño, Juan L; Terrab, Anass; Navarro-Sampedro, Laura; Talavera, Salvador

    2012-11-05

    Twelve nuclear microsatellite primers (nSSR) were developed for the endangered species Abies pinsapo Boiss. to enable the study of gene flow and genetic structure in the remaining distribution areas. Microsatellite primers were developed using next-generation sequencing (454) data from a single Abies pinsapo individual. Primers were applied to thirty individuals from the three extant localities. The number of alleles per locus ranged from one to four. Cross-amplification was tested for other Abies species from the Mediterranean Basin, and most of the loci showed higher polymorphisms in the Mediterranean species than in A. pinsapo. These microsatellite markers provide tools for conservation genetic studies in Abies pinsapo as well other Abies species from the Mediterranean Basin.

  5. Nuclear Microsatellite Primers for the Endangered Relict Fir, Abies pinsapo (Pinaceae) and Cross-Amplification in Related Mediterranean Species

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Robles, Jose M.; Balao, Francisco; García-Castaño, Juan L.; Terrab, Anass; Navarro-Sampedro, Laura; Talavera, Salvador

    2012-01-01

    Twelve nuclear microsatellite primers (nSSR) were developed for the endangered species Abies pinsapo Boiss. to enable the study of gene flow and genetic structure in the remaining distribution areas. Microsatellite primers were developed using next-generation sequencing (454) data from a single Abies pinsapo individual. Primers were applied to thirty individuals from the three extant localities. The number of alleles per locus ranged from one to four. Cross-amplification was tested for other Abies species from the Mediterranean Basin, and most of the loci showed higher polymorphisms in the Mediterranean species than in A. pinsapo. These microsatellite markers provide tools for conservation genetic studies in Abies pinsapo as well other Abies species from the Mediterranean Basin. PMID:23203061

  6. Involvement of genes encoding ABI1 protein phosphatases in the response of Brassica napus L. to drought stress.

    PubMed

    Babula-Skowrońska, Danuta; Ludwików, Agnieszka; Cieśla, Agata; Olejnik, Anna; Cegielska-Taras, Teresa; Bartkowiak-Broda, Iwona; Sadowski, Jan

    2015-07-01

    In this report we characterized the Arabidopsis ABI1 gene orthologue and Brassica napus gene paralogues encoding protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C, group A), which is known to be a negative regulator of the ABA signaling pathway. Six homologous B. napus sequences were identified and characterized as putative PP2C group A members. To gain insight into the conservation of ABI1 function in Brassicaceae, and understand better its regulatory effects in the drought stress response, we generated transgenic B. napus plants overexpressing A. thaliana ABI1. Transgenic plants subjected to drought showed a decrease in relative water content, photosynthetic pigments content and expression level of RAB18- and RD19A-drought-responsive marker genes relative to WT plants. We present the characterization of the drought response of B. napus with the participation of ABI1-like paralogues. The expression pattern of two evolutionarily distant paralogues, BnaA01.ABI1.a and BnaC07.ABI1.b in B. napus and their promoter activity in A. thaliana showed differences in the induction of the paralogues under dehydration stress. Comparative sequence analysis of both BnaABI1 promoters showed variation in positions of cis-acting elements that are especially important for ABA- and stress-inducible expression. Together, these data reveal that subfunctionalization following gene duplication may be important in the maintenance and functional divergence of the BnaABI1 paralogues. Our results provide a framework for a better understanding of (1) the role of ABI1 as a hub protein regulator of the drought response, and (2) the differential involvement of the duplicated BnaABI1 genes in the response of B. napus to dehydration-related stresses.

  7. Isolation and characterization of novel microsatellites for Abies koreana and A. nephrolepis (Pinaceae).

    PubMed

    Hong, J K; Lim, J; Lee, B Y; Kwak, M

    2016-04-28

    Abies koreana is an endemic and rare species from Korea and is classified as endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Although the genetic diversity assessment for current population of A. koreana needs to be performed urgently, no microsatellite markers have been developed for this species. In the present study, we developed 22 novel polymorphic microsatellite loci and the characteristics of these loci were determined in A. koreana as well as in Abies nephrolepis, the most closely related species, and these loci were compared with previously reported microsatellite markers developed for the Abies genus. Genomic sequence (161 Mbp; 325,776 reads) was obtained from one individual of A. koreana using Roche 454 GS-FLX Titanium sequencing and 19,258 repeat motifs were identified from it. A total of 288 primer pairs with high copy numbers of di-repeat motifs were evaluated for amplification in A. koreana and A. nephrolepis. A total of 71 primer pairs successfully amplified fragments, of which 22 showed polymorphisms in A. koreana and A. nephrolepis. The average expected diversity was 0.767 and 0.717 in A. koreana and A. nephrolepis, respectively; these heterozygosity levels were moderate compared to the previously reported microsatellite loci from Abies species. This is the first set of microsatellite markers developed for A. koreana as well as A. nephrolepis and further population genetic studies of both species and genetic delimitation can be carried out for the species conservation and management.

  8. [Genetic control of Silver fir isozymes (Abies alba Mill.) of the Ukrainian Carpathian Mountains].

    PubMed

    Korshikov, I I; Morozova, N N; Pirko, Ia V

    2003-01-01

    Genetic control of GOT, GDH, DIA, MDH, ME, SOD, FDH, ADH, ACP, LAP enzymes has been studied in the seed megagametophytes of Silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) from four natural populations of the Ukrainian Carpathian mountains. The distinct electrophoretic division has been obtained for the 21 loci products. The analysis of allele segregation in the heterozygous trees confirms monogenic inheritance of the revealed variants.

  9. Tree mortality patterns following prescribed fire for Pinus and Abies across the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Mantgem, Philip J.; Nesmith, Jonathan C. B.; Keifer, MaryBeth; Brooks, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    The reintroduction of fire to historically fire-prone forests has been repeatedly shown to reduce understory fuels and promote resistance to high severity fire. However, there is concern that prescribed fire may also have unintended consequences, such as high rates of mortality for large trees and fire-tolerant Pinus species. To test this possibility we evaluated mortality patterns for two common genera in the western US, Pinus and Abies, using observations from a national-scale prescribed fire effects monitoring program. Our results show that mortality rates of trees >50 DBH were similar for Pinus (4.6% yr-1) and Abies (4.0% yr-1) 5 years following prescribed fires across seven sites in the southwestern US. In contrast, mortality rates of trees >50 cm DBH differed between Pinus (5.7% yr-1) and Abies (9.0% yr-1). Models of post-fire mortality probabilities suggested statistically significant differences between the genera (after including differences in bark thickness), but accounting for these differences resulted in only small improvements in model classification. Our results do not suggest unusually high post-fire mortality for large trees or for Pinus relative to the other common co-occurring genus, Abies, following prescribed fire in the southwestern US.

  10. Development and Implementation of a Hierarchical Classification System for the ABI/INFORM Database.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, David K.

    A new search feature has been developed and implemented to enhance online information retrieval from the ABI/INFORM database, which includes abstracts from more than 500 journals covering all aspects of business and management. Published by Data Courier Inc., it includes material dating back to 1971. Because of the diverse nature of the database…

  11. MIG-10 functions with ABI-1 to mediate the UNC-6 and SLT-1 axon guidance signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; Quinn, Christopher C

    2012-01-01

    Extracellular guidance cues steer axons towards their targets by eliciting morphological changes in the growth cone. A key part of this process is the asymmetric recruitment of the cytoplasmic scaffolding protein MIG-10 (lamellipodin). MIG-10 is thought to asymmetrically promote outgrowth by inducing actin polymerization. However, the mechanism that links MIG-10 to actin polymerization is not known. We have identified the actin regulatory protein ABI-1 as a partner for MIG-10 that can mediate its outgrowth-promoting activity. The SH3 domain of ABI-1 binds to MIG-10, and loss of function of either of these proteins causes similar axon guidance defects. Like MIG-10, ABI-1 functions in both the attractive UNC-6 (netrin) pathway and the repulsive SLT-1 (slit) pathway. Dosage sensitive genetic interactions indicate that MIG-10 functions with ABI-1 and WVE-1 to mediate axon guidance. Epistasis analysis reveals that ABI-1 and WVE-1 function downstream of MIG-10 to mediate its outgrowth-promoting activity. Moreover, experiments with cultured mammalian cells suggest that the interaction between MIG-10 and ABI-1 mediates a conserved mechanism that promotes formation of lamellipodia. Together, these observations suggest that MIG-10 interacts with ABI-1 and WVE-1 to mediate the UNC-6 and SLT-1 guidance pathways.

  12. Degradation of Abies veitchii wave-regeneration on Mt. Misen in Ohmine Mountains: effects of sika deer population.

    PubMed

    Tsujino, Riyou; Matsui, Kiyoshi; Yamamoto, Kohdai; Koda, Ryosuke; Yumoto, Takakazu; Takada, Ken-Ichi

    2013-09-01

    How has the degradation of Abies veitchii wave-regeneration occurred under the sika deer (Cervus nippon) pressure? We conducted tree census and ground vegetation survey in a 1 ha plot in Mt. Misen (Nara prefecture, Japan). We found 15 tree species (over 50 cm in height). Abies accounted for 60.0 % of all living trees, and 46.9 % of Abies were damaged (herbivory, bark stripping and/or fraying) by deer. Spatial distribution of Abies trees showed Abies-wave, although there were few saplings in the dieback zone. Estimated deer population density in 2009 was 57.3 head/km(2). Number of living Abies and standing dead conifer trees, and ground vegetation cover for each quadrat (5 × 5 m) were used to assign the quadrats into 6 clusters. The hierarchical clustering-approach revealed that living Abies distributed mainly on the moss and/or Carex fernaldiana dominated quadrats, but did not on the Dennstaedtia scabra, or Brachypodium sylvaticum dominated quadrats. While standing dead conifer trees distributed mainly on the Carex dominated quadrats, they hardly occur on the moss, the Dennstaedtia or the Brachypodium dominated quadrats. Regeneration of Abies tree and thus the wave-regeneration is hindered for now owing to deer herbivory and bark-stripping. The ground vegetation under the dieback zone has changed from the moss and/or the Carex dominated one to the Carex, the Dennstaedtia or the Brachypodium covered vegetation with the canopy remained open and without Abies regeneration.

  13. Light acclimation of photosynthesis in two closely related firs (Abies pinsapo Boiss. and Abies alba Mill.): the role of leaf anatomy and mesophyll conductance to CO2

    PubMed Central

    Peguero-Pina, José Javier; Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Flexas, Jaume; Galmés, Jeroni; Niinemets, Ülo; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio

    2016-01-01

    Leaves growing in the forest understory usually present a decreased mesophyll conductance (gm) and photosynthetic capacity. The role of leaf anatomy in determining the variability in gm among species is known, but there is a lack of information on how the acclimation of gm to shade conditions is driven by changes in leaf anatomy. Within this context, we demonstrated that Abies pinsapo Boiss. experienced profound modifications in needle anatomy to drastic changes in light availability that ultimately led to differential photosynthetic performance between trees grown in the open field and in the forest understory. In contrast to A. pinsapo, its congeneric Abies alba Mill. did not show differences either in needle anatomy or in photosynthetic parameters between trees grown in the open field and in the forest understory. The increased gm values found in trees of A. pinsapo grown in the open field can be explained by occurrence of stomata at both needle sides (amphistomatous needles), increased chloroplast surface area exposed to intercellular airspace, decreased cell wall thickness and, especially, decreased chloroplast thickness. To the best of our knowledge, the role of such drastic changes in ultrastructural needle anatomy in explaining the response of gm to the light environment has not been demonstrated in field conditions. PMID:26543153

  14. Metabolite changes in conifer buds and needles during forced bud break in Norway spruce (Picea abies) and European silver fir (Abies alba)

    PubMed Central

    Dhuli, Priyanka; Rohloff, Jens; Strimbeck, G. Richard

    2014-01-01

    Environmental changes such as early spring and warm spells induce bud burst and photosynthetic processes in cold-acclimated coniferous trees and consequently, cellular metabolism in overwintering needles and buds. The purpose of the study was to examine metabolism in conifers under forced deacclimation (artificially induced spring) by exposing shoots of Picea abies (boreal species) and Abies alba (temperate species) to a greenhouse environment (22°C, 16/8 h D/N cycle) over a 9 weeks period. Each week, we scored bud opening and collected samples for GC/MS–based metabolite profiling. We detected a total of 169 assigned metabolites and 80 identified metabolites, comprising compounds such as mono- and disaccharides, Krebs cycle acids, amino acids, polyols, phenolics, and phosphorylated structures. Untargeted multivariate statistical analysis based on PCA and cluster analysis segregated samples by species, tissue type, and stage of tissue deacclimations. Similar patterns of metabolic regulation in both species were observed in buds (amino acids, Krebs cycle acids) and needles (hexoses, pentoses, and Krebs cycle acids). Based on correlation of bud opening score with compound levels, distinct metabolites could be associated with bud and shoot development, including amino acids, sugars, and acids with known osmolyte function, and secondary metabolites. This study has shed light on how elevated temperature affects metabolism in buds and needles of conifer species during the deacclimation phase, and contributes to the discussion about how phenological characters in conifers may respond to future global warming. PMID:25566281

  15. Spin-orbit coupling enhanced superconductivity in Bi-rich compounds ABi3 (A = Sr and Ba)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, D. F.; Luo, X.; Lu, W. J.; Hu, L.; Zhu, X. D.; Song, W. H.; Zhu, X. B.; Sun, Y. P.

    2016-02-01

    Recently, Bi-based compounds have attracted attentions because of the strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC). In this work, we figured out the role of SOC in ABi3 (A = Sr and Ba) by theoretical investigation of the band structures, phonon properties, and electron-phonon coupling. Without SOC, strong Fermi surface nesting leads to phonon instabilities in ABi3. SOC suppresses the nesting and stabilizes the structure. Moreover, without SOC the calculation largely underestimates the superconducting transition temperatures (Tc), while with SOC the calculated Tc are very close to those determined by measurements on single crystal samples. The SOC enhanced superconductivity in ABi3 is due to not only the SOC induced phonon softening, but also the SOC related increase of electron-phonon coupling matrix elements. ABi3 can be potential platforms to construct heterostructure of superconductor/topological insulator to realize topological superconductivity.

  16. Analysis of the Phialocephala subalpina Transcriptome during Colonization of Its Host Plant Picea abies

    PubMed Central

    Reininger, Vanessa; Schlegel, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Background Phialocephala subalpina belongs to the Phialocephala fortinii s.l.–Acepphala applanata species complex (PAC) forming one of the major groups belonging to the dark septate endophytes (DSE). Depending on the strain, PAC was shown to form neutral to pathogenic associations with its host plant Picea abies. To understand PACs lifestyle we investigated the effect of presence/absence of Picea abies on the transcriptome of strain 6_70_1. Materials and Methods PAC strain 6_70_1 was grown in liquid Pachlewski media either induced by its host plant Picea abies or without host plant as a control. Mycelia were harvested in a time course (1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 11, 18 days) with and without induction by the host plant and the fungal transcriptome revealed by Illumina sequencing. Differential gene expression analysis over the time course comparing control and treatment at each time point using the ‘edgeR glm approach’ and a gene enrichment analysis using GO categories were performed. Results The three main functional groups within differentially expressed genes were ‘metabolism’, ‘transport’ and ‘cell rescue, defense and virulence’. Additionally, genes especially involved in iron metabolism could be detected by gene set enrichment analysis. Conclusion In conclusion, we found PAC strain 6_70_1 to be metabolically very active during colonization of its host plant Picea abies. A major shift in functional groups over the time course of this experiment could not be observed but GO categories which were found to be enriched showed different emphasis depending in the day post induction. PMID:26954682

  17. [Genetic control of isozymes in European spruces (Picea abies (L) Karst) of the Ukrainian Carpathian mountains].

    PubMed

    Privalikhin, S N; Korshikov, I I; Pirko, N N; Velikorid'ko, T I; Pirko, Ia V

    2006-01-01

    Genetical control of the enzymes GOT, GDH, DIA, MDH, SOD, FDH, ADH, ACP and LAP has been studied in nine natural Carpathian populations of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) using polyacrylamide gel elecrophoresis and analysis of isozyme variability in 346 trees. Seventy one allel products of 20 gene loci have been clearly established. Segregation analysis of the revealed allele variants confirms their monogenic inheritance.

  18. Final Scientific/Technical report for "ABI8: Prototype of a novel signaling factor"

    SciTech Connect

    Finkelstein, Ruth R.

    2013-02-21

    The Arabidopsis thaliana ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE8 locus encodes a highly conserved plant-specific protein that mediates abscisic acid (ABA) and sugar responses essential for growth. Although initial database comparisons revealed no domains of predictable function, it has recently been re-annotated as a member of the Glycosyltransferase family A. However, this function has not been demonstrated experimentally and no specific substrates have been identified. Mutations affecting ABI8 are near-lethal due to pleiotropic yet specific effects including altered ABA signaling, sugar transport, cell wall synthesis, root meristem maintenance, vascular patterning, and male sterility. Because the predicted sequence initially provided no clues, we used a guilt by association strategy to address function of this protein by determining its subcellular localization and identifying interacting proteins. Our studies showed that ABI8 is localized to the endomembrane system and may interact with proteins implicated in Golgi trafficking, lignification, and stress signaling. We found that the root meristem arrest reflects decreased auxin accumulation and resulting decreases in regulators required for meristem identity, all of which can be rescued by added glucose. Further studies showed that this glucose-dependence reflects reduced glucose uptake as well as the decreased expression of sugar-mobilizing enzymes. This work suggests that ABI8 may regulate trafficking of membrane proteins such as auxin transporters and cellulose synthase, but this hypothesis has not yet been tested. The altered gene expression is likely to be a secondary or later effect of this pleiotropic mutation.

  19. OsTCP19 influences developmental and abiotic stress signaling by modulating ABI4-mediated pathways

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Pradipto; Tyagi, Akhilesh Kumar; Tyagi, Akhilesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Class-I TCP transcription factors are plant-specific developmental regulators. In this study, the role of one such rice gene, OsTCP19, in water-deficit and salt stress response was explored. Besides a general upregulation by abiotic stresses, this transcript was more abundant in tolerant than sensitive rice genotypes during early hours of stress. Stress, tissue and genotype-dependent retention of a small in-frame intron in this transcript was also observed. Overexpression of OsTCP19 in Arabidopsis caused upregulation of IAA3, ABI3 and ABI4 and downregulation of LOX2, and led to developmental abnormalities like fewer lateral root formation. Moreover, decrease in water loss and reactive oxygen species, and hyperaccumulation of lipid droplets in the transgenics contributed to better stress tolerance both during seedling establishment and in mature plants. OsTCP19 was also shown to directly regulate a rice triacylglycerol biosynthesis gene in transient assays. Genes similar to those up- or downregulated in the transgenics were accordingly found to coexpress positively and negatively with OsTCP19 in Rice Oligonucleotide Array Database. Interactions of OsTCP19 with OsABI4 and OsULT1 further suggest its function in modulation of abscisic acid pathways and chromatin structure. Thus, OsTCP19 appears to be an important node in cell signaling which crosslinks stress and developmental pathways. PMID:25925167

  20. An SK3 Channel/nWASP/Abi-1 Complex Is Involved in Early Neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Liebau, Stefan; Steinestel, Julie; Linta, Leonhard; Kleger, Alexander; Storch, Alexander; Schoen, Michael; Steinestel, Konrad; Proepper, Christian; Bockmann, Juergen; Schmeisser, Michael J.; Boeckers, Tobias M.

    2011-01-01

    Background The stabilization or regulated reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton is essential for cellular structure and function. Recently, we could show that the activation of the SK3-channel that represents the predominant SK-channel in neural stem cells, leads to a rapid local outgrowth of long filopodial processes. This observation indicates that the rearrangement of the actin based cytoskeleton via membrane bound SK3-channels might selectively be controlled in defined micro compartments of the cell. Principal Findings We found two important proteins for cytoskeletal rearrangement, the Abelson interacting protein 1, Abi-1 and the neural Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome Protein, nWASP, to be in complex with SK3- channels in neural stem cells (NSCs). Moreover, this interaction is also found in spines and postsynaptic compartments of developing primary hippocampal neurons and regulates neurite outgrowth during early phases of differentiation. Overexpression of the proteins or pharmacological activation of SK3 channels induces obvious structural changes in NSCs and hippocampal neurons. In both neuronal cell systems SK3 channels and nWASP act synergistic by strongly inducing filopodial outgrowth while Abi-1 behaves antagonistic to its interaction partners. Conclusions Our results give good evidence for a functional interplay of a trimeric complex that transforms incoming signals via SK3-channel activation into the local rearrangement of the cytoskeleton in early steps of neuronal differentiation involving nWASP and Abi-1 actin binding proteins. PMID:21464958

  1. Arabidopsis YL1/BPG2 Is Involved in Seedling Shoot Response to Salt Stress through ABI4

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peng-Cheng; Huang, Jin-Guang; Yu, Shao-Wei; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Sun, Peng; Wu, Chang-Ai; Zheng, Cheng-Chao

    2016-01-01

    The chloroplast-localized proteins play roles in plant salt stress response, but their mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, we screened a yellow leaf mutant, yl1-1, whose shoots exhibited hypersensitivity to salt stress. We mapped YL1 to AT3G57180, which encodes a YqeH-type GTPase. YL1, as a chloroplast stroma-localized protein, could be markedly reduced by high salinity. Upon exposure to high salinity, seedling shoots of yl1-1 and yl1-2 accumulated significantly higher levels of Na+ than wild type. Expression analysis of factors involved in plant salt stress response showed that the expression of ABI4 was increased and HKT1 was evidently suppressed in mutant shoots compared with the wild type under normal growth conditions. Moreover, salinity effects on ABI4 and HKT1 were clearly weakened in the mutant shoots, suggesting that the loss of YL1 function impairs ABI4 and HKT1 expression. Notably, the shoots of yl1-2 abi4 double mutant exhibited stronger resistance to salt stress and accumulated less Na+ levels after salt treatment compared with the yl1-2 single mutant, suggesting the salt-sensitive phenotype of yl1-2 seedlings could be rescued via loss of ABI4 function. These results reveal that YL1 is involved in the salt stress response of seedling shoots through ABI4. PMID:27444988

  2. Towards post-launch validation of GOES-R ABI SI traceability with high-altitude aircraft, small near surface UAS, and satellite reference measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padula, Francis; Pearlman, Aaron J.; Cao, Changyong; Goodman, Steve

    2016-09-01

    The GOES-R field campaign (planned for April - June 2017) is focused to support post-launch validation of the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) and Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM). Great emphasis has been placed in the development of methodologies to achieve the ABI GOES-R field campaign primary objective - validation of ABI L1b spectral radiance observations to ensure the SI traceability established pre-launch. An integrated approach using high altitude aircraft, near surface UAS, and satellite reference measurements was developed to achieve the ABI validation objectives of the GOES-R field campaign. The high-altitude aircraft measurements coupled with special ABI collections are planned to provide the primary pathway (direct comparison) to validate ABI SI traceability of all ABI operational detectors. Near surface Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) are planned to provide a secondary pathway to validate ABI SI traceability through coincident near surface measurements of Earth validation targets using the Earth's surface as a reference (indirect comparison). Satellite reference measurements obtained through special ABI collections and Simultaneous Nadir Overpass (SNO) of reference sensors will also provide a secondary pathway to validate ABI SI traceability. A detailed description of each validation approach, the critical components, and the preliminary expected uncertainties will be presented. The combined collections offer advanced post-launch validation capabilities and foster new perspectives for science teams during the post-launch validation and monitoring of NOAA's next generation of operational environmental satellites.

  3. Increased antitumor activity, intratumor paclitaxel concentrations, and endothelial cell transport of cremophor-free, albumin-bound paclitaxel, ABI-007, compared with cremophor-based paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Desai, Neil; Trieu, Vuong; Yao, Zhiwen; Louie, Leslie; Ci, Sherry; Yang, Andrew; Tao, Chunlin; De, Tapas; Beals, Bridget; Dykes, Donald; Noker, Patricia; Yao, Rosie; Labao, Elizabeth; Hawkins, Michael; Soon-Shiong, Patrick

    2006-02-15

    ABI-007, an albumin-bound, 130-nm particle form of paclitaxel, was developed to avoid Cremophor/ethanol-associated toxicities in Cremophor-based paclitaxel (Taxol) and to exploit albumin receptor-mediated endothelial transport. We studied the antitumor activity, intratumoral paclitaxel accumulation, and endothelial transport for ABI-007 and Cremophor-based paclitaxel. Antitumor activity and mortality were assessed in nude mice bearing human tumor xenografts [lung (H522), breast (MX-1), ovarian (SK-OV-3), prostate (PC-3), and colon (HT29)] treated with ABI-007 or Cremophor-based paclitaxel. Intratumoral paclitaxel concentrations (MX-1-tumored mice) were compared for radiolabeled ABI-007 and Cremophor-based paclitaxel. In vitro endothelial transcytosis and Cremophor inhibition of paclitaxel binding to cells and albumin was compared for ABI-007 and Cremophor-based paclitaxel. Both ABI-007 and Cremophor-based paclitaxel caused tumor regression and prolonged survival; the order of sensitivity was lung > breast congruent with ovary > prostate > colon. The LD(50) and maximum tolerated dose for ABI-007 and Cremophor-based paclitaxel were 47 and 30 mg/kg/d and 30 and 13.4 mg/kg/d, respectively. At equitoxic dose, the ABI-007-treated groups showed more complete regressions, longer time to recurrence, longer doubling time, and prolonged survival. At equal dose, tumor paclitaxel area under the curve was 33% higher for ABI-007 versus Cremophor-based paclitaxel, indicating more effective intratumoral accumulation of ABI-007. Endothelial binding and transcytosis of paclitaxel were markedly higher for ABI-007 versus Cremophor-based paclitaxel, and this difference was abrogated by a known inhibitor of endothelial gp60 receptor/caveolar transport. In addition, Cremophor was found to inhibit binding of paclitaxel to endothelial cells and albumin. Enhanced endothelial cell binding and transcytosis for ABI-007 and inhibition by Cremophor in Cremophor-based paclitaxel may account in

  4. An extractive removal step optimized for a high-throughput α-cellulose extraction method for δ13C and δ18O stable isotope ratio analysis in conifer tree rings.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wen; Noormets, Asko; King, John S; Sun, Ge; McNulty, Steve; Domec, Jean-Christophe

    2016-09-26

    Stable isotope ratios (δ(13)C and δ(18)O) of tree-ring α-cellulose are important tools in paleoclimatology, ecology, plant physiology and genetics. The Multiple Sample Isolation System for Solids (MSISS) was a major advance in the tree-ring α-cellulose extraction methods, offering greater throughput and reduced labor input compared to traditional alternatives. However, the usability of the method for resinous conifer species may be limited by the need to remove extractives from some conifer species in a separate pretreatment step. Here we test the necessity of pretreatment for α-cellulose extraction in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.), and the efficiency of a modified acetone-based ambient-temperature step for the removal of extractives (i) in loblolly pine from five geographic locations representing its natural range in the southeastern USA, and (ii) on five other common coniferous species (black spruce (Picea mariana Mill.), Fraser fir (Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir.), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa D.)) with contrasting extractive profiles. The differences of δ(13)C values between the new and traditional pretreatment methods were within the precision of the isotope ratio mass spectrometry method used (±0.2‰), and the differences between δ(18)O values were not statistically significant. Although some unanticipated results were observed in Fraser fir, the new ambient-temperature technique was deemed as effective as the more labor-consuming and toxic traditional pretreatment protocol. The proposed technique requires a separate acetone-inert multiport system similar to MSISS, and the execution of both pretreatment and main extraction steps allows for simultaneous treatment of up to several hundred microsamples from resinous softwood, while the need of additional labor input remains minimal.

  5. A novel abi5 allele reveals the importance of the conserved Ala in the C3 domain for regulation of downstream genes and salt tolerance during germination in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Tezuka, Kenji; Taji, Teruaki; Hayashi, Takahisa; Sakata, Yoichi

    2013-03-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) signal transduction during Arabidopsis seed development and germination requires a Group A bZIP transcription factor encoded by ABA INSENSITIVE5 (ABI5). In addition to the basic leucine zipper DNA binding domain, Group A bZIPs are characterized by three N-terminal conserved regions (C1, C2 and C3) and one C-terminal conserved region (C4). These conserved regions are considered to play roles in ABI5 functions; however, except for the phosphorylation site, the importance of the highly conserved amino acids is unclear. Here, we report a novel abi5 recessive allele (abi5-9) that encodes an intact ABI5 protein with one amino acid substitution (A214G) in the C3 domain. The abi5-9 plants showed ABA insensitivity during germination and could germinate on medium containing 175 mM NaCl or 500 mM mannitol. Em1 and Em6--both encoding late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins and directly targeted by ABI5 regulation--were expressed at very low levels in abi5-9 plants compared with the wild type. In yeast, the abi5-9 protein exhibited greatly reduced interaction with ABI3 compared with ABI5. These data suggest that Ala214 in ABI5 contributes to the function of ABI5 via its interaction with ABI3.

  6. Identification of Salt Stress Biomarkers in Romanian Carpathian Populations of Picea abies (L.) Karst.

    PubMed Central

    Schiop, Sorin T.; Al Hassan, Mohamad; Sestras, Adriana F.; Boscaiu, Monica; Sestras, Radu E.; Vicente, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    The Norway spruce (Picea abies), the most important tree species in European forests, is relatively sensitive to salt and does not grow in natural saline environments. Yet many trees are actually exposed to salt stress due to the common practice of de-icing of mountain roads in winter, using large amounts of NaCl. To help develop strategies for an appropriate use of reproductive seed material on reforestation sites, ensuring better chances of seedling survival in salt-affected areas, we have studied the responses of young spruce seedlings to salt treatments. The specific aim of the work was to identify the optimal salt stress biomarkers in Picea abies, using as experimental material seedlings obtained by germination of seeds with origin in seven populations from the Romanian Carpathian Mountains. These responses included general, conserved reactions such as the accumulation of ions and different osmolytes in the seedlings needles, reduction in photosynthetic pigments levels, or activation of antioxidant systems. Although changes in the contents of different compounds involved in these reactions can be associated to the degree of stress affecting the plants, we propose that the (decreasing) levels of total phenolics or total carotenoids and the (increasing) levels of Na+ or K+ ions in Picea abies needles, should be considered as the most reliable and useful biomarkers for salt stress in this species. They all show very high correlation with the intensity of salt stress, independently of the genetic background of the seeds parental population, and relatively easy, quantitative assays are available to determine their concentrations, requiring simple equipment and little amount of plant material. PMID:26287687

  7. Identification of Salt Stress Biomarkers in Romanian Carpathian Populations of Picea abies (L.) Karst.

    PubMed

    Schiop, Sorin T; Al Hassan, Mohamad; Sestras, Adriana F; Boscaiu, Monica; Sestras, Radu E; Vicente, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    The Norway spruce (Picea abies), the most important tree species in European forests, is relatively sensitive to salt and does not grow in natural saline environments. Yet many trees are actually exposed to salt stress due to the common practice of de-icing of mountain roads in winter, using large amounts of NaCl. To help develop strategies for an appropriate use of reproductive seed material on reforestation sites, ensuring better chances of seedling survival in salt-affected areas, we have studied the responses of young spruce seedlings to salt treatments. The specific aim of the work was to identify the optimal salt stress biomarkers in Picea abies, using as experimental material seedlings obtained by germination of seeds with origin in seven populations from the Romanian Carpathian Mountains. These responses included general, conserved reactions such as the accumulation of ions and different osmolytes in the seedlings needles, reduction in photosynthetic pigments levels, or activation of antioxidant systems. Although changes in the contents of different compounds involved in these reactions can be associated to the degree of stress affecting the plants, we propose that the (decreasing) levels of total phenolics or total carotenoids and the (increasing) levels of Na+ or K+ ions in Picea abies needles, should be considered as the most reliable and useful biomarkers for salt stress in this species. They all show very high correlation with the intensity of salt stress, independently of the genetic background of the seeds parental population, and relatively easy, quantitative assays are available to determine their concentrations, requiring simple equipment and little amount of plant material.

  8. Critically reduced frost resistance of Picea abies during sprouting could be linked to cytological changes.

    PubMed

    Neuner, G; Beikircher, B

    2010-07-01

    Frost resistance of sprouting Picea abies shoots is insufficient for survival of naturally occurring late frosts. The cellular changes during sprouting appeared to be responsible for frost damage as frost events that damaged sprouting shoots did not damage older needles and stems. Whilst resting buds showed initial frost damage at -15.0 degrees C, 20 days later, current year's growth was damaged at -5.6 degrees C. The decrease in frost resistance in sprouting shoots of P. abies was accompanied by a significant reduction of the cellular solute concentration, indicated by much less negative Psi(oSAT) values (increase from -2.8 to -1.2 MPa). psi(oSAT) decreased again after the final cell volume was reached and cell wall thickening began. After bud break, ice nucleation temperature increased from -4.7 degrees C to -1.5 degrees C. This increase was probably caused by the loss of bud scales, the onset of expansion growth of the central cylinder and the development of vascular tissue permitting the spread of ice from the stem into the growing needles. The onset of mesophyll cell wall thickening coincided with the lowest frost resistances. Cell wall thickening caused an increase in the modulus of elasticity, epsilon, indicating a decrease in tissue elasticity and after that frost resistance increased again. Metabolic and cytological changes that evidently leave little leeway for frost hardening are responsible for the low frost resistance in current year's growth of P. abies. This low frost resistance will be significant in the future as the risk of frost damage due to earlier bud break is anticipated to even further increase.

  9. Decline of sacred fir (Abies religiosa) in a forest park south of Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Alvarado R, D; De Bauer, L I; Galindo A, J

    1993-01-01

    Decline of sacred fir (Abies religiosa) trees in the high elevation forest park, Desierto de los Leones, located south of Mexico City, is described. Trees located in the windward zone (exposed to air masses from Mexico City) were the most severely affected, especially trees at the distal ends of ravines. Examination of tree growth rings indicated decreases in ring widths for the past 30 years. Polluted air from Mexico City may be an important causal factor in fir decline. Drought, due to excessive removal of soil water, insects, mites and pathogens, and poor forest management are possible contributing and interactive factors in fir decline.

  10. Simulation of GOES-R ABI aerosol radiances using WRF-CMAQ: a case study approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christopher, S. A.

    2014-04-01

    In anticipation of the upcoming GOES-R launch we simulate visible and near-infrared reflectances of the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) for cases of high aerosol loading containing regional haze and smoke over the eastern United States. The simulations are performed using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF), Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE), and Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) models. Geostationary, satellite-derived, biomass-burning emissions are also included as an input to CMAQ. Using the CMAQ aerosol concentrations and Mie calculations, radiance is computed from the discrete ordinate atmospheric radiative transfer model. We present detailed methods for deriving aerosol extinction from WRF and CMAQ outputs. Our results show that the model simulations create a realistic set of reflectances in various aerosol scenarios. The simulated reflectances provide distinct spectral features of aerosols which are then compared to data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). We also present a simple technique to synthesize green band reflectance (which will not be available on the ABI), using the model-simulated blue and red band reflectance. This study is an example of the use of air quality modeling in improving products and techniques for Earth-observing missions.

  11. Simulation of GOES-R ABI aerosol radiances using WRF-CMAQ: a case study approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christopher, S. A.

    2013-07-01

    The primary focus of this paper is to simulate visible and near-infrared reflectances of the GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) for cases of high aerosol loading containing regional haze and smoke over the eastern United States. The simulations are performed using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF), Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE), and Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) models. Geostationary satellite-derived biomass burning emissions are also included as an input to CMAQ. Using the CMAQ aerosol concentrations and Mie calculations, radiance is computed from the discrete ordinate atmospheric radiative transfer model. We present detailed methods for deriving aerosol extinction from WRF and CMAQ outputs. Our results show that the model simulations create a realistic set of reflectance in various aerosol scenarios. The simulated reflectance provides distinct spectral features of aerosols which is then compared to data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). We also present a simple technique to synthesize green band reflectance (which will not be available on the ABI), using the model-simulated blue and red band reflectance. This study is an example of the use of air quality modeling in improving products and techniques for Earth observing missions.

  12. The hydraulic conductivity of the xylem in conifer needles (Picea abies and Pinus mugo).

    PubMed

    Charra-Vaskou, Katline; Mayr, Stefan

    2011-08-01

    Main resistances of the plant water transport system are situated in leaves. In contrast to angiosperm leaves, knowledge of conifer needle hydraulics and of the partitioning of resistances within needles is poor. A new technique was developed which enabled flow-meter measurements through needles embedded in paraffin and thus quantification of the specific hydraulic conductivity (K(s)) of the needle xylem. In Picea abies, xylem K(s) of needle and axes as well as in needles of different age were compared. In Pinus mugo, resistance partitioning within needles was estimated by measurements of xylem K(s) and leaf conductance (K(leaf), measured via 'rehydration kinetics'). Mean K(s) in P. abies needles was 3.5×10(-4) m(2) s(-1) MPa(-1) with a decrease in older needles, and over all similar to K(s) of corresponding axes xylem. In needles of P. mugo, K(s) was 0.9×10(-4) m(2) s(-1) MPa(-1), and 24% of total needle resistance was situated in the xylem. The results indicate species-specific differences in the hydraulic efficiency of conifer needle xylem. The vascular section of the water transport system is a minor but relevant resistance in needles.

  13. ABI domain-containing proteins contribute to surface protein display and cell division in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Frankel, Matthew B; Wojcik, Brandon M; DeDent, Andrea C; Missiakas, Dominique M; Schneewind, Olaf

    2010-10-01

    The human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus requires cell wall anchored surface proteins to cause disease. During cell division, surface proteins with YSIRK signal peptides are secreted into the cross-wall, a layer of newly synthesized peptidoglycan between separating daughter cells. The molecular determinants for the trafficking of surface proteins are, however, still unknown. We screened mutants with non-redundant transposon insertions by fluorescence-activated cell sorting for reduced deposition of protein A (SpA) into the staphylococcal envelope. Three mutants, each of which harboured transposon insertions in genes for transmembrane proteins, displayed greatly reduced envelope abundance of SpA and surface proteins with YSIRK signal peptides. Characterization of the corresponding mutations identified three transmembrane proteins with abortive infectivity (ABI) domains, elements first described in lactococci for their role in phage exclusion. Mutations in genes for ABI domain proteins, designated spdA, spdB and spdC (surface protein display), diminish the expression of surface proteins with YSIRK signal peptides, but not of precursor proteins with conventional signal peptides. spdA, spdB and spdC mutants display an increase in the thickness of cross-walls and in the relative abundance of staphylococci with cross-walls, suggesting that spd mutations may represent a possible link between staphylococcal cell division and protein secretion.

  14. Loader Lite: a new software tool for the ABI PRISM 3700 DNA sequencer.

    PubMed

    Scott, G B I; Steffen, D L; Edgar, D; Warren, J T; Kovár, C L; Scherer, S E; Havlak, P H; Gibbs, R A

    2002-06-01

    Here we describe the development of a novel software tool entitled Loader Lite that generates plate records or sample sheetsfor the ABI PRISMs 3700 DNA sequencer. The major advantage of this program is that it enables the ongoing operation of sequencing instruments without reference to external network(s). The autonomous operation of sequencing instruments is critical if sample throughput is to be maintained during periods of network outage. Loader Lite employs a deliberate strategy of inputting anonymous tray barcodes at run time. After sequencing, the barcodes are reconciled with relevant project details by reference to a database. This software takes advantage of barcode scanning technology by creating plate records directly on the local computer, serving an individual sequencer, immediately before importing and linking. This real-time synthesis of the plate records at the point of loading all but eliminates loading errors. Loader Lite is user-friendly, fully configurable, and permits the running of partial or full 384-well sample trays, using any standard combinations of run modules, dye sets, mobility files, analysis modules, etc. The 96-well format is not supported; however, this capability will appear in subsequent versions that are currently under development. This application is designed as an added value, adjunct program to the regular ABI PRISM 3700 Data Collection software. We have successfully used Loader Lite over the past six months to load approximately 7 million sequencing reactions and believe its utility and functionality will prove to be attractive to the wider sequencing community.

  15. Worm infestations and development of autoimmunity in children – The ABIS study

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Michael P.; Faresjö, Åshild

    2017-01-01

    Worm infestations influence the immune system and may therefore decrease the risk for autoimmune diseases. The aim of the study was to determine whether children who have developed autoimmune disease were less likely to have had worm infestations in childhood. The ABIS-study is a prospective population-based cohort study of children born in southeast Sweden 1997/99. 17.055 children participated. As of June 2014 116 individuals had developed Type 1 diabetes, 181 celiac disease, and 53 Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis. The parents answered questions on worm infestations when the children were 1, 5 and 8 years of age. The ABIS registry was connected to the National Registry of Drug Prescriptions, and national registries for diagnosis of the studied diseases. We found no differences in incidence of worm infestations at 1, 5 or 8 years of age between children who developed autoimmune disease(s) or healthy controls. At 8 years in total 20.0% of the general child population had experienced a worm infestation; children who developed Type 1 diabetes, 21,3%, celiac disease 19,5% and JRA 18,8%. There was no difference in prescriptions of drugs for treatment of worm infestations between those who had and who had not developed Type 1 diabetes, celiac disease, Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis. We found no associations indicating that worm infestations in childhood does not play a role in the development of autoimmune diseases in Sweden. PMID:28333965

  16. The Andean Biotic Index (ABI): revised tolerance to pollution values for macroinvertebrate families and index performance evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ríos-Touma, Blanca; Acosta, Raúl; Prat, Narcís

    2014-04-01

    Score-based biotic indices are widely used to evaluate the water quality of streams and rivers. Few adaptations of these indices have been done for South America because there is a lack of knowledge on macroinvertebrate taxonomy, distribution and tolerance to pollution in the region. Several areas in the Andes are densely populated and there is need for methods to assess the impact of increasing human pressures on aquatic ecosystems. Considering the unique ecological and geographical features of the Andes, macroinvertebrate indices used in other regions must be adapted with caution. Here we present a review of the literature on macroinvertebrate distribution and tolerance to pollution in Andean areas above 2,000 masl. Using these data, we propose an Andean Biotic Index (ABI), which is based on the BMWP index. In general, ABI includes fewer macroinvertebrate families than in other regions of the world where the BMWP index has been applied because altitude restricts the distribution of several families. Our review shows that in the high Andes, the tolerance of several macroinvertebrate families to pollution differs from those reported in other areas. We tested the ABI index in two basins in Ecuador and Peru, and compared it to other BMWP adaptations using the reference condition approach. The ABI index is extremely useful for detecting the general impairment of rivers but class quality boundaries should be defined independently for each basin because reference conditions may be different. The ABI is widely used in Ecuador and Peru, with high correlations with land-use pressures in several studies. The ABI index is an integral part of the new multimetric index designed for high Andean streams (IMEERA).

  17. Ophiostoma kryptum sp. nov. from Larix decidua and Picea abies in Europe, similar to O. minus.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Karin; Kirisits, Thomas

    2003-10-01

    An unknown species of Ophiostoma was isolated from European larch (Larix decidua) infested by Tetropium gabrieli (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) infested by Tetropium sp. in Austria. The fungus is similar to O. minus, but distinguished from it by the ecology, colony morphologies on OA and MEA, and phylogenetic analysis of aligned DNA sequences of the ITS region of the rDNA operon and the partial beta-tubulin gene. It is described here as O. kryptum sp. nov. The new species readily produces perithecia with short necks and reniform ascospores, and has Hyalorhinocladiella and Leptographium-like anamorphs. Circumstantial evidence suggests that Tetropium spp. act as vectors of O. kryptum. O. minus and O. kryptum represent additional examples of morphologically similar, yet genetically and ecologically distinct species in the genus Ophiostoma. The new combination, O. crenulatum comb. nov. (syn. CeratocYstiopsis crenulata), is also made.

  18. In vitro fungistatic effects of natural coniferous resin from Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Rautio, M; Sipponen, A; Lohi, J; Lounatmaa, K; Koukila-Kähkölä, P; Laitinen, K

    2012-08-01

    Resins (rosin, pitch) are natural products of the coniferous trees and are antimicrobial against a wide range of microbes. The antifungal effectiveness of resin, purified from Norway spruce (Picea abies), was studied against human pathogenic fungi and yeasts with the agar plate diffusion tests and electron microscopy (EM). The fungistatic effect of these resin mixtures (resin salves) was tested against a set of Candida yeasts, dermatophytes, and opportunistic fungi. Transmission and scanning EM was done from samples of fungi (Trichophyton mentagrophytes). In agar diffusion tests, the resin was strongly antifungal against all dermatophytes tested, e.g., against all fungi of the genus Trichophyton, but it was not antifungal against the Candida yeasts or against the opportunistic fungi tested. According to EM, resin caused damages in the cell hyphae and cell wall structures. We conclude that, in the agar plate diffusion test, coniferous resins are strongly fungistatic against the dermatophytic fungi only.

  19. Serendipitous Meta-Transcriptomics: The Fungal Community of Norway Spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Delhomme, Nicolas; Sundström, Görel; Zamani, Neda; Lantz, Henrik; Lin, Yao-Cheng; Hvidsten, Torgeir R; Höppner, Marc P; Jern, Patric; Van de Peer, Yves; Lundeberg, Joakim; Grabherr, Manfred G; Street, Nathaniel R

    2015-01-01

    After performing de novo transcript assembly of >1 billion RNA-Sequencing reads obtained from 22 samples of different Norway spruce (Picea abies) tissues that were not surface sterilized, we found that assembled sequences captured a mix of plant, lichen, and fungal transcripts. The latter were likely expressed by endophytic and epiphytic symbionts, indicating that these organisms were present, alive, and metabolically active. Here, we show that these serendipitously sequenced transcripts need not be considered merely as contamination, as is common, but that they provide insight into the plant's phyllosphere. Notably, we could classify these transcripts as originating predominantly from Dothideomycetes and Leotiomycetes species, with functional annotation of gene families indicating active growth and metabolism, with particular regards to glucose intake and processing, as well as gene regulation.

  20. Diterpenes from the Trunk of Abies holophylla and Their Potential Neuroprotective and Anti-inflammatory Activities.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chung Sub; Subedi, Lalita; Kim, Sun Yeou; Choi, Sang Un; Kim, Ki Hyun; Lee, Kang Ro

    2016-02-26

    Eleven new abietane-type diterpenes, holophyllins D-N (1-11), and 17 known analogues (12-28), were isolated from a MeOH extract of the trunk of Abies holophylla. The chemical structures of 1-11 were determined through spectroscopic data analysis, including NMR ((1)H and (13)C NMR, DEPT, (1)H-(1)H COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY) and HRFABMS methods. All isolated compounds (1-28) were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against four human tumor cell lines (A549, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2, and HCT-116), for their potential neuroprotective effects through induction of nerve growth factor in C6 glioma cells, and for their effects on nitric oxide levels in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine microglia BV2 cells.

  1. Effects of Abies sibirica terpenes on cancer- and aging-associated pathways in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Lipatova, Anastasiya; Alekseev, Boris; Maganova, Faniya; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail; Fedorova, Maria; Snezhkina, Anastasiya; Moskalev, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    A large number of terpenoids exhibit potential geroprotector and anti-cancer properties. Here, we studied whole transcriptomic effects of Abisil, the extract of fir (Abies sibirica) terpenes, on normal and cancer cell lines. We used early passaged and senescent none-immortalized fibroblasts as cellular aging models. It was revealed that in normal fibroblasts, terpenes induced genes of stress response, apoptosis regulation and tissue regeneration. The restoration of the expression level of some prolongevity genes after fir extract treatment was shown in old cells. In Caco-2 and AsPC-1 cancer cell lines, Abisil induced expression of both onco-suppressors (members of GADD45, DUSP, and DDIT gene families), and proto-oncogenes (c-Myc, c-Jun, EGR and others). Thus, the study demonstrates the potential anti-aging and anti-cancer effects of Abisil on senescent and cancer cell lines. PMID:27888805

  2. Antibacterial effects of home-made resin salve from Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Rautio, M; Sipponen, A; Peltola, R; Lohi, J; Jokinen, J J; Papp, A; Carlson, P; Sipponen, P

    2007-04-01

    Resin salve made from Norway spruce (Picea abies) is traditionally used in folk medicine to heal skin ulcers and infected wounds. Its antimicrobial properties were studied against certain human bacteria important in infected skin wounds. The sensitivity of the resin against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria was studied in vitro by methods that are routinely used in microbiology laboratories. The resin salve exhibited a bacteriostatic effect against all tested Gram-positive bacteria but only against Proteus vulgaris of the Gram-negative bacteria. Interestingly, the resin inhibited the growth of bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE), both on agar plates and in culture media. The study demonstrated antimicrobial activity of the resin salve and provided objective evidence of its antimicrobial properties. It gives some explanations why the traditional use of home-made resin salve from Norway spruce is experienced as being effective in the treatment of infected skin ulcers.

  3. Growing trees on completed sanitary landfills. [Nyssa sylvatica, Picea abies, Ginkgo biloba

    SciTech Connect

    Leone, I.A.; Gilman, E.F.; Flower, F.B.

    1983-01-01

    A 10-year old completed landfill in New Jersey consisting of 9 m (depth) of refuse covered with 15-25 cm of soil was cleared of debris and vegetation and covered with 30 cm of subsoil and 15-25 cm of topsoil. Nineteen coniferous and broadleaved species were planted on the landfill and on a control site in 1975, and trees were maintained and growth and condition monitored over 4 years. On the basis of shoot length and stem area increase, the most successful of the surviving trees were Nyssa sylvatica, Picea abies and Ginkgo biloba, in decreasing order of tolerance. Tolerance of landfill conditions appeared to be greatest in those species with low water requirements, a slow growth rate, high acid tolerance and a shallow root system. (Refs. 11).

  4. Measuring HER2-Receptor Expression In Metastatic Breast Cancer Using [68Ga]ABY-025 Affibody PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    Sörensen, Jens; Velikyan, Irina; Sandberg, Dan; Wennborg, Anders; Feldwisch, Joachim; Tolmachev, Vladimir; Orlova, Anna; Sandström, Mattias; Lubberink, Mark; Olofsson, Helena; Carlsson, Jörgen; Lindman, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging of HER2 expression could potentially be used to select patients for HER2-targed therapy, predict response based on uptake and be used for monitoring. In this phase I/II study the HER2-binding Affibody molecule ABY-025 was labeled with 68Ga-gallium ([68Ga]ABY-025) for PET to study effect of peptide mass, test-retest variability and correlation of quantified uptake in tumors to histopathology. Experimental design: Sixteen women with known metastatic breast cancer and on-going treatment were included and underwent FDG PET/CT to identify viable metastases. After iv injection of 212±46 MBq [68Ga]ABY-025 whole-body PET was performed at 1, 2 and 4 h. In the first 10 patients (6 with HER2-positive and 4 with HER2-negative primary tumors), [68Ga]ABY-025 PET/CT with two different doses of injected peptide was performed one week apart. In the last six patients (5 HER2-positive and 1 HER2-negative primary tumors), repeated [68Ga]ABY-025 PET were performed one week apart as a test-retest of uptake in individual lesions. Biopsies from 16 metastases in 12 patients were collected for verification of HER2 expression by immunohistochemistry and in-situ hybridization. Results: Imaging 4h after injection with high peptide content discriminated HER2-positive metastases best (p<0.01). PET SUV correlated with biopsy HER2-scores (r=0.91, p<0.001). Uptake was five times higher in HER2-positive than in HER2-negative lesions with no overlap (p=0.005). The test-retest intra-class correlation was r=0.996. [68Ga]ABY-025 PET correctly identified conversion and mixed expression of HER2 and targeted treatment was changed in 3 of the 16 patients. Conclusion: [68Ga]ABY-025 PET accurately quantifies whole-body HER2-receptor status in metastatic breast cancer. PMID:26877784

  5. Gladiolus hybridus ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 5 (GhABI5) is an important transcription factor in ABA signaling that can enhance Gladiolus corm dormancy and Arabidopsis seed dormancy

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jian; Seng, Shanshan; Sui, Juanjuan; Vonapartis, Eliana; Luo, Xian; Gong, Benhe; Liu, Chen; Wu, Chenyu; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Fengqin; He, Junna; Yi, Mingfang

    2015-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant development and is crucial for abiotic stress response. In this study, cold storage contributes to reducing endogenous ABA content, resulting in dormancy breaking of Gladiolus. The ABA inhibitor fluridone also promotes germination, suggesting that ABA is an important hormone that regulates corm dormancy. Here, we report the identification and functional characterization of the Gladiolus ABI5 homolog (GhABI5), which is a basic leucine zipper motif transcriptional factor (TF). GhABI5 is expressed in dormant vegetative organs (corm, cormel, and stolon) as well as in reproductive organs (stamen), and it is up-regulated by ABA or drought. Complementation analysis reveals that GhABI5 rescues the ABA insensitivity of abi5-3 during seed germination and induces the expression of downstream ABA response genes in Arabidopsis thaliana (EM1, EM6, and RD29B). Down-regulation of GhABI5 in dormant cormels via virus induced gene silence promotes sprouting and reduces the expression of downstream genes (GhLEA and GhRD29B). The results of this study reveal that GhABI5 regulates bud dormancy (vegetative organ) in Gladiolus in addition to its well-studied function in Arabidopsis seeds (reproductive organ). PMID:26579187

  6. Laboratory and field ecophysiological studies on the impact of air pollution on red spruce and Fraser fir

    SciTech Connect

    Tyszko, P.B.

    1991-01-01

    In the first study, red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) and Fraser fir (Abies fraseri (Pursh.) Poir.) seedlings were submitted to long-term multiple growing cycle intermittent ozone fumigations. No effect of ozone exposure on growth and gas exchange of the seedlings was found. Net photosynthesis at saturating light intensity was reduced in both species and the light compensation point was shifted upwards in spruce when exposed to ozone. Fraser fir seedlings showed inconsistent responses of CO{sub 2} curve parameters to ozone exposure. In the second study, the impact of summer exposure to ambient pollutants on winter hardiness in red spruce seedlings was examined. The seedlings were subjected to the following summertime treatments while kept in exclusion chambers on the top of Whitetop Mountain (Virginia): ambient air and clouds, ambient air with clouds excluded, charcoal filtered air, and chamberless control treatment. During the following winter the seedlings were placed in Blacksburg (Virginia), in two locations: in the open and in a shadehouse. A number of conducted tests indicated that there were significant differences in winter damage between the chamber treatments and chamberless control, as well as between the winter exposure locations. Among the summer chamber exposure regimes, the treatment excluding clouds seemed to perform the best. In the third study, the physiology of red spruce trees of various sizes growing on two sites on the top of Whitetop Mtn., was compared and related to ambient ozone concentration. Some seedlings were treated with an antioxidant EDU, to help evaluate the impact of ozone on their physiology.

  7. Life and death of Picea abies after bark-beetle outbreak: ecological processes driving seedling recruitment.

    PubMed

    Macek, Martin; Wild, Jan; Kopecký, Martin; Červenka, Jaroslav; Svoboda, Miroslav; Zenáhlíková, Jitka; Brůna, Josef; Mosandl, Reinhard; Fischer, Anton

    2017-01-01

    The severity and spatial extent of bark-beetle outbreaks substantially increased in recent decades worldwide. The ongoing controversy about natural forest recovery after these outbreaks highlights the need for individual-based long-term studies, which disentangle processes driving forest regeneration. However, such studies have been lacking. To fill this gap, we followed the fates of 2,552 individual seedlings for 12 years after a large-scale bark-beetle outbreak that caused complete canopy dieback in mountain Norway spruce (Picea abies) forests in southeast Germany. We explore the contribution of advance, disturbance-related, and post-disturbance regeneration to forest recovery. Most seedlings originated directly within the three-year dieback of canopy trees induced by bark-beetle outbreak. After complete canopy dieback, the establishment of new seedlings was minimal. Surprisingly, advance regeneration formed only a minor part of all regeneration. However, because it had the highest survival rate, its importance increased over time. The most important factor influencing the survival of seedlings after disturbance was their height. Survival was further modified by microsite: seedlings established on dead wood survived best, whereas almost all seedlings surrounded by graminoids died. For 5 cm tall seedlings, annual mortality ranged from 20 to 50% according to the rooting microsite. However, for seedlings taller than 50 cm, annual mortality was below 5% at all microsites. While microsite modified seedling mortality, it did not affect seedling height growth. A model of regeneration dynamics based on short-term observations accurately predicts regeneration height growth, but substantially underestimates mortality rate, thus predicting more surviving seedlings than were observed. We found that P. abies forests were able to regenerate naturally even after severe bark-beetle outbreaks owing to advance and particularly disturbance-related regeneration. This, together

  8. Development of 32 EST-SSR markers for Abies firma (Pinaceae) and their transferability to related species1

    PubMed Central

    Uchiyama, Kentaro; Fujii, Sayaka; Ishizuka, Wataru; Goto, Susumu; Tsumura, Yoshihiko

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: We developed simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for Abies firma, a conifer endemic in Japan, to facilitate evaluation of the population genetic structure in this species. • Methods and Results: We designed primers for 153 EST-SSRs identified from 486322 ESTs from A. sachalinensis ESTs, and tested 96 of them for PCR amplification. Thirty-two primers provided clear amplification, and 14 of those 32 displayed clear polymorphic patterns in multiple populations of A. firma and in two closely related species. The number of alleles per locus and mean expected heterozygosity ranged from one to six and 0 to 0.476, respectively. • Conclusions: The EST-SSR markers developed in this study may be useful for phylogeography and population genetic studies of A. firma. Successful amplifications were obtained for two other Abies species, suggesting that these markers may also be useful for similar applications in other fir species. PMID:25202517

  9. Phylogenetic relationships, possible ancient hybridization, and biogeographic history of Abies (Pinaceae) based on data from nuclear, plastid, and mitochondrial genomes.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Qiao-Ping; Wei, Ran; Shao, Yi-Zhen; Yang, Zu-Yu; Wang, Xiao-Quan; Zhang, Xian-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Abies, the second largest genus of Pinaceae, consists of approximately 48 species occurring in the north temperate region. Previous molecular phylogenetic studies improved our understanding of relationships within the genus, but were limited by relying on only DNA sequence data from single genome and low taxonomic sampling. Here we use DNA data from three genomes (sequences of internal transcribed spacer of nrITS, three chloroplast DNA intergenic spacers, and two mitochondrial intergenic spacers) from 42 species to elucidate species relationships and construct the biogeographic history of Abies. We further estimated the divergence times of intercontinental disjunction using a relaxed molecular clock calibrated with three macro-fossils. Our phylogenetic analyses recovered six robust clades largely consistent with previous classifications of sections. A sister relationship between the eastern Asian and Europe-Mediterranean clades was highly supported. The monophyly of section Balsamea, disjunct in Far East and western North America, is supported by the nrITS data but not by the cpDNA data. Discordance on placement of section Balsamea between the paternally inherited cpDNA and maternally inherited mtDNA trees was also observed. The data suggested that ancient hybridization was likely involved in the origin of sect. Balsamea. Results from biogeographic analyses and divergence time estimation suggested an origin and early diversification of Abies in an area of high latitude around the Pacific during the Eocene. The present disjunction in eastern Asia and Europe-Mediterranean area of Abies was likely the result of southward migration and isolation by the Turgai Strait in the Late Eocene. An 'out-of-America' migration, for the origin of an eastern Asian and western North American disjunct species pairs in section Amabilis was supported. The results suggested a western North American origin of the section with subsequent dispersal across the Bering Land Bridge (BLB) to

  10. Phylogeny, diversification rates and species boundaries of Mesoamerican firs (Abies, Pinaceae) in a genus-wide context.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Planter, Erika; Jaramillo-Correa, Juan P; Gómez-Acevedo, Sandra; Khasa, Damase P; Bousquet, Jean; Eguiarte, Luis E

    2012-01-01

    The genus Abies is distributed discontinuously in the temperate and subtropical montane forests of the northern hemisphere. In Mesoamerica (Mexico and northern Central America), modern firs originated from the divergence of isolated mountain populations of migrating North American taxa. However, the number of ancestral species, migratory waves and diversification speed of these taxa is unknown. Here, variation in repetitive (Pt30204, Pt63718, and Pt71936) and non-repetitive (rbcL, rps18-rpl20 and trnL-trnF) regions of the chloroplast genome was used to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships of the Mesoamerican Abies in a genus-wide context. These phylogenies and two fossil-calibrated scenarios were further employed to estimate divergence dates and diversification rates within the genus, and to test the hypothesis that, as in many angiosperms, conifers may exhibit accelerated speciation rates in the subtropics. All phylogenies showed five main clusters that mostly agreed with the currently recognized sections of Abies and with the geographic distribution of species. The Mesoamerican taxa formed a single group with species from southwestern North America of sections Oiamel and Grandis. However, populations of the same species were not monophyletic within this group. Divergence of this whole group dated back to the late Paleocene and the early Miocene depending on the calibration used, which translated in very low diversification rates (r(0.0)=0.026-0.054, r(0.9)=0.009-0.019 sp/Ma). Such low rates were a constant along the entire genus, including both the subtropical and temperate taxa. An extended phylogeographic analysis on the Mesoamerican clade indicated that Abies flinckii and A. concolor were the most divergent taxa, while the remaining species (A. durangensis, A. guatemalensis, A. hickelii, A. religiosa and A. vejari) formed a single group. Altogether, these results show that divergence of Mesoamerican firs coincides with a model of environmental stasis and

  11. An Arabidopsis mitochondria-localized RRL protein mediates abscisic acid signal transduction through mitochondrial retrograde regulation involving ABI4.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xuan; Li, Juanjuan; Liu, Jianping; Liu, Kede

    2015-10-01

    The molecular mechanisms of abscisic acid (ABA) signalling have been studied for many years; however, how mitochondria-localized proteins play roles in ABA signalling remains unclear. Here an Arabidopsis mitochondria-localized protein RRL (RETARDED ROOT GROWTH-LIKE) was shown to function in ABA signalling. A previous study had revealed that the Arabidopsis mitochondria-localized protein RRG (RETARDED ROOT GROWTH) is required for cell division in the root meristem. RRL shares 54% and 57% identity at the nucleotide and amino acid sequences, respectively, with RRG; nevertheless, RRL shows a different function in Arabidopsis. In this study, disruption of RRL decreased ABA sensitivity whereas overexpression of RRL increased ABA sensitivity during seed germination and seedling growth. High expression levels of RRL were found in germinating seeds and developing seedlings, as revealed by β-glucuronidase (GUS) staining of ProRRL-GUS transgenic lines. The analyses of the structure and function of mitochondria in the knockout rrl mutant showed that the disruption of RRL causes extensively internally vacuolated mitochondria and reduced ABA-stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Previous studies have revealed that the expression of alternative oxidase (AOX) in the alternative respiratory pathway is increased by mitochondrial retrograde regulation to regain ROS levels when the mitochondrial electron transport chain is impaired. The APETALA2 (AP2)-type transcription factor ABI4 is a regulator of ALTERNATIVE OXIDASE1a (AOX1a) in mitochondrial retrograde signalling. This study showed that ABA-induced AOX1a and ABI4 expression was inhibited in the rrl mutant, suggesting that RRL is probably involved in ABI4-mediated mitochondrial retrograde signalling. Furthermore, the results revealed that ABI4 is a downstream regulatory factor in RRL-mediated ABA signalling in seed germination and seedling growth.

  12. Experimental vs. modeled water use in mature Norway spruce (Picea abies) exposed to elevated CO(2).

    PubMed

    Leuzinger, Sebastian; Bader, Martin K-F

    2012-01-01

    Rising levels of atmospheric CO(2) have often been reported to reduce plant water use. Such behavior is also predicted by standard equations relating photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and atmospheric CO(2) concentration, which form the core of dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs). Here, we provide first results from a free air CO(2) enrichment (FACE) experiment with naturally growing, mature (35 m) Picea abies (L.) (Norway spruce) and compare them to simulations by the DGVM LPJ-GUESS. We monitored sap flow, stem water deficit, stomatal conductance, leaf water potential, and soil moisture in five 35-40 m tall CO(2)-treated (550 ppm) trees over two seasons. Using LPJ-GUESS, we simulated this experiment using climate data from a nearby weather station. While the model predicted a stable reduction of transpiration of between 9% and 18% (at concentrations of 550-700 ppm atmospheric CO(2)), the combined evidence from various methods characterizing water use in our experimental trees suggest no changes in response to future CO(2) concentrations. The discrepancy between the modeled and the experimental results may be a scaling issue: while dynamic vegetation models correctly predict leaf-level responses, they may not sufficiently account for the processes involved at the canopy and ecosystem scale, which could offset the first-order stomatal response.

  13. Growth rate predicts mortality of Abies concolor in both burned and unburned stands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Mantgem, Phillip J.; Stephenson, Nathan L.; Mutch, Linda S.; Johnson, Veronica G.; Esperanza, Annie M.; Parsons, David J.

    2003-01-01

    Tree mortality is often the result of both long-term and short-term stress. Growth rate, an indicator of long-term stress, is often used to estimate probability of death in unburned stands. In contrast, probability of death in burned stands is modeled as a function of short-term disturbance severity. We sought to narrow this conceptual gap by determining (i) whether growth rate, in addition to crown scorch, is a predictor of mortality in burned stands and (ii) whether a single, simple model could predict tree death in both burned and unburned stands. Observations of 2622 unburned and 688 burned Abies concolor (Gord. & Glend.) Lindl. (white fir) in the Sierra Nevada of California, U.S.A., indicated that growth rate was a significant predictor of mortality in the unburned stands, while both crown scorch and radial growth were significant predictors of mortality in the burned stands. Applying the burned stand model to unburned stands resulted in an overestimation of the unburned stand mortality rate. While failing to create a general model of tree death for A. concolor, our findings underscore the idea that similar processes may affect mortality in disturbed and undisturbed stands.

  14. Warming delays autumn declines in photosynthetic capacity in a boreal conifer, Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Stinziano, Joseph R; Hüner, Norman P A; Way, Danielle A

    2015-12-01

    Climate change, via warmer springs and autumns, may lengthen the carbon uptake period of boreal tree species, increasing the potential for carbon sequestration in boreal forests, which could help slow climate change. However, if other seasonal cues such as photoperiod dictate when photosynthetic capacity declines, warmer autumn temperatures may have little effect on when carbon uptake capacity decreases in these species. We investigated whether autumn warming would delay photosynthetic decline in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) by growing seedlings under declining weekly photoperiods and weekly temperatures either at ambient temperature or a warming treatment 4 °C above ambient. Photosynthetic capacity was relatively constant in both treatments when weekly temperatures were >8 °C, but declined rapidly at lower temperatures, leading to a delay in the autumn decline in photosynthetic capacity in the warming treatment. The decline in photosynthetic capacity was not related to changes in leaf nitrogen or chlorophyll concentrations, but was correlated with a decrease in the apparent fraction of leaf nitrogen invested in Rubisco, implicating a shift in nitrogen allocation away from the Calvin cycle at low autumn growing temperatures. Our data suggest that as the climate warms, the period of net carbon uptake will be extended in the autumn for boreal forests dominated by Norway spruce, which could increase total carbon uptake in these forests.

  15. Localization of phenolics in phloem parenchyma cells of Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng-Hong; Nagy, Nina Elisabeth; Hammerbacher, Almuth; Krokene, Paal; Niu, Xue-Mei; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Schneider, Bernd

    2012-12-21

    Norway spruce (Picea abies) bark contains specialized phloem parenchyma cells that swell and change their contents upon attack by the bark beetle Ips typographus and its microbial associate, the blue stain fungus Ceratocystis polonica. These cells exhibit bright autofluorescence after treatment with standard aldehyde fixatives, and so have been postulated to contain phenolic compounds. Laser microdissection of spruce bark sections combined with cryogenic NMR spectroscopy demonstrated significantly higher concentrations of the stilbene glucoside astringin in phloem parenchyma cells than in adjacent sieve cells. After infection by C. polonica, the flavonoid (+)-catechin also appeared in phloem parenchyma cells and there was a decrease in astringin content compared to cells from uninfected trees. Analysis of whole-bark extracts confirmed the results obtained from the cell extracts and revealed a significant increase in dimeric stilbene glucosides, both astringin and isorhapontin derivatives (piceasides A to H), in fungus-infected versus uninfected bark that might explain the reduction in stilbene monomers. Phloem parenchyma cells thus appear to be a principal site of phenolic accumulation in spruce bark.

  16. Patterns of nucleotide diversity at photoperiod related genes in Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst].

    PubMed

    Källman, Thomas; De Mita, Stéphane; Larsson, Hanna; Gyllenstrand, Niclas; Heuertz, Myriam; Parducci, Laura; Suyama, Yoshihisa; Lagercrantz, Ulf; Lascoux, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The ability of plants to track seasonal changes is largely dependent on genes assigned to the photoperiod pathway, and variation in those genes is thereby important for adaptation to local day length conditions. Extensive physiological data in several temperate conifer species suggest that populations are adapted to local light conditions, but data on the genes underlying this adaptation are more limited. Here we present nucleotide diversity data from 19 genes putatively involved in photoperiodic response in Norway spruce (Picea abies). Based on similarity to model plants the genes were grouped into three categories according to their presumed position in the photoperiod pathway: photoreceptors, circadian clock genes, and downstream targets. An HKA (Hudson, Kreitman and Aquade) test showed a significant excess of diversity at photoreceptor genes, but no departure from neutrality at circadian genes and downstream targets. Departures from neutrality were also tested with Tajima's D and Fay and Wu's H statistics under three demographic scenarios: the standard neutral model, a population expansion model, and a more complex population split model. Only one gene, the circadian clock gene PaPRR3 with a highly positive Tajima's D value, deviates significantly from all tested demographic scenarios. As the PaPRR3 gene harbours multiple non-synonymous variants it appears as an excellent candidate gene for control of photoperiod response in Norway spruce.

  17. Norway spruce (Picea abies) laccases: characterization of a laccase in a lignin-forming tissue culture.

    PubMed

    Koutaniemi, Sanna; Malmberg, Heli A; Simola, Liisa K; Teeri, Teemu H; Kärkönen, Anna

    2015-04-01

    Secondarily thickened cell walls of water-conducting vessels and tracheids and support-giving sclerenchyma cells contain lignin that makes the cell walls water impermeable and strong. To what extent laccases and peroxidases contribute to lignin biosynthesis in muro is under active evaluation. We performed an in silico study of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) laccases utilizing available genomic data. As many as 292 laccase encoding sequences (genes, gene fragments, and pseudogenes) were detected in the spruce genome. Out of the 112 genes annotated as laccases, 79 are expressed at some level. We isolated five full-length laccase cDNAs from developing xylem and an extracellular lignin-forming cell culture of spruce. In addition, we purified and biochemically characterized one culture medium laccase from the lignin-forming cell culture. This laccase has an acidic pH optimum (pH 3.8-4.2) for coniferyl alcohol oxidation. It has a high affinity to coniferyl alcohol with an apparent Km value of 3.5 μM; however, the laccase has a lower catalytic efficiency (V(max)/K(m)) for coniferyl alcohol oxidation compared with some purified culture medium peroxidases. The properties are discussed in the context of the information already known about laccases/coniferyl alcohol oxidases of coniferous plants.

  18. Metabolite profiling reveals clear metabolic changes during somatic embryo development of Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Businge, Edward; Brackmann, Klaus; Moritz, Thomas; Egertsdotter, Ulrika

    2012-02-01

    Progress on industrial-scale propagation of conifers by somatic embryogenesis has been hampered by the differences in developmental capabilities between cell lines, which are limiting the capture of genetic gains from breeding programs. In this study, we investigated the metabolic events occurring during somatic embryo development in Norway spruce to establish a better understanding of the fundamental metabolic events required for somatic embryo development. Three embryogenic cell lines of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) with different developmental capabilities were studied during somatic embryo development from proliferation of proembryogenic masses to mature somatic embryos. The three different cell lines displayed normal, aberrant and blocked somatic embryo development. Metabolite profiles from four development stages in each of the cell lines were obtained using combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Multivariate discriminant analyses of the metabolic data revealed significant metabolites (P  ≤  0.05) for each development stage and transition. The results suggest that endogenous auxin and sugar signaling affects initial stages of somatic embryo development. Furthermore, the results highlight the importance of a timed stress response and the presence of stimulatory metabolites during late stages of embryo development.

  19. Conserved function of core clock proteins in the gymnosperm Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst).

    PubMed

    Karlgren, Anna; Gyllenstrand, Niclas; Källman, Thomas; Lagercrantz, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    From studies of the circadian clock in the plant model species Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), a number of important properties and components have emerged. These include the genes CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED 1 (CCA1), GIGANTEA (GI), ZEITLUPE (ZTL) and TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1 (TOC1 also known as PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR 1 (PRR1)) that via gene expression feedback loops participate in the circadian clock. Here, we present results from ectopic expression of four Norway spruce (Picea abies) putative homologs (PaCCA1, PaGI, PaZTL and PaPRR1) in Arabidopsis, their flowering time, circadian period length, red light response phenotypes and their effect on endogenous clock genes were assessed. For PaCCA1-ox and PaZTL-ox the results were consistent with Arabidopsis lines overexpressing the corresponding Arabidopsis genes. For PaGI consistent results were obtained when expressed in the gi2 mutant, while PaGI and PaPRR1 expressed in wild type did not display the expected phenotypes. These results suggest that protein function of PaCCA1, PaGI and PaZTL are at least partly conserved compared to Arabidopsis homologs, however further studies are needed to reveal the protein function of PaPRR1. Our data suggest that components of the three-loop network typical of the circadian clock in angiosperms were present before the split of gymnosperms and angiosperms.

  20. Transcriptional responses of Norway spruce (Picea abies) inner sapwood against Heterobasidion parviporum.

    PubMed

    Oliva, J; Rommel, S; Fossdal, C G; Hietala, A M; Nemesio-Gorriz, M; Solheim, H; Elfstrand, M

    2015-09-01

    The white-rot fungus Heterobasidion parviporum Niemelä & Korhonen establishes a necrotrophic interaction with Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H.Karst.) causing root and butt rot and growth losses in living trees. The interaction occurs first with the bark and the outer sapwood, as the pathogen enters the tree via wounds or root-to-root contacts. Later, when the fungus reaches the heartwood, it spreads therein creating a decay column, and the interaction mainly occurs in the inner sapwood where the tree creates a reaction zone. While bark and outer sapwood interactions are well studied, little is known about the nature of the transcriptional responses leading to the creation of a reaction zone. In this study, we sampled bark and sapwood both proximal and distal to the reaction zone in artificially inoculated and naturally infected trees. We quantified gene expression levels of candidate genes in secondary metabolite, hormone biosynthesis and signalling pathways using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. An up-regulation of mainly the phenylpropanoid pathway and jasmonic acid biosynthesis was found at the inoculation site, when inoculations were compared with wounding. We found that transcriptional responses in inner sapwood were similar to those reported upon infection through the bark. Our data suggest that the defence mechanism is induced due to direct fungal contact irrespective of the tissue type. Understanding the nature of these interactions is important when considering tree breeding-based resistance strategies to reduce the spread of the pathogen between and within trees.

  1. Branch growth and biomass allocation in Abies amabilis saplings in contrasting light environments.

    PubMed

    King, D A

    1997-04-01

    Aboveground biomass allocation, and height and branch growth were studied in saplings of the shade-tolerant conifer, Abies amabilis Dougl. ex Forbes growing in large openings and in the understory of an old-growth forest in western Oregon. The presence of annual overwintering budscale scars was used to infer extension growth histories; annual growth rings in branches and stems were used in combination with extension histories to compute partitioning of new biomass among leaves, branches and stems. Saplings growing in large gaps had conical crowns, whereas understory saplings had umbrella shaped crowns as a result of much greater rates of branch extension than stem extension. Understory saplings grew slowly in height because of low rates of biomass production and low allocation of biomass to stem extension. About 40% of new biomass was allocated to foliage in both groups, but understory saplings allocated more of the remaining growth increment to branches and less to stem than did saplings growing in large gaps. These results differ from the patterns observed in shade-tolerant saplings of tropical forests, where allocation to foliage increases with shading and branch allocation is much lower than observed here. This difference in allocation may reflect mechanical constraints imposed by snow loads on the evergreen A. amabilis crowns, particularly on flat-crowned understory saplings.

  2. Resonance wood [Picea abies (L.) Karst.]--evaluation and prediction of violin makers' quality-grading.

    PubMed

    Buksnowitz, Christoph; Teischinger, Alfred; Müller, Ulrich; Pahler, Andreas; Evans, Robert

    2007-04-01

    The definition of quality in the field of resonance wood for musical instrument making has attracted considerable interest over decades but has remained incomplete. The current work compares the traditional knowledge and practical experience of violin makers with a material-science approach to objectively characterize the properties of resonance wood. Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] has earned a very high reputation for the construction of resonance tops of stringed instruments and resonance boards of keyboard instruments, and was therefore chosen as the focus of the investigation. The samples were obtained from numerous renowned resonance wood regions in the European Alps and cover the whole range of available qualities. A set of acoustical, anatomical, mechanical and optical material properties was measured on each sample. These measurements were compared with subjective quality grading by violin makers, who estimated the acoustical, optical and overall suitability for violin making. Multiple linear regression models were applied to evaluate the predictability of the subjective grading using the measured material characteristics as predictors. The results show that luthiers are able to estimate wood quality related to visible features, but predictions of mechanical and acoustical properties proved to be very poor.

  3. Comparison of phloem and xylem hydraulic architecture in Picea abies stems.

    PubMed

    Jyske, Tuula; Hölttä, Teemu

    2015-01-01

    The hydraulic properties of xylem and phloem differ but the magnitude and functional consequences of the differences are not well understood. Phloem and xylem functional areas, hydraulic conduit diameters and conduit frequency along the stems of Picea abies trees were measured and expressed as allometric functions of stem diameter and distance from stem apex. Conductivities of phloem and xylem were estimated from these scaling relations. Compared with xylem, phloem conduits were smaller and occupied a slightly larger fraction of conducting tissue area. Ten times more xylem than phloem was annually produced along the stem. Scaling of the conduit diameters and cross-sectional areas with stem diameter were very similar in phloem and xylem. Phloem and xylem conduits scaled also similarly with distance from stem apex; widening downwards from the tree top, and reaching a plateau near the base of the living crown. Phloem conductivity was estimated to scale similarly to the conductivity of the outermost xylem ring, with the ratio of phloem to xylem conductivity being c. 2%. However, xylem conductivity was estimated to increase more than phloem conductivity with increasing tree dimensions as a result of accumulation of xylem sapwood. Phloem partly compensated for its smaller conducting area and narrower conduits by having a slightly higher conduit frequency.

  4. Diverse ecological roles within fungal communities in decomposing logs of Picea abies.

    PubMed

    Ottosson, Elisabet; Kubartová, Ariana; Edman, Mattias; Jönsson, Mari; Lindhe, Anders; Stenlid, Jan; Dahlberg, Anders

    2015-03-01

    Fungal communities in Norway spruce (Picea abies) logs in two forests in Sweden were investigated by 454-sequence analyses and by examining the ecological roles of the detected taxa. We also investigated the relationship between fruit bodies and mycelia in wood and whether community assembly was affected by how the dead wood was formed. Fungal communities were highly variable in terms of phylogenetic composition and ecological roles: 1910 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were detected; 21% were identified to species level. In total, 58% of the OTUs were ascomycetes and 31% basidiomycetes. Of the 231 337 reads, 38% were ascomycetes and 60% basidiomycetes. Ecological roles were assigned to 35% of the OTUs, accounting for 62% of the reads. Wood-decaying fungi were the most common group; however, other saprotrophic, mycorrhizal, lichenized, parasitic and endophytic fungi were also common. Fungal communities in logs formed by stem breakage were different to those in logs originating from butt breakage or uprooting. DNA of specific species was detected in logs many years after the last recorded fungal fruiting. Combining taxonomic identification with knowledge of ecological roles may provide valuable insights into properties of fungal communities; however, precise ecological information about many fungal species is still lacking.

  5. Groundwater quality assessment using geoelectrical and geochemical approaches: case study of Abi area, southeastern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebong, Ebong D.; Akpan, Anthony E.; Emeka, Chimezie N.; Urang, Job G.

    2016-06-01

    The electrical resistivity technique which involved the Schlumberger depth sounding method and geochemical analyses of water samples collected from boreholes was used to investigate the suitability of groundwater aquifers in Abi for drinking and irrigation purposes. Fifty randomly located electrical resistivity data were collected, modeled, and interpreted after calibration with lithologic logs. Ten borehole water samples were collected and analysed to determine anion, cation concentrations and some physical and chemical parameters, such as water colour, temperature, total dissolved solids, and electrical conductivity. The results show that the lithostratigraphy of the study area is composed of sands, sandstones (fractured, consolidated and loosed), siltstones, shales (compacted and fractured) of the Asu River Group, Eze-Aku Formation which comprises the aquifer units, and the Nkporo Shale Formation. The aquifer conduits are known to be rich in silicate minerals, and the groundwater samples in some locations show a significant amount of Ca2+, Mg2+, and Na+. These cations balanced the consumption of H+ during the hydrolytic alteration of silicate minerals. The geochemical analysis of groundwater samples revealed dominant calcium-magnesium-carbonate-bicarbonate water facies. Irrigation water quality parameters, such as sodium absorption ratio, percentage of sodium, and permeability index, were calculated based on the physico-chemical analyses. The groundwater quality was observed to be influenced by the interaction of some geologic processes but was classified to be good to excellent, indicating its suitability for domestic and irrigation purposes.

  6. Species delimitation and biogeography of two fir species (Abies) in central China: cytoplasmic DNA variation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, J; Abbott, R J; Peng, Y L; Du, F K; Liu, J-Q

    2011-01-01

    It remains unclear how speciation history might contribute to species-specific variation and affect species delimitation. We examined concordance between cytoplasmic genetic variation and morphological taxonomy in two fir species, Abies chensiensis and A. fargesii, with overlapping distributions in central China. Range-wide genetic variation was investigated using mitochondrial (mt) and plastid (pt) DNA sequences, which contrast in their rates of gene flow. Four mtDNA haplotypes were recovered and showed no obvious species' bias in terms of relative frequency. In contrast, a high level of ptDNA variation was recorded in both species with 3 common ptDNA haplotypes shared between them and 21 rare ptDNA haplotypes specific to one or other species. We argue that the lack of concordance between morphological and molecular variation between the two fir species most likely reflects extensive ancestral polymorphism sharing for both forms of cytoplasmic DNA variation. It is feasible that a relatively fast mutation rate for ptDNA contributed to the production of many species-specific ptDNA haplotypes, which remained rare due to insufficient time passing for their spread and fixation in either species, despite high levels of intraspecific ptDNA gene flow. Our phylogeographic analyses further suggest that polymorphisms in both organelle genomes most likely originated during and following glacial intervals preceding the last glacial maximum, when species distributions became fragmented into several refugia and then expanded in range across central China. PMID:21448232

  7. Antioxidants and Manganese Deficiency in Needles of Norway Spruce (Picea abies L.) Trees 1

    PubMed Central

    Polle, Andrea; Chakrabarti, Krisanu; Chakrabarti, Sila; Seifert, Friederike; Schramel, Peter; Rennenberg, Heinz

    1992-01-01

    Chlorotic and green needles from Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) trees were sampled in the Calcareous Bavarian Alps in winter. The needles were used for analysis of the mineral and pigment contents, the levels of antioxidants (ascorbate, glutathione), and the activities of protective enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, monodehydroascorbate radical reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase, glutathione reductase). In addition, the activities of two respiratory enzymes (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, NAD-malate dehydrogenase), which might provide the NADPH necessary for functioning of the antioxidative system, were determined. We found that chlorotic needles were severely manganese deficient (3 to 6 micrograms Mn per gram dry weight as compared with up to 190 micrograms Mn per gram dry weight in green needles) but had a similar dry weight to fresh weight ratio, had a similar protein content, and showed no evidence for enhanced lipid peroxidation as compared with green needles. In chlorotic needles, the level of total ascorbate and the activities of superoxide dismutase, monodehydroascorbate radical reductase, NAD-malate dehydrogenase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were significantly increased, whereas the levels of ascorbate peroxidase, dehydroascorbate reductase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione were not affected. The ratio of ascorbate to dehydroascorbate was similar in both green and chlorotic needles. These results suggest that in spruce needles monodehydroascorbate radical reductase is the key enzyme involved in maintaining ascorbate in its reduced state. The reductant necessary for this process may have been supplied at the expense of photosynthate. PMID:16668974

  8. Sydowia polyspora associated with current season needle necrosis (CSNN) on true fir (Abies spp.).

    PubMed

    Talgø, Venche; Chastagner, Gary; Thomsen, Iben Margrete; Cech, Thomas; Riley, Kathy; Lange, Kurt; Klemsdal, Sonja Sletner; Stensvand, Arne

    2010-07-01

    Current season needle necrosis (CSNN) has been a serious foliage disorder on true fir Christmas trees and bough material in Europe and North America for more than 25y. Approximately 2-4 weeks after bud break, needles develop chlorotic spots or bands that later turn necrotic. The symptoms have been observed on noble fir (Abies procera), Nordmann fir (A. nordmanniana) and grand fir (A. grandis) on both continents. CSNN was reported as a physiological disorder with unknown aetiology from USA, Denmark, and Ireland, but was associated with the fungus Kabatina abietis in Germany, Austria and Norway. In 2007, a fungus that morphologically resembled K. abietis was isolated from symptomatic needle samples from Nordmann fir from Austria, Denmark, Germany, Norway, and USA. Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal DNA of these cultures, plus a K. abietis reference culture from Germany (CBS 248.93), resulted in Hormonema dematioides, the imperfect stage of Sydowia polyspora, and thus the taxonomy is further discussed. Inoculation tests on Nordmann fir seedlings and transplants with isolates of S. polyspora from all five countries resulted in the development of CSNN symptoms. In 2009, S. polyspora was also isolated from symptomatic needles from Nordmann fir collected in Slovakia.

  9. Physiology and growth of advance Picea rubens and Abies balsamea regeneration following different canopy openings.

    PubMed

    Dumais, Daniel; Prévost, Marcel

    2014-02-01

    We examined the ecophysiology and growth of 0.3-1.3 m tall advance red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) and balsam fir (Abies balsamea [L.] Mill.) regeneration during a 5-year period following the application of different harvest types producing three sizes of canopy openings: (i) small gaps (<100 m(2) in area; SMA) created by partial uniform single-tree harvest; (ii) irregular gaps of intermediate size (100-300 m(2); INT) created by group-selection harvest (removal of groups of trees, mainly balsam fir, with uniform partial removal between groups); and (iii) large circular gaps (700 m(2); LAR) created by patch-selection harvest (removal of trees in 30-m diameter circular areas with uniform partial removal between gaps). An unharvested control (CON) was monitored for comparison. At the ecophysiological level, we mainly found differences in light-saturated photosynthesis of red spruce and specific leaf area of balsam fir among treatments. Consequently, we observed good height growth of both species in CON and INT, but fir surpassed spruce in SMA and LAR. Results suggest that intermediate 100-300 m(2) irregular openings create microenvironmental conditions that may promote short-term ecophysiology and growth of red spruce, allowing the species to compete with balsam fir advance regeneration. Finally, results observed for spruce in large 700-m(2) openings confirm its inability to grow as rapidly as fir in comparable open conditions.

  10. A Molecular Fraction Collecting Tool for the ABI 310 Automated Sequencer

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ming-Tseh; Rich, Roy G.; Shipley, Royce F.; Hafez, Michael J.; Tseng, Li-Hui; Murphy, Kathleen M.; Gocke, Christopher D.; Eshleman, James R.

    2007-01-01

    Several methods exist to retrieve and purify DNA fragments after agarose or polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for subsequent analyses. However, molecules present in low concentration and molecules similar in size to their neighbors are difficult to purify. Capillary electrophoresis has become popular in molecular diagnostic laboratories because of its automation, excellent resolution, and high sensitivity. In the current study, the ABI Prism 310 Genetic Analyzer was reconfigured into a fraction collector by adapting the standard gel block to accommodate a collection tube at the distal end of capillary. The time to collect the desired peaks was estimated by extrapolating from standard capillary electrophoresis using the original gel block. Fraction collection from a mixture of DNA fragments amplified from wild type and several internal tandem duplication mutations of the FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (Flt3) gene yielded highly purified DNA fragments containing internal tandem duplication mutations and predictable electrokinetics using the reconstructed gel block. The reconfigured instrument could successfully isolate DNA amplicons from extremely low-amplitude peaks (110 relative fluorescent units), which were undetectable using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In addition, we successfully isolated bands that were only three bases apart that comigrated on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. DNA sequencing was used to confirm that the correct peaks were recovered at sufficient purity. PMID:17916601

  11. Cytogenetic and molecular characterization of the Abies alba genome and its relationship with other members of the Pinaceae.

    PubMed

    Puizina, J; Sviben, T; Krajacić-Sokol, I; Zoldos-Pećnik, V; Siljak-Yakovlev, S; Papes, D; Besendorfer, V

    2008-03-01

    Genome size, karyotype structure, heterochromatin distribution, position and number of ribosomal genes, as well as the ITS2 sequence of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) were analysed in silver fir (Abies alba Mill.). The analysis also included characterization of the Arabidopsis-type of telomeric repeats in silver fir and in related species. The results were compared with results from other species of the Pinaceae, to evaluate phylogeny and chromosomal and molecular evolution in the Pinaceae. Integrated chromosomal data provided insights into chromosome and karyotype evolution in the Pinaceae. The evolutionary trend for GC-rich heterochromatic blocks seems to involve loss of blocks that are not associated with rDNA. Similarly, numerous large blocks of interstitial plant telomeric repeats that are typical for all analysed species of the genus Pinus were not observed in the evolutionarily younger genera, such as Abies, Picea and Larix. On the contrary, the majority of telomeric sequences in these three genera appeared confined to the chromosome ends. We confirmed the current position of Abies and Tsuga in subfamily Abietoideae and the position of Pinus in the subfamily Pinoideae based on ITS2 sequences. Pseudotsuga is placed together with Larix into the subfamily Laricoideae. We conclude that the current position of the genus Picea in the subfamily Abietoideae should be reconsidered and, possibly, the genus Picea should be reclassified as a separate subfamily, Piceoideae, as recently proposed.

  12. General Toxicity and Antifungal Activity of a New Dental Gel with Essential Oil from Abies Sibirica L

    PubMed Central

    Noreikaitė, Aurelija; Ayupova, Rizvangul; Satbayeva, Elmira; Seitaliyeva, Aida; Amirkulova, Marzhan; Pichkhadze, Guram; Datkhayev, Ubaidilla; Stankeviandccaron;ius, Edgaras

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to analyze the antifungal activity and the general toxicity of a new dental gel containing essential oil from the tree Abies sibirica L., which grows in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Material/Methods The essential oil from Abies sibirica L. was obtained by microwave heating method using the STARTE Microwave Extraction System. Adjutants used to prepare the oil were carbomer 974P, glycerin, polysorbate 80, xylitol, triethanolamine, and purified water, all allowed for medical usage. The antifungal activity of the essential oil was assessed by monitoring the optical density of Candida albicans in a microplate reader. The safety was determined by analyzing the acute and subacute toxicity. Results The essential oil obtained by the microwave heating method revealed a higher antifungal activity in comparison with the essential oil obtained by the steam distillation method. No obvious changes were detected in guinea pigs following cutaneous application of the gel. Enteral administration of the essential oil caused minimal functional and histological changes in mice after 4 weeks. The new harmless dental gel containing pine oil from Abies sibirica L. was provided for the purposes of this particular clinical research. Conclusions The high antifungal activity of the gel is the basis for more in-depth studies on its safety and pharmacological activity. PMID:28132065

  13. General Toxicity and Antifungal Activity of a New Dental Gel with Essential Oil from Abies Sibirica L.

    PubMed

    Noreikaitė, Aurelija; Ayupova, Rizvangul; Satbayeva, Elmira; Seitaliyeva, Aida; Amirkulova, Marzhan; Pichkhadze, Guram; Datkhayev, Ubaidilla; Stankevičius, Edgaras

    2017-01-29

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to analyze the antifungal activity and the general toxicity of a new dental gel containing essential oil from the tree Abies sibirica L., which grows in the Republic of Kazakhstan. MATERIAL AND METHODS The essential oil from Abies sibirica L. was obtained by microwave heating method using the STARTE Microwave Extraction System. Adjutants used to prepare the oil were carbomer 974P, glycerin, polysorbate 80, xylitol, triethanolamine, and purified water, all allowed for medical usage. The antifungal activity of the essential oil was assessed by monitoring the optical density of Candida albicans in a microplate reader. The safety was determined by analyzing the acute and subacute toxicity. RESULTS The essential oil obtained by the microwave heating method revealed a higher antifungal activity in comparison with the essential oil obtained by the steam distillation method. No obvious changes were detected in guinea pigs following cutaneous application of the gel. Enteral administration of the essential oil caused minimal functional and histological changes in mice after 4 weeks. The new harmless dental gel containing pine oil from Abies sibirica L. was provided for the purposes of this particular clinical research. CONCLUSIONS The high antifungal activity of the gel is the basis for more in-depth studies on its safety and pharmacological activity.

  14. Apoplastic Peroxidases and Lignification in Needles of Norway Spruce (Picea abies L.).

    PubMed Central

    Polle, A.; Otter, T.; Seifert, F.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the correlation of soluble apoplastic peroxidase activity with lignification in needles of field-grown Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) trees. Apoplastic peroxidases (EC 1.11.1.7) were obtained by vacuum infiltration of needles. The lignin content of isolated cell walls was determined by the acetyl bromide method. Accumulation of lignin and seasonal variations of apoplastic peroxidase activities were studied in the first year of needle development. The major phase of lignification started after bud break and was terminated about 4 weeks later. This phase correlated with a transient increase in apoplastic guaiacol and coniferyl alcohol peroxidase activity. NADH oxidase activity, which is thought to sustain peroxidase activity by production of H2O2, peaked sharply after bud break and decreased during the lignification period. Histochemical localization of peroxidase with guaiacol indicated that high activities were present in lignifying cell walls. In mature needles, lignin was localized in walls of most needle tissues including mesophyll cells, and corresponded to 80 to 130 [mu]mol lignin monomers/g needle dry weight. Isoelectric focusing of apoplastic washing fluids and activity staining with guaiacol showed the presence of strongly alkaline peroxidases (isoelectric point [greater than or equal to] 9) in all developmental stages investigated. New isozymes with isoelectric points of 7.1 and 8.1 appeared during the major phase of lignification. These isozymes disappeared after lignification was terminated. A strong increase in peroxidase activity in autumn was associated with the appearance of acidic peroxidases (isoelectric point [less than or equal to] 3). These results suggest that soluble alkaline apoplastic peroxidases participate in lignin formation. Soluble acidic apoplastic peroxidases were apparently unrelated to developmentally regulated lignification in spruce needles. PMID:12232302

  15. Isoprene and terpenoid emissions from Abies alba: Identification and emission rates under ambient conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokorska, Olga; Dewulf, Jo; Amelynck, Crist; Schoon, Niels; Šimpraga, Maja; Steppe, Kathy; Van Langenhove, Herman

    2012-11-01

    In this study, biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from Abies alba were studied under ambient conditions in Flanders (Belgium). Emission patterns and rates were investigated from April till November 2010 by using the dynamic branch enclosure technique. The present work revealed that A. alba is an isoprene emitter, with isoprene accounting for 86-93% of total BVOC emissions, except during budburst (67%) in May. The emission spectrum of A. alba consisted of 27 compounds. Next to isoprene, the main emitted compounds were α-pinene, β-pinene, camphene and limonene. BVOC emissions showed a peak in June after development of the young needles, followed by a constant emission during summer months and September and a decrease in October. In all the samples isoprene was the most abundant compound with standardized emission rates between 27 μg g(dw)-1 h-1 in June and 4.6 μg g(dw)-1 h-1 in October, while the total standardized terpenoid emission rates ranged from 2.85 μg g(dw)-1 h-1 in June to 0.26 μg g(dw)-1 h-1 in October. The obtained average β coefficients according to the temperature dependent algorithm of Guenther et al. (1993) during April-June, July, August and September-October were as follows: for terpenoids 0.12 ± 0.03, 0.11 ± 0.05, 0.12 ± 0.04, 0.24 ± 0.01 K-1 and sesquiterpenes (SQTs) 0.09 ± 0.02, 0.11 ± 0.01, 0.10 ± 0.05, 0 K-1, respectively. Overall, isoprene detected in this study was never quantified in previous studies on A. alba and this finding could have a significant impact on the regional BVOCs budget. Therefore, the result of this study is very important for modeling and local air quality.

  16. Temporal variations of mobile carbohydrates in Abies fargesii at the upper tree limits.

    PubMed

    Dang, H S; Zhang, K R; Zhang, Q F; Xu, Y M

    2015-01-01

    Low temperatures are associated high-altitude treelines, but the functional mechanism of treeline formation remains controversial. The relative contributions of carbon limitation (source activity) and growth limitation (sink activity) require more tests across taxa and regions. We examined temporal variations of mobile carbon supply in different tissues of Abies fargesii across treeline ecotones on north- and south-facing slopes of the Qinling Mountains, China. Non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) concentrations in tissues along the altitudinal gradient on both slopes changed significantly in the early and late growing season, but not in the mid-growing season, indicating the season-dependent carbon supply status. Late in the growing season on both slopes, trees at the upper limits had the highest NSC concentrations and total soluble sugars and lowest starch concentrations compared to trees at the lower elevations. NSC concentrations tended to increase in needles and branches throughout the growing season with increasing elevation on both slopes, but declined in roots and stems. NSC concentrations across sampling dates also indicated increases in needles and branches, and decreases in roots and stem with increasing elevation. Overall altitudinal trends of NSC in A. fargesii revealed no depletion of mobile carbon reserves at upper elevation limits, suggesting limitation of sink activity dominates tree life across treeline ecotones in both north- and south-facing slopes. Carbon reserves in storage tissues (especially roots) in the late growing season might also play an important role in winter survival and early growth in spring at upper elevations on both slopes, which define the uppermost limit of A. fargesii.

  17. Effects of tree architecture on pollen dispersal and mating patterns in Abies pinsapo Boiss. (Pinaceae).

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Robles, Jose M; García-Castaño, Juan L; Balao, Francisco; Terrab, Anass; Navarro-Sampedro, Laura; Tremetsberger, Karin; Talavera, Salvador

    2014-12-01

    Plant architecture is crucial to pollination and mating in wind-pollinated species. We investigated the effect of crown architecture on pollen dispersal, mating system and offspring quality, combining phenotypic and genotypic analyses in a low-density population of the endangered species Abies pinsapo. A total of 598 embryos from three relative crown height levels (bottom, middle and top) in five mother plants were genotyped using eleven nuclear microsatellite markers (nSSRs). Paternity analysis and mating system models were used to infer mating and pollen dispersal parameters. In addition, seeds were weighed (N = 16 110) and germinated (N = 736), and seedling vigour was measured to assess inbreeding depression. Overall, A. pinsapo shows a fat-tailed dispersal kernel, with an average pollen dispersal distance of 113-227 m, an immigration rate of 0.84-26.92%, and a number of effective pollen donors (Nep ) ranging between 3.5 and 11.9. We found an effect of tree height and relative crown height levels on mating parameters. A higher proportion of seeds with embryo (about 50%) and a higher rate of self-fertilization (about 60%) were found at the bottom level in comparison with the top level. Seed weight and seedling vigour are positively related. Nevertheless, no differences were found in seed weight or in seedling-related variables such as weight and length of aerial and subterranean parts among the different relative crown height levels, suggesting that seeds from the more strongly inbred bottom level are not affected by inbreeding depression. Our results point to vertical isotropy for outcross-pollen and they suggest that self-pollen may ensure fertilization when outcross-pollen is not available in low-density population.

  18. Differential Gene Expression Reveals Candidate Genes for Drought Stress Response in Abies alba (Pinaceae).

    PubMed

    Behringer, David; Zimmermann, Heike; Ziegenhagen, Birgit; Liepelt, Sascha

    2015-01-01

    Increasing drought periods as a result of global climate change pose a threat to many tree species by possibly outpacing their adaptive capabilities. Revealing the genetic basis of drought stress response is therefore implemental for future conservation strategies and risk assessment. Access to informative genomic regions is however challenging, especially for conifers, partially due to their large genomes, which puts constraints on the feasibility of whole genome scans. Candidate genes offer a valuable tool to reduce the complexity of the analysis and the amount of sequencing work and costs. For this study we combined an improved drought stress phenotyping of needles via a novel terahertz water monitoring technique with Massive Analysis of cDNA Ends to identify candidate genes for drought stress response in European silver fir (Abies alba Mill.). A pooled cDNA library was constructed from the cotyledons of six drought stressed and six well-watered silver fir seedlings, respectively. Differential expression analyses of these libraries revealed 296 candidate genes for drought stress response in silver fir (247 up- and 49 down-regulated) of which a subset was validated by RT-qPCR of the twelve individual cotyledons. A majority of these genes code for currently uncharacterized proteins and hint on new genomic resources to be explored in conifers. Furthermore, we could show that some traditional reference genes from model plant species (GAPDH and eIF4A2) are not suitable for differential analysis and we propose a new reference gene, TPC1, for drought stress expression profiling in needles of conifer seedlings.

  19. Does carbon availability control temporal dynamics of radial growth in Norway spruce (Picea abies)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberhuber, Walter; Gruber, Andreas; Swidrak, Irene

    2015-04-01

    Intra-annual dynamics of cambial activity and wood formation of coniferous species exposed to soil dryness revealed early culmination of maximum growth in late spring prior to occurrence of more favourable environmental conditions, i.e., repeated high rainfall events during summer (Oberhuber et al. 2014). Because it is well known that plants can adjust carbon allocation patterns to optimize resource uptake under prevailing environmental constraints, we hypothesize that early decrease in radial stem growth is an adaptation to cope with drought stress, which might require an early switch of carbon allocation to belowground organs. Physical blockage of carbon transport in the phloem through girdling causes accumulation and depletion of carbohydrates above and below the girdle, respectively, making this method quite appropriate to investigate carbon relationships in trees. Hence, in a common garden experiment we will manipulate the carbon status of Norway spruce (Picea abies) saplings by phloem blockage at different phenological stages during the growing season. We will present the methodological approach and first results of the study aiming to test the hypothesis that carbon status of the tree affects temporal dynamics of cambial activity and wood formation in conifers under drought. Acknowledgment The research is funded by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF): P25643-B16 "Carbon allocation and growth of Scots pine". Reference Oberhuber W, A Gruber, W Kofler, I Swidrak (2014) Radial stem growth in response to microclimate and soil moisture in a drought-prone mixed coniferous forest at an inner Alpine site. Eur J For Res 133:467-479.

  20. Biomass and nutrient concentrations of sporocarps produced by mycorrhizal and decomposer fungi in Abies amabilis stands.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Kristiina A; Edmonds, Robert L; Grier, Charles C

    1981-08-01

    Sporocarps and sclerotia were collected for a one-year period in 23- and 180-year-old Abies amabilis stands in western Washington. All sporocarps were classified and chemically analyzed for N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na and Fe. Lactarius sp. and Cortinarius sp. contributed the largest proportion of the total annual epigeous sporocarp production in both stands. Annual epigeous production was 34 kg/ha in the young stand and 27 kg/ha in the mature stand. Hypogeous sporocarp production increased from 1 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) to 380 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) with increasing stand age. High sclerotia biomass occurred in the young (2,300 kg/ha) and mature (3,000 kg/ha) stands. Peak sclerotia and epigeous sporocarp biomass in the young stand and epigeous and hypogeous sporocarp biomass in the mature stand coincided with the fall peak of mycorrhizal root biomass.In the young stand, sporocarps produced by decomposer fungi concentrated higher levels of Ca and Mn than those produced by mycorrhizal fungi. In the mature stand, sporocarps of decomposer fungi concentrated higher levels of N, P, Mn, Ca and Fe than sporocarps of mycorrhizal fungi. Epigeous and hypogeous sporocarps concentrated higher levels of N, P, and K than sclerotia or mycelium. The highest concentration of N (4.36%), P (0.76%), K (3.22%) and Na (1,678 ppm) occurred in epigeous sporocarps. Highest Mn (740 ppm) and Ca (20,600 ppm) concentrations occurred in mycelium, while highest Mg (1,929 ppm) concentrations were in hypogeous sporocarps and highest Fe (4,153 ppm) concentrations were in sclerotia.

  1. Cardioprotective effects of silver fir (Abies alba) extract in ischemic-reperfused isolated rat hearts

    PubMed Central

    Drevenšek, Gorazd; Lunder, Mojca; Benković, Eva Tavčar; Štrukelj, Borut; Kreft, Samo

    2016-01-01

    Background Silver fir trunk extract (SFTE) is a complex mixture of antioxidative polyphenols (lignans and phenolic acids) from the trunks of silver fir trees (Abies alba, lignum). In our previous study, we have shown that SFTE exerts strong antioxidative and protective effects against atherogenic, diet-induced arterial wall damage. Objective The aim of the present study was to test the potential protective effects of SFTE and its compounds, two phenolic acids (p-coumaric and protocatechuic acids) in ischemia–reperfusion injury of isolated rat hearts. Design Isolated hearts of Wistar rats aged 4–8 weeks were exposed to perfusion, ischemia, and reperfusion periods. The experiments were performed using the following five groups: control, SFTE (10 µg/L), SFTE (100 µg/L), protocatechuic acid, and p-coumaric. Aortas were isolated to measure vascular responses in the presence of Nω-Nitro-L-arginine. Results SFTE dose-dependently reduced ischemic-reperfusion heart damage, which was indicated as the decrease in the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release rate and arrhythmias duration by 80% and an increase in coronary flow rate during the reperfusion period. Two tested compounds (p-coumaric and protocatechuic acids) acted less cardioprotective, since they decreased the duration of arrhythmias only by 40 and 45%, respectively, and did not decrease LDH release rates during the reperfusion period. Only p-coumaric acid increased coronary flow rates, whereas protocatechuic acid did not. Conclusions We conclude that the SFTE exerted the strongest cardioprotective effect, whereas its constituents (the p-coumaric and protocatechuic acids) were less effective in inducing cardioprotection. PMID:27756448

  2. In Planta Localization of Stilbenes within Picea abies Phloem1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Katsushi; Pranovich, Andrey; Roig-Juan, Sílvia; Aoki, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic stilbene glucosides (astringin, isorhapontin, and piceid) and their aglycons commonly accumulate in the phloem of Norway spruce (Picea abies). However, current knowledge about the localization and accumulation of stilbenes within plant tissues and cells remains limited. Here, we used an innovative combination of novel microanalytical techniques to evaluate stilbenes in a frozen-hydrated condition (i.e. in planta) and a freeze-dried condition across phloem tissues. Semiquantitative time-of-flight secondary ion-mass spectrometry imaging in planta revealed that stilbenes were localized in axial parenchyma cells. Quantitative gas chromatography analysis showed the highest stilbene content in the middle of collapsed phloem with decreases toward the outer phloem. The same trend was detected for soluble sugar and water contents. The specimen water content may affect stilbene composition; the glucoside-to-aglycon ratio decreased slightly with decreases in water content. Phloem chemistry was correlated with three-dimensional structures of phloem as analyzed by microtomography. The outer phloem was characterized by a high volume of empty parenchyma, reduced ray volume, and a large number of axial parenchyma with porous vacuolar contents. Increasing porosity from the inner to the outer phloem was related to decreasing compactness of stilbenes and possible secondary oxidation or polymerization. Our results indicate that aging-dependent changes in phloem may reduce cell functioning, which affects the capacity of the phloem to store water and sugar, and may reduce the defense potential of stilbenes in the axial parenchyma. Our results highlight the power of using a combination of techniques to evaluate tissue- and cell-level mechanisms involved in plant secondary metabolite formation and metabolism. PMID:27531441

  3. Differential Gene Expression Reveals Candidate Genes for Drought Stress Response in Abies alba (Pinaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Ziegenhagen, Birgit; Liepelt, Sascha

    2015-01-01

    Increasing drought periods as a result of global climate change pose a threat to many tree species by possibly outpacing their adaptive capabilities. Revealing the genetic basis of drought stress response is therefore implemental for future conservation strategies and risk assessment. Access to informative genomic regions is however challenging, especially for conifers, partially due to their large genomes, which puts constraints on the feasibility of whole genome scans. Candidate genes offer a valuable tool to reduce the complexity of the analysis and the amount of sequencing work and costs. For this study we combined an improved drought stress phenotyping of needles via a novel terahertz water monitoring technique with Massive Analysis of cDNA Ends to identify candidate genes for drought stress response in European silver fir (Abies alba Mill.). A pooled cDNA library was constructed from the cotyledons of six drought stressed and six well-watered silver fir seedlings, respectively. Differential expression analyses of these libraries revealed 296 candidate genes for drought stress response in silver fir (247 up- and 49 down-regulated) of which a subset was validated by RT-qPCR of the twelve individual cotyledons. A majority of these genes code for currently uncharacterized proteins and hint on new genomic resources to be explored in conifers. Furthermore, we could show that some traditional reference genes from model plant species (GAPDH and eIF4A2) are not suitable for differential analysis and we propose a new reference gene, TPC1, for drought stress expression profiling in needles of conifer seedlings. PMID:25924061

  4. Stand-structural effects on Heterobasidion abietinum-related mortality following drought events in Abies pinsapo.

    PubMed

    Linares, Juan Carlos; Camarero, Jesús Julio; Bowker, Matthew A; Ochoa, Victoria; Carreira, José Antonio

    2010-12-01

    Climate change may affect tree-pathogen interactions. This possibility has important implications for drought-prone forests, where stand dynamics and disease pathogenicity are especially sensitive to climatic stress. In addition, stand structural attributes including density-dependent tree-to-tree competition may modulate the stands' resistance to drought events and pathogen outbreaks. To assess the effects of stand structure on root-rot-related mortality after severe droughts, we focused on Heterobasidion abietinum mortality in relict Spanish stands of Abies pinsapo, a drought-sensitive fir. We compared stand attributes and tree spatial patterns in three plots with H. abietinum root-rot disease and three plots without root-rot. Point-pattern analyses were used to investigate the scale and extent of mortality patterns and to test hypotheses related to the spread of the disease. Dendrochronology was used to date the year of death and to assess the association between droughts and growth decline. We applied a structural equation modelling approach to test if tree mortality occurs more rapidly than predicted by a simple distance model when trees are subjected to high tree-to-tree competition and following drought events. Contrary to expectations of drought mortality, the effect of precipitation on the year of death was strong and negative, indicating that a period of high precipitation induced an earlier tree death. Competition intensity, related to the size and density of neighbour trees, also induced an earlier tree death. The effect of distance to the disease focus was negligible except in combination with intensive competition. Our results indicate that infected trees have decreased ability to withstand drought stress, and demonstrate that tree-to-tree competition and fungal infection act as predisposing factors of forest decline and mortality.

  5. Insights into Diterpene Cyclization from Structure of Bifunctional Abietadiene Synthase from Abies grandis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Ke; Gao, Yang; Hoy, Julie A.; Mann, Francis M.; Honzatko, Richard B.; Peters, Reuben J.

    2013-09-24

    Abietadiene synthase from Abies grandis (AgAS) is a model system for diterpene synthase activity, catalyzing class I (ionization-initiated) and class II (protonation-initiated) cyclization reactions. Reported here is the crystal structure of AgAS at 2.3 {angstrom} resolution and molecular dynamics simulations of that structure with and without active site ligands. AgAS has three domains ({alpha}, {beta}, and {gamma}). The class I active site is within the C-terminal {alpha} domain, and the class II active site is between the N-terminal {gamma} and {beta} domains. The domain organization resembles that of monofunctional diterpene synthases and is consistent with proposed evolutionary origins of terpene synthases. Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to determine the effect of substrate binding on enzymatic structure. Although such studies of the class I active site do lead to an enclosed substrate-Mg{sup 2+} complex similar to that observed in crystal structures of related plant enzymes, it does not enforce a single substrate conformation consistent with the known product stereochemistry. Simulations of the class II active site were more informative, with observation of a well ordered external loop migration. This 'loop-in' conformation not only limits solvent access but also greatly increases the number of conformational states accessible to the substrate while destabilizing the nonproductive substrate conformation present in the 'loop-out' conformation. Moreover, these conformational changes at the class II active site drive the substrate toward the proposed transition state. Docked substrate complexes were further assessed with regard to the effects of site-directed mutations on class I and II activities.

  6. Evaluation of growth disturbances of Picea abies (L.) Karst. to disturbances caused by landslide movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šilhán, Karel

    2017-01-01

    Dendrogeomorphic methods are frequently used in landslide analyses. Although methods of landslide dating based on tree rings are well developed, they still indicated many questions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequently used theoretical scheme based on the event-response relationship. Seventy-four individuals of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) exhibiting visible external disturbance, were sampled on the Girová landslide (the largest historical flow-like landslide in the Czech Republic). This landslide reactivated in May 2010, and post-landslide tree growth responses were studied in detail. These growth responses were compared with the intensity and occurrence of visible external tree disturbance: tilted stems, damaged root systems, and decapitation. Twenty-nine trees (39.2%) died within one to four years following the 2010 landslide movement. The trees that died following the landslide movement were significantly younger and displayed significantly greater stem tilting than the live trees. Abrupt growth suppression was a more-frequent response among the dead trees, whereas growth release dominated among the live trees. Only two trees (2.7%) created no reaction wood in response to the landslide movement. Forty-four percent of the trees started to produce reaction wood structure after a delay, which generally spanned one year. Some eccentric growth was evident in the tree rings of the landslide year and was significant in the first years following the landslide movement. Missing rings were observed only on the upper sides of the stems, and no false tree rings were observed. The results confirm the general validity of event-response relationship, nevertheless this study points out the limitations and uncertainties of this generally accepted working scheme.

  7. [Evaluation of the agreement of results obtained from ABI Prism 7000 and 7700 sequencers in the quantification of hepatitis B virus DNA].

    PubMed

    Sertöz, R Yazan; Erensoy, S; Pas, S; Niesters, H G M

    2005-04-01

    There are different methods and systems for quantification of HBV-DNA in clinical virology laboratories. The aim of this study was to evaluate the agreement of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol with ABI Prism 7000 instrument (PE Biosystems) which was designed and optimised for ABI Prism 7700 (PE Biosystems). Serum samples obtained from 168 chronic hepatitis B patients were treated with "High Pure Viral Nucleic Acid Kit" (Roche Applied Science, USA), and MagnaPure LC isolation station (Roche Applied Science, Germany) was used for HBV-DNA isolation. Real time PCR procedure which amplifies pre-S gene of HBV genome was performed. Amplification and detection steps of all samples were performed with ABI Prism 7700 and 7000 Sequence Detection Systems. Among 168 samples, results of 124 serum samples were found to be in dynamic ranges of the tests. The results of these 124 samples obtained from ABI 7000 and ABI 7700 were concordant. Among the rest of 44 samples; one yielded higher than 10(10) copies/mL with two of the systems; six samples gave results higher than 10(10) copies/mL only with 7700; thirty samples were found negative with both of the systems; seven samples were positive (320-1220 copies/mL) with 7000 but negative with 7700. As a result this PCR protocol can be used in ABI 7000 system according to viral quality control (VQC) results. However, since the results of samples with HBV-DNA less than 1 x 10(6) copy/ml were discordant with the results obtained by ABI 7700 system, it can be concluded that different systems must not be used for the management and monitoring of the same patient.

  8. Impact of Heterobasidion root-rot on fine root morphology and associated fungi in Picea abies stands on peat soils.

    PubMed

    Gaitnieks, Talis; Klavina, Darta; Muiznieks, Indrikis; Pennanen, Taina; Velmala, Sannakajsa; Vasaitis, Rimvydas; Menkis, Audrius

    2016-07-01

    We examined differences in fine root morphology, mycorrhizal colonisation and root-inhabiting fungal communities between Picea abies individuals infected by Heterobasidion root-rot compared with healthy individuals in four stands on peat soils in Latvia. We hypothesised that decreased tree vitality and alteration in supply of photosynthates belowground due to root-rot infection might lead to changes in fungal communities of tree roots. Plots were established in places where trees were infected and in places where they were healthy. Within each stand, five replicate soil cores with roots were taken to 20 cm depth in each root-rot infected and uninfected plot. Root morphological parameters, mycorrhizal colonisation and associated fungal communities, and soil chemical properties were analysed. In three stands root morphological parameters and in all stands root mycorrhizal colonisation were similar between root-rot infected and uninfected plots. In one stand, there were significant differences in root morphological parameters between root-rot infected versus uninfected plots, but these were likely due to significant differences in soil chemical properties between the plots. Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer of fungal nuclear rDNA from ectomycorrhizal (ECM) root morphotypes of P. abies revealed the presence of 42 fungal species, among which ECM basidiomycetes Tylospora asterophora (24.6 % of fine roots examined), Amphinema byssoides (14.5 %) and Russula sapinea (9.7 %) were most common. Within each stand, the richness of fungal species and the composition of fungal communities in root-rot infected versus uninfected plots were similar. In conclusion, Heterobasidion root-rot had little or no effect on fine root morphology, mycorrhizal colonisation and composition of fungal communities in fine roots of P. abies growing on peat soils.

  9. Holocene variability in the range distribution and abundance of Pinus, Picea abies, and Quercus in Romania; implications for their current status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feurdean, Angelica; Tanţău, Ioan; Fărcaş, Sorina

    2011-10-01

    This paper examines fourteen fossil pollen datasets from Romania. It aims to investigate the temporal and spatial variability in the range distribution and abundance of three forest taxa, Pinus, Picea abies, and Quercus, during the Holocene. This is essential for understanding their current status in the forests of Eastern Europe, the conditions under which they arose, and the timing and processes responsible for their variability. Results from this synthesis do not indicate any apparent time lag in the establishment of Pinus diploxylon type ( Pinus sylvestris and Pinus mugo), Pinus cembra, P. abies, and Quercus across Romania within the limits of the dating resolution. However, the onset of the mass expansion of P. abies was not uniform, spreading earlier from sites in the western and north-western Carpathians (11,000-10,500 yr BP) than in the east (10,000 yr BP). We found that sites from the western, north-western, and northern Carpathians contained higher abundances of P. abies, whilst Quercus was in higher abundances in sites from the east, but there was no regional distinctiveness in the abundance of Pinus across the study area. However, P. diploxylon type was found in much higher abundance than P. cembra. Additionally, results indicate a greater proportion of Pinus (mainly P. diplxylon type) at high elevations, P. abies at mid to high elevations, and Quercus at low elevations (<500 m). The dominance of Pinus in the early Holocene boreal forest is likely the legacy of its local glacial refugia, fast life history strategies, high stress tolerance, and large habitat availability. In contrast, Pinus exhibited poor competitive abilities and was quickly replaced with P. abies and temperate deciduous taxa after 10,500 yr BP. P. abies has persisted in large abundances at higher elevations (above 1000 m) until the present day, as a result of good competitive abilities, and resilience to climate change and disturbance. The long-term dominance of P. abies appears to

  10. Microdose fluorescence imaging of ABY-029 on an operating microscope adapted by custom illumination and imaging modules

    PubMed Central

    Dsouza, Alisha V.; Marra, Kayla; Pogue, Brian W.; Roberts, David W.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence guided surgery has the potential to positively impact surgical oncology; current operating microscopes and stand-alone imaging systems are too insensitive or too cumbersome to maximally take advantage of new tumor-specific agents developed through the microdose pathway. To this end, a custom-built illumination and imaging module enabling picomolar-sensitive near-infrared fluorescence imaging on a commercial operating microscope is described. The limits of detection and system specifications are characterized, and in vivo efficacy of the system in detecting ABY-029 is evaluated in a rat orthotopic glioma model following microdose injections, showing the suitability of the device for microdose phase 0 clinical trials. PMID:27699098

  11. Identification of Gibberellins in Norway Spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) by Combined Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Odén, Per Christer; Schwenen, Ludger; Graebe, Jan E.

    1987-01-01

    Gibberellins A1 (GA1), A3 and A9 were identified from extracts of shoots of 6-month old Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedlings by the use of sequential reverse and normal phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), bioassay, radioimmunoassay (RIA) and combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The bioassay and RIA were used after fractionation by HPLC to detect the GA-containing fractions, which were then examined by GC-MS. The GAs identified are considered to be endogenous. PMID:16665471

  12. Are Early Somatic Embryos of the Norway Spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) Organised?

    PubMed Central

    Petrek, Jiri; Zitka, Ondrej; Adam, Vojtech; Bartusek, Karel; Anjum, Naser A.; Pereira, Eduarda; Havel, Ladislav; Kizek, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Background Somatic embryogenesis in conifer species has great potential for the forestry industry. Hence, a number of methods have been developed for their efficient and rapid propagation through somatic embryogenesis. Although information is available regarding the previous process-mediated generation of embryogenic cells to form somatic embryos, there is a dearth of information in the literature on the detailed structure of these clusters. Methodology/Principal Findings The main aim of this study was to provide a more detailed structure of the embryogenic tissue clusters obtained through the in vitro propagation of the Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). We primarily focused on the growth of early somatic embryos (ESEs). The data on ESE growth suggested that there may be clear distinctions between their inner and outer regions. Therefore, we selected ESEs collected on the 56th day after sub-cultivation to dissect the homogeneity of the ESE clusters. Two colourimetric assays (acetocarmine and fluorescein diacetate/propidium iodide staining) and one metabolic assay based on the use of 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride uncovered large differences in the metabolic activity inside the cluster. Next, we performed nuclear magnetic resonance measurements. The ESE cluster seemed to be compactly aggregated during the first four weeks of cultivation; thereafter, the difference between the 1H nuclei concentration in the inner and outer clusters was more evident. There were clear differences in the visual appearance of embryos from the outer and inner regions. Finally, a cluster was divided into six parts (three each from the inner and the outer regions of the embryo) to determine their growth and viability. The innermost embryos (centripetally towards the cluster centre) could grow after sub-cultivation but exhibited the slowest rate and required the longest time to reach the common growth rate. To confirm our hypothesis on the organisation of the ESE cluster, we

  13. Genetic Structure and Diversity of the Endangered Fir Tree of Lebanon (Abies cilicica Carr.): Implications for Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Lara; Fady, Bruno; Khater, Carla; Roig, Anne; Cheddadi, Rachid

    2014-01-01

    The threatened conifer Abies cilicica currently persists in Lebanon in geographically isolated forest patches. The impact of demographic and evolutionary processes on population genetic diversity and structure were assessed using 10 nuclear microsatellite loci. All remnant 15 local populations revealed a low genetic variation but a high recent effective population size. FST-based measures of population genetic differentiation revealed a low spatial genetic structure, but Bayesian analysis of population structure identified a significant Northeast-Southwest population structure. Populations showed significant but weak isolation-by-distance, indicating non-equilibrium conditions between dispersal and genetic drift. Bayesian assignment tests detected an asymmetric Northeast-Southwest migration involving some long-distance dispersal events. We suggest that the persistence and Northeast-Southwest geographic structure of Abies cilicica in Lebanon is the result of at least two demographic processes during its recent evolutionary history: (1) recent migration to currently marginal populations and (2) local persistence through altitudinal shifts along a mountainous topography. These results might help us better understand the mechanisms involved in the species response to expected climate change. PMID:24587219

  14. Inter- and intra-specific variation in drought sensitivity in Abies spec. and its relation to wood density and growth traits

    PubMed Central

    George, Jan-Peter; Schueler, Silvio; Karanitsch-Ackerl, Sandra; Mayer, Konrad; Klumpp, Raphael T.; Grabner, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Understanding drought sensitivity of tree species and its intra-specific variation is required to estimate the effects of climate change on forest productivity, carbon sequestration and tree mortality as well as to develop adaptive forest management measures. Here, we studied the variation of drought reaction of six European Abies species and ten provenances of Abies alba planted in the drought prone eastern Austria. Tree-ring and X-ray densitometry data were used to generate early- and latewood measures for ring width and wood density. Moreover, the drought reaction of species and provenances within six distinct drought events between 1970 and 2011, as identified by the standardized precipitation index, was determined by four drought response measures. The mean reaction of species and provenances to drought events was strongly affected by the seasonal occurrence of the drought: a short, strong drought at the beginning of the growing season resulted in growth reductions up to 50%, while droughts at the end of the growing season did not affect annual increment. Wood properties and drought response measures showed significant variation among Abies species as well as among A. alba provenances. Whereas A. alba provenances explained significant parts in the variation of ring width measures, the Abies species explained significant parts in the variation of wood density parameters. A consistent pattern in drought response across the six drought events was observed only at the inter-specific level, where A. nordmanniana showed the highest resistance and A. cephalonica showed the best recovery after drought. In contrast, differences in drought reaction among provenances were only found for the milder drought events in 1986, 1990, 1993 and 2000 and the ranking of provenances varied at each drought event. This indicates that genetic variation in drought response within A. alba is more limited than among Abies species. Low correlations between wood density parameters and

  15. Reconstitution of abscisic acid activation of SLAC1 anion channel by CPK6 and OST1 kinases and branched ABI1 PP2C phosphatase action.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Benjamin; Brodsky, Dennis E; Xue, Shaowu; Negi, Juntaro; Iba, Koh; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko; Ghassemian, Majid; Stephan, Aaron B; Hu, Honghong; Schroeder, Julian I

    2012-06-26

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is produced in response to abiotic stresses and mediates stomatal closure in response to drought via recently identified ABA receptors (pyrabactin resistance/regulatory component of ABA receptor; PYR/RCAR). SLAC1 encodes a central guard cell S-type anion channel that mediates ABA-induced stomatal closure. Coexpression of the calcium-dependent protein kinase 21 (CPK21), CPK23, or the Open Stomata 1 kinase (OST1) activates SLAC1 anion currents. However, reconstitution of ABA activation of any plant ion channel has not yet been attained. Whether the known core ABA signaling components are sufficient for ABA activation of SLAC1 anion channels or whether additional components are required remains unknown. The Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase CPK6 is known to function in vivo in ABA-induced stomatal closure. Here we show that CPK6 robustly activates SLAC1-mediated currents and phosphorylates the SLAC1 N terminus. A phosphorylation site (S59) in SLAC1, crucial for CPK6 activation, was identified. The group A PP2Cs ABI1, ABI2, and PP2CA down-regulated CPK6-mediated SLAC1 activity in oocytes. Unexpectedly, ABI1 directly dephosphorylated the N terminus of SLAC1, indicating an alternate branched early ABA signaling core in which ABI1 targets SLAC1 directly (down-regulation). Furthermore, here we have successfully reconstituted ABA-induced activation of SLAC1 channels in oocytes using the ABA receptor pyrabactin resistant 1 (PYR1) and PP2C phosphatases with two alternate signaling cores including either CPK6 or OST1. Point mutations in ABI1 disrupting PYR1-ABI1 interaction abolished ABA signal transduction. Moreover, by addition of CPK6, a functional ABA signal transduction core from ABA receptors to ion channel activation was reconstituted without a SnRK2 kinase.

  16. Ozone fumigation under dark/light conditions of Norway Spruce (Picea Abies) and Scots Pine (Pinus Sylvestris)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canaval, Eva; Jud, Werner; Hansel, Armin

    2015-04-01

    Norway Spruce (Picea abies) and Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) represent dominating tree species in the northern hemisphere. Thus, the understanding of their ozone sensitivity in the light of the expected increasing ozone levels in the future is of great importance. In our experiments we investigated the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of 3-4 year old Norway Spruce and Scots Pine seedlings under ozone fumigation (50-150 ppbv) and dark/light conditions. For the experiments the plants were placed in a setup with inert materials including a glass cuvette equipped with a turbulent air inlet and sensors for monitoring a large range of meteorological parameters. Typical conditions were 20-25°C and a relative humidity of 70-90 % for both plant species. A fast gas exchange rate was used to minimize reactions of ozone in the gas phase. A Switchable-Reagent-Ion-Time-of-Flight-MS (SRI-ToF-MS) was used to analyze the VOCs at the cuvette outlet in real-time during changing ozone and light levels. The use of H3O+ and NO+ as reagent ions allows the separation of certain isomers (e.g. aldehydes and ketones) due to different reaction pathways depending on the functional groups of the molecules. Within the Picea abies experiments the ozone loss, defined as the difference of the ozone concentration between cuvette inlet and outlet, remained nearly constant at the transition from dark to light. This indicates that a major part of the supplied ozone is depleted non-stomatally. In contrast the ozone loss increased by 50 % at the transition from dark to light conditions within Pinus sylvestris experiments. In this case the stomata represent the dominant loss channel. Since maximally 0.1% of the ozone loss could be explained by gas phase reactions with monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, we suggest that ozone reactions on the surface of Picea abies represent the major sink in this case and lead to an light-independent ozone loss. This is supported by the fact that we detected

  17. Protein phosphatase type 2C PP2CA together with ABI1 inhibits SnRK2.4 activity and regulates plant responses to salinity

    PubMed Central

    Krzywińska, Ewa; Kulik, Anna; Bucholc, Maria; Fernandez, Maria A.; Rodriguez, Pedro L.; Dobrowolska, Grażyna

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Protein phosphatases 2C (PP2Cs) are important regulators of plant responses to abiotic stress. It is established that clade A PP2Cs inhibit ABA-activated SNF1-related protein kinases 2 (SnRK2s). Our recently published results show that ABI1, a member of clade A of PP2C is also a negative regulator of SnRK2.4, a kinase not activated in response to ABA. Here, we show that another member of this clade - PP2CA, interacts with and inhibits SnRK2.4. The salt-induced SnRK2.4/SnRK2.10 activity is higher in abi1–2 pp2ca-1 mutant than in wild type or single abi1 or pp2ca mutants, indicating that both phosphatases are inhibitors of SnRK2.4 and are at least partially redundant. Moreover, PP2CA together with ABI1 and SnRK2.4 regulates root growth in response to salinity. PMID:27901636

  18. Abscisic Acid Regulates Early Seed Development in Arabidopsis by ABI5-Mediated Transcription of SHORT HYPOCOTYL UNDER BLUE1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Zhi Juan; Zhao, Xiang Yu; Shao, Xing Xing; Wang, Fei; Zhou, Chao; Liu, Ying Gao; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Xian Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Seed development includes an early stage of endosperm proliferation and a late stage of embryo growth at the expense of the endosperm in Arabidopsis thaliana. Abscisic acid (ABA) has known functions during late seed development, but its roles in early seed development remain elusive. In this study, we report that ABA-deficient mutants produced seeds with increased size, mass, and embryo cell number but delayed endosperm cellularization. ABSCISIC ACID DEFICIENT2 (ABA2) encodes a unique short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase that functions in ABA biosynthesis, and its expression pattern overlaps that of SHORT HYPOCOTYL UNDER BLUE1 (SHB1) during seed development. SHB1 RNA accumulation was significantly upregulated in the aba2-1 mutant and was downregulated by the application of exogenous ABA. Furthermore, RNA accumulation of the basic/region leucine zipper transcription factor ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE5 (ABI5), involved in ABA signaling, was decreased in aba2-1. Consistent with this, seed size was also increased in abi5. We further show that ABI5 directly binds to two discrete regions in the SHB1 promoter. Our results suggest that ABA negatively regulates SHB1 expression, at least in part, through the action of its downstream signaling component ABI5. Our findings provide insights into the molecular mechanisms by which ABA regulates early seed development. PMID:24619610

  19. Field testing of transgenic cotton expressing Arabidopsis ABA INSENSITIVE5 and B3- domain related to ABI3/VIVIPAROUS1 (RAV) transcription factors.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We conducted field trials for ABI5 and RAV transgenics under the most extreme heat and drought conditions on record. The data validate greenhouse experiments that show AtRAV1 and AtRAV2 overexpression results in an average of 9% increases in fiber length without yield penalty and with greater gin t...

  20. Age-dependent climate-growth relationships and regeneration of Picea abies in a drought-prone mixed coniferous forest in the Alps

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Roman; Oberhuber, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Within dry inner Alpine environments climate warming is expected to affect the development of forest ecosystems by changing species composition and inducing shifts in forest distribution. By applying dendroecological techniques we evaluated climate sensitivity of radial growth and establishment of Picea abies in a drought-prone mixed-coniferous forest in the Austrian Alps. Time series of annual increments were developed from > 220 trees and assigned to four age classes. While radial growth of old P. abies trees (mean age 121 and 174 yr) responded highly significant to May-June precipitation, young trees (mean age 28 and 53 yr) were insensitive to precipitation in the current year. Because tree age was closely correlated to height and diameter (r2 = 0.709 and 0.784, respectively), we relate our findings to the increase in tree size rather than age per se. Synchronicity found among trend in basal area increment and tree establishment suggests that canopy openings increased light and water availability, which favoured growth and establishment of moderately shade-tolerant P. abies. We conclude that although P. abies is able to regenerate at this drought prone site, increasing inter-tree competition for water in dense stands gradually lowers competitive strength and restricts scattered occurrence to dry-mesic sites. PMID:24027351

  1. Abies concolor growth responses to vegatation changes following shrub removal, northern Sierra Nevada, California. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Conard, S.G.; Sparks, S.R.

    1993-08-01

    Conifer productivity in western North America is often severely inhibited by competing vegetation. Abies concolor (Gord, and Glendl.) Lindl. (white fir) is an important species over much of this area, yet little information is available on response of A. concolor to vegetation management treatments. We revisited two sites in the northern Sierra Nevada to assess the responses of naturally regenerated A. concolor saplings to vegetation recovery 8-9 years after release treatments. Treatments caused major and persistent shifts in vegetation structure and composition on both sites. Differences in individual tree growth within treatments were strongly correlated with structure and composition of neighboring vegetation, even where no treatment effects were observed. Great variability in response between sites illustrates the strong effect of site characteristics on response to release treatments and the importance to managers of anticipating such differences before making treatment decisions.

  2. Epidihydropinidine, the main piperidine alkaloid compound of Norway spruce (Picea abies) shows promising antibacterial and anti-Candida activity.

    PubMed

    Fyhrquist, Pia; Virjamo, Virpi; Hiltunen, Eveliina; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta

    2017-03-01

    This study reports for the first time promising antibacterial and antifungal effects of epidihydropinidine, the major piperidine alkaloid in the needles and bark of Norway spruce, Picea abies (L.) Karsten. Epidihydropinidine was growth inhibitory against all bacterial and fungal strains used in our investigation, showing the lowest MIC value of 5.37μg/mL against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Candida glabrata and C. albicans. Epidihydropinidine was nearly three times more active than tetracycline against P. aeruginosa and E. faecalis. Promising antibacterial effects were also recorded against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus (MIC 10.75μg/mL) as well as against Salmonella enterica (MIC and MBC 43μg/mL). Our preliminary results suggest that epidihydropinidine as well related alkaloids of Norway spruce could be powerful candidates for new antibiotics and for preventing food spoilage.

  3. [Cytogenetic abnormalities in seedlings of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) from the natural populations and introduction plantation].

    PubMed

    Korshikov, I I; Tkacheva, Iu A; Privalikhin, S N

    2012-01-01

    Comparative studies of the frequency and spectrum of pathological mitosis (PM), as well as of nucleoli number in the interphase cells of seedling roots have been performed in two natural populations of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) of Ukrainian Polesie and introduction plantation in the Donbass. Low levels of PM in the seed progeny populations (0.32-0.38%) and slightly higher in the progeny plantation (0.40%) have been installed. Number of nucleoli was slightly higher in the plants of natural populations (5.35-5.85) than that of the plantation (4.95). The frequency of PM in the offspring of low-heterozygous plants was higher (0.43%) than in highly heterozygous individuals (0.28%).

  4. The influence of climate and soil properties on calcium nutrition and vitality of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.).

    PubMed

    Potocić, Nenad; Cosić, Tomislav; Pilas, Ivan

    2005-10-01

    As a part of a broader research into the nutrition of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.), the variation of calcium concentrations was investigated in needles and soil in two subsequent, climatologically diverse years. Statistically significant differences between plots were determined in Ca concentrations in soils. Concentrations of Ca in needles were statistically different regarding plot, defoliation class, sampling date within the same year and also between years. Fir trees on acid-rock based soils had lower, often inadequate concentrations of Ca in needles; the opposite was true for trees growing on Ca-rich soils. Trees of lower vitality generally exhibited poor Ca nutrition. Drought in the second year of research caused poor absorption of Ca on all plots and in all defoliation classes, but the combined influence of climate and soil properties affected especially trees of low vitality on acid-rock based soils.

  5. Annotation and re-sequencing of genes from de novo transcriptome assembly of Abies alba (Pinaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Roschanski, Anna M.; Fady, Bruno; Ziegenhagen, Birgit; Liepelt, Sascha

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: We present a protocol for the annotation of transcriptome sequence data and the identification of candidate genes therein using the example of the nonmodel conifer Abies alba. • Methods and Results: A normalized cDNA library was built from an A. alba seedling. The sequencing on a 454 platform yielded more than 1.5 million reads that were de novo assembled into 25149 contigs. Two complementary approaches were applied to annotate gene fragments that code for (1) well-known proteins and (2) proteins that are potentially adaptively relevant. Primer development and testing yielded 88 amplicons that could successfully be resequenced from genomic DNA. • Conclusions: The annotation workflow offers an efficient way to identify potential adaptively relevant genes from the large quantity of transcriptome sequence data. The primer set presented should be prioritized for single-nucleotide polymorphism detection in adaptively relevant genes in A. alba. PMID:25202477

  6. A Picea abies Linkage Map Based on SNP Markers Identifies QTLs for Four Aspects of Resistance to Heterobasidion parviporum Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lind, Mårten; Källman, Thomas; Chen, Jun; Ma, Xiao-Fei; Bousquet, Jean; Morgante, Michele; Zaina, Giusi; Karlsson, Bo; Elfstrand, Malin; Lascoux, Martin; Stenlid, Jan

    2014-01-01

    A consensus linkage map of Picea abies, an economically important conifer, was constructed based on the segregation of 686 SNP markers in a F1 progeny population consisting of 247 individuals. The total length of 1889.2 cM covered 96.5% of the estimated genome length and comprised 12 large linkage groups, corresponding to the number of haploid P. abies chromosomes. The sizes of the groups (from 5.9 to 9.9% of the total map length) correlated well with previous estimates of chromosome sizes (from 5.8 to 10.8% of total genome size). Any locus in the genome has a 97% probability to be within 10 cM from a mapped marker, which makes the map suited for QTL mapping. Infecting the progeny trees with the root rot pathogen Heterobasidion parviporum allowed for mapping of four different resistance traits: lesion length at the inoculation site, fungal spread within the sapwood, exclusion of the pathogen from the host after initial infection, and ability to prevent the infection from establishing at all. These four traits were associated with two, four, four and three QTL regions respectively of which none overlapped between the traits. Each QTL explained between 4.6 and 10.1% of the respective traits phenotypic variation. Although the QTL regions contain many more genes than the ones represented by the SNP markers, at least four markers within the confidence intervals originated from genes with known function in conifer defence; a leucoanthocyanidine reductase, which has previously been shown to upregulate during H. parviporum infection, and three intermediates of the lignification process; a hydroxycinnamoyl CoA shikimate/quinate hydroxycinnamoyltransferase, a 4-coumarate CoA ligase, and a R2R3-MYB transcription factor. PMID:25036209

  7. LEA polypeptide profiling of recalcitrant and orthodox legume seeds reveals ABI3-regulated LEA protein abundance linked to desiccation tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Hundertmark, Michaela; Buitink, Julia

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to orthodox seeds that acquire desiccation tolerance during maturation, recalcitrant seeds are unable to survive drying. These desiccation-sensitive seeds constitute an interesting model for comparative analysis with phylogenetically close species that are desiccation tolerant. Considering the importance of LEA (late embryogenesis abundant) proteins as protective molecules both in drought and in desiccation tolerance, the heat-stable proteome was characterized in cotyledons of the legume Castanospermum australe and it was compared with that of the orthodox model legume Medicago truncatula. RNA sequencing identified transcripts of 16 homologues out of 17 LEA genes for which polypeptides are detected in M. truncatula seeds. It is shown that for 12 LEA genes, polypeptides were either absent or strongly reduced in C. australe cotyledons compared with M. truncatula seeds. Instead, osmotically responsive, non-seed-specific dehydrins accumulated to high levels in the recalcitrant cotyledons compared with orthodox seeds. Next, M. truncatula mutants of the ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3) gene were characterized. Mature Mtabi3 seeds were found to be desiccation sensitive when dried below a critical water content of 0.4g H2O g DW–1. Characterization of the LEA proteome of the Mtabi3 seeds revealed a subset of LEA proteins with severely reduced abundance that were also found to be reduced or absent in C. australe cotyledons. Transcripts of these genes were indeed shown to be ABI3 responsive. The results highlight those LEA proteins that are critical to desiccation tolerance and suggest that comparable regulatory pathways responsible for their accumulation are missing in both desiccation-sensitive genotypes, revealing new insights into the mechanistic basis of the recalcitrant trait in seeds. PMID:24043848

  8. Arabidopsis HY1-Modulated Stomatal Movement: An Integrative Hub Is Functionally Associated with ABI4 in Dehydration-Induced ABA Responsiveness1

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yanjie; Mao, Yu; Duan, Xingliang; Zhou, Heng; Lai, Diwen; Zhang, Yihua; Shen, Wenbiao

    2016-01-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO; EC 1.14.99.3) has recently been proposed as a novel component in mediating wide ranges of the plant adaptive signaling processes. However, the physiological significance and molecular basis underlying Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) HO1 (HY1) functioning in drought tolerance remained unclear. Here, we report that mutation of HY1 promoted, but overexpression of this gene impaired, Arabidopsis drought tolerance. This was attributed to the abscisic acid (ABA)-hypersensitive or -hyposensitive phenotypes, with the regulation of stomatal closure in particular. However, comparative transcriptomic profile analysis showed that the induction of numerous ABA/stress-dependent genes in dehydrated wild-type plants was differentially impaired in the hy1 mutant. In agreement, ABA-induced ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE4 (ABI4) transcript accumulation was strengthened in the hy1 mutant. Genetic analysis further identified that the hy1-associated ABA hypersensitivity and drought tolerance were arrested in the abi4 background. Moreover, the promotion of ABA-triggered up-regulation of RbohD abundance and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in the hy1 mutant was almost fully blocked by the mutation of ABI4, suggesting that the HY1-ABI4 signaling in the wild type involved in stomatal closure was dependent on the RbohD-derived ROS production. However, hy1-promoted stomatal closure was not affected by a nitric oxide scavenger. Correspondingly, ABA-insensitive behaviors in rbohD stomata were not affected by either the mutation of HY1 or its ectopic expression in the rbohD background, both of which responded significantly to exogenous ROS. These data indicate that HY1 functioned negatively and acted upstream of ABI4 in drought signaling, which was casually dependent on the RbohD-derived ROS in the regulation of stomatal closure. PMID:26704641

  9. Interlaboratory Validation for a Real-Time PCR Salmonella Detection Method Using the ABI 7500 FAST Real-Time PCR System.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chorng-Ming; Doran, Tara; Lin, Wen; Chen, Kai-Shun; Williams-Hill, Donna; Pamboukian, Ruiqing

    2015-06-01

    Sixteen FERN (Food Emergency Response Network) member laboratories collaborated in this study to verify extension of the real-time PCR Salmonella detection method originally designed for the single-tube Cepheid SmartCycler II and validated against the Salmonella method of the U. S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual to the Applied Biosystems (ABI) 7500 FAST Real-Time PCR system multiwell plate platform. Four foods were selected for this study: chili powder, soft cheese, fish, and tomatoes; these foods represent products that are commonly analyzed for the presence of Salmonella for regulatory purposes. Each food consisted of six uninoculated control samples, six samples inoculated with low Salmonella levels (target 1 to 5 CFU/25 g), and six samples inoculated with high levels (target 10 to 50 CFU/25 g). All samples were tested for Salmonella using the 24-h quantitative PCR (qPCR) method for detecting Salmonella, which utilizes modified buffered peptone water as the sole enrichment medium and an internal control for the qPCR. Each of these 18 samples was individually analyzed for Salmonella by the collaborating laboratories using both the ABI 7500 FAST system (alternative method) and the SmartCycler II system (reference method). Statistical analysis of the data revealed no significant difference (P ≥ 0.05) between these two qPCR platforms except for the chili powder samples. The differences noted with chili powder (P = 0.0455) were attributed to the enhanced sensitivity of the ABI 7500 FAST system compared with the SmartCycler II system. The detection limit of both qPCR methods was 0.02 to 0.15 CFU/g. These results provide a solid basis for extending the 24-h qPCR Salmonella method to the ABI 7500 FAST system for high-throughput detection of Salmonella in foods.

  10. Elucidating the Role of cAbl and the Abi-Family of cAbl Target Proteins in Cancer Development and Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-07-01

    s) and should not be construed as an official Department of the Army position , policy or decision unless so designated by other documentation...absence of supplemental histidine, and a lacZ reporter, conferring a blue color to yeast in a P-galactosidase assay (10). Positive interactions will be...elicited the loss Abi proteins following the onset of detectable Bcr-Abl expression. Examination of Ph’- positive leukemic cell lines and bone marrow from

  11. Arabidopsis ABA-Activated Kinase MAPKKK18 is Regulated by Protein Phosphatase 2C ABI1 and the Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway.

    PubMed

    Mitula, Filip; Tajdel, Malgorzata; Cieśla, Agata; Kasprowicz-Maluśki, Anna; Kulik, Anna; Babula-Skowrońska, Danuta; Michalak, Michal; Dobrowolska, Grazyna; Sadowski, Jan; Ludwików, Agnieszka

    2015-12-01

    Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events play an important role in the transmission of the ABA signal. Although SnRK2 [sucrose non-fermenting1-related kinase2] protein kinases and group A protein phosphatase type 2C (PP2C)-type phosphatases constitute the core ABA pathway, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are also involved in plant response to ABA. However, little is known about the interplay between MAPKs and PP2Cs or SnRK2 in the regulation of ABA pathways. In this study, an effort was made to elucidate the role of MAP kinase kinase kinase18 (MKKK18) in relation to ABA signaling and response. The MKKK18 knockout lines showed more vigorous root growth, decreased abaxial stomatal index and increased stomatal aperture under normal growth conditions, compared with the control wild-type Columbia line. In addition to transcriptional regulation of the MKKK18 promoter by ABA, we demonstrated using in vitro and in vivo kinase assays that the kinase activity of MKKK18 was regulated by ABA. Analysis of the cellular localization of MKKK18 showed that the active kinase was targeted specifically to the nucleus. Notably, we identified abscisic acid insensitive 1 (ABI1) PP2C as a MKKK18-interacting protein, and demonstrated that ABI1 inhibited its activity. Using a cell-free degradation assay, we also established that MKKK18 was unstable and was degraded by the proteasome pathway. The rate of MKKK18 degradation was delayed in the ABI1 knockout line. Overall, we provide evidence that ABI1 regulates the activity and promotes proteasomal degradation of MKKK18.

  12. Arabidopsis ABA-Activated Kinase MAPKKK18 is Regulated by Protein Phosphatase 2C ABI1 and the Ubiquitin–Proteasome Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Mitula, Filip; Tajdel, Malgorzata; Cieśla, Agata; Kasprowicz-Maluśki, Anna; Kulik, Anna; Babula-Skowrońska, Danuta; Michalak, Michal; Dobrowolska, Grazyna; Sadowski, Jan; Ludwików, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events play an important role in the transmission of the ABA signal. Although SnRK2 [sucrose non-fermenting1-related kinase2] protein kinases and group A protein phosphatase type 2C (PP2C)-type phosphatases constitute the core ABA pathway, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are also involved in plant response to ABA. However, little is known about the interplay between MAPKs and PP2Cs or SnRK2 in the regulation of ABA pathways. In this study, an effort was made to elucidate the role of MAP kinase kinase kinase18 (MKKK18) in relation to ABA signaling and response. The MKKK18 knockout lines showed more vigorous root growth, decreased abaxial stomatal index and increased stomatal aperture under normal growth conditions, compared with the control wild-type Columbia line. In addition to transcriptional regulation of the MKKK18 promoter by ABA, we demonstrated using in vitro and in vivo kinase assays that the kinase activity of MKKK18 was regulated by ABA. Analysis of the cellular localization of MKKK18 showed that the active kinase was targeted specifically to the nucleus. Notably, we identified abscisic acid insensitive 1 (ABI1) PP2C as a MKKK18-interacting protein, and demonstrated that ABI1 inhibited its activity. Using a cell-free degradation assay, we also established that MKKK18 was unstable and was degraded by the proteasome pathway. The rate of MKKK18 degradation was delayed in the ABI1 knockout line. Overall, we provide evidence that ABI1 regulates the activity and promotes proteasomal degradation of MKKK18. PMID:26443375

  13. Oleoresinosis in Grand Fir (Abies grandis) Saplings and Mature Trees (Modulation of this Wound Response by Light and Water Stresses).

    PubMed Central

    Lewinsohn, E.; Gijzen, M.; Muzika, R. M.; Barton, K.; Croteau, R.

    1993-01-01

    The stem content of diterpene resin acids (rosin) increases dramatically following wounding of grand fir (Abies grandis) saplings, but the level of monoterpene olefins (turpentine) in the stem decreases following injury, in spite of a significant increase in monoterpene cyclase (synthase) activity. However, this observation was explained when rapid evaporative losses of the volatile monoterpenes from the wound site was demonstrated by trapping experiments, a finding consistent with a role of turpentine as a solvent for the mobilization and deposition of rosin to seal the injury. Mature forest trees responded to stem wounding by the enhancement of monoterpene cyclization capacity in a manner similar to 2-year-old grand fir saplings raised in the greenhouse. Light and water stresses greatly reduced the constitutive level of monoterpene cyclase activity and abolished the wound-induced response. The diminution in monoterpene biosynthetic capacity was correlated with a dramatic decrease in cyclase protein as demonstrated by immunoblotting. Relief of stress conditions resulted in the restoration of cyclase activity (both constitutive and wound induced) to control levels. The results of these experiments indicate that grand fir saplings are a suitable model for studies of the regulation of defensive oleoresinosis in conifers. PMID:12231755

  14. Coping with low light under high atmospheric dryness: shade acclimation in a Mediterranean conifer (Abies pinsapo Boiss.).

    PubMed

    Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Peguero-Pina, José Javier; Flexas, Jaume; Herbette, Stéphane; Cochard, Hervé; Niinemets, Ülo; Gil-Pelegrín, Eustaquio

    2014-12-01

    Plant species living in the understory increase carbon (C) allocation toward leaf production for maximizing light capture at the expense of roots and stems, with negative consequences for the whole-plant hydraulic conductance. Moreover, under some conditions, the high atmospheric evaporative demand occurring in Mediterranean areas may be not well buffered by the canopy, which might be the case for relict conifer Abies pinsapo Boiss. growing in the forest understory. We hypothesized that acclimation to combined understory shade and high atmospheric dryness can be achieved through the adjustment of water losses to cope with the restriction in water transport. The results reveal high structural plasticity in A. pinsapo that allows light harvesting of this species to maximize light capture in the forest understory, and maintain a positive C balance under low light conditions. However, growth in the understory resulted in reduced leaf-specific conductivity, up to approximately four to five times, implying decreased plant capacity to supply water to the leaves. In order to cope with the high atmospheric evaporative demand in the understory, there is an adjustment of the stomatal conductance to the hydraulic conductivity by means of a reduction in the stomatal density in understory individuals, which is due to the almost complete lack of stomata in the adaxial side of the needles. To the extent of our knowledge, such a drastic phenotypic response found in a conifer when growing under shaded conditions had not been previously reported.

  15. Effect of bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) attack on bark VOC emissions of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghimire, Rajendra P.; Kivimäenpää, Minna; Blomqvist, Minna; Holopainen, Toini; Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa, Päivi; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    2016-02-01

    Climate warming driven storms are evident causes for an outbreak of the European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) resulting in the serious destruction of mature Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) forests in northern Europe. Conifer species are major sources of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in the boreal zone. Climate relevant BVOC emissions are expected to increase when conifer trees defend against bark beetle attack by monoterpene (MT)-rich resin flow. In this study, BVOC emission rates from the bark surface of beetle-attacked and non-attacked spruce trees were measured from two outbreak areas, Iitti and Lahti in southern Finland, and from one control site at Kuopio in central Finland. Beetle attack increased emissions of total MTs 20-fold at Iitti compared to Kuopio, but decreased the emissions of several sesquiterpenes (SQTs) at Iitti. At the Lahti site, the emission rate of α-pinene was positively correlated with mean trap catch of bark beetles. The responsive individual MTs were tricyclene, α-pinene, camphene, myrcene, limonene, 1,8-cineole and bornyl acetate in both of the outbreak areas. Our results suggest that bark beetle outbreaks affect local BVOC emissions from conifer forests dominated by Norway spruce. Therefore, the impacts of insect outbreaks are worth of consideration to global BVOC emission models.

  16. Good manufacturing practice production of [68Ga]Ga-ABY-025 for HER2 specific breast cancer imaging

    PubMed Central

    Velikyan, Irina; Wennborg, Anders; Feldwisch, Joachim; Lindman, Henrik; Carlsson, Jörgen; Sörensen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Therapies targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2) have revolutionized breast cancer treatment, but require invasive biopsies and rigorous histopathology for optimal patient stratification. A non-invasive and quantitative diagnostic method such as positron emission tomography (PET) for the pre-therapeutic determination of the presence and density of the HER2 would significantly improve patient management efficacy and treatment cost. The essential part of the PET methodology is the production of the radiopharmaceutical in compliance with good manufacturing practice (GMP). The use of generator produced positron emitting 68Ga radionuclide would provide worldwide accessibility of the agent. GMP compliant, reliable and highly reproducible production of [68Ga]Ga-ABY-025 with control over the product peptide concentration and amount of radioactivity was accomplished within one hour. Two radiopharmaceuticals were developed differing in the total peptide content and were validated independently. The specific radioactivity could be kept similar throughout the study, and it was 6-fold higher for the low peptide content radiopharmaceutical. Intrapatient comparison of the two peptide doses allowed imaging optimization. The high peptide content decreased the uptake in healthy tissue, in particular liver, improving image contrast. The later imaging time points enhanced the contrast. The combination of high peptide content radiopharmaceutical and whole-body imaging at 2 hours post injection appeared to be optimal for routine clinical use. PMID:27186441

  17. Differential regulation of Knotted1-like genes during establishment of the shoot apical meristem in Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Larsson, Emma; Sitbon, Folke; von Arnold, Sara

    2012-06-01

    Establishment of the shoot apical meristem (SAM) in Arabidopsis embryos requires the KNOXI transcription factor SHOOT MERISTEMLESS. In Norway spruce (Picea abies), four KNOXI family members (HBK1, HBK2, HBK3 and HBK4) have been identified, but a corresponding role in SAM development has not been demonstrated. As a first step to differentiate between the functions of the four Norway spruce HBK genes, we have here analyzed their expression profiles during the process of somatic embryo development. This was made both under normal embryo development and under conditions of reduced SAM formation by treatment with the polar auxin transport inhibitor NPA. Concomitantly with the formation of an embryonic SAM, the HBK2 and HBK4 genes displayed a significant up-regulation that was delayed by NPA treatment. In contrast, HBK1 and HBK3 were up-regulated prior to SAM formation, and their temporal expression was not affected by NPA. Ectopic expression of the four HBK genes in transgenic Arabidopsis plants further supported similar functions of HBK2 and HBK4, distinct from those of HBK1 and HBK3. Together, the results suggest that HBK2 and HBK4 exert similar functions related to the SAM differentiation and somatic embryo development in Norway spruce, while HBK1 and HBK3 have more general functions during embryo development.

  18. ,* Copper transport and accumulation in spruce stems (picea abies(L.) Karsten) revelaed by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Krajcarova, Dr. Lucie; Novotny, Dr. Karel; Babula, Dr. Petr; Pravaznik, Dr Ivo; Kucerova, Dr. Petra; Vojtech, Dr. Adam; Martin, Madhavi Z; Kizek, Dr. Rene; Kaiser, Jozef

    2013-01-01

    Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) in double pulse configuration (DP LIBS) was used for scanning elemental spatial distribution in annual terminal stems of spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karsten). Cross sections of stems cultivated in Cu2+ solution of different concentrations were prepared and analyzed by DP LIBS. Raster scanning with 150 m spatial resolution was set and 2D (2-dimentional) maps of Cu and Ca distribution were created on the basis of the data obtained. Stem parts originating in the vicinity of the implementation of the cross sections were mineralized and subsequently Cu and Ca contents were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results provide quantitative information about overall concentration of the elements in places, where LIBS measurements were performed. The fluorescence pictures were created to compare LIBS distribution maps and the fluorescence intensity (or the increase in autofluorescence) was used for the comparison of ICP-MS quantitative results. Results from these three methods can be utilized for quantitative measurements of copper ions transport in different plant compartments in dependence on the concentration of cultivation medium and/or the time of cultivation.

  19. Development of growth media for solid substrate propagation of ectomycorrhizal fungi for inoculation of Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Vuorinen, Irmeli; Hamberg, Leena; Müller, Michael; Seiskari, Pekka; Pennanen, Taina

    2015-05-01

    A silica-based propagation medium was developed for large-scale production of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal inoculum by solid state fermentation. Development of the medium was started by screening for an optimal growth medium among six different semisynthetic agar media traditionally used in cultivation of ECM fungi. The majority (65 %) of the twenty tested ECM fungal strains that typically colonize Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedlings grew best on modified Melin-Norkrans (MMN) medium with reduced sugar content (½MMN). In order to develop a nutritionally similar medium for large-scale cultivation of the ECM fungi, we chose silica to form a solid matrix and light brewery malt extract to provide nutrients. The medium was supplemented with a commercial humic acid product that was shown to boost fungal growth. The optimal concentration of the constituents was screened for in two assays by determining the growth rates of seven potential inoculant ECM fungal strains (Amphinema sp., Cenococcum geophilum, Hebeloma sp., Meliniomyces bicolor, Paxillus involutus, Piloderma byssinum, and Tylospora asterophora). As a result, we composed a silica-based mass propagation medium (pH 5.8) containing 2.5 % brewery malt extract and 0.5 g/l humic acid product Lignohumate AM. This medium is easily produced and supported good growth of even the slowly growing and rarely studied Athelioid ECM strains. Furthermore, root systems of Norway spruce nursery seedlings were colonized by the tested ECM fungi by using solid inoculum formulated from the silica medium.

  20. Effect of debarking water from Norway spruce (Picea abies) on the growth of five species of wood-decaying fungi.

    PubMed

    Edfeldt, Amelie Fagerlund; Hedenström, Erik; Edman, Mattias; Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    Norway spruce (Picea abies) debarking water is an aqueous extract obtained as waste from the debarking of logs at paper mills. The debarking water contains a mixture of natural compounds that can exhibit diverse biological activities, potentially including fungicidal activity on some species of wood-decaying fungi. Thus, we investigated the growth rates of such fungi on agar plates to which debarking water extracts had been added. The experiment included five wood-decaying fungi, viz. Gloeophyllum sepiarium, Oligoporus lateritius, Ischnoderma benzoinum, Junghuhnia luteoalba, and Phlebia sp. Growth reduction was observed for all species at the highest tested concentrations of freeze-dried and ethanol-extracted debarking water, the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction and the diethyl ether-soluble fraction. However, the magnitude of the effect varied between different species and strains of individual species. The brown-rot fungi G. sepiarium and O. lateritius were generally the most sensitive species, with the growth of all tested strains being completely inhibited by the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction. These results indicate that development of antifungal wood-protecting agents from debarking water could potentially be a way to make use of a low-value industrial waste.

  1. Forest microsite effects on community composition of ectomycorrhizal fungi on seedlings of Picea abies and Betula pendula.

    PubMed

    Tedersoo, Leho; Suvi, Triin; Jairus, Teele; Kõljalg, Urmas

    2008-05-01

    Niche differentiation in soil horizons, host species and natural nutrient gradients contribute to the high diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi in boreal forests. This study aims at documenting the diversity and community composition of ectomycorrhizal fungi of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and silver birch (Betula pendula) seedlings in five most abundant microsites in three Estonian old-growth forests. Undisturbed forest floor, windthrow mounds and pits harboured more species than brown- and white-rotted wood. Several species of ectomycorrhizal fungi were differentially represented on either hosts, microsites and sites. Generally, the most frequent species in dead wood were also common in forest floor soil. Ordination analyses suggested that decay type determined the composition of EcM fungal community in dead wood. Root connections with in-growing mature tree roots from below affected the occurrence of certain fungal species on seedling roots systems in dead wood. This study demonstrates that ectomycorrhizal fungi differentially establish in certain forest microsites that is attributable to their dispersal and competitive abilities. Elevated microsites, especially decayed wood, act as seed beds for both ectomycorrhizal forest trees and fungi, thus affecting the succession of boreal forest ecosystems.

  2. Divergent climate response on hydraulic-related xylem anatomical traits of Picea abies along a 900-m altitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Castagneri, Daniele; Petit, Giai; Carrer, Marco

    2015-12-01

    Climate change can induce substantial modifications in xylem structure and water transport capacity of trees exposed to environmental constraints. To elucidate mechanisms of xylem plasticity in response to climate, we retrospectively analysed different cell anatomical parameters over tree-ring series in Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.). We sampled 24 trees along an altitudinal gradient (1200, 1600 and 2100 m above sea level, a.s.l.) and processed 2335 ± 1809 cells per ring. Time series for median cell lumen area (MCA), cell number (CN), tree-ring width (RW) and tree-ring-specific hydraulic conductivity (Kr) were crossed with daily temperature and precipitation records (1926-2011) to identify climate influence on xylem anatomical traits. Higher Kr at the low elevation site was due to higher MCA and CN. These variables were related to different aspects of intra-seasonal climatic variability under different environmental conditions, with MCA being more sensitive to summer precipitation. Winter precipitation (snow) benefited most parameters in all the sites. Descending the gradient, sensitivity of xylem features to summer climate shifted mostly from temperature to precipitation. In the context of climate change, our results indicate that higher summer temperatures at high elevations will benefit cell production and xylem hydraulic efficiency, whereas reduced water availability at lower elevations could negatively affect tracheids enlargement and thus stem capacity to transport water.

  3. Oribatid mite communities in the canopy of montane Abies amabilis and Tsuga heterophylla trees on Vancouver Island, British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Winchester, N N; Lindo, Z; Behan-Pelletier, V M

    2008-04-01

    To study the oribatid mite community inhabiting microhabitats in the canopy of montane Abies amabilis [(Douglas ex D. Don) Lindl.] and Tsuga heterophylla [(Raf.) Sarg] tree species across five elevational sites, we collected 180 branch tips and 180 foliose/crustose lichen samples over three time periods. Thirty-three species of oribatid mites were identified from the study area. Mite species richness and abundance was significantly affected by microhabitat, and this association was independent of sampling time. At the microhabitat scale, distinct species assemblages were associated with lichen and branch tip habitats, and to a lesser degree, tree species. Conifer specificity was most apparent in the closely related species of Jugatala, where Jugatala tuberosa Ewing was only found on branch tips from A. amabilis and Jugatala sp. was primarily found on branch tips from T. heterophylla. Microhabitat specificity was most pronounced in Dendrozetes sp. where most individuals were found on branch tips and Anachiperia geminus Lindo et al. that occurred primarily on lichens. Principal components analysis of oribatid mite community composition further showed a high degree of association with microhabitat and tree species. Habitat profiles are difficult to discern for many species because tree, microhabitat, and elevation preferences confound distribution patterns. Given the significant tree-microhabitat associations in species composition in this montane canopy study, we suggest that sampling multiple microhabitats across elevations to look for patterns in community structure offers opportunities to explicitly test organizing principles in community ecology.

  4. Influence of Binasal and Uninasal Inhalations of Essential Oil of Abies koreana Twigs on Electroencephalographic Activity of Human

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Min; Sowndhararajan, Kandhasamy

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The present work investigates the effect of essential oil from the twigs of Abies koreana on electroencephalographic (EEG) activity of human brain in order to understand the influence of binasal and uninasal inhalations. Methods. To accomplish this study, the essential oil from the twigs of A. koreana (AEO) was isolated by steam distillation and the EEG readings were recorded using QEEG-8 system from 8 grounding electrodes according to the International 10-20 System. Results. D-Limonene (25.29%), bornyl acetate (19.31%), camphene (12.48%), α-pinene (11.88%), β-pinene (6.45%), and eudesm-7(11)-en-ol (5.38%) were the major components in the essential oil. In the EEG study, the absolute alpha (left frontal and right parietal) and absolute fast alpha (right parietal) values significantly increased during the binasal inhalation of AEO. In the uninasal inhalation, absolute beta and theta values decreased significantly, especially in the right frontal and left and right parietal regions. The results revealed that the AEO produced different EEG power spectrum changes according to the nostril difference. Conclusion. The changes in EEG values due to the inhalation of AEO may contribute to the enhancement of relaxation (binasal inhalation) and alertness/attention (right uninasal inhalation) states of brain which could be used in aromatherapy treatments. PMID:28042202

  5. Mutational analysis of a monoterpene synthase reaction: altered catalysis through directed mutagenesis of (-)-pinene synthase from Abies grandis.

    PubMed

    Hyatt, David C; Croteau, Rodney

    2005-07-15

    Two monoterpene synthases, (-)-pinene synthase and (-)-camphene synthase, from grand fir (Abies grandis) produce different product mixtures despite having highly homologous amino acid sequences and, presumably, very similar three-dimensional structures. The major product of (-)-camphene synthase, (-)-camphene, and the major products of (-)-pinene synthase, (-)-alpha-pinene, and (-)-beta-pinene, arise through distinct mechanistic variations of the electrophilic reaction cascade that is common to terpenoid synthases. Structural modeling followed by directed mutagenesis in (-)-pinene synthase was used to replace selected amino acid residues with the corresponding residues from (-)-camphene synthase in an effort to identify the amino acids responsible for the catalytic differences. This approach produced an enzyme in which more than half of the product was channeled through an alternative pathway. It was also shown that several (-)-pinene synthase to (-)-camphene synthase amino acid substitutions were necessary before catalysis was significantly altered. The data support a model in which the collective action of many key amino acids, located both in and distant from the active site pocket, regulate the course of the electrophilic reaction cascade.

  6. [Responses of microbes in rhizospheric soil of Abies faxoniana to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ling; Wang, Kaiyun; Zhang, Yuanbin; Wu, Fuzhong; Lu, Yejiang

    2006-05-01

    With independent and top-enclosed chamber system, this paper studied the responses of culturable bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes in rhizospheric soil of Abies faxoniana sapling to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration (ambient +350( +/- 25) [micromol x mol(-1), EC), temperature (ambient + 2. 2 (+/- 0.5) degrees C; ET), and their combination (ECT) under high-frigid conditions of West Sichuan Province. The results showed that in comparing with the control, treatments EC and ET increased the number of rhizospheric bacteria by 35%, 164% and 312%, and 30%, 115% and 209% in June, August and October, respectively, but had little effects on the numbers of rhizospheric actinomycetes and fungi. In treatment ECT, the numbers of rhizospheric actinomycetes and fungi increased by 49%, 50% and 96% ,and 151%, 57% and 48% in June, August and October, respectively, while that of rhizospheric bacteria had little variation. EC, ET and ECT had significant effects on the total number of rhizospheric microbes, with the R/S being 1.93,1.27 and 1.46, respectively,but had little effects on non-rhizospheric microbes.

  7. Growth, allocation and tissue chemistry of Picea abies seedlings affected by nutrient supply during the second growing season.

    PubMed

    Kaakinen, Seija; Jolkkonen, Annika; Iivonen, Sari; Vapaavuori, Elina

    2004-06-01

    One-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedlings were grown hydroponically in a growth chamber to investigate the effects of low and high nutrient availability (LN; 0.25 mM N and HN; 2.50 mM N) on growth, biomass allocation and chemical composition of needles, stem and roots during the second growing season. Climatic conditions in the growth chamber simulated the mean growing season from May to early October in Flakaliden, northern Sweden. In the latter half of the growing season, biomass allocation changed in response to nutrient availability: increased root growth and decreased shoot growth led to higher root/shoot ratios in LN seedlings than in HN seedlings. At high nutrient availability, total biomass, especially stem biomass, increased, as did total nonstructural carbohydrate and nitrogen contents per seedling. Responses of stem chemistry to nutrient addition differed from those of adult trees of the same provenance. In HN seedlings, concentrations of alpha-cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin decreased in the secondary xylem. Our results illustrate the significance of retranslocation of stored nutrients to support new growth early in the season when root growth and nutrient uptake are still low. We conclude that nutrient availability alters allocation patterns, thereby influencing the success of 2-year-old Norway spruce seedlings at forest planting sites.

  8. The Transcription Factor ABI4 Is Required for the Ascorbic Acid–Dependent Regulation of Growth and Regulation of Jasmonate-Dependent Defense Signaling Pathways in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Kerchev, Pavel I.; Pellny, Till K.; Vivancos, Pedro Diaz; Kiddle, Guy; Hedden, Peter; Driscoll, Simon; Vanacker, Hélène; Verrier, Paul; Hancock, Robert D.; Foyer, Christine H.

    2011-01-01

    Cellular redox homeostasis is a hub for signal integration. Interactions between redox metabolism and the ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE-4 (ABI4) transcription factor were characterized in the Arabidopsis thaliana vitamin c defective1 (vtc1) and vtc2 mutants, which are defective in ascorbic acid synthesis and show a slow growth phenotype together with enhanced abscisic acid (ABA) levels relative to the wild type (Columbia-0). The 75% decrease in the leaf ascorbate pool in the vtc2 mutants was not sufficient to adversely affect GA metabolism. The transcriptome signatures of the abi4, vtc1, and vtc2 mutants showed significant overlap, with a large number of transcription factors or signaling components similarly repressed or induced. Moreover, lincomycin-dependent changes in LIGHT HARVESTING CHLOROPHYLL A/B BINDING PROTEIN 1.1 expression were comparable in these mutants, suggesting overlapping participation in chloroplast to nucleus signaling. The slow growth phenotype of vtc2 was absent in the abi4 vtc2 double mutant, as was the sugar-insensitive phenotype of the abi4 mutant. Octadecanoid derivative-responsive AP2/ERF-domain transcription factor 47 (ORA47) and AP3 (an ABI5 binding factor) transcripts were enhanced in vtc2 but repressed in abi4 vtc2, suggesting that ABI4 and ascorbate modulate growth and defense gene expression through jasmonate signaling. We conclude that low ascorbate triggers ABA- and jasmonate-dependent signaling pathways that together regulate growth through ABI4. Moreover, cellular redox homeostasis exerts a strong influence on sugar-dependent growth regulation. PMID:21926335

  9. Evaluating the usability of a single UK community acquired brain injury (ABI) rehabilitation service website: implications for research methodology and website design.

    PubMed

    Newby, Gavin; Groom, Christina

    2010-04-01

    Information provision is an important resource for those living with acquired brain injury (ABI) and their families. Web-based health information services are now common additions to health service provision. Ideally, they should be easy to use and provide useful, relevant and accurate information. ABI injuries do not affect individuals in the same way, and survivors can have a wide range of abilities and impairments. Therefore, any informational resource intended for this group should take account of their needs and help to compensate for their limitations. This pilot study recruited a group of individuals with ABI (of a median Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale rating of "lower moderate disability") who were clients of a UK National Health Service rehabilitation service and asked them to assess a specialised website provided by that service and hosted by their employing Primary Care Trust organisation. Participants completed a practical task and then gave their opinions on various aspects of website design, and content. They were also asked to suggest improvements and recommend additions. Overall the results were favourable. However, improvements in the legibility, layout and writing style were identified. There were also requests to add more information on the existing topics and add additional topics. The discussion also evaluates the utility of the methodology and the implications of the results for others considering constructing their own website.

  10. Affiliative and "self-as-doer" identities: Relationships between social identity, social support, and emotional status amongst survivors of acquired brain injury (ABI).

    PubMed

    Walsh, R Stephen; Muldoon, Orla T; Gallagher, Stephen; Fortune, Donal G

    2015-01-01

    Social support is an important factor in rehabilitation following acquired brain injury (ABI). Research indicates that social identity makes social support possible and that social identity is made possible by social support. In order to further investigate the reciprocity between social identity and social support, the present research applied the concepts of affiliative and "self-as-doer" identities to an analysis of relationships between social identity, social support, and emotional status amongst a cohort of 53 adult survivors of ABI engaged in post-acute community neurorehabilitation. Path analysis was used to test a hypothesised mediated model whereby affiliative identities have a significant indirect relationship with emotional status via social support and self-as-doer identification. Results support the hypothesised model. Evidence supports an "upward spiral" between social identity and social support such that affiliative identity makes social support possible and social support drives self-as-doer identity. Our discussion emphasises the importance of identity characteristics to social support, and to emotional status, for those living with ABI.

  11. The influence of O3, NO2 and SO2 on growth of Picea abies and Fagus sylvatica in the Carpathian Mountains.

    PubMed

    Muzika, R M; Guyette, R P; Zielonka, T; Liebhold, A M

    2004-07-01

    At 17 long-term pollution monitoring sites throughout the Carpathian Mountains, tree growth patterns and variation in growth rate were examined to determine relationship of tree growth to specific pollutants. Canopy dominant Picea abies and Fagus sylvatica were selected at each site. Basal area increment (BAI) values were calculated from raw ring widths and used as an estimate of tree growth. Across all sites, BAI chronologies were highly variable, therefore local conditions and forest structure accounted for considerable variation. Several significant relationships, however, implicated a role of pollutants on tree growth. Average levels (1997-1999) of NO(2) and SO(2) were inversely related to BAI means (1989-1999). Although average O(3) alone was not related to growth, the maximum O(3) value reported at the sites was negatively correlated with overall growth. A variable representing the combined effect of O(3), NO(2) and SO(2) was negatively correlated with both P. abies and F. sylvatica growth. Pollution data were used to categorize all sites into 'high' or 'low' pollution sites. Difference chronologies based on these categories indicated trends of decline in the 'high' pollution sites relative to 'low' pollution site. In the more heavily polluted sites, the BAI of Fagus sylvatica has declined approximately 50% and Picea abies has declined 20% over the past 45 years.

  12. Valorization of Romanian silver fir tree bark (Abies alba Mill.) wastes as low-cost sorbent of Cu(II) ions from polluted waters.

    PubMed

    Tofan, Lavinia; Paduraru, Carmen; Amalinei, Roxana Laura Mihailescu; Bunia, Ion; Miron, Anca

    2016-11-01

    Considering recycling as the first option in the hierarchy of sustainable waste management, and also the demand for efficient processes for wastewater treatment with reduced costs, the potential applicability of Romanian Abies alba bark, the main waste from the industrial processing of the wood of mature silver fir trees, as sorbent for Cu(II) has been studied in batch conditions. It was observed that the extent of Cu(II) sorption is strongly dependent on initial solution pH, sorbent dose, initial Cu(II) ion concentration, temperature and contact time. Equilibrium data fitted very well with both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The Langmuir maximum sorption capacity of Cu(II) ions on Abies alba bark waste was found to be 7.80 mg/g at 293 K. Kinetic studies showed a high affinity of the sorption experimental data to the pseudo-second order model. Gibbs free energy was spontaneous for all interactions and the sorption process exhibited endothermic enthalpy value. The waste of Abies alba bark was successfully used for the sorption removal of Cu(II) ions from industrial electroplating wastewaters.

  13. Altered HBK3 expression affects glutathione and ascorbate metabolism during the early phases of Norway spruce (Picea abies) somatic embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Belmonte, Mark F; Stasolla, Claudio

    2009-10-01

    Plant homeobox genes play an important role in plant development, including embryogenesis. Recently, the function of a class I homeobox of knox 3 gene, HBK3, has been characterized in the conifer Picea abies (L.) Karst (Norway spruce) [8]. During somatic embryogenesis, expression of HBK3 is required for the proper differentiation of proembryogenic masses into somatic embryos. This transition, fundamental for the overall embryogenic process, is accelerated in sense lines over-expressing HBK3 (HBK3-S) but precluded in antisense lines (HBK3-AS) where the expression of this gene is experimentally reduced. Altered HBK3 expression resulted in major changes of ascorbate and glutathione metabolism. During the initial phases of embryogeny the level of reduced GSH was higher in the HBK3-S lines compared to their control counterpart. An opposite profile was observed for the HBK3-AS lines where the glutathione redox state, i.e. GSH/GSH + GSSG, switched towards its oxidized form, i.e. GSSG. Very similar metabolic fluctuations were also measured for ascorbate, especially during the transition of proembryogenic masses into somatic embryos (7 days into hormone-free medium). At this stage the level of reduced ascorbate (ASC) in the HBK3-AS lines was about 75% lower compare to the untransformed line causing a switch of the ascorbate redox state, i.e. ASC/ASC + DHA + AFR, towards its oxidized forms, i.e. DHA + AFR. Changes in activities of several ascorbate and glutathione redox enzymes, including dehydroascorbate reductase (EC 1.8.5.1), ascorbate free radical reductase (EC 1.6.5.4) and glutathione reductase (GR; EC 1.6.4.2) were responsible for these metabolic differences. Data presented here suggest that HBK3 expression might regulate somatic embryo yield through alterations in glutathione and ascorbate metabolism, which have been previously implicated in controlling embryo development and maturation both in vivo and in vitro.

  14. Effect of season, needle age and elevated CO2 concentration on photosynthesis and Rubisco acclimation in Picea abies.

    PubMed

    Urban, Otmar; Hrstka, Miroslav; Zitová, Martina; Holišová, Petra; Sprtová, Mirka; Klem, Karel; Calfapietra, Carlo; De Angelis, Paolo; Marek, Michal V

    2012-09-01

    While downward photosynthetic acclimation in response to elevated CO(2) (EC) is frequently accompanied by reduction in Rubisco (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase), the exact mechanism behind this decrease and its dynamics are not well understood. We comprehensively studied Rubisco adjustment to EC in coniferous Picea abies using an electrophoretic (protein content), spectrophotometric (initial (RA(initial)) and total (RA(total)) in vitro Rubisco activities), and gas-exchange (maximum carboxylation activity in vivo (V(Cmax))) techniques. With respect to differing carbon sink strength and nitrogen remobilization, we hypothesized greater acclimation of photosynthesis in one-year-old as compared to current-year needles and at the end than at the beginning of the vegetation season. EC treatment led to a decrease in V(Cmax) values in current-year needles, but the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP)-limited rate of photosynthesis (J(max)) remained unaffected. Indeed, both V(Cmax) and J(max) were reduced by the EC treatment in one-year-old needles. The extent of photosynthetic acclimation in EC plants did not increase, however, during the vegetation season. EC decreased the activation state of Rubisco (RA(initial)/RA(total)) by 16% and 5% in current-year and one-year-old needles, respectively (averaged over the growing season). While during spring (short-term effect) EC treatment did not influence the Rubisco content per unit leaf area and decreased its specific activity (activity per unit Rubisco mass) in both needle age classes studied, exposure to EC during the entire vegetation season tended to reduce the Rubisco content while increasing its specific activity. Irrespective of CO(2) treatment and needle age, a hyperbolic-decay relationship was observed between Rubisco-specific activity and its content.

  15. Photosynthesis Decrease and Stomatal Control of Gas Exchange in Abies alba Mill. in Response to Vapor Pressure Difference

    PubMed Central

    Guehl, Jean-Marc; Aussenac, Gilbert

    1987-01-01

    The responses of steady state CO2 assimilation rate (A), transpiration rate (E), and stomatal conductance (gs) to changes in leaf-to-air vapor pressure difference (ΔW) were examined on different dates in shoots from Abies alba trees growing outside. In Ecouves, a provenance representative of wet oceanic conditions in Northern France, both A and gs decreased when ΔW was increased from 4.6 to 14.5 Pa KPa−1. In Nebias, which represented the dry end of the natural range of A. alba in southern France, A and gs decreased only after reaching peak levels at 9.0 and 7.0 Pa KPa−1, respectively. The representation of the data in assimilation rate (A) versus intercellular CO2 partial pressure (Ci) graphs allowed us to determine how stomata and mesophyll photosynthesis interacted when ΔW was increased. Changes in A were primarily due to alterations in mesophyll photosynthesis. At high ΔW, and especially in Ecouves when soil water deficit prevailed, A declined, while Ci remained approximately constant, which may be interpreted as an adjustment of gs to changes in mesophyll photosynthesis. Such a stomatal control of gas exchange appeared as an alternative to the classical feedforward interpretation of E versus ΔW responses with a peak rate of E. The gas exchange response to ΔW was also characterized by considerable deviations from the optimization theory of IR Cowan and GD Farquhar (1977 Symp Soc Exp Biol 31: 471-505). PMID:16665243

  16. Influence of low- and high-elevation plant genomes on the regulation of autumn cold acclimation in Abies sachalinensis.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Wataru; Ono, Kiyomi; Hara, Toshihiko; Goto, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    Boreal coniferous species with wide geographic distributions show substantial variation in autumn cold acclimation among populations. To determine how this variation is inherited across generations, we conducted a progeny test and examined the development of cold hardening in open-pollinated second-generation (F2) progeny of Abies sachalinensis. The F1 parents had different genetic backgrounds resulting from reciprocal interpopulational crosses between low-elevation (L) and high-elevation (H) populations: L × L, L × H, H × L, and H × H. Paternity analysis of the F2 progeny using molecular genetic markers showed that 91.3% of the fathers were located in surrounding stands of the F1 planting site (i.e., not in the F1 test population). The remaining fathers were assigned to F1 parents of the L × L cross-type. This indicates that the high-elevation genome in the F1 parents was not inherited by the F2 population via pollen flow. The timing of autumn cold acclimation in the F2 progeny depended on the cross-type of the F1 mother. The progeny of H × H mothers showed less damage in freezing tests than the progeny of other cross-types. Statistical modeling supported a linear effect of genome origin. In the best model, variation in freezing damage was explained by the proportion of maternally inherited high-elevation genome. These results suggest that autumn cold acclimation was partly explained by the additive effect of the responsible maternal genome. Thus, the offspring that inherited a greater proportion of the high-elevation genome developed cold hardiness earlier. Genome-based variation in the regulation of autumn cold acclimation matched the local climatic conditions, which may be a key factor in elevation-dependent adaptation.

  17. Comparative genome mapping among Picea glauca, P. mariana x P. rubens and P. abies, and correspondence with other Pinaceae.

    PubMed

    Pelgas, Betty; Beauseigle, Stéphanie; Acheré, Virginie; Jeandroz, Sylvain; Bousquet, Jean; Isabel, Nathalie

    2006-11-01

    A composite linkage map was constructed from four individual maps for the conifer Picea glauca (Moench) Voss, from anonymous and gene-specific markfers (714 AFLPs, 38 SSRs, and 53 ESTPs). A total of 12 linkage groups were delineated with an average marker density of 2.7 cM. Macro-synteny and macro-colinearity comparisons with two other composite linkage maps developed for the species complex P. mariana (Mill.) B.S.P. x P. rubens Sarg., and for P. abies (L.) Karst. revealed an identical number of linkage groups and a remarkable conservation of the gene content and gene order of linkage groups over the million years since the split between these taxa. Identical gene order among taxa was observed for 10 of the 12 assembled composite linkage groups. The discovery of one breakdown in synteny between P. glauca and the other two taxa indicated the occurrence of an inter-chromosomal rearrangement involving an insertional translocation. Analysis of marker colinearity also revealed a putative segmental duplication. The combined information from these three Picea genomes validated and improved large-scale genome comparisons at the inter-generic level in the family Pinaceae by allowing for the identification of 11 homoeologous linkage groups between Picea and Pinus, and nine such groups between Picea and Pseudotsuga menziesii. Notably, the analysis of synteny among the three genera revealed a putative case of chromosomal fission and an inter-chromosomal rearrangement in the genome of P. menziesii. Both of these changes are inter-connected, indicating much instability in this part of the P. menziesii genome. Overall, the macro-structure of the Pinaceae genome was well conserved, which is notable given the Cretaceous origin of its main lineages.

  18. Carbon dioxide concentration and nitrogen input affect the C and N storage pools in Amanita muscaria-Picea abies mycorrhizae.

    PubMed

    Turnau, K; Berger, A; Loewe, A; Einig, W; Hampp, R; Chalot, M; Dizengremel, P; Kottke, I

    2001-02-01

    We studied the influence of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) on the vacuolar storage pool of nitrogen-containing compounds and on the glycogen pool in the hyphal sheath of Amanita muscaria (L. ex Fr.) Hooker-Picea abies L. Karst. mycorrhizae grown with two concentrations of ammonium in the substrate. Mycorrhizal seedlings were grown in petri dishes on agar containing 5.3 or 53 mg N l(-1) and exposed to 350 or 700 microl CO2 l(-1) for 5 or 7 weeks, respectively. Numbers and area of nitrogen-containing bodies in the vacuoles of the mycorrhizal fungus were determined by light microscopy linked to an image analysis system. The relative concentration of nitrogen in the vacuolar bodies was measured by electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Glycogen stored in the cytosol was determined at the ultrastructural level by image analysis after staining the sections (PATAg test). Shoot dry weight, net photosynthesis and relative amounts of N in vacuolar bodies were greater at the higher N and CO2 concentrations. The numbers and areas of vacuolar N-containing bodies were significantly greater at the higher N concentration only at ambient [CO2]. In the same treatment the percentage of hyphae containing glycogen declined to nearly zero. We conclude that, in the high N/low [CO2] treatment, the mycorrhizal fungus had an insufficient carbohydrate supply, partly because of increased amino acid synthesis by the non-mycorrhizal rootlets. When [CO2] was increased, the equilibrium between storage of glycogen and N-containing compounds was reestablished.

  19. The influence of Ceratocystis polonica inoculation and methyl jasmonate application on terpene chemistry of Norway spruce, Picea abies.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tao; Krokene, Paal; Björklund, Niklas; Långström, Bo; Solheim, Halvor; Christiansen, Erik; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

    2010-08-01

    Constitutive and inducible terpene production is involved in conifer resistance against bark beetles and their associated fungi. In this study 72 Norway spruce (Picea abies) were randomly assigned to methyl jasmonate (MJ) application, inoculation with the bluestain fungus Ceratocystis polonica, or no-treatment control. We investigated terpene levels in the stem bark of the trees before treatment, 30 days and one year after treatment using GC-MS and two-dimensional GC (2D-GC) with a chiral column, and monitored landing and attack rates of the spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus, on the trees by sticky traps and visual inspection. Thirty days after fungal inoculation the absolute amount and relative proportion of (+)-3-carene, sabinene, and terpinolene increased and (+)-alpha-pinene decreased. Spraying the stems with MJ tended to generally increase the concentration of most major terpenes with minor alteration to their relative proportions, but significant increases were only observed for (-)-beta-pinene and (-)-limonene. Fungal inoculation significantly increased the enantiomeric ratio of (-)-alpha-pinene and (-)-limonene 1 month after treatment, whereas MJ only increased that of (-)-limonene. One year after treatment, both MJ and fungal inoculation increased the concentration of most terpenes relative to undisturbed control trees, with significant changes in (-)-beta-pinene, (-)-beta-phellandrene and some other compounds. Terpene levels did not change in untreated stem sections after treatment, and chemical induction by MJ and C. polonica thus seemed to be restricted to the treated stem section. The enantiomeric ratio of (-)-alpha-pinene was significantly higher and the relative proportions of (-)-limonene were significantly lower in trees that were attractive to bark beetles compared to unattractive trees. One month after fungal inoculation, the total amount of diterpenes was significantly higher in putative resistant trees with shorter lesion lengths than in

  20. A possible biochemical basis for fructose-induced inhibition of embryo development in Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Businge, Edward; Egertsdotter, Ulrika

    2014-06-01

    Sugars play an important role in various physiological processes during plant growth and development; however, the developmental roles and regulatory functions of hexoses other than glucose are still largely unclear. Recent studies suggest that blocked embryo development in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) is associated with accumulation of fructose. In the present study, the potential biochemical regulatory mechanism of glucose and fructose was studied during development of somatic embryos of Norway spruce from pro-embryogenic masses to mature embryos. The changes in protein fluorescence, a marker of the Maillard reaction, were monitored in two cell lines of Norway spruce that were grown on media containing sucrose (control), glucose or fructose. Manual time-lapse photography showed that growth of embryogenic cultures on medium containing sucrose was characterized by normal development of mature embryos whereas the embryogenic cultures that were grown on media containing glucose or fructose did not develop mature embryos. The biochemical analyses of embryogenic samples collected during embryo development showed that: (i) the content of glucose and fructose in the embryogenic cultures increased significantly during growth on each medium, respectively; (ii) the accumulation of Maillard products in the embryogenic cultures was highly correlated with the endogenous content of fructose but not glucose; and (iii) the embryogenic cultures grown on fructose displayed the highest protein carbonyl content and DNA damage whereas the highest content of glutathione was recorded in the embryogenic cultures that had grown on sucrose. Our data suggest that blocked development of embryos in the presence of fructose may be associated with the Maillard reaction.

  1. Shoot-level terpenoids emission in Norway spruce (Picea abies) under natural field and manipulated laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Raffaela; Lusini, Ilaria; Kristýna Večeřová; Petra Holišová; Pallozzi, Emanuele; Guidolotti, Gabriele; Urban, Otmar; Calfapietra, Carlo

    2016-11-01

    Norway spruce (Picea abies) is a strong emitter of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). In the present study we investigated how shoot canopy position and high levels of stressors such as high temperature and ozone concentration, affect BVOC emission rates by means of in-situ and ex-situ experimental measurements. Therefore, BVOC emission from current-year spruce shoots was investigated under field and manipulated (temperature, ozone) laboratory conditions. Emitted BVOCs were sampled on desorption tubes, coupled with gas-exchange measurements of CO2 assimilation rate and stomatal conductance, and detected by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Total BVOC emission rates from sun shoots under standard conditions were higher than those from shade shoots, although this was significant only in July, on the contrary, only α-pinene and γ-terpinene emission rates showed significant differences between sun and shade acclimated shoots in August. Limonene, α-pinene, β-pinene, and myrcene were identified as the most abundant BVOCs in both campaigns with emission rates above 0.2 nmol m(-2) s(-1). Ex-situ measurements revealed a significantly higher total BVOC emissions under high temperature level (40 °C) by ca. 175% as compared with standard temperature (30 °C), while a short-term fumigation of acute O3 concentration (200 ppb) had no effect on BVOC emissions and its spectrum. These findings might have a relevance considering the role of these compounds in protecting against oxidative stress and their possible stimulation in particular stressful conditions. Implication of such results into emission models may contribute to a more accurate estimation of BVOC emissions for Central European mountain regions dominated by Norway spruce forests and their rate under predicted climate change.

  2. Secondary metabolites of the lichen Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. and their presence in spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) bark.

    PubMed

    Latkowska, Ewa; Bober, Beata; Chrapusta, Ewelina; Adamski, Michal; Kaminski, Ariel; Bialczyk, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Lichen species typically have a characteristic profile of secondary metabolites. Dense populations of Hypogymnia physodes growing frequently as epiphytes on tree branches have harmful effects on the host, likely due to their secondary compounds, which were undetected in tree tissues until now. The aim of the present study was to re-characterise the suite of secondary metabolites of H. physodes thalli and to estimate their translocation into spruce (Picea abies) bark. Thallus and bark extracts were compared using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The compounds were identified based on their UV, MS and MS/MS spectra as well as retention factors of their TLC analysis. In addition to the previously described secondary metabolites (protocetraric, physodalic, 3-hydroxyphysodic, physodic, and 2'-O-methylphysodic acids, atranorin and chloroatranorin) of H. physodes, further three were identified in its thalli: conphysodalic, 4-O-methylphysodic and α-alectoronic acids. Fragmentation patterns from the negative ionisation of each compound were proposed, some of which were described for the first time. Among all of the detected lichen substances, a few, e.g., physodalic, 3-hydroxyphysodic, physodic acids and atranorin, were present in the bark of spruce branches that were abundantly colonised by lichen. The newly identified compounds of H. physodes thalli may belong to its constant or accessory secondary metabolites. These compounds may be useful in the chemotaxonomic classification of this species. The presence of some lichen substances in spruce bark confirmed their ability to penetrate host tissues. These data suggest that H. physodes compounds may cause long-term effects on spruces in nature.

  3. Clavulina-Membranomyces is the most important lineage within the highly diverse ectomycorrhizal fungal community of Abies religiosa.

    PubMed

    Argüelles-Moyao, Andrés; Garibay-Orijel, Roberto; Márquez-Valdelamar, Laura Margarita; Arellano-Torres, Elsa

    2017-01-01

    Abies religiosa is an endemic conifer of Mexico, where its monodominant forests are the winter refuge of the monarch butterfly. Due to climate change, it has been estimated that by 2090, A. religiosa populations will decline by 96.5 %. To achieve success, reforestation programs should consider its ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi. We used ITS nrDNA sequences to identify the ECM fungi associated with A. religiosa and, based on its abundance and frequency, determined the diversity and community structure in a pure A. religiosa forest near Mexico City. Using sequence metadata, we inferred the species geographic distribution and host preferences. We conducted phylogenetic analyses of the Clavulinaceae (the most important family). The ECM community held 83 species, among which the richest genera were Inocybe (21 species), Tomentella (10 species), and Russula (8 species). Besides its low species richness, the Clavulina-Membranomyces lineage was the most dominant family. Clavulina cf. cinerea and Membranomyces sp. exhibited the highest relative abundance and relative frequency values. Phylogenetic analyses placed the Clavulinaceae genotypes in three different clades: one within Membranomyces and two within Clavulina. A meta-analysis showed that the majority of the ECM fungi (45.78 %) associated with A. religiosa in Mexico have also been sequenced from North America and are shared by Pinaceae and Fagaceae. In contrast, because they have not been sequenced previously, 32.2 % of the species have a restricted distribution. Here, we highlight the emerging pattern that the Clavulina-Membranomyces lineage is dominant in several ECM communities in the Neotropics, including Aldinia and Dicymbe legume tropical forests in the Guyana Shield, the Alnus acuminata subtropical communities, and the A. religiosa temperate forests in Mexico.

  4. Influence of low- and high-elevation plant genomes on the regulation of autumn cold acclimation in Abies sachalinensis

    PubMed Central

    Ishizuka, Wataru; Ono, Kiyomi; Hara, Toshihiko; Goto, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    Boreal coniferous species with wide geographic distributions show substantial variation in autumn cold acclimation among populations. To determine how this variation is inherited across generations, we conducted a progeny test and examined the development of cold hardening in open-pollinated second-generation (F2) progeny of Abies sachalinensis. The F1 parents had different genetic backgrounds resulting from reciprocal interpopulational crosses between low-elevation (L) and high-elevation (H) populations: L × L, L × H, H × L, and H × H. Paternity analysis of the F2 progeny using molecular genetic markers showed that 91.3% of the fathers were located in surrounding stands of the F1 planting site (i.e., not in the F1 test population). The remaining fathers were assigned to F1 parents of the L × L cross-type. This indicates that the high-elevation genome in the F1 parents was not inherited by the F2 population via pollen flow. The timing of autumn cold acclimation in the F2 progeny depended on the cross-type of the F1 mother. The progeny of H × H mothers showed less damage in freezing tests than the progeny of other cross-types. Statistical modeling supported a linear effect of genome origin. In the best model, variation in freezing damage was explained by the proportion of maternally inherited high-elevation genome. These results suggest that autumn cold acclimation was partly explained by the additive effect of the responsible maternal genome. Thus, the offspring that inherited a greater proportion of the high-elevation genome developed cold hardiness earlier. Genome-based variation in the regulation of autumn cold acclimation matched the local climatic conditions, which may be a key factor in elevation-dependent adaptation. PMID:26557131

  5. [Effects of snow pack on soil nitrogen transformation enzyme activities in a subalpine Abies faxioniana forest of western Sichuan, China].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Li; Xu, Zhen-Feng; Wu, Fu-Zhong; Yang, Wan-Qin; Yin, Rui; Li, Zhi-Ping; Gou, Xiao-Lin; Tang, Shi-Shan

    2014-05-01

    This study characterized the dynamics of the activities of urease, nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase in both soil organic layer and mineral soil layer under three depths of snow pack (deep snowpack, moderate snowpack and shallow snowpack) over the three critical periods (snow formed period, snow stable period, and snow melt period) in the subalpine Abies faxoniana forest of western Sichuan in the winter of 2012 and 2013. Throughout the winter, soil temperature under deep snowpack increased by 46.2% and 26.2%, respectively in comparison with moderate snowpack and shallow snowpack. In general, the three nitrogen-related soil enzyme activities under shallow snowpack were 0.8 to 3.9 times of those under deep snowpack during the winter. In the beginning and thawing periods of seasonal snow pack, shallow snowpack significantly increased the activities of urease, nitrate and nitrite reductase enzyme in both soil organic layer and mineral soil layer. Although the activities of the studied enzymes in soil organic layer and mineral soil layer were observed to be higher than those under deep- and moderate snowpacks in deep winter, no significant difference was found under the three snow packs. Meanwhile, the effects of snowpack on the activities of the measured enzymes were related with season, soil layer and enzyme type. Significant variations of the activities of nitrogen-related enzymes were found in three critical periods over the winter, and the three measured soil enzymes were significantly higher in organic layer than in mineral layer. In addition, the activities of the three measured soil enzymes were closely related with temperature and moisture in soils. In conclusion, the decrease of snow pack induced by winter warming might increase the activities of soil enzymes related with nitrogen transformation and further stimulate the process of wintertime nitrogen transformation in soils of the subalpine forest.

  6. Leaf Gas Exchange in Relict Spruce-Fir Cloud Forests of the Southern Appalachian Mountains, USA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhardt, K.; Smith, W. K.

    2007-12-01

    The relict spruce-fir (Picea rubens Sarg. - Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir.) forests of the southern Appalachian mountains are found only on high altitude mountain tops that receive copious precipitation (>2000 mm annually) and experience frequent cloud immersion (~65% of the total growth season days). Cloud deposition accounts for up to 50% of the annual water budget for these high-elevation forests. Two sites in North Carolina were established to investigate the influences of cloudiness and cloud immersion on leaf gas exchange and water relations of Fraser fir: Mt. Mitchell (2028 m elevation) and Roan Mtn., NC (1890 m elevation). It was hypothesized that the cool, moist, and cloudy conditions at these sites would exert a strong influence on leaf carbon and water fluxes. Water status was high throughout all hours on measurement days, with xylem water potential always >-1.75 MPa and soil water content always >0.1 m3 m-3. Leaves were wet frequently (>60% of all hours) due to cloud immersion and nightly dewfall, which did not appear to limit photosynthesis, but may influence stomatal response and transpiration. Maximum photosynthesis (Amax) was about 15 umol CO2 m-2 s-1, and saturated at sunlight levels between 400-500 umol m-2 s-1. Maximum leaf conductance (gmax) and transpiration (Emax) were 0.31 mol m-2 s-1 and 3.9 mmol m-2 s-1, respectively, and were strongly associated with LAVD. At both sites, conductance and transpiration decreased exponentially as LAVD increased, with 50-75% reduction between 0-0.5 kPa. Mean instantaneous water use efficiency on clear days was 3.5 umol CO2 m-2 s-1/mmol H2O m-2 s-1 across all transpiration fluxes, but increased on cloudy and cloud-immersed days (range of 2.3 - 6.0 umol CO2 m-2 s-1/mmol H2O m-2 s-1) as transpiration increased. Leaf gas exchange appeared tightly coupled to the response of conductance to LAVD which maintained high water status, even at the relatively low LAVD of these cloud forests. Thus, the cloudy, humid

  7. Synthesis, crystal structure, and photocatalytic activity of the new three-layer aurivillius phases, Bi{sub 2}ASrTi{sub 2}TaO{sub 12} (A=Bi, La)

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Dong; Tang Kaibin; Liang Zhenhua; Zheng Huagui

    2010-02-15

    Two new three-layer Aurivillius phases Bi{sub 2}ASrTi{sub 2}TaO{sub 12} (A=Bi, La) have been synthesized. The detailed structure determination of Bi{sub 2}ASrTi{sub 2}TaO{sub 12} (A=Bi, La) performed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and selected area electron microscopy (SAED) shows that they all crystallize in the space group I/4mmm. UV-visible diffuse reflection spectrum of the prepared Bi{sub 2}ASrTi{sub 2}TaO{sub 12} (A=Bi, La) indicates that it had absorption in the ultraviolet (UV) region. The photocatalytic activity of the Bi{sub 2}ASrTi{sub 2}TaO{sub 12} (A=Bi, La) powders was evaluated by degradation of rhodamine B (RB) molecules in water under UV light irradiation. The results showed that Bi{sub 2}ASrTi{sub 2}TaO{sub 12} (A=Bi, La) has high photocatalytic activity at room temperature. Therefore, the preparation and properties studies of Bi{sub 2}ASrTi{sub 2}TaO{sub 12} (A=Bi, La) with a three-layer Aurivillius structure suggest potential future applications in photocatalysis. - Graphical abstract: Two new three-layer Aurivillius phases Bi{sub 2}ASrTi{sub 2}TaO{sub 12} (A=Bi, La) have been synthesized by a conventional solid state reaction method. And this is the crystal structure of the three-layer Aurivillius phases, Bi{sub 2}ASrTi{sub 2}TaO{sub 12}.

  8. High-Throughput Sequencing Reveals Drastic Changes in Fungal Communities in the Phyllosphere of Norway Spruce (Picea abies) Following Invasion of the Spruce Bud Scale (Physokermes piceae).

    PubMed

    Menkis, Audrius; Marčiulynas, Adas; Gedminas, Artūras; Lynikienė, Jūratė; Povilaitienė, Aistė

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the diversity and composition of fungal communities in damaged and undamaged shoots of Norway spruce (Picea abies) following recent invasion of the spruce bud scale (Physokermes piceae) in Lithuania. Sampling was done in July 2013 and included 50 random lateral shoots from ten random trees in each of five visually undamaged and five damaged 40-50-year-old pure stands of P. abies. DNA was isolated from 500 individual shoots, subjected to amplification of the internal transcribed spacer of fungal ribosomal DNA (ITS rDNA), barcoded and sequenced. Clustering of 149,426 high-quality sequences resulted in 1193 non-singleton contigs of which 1039 (87.1 %) were fungal. In total, there were 893 fungal taxa in damaged shoots and 608 taxa in undamaged shoots (p < 0.0001). Furthermore, 431 (41.5 %) fungal taxa were exclusively in damaged shoots, 146 (14.0 %) were exclusively in undamaged shoots, and 462 (44.5 %) were common to both types of samples. Correspondence analysis showed that study sites representing damaged and undamaged shoots were separated from each other, indicating that in these fungal communities, these were largely different and, therefore, heavily affected by P. piceae. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that invasive alien tree pests may have a profound effect on fungal mycobiota associated with the phyllosphere of P. abies, and therefore, in addition to their direct negative effect owing physical damage of the tissue, they may also indirectly determine health, sustainability and, ultimately, distribution of the forest tree species.

  9. FERONIA interacts with ABI2-type phosphatases to facilitate signaling cross-talk between abscisic acid and RALF peptide in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jia; Yu, Feng; Liu, Ying; Du, Changqing; Li, Xiushan; Zhu, Sirui; Wang, Xianchun; Lan, Wenzhi; Rodriguez, Pedro L.; Liu, Xuanming; Li, Dongping; Chen, Liangbi; Luan, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Receptor-like kinase FERONIA (FER) plays a crucial role in plant response to small molecule hormones [e.g., auxin and abscisic acid (ABA)] and peptide signals [e.g., rapid alkalinization factor (RALF)]. It remains unknown how FER integrates these different signaling events in the control of cell growth and stress responses. Under stress conditions, increased levels of ABA will inhibit cell elongation in the roots. In our previous work, we have shown that FER, through activation of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1 (GEF1)/4/10-Rho of Plant 11 (ROP11) pathway, enhances the activity of the phosphatase ABA Insensitive 2 (ABI2), a negative regulator of ABA signaling, thereby inhibiting ABA response. In this study, we found that both RALF and ABA activated FER by increasing the phosphorylation level of FER. The FER loss-of-function mutant displayed strong hypersensitivity to both ABA and abiotic stresses such as salt and cold conditions, indicating that FER plays a key role in ABA and stress responses. We further showed that ABI2 directly interacted with and dephosphorylated FER, leading to inhibition of FER activity. Several other ABI2-like phosphatases also function in this pathway, and ABA-dependent FER activation required PYRABACTIN RESISTANCE (PYR)/PYR1-LIKE (PYL)/REGULATORY COMPONENTS OF ABA RECEPTORS (RCAR)–A-type protein phosphatase type 2C (PP2CA) modules. Furthermore, suppression of RALF1 gene expression, similar to disruption of the FER gene, rendered plants hypersensitive to ABA. These results formulated a mechanism for ABA activation of FER and for cross-talk between ABA and peptide hormone RALF in the control of plant growth and responses to stress signals. PMID:27566404

  10. Different Alleles of a Gene Encoding Leucoanthocyanidin Reductase (PaLAR3) Influence Resistance against the Fungus Heterobasidion parviporum in Picea abies.

    PubMed

    Nemesio-Gorriz, Miguel; Hammerbacher, Almuth; Ihrmark, Katarina; Källman, Thomas; Olson, Åke; Lascoux, Martin; Stenlid, Jan; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Elfstrand, Malin

    2016-08-01

    Despite the fact that fungal diseases are a growing menace for conifers in modern silviculture, only a very limited number of molecular markers for pathogen resistance have been validated in conifer species. A previous genetic study indicated that the resistance of Norway spruce (Picea abies) to Heterobasidion annosum s.l., a pathogenic basidiomycete species complex, is linked to a quantitative trait loci that associates with differences in fungal growth in sapwood (FGS) that includes a gene, PaLAR3, which encodes a leucoanthocyanidin reductase. In this study, gene sequences showed the presence of two PaLAR3 allelic lineages in P. abies. Higher resistance was associated with the novel allele, which was found in low frequency in the four P. abies populations that we studied. Norway spruce plants carrying at least one copy of the novel allele showed a significant reduction in FGS after inoculation with Heterobasidion parviporum compared to their half-siblings carrying no copies, indicating dominance of this allele. The amount of (+) catechin, the enzymatic product of PaLAR3, was significantly higher in bark of trees homozygous for the novel allele. Although we observed that the in vitro activities of the enzymes encoded by the two alleles were similar, we could show that allele-specific transcript levels were significantly higher for the novel allele, indicating that regulation of gene expression is responsible for the observed effects in resistance, possibly caused by differences in cis-acting elements that we observe in the promoter region of the two alleles.

  11. Ancestry and divergence of subtropical montane forest isolates: molecular biogeography of the genus Abies (Pinaceae) in southern México and Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo-Correa, Juan P; Aguirre-Planter, Erika; Khasa, Damase P; Eguiarte, Luis E; Piñero, Daniel; Furnier, Glenn R; Bousquet, Jean

    2008-05-01

    The genus Abies has a complex history in southern México and Guatemala. In this region, four closely related species, Abies flinckii, A. guatemalensis, A. hickelii, and A. religiosa, are distributed in fragmented and isolated montane populations. Range-wide genetic variation was investigated across species using cytoplasmic DNA markers with contrasted inheritance. Variation at two maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA markers was low. All species shared two of the nine mitotypes detected, while the remaining seven mitochondrial DNA types were restricted to a few isolated stands. Mitochondrial genetic differentiation across taxa was high (G(ST) = 0.933), it was not related to the taxonomic identity (amova; P > 0.05) of the populations, and it was not phylogeographically structured (G(ST) approximately N(ST)). In contrast, variation at three paternally inherited chloroplast DNA microsatellites was high. Chloroplast genetic differentiation was lower (G(ST) = 0.402; R(ST) = 0.547) than for mitochondrial DNA, but it was significantly related to taxonomy (amova; P < 0.001), and exhibited a significant phylogeographical structure (G(ST) < R(ST)). Different analyses of population structure indicated that A. flinckii was the most divergent taxon, while the remaining three species formed a relatively homogeneous group. However, a small number of the populations of these three taxa, all located at the limits of their respective ranges or in the Transverse Volcanic Belt, diverged from this main cluster. These trends suggest that the Mesoamerican Abies share a recent common ancestor and that their divergence and speciation is mainly driven by genetic drift and isolation during the warm interglacial periods.

  12. Water content and bark thickness of Norway spruce (Picea abies) stems: phloem water capacitance and xylem sap flow.

    PubMed

    Gall, Rolf; Landolt, W; Schleppi, P; Michellod, V; Bucher, J B

    2002-06-01

    To determine the relationship between phloem transport and changes in phloem water content, we measured temporal and spatial variations in water content and sucrose, glucose and fructose concentrations in phloem samples and phloem exudates of 70- and 30-year-old Norway spruce trees (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). Large temporal and spatial variations in phloem water content (1.4-2.6 mg mg(dw)(-1)) and phloem total sugar concentration (31-70 mg g(dw)(-1)) paralleled each other (r(2) = 0.83, P < 0.0001 for the temporal profile and r(2) = 0.96, P < 0.008 for the spatial profile), indicating that phloem water content depends on the total amount of sugar to be transferred. Changes in phloem water content were unrelated to changes in bark thickness. Maximum changes in phloem water content calculated from dendrometer readings were only 8-11% of the maximum measured changes in phloem water content, indicating that reversible changes in bark thickness did not reflect changes in internal water relations. We also studied the relationship between xylem sap velocity and changes in bark thickness in 70-year-old trees during summer 1999 and winter 1999-2000. Sap flow occurred sporadically throughout the winter, but there was no relationship between bark shrinkage or swelling and sap velocity. In winter, mean daily xylem sap velocity was significantly correlated with mean daily vapor pressure deficit and air temperature (P < 0.0001, in both cases). Changes in bark thickness corresponded with both short- and long-term changes in relative humidity, in both winter and summer. Under controlled conditions at > 0 degrees C, changes in relative humidity alone caused changes in thickness of boiled bark samples. Because living bark of Norway spruce trees contains large areas with crushed and dead sieve cell zones-up to 24% of the bark is air-filled space-we suggest that this space can compensate for volume changes in living phloem cells independently of total tissue water content. We conclude

  13. [Response of Picea purpurea and Abies faxoniana tree rings at different slope aspects to rapid warming in western Sichuan, China].

    PubMed

    Guo, Bin-de; Zhang, Yuan-dong; Wang, Xiao-chun

    2016-02-01

    By using an empirical 'signal-free' standardization approach, we constructed four Picea purpurea and Abies faxoniana tree-ring chronologies at southeast and northwest slope aspects of Erdaohai and east slope aspect of Zharisi, Songpan, west Sichuan, China. The response analysis and multivariate analysis of variance between tree rings and climatic variables were conducted to explore the divergent responses of tree growth at different slope aspects to the recent warming climate. Results showed that tree growth of P. purpurea at east slope aspect was obviously accelerated (0.011 a-1) since rapid warming in 1980, whereas those at northwest slope aspect was significantly reduced (-0.006 a-1). Tree growth of P. purpurea at southeast slope aspect and A. faxoniana at northwest slope aspect decreased in significantly. With the rapid warming, growth-climate relationships of P. purpurea and A. faxoniana at different slope aspects changed significantly. After rapid warming in 1980, the promoting effects of growing season temperature (GST) on P. purpurea growth at east slope increased significantly, while the inhibitory effects of GST on its growth at southeast and northwest slopes also increased significantly. However, the effects of GST on A. faxoniana growth at northwest slope did not change significantly before and after rapid warming. The effects of precipitation in May (PM) on P. purpurea growth at east slope was changed from inhibition before rapid warming to significant promotion after rapid warming, while the inhibitory effects of PM on P. purpurea growth at southeast and northwest slopes increased significantly. For A. faioniana at northwest slope, however, it did not change obviously before and after rapid warming. The response analysis between tree growth and the Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) showed that soil moisture variations at different slope aspects were an important reason of tree-ring growth response difference since rapid warming. In addition, the

  14. Population dynamics and genetic changes of Picea abies in the South Carpathians revealed by pollen and ancient DNA analyses

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Studies on allele length polymorphism designate several glacial refugia for Norway spruce (Picea abies) in the South Carpathian Mountains, but infer only limited expansion from these refugia after the last glaciation. To better understand the genetic dynamics of a South Carpathian spruce lineage, we compared ancient DNA from 10,700 and 11,000-year-old spruce pollen and macrofossils retrieved from Holocene lake sediment in the Retezat Mountains with DNA extracted from extant material from the same site. We used eight primer pairs that amplified short and variable regions of the spruce cpDNA. In addition, from the same lake sediment we obtained a 15,000-years-long pollen accumulation rate (PAR) record for spruce that helped us to infer changes in population size at this site. Results We obtained successful amplifications for Norway spruce from 17 out of 462 pollen grains tested, while the macrofossil material provided 22 DNA sequences. Two fossil sequences were found to be unique to the ancient material. Population genetic statistics showed higher genetic diversity in the ancient individuals compared to the extant ones. Similarly, statistically significant Ks and Kst values showed a considerable level of differentiation between extant and ancient populations at the same loci. Lateglacial and Holocene PAR values suggested that population size of the ancient population was small, in the range of 1/10 or 1/5 of the extant population. PAR analysis also detected two periods of rapid population growths (from ca. 11,100 and 3900 calibrated years before present (cal yr BP)) and three bottlenecks (around 9180, 7200 and 2200 cal yr BP), likely triggered by climatic change and human impact. Conclusion Our results suggest that the paternal lineages observed today in the Retezat Mountains persisted at this site at least since the early Holocene. Combination of the results from the genetic and the PAR analyses furthermore suggests that the higher level of genetic

  15. Airborne fungal colonisation of coarse woody debris in North Temperate Picea abies forest: impact of season and local spatial scale.

    PubMed

    Vasiliauskas, Rimvydas; Lygis, Vaidotas; Larsson, Karl-Henrik; Stenlid, Jan

    2005-04-01

    Coarse woody debris is important for mycodiversity in forest ecosystems, but its availability in managed stands is reduced. Leaving dead wood during felling is suggested as an option to sustain and restore the diversity. However, little is known what fungi would colonise freshly cut wood left on managed sites, and how the colonisation process is influenced by ecological factors. During summer and autumn, 120 freshly cut Picea abies stem sections over 8 cm in diameter were placed upright in mapped locations over two discrete plots separated by 100 m in a north-temperate forest. After seven weeks the sections were collected, and isolation and identification of fungi was done from their upper surfaces. In all 943 fungal strains were isolated, representing 97 species. Species richness in the summer survey was 42.5% higher than during the autumn survey. Low species similarity characterized the different seasons (Sorensen indices: S(S) = 0.36 and S(N) = 0.34) and for 21 species (22%) observation frequency was significantly affected by season. As a result, community structures in summer and autumn differed notably (z-test; P < 0.001). Species richness between the two plots differed by less than 10%, but there were 64 species (66%) found only in one of them, thus qualitative similarity was low (S(S) = 0.49). Quantitative similarity was higher (S(N) = 0.63), indicating that the dominant species colonised wood to a similar extent in both areas. Fungal community structure differed significantly among the two plots (z-test; P < 0.001). Our data showed that freshly cut CWD contributed to mycodiversity in managed north-temperate forest, providing habitats for numerous individuals from over 100 species. The fungal community within a single stand differed markedly both across small distances and over the seasons. In order to sustain and enhance mycodiversity in managed stands. coarse wood should always be left during harvesting. This study also demonstrates the importance of

  16. Tree growth and competition in an old-growth Picea abies forest of boreal Sweden: influence of tree spatial patterning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fraver, Shawn; D'Amato, Anthony W.; Bradford, John B.; Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar; Jönsson, Mari; Esseen, Per-Anders

    2013-01-01

    Question: What factors best characterize tree competitive environments in this structurally diverse old-growth forest, and do these factors vary spatially within and among stands? Location: Old-growth Picea abies forest of boreal Sweden. Methods: Using long-term, mapped permanent plot data augmented with dendrochronological analyses, we evaluated the effect of neighbourhood competition on focal tree growth by means of standard competition indices, each modified to include various metrics of trees size, neighbour mortality weighting (for neighbours that died during the inventory period), and within-neighbourhood tree clustering. Candidate models were evaluated using mixed-model linear regression analyses, with mean basal area increment as the response variable. We then analysed stand-level spatial patterns of competition indices and growth rates (via kriging) to determine if the relationship between these patterns could further elucidate factors influencing tree growth. Results: Inter-tree competition clearly affected growth rates, with crown volume being the size metric most strongly influencing the neighbourhood competitive environment. Including neighbour tree mortality weightings in models only slightly improved descriptions of competitive interactions. Although the within-neighbourhood clustering index did not improve model predictions, competition intensity was influenced by the underlying stand-level tree spatial arrangement: stand-level clustering locally intensified competition and reduced tree growth, whereas in the absence of such clustering, inter-tree competition played a lesser role in constraining tree growth. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that competition continues to influence forest processes and structures in an old-growth system that has not experienced major disturbances for at least two centuries. The finding that the underlying tree spatial pattern influenced the competitive environment suggests caution in interpreting traditional tree

  17. Raman Spectroscopic Online Investigation of Respiratory Quotients in Pinus Sylvestris and Picea Abies during Drought and Shading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanf, S.; Fischer, S.; Hartmann, H.; Trumbore, S.; Popp, J.; Frosch, T.

    2014-12-01

    Drought and heat waves have been linked to forest mortality event across the globe. The underlying physiological processes are still not elucidated but both tree carbon and water relations have been identified as the driving forces. While studies on tree hydraulics are straightforward, studies on the tree carbon balance are not. For example, the use of different carbon compounds for maintenance respiration during drought cannot be assessed with measurements of carbon pools but requires real-time analyses of respiration stoichiometry. However, so far there were no technical solutions for such applications. Here we introduce cavity-enhanced Raman spectrometry (CERS) for simultaneous real-time monitoring of O2 and CO2 and rapid and continuous quantification of dark respiration rates and the respiratory quotient (RQ), i.e. the ratio of CO2 produced over O2 consumed during respiration. This ratio indicates the proportions of different substrates (carbohydrates [COH], lipids, proteins) used during respiration and allows fundamental insights into tree physiology. CERS combines high temporal resolution with a high dynamic concentration range for all important gases, ranging from few ppm to 100 vol. % with a single measurement every few seconds. The respiration analysis of tree branches was performed in a closed chamber for two species of different drought tolerance, Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies. We applied not only drought but also a shading treatment because both cause reductions in carbon assimilation rates but have different effects on tree hydraulics. Declines in RQ during shading in both species indicate a switch from pure COH metabolism to a mixture of COH, lipids and proteins. During drought such declines occurred only in the drought-tolerant pine but not in spruce and the underlying more dynamic carbon use strategy in pine may provide a physiological basis for its drought tolerance, more detailed investigation still pending. Our study highlights the suitability

  18. Comparison of the ABI 7700 System (TaqMan) and Competitive PCR for Quantification of IS6110 DNA in Sputum during Treatment of Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Desjardin, L. e.; Chen, Y.; Perkins, M. D.; Teixeira, L.; Cave, M. D.; Eisenach, K. D.

    1998-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis can persist in sputum for long periods of time after the initiation of antituberculosis chemotherapy. The purpose of this study was to determine whether quantitative estimates of M. tuberculosis DNA in sputum correlate with the numbers of viable bacilli and thus measure the therapeutic response of patients during treatment. Two methods of M. tuberculosis DNA quantification were examined by using DNA isolated from sputum specimens serially collected during the course of chemotherapy. A competitive PCR assay was compared to an automated system of real-time quantification with the ABI Prism 7700 Sequence Detection System (TaqMan). The ABI 7700 system uses standard PCR in conjunction with a fluorogenic probe in which the intensity of fluorescence is proportional to the amount of target DNA present. The results showed that both PCR systems are reproducible and accurate. The amounts of M. tuberculosis DNA quantified in sputum corresponded well with the numbers of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) counted by microscopy. Before initiation of antituberculosis therapy, measures of AFB, M. tuberculosis DNA, and cultivable bacilli were similar, suggesting that quantification of DNA is a good method for measuring the initial bacillary load. However, the rate of disappearance of both AFB and M. tuberculosis DNA did not correlate with the decline in cultivable bacilli in the specimen; therefore, these tests are not appropriate for monitoring treatment efficacy. PMID:9650945

  19. Terpenoid-based defenses in conifers: cDNA cloning, characterization, and functional expression of wound-inducible (E)-α-bisabolene synthase from grand fir (Abies grandis)

    PubMed Central

    Bohlmann, Jörg; Crock, John; Jetter, Reinhard; Croteau, Rodney

    1998-01-01

    (E)-α-Bisabolene synthase is one of two wound-inducible sesquiterpene synthases of grand fir (Abies grandis), and the olefin product of this cyclization reaction is considered to be the precursor in Abies species of todomatuic acid, juvabione, and related insect juvenile hormone mimics. A cDNA encoding (E)-α-bisabolene synthase was isolated from a wound-induced grand fir stem library by a PCR-based strategy and was functionally expressed in Escherichia coli and shown to produce (E)-α-bisabolene as the sole product from farnesyl diphosphate. The expressed synthase has a deduced size of 93.8 kDa and a pI of 5.03, exhibits other properties typical of sesquiterpene synthases, and resembles in sequence other terpenoid synthases with the exception of a large amino-terminal insertion corresponding to Pro81–Val296. Biosynthetically prepared (E)-α-[3H]bisabolene was converted to todomatuic acid in induced grand fir cells, and the time course of appearance of bisabolene synthase mRNA was shown by Northern hybridization to lag behind that of mRNAs responsible for production of induced oleoresin monoterpenes. These results suggest that induced (E)-α-bisabolene biosynthesis constitutes part of a defense response targeted to insect herbivores, and possibly fungal pathogens, that is distinct from induced oleoresin monoterpene production. PMID:9618485

  20. Constitutive Equations and ANN Approach to Predict the Flow Stress of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy Based on ABI Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fuzeng; Zhao, Jun; Zhu, Ningbo

    2016-11-01

    The flow behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy was studied by automated ball indentation (ABI) tests in a wide range of temperatures (293, 493, 693, and 873 K) and strain rates (10-6, 10-5, and 10-4 s-1). Based on the experimental true stress-plastic strain data derived from the ABI tests, the Johnson-Cook (JC), Khan-Huang-Liang (KHL) and modified Zerilli-Armstrong (ZA) constitutive models, as well as artificial neural network (ANN) methods, were employed to predict the flow behavior of Ti-6Al-4V. A comparative study was made on the reliability of the four models, and their predictability was evaluated in terms of correlation coefficient ( R) and mean absolute percentage error. It is found that the flow stresses of Ti-6Al-4V alloy are more sensitive to temperature than strain rate under current experimental conditions. The predicted flow stresses obtained from JC model and KHL model show much better agreement with the experimental results than modified ZA model. Moreover, the ANN model is much more efficient and shows a higher accuracy in predicting the flow behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy than the constitutive equations.

  1. Needle life span, photosynthetic rate and nutrient concentration of Picea glehnii, P. jezoensis and P. abies planted on serpentine soil in northern Japan.

    PubMed

    Kayama, Masazumi; Sasa, Kaichiro; Koike, Takayoshi

    2002-07-01

    We investigated the adaptation of three spruce species (Picea glehnii Masters, P. jezoensis Carr. and P. abies Karst.) to growth in northern Japan on serpentine soils (characterized by high concentrations of heavy metals and Mg, a low Ca/Mg ratio and low fertility) and fertile brown forest soils. Among species, seedling survival on serpentine soil was highest in P. glehnii. Shoot growth of P. glehnii was similar whether grown on serpentine or brown forest soil, whereas shoot growth of the other species was significantly less on serpentine soil than on brown forest soil. On serpentine soil, needle life span of P. glehnii was at least 3 years longer than that of the other two species. Needle area per shoot of P. glehnii was significantly higher on serpentine soil than on brown forest soil up to a shoot age of 8 years. In all three species, light-saturated photosynthetic rate (Pmax) decreased with needle age independently of soil type. However, on serpentine soil, Pmax in P. glehnii was higher, particularly in older needles, than in the other species. Furthermore, on serpentine soil, needle concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus were higher in P. glehnii than in the other species. We conclude that P. glehnii is better adapted to serpentine soil than P. jezoensis and P. abies at least in part because of its greater needle life span and higher needle nutrient concentrations.

  2. Age-related effects on leaf area/sapwood area relationships, canopy transpiration and carbon gain of Norway spruce stands (Picea abies) in the Fichtelgebirge, Germany.

    PubMed

    Köstner, B; Falge, E; Tenhunen, J D

    2002-06-01

    Stand age is an important structural determinant of canopy transpiration (E(c)) and carbon gain. Another more functional parameter of forest structure is the leaf area/sapwood area relationship, A(L)/A(S), which changes with site conditions and has been used to estimate leaf area index of forest canopies. The interpretation of age-related changes in A(L)/A(S) and the question of how A(L)/A(S) is related to forest functions are of current interest because they may help to explain forest canopy fluxes and growth. We conducted studies in mature stands of Picea abies (L.) Karst. varying in age from 40 to 140 years, in tree density from 1680 to 320 trees ha(-1), and in tree height from 15 to 30 m. Structural parameters were measured by biomass harvests of individual trees and stand biometry. We estimated E(c) from scaled-up xylem sap flux of trees, and canopy-level fluxes were predicted by a three-dimensional microclimate and gas exchange model (STANDFLUX). In contrast to pine species, A(L)/A(S) of P. abies increased with stand age from 0.26 to 0.48 m(2) cm(-2). Agreement between E(c) derived from scaled-up sap flux and modeled canopy transpiration was obtained with the same parameterization of needle physiology independent of stand age. Reduced light interception per leaf area and, as a consequence, reductions in net canopy photosynthesis (A(c)), canopy conductance (g(c)) and E(c) were predicted by the model in the older stands. Seasonal water-use efficiency (WUE = A(c)/E(c)), derived from scaled-up sap flux and stem growth as well as from model simulation, declined with increasing A(L)/A(S) and stand age. Based on the different behavior of age-related A(L)/A(S) in Norway spruce stands compared with other tree species, we conclude that WUE rather than A(L)/A(S) could represent a common age-related property of all species. We also conclude that, in addition to hydraulic limitations reducing carbon gain in old stands, a functional change in A(L)/A(S) that is related to

  3. Combined analysis by GC (RI), GC-MS and 13C NMR of the supercritical fluid extract of Abies alba twigs.

    PubMed

    Duquesnoy, Emilie; Marongiu, Bruno; Castola, Vincent; Piras, Alessandra; Porcedda, Silvia; Casanova, Joseph

    2010-12-01

    Two samples (leaves and twigs) of Abies alba Miller from Corsica were extracted using supercritical CO2 and their chemical compositions were compared with those of the essential oils obtained from the same batch of plant material. In total 45 components were identified using combined analysis by GC (RI), GC-MS and 13C NMR. It was observed that the contents of monoterpenes (mainly represented by limonene, alpha-pinene and camphene) were significantly lower in the supercritical fluid extract (SFE) than in the essential oil (EO). Conversely, the proportions of sesquiterpenes were much higher in CO2 extracts than in essential oils (around 30% vs 4%). Cis-abienol, a diterpene alcohol, was identified only in SFE, and the proportions of this constituent (7.5% and 17.3%) were determined using quantitative 13C NMR since it was under estimated using the standard conditions of GC.

  4. The mycorrhizal fungus Amanita muscaria induces chitinase activity in roots and in suspension-cultured cells of its host Picea abies.

    PubMed

    Sauter, M; Hager, A

    1989-08-01

    A cell-wall fraction of the mycorrhizal fungus Amanita muscaria increased the chitinase activity in suspension-cultured cells of spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) which is a frequent host of Amanita muscaria in nature. Chitinase activity was also increased in roots of spruce trees upon incubation with the fungal elicitor. Non-induced levels of chitinase activity in spruce were higher in suspension cells than in roots whereas the elicitorinduced increase of chitinase activity was higher in roots. Treatment of cells with hormones (auxins and cytokinin) resulted in a severalfold depression of enzyme activity. However, the chitinase activity of hormone-treated as well as hormone-free cells showed an elicitor-induced increase. Suspension cells of spruce secreted a large amount of enzyme into the medium. It is postulated that chitinases released from the host cells in an ectomycorrhizal system partly degrade the fungal cell walls, thus possibly facilitating the exchange of metabolites between the symbionts.

  5. PSII photochemistry in vegetative buds and needles of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) probed by OJIP chlorophyll a fluorescence measurement.

    PubMed

    Katanić, Zorana; Atić, Lejla; Ferhatović, Dž; Cesar, Vera; Lepeduš, H

    2012-06-01

    Vegetative buds represent developmental stage of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) needles where chloroplast biogenesis and photosynthetic activity begin. We used the analyses of polyphasic chlorophyll a fluorescence rise (OJIP) to compare photosystem II (PSII) functioning in vegetative buds and fully photosynthetically active mature current-year needles. Considerably decreased performance index (PIABS) in vegetative buds compared to needles pointed to their low photosynthetic efficiency. Maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) in buds was slightly decreased but above limited value for functionality indicating that primary photochemistry of PSII is not holdback of vegetative buds photosynthetic activity. The most significant difference observed between investigated developmental stages was accumulation of reduced primary quinine acceptor of PSII (QA-) in vegetative buds, as a result of its limited re-oxidation by passing electrons to secondary quinone acceptor, QB. We suggest that reduced electron transfer from QA- to QB could be the major limiting factor of photosynthesis in vegetative buds.

  6. Population differentiation in tree-ring growth response of white fir (Abies concolor) to climate: Implications for predicting forest responses to climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Deborah Bowne

    1993-01-01

    Forest succession models and correlative models have predicted 200--650 kilometer shifts in the geographic range of temperate forests and forest species as one response to global climate change. Few studies have investigated whether population differences may effect the response of forest species to climate change. This study examines differences in tree-ring growth, and in the phenotypic plasticity of tree-ring growth in 16-year old white fir, Abies concolor, from ten populations grown in four common gardens in the Sierra Nevada of California. For each population, tree-ring growth was modelled as a function of precipitation and degree-day sums. Tree-ring growth under three scenarios of doubled CO2 climates was estimated.

  7. Holophyllane A: A Triterpenoid Possessing an Unprecedented B-nor-3,4-seco-17,14-friedo-lanostane Architecture from Abies holophylla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chung Sub; Oh, Joonseok; Subedi, Lalita; Kim, Sun Yeou; Choi, Sang Un; Lee, Kang Ro

    2017-03-01

    A novel triterpenoid, holophyllane A (1), featuring a B-nor-3,4-seco-17,14-friedo-lanostane, along with its putative precursor, compound 2 were isolated from the methanol extract of the trunks of Abies holophylla. The 2D structure and relative configuration of 1 were initially determined via analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data and the assignment was confirmed by quantum mechanics-based NMR chemical shift calculations. The absolute configuration was established by comparison of the experimental and simulated ECD data generated at different theory levels. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited moderate to weak cytotoxicity and significant inhibitory activity against nitric oxide (NO) production.

  8. Holophyllane A: A Triterpenoid Possessing an Unprecedented B-nor-3,4-seco-17,14-friedo-lanostane Architecture from Abies holophylla

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chung Sub; Oh, Joonseok; Subedi, Lalita; Kim, Sun Yeou; Choi, Sang Un; Lee, Kang Ro

    2017-01-01

    A novel triterpenoid, holophyllane A (1), featuring a B-nor-3,4-seco-17,14-friedo-lanostane, along with its putative precursor, compound 2 were isolated from the methanol extract of the trunks of Abies holophylla. The 2D structure and relative configuration of 1 were initially determined via analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data and the assignment was confirmed by quantum mechanics-based NMR chemical shift calculations. The absolute configuration was established by comparison of the experimental and simulated ECD data generated at different theory levels. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited moderate to weak cytotoxicity and significant inhibitory activity against nitric oxide (NO) production. PMID:28252664

  9. Cadmium Accumulation in Tissues of Sarotherodon melanotheron (Rüppel, 1852) from the Aby Lagoon System in Côte d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Cyrille, Yapi Dope Armel; Victor, Kouame; Sanogo, Tidou Abiba; Boukary, Sawadogo; Joseph, Wethe

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the concentrations of cadmium in the gills, livers and muscles of a commercially important tilapia fish (Sarotherodon melanotheron) from Aby Lagoon in Adiaké, Côte d’Ivoire, between January and December, 2010. The organisms were grouped into two composite samples (juvenile and adult) of five individuals. Levels of cadmium were determined in tissues using Perkin-Elmer (AAnalyst 200) Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) after a digestion method. Fish muscle appeared to have a significantly higher tendency to accumulate cadmium (1.19–5.18 µg/g dw) while gills and livers had minimum concentrations (0.07–1.32 and 0.12–1.25 µg/g dw). This study has revealed that the concentrations of Cd in Sarotherodon melanotheron muscle tissue were above the maximum acceptable concentrations for human consumption, thus precautions need to be taken in order to prevent future contamination. PMID:22690166

  10. Cadmium accumulation in tissues of Sarotherodon melanotheron (Rüppel, 1852) from the Aby Lagoon system in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Cyrille, Yapi Dope Armel; Victor, Kouame; Sanogo, Tidou Abiba; Boukary, Sawadogo; Joseph, Wethe

    2012-03-01

    This study assessed the concentrations of cadmium in the gills, livers and muscles of a commercially important tilapia fish (Sarotherodon melanotheron) from Aby Lagoon in Adiaké, Côte d'Ivoire, between January and December, 2010. The organisms were grouped into two composite samples (juvenile and adult) of five individuals. Levels of cadmium were determined in tissues using Perkin-Elmer (AAnalyst 200) Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) after a digestion method. Fish muscle appeared to have a significantly higher tendency to accumulate cadmium (1.19-5.18 µg/g dw) while gills and livers had minimum concentrations (0.07-1.32 and 0.12-1.25 µg/g dw). This study has revealed that the concentrations of Cd in Sarotherodon melanotheron muscle tissue were above the maximum acceptable concentrations for human consumption, thus precautions need to be taken in order to prevent future contamination.

  11. Soil acidity reconstruction based on tree ring information of a dominant species Abies fabri in the subalpine forest ecosystems in southwest China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Wu, Fei-Hua; Liu, Ting-Wu; Chen, Juan; Li, Zhen-Ji; Pei, Zhen-Ming; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2010-10-01

    To assess the suitability of dendrochemistry as an indicator of soil acidification, soil chemistry and tree ring information of Abies fabri were measured at two distinct sites (severe acid deposition site-Emei Mountain and clean site-Gongga Mountain) of the subalpine forest ecosystems of western Sichuan, southwest China. The actual soil acidity (pH) was significantly correlated with some of the recent xylem cation (Ca, Mg, Mn, Al, Sr and Ba) concentrations and their molar ratios. Xylem Ca/Mg and Ca/Mn of A. fabri were ultimately selected to reconstruct the historical changes of soil pH in Emei Mountain and Gongga Mountain, respectively. The validity of those rebuild was also verified to a certain extent. We conclude that xylem cation molar ratios of A. fabri were superior to the single cation concentrations in soil acidity rebuild at the study sites due to normalizing for concentration fluctuations.

  12. Past and future evolution of Abies alba forests in Europe - comparison of a dynamic vegetation model with palaeo data and observations.

    PubMed

    Ruosch, Melanie; Spahni, Renato; Joos, Fortunat; Henne, Paul D; van der Knaap, Willem O; Tinner, Willy

    2016-02-01

    Information on how species distributions and ecosystem services are impacted by anthropogenic climate change is important for adaptation planning. Palaeo data suggest that Abies alba formed forests under significantly warmer-than-present conditions in Europe and might be a native substitute for widespread drought-sensitive temperate and boreal tree species such as beech (Fagus sylvatica) and spruce (Picea abies) under future global warming conditions. Here, we combine pollen and macrofossil data, modern observations, and results from transient simulations with the LPX-Bern dynamic global vegetation model to assess past and future distributions of A. alba in Europe. LPX-Bern is forced with climate anomalies from a run over the past 21 000 years with the Community Earth System Model, modern climatology, and with 21st-century multimodel ensemble results for the high-emission RCP8.5 and the stringent mitigation RCP2.6 pathway. The simulated distribution for present climate encompasses the modern range of A. alba, with the model exceeding the present distribution in north-western and southern Europe. Mid-Holocene pollen data and model results agree for southern Europe, suggesting that at present, human impacts suppress the distribution in southern Europe. Pollen and model results both show range expansion starting during the Bølling-Allerød warm period, interrupted by the Younger Dryas cold, and resuming during the Holocene. The distribution of A. alba expands to the north-east in all future scenarios, whereas the potential (currently unrealized) range would be substantially reduced in southern Europe under RCP8.5. A. alba maintains its current range in central Europe despite competition by other thermophilous tree species. Our combined palaeoecological and model evidence suggest that A. alba may ensure important ecosystem services including stand and slope stability, infrastructure protection, and carbon sequestration under significantly warmer

  13. Convergence of leaf display and photosynthetic characteristics of understory Abies amabilis and Tsuga heterophylla in an old-growth forest in southwestern Washington State, USA.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Hiroaki; Yoshimura, Ken-Ichi; Mori, Akira

    2009-08-01

    We compared the morphological and physiological characteristics of understory trees of Abies amabilis (Dougl. ex Loud.) Dougl. ex J. Forbes and Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. growing adjacent to each other in an old-growth forest in southwestern Washington State, USA. We hypothesized that, despite contrasting branching patterns and crown architectures, the two species should exhibit convergence in leaf display and photosynthetic gain per light intercepting area, because these are important properties determining their survival in the light-limited understory. The branching pattern of A. amabilis was regular (normal shoot-length distribution, less variable branching angle and bifurcation ratio), whereas that of T. heterophylla was more plastic (positively skewed shoot-length distribution, more variable branching angle and bifurcation ratio). The two species had similar shoot morphologies: number of leaves per unit shoot length and leaf to axis dry mass ratio. Leaf morphology, in contrast, was significantly different. Leaves of A. amabilis were larger and heavier than those of T. heterophylla, which resulted in lower mass-based photosynthetic rate for A. amabilis. Despite these differences, the two species had similar levels of leaf overlap and area-based photosynthetic characteristics. Needle longevity of A. amabilis was nearly twice that of T. heterophylla. The leaf N contents of current and 1-year-old leaves were lower for A. amabilis than for T. heterophylla. However, the leaf N content of A. amabilis did not change from current leaves to 6-year-old leaves, whereas that of T. heterophylla decreased with increasing leaf age. Abies amabilis had deeper crowns than T. heterophylla and retained branches with low relative growth rates. Longer branch retention may compensate for the lower branch-level assimilation rate of A. amabilis. We inferred that the convergence of leaf display and photosynthetic characteristics between A. amabilis and T. heterophylla may

  14. Using CALIPSO to explore the sensitivity to cirrus height in the infrared observations from NPOESS/VIIRS and GOES-R/ABI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidinger, A. K.; Pavolonis, M. J.; Holz, R. E.; Baum, Bryan A.; Berthier, S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how the availability of specific infrared channels impacts the ability of two future meteorological satellite imagers to estimate cloud-top pressure. Both of the imagers are planned for launch by the United States, one for a geostationary platform and the other for a polar-orbiting platform. The geostationary imager, the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), will be flown first on the GOES-R platform. In addition to the split window channels at 11 and 12 μm, it has one spectral channel located at 13.3 μm where there is relatively strong absorption of H2O and CO2. The polar-orbiting imager, called the Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) and flown on the National Polar-Orbiting Environmental satellite Suite (NPOESS), has spectral channels in window regions only. The lack of an absorbing channel on VIIRS is shown to have negative consequences for the inference of cloud-top pressure. This paper investigates the impact on the ability of a satellite imager such as VIIRS to confidently estimate cloud-top pressure due to the absence of infrared absorption channels. The solution space is defined as the depth of the atmospheric layer in which a cloud can be placed where the calculated top-of-atmosphere radiances match the measurements used in the cloud-top pressure retrieval. For optically thin cirrus, the channels used by the operational VIIRS algorithm provide a solution space of over 200 hPa. However, the inclusion of the single CO2 channel at 13.3 μm on the ABI narrows the solution space to under 30 hPa. Our imager-based analysis is performed using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, which provides the relevant channel information with sufficient spatial resolution and radiometric accuracy. Additional results are provided using data from the current GOES and POES imagers. Active lidar data from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation/Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization

  15. Carbon Allocation into Different Fine-Root Classes of Young Abies alba Trees Is Affected More by Phenology than by Simulated Browsing

    PubMed Central

    Endrulat, Tina; Buchmann, Nina; Brunner, Ivano

    2016-01-01

    Abies alba (European silver fir) was used to investigate possible effects of simulated browsing on C allocation belowground by 13CO2 pulse-labelling at spring, summer or autumn, and by harvesting the trees at the same time point of the labelling or at a later season for biomass and for 13C-allocation into the fine-root system. Before budburst in spring, the leader shoots and 50% of all lateral shoots of half of the investigated 5-year old Abies alba saplings were clipped to simulate browsing. At harvest, different fine-root classes were separated, and starch as an important storage compartment was analysed for concentrations. The phenology had a strong effect on the allocation of the 13C-label from shoots to roots. In spring, shoots did not supply the fine-roots with high amounts of the 13C-label, because the fine-roots contained less than 1% of the applied 13C. In summer and autumn, however, shoots allocated relatively high amounts of the 13C-label to the fine roots. The incorporation of the 13C-label as structural C or as starch into the roots is strongly dependent on the root type and the root diameter. In newly formed fine roots, 3–5% of the applied 13C was incorporated, whereas 1–3% in the ≤0.5 mm root class and 1–1.5% in the >0.5–1.0 mm root class were recorded. Highest 13C-enrichment in the starch was recorded in the newly formed fine roots in autumn. The clipping treatment had a significant positive effect on the amount of allocated 13C-label to the fine roots after the spring labelling, with high relative 13C-contents observed in the ≤0.5 mm and the >0.5–1.0 mm fine-root classes of clipped trees. No effects of the clipping were observed after summer and autumn labelling in the 13C-allocation patterns. Overall, our data imply that the season of C assimilation and, thus, the phenology of trees is the main determinant of the C allocation from shoots to roots and is clearly more important than browsing. PMID:27123860

  16. Mesure des stades de developpement du sapin baumier (Abies balsamea [L.] Mill.) par teledetection des maxima locaux sur images a tres haute resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demers, Alain

    L'objectif principal de cette these est d'identifier les parametres cles pour lier le developpement morphologique de la cime du sapin baumier (Abies balsamea [L.] Mill.) aux patrons de reflectance qu'elle genere sur une image aerienne a haute resolution. La quantite et la distribution spatiale des aiguilles dans le sapin dependent de la structure des branches. Un mecanisme de ramification particulier (la reiteration) ressort comme le parametre cle pour lier l'augmentation de la biomasse foliaire et la forme de la branche. Les reiterats forment des agglomerats de feuillage qui engendrent des inegalites dans les patrons de reflectance de la cime. La reflectance est plus elevee ou il y a une forte concentration de reiterats (maximum local). On demontre que le developpement du sapin baumier se mesure au moyen de l'analyse des maxima locaux de la cime sur une image. La biomasse de l'arbre se mesure par la teledetection et l'analyse des patrons de reflectance de la cime, c'est-a-dire la mesure du niveau de reiteration par le decompte des maxima locaux de la cime. Cette etude demontre qu'il est possible de proceder a l'inventaire du volume de bois d'un peuplement par la teledetection de l'architecture des arbres.

  17. Abietane diterpenes from the cones of Abies numidica de Lannoy ex Carrière (Pinaceae) and in vitro evaluation of their antimicrobial properties.

    PubMed

    Belhadj Mostefa, Maya; Abedini, Amin; Voutquenne-Nazabadioko, Laurence; Gangloff, Sophie C; Kabouche, Ahmed; Kabouche, Zahia

    2017-03-01

    Eight known abietane diterpenes (1-8) were isolated for the first time from Abies numidica cones (Pinaceae). The structures of all compounds were established by means of 1D and 2D NMR, and UV spectral analyses. The hydromethanolic extract of A. numidica cones was tested for its antimicrobial activity against 17 gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and against five yeasts by the use of liquid and solid medium and bioautography methods. The best antimicrobial activity was found against gram-positive bacteria (MIC ≤ 0.3 mg/mL) Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 1034, Staphylococcus aureus 8325.4, S. aureus CIP 53.154, Micrococcus luteus and Listeria innocua and against Candida yeasts. The determination of MIC's of isolated products showed a high activity of compounds 4 and 6 against S. aureus, L. innocua (MIC = 62.5 μg/mL) and E. faecalis (MIC = 125 μg/mL).

  18. [Spatial Distribution of Intron 2 of nad1 Gene Haplotypes in Populations of Norway and Siberian Spruce (Picea abies-P. obovata) Species Complex].

    PubMed

    Mudrik, E A; Polyakova, T A; Shatokhina, A V; Bondarenko, G N; Politov, D V

    2015-10-01

    The length and sequence variations among intron 2 haplotypes of the mitochondrial DNA nad1 gene have been studied in the Norway and Siberian spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.-P. obovata Ledeb.) species complex. Twenty-two native populations and 15 provenances were analyzed. The distribution of the northern European haplogroup (haplotypes 721, 755, 789, 823, 857, 891, and 925) is delimited in the west by the Ural region inclusively. Haplotype 712 is widespread in populations of Siberia, in the Far East and in northeastern Russia. A novel variant of the Siberian haplogroup (780) containing three copies of the first minisatellite motif (34 bp) was found for the first time. The absence of an admixture of the northern European and Siberian haplotypes in the zone of spruce species introgression previously marked by morphological traits and nuclear allozyme loci was demonstrated. This may be evidence of the existence of a sharper geographic boundary between the two haplogroups, as compared to a boundary based on phenotypic and allozyme data. A high proportion of the interpopulation component of variation (65%) estimated by AMOVA indicates a substantial genetic subdivision of European and Siberian populations of the Palearctic spruce complex by mtDNA, which can be putatively explained by natural barriers to gene flow with seeds related, for instance, to the woodless regions of the western Siberian Plain in the Pleistocene and the probable floodplains of large rivers.

  19. The impact of long-term CO2 enrichment on sun and shade needles of Norway spruce (Picea abies): photosynthetic performance, needle anatomy and phenolics accumulation.

    PubMed

    Lhotáková, Zuzana; Urban, Otmar; Dubánková, Marianna; Cvikrová, Milena; Tomášková, Ivana; Kubínová, Lucie; Zvára, Karel; Marek, Michal V; Albrechtová, Jana

    2012-06-01

    Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst) grown under ambient (365-377 μmol(CO(2)) mol(-1); AC) and elevated (700 μmol(CO(2)) mol(-1); EC) CO(2) concentrations within glass domes with automatically adjustable windows and on an open-air control site were studied after 8 years of treatment. The effect of EC on photosynthesis, mesophyll structure and phenolics accumulation in sun and shade needles was examined. Photosynthetic assimilation and dark respiration rates were measured gasometrically; the structural parameters of mesophyll were determined using confocal microscopy and stereological methods. The contents of total soluble phenolics and lignin were assessed spectrophotometrically, and localizations of different phenolic groups were detected histochemically on needle cross-sections. EC enhanced the light-saturated CO(2) assimilation rate and reduced dark respiration in the current-year needles. No effects of CO(2) enrichment on mesophyll structural parameters were observed. Similarly, the accumulation and localization of phenolics and lignin remained unaffected by EC treatment. Needles differentiated into sun and shade ecotypes in the same manner and to the same extent irrespective of CO(2) treatment. Based on these results, it is apparent that the EC-induced enhancement of photosynthesis is not related to changes in the examined structural parameters of mesophyll and accumulation of phenolic compounds.

  20. Bio-Guided Isolation of Methanol-Soluble Metabolites of Common Spruce (Picea abies) Bark by-Products and Investigation of Their Dermo-Cosmetic Properties.

    PubMed

    Angelis, Apostolis; Hubert, Jane; Aligiannis, Nektarios; Michalea, Rozalia; Abedini, Amin; Nuzillard, Jean-Marc; Gangloff, Sophie C; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Renault, Jean-Hugues

    2016-11-21

    Common spruce (Picea abies L.) is a fast-growing coniferous tree, widely used in several countries for the production of sawn wood, timber and pulp. During this industrial exploitation, large quantities of barks are generated as waste materials. The aim of this study was the bio-guided investigation and the effective recovery of methanol-soluble metabolites of common spruce bark for the development of new dermo-cosmetic agents. The active methanol extract was initially fractionated by Centrifugal Partition Chromatography (CPC) using a triphasic solvent system in a step-gradient elution mode. All resulting fractions were evaluated for their antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity and their capability to inhibit tyrosinase, elastase and collagenase activity. In parallel, the chemical composition of each fraction was established by combining a (13)C-NMR dereplication approach and 2D-NMR analyses. As a result, fourteen secondary metabolites corresponding to stilbene, flavonoid and phenolic acid derivatives were directly identified in the CPC fractions. A high amount (0.93 g) of E-astringin was recovered from 3 g of crude extract in a single 125 min run. E-Astringin significantly induced the tyrosinase activity while E-piceid, taxifolin, and taxifolin-3'-O-glucopyranoside exhibited significant anti-tyrosinase activity. The above compounds showed important anti-collagenase and antimicrobial activities, thus providing new perspectives for potential applications as cosmetic ingredients.

  1. Targeted proteomics using selected reaction monitoring reveals the induction of specific terpene synthases in a multi-level study of methyl jasmonate-treated Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Zulak, Katherine G; Lippert, Dustin N; Kuzyk, Michael A; Domanski, Dominik; Chou, Tina; Borchers, Christoph H; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2009-12-01

    Induction of terpene synthase (TPS) gene expression and enzyme activity is known to occur in response to various chemical and biological stimuli in several species of spruce (genus Picea). However, high sequence identity between TPS family members has made it difficult to determine the induction patterns of individual TPS at the protein and transcript levels and whether specific TPS enzymes respond differentially to treatment. In the present study we used a multi-level approach to measure the induction and activity of TPS enzymes in protein extracts of Norway spruce (Picea abies) bark tissue following treatment with methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Measurements were made on the transcript, protein, enzyme activity and metabolite levels. Using a relatively new proteomics application, selective reaction monitoring (SRM), it was possible to differentiate and quantitatively measure the abundance of several known TPS proteins and three 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (DXS) isoforms in Norway spruce. Protein levels of individual TPS and DXS enzymes were differentially induced upon MeJA treatment and good correlation was generally observed between induction of transcripts, proteins, and enzyme activities. Most of the mono- and diterpenoid metabolites accumulated with similar temporal patterns of induction as part of the coordinated multi-compound chemical defense response. Protein and enzyme activity levels of the monoTPS (+)-3-carene synthase and the corresponding accumulation of (+)-3-carene was induced to a higher fold change than any other TPS or metabolite measured, indicating an important role in the induced terpenoid defense response in Norway spruce.

  2. Induction of isoprenyl diphosphate synthases, plant hormones and defense signalling genes correlates with traumatic resin duct formation in Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Axel; Nagel, Raimund; Krekling, Trygve; Christiansen, Erik; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Krokene, Paal

    2011-12-01

    Norway spruce (Picea abies) defends itself against herbivores and pathogens by formation of traumatic resin ducts filled with terpenoid-based oleoresin. An important group of enzymes in terpenoid biosynthesis are the short-chain isoprenyl diphosphate synthases which produce geranyl diphosphate (C(10)), farnesyl diphosphate (C(15)), and geranylgeranyl diphosphate (C(20)) as precursors of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and diterpene resin acids, respectively. After treatment with methyl jasmonate (MJ) we investigated the expression of all isoprenyl diphosphate synthase genes characterized to date from Norway spruce and correlated this with formation of traumatic resin ducts and terpene accumulation. Formation of traumatic resin ducts correlated with higher amounts of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and diterpene resin acids and an upregulation of isoprenyl diphosphate synthase genes producing geranyl diphosphate or geranylgeranyl diphosphate. Among defense hormones, jasmonate and jasmonate-isoleucine conjugate accumulated to higher levels in trees with extensive traumatic resin duct formation, whereas salicylate did not. Jasmonate and ethylene are likely to both be involved in formation of traumatic resin ducts based on elevated transcripts of genes encoding lipoxygenase and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase associated with resin duct formation. Other genes involved in defense signalling in other systems, mitogen-activated protein kinase3 and nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related gene1, were also associated with traumatic resin duct formation. These responses were detected not only at the site of MJ treatment, but also systemically up to 60 cm above the site of treatment on the trunk.

  3. Molecular control of normal and acrocona mutant seed cone development in Norway spruce (Picea abies) and the evolution of conifer ovule-bearing organs.

    PubMed

    Carlsbecker, Annelie; Sundström, Jens F; Englund, Marie; Uddenberg, Daniel; Izquierdo, Liz; Kvarnheden, Anders; Vergara-Silva, Francisco; Engström, Peter

    2013-10-01

    Reproductive organs in seed plants are morphologically divergent and their evolutionary history is often unclear. The mechanisms controlling their development have been extensively studied in angiosperms but are poorly understood in conifers and other gymnosperms. Here, we address the molecular control of seed cone development in Norway spruce, Picea abies. We present expression analyses of five novel MADS-box genes in comparison with previously identified MADS and LEAFY genes at distinct developmental stages. In addition, we have characterized the homeotic transformation from vegetative shoot to female cone and associated changes in regulatory gene expression patterns occurring in the acrocona mutant. The analyses identified genes active at the onset of ovuliferous and ovule development and identified expression patterns marking distinct domains of the ovuliferous scale. The reproductive transformation in acrocona involves the activation of all tested genes normally active in early cone development, except for an AGAMOUS-LIKE6/SEPALLATA (AGL6/SEP) homologue. This absence may be functionally associated with the nondeterminate development of the acrocona ovule-bearing scales. Our morphological and gene expression analyses give support to the hypothesis that the modern cone is a complex structure, and the ovuliferous scale the result of reductions and compactions of an ovule-bearing axillary short shoot in cones of Paleozoic conifers.

  4. Profiling functions of ectomycorrhizal diversity and root structuring in seedlings of Norway spruce (Picea abies) with fast- and slow-growing phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Velmala, Sannakajsa M; Rajala, Tiina; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Taylor, Andy F S; Pennanen, Taina

    2014-01-01

    We studied the role of taxonomical and functional ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal diversity in root formation and nutrient uptake by Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedlings with fast- and slow-growing phenotypes. Seedlings were grown with an increasing ECM fungal diversity gradient from one to four species and sampled before aboveground growth differences between the two phenotypes were apparent. ECM fungal colonization patterns were determined and functional diversity was assayed via measurements of potential enzyme activities of eight exoenzymes probably involved in nutrient mobilization. Phenotypes did not vary in their receptiveness to different ECM fungal species. However, seedlings of slow-growing phenotypes had higher fine-root density and thus more condensed root systems than fast-growing seedlings, but the potential enzyme activities of ectomycorrhizas did not differ qualitatively or quantitatively. ECM species richness increased host nutrient acquisition potential by diversifying the exoenzyme palette. Needle nitrogen content correlated positively with high chitinase activity of ectomycorrhizas. Rather than fast- and slow-growing phenotypes exhibiting differing receptiveness to ECM fungi, our results suggest that distinctions in fine-root structuring and in the belowground growth strategy already apparent at early stages of seedling development may explain later growth differences between fast- and slow-growing families.

  5. Updating beliefs and combining evidence in adaptive forest management under climate change: a case study of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst) in the Black Forest, Germany.

    PubMed

    Yousefpour, Rasoul; Temperli, Christian; Bugmann, Harald; Elkin, Che; Hanewinkel, Marc; Meilby, Henrik; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    2013-06-15

    We study climate uncertainty and how managers' beliefs about climate change develop and influence their decisions. We develop an approach for updating knowledge and beliefs based on the observation of forest and climate variables and illustrate its application for the adaptive management of an even-aged Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst) forest in the Black Forest, Germany. We simulated forest development under a range of climate change scenarios and forest management alternatives. Our analysis used Bayesian updating and Dempster's rule of combination to simulate how observations of climate and forest variables may influence a decision maker's beliefs about climate development and thereby management decisions. While forest managers may be inclined to rely on observed forest variables to infer climate change and impacts, we found that observation of climate state, e.g. temperature or precipitation is superior for updating beliefs and supporting decision-making. However, with little conflict among information sources, the strongest evidence would be offered by a combination of at least two informative variables, e.g., temperature and precipitation. The success of adaptive forest management depends on when managers switch to forward-looking management schemes. Thus, robust climate adaptation policies may depend crucially on a better understanding of what factors influence managers' belief in climate change.

  6. WAVE2-Abi2 complex controls growth cone activity and regulates the multipolar-bipolar transition as well as the initiation of glia-guided migration.

    PubMed

    Xie, Min-Jue; Yagi, Hideshi; Kuroda, Kazuki; Wang, Chen-Chi; Komada, Munekazu; Zhao, Hong; Sakakibara, Akira; Miyata, Takaki; Nagata, Koh-Ichi; Oka, Yuichiro; Iguchi, Tokuichi; Sato, Makoto

    2013-06-01

    Glia-guided migration (glia-guided locomotion) during radial migration is a characteristic yet unique mode of migration. In this process, the directionality of migration is predetermined by glial processes and not by growth cones. Prior to the initiation of glia-guided migration, migrating neurons transform from multipolar to bipolar, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this multipolar-bipolar transition and the commencement of glia-guided migration are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that the multipolar-bipolar transition is not solely a cell autonomous event; instead, the interaction of growth cones with glial processes plays an essential role. Time-lapse imaging with lattice assays reveals the importance of vigorously active growth cones in searching for appropriate glial scaffolds, completing the transition, and initiating glia-guided migration. These growth cone activities are regulated by Abl kinase and Cdk5 via WAVE2-Abi2 through the phosphorylation of tyrosine 150 and serine 137 of WAVE2. Neurons that do not display such growth cone activities are mispositioned in a more superficial location in the neocortex, suggesting the significance of growth cones for the final location of the neurons. This process occurs in spite of the "inside-out" principle in which later-born neurons are situated more superficially.

  7. Chemical composition and biological activity of Abies alba and A. koreana seed and cone essential oils and characterization of their seed hydrolates.

    PubMed

    Wajs-Bonikowska, Anna; Sienkiewicz, Monika; Stobiecka, Agnieszka; Maciąg, Agnieszka; Szoka, Łukasz; Karna, Ewa

    2015-03-01

    The chemical composition, including the enantiomeric excess of the main terpenes, the antimicrobial and antiradical activities, as well as the cytotoxicity of Abies alba and A. koreana seed and cone essential oils were investigated. Additionally, their seed hydrolates were characterized. In the examined oils and hydrolates, a total of 174 compounds were identified, which comprised 95.6-99.9% of the volatiles. The essential oils were mainly composed of monoterpene hydrocarbons, whereas the composition of the hydrolates, differing from the seed oils of the corresponding fir species, consisted mainly of oxygenated derivatives of sesquiterpenes. The seed and cone essential oils of both firs exhibited DPPH-radical-scavenging properties and low antibacterial activity against the bacterial strains tested. Moreover, they evoked only low cytotoxicity towards normal fibroblasts and the two cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MBA-231. At concentrations up to 50 μg/ml, all essential oils were safe in relation to normal fibroblasts. Although they induced cytotoxicity towards the cancer cells at concentrations slightly lower than those required for the inhibition of fibroblast proliferation, their influence on cancer cells was weak, with IC50 values similar to those observed towards normal fibroblasts.

  8. Purification of Two Superoxide Dismutase Isozymes and Their Subcellular Localization in Needles and Roots of Norway Spruce (Picea abies L.) Trees 1

    PubMed Central

    Kröniger, Werner; Rennenberg, Heinz; Polle, Andrea

    1992-01-01

    Two isozymes of superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC 1.15.1.1) were purified from Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) needles to apparent electrophoretic homogeneity. Purification factors were 354 for SOD I and 265 for SOD II. The native molecular mass of both purified enzymes was approximately 33 kD, as determined by gel filtration. The subunit molecular weights, as estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, were 20,000 for SOD I and 16,000 for SOD II in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol, and 15,800 and 15,000, respectively, in its absence. These results indicate that the native enzymes were homodimers whose subunits contained intrachain disulfide bonds. Isoelectric points determined by nondenaturing isoelectric focusing were 4.5 and 5.5 for SOD I and II, respectively. NH2-terminal sequence analysis of the first 22 to 23 amino acids revealed 70 to 75% sequence identity with chloroplastic CuZn SODs from other plant species for SOD I, and 75% sequence identity with the cytosolic CuZn SOD from Scots pine for SOD II. SOD I was the major activity in needles and it was associated with chloroplasts. SOD II activity was dominant in roots. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:16652966

  9. Composition and Properties of Hydrogen Peroxide Decomposing Systems in Extracellular and Total Extracts from Needles of Norway Spruce (Picea abies L., Karst.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Polle, Andrea; Chakrabarti, Krisanu; Schürmann, Wolfgang; Renneberg, Heinz

    1990-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging systems of spruce (Picea abies) needles were investigated in both extracts obtained from the extracellular space and extracts of total needles. As assessed by the lack of activity of symplastic marker enzymes, the extracellular washing fluid was free from intracellular contaminations. In the extracellular washing fluid ascorbate, glutathione, cysteine, and high specific activities of guaiacol peroxidases were observed. Guaiacol peroxidases in the extracellular washing fluid and needle homogenates had the same catalytic properties, i.e. temperature optimum at 50°C, pH optimum in the range of pH 5 to 6 and low affinity for guaiacol (apparent Km = 40 millimolar) and H2O2 (apparent Km = 1-3 millimolar). Needle homogenates contained ascorbate peroxidase, dehydroascorbate reductase, monodehydroascorbate reductase, glutathione reductase, and catalase, but not glutathione peroxidase activity. None of these activities was detected in the extracellular washing fluid. Ascorbate and glutathione related enzymes were freeze sensitive; ascorbate peroxidase was labile in the absence of ascorbate. The significance of extracellular antioxidants for the detoxification of injurious oxygen species is discussed. PMID:16667703

  10. Modeling intraspecific adaptation of Abies sachalinensis to local altitude and responses to global warming, based on a 36-year reciprocal transplant experiment.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Wataru; Goto, Susumu

    2012-04-01

    Intraspecific adaptation in Abies sachalinensis was examined using models based on long-term monitoring data gathered during a reciprocal transplant experiment with eight seed source populations and six transplantation sites along an altitudinal gradient. The consequence of local adaptation was evaluated by testing the home-site advantage for upslope and downslope transplants at five ages. The populations' fitness-linked trait was set as their productivity (tree height × survival rate) at each age. The effects of global warming were evaluated on the basis of the 36-year performance of downslope transplants. Evidence was found for adaptive genetic variation affecting both height and survival from an early age. Increasing the distance between seed source and planting site significantly reduced productivity for both upslope and downslope transplantation, demonstrating the existence of a significant home-site advantage. The decrease in productivity was most distinct for upslope transplantations, indicating strong local adaptation to high altitudes. Global warming is predicted to increase the productivity of high-altitude populations. However, owing to their existing local adaptation, all tested populations exhibited lower productivity under warming than demes that were optimal for the new climate. These negative predictions should be considered when planning the management of locally adapted plant species such as A. sachalinensis.

  11. A teachable moment for the teachable moment? A prospective study to evaluate delivery of a workshop designed to increase knowledge and skills in relation to alcohol brief interventions (ABIs) amongst final year nursing and occupational therapy undergraduates.

    PubMed

    O'May, Fiona; Gill, Jan; McWhirter, Eleanor; Kantartzis, Sarah; Rees, Cheryl; Murray, Kerry

    2016-09-01

    The perceived value of Alcohol Brief Interventions as a tool to address alcohol misuse in Scotland has supported the establishment of a Health Improvement, Efficiency, Access and Treatment, HEAT: H4 Standard to deliver ABIs within certain health care settings. This requires that nursing, medical and allied health professionals are appropriately skilled to deliver these interventions. This study explores the knowledge and attitudes regarding alcohol misuse and related interventions among two cohorts of final year nursing and occupational therapy undergraduate students before, during and following participation in a workshop devoted to ABI delivery. While relatively good knowledge around recommended limits for daily consumption was evident, this did not translate into competence relating to drink unit content. Although there was overwhelming agreement for the role of each profession in ABI delivery, less than half of students in each cohort at the outset of the workshop agreed that they had the appropriate knowledge to advise patients about responsible drinking. In both cohorts, at the three month follow-up stage, this percentage had almost doubled. Newly qualified practitioners perceived a wider role for motivational interviewing, and endorsed interactive delivery of alcohol education throughout all levels of the curriculum.

  12. Spring-temperature variability and eutrophication history inferred from sedimentary pigments in the varved sediments of Lake Żabińskie, NE Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amann, Benjamin; Lobsiger, Simon; Tylmann, Wojciech; Filipiak, Janusz; Grosjean, Martin

    2014-05-01

    High-resolution, well-calibrated records of lake sediments are fundamental for assessments of climatic and environmental changes. Varved lake sediments are particularly robust archives in this context, providing quantitative insights into climate-state variables at annual resolution. However, due to the multitude of responses within lake ecosystems, the key issue is to understand how climate variability interacts with other environmental pressures such as eutrophication, particularly during the 20th century. Here we present a multi-proxy record of sedimentary pigments and geochemical data from Lake Żabińskie (Masurian Lake District, North-East Poland) with the aim to detect and differentiate climate-driven changes from other environmental controls. The lake is dimictic, 44-meter deep and ice-covered from January to early March. It exhibits biogeochemical varves with a high content of organic matter (terrestrial and aquatic, macrophytes, algae and bacteria), a simple inorganic composition (predominantly summer-precipitated endogenous calcite) and high sedimentation rates (5 - 8 mm/yr). We analyzed a 51-cm long sediment core from the deepest part of the lake basin covering the last 100 years. Pigments were extracted at 1-cm resolution using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). We also measured pigments with Visible Reflectance Spectroscopy (VIS-RS; 380 - 730 nm) to assess whether the down-core resolution could be increased with this rapid non-destructive technique. We show that the recent eutrophication of Lake Żabińskie can be discriminated from climate-driven change for the period 1907-2008 AD. The eutrophication signal is evidenced by a recent change in the algal community from green algae (rich in chlorophyll a) to more competitive blue-green algae (rich in ß-carotene), which leads to an environment with light-limiting conditions for chlorophyte growth. This provides a basis for the preservation of the climate signal in the sediments. Using

  13. E3B1, a human homologue of the mouse gene product Abi-1, sensitizes activation of Rap1 in response to epidermal growth factor

    SciTech Connect

    Jenei, Veronika; Andersson, Tommy; Jakus, Judit; Dib, Karim . E-mail: k.dib@qub.ac.uk

    2005-11-01

    E3B1, a human homologue of the mouse gene product Abi-1, has been implicated in growth-factor-mediated regulation of the small GTPases p21{sup Ras} and Rac. E3b1 is a regulator of Rac because it can form a complex with Sos-1 and eps8, and such a Sos-1-e3B1-eps8 complex serves as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rac. In the present study, we found that overexpression of e3B1 in NIH3T3/EGFR cells sensitized EGF-induced activation of Rac1, whereas it had no impact on EGF-induced activation of p21{sup Ras}. Remarkably, we found that EGF-induced activation of the p21{sup Ras}-related GTPase Rap1 was also sensitized in NIH3T3/EGFR-e3B1 cells. Thus, in NIH3T3/EGFR-e3B1 cells, maximal EGF-induced activation of Rap1 occurs with a dose of EGF much lower than in NIH3T3/EGFR cells. We also report that overexpression of e3B1 in NIH3T3/EGFR cells renders EGF-induced activation of Rap1 completely dependent on Src tyrosine kinases but not on c-Abl. However, EGF-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the Rap GEF C3G occurred regardless of whether e3B1 was overexpressed or not, and this did not involve Src tyrosine kinases. Accordingly, we propose that overexpression of e3B1 in NIH3T3/EGFR cells leads to mobilization of Src tyrosine kinases that participate in EGF-induced activation of Rap1 and inhibition of cell proliferation.

  14. Morphological plasticity of ectomycorrhizal short roots in Betula sp and Picea abies forests across climate and forest succession gradients: its role in changing environments.

    PubMed

    Ostonen, Ivika; Rosenvald, Katrin; Helmisaari, Heljä-Sisko; Godbold, Douglas; Parts, Kaarin; Uri, Veiko; Lõhmus, Krista

    2013-01-01

    Morphological plasticity of ectomycorrhizal (EcM) short roots (known also as first and second order roots with primary development) allows trees to adjust their water and nutrient uptake to local environmental conditions. The morphological traits (MTs) of short-living EcM roots, such as specific root length (SRL) and area, root tip frequency per mass unit (RTF), root tissue density, as well as mean diameter, length, and mass of the root tips, are good indicators of acclimation. We investigated the role of EcM root morphological plasticity across the climate gradient (48-68°N) in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) and (53-66°N) birch (Betula pendula Roth., B. pubescens Ehrh.) forests, as well as in primary and secondary successional birch forests assuming higher plasticity of a respective root trait to reflect higher relevance of that characteristic in acclimation process. We hypothesized that although the morphological plasticity of EcM roots is subject to the abiotic and biotic environmental conditions in the changing climate; the tools to achieve the appropriate morphological acclimation are tree species-specific. Long-term (1994-2010) measurements of EcM roots morphology strongly imply that tree species have different acclimation-indicative root traits in response to changing environments. Birch EcM roots acclimated along latitude by changing mostly SRL [plasticity index (PI) = 0.60], while spruce EcM roots became adjusted by modifying RTF (PI = 0.68). Silver birch as a pioneer species must have a broader tolerance to environmental conditions across various environments; however, the mean PI of all MTs did not differ between early-successional birch and late-successional spruce. The differences between species in SRL, and RTF, diameter, and length decreased southward, toward temperate forests with more favorable growth conditions. EcM root traits reflected root-rhizosphere succession across forest succession stages.

  15. Sierra San Pedro Mártir, Baja California, cool-season precipitation reconstructed from earlywood width of Abies concolor tree rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meko, D. M.; Touchan, R.; Díaz, J. Villanueva; Griffin, D.; Woodhouse, C. A.; Castro, C. L.; Carillo, C.; Leavitt, S. W.

    2013-12-01

    Tree ring data are analyzed for a multicentury record of drought history in the Sierra San Pedro Mártir (SSPM) of Baja California, Mexico. Climatic variation in the study area is of particular interest because the SSPM is a rich biotic environment at the southern limit of the California floristic province and the southern limit of the planetary jet stream. Future shifts in the jet stream would be expected to have amplified effect on this marginal environment. The study applies linear regression to tree ring indices of earlywood-width of Abies concolor to estimate a 353 year (1658-2010 C.E.) record of cool-season (October-April) precipitation, P, in SSPM. Time-nested regression models account for more than half the variance of grid point P in calibration periods of length 50-65 years. Cross-spectral analysis indicates strong tracking of observed P by the reconstruction over a broad range of frequencies. Robustness of the reconstruction is supported by synchrony of reconstructed P with tree ring variations in other tree species from SSPM. The reconstruction emphasizes the severity of the 1950s drought in a long-term context and the single-year intensity of droughts in the last decade: 2007 stands out as the driest reconstructed year, with a high percentage of missing rings in A. concolor. The reconstruction identifies the early twentieth century pluvial as the wettest epoch in the last 353 years in the SSPM. High-elevation tree species in SSPM may be especially well-suited to sensing snowpack-related moisture variations associated with a southerly branched jet stream and the types of weather systems active in the pluvial.

  16. Throughfall deposition and canopy exchange processes along a vertical gradient within the canopy of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst).

    PubMed

    Adriaenssens, Sandy; Hansen, Karin; Staelens, Jeroen; Wuyts, Karen; De Schrijver, An; Baeten, Lander; Boeckx, Pascal; Samson, Roeland; Verheyen, Kris

    2012-03-15

    To assess the impact of air pollution on forest ecosystems, the canopy is usually considered as a constant single layer in interaction with the atmosphere and incident rain, which could influence the measurement accuracy. In this study the variation of througfall deposition and derived dry deposition and canopy exchange were studied along a vertical gradient in the canopy of one European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) tree and two Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) trees. Throughfall and net throughfall deposition of all ions other than H(+) increased significantly with canopy depth in the middle and lower canopy of the beech tree and in the whole canopy of the spruce trees. Moreover, throughfall and net throughfall of all ions in the spruce canopy decreased with increasing distance to the trunk. Dry deposition occurred mainly in the upper canopy and was highest during the growing season for H(+), NH(4)(+), NO(3)(-) and highest during the dormant season for Na(+), Cl(-), SO(4)(2-) (beech and spruce) and K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) (spruce only). Canopy leaching of K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) was observed at all canopy levels and was higher for the beech tree compared to the spruce trees. Canopy uptake of inorganic nitrogen and H(+) occurred mainly in the upper canopy, although significant canopy uptake was found in the middle canopy as well. Canopy exchange was always higher during the growing season compared to the dormant season. This spatial and temporal variation indicates that biogeochemical deposition models would benefit from a multilayer approach for shade-tolerant tree species such as beech and spruce.

  17. Assessing the impacts of climate change and nitrogen deposition on Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst) growth in Austria with BIOME-BGC.

    PubMed

    Eastaugh, Chris S; Pötzelsberger, Elisabeth; Hasenauer, Hubert

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine whether a detectable impact of climate change is apparent in Austrian forests. In regions of complex terrain such as most of Austria, climatic trends over the past 50 years show marked geographic variability. As climate is one of the key drivers of forest growth, a comparison of growth characteristics between regions with different trends in temperature and precipitation can give insights into the impact of climatic change on forests. This study uses data from several hundred climate recording stations, interpolated to measurement sites of the Austrian National Forest Inventory (NFI). Austria as a whole shows a warming trend over the past 50 years and little overall change in precipitation. The warming trends, however, vary considerably across certain regions and regional precipitation trends vary widely in both directions, which cancel out on the national scale These differences allow the delineation of 'climatic change zones' with internally consistent climatic trends that differ from other zones. This study applies the species-specific adaptation of the biogeochemical model BIOME-BGC to Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) across a range of Austrian climatic change zones, using input data from a number of national databases. The relative influence of extant climate change on forest growth is quantified, and compared with the far greater impact of non-climatic factors. At the national scale, climate change is found to have negligible effect on Norway spruce productivity, due in part to opposing effects at the regional level. The magnitudes of the modeled non-climatic influences on aboveground woody biomass increment increases are consistent with previously reported values of 20-40 kg of added stem carbon sequestration per kilogram of additional nitrogen deposition, while climate responses are of a magnitude difficult to detect in NFI data.

  18. Disentangling the roles of history and local selection in shaping clinal variation of allele frequencies and gene expression in Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Källman, Thomas; Ma, Xiaofei; Gyllenstrand, Niclas; Zaina, Giusi; Morgante, Michele; Bousquet, Jean; Eckert, Andrew; Wegrzyn, Jill; Neale, David; Lagercrantz, Ulf; Lascoux, Martin

    2012-07-01

    Understanding the genetic basis of local adaptation is challenging due to the subtle balance among conflicting evolutionary forces that are involved in its establishment and maintenance. One system with which to tease apart these difficulties is clines in adaptive characters. Here we analyzed genetic and phenotypic variation in bud set, a highly heritable and adaptive trait, among 18 populations of Norway spruce (Picea abies), arrayed along a latitudinal gradient ranging from 47°N to 68°N. We confirmed that variation in bud set is strongly clinal, using a subset of five populations. Genotypes for 137 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) chosen from 18 candidate genes putatively affecting bud set and 308 control SNPs chosen from 264 random genes were analyzed for patterns of genetic structure and correlation to environment. Population genetic structure was low (F(ST) = 0.05), but latitudinal patterns were apparent among Scandinavian populations. Hence, part of the observed clinal variation should be attributable to population demography. Conditional on patterns of genetic structure, there was enrichment of SNPs within candidate genes for correlations with latitude. Twenty-nine SNPs were also outliers with respect to F(ST). The enrichment for clinal variation at SNPs within candidate genes (i.e., SNPs in PaGI, PaPhyP, PaPhyN, PaPRR7, and PaFTL2) indicated that local selection in the 18 populations, and/or selection in the ancestral populations from which they were recently derived, shaped the observed cline. Validation of these genes using expression studies also revealed that PaFTL2 expression is significantly associated with latitude, thereby confirming the central role played by this gene in the control of phenology in plants.

  19. Structural studies of TiO2/wood coatings prepared by hydrothermal deposition of rutile particles from TiCl4 aqueous solutions on spruce (Picea Abies) wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pori, Pavel; Vilčnik, Aljaž; Petrič, Marko; Sever Škapin, Andrijana; Mihelčič, Mohor; Šurca Vuk, Angela; Novak, Urban; Orel, Boris

    2016-05-01

    A low temperature approach was developed for the deposition of rutile TiO2 particles on a wood surface by hydrolysis of TiCl4 in aqueous solutions acidified with HCl, and crystallization at 75 and 90 °C (1 h). Prior to hydrothermal treatment, Picea Abies wood was first soaked in a 0.5 mmol/l aqueous solution containing anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS, Sigma Aldrich) for 2 h at 80 °C. The crystal structure of the hydrothermally made rutile particles was determined with XRD, while the morphology of the deposited TiO2 particles and their distribution in the wood were examined with SEM and EDX measurements. The penetration and amount of deposited rutile particles could be modified by changing the deposition conditions. Thicker layers were obtained from more concentrated aqueous TiCl4 solutions with and without added HCl, and with longer deposition times and higher temperatures of the hydrothermal treatment. The interaction of TiO2 particles with hemicellulose and lignin in wood was established from infrared attenuated total reflection (FT-IR ATR) and Raman spectra measurements, from which the spectra of wood were subtracted. Analysis of the subtraction spectra showed the presence of titania particles on the wood surface, revealing also the establishment of TiO2-wood coordinative bonds of titanium ions with hemicellulose and lignin. The red frequency shift of the OH stretching modes suggested interaction of the TiO2 particles with water molecules of wood. TiO2 deposited on wood treated with SDS became hydrophobic (water contact angles (WCA) of 150°), contrasting the properties of untreated wood with a deposited TiO2 particle coating, which remained hydrophilic.

  20. The extent and meaning of hybridization and introgression between Siberian spruce (Picea obovata) and Norway spruce (Picea abies): cryptic refugia as stepping stones to the west?

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Yoshiaki; Chen, Jun; Stocks, Michael; Källman, Thomas; Sønstebø, Jørn Henrik; Parducci, Laura; Semerikov, Vladimir; Sperisen, Christoph; Politov, Dmitry; Ronkainen, Tiina; Väliranta, Minna; Vendramin, Giovanni Giuseppe; Tollefsrud, Mari Mette; Lascoux, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Boreal species were repeatedly exposed to ice ages and went through cycles of contraction and expansion while sister species alternated periods of contact and isolation. The resulting genetic structure is consequently complex, and demographic inferences are intrinsically challenging. The range of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Siberian spruce (Picea obovata) covers most of northern Eurasia; yet their geographical limits and histories remain poorly understood. To delineate the hybrid zone between the two species and reconstruct their joint demographic history, we analysed variation at nuclear SSR and mitochondrial DNA in 102 and 88 populations, respectively. The dynamics of the hybrid zone was analysed with approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) followed by posterior predictive structure plot reconstruction and the presence of barriers across the range tested with estimated effective migration surfaces. To estimate the divergence time between the two species, nuclear sequences from two well-separated populations of each species were analysed with ABC. Two main barriers divide the range of the two species: one corresponds to the hybrid zone between them, and the other separates the southern and northern domains of Norway spruce. The hybrid zone is centred on the Urals, but the genetic impact of Siberian spruce extends further west. The joint distribution of mitochondrial and nuclear variation indicates an introgression of mitochondrial DNA from Norway spruce into Siberian spruce. Overall, our data reveal a demographic history where the two species interacted frequently and where migrants originating from the Urals and the West Siberian Plain recolonized northern Russia and Scandinavia using scattered refugial populations of Norway spruce as stepping stones towards the west.

  1. Online investigation of respiratory quotients in Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies during drought and shading by means of cavity-enhanced Raman multi-gas spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hanf, Stefan; Fischer, Sarah; Hartmann, Henrik; Keiner, Robert; Trumbore, Susan; Popp, Jürgen; Frosch, Torsten

    2015-07-07

    Photosynthesis and respiration are major components of the plant carbon balance. During stress, like drought, carbohydrate supply from photosynthesis is reduced and the Krebs cycle respiration must be fueled with other stored carbon compounds. However, the dynamics of storage use are still unknown. The respiratory quotient (RQ, CO2 released per O2 consumed during respiration) is an excellent indicator of the nature of the respiration substrate. In plant science, however, online RQ measurements have been challenging or even impossible so far due to very small gas exchange fluxes during respiration. Here we apply cavity-enhanced multi-gas Raman spectrometry (CERS) for online in situ RQ measurements in drought-tolerant pine (Pinus sylvestris [L.]) and drought-intolerant spruce (Picea abies [L. H. Karst]). Two different treatments, drought and shading, were applied to reduce photosynthesis and force dependency on stored substrates. Changes in respiration rates and RQ values were continuously monitored over periods of several days with low levels of variance. The results show that both species switched from COH-dominated respiration (RQ = 1.0) to a mixture of substrates during shading (RQ = 0.77-0.81), while during drought only pine did so (RQ = 0.75). The gas phase measurements were complemented by concentration measurements of non-structural carbohydrates and lipids. These first results suggest a physiological explanation for greater drought tolerance in pine. CERS was proven as powerful technique for non-consumptive and precise real-time monitoring of respiration rates and respirational quotients for the investigation of plant metabolism under drought stress conditions that are predicted to increase with future climate change.

  2. Altitudinal vs Latitudinal Climactic Drivers: A Comparison of a Relict Picea and Abies Forest in the Southern Appalachians versus the Hemi-Boreal Transition Zone off Southern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, A.; Lafon, C. W.

    2015-12-01

    Identification of biotic and abiotic determinants of tree species range limits is critical for understanding the effects of climate change on species distributions. Upward shifts of species distributions in montane areas have been widely reported but there have been few reports of latitudinal range retractions. Previous studies have indicated that southern latitudinal limits of a species range are dictated by biotic factors such as competition while others have suggested that abiotic factors, such as temperature, dictate these limits. We investigated the potential climatic gradients at the southern latitudinal limit of the Spruce (Picea) and Fir (Abies) species that dominate the Canadian boreal forest community as well as relict boreal forests containing similar species found in the high elevation areas of the Southern Appalachians. Existing research has suggested that relict ecosystems are more sensitive to climate change and can be indicative of future changes at latitudinal range limits. Expanding on this literature, we hypothesized that we would see similar gradients in climatic variables at the southern latitudinal limit of the Canadian boreal forest and those in the relict boreal forests southern Appalachians acting as controlling factors of these species distributions. We used forty years of climate data from weather stations along the southern edge of the boreal forest in the Canadian Shield provinces, species distribution data from the Canadian National Forest Inventory, (CNFI) geospatial data from the National Park Service (NPS), and historical weather data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to perform our analysis. Our results indicate different climate variables act as controls of warm edge range limits of the Canadian boreal forest than those of the relict boreal forest of the southern Appalachians. However, we believe range retractions of the relict forest may be indicative of a more gradual response of similar species

  3. Haplotype variation in a mitochondrial tandem repeat of Norway spruce (Picea abies) populations suggests a serious founder effect during postglacial re-colonization of the western Alps.

    PubMed

    Gugerli, F; Sperisen, C; Büchler, U; Magni, F; Geburek, T; Jeandroz, S; Senn, J

    2001-05-01

    Populations from 13 elevational transects of Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst] across the Alpine range were sampled to elucidate the geographical pattern of genetic variation in relation to postglacial re-colonization and to study elevational effects on haplotypic diversity. We assessed fragment length variation in a tandem repeat region of the mitochondrial (mt) nad1 intron 2. This maternally inherited genetic marker is suited to infer migration as it is dispersed by seed only. A total of 10 haplotypes was found, most of which were due to repeat copy number variation. An analysis of molecular variance (amova) showed that overall population differentiation was high (F(ST)=0.41), and it revealed a significant differentiation between monomorphic western and moderately to highly variable eastern Alpine populations. This phylogeographic pattern may be explained by a founder effect during postglacial re-colonization. An early arriving haplotype, assumed to originate from a western Carpathian refugium, could expand into suitable habitats, reducing the chances for establishment of subsequently arriving haplotypes. On the other hand, the high variation in populations within an Italian transect of the south-eastern Alps may be the consequence of merging migration pathways from and close distance to putative glacial refugia, most likely those assumed in the Carpathian mountains and on the Balkan peninsula or possibly in the central plains of Italy. An effect of elevation on haplotypic diversity was not evident, though a low, but significant, partition of total genetic variation was attributed to among-population variation in one Italian transect. Various factors, such as vertical seed dispersal and forest management, may account for blurring an otherwise established pattern of genetic variation on a small geographical scale.

  4. Resilience, rapid transitions and regime shifts: fingerprinting the responses of Lake Żabińskie (NE Poland) to climate variability and human disturbance since 1000 AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tylmann, Wojciech; Hernández-Almeida, Iván; Grosjean, Martin; José Gómez Navarro, Juan; Larocque-Tobler, Isabelle; Bonk, Alicja; Enters, Dirk; Ustrzycka, Alicja; Piotrowska, Natalia; Przybylak, Rajmund; Wacnik, Agnieszka; Witak, Małgorzata

    2016-04-01

    Rapid ecosystem transitions and adverse effects on ecosystem services as responses to combined climate and human impacts are of major concern. Yet few quantitative observational data exist, particularly for ecosystems that have a long history of human intervention. Here, we combine quantitative summer and winter climate reconstructions, climate model simulations and proxies for three major environmental pressures (land use, nutrients and erosion) to explore the system dynamics, resilience, and the role of disturbance regimes in varved eutrophic Lake Żabińskie since AD 1000. Comparison between regional and global climate simulations and quantitative climate reconstructions indicate that proxy data capture noticeably natural forced climate variability, while internal variability appears as the dominant source of climate variability in the climate model simulations during most parts of the last millennium. Using different multivariate analyses and change point detection techniques, we identify ecosystem changes through time and shifts between rather stable states and highly variable ones, as expressed by the proxies for land-use, erosion and productivity in the lake. Prior to AD 1600, the lake ecosystem was characterized by a high stability and resilience against considerable observed natural climate variability. In contrast, lake-ecosystem conditions started to fluctuate at high frequency across a broad range of states after AD 1600. The period AD 1748-1868 represents the phase with the strongest human disturbance of the ecosystem. Analyses of the frequency of change points in the multi-proxy dataset suggests that the last 400 years were highly variable and flickering with increasing vulnerability of the ecosystem to the combined effects of climate variability and anthropogenic disturbances. This led to significant rapid ecosystem transformations.

  5. Effect of Forest Management of Picea abies and Fagus sylvatica with Different Types of Felling on Carbon and Economic Balances in the Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plch, Radek; Pulkrab, Karel; Bukáček, Jan; Sloup, Roman; Cudlín, Pavel

    2016-10-01

    The selection of the most sustainable forest management under given site conditions needs suitable criteria and indicators. For this purpose, carbon and economic balance assessment, completed with environmental impact computation using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) were used. The aim of this study was to compare forestry operations and wood production of selected forest stands with different i) tree species composition (Norway spruce - Picea abies and European beech - Fagus sylvatica) and ii) type of felling (chainsaw and harvester). Carbon and economic balance methods consist in the comparison of quantified inputs (fossil fuels, electricity, used machinery, fertilizers, etc., converted into emission units of carbon in Mg of C- CO2-eq. or EUR) with quantified outputs (biomass production in Mg of carbon or EUR). In this contribution, similar forest stands (“forest site complexes”) in the 4th forest vegetation zone (in the Czech Republic approximately 400-700 m above sea-level) were selected. Forestry operations were divided into 5 main stages: i) seedling production, ii) stand establishment and pruning, iii) thinning and final cutting, iv) skidding, and v) secondary timber transport and modelled for one rotation period of timber production (ca. 100 years). The differences between Norway spruce and European beech forest stands in the carbon efficiency were relatively small while higher differences were achieved in the economic efficiency (forest stands with Norway spruce had a higher economic efficiency). Concerning the comparison of different types of felling in Norway spruce forest stands, the harvester use proved to induce significantly higher environmental impacts (emission of carbon) and lower economic costs. The comparison of forestry operation stages showed that the main part of carbon emissions, originating from fuel production and combustion, is connected with a thinning and final cutting, skidding and secondary timber transport in relations to

  6. Functional identification and differential expression of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase in induced terpenoid resin formation of Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Phillips, Michael A; Walter, Michael H; Ralph, Steven G; Dabrowska, Paulina; Luck, Katrin; Urós, Eva Maria; Boland, Wilhelm; Strack, Dieter; Rodríguez-Concepción, Manuel; Bohlmann, Jörg; Gershenzon, Jonathan

    2007-10-01

    Conifers produce terpenoid-based oleoresins as constitutive and inducible defenses against herbivores and pathogens. Much information is available about the genes and enzymes of the late steps of oleoresin terpenoid biosynthesis in conifers, but almost nothing is known about the early steps which proceed via the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway. Here we report the cDNA cloning and functional identification of three Norway spruce (Picea abies) genes encoding 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (DXS), which catalyzes the first step of the MEP pathway, and their differential expression in the stems of young saplings. Among them are representatives of both types of plant DXS genes. A single type I DXS gene is constitutively expressed in bark tissue and not affected by wounding or fungal application. In contrast, two distinct type II DXS genes, PaDXS2A and PaDXS2B, showed increased transcript abundance after these treatments as did two other genes of the MEP pathway tested, 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR) and 4-hydroxyl 3-methylbutenyl diphosphate reductase (HDR). We also measured gene expression in a Norway spruce cell suspension culture system that, like intact trees, accumulates monoterpenes after treatment with methyl jasmonate. These cell cultures were characterized by an up-regulation of monoterpene synthase gene transcripts and enzyme activity after elicitor treatment, as well as induced formation of octadecanoids, including jasmonic acid and 12-oxophytodienoic acid. Among the Type II DXS genes in cell cultures, PaDXS2A was induced by treatment with chitosan, methyl salicylate, and Ceratocystis polonica (a bark beetle-associated, blue-staining fungal pathogen of Norway spruce). However, PaDXS2B was induced by treatment with methyl jasmonate and chitosan, but was not affected by methyl salicylate or C. polonica. Our results suggest distinct functions of the three DXS genes in primary and defensive terpenoid metabolism in Norway

  7. Effects of Water and Nitrogen Availability on Nitrogen Contribution by the Legume, Lupinus argenteus Pursh.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen-fixing species contribute to ecosystem nitrogen budgets, but background resource levels influence nodulation, fixation, and plant growth. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to examine the separate and interacting effects of water and N availability on biomass production, tissue N concentr...

  8. Cytotoxic compounds from the leaves of Gaillardia aristata Pursh. growing in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Salama, Maha M; Kandil, Zeinab A; Islam, Wafaa T

    2012-01-01

    Ten compounds, neopulchellin (1), 6α- hydroxyneopulchellin (2), β-sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucoside (3), apigenin (4), quercitin (5), eupafolin (6), kaempferol-3-methoxy-7-O-α-L-rhamnoside (7), apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (8), α-amyrin (9) and β-sitosterol (10), were isolated from the leaves of Gaillardia aristata by applying bioassay guided fractionation. The cytotoxicity was traced against two human cancer cell lines (breast (MCF7) and colon (HCT116)). The highest cytotoxicity was revealed by compounds 1 and 2 (isolated from chloroform extract); with IC(50) values of 0.43, 0.32 µg mL(-1) against MCF7 and 0.46, 0.34 µg mL(-1) against HCT116, respectively. Compounds 9 and 10 (isolated from the n-hexane extract) exhibited lower IC(50) values of 3.05, 2.35 µg mL(-1) against MCF7 and 3.05, 2.35 µg mL(-1) against HCT116, respectively, while compounds 4-7 obtained from the ethyl acetate extract revealed the lowest cytotoxicity. Identification of the aforementioned compounds was carried out on the basis of their physico-chemical properties and spectral analysis (UV, EI/MS, 1D and 2D).

  9. Monsoon Season Moisture Deficit Limits Growth in Co-Occurring Alpine Shrub (Cassiope fastigata) and Tree (Abies spectabilis) Species in the Central Himalayas, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayback, S. A.; Shrestha, K. B.; Hofgaard, A.

    2015-12-01

    Recent evidence indicates changing climatological conditions in the Nepalese Himalayas including decreasing precipitation, a weakening Indian monsoon and rising temperatures. Trees and shrubs found at treeline are considered to be highly sensitive to climate, but the climatic effects on these ecotone species in the Himalayas are not well understood. Dendrochronological techniques applied to co-occurring shrubs and trees up-and down-slope of treeline extend our understanding of vegetation response at range margins and into tree-less environments. We developed tree-ring width and annual height increment chronologies for Abies spectabilis (Himalayan fir) and the first annual growth increment and annual production of leaves chronologies for Cassiope fastigata (Himalayan heather) at a high elevation site in central Nepal. C. fastigata chronologies showed moisture availability in late pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons of the previous year are critical to stem elongation and leaf production (AGI and previous May-August SPEI-12, r = 0.790; LEAF and previous June-September SPEI-12, r = 0.708) A. spectabilis chronologies were significantly and negatively correlated with monsoon season temperature during the current year (tree-ring width and June mean temperature, r = -0.677; height-increment and Sept maximum temperature, r = -0.605). In addition to both long-term and recent declines in moisture in the Himalayas, moisture deficit may be further exacerbated at high elevation sites via run-off and higher levels of evapotranspiration resulting in growth reductions, dieback and even death of these species. These results highlight that not all mid-latitude, high elevation treelines are limited by temperature as previously thought and that severe drought stress may initiate downslope treeline retraction. Understanding the response of co-occurring tree and shrub species to climate, now and in the future, may help to elucidate the physiological mechanisms controlling local and

  10. Development of an Advanced Technique for Mapping and Monitoring Sea and Lake Ice in Preparation for GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazari, R.; Temimi, M.; Khanbilvardi, R.; Romanov, P.

    2008-05-01

    In recent years, the uniqueness of the Earth's ice covered regions and their importance to the world is being increasingly recognized. They are considered vital and valuable for a variety of economic, environmental, and social reasons. Ice information can also improve weather and climate predictions. Observations show that Arctic ice is decreasing in both thickness and extent which will lead to the change in absorption of solar radiation and temperature of the earth. The increasing activity in ice-affected waters has led to a growing requirement for ice information and better mapping systems with improvements in both time and spatial resolution. A variety of Earth Observation sensors are used to map ice covered areas. Visible-Infrared sensors at moderate-resolution from polar orbiting satellites (NOAA-AVHRR, MODIS Aqua/ Terra) have been used extensively because of their easy accessibility. However, clouds, fog and low time resolutions limit the use of this type of sensor to fully meet operational ice mapping requirements, particularly in cloud- and fog ice zones. The primary objective of this research is to explore the potentials of mapping ice with the geostationary satellites which can provide a reasonably good time resolution and satisfactory spatial resolutions. The aim of this ongoing project is to develop an automated ice-mapping algorithm, which would make maximum use of GOES-R ABI's improved observing capabilities and to be the pioneer of creating daily ice maps from a geostationary satellite. Data collected by SEVIRI instrument onboard of Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite have been used as a prototype. The Northern region of the Caspian Sea has been selected for algorithm development and calibration. The approach used in the algorithm development includes daily cloud-clear image compositing as well as pixel-by-pixel image classification using spectral criteria. All available spectral channels (reflectance and temperature) have been tested and used

  11. Abietoid seed fatty acid compositions--a review of the genera Abies, Cedrus, Hesperopeuce, Keteleeria, Pseudolarix, and Tsuga and preliminary inferences on the taxonomy of Pinaceae.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Robert L; Lavialle, Olivier; Pédrono, Frédérique; Pasquier, Elodie; Destaillats, Frederic; Marpeau, Anne M; Angers, Paul; Aitzetmüller, Kurt

    2002-01-01

    The seed fatty acid (FA) compositions of Abietoids (Abies, Cedrus, Hesperopeuce, Keteleeria, Pseudolarix, and Tsuga) are reviewed in the present study in conclusion to our survey of Pinaceae seed FA compositions. Many unpublished data are given. Abietoids and Pinoids (Pinus, Larix, Picea, and Pseudotsuga)-constituting the family Pinaceae-are united by the presence of several delta5-olefinic acids, taxoleic (5,9-18:2), pinolenic (5,9,12-18:3), coniferonic (5,9,12,15-1 8:4), keteleeronic (5,11-20:2), and sciadonic (5,11,14-20:3) acids, and of 14-methyl hexadecanoic (anteiso-17:0) acid. These acids seldom occur in angiosperm seeds. The proportions of individual delta5-olefinic acids, however, differ between Pinoids and Abietoids. In the first group, pinolenic acid is much greater than taxoleic acid, whereas in the second group, pinolenic acid is greater than or equal to taxoleic acid. Moreover, taxoleic acid in Abietoids is much greater than taxoleic acid in Pinoids, an apparent limit between the two subfamilies being about 4.5% of that acid relative to total FA. Tsuga spp. appear to be a major exception, as their seed FA compositions are much like those of species from the Pinoid group. In this respect, Hesperopeuce mertensiana, also known as Tsuga mertensiana, has little in common with Abietoids and fits the general FA pattern of Pinoids well. Tsuga spp. and H. mertensiana, from their seed FA compositions, should perhaps be separated from the Abietoid group and their taxonomic position revised. It is suggested that a "Tsugoid" subfamily be created, with seed FA in compliance with the Pinoid pattern and other botanical and immunological criteria of the Abietoid type. All Pinaceae genera, with the exception of Pinus, are quite homogeneous when considering their overall seed FA compositions, including delta5-olefinic acids. In all cases but one (Pinus), variations from one species to another inside a given genus are of small amplitude. Pinus spp., on the other hand

  12. Allocation of freshly assimilated carbon into primary and secondary metabolites after in situ ¹³C pulse labelling of Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Steffen; Dippold, Michaela A; Werner, Christiane; Wiesenberg, Guido L B; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Glaser, Bruno

    2015-11-01

    Plants allocate carbon (C) to sink tissues depending on phenological, physiological or environmental factors. We still have little knowledge on C partitioning into various cellular compounds and metabolic pathways at various ecophysiological stages. We used compound-specific stable isotope analysis to investigate C partitioning of freshly assimilated C into tree compartments (needles, branches and stem) as well as into needle water-soluble organic C (WSOC), non-hydrolysable structural organic C (stOC) and individual chemical compound classes (amino acids, hemicellulose sugars, fatty acids and alkanes) of Norway spruce (Picea abies) following in situ (13)C pulse labelling 15 days after bud break. The (13)C allocation within the above-ground tree biomass demonstrated needles as a major C sink, accounting for 86% of the freshly assimilated C 6 h after labelling. In needles, the highest allocation occurred not only into the WSOC pool (44.1% of recovered needle (13)C) but also into stOC (33.9%). Needle growth, however, also caused high (13)C allocation into pathways not involved in the formation of structural compounds: (i) pathways in secondary metabolism, (ii) C-1 metabolism and (iii) amino acid synthesis from photorespiration. These pathways could be identified by a high (13)C enrichment of their key amino acids. In addition, (13)C was strongly allocated into the n-alkyl lipid fraction (0.3% of recovered (13)C), whereby (13)C allocation into cellular and cuticular exceeded that of epicuticular fatty acids. (13)C allocation decreased along the lipid transformation and translocation pathways: the allocation was highest for precursor fatty acids, lower for elongated fatty acids and lowest for the decarbonylated n-alkanes. The combination of (13)C pulse labelling with compound-specific (13)C analysis of key metabolites enabled tracing relevant C allocation pathways under field conditions. Besides the primary metabolism synthesizing structural cell compounds, a complex

  13. Ground-level ozone differentially affects nitrogen acquisition and allocation in mature European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) trees.

    PubMed

    Weigt, R B; Häberle, K H; Millard, P; Metzger, U; Ritter, W; Blaschke, H; Göttlein, A; Matyssek, R

    2012-10-01

    Impacts of elevated ground-level ozone (O(3)) on nitrogen (N) uptake and allocation were studied on mature European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) in a forest stand, hypothesizing that: (i) chronically elevated O(3) limits nutrient uptake, and (ii) beech responds more sensitively to elevated O(3) than spruce, as previously found for juvenile trees. Tree canopies were exposed to twice-ambient O(3) concentrations (2 × O(3)) by a free-air fumigation system, with trees under ambient O(3) serving as control. After 5 years of O(3) fumigation, (15)NH(4)(15)NO(3) was applied to soil, and concentrations of newly acquired N (N(labelled)) and total N (N(total)) in plant compartments and soil measured. Under 2 × O(3), N(labelled) and N(total) were increased in the bulk soil and tended to be lower in fine and coarse roots of both species across the soil horizons, supporting hypothesis (i). N(labelled) was reduced in beech foliage by up to 60%, and by up to 50% in buds under 2 × O(3). Similarly, N(labelled) in stem bark and phloem was reduced. No such reduction was observed in spruce, reflecting a stronger effect on N acquisition in beech in accordance with hypothesis (ii). In spruce, 2 × O(3) tended to favour allocation of new N to foliage. N(labelled) in beech foliage correlated with cumulative seasonal transpiration, indicating impaired N acquisition was probably caused by reduced stomatal conductance and, hence, water transport under elevated O(3). Stimulated fine root growth under 2 × O(3) with a possible increase of below-ground N sink strength may also have accounted for lowered N allocation to above-ground organs. Reduced N uptake and altered allocation may enhance the use of stored N for growth, possibly affecting long-term stand nutrition.

  14. Effects of open-field experimental warming on the growth of two-year-old Pinus densiflora and Abies holophylla seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, S.; Son, Y.; Lee, S.; Jo, W.; Yoon, T.; Park, C.; Ko, S.; Kim, J.; Han, S.; Jung, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Temperature increase due to climate change is expected to affect tree growth and distribution [Way and Oren, 2010]. The responses of trees to warming vary with tree species, ontogenic stages, tree life forms, and biomes. Especially, seedling stage is a vulnerable period for tree survival and competition [Saxe et al., 2007] and thus research on effects of temperature increase on seedling stage is needed. We aimed to examine the responses of coniferous seedlings to future temperature increase by conducting an open-field warming experiment. An experimental warming set-up using infra-red heater was built in 2011 and the temperature in warming plots has been regulated to 3°C higher than that of control plots constantly. The seeds of Pinus densiflora and Abies holophylla were planted in each 1 m × 1 m plot (n=3) in April, 2012. Seedling growth, root collar diameter (RCD) and height of 45 individuals of each plot were measured in June and July, 2012. The survival rate of seedlings was also measured. Survival rate of P. densiflora was lower in warming plots (93.3%) than in control plots (100.0%, p<0.05) and that of A. holophylla was also decreased in warming plots (79.3%) than in control plots (97.0%, p<0.01). RCD and height of P. densiflora seedlings were not significantly different between control and warming plots, however, height of A. holophylla was significantly higher in warming plots in June and July (p<0.01). Comparatively, RCD of A. holophylla was only higher in control plots in June. While there is still a lack of case studies on the growth of seedlings under experimental warming, a few studies reported increased seedling growth [Yin et al., 2008] or and no difference [Han et al., 2009] in warming plots. Different responses of seedling growth between two species of the current study might be derived from species-specific acclimation to temperature increase and/or other limiting factors [Way and Oren, 2010]. This result is, to our knowledge, unprecedented and

  15. Indicators of climate change effects: Relationships between crown transparency and butt rot in silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) in Middle Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Aprile, Fabrizio; Tapper, Nigel

    2014-05-01

    Climatic analysis conducted on the trends and changes in temperature and rainfall during the 20th century in the Tuscan Apennine Alps (Middle Italy) have highlighted the possibility that these changes have a significant impact on the growth and/or health conditions or stress in silver fir (Abies alba Mill.). In this framework, identification of appropriate indicators to verify relationships between stress symptoms, which are frequently caused by climate adverse conditions, and pathological phenomena is a necessary step functional to the identification of climatic-environmental impacts on forests. The presence of butt rot pathology - a complex disease that causes rotting of the trunk internally - in silver fir is known the time as well as its severity. Nonetheless, very little research on the potential effects of changing climate conditions on the diffusion and intensity of butt rot seems available; thus, effects of climate change seem to be not excluded nor verified. No research or studies that quantify distribution and incidence or, especially, relationships of butt rot with adverse climatic and/or environmental factors were found. However, climatic alterations can have an impact on the intensity and spread of serious disease complexes and therefore it is of great importance to investigate the relationships between climate changing conditions, diffusion and incidence of butt rot in silver fir forests for their conservation and the management of species and biodiversity associated. As butt rot unlikely could be directly related to climate variables, crown transparency has been used as a proxy for tree growth, where climate variability is assumed to be the main driver of silver fir growth and stress. Actually, crown transparency is considered to be a main factor associated to tree growth, and healthier trees are assumed to grow faster than less-healthy trees. Thus, theoretically denser crowns would correspond to faster growing and healthier trees and indicate better

  16. Growth enhancement of Picea abies trees under long-term, low-dose N addition is due to morphological more than to physiological changes.

    PubMed

    Krause, Kim; Cherubini, Paolo; Bugmann, Harald; Schleppi, Patrick

    2012-12-01

    Human activities have drastically increased nitrogen (N) inputs into natural and near-natural terrestrial ecosystems such that critical loads are now being exceeded in many regions of the world. This implies that these ecosystems are shifting from natural N limitation to eutrophication or even N saturation. This process is expected to modify the growth of forests and thus, along with management, to affect their carbon (C) sequestration. However, knowledge of the physiological mechanisms underlying tree response to N inputs, especially in the long term, is still lacking. In this study, we used tree-ring patterns and a dual stable isotope approach (δ(13)C and δ(18)O) to investigate tree growth responses and the underlying physiological reactions in a long-term, low-dose N addition experiment (+23 kg N ha(-1) a(-1)). This experiment has been conducted for 14 years in a mountain Picea abies (L.) Karst. forest in Alptal, Switzerland, using a paired-catchment design. Tree stem C sequestration increased by ∼22%, with an N use efficiency (NUE) of ca. 8 kg additional C in tree stems per kg of N added. Neither earlywood nor latewood δ(13)C values changed significantly compared with the control, indicating that the intrinsic water use efficiency (WUE(i)) (A/g(s)) did not change due to N addition. Further, the isotopic signal of δ(18)O in early- and latewood showed no significant response to the treatment, indicating that neither stomatal conductance nor leaf-level photosynthesis changed significantly. Foliar analyses showed that needle N concentration significantly increased in the fourth to seventh treatment year, accompanied by increased dry mass and area per needle, and by increased tree height growth. Later, N concentration and height growth returned to nearly background values, while dry mass and area per needle remained high. Our results support the hypothesis that enhanced stem growth caused by N addition is mainly due to an increased leaf area index (LAI

  17. Carbon assimilation, translocation and respiration in Fagus sylvatica and Abies alba stands measured by gas exchange and isotopic techniques during two contrasting climatic years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrichkova, Olga; Scartazza, Andrea; Zampedri, Roberto; Cavagna, Mauro; Sottocornola, Matteo; Matteucci, Giorgio; Brugnoli, Enrico

    2014-05-01

    Global warming is tremendously influencing the climate of mountain areas through constantly rising temperatures and changes in local hydrological cycle. Increase of precipitation extremes, seasonal shifts of rainfall regime, heat waves are becoming more and more frequent events here. Vulnerability and plasticity of the local individual tree species under changing climate has still to be evaluated under field conditions. Two consecutive years, 2012 and 2013 were quite distinct in the climatic conditions during the plant growing season. Summer 2012 was characterized by a prolonged summer drought with almost no precipitation in central Italy from the end of May up to the end of August. The situation was aggravated by a very dry winter during this year. Mean annual temperatures in 2012 were 2oC higher in respect to the temperatures measured in the last 10 years. Conversely, year 2013 was milder with occasional rain events also during the summer months and temperatures close to the average values. In the Alpine zone the difference between two years were less pronounced with 2012 being slightly warmer than average and 2013 was characterized by unusually abundant spring precipitations. Taking advantage of these two contrasting years, we have monitored a functional response of one deciduous and one coniferous mountain forest stands growing in different mountain climate zones to variations in the local climate. The first, a deciduous European beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest, is located in the Appennine region of Italy at 1700 m height (Collelongo site, AQ) and characterized by a Mountain-Mediterranean climate. The second is a mixed forest dominated by Silver fir (Abies alba) which was chosen as a target species for our study. The site is located at 1350m height in the south-eastern Alps (Lavarone, TN) and is characterized by a mountain temperate climate. Sampling of plant material and point flux measurements were performed in the beginning, middle and the end of the growing

  18. Spring temperature variability and eutrophication history inferred from sedimentary pigments in the varved sediments of Lake Żabińskie, north-eastern Poland, AD 1907-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amann, Benjamin; Lobsiger, Simon; Fischer, Daniela; Tylmann, Wojciech; Bonk, Alicja; Filipiak, Janusz; Grosjean, Martin

    2014-12-01

    Varved lake sediments are excellent natural archives providing quantitative insights into climatic and environmental changes at very high resolution and chronological accuracy. However, due to the multitude of responses within lake ecosystems it is often difficult to understand how climate variability interacts with other environmental pressures such as eutrophication, and to attribute observed changes to specific causes. This is particularly challenging during the past 100 years when multiple strong trends are superposed. Here we present a high-resolution multi-proxy record of sedimentary pigments and other biogeochemical data from the varved sediments of Lake Żabińskie (Masurian Lake District, north-eastern Poland, 54°N-22°E, 120 m a.s.l.) spanning AD 1907 to 2008. Lake Żabińskie exhibits biogeochemical varves with highly organic late summer and winter layers separated by white layers of endogenous calcite precipitated in early summer. The aim of our study is to investigate whether climate-driven changes and anthropogenic changes can be separated in a multi-proxy sediment data set, and to explore which sediment proxies are potentially suitable for long quantitative climate reconstructions. We also test if convoluted analytical techniques (e.g. HPLC) can be substituted by rapid scanning techniques (visible reflectance spectroscopy VIS-RS; 380-730 nm). We used principal component analysis and cluster analysis to show that the recent eutrophication of Lake Żabińskie can be discriminated from climate-driven changes for the period AD 1907-2008. The eutrophication signal (PC1 = 46.4%; TOC, TN, TS, Phe-b, high TC/CD ratios total carotenoids/chlorophyll-a derivatives) is mainly expressed as increasing aquatic primary production, increasing hypolimnetic anoxia and a change in the algal community from green algae to blue-green algae. The proxies diagnostic for eutrophication show a smooth positive trend between 1907 and ca 1980 followed by a very rapid increase

  19. [Effects of snow pack removal on soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen and the number of soil culturable microorganisms during wintertime in alpine Abies faxoniana forest of western Sichuan, Southwest China].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu-Lian; Wu, Fu-Zhong; He, Zhen-Hua; Xu, Zhen-Feng; Liu, Yang; Yang, Wan-Qin; Tan, Bo

    2012-07-01

    To understand the effects of the lack of snow pack under global warming on the characteristics of soil microorganisms during wintertime, a snow-shading experiment was conducted in a primary fir (Abies faxoniana) forest after snow pack removal, with the soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and nitrogen (MBN) and soil culturable microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) at the stages of snow forming, snow covering, and snow melting investigated. Snow pack removal had significant effects on the soil MBC and MBN and the number of soil culturable bacteria and fungi, but the responses of the culturable microorganisms differed with the stages of snow-shading. Under the condition of snow pack removal, the MBC and MBN in soil organic layer decreased significantly at the early stages of snow forming and snow melting but increased significantly at snow covering stage and at the later stage of snow melting, and the number of culturable bacteria decreased significantly from the early stage of snow forming to the stage of snow covering while that of culturable fungi had a significant increase from the early stage of snow forming to the stage of snow melting. After snow melting, the MBC and the number of culturable fungi in soil organic layer had a significant decrease, the number of cultural bacteria was in adverse, but the MBN had less change. The MBC and MBN and the number of culturable microorganisms in soil mineral layer had the similar variation trends as those in soil organic layer, but the fluctuations were smaller. It was suggested that snow pack removal changed the ratio of culturable bacteria to culturable fungi, showing positive effects on the number of soil culturable fungi during wintertime in alpine Abies faxoniana forest of western Sichuan.

  20. Cryopreservation of Fraser photinia (Photinia x fraseri Dress.) via vitrification-based one-step freezing techniques.

    PubMed

    Tokatli, Y O; Akdemir, H

    2010-01-01

    An efficient vitrification-based cryopreservation procedure was developed for Fraser photinia shoot apices by assessing the influences of various vitrification solutions (PVS1, PVS2, PVS3 and VSL) and different vitrification methods (cryovial vitrification, droplet vitrification and droplet freezing) on shoot regrowth. Moreover, influences of cold-hardening period (0 to 8 weeks), preculture medium (with sucrose and proline) and regrowth medium (QL plus 4.4, 8.8 and 17.6 micromolar BA) were also evaluated. Among the different procedures tested, best shoot regrowth (40.3 percent) was achieved by using a droplet vitrification technique in which cold-hardened and precultured shoot apices were vitrified for 120 min at 0 degree C in droplets, rapidly cooled, thawed and then cultured on 17.6 micromolar BA-containing QL medium. Overall results indicated the importance of not only the composition of vitrification solution, and preculture and regrowth media, but also the application of an appropriate vitrification technique to achieve optimum recovery post-cryopreservation.

  1. Reduced climate sensitivity of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen stable isotope ratios in tree-ring cellulose of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) influenced by background SO2 in Franconia (Germany, Central Europe).

    PubMed

    Boettger, Tatjana; Haupt, Marika; Friedrich, Michael; Waterhouse, John S

    2014-02-01

    The climate sensitivity of carbon (δ(13)C), oxygen (δ(18)O) and hydrogen (δ(2)H) isotope signatures in tree-ring cellulose of Abies alba Mill. from a marginally industrialized area of Franconia (Germany) was analysed for the last 130 years. All isotopes preserve climatic signals up to c. 1950 AD. After 1950 we observe a clear reduction in climate sensitivity of δ(13)C and δ(2)H while δ(18)O - climate relations remain well pronounced. Nevertheless statistical tests implied that SO2 background emissions of West Germany had influenced isotope signatures long before 1950. The relationships between isotope values and concentrations of SO2, dust, O3 and NO2 at the regional level during the period 1979-2006 indicate that δ(13)C and δ(18)O were influenced primarily by SO2. The impact of SO2 on δ(2)H was negligible, but the observed reduction of climate sensitivity may be caused by synergic influences. The results have significant implications if isotope signatures from tree-rings from anthropogenic influenced regions are used to reconstruct past climate.

  2. Regulation of liver cell glucose homeostasis by dehydroabietic acid, abietic acid and squalene isolated from balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) a plant of the Eastern James Bay Cree traditional pharmacopeia.

    PubMed

    Nachar, Abir; Saleem, Ammar; Arnason, John T; Haddad, Pierre S

    2015-09-01

    In our previous study, Abies balsamea (L.) Mill., a plant used in Cree traditional medicine, had a strong effect on the regulation of glucose homeostasis in liver cells. This study aimed to isolate and identify its active constituents using a bioassay-guided fractionation approach as well as to elucidate their mechanism(s) of action. The effect of the crude extract and its constituents was evaluated on the activity of Glucose-6-Phosphatase (G6Pase) and Glycogen Synthase (GS) and phosphorylation of three kinases, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), Akt and Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (GSK-3). Three compounds, abietic acid, dehydroabietic acid and squalene, were isolated from the most active fraction in the bioassays (hexane). The compounds were able to decrease the activity of G6Pase and to stimulate GS. Their effect on G6Pase activity involved both Akt and AMPK phosphorylation with significant correlations between insulin-dependent and -independent pathways and the bioassay. In addition, the compounds were able to stimulate GS through GSK-3 phosphorylation with a significant correlation between the signaling pathway and the bioassay. Dehydroabietic acid stood out for its strongest effect in all the experiments close to that of the crude extract. These compounds may have potential applications in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance.

  3. Seasonal dynamics in the stable carbon isotope composition δ¹³C from non-leafy branch, trunk and coarse root CO₂ efflux of adult deciduous (Fagus sylvatica) and evergreen (Picea abies) trees.

    PubMed

    Kuptz, Daniel; Matyssek, Rainer; Grams, Thorsten E E

    2011-03-01

    Respiration is a substantial driver of carbon (C) flux in forest ecosystems and stable C isotopes provide an excellent tool for its investigation. We studied seasonal dynamics in δ¹³C of CO₂ efflux (δ¹³C(E)) from non-leafy branches, upper and lower trunks and coarse roots of adult trees, comparing deciduous Fagus sylvatica (European beech) with evergreen Picea abies (Norway spruce). In both species, we observed strong and similar seasonal dynamics in the δ¹³C(E) of above-ground plant components, whereas δ¹³C(E) of coarse roots was rather stable. During summer, δ¹³C(E) of trunks was about -28.2‰ (Beech) and -26.8‰ (Spruce). During winter dormancy, δ¹³C(E) increased by 5.6-9.1‰. The observed dynamics are likely related to a switch from growth to starch accumulation during fall and remobilization of starch, low TCA cycle activity and accumulation of malate by PEPc during winter. The seasonal δ¹³C(E) pattern of branches of Beech and upper trunks of Spruce was less variable, probably because these organs were additionally supplied by winter photosynthesis. In view of our results and pervious studies, we conclude that the pronounced increases in δ¹³C(E) of trunks during the winter results from interrupted access to recent photosynthates.

  4. Seasonal patterns of carbon allocation to respiratory pools in 60-yr-old deciduous (Fagus sylvatica) and evergreen (Picea abies) trees assessed via whole-tree stable carbon isotope labeling.

    PubMed

    Kuptz, Daniel; Fleischmann, Frank; Matyssek, Rainer; Grams, Thorsten E E

    2011-07-01

    • The CO(2) efflux of adult trees is supplied by recent photosynthates and carbon (C) stores. The extent to which these C pools contribute to growth and maintenance respiration (R(G) and R(M), respectively) remains obscure. • Recent photosynthates of adult beech (Fagus sylvatica) and spruce (Picea abies) trees were labeled by exposing whole-tree canopies to (13) C-depleted CO(2). Label was applied three times during the year (in spring, early summer and late summer) and changes in the stable C isotope composition (δ(13) C) of trunk and coarse-root CO(2) efflux were quantified. • Seasonal patterns in C translocation rate (CTR) and fractional contribution of label to CO(2) efflux (F(Label-Max)) were found. CTR was fastest during early summer. In beech, F(Label-Max) was lowest in spring and peaked in trunks during late summer (0.6 ± 0.1, mean ± SE), whereas no trend was observed in coarse roots. No seasonal dynamics in F(Label-Max) were found in spruce. • During spring, the R(G) of beech trunks was largely supplied by C stores. Recent photosynthates supplied growth in early summer and refilled C stores in late summer. In spruce, CO(2) efflux was constantly supplied by a mixture of stored (c. 75%) and recent (c. 25%) C. The hypothesis that R(G) is exclusively supplied by recent photosynthates was rejected for both species.

  5. Effects of Substrate Salinity on Early Seedling survival and Growth of Scirpus robustus Pursh and Spartina alterniflora Loisel

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rooted aquatic plants are being used increasingly as test species in estuarine sediment toxicity evaluations. Effects of naturally occurring substrate constituents on most potential test species however, are not well understood even though their effects could impact the data int...

  6. Evaluation of the RapidHIT™ 200 System: A comparative study of its performance with Maxwell(®) DNA IQ™/Identifiler(®) Plus/ABI 3500xL workflow.

    PubMed

    Thong, Zhonghui; Phua, Yong Han; Loo, Eileen Shuzhen; Goh, Sze Kae; Ang, Jiatian; Looi, Woan Foon; Syn, Christopher Kiu Choong

    2015-11-01

    RapidHIT(™) System is a rapid DNA instrument that is capable of processing forensic samples from extraction through to capillary electrophoresis and profile generation within two hours. Evaluation of the RapidHIT(™) 200 System was conducted to examine several key performance indicators of the instrument, including reproducibility, contamination, sensitivity, versatility and the possibility of sample re-extraction. Results indicated that the RapidHIT(™) 200 System was capable of generating high quality DNA profiles which were comparable to those from the standard protocol comprising of Maxwell(®) 16 DNA IQ(™) System, Identifiler(®) Plus and ABI 3500xL. No contamination was detected during the studies. Results also showed that the instrument was able to generate DNA profiles from samples containing lower amounts of DNA (0.5 μl of blood) albeit with more allele and locus dropouts when compared to the standard protocol. The ability to process blood swabs, blood-stained FTA punches, semen swabs, buccal swabs, product of conception (POC), bone marrow, fingernail clippings and cigarette butts at a good success rate indicated the robustness and versatility of the RapidHIT(™) 200 System. Furthermore, additional alleles could be recovered via re-analysis of the failed samples using the standard protocol. In summary, our results showed that the RapidHIT(™) 200 System was able to process casework samples for the purpose of providing rapid intelligence through DNA database searches and reference matching. Confirmative DNA results can be obtained through either concurrent processing of duplicate samples via standard protocol or re-extraction of samples retrieved from the RapidHIT(™) sample cartridge.

  7. Heterologous Array Analysis in Pinaceae: Hybridization of Pinus Taeda cDNA Arrays With cDNA From Needles and Embryogenic Cultures of P. Taeda, P. Sylvestris or Picea Abies

    PubMed Central

    van Zyl, Leonel; von Arnold, Sara; Bozhkov, Peter; Chen, Yongzhong; Egertsdotter, Ulrika; MacKay, John; Sederoff, Ronald R.; Shen, Jing; Zelena, Lyubov

    2002-01-01

    Hybridization of labelled cDNA from various cell types with high-density arrays of expressed sequence tags is a powerful technique for investigating gene expression. Few conifer cDNA libraries have been sequenced. Because of the high level of sequence conservation between Pinus and Picea we have investigated the use of arrays from one genus for studies of gene expression in the other. The partial cDNAs from 384 identifiable genes expressed in differentiating xylem of Pinus taeda were printed on nylon membranes in randomized replicates. These were hybridized with labelled cDNA from needles or embryogenic cultures of Pinus taeda, P. sylvestris and Picea abies, and with labelled cDNA from leaves of Nicotiana tabacum. The Spearman correlation of gene expression for pairs of conifer species was high for needles (r2 = 0.78 − 0.86), and somewhat lower for embryogenic cultures (r2 = 0.68 − 0.83). The correlation of gene expression for tobacco leaves and needles of each of the three conifer species was lower but sufficiently high (r2 = 0.52 − 0.63) to suggest that many partial gene sequences are conserved in angiosperms and gymnosperms. Heterologous probing was further used to identify tissue-specific gene expression over species boundaries. To evaluate the significance of differences in gene expression, conventional parametric tests were compared with permutation tests after four methods of normalization. Permutation tests after Z-normalization provide the highest degree of discrimination but may enhance the probability of type I errors. It is concluded that arrays of cDNA from loblolly pine are useful for studies of gene expression in other pines or spruces. PMID:18629264

  8. Non-functional plastid ndh gene fragments are present in the nuclear genome of Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karsch): insights from in silico analysis of nuclear and organellar genomes.

    PubMed

    Ranade, Sonali Sachin; García-Gil, María Rosario; Rosselló, Josep A

    2016-04-01

    Many genes have been lost from the prokaryote plastidial genome during the early events of endosymbiosis in eukaryotes. Some of them were definitively lost, but others were relocated and functionally integrated to the host nuclear genomes through serial events of gene transfer during plant evolution. In gymnosperms, plastid genome sequencing has revealed the loss of ndh genes from several species of Gnetales and Pinaceae, including Norway spruce (Picea abies). This study aims to trace the ndh genes in the nuclear and organellar Norway spruce genomes. The plastid genomes of higher plants contain 11 ndh genes which are homologues of mitochondrial genes encoding subunits of the proton-pumping NADH-dehydrogenase (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase) or complex I (electron transport chain). Ndh genes encode 11 NDH polypeptides forming the Ndh complex (analogous to complex I) which seems to be primarily involved in chloro-respiration processes. We considered ndh genes from the plastidial genome of four gymnosperms (Cryptomeria japonica, Cycas revoluta, Ginkgo biloba, Podocarpus totara) and a single angiosperm species (Arabidopsis thaliana) to trace putative homologs in the nuclear and organellar Norway spruce genomes using tBLASTn to assess the evolutionary fate of ndh genes in Norway spruce and to address their genomic location(s), structure, integrity and functionality. The results obtained from tBLASTn were subsequently analyzed by performing homology search for finding ndh specific conserved domains using conserved domain search. We report the presence of non-functional plastid ndh gene fragments, excepting ndhE and ndhG genes, in the nuclear genome of Norway spruce. Regulatory transcriptional elements like promoters, TATA boxes and enhancers were detected in the upstream regions of some ndh fragments. We also found transposable elements in the flanking regions of few ndh fragments suggesting nuclear rearrangements in those regions. These evidences

  9. Ecophysiological importance of cloud immersion in a relic spruce-fir forest at elevational limits, southern Appalachian Mountains, USA.

    PubMed

    Berry, Z Carter; Smith, William K

    2013-11-01

    Climate warming predicts changes to the frequency and height of cloud-immersion events in mountain communities. Threatened southern Appalachian spruce-fir forests have been suggested to persist because of frequent periods of cloud immersion. These relic forests exist on only seven mountaintop areas, grow only above ca. 1,500 m elevation (maximum 2,037 m), and harbor the endemic Abies fraseri. To predict future distribution, we examined the ecophysiological effects of cloud immersion on saplings of A. fraseri and Picea rubens at their upper and lower elevational limits. Leaf photosynthesis, conductance, transpiration, xylem water potentials, and general abiotic variables were measured simultaneously on individuals at the top (1,960 m) and bottom (1,510 m) of their elevation limits on numerous clear and cloud-immersed days throughout the growing season. The high elevation sites had 1.5 as many cloud-immersed days (75 % of days) as the low elevation sites (56 % of days). Cloud immersion resulted in higher photosynthesis, leaf conductance, and xylem water potentials, particularly during afternoon measurements. Leaf conductance remained higher throughout the day with corresponding increases in photosynthesis and transpiration, despite low photon flux density levels, leading to an increase in water potentials from morning to afternoon. The endemic A. fraseri had a greater response in carbon gain and water balance in response to cloud immersion. Climate models predict warmer temperatures with a decrease in the frequency of cloud immersion for this region, leading to an environment on these peaks similar to elevations where spruce-fir communities currently do not exist. Because spruce-fir communities may rely on cloud immersion for improved carbon gain and water conservation, an upslope shift is likely if cloud ceilings rise. Their ultimate survival will likely depend on the magnitude of changes in cloud regimes.

  10. Effect of acidification on metal uptake of Picea abies seedlings

    SciTech Connect

    Paeivaerinta, J.; Lodenius, M. )

    1994-03-01

    The effects of air pollutants on forest ecosystems are based on complex interactions where no single dominating factor has been found. The reasons for forest die-back are extremely difficult to determine because of the lack of long-term data and the difficulties in determining the [open quotes]normal[close quotes] state of the forest ecosystems. The forest die-back in central Europe has been interpreted by many different theories. According to the stress hypothesis all stress factors are summed together so that the limits of biological stress tolerance of different organisms can be exceeded. One potential stress factor is soil acidification. Anthropogenic pollutants increase soil acidification, which is known to increase the solubility of many metals. This has raised the question whether metals could be one potential stress factor to forest organisms. Root growth and the uptake of nutrients and water are in some cases sensible parameters of metal toxicity. Although metals are not the main factor in forest decline, it is important to understand the role of metals as a stress factor on forest ecosystems. Metal uptake by different plant species, especially trees, is unclear. For example the synergistic and antagonistic effects of different metals in plant tissues and the availability of organic metal complexes are still unknown. Plant roots also play an important active role in mobilizing metals from soil particles by producing organic compounds that are effective in releasing substances bound to soil particles. It is important to study the quantities of metals taken up by forest plants because plants are one way for soil metals to enter forest food chains. It is also important to know whether metals can accumulate into plants in concentrations harmful to the plant itself. This study was designed to determine whether metal uptake by Norway spruce is dependent on acidification or humus content of the soil. 20 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. An Inventory of the Vascular Flora of Fort Greely, Interior Alaska

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-02-01

    Hornem.) Lange ssp. violaceum] Elytrigia spicata (Pursh) D. R. Dewey [= Agropyron spicatum (Pursh.) Scribn. & Smith] Equisetum hiemale L. Erigeron ... alpinus Hook. [= E. acris L., in part?] Galium triflorum Michx. Kobresia simpliciuscula (Wahlenb.) Mackenzie Koeleria gracilis Pers. Lemna minor L

  12. Nitrogen saturation and soil N availability in a high-elevation spruce and fir forest

    SciTech Connect

    Garten Jr, Charles T

    2000-06-01

    A field study was conducted during the summer of 1995 to gain abetter understanding of the causes of nitrate (NO{sub 3}-N) leaching and ongoing changes in soil nitrogen (N) availability in high-elevation (1524-2000 m) spruce (Picea rubens) and fir (Abies fraseri) forests of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee and North Carolina, U.S.A. Indicators of soil N availability (total soil N concentrations, extractable NH{sub 4}-N, extractable NO{sub 3}-N, and C/N ratios) were measured in Oa and A horizons at 33 study plots. Dynamic measures included potential net soil N mineralization determined in 12-week aerobic laboratory incubations at 22 C. Potential net nitrification in the A horizon was correlated (r = + 0.83, P < 0.001) with total soil n concentrations. mostmeasures of soil n availability did not exhibit significanttrends with elevation, but there were topographic differences. Potential net soil N mineralization and net nitrification in the A horizon were higher in coves than on ridges. Relative amounts of particulate and organomineral soil organic matter influenced potential net N mineralization and nitrification in the A horizon. Calculations indicate that soil N availability and NO{sub 3}-N leaching in high-elevation spruce and fir forests of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park will increase in response to regional warming.

  13. Related to ABA-Insensitive3(ABI3)/Viviparous1 and AtABI5 transcription factor coexpression in cotton enhances drought stress adaptation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought tolerance is an important trait being pursued by the agbiotech industry. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a stress hormone that mediates a multitude of processes in growth and development, water use efficiency and gene expression during seed development and in response to environmental stresses. Arabi...

  14. Cooper pair localization in a-Bi thin films near the superconductor-insulator transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollen, S. M.; Nguyen, H. Q.; Rudisaile, E.; Shainline, J.; Fernandes, G.; Xu, J. M.; Valles, J. M., Jr.

    2011-03-01

    Ultrathin films near the Superconductor-Insulator Transition (SIT) can exhibit Cooper pair transport in their insulating phase. This Cooper Pair Insulator state is achieved in amorphous Bi films patterned with a nanohoneycomb array of holes. We will present evidence from a number of experiments on these substrates supporting that 1) thickness variations, which result in variations in Tc and Δ , serve to localize the Cooper pairs; 2) the weak links between these superconducting islands control the SIT. Finally, we will discuss our most recent experiments that aim to characterize this Cooper pair insulator state and confirm the role of the thickness variations in the localization of Cooper pairs. This work was supported by the NSF through No. DMR-0907357, by the AFRL, and by the ONR.

  15. Ecosystems: Issues and problems. (Latest citations from the ABI/Inform database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning issues and problems relating to ecosystems in different parts of the world. Preservation of resources, environmental protection, industrial impacts on ecosystems, ecological economics, biodiversity of specific ecosystems, and effects of deforestation and erosion are examined. Citations review impacts of human inhabitants, eco-tourism, and alien species on an ecosystem. The relationship to an ecosystem of pests and microbial infections is covered, and long-range planning for ecosystems is cited. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  16. Morphological, anatomical, and chemical characteristics of needle and branch samples of Siberian fir (Abies Siberica)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rock, B. N.; Williams, D. L.; Kharuk, V. I.; Wessman, C. A.; Moss, D. M.

    1992-01-01

    In August, 1991, needle and branch samples of Siberian fir were collected from undisturbed forest stands along an elevation gradient ranging from 2300 ft to 4450 ft. Four study sites were selected on west-facing slopes, and a standard set of measurements and collections was made. First-, second-, and third-year needles were collected for anatomical assessment. A visual assessment of the forest stand conditions at each site included an evaluation of canopy morphology needle, coloration, increment growth, and the state of health of a specific type of lichen. The heaviest damage to forest stands (extensive foliar loss, needle discoloration, dieback of terminal growth) occurs at an intermediate elevation site (3400 ft/1037 m). The least amount of damage was recorded at the lowest elevation site (2300 ft/701 m). Only slight damage occurs at the highest elevation site (4450 ft/1357 m). Some degree of flagging occurs at all sites. Several lines of evidence suggest that the damage occurring in this area is recent in origin (incipient).

  17. Toxic components of motor vehicle emissions for the spruce Picea abies.

    PubMed

    Kammerbauer, H; Selinger, H; Römmelt, R; Ziegler-Jöns, A; Knoppik, D; Hock, B

    1987-01-01

    Six-year-old Norway spruce trees were exposed for 30 min under standardised conditions to the exhaust from an Otto engine running on lead-free petrol. Gas-exchange measurements in an open system using an infrared gas analyser showed a sudden, severe drop in CO(2) assimilation and transpiration rates. By using filters which absorbed different fractions of the exhaust it could be demonstrated that the toxic effects can be attributed to the NO(x) fraction.

  18. Identifying Genetic Signatures of Natural Selection Using Pooled Population Sequencing in Picea abies

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jun; Källman, Thomas; Ma, Xiao-Fei; Zaina, Giusi; Morgante, Michele; Lascoux, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The joint inference of selection and past demography remain a costly and demanding task. We used next generation sequencing of two pools of 48 Norway spruce mother trees, one corresponding to the Fennoscandian domain, and the other to the Alpine domain, to assess nucleotide polymorphism at 88 nuclear genes. These genes are candidate genes for phenological traits, and most belong to the photoperiod pathway. Estimates of population genetic summary statistics from the pooled data are similar to previous estimates, suggesting that pooled sequencing is reliable. The nonsynonymous SNPs tended to have both lower frequency differences and lower FST values between the two domains than silent ones. These results suggest the presence of purifying selection. The divergence between the two domains based on synonymous changes was around 5 million yr, a time similar to a recent phylogenetic estimate of 6 million yr, but much larger than earlier estimates based on isozymes. Two approaches, one of them novel and that considers both FST and difference in allele frequencies between the two domains, were used to identify SNPs potentially under diversifying selection. SNPs from around 20 genes were detected, including genes previously identified as main target for selection, such as PaPRR3 and PaGI. PMID:27172202

  19. Superoxide Dismutase Activity in Needles of Norwegian Spruce Trees (Picea abies L.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Polle, Andrea; Krings, Brigitte; Rennenberg, Heinz

    1989-01-01

    The activity of superoxide dismutase was investigated in needles of spruce trees. To obtain maximum activity, needles were homogenized in the presence of Triton X-100 and polyvinylpyrrolidone. Superoxide dismutase activity was measured in dialyzed extracts with a modified epinephrine assay (HP Misra, I Fridovich [1972] J Biol Chem 247: 3170-3175) at pH 10.2. The extracts contained 70 to 120 units of superoxide dismutase per milligram protein. One unit of superoxide dismutase was completely inhibited in the presence of 20 micromolar NaCN. On native polyacrylamide gels three electromorphs were visualized after staining for activity. All three species were sensitive to CN− and H2O2 and were therefore assumed to be Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutases. Superoxide dismutase activity was dependent on the age of the needles and declined by approximately 25% within 3 to 4 years. Images Figure 4 PMID:16666928

  20. Cloud immersion: an important water source for spruce and fir saplings in the southern Appalachian Mountains.

    PubMed

    Berry, Z Carter; Hughes, Nicole M; Smith, William K

    2014-02-01

    Cloud immersion can provide a potentially important moisture subsidy to plants in areas of frequent fog including the threatened spruce-fir communities of the southern Appalachian Mountains (USA). These mountaintop communities grow only above ~1,500 m elevation, harbor the endemic Abies fraseri, and have been proposed to exist because of frequent cloud immersion. While several studies have demonstrated the importance of cloud immersion to plant water balance, no study has evaluated the proportion of plant water derived from cloud moisture in this ecosystem. Using the isotopic mixing model, IsoSource, we analyzed the isotopic composition of hydrogen and oxygen for water extracted from ground water, deep soil, shallow soil, fog, and plant xylem at the upper and lower elevational limits both in May (beginning of the growing season) and October (end of the growing season). Cloud-immersion water contributed up to 31% of plant water at the upper elevation sites in May. High-elevation plants of both species also experienced greater cloud immersion and had greater cloud water absorption (14-31%) compared to low-elevation plants (4-17%). Greater cloud water uptake occurred in May compared to October, despite similar rainfall and cloud-immersion frequencies. These results demonstrate the important water subsidy that cloud-immersion water can provide. With a warming climate leading potentially to increases in the ceiling of the cloud base and, thus, less frequent cloud immersion, persistence of these relic mountaintop forests may depend on the magnitude of these changes and the compensating capabilities of other water sources.

  1. Identification of seed borne endopohytes that confer salt tolerance to host plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chenopod halophyte, Atriplex canescens (Pursh) Nutt, (fourwing saltbush) is broadly distributed among western rangelands. Its highly variable phenotypes are typically attributed to varied ploidy levels. However, A. canescens is also associated with complex communities of seed borne endophytes. M...

  2. Evolution of the Cooper Pair Insulator Phase in a-Bi Films Grown on Nanohoneycomb Substrates with Varying Surface Topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joy, J. C.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, C.; Hollen, S. M.; Valles, J. M., Jr.; Fernandes, G.; Xu, J. M.

    2014-03-01

    The Cooper Pair Insulator (CPI) phase has been observed in a variety of systems close to both the disorder and field tuned Superconductor to Insulator Transition (SIT) in two dimensions. A number of recent experimental and theoretical studies suggest that the CPI phase arises due to inhomogeneities in the superconducting coupling constant on the nanoscale. Anodized Aluminum Oxide (AAO) substrates provide a convenient experimental platform for studying the influence of inhomogeneity on the CPI state, as the substrates exhibit both a nanohoneycomb structure which allows flux periodic behavior to be measured, as well as a controllable morphology which permits control of the level of inhomogeneity present. We will discuss recent experiments and analyses which examine the behavior of the CPI phase as the level of inhomogeneity in the films is reduced. We will also examine the potential implications of this work in understanding the extent of the CPI phase in two-dimensional systems. This work was supported by the NSF through grants No. DMR-1307290 and DMR-0907357 and by the AFRL, the ONR, and the AFOSR. Currently at Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xian, China.

  3. Mechanisms of Abnormal Growth Regulation in Prostatic Adenocarcinoma Using Abi1/Hssh3bp1 Conditional Knockout Mouse Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    2008). Hence library containing SH2 domains was used in the screening. These experiments were done in collaboration with Dr. Bruce Mayer and Dr...Machida (University of Connecticut Health Science Center, Farmington, CT) using the overlay method developed by Dr. Mayer laboratory (Machida et al...Shin, and B.J. Mayer . 2007. High-throughput phosphotyrosine profiling using SH2 domains. Mol Cell. 26:899-915. Macoska, J.A., J. Xu, D. Ziemnicka, T.S

  4. Development and use of bounding functions in a forest growth model. [Pinus lambertiana; Calocedrus decurrens; Pseudotsuga menziesii; Abies concolor

    SciTech Connect

    Dolph, K.L. ); Dixon, G.E. )

    1993-01-01

    Erroneous predictions of forest growth and yield may result when computer simulation models use extrapolated data in repeated or long-term projections or if the models are used outside the range of data on which they were built. Bounding functions that limit the predicted diameter and height growth of individual trees to maximum observed values were developed to constrain these erroneous predictions in a forest growth and yield simulator. Species studied included sugar pine, incense-cedar, Douglas-fir, and California white fir.

  5. Accumulation of ammonium in Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedlings measured by in vivo 14N-NMR.

    PubMed

    Aarnes, H; Eriksen, A B; Petersen, D; Rise, F

    2007-01-01

    (14)N-NMR and (31)P-NMR have been used to monitor the in vivo pH in roots, stems, and needles from seedlings of Norway spruce, a typical ammonium-tolerant plant. The vacuolar and cytoplasmic pH measured by (31)P-NMR was found to be c. pH 4.8 and 7.0, respectively, with no significant difference between plants growing with ammonium or nitrate as the N-source. The (1)H-coupled (14) NH 4+ resonance is pH-sensitive: at alkaline pH it is a narrow singlet line and below pH 4 it is an increasing multiplet line with five signals. The pH values in ammonium-containing compartments measured by (14)N-NMR ranged from 3.7 to 3.9, notably lower than the estimated pH values of the P(i) pools. This suggests that, in seedlings of Norway spruce, ammonium is stored in vacuoles with low pH possibly to protect the seedlings against the toxic effects of ammonium ( NH 4+) or ammonia (NH3). It was also found that concentrations of malate were 3-6 times higher in stems than in roots and needles, with nitrate-grown plants containing more malate than plants grown with ammonium.

  6. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals that Red and Blue Light Regulate Growth and Phytohormone Metabolism in Norway Spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst].

    PubMed

    OuYang, Fangqun; Mao, Jian-Feng; Wang, Junhui; Zhang, Shougong; Li, Yue

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms by which different light spectra regulate plant shoot elongation vary, and phytohormones respond differently to such spectrum-associated regulatory effects. Light supplementation can effectively control seedling growth in Norway spruce. However, knowledge of the effective spectrum for promoting growth and phytohormone metabolism in this species is lacking. In this study, 3-year-old Norway spruce clones were illuminated for 12 h after sunset under blue or red light-emitting diode (LED) light for 90 d, and stem increments and other growth traits were determined. Endogenous hormone levels and transcriptome differences in the current needles were assessed to identify genes related to the red and blue light regulatory responses. The results showed that the stem increment and gibberellin (GA) levels of the seedlings illuminated by red light were 8.6% and 29.0% higher, respectively, than those of the seedlings illuminated by blue light. The indoleacetic acid (IAA) level of the seedlings illuminated by red light was 54.6% lower than that of the seedlings illuminated by blue light, and there were no significant differences in abscisic acid (ABA) or zeatin riboside [ZR] between the two groups of seedlings. The transcriptome results revealed 58,736,166 and 60,555,192 clean reads for the blue-light- and red-light-illuminated samples, respectively. Illumina sequencing revealed 21,923 unigenes, and 2744 (approximately 93.8%) out of 2926 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were found to be upregulated under blue light. The main KEGG classifications of the DEGs were metabolic pathway (29%), biosynthesis of secondary metabolites (20.49%) and hormone signal transduction (8.39%). With regard to hormone signal transduction, AUXIN-RESISTANT1 (AUX1), AUX/IAA genes, auxin-inducible genes, and early auxin-responsive genes [(auxin response factor (ARF) and small auxin-up RNA (SAUR)] were all upregulated under blue light compared with red light, which might have yielded the higher IAA level. DELLA and phytochrome-interacting factor 3 (PIF3), involved in negative GA signaling, were also upregulated under blue light, which may be related to the lower GA level. Light quality also affects endogenous hormones by influencing secondary metabolism. Blue light promoted phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, phenylalanine metabolism, flavonoid biosynthesis and flavone and flavonol biosynthesis, accompanied by upregulation of most of the genes in their pathways. In conclusion, red light may promote stem growth by regulating biosynthesis of GAs, and blue light may promote flavonoid, lignin, phenylpropanoid and some hormones (such as jasmonic acid) which were related to plant defense in Norway spruce, which might reduce the primary metabolites available for plant growth.

  7. High-efficiency Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenck, A. R.; Quinn, M.; Whetten, R. W.; Pullman, G.; Sederoff, R.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer is the method of choice for many plant biotechnology laboratories; however, large-scale use of this organism in conifer transformation has been limited by difficult propagation of explant material, selection efficiencies and low transformation frequency. We have analyzed co-cultivation conditions and different disarmed strains of Agrobacterium to improve transformation. Additional copies of virulence genes were added to three common disarmed strains. These extra virulence genes included either a constitutively active virG or extra copies of virG and virB, both from pTiBo542. In experiments with Norway spruce, we increased transformation efficiencies 1000-fold from initial experiments where little or no transient expression was detected. Over 100 transformed lines expressing the marker gene beta-glucuronidase (GUS) were generated from rapidly dividing embryogenic suspension-cultured cells co-cultivated with Agrobacterium. GUS activity was used to monitor transient expression and to further test lines selected on kanamycin-containing medium. In loblolly pine, transient expression increased 10-fold utilizing modified Agrobacterium strains. Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer is a useful technique for large-scale generation of transgenic Norway spruce and may prove useful for other conifer species.

  8. Effects of physical blockage of axial phloem transport on growth of Norway spruce (Picea abies) saplings under drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberhuber, Walter; Gruber, Andreas; Winkler, Andrea; Lethaus, Gina; Wieser, Gerhard

    2016-04-01

    Early culmination of maximum radial growth in late spring was found in several coniferous species in a dry inner Alpine environment (Oberhuber et al. 2014). We hypothesized that early decrease in radial stem growth is an adaptation to cope with drought stress, which might require an early switch of carbon allocation to belowground organs. To test this hypothesis we manipulated tree carbon status by physical blockage of phloem transport and soil water availability of Norway spruce saplings (tree height c. 1.5 m) in a common garden experiment to investigate influence of carbon availability and drought on above- and belowground growth. Girdling occurred at different phenological stages during the growing season, i.e., before growth onset, and during earlywood and latewood formation. Non-structural carbohydrates (NSC, soluble sugars and starch) were determined before and after the growing season to evaluate change in tree carbon status. Tree ring analysis revealed that compared to non-girdled controls earlywood width above girdling strikingly increased by c. 170 and 440 %, while latewood width decreased by c. 85 and 55 % in watered and drought stressed trees, respectively. Below girdling no xylem formation was detected. Unexpectedly, preliminary analyses of carbon status revealed striking reduction (c. -80 %) of NSC above and below girdling. Most likely due to reductions in xylem hydraulic conductance, girdling before growth onset reduced leader shoot growth compared to non-girdled controls by c. 45 %, irrespective of water availability. Root dry mass of girdled trees was significantly reduced compared to non-girdled controls (c. 30 % in drought stressed and 45 % in watered trees; p < 0.001). Results suggest that in Norway spruce saplings (1) carbon availability affects radial stem growth, (2) higher basipetal carbon transport occurs under drought supporting our hypothesis of early switch of carbon allocation to belowground when drought stress prevails and (3) minor acropetal transport of carbon from carbon stores in the root system to the stem. We conclude that physical manipulation of carbon availability by disruption of phloem transport is a valuable tool to study relevance of carbon status for tree growth exposed to environmental stress. This study was funded by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF): P25643-B16 "Carbon allocation and growth of Scots pine". Reference Oberhuber W, A Gruber, W Kofler, I Swidrak (2014) Radial stem growth in response to microclimate and soil moisture in a drought-prone mixed coniferous forest at an inner Alpine site. Eur J For Res 133:467-479.

  9. Distribution of long-range linkage disequilibrium and Tajima's D values in Scandinavian populations of Norway Spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Larsson, Hanna; Källman, Thomas; Gyllenstrand, Niclas; Lascoux, Martin

    2013-05-20

    The site frequency spectrum of mutations (SFS) and linkage disequilibrium (LD) are the two major sources of information in population genetics studies. In this study we focus on the levels of LD and the SFS and on the effect of sample size on summary statistics in 10 Scandinavian populations of Norway spruce. We found that previous estimates of a low level of LD were highly influenced by both sampling strategy and the fact that data from multiple loci were analyzed jointly. Estimates of LD were in fact heterogeneous across loci and increased within individual populations compared with the estimate from the total data. The variation in levels of LD among populations most likely reflects different demographic histories, although we were unable to detect population structure by using standard approaches. As in previous studies, we also found that the SFS-based test Tajima's D was highly sensitive to sample size, revealing that care should be taken to draw strong conclusions from this test when sample size is small. In conclusion, the results from this study are in line with recent studies in other conifers that have revealed a more complex and variable pattern of LD than earlier studies suggested and with studies in trees and humans that suggest that Tajima's D is sensitive to sample size. This has large consequences for the design of future association and population genetic studies in Norway spruce.

  10. Contrasting carbon allocation responses of juvenile European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) to competition and ozone.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Wilma; Lehmeier, Christoph Andreas; Winkler, Jana Barbro; Matyssek, Rainer; Edgar Grams, Thorsten Erhard

    2015-01-01

    Allocation of recent photoassimilates of juvenile beech and spruce in response to twice-ambient ozone (2 × O(3)) and plant competition (i.e. intra vs. inter-specific) was examined in a phytotron study. To this end, we employed continuous (13)CO(2)/(12)CO(2) labeling during late summer and pursued tracer kinetics in CO(2) released from stems. In beech, allocation of recent photoassimilates to stems was significantly lowered under 2 × O(3) and increased in spruce when grown in mixed culture. As total tree biomass was not yet affected by the treatments, C allocation reflected incipient tree responses providing the mechanistic basis for biomass partitioning as observed in longer experiments. Compartmental modeling characterized functional properties of substrate pools supplying respiratory C demand. Respiration of spruce appeared to be exclusively supplied by recent photoassimilates. In beech, older C, putatively located in stem parenchyma cells, was a major source of respiratory substrate, reflecting the fundamental anatomical disparity between angiosperm beech and gymnosperm spruce.

  11. Cellulose microfibril orientation of Picea abies and its variability at the micron-level determined by Raman imaging.

    PubMed

    Gierlinger, Notburga; Luss, Saskia; König, Christian; Konnerth, Johannes; Eder, Michaela; Fratzl, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The functional characteristics of plant cell walls depend on the composition of the cell wall polymers, as well as on their highly ordered architecture at scales from a few nanometres to several microns. Raman spectra of wood acquired with linear polarized laser light include information about polymer composition as well as the alignment of cellulose microfibrils with respect to the fibre axis (microfibril angle). By changing the laser polarization direction in 3 degrees steps, the dependency between cellulose and laser orientation direction was investigated. Orientation-dependent changes of band height ratios and spectra were described by quadratic linear regression and partial least square regressions, respectively. Using the models and regressions with high coefficients of determination (R(2) > 0.99) microfibril orientation was predicted in the S1 and S2 layers distinguished by the Raman imaging approach in cross-sections of spruce normal, opposite, and compression wood. The determined microfibril angle (MFA) in the different S2 layers ranged from 0 degrees to 49.9 degrees and was in coincidence with X-ray diffraction determination. With the prerequisite of geometric sample and laser alignment, exact MFA prediction can complete the picture of the chemical cell wall design gained by the Raman imaging approach at the micron level in all plant tissues.

  12. Antitussive activity of Abies webbiana Lindl. leaf extract against sulphur dioxide-induced cough reflex in mice.

    PubMed

    Nayak, S S; Ghosh, A K; Srikanth, K; Debnath, B; Jha, T

    2003-09-01

    The methanol extract of A. webbiana Lindl was evaluated for its effect on a cough model induced by sulphur dioxide gas in mice. When administered orally it exhibited significant antitussive activity compared with the control in a dose dependent manner. The antitussive activity of the extract was compared with that of codeine phosphate, a prototype antitussive agent. The A. webbiana leaf extract (400 and 600 mg/kg) showed maximum inhibition of cough frequency by 71.69% and 78.67%, respectively, when compared with the control group and was comparable in effect to codeine phosphate.

  13. Tracing the allocation of recently assimilated C into key metabolites in Norway spruce (Picea abies) shortly after bud break

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Steffen; Dippold, Michaela; Werner, Christiane; Wiesenberg, Guido; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Glaser, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    Plants allocate carbon (C) to sink tissues depending on phenological, physiological or environmental factors. We still have little knowledge on C partitioning into various cellular compounds and metabolic pathways, especially during tree growth after bud break. Here we investigated C partitioning of freshly assimilated C in Norway spruce by in-situ 13C short-term pulse labeling 15 days after bud break. We quantified 13C incorporation into tree compartments (needles, branches, stem) and into water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) by elemental analyzer-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-IRMS). In addition, we determined 13C allocation into key metabolites of amino acids, hemicellulose sugars, fatty acids and alkanes by compound-specific 13C analysis via gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS). The 13C allocation within the trees reflected the needles as major C sink accounting for 86% of the freshly assimilated C. After 6 h 13C was distributed over a broad spectrum of plant metabolites but not homogenously. Highest allocation was observed into structurally relevant compound classes of hemicellulose-derived sugars and proteinogenic amino acids (0.6% and 10% of needle 13C, respectively). However, needle growth also caused high C allocation into pathways not involved in formation of structural compounds like pathways in secondary metabolism, C-1 metabolism or amino acid synthesis from photorespiratory acitivity. C allocation into such pathways could be identified due to the high enrichment of key metabolites within the amino acids. In addition, high 13C allocation was found into the n-alkyl lipid biosynthesis (0.2 % of needle 13C) with 1) higher allocation into intracellular than cuticular fatty acids, presumably for thylakoide membrane formation and 2) decreasing 13C allocation along the lipid transformation and translocation pathways (precursor fatty acids (C16 & C18) > elongated long chain fatty acids > decarbonylated n-alkanes). Consequently, the combination of 13C pulse labeling with compound-specific 13C analysis of key metabolites enabled identification of relevant C allocation pathways during needle growth after bud break. Besides primary metabolism, synthesizing structural cell compounds, a complex network of various pathways consumed the freshly assimilated 13C and kept the majority of the assimilated C in the growing needles.

  14. Department of Defense (DOD) Automated Biometric Identification System (ABIS) Version 1.2: Initial Operational Test and Evaluation Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    v1.2 did not experience any system aborts or failures exceeding 15 minutes duration during the 27 days of record test in the IOT&E; hence, the system...Desk operations. Although no system aborts were recorded during the 27 days of record test, 17 Essential Function Failures (EFF) required system...Failures that count against MTBF are termed system aborts . Essential Function Failures (EFF) that are at least 15 minutes in duration as termed system

  15. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals that Red and Blue Light Regulate Growth and Phytohormone Metabolism in Norway Spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.

    PubMed Central

    OuYang, Fangqun; Mao, Jian-Feng; Wang, Junhui; Zhang, Shougong; Li, Yue

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms by which different light spectra regulate plant shoot elongation vary, and phytohormones respond differently to such spectrum-associated regulatory effects. Light supplementation can effectively control seedling growth in Norway spruce. However, knowledge of the effective spectrum for promoting growth and phytohormone metabolism in this species is lacking. In this study, 3-year-old Norway spruce clones were illuminated for 12 h after sunset under blue or red light-emitting diode (LED) light for 90 d, and stem increments and other growth traits were determined. Endogenous hormone levels and transcriptome differences in the current needles were assessed to identify genes related to the red and blue light regulatory responses. The results showed that the stem increment and gibberellin (GA) levels of the seedlings illuminated by red light were 8.6% and 29.0% higher, respectively, than those of the seedlings illuminated by blue light. The indoleacetic acid (IAA) level of the seedlings illuminated by red light was 54.6% lower than that of the seedlings illuminated by blue light, and there were no significant differences in abscisic acid (ABA) or zeatin riboside [ZR] between the two groups of seedlings. The transcriptome results revealed 58,736,166 and 60,555,192 clean reads for the blue-light- and red-light-illuminated samples, respectively. Illumina sequencing revealed 21,923 unigenes, and 2744 (approximately 93.8%) out of 2926 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were found to be upregulated under blue light. The main KEGG classifications of the DEGs were metabolic pathway (29%), biosynthesis of secondary metabolites (20.49%) and hormone signal transduction (8.39%). With regard to hormone signal transduction, AUXIN-RESISTANT1 (AUX1), AUX/IAA genes, auxin-inducible genes, and early auxin-responsive genes [(auxin response factor (ARF) and small auxin-up RNA (SAUR)] were all upregulated under blue light compared with red light, which might have yielded the higher IAA level. DELLA and phytochrome-interacting factor 3 (PIF3), involved in negative GA signaling, were also upregulated under blue light, which may be related to the lower GA level. Light quality also affects endogenous hormones by influencing secondary metabolism. Blue light promoted phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, phenylalanine metabolism, flavonoid biosynthesis and flavone and flavonol biosynthesis, accompanied by upregulation of most of the genes in their pathways. In conclusion, red light may promote stem growth by regulating biosynthesis of GAs, and blue light may promote flavonoid, lignin, phenylpropanoid and some hormones (such as jasmonic acid) which were related to plant defense in Norway spruce, which might reduce the primary metabolites available for plant growth. PMID:26237749

  16. Bi3+ Luminescence in ABiO2Cl (A = Sr, Ba) and BaBiO2Br

    SciTech Connect

    Porter-Chapman, Yetta D.; Bourret-Courchesne, Edith E.; Derenzo,Stephen E.

    2007-01-18

    Trivalent bismuth luminescence is reported in three Sillenbismuth oxyhalide phases, SrBiO2Cl, BaBiO2Cl, and BaBiO2Br. Thesecompounds exhibit Bi 6s6->6 s2 emission under UV and X-ray radiation.At room temperature, BaBiO2Cl shows the most intense light emission, withspectral and decay properties similar to those found in Bi4Ge3O12 (BGO).At low temperatures, each phase show an increase in the photoluminescenceintensities and a narrowing of the emission peaks. In contrast to thetemperature dependence of BGO, X-ray excited luminescence intensities ofall three phases remain relatively constant throughout the temperaturerange 10 - 295 K. This result indicates that the Sillen phases undergoless thermal quenching than BGO. The low temperature and room temperatureradio-luminescence decay times were determined from pulsed x-raymeasurements. At room temperature, SrBiO2Cl exhibits faster decays thanBGO, while, BaBiO2Cl and BaBiO2Br have decay times similar toBGO.

  17. TEMPERATURE-RESPIRATION RELATIONSHIPS DIFFER IN MYCORRHIZAL AND NON-MYCORRHIZAL ROOT SYSTEMS OF PICEA ABIES (L.) KARST.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Root respiration has been shown to increase with temperature, but less is known about how this relation ship is affected by the fungal partner in mycorrhizal root systems. In order to test respiratory temperature dependence, in particular Q10 of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal r...

  18. Cellulose microfibril orientation of Picea abies and its variability at the micron-level determined by Raman imaging

    PubMed Central

    Gierlinger, Notburga; Luss, Saskia; König, Christian; Konnerth, Johannes; Eder, Michaela; Fratzl, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The functional characteristics of plant cell walls depend on the composition of the cell wall polymers, as well as on their highly ordered architecture at scales from a few nanometres to several microns. Raman spectra of wood acquired with linear polarized laser light include information about polymer composition as well as the alignment of cellulose microfibrils with respect to the fibre axis (microfibril angle). By changing the laser polarization direction in 3° steps, the dependency between cellulose and laser orientation direction was investigated. Orientation-dependent changes of band height ratios and spectra were described by quadratic linear regression and partial least square regressions, respectively. Using the models and regressions with high coefficients of determination (R2 > 0.99) microfibril orientation was predicted in the S1 and S2 layers distinguished by the Raman imaging approach in cross-sections of spruce normal, opposite, and compression wood. The determined microfibril angle (MFA) in the different S2 layers ranged from 0° to 49.9° and was in coincidence with X-ray diffraction determination. With the prerequisite of geometric sample and laser alignment, exact MFA prediction can complete the picture of the chemical cell wall design gained by the Raman imaging approach at the micron level in all plant tissues. PMID:20007198

  19. Attributional Bias Instrument (ABI): Validation of a Measure to Assess Ability and Effort Explanations for Math Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinoza, Penelope P.; Quezada, Stephanie A.; Rincones, Rodolfo; Strobach, E. Natalia; Gutierrez, Maria Armida Estrada

    2012-01-01

    The present work investigates the validation of a newly developed instrument, the attributional bias instrument, based on achievement attribution theories that distinguish between effort and ability explanations of behavior. The instrument further incorporates the distinction between explanations for success versus failure in academic performance.…

  20. Arabidopsis seed germination responses to osmotic stress involve the chromatin modifier PICKLE.

    PubMed

    Belin, Christophe; Lopez-Molina, Luis

    2008-07-01

    pkl mutant seed germination is hypersensitive to ABA treatment due to abnormally high and persistent ABI3 and ABI5 expression. PKL, a putative chromatin modifier, is instrumental to associate ABI3 and ABI5 with silent chromatin in response to ABA. Thus, PKL prevents exaggerated germination arrest responses by shutting off ABI3 and ABI5 expression in response to mild stresses.

  1. Understory Density Characteristics in Several Midlatitude Temperature Forests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    Vaccinium corymbosum ), black gum (Nyssa sylvatica), white oak (Q. alba), mockemut hickory (Carya tomentosa), American beech (Fagus grandifolia), and...Cedar Juniperis virginiana Red Juniper U Fraser Magnolia Magnolia fraseri Umbrella-tree U Highbush Blueberry Vaccinium corymbosum Unkn. U Loblolly Pine...plants and shrubs include ferns (many species), lowbush blueberry ( Vaccinium augustifolium), southern running-pine (Lycopodium digitatum), poison ivy

  2. Changes in the relationships between climate and silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) growth during the 20th century in the Tuscan Apennine Alps (Middle Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Aprile, F.; Tapper, N.; Baker, P.; Bartolozzi, L.; Bottacci, A.

    2012-04-01

    In the Tuscan Apennine Alps, recent research has shown that similarity in trends of monthly climate variables (i.e., temperature and rainfall) is non-stationary amongst sites during the 20th century even between sites that differ little in elevation and at a relatively short distance from each other (D'Aprile et al., 2010; D'Aprile et al., 2011). Moreover, the level of correlation between series of monthly climate variables varies irregularly from highly positive to negative over time. We hypothesised that those changing climate conditions, even at the local level, could cause different tree-ring growth responses in silver fir amongst sites. The hypothesis was tested by dendroclimatological analysis, which was applied to study stands in silver fir forests close to the meteorological stations where climate analysis has been made. Results show that the influences of both monthly mean temperature and monthly rainfall on silver fir growth vary greatly during the 20th century in the Tuscan Apennine Alps, and the ways that they change differ with month and amongst sites. Within sites, differences in the relationships between climate variables and silver fir tree-ring growth appear small in spite of different elevation of the study stands. These results contribute a changing point in forest planning and management especially in consideration of the need to adapt forest management and interventions to changing climate conditions and mitigate the impacts on silver fir forests. Moreover, they introduce climate variability as a key parameter in sustainable forest management for biodiversity conservation, socially responsible uses, nature conservation, and survival of the only conifer tree species typical of mountain mixed forest ecosystems in the Apennine Alps.

  3. Estrogenic activity of 7-hydroxymatairesinol potassium acetate (HMR/lignan) from Norway spruce (Picea abies) knots and of its active metabolite enterolactone in MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Cosentino, Marco; Marino, Franca; Ferrari, Marco; Rasini, Emanuela; Bombelli, Raffaella; Luini, Alessandra; Legnaro, Massimiliano; Delle Canne, Marco Gioacchino; Luzzani, Marcello; Crema, Francesca; Paracchini, Silvano; Lecchini, Sergio

    2007-08-01

    Lignans are plant polyphenols which may possess anticancer, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities. In particular, the lignan 7-hydroxymatairesinol (HMR/lignan, HMR) is a novel precursor of the mammalian lignan enterolactone (EL). In the present study, we investigated the estrogenicity of HMR and of EL in comparison to estradiol (E2), by measuring their effects on growth and apoptotic markers in the human estrogen-sensitive cell line MCF-7. HMR, EL and E2 concentration-dependently increased the percentage of MCF-7 cells in the S phase of the cell cycle, with the following relative potencies: E2 congruent with EL>HMR, and efficacies: E2>HMR>EL. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with either HMR, EL or E2 also increased the Bcl-2/Bax mRNA ratio. The effects of HMR and EL were reduced in the presence of the estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist tamoxifene. We conclude that both HMR and its metabolite EL are endowed with estrogenic activity, which is likely to be exerted through the contribution of ER-dependent pathways and to target the same intracellular mechanisms acted upon by E2. The estrogenicity of HMR and EL is however milder than that of E2, as indicated by the lower potencies and efficacies of both lignans. The present results support the notion that dietary supplementation with HMR may result in a mild estrogenic activity, both directly and by providing a suitable source for endogenous EL.

  4. Elucidating the Role of cAb1 and the Abi-Family of cAB1 Target Proteins in Cancer Development and Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-07-01

    were independent of generated cytokine-independent mono- myeloproliferative syndrome referred to growth factors. The 3 Bcr-Abl proteins cyte/myeloid...p185 Bcr-Abl-expressing murine myeloproliferative disease (J. P. Miller and W. S. Pear, unpublished hematopoietic cells expanded with cytokines alone...were able to data). However, p230 Bcr-Abl caused a myeloproliferative disease rapidly form tumors when injected subcutaneously into SCID mice with a

  5. Interactions of thinning and stem height on the drought response of radial stem growth and isotopic composition of Norway spruce (Picea abies).

    PubMed

    Sohn, Julia A; Kohler, Martin; Gessler, Arthur; Bauhus, Jürgen

    2012-10-01

    Radial stem growth and the isotopic composition of growth rings are commonly used to quantify the effects of droughts on trees. However, often these parameters are quantified only at one stem height, e.g., 1.3 m, and it is not known how representative this is for the whole stem. This study investigated radial growth at four stem heights (1.3, 5.5, 9.8 and 14 m) of 21, and wood Δ(13)C and δ(18)O at two heights (1.3 and 14 m) of 10 (co-)dominant Norway spruce trees from heavily (HT) and moderately thinned (MT) stands to assess whether different thinning intensities influenced the drought response of stems at different tree heights. Annual basal area increments (BAIs) and stable isotopes in earlywood and latewood were compared between thinning treatments and among the different stem heights. For BAIs, linear correlations with climate were analysed as well. The response of radial growth and isotopic composition to drought was similar at different stem heights in HT trees, but varied with height in MT trees, which were also more sensitive to climatic variations. Recovery of radial growth after drought was more rapid in trees from HT compared with MT stands, except for the topmost height. Basal area increments at breast height (1.3 m) provided good estimates of the volume growth response to drought for the whole stem, but not for its recovery. The faster recovery of radial growth at 1.3 m height of HT compared with MT trees after the 2003 drought was not accompanied by differences in recovery of isotopic composition. However, this is likely to be related to differences between treatments in remobilization of stored C and in tree structure (leaf area, root systems).

  6. Belowground effects of enhanced tropospheric ozone and drought in a beech/spruce forest (Fagus sylvatica L./Picea abies [L.] Karst).

    PubMed

    Nikolova, Petia S; Andersen, Christian P; Blaschke, Helmut; Matyssek, Rainer; Häberle, Karl-Heinz

    2010-04-01

    The effects of experimentally elevated O(3) on soil respiration rates, standing fine-root biomass, fine-root production and delta(13)C signature of newly produced fine roots were investigated in an adult European beech/Norway spruce forest in Germany during two subsequent years with contrasting rainfall patterns. During humid 2002, soil respiration rate was enhanced under elevated O(3) under beech and spruce, and was related to O(3)-stimulated fine-root production only in beech. During dry 2003, the stimulating effect of O(3) on soil respiration rate vanished under spruce, which was correlated with decreased fine-root production in spruce under drought, irrespective of the O(3) regime. delta(13)C signature of newly formed fine-roots was consistent with the differing g(s) of beech and spruce, and indicated stomatal limitation by O(3) in beech and by drought in spruce. Our study showed that drought can override the stimulating O(3) effects on fine-root dynamics and soil respiration in mature beech and spruce forests.

  7. ABI1 and PP2CA Phosphatases Are Negative Regulators of Snf1-Related Protein Kinase1 Signaling in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Américo; Adamo, Mattia; Crozet, Pierre; Margalha, Leonor; Confraria, Ana; Martinho, Cláudia; Elias, Alexandre; Rabissi, Agnese; Lumbreras, Victoria; González-Guzmán, Miguel; Antoni, Regina; Rodriguez, Pedro L.; Baena-González, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Plant survival under environmental stress requires the integration of multiple signaling pathways into a coordinated response, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this integration are poorly understood. Stress-derived energy deprivation activates the Snf1-related protein kinases1 (SnRK1s), triggering a vast transcriptional and metabolic reprogramming that restores homeostasis and promotes tolerance to adverse conditions. Here, we show that two clade A type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), established repressors of the abscisic acid (ABA) hormonal pathway, interact with the SnRK1 catalytic subunit causing its dephosphorylation and inactivation. Accordingly, SnRK1 repression is abrogated in double and quadruple pp2c knockout mutants, provoking, similarly to SnRK1 overexpression, sugar hypersensitivity during early seedling development. Reporter gene assays and SnRK1 target gene expression analyses further demonstrate that PP2C inhibition by ABA results in SnRK1 activation, promoting SnRK1 signaling during stress and once the energy deficit subsides. Consistent with this, SnRK1 and ABA induce largely overlapping transcriptional responses. Hence, the PP2C hub allows the coordinated activation of ABA and energy signaling, strengthening the stress response through the cooperation of two key and complementary pathways. PMID:24179127

  8. Phase transition in ABi4Ti4O15 (A=Ca,Sr,Ba) Aurivillius oxides prepared through a soft chemical route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rout, S. K.; Sinha, E.; Hussian, A.; Lee, J. S.; Ahn, C. W.; Kim, I. W.; Woo, S. I.

    2009-01-01

    A series of compounds, CaBi4Ti4O15 (CBT), SrBi4Ti4O15 (SBT), and BaBi4Ti4O15 (BBT), belonging to the Aurivillus-type structure (four layers) has been prepared by a modified chemical route. Different oxalates were precipitated from their respective nitrate solution onto the surface of TiO2 powders. The room temperature x-ray diffraction study reveled that the compounds were having orthorhombic symmetry. Considering the tolerance factor, a significant deformation of the perovskite block is observed and that decreases with increase in ionic radius of A site atom. Temperature dependent dielectric study showed normal ferroelectric to paraelectric transition well above the room temperature except for BBT. The BBT ceramic showed a relaxorlike behavior near phase transition. The quantitative characterization and comparison of relaxor behavior were based on empirical parameters γ and ΔTres. The dielectric relaxation rate follows the Vogel-Fulcher relation with activation energy=0.02 eV and freezing temperature=362 °C. All these measurements confirmed its relaxorlike phase transition.

  9. Screening of abscisic acid insensative (ABI) and low phosphorous efficiency (LPE) mutants from some sequenced lines in the sorghum TILLING population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum population for Targeting Induced Local Lesion IN Genome (TILLING) was generated from BTx623 in 2005 and publicly available in 2009. After releasing to the public, this population was intensively screened by morphological observation in the field and a number of mutants with useful traits wer...

  10. Whole-tree seasonal nitrogen uptake and partitioning in adult Fagus sylvatica L. and Picea abies L. [Karst.] trees exposed to elevated ground-level ozone.

    PubMed

    Weigt, R B; Häberle, K H; Rötzer, T; Matyssek, R

    2015-01-01

    The effect of long-term exposure of twice-ambient O(3) (2 × O(3)) on whole-tree nitrogen (N) uptake and partitioning of adult beech and spruce was studied in a mixed forest stand, SE-Germany. N uptake as (15)N tracer and N pools were calculated using N concentrations and biomass of tree compartments. Whole-tree N uptake tended to be lower under 2 × O(3) in both species compared to trees under ambient O(3) (1 × O(3)). Internal partitioning in beech showed significantly higher allocation of new N to roots, with mycorrhizal root tips and fine roots together receiving about 17% of new N (2 × O(3)) versus 7% (1 × O(3)). Conversely, in spruce, N allocation to roots was decreased under 2 × O(3). These contrasting effects on belowground N partitioning and pool sizes, being largely consistent with the pattern of N concentrations, suggest enhanced N demand and consumption of stored N with higher relevance for tree-internal N cycling in beech than in spruce.

  11. Moderate effects of reforestation with Norway spruce (Picea abies) on carbon storage and turnover in a Swiss sub-alpine pasture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiltbrunner, D.; Hagedorn, F.; Niklaus, P. A.; Zimmermann, S.; Schmidt, M. W. I.

    2012-04-01

    In alpine regions the forested area is strongly increasing through woody plant encroachment on abandoned pastures or by man-made afforestations. These natural or artificial reforestations, in fact, have several implications on the nutrient cycling between plants and soils and thus, are likely to affect carbon turnover. Although afforestations are to be accounted as a sink according to the Kyoto protocol, there are still uncertainties about their effects on the soil carbon storage. In the present study, we assessed soils under pasture, an adjacent chronosequence of spruce afforestations (25-45 years) and a mature spruce forest (older than 120 years) on a homogenous slope in a Swiss sub-alpine ecosystem. While the soil bulk densities were not affected by the land use change, carbon concentrations in the mineral soil decreased 25-45 years after tree establishment. However, no differences between pasture and the mature forest were apparent, indicating that the C-loss after land use conversion was only transient. Up to 2.5kg m-2 C was additionally stored in the organic layer of the oldest stands, resulting in a net C gain in the old forest soils. C:N-ratios of the soil organic matter (SOM) considerably increased with stand age in the uppermost soil layer, displaying the distinct chemical composition of the plant input. In accordance, a shift of the δ13C natural abundance of the SOM in the uppermost mineral layer towards a less negative signal was observed with tree development. The abundance of soil microorganisms, as identified by their phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA), was only moderately affected by vegetation type in the mineral soils. In contrast, a strong alteration of the microbial community composition with a decreasing proportion of fungi from the organic layers to the uppermost mineral layer was observable. Our results show that afforestation with spruce trees on an extensively used sub-alpine pasture only led to a transient loss of C in the mineral soils. In contrast, the accumulation of additional C in the organic layer resulted in higher C-stocks in the old forest as compared to the pasture. Therefore, afforestation with coniferous trees is likely to increase the total amount of C stored, particularly if also the plant biomass is taken into account.

  12. Short-term effects of whole-tree and stem-only harvesting on C and N fluxes in two Picea abies stands, Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janne Kjønaas, O.; Clarke, Nicholas; Eldhuset, Toril; Hietala, Ari; Cross, Hugh; Holt Hanssen, Kjersti; Økland, Tonje; Lange, Holger; Frode Nordbakken, Jørn; Røsberg, Ingvald

    2015-04-01

    Tree harvest and different harvesting methods may affect the soil carbon (C) pool in forest ecosystems. In conventional stem-only timber harvesting (SOH), branches and tops that are left in the forests may contribute to the build-up of the soil carbon pool. In whole-tree harvesting (WTH), inputs of organic matter from branches and tops are strongly reduced. We established field experiments at Gaupen, SE and Vindberg, SW Norway, to study the short-term effects of SOH and WTH on processes affecting the accumulation and loss of soil C. Logging residues on the WTH plots were collected in piles that were removed after 6 months, rendering two sub treatments (WTH-pile and WTH-removal areas). We weighed selected trees and logging residues, surveyed understorey biomass production, quantified pre-harvest soil C and nutrient pools down to 30 cm. Soil respiration was measured and soil water sampled monthly during the growing season, while temperature and moisture were measured continuously. Organic and mineral horizons were incubated at different temperatures to estimate potential C and N mineralization, and deep sequencing of the ITS2 barcode region of fungal DNA was performed on the samples. Litterbags were deployed in the SOH plots. The logging residues amounted to 2.2-2.4 kg C m-2. At Gaupen, the mean in situ soil respiration rates increased following harvest with all treatments, but were significantly higher in WTH-pile and SOH relative to the WTH-removal areas in the first year as well as the fourth year of treatment. The former rates included aboveground decomposing needles and twigs but excluded coarser branches. The observed increase in the WTH-removal areas may be related to decomposing roots, as well as to increased C mineralization partly due to the higher soil temperatures following harvest. Soil temperature was the single most important factor explaining the variability in soil respiration rates over all treatments. At Vindberg, a decrease in soil respiration was observed with all treatments in the second and third years following harvest. At both sites, decomposition of logging residues from needles was more rapid relative to twigs and fine roots. The decomposing residues released a substantial amount of nitrogen which was gradually reflected in the soil water at 30 cm soil depth. A considerable increase in the NO3-N concentration also in the WTH-removal areas in the second year following harvest suggests an increase in N availability from decomposing fine roots and/or soil organic matter. The increased N availability in the WTH-removal areas was supported by results from short term lab incubations of undisturbed soil from the forest floor. The changes in the WTH-removal areas were also reflected in the soil fungal diversity: saprophytic ascomycetes on decaying plant material showed a striking increase in all treatments. For the WTH-removal areas, this may, again, be related to the increased input of root litter; however, the decrease in mycorrhizal basidiomycete species and the vigorous increase of ascomycetes following harvest may also affect the C mineralization of soil organic matter.

  13. Below-ground effects of enhanced tropospheric ozone and drought in a beech/spruce forest (Fagus sylvatica L. / Picea abies [L.] Karst)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of experimentally elevated O3 on soil respiration rates, standing fine-root biomass, fine-root production and δ13C signature of newly produced fine roots were investigated in an adult European beech/Norway spruce forest in Germany during two subsequent years with cont...

  14. Stable isotope record in annually laminated lake sediments from Lake Żabińskie (NE Poland) for the last millennium.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabryś, Alicja; Piotrowska, Natalia; Tylmann, Wojciech; Bonk, Alicja; Filipiak, Janusz; Wacnik, Agnieszka; Hernandez-Almeida, Ivan; Grosjean, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Stable isotope record of carbon (13C) and oxygen (18O) has been analysed from an annually laminated sediment from Lake Zabinskie (Mazurian Lakeland, NE Poland) with high resolution (1-3 yrs). The sediment layers which were formed in each year during the last millennium contain information about environmental changes in the past. The calcite layers are formed in lake sediment in warm months of the year, therefore the reconstruction of summer climate variables in the past is potentially possible. The investigation of correlation between isotope dataset and instrumental climate data for years 1897-2008 AD confirmed that theory. The record of temperature, precipitation and SPEI (Standardised Precipitation Evaporation Index) coefficient, which is a combination of both temperature and precipitation, was tested. The strongest linear correlations were found for most samples for June, July, August (JJA) months but in some cases the correlation coefficient was stronger when also May was taken into account. For the whole 120-yrs series the correlation between δ18O and average JJA temperature is 0.007, average JJA precipitation is 0.16 and average JJA SPEI is 0.20. Analyzing the results for 1897-2008 we can distinguish period 1960-2008 with relevantly stronger correlations: R(temperature) = 0.19, R(precipitation) = 0.20 and R(SPEI) = 0.45. This period is connected with cessation of human activity close to Lake Zabinskie. Reconstruction of climate variables for the last millennium was made using transfer function obtained for calibration period (1897-2008). Reconstructions showed that known climate extremes like Medieval Warm Period, Little Ice Age with Sporer (1420-1570), Maunder (1645-1715) and Dalton (1790-1820) Minimum was recorded in sediment from Lake Zabinskie. The presented study is a part of the project "Climate of northern Poland during the last 1000 years: Constraining the future with the past (CLIMPOL)", funded within Polish-Swiss Research Programme. http://www.climpol.ug.edu.pl

  15. State of Washington, Aquatic Plant Management Program: Design Memorandum.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-01

    1) Spatterdock-Water Lily; (2) Cattail; (3) Reed Canarygrass; (4) Sedge- Buttercup ; (5) Spirea- Reed Canary Grass; and (6) Willow-Black Cottonwood-Red...Ilymvhaea odorata Buttercup Ranunculus sep. L. Wate-cres flripp nasturtiu-auaticum (L.) Schinz & Theli Fringecup Te lima ,&andiflorum (Pursh.) Dougl

  16. Evaluation of leadplant (Amorpha canescens) germplasm collected from prairies in the Midwest USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leadplant (Amorpha canescens Pursh.) is a small leguminous shrub native to the prairies and plains of the central USA where it is a valuable forage species. Seed of leadplant is in high demand for reseeding grasslands to native species. Released cultivars and source identified germplasms are not a...

  17. Hyperhydricity reversal and clonal propagation of four-wing saltbush (atriplex canescens, Chenopodiaceae) cultivated in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In vitro propagated shoots of four-wing saltbush [Atriplex canescens (Pursh Nutt)] showed severe symptoms of hyperhydricity. Hyperhydricity is a frequent physiological problem reported in micropropagation of A. canescens and other plant species, and drastically reduces the quality of in vitro cultur...

  18. Comparison of hyperspectral imagery with aerial photography and multispectral imagery for mapping broom snakeweed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broom snakeweed [Gutierrezia sarothrae (Pursh.) Britt. and Rusby] is one of the most widespread and abundant rangeland weeds in western North America. The objectives of this study were to evaluate airborne hyperspectral imagery and compare it with aerial color-infrared (CIR) photography and multispe...

  19. 7 CFR 361.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...—Triticum×Agrotriticum Wheatgrass, beardless—Pseudoroegneria spicata (Pursh) A. Love Wheatgrass, crested or... Wheatgrass, tall—Elytrigia elongata (Host) Nevski Wheatgrass, western—Pascopyrum smithii (Rydb.) A. Love Wildrye, basin—Leymus cinereus (Scribn. and Merr.) A. Love Wildrye, Canada—Elymus canadensis L....

  20. 7 CFR 201.2 - Terms defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...—Pseudoroegneria spicata (Pursh) A. Love Wheatgrass, crested or fairway crested—Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn... Wheatgrass, western—Pascopyrum smithii (Rydb.) A. Love Wildrye, basin—Leymus cinereus (Scribn. and Merr.) A. Love Wildrye, Canada—Elymus canadensis L. Wildrye, Russian—Psathyrostachys juncea (Fisch.)...

  1. Notice of release of Columbia Germplasm of bluebunch wheatgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Columbia Germplasm of bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata [Pursh] A. Love) was released by USDA-ARS in 2015. It was developed through five cycles of selection, primarily for increased numbers of spikes, from K68, a population collected in 1980 in Adams County in eastern Washington. The c...

  2. The Shoreline Vegetation of Lake Oahe a Man Made Fluctuating Water Level Reservoir of the Upper Missouri River Basin.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-06-01

    abundant on saline areas. Txan-thfifola Nutt. Occasional on moist waste areas. Kuhnla euvatoro.des L. Occasional on dry prairies. Lactuca , pulchell ( Pursh...Common on eroded areas. Lathyrus polymorphus Nutt. Common on dry prairies, not shale, however. Medicago lupulina L. M. sativa L. Relllotus alba Desr

  3. Genetic diversity of riperian populations of glycyrrhiza lepidota along the salmon and snake rivers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glycyrrhiza lepidota Pursh (Fabaceae; American wild licorice), is a nitrogen-fixing, perennial, facultative riparian species present along many dryland rivers in western North America, including the U.S., southern Canada and northern Mexico. Like Glycyrrhiza glabra, common licorice native to Europe,...

  4. Broom Snakeweed Increase and Dominance in Big Sagebrush Communities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broom snakeweed (Gutierrezia sarothrae (Pursh) Britt. & Rusby) is a native sub-shrub that is widely distributed on rangelands of western North America. It often increases to near monocultures following disturbance from overgrazing, fire or drought. Propagation is usually pulse driven in wet years, ...

  5. Biomass and defoliation tolerance of 12 populations of Pseudoroegneria spicata at two densities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudoroegneria spicata (Pursh.) A Love is an important native grass of the rangelands of the Intermountain West, USA and is widely used in this region for restoration applications. High grazing preference, together with high grazing sensitivity, have reduced the abundance of this species, indicati...

  6. Ecological implications of Laurel Wilt infestation on Everglades Tree Islands, southern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, James R.

    2014-01-01

    There is a long history of introduced pests attacking native forest trees in the United States (Liebhold and others, 1995; Aukema and others, 2010). Well-known examples include chestnut blight that decimated the American chestnut (Castanea dentata), an extremely important tree in the eastern United States, both as a food source for wildlife and humans and for the wood; Dutch elm disease that attacks native elms (Ulmus spp.), including those commonly planted as shade trees along city streets; and the balsam wooly adelgid (Adelges piceae), an insect that is destroying Fraser firs (Abies fraseri) in higher elevations of Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Laurel wilt, a fungal disease transmitted by the redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus), is a 21st-century example of an introduced forest pest that attacks native tree species in the laurel family (Lauraceae) (Mayfield, 2007; Hulcr and Dunn, 2011).The introduction of laurel wilt disease has been traced to the arrival of an Asian ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus) at Port Wentworth, Georgia, near Savannah, in 2002, apparently accidently introduced in wooden shipping material (Mayfield, 2007). Within the next 2 years, it was determined that the non-native wood-boring insect was the vector of an undescribed species of fungus, responsible for killing large numbers of red bay (Persea borbonia) trees in the surrounding area. Dispersing female redbay ambrosia beetles drill into live trees and create tunnels in the wood. They carry with them fungal spores in specialized organs called mycangia at the base of each mandible and sow the spores in the tunnels they excavate. The fungus, since named Raffaelea lauricola (Harrington and others, 2008), is the food source for adults and larvae. The introduction of Raffaelea lauricola causes the host plant to react in such a way as to block the vascular tissue, resulting in loss of water conduction, wilt, and death (Kendra and others, 2013).Although first seen in red bay

  7. The role of chromatin-remodeling factor PKL in balancing osmotic stress responses during Arabidopsis seed germination.

    PubMed

    Perruc, Elian; Kinoshita, Natsuko; Lopez-Molina, Luis

    2007-12-01

    Embryogenesis in Arabidopsis results in mature, osmotolerant embryos within dry seeds. Late-embryogenesis programs involve the transcription factors ABI3 and ABI5, which are necessary for osmotolerance. ABI3 and ABI5 are degraded in seeds initiating germination, abolishing their protected state. However, during an early stage of germination, strong osmotic stresses, or ABA exposure maintain ABI3 and ABI5 expression, leading to growth arrest, and osmotolerance. Mild stress stimuli delay ABI3 and ABI5 disappearance, retarding germination but not preventing eventual closure of embryogenesis programs. PICKLE (PKL), a putative chromatin modifier, is necessary to repress ABI3 and ABI5 expression during germination in response to ABA. We show that pkl mutants display persistent high expression of ABI3 and ABI5 upon ABA stimulation. In turn, maintenance of ABI5 expression leads to hypersensitive germination responses to ABA in pkl seeds. We provide evidence that ABI3 and ABI5 are less associated with repressed chromatin in pkl mutants. Our results provide evidence that PKL-dependent repression of embryonic gene expression extends to late-embryogenesis genes and is associated with changes in chromatin. We suggest that effective closure of embryogenesis omostolerance programs during germination prevents excessive plant reactions to stress.

  8. Histopathology and Host Range Studies of the Redwood Nematode Rhizonema sequoiae

    PubMed Central

    Cid Del Prado Vera, I.; Lownsbery, B. F.

    1984-01-01

    Second-stage larvae of Rehizonma sequoiae Cid del Prado Vera et al. tunnel through the cortex of the redwood Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl. root to the vascular tissue where each developing female induces a single ovoid or occasionally spherical giant cell with a single ovoid to spherical nucleus containing one to four enlarged nucleoli. Nematode tunnels are filled with a gel material and often contain second-stage larvae and males. There is tissue necrosis around females, and cortical tissue is destroyed after infection by many second-stage larvae. R. sequoiae females developed to maturity on S. sempervirens, Acer macrophyllum Pursh, AInus rhombifolia Nutt., Libocedrus decurrens Torr, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco, and Sequoiadendron giganteum (Lindl.) Decne. In the Marin County, California, forest mature females were also found naturally infecting Lithocarpus densiflorus (Hook &Arn.) Rehd., Umbellularia californica (Hook &Arn.) Nutt., and Arbutus menziesii Pursh. PMID:19295877

  9. Histopathology and Host Range Studies of the Redwood Nematode Rhizonema sequoiae.

    PubMed

    Cid Del Prado Vera, I; Lownsbery, B F

    1984-01-01

    Second-stage larvae of Rehizonma sequoiae Cid del Prado Vera et al. tunnel through the cortex of the redwood Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl. root to the vascular tissue where each developing female induces a single ovoid or occasionally spherical giant cell with a single ovoid to spherical nucleus containing one to four enlarged nucleoli. Nematode tunnels are filled with a gel material and often contain second-stage larvae and males. There is tissue necrosis around females, and cortical tissue is destroyed after infection by many second-stage larvae. R. sequoiae females developed to maturity on S. sempervirens, Acer macrophyllum Pursh, AInus rhombifolia Nutt., Libocedrus decurrens Torr, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco, and Sequoiadendron giganteum (Lindl.) Decne. In the Marin County, California, forest mature females were also found naturally infecting Lithocarpus densiflorus (Hook &Arn.) Rehd., Umbellularia californica (Hook &Arn.) Nutt., and Arbutus menziesii Pursh.

  10. Regulators of PP2C phosphatase activity function as abscisic acid sensors.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yue; Szostkiewicz, Izabela; Korte, Arthur; Moes, Danièle; Yang, Yi; Christmann, Alexander; Grill, Erwin

    2009-05-22

    The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) acts as a developmental signal and as an integrator of environmental cues such as drought and cold. Key players in ABA signal transduction include the type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs) ABI1 and ABI2, which act by negatively regulating ABA responses. In this study, we identify interactors of ABI1 and ABI2 which we have named regulatory components of ABA receptor (RCARs). In Arabidopsis, RCARs belong to a family with 14 members that share structural similarity with class 10 pathogen-related proteins. RCAR1 was shown to bind ABA, to mediate ABA-dependent inactivation of ABI1 or ABI2 in vitro, and to antagonize PP2C action in planta. Other RCARs also mediated ABA-dependent regulation of ABI1 and ABI2, consistent with a combinatorial assembly of receptor complexes.

  11. Different methods of calculating ankle-brachial index in mid-elderly men and women: the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Miname, M; Bensenor, I M; Lotufo, P A

    2016-01-01

    The ankle-brachial index (ABI) is a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis related to health-adverse outcomes. ABI is inexpensive compared to other indexes, such as coronary calcium score and determination of carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT). Our objective was to identify how the ABI can be applied to primary care. Three different methods of calculating the ABI were compared among 13,921 men and women aged 35 to 74 years who were free of cardiovascular diseases and enrolled in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The ABI ratio had the same denominator for the three categories created (the highest value for arm systolic blood pressure), and the numerator was based on the four readings for leg systolic blood pressure: the highest (ABI-HIGH), the mean (ABI-MEAN), and the lowest (ABI-LOW). The cut-off for analysis was ABI<1.0. All determinations of blood pressure were done with an oscillometric device. The prevalence of ABI<1% was 0.5, 0.9, and 2.7 for the categories HIGH, MEAN and LOW, respectively. All methods were associated with a high burden of cardiovascular risk factors. The association with IMT was stronger for ABI-HIGH than for the other categories. The proportion of participants with a 10-year Framingham Risk Score of coronary heart disease >20% without the inclusion of ABI<1.0 was 4.9%. For ABI-HIGH, ABI-MEAN and ABI-LOW, the increase in percentage points was 0.3, 0.7, and 2.3%, respectively, and the relative increment was 6.1, 14.3, and 46.9%. In conclusion, all methods were acceptable, but ABI-LOW was more suitable for prevention purposes.

  12. Different methods of calculating ankle-brachial index in mid-elderly men and women: the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Miname, M.; Bensenor, I.M.; Lotufo, P.A.

    2016-01-01

    The ankle-brachial index (ABI) is a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis related to health-adverse outcomes. ABI is inexpensive compared to other indexes, such as coronary calcium score and determination of carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT). Our objective was to identify how the ABI can be applied to primary care. Three different methods of calculating the ABI were compared among 13,921 men and women aged 35 to 74 years who were free of cardiovascular diseases and enrolled in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The ABI ratio had the same denominator for the three categories created (the highest value for arm systolic blood pressure), and the numerator was based on the four readings for leg systolic blood pressure: the highest (ABI-HIGH), the mean (ABI-MEAN), and the lowest (ABI-LOW). The cut-off for analysis was ABI<1.0. All determinations of blood pressure were done with an oscillometric device. The prevalence of ABI<1% was 0.5, 0.9, and 2.7 for the categories HIGH, MEAN and LOW, respectively. All methods were associated with a high burden of cardiovascular risk factors. The association with IMT was stronger for ABI-HIGH than for the other categories. The proportion of participants with a 10-year Framingham Risk Score of coronary heart disease >20% without the inclusion of ABI<1.0 was 4.9%. For ABI-HIGH, ABI-MEAN and ABI-LOW, the increase in percentage points was 0.3, 0.7, and 2.3%, respectively, and the relative increment was 6.1, 14.3, and 46.9%. In conclusion, all methods were acceptable, but ABI-LOW was more suitable for prevention purposes. PMID:27901176

  13. Inflammation and Oxidative Stress are Associated with the Prevalence of High Aankle-brachial Index in Metabolic Syndrome Patients without Chronic Renal Failure

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yinyin; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Kun; Kong, Minyi; Wang, Tao; Chen, Renhua; Wang, Lily; Wang, Jingfeng; Huang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Aims: High ankle-brachial index (ABI) is marker of increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, while the relationship and mechanism between high ABI and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are unclear. The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship and possible mechanism of MetS with high ABI. Methods: 341 participants without CRF were recruited. Among these participants, 58 participants (ABI ≥ 1.3) were include in high ABI group and the other 283 participants (0.9 < ABI < 1.3) were include in normal ABI group. Furthermore, these 341 participants were also divided into MetS group (n = 54) and non-MetS group (n = 287). All participants received examinations including body mass index (BMI), ABI and related biochemical parameters. Results: Compared with non-MetS group, the prevalence of high ABI was higher in MetS group (27.8% vs. 15%, p < 0.05). Participants with 3-4 metabolic risk factors had higher prevalence of high ABI than those with 0-1 metabolic risk factors (27.8% vs. 12.7%, p < 0.05). The prevalence of high ABI in overweight participants was higher than those with normal body weight. And the participants with hypertension also had higher prevalence of high ABI than normotensive participants. BMI, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were all higher in high ABI group than normal ABI group (p < 0.05). Conclusions: More metabolic risk factors have increased the risk of high ABI. Inflammation and oxidative stress are associated with prevalence of high ABI in metabolic syndrome patients without chronic renal failure. PMID:23329891

  14. The Road from a Quick Reaction Capability to a Program of Record

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-26

    latent fingerprints • 8600 latent matches; 3400 latent to latent matches  Latent palm print capabilities During data migration from ABIS to NG-ABIS...UNCLASSIFIED 26 JAN 2011 30 DOD ABIS Data DoD ABIS Enrollments by Submitter 5.1M records 120k latent fingerprints 153k watchlisted individuals Most...Int’l Partners HN Data USN MIO Maritime BAT / HIIDE Mobile Systems CEXC/JEFF Latent Fingerprints BISA Base Access DRS Detainees SOCOM

  15. 78 FR 30399 - United States v. Anheuser-Busch InBev SA/NV, Grupo Modelo S.A.B de C.V.; Proposed Final Judgment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... lower its prices in local Texas markets, and adjust its marketing strategy to better respond to... do. 4. In contrast, Modelo has resisted ABI-led price hikes. Modelo's pricing strategy--``The... pressure'' on ABI by pursuing a competitive strategy directly at odds with ABI's well-established...

  16. Ankle brachial index values, leg symptoms, and functional performance among community-dwelling older men and women in the lifestyle interventions and independence for elders study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence and significance of low normal and abnormal ankle brachial index (ABI) values in a community dwelling population of sedentary, older individuals is unknown. We describe the prevalence of categories of definite peripheral artery disease (PAD), borderline ABI, low-normal ABI and no PAD...

  17. Identification and bioinformatics comparison of two novel phosphatases in monoecious and gynoecious cucumber lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawełkowicz, Magdalena E.; Wojcieszek, Michał; Osipowski, Paweł; Krzywkowski, Tomasz; PlÄ der, Wojciech; Przybecki, Zbigniew

    2016-09-01

    Two Arabidopsis thaliana genes from the PP2C family of protein phosphatases (AtABI1 and AtABI2) were used to find orthologous genes in the Cucumis sativus L. cv. Borszczagowski (cucumber) genome. Cucumber has been used as a model plant for sex expression studies because although it has been defined as a monoecious species, numerous genotypes are known to produce only female, only male, or hermaphroditic flowers. We identified two new orthologous genes of AtABI1 and AtABI2 in the cucumber genome and named them CsABI1 and CsABI2. To determine the relationships between the regulation of CsABI1 and CsABI2 and flower morphogenesis in cucumber, we performed various computational analyses to define the structure of the genes, and to predict regulatory elements and protein motifs in their sequences. We also performed an expression analysis to identify differences in the expression levels of CsABI1 and CsABI2 in vegetative and generative tissues (leaf, shoot apex, and flower buds) of monoecious (B10) and gynoecious (2gg) cucumber lines. We found that the expressions of CsABI1 and CsABI2 differed in male and female floral buds, and correlated these findings with the abscisic acid signaling pathways in male and female flowers.

  18. Acquired Brain Injury Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Stacey Hunter

    This paper reviews the Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) Program at Coastline Community College (California). The ABI Program is a two-year, for-credit educational curriculum designed to provide structured cognitive retraining for adults who have sustained an ABI due to traumatic (such as motor vehicle accident or fall) or non-traumatic(such as…

  19. Surrogates of Large Artery versus Small Artery Stiffness and Ankle-Brachial Index

    PubMed Central

    Korhonen, Päivi; Syvänen, Kari; Aarnio, Pertti

    2011-01-01

    Peripheral artery tonometry (PAT) is a novel method for assessing arterial stiffness of small digital arteries. Pulse pressure can be regarded as a surrogate of large artery stiffness. When ankle-brachial index (ABI) is calculated using the higher of the two ankle systolic pressures as denominator (ABI-higher), leg perfusion can be reliably estimated. However, using the lower of the ankle pressures to calculate ABI (ABI-lower) identifies more patients with isolated peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in ankle arteries. We aimed to compare the ability of PAT, pulse pressure, and different calculations of ABI to detect atherosclerotic disease in lower extremities. We examined PAT, pulse pressure, and ABI in 66 cardiovascular risk subjects in whom borderline PAD (ABI 0.91 to 1.00) was diagnosed 4 years earlier. Using ABI-lower to diagnose PAD yielded 2-fold higher prevalence of PAD than using ABI-higher. Endothelial dysfunction was diagnosed in 15/66 subjects (23%). In a bivariate correlation analysis, pulse pressure was negatively correlated with ABI-higher (r = −0.347, p = 0.004) and with ABI-lower (r = −0.424, p < 0.001). PAT hyperemic response was not significantly correlated with either ABI-higher (r = −0.148, p = 0.24) or with ABI-lower (r = −0.208, p = 0.095). Measurement of ABI using the lower of the two ankle pressures is an efficient method to identify patients with clinical or subclinical atherosclerosis and worth performing on subjects with pulse pressure above 65 mm Hg. The usefulness of PAT measurement in detecting PAD is vague. PMID:22942632

  20. Combination of High Ankle–Brachial Index and Hard Coronary Heart Disease Framingham Risk Score in Predicting the Risk of Ischemic Stroke in General Population

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tong; Kong, Minyi; Chen, Renhua; Liu, Yu; Chen, Jianping; Wang, Zhiyu; Wang, Jingfeng; Huang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Our previous study showed that the patients with more metabolic risk factors had higher risk of high ankle–brachial index (ABI), but the relationship between high ABI and the risk of severe cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases is still under debate. This study aims to evaluate this association in the general population. 1486 subjects of South China were recruited in the study. 61 subjects were defined as high ABI group (ABI≥1.3) and 65 subjects were randomly selected as normal ABI group (0.9<ABI<1.3). Biochemical parameters, clinical characteristics and 10-year hard coronary heart disease (HCHD) Framingham Risk Score (FRS) were compared between two groups. The results showed that the 10-year HCHD FRS of high ABI group was significantly higher than normal ABI group (7.87±6.11 vs. 3.98±2.90%, P<0.001). There was a positive correlation between ABI value and HCHD FRS in overweight participants (R = 0.576, P<0.01). The prevalence of ischemic stroke was higher in high ABI group than normal ABI group (21.3% vs. 6.2%, P<0.05), and it was higher in participants with HCHD FRS≥6% than those with HCHD FRS<6% (19.1% vs. 6.9%, P<0.05). Moreover, the prevalence of ischemic stroke was higher in participants with high ABI and HCHD FRS≥6% than those with normal ABI and HCHD FRS<6% (26.7% vs. 4.1%, P<0.05). BMI, hypertension, hsCRP and smoking were proved to be the independent factors and effective predictors for high ABI (P<0.05). In conclusion, high ABI combined with high HCHD FRS should be a potential predictor of ischemic stroke in the general population of South China. PMID:25198106

  1. Genetics, Morphology, Advertisement Calls, and Historical Records Distinguish Six New Polyploid Species of African Clawed Frog (Xenopus, Pipidae) from West and Central Africa

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Ben J.; Carter, Timothy F.; Greenbaum, Eli; Gvoždík, Václav; Kelley, Darcy B.; McLaughlin, Patrick J.; Pauwels, Olivier S. G.; Portik, Daniel M.; Stanley, Edward L.; Tinsley, Richard C.; Tobias, Martha L.; Blackburn, David C.

    2015-01-01

    African clawed frogs, genus Xenopus, are extraordinary among vertebrates in the diversity of their polyploid species and the high number of independent polyploidization events that occurred during their diversification. Here we update current understanding of the evolutionary history of this group and describe six new species from west and central sub-Saharan Africa, including four tetraploids and two dodecaploids. We provide information on molecular variation, morphology, karyotypes, vocalizations, and estimated geographic ranges, which support the distinctiveness of these new species. We resurrect Xenopus calcaratus from synonymy of Xenopus tropicalis and refer populations from Bioko Island and coastal Cameroon (near Mt. Cameroon) to this species. To facilitate comparisons to the new species, we also provide comments on the type specimens, morphology, and distributions of X. epitropicalis, X. tropicalis, and X. fraseri. This includes significantly restricted application of the names X. fraseri and X. epitropicalis, the first of which we argue is known definitively only from type specimens and possibly one other specimen. Inferring the evolutionary histories of these new species allows refinement of species groups within Xenopus and leads to our recognition of two subgenera (Xenopus and Silurana) and three species groups within the subgenus Xenopus (amieti, laevis, and muelleri species groups). PMID:26672747

  2. Genetics, Morphology, Advertisement Calls, and Historical Records Distinguish Six New Polyploid Species of African Clawed Frog (Xenopus, Pipidae) from West and Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Evans, Ben J; Carter, Timothy F; Greenbaum, Eli; Gvoždík, Václav; Kelley, Darcy B; McLaughlin, Patrick J; Pauwels, Olivier S G; Portik, Daniel M; Stanley, Edward L; Tinsley, Richard C; Tobias, Martha L; Blackburn, David C

    2015-01-01

    African clawed frogs, genus Xenopus, are extraordinary among vertebrates in the diversity of their polyploid species and the high number of independent polyploidization events that occurred during their diversification. Here we update current understanding of the evolutionary history of this group and describe six new species from west and central sub-Saharan Africa, including four tetraploids and two dodecaploids. We provide information on molecular variation, morphology, karyotypes, vocalizations, and estimated geographic ranges, which support the distinctiveness of these new species. We resurrect Xenopus calcaratus from synonymy of Xenopus tropicalis and refer populations from Bioko Island and coastal Cameroon (near Mt. Cameroon) to this species. To facilitate comparisons to the new species, we also provide comments on the type specimens, morphology, and distributions of X. epitropicalis, X. tropicalis, and X. fraseri. This includes significantly restricted application of the names X. fraseri and X. epitropicalis, the first of which we argue is known definitively only from type specimens and possibly one other specimen. Inferring the evolutionary histories of these new species allows refinement of species groups within Xenopus and leads to our recognition of two subgenera (Xenopus and Silurana) and three species groups within the subgenus Xenopus (amieti, laevis, and muelleri species groups).

  3. Detection of peripheral arterial disease with an improved automated device: comparison of a new oscillometric device and the standard Doppler method

    PubMed Central

    Špan, Matjaž; Geršak, Gregor; Millasseau, Sandrine C; Meža, Marko; Košir, Andrej

    2016-01-01

    In occidental countries, peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is an important health issue; however, most subjects are asymptomatic (~50%) and therefore undiagnosed and untreated. Current guidelines recommend screening for PAD in primary care setting using ankle brachial index (ABI) in all patients with cardiovascular risks. This is, however, not performed strictly because the standard Doppler method is cumbersome and time-consuming. Here, we evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of ABI measurements obtained by an improved automated oscillometric device, the MESI ABPI MD® device, and the standard Doppler method. ABI was measured in random order in a general practice with Doppler probes by two operators separately (ABI_dop) and twice with the MESI ABPI MD device (ABI_mesi). ABI_dop was calculated dividing the highest systolic blood pressure from both tibial and dorsalis pedis arteries by the highest systolic blood pressure of both brachial arteries. ABI_mesi was obtained automatically with simultaneous measurements on three extremities. According to ABI_dop, PAD was present in 10% of the 136 screened subjects (68.2±7.4 years). Interoperator coefficient of variation was 5.5% for ABI_dop, while the intrasubject coefficient of variation for ABI_mesi was 3.0%. ABI_mesi was correlated with ABI_dop (R=0.61, P<0.0001). The difference between the two techniques was 0.06±0.14 with ABI_mesi providing slightly higher values (P<0.0001) and negligible bias across the range (R=0.19, P<0.0001). Therefore, ABI_mesi ≤1 had a sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 96% to detect ABI_dop ≤0.9 and hence PAD. Doppler measurements took seven times longer than MESI ABPI MD measurements to be performed. In conclusion, MESI improved automated oscillometric method and offered a faster and repeatable measurement of ABI with only a small, clinically irrelevant overestimation of ABI value. The tested MESI ABPI MD-improved oscillometric system can be used as a screening tool for patients

  4. Hearing Restoration with Auditory Brainstem Implant

    PubMed Central

    NAKATOMI, Hirofumi; MIYAWAKI, Satoru; KIN, Taichi; SAITO, Nobuhito

    2016-01-01

    Auditory brainstem implant (ABI) technology attempts to restore hearing in deaf patients caused by bilateral cochlear nerve injury through the direct stimulation of the brainstem, but many aspects of the related mechanisms remain unknown. The unresolved issues can be grouped into three topics: which patients are the best candidates; which type of electrode should be used; and how to improve restored hearing. We evaluated our experience with 11 cases of ABI placement. We found that if at least seven of eleven electrodes of the MED-EL ABI are effectively placed in a patient with no deformation of the fourth ventricle, open set sentence recognition of approximately 20% and closed set word recognition of approximately 65% can be achieved only with the ABI. Appropriate selection of patients for ABI placement can lead to good outcomes. Further investigation is required regarding patient selection criteria and methods of surgery for effective ABI placement. PMID:27464470

  5. Generating code adapted for interlinking legacy scalar code and extended vector code

    DOEpatents

    Gschwind, Michael K

    2013-06-04

    Mechanisms for intermixing code are provided. Source code is received for compilation using an extended Application Binary Interface (ABI) that extends a legacy ABI and uses a different register configuration than the legacy ABI. First compiled code is generated based on the source code, the first compiled code comprising code for accommodating the difference in register configurations used by the extended ABI and the legacy ABI. The first compiled code and second compiled code are intermixed to generate intermixed code, the second compiled code being compiled code that uses the legacy ABI. The intermixed code comprises at least one call instruction that is one of a call from the first compiled code to the second compiled code or a call from the second compiled code to the first compiled code. The code for accommodating the difference in register configurations is associated with the at least one call instruction.

  6. Peripheral Arterial Disease and Ankle-Brachial Index Abnormalites in Young and Middle-Aged HIV-Positive Patients in Lower Silesia, Poland

    PubMed Central

    Kwiatkowska, Wiesława; Knysz, Brygida; Arczyńska, Katarzyna; Drelichowska, Justyna; Czarnecki, Marcin; Gąsiorowski, Jacek; Karczewski, Maciej; Witkiewicz, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Background Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a clinical manifestation of atherosclerosis and mainly refers to elderly patients, having a negative impact on their functionality and quality of life. The findings of previous studies in HIV-infected patients have shown that cardiovascular risk is higher and PAD occurs more frequently than in the general population. There are also contradictory observations. Much less is known about the ankle-brachial index (ABI) value in asymptomatic HIV-infected patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of PAD and ankle-brachial index abnormalities as well as to determine risk factors related to the disease in a group of Polish HIV–positive patients. Methods and Findings One hundred and eleven young to middle aged HIV–positive subjects and 40 noninfected subjects were enrolled into the study. Resting ABI measurements were performed and cardiovascular risk was analysed as well. Subgroups were created according to the ABI values: low (PAD), borderline, normal, high and altered ABI. Symptomatic PAD was observed in 2 HIV–positive patients, asymptomatic PAD was not diagnosed. The ABI value is lower and more varied, in 22.5% of the study group altered ABI values were found. Six subjects demonstrated borderline ABI, and 15 high ABI, including >1.4. In the control group no low or very high values were reported. A relation between low ABI and cardiovascular family history and between altered ABI and high–density–lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL–C) level was demonstrated. Conclusions In young and middle–aged HIV–positive patients, symptomatic PAD prevalence is comparable to that observed in the overall population. Among asymptomatic patients PAD is not reported. The ABI value in HIV–positive patients is more varied compared to the HIV–negative subjects; the altered ABI shows a strong relation with low HDL–C levels and metabolic syndrome. PMID:25503743

  7. Synthesis and Luminescent Chemosensory Behavior of N,N'-bis(p-aminophenyl)-1,5-bis(p-(tetraethyleneglycoloxy)phenyl)anthracene-2,3,6,7-tetracarboxyl bisimide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilhan, Faysal; Tyson, Daniel S.; Meador, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    We have utilized the photoenolization reaction of a dibenzoyl-p-xylene derivative to synthesize two new, highly substituted anthracene-based molecules. ABI-NO2 and ABI-NH2 maintained photostability with longer wavelength absorption and emission spectra as compared to unsubstituted anthracene. Conversion of the periphery nitro groups to amines created an internal photoinduced electron transfer scenario that quenched the luminescence of ABI-NH2. Reversible or irreversible reaction of the attached amines resulted in fluorescence recovery. Sensitivity, of ABI-NH2 and other potential derivatives, to toxic chemicals may prove useful for early detection systems.

  8. Clonal expansion and seedling recruitment of Oregon grape (Berberis nervosa) in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests: comparisons with salal (Gaultheria shallon)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huffman, D.; Tappeiner, J. C.

    1997-01-01

    Seedling regeneration and morphology of Oregon grape (Berberis nervosa Pursh) and salal (Gaultheria shallon Pursh) were studied in thinned and unthinned Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) stands in the central Coast Range, Oregon. Above- and below-ground growth of both species were significantly and negatively correlated with stand density. Oregon grape appears to have less potential for vegetative spread than does salal. It produced two to three times fewer rhizome extensions, and rhizome extensions were only half as long as those of salal. Oregon grape seedlings were common in areas of moss ground cover among patches of the two species. Salal seedlings were restricted to decaying logs. Seedling densities of Oregon grape in thinned stands were more than six times those in unthinned stands. For Oregon grape, understory establishment is accomplished by seedling establishment and recruitment of new genets. In contrast, salal maintains itself in forest understories primarily through vegetative growth, since its seedling establishment is restricted mainly to decayed wood. Continual recruitment of new aerial stems or ramets enables Oregon grape to maintain a dense cover once it is established in the understory.

  9. Arabidopsis WRKY2 transcription factor mediates seed germination and postgermination arrest of development by abscisic acid

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wenbo; Yu, Diqiu

    2009-01-01

    Background Plant WRKY DNA-binding transcription factors are key regulators in certain developmental programs. A number of studies have suggested that WRKY genes may mediate seed germination and postgermination growth. However, it is unclear whether WRKY genes mediate ABA-dependent seed germination and postgermination growth arrest. Results To determine directly the role of Arabidopsis WRKY2 transcription factor during ABA-dependent seed germination and postgermination growth arrest, we isolated T-DNA insertion mutants. Two independent T-DNA insertion mutants for WRKY2 were hypersensitive to ABA responses only during seed germination and postgermination early growth. wrky2 mutants displayed delayed or decreased expression of ABI5 and ABI3, but increased or prolonged expression of Em1 and Em6. wrky2 mutants and wild type showed similar levels of expression for miR159 and its target genes MYB33 and MYB101. Analysis of WRKY2 expression level in ABA-insensitive and ABA-deficient mutants abi5-1, abi3-1, aba2-3 and aba3-1 further indicated that ABA-induced WRKY2 accumulation during germination and postgermination early growth requires ABI5, ABI3, ABA2 and ABA3. Conclusion ABA hypersensitivity of the wrky2 mutants during seed germination and postgermination early seedling establishment is attributable to elevated mRNA levels of ABI5, ABI3 and ABI5-induced Em1 and Em6 in the mutants. WRKY2-mediated ABA responses are independent of miR159 and its target genes MYB33 and MYB101. ABI5, ABI3, ABA2 and ABA3 are important regulators of the transcripts of WRKY2 by ABA treatment. Our results suggest that WRKY2 transcription factor mediates seed germination and postgermination developmental arrest by ABA. PMID:19622176

  10. Association between functional performance and executive cognitive functions in an elderly population including patients with low ankle–brachial index

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Naomi Vidal; Cunha, Paulo Jannuzzi; da Costa, Danielle Irigoyen; dos Santos, Fernando; Costa, Fernando Oliveira; Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Peripheral arterial disease, as measured by the ankle–brachial index (ABI), is prevalent among the elderly, and is associated with functional performance, assessed by the 6-minute walk test (6MWT). Executive cognitive function (ECF) impairments are also prevalent in this population, but no existing study has investigated the association between ECF and functional performance in an elderly population including individuals with low ABI. Aim To investigate the association between functional performance, as measured by the 6MWT, and loss in ECF, in an elderly sample including individuals with low ABI. Method The ABI group was formed by 26 elderly individuals with low ABI (mean ABI: 0.63±0.19), and the control group was formed by 40 elderly individuals with normal ABI (mean ABI: 1.08±0.07). We analyzed functional performance using the 6MWT, global cognition using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and ECF using the Digit Span for assessing attention span and working memory, the Stroop Color Word Test (SCWT) for assessing information processing speed and inhibitory control/impulsivity, and the Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT) for assessing semantic verbal fluency and phonemic verbal fluency. We also used a factor analysis on all of the ECF tests (global ECF). Results Before adjustment, the ABI group performed worse on global cognition, attention span, working memory, inhibitory control/impulsivity, semantic verbal fluency, and phonemic verbal fluency. After adjustment, the ABI group performance remained worse for working memory and semantic verbal fluency. In a simple correlation analysis including all of the subjects, the 6MWT was associated with global cognition, attention span, working memory, information processing speed, inhibitory control/impulsivity, semantic verbal fluency, and global ECF. After adjustment, all the associations remained statistically significant. Conclusion This study found an independent association between

  11. Reliability of the Motor Learning Strategy Rating Instrument for Children and Youth with Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamath, Trishna; Pfeifer, Megan; Banerjee-Guenette, Priyanka; Hunter, Theresa; Ito, Julia; Salbach, Nancy M.; Wright, Virginia; Levac, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate reliability and feasibility of the Motor Learning Strategy Rating Instrument (MLSRI) in children with acquired brain injury (ABI). The MLSRI quantifies the extent to which motor learning strategies (MLS) are used within physiotherapy (PT) interventions. Methods: PT sessions conducted by ABI team physiotherapists with a…

  12. On-board calibration of the spectral response functions of the Advanced Baseline Imager's thermal IR channels by observation of the planet Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bremer, James C.

    2010-09-01

    The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) will image Earth in 16 spectral channels, including 10 thermal IR (TIR) channels. The instantaneous field of view (IFOV) of each TIR detector element is (56 μrad)2. The ABI has an onboard fullaperture blackbody, the Internal Calibration Target (ICT), used in conjunction with deep space looks to calibrate the ABI's TIR channels. The ICT is only observed over a small range of temperatures and at one specific pair of reflection angles from the ABI's two scan mirrors. The sunlit area on Mercury's surface underfills the IFOV's of the ABI's TIR channels, but has a much higher range of characteristic temperatures than the ICT, so its radiation is weighted more strongly toward shorter wavelengths. Comparison of a TIR channel's responses to the ICT and to Mercury provides a sensitive means to evaluate variations in spectral response functions among detector elements, across the ABI's field of regard, and among instruments on different satellites. Observations of Mercury can also verify co-registration among the ABI's atmospheric absorption channels that do not observe features on Earth's surface. The optimal conditions for viewing Mercury typically occur during one or two intervals of a few weeks each year when it traverses the ABI's FOR (-10.5o < declination < +10.5o) with an elongation angle from the Sun of at least 20.5o.

  13. Evaluation of a Reading Comprehension Strategy Package to Improve Reading Comprehension of Adult College Students with Acquired Brain Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Gina G.

    2013-01-01

    Adults with mild to moderate acquired brain injury (ABI) often pursue post-secondary or professional education after their injuries in order to enter or re-enter the job market. An increasing number of these adults report problems with reading-to-learn. The problem is particularly concerning given the growing population of adult survivors of ABI.…

  14. Automated oscillometric determination of the ankle-brachial index provides accuracy necessary for office practice.

    PubMed

    Beckman, Joshua A; Higgins, Caitlin O; Gerhard-Herman, Marie

    2006-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) remains underdiagnosed by primary care and cardiovascular physicians. The office-based assessment of PAD is limited by the need for specialized equipment and the time required for performance of the ankle-brachial index (ABI). We explored whether the accuracy of automated ABI measurement by oscillometry compared favorably with the gold-standard method using continuous-wave Doppler ultrasound. Consecutive patients referred to our university hospital noninvasive vascular laboratory for ABI measurement were invited for participation. Of 205 patients, 201 participated, including 55 with PAD. The ABI was measured by automated oscillometry and Doppler ultrasound. The test of trends revealed a correlation coefficient of 0.78 in the left leg and 0.78 in the right leg (P<0.01 for both). The mean ABI difference between methods was 0.04+/-0.01 and 0.06+/-0.01, respectively, in the left and right legs. The differences between the methods followed a normal distribution. Oscillometric determination of the ABI provides an accurate determination of the ABI in an outpatient population. Our findings show automated oscillometry to be a reliable and easier method of ABI measurement, lowering the barrier to incorporation of this diagnostic test into clinical practice.

  15. The Role of Ankle-Brachial Index for Predicting Peripheral Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    RAC-ALBU, Marius; ILIUTA, Luminita; GUBERNA, Suzana Maria; SINESCU, Crina

    2014-01-01

    The presence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is associated with higher cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, regardless of gender or its clinical form of presentation (symptomatic or asymptomatic). PAD is considered an independent predictor for cardiovascular mortality, more important for survival than clinical history of coronary artery disease. The ankle brachial index (ABI) is a sensitive and cost-effective screening tool for PAD. ABI is valuable for screening of peripheral artery disease in patients at risk and for diagnosing the disease in patients who present with lower-extremity symptoms. Compared to other diagnostic methods, ABI is superior because it is s a simple, noninvasive test, which could be routinely determined in all patients. Normal cut-off values for ABI are between 0.9 and 1.4. An abnormal ankle-brachial index- below 0.9-is a powerful independent marker of cardiovascular risk. There is an inverse correlation between ABI values, non-fatal cardiac events (myocardial infarction, stroke and heart failure exacerbation) and mortality (cardiovascular and global), the relation being nonlinear, patients with very low ABI (<0.3) having a significantly higher additional risk. Also, ABI values over 1.3-1.4 correlate with major adverse cardiovascular events. Therefore, ABI can be considered a generalized atherosclerotic predictor, identifying patients at high risk for developing cardio- or cerebrovascular events and should be incorporated into routine clinical practice. PMID:25705296

  16. Students with Acquired Brain Injury. The School's Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glang, Ann, Ed.; Singer, George H. S., Ed.; Todis, Bonnie, Ed.

    Designed for educators, this book focuses on educational issues relating to students with acquired brain injury (ABI), and describes approaches that have been effective in improving the school experiences of students with brain injury. Section 1 provides an introduction to issues related to ABI in children and youth and includes: "An Overview of…

  17. The Use of Narratives to Identify Characteristics Leading to a Productive Life following Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraas, Michael R.; Calvert, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the factors leading to successful recovery and productive lifestyles after acquired brain injury (ABI). Method: Qualitative investigation examined semistructured interviews of 31 survivors of ABI. Thematic analysis followed a phenomenological approach and revealed 4 major themes and 28 subthemes in the interviews. Four…

  18. Glucose inhibits root meristem growth via ABA INSENSITIVE 5, which represses PIN1 accumulation and auxin activity in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ting-Ting; Xu, Heng-Hao; Zhang, Kun-Xiao; Guo, Ting-Ting; Lu, Ying-Tang

    2014-06-01

    Glucose functions as a hormone-like signalling molecule that modulates plant growth and development in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, the role of glucose in root elongation remains elusive. Our study demonstrates that high concentrations of glucose reduce the size of the root meristem zone by repressing PIN1 accumulation and thereby reducing auxin levels. In addition, we verified the involvement of ABA INSENSITIVE 5 (ABI5) in this process by showing that abi5-1 is less sensitive to glucose than the wild type, whereas glucose induces ABI5 expression and the inducible overexpression of ABI5 reduces the size of the root meristem zone. Furthermore, the inducible overexpression of ABI5 in PIN1::PIN1-GFP plants reduces the level of PIN1-GFP, but glucose reduces the level of PIN1-GFP to a lesser extent in abi5-1 PIN1::PIN1-GFP plants than in the PIN1::PIN1-GFP control, suggesting that ABI5 is involved in glucose-regulated PIN1 accumulation. Taken together, our data suggest that ABI5 functions in the glucose-mediated inhibition of the root meristem zone by repressing PIN1 accumulation, thus leading to reduced auxin levels in roots.

  19. Australian Brain Alliance.

    PubMed

    2016-11-02

    A proposal for an Australian Brain Initiative (ABI) is under development by members of the Australian Brain Alliance. Here we discuss the goals of the ABI, its areas of research focus, its context in the Australian research setting, and its necessity for ensuring continued success for Australian brain research.

  20. Redesigning the Scaffolding Metaphor to Suit Pupils with Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Sian A.; Skidmore, David

    2008-01-01

    This paper extends and develops the metaphor of scaffolding to take account of the specific needs of pupils with an Acquired Brain Injury (ABI), drawing on observational evidence gathered for an empirical enquiry into the learning of pupils with ABI in mainstream classroom conditions. This is an area in which there are few published studies to…

  1. Supporting Students with Invisible Disabilities: A Scoping Review of Postsecondary Education for Students with Mental Illness or an Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venville, Annie; Mealings, Margaret; Ennals, Priscilla; Oates, Jennifer; Fossey, Ellie; Douglas, Jacinta; Bigby, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Students with invisible disabilities such as mental illness or acquired brain injury (ABI) experience multiple barriers that reduce their likelihood of postsecondary course completion. The present study conducted a systematic search of research reporting interventions for students experiencing mental illness or ABI to participate in postsecondary…

  2. A new oligonucleotide microarray for detection of pathogenic and non-pathogenic Legionella spp.

    PubMed

    Cao, Boyang; Liu, Xiangqian; Yu, Xiang; Chen, Min; Feng, Lu; Wang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila has been recognized as the major cause of legionellosis since the discovery of the deadly disease. Legionella spp. other than L. pneumophila were later found to be responsible to many non-pneumophila infections. The non-L. pneumophila infections are likely under-detected because of a lack of effective diagnosis. In this report, we have sequenced the 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of 10 Legionella species and subspecies, including L. anisa, L. bozemanii, L. dumoffii, L. fairfieldensis, L. gormanii, L. jordanis, L. maceachernii, L. micdadei, L. pneumophila subspp. fraseri and L. pneumophila subspp. pasculleii, and developed a rapid oligonucleotide microarray detection technique accordingly to identify 12 most common Legionella spp., which consist of 11 pathogenic species of L. anisa, L. bozemanii, L. dumoffii, L. gormanii, L. jordanis, L. longbeachae, L. maceachernii, L. micdadei, and L. pneumophila (including subspp. pneumophila, subspp. fraseri, and subspp. pasculleii) and one non-pathogenic species, L. fairfieldensis. Twenty-nine probes that reproducibly detected multiple Legionella species with high specificity were included in the array. A total of 52 strains, including 30 target pathogens and 22 non-target bacteria, were used to verify the oligonucleotide microarray assay. The sensitivity of the detection was at 1.0 ng with genomic DNA or 13 CFU/100 mL with Legionella cultures. The microarray detected seven samples of air conditioner-condensed water with 100% accuracy, validating the technique as a promising method for applications in basic microbiology, clinical diagnosis, food safety, and epidemiological surveillance. The phylogenetic study based on the ITS has also revealed that the non-pathogenic L. fairfieldensis is the closest to L. pneumophila than the nine other pathogenic Legionella spp.

  3. Correlation between ankle brachial index and coronary artery disease severity in elderly Egyptians.

    PubMed

    Amer, Moatasem S; Tawfik, Heba Mohamed; Elmoteleb, Ayman M Abd; Maamoun, Manar M A

    2014-11-01

    We investigated the association between ankle brachial index (ABI) and coronary heart disease (CHD) severity in elderly Egyptians using different measures. We conducted a case-control study from November 2010 to June 2012 including 200 male and female patients with ischemia≥60 years who were divided into 100 cases and 100 controls according to ABI and redivided according to age. They underwent coronary angiography followed by ABI measurement using a hand-held Doppler. The CHD severity was estimated using the SYNTAX and Jeopardy scores and number of diseased vessels, which increased significantly in patients with peripheral artery disease (P<.001) for all. All 3 measures had strong negative correlation with ABI (P≤.001 for Jeopardy, <.001 for SYNTAX scores, and .004 for number of diseased vessels) and were correlated with each other. We concluded that ABI can reflect CHD severity in elderly Egyptians.

  4. [Effect of different tests with physical exercise to change of the ankle-brachial index in aged patients].

    PubMed

    Sumin, A N; Krasilova, T A; Masin, A N

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to study the dynamics of ankle-brachial index (ABI) after treadmill test, after six-minute walk test (SWT) and after electric muscle stimulation (EMS) in aged patients. We conducted a survey of 80 aged patients (73,0 +/- 16,0 years). ABI was determined at rest and immediately after the following tests: 1) treadmill-test for five minutes, 2) SWT, and 3) EMS for five minutes. Atherosclerotic lesions of lower limb arteries was absent only in 21,3% of patients according to color duplex scanning. ABI significantly decreased on both limbs after treadmill-test ant after SWT. During EMS, in contrast, ABI was increased. Thus, you can use SWT in the diagnosis of subclinical atherosclerosis in a general clinical practice as an alternative to treadmill-tests. Good tolerability of EMS patients and ABI increase show the availability of EMS in physical rehabilitation of aged patients with peripheral atherosclerosis.

  5. Serum phosphorus levels and the spectrum of ankle-brachial index in older men: the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jerry; Wassel, Christina L; Kestenbaum, Bryan R; Collins, Tracie C; Criqui, Michael H; Lewis, Cora E; Cummings, Steve R; Ix, Joachim H

    2010-04-15

    A higher serum phosphorus level is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) events among community-living populations. Mechanisms are unknown. The ankle-brachial index (ABI) provides information on both atherosclerosis and arterial stiffness. In this cross-sectional study (2000-2002), the authors evaluated the association of serum phosphorus levels with low (<0.90) and high (> or =1.40 or incompressible) ABI as compared with intermediate ABI in 5,330 older US men, among whom the mean serum phosphorus level was 3.2 mg/dL (standard deviation, 0.4), 6% had a low ABI, and 5% had a high ABI. Each 1-mg/dL increase in serum phosphorus level was associated with a 1.6-fold greater prevalence of low ABI (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.2, 2.1; P < 0.001) and a 1.4-fold greater prevalence of high ABI (95% CI: 1.0, 1.9; P = 0.03) in models adjusted for demographic factors, traditional CVD risk factors, and kidney function. However, the association of phosphorus with high ABI differed by chronic kidney disease (CKD) status (in persons with CKD, prevalence ratio = 2.96, 95% CI: 1.61, 5.45; in persons without CKD, prevalence ratio = 1.14, 95% CI: 0.81, 1.61; interaction P = 0.04). In conclusion, among community-living older men, higher phosphorus levels are associated with low ABI and are also associated with high ABI in persons with CKD. These associations may explain the link between serum phosphorus levels and CVD events.

  6. Estimating true color imagery for GOES-R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossberg, Michael D.; Shahriar, Fazlul; Gladkova, Irina; Alabi, Paul K.; Hillger, Donald W.; Miller, Steven D.

    2011-06-01

    The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) on GOES-R will help NOAA's objective of engaging and educating the public on environmental issues by providing near real-time imagery of the earth-atmosphere system. True color satellite images are beneficial to the public, as well as to scientists, who use these images as an important "decision aid" and visualization tool. Unfortunately, ABI only has two visible bands (cyan and red) and does not directly produce the three bands (blue, green, and red) used to create true color imagery. We have developed an algorithm that will produce quantitative true color imagery from ABI. Our algorithm estimates the three tristimulus values of the international standard CIE 1931 XYZ colorspace for each pixel of the ABI image, and thus is compatible with a wide range of software packages and hardware devices. Our algorithm is based on a non-linear statistical regression framework that incorporate both classification and local multispectral regression using training data. We have used training data from the hyper-spectral imager Hyperion. Our algorithm to produce true color images from the ABI is not specific to ABI and may be applicable to other satellites which, like the ABI, do not have the ability to directly produce RGB imagery.

  7. Analyzer-based imaging of spinal fusion in an animal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, M. E.; Beavis, R. C.; Fiorella, David; Schültke, E.; Allen, L. A.; Juurlink, B. H.; Zhong, Z.; Chapman, L. D.

    2008-05-01

    Analyzer-based imaging (ABI) utilizes synchrotron radiation sources to create collimated monochromatic x-rays. In addition to x-ray absorption, this technique uses refraction and scatter rejection to create images. ABI provides dramatically improved contrast over standard imaging techniques. Twenty-one adult male Wistar rats were divided into four experimental groups to undergo the following interventions: (1) non-injured control, (2) decortication alone, (3) decortication with iliac crest bone grafting and (4) decortication with iliac crest bone grafting and interspinous wiring. Surgical procedures were performed at the L5-6 level. Animals were killed at 2, 4 and 6 weeks after the intervention and the spine muscle blocks were excised. Specimens were assessed for the presence of fusion by (1) manual testing, (2) conventional absorption radiography and (3) ABI. ABI showed no evidence of bone fusion in groups 1 and 2 and showed solid or possibly solid fusion in subjects from groups 3 and 4 at 6 weeks. Metal artifacts were not present in any of the ABI images. Conventional absorption radiographs did not provide diagnostic quality imaging of either the graft material or fusion masses in any of the specimens in any of the groups. Synchrotron-based ABI represents a novel imaging technique which can be used to assess spinal fusion in a small animal model. ABI produces superior image quality when compared to conventional radiographs.

  8. Associations Between Ankle-Brachial Index and Cognitive Function: Results from the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Trial

    PubMed Central

    Espeland, Mark A.; Newman, Anne B.; Sink, Kaycee; Gill, Thomas M.; King, Abby C.; Miller, Michael E.; Guralnik, Jack; Katula, Jeff; Church, Timothy; Manini, Todd; Reid, Kieran F.; McDermott, Mary M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between ankle-brachial index (ABI) and indicators of cognitive function DESIGN Randomized clinical trial (Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Trial) SETTING Eight US academic centers PARTICIPANTS 1,601 adults (ages 70–89 years, sedentary, non-demented, and with functional limitations MEASUREMENTS Baseline ABI and interviewer- and computer-administered cognitive function assessments were obtained from which compared a physical activity intervention with a health education control. Cognitive function was re-assessed 24 months later (interviewer-administered) and 18 or 30 months later (computer-administered) and central adjudication was used to classify individuals as having mild cognitive impairment, probable dementia, or neither. RESULTS Lower ABI had a modest independent association poorer cognitive functioning at baseline (partial r=0.09; p<0.001). While, lower baseline ABI was not associated with overall changes in cognitive function test scores, it was associated with higher odds for two-year progression to a composite of either mild cognitive impairment or probable dementia (OR=2.60 per unit lower ABI; 95% confidence interval [1.06,6.37]). Across two years, changes in ABI were not associated with changes in cognitive function. CONCLUSION In an older cohort of non-demented sedentary individuals with functional limitations, lower baseline ABI was independently correlated with cognitive function and associated with greater 2-year risk for progression to mild cognitive impairment or probable dementia. PMID:25869993

  9. Correlation between Patient-Reported Symptoms and Ankle-Brachial Index after Revascularization for Peripheral Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    Je, Hyung Gon; Kim, Bo Hyun; Cho, Kyoung Im; Jang, Jae Sik; Park, Yong Hyun; Spertus, John

    2015-01-01

    Improvement in quality of life (QoL) is a primary treatment goal for patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). The current study aimed to quantify improvement in the health status of PAD patients following peripheral revascularization using the peripheral artery questionnaire (PAQ) and ankle-brachial index (ABI), and to evaluate possible correlation between the two methods. The PAQ and ABI were assessed in 149 symptomatic PAD patients before, and three months after peripheral revascularization. Mean PAQ summary scores improved significantly three months after revascularization (+49.3 ± 15 points, p < 0.001). PAQ scores relating to patient symptoms showed the largest improvement following revascularization. The smallest increases were seen in reported treatment satisfaction (all p’s < 0.001). As expected the ABI of treated limbs showed significant improvement post-revascularization (p < 0.001). ABI after revascularization correlated with patient-reported changes in the physical function and QoL domains of the PAQ. Twenty-two percent of PAD patients were identified as having a poor response to revascularization (increase in ABI < 0.15). Interestingly, poor responders reported improvement in symptoms on the PAQ, although this was less marked than in patients with an increase in ABI > 0.15 following revascularization. In conclusion, data from the current study suggest a significant correlation between improvement in patient-reported outcomes assessed by PAQ and ABI in symptomatic PAD patients undergoing peripheral revascularization. PMID:25993299

  10. Biological and clinical effects of abiraterone on anti-resorptive and anabolic activity in bone microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Iuliani, Michele; Pantano, Francesco; Buttigliero, Consuelo; Fioramonti, Marco; Bertaglia, Valentina; Vincenzi, Bruno; Zoccoli, Alice; Ribelli, Giulia; Tucci, Marcello; Vignani, Francesca; Berruti, Alfredo; Scagliotti, Giorgio Vittorio; Tonini, Giuseppe; Santini, Daniele

    2015-05-20

    Abiraterone acetate (ABI) is associated not only with a significant survival advantage in both chemotherapy-naive and -treated patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), but also with a delay in time to development of Skeletal Related Events and in radiological skeletal progression. These bone benefits may be related to a direct effect on prostate cancer cells in bone or to a specific mechanism directed to bone microenvironment. To test this hypothesis we designed an in vitro study aimed to evaluate a potential direct effect of ABI on human primary osteoclasts/osteoblasts (OCLs/OBLs). We also assessed changes in bone turnover markers, serum carboxy-terminal collagen crosslinks (CTX) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), in 49 mCRPC patients treated with ABI.Our results showed that non-cytotoxic doses of ABI have a statistically significant inhibitory effect on OCL differentiation and activity inducing a down-modulation of OCL marker genes TRAP, cathepsin K and metalloproteinase-9. Furthermore ABI promoted OBL differentiation and bone matrix deposition up-regulating OBL specific genes, ALP and osteocalcin. Finally, we observed a significant decrease of serum CTX values and an increase of ALP in ABI-treated patients.These findings suggest a novel biological mechanism of action of ABI consisting in a direct bone anabolic and anti-resorptive activity.

  11. Acquired Brain Injury, Social Work and the Challenges of Personalisation

    PubMed Central

    Holloway, Mark; Fyson, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Increasing numbers of adults in the UK are living with acquired brain injury (ABI), with those affected requiring immediate medical care and longer-term rehabilitative and social care. Despite their social needs, limited attention has been paid to people with ABI within the social work literature and their needs are also often overlooked in policy and guidance. As a means of highlighting the challenge that ABI presents to statutory social work, this paper will start by outlining the common characteristics of ABI and consider the (limited) relevant policy guidance. The particular difficulties of reconciling the needs of people with ABI with the prevailing orthodoxies of personalisation will then be explored, with a particular focus on the mismatch between systems which rest on presumptions autonomy and the circumstances of individuals with ABI—typified by executive dysfunction and lack of insight into their own condition. Composite case studies, drawn from the first author's experiences as a case manager for individuals with ABI, will be used to illustrate the arguments being made. The paper will conclude by considering the knowledge and skills which social workers need in order to better support people with ABI. PMID:27559229

  12. Basic Pentacysteine Proteins Repress Abscisic Acid Insensitive4 Expression via Direct Recruitment of the Polycomb-Repressive Complex 2 in Arabidopsis Root Development.

    PubMed

    Mu, Ying; Zou, Meijuan; Sun, Xuwu; He, Baoye; Xu, Xiumei; Liu, Yini; Zhang, Lixin; Chi, Wei

    2017-01-30

    Plant transcription factors generally act in complex regulatory networks that function at multiple levels to govern plant developmental programs. Dissection of the interconnections among different classes of transcription factors can elucidate these regulatory networks and thus improve our understanding of plant development. Here, we investigated the molecular and functional relationships of the transcription factors ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 4 (ABI4) and members of the BASIC PENTACYSTEINE (BPC) family in lateral root (LR) development of Arabidopsis thaliana Genetic analysis showed that BPCs promote LR development by repressing ABI4 expression. Molecular analysis showed that BPCs bind to the ABI4 promoter and repress ABI4 transcription in roots. BPCs directly recruit the Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) to the ABI4 locus and epigenetically repress ABI4 expression by catalyzing the trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 27. In addition, BPCs and ABI4 coordinate their activities to fine-tune the levels of PIN-FORMED1, a component of the auxin signaling pathway, and thus modulate LR formation. These results establish a functional relationship between two universal and multiple-role transcription factors and provide insight into the mechanisms of the transcriptional regulatory networks that affect Arabidopsis organogenesis.

  13. Evolutionarily conserved regulatory mechanisms of abscisic acid signaling in land plants: characterization of ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE1-like type 2C protein phosphatase in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha.

    PubMed

    Tougane, Ken; Komatsu, Kenji; Bhyan, Salma Begum; Sakata, Yoichi; Ishizaki, Kimitsune; Yamato, Katsuyuki T; Kohchi, Takayuki; Takezawa, Daisuke

    2010-03-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is postulated to be a ubiquitous hormone that plays a central role in seed development and responses to environmental stresses of vascular plants. However, in liverworts (Marchantiophyta), which represent the oldest extant lineage of land plants, the role of ABA has been least emphasized; thus, very little information is available on the molecular mechanisms underlying ABA responses. In this study, we isolated and characterized MpABI1, an ortholog of ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE1 (ABI1), from the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha. The MpABI1 cDNA encoded a 568-amino acid protein consisting of the carboxy-terminal protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) domain and a novel amino-terminal regulatory domain. The MpABI1 transcript was detected in the gametophyte, and its expression level was increased by exogenous ABA treatment in the gemma, whose growth was strongly inhibited by ABA. Experiments using green fluorescent protein fusion constructs indicated that MpABI1 was mainly localized in the nucleus and that its nuclear localization was directed by the amino-terminal domain. Transient overexpression of MpABI1 in M. polymorpha and Physcomitrella patens cells resulted in suppression of ABA-induced expression of the wheat Em promoter fused to the beta -glucuronidase gene. Transgenic P. patens expressing MpABI1 and its mutant construct, MpABI1-d2, lacking the amino-terminal domain, had reduced freezing and osmotic stress tolerance, and associated with reduced accumulation of ABA-induced late embryogenesis abundant-like boiling-soluble proteins. Furthermore, ABA-induced morphological changes leading to brood cells were not prominent in these transgenic plants. These results suggest that MpABI1 is a negative regulator of ABA signaling, providing unequivocal molecular evidence of PP2C-mediated ABA response mechanisms functioning in liverworts.

  14. Effects of age, sex and smoking on ankle-brachial index in a Finnish population at risk for cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Syvänen, Kari; Aarnio, Pertti; Jaatinen, Pekka; Korhonen, Päivi

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND Smoking is a well-known risk factor for peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Data regarding differences in the prevalence of PAD between sexes are somewhat controversial. In addition, most studies indicate that the prevalence of PAD increases with age in both sexes. In the present study, the effects of sex, age and smoking on the ankle-brachial index (ABI) in a Finnish cardiovascular risk population were investigated. OBJECTIVES To investigate the relationship between the ankle-brachial index, and age, sex and smoking in a Finnish population at risk for cardiovascular disease. METHODS All men and women between 45 and 70 years of age living in a rural town (Harjavalta, Finland; total population 7700) were invited to participate in a population survey (Harmonica study). Patients with previously diagnosed diabetes or vascular disease were excluded. In total, 2856 patients were invited to participate in the study. From these subjects, a cardiovascular risk population was screened. Complete data were available from 1028 persons. ABI (the ratio between the posterior tibial or dorsalis pedis artery and brachial artery pressures) was measured, and questionnaires were used to detect smoking status and relevant medical history. Only current smoking status was taken into account. RESULTS The mean ABI for the entire study population was 1.10 (range 0.56 to 1.64). Current smokers had a lower mean ABI (1.06; P<0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in ABI values among age groups, although the majority of patients with ABI values below 0.9 were older than 60 years of age. There was no statistically significant difference in ABI between sexes. CONCLUSION As previously reported, the present study shows the significant effect of smoking in the development of PAD. No statistically significant difference was found among age groups, but the tendency was toward lower ABIs in the oldest age groups. Sex had a minimal effect on the ABI. PMID:22477327

  15. Cancer mutation screening: Comparison of high-resolution melt analysis between two platforms.

    PubMed

    Ebili, Henry O; Ilyas, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution melt analysis (HRMA) is a cheap and reliable post-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) cancer mutation screening technique, which is fast gaining clinical relevance. The HRMA capabilities of the LightScanner (Idaho Technology) have been severally studied. However, the ABI 7500 HRM has not been tested against the purpose-built HRM instrument such as the LightScanner. DNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, and normal tissue as well as from colorectal cancer cell lines were amplified at exons 2, 3, and 4 of KRAS, and at exons 11 and 15 of BRAF in the ABI 7500 fast real-time PCR machine and subjected to melting both on the ABI and on the LightScanner. HRMA data were analysed with the ABI HRM software v2.0.1 and the LightScanner Call-IT 2.5. We tested the ABI 7500 HRM for internal precision, accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity at mutation screening relative to the LightScanner, using crude percentage concordance, kappa statistics, and the area under the receiver operator characteristics (AUROC) curve on SPSS version 19. The results show that the ABI 7500 HRMA has a high internal precision, and excellent concordance, sensitivity, and specificity at mutation screening compared with the LightScanner. However, in contrast to the LightScanner HRM software analysis, the ABI HRM software v.2.0.1, cannot distinguish real from certain pseudovariations in PCR amplicons that are sometimes brought about by the artefacts of the melting process. In conclusion, the ABI HRM has a comparable performance level with the LightScanner, although in certain respects mentioned previously, the LightScanner has an edge over the ABI.

  16. Chemical composition of essential oils of Grindelia squarrosa and G. hirsutula.

    PubMed

    Veres, Katalin; Roza, Orsolya; Laczkó-Zöld, Eszter; Hohmann, Judit

    2014-04-01

    The essential oils of Grindelia squarrosa (Pursh) Dunal and G. hirsutula Hook. & Am. cultivated in Romania were isolated by hydrodistillation. The essential oils were analyzed by a combination of GC-FID and GC-MS. The identification of the constituents was achieved from their retention indices and comparison of their MS data with computer library database and literature data. The fifty-six identified constituents accounted for 72.1-81.3% of the oils. The oils were found to contain a-pinene, beta-pinene, limonene, borneol, bornyl acetate and germacrene D as main constituents. The oils obtained from the two species showed small differences in chemical composition. However, menthol, menthone and pulegone were detected only in the essential oil of G. hirsutula.

  17. Mapping broom snakeweed through image analysis of color-infrared photography and digital imagery.

    PubMed

    Everitt, J H; Yang, C

    2007-11-01

    A study was conducted on a south Texas rangeland area to evaluate aerial color-infrared (CIR) photography and CIR digital imagery combined with unsupervised image analysis techniques to map broom snakeweed [Gutierrezia sarothrae (Pursh.) Britt. and Rusby]. Accuracy assessments performed on computer-classified maps of photographic images from two sites had mean producer's and user's accuracies for broom snakeweed of 98.3 and 88.3%, respectively; whereas, accuracy assessments performed on classified maps from digital images of the same two sites had mean producer's and user's accuracies for broom snakeweed of 98.3 and 92.8%, respectively. These results indicate that CIR photography and CIR digital imagery combined with image analysis techniques can be used successfully to map broom snakeweed infestations on south Texas rangelands.

  18. Composition of essential oil of aerial parts of Chamomilla suaveolens from Estonia.

    PubMed

    Orav, Anne; Sepp, Janne; Kailas, Tiiu; Müürisepp, Mati; Arak, Elmar; Raal, Ain

    2010-01-01

    Variations in the essential oil composition of aerial parts of pineapple weed (Chamomilla suaveolens (Pursh) Rydb.) growing wild in Estonia, were determined using GC/FID and GC/MS. Forty-four components were identified, representing over 90% of the total oil. Nine compounds have not been mentioned in the literature before. The principal biologically active compounds in C. suaveolens oils were (Z)-en-yne-dicycloether (17.0-40.7%), (E)-beta-farnesene (19.5-32.2%), geranyl isovaleriate (8.4-18.4%), palmitic acid (0.3-9.4%) and myrcene (1.1-7.9%). The investigation seems to approve the benefit of using aerial parts of pineapple weed as the substitute for flowers.

  19. Molecular cytogenetic (FISH) and genome analysis of diploid wheatgrasses and their phylogenetic relationship

    PubMed Central

    Gaál, Eszter; Molnár, István; Icsó, Diana; Badaeva, Ekaterina; Molnár-Láng, Márta

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports detailed FISH-based karyotypes for three diploid wheatgrass species Agropyron cristatum (L.) Beauv., Thinopyrum bessarabicum (Savul.&Rayss) A. Löve, Pseudoroegneria spicata (Pursh) A. Löve, the supposed ancestors of hexaploid Thinopyrum intermedium (Host) Barkworth & D.R.Dewey, compiled using DNA repeats and comparative genome analysis based on COS markers. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with repetitive DNA probes proved suitable for the identification of individual chromosomes in the diploid JJ, StSt and PP genomes. Of the seven microsatellite markers tested only the (GAA)n trinucleotide sequence was appropriate for use as a single chromosome marker for the P. spicata AS chromosome. Based on COS marker analysis, the phylogenetic relationship between diploid wheatgrasses and the hexaploid bread wheat genomes was established. These findings confirmed that the J and E genomes are in neighbouring clusters. PMID:28278169

  20. Clinical Trial Updates and Hotline Sessions presented at the European Society of Cardiology Congress 2007: (FINESSE, CARESS, OASIS 5, PRAGUE-8, OPTIMIST, GRACE, STEEPLE, SCAAR, STRATEGY, DANAMI-2, ExTRACT-TIMI-25, ISAR-REACT 2, ACUITY, ALOFT, 3CPO, PROSPECT, EVEREST, COACH, BENEFiT, MERLIN-TIMI 36, SEARCH-MI, ADVANCE, WENBIT, EUROASPIRE I-III, ARISE, getABI, RIO).

    PubMed

    Kindermann, Michael; Adam, Oliver; Werner, Nikos; Böhm, Michael

    2007-11-01

    This article provides information and commentaries on trials which were presented at the Hotline and Clinical Trial Update Sessions at the European Society of Cardiology Congress 2007 in Vienna. The key presentations were performed by leading experts in the field with relevant positions in the trials or registries. It is important to note that unpublished reports should be considered as preliminary data, as the analysis may change in the final publications. The comprehensive summaries have been generated from the oral presentation and the webcasts of the European Society of Cardiology and should provide the readers with the most comprehensive information of relevant publications.

  1. Your P.A.D. Checklist

    MedlinePlus

    ... index (ABI) test to assist, as well. TOTAL CHOLESTEROL Desirable : less than 200 mg/dL Borderline High: ... dL High : 240 mg/dL and above TOTAL CHOLESTEROL Date HDL CHOLESTEROL HDL cholesterol less than 40 ...

  2. Your P.A.D. Checklist | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... index (ABI) test to assist, as well. TOTAL CHOLESTEROL Desirable : less than 200 mg/dL Borderline High: ... dL High : 240 mg/dL and above TOTAL CHOLESTEROL Date HDL CHOLESTEROL HDL cholesterol less than 40 ...

  3. 78 FR 59729 - Final Comparative Environmental Evaluation of Alternatives for Handling Low-Level Radioactive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... alter any important attribute of the resource. Moderate. The environmental effects are sufficient to noticeably alter, but not destabilize important attributes of the resource. Large. The environmental effects... Commission. Aby Mohseni, Deputy Director, Environmental Protection and Performance Directorate, Division...

  4. 78 FR 69460 - Proposed License Renewal of the Prairie Island Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ...), ``Environmental Protection Regulations for Domestic Licensing and Related Regulatory Functions,'' which implement.... MODERATE--environmental effects are sufficient to alter noticeably, but not to destabilize important.... Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Aby Mohseni, Deputy Director, Environmental Protection and...

  5. 19 CFR 143.1 - Eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SPECIAL ENTRY PROCEDURES Automated Broker Interface § 143.1 Eligibility. The Automated Broker Interface (ABI) is a module of the Customs Automated Commercial System (ACS) which allows participants...

  6. 21 CFR 1.279 - When must prior notice be submitted to FDA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... submitted via Automated Broker Interface/Automated Commercial System (ABI/ACS), you may not submit prior... submitted via the FDA Prior Notice System Interface (FDA PNSI), you may not submit prior notice more than...

  7. 19 CFR 143.1 - Eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SPECIAL ENTRY PROCEDURES Automated Broker Interface § 143.1 Eligibility. The Automated Broker Interface (ABI) is a module of the Customs Automated Commercial System (ACS) which allows participants...

  8. 21 CFR 1.279 - When must prior notice be submitted to FDA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... submitted via Automated Broker Interface/Automated Commercial System (ABI/ACS), you may not submit prior... submitted via the FDA Prior Notice System Interface (FDA PNSI), you may not submit prior notice more than...

  9. 21 CFR 1.279 - When must prior notice be submitted to FDA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... submitted via Automated Broker Interface/Automated Commercial System (ABI/ACS), you may not submit prior... submitted via the FDA Prior Notice System Interface (FDA PNSI), you may not submit prior notice more than...

  10. 19 CFR 143.1 - Eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SPECIAL ENTRY PROCEDURES Automated Broker Interface § 143.1 Eligibility. The Automated Broker Interface (ABI) is a module of the Customs Automated Commercial System (ACS) which allows participants...

  11. 19 CFR 143.1 - Eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SPECIAL ENTRY PROCEDURES Automated Broker Interface § 143.1 Eligibility. The Automated Broker Interface (ABI) is a module of the Customs Automated Commercial System (ACS) which allows participants...

  12. 19 CFR 143.1 - Eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SPECIAL ENTRY PROCEDURES Automated Broker Interface § 143.1 Eligibility. The Automated Broker Interface (ABI) is a module of the Customs Automated Commercial System (ACS) which allows participants...

  13. Adaptive Biomedical Innovation: Evolving Our Global System to Sustainably and Safely Bring New Medicines to Patients in Need.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, G; Trusheim, M; Cobbs, E; Bala, M; Garner, S; Hartman, D; Isaacs, K; Lumpkin, M; Lim, R; Oye, K; Pezalla, E; Saltonstall, P; Selker, H

    2016-12-01

    The current system of biomedical innovation is unable to keep pace with scientific advancements. We propose to address this gap by reengineering innovation processes to accelerate reliable delivery of products that address unmet medical needs. Adaptive biomedical innovation (ABI) provides an integrative, strategic approach for process innovation. Although the term "ABI" is new, it encompasses fragmented "tools" that have been developed across the global pharmaceutical industry, and could accelerate the evolution of the system through more coordinated application. ABI involves bringing stakeholders together to set shared objectives, foster trust, structure decision-making, and manage expectations through rapid-cycle feedback loops that maximize product knowledge and reduce uncertainty in a continuous, adaptive, and sustainable learning healthcare system. Adaptive decision-making, a core element of ABI, provides a framework for structuring decision-making designed to manage two types of uncertainty - the maturity of scientific and clinical knowledge, and the behaviors of other critical stakeholders.

  14. Ankle-brachial index and extent of atherosclerosis in patients from the Middle East (the AGATHA-ME study): a cross-sectional multicenter study.

    PubMed

    El-Menyar, Ayman; Amin, Haitham; Rashdan, Ibrahim; Souliman, Kadhim; Deleu, Dirk; Saadat, Kamran; Al Mahmeed, Wael; Bakir, Sharif; Wasif, Adel; Ben Brek, Azan; Bazargani, Nooshin; Ahmed Abdel Aziz; Singh, Rajvir; Hatou, Iman; Mahmoud, Hisham; Al Suwaidi, Jassim

    2009-01-01

    To assess the extent of atherothrombosis and the use of the ankle-brachial index (ABI) in populations from the Middle East, we conducted a multicenter study similar to AGATHA (a Global Atherothrombosis Assessment), AGATHA-ME, which included 1341 patients from 18 centers from 5 countries (United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, and Oman). Patients were assigned to 2 groups: the with-disease and at-risk groups. Abnormal ABI (< or =0.9) was seen in 31.5% of at-risk patients and 28.2% of with-disease patients. Patients with peripheral arterial disease had the highest frequency of abnormal ABI (77.6%), with 97.8 negative predictive value. The AGATHA-ME study confirms that atherothrombosis disease often occurs at more than 1 site. The ABI is related to the risk factor profile and to the site and extent of atherothrombosis. Gender and diabetes mellitus are associated with the worst parameters.

  15. Yield of four Agaricus bisporus strains in three compost formulations and chemical composition analyses of the mushrooms

    PubMed Central

    de Andrade, Meire Cristina Nogueira; Zied, Diego Cunha; de Almeida Minhoni, Marli Teixeira; Kopytowski Filho, João

    2008-01-01

    Three compost formulations, consisting of two varieties of Cynodom dactylon (L.) Pers. (Coast-cross and Tyfton) and oat (Avena sativa) straw were tested for the cultivation of A. bisporus strains ABI-01/01, ABI-04/02, ABI-05/03, and ABI-06/04. A completely randomized experimental design in a factorial scheme was adopted, with 12 treatments (4 A. bisporus strains × 3 types of compost) and 8 replicates. Each experimental unit corresponded to one box containing 12 – 12.5 kg fresh wet compost. The data were submitted to analysis of variance and the means were compared by Tukey test. According to the results, productivity of mushrooms was influenced by strain and/or compost type. It was also verified that crude protein, ash, and crude fiber contents in the mushroom varied with A. bisporus strain and straw used in the formulation of the compost. PMID:24031271

  16. Spin-orbit coupling enhanced superconductivity in Bi-rich compounds ABi₃ (A = Sr and Ba).

    PubMed

    Shao, D F; Luo, X; Lu, W J; Hu, L; Zhu, X D; Song, W H; Zhu, X B; Sun, Y P

    2016-02-19

    Recently, Bi-based compounds have attracted attentions because of the strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC). In this work, we figured out the role of SOC in ABi3 (A = Sr and Ba) by theoretical investigation of the band structures, phonon properties, and electron-phonon coupling. Without SOC, strong Fermi surface nesting leads to phonon instabilities in ABi3. SOC suppresses the nesting and stabilizes the structure. Moreover, without SOC the calculation largely underestimates the superconducting transition temperatures (Tc), while with SOC the calculated Tc are very close to those determined by measurements on single crystal samples. The SOC enhanced superconductivity in ABi3 is due to not only the SOC induced phonon softening, but also the SOC related increase of electron-phonon coupling matrix elements. ABi3 can be potential platforms to construct heterostructure of superconductor/topological insulator to realize topological superconductivity.

  17. Intrafacility transportation of patients with acute brain injury.

    PubMed

    Tu, Hsinfen

    2014-06-01

    Patients with acute brain injury (ABI) frequently require diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in the areas located outside of the intensive care unit. Transports can be risky for critically ill patients with ABI. Secondary brain injury can occur during the transport from causes such as ischemia, hypotension, hypoxia, hypercapnia, and cerebral edema. Preparation and implementation of preventive procedures including pretransport assessment, monitoring during transport, and posttransport examination and documentation for transports of patients with ABI deem to be necessary. The purpose of this article is to review the typical risks associated with the transports of the patients with ABI out of the intensive care unit and to propose the strategies that can be used to minimize the risks of secondary brain injury.

  18. JANTX/N98B Zener diode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Tested diodes were manufactured aby Motorola and Siemens. Both sample lots performed well in groups 1 and 3 testing. Group 2 testing was most detrimental of three groups. Extreme heat was big factor in failure mode.

  19. The Status of Business Communication Technology: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Al; Ross, Dianne

    1992-01-01

    Provides a bibliography of 79 articles on technology and communication from the following sources: "ABI/Inform,""Academic Abstracts,""ERIC,""UMI's Dissertation Abstracts,""Wilson's Applied Science and Technology Index" and "Wilson's Education Index" (1986 through 1991); the "Journal…

  20. Treating P.A.D. | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... on. Feature: Peripheral Artery Disease Treating P.A.D. Past Issues / Fall 2011 Table of Contents As ... develop a supervised weight loss plan. P.A.D. Glossary Ankle-brachial index (ABI) A simple test ...

  1. 21 CFR 1.279 - When must prior notice be submitted to FDA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... submitted via Automated Broker Interface/Automated Commercial System (ABI/ACS), you may not submit prior... submitted via the FDA Prior Notice System Interface (FDA PNSI), you may not submit prior notice more than...

  2. 21 CFR 1.279 - When must prior notice be submitted to FDA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... submitted via Automated Broker Interface/Automated Commercial System (ABI/ACS), you may not submit prior... submitted via the FDA Prior Notice System Interface (FDA PNSI), you may not submit prior notice more than...

  3. Adaptive Biomedical Innovation.

    PubMed

    Honig, P K; Hirsch, G

    2016-12-01

    Adaptive Biomedical Innovation (ABI) is a multistakeholder approach to product and process innovation aimed at accelerating the delivery of clinical value to patients and society. ABI offers the opportunity to transcend the fragmentation and linearity of decision-making in our current model and create a common collaborative framework that optimizes the benefit and access of new medicines for patients as well as creating a more sustainable innovation ecosystem.

  4. Susceptibility to low-temperature photoinhibition in three conifers differing in successional status.

    PubMed

    Robakowski, Piotr

    2005-09-01

    Susceptibility to photoinhibition of the evergreen conifers Abies alba Mill., Picea abies (L.) Karst. and Pinus mugo Turra was investigated in an unheated greenhouse during winter and spring 2003. Photosynthetic performance of the seedlings was assessed by chlorophyll a fluorescence and analyses of chlorophyll and total carotenoid concentrations in needles. During winter months, maximum quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (ratio of variable to maximum fluorescence, Fv/Fm) was significantly greater in A. alba than in P. abies and P. mugo. Abies alba also sustained higher maximum apparent electron transport rate (ETRmax) than P. abies and P. mugo. Total concentrations of chlorophyll and carotenoids in needles decreased during the winter in P. mugo and P. abies, but remained stable in A. alba. For all species, Fv/Fm decreased from December until February and then increased to a maximum in April. Photoinhibition was greatest (Fv/Fm < 0.80) in all seedlings in February, the month with the lowest mean temperature. Saturating photosynthetic photon flux (PPFsat) and ETRmax were positively related to air temperature. All species had lower values of ETRmax and PPFsat in winter than in spring. Non-photochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence (NPQ) was highest at low air temperatures. Differences among species in susceptibility to winter photoinhibition resulted from their specific light preferences and led to different mechanisms to cope with photoinhibitory stress. The more shade-tolerant A. alba sustained a higher photosynthetic capacity in winter than P. abies and P. mugo. Winter photoinhibition in P. abies, P. mugo and, to a lesser extent, in A. alba may reflect adaptive photoprotection of the photosynthetic apparatus in winter.

  5. Association of Far-Infrared Radiation Therapy and Ankle-Brachial Index of Patients on Hemodialysis with Peripheral Artery Occlusive Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Szu-Chia; Lee, Mei-Yueh; Huang, Jiun-Chi; Kuo, I-Ching; Mai, Hsiu-Chin; Kuo, Po-Lin; Chang, Jer-Ming; Hwang, Shang-Jyh; Chen, Hung-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim: The ankle-brachial index (ABI) is recognized to be a good marker for atherosclerosis, and is useful in the diagnosis of peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD) which is prevalent among patients on hemodialysis (HD). Methods: This randomized trial aimed to evaluate the effect of far-infrared radiation (FIR) therapy on ABI in HD patients with PAOD. PAOD was defined as patients with ABI < 0.95. One hundred and eight HD patients were enrolled, including 50 in the control group and 58 in the FIR group. A WS TY101 FIR emitter was applied for 40 minutes during each HD session, three times per week for six months. The ABI was measured before and after the FIR therapy. Results: Regardless of FIR therapy, the bilateral ABI decreased (in the FIR group, left: 0.88±0.22 to 0.85±0.24, p = 0.188; right: 0.92±0.20 to 0.90±0.23, p = 0.372; in control group, left: 0.91±0.23 to 0.88±0.21, p = 0144; right: 0.93±0.17 to 0.89±0.21, p = 0.082). Multivariate logistic analysis of the FIR group revealed that high uric acid (odds ratio [OR]: 2.335; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.117-4.882; p=0.024) and aspirin use (OR: 16.463; 95% CI: 1.787-151.638; p=0.013) were independently associated with increased bilateral ABI after FIR therapy. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that ABI is not increased after FIR therapy in HD patients with PAOD. However, in the FIR group, patients with higher uric acid level or those who used aspirin have increased bilateral ABI after FIR therapy. PMID:27994503

  6. Prognostic value of an abnormal ankle-brachial index in patients receiving drug-eluting stents.

    PubMed

    Ribera, Aida; Ferreira-González, Ignacio; Marsal, Josep Ramón; Cascant, Purificación; Permanyer-Miralda, Gaietà; Abdul-Jawad, Omar; Iñigo-Garcia, Luis Antonio; Guarinos-Oltra, Jordi; Cequier, Angel; Goicolea-Güemez, Leire; García-Del-Blanco, Bruno; Martí, Gerard; García-Dorado, David

    2011-11-01

    Advanced atherosclerotic disease increases the risk of stent thrombosis after drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation. We aimed to determine if an abnormal ankle-brachial index (ABI) value as a surrogate of atherosclerotic disease and vascular inflammation provides information on 1-year risk of cardiovascular events after DES implantation. A prospective cohort of 1,437 consecutive patients undergoing DES implantation from January through April 2008 in 26 Spanish hospitals was examined. ABI was calculated by Doppler in a standardized manner. Patients were followed to 12 months after the percutaneous coronary intervention to determine total and cardiovascular mortality, stroke, nonfatal acute coronary syndrome (ACS), and new revascularizations. Association of an abnormal ABI value (i.e., ≤ 0.9 or ≥ 1.4) with outcomes was assessed by conventional logistic regression and by propensity-score analysis. Patients with abnormal ABI values (n = 582, 40.5%) in general had higher global cardiovascular risk, the reason for DES implantation was more often ACS, and had a higher rate of complications during admission (heart failure or stroke or major hemorrhage 11.3% vs 5.3%, p <0.001). An abnormal ABI value was independently associated with 1-year total mortality (odds ratio 2.23, 95% confidence interval 1.13 to 4.4) and cardiovascular mortality (odds ratio 2.06, 95% confidence interval 1.04 to 4.22). No independent association was found between an abnormal ABI value and 1-year nonfatal ACS, stroke, and new revascularizations. In conclusion, although an abnormal ABI value was associated with fatal outcomes in patients receiving DESs, no association was found with nonfatal ACS and new revascularizations. A clear relation between abnormal ABI and surrogates of DES thrombosis could not be established.

  7. Auditory Brainstem Implant Candidacy in the United States in Children 0-17 Years Old

    PubMed Central

    Puram, Sidharth V.; Owoc, Maryanna S.; Shah, Parth V.; Hight, A. E.; Sethi, Rosh K.V.; Remenschneider, Aaron K.; Lee, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Advances in neuroprosthetic technology have ushered in a new era for children with hearing loss. The auditory brainstem implant (ABI) is an option for hearing rehabilitation in profoundly deaf patients ineligible for cochlear implantation. No study has examined the potential population-level demand for ABIs in the United States (US). Herein, we aim to quantify the potential need for pediatric ABIs. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted to identify studies detailing the rates of congenital cochlear and/or cochlear nerve (CN) anomalies. Absolute indications for ABI include bilateral cochlea or CN aplasia (Group A), and relative indications for ABI include bilateral cochlea or CN hypoplasia (Group B). Data was subsequently correlated to the US Census Bureau, the National Health Interview Survey, and the Gallaudet Research Institute to provide an estimation of pediatric ABI candidates. Results Eleven studies documented rates of bilateral findings. Bilateral cochlea aplasia was identified in 0-8.7% of patients and bilateral CN aplasia in 0-4.8% of patients (Group A). Bilateral cochlea hypoplasia was identified in 0-8.7% of patients and bilateral CN hypoplasia in 0-5.4% of patients (Group B). Using population-level sensorineural hearing loss data, we roughly estimate 2.1% of children with severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss meet absolute indications for an ABI in the United States. Conclusion Congenital cochlear and cochlear nerve anomalies are exceedingly rare. This study provides the first preliminary estimate of cochlea and CN aplasia/hypoplasia at the population level albeit with limitations based on available data. These data suggest the need for dedicated ABI centers to focus expertise and management. PMID:25577282

  8. 17AAG-induced internalisation of HER2-specific Affibody molecules

    PubMed Central

    Göstring, Lovisa; Lindegren, Sture; Gedda, Lars

    2016-01-01

    The geldanamycin derivative 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) is known to induce internalisation and degradation of the otherwise internalisation-resistant human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) receptor. In the present study, 17-AAG was used to increase internalisation of the HER2-specific Affibody molecule ABY-025. The cellular redistribution of halogen-labelled 211At-ABY-025 and radiometal-labelled 111In-ABY-025 following treatment with 17-AAG was studied. 17-AAG treatment of SKOV-3 human ovarian carcinoma and SKBR-3 human breast carcinoma cells to some extent shifted the localisation of 111In-ABY-025 from the cell surface to intracellular compartments in the two cell lines. ABY-025 labelled with the high-linear energy transfer α emitter 211At was also internalised to a higher degree; however, due to its physiological properties, this nuclide was excreted faster. The results indicate that 17-AAG may be used to facilitate cell-specific intracellular localisation of a suitable cytotoxic or radioactive agent coupled to ABY-025 in HER2-overexpressing cells. PMID:27698830

  9. Role of PP2C-mediated ABA signaling in the moss Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Yoichi; Komatsu, Kenji; Taji, Teruaki; Tanaka, Shigeo

    2009-09-01

    Plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is found in a wide range of land plants, from mosses to angiosperms. However, our knowledge concerning the function of ABA is limited to some angiosperm plant species. We have shown that the basal land plant Physcomitrella patens and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana share a conserved abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway mediated through ABI1-related type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs). Ectopic expression of Arabidopsis abi1-1, a dominant allele of ABI1 that functions as a negative regulator of ABA signaling, or targeted disruption of Physcomitrella ABI1-related gene (PpABI1A) resulted in altered ABA sensitivity and abiotic stress tolerance of Physcomitrella, as demonstrated by osmostress and freezing stress. Moreover, transgenic Physcomitrella overexpressing abi1-1 showed altered morphogenesis. These transgenic plants had longer stem lengths compared to the wild type, and continuous growth of archegonia (female organ) with few sporophytes under non-stress conditions. Our results suggest that PP2C-mediated ABA signaling is involved in both the abiotic stress responses and developmental regulation of Physcomitrella.

  10. Factors associated with self-esteem following acquired brain injury in adults: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Curvis, William; Simpson, Jane; Hampson, Natalie

    2016-03-03

    Self-esteem is potentially a key factor in psychological and psychosocial well-being following acquired brain injury (ABI). The current review aimed to identify, synthesise and appraise all existing quantitative empirical studies on predictors or correlates of self-esteem following ABI in adulthood. In total, 27 papers met the inclusion criteria. A range of clinical factors were related to self-esteem after ABI, including the degree of physical and functional impairment. It is unclear if cognitive impairment is related to high or low self-esteem. Additionally, psychological variables such as coping styles, adjustment and perception of problems or rehabilitation are related to self-esteem following ABI. Depression is strongly associated with low self-esteem, alongside anxiety, psychological distress and quality of life. Limitations of the available research and recommendations for clinical practice and further research are discussed. In particular, there is a need to engage with contemporary theoretical understandings of self-esteem, integrated with and supported by developments in how self-esteem is conceptualised and measured over time in an ABI population. The findings of the review suggest that self-esteem is an important factor to consider following ABI, particularly in the context of developing individualised, formulation-driven rehabilitation interventions that take into account biological, social and psychological factors.

  11. Family caregivers' support needs after brain injury: a synthesis of perspectives from caregivers, programs, and researchers.

    PubMed

    Gan, Caron; Gargaro, Judith; Brandys, Clare; Gerber, Gary; Boschen, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    There is a dearth of support for family members who assume caregiving responsibilities following acquired brain injury (ABI). This qualitative study broadens the understanding of ABI caregiver support needs through data triangulation from multiple interview sources across different settings. Thirty-nine caregivers across urban and rural settings in Ontario participated in focus groups. Interviews focused on ABI support services received, their utility, access barriers, needed supports, and suggestions for service delivery. Key informant interviews were also held with four US researchers funded through the TBI Model Systems, one Canadian provincial government health official, and representatives from 11 Ontario ABI programs including two brain injury associations. Interviews focused on existing or proposed caregiver programs and gaps in services. A coding framework was developed through content analysis, centring on five themes: coping, supports that worked, supports needed, barriers, and ideal world recommendations. Perspectives from those involved in receiving, providing and researching caregiver interventions following ABI were synthesized to provide a thorough, detailed depiction of the ongoing support needs of caregivers. This convergence of evidence underscores that caregiver support needs transcend geographical boundaries and must be comprehensive, accessible, long-term, and encompass education, emotional, and instrumental support. Recommendations for ABI caregiver support services are offered.

  12. GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager: spectral response functions and radiometric biases with the NPP Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite evaluated for desert calibration sites.

    PubMed

    Pearlman, Aaron; Pogorzala, David; Cao, Changyong

    2013-11-01

    The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), which will be launched in late 2015 on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R-series satellite, will be evaluated in terms of its data quality postlaunch through comparisons with other satellite sensors such as the recently launched Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership satellite. The ABI has completed much of its prelaunch characterization and its developers have generated and released its channel spectral response functions (response versus wavelength). Using these responses and constraining a radiative transfer model with ground reflectance, aerosol, and water vapor measurements, we simulate observed top of atmosphere (TOA) reflectances for analogous visible and near infrared channels of the VIIRS and ABI sensors at the Sonoran Desert and White Sands National Monument sites and calculate the radiometric biases and their uncertainties. We also calculate sensor TOA reflectances using aircraft hyperspectral data from the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer to validate the uncertainties in several of the ABI and VIIRS channels and discuss the potential for validating the others. Once on-orbit, calibration scientists can use these biases to ensure ABI data quality and consistency to support the numerical weather prediction community and other data users. They can also use the results for ABI or VIIRS anomaly detection and resolution.

  13. Application of ozonated dry ice (ALIGAL™ Blue Ice) for packaging and transport in the food industry.

    PubMed

    Fratamico, Pina M; Juneja, Vijay; Annous, Bassam A; Rasanayagam, Vasuhi; Sundar, M; Braithwaite, David; Fisher, Steven

    2012-05-01

    Dry ice is used by meat and poultry processors for temperature reduction during processing and for temperature maintenance during transportation. ALIGAL™ Blue Ice (ABI), which combines the antimicrobial effect of ozone (O(3)) along with the high cooling capacity of dry ice, was investigated for its effect on bacterial reduction in air, in liquid, and on food and glass surfaces. Through proprietary means, O(3) was introduced to produce dry ice pellets to a concentration of 20 parts per million (ppm) by total weight. The ABI sublimation rate was similar to that of dry ice pellets under identical conditions, and ABI was able to hold the O(3) concentration throughout the normal shelf life of the product. Challenge studies were performed using different microorganisms, including E. coli, Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella, and Listeria, that are critical to food safety. ABI showed significant (P < 0.05) microbial reduction during bioaerosol contamination (up to 5-log reduction of E. coli and Listeria), on chicken breast (approximately 1.3-log reduction of C. jejuni), on contact surfaces (approximately 3.9 log reduction of C. jejuni), and in liquid (2-log reduction of C. jejuni). Considering the stability of O(3), ease of use, and antimicrobial efficacy against foodborne pathogens, our results suggest that ABI is a better alternative, especially for meat and poultry processors, as compared to dry ice. Further, ABI can potentially serve as an additional processing hurdle to guard against pathogens during processing, transportation, distribution, and/or storage.

  14. Assessing and ranking the flammability of some ornamental plant species to select firewise plants for landscaping in WUI (SE France).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganteaume, A.; Jappiot, M.; Lampin, C.

    2012-04-01

    The increasing urbanization of Wildland-Urban Interfaces (WUI) as well as the high fire occurrence in these areas requires the assessment and the ranking of the flammability of the ornamental vegetation surrounding houses especially that planted in hedges. Thus, the flammability of seven species, among those most frequently planted in hedges in Provence (South-Eastern France), were studied at particle level and at dead surface fuel level (litters) under laboratory conditions. The flammability parameters (ignition frequency, time-to-ignition, flaming duration) of the very fine particles (live leaves and particles <2 mm in diameter) were measured using an epiradiator as burning device. The flammability parameters (ignition frequency, time-to-ignition, flaming duration and initial flame propagation) of the undisturbed litter samples were recorded during burning experiments performed on fire bench. Burning experiments using the epiradiator showed that live leaves of Phyllostachys sp., Photinia frasei and Prunus laurocerasus had the shortest time-to-ignition and the highest ignition frequency and flaming duration whereas Pittosporum tobira and Nerium oleander were the longest to ignite with a low frequency. Phyllostachys sp. and Nerium oleander litters were the shortest to ignite while Prunus laurocerasus litter had the lowest bulk density and long time-to-ignition, but high flame propagation. Photinia fraseri litter ignited frequently and had a high flame spread while Pittosporum tobira litter ignited the least frequently and for the shortest duration. Cupressus sempervirens litter had the highest bulk density and the longest flaming duration but the lowest flame propagation. Pyracantha coccinea litter was the longest to ignite and flame propagation was low but lasted a long time. Hierarchical cluster analysis performed on the flammability parameters of live leaves and of litters ranked the seven species in four distinct clusters from the most flammable (Prunus

  15. Temporal and spatial variability of ADCP backscatter on a continental slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sindlinger, Laurie R.; Biggs, Douglas C.; DiMarco, Steven F.

    2005-01-01

    Previous research has shown that acoustic volume backscatter intensity (ABI) from an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) can be a proxy for zooplankton and micronekton biomass over time or space. As part of NOAA's Sperm Whale and Acoustic Monitoring Program (SWAMP) and a follow-on ichthyoplankton survey (SEAMAP), a ship-mounted 300-kHz broadband ADCP collected current velocity and ABI data from July to September 2001 in the northeast Gulf of Mexico. The present study sought to compare/contrast the variability in ABI both spatially and temporally using the data obtained from the SWAMP and SEAMAP cruises. The ADCP data were averaged over 2 min and 4 m vertical bins from 16 to 56 m below sea surface. Usually, ABI in this epipelagic realm averaged 3 dB higher at night than during the day because of diel vertical migration of zooplankton and micronekton into these near surface waters, while in a region having cyclonic circulation along the continental margin of the northeast Gulf, ABI averaged 6 dB higher than in an anticyclonic warm filament there. Wet displacement volumes (WDV) were measured using Bongo net tows to estimate that a 6 dB increase in ABI was equivalent to an increase from 9 to 10.5 ml WDV of plankton+micronekton per 100 m 3. Sperm whale abundance has been shown to be positively correlated with regions of locally high ABI, and sperm whale sightings during SWAMP were also compared to our ABI measurements. Spectral and Empirical Orthogonal Function analyses were performed on subsets of the ABI data for which 10-14 day time series were available and showed 2-3 day periodicity near-surface, corresponding to spatial scales of 10 1-10 2 km. During summer 2001, the mesoscale circulation along the subtropical continental margin in the northeastern Gulf was found to be the principal forcing factor for low frequency ABI variation. Increased backscatter observations are also correlated with offshore flow from the continental margin to the deep ocean

  16. Endothelial function in a cardiovascular risk population with borderline ankle–brachial index

    PubMed Central

    Syvänen, Kari; Korhonen, Päivi; Partanen, Auli; Aarnio, Pertti

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The diagnosis of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) can be made by measuring the ankle–brachial index (ABI). Traditionally ABI values > 1.00–1.40 have been considered normal and ABI ≤ 0.90 defines PAD. Recent studies, however, have shown that individuals with ABI values between 0.90–1.00 are also at risk of cardiovascular events. We studied this cardiovascular risk population subgroup in order to determine their endothelial function using peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT). Methods: We selected 66 individuals with cardiovascular risk and borderline ABI. They all had hypertension, newly diagnosed glucose disorder, metabolic syndrome, obesity, or a ten year risk of cardiovascular disease death of 5% or more according to the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation System (SCORE). Subjects with previously diagnosed diabetes or cardiovascular disease were excluded. Endothelial function was assessed by measuring the reactive hyperemia index (RHI) from fingertips using an Endo-PAT device. Results: The mean ABI was 0.95 and mean RHI 2.11. Endothelial dysfunction, defined as RHI < 1.67, was detected in 15/66 (23%) of the subjects. There were no statistically significant differences in RHI values between subjects with different cardiovascular risk factors. The only exception was that subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) had slightly lower RHI values (mean RHI 1.91) than subjects without IFG (mean RHI 2.24) (P = 0.02). Conclusions: In a cardiovascular risk population with borderline ABI nearly every fourth subject had endothelial dysfunction, indicating an elevated risk of cardiovascular events. This might point out a subgroup of individuals in need of more aggressive treatment for their risk factors. PMID:21415923

  17. An emerging picture of the seed desiccome: confirmed regulators and newcomers identified using transcriptome comparison.

    PubMed

    Terrasson, Emmanuel; Buitink, Julia; Righetti, Karima; Ly Vu, Benoit; Pelletier, Sandra; Zinsmeister, Julia; Lalanne, David; Leprince, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Desiccation tolerance (DT) is the capacity to withstand total loss of cellular water. It is acquired during seed filling and lost just after germination. However, in many species, a germinated seed can regain DT under adverse conditions such as osmotic stress. The genes, proteins and metabolites that are required to establish this DT is referred to as the desiccome. It includes both a range of protective mechanisms and underlying regulatory pathways that remain poorly understood. As a first step toward the identification of the seed desiccome of Medicago truncatula, using updated microarrays we characterized the overlapping transcriptomes associated with acquisition of DT in developing seeds and the re-establishment of DT in germinated seeds using a polyethylene glycol treatment (-1.7 MPa). The resulting list contained 740 and 2829 transcripts whose levels, respectively, increased and decreased with DT. Fourty-eight transcription factors (TF) were identified including MtABI3, MtABI5 and many genes regulating flowering transition and cell identity. A promoter enrichment analysis revealed a strong over-representation of ABRE elements together with light-responsive cis-acting elements. In Mtabi5 Tnt1 insertion mutants, DT could no longer be re-established by an osmotic stress. Transcriptome analysis on Mtabi5 radicles during osmotic stress revealed that 13 and 15% of the up-regulated and down-regulated genes, respectively, are mis-regulated in the mutants and might be putative downstream targets of MtABI5 implicated in the re-establishment of DT. Likewise, transcriptome comparisons of the desiccation sensitive Mtabi3 mutants and hairy roots ectopically expressing MtABI3 revealed that 35 and 23% of the up-regulated and down-regulated genes are acting downstream of MtABI3. Our data suggest that ABI3 and ABI5 have complementary roles in DT. Whether DT evolved by co-opting existing pathways regulating flowering and cellular phase transition and cell identity is discussed.

  18. Can the Interval Between Antibody Identifications be Increased for Alloimmunized Patients?

    PubMed Central

    Goss, Cheryl; Avecilla, Scott T.; Garbaini, Jennifer; Degtyaryova, Diana; Lo, Dian; Chang, Dustin Y.M.; Cushing, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Background New alloantibody formation is unpredictable in patients who have been previously alloimmunized. Pretransfusion testing is designed to detect these antibodies while antibody identification (ABI) techniques are designed to identify the specificity of the antibody. Pretransfusion testing intervals are prescribed by regulatory and accrediting agencies, intervals for ABI in alloimmunized patients are not. Our institution evaluated the safety of increasing the interval from every 72-hours to 14-days. The current 72-hour interval was chosen at our institution to align with AABB standard 5.14.3.2 which requires a pretransfusion specimen drawn within 3-days of the scheduled transfusion for potentially immunized patients. Study Design and Methods Over 2 years, all ABI entries in the laboratory information system were screened. All cases of alloimmunized patients with an additional antibody specificity that developed within 14-days of a previous ABI were reviewed and confirmed by four transfusion medicine physicians. Results Initially, 8948 entries were screened. Thirty patients were identified to have formed 33 newly identified clinically significant alloantibodies within 14-days. After further categorization, only 13 antibodies (0.15% of all ABI, 0.47% of alloimmunized patients examined) were deemed to be newly formed clinically significant antibodies that would have led to a change in transfusion practice. Discussion Retrospective analysis of ABI results over a 2-year period revealed that 0.47% of previously alloimmunized patients that have samples for pretransfusion testing develop a new clinically significant alloantibody in 14-days or less. While there would be significant resource advantages to increasing the duration between repeat ABI, it does not outweigh the risk of a potential hemolytic transfusion reaction. PMID:26456540

  19. Treatment of chronic recurrent dislocation of the temporomandibular joint with injection of autologous blood alone, intermaxillary fixation alone, or both together: a prospective, randomised, controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Hegab, Ayman F

    2013-12-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy of autologous blood injection in the treatment of chronic recurrent dislocation of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in a prospective randomised controlled clinical study. Forty-eight patients (11 men and 37 women) with chronic recurrent dislocation of the TMJ were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 equally sized groups. Patients in the first group were treated with injection of autologous blood (ABI) alone into the superior joint space and the pericapsular tissues. Those in the second group were treated with intramaxillary fixation (IMF) alone for 4 weeks, and those in the third group were treated with ABI and IMF for 4 weeks. Interincisal distance, digital panoramic radiograph, incidence of recurrent dislocation, and pain in the TMJ were assessed postoperatively at 2 weeks and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. The mean (SD) reduction in interincisal distance in the group treated with both techniques was 11.0 (1.9), which was significantly higher than in either the group treated with ABI, which was 8.5 (2.4) or IMF, which was 9.1 (2.1). The results in the ABI group and the IMF group did not differ significantly. The combined group showed the biggest decrease. The ABI alone group had the most recurrences (n=8, which were treated by repeated injections with no recurrence after the third). The IMF alone group had only 3 and there were none in the combined group. We conclude that ABI is a simple and safe technique for the treatment of dislocation of the TMJ in the outpatient clinic. Recurrence can be overcome by multiple injections. However, the best clinical results are given by a combination of ABI and IMF.

  20. Alcohol brief interventions in Scottish antenatal care: a qualitative study of midwives’ attitudes and practices

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Infants exposed to alcohol in the womb are at increased risk of experiencing health problems. However, mixed messages about the consequences of prenatal alcohol consumption have resulted in inconsistent attitudes and practices amongst some healthcare practitioners. Screening and alcohol brief interventions (ABIs) can reduce risky drinking in various clinical settings. Recently, a program of screening and ABIs have been implemented in antenatal care settings in Scotland. However, current evidence suggests that midwives’ involvement in alcohol brief interventions activities is patchy. This study explored midwives’ attitudes and practices regarding alcohol screening and ABIs in order to understand why they are relatively underutilized in antenatal care settings compared to other clinical settings. Methods This was a qualitative study, involving semi-structured interviews with 15 midwives and a focus group with a further six midwifery team leaders (21 participants in total) in Scotland. Interview transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. Results Midwives were positive about their involvement in the screening and ABI program. However, they were not completely convinced about the purpose and value of the screening and ABIs in antenatal care. In the midst of competing priorities, the program was seen as having a low priority in their workload. Midwives felt that the rapport between them and pregnant women was not sufficiently established at the first antenatal appointment to allow them to discuss alcohol issues appropriately. They reported that many women had already given up drinking or were drinking minimal amounts prior to the first antenatal appointment. Conclusions Midwives recognised the important role they could play in alcohol intervention activities in antenatal care. As the majority of women stop consuming alcohol in pregnancy, many will not need an ABI. Those who have not stopped are likely to need an ABI, but midwives were concerned

  1. Repeated Remote Ischemic Conditioning Effect on Ankle-brachial Index in Diabetic Patients - A Randomized Control Trial

    PubMed Central

    Shahvazian, Najmeh; Rafiee, Mansour; Rahmanian, Masoud; Razavi-ratki, Seyed Kazem; Farahzadi, Mohammad Hadi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is a phenomenon where a short period of ischemia in one organ protects against further ischemia in the other organs. We hypothesized that RIPC occurring in diabetic patients with ankle brachial index (ABI) between 0.70 and 0.90 were included with peripheral arterial disease, would make the better coronary flow resulted in the increasing ABI. Materials and Methods: This randomized clinical trial study was done in the Afshar Cardiovascular Hospital in Yazd between 2013 and 2014. Sixty participants were randomly divided into two groups (intervention and control groups). The intervention group was undergoing RIPC, and the control group was tested without RIPC. RIPC was stimulated by giving three cycles of 5 min of ischemia followed by 5 min of reperfusion of both upper arms using a blood pressure cuff inflated to 200 mm Hg (n = 30). This was compared with no RIPC group which consisted of placing a deflated blood pressure cuff on the upper limbs (n = 30). Results: The mean of ABI level before intervention in the RIPC and control group group was 0.82 ± 0.055 and 0.83 ± 0.0603 (P = 0.347) respectively, with no significant difference. It was 0.86 ± 0.066 in the RIPC group compared the control 0.83 ± 0.0603 (P = 0.046). So levels of ABI were greater after intervention in the RIPC group. The mean of ABI level increase from 0.82 ± 0.05 to 0.86 ± 0.06 in RIPC group (P = 0.008). So the intervention group showed a significant increase in ABI. Conclusions: RIPC through using a simple, noninvasive technique, composing three cycles of 5 min-ischemia of both upper arms, showing a significant increase in ABI level in diabetic patients.

  2. Legionella pneumophila strain associated with the first evidence of person-to-person transmission of Legionnaires' disease: a unique mosaic genetic backbone.

    PubMed

    Borges, Vítor; Nunes, Alexandra; Sampaio, Daniel A; Vieira, Luís; Machado, Jorge; Simões, Maria J; Gonçalves, Paulo; Gomes, João P

    2016-05-19

    A first strong evidence of person-to-person transmission of Legionnaires' Disease (LD) was recently reported. Here, we characterize the genetic backbone of this case-related Legionella pneumophila strain ("PtVFX/2014"), which also caused a large outbreak of LD. PtVFX/2014 is phylogenetically divergent from the most worldwide studied outbreak-associated L. pneumophila subspecies pneumophila serogroup 1 strains. In fact, this strain is also from serogroup 1, but belongs to the L. pneumophila subspecies fraseri. Its genomic mosaic backbone reveals eight horizontally transferred regions encompassing genes, for instance, involved in lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis or encoding virulence-associated Dot/Icm type IVB secretion system (T4BSS) substrates. PtVFX/2014 also inherited a rare ~65 kb pathogenicity island carrying virulence factors and detoxifying enzymes believed to contribute to the emergence of best-fitted strains in water reservoirs and in human macrophages, as well as a inter-species transferred (from L. oakridgensis) ~37.5 kb genomic island (harboring a lvh/lvr T4ASS cluster) that had never been found intact within L. pneumophila species. PtVFX/2014 encodes another lvh/lvr cluster near to CRISPR-associated genes, which may boost L. pneumophila transition from an environmental bacterium to a human pathogen. Overall, this unique genomic make-up may impact PtVFX/2014 ability to adapt to diverse environments, and, ultimately, to be transmitted and cause human disease.

  3. Legionella pneumophila strain associated with the first evidence of person-to-person transmission of Legionnaires’ disease: a unique mosaic genetic backbone

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Vítor; Nunes, Alexandra; Sampaio, Daniel A.; Vieira, Luís; Machado, Jorge; Simões, Maria J.; Gonçalves, Paulo; Gomes, João P.

    2016-01-01

    A first strong evidence of person-to-person transmission of Legionnaires’ Disease (LD) was recently reported. Here, we characterize the genetic backbone of this case-related Legionella pneumophila strain (“PtVFX/2014”), which also caused a large outbreak of LD. PtVFX/2014 is phylogenetically divergent from the most worldwide studied outbreak-associated L. pneumophila subspecies pneumophila serogroup 1 strains. In fact, this strain is also from serogroup 1, but belongs to the L. pneumophila subspecies fraseri. Its genomic mosaic backbone reveals eight horizontally transferred regions encompassing genes, for instance, involved in lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis or encoding virulence-associated Dot/Icm type IVB secretion system (T4BSS) substrates. PtVFX/2014 also inherited a rare ~65 kb pathogenicity island carrying virulence factors and detoxifying enzymes believed to contribute to the emergence of best-fitted strains in water reservoirs and in human macrophages, as well as a inter-species transferred (from L. oakridgensis) ~37.5 kb genomic island (harboring a lvh/lvr T4ASS cluster) that had never been found intact within L. pneumophila species. PtVFX/2014 encodes another lvh/lvr cluster near to CRISPR-associated genes, which may boost L. pneumophila transition from an environmental bacterium to a human pathogen. Overall, this unique genomic make-up may impact PtVFX/2014 ability to adapt to diverse environments, and, ultimately, to be transmitted and cause human disease. PMID:27196677

  4. Microbiological and Clinical Studies of Legionellosis in 33 Patients with Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ihegword, Andrea; Evans, Scott E.; Zhang, Jiaqi; Li, Li; Cao, Hongjing; Tarrand, Jeffrey J.; El-Kweifi, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Legionella, a large group of environmental Gram-negative bacteria, represents an occasional cause of pneumonia. We analyzed the microbiological and clinical features of 33 consecutive cases of Legionella infections that occurred at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, from 2002 to 2014. The Legionella strains were isolated from bronchoscopy specimens (32 strains) and a blood culture (1 strain) and were identified by sequencing analysis of the full-length 16S rRNA gene. The 33 strains involved 12 Legionella species or subspecies: 15 strains of L. pneumophila subsp. pneumophila, 3 strains of L. pneumophila subsp. fraseri or L. pneumophila subsp. pascullei, 4 strains of “L. donaldsonii,” 3 strains of L. micdadei, and one each of L. bozemanae, L. feeleii, L. gormanii, L. longbeachae, L. maceachernii, L. parisiensis, L. sainthelensi, and Legionella sp. strain D5382. All patients except one asymptomatic carrier showed pneumonia, including one with concurrent bacteremia. Nine patients died, with this infection being the immediate cause of death in six. Twenty-seven patients had underlying hematologic malignancies. Twenty-three patients were leukopenic. Six patients were recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant, with their infections caused by five Legionella species. Together, these results suggest that diverse Legionella species infect patients with cancer in the Houston area and its vicinity. The five cases of pneumonia due to L. donaldsonii and Legionella sp. D5382 are likely the first reports of human infection with these organisms. PMID:25926494

  5. Physiological and Biochemical Responses in Two Ornamental Shrubs to Drought Stress

    PubMed Central

    Toscano, Stefania; Farieri, Elisa; Ferrante, Antonio; Romano, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Drought stress is one of the most important abiotic stress limiting the plant survival and growth in the Mediterranean environment. In this work, two species typically grown in Mediterranean areas with different drought responses were used. Two shrubs, with slow (Photinia × fraseri Dress ‘Red Robin’) or fast (Eugenia uniflora L. ‘Etna Fire’) adaptation ability to drought, were subjected to three water regimes: well-watered (WW), moderate (MD), and severe (SD) drought stress conditions for 30 days. Net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, maximum quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm), relative water content (RWC), chlorophyll content, proline, malondialdehyde (MDA), and antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase) were measured. Results showed that RWC and proline were higher in Eugenia than in Photinia, demonstrating the greater tolerance of the latter to the water stress. The drought stress levels applied did not compromise photosynthetic efficiency through stomatal regulation, while a reduction of Fv/Fm ratio was observed at the end of the experimental period. MDA significantly increased after 30 days in both species. The antioxidant enzyme activities showed different responses to water stress conditions. In both species, the water stress scores showed positive, while proline content showed negative correlations with all physiological parameters. PMID:27242846

  6. Physiological and Biochemical Responses in Two Ornamental Shrubs to Drought Stress.

    PubMed

    Toscano, Stefania; Farieri, Elisa; Ferrante, Antonio; Romano, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Drought stress is one of the most important abiotic stress limiting the plant survival and growth in the Mediterranean environment. In this work, two species typically grown in Mediterranean areas with different drought responses were used. Two shrubs, with slow (Photinia × fraseri Dress 'Red Robin') or fast (Eugenia uniflora L. 'Etna Fire') adaptation ability to drought, were subjected to three water regimes: well-watered (WW), moderate (MD), and severe (SD) drought stress conditions for 30 days. Net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, maximum quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm), relative water content (RWC), chlorophyll content, proline, malondialdehyde (MDA), and antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase) were measured. Results showed that RWC and proline were higher in Eugenia than in Photinia, demonstrating the greater tolerance of the latter to the water stress. The drought stress levels applied did not compromise photosynthetic efficiency through stomatal regulation, while a reduction of Fv/Fm ratio was observed at the end of the experimental period. MDA significantly increased after 30 days in both species. The antioxidant enzyme activities showed different responses to water stress conditions. In both species, the water stress scores showed positive, while proline content showed negative correlations with all physiological parameters.

  7. Triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and low ankle brachial index in an elderly population.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Yiqiang; Yu, Jinming; Ding, Rongjing; Sun, Yihong; Hu, Dayi

    2014-05-01

    Hintergrund: Der Zusammenhang zwischen den Quotienten aus Triglycerid (TG) und High-density-lipoprotein-cholesterin (HDL‑C) sowie Gesamtcholesterin (TC) und HDL‑C und dem Knöchel-Arm-Index (ABI) wurde selten untersucht. Patienten und Methoden: Insgesamt 2.982 Teinehmer, die über 60 Jahre alt waren, wurden für die bevölkerungsbasierte Querschnittstudie rekrutiert. TG, TC, HDL‑C, und low-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-C) wurden bei allen Teilnehmern getestet. Ein niedriger ABI wurde als ABI ≤ 0.9 definiert. Multiple Regressionsmodelle wurden für die Untersuchung der Assoziation zwischen TG/HDL‑C Ratio und TC/HDL‑C Ratio und niedrigem ABI angewendet. Ergebnisse: Die TG/HDL‑C Ratios für ABI > 0.9 und ABI ≤ 0.9 waren 1.28 ± 1.20 und 1.48 ± 1.13 (P < 0.0001), während die TC/HDL‑C Ratios 3.96 ± 1.09 bzw. 4.32 ± 1.15 (P < 0.0001) waren. Nach der Angleichung von Alter, Geschlecht, Body-Mass-Index, Fettleibigkeit, Alkoholkonsum, köperliche Aktivität, Hypertonie, Diabetes, Einnahme von lipidsenkenden Medikamenten, und Herz-Kreislauf-Erkrankungen waren die Odds Ratios (OR) mit 95 % Konfidenzintervall (KI) bei dem niedrigen ABI und TG/HDL‑C Quotient 1,10 (0,96 - 1,26) und 1,34 (1,14 - 1,59) für TC/HDL‑C in der Nichtrauchergruppe. Wenn das TC weiter angeglichen wurde, waren die ORs (95 % CIs) 1.40 (0.79, 2.52) und 1.53 (1.21, 1.93) für die TG/HDL‑C Ratio und TC/HDL‑C Ratio. Nichtlineare Zusammenhänge wurden zwischen der TG/HDL‑C Ratio und TC/HDL‑C Ratio und dem niedrigen ABI in der Raucher- und Nichtrauchergruppe entdeckt. Schlussfolgerungen: Die TC/HDL‑C Ratio war signifikant mit einem niedrigen ABI in der Nichtrauchergruppe verbunden und die Assoziation war unabhängig von TC, TG, HDL‑C und LDL-C. TC/HDL‑C könnte als potentieller Biomarker für die frühe periphere arterielle Verschlusskrankheit beim Screening berücksichtigt werden.

  8. Association Between Chromosome 9p21 Variants and the Ankle-Brachial Index Identified by a Meta-Analysis of 21 Genome-Wide Association Studies

    PubMed Central

    Murabito, Joanne M.; White, Charles C.; Kavousi, Maryam; Sun, Yan V.; Feitosa, Mary F.; Nambi, Vijay; Lamina, Claudia; Schillert, Arne; Coassin, Stefan; Bis, Joshua C.; Broer, Linda; Crawford, Dana C.; Franceschini, Nora; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Haun, Margot; Holewijn, Suzanne; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Kiechl, Stefan; Kollerits, Barbara; Montasser, May E.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Rudock, Megan E.; Senft, Andrea; Teumer, Alexander; van der Harst, Pim; Vitart, Veronique; Waite, Lindsay L.; Wood, Andrew R.; Wassel, Christina L.; Absher, Devin M.; Allison, Matthew A.; Amin, Najaf; Arnold, Alice; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Aulchenko, Yurii; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barbalic, Maja; Boban, Mladen; Brown-Gentry, Kristin; Couper, David J.; Criqui, Michael H.; Dehghan, Abbas; Heijer, Martin den; Dieplinger, Benjamin; Ding, Jingzhong; Dörr, Marcus; Espinola-Klein, Christine; Felix, Stephan B.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Folsom, Aaron R.; Fraedrich, Gustav; Gibson, Quince; Goodloe, Robert; Gunjaca, Grgo; Haltmayer, Meinhard; Heiss, Gerardo; Hofman, Albert; Kieback, Arne; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Kolcic, Ivana; Kullo, Iftikhar J.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Lackner, Karl J.; Li, Xiaohui; Lieb, Wolfgang; Lohman, Kurt; Meisinger, Christa; Melzer, David; Mohler, Emile R; Mudnic, Ivana; Mueller, Thomas; Navis, Gerjan; Oberhollenzer, Friedrich; Olin, Jeffrey W.; O’Connell, Jeff; O’Donnell, Christopher J.; Palmas, Walter; Penninx, Brenda W.; Petersmann, Astrid; Polasek, Ozren; Psaty, Bruce M.; Rantner, Barbara; Rice, Ken; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rotter, Jerome I.; Seldenrijk, Adrie; Stadler, Marietta; Summerer, Monika; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Vermeulen, Sita H.; Wild, Sarah H.; Wild, Philipp S.; Willeit, Johann; Zeller, Tanja; Zemunik, Tatijana; Zgaga, Lina; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Blankenberg, Stefan; Boerwinkle, Eric; Campbell, Harry; Cooke, John P.; de Graaf, Jacqueline; Herrington, David; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Murray, Anna; Münzel, Thomas; Newman, Anne; Oostra, Ben A.; Rudan, Igor; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Snieder, Harold; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Völker, Uwe; Wright, Alan F.; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Wilson, James F.; Witteman, Jacqueline C.M.; Liu, Yongmei; Hayward, Caroline; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Ziegler, Andreas; North, Kari E.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Kronenberg, Florian

    2012-01-01

    Background Genetic determinants of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) remain largely unknown. To identify genetic variants associated with the ankle-brachial index (ABI), a noninvasive measure of PAD, we conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association study data from 21 population-based cohorts. Methods and Results Continuous ABI and PAD (ABI≤0.9) phenotypes adjusted for age and sex were examined. Each study conducted genotyping and imputed data to the ~2.5 million SNPs in HapMap. Linear and logistic regression models were used to test each SNP for association with ABI and PAD using additive genetic models. Study-specific data were combined using fixed-effects inverse variance weighted meta-analyses. There were a total of 41,692 participants of European ancestry (~60% women, mean ABI 1.02 to 1.19), including 3,409 participants with PAD and with GWAS data available. In the discovery meta-analysis, rs10757269 on chromosome 9 near CDKN2B had the strongest association with ABI (β= −0.006, p=2.46x10−8). We sought replication of the 6 strongest SNP associations in 5 population-based studies and 3 clinical samples (n=16,717). The association for rs10757269 strengthened in the combined discovery and replication analysis (p=2.65x10−9). No other SNP associations for ABI or PAD achieved genome-wide significance. However, two previously reported candidate genes for PAD and one SNP associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) were associated with ABI : DAB21P (rs13290547, p=3.6x10−5); CYBA (rs3794624, p=6.3x10−5); and rs1122608 (LDLR, p=0.0026). Conclusions GWAS in more than 40,000 individuals identified one genome-wide significant association on chromosome 9p21 with ABI. Two candidate genes for PAD and 1 SNP for CAD are associated with ABI. PMID:22199011

  9. Predictive Value of Combining the Ankle-Brachial Index and SYNTAX Score for the Prediction of Outcome After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (from the SHINANO Registry).

    PubMed

    Ueki, Yasushi; Miura, Takashi; Miyashita, Yusuke; Motoki, Hirohiko; Shimada, Kentaro; Kobayashi, Masanori; Nakajima, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Hikaru; Akanuma, Hiroshi; Mawatari, Eiichiro; Sato, Toshio; Hotta, Shoji; Kamiyoshi, Yuichi; Maruyama, Takuya; Watanabe, Noboru; Eisawa, Takayuki; Aso, Shinichi; Uchikawa, Shinichiro; Hashizume, Naoto; Sekimura, Noriyuki; Morita, Takehiro; Ebisawa, Soichiro; Izawa, Atsushi; Koyama, Jun; Ikeda, Uichi

    2016-01-15

    The Synergy Between PCI With TAXUS and Cardiac Surgery (SYNTAX) score is effective in predicting clinical outcome after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, its prediction ability is low because it reflects only the coronary characterization. We assessed the predictive value of combining the ankle-brachial index (ABI) and SYNTAX score to predict clinical outcomes after PCI. The ABI-SYNTAX score was calculated for 1,197 patients recruited from the Shinshu Prospective Multi-center Analysis for Elderly Patients with Coronary Artery Disease Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (SHINANO) registry, a prospective, observational, multicenter cohort study in Japan. The primary end points were major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACE; all-cause death, myocardial infarction, and stroke) in the first year after PCI. The ABI-SYNTAX score was calculated by categorizing and summing up the ABI and SYNTAX scores. ABI ≤ 0.49 was defined as 4, 0.5 to 0.69 as 3, 0.7 to 0.89 as 2, 0.9 to 1.09 as 1, and 1.1 to 1.5 as 0; an SYNTAX score ≤ 22 was defined as 0, 23 to 32 as 1, and ≥ 33 as 2. Patients were divided into low (0), moderate (1 to 2), and high (3 to 6) groups. The MACE rate was significantly higher in the high ABI-SYNTAX score group than in the lower 2 groups (low: 4.6% vs moderate: 7.0% vs high: 13.9%, p = 0.002). Multivariate regression analysis found that ABI-SYNTAX score independently predicted MACE (hazards ratio 1.25, 95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.52, p = 0.029). The respective C-statistic for the ABI-SYNTAX and SYNTAX score for 1-year MACE was 0.60 and 0.55, respectively. In conclusion, combining the ABI and SYNTAX scores improved the prediction of 1-year adverse ischemic events compared with the SYNTAX score alone.

  10. Surface solar radiation from geostationary satellites for renewable energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laszlo, Istvan; Liu, Hongqing; Heidinger, Andrew; Goldberg, Mitchell

    With the launch of the new Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite, GOES-R, the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) will begin a new era of geostationary remote sensing. One of its flagship instruments, the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), will expand frequency and coverage of multispectral remote sensing of atmospheric and surface properties. Products derived from ABI measurements will primarily be heritage meteorological products (cloud and aerosol properties, precipitation, winds, etc.), but some will be for interdisciplinary use, such as for the solar energy industry. The planned rapid observations (5-15 minutes) from ABI provide an opportunity to obtain information needed for solar energy applications where frequent observations of solar radiation reaching the surface are essential for planning and load management. In this paper we describe a physical, radiative-transfer-based algorithm for the retrieval of surface solar irradiance that uses atmospheric and surface parameters derived independently from multispectral ABI radiances. The algorithm is designed to provide basic radiation budget products (total solar irradiance at the surface), as well as products specifically needed for the solar energy industry (average, midday and clear-sky insolation, clear-sky days, diffuse and direct normal radiation, etc.). Two alternative algorithms, which require less ABI atmosphere and surface products or no explicit knowledge of the surface albedo, are also explored along with their limitations. The accuracy of surface solar radiation retrievals are assessed using long-term MODIS and GOES satellite data and surface measurements at the Surface Radiation (SURFRAD) network.

  11. ABA is required for the accumulation of APX1 and MBF1c during a combination of water deficit and heat stress

    PubMed Central

    Zandalinas, Sara I.; Balfagón, Damián; Arbona, Vicent; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Inupakutika, Madhuri A.; Mittler, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) plays a key role in plant acclimation to abiotic stress. Although recent studies suggested that ABA could also be important for plant acclimation to a combination of abiotic stresses, its role in this response is currently unknown. Here we studied the response of mutants impaired in ABA signalling (abi1-1) and biosynthesis (aba1-1) to a combination of water deficit and heat stress. Both mutants displayed reduced growth, biomass, and survival when subjected to stress combination. Focusing on abi1-1, we found that although its stomata had an impaired response to water deficit, remaining significantly more open than wild type, its stomatal aperture was surprisingly reduced when subjected to the stress combination. Stomatal closure during stress combination in abi1-1 was accompanied by higher levels of H2O2 in leaves, suggesting that H2O2 might play a role in this response. In contrast to the almost wild-type stomatal closure phenotype of abi1-1 during stress combination, the accumulation of ascorbate peroxidase 1 and multiprotein bridging factor 1c proteins, required for acclimation to a combination of water deficit and heat stress, was significantly reduced in abi1-1. Our findings reveal a key function for ABA in regulating the accumulation of essential proteins during a combination of water deficit and heat stress. PMID:27497287

  12. ABA is required for the accumulation of APX1 and MBF1c during a combination of water deficit and heat stress.

    PubMed

    Zandalinas, Sara I; Balfagón, Damián; Arbona, Vicent; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Inupakutika, Madhuri A; Mittler, Ron

    2016-10-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) plays a key role in plant acclimation to abiotic stress. Although recent studies suggested that ABA could also be important for plant acclimation to a combination of abiotic stresses, its role in this response is currently unknown. Here we studied the response of mutants impaired in ABA signalling (abi1-1) and biosynthesis (aba1-1) to a combination of water deficit and heat stress. Both mutants displayed reduced growth, biomass, and survival when subjected to stress combination. Focusing on abi1-1, we found that although its stomata had an impaired response to water deficit, remaining significantly more open than wild type, its stomatal aperture was surprisingly reduced when subjected to the stress combination. Stomatal closure during stress combination in abi1-1 was accompanied by higher levels of H2O2 in leaves, suggesting that H2O2 might play a role in this response. In contrast to the almost wild-type stomatal closure phenotype of abi1-1 during stress combination, the accumulation of ascorbate peroxidase 1 and multiprotein bridging factor 1c proteins, required for acclimation to a combination of water deficit and heat stress, was significantly reduced in abi1-1 Our findings reveal a key function for ABA in regulating the accumulation of essential proteins during a combination of water deficit and heat stress.

  13. Is it time to act? The potential of acceptance and commitment therapy for psychological problems following acquired brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Kangas, Maria; McDonald, Skye

    2011-01-01

    Behaviour therapies have a well-established, useful tradition in psychological treatments and have undergone several major revisions. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) and mindfulness-based approaches are considered a third wave of behavioural therapies. Emerging evidence for ACT has demonstrated that this paradigm has promising effectiveness in improving functionality and well-being in a variety of populations that have psychological disturbances and/or medical problems. In this review we first evaluate traditional cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) interventions used to manage psychological problems in distressed individuals who have sustained an acquired brain injury (ABI). We provide an overview of the ACT paradigm and the existent evidence base for this intervention. A rationale is outlined for why ACT-based interventions may have potential utility in assisting distressed individuals who have sustained a mild to moderate ABI to move forward with their lives. We also review emerging evidence that lends preliminary support to the implementation of acceptance and mindfulness-based interventions in the rehabilitation of ABI patient groups. On the basis of existent literature, we recommend that it is an opportune time for forthcoming research to rigorously test the efficacy of ACT-based interventions in facilitating ABI patient groups to re-engage in living a valued and meaningful life, in spite of their neurocognitive and physical limitations. The promising utility of testing the efficacy of the ACT paradigm in the context of multimodal rehabilitation programmes for ABI populations is also addressed. PMID:21246445

  14. The SWI2/SNF2 Chromatin Remodeling ATPase BRAHMA Represses Abscisic Acid Responses in the Absence of the Stress Stimulus in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Han, Soon-Ki; Sang, Yi; Rodrigues, Americo; Wu, Miin-Feng; Rodriguez, Pedro L.; Wagner, Doris

    2012-01-01

    The survival of plants as sessile organisms depends on their ability to cope with environmental challenges. Of key importance in this regard is the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). ABA not only promotes seed dormancy but also triggers growth arrest in postgermination embryos that encounter water stress. This is accompanied by increased desiccation tolerance. Postgermination ABA responses in Arabidopsis thaliana are mediated in large part by the ABA-induced basic domain/leucine zipper transcription factor ABA INSENSITIVE5 (ABI5). Here, we show that loss of function of the SWI2/SNF2 chromatin remodeling ATPase BRAHMA (BRM) causes ABA hypersensitivity during postgermination growth arrest. ABI5 expression was derepressed in brm mutants in the absence of exogenous ABA and accumulated to high levels upon ABA sensing. This effect was likely direct; chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed BRM binding to the ABI5 locus. Moreover, loss of BRM activity led to destabilization of a nucleosome likely to repress ABI5 transcription. Finally, the abi5 null mutant was epistatic to BRM in postgermination growth arrest. In addition, vegetative growth defects typical of brm mutants in the absence of ABA treatment could be partially overcome by reduction of ABA responses, and brm mutants displayed increased drought tolerance. We propose a role for BRM in the balance between growth or stress responses. PMID:23209114

  15. Lenticulostriate arterial distribution pathology may underlie pediatric anoxic brain injury in drowning

    PubMed Central

    Ishaque, Mariam; Manning, Janessa H.; Woolsey, Mary D.; Franklin, Crystal G.; Tullis, Elizabeth W.; Fox, Peter T.

    2016-01-01

    Drowning is a leading cause of neurological morbidity and mortality in young children. Anoxic brain injury (ABI) can result from nonfatal drowning and typically entails substantial neurological impairment. The neuropathology of drowning-induced pediatric ABI is not well established. Specifically, quantitative characterization of the spatial extent and tissue distribution of anoxic damage in pediatric nonfatal drowning has not previously been reported but could clarify the underlying pathophysiological processes and inform clinical management. To this end, we used voxel-based morphometric (VBM) analyses to quantify the extent and spatial distribution of consistent, between-subject alterations in gray and white matter volume. Whole-brain, high-resolution T1-weighted MRI datasets were acquired in 11 children with chronic ABI and 11 age- and gender-matched neurotypical controls (4–12 years). Group-wise VBM analyses demonstrated predominantly central subcortical pathology in the ABI group in both gray matter (bilateral basal ganglia nuclei) and white matter (bilateral external and posterior internal capsules) (P < 0.001); minimal damage was found outside of these deep subcortical regions. These highly spatially convergent gray and white matter findings reflect the vascular distribution of perforating lenticulostriate arteries, an end-arterial watershed zone, and suggest that vascular distribution may be a more important determinant of tissue loss than oxygen metabolic rate in pediatric ABI. Further, these results inform future directions for diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. PMID:26937385

  16. Cooking breakfast after a brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Tanguay, Annick N.; Davidson, Patrick S. R.; Guerrero Nuñez, Karla V.; Ferland, Mark B.

    2014-01-01

    Acquired brain injury (ABI) often compromises the ability to carry out instrumental activities of daily living such as cooking. ABI patients' difficulties with executive functions and memory result in less independent and efficient meal preparation. Accurately assessing safety and proficiency in cooking is essential for successful community reintegration following ABI, but in vivo assessment of cooking by clinicians is time-consuming, costly, and difficult to standardize. Accordingly, we examined the usefulness of a computerized meal preparation task (the Breakfast Task; Craik and Bialystok, 2006) as an indicator of real life meal preparation skills. Twenty-two ABI patients and 22 age-matched controls completed the Breakfast Task. Patients also completed the Rehabilitation Activities of Daily Living Survey (RADLS; Salmon, 2003) and prepared actual meals that were rated by members of the clinical team. As expected, the ABI patients had significant difficulty on all aspects of the Breakfast Task (failing to have all their foods ready at the same time, over- and under-cooking foods, setting fewer places at the table, and so on) relative to controls. Surprisingly, however, patients' Breakfast Task performance was not correlated with their in vivo meal preparation. These results indicate caution when endeavoring to replace traditional evaluation methods with computerized tasks for the sake of expediency. PMID:25228863

  17. Challenges in understanding the epidemiology of acquired brain injury in India

    PubMed Central

    Kamalakannan, Suresh Kumar; Gudlavalleti, Aashrai S.V.; Murthy Gudlavalleti, Venkata S.; Goenka, Shifalika; Kuper, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    An acquired brain injury (ABI) is an injury to the brain, which is not hereditary, congenital, degenerative, or induced by birth trauma. In India, rapid urbanization, economic growth and changes in lifestyle have led to a tremendous increase in the incidence of ABI, so much so that it is being referred to as a ‘silent epidemic’. Unlike developed countries, there is no well-established system for collecting and managing information on various diseases in India. Thus it is a daunting task to obtain reliable information about acquired brain injury. In the course of conducting a systematic review on the epidemiology of ABI in India, we recognized several challenges which hampered our effort. Inadequate case definition, lack of centralized reporting mechanisms, lack of population based studies, absence of standardized survey protocols and inadequate mortality statistics are some of the major obstacles. Following a standard case definition, linking multiple hospital-based registries, initiating a state or nationwide population-based registry, conducting population-based studies that are methodologically robust and introducing centralized, standard reporting mechanisms for ABI, are some of the strategies that could help facilitate a thorough investigation into the epidemiology and understanding of ABI. This may help improve policies on prevention and management of acquired brain injury in India. PMID:25745314

  18. The impact of ankle brachial index and pulse wave velocity on cardiovascular risk according to SCORE and Framingham scales and sex differences.

    PubMed

    Woźnicka-Leśkiewicz, L; Posadzy-Małaczyńska, A; Juszkat, R

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of ankle brachial index (ABI) and pulse wave velocity (PWV) in patients with or without coronary artery disease (CAD) and hypertension (HT) in cardiovascular risk prediction. We studied 200 patients randomized to one of four groups: CAD+HT+; CAD+HT-; CAD-HT+; CAD-HT- (Department of Hypertensiology, Angiology and Internal Diseases, Poznan, Poland: 2009-2012). We evaluated: patient age, lipids profile, ABI and PWV. The cardiovascular risks according to SCORE and Framingham scales were assessed. Statistical calculations were performed in StatSoft Statistica 10. The most interesting aspects of this study were: logistic regression model evaluated the simultaneously influence of ABI and PWV on cardiovascular risk by the SCORE scale and logistic regression model evaluated the influence of ABI and PWV on cardiovascular risk according to the Framingham scale. They showed the possibility (SCORE) of more accurate estimation of cardiovascular risk in an individual patient and graduation of this risk in the exemplary patients. Analysis of the assessment of both: ABI and PWV in predicting of cardiovascular risk according to SCORE and Framingham scales using a logistic regression model indicates that the Framingham scale is less precise than the SCORE scale because it underestimates the real high cardiovascular risk.

  19. Abscisic acid and blue light signaling pathways in chloroplast movements in Arabidopsis mesophyll.

    PubMed

    Eckstein, Aleksandra; Krzeszowiec, Weronika; Banaś, Agnieszka Katarzyna; Janowiak, Franciszek; Gabryś, Halina

    2016-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) and phototropins act antagonistically to control stomatal movements. Here, we investigated the role of ABA in phototropin-directed chloroplast movements in mesophyll cells of Arabidopsis thaliana. We analyzed the expression of phototropins at mRNA and protein level under the influence of ABA. PHOT1 mRNA level was decreased by ABA in the dark while it was insensitive to ABA in light. PHOT2 mRNA level was independent of the hormone treatment. The levels of phototropin proteins were down-regulated by ABA, both in darkness and light. No impact of exogenous ABA on amplitudes and kinetics of chloroplast movements was detected. Chloroplast responses in wild type Arabidopsis and three mutants, abi4, abi2 (abscisic acid insensitive4, 2) and aba1 (abscisic acid1), were measured to account for endogenous ABA signaling. The chloroplast responses were slightly reduced in abi2 and aba1 mutants in strong light. To further investigate the effect, abi2 and aba1 mutants were supplemented with exogenous ABA. In the aba1 mutant, the reaction was rescued but in abi2 it was unaffected. Our results show that ABA is not directly involved in phototropin-controlled chloroplast responses in mature leaves of Arabidopsis. However, the disturbance of ABA biosynthesis and signaling in mutants affects some elements of the chloroplast movement mechanism. In line with its role as a stress hormone, ABA appears to enhance plant sensitivity to light and promote the chloroplast avoidance response.

  20. Post launch calibration and testing of the Advanced Baseline Imager on the GOES-R satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebair, William; Rollins, C.; Kline, John; Todirita, M.; Kronenwetter, J.

    2016-05-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R (GOES-R) series is the planned next generation of operational weather satellites for the United State's National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The first launch of the GOES-R series is planned for October 2016. The GOES-R series satellites and instruments are being developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). One of the key instruments on the GOES-R series is the Advance Baseline Imager (ABI). The ABI is a multi-channel, visible through infrared, passive imaging radiometer. The ABI will provide moderate spatial and spectral resolution at high temporal and radiometric resolution to accurately monitor rapidly changing weather. Initial on-orbit calibration and performance characterization is crucial to establishing baseline used to maintain performance throughout mission life. A series of tests has been planned to establish the post launch performance and establish the parameters needed to process the data in the Ground Processing Algorithm. The large number of detectors for each channel required to provide the needed temporal coverage presents unique challenges for accurately calibrating ABI and minimizing striping. This paper discusses the planned tests to be performed on ABI over the six-month Post Launch Test period and the expected performance as it relates to ground tests.

  1. Post Launch Calibration and Testing of the Advanced Baseline Imager on the GOES-R Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebair, William; Rollins, C.; Kline, John; Todirita, M.; Kronenwetter, J.

    2016-01-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R (GOES-R) series is the planned next generation of operational weather satellites for the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The first launch of the GOES-R series is planned for October 2016. The GOES-R series satellites and instruments are being developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). One of the key instruments on the GOES-R series is the Advance Baseline Imager (ABI). The ABI is a multi-channel, visible through infrared, passive imaging radiometer. The ABI will provide moderate spatial and spectral resolution at high temporal and radiometric resolution to accurately monitor rapidly changing weather. Initial on-orbit calibration and performance characterization is crucial to establishing baseline used to maintain performance throughout mission life. A series of tests has been planned to establish the post launch performance and establish the parameters needed to process the data in the Ground Processing Algorithm. The large number of detectors for each channel required to provide the needed temporal coverage presents unique challenges for accurately calibrating ABI and minimizing striping. This paper discusses the planned tests to be performed on ABI over the six-month Post Launch Test period and the expected performance as it relates to ground tests.

  2. Post Launch Calibration and Testing of the Advanced Baseline Imager on the GOES-R Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebair, William; Rollins, C.; Kline, John; Todirita, M.; Kronenwetter, J.

    2016-01-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R (GOES-R) series is the planned next generation of operational weather satellites for the United State's National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The first launch of the GOES-R series is planned for October 2016. The GOES-R series satellites and instruments are being developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). One of the key instruments on the GOES-R series is the Advance Baseline Imager (ABI). The ABI is a multi-channel, visible through infrared, passive imaging radiometer. The ABI will provide moderate spatial and spectral resolution at high temporal and radiometric resolution to accurately monitor rapidly changing weather. Initial on-orbit calibration and performance characterization is crucial to establishing baseline used to maintain performance throughout mission life. A series of tests has been planned to establish the post launch performance and establish the parameters needed to process the data in the Ground Processing Algorithm. The large number of detectors for each channel required to provide the needed temporal coverage presents unique challenges for accurately calibrating ABI and minimizing striping. This paper discusses the planned tests to be performed on ABI over the six-month Post Launch Test period and the expected performance as it relates to ground tests.

  3. SarA based novel therapeutic candidate against Staphylococcus aureus associated with vascular graft infections

    PubMed Central

    Arya, Rekha; Ravikumar, R.; Santhosh, R. S.; Princy, S. Adline

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common pathogen seen in prosthetic vascular graft, leading to high morbidity and mortality. The virulence genes for severity of infections are under the control of global regulators. Staphylococcal accessory regulator A (SarA) a known master controller of biofilm formation is an attractive target for the drug development. A structure based screening of lead compounds was employed for the identification of novel small molecule inhibitors targeted to interact to the DNA binding domain of the transcriptional activator, SarA and hinder its response over the control of genes that up-regulate the phenotype, biofilm. The top-hit SarA selective inhibitor, 4-[(2,4-diflurobenzyl)amino] cyclohexanol (SarABI) was further validated in-vitro for its efficacy. The SarABI was found to have MBIC50value of 200 μg/ml and also down-regulated the expression of the RNA effector, (RNAIII), Hemolysin (hld), and fibronectin-binding protein (fnbA). The anti-adherence property of SarABI on S. aureus invasion to the host epithelial cell lines (Hep-2) was examined where no significant attachment of S. aureus was observed. The SarABI inhibits the colonization of MDR S. aureus in animal model experiment significantly cohere to the molecular docking studies and in vitro experiments. So, we propose that the SarABI could be a novel substitute to overcome a higher degree of MDR S. aureus colonization on vascular graft. PMID:26074884

  4. New cross talk between ROS, ABA and auxin controlling seed maturation and germination unraveled in APX6 deficient Arabidopsis seeds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Changming; Twito, Shir; Miller, Gad

    2014-01-01

    Successful execution of germination program greatly depends on the seeds' oxidative homeostasis. We recently identified new roles for the H2O2-reducing enzyme ascorbate peroxidase 6 (APX6) in germination control and seeds' stress tolerance. APX6 replaces APX1 as the dominant APX in dry seeds, and its loss-of-function results in reduced germination due to over accumulation of ROS and oxidative damage. Metabolic analyses in dry apx6 seeds, revealed altered homeostasis of primary metabolites including accumulation of TCA cycle metabolites, ABA and auxin, supporting a novel role for APX6 in regulating cellular metabolism. Increased sensitivity of apx6 mutants to ABA or IAA in germination assays indicated impaired perception of these signals. Relative suppression of ABI3 and ABI5 expression, and induction of ABI4, suggested the activation of a signaling route inhibiting germination in apx6 seeds that is independent of ABI3. Here we provide additional evidence linking ABI4 with ABA- and auxin-controlled inhibition of germination and suggest a hypothetical model for the role of APX6 in the regulation of the crosstalk between these hormones and ROS.

  5. NorWood: a gene expression resource for evo-devo studies of conifer wood development.

    PubMed

    Jokipii-Lukkari, Soile; Sundell, David; Nilsson, Ove; Hvidsten, Torgeir R; Street, Nathaniel R; Tuominen, Hannele

    2017-02-10

    The secondary xylem of conifers is composed mainly of tracheids that differ anatomically and chemically from angiosperm xylem cells. There is currently no high-spatial-resolution data available profiling gene expression during wood formation for any coniferous species, which limits insight into tracheid development. RNA-sequencing data from replicated, high-spatial-resolution section series throughout the cambial and woody tissues of Picea abies were used to generate the NorWood.conGenIE.org web resource, which facilitates exploration of the associated gene expression profiles and co-expression networks. Integration within PlantGenIE.org enabled a comparative regulomics analysis, revealing divergent co-expression networks between P. abies and the two angiosperm species Arabidopsis thaliana and Populus tremula for the secondary cell wall (SCW) master regulator NAC Class IIB transcription factors. The SCW cellulose synthase genes (CesAs) were located in the neighbourhoods of the NAC factors in A. thaliana and P. tremula, but not in P. abies. The NorWood co-expression network enabled identification of potential SCW CesA regulators in P. abies. The NorWood web resource represents a powerful community tool for generating evo-devo insights into the divergence of wood formation between angiosperms and gymnosperms and for advancing understanding of the regulation of wood development in P. abies.

  6. Analyser-based x-ray imaging for biomedical research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suortti, Pekka; Keyriläinen, Jani; Thomlinson, William

    2013-12-01

    Analyser-based imaging (ABI) is one of the several phase-contrast x-ray imaging techniques being pursued at synchrotron radiation facilities. With advancements in compact source technology, there is a possibility that ABI will become a clinical imaging modality. This paper presents the history of ABI as it has developed from its laboratory source to synchrotron imaging. The fundamental physics of phase-contrast imaging is presented both in a general sense and specifically for ABI. The technology is dependent on the use of perfect crystal monochromator optics. The theory of the x-ray optics is developed and presented in a way that will allow optimization of the imaging for specific biomedical systems. The advancement of analytical algorithms to produce separate images of the sample absorption, refraction angle map and small-angle x-ray scattering is detailed. Several detailed applications to biomedical imaging are presented to illustrate the broad range of systems and body sites studied preclinically to date: breast, cartilage and bone, soft tissue and organs. Ultimately, the application of ABI in clinical imaging will depend partly on the availability of compact sources with sufficient x-ray intensity comparable with that of the current synchrotron environment.

  7. Occult peripheral artery disease is common and limits the benefit achieved in cardiac rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Tam, Marty C; Longenecker, Chris T; Chow, Chen; Vest, Marianne; Sukeena, Richard; Madan Mohan, Sri K; Carman, Teresa; Parikh, Sahil A; Josephson, Richard A

    2016-04-01

    Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) has proven morbidity and mortality benefits in cardiovascular disease, which directly correlates with exercise performance achieved. Many patients in CR exercise at sub-optimal levels, without obvious limitations. Occult lower-extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD) may be a determinant of diminished exercise capacity and reduced benefit obtained from traditional CR. In this prospective study of 150 consecutive patients enrolled in Phase II CR, we describe the prevalence of PAD, the utility of externally validated screening questionnaires, and the observed impact on CR outcomes. Abnormal ankle-brachial indices (ABI) (< 0.9 and >1.4) were observed in 19% of those studied. The Edinburgh Claudication Questionnaire was insensitive for detecting PAD by low ABI in this population, and the Walking Impairment Questionnaire and a modified Gardner protocol demonstrated a lack of typical symptoms with low levels of activity. Importantly, at completion of traditional CR, exercise improvement measured in metabolic equivalents (METs) was worse in those with a low ABI compared to those with a normal ABI (+1.39 vs +2.41 METs, p = 0.002). In conclusion, PAD is common in patients in Phase II CR and often clinically occult. Screening based on standard questionnaires appears insensitive in this population, suggesting a need for a broad-based screening strategy with ABI measurements. In this study, undiagnosed PAD significantly attenuated improvements in exercise performance, which potentially has bearings on future clinical events.

  8. Rehabilitation of Executive Functions in Patients with Chronic Acquired Brain Injury with Goal Management Training, External Cuing, and Emotional Regulation: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Tornås, Sveinung; Løvstad, Marianne; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin; Evans, Jonathan; Endestad, Tor; Hol, Per Kristian; Schanke, Anne-Kristine; Stubberud, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Executive dysfunction is a common consequence of acquired brain injury (ABI), causing significant disability in daily life. This randomized controlled trial investigated the efficacy of Goal Management Training (GMT) in improving executive functioning in patients with chronic ABI. Seventy patients with a verified ABI and executive dysfunction were randomly allocated to GMT (n=33) or a psycho-educative active control condition, Brain Health Workshop (BHW) (n=37). In addition, all participants received external cueing by text messages. Neuropsychological tests and self-reported questionnaires of executive functioning were administered pre-intervention, immediately after intervention, and at 6 months follow-up. Assessors were blinded to group allocation. Questionnaire measures indicated significant improvement of everyday executive functioning in the GMT group, with effects lasting at least 6 months post-treatment. Both groups improved on the majority of the applied neuropsychological tests. However, improved performance on tests demanding executive attention was most prominent in the GMT group. The results indicate that GMT combined with external cueing is an effective metacognitive strategy training method, ameliorating executive dysfunction in daily life for patients with chronic ABI. The strongest effects were seen on self-report measures of executive functions 6 months post-treatment, suggesting that strategies learned in GMT were applied and consolidated in everyday life after the end of training. Furthermore, these findings show that executive dysfunction can be improved years after the ABI.

  9. Outcomes of a community-based treatment programme for people with acquired brain injury in the chronic phase: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Middag-van Spanje, Marij; Smeets, Sanne; van Haastregt, Jolanda; van Heugten, Caroline

    2017-03-28

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the outcomes of Brainz, a low intensity community-based treatment programme for people with acquired brain injury (ABI). Participants were 62 people with sustained ABI (5.2 years post-injury, SD = 4.5) and 35 family caregivers. Participants attended two to five cognitive and physical group modules and received two hours of individual home treatment every two weeks. Primary outcomes for people with ABI were participation, perceived difficulties in daily life and need of care, level of goal attainment, and self-esteem. Primary family caregiver outcome was perceived burden of care. Attrition rate of people with ABI was 24% (n = 15), and of family caregivers was 31% (n = 11). People with ABI were more satisfied with the level of their participation after completing Brainz (p < .01), but showed no change in participation frequency or in restrictions (both ps > .01). They perceived fewer difficulties in daily life and less need of care (both ps < .01). Also, in two cognitive modules people improved on their goal achievement (p < .01). However, their self-esteem was reduced (p < .01). Caregiver burden was reduced (p < .01). This study has provided preliminary evidence of the effectiveness of a combined group-based clinical and individual home-based treatment programme, but more research is needed, preferably in larger controlled studies.

  10. Salmonberry and salal annual aerial stem production: The maintenance of shrub cover in forest stands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tappeiner, J. C.; Zasada, J.; Huffman, D.; Ganio, L.

    2001-01-01

    Annual sprouting of aerial stems and ramets enables populations of salmonberry (Rubus spectabilis Pursh), salal (Gaultheria shallon Pursh), and probably other forest shrubs to maintain dense covers (>20 000 stems/ha). We studied annual stem production of salmonberry on cut (all stems cut within 15 cm of the ground) and uncut (stems were not treated) plots for 8 years and salal for 5 years in the understories of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), alder, and riparian stands, as well as clearcuts, which are all common stand types in western Oregon. Mean salmonberry stem production on uncut plots ranged from 4.7 stemsA?ma??2A?yeara??1 (95% CI 2.9a??7.4) in alder stands and clearcuts to 1.6 stemsA?ma??2A?yeara??1 (95% CI 1.0a??2.6) in conifer stands. Mean salal production was greater, ranging from 58 stemsA?ma??2A?yeara??1 (95% CI 25a??135) to 8.6 stemsA?ma??2A?yeara??1 (95% CI 3.7a??20.1) on uncut plots in clearcuts and unthinned Douglas-fir stands, respectively. Annual production of both species was somewhat greater on cut plots. Most stems produced in early spring die by December, but enough are recruited to replace mortality of older stems. Stem density was maintained for 8 years for salmonberry and 5 years for salal on both cut and uncut plots. Based on length of rhizomes and bud density we estimate that only 1a??5% of the buds in the rhizomes are needed to support this annual stem production. Although these species sprout vigorously after their aerial stems are killed, disturbance is not necessary for maintaining a dense cover. It appears that, once established, salal, salmonberry, and probably other clonal forest shrubs can maintain a dense cover that can interfere with establishment of trees and other shrubs in canopy gaps or other openings.

  11. Dynamics of the chemical composition and productivity of composts for the cultivation of Agaricus bisporus strains.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Meire Cristina Nogueira; de Jesus, João Paulo Furlan; Vieira, Fabrício Rocha; Viana, Sthefany Rodrigues Fernandes; Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet; de Almeida Minhoni, Marli Teixeira

    2013-12-01

    Two compost formulations based on oat straw (Avena sativa) and brachiaria (Brachiaria sp.) were tested for the cultivation of three Agaricus bisporus strains (ABI-07/06, ABI-05/03, and PB-1). The experimental design was a 2 × 3 factorial scheme (composts × strains) with 6 treatments and 8 repetitions (boxes containing 12 kg of compost). The chemical characterization of the compost (humidity, organic matter, carbon, nitrogen, pH, raw protein, ethereal extract, fibers, ash, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) before and after the cultivation of A. bisporus and the production (basidiomata mass, productivity, and biological efficiency) were evaluated. Data were submitted to variance analysis, and averages were compared by means of the Tukey's test. According to the results obtained, the chemical and production characteristics showed that the best performances for the cultivation of A. bisporus were presented by the compost based on oat and the strain ABI-07/06.

  12. Dynamics of the chemical composition and productivity of composts for the cultivation of Agaricus bisporus strains

    PubMed Central

    de Andrade, Meire Cristina Nogueira; de Jesus, João Paulo Furlan; Vieira, Fabrício Rocha; Viana, Sthefany Rodrigues Fernandes; Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet; de Almeida Minhoni, Marli Teixeira

    2013-01-01

    Two compost formulations based on oat straw (Avena sativa) and brachiaria (Brachiaria sp.) were tested for the cultivation of three Agaricus bisporus strains (ABI-07/06, ABI-05/03, and PB-1). The experimental design was a 2 × 3 factorial scheme (composts × strains) with 6 treatments and 8 repetitions (boxes containing 12 kg of compost). The chemical characterization of the compost (humidity, organic matter, carbon, nitrogen, pH, raw protein, ethereal extract, fibers, ash, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) before and after the cultivation of A. bisporus and the production (basidiomata mass, productivity, and biological efficiency) were evaluated. Data were submitted to variance analysis, and averages were compared by means of the Tukey’s test. According to the results obtained, the chemical and production characteristics showed that the best performances for the cultivation of A. bisporus were presented by the compost based on oat and the strain ABI-07/06. PMID:24688503

  13. Detecting lower extremity vascular dynamics in patients with peripheral artery disease using diffuse optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</