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Sample records for abietic acid inhibits

  1. The conifer biomarkers dehydroabietic and abietic acids are widespread in Cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Maria Sofia; Rego, Adriana; Ramos, Vitor; Afonso, Tiago B.; Freitas, Sara; Preto, Marco; Lopes, Viviana; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Magalhães, Catarina; Leão, Pedro N.

    2016-01-01

    Terpenes, a large family of natural products with important applications, are commonly associated with plants and fungi. The diterpenoids dehydroabietic and abietic acids are defense metabolites abundant in resin, and are used as biomarkers for conifer plants. We report here for the first time that the two diterpenoid acids are produced by members of several genera of cyanobacteria. Dehydroabietic acid was isolated from two cyanobacterial strains and its identity was confirmed spectroscopically. One or both of the diterpenoids were detected in the cells of phylogenetically diverse cyanobacteria belonging to four cyanobacterial ‘botanical orders’, from marine, estuarine and inland environments. Dehydroabietic acid was additionally found in culture supernatants. We investigated the natural role of the two resin acids in cyanobacteria using ecologically-relevant bioassays and found that the compounds inhibited the growth of a small coccoid cyanobacterium. The unexpected discovery of dehydroabietic and abietic acids in a wide range of cyanobacteria has implications for their use as plant biomarkers. PMID:26996104

  2. The conifer biomarkers dehydroabietic and abietic acids are widespread in Cyanobacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Maria Sofia; Rego, Adriana; Ramos, Vitor; Afonso, Tiago B.; Freitas, Sara; Preto, Marco; Lopes, Viviana; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Magalhães, Catarina; Leão, Pedro N.

    2016-03-01

    Terpenes, a large family of natural products with important applications, are commonly associated with plants and fungi. The diterpenoids dehydroabietic and abietic acids are defense metabolites abundant in resin, and are used as biomarkers for conifer plants. We report here for the first time that the two diterpenoid acids are produced by members of several genera of cyanobacteria. Dehydroabietic acid was isolated from two cyanobacterial strains and its identity was confirmed spectroscopically. One or both of the diterpenoids were detected in the cells of phylogenetically diverse cyanobacteria belonging to four cyanobacterial ‘botanical orders’, from marine, estuarine and inland environments. Dehydroabietic acid was additionally found in culture supernatants. We investigated the natural role of the two resin acids in cyanobacteria using ecologically-relevant bioassays and found that the compounds inhibited the growth of a small coccoid cyanobacterium. The unexpected discovery of dehydroabietic and abietic acids in a wide range of cyanobacteria has implications for their use as plant biomarkers.

  3. Abietic acid isolated from pine resin (Resina Pini) enhances angiogenesis in HUVECs and accelerates cutaneous wound healing in mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Jun Yeon; Lee, Yun Kyung; Lee, Dong-Soo; Yoo, Jeong-Eun; Shin, Myoung-Sook; Yamabe, Noriko; Kim, Su-Nam; Lee, Seulah; Kim, Ki Hyun; Lee, Hae-Jeung; Roh, Seok Sun; Kang, Ki Sung

    2017-05-05

    Resin known as Resina Pini is listed in the Korean and Japanese pharmacopoeias and has been used for treating skin wounds and inflammation. Resin is composed of more than 50% abietic acid and 10% neutral substances. In the present study, the wound-healing effects of abietic acid and the possible underlying mechanism of action were investigated in various in vitro and in vivo models. The effects of abietic acid on tube formation and migration were measured in human umbilical vein vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). Protein expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation was evaluated via Western blotting analysis. The wound-healing effects of abietic acid were assessed using a mouse model of cutaneous wounds. The results showed that abietic acid enhanced cell migration and tube formation in HUVECs. Abietic acid induced significant angiogenic potential, which is associated with upregulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 expression. Additionally, 0.8μM abietic acid-treated groups showed accelerated wound closure compared to the controls in a mouse model of cutaneous wounds. The current data indicate that abietic acid treatment elevated cell migration and tube formation in HUVECs by the activation of ERK and p38 MAPKs. We suggest that abietic acid can be developed as a wound-healing agent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of abietic acid and dehydroabietic acid residues in raw ducks and cooked ducks.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yongzhi; Zhang, Suzhen; Geng, Zhiming; Wang, Daoying; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Muhan; Bian, Huan; Xu, Weimin

    2014-10-01

    Rosin was once widely used for removal of duck feathers in China and is still being used secretly in some poultry processing enterprises. Abietic acid (AA) and dehydroabietic acid (DHAA) are the major compounds of rosin. In the present study, 90 duck samples were collected for investigation of AA and DHAA residues. Abietic acid and DHAA were simultaneously detected in 13 out 40 raw ducks, 8 out of 26 water-boiled salted ducks, and 7 out of 24 roasted ducks, respectively. In positive samples, averages of AA were significantly higher than those of DHAA in positive samples of the 3 types of ducks (P < 0.05). Averages of AA and DHAA in positive raw ducks were significantly higher than those in positive roasted ducks (P < 0.05). The results indicated that almost one-third of raw ducks were defeathered by means of rosin-containing defeathering agent, and cooking processes could reduce the AA and DHAA residues to some extent, but could not eliminate them completely. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  5. Self-Assembly Behavior of Pullulan Abietate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gradwell, Sheila; Esker, Alan; Glasser, Wolgang; Heinze, Thomas

    2003-03-01

    Wood is one of nature's most fascinating biological composites due to its toughness and resistance to fracture properties. These properties stem from the self-assembly of cellulose microfibrils in an amorphous matrix of hemicellulose and lignin. In recent years, science has looked to nature for guidance in preparing synthetic materials with desirable physical properties. In order to study the self-assembly process in wood, a model system composed of a polysaccharide, pullulan abietate, and a biomimetic cellulose substrate prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique has been developed. Interfacial tension and surface plasmon resonance measurements used to study the self-assembly process will be discussed for different pullulan derivatives.

  6. Boric acid and boronic acids inhibition of pigeonpea urease.

    PubMed

    Reddy, K Ravi Charan; Kayastha, Arvind M

    2006-08-01

    Urease from the seeds of pigeonpea was competitively inhibited by boric acid, butylboronic acid, phenylboronic acid, and 4-bromophenylboronic acid; 4-bromophenylboronic acid being the strongest inhibitor, followed by boric acid > butylboronic acid > phenylboronic acid, respectively. Urease inhibition by boric acid is maximal at acidic pH (5.0) and minimal at alkaline pH (10.0), i.e., the trigonal planar B(OH)3 form is a more effective inhibitor than the tetrahedral B(OH)4 -anionic form. Similarly, the anionic form of phenylboronic acid was least inhibiting in nature.

  7. Nickel Inhibits Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Uppala, Radha; McKinney, Richard W.; Brant, Kelly A.; Fabisiak, James P.; Goetzman, Eric S.

    2015-01-01

    Nickel exposure is associated with changes in cellular energy metabolism which may contribute to its carcinogenic properties. Here, we demonstrate that nickel strongly represses mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation—the pathway by which fatty acids are catabolized for energy—in both primary human lung fibroblasts and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. At the concentrations used, nickel suppresses fatty acid oxidation without globally suppressing mitochondrial function as evidenced by increased glucose oxidation to CO2. Pre-treatment with L-carnitine, previously shown to prevent nickel-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in neuroblastoma cells, did not prevent the inhibition of fatty acid oxidation. The effect of nickel on fatty acid oxidation occurred only with prolonged exposure (>5 hr), suggesting that direct inhibition of the active sites of metabolic enzymes is not the mechanism of action. Nickel is a known hypoxia-mimetic that activates hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF1α). Nickel-induced inhibition of fatty acid oxidation was blunted in HIF1α knockout fibroblasts, implicating HIF1α as one contributor to the mechanism. Additionally, nickel down-regulated the protein levels of the key fatty acid oxidation enzyme very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) in a dose-dependent fashion. In conclusion, inhibition of fatty acid oxidation by nickel, concurrent with increased glucose metabolism, represents a form of metabolic reprogramming that may contribute to nickel-induced carcinogenesis. PMID:26051273

  8. Nickel inhibits mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Uppala, Radha; McKinney, Richard W; Brant, Kelly A; Fabisiak, James P; Goetzman, Eric S

    2015-08-07

    Nickel exposure is associated with changes in cellular energy metabolism which may contribute to its carcinogenic properties. Here, we demonstrate that nickel strongly represses mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation-the pathway by which fatty acids are catabolized for energy-in both primary human lung fibroblasts and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. At the concentrations used, nickel suppresses fatty acid oxidation without globally suppressing mitochondrial function as evidenced by increased glucose oxidation to CO2. Pre-treatment with l-carnitine, previously shown to prevent nickel-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in neuroblastoma cells, did not prevent the inhibition of fatty acid oxidation. The effect of nickel on fatty acid oxidation occurred only with prolonged exposure (>5 h), suggesting that direct inhibition of the active sites of metabolic enzymes is not the mechanism of action. Nickel is a known hypoxia-mimetic that activates hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF1α). Nickel-induced inhibition of fatty acid oxidation was blunted in HIF1α knockout fibroblasts, implicating HIF1α as one contributor to the mechanism. Additionally, nickel down-regulated the protein levels of the key fatty acid oxidation enzyme very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) in a dose-dependent fashion. In conclusion, inhibition of fatty acid oxidation by nickel, concurrent with increased glucose metabolism, represents a form of metabolic reprogramming that may contribute to nickel-induced carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Specific bile acids inhibit hepatic fatty acid uptake

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Biao; Park, Hyo Min; Kazantzis, Melissa; Lin, Min; Henkin, Amy; Ng, Stephanie; Song, Sujin; Chen, Yuli; Tran, Heather; Lai, Robin; Her, Chris; Maher, Jacquelyn J.; Forman, Barry M.; Stahl, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Bile acids are known to play important roles as detergents in the absorption of hydrophobic nutrients and as signaling molecules in the regulation of metabolism. Here we tested the novel hypothesis that naturally occurring bile acids interfere with protein-mediated hepatic long chain free fatty acid (LCFA) uptake. To this end stable cell lines expressing fatty acid transporters as well as primary hepatocytes from mouse and human livers were incubated with primary and secondary bile acids to determine their effects on LCFA uptake rates. We identified ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and deoxycholic acid (DCA) as the two most potent inhibitors of the liver-specific fatty acid transport protein 5 (FATP5). Both UDCA and DCA were able to inhibit LCFA uptake by primary hepatocytes in a FATP5-dependent manner. Subsequently, mice were treated with these secondary bile acids in vivo to assess their ability to inhibit diet-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation. Administration of DCA in vivo via injection or as part of a high-fat diet significantly inhibited hepatic fatty acid uptake and reduced liver triglycerides by more than 50%. In summary, the data demonstrate a novel role for specific bile acids, and the secondary bile acid DCA in particular, in the regulation of hepatic LCFA uptake. The results illuminate a previously unappreciated means by which specific bile acids, such as UDCA and DCA, can impact hepatic triglyceride metabolism and may lead to novel approaches to combat obesity-associated fatty liver disease. PMID:22531947

  10. Gastric acid secretion: activation and inhibition.

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, G.; Prinz, C.; Loo, D.; Bamberg, K.; Besancon, M.; Shin, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    Peripheral regulation of gastric acid secretion is initiated by the release of gastrin from the G cell. Gastrin then stimulates the cholecystokinin-B receptor on the enterochromaffin-like cell beginning a calcium signaling cascade. An exocytotic release of histamine follows with concomitant activation of a C1- current. The released histamine begins the H2-receptor mediated sequence of events in the parietal cell, which results in activation of the gastric H+/K+ - ATPase. This enzyme is the final common pathway of acid secretion. The H+/K+ - ATPase is composed of two subunits: the larger alpha-subunit couples ion transport to hydrolysis of ATP, the smaller beta-subunit is required for appropriate assembly of the holoenzyme. Both the membrane and extracytoplasmic domain contain the ion transport pathway, and therefore, this region is the target for the antisecretory drugs of the post-H2 era. The 100 kDa alpha-subunit has probably 10 membrane spanning segments with, therefore, five extracytoplasmic loops. The 35 kDA beta-subunit has a single membrane spanning segment, and most of this protein is extracytoplasmic with the six or seven N glycosylation consensus sequences occupied. Omeprazole is an acid-accumulated, acid-activated, prodrug that binds covalently to two cysteine residues at positions 813 (or 822) and 892, accessible from the acidic face of the pump. Lansoprazole binds to cys321, 813 (or 822) and 892; pantoprazole binds to cys813 and 822. The common binding site for these drugs (cys813 or 822) is responsible for the inhibition of acid transport. Covalent inhibition of the acid pump improves control of acid secretion, but since the effective half life of the inhibition in man is about 48 hr, full inhibition of acid secretion, perhaps necessary for eradication of Helicobacter pylori in combination with a single antibiotic, will require prolongation of the effect of this class of drug. PMID:7502535

  11. Inhibition of Microbial Lipases by Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Smith, J. L.; Alford, John A.

    1966-01-01

    Addition of lard or sodium oleate to the medium used for lipase production by Pseudomonas fragi resulted in a decreased accumulation of lipase in the culture supernatant fluid without affecting cell growth. The production and activity of lipase was inhibited by lard, sodium oleate, and the salts of other unsaturated fatty acids. Some divalent cations, Tweens, lecithin, and bovine serum prevented oleate inhibition, but did not reverse it. Similar inhibitory actions were observed with Geotrichum candidum lipase, but not with a staphylococcal lipase or pancreatic lipase. A protective effect by protein in crude enzyme preparations is indicated. The ability of oleate to lower surface tension does not appear to be related to its ability to inhibit lipase. PMID:5970458

  12. Inhibition of Titanium In Fuming Nitric Acid

    SciTech Connect

    RITTENHOUSE, J. B.; PAPP, C. A.

    1958-06-01

    Storage tests were conducted to determine the effectiveness of oxygen in inhibiting the corrosion reaction of titanium in fuming nitric acid (FNA). In these tests, which were of 28 days duration at a temperature of 30 C, the samples investigated were ½-inch squares (0.020 inch thick) of commercially pure titanium (75A) and a binary 8 percent-manganese alloy (C110M). The specimens were stored in Teflon-lined aluminum pressure vessels at 50 percent ullage. The pressure vessels were of the following types: vented to the atmosphere, sealed with air in the vapor space, sealed with oxygen atmosphere in the vapor space, and equippedmore » for a 1-ml/minute oxygen flow through the vapor space. Finally, results of the investigation indicated no inhibition of titanium corrosion by oxygen, but confirmed the inhibiting effect of a water content of 1 to 2 percent by weight in the FNA.« less

  13. Inhibition of hepatic lipogenesis by 2-tetradecylglycidic acid.

    PubMed

    McCune, S A; Nomura, T; Harris, R A

    1979-10-01

    2-Tetradecylglycidic acid (TDGA), a hypoglycemic agent, has been found to be a very effective inhibitor of de novo fatty acid synthesis by isolated hepatocytes. A comparison was made between the effectiveness of TDGA and 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid (TOFA), a hypolipidemic agent, on the metabolic processes of isolated hepatocytes. These compounds are structurally related and both inhibit fatty acid synthesis; however, they have opposite effects from each other on the oxidation and esterification of fatty acids. TDGA inhibits whereas TOFA stimulates fatty acid oxidation. TDGA stimulates whereas TOFA inhibits fatty acid esterification.

  14. Hydroxy-oleic acid, but not oleic acid, inhibits pharmacologic ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Oleic acid (OA) and other fatty acids can become abundant in the systemic circulation after air pollution exposure as endogenously released lipolysis byproducts or by entering the body as a component of air pollution. Vascular damage has been observed with OA infusion, but it is not yet established whether increased circulating OA is able to produce the type of adverse cardiovascular effects associated with exposure to air pollution, or the mechanisms involved with such damage. Based on responses observed upon exposure of cultured endothelial cells, we hypothesized that OA and a hydroxylated metabolite (12-OH OA) would increase vascular tissue injury and impair vascular reactivity. Thoracic descending aorta tissue was collected from male Wistar Kyoto rats, aged 13-16 weeks. Prior to reactivity testing, independent LDH assays were performed with aortic rings to establish a subcytotoxic OA dose. To determine changes in vascular reactivity, aortic ring segments (n=3-4) were exposed for 1 hr to 100 µM OA, 12-OH OA, or an equivalent EtOH vehicle, followed by testing using myography and pharmacologic agents. Only 12-OH OA exposure significantly inhibited acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in aortic ring segments (25-30% reduction relative to EtOH control), based on maximum relaxation and dose-response. No change was seen in smooth muscle sensitivity to an exogenous nitric oxide source, sodium nitroprusside. Maximum aortic contractile force ge

  15. Lithologic and structural mapping of the Abiete-Toko gold district in southern Cameroon, using Landsat 7 ETM+/SRTM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binam Mandeng, Eugène Pascal; Bondjè Bidjeck, Louise Marie; Takodjou Wambo, Jonas Didero; Taku, Agbor; Bineli Betsi, Thierry; Solange Ipan, Antoinette; Tchami Nfada, Lionel; Bitom Dieudonné, Lucien

    2018-03-01

    The geology of the Abiete-Toko gold district in South Cameroon is investigated using a combination of Landsat 7 ETM+/SRTM image processing techniques, conventional geologic field mapping and geostatistical analysis. The satellite images were treated using Principal Component Analysis and Sobel filters to separate the background noise from lithotectonic structures which were matched with field data. The results show that this area has been affected by a polyphase deformation represented by S1 foliation, Sc1 schistosity, L1 lineation, S2 foliation, F2 folds, and F3 shear zones and faults. A detailed analysis of all the structures led to the identification of two major networks of dextral and sinistral shear zones oriented WNW-ESE and NE-SW, respectively. These results may serve in mining prospection, especially in the search for tectonically controlled primary mineralization and so may significantly guide the exploration of primary gold mineralization in the Abiete-Toko area subjected to years of artisanal gold mining.

  16. High Concentrations of Tranexamic Acid Inhibit Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors.

    PubMed

    Lecker, Irene; Wang, Dian-Shi; Kaneshwaran, Kirusanthy; Mazer, C David; Orser, Beverley A

    2017-07-01

    The antifibrinolytic drug tranexamic acid is structurally similar to the amino acid glycine and may cause seizures and myoclonus by acting as a competitive antagonist of glycine receptors. Glycine is an obligatory co-agonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of glutamate receptors. Thus, it is plausible that tranexamic acid inhibits NMDA receptors by acting as a competitive antagonist at the glycine binding site. The aim of this study was to determine whether tranexamic acid inhibits NMDA receptors, as well as α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid and kainate subtypes of ionotropic glutamate receptors. Tranexamic acid modulation of NMDA, α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid, and kainate receptors was studied using whole cell voltage-clamp recordings of current from cultured mouse hippocampal neurons. Tranexamic acid rapidly and reversibly inhibited NMDA receptors (half maximal inhibitory concentration = 241 ± 45 mM, mean ± SD; 95% CI, 200 to 281; n = 5) and shifted the glycine concentration-response curve for NMDA-evoked current to the right. Tranexamic acid also inhibited α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (half maximal inhibitory concentration = 231 ± 91 mM; 95% CI, 148 to 314; n = 5 to 6) and kainate receptors (half maximal inhibitory concentration = 90 ± 24 mM; 95% CI, 68 to 112; n = 5). Tranexamic acid inhibits NMDA receptors likely by reducing the binding of the co-agonist glycine and also inhibits α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid and kainate receptors. Receptor blockade occurs at high millimolar concentrations of tranexamic acid, similar to the concentrations that occur after topical application to peripheral tissues. Glutamate receptors in tissues including bone, heart, and nerves play various physiologic roles, and tranexamic acid inhibition of these receptors may contribute to adverse drug effects.

  17. Synthesis and Proteasome Inhibition of Glycyrrhetinic Acid Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Li; Yu, Donglei; Ho, Phong; Qian, Keduo; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Chen, Chin-Ho

    2008-01-01

    This study discovered that glycyrrhetinic acid inhibited the human 20S proteasome at 22.3 µM. Esterification of the C-3 hydroxyl group on glycyrrhetinic acid with various carboxylic acid reagents yielded a series of analogs with marked improved potency. Among the derivatives, glycyrrhetinic acid 3-O-isophthalate (17) was the most potent compound with IC50 of 0.22 µM, which was approximately 100-fold more potent than glycyrrhetinic acid. PMID:18562200

  18. A novel approach in acidic disinfection through inhibition of acid resistance mechanisms; Maleic acid-mediated inhibition of glutamate decarboxylase activity enhances acid sensitivity of Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Paudyal, Ranju; Barnes, Ruth H; Karatzas, Kimon Andreas G

    2018-02-01

    Here it is demonstrated a novel approach in disinfection regimes where specific molecular acid resistance systems are inhibited aiming to eliminate microorganisms under acidic conditions. Despite the importance of the Glutamate Decarboxylase (GAD) system for survival of Listeria monocytogenes and other pathogens under acidic conditions, its potential inhibition by specific compounds that could lead to its elimination from foods or food preparation premises has not been studied. The effects of maleic acid on the acid resistance of L. monocytogenes were investigated and found that it has a higher antimicrobial activity under acidic conditions than other organic acids, while this could not be explained by its pKa or Ka values. The effects were found to be more pronounced on strains with higher GAD activity. Maleic acid affected the extracellular GABA levels while it did not affect the intracellular ones. Maleic acid had a major impact mainly on GadD2 activity as also shown in cell lysates. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that maleic acid is able to partly remove biofilms of L. monocytogenes. Maleic acid is able to inhibit the GAD of L. monocytogenes significantly enhancing its sensitivity to acidic conditions and together with its ability to remove biofilms, make a good candidate for disinfection regimes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Calcite crystal growth rate inhibition by polycarboxylic acids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, M.M.; Hoch, A.R.

    2001-01-01

    Calcite crystal growth rates measured in the presence of several polycarboxyclic acids show that tetrahydrofurantetracarboxylic acid (THFTCA) and cyclopentanetetracarboxylic acid (CPTCA) are effective growth rate inhibitors at low solution concentrations (0.01 to 1 mg/L). In contrast, linear polycarbocylic acids (citric acid and tricarballylic acid) had no inhibiting effect on calcite growth rates at concentrations up to 10 mg/L. Calcite crystal growth rate inhibition by cyclic polycarboxyclic acids appears to involve blockage of crystal growth sites on the mineral surface by several carboxylate groups. Growth morphology varied for growth in the absence and in the presence of both THFTCA and CPTCA. More effective growth rate reduction by CPTCA relative to THFTCA suggests that inhibitor carboxylate stereochemical orientation controls calcite surface interaction with carboxylate inhibitors. ?? 20O1 Academic Press.

  20. Inhibition of fatty acid synthesis in isolated adipocytes by 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid.

    PubMed

    Halvorson, D L; McCune, S A

    1984-11-01

    The compound 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid (TOFA), a hypolipidemic agent, inhibits fatty acid synthesis, lactate and pyruvate accumulation and CO2 release in isolated rat adipocytes. TOFA stimulates the accumulation of citrate. ATP levels are not lowered by TOFA. In comparison with the natural fatty acid, oleate, TOFA exhibited a much greater inhibitory effect on lipogenesis. TOFyl-CoA formation within intact adipocytes was demonstrated. Although not inhibited by TOFA, acetyl-CoA carboxylase is inhibited by TOFyl-CoA. It is proposed that many of the metabolic effects of TOFA in isolated adipocytes can be explained by TOFyl-CoA inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase. TOFA inhibits glycolysis as a secondary event with the primary event of inhibition of fatty acid synthesis causing an accumulation of citrate which is an inhibitor of phosphofructokinase.

  1. Inhibition of noradrenaline release by lysergic acid diethylamide

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, J.

    1973-01-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) inhibits the release of labelled noradrenaline from the guinea-pig vas deferens during intramural nerve stimulation and causes a corresponding reduction in the contractions of the smooth muscle. These effects of LSD are most prominent at low stimulus frequencies and they are prevented by treatment with phentolamine. It is concluded that LSD inhibits noradrenaline release by interacting with presynaptic α-adrenoceptors. PMID:4788042

  2. Trans-Fats Inhibit Autophagy Induced by Saturated Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Sauvat, Allan; Chen, Guo; Müller, Kevin; Tong, Mingming; Aprahamian, Fanny; Durand, Sylvère; Cerrato, Giulia; Bezu, Lucillia; Leduc, Marion; Franz, Joakim; Rockenfeller, Patrick; Sadoshima, Junichi; Madeo, Frank; Kepp, Oliver; Kroemer, Guido

    2018-04-01

    Depending on the length of their carbon backbone and their saturation status, natural fatty acids have rather distinct biological effects. Thus, longevity of model organisms is increased by extra supply of the most abundant natural cis-unsaturated fatty acid, oleic acid, but not by that of the most abundant saturated fatty acid, palmitic acid. Here, we systematically compared the capacity of different saturated, cis-unsaturated and alien (industrial or ruminant) trans-unsaturated fatty acids to provoke cellular stress in vitro, on cultured human cells expressing a battery of distinct biosensors that detect signs of autophagy, Golgi stress and the unfolded protein response. In contrast to cis-unsaturated fatty acids, trans-unsaturated fatty acids failed to stimulate signs of autophagy including the formation of GFP-LC3B-positive puncta, production of phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate, and activation of the transcription factor TFEB. When combined effects were assessed, several trans-unsaturated fatty acids including elaidic acid (the trans-isomer of oleate), linoelaidic acid, trans-vaccenic acid and palmitelaidic acid, were highly efficient in suppressing autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by palmitic, but not by oleic acid. Elaidic acid also inhibited autophagy induction by palmitic acid in vivo, in mouse livers and hearts. We conclude that the well-established, though mechanistically enigmatic toxicity of trans-unsaturated fatty acids may reside in their capacity to abolish cytoprotective stress responses induced by saturated fatty acids. Copyright © 2018 German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Glycation inhibits trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-induced whey protein precipitation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Four different WPI saccharide conjugates were successfully prepared to test whether glycation could inhibit WPI precipitation induced by trichloroacetic acid (TCA). Conjugates molecular weights after glycation were analyzed with SDS-PAGE. No significant secondary structure change due to glycation wa...

  4. Phosphatidic acid inhibits ceramide 1-phosphate-stimulated macrophage migration.

    PubMed

    Ouro, Alberto; Arana, Lide; Rivera, Io-Guané; Ordoñez, Marta; Gomez-Larrauri, Ana; Presa, Natalia; Simón, Jorge; Trueba, Miguel; Gangoiti, Patricia; Bittman, Robert; Gomez-Muñoz, Antonio

    2014-12-15

    Ceramide 1-phosphate (C1P) was recently demonstrated to potently induce cell migration. This action could only be observed when C1P was applied exogenously to cells in culture, and was inhibited by pertussis toxin. However, the mechanisms involved in this process are poorly understood. In this work, we found that phosphatidic acid (PA), which is structurally related to C1P, displaced radiolabeled C1P from its membrane-binding site and inhibited C1P-stimulated macrophage migration. This effect was independent of the saturated fatty acid chain length or the presence of a double bond in each of the fatty acyl chains of PA. Treatment of RAW264.7 macrophages with exogenous phospholipase D (PLD), an enzyme that produces PA from membrane phospholipids, also inhibited C1P-stimulated cell migration. Likewise, PA or exogenous PLD inhibited C1P-stimulated extracellularly regulated kinases (ERK) 1 and 2 phosphorylation, leading to inhibition of cell migration. However, PA did not inhibit C1P-stimulated Akt phosphorylation. It is concluded that PA is a physiological regulator of C1P-stimulated macrophage migration. These actions of PA may have important implications in the control of pathophysiological functions that are regulated by C1P, including inflammation and various cellular processes associated with cell migration such as organogenesis or tumor metastasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Boric acid inhibits human prostate cancer cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Barranco, Wade T; Eckhert, Curtis D

    2004-12-08

    The role of boron in biology includes coordinated regulation of gene expression in mixed bacterial populations and the growth and proliferation of higher plants and lower animals. Here we report that boric acid, the dominant form of boron in plasma, inhibits the proliferation of prostate cancer cell lines, DU-145 and LNCaP, in a dose-dependent manner. Non-tumorigenic prostate cell lines, PWR-1E and RWPE-1, and the cancer line PC-3 were also inhibited, but required concentrations higher than observed human blood levels. Studies using DU-145 cells showed that boric acid induced a cell death-independent proliferative inhibition, with little effect on cell cycle stage distribution and mitochondrial function.

  6. 2-Alkynoic fatty acids inhibit topoisomerase IB from Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Carballeira, Néstor M; Cartagena, Michelle; Sanabria, David; Tasdemir, Deniz; Prada, Christopher F; Reguera, Rosa M; Balaña-Fouce, Rafael

    2012-10-01

    2-Alkynoic fatty acids display antimycobacterial, antifungal, and pesticidal activities but their antiprotozoal activity has received little attention. In this work we synthesized the 2-octadecynoic acid (2-ODA), 2-hexadecynoic acid (2-HDA), and 2-tetradecynoic acid (2-TDA) and show that 2-ODA is the best inhibitor of the Leishmania donovani DNA topoisomerase IB enzyme (LdTopIB) with an EC(50)=5.3±0.7μM. The potency of LdTopIB inhibition follows the trend 2-ODA>2-HDA>2-TDA, indicating that the effectiveness of inhibition depends on the fatty acid carbon chain length. All of the studied 2-alkynoic fatty acids were less potent inhibitors of the human topoisomerase IB enzyme (hTopIB) as compared to LdTopIB. 2-ODA also displayed in vitro activity against Leishmania donovani (IC(50)=11.0μM), but it was less effective against other protozoa, Trypanosoma cruzi (IC(50)=48.1μM) and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (IC(50)=64.5μM). The antiprotozoal activity of the 2-alkynoic fatty acids, in general, followed the trend 2-ODA>2-HDA>2-TDA. The experimental information gathered so far indicates that 2-ODA is a promising antileishmanial compound. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Theobromine Inhibits Uric Acid Crystallization. A Potential Application in the Treatment of Uric Acid Nephrolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Grases, Felix; Rodriguez, Adrian; Costa-Bauza, Antonia

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess the capacity of methylxanthines (caffeine, theophylline, theobromine and paraxanthine) to inhibit uric acid crystallization, and to evaluate their potential application in the treatment of uric acid nephrolithiasis. Materials and Methods The ability of methylxathines to inhibit uric acid nucleation was assayed turbidimetrically. Crystal morphology and its modification due to the effect of theobromine were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The ability of theobromine to inhibit uric acid crystal growth on calculi fragments resulting from extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) was evaluated using a flow system. Results The turbidimetric assay showed that among the studied methylxanthines, theobromine could markedly inhibit uric acid nucleation. SEM images showed that the presence of theobromine resulted in thinner uric acid crystals. Furthermore, in a flow system theobromine blocked the regrowth of post-ESWL uric acid calculi fragments. Conclusions Theobromine, a natural dimethylxanthine present in high amounts in cocoa, acts as an inhibitor of nucleation and crystal growth of uric acid. Therefore, theobromine may be clinically useful in the treatment of uric acid nephrolithiasis. PMID:25333633

  8. Chlorogenic Acid Inhibits Human Platelet Activation and Thrombus Formation

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, Eduardo; Caballero, Julio; Alarcón, Marcelo; Rojas, Armando; Palomo, Iván

    2014-01-01

    Background Chlorogenic acid is a potent phenolic antioxidant. However, its effect on platelet aggregation, a critical factor in arterial thrombosis, remains unclear. Consequently, chlorogenic acid-action mechanisms in preventing platelet activation and thrombus formation were examined. Methods and Results Chlorogenic acid in a dose-dependent manner (0.1 to 1 mmol/L) inhibited platelet secretion and aggregation induced by ADP, collagen, arachidonic acid and TRAP-6, and diminished platelet firm adhesion/aggregation and platelet-leukocyte interactions under flow conditions. At these concentrations chlorogenic acid significantly decreased platelet inflammatory mediators (sP-selectin, sCD40L, CCL5 and IL-1β) and increased intraplatelet cAMP levels/PKA activation. Interestingly, SQ22536 (an adenylate cyclase inhibitor) and ZM241385 (a potent A2A receptor antagonist) attenuated the antiplatelet effect of chlorogenic acid. Chlorogenic acid is compatible to the active site of the adenosine A2A receptor as revealed through molecular modeling. In addition, chlorogenic acid had a significantly lower effect on mouse bleeding time when compared to the same dose of aspirin. Conclusions Antiplatelet and antithrombotic effects of chlorogenic acid are associated with the A2A receptor/adenylate cyclase/cAMP/PKA signaling pathway. PMID:24598787

  9. Inhibition of bacterial activity in acid mine drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Gurdeep; Bhatnagar, Miss Mridula

    1988-12-01

    Acid mine drainage water give rise to rapid growth and activity of an iron- and sulphur- oxidizing bacterium Thiobacillus ferrooxidians which greatly accelerate acid producing reactions by oxidation of pyrite material associated with coal and adjoining strata. The role of this bacterium in production of acid mine drainage is described. This study presents the data which demonstrate the inhibitory effect of certain organic acids, sodium benzoate, sodium lauryl sulphate, quarternary ammonium compounds on the growth of the acidophilic aerobic autotroph Thiobacillus ferrooxidians. In each experiment, 10 milli-litres of laboratory developed culture of Thiobacillus ferrooxidians was added to 250 milli-litres Erlenmeyer flask containing 90 milli-litres of 9-k media supplemented with FeSO4 7H2O and organic compounds at various concentrations. Control experiments were also carried out. The treated and untreated (control) samples analysed at various time intervals for Ferrous Iron and pH levels. Results from this investigation showed that some organic acids, sodium benzoate, sodium lauryl sulphate and quarternary ammonium compounds at low concentration (10-2 M, 10-50 ppm concentration levels) are effective bactericides and able to inhibit and reduce the Ferrous Iron oxidation and acidity formation by inhibiting the growth of Thiobacillus ferrooxidians is also discussed and presented

  10. Inhibition of rotavirus replication by downregulation of fatty acid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Gaunt, Eleanor R; Cheung, Winsome; Richards, James E; Lever, Andrew; Desselberger, Ulrich

    2013-06-01

    Recently the recruitment of lipid droplets (LDs) to sites of rotavirus (RV) replication was reported. LDs are polymorphic organelles that store triacylglycerols, cholesterol and cholesterol esters. The neutral fats are derived from palmitoyl-CoA, synthesized via the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway. RV-infected cells were treated with chemical inhibitors of the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway, and the effects on viral replication kinetics were assessed. Treatment with compound C75, an inhibitor of the fatty acid synthase enzyme complex (FASN), reduced RV infectivity 3.2-fold (P = 0.07) and modestly reduced viral RNA synthesis (1.2-fold). Acting earlier in the fatty acid synthesis pathway, TOFA [5-(Tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid] inhibits the enzyme acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1). TOFA reduced the infectivity of progeny RV 31-fold and viral RNA production 6-fold. The effect of TOFA on RV infectivity and RNA replication was dose-dependent, and infectivity was reduced by administering TOFA up to 4 h post-infection. Co-treatment of RV-infected cells with C75 and TOFA synergistically reduced viral infectivity. Knockdown by siRNA of FASN and ACC1 produced findings similar to those observed by inhibiting these proteins with the chemical compounds. Inhibition of fatty acid synthesis using a range of approaches uniformly had a more marked impact on viral infectivity than on viral RNA yield, inferring a role for LDs in virus assembly and/or egress. Specific inhibitors of fatty acid metabolism may help pinpoint the critical structural and biochemical features of LDs that are essential for RV replication, and facilitate the development of antiviral therapies.

  11. Inhibition of Fatty Acid Metabolism Reduces Human Myeloma Cells Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Tirado-Vélez, José Manuel; Joumady, Insaf; Sáez-Benito, Ana; Cózar-Castellano, Irene; Perdomo, Germán

    2012-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a haematological malignancy characterized by the clonal proliferation of plasma cells. It has been proposed that targeting cancer cell metabolism would provide a new selective anticancer therapeutic strategy. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that inhibition of β-oxidation and de novo fatty acid synthesis would reduce cell proliferation in human myeloma cells. We evaluated the effect of etomoxir and orlistat on fatty acid metabolism, glucose metabolism, cell cycle distribution, proliferation, cell death and expression of G1/S phase regulatory proteins in myeloma cells. Etomoxir and orlistat inhibited β-oxidation and de novo fatty acid synthesis respectively in myeloma cells, without altering significantly glucose metabolism. These effects were associated with reduced cell viability and cell cycle arrest in G0/G1. Specifically, etomoxir and orlistat reduced by 40–70% myeloma cells proliferation. The combination of etomoxir and orlistat resulted in an additive inhibitory effect on cell proliferation. Orlistat induced apoptosis and sensitized RPMI-8226 cells to apoptosis induction by bortezomib, whereas apoptosis was not altered by etomoxir. Finally, the inhibitory effect of both drugs on cell proliferation was associated with reduced p21 protein levels and phosphorylation levels of retinoblastoma protein. In conclusion, inhibition of fatty acid metabolism represents a potential therapeutic approach to treat human multiple myeloma. PMID:23029529

  12. Inhibition studies of soybean (Glycine max) urease with heavy metals, sodium salts of mineral acids, boric acid, and boronic acids.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Kayastha, Arvind M

    2010-10-01

    Various inhibitors were tested for their inhibitory effects on soybean urease. The K(i) values for boric acid, 4-bromophenylboronic acid, butylboronic acid, and phenylboronic acid were 0.20 +/- 0.05 mM, 0.22 +/- 0.04 mM, 1.50 +/- 0.10 mM, and 2.00 +/- 0.11 mM, respectively. The inhibition was competitive type with boric acid and boronic acids. Heavy metal ions including Ag(+), Hg(2+), and Cu(2+) showed strong inhibition on soybean urease, with the silver ion being a potent inhibitor (IC(50) = 2.3 x 10(-8) mM). Time-dependent inhibition studies exhibited biphasic kinetics with all heavy metal ions. Furthermore, inhibition studies with sodium salts of mineral acids (NaF, NaCl, NaNO(3), and Na(2)SO(4)) showed that only F(-) inhibited soybean urease significantly (IC(50) = 2.9 mM). Competitive type of inhibition was observed for this anion with a K(i) value of 1.30 mM.

  13. D-amino acids inhibit initial bacterial adhesion: thermodynamic evidence.

    PubMed

    Xing, Su-Fang; Sun, Xue-Fei; Taylor, Alicia A; Walker, Sharon L; Wang, Yi-Fu; Wang, Shu-Guang

    2015-04-01

    Bacterial biofilms are structured communities of cells enclosed in a self-produced hydrated polymeric matrix that can adhere to inert or living surfaces. D-Amino acids were previously identified as self-produced compounds that mediate biofilm disassembly by causing the release of the protein component of the polymeric matrix. However, whether exogenous D-amino acids could inhibit initial bacterial adhesion is still unknown. Here, the effect of the exogenous amino acid D-tyrosine on initial bacterial adhesion was determined by combined use of chemical analysis, force spectroscopic measurement, and theoretical predictions. The surface thermodynamic theory demonstrated that the total interaction energy increased with more D-tyrosine, and the contribution of Lewis acid-base interactions relative to the change in the total interaction energy was much greater than the overall nonspecific interactions. Finally, atomic force microscopy analysis implied that the hydrogen bond numbers and adhesion forces decreased with the increase in D-tyrosine concentrations. D-Tyrosine contributed to the repulsive nature of the cell and ultimately led to the inhibition of bacterial adhesion. This study provides a new way to regulate biofilm formation by manipulating the contents of D-amino acids in natural or engineered systems. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Cinnamic Acid Increases Lignin Production and Inhibits Soybean Root Growth

    PubMed Central

    Salvador, Victor Hugo; Lima, Rogério Barbosa; dos Santos, Wanderley Dantas; Soares, Anderson Ricardo; Böhm, Paulo Alfredo Feitoza; Marchiosi, Rogério; Ferrarese, Maria de Lourdes Lucio; Ferrarese-Filho, Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    Cinnamic acid is a known allelochemical that affects seed germination and plant root growth and therefore influences several metabolic processes. In the present work, we evaluated its effects on growth, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) oxidase and cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) activities and lignin monomer composition in soybean (Glycine max) roots. The results revealed that exogenously applied cinnamic acid inhibited root growth and increased IAA oxidase and C4H activities. The allelochemical increased the total lignin content, thus altering the sum and ratios of the p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G), and syringyl (S) lignin monomers. When applied alone or with cinnamic acid, piperonylic acid (PIP, a quasi-irreversible inhibitor of C4H) reduced C4H activity, lignin and the H, G, S monomer content compared to the cinnamic acid treatment. Taken together, these results indicate that exogenously applied cinnamic acid can be channeled into the phenylpropanoid pathway via the C4H reaction, resulting in an increase in H lignin. In conjunction with enhanced IAA oxidase activity, these metabolic responses lead to the stiffening of the cell wall and are followed by a reduction in soybean root growth. PMID:23922685

  15. Cinnamic acid increases lignin production and inhibits soybean root growth.

    PubMed

    Salvador, Victor Hugo; Lima, Rogério Barbosa; dos Santos, Wanderley Dantas; Soares, Anderson Ricardo; Böhm, Paulo Alfredo Feitoza; Marchiosi, Rogério; Ferrarese, Maria de Lourdes Lucio; Ferrarese-Filho, Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    Cinnamic acid is a known allelochemical that affects seed germination and plant root growth and therefore influences several metabolic processes. In the present work, we evaluated its effects on growth, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) oxidase and cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) activities and lignin monomer composition in soybean (Glycine max) roots. The results revealed that exogenously applied cinnamic acid inhibited root growth and increased IAA oxidase and C4H activities. The allelochemical increased the total lignin content, thus altering the sum and ratios of the p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G), and syringyl (S) lignin monomers. When applied alone or with cinnamic acid, piperonylic acid (PIP, a quasi-irreversible inhibitor of C4H) reduced C4H activity, lignin and the H, G, S monomer content compared to the cinnamic acid treatment. Taken together, these results indicate that exogenously applied cinnamic acid can be channeled into the phenylpropanoid pathway via the C4H reaction, resulting in an increase in H lignin. In conjunction with enhanced IAA oxidase activity, these metabolic responses lead to the stiffening of the cell wall and are followed by a reduction in soybean root growth.

  16. Lactobacillus plantarum lipoteichoic acid inhibits biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Ki Bum; Baik, Jung Eun; Park, Ok-Jin; Yun, Cheol-Heui

    2018-01-01

    Dental caries is a biofilm-dependent oral disease and Streptococcus mutans is the known primary etiologic agent of dental caries that initiates biofilm formation on tooth surfaces. Although some Lactobacillus strains inhibit biofilm formation of oral pathogenic bacteria, the molecular mechanisms by which lactobacilli inhibit bacterial biofilm formation are not clearly understood. In this study, we demonstrated that Lactobacillus plantarum lipoteichoic acid (Lp.LTA) inhibited the biofilm formation of S. mutans on polystyrene plates, hydroxyapatite discs, and dentin slices without affecting the bacterial growth. Lp.LTA interferes with sucrose decomposition of S. mutans required for the production of exopolysaccharide, which is a main component of biofilm. Lp.LTA also attenuated the biding of fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated dextran to S. mutans, which is known to have a high affinity to exopolysaccharide on S. mutans. Dealanylated Lp.LTA did not inhibit biofilm formation of S. mutans implying that D-alanine moieties in the Lp.LTA structure were crucial for inhibition. Collectively, these results suggest that Lp.LTA attenuates S. mutans biofilm formation and could be used to develop effective anticaries agents. PMID:29420616

  17. Cadmium inhibits acid secretion in stimulated frog gastric mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Gerbino, Andrea, E-mail: gerbino@biologia.uniba.i; Debellis, Lucantonio; Caroppo, Rosa

    2010-06-01

    Cadmium, a toxic environmental pollutant, affects the function of different organs such as lungs, liver and kidney. Less is known about its toxic effects on the gastric mucosa. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which cadmium impacts on the physiology of gastric mucosa. To this end, intact amphibian mucosae were mounted in Ussing chambers and the rate of acid secretion, short circuit current (I{sub sc}), transepithelial potential (V{sub t}) and resistance (R{sub t}) were recorded in the continuous presence of cadmium. Addition of cadmium (20 {mu}M to 1 mM) on the serosal but not luminalmore » side of the mucosae resulted in inhibition of acid secretion and increase in NPPB-sensitive, chloride-dependent short circuit current. Remarkably, cadmium exerted its effects only on histamine-stimulated tissues. Experiments with TPEN, a cell-permeant chelator for heavy metals, showed that cadmium acts from the intracellular side of the acid secreting cells. Furthermore, cadmium-induced inhibition of acid secretion and increase in I{sub sc} cannot be explained by an action on: 1) H{sub 2} histamine receptor, 2) Ca{sup 2+} signalling 3) adenylyl cyclase or 4) carbonic anhydrase. Conversely, cadmium was ineffective in the presence of the H{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase blocker omeprazole suggesting that the two compounds likely act on the same target. Our findings suggest that cadmium affects the functionality of histamine-stimulated gastric mucosa by inhibiting the H{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase from the intracellular side. These data shed new light on the toxic effect of this dangerous environmental pollutant and may result in new avenues for therapeutic intervention in acute and chronic intoxication.« less

  18. Suaveolic Acid: A Potent Phytotoxic Substance of Hyptis suaveolens

    PubMed Central

    Islam, A. K. M. Mominul; Ohno, Osamu; Suenaga, Kiyotake; Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi

    2014-01-01

    Hyptis suaveolens (Lamiaceae) is an exotic invasive plant in many countries. Earlier studies reported that the aqueous, methanol, and aqueous methanol extract of H. suaveolens and its residues have phytotoxic properties. However, to date, the phytotoxic substances of this plant have not been reported. Therefore, the objectives of this study were isolation and identification of phytotoxic substances of H. suaveolens. Aqueous methanol extract of this plant was purified by several chromatographic runs through bioassay guided fractionation using garden cress (Lepidium sativum) as a test plant. Final purification of a phytotoxic substance was achieved by reverse phase HPLC and characterized as 14α-hydroxy-13β-abiet-8-en-18-oic acid (suaveolic acid) by high-resolution ESI-MS, 1H-,13C-NMR, CD, and specific rotation. Suaveolic acid inhibited the shoot growth of garden cress, lettuce (Lactuca sativa), Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), and barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli) at concentrations greater than 30 µM. Root growth of all but lettuce was also inhibited at concentrations greater than 30 µM. The inhibitory activities were concentration dependent. Concentrations required for 50% growth inhibition of suaveolic acid for those test plant species were ranged from 76 to 1155 µM. Therefore, suaveolic acid is phytotoxic and may be responsible for the phytotoxicity of H. suaveolens plant extracts. PMID:25405221

  19. Combination of aspartic acid and glutamic acid inhibits tumor cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Yoshie; Yamamoto, Katsunori; Sato, Yoshinori; Inoue, Shinjiro; Morinaga, Tetsuo; Hirano, Eiichi

    2016-01-01

    Placental extract contains several biologically active compounds, and pharmacological induction of placental extract has therapeutic effects, such as improving liver function in patients with hepatitis or cirrhosis. Here, we searched for novel molecules with an anti-tumor activity in placental extracts. Active molecules were separated by chromatographic analysis, and their antiproliferative activities were determined by a colorimetric assay. We identified aspartic acid and glutamic acid to possess the antiproliferative activity against human hepatoma cells. Furthermore, we showed that the combination of aspartic acid and glutamic acid exhibited enhanced antiproliferative activity, and inhibited Akt phosphorylation. We also examined in vivo tumor inhibition activity using the rabbit VX2 liver tumor model. The treatment mixture (emulsion of the amino acids with Lipiodol) administered by hepatic artery injection inhibited tumor cell growth of the rabbit VX2 liver. These results suggest that the combination of aspartic acid and glutamic acid may be useful for induction of tumor cell death, and has the potential for clinical use as a cancer therapeutic agent.

  20. α-Lipoic acid inhibits the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells through inhibition of TGFβ signaling.

    PubMed

    Tripathy, Joytirmay; Tripathy, Anindita; Thangaraju, Muthusamy; Suar, Mrutyunjay; Elangovan, Selvakumar

    2018-05-23

    Invasion and metastasis are the main cause of mortality in breast cancer. Hence, novel therapeutic interventions with high specificity toward invasion and metastasis are necessary. α-Lipoic acid showed antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects on several cancers including breast cancer. However, the effect of lipoic acid on breast cancer metastasis remains unclear. In the present study, we examined the effects of lipoic acid on the migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 and 4 T1 breast cancer cells. Our data showed that lipoic acid effectively inhibited the colony forming ability of highly invasive MDA-MB-231 and 4 T1 cells. Moreover, the nontoxic concentrations of lipoic acid significantly reduced the migration of breast cancer cells. Lipoic acid also inhibited the TGFβ-induced angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) expression and reduced the activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), an enzyme involved in invasion and metastasis, in both the cell lines. The inhibition of cell migration by lipoic acid is accompanied by the downregulation of FAK, ERK1/2 and AKT phosphorylation, and inhibition of nuclear translocation of β-catenin. Our data demonstrated that lipoic acid inhibited the migration and invasion of metastatic breast cancer cells at least in part through inhibiting ERK1/2 and AKT signaling. Thus, our findings show that the inhibition of TGFβ signaling is a potential mechanism for the anti-invasive effects of lipoic acid. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Inhibition of acid sphingomyelinase disrupts LYNUS signaling and triggers autophagy.

    PubMed

    Justice, Matthew J; Bronova, Irina; Schweitzer, Kelly S; Poirier, Christophe; Blum, Janice S; Berdyshev, Evgeny V; Petrache, Irina

    2018-04-01

    Activation of the lysosomal ceramide-producing enzyme, acid sphingomyelinase (ASM), by various stresses is centrally involved in cell death and has been implicated in autophagy. We set out to investigate the role of the baseline ASM activity in maintaining physiological functions of lysosomes, focusing on the lysosomal nutrient-sensing complex (LYNUS), a lysosomal membrane-anchored multiprotein complex that includes mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and transcription factor EB (TFEB). ASM inhibition with imipramine or sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 1 ( SMPD1 ) siRNA in human lung cells, or by transgenic Smpd1 +/- haploinsufficiency of mouse lungs, markedly reduced mTOR- and P70-S6 kinase (Thr 389)-phosphorylation and modified TFEB in a pattern consistent with its activation. Inhibition of baseline ASM activity significantly increased autophagy with preserved degradative potential. Pulse labeling of sphingolipid metabolites revealed that ASM inhibition markedly decreased sphingosine (Sph) and Sph-1-phosphate (S1P) levels at the level of ceramide hydrolysis. These findings suggest that ASM functions to maintain physiological mTOR signaling and inhibit autophagy and implicate Sph and/or S1P in the control of lysosomal function. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Rosmarinic Acid Activates AMPK to Inhibit Metastasis of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yo-Han; Kee, Ji-Ye; Hong, Seung-Heon

    2018-01-01

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) has been used as an anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, and anti-cancer agent. Although RA has also been shown to exert an anti-metastatic effect, the mechanism of this effect has not been reported to be associated with AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). The aim of this study was to elucidate whether RA could inhibit the metastatic properties of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells via the phosphorylation of AMPK. RA inhibited the proliferation of CRC cells through the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In several metastatic phenotypes of CRC cells, RA regulated epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) through the upregulation of an epithelial marker, E-cadherin, and the downregulation of the mesenchymal markers, N-cadherin, snail, twist, vimentin, and slug. Invasion and migration of CRC cells were inhibited and expressions of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 were decreased by RA treatment. Adhesion and adhesion molecules such as ICAM-1 and integrin β1 expressions were also reduced by RA treatment. In particular, the effects of RA on EMT and MMPs expressions were due to the activation of AMPK. Moreover, RA inhibited lung metastasis of CRC cells by activating AMPK in mouse model. Collectively, these results proved that RA could be potential therapeutic agent against metastasis of CRC. PMID:29459827

  3. Gymnemic Acids Inhibit Hyphal Growth and Virulence in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Vediyappan, Govindsamy; Dumontet, Vincent; Pelissier, Franck; d’Enfert, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic and polymorphic fungal pathogen that causes mucosal, disseminated and invasive infections in humans. Transition from the yeast form to the hyphal form is one of the key virulence factors in C. albicans contributing to macrophage evasion, tissue invasion and biofilm formation. Nontoxic small molecules that inhibit C. albicans yeast-to-hypha conversion and hyphal growth could represent a valuable source for understanding pathogenic fungal morphogenesis, identifying drug targets and serving as templates for the development of novel antifungal agents. Here, we have identified the triterpenoid saponin family of gymnemic acids (GAs) as inhibitor of C. albicans morphogenesis. GAs were isolated and purified from Gymnema sylvestre leaves, the Ayurvedic traditional medicinal plant used to treat diabetes. Purified GAs had no effect on the growth and viability of C. albicans yeast cells but inhibited its yeast-to-hypha conversion under several hypha-inducing conditions, including the presence of serum. Moreover, GAs promoted the conversion of C. albicans hyphae into yeast cells under hypha inducing conditions. They also inhibited conidial germination and hyphal growth of Aspergillus sp. Finally, GAs inhibited the formation of invasive hyphae from C. albicans-infected Caenorhabditis elegans worms and rescued them from killing by C. albicans. Hence, GAs could be useful for various antifungal applications due to their traditional use in herbal medicine. PMID:24040201

  4. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes by fatty acids and monoglycerides.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, L L; Johnson, E A

    1992-01-01

    Fatty acids and monoglycerides were evaluated in brain heart infusion broth and in milk for antimicrobial activity against the Scott A strain of Listeria monocytogenes. C12:0, C18:3, and glyceryl monolaurate (monolaurin) had the strongest activity in brain heart infusion broth and were bactericidal at 10 to 20 micrograms/ml, whereas potassium (K)-conjugated linoleic acids and C18:2 were bactericidal at 50 to 200 micrograms/ml. C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, glyceryl monomyristate, and glyceryl monopalmitate were not inhibitory at 200 micrograms/ml. The bactericidal activity in brain heart infusion broth was higher at pH 5 than at pH 6. In whole milk and skim milk, K-conjugated linoleic acid was bacteriostatic and prolonged the lag phase especially at 4 degrees C. Monolaurin inactivated L. monocytogenes in skim milk at 4 degrees C, but was less inhibitory at 23 degrees C. Monolaurin did not inhibit L. monocytogenes in whole milk because of the higher fat content. Other fatty acids tested were not effective in whole or skim milk. Our results suggest that K-conjugated linoleic acids or monolaurin could be used as an inhibitory agent against L. monocytogenes in dairy foods. Images PMID:1610184

  5. Curcumin improves alcoholic fatty liver by inhibiting fatty acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chang; Ma, Jingfan; Zhong, Qionghong; Zhao, Mengyuan; Hu, Tianxing; Chen, Tong; Qiu, Longxin; Wen, Longping

    2017-08-01

    Alcoholic fatty liver is a threat to human health. It has been long known that abstinence from alcohol is the most effective therapy, other effective therapies are not available for the treatment in humans. Curcumin has a great potential for anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation, but the effect on metabolic reconstruction remains little known. Here we performed metabolomic analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and explored ethanol pathogenic insight as well as curcumin action pattern. We identified seventy-one metabolites in mouse liver. Carbohydrates and lipids were characteristic categories. Pathway analysis results revealed that ethanol-induced pathways including biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, fatty acid biosynthesis and pentose and glucuronate interconversions were suppressed by curcumin. Additionally, ethanol enhanced galactose metabolism and pentose phosphate pathway. Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism and pyruvate metabolism were inhibited in mice fed ethanol diet plus curcumin. Stearic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid were disease biomarkers and therapical biomarkers. These results reflect the landscape of hepatic metabolism regulation. Our findings illustrate ethanol pathological pathway and metabolic mechanism of curcumin therapy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Ferrous Iron Oxidation by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans: Inhibition with Benzoic Acid, Sorbic Acid, and Sodium Lauryl Sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Onysko, Steven J.; Kleinmann, Robert L. P.; Erickson, Patricia M.

    1984-01-01

    Benzoic acid, sorbic acid, and sodium lauryl sulfate at low concentrations (5 to 10 mg/liter) each effectively inhibited bacterial oxidation of ferrous iron in batch cultures of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. The rate of chemical oxidation of ferrous iron in low-pH, sterile batch reactors was not substantially affected at the tested concentrations (5 to 50 mg/liter) of any of the compounds. PMID:16346592

  7. Hyperbaric hyperoxia reversibly inhibits erythrocyte phospholipid fatty acid turnover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dise, Craig A.; Clark, James M.; Lambersten, Christian J.; Goodman, David B. P.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of hyperbaric hyperoxia on the acylation of membrane phospholipid was studied by measuring the rates of activation of exogenous tritiated oleic acid to acyl thioester and of transesterification of the thioester into membrane phospholipids in intact human erythrocytes obtained 1 h after an exposure of the subjects to a hyperbaric oxygen atmosphere (3.5 h, 100 pct O2, 3 ATA). Exposure to pure oxygen was found to inhibit both the acylation and transesterification reactions by more than 30 percent, with partial recovery detected 24 h later. On the other hand, no rate changes were observed when isolated membranes from the same batches of cells were used in similar experiments. It is suggested that the decrease in the incorporation of tritiated oleic acid after hyperbaric hyperoxia may reflect an early event in the pathogenesis of oxygen-induced cellular injury and that it may be a useful index for the assessment of the tolerance of tissues to hyperoxia.

  8. Inhibition of Human Amylin Aggregation and Cellular Toxicity by Lipoic Acid and Ascorbic Acid.

    PubMed

    Azzam, Sarah Kassem; Jang, Hyunwoo; Choi, Myung Chul; Alsafar, Habiba; Lukman, Suryani; Lee, Sungmun

    2018-04-30

    More than 30 human degenerative diseases result from protein aggregation such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Islet amyloid deposits, a hallmark in T2DM, are found in pancreatic islets of more than 90 % of T2DM patients. An association between amylin aggregation and reduction in β-cell mass was also established by post-mortem studies. A strategy in preventing protein aggregation-related disorders is to inhibit the protein aggregation and associated toxicity. In this study we demonstrated that two inhibitors, lipoic acid and ascorbic acid, significantly inhibited amylin aggregation. Compared to amylin (15 μM) as 100 %, lipoic acid and ascorbic acid reduced amylin fibril formation to 42.1 ± 17.2 % and 42.9 ± 12.8 % respectively, which is confirmed by fluorescence and TEM images. In cell viability tests, both inhibitors protected RIN-m5f β-cells from the toxicity of amylin aggregates. At 10:1 molar ratio of lipoic acid to amylin, lipoic acid with amylin increased the cell viability to 70.3 %, whereas only 42.8 % RIN-m5f β-cells survived in amylin aggregates. For ascorbic acid, an equimolar ratio achieved the highest cell viability of 63.3 % as compared to 42.8 % with amylin aggregates only. Docking results showed that lipoic acid and ascorbic acid physically interact with amylin amyloidogenic region (residues Ser20-Ser29) via hydrophobic interactions; hence reducing aggregation levels. Therefore, lipoic acid and ascorbic acid prevented amylin aggregation via hydrophobic interactions, which resulted in the prevention of cell toxicity in vitro.

  9. Azadirachtin Interacts with Retinoic Acid Receptors and Inhibits Retinoic Acid-mediated Biological Responses*

    PubMed Central

    Thoh, Maikho; Babajan, Banaganapalli; Raghavendra, Pongali B.; Sureshkumar, Chitta; Manna, Sunil K.

    2011-01-01

    Considering the role of retinoids in regulation of more than 500 genes involved in cell cycle and growth arrest, a detailed understanding of the mechanism and its regulation is useful for therapy. The extract of the medicinal plant Neem (Azadirachta indica) is used against several ailments especially for anti-inflammatory, anti-itching, spermicidal, anticancer, and insecticidal activities. In this report we prove the detailed mechanism on the regulation of retinoic acid-mediated cell signaling by azadirachtin, active components of neem extract. Azadirachtin repressed all trans-retinoic acid (ATRA)-mediated nuclear transcription factor κB (NF-κB) activation, not the DNA binding but the NF-κB-dependent gene expression. It did not inhibit IκBα degradation, IκBα kinase activity, or p65 phosphorylation and its nuclear translocation but inhibited NF-κB-dependent reporter gene expression. Azadirachtin inhibited TRAF6-mediated, but not TRAF2-mediated NF-κB activation. It inhibited ATRA-induced Sp1 and CREB (cAMP-response element-binding protein) DNA binding. Azadirachtin inhibited ATRA binding with retinoid receptors, which is supported by biochemical and in silico evidences. Azadirachtin showed strong interaction with retinoid receptors. It suppressed ATRA-mediated removal of retinoid receptors, bound with DNA by inhibiting ATRA binding to its receptors. Overall, our data suggest that azadirachtin interacts with retinoic acid receptors and suppresses ATRA binding, inhibits falling off the receptors, and activates transcription factors like CREB, Sp1, NF-κB, etc. Thus, azadirachtin exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-metastatic responses by a novel pathway that would be beneficial for further anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer therapies. PMID:21127062

  10. Azadirachtin interacts with retinoic acid receptors and inhibits retinoic acid-mediated biological responses.

    PubMed

    Thoh, Maikho; Babajan, Banaganapalli; Raghavendra, Pongali B; Sureshkumar, Chitta; Manna, Sunil K

    2011-02-11

    Considering the role of retinoids in regulation of more than 500 genes involved in cell cycle and growth arrest, a detailed understanding of the mechanism and its regulation is useful for therapy. The extract of the medicinal plant Neem (Azadirachta indica) is used against several ailments especially for anti-inflammatory, anti-itching, spermicidal, anticancer, and insecticidal activities. In this report we prove the detailed mechanism on the regulation of retinoic acid-mediated cell signaling by azadirachtin, active components of neem extract. Azadirachtin repressed all trans-retinoic acid (ATRA)-mediated nuclear transcription factor κB (NF-κB) activation, not the DNA binding but the NF-κB-dependent gene expression. It did not inhibit IκBα degradation, IκBα kinase activity, or p65 phosphorylation and its nuclear translocation but inhibited NF-κB-dependent reporter gene expression. Azadirachtin inhibited TRAF6-mediated, but not TRAF2-mediated NF-κB activation. It inhibited ATRA-induced Sp1 and CREB (cAMP-response element-binding protein) DNA binding. Azadirachtin inhibited ATRA binding with retinoid receptors, which is supported by biochemical and in silico evidences. Azadirachtin showed strong interaction with retinoid receptors. It suppressed ATRA-mediated removal of retinoid receptors, bound with DNA by inhibiting ATRA binding to its receptors. Overall, our data suggest that azadirachtin interacts with retinoic acid receptors and suppresses ATRA binding, inhibits falling off the receptors, and activates transcription factors like CREB, Sp1, NF-κB, etc. Thus, azadirachtin exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-metastatic responses by a novel pathway that would be beneficial for further anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer therapies.

  11. Unusal pattern of product inhibition: batch acetic acid fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Bar, R.; Gainer, J.L.; Kirwan, D.J.

    1987-04-20

    The limited tolerance of microorganisms to their metabolic products results in inhibited growth and product formation. The relationship between the specific growth rate, micro, and the concentration of an inhibitory product has been described by a number of mathematical models. In most cases, micro was found to be inversely proportional to the product concentration and invariably the rate of substrate utilization followed the same pattern. In this communication, the authors report a rather unusual case in which the formation rate of a product, acetic acid, increased with a decreasing growth rate of the microorganism, Acetobacter aceti. Apparently, a similar behaviormore » was mentioned in a review report with respect to Clostridium thermocellum in a batch culture but was not published in the freely circulating literature. The fermentation of ethanol to acetic acid, C/sub 2/H/sub 5/OH + O/sub 2/ = CH/sub 3/COOH + H/sub 2/O is clearly one of the oldest known fermentations. Because of its association with the commercial production of vinegar it has been a subject of extensive but rather technically oriented studies. Suprisingly, the uncommon uncoupling between the inhibited microbial growth and the product formation appears to have been unnoticed. 13 references.« less

  12. Proteolytic Pathways Induced by Herbicides That Inhibit Amino Acid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Zulet, Amaia; Gil-Monreal, Miriam; Villamor, Joji Grace; Zabalza, Ana; van der Hoorn, Renier A. L.; Royuela, Mercedes

    2013-01-01

    Background The herbicides glyphosate (Gly) and imazamox (Imx) inhibit the biosynthesis of aromatic and branched-chain amino acids, respectively. Although these herbicides inhibit different pathways, they have been reported to show several common physiological effects in their modes of action, such as increasing free amino acid contents and decreasing soluble protein contents. To investigate proteolytic activities upon treatment with Gly and Imx, pea plants grown in hydroponic culture were treated with Imx or Gly, and the proteolytic profile of the roots was evaluated through fluorogenic kinetic assays and activity-based protein profiling. Results Several common changes in proteolytic activity were detected following Gly and Imx treatment. Both herbicides induced the ubiquitin-26 S proteasome system and papain-like cysteine proteases. In contrast, the activities of vacuolar processing enzymes, cysteine proteases and metacaspase 9 were reduced following treatment with both herbicides. Moreover, the activities of several putative serine protease were similarly increased or decreased following treatment with both herbicides. In contrast, an increase in YVADase activity was observed under Imx treatment versus a decrease under Gly treatment. Conclusion These results suggest that several proteolytic pathways are responsible for protein degradation upon herbicide treatment, although the specific role of each proteolytic activity remains to be determined. PMID:24040092

  13. Inhibition of acid sphingomyelinase by tricyclic antidepressants and analogons

    PubMed Central

    Beckmann, Nadine; Sharma, Deepa; Gulbins, Erich; Becker, Katrin Anne; Edelmann, Bärbel

    2014-01-01

    Amitriptyline, a tricyclic antidepressant, has been used in the clinic to treat a number of disorders, in particular major depression and neuropathic pain. In the 1970s the ability of tricyclic antidepressants to inhibit acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) was discovered. The enzyme ASM catalyzes the hydrolysis of sphingomyelin to ceramide. ASM and ceramide were shown to play a crucial role in a wide range of diseases, including cancer, cystic fibrosis, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, and major depression, as well as viral (e.g., measles virus) and bacterial (e.g., Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) infections. Ceramide molecules may act in these diseases by the alteration of membrane biophysics, the self-association of ceramide molecules within the cell membrane and the ultimate formation of larger ceramide-enriched membrane domains/platforms. These domains were shown to serve the clustering of certain receptors such as CD95 and may also act in the above named diseases. The potential to block the generation of ceramide by inhibiting the ASM has opened up new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of these conditions. Since amitriptyline is one of the longest used clinical drugs and side effects are well studied, it could potentially become a cheap and easily accessible medication for patients suffering from these diseases. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of current in vitro and in vivo studies and clinical trials utilizing amitriptyline to inhibit ASM and contemplate possible future applications of the drug. PMID:25228885

  14. Inhibition by somatostatin (growth-hormone release-inhibiting hormone, GH-RIH) of gastric acid and pepsin and G-cell release of gastrin.

    PubMed Central

    Barros D'sa, A A; Bloom, S R; Baron, J H

    1978-01-01

    Somatostatin (cyclic growth-hormone release-inhibiting hormone--GH-RIH) was infused into dogs with gastric fistulae. Somatostatin inhibited gastric acid response to four gastric stimulants--insulin, food, histamine, and pentagastrin. Histamine- and pentagastrin-stimulated pepsins were inhibited similarly to inhibition of acid. Somatostatin inhibited the gastrin response to insulin and food. PMID:348581

  15. Synthesis and cholinesterase inhibition of cativic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Alza, Natalia P; Richmond, Victoria; Baier, Carlos J; Freire, Eleonora; Baggio, Ricardo; Murray, Ana Paula

    2014-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with memory impairment and cognitive deficit. Most of the drugs currently available for the treatment of AD are acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors. In a preliminary study, significant AChE inhibition was observed for the ethanolic extract of Grindelia ventanensis (IC₅₀=0.79 mg/mL). This result prompted us to isolate the active constituent, a normal labdane diterpenoid identified as 17-hydroxycativic acid (1), through a bioassay guided fractionation. Taking into account that 1 showed moderate inhibition of AChE (IC₅₀=21.1 μM), selectivity over butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) (IC₅₀=171.1 μM) and that it was easily obtained from the plant extract in a very good yield (0.15% w/w), we decided to prepare semisynthetic derivatives of this natural diterpenoid through simple structural modifications. A set of twenty new cativic acid derivatives (3-6) was prepared from 1 through transformations on the carboxylic group at C-15, introducing a C2-C6 linker and a tertiary amine group. They were tested for their inhibitory activity against AChE and BChE and some structure-activity relationships were outlined. The most active derivative was compound 3c, with an IC₅₀ value of 3.2 μM for AChE. Enzyme kinetic studies and docking modeling revealed that this inhibitor targeted both the catalytic active site and the peripheral anionic site of this enzyme. Furthermore, 3c showed significant inhibition of AChE activity in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, and was non-cytotoxic. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Boric acid inhibits embryonic histone deacetylases: A suggested mechanism to explain boric acid-related teratogenicity

    SciTech Connect

    Di Renzo, Francesca; Cappelletti, Graziella; Broccia, Maria L.

    2007-04-15

    Histone deacetylases (HDAC) control gene expression by changing histonic as well as non histonic protein conformation. HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) are considered to be among the most promising drugs for epigenetic treatment for cancer. Recently a strict relationship between histone hyperacetylation in specific tissues of mouse embryos exposed to two HDACi (valproic acid and trichostatin A) and specific axial skeleton malformations has been demonstrated. The aim of this study is to verify if boric acid (BA), that induces in rodents malformations similar to those valproic acid and trichostatin A-related, acts through similar mechanisms: HDAC inhibition and histone hyperacetylation. Pregnant mice weremore » treated intraperitoneally with a teratogenic dose of BA (1000 mg/kg, day 8 of gestation). Western blot analysis and immunostaining were performed with anti hyperacetylated histone 4 (H4) antibody on embryos explanted 1, 3 or 4 h after treatment and revealed H4 hyperacetylation at the level of somites. HDAC enzyme assay was performed on embryonic nuclear extracts. A significant HDAC inhibition activity (compatible with a mixed type partial inhibition mechanism) was evident with BA. Kinetic analyses indicate that BA modifies substrate affinity by a factor {alpha} = 0.51 and maximum velocity by a factor {beta} = 0.70. This work provides the first evidence for HDAC inhibition by BA and suggests such a molecular mechanism for the induction of BA-related malformations.« less

  17. Chlorogenic acid inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yuan; Liu, Na; Hou, Ni; Dong, Lei; Li, Jie

    2017-08-01

    Curative treatment of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is poor. There is an urgent need to develop more effective strategies for the chemoprevention of HCC. Chlorogenic acid (CGA), a type of polyphenol present in the diet, especially from coffee, has many biological activities. Patients with viral hepatitis who drank coffee everyday experienced a reduction in the incidence of HCC. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of CGA on HCC. CGA inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells in vitro and the progression of HepG2 xenograft in vivo. CGA induced the inactivation of ERK1/2 and suppressed the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in HepG2 xenograft tissue. These data demonstrate that CGA can prevent the progression of HCC through multiple pathways. CGA appears to be an effective chemopreventive agent for hepatocellular carcinoma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Benzeneboronic acid selectively inhibits sporulation of Bacillis subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Davis-Mancini, K; Lopez, I P; Hageman, J H

    1978-01-01

    m-Aminobenzeneboronic acid at levels of 0.2 mM in nutrient broth medium selectively inhibited sporulation without appreciably altering vegetative growth. Significant inhibitory effects were seen even when it was added as late as 6 h after the end of logarithmic growth. The pH changes associated with growth and sporulation of Bacillus subtilis in nutrient broth were not significantly altered by the inhibitor. When it was present in cultures of actively growing cells, its inhibitory effect could not be reversed by simple dilution. The compound caused extensive clumping, of cells, which appeared not to be related to the ability of boronates to esterify to diols. Images PMID:30755

  19. Salicylic acid antagonizes abscisic acid inhibition of shoot growth and cell cycle progression in rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meguro, Ayano; Sato, Yutaka

    2014-04-01

    We analysed effects of abscisic acid (ABA, a negative regulatory hormone), alone and in combination with positive or neutral hormones, including salicylic acid (SA), on rice growth and expression of cell cycle-related genes. ABA significantly inhibited shoot growth and induced expression of OsKRP4, OsKRP5, and OsKRP6. A yeast two-hybrid assay showed that OsKRP4, OsKRP5, and OsKRP6 interacted with OsCDKA;1 and/or OsCDKA;2. When SA was simultaneously supplied with ABA, the antagonistic effect of SA completely blocked ABA inhibition. SA also blocked ABA inhibition of DNA replication and thymidine incorporation in the shoot apical meristem. These results suggest that ABA arrests cell cycle progression by inducing expression of OsKRP4, OsKRP5, and OsKRP6, which inhibit the G1/S transition, and that SA antagonizes ABA by blocking expression of OsKRP genes.

  20. Docosahexaenoic Acid Inhibits Cerulein-Induced Acute Pancreatitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Yoo Kyung; Lee, Sle; Lim, Joo Weon

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress is an important regulator in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis (AP). Reactive oxygen species induce activation of inflammatory cascades, inflammatory cell recruitment, and tissue damage. NF-κB regulates inflammatory cytokine gene expression, which induces an acute, edematous form of pancreatitis. Protein kinase C δ (PKCδ) activates NF-κB as shown in a mouse model of cerulein-induced AP. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an ω-3 fatty acid, exerts anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects in various cells and tissues. This study investigated whether DHA inhibits cerulein-induced AP in rats by assessing pancreatic edema, myeloperoxidase activity, levels of lipid peroxide and IL-6, activation of NF-κB and PKCδ, and by histologic observation. AP was induced by intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) of cerulein (50 μg/kg) every hour for 7 h. DHA (13 mg/kg) was administered i.p. for three days before AP induction. Pretreatment with DHA reduced cerulein-induced activation of NF-κB, PKCδ, and IL-6 in pancreatic tissues of rats. DHA suppressed pancreatic edema and decreased the abundance of lipid peroxide, myeloperoxidase activity, and inflammatory cell infiltration into the pancreatic tissues of cerulein-stimulated rats. Therefore, DHA may help prevent the development of pancreatitis by suppressing the activation of NF-κB and PKCδ, expression of IL-6, and oxidative damage to the pancreas. PMID:28704954

  1. A new mechanism for bile acid diarrhea: defective feedback inhibition of bile acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Walters, Julian R F; Tasleem, Ali M; Omer, Omer S; Brydon, W Gordon; Dew, Tracy; le Roux, Carel W

    2009-11-01

    Primary (idiopathic) bile acid malabsorption (BAM) is a common, yet underrecognized, chronic diarrheal syndrome. Diagnosis is difficult without selenium homocholic acid taurine (SeHCAT) testing. The diarrhea results from excess colonic bile acids, but the pathogenesis is unclear. Fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19), produced in the ileum in response to bile acid absorption, regulates hepatic bile acid synthesis. We proposed that FGF19 is involved in bile acid diarrhea and measured its levels in patients with BAM. Blood was collected from fasting patients with chronic diarrhea; BAM was diagnosed by SeHCAT. Serum FGF19 was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum 7alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (C4) was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography, to quantify bile acid synthesis. Data were compared between patients and subjects without diarrhea (controls). Samples were taken repeatedly after meals from several subjects. The median C4 level was significantly higher in patients with primary BAM than in controls (51 vs 18 ng/mL; P < .0001). The median FGF19 level was significantly lower in patients with BAM (120 vs 231 pg/mL; P < .0005). There was a significant inverse relationship between FGF19 and C4 levels (P < .0004). Low levels of FGF19 were also found in patients with postcholecystectomy and secondary bile acid diarrhea. Abnormal patterns of FGF19 levels were observed throughout the day in some patients with primary BAM. Patients with BAM have reduced serum FGF19 which may be useful in diagnosis. We propose a mechanism whereby impaired FGF19 feedback inhibition causes excessive bile acid synthesis that exceeds the normal capacity for ileal reabsorption, producing bile acid diarrhea.

  2. Fatty acid synthase inhibition in human breast cancer cells leads to malonyl-CoA-induced inhibition of fatty acid oxidation and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Thupari, J N; Pinn, M L; Kuhajda, F P

    2001-07-13

    Inhibition of fatty acid synthase (FAS) induces apoptosis in human breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo without toxicity to proliferating normal cells. We have previously shown that FAS inhibition causes a rapid increase in malonyl-CoA levels identifying malonyl-CoA as a potential trigger of apoptosis. In this study we further investigated the role of malonyl-CoA during FAS inhibition. We have found that: [i] inhibition of FAS with cerulenin causes carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) inhibition and fatty acid oxidation inhibition in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells likely mediated by elevation of malonyl-CoA; [ii] cerulenin cytotoxicity is due to the nonphysiological state of increased malonyl-CoA, decreased fatty acid oxidation, and decreased fatty acid synthesis; and [iii] the cytotoxic effect of cerulenin can be mimicked by simultaneous inhibition of CPT-1, with etomoxir, and fatty acid synthesis with TOFA, an acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) inhibitor. This study identifies CPT-1 and ACC as two new potential targets for cancer chemotherapy. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  3. Characterization of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B Inhibition by Chlorogenic Acid and Cichoric Acid.

    PubMed

    Lipchock, James M; Hendrickson, Heidi P; Douglas, Bonnie B; Bird, Kelly E; Ginther, Patrick S; Rivalta, Ivan; Ten, Nicholas S; Batista, Victor S; Loria, J Patrick

    2017-01-10

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a known regulator of the insulin and leptin signaling pathways and is an active target for the design of inhibitors for the treatment of type II diabetes and obesity. Recently, cichoric acid (CHA) and chlorogenic acid (CGA) were predicted by docking methods to be allosteric inhibitors that bind distal to the active site. However, using a combination of steady-state inhibition kinetics, solution nuclear magnetic resonance experiments, and molecular dynamics simulations, we show that CHA is a competitive inhibitor that binds in the active site of PTP1B. CGA, while a noncompetitive inhibitor, binds in the second aryl phosphate binding site, rather than the predicted benzfuran binding pocket. The molecular dynamics simulations of the apo enzyme and cysteine-phosphoryl intermediate states with and without bound CGA suggest CGA binding inhibits PTP1B by altering hydrogen bonding patterns at the active site. This study provides a mechanistic understanding of the allosteric inhibition of PTP1B.

  4. Ellagic acid inhibits iron-mediated free radical formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalvi, Luana T.; Moreira, Daniel C.; Andrade, Roberto; Ginani, Janini; Alonso, Antonio; Hermes-Lima, Marcelo

    2017-02-01

    Polyphenols are reported to have some health benefits, which are link to their antioxidant properties. In the case of ellagic acid (EA), there is evidence that it has free radical scavenger properties and that it is able to form complexes with metal ions. However, information on a possible link between the formation of iron-EA complexes and their interference in Haber-Weiss/Fenton reactions was not yet determined. Thus, the present study investigated the in vitro antioxidant mechanism of EA in a system containing ascorbate, Fe(III) and different iron ligands (EDTA, citrate and NTA). Iron-mediated oxidative degradation of 2-deoxyribose was poorly inhibited (by 12%) in the presence of EA (50 μM) and EDTA. When citrate or NTA - which form weak iron complexes - were used, the 2-deoxyribose protection increased to 89-97% and 45%, respectively. EA also presented equivalent inhibitory effects on iron-mediated oxygen uptake and ascorbyl radical formation. Spectral analyses of iron-EA complexes show that EA removes Fe(III) from EDTA within hours, and from citrate within 1 min. This difference in the rate of iron-EA complex formation may explain the antioxidant effects of EA. Furthermore, the EA antioxidant effectiveness was inversely proportional to the Fe(III) concentration, suggesting a competition with EDTA. In conclusion, the results indicate that EA may prevent in vitro free radical formation when it forms a complex with iron ions.

  5. Direct inhibition of retinoic acid catabolism by fluoxetine.

    PubMed

    Hellmann-Regen, Julian; Uhlemann, Ria; Regen, Francesca; Heuser, Isabella; Otte, Christian; Endres, Matthias; Gertz, Karen; Kronenberg, Golo

    2015-09-01

    Recent evidence from animal and human studies suggests neuroprotective effects of the SSRI fluoxetine, e.g., in the aftermath of stroke. The underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be fully defined. Because of its effects on the cytochrome P450 system (CYP450), we hypothesized that neuroprotection by fluoxetine is related to altered metabolism of retinoic acid (RA), whose CYP450-mediated degradation in brain tissue constitutes an important step in the regulation of its site-specific auto- and paracrine actions. Using traditional pharmacological in vitro assays, the effects of fluoxetine on RA degradation were probed in crude synaptosomes from rat brain and human-derived SH-SY5Y cells, and in cultures of neuron-like SH-SY5Y cells. Furthermore, retinoid-dependent effects of fluoxetine on neuronal survival following glutamate exposure were investigated in rat primary neurons cells using specific retinoid receptor antagonists. Experiments revealed dose-dependent inhibition of synaptosomal RA degradation by fluoxetine along with dose-dependent increases in RA levels in cell cultures. Furthermore, fluoxetine's neuroprotective effects against glutamate excitotoxicity in rat primary neurons were demonstrated to partially depend on RA signaling. Taken together, these findings demonstrate for the first time that the potent, pleiotropic antidepressant fluoxetine directly interacts with RA homeostasis in brain tissue, thereby exerting its neuroprotective effects.

  6. Cellobionic acid inhibition of cellobiohydrolase I and cellobiose dehydrogenase

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    End-product inhibition by cellobiose and glucose is a rate-limiting factor in cellulose hydrolysis by cellulases. While cellobiose and glucose inhibition have been extensively investigated, cellobionate inhibition has been minimally studied despite the discovery that accessory proteins such as cello...

  7. Gene quantification by the NanoGene assay is resistant to inhibition by humic acids.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gha-Young; Wang, Xiaofang; Ahn, Hosang; Son, Ahjeong

    2011-10-15

    NanoGene assay is a magnetic bead and quantum dot nanoparticles based gene quantification assay. It relies on a set of probe and signaling probe DNAs to capture the target DNA via hybridization. We have demonstrated the inhibition resistance of the NanoGene assay using humic acids laden genomic DNA (gDNA). At 1 μg of humic acid per mL, quantitiative PCR (qPCR) was inhibited to 0% of its quantification capability whereas NanoGene assay was able to maintain more than 60% of its quantification capability. To further increase the inhibition resistance of NanoGene assay at high concentration of humic acids, we have identified the specific mechanisms that are responsible for the inhibition. We examined five potential mechanisms with which the humic acids can partially inhibit our NanoGene assay. The mechanisms examined were (1) adsorption of humic acids on the particle surface; (2) particle aggregation induced by humic acids; (3) fluorescence quenching of quantum dots by humic acids during hybridization; (4) humic acids mimicking of target DNA; and (5) nonspecific binding between humic acids and target gDNA. The investigation showed that no adsorption of humic acids onto the particles' surface was observed for the humic acids' concentration. Particle aggregation and fluorescence quenching were also negligible. Humic acids also did not mimic the target gDNA except 1000 μg of humic acids per mL and hence should not contribute to the partial inhibition. Four of the above mechanisms were not related to the inhibition effect of humic acids particularly at the environmentally relevant concentrations (<100 μg/mL). However, a substantial amount of nonspecific binding was observed between the humic acids and target gDNA. This possibly results in lesser amount of target gDNA being captured by the probe and signaling DNA.

  8. Mechanism of specific inhibition of phototropism by phenylacetic acid in corn seedling

    SciTech Connect

    Vierstra, R.D.; Poff, K.L.

    1981-05-01

    Using geotropism as a control for phototropism, compounds similar to phenylacetic acid that phototreact with flavins and/or have auxin-like activity were examined for their ability to specifically inhibit phototropism in corn seedlings using geotropism as a control. Results using indole-3-acetic acid, napthalene-1-acetic acid, naphthalene-2-acetic acid, phenylacetic acid, and ..beta..-phenylpyruvic acid suggest that such compounds will specifically inhibit phototropism primarily because of their photoreactivity with flavins and not their auxin activity. In addition, the in vivo concentration of phenylacetic acid required to induce specificity was well below that required to stimulate coleoptile growth. Estimates of the percentage of photoreceptor pigment inactivatedmore » by phenylacetic acid (>10%) suggest that phenylacetic acid could be used to photoaffinity label the flavoprotein involved in corn seedling phototropism.« less

  9. Benzylserine inhibits breast cancer cell growth by disrupting intracellular amino acid homeostasis and triggering amino acid response pathways.

    PubMed

    van Geldermalsen, Michelle; Quek, Lake-Ee; Turner, Nigel; Freidman, Natasha; Pang, Angel; Guan, Yi Fang; Krycer, James R; Ryan, Renae; Wang, Qian; Holst, Jeff

    2018-06-26

    Cancer cells require increased levels of nutrients such as amino acids to sustain their rapid growth. In particular, leucine and glutamine have been shown to be important for growth and proliferation of some breast cancers, and therefore targeting the primary cell-surface transporters that mediate their uptake, L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) and alanine, serine, cysteine-preferring transporter 2 (ASCT2), is a potential therapeutic strategy. The ASCT2 inhibitor, benzylserine (BenSer), is also able to block LAT1 activity, thus inhibiting both leucine and glutamine uptake. We therefore aimed to investigate the effects of BenSer in breast cancer cell lines to determine whether combined LAT1 and ASCT2 inhibition could inhibit cell growth and proliferation. BenSer treatment significantly inhibited both leucine and glutamine uptake in MCF-7, HCC1806 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, causing decreased cell viability and cell cycle progression. These effects were not primarily leucine-mediated, as BenSer was more cytostatic than the LAT family inhibitor, BCH. Oocyte uptake assays with ectopically expressed amino acid transporters identified four additional targets of BenSer, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS) analysis of intracellular amino acid concentrations revealed that this BenSer-mediated inhibition of amino acid uptake was sufficient to disrupt multiple pathways of amino acid metabolism, causing reduced lactate production and activation of an amino acid response (AAR) through activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4). Together these data showed that BenSer blockade inhibited breast cancer cell growth and viability through disruption of intracellular amino acid homeostasis and inhibition of downstream metabolic and growth pathways.

  10. Eicosapentaenoic acid inhibits oxidation of high density lipoprotein particles in a manner distinct from docosahexaenoic acid.

    PubMed

    Sherratt, Samuel C R; Mason, R Preston

    2018-02-05

    The omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) reduces oxidation of ApoB-containing particles in vitro and in patients with hypertriglyceridemia. EPA may produce these effects through a potent antioxidant mechanism, which may facilitate LDL clearance and slow plaque progression. We hypothesize that EPA antioxidant effects may extend to ApoA-containing particles like HDL, potentially preserving certain atheroprotective functions. HDL was isolated from human plasma and incubated at 37 °C in the absence (vehicle) or presence of EPA and/or DHA; 5.0 or 10.0 μM each. Samples were then subjected to copper-induced oxidation (10 μM). HDL oxidation was inhibited similarly by EPA and DHA up to 1 h. EPA (10 μM) maintained significant HDL oxidation inhibition of 89% (0.622 ± 0.066 μM MDA; p < .001) at 4 h, with continued inhibition of 64% at 14 h, vs. vehicle (5.65 ± 0.06 to 2.01 ± 0.10 μM MDA; p < .001). Conversely, DHA (10 μM) antioxidant benefit was lost by 4 h. At a lower concentration (5 μM), EPA antioxidant activity remained at 81% (5.53 ± 0.15 to 1.03 ± 0.10 μM MDA; p < .001) at 6 h, while DHA lost all antioxidant activity by 4 h. The antioxidant activity of EPA was preserved when combined with an equimolar concentration of DHA (5 μM each). EPA pretreatment prevented HDL oxidation in a dose-dependent manner that was preserved over time. These results suggest unique lipophilic and electron stabilization properties for EPA as compared to DHA with respect to inhibition of HDL oxidation. These antioxidant effects of EPA may enhance certain atheroprotective functions for HDL. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of poly(aspartic acid-co-malic acid) composites for calcium carbonate and sulphate scale inhibition.

    PubMed

    Mithil Kumar, N; Gupta, Sanjay Kumar; Jagadeesh, Dani; Kanny, K; Bux, F

    2015-01-01

    Polyaspartic acid (PSI) is suitable for the inhibition of inorganic scale deposition. To enhance its scale inhibition efficiency, PSI was modified by reacting aspartic acid with malic acid (MA) using thermal polycondensation polymerization. This reaction resulted in poly(aspartic acid-co-malic acid) (PSI-co-MA) dual polymer. The structural, chemical and thermal properties of the dual polymers were analysed by using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and gel permeation chromatography. The effectiveness of six different molar ratios of PSI-co-MA dual polymer for calcium carbonate and calcium sulphate scale inhibition at laboratory scale batch experiments was evaluated with synthetic brine solution at selected doses of polymer at 65-70°C by the static scale test method. The performance of PSI-co-MA dual polymer for the inhibition of calcium carbonate and calcium sulphate precipitation was compared with that of a PSI single polymer. The PSI-co-MA exhibited excellent ability to control inorganic minerals, with approximately 85.36% calcium carbonate inhibition and 100% calcium sulphate inhibition at a level of 10 mg/L PSI-co-MA, respectively. Therefore, it may be reasonably concluded that PSI-co-MA is a highly effective scale inhibitor for cooling water treatment applications.

  12. Mechanism of Specific Inhibition of Phototropism by Phenylacetic Acid in Corn Seedling 1

    PubMed Central

    Vierstra, Richard D.; Poff, Kenneth L.

    1981-01-01

    Using geotropism as a control for phototropism, compounds similar to phenylacetic acid that photoreact with flavins and/or have auxin-like activity were examined for their ability to specifically inhibit phototropism in corn seedlings using geotropism as a control. Results using indole-3-acetic acid, napthalene-1-acetic acid, naphthalene-2-acetic acid, phenylacetic acid, and β-phenylpyruvic acid suggest that such compounds will specifically inhibit phototropism primarily because of their photoreactivity with flavins and not their auxin activity. For example, strong auxins, indole-3-acetic acid and naphthalene-1-acetic acid, affected both tropic responses at all concentrations tested whereas weak auxins, phenylacetic acid and naphthalene-2-acetic acid, exhibited specific inhibition. In addition, the in vivo concentration of phenylacetic acid required to induce specificity was well below that required to stimulate coleoptile growth. Estimates of the percentage of photoreceptor pigment inactivated by phenylacetic acid (>10%) suggest that phenylacetic acid could be used to photoaffinity label the flavoprotein involved in corn seedling phototropism. PMID:16661774

  13. Effects of Hyaluronic Acid Conjugation on Anti-TNF-alpha Inhibition of Inflammation in Burns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    Effects of hyaluronic acid conjugation on anti-TNF-α inhibition of inflammation in burns Emily E. Friedrich1, Liang Tso Sun1, Shanmugasundaram...alone, mixed with hyaluronic acid or conjugated to hyaluronic acid . We found that non-conjugated anti-TNF-α decreased macrophage infiltration to a...greater extent than that conjugated to hyaluronic acid ; however there was little effect on the degree of progression or IL-1β levels. A simple transport

  14. Inhibition of telomerase by linear-chain fatty acids: a structural analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Oda, Masako; Ueno, Takamasa; Kasai, Nobuyuki; Takahashi, Hirotada; Yoshida, Hiromi; Sugawara, Fumio; Sakaguchi, Kengo; Hayashi, Hideya; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki

    2002-01-01

    In the present study, we have found that mono-unsaturated linear-chain fatty acids in the cis configuration with C(18) hydrocarbon chains (i.e. oleic acid) strongly inhibited the activity of human telomerase in a cell-free enzymic assay, with an IC(50) value of 8.6 microM. Interestingly, fatty acids with hydrocarbon chain lengths below 16 or above 20 carbons substantially decreased the potency of inhibition of telomerase. Moreover, the cis-mono-unsaturated C(18) linear-chain fatty acid oleic acid was the strongest inhibitor of all the fatty acids tested. A kinetic study revealed that oleic acid competitively inhibited the activity of telomerase ( K (i)=3.06 microM) with respect to the telomerase substrate primer. The energy-minimized three-dimensional structure of the linear-chain fatty acid was calculated and modelled. A molecule width of 11.53-14.26 A (where 1 A=0.1 nm) in the C(16) to C(20) fatty acid structure was suggested to be important for telomerase inhibition. The three-dimensional structure of the telomerase active site (i.e. the substrate primer-binding site) appears to have a pocket that could bind oleic acid, with the pocket being 8.50 A long and 12.80 A wide. PMID:12121150

  15. Vanadate monomers and dimers both inhibit the human prostatic acid phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Crans, D C; Simone, C M; Saha, A K; Glew, R H

    1989-11-30

    A combination of enzyme kinetics and 51V NMR spectroscopy was used to identify the species of vanadate that inhibits acid phosphatases. Monomeric vanadate was shown to inhibit wheat germ and potato acid phosphatases. At pH 5.5, the vanadate dimer inhibits the human prostatic acid phosphatase whereas at pH 7.0 it is the vanadate monomer that inhibits this enzyme. The pH-dependent shift in the affinity of the prostatic phosphatase for vanadate is presumably due to deprotonation of an amino acid side chain in or near the binding site resulting in a conformational change in the protein. pH may be a subtle effector of the insulin-like vanadate activity in biological systems and may explain some of the differences in selectivity observed with the protein phosphatases.

  16. Specific Effect of Guanidine in the Programming of Poliovirus Inhibition of Deoxyribonucleic Acid Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Powers, C. D.; Miller, B. A.; Kurtz, H.; Ackermann, W. W.

    1969-01-01

    Inhibition of HeLa cell deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis, which occurred by the 4th to 5th hr after infection with poliovirus, could be blocked completely by guanidine only when it was present before the 2nd hr. At the 2nd hr, there was no significant ribonucleic acid (RNA)-replicase activity, and addition of guanidine inhibited all production of virus but allowed 57% of maximal DNA inhibition to develop. Maximum DNA inhibition developed in cells infected for 4 hr in the presence of guanidine when the guanidine was removed for a 10-min interval. RNA-replicase activity was not enzymatically detectable and viral multiplication did not develop in these cells unless the interval without guanidine was extended to 60 min. The interpretation of the data was that the effect of guanidine on viral-induced inhibition of DNA synthesis was distinct and not a consequence of the inhibition of RNA-replicase. PMID:4305675

  17. Bacteria and Acidic Drainage from Coal Refuse: Inhibition by Sodium Lauryl Sulfate and Sodium Benzoate

    PubMed Central

    Dugan, Patrick R.; Apel, William A.

    1983-01-01

    The application of an aqueous solution of sodium lauryl sulfate and sodium benzoate to the surface of high-sulfur coal refuse resulted in the inhibition of iron-and sulfur-oxidizing chemoautotrophic bacteria and in the decrease of acidic drainage from the refuse, suggesting that acid drainage can be abated in the field by inhibiting iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. PMID:16346347

  18. Relieving Mipafox Inhibition in Organophosphorus Acid Anhydrolase by Rational Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    acid anhydrolase (OPAA, EC 3.1.8.2) was purified from halophilic Alteromonas sp. bacteria. OPPA displayed hydrolysis activity against several highly...2010, 49, 547–559. 3. DeFrank, J.J.; Cheng, T.-C. Purification and Properties of Organophosphorus Acid Anhydrolase from a Halophilic Bacterial

  19. Gallic acid targets acute myeloid leukemia via Akt/mTOR-dependent mitochondrial respiration inhibition.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ruixin; Zhang, Minqin; Meng, Hu; Xu, Dandan; Xie, Yonghua

    2018-06-05

    Gallic acid is one of the many phenolic acids that can be found in dietary substances and traditional medicine herbs. The anti-cancer activities of gallic acid have been shown in various cancers but its underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, we show Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-dependent inhibition of mitochondrial respiration as a mechanism of gallic acid's action in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Gallic acid significantly induces apoptosis of AML cell lines, primary mononuclear cells (MNC) and CD34 stem/progenitors isolated form AML patients via caspase-dependent pathway. It also significantly enhances two standard AML chemotherapeutic agents' efficacy in vitro cell culture system and in vivo xenograft model. Gallic acid inhibits dose- and time-dependent mitochondrial respiration, leading to decreased ATP production and oxidative stress. Overexpression of constitutively active Akt restores gallic acid-mediated inhibition of mTOR signaling, mitochondrial dysfunction, energy crisis and apoptosis. Our results demonstrate that mitochondrial respiration inhibition by gallic acid is a consequence of Akt/mTOR signaling suppression. Our findings suggest that combination therapy with gallic acid may enhance antileukemic efficacy of standard chemotherapeutic agents in AML. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Zoledronic Acid Inhibits Aromatase Activity and Phosphorylation: Potential Mechanism for Additive Zoledronic Acid and Letrozole Drug Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Schech, Amanda J.; Nemieboka, Brandon E.; Brodie, Angela H.

    2012-01-01

    Zoledronic acid (ZA), a bisphosphonate originally indicated for use in osteoporosis, has been reported to exert a direct effect on breast cancer cells, although the mechanism of this effect is currently unknown. Data from the ABCSG-12 and ZO-FAST clinical trials suggest that treatment with the combination of ZA and aromatase inhibitors (AI) result in increased disease free survival in breast cancer patients over AI alone. To determine whether the mechanism of this combination involved inhibition of aromatase, AC-1 cells (MCF-7 human breast cancer cells transfected with an aromatase construct) were treated simultaneously with combinations of ZA and AI letrozole for 72 hours. This combination significantly increased inhibition of aromatase activity of AC-1 cells by compared to letrozole alone. Combination treatment of 1nM letrozole and 1μM and 10μM zoledronic acid resulted in an additive drug interaction on inhibiting cell viability, as measured by MTT assay. Treatment with ZA was found to inhibit phosphorylation of aromatase on serine 473. Zoledronic acid was also shown to be more effective in inhibiting cell viability in aromatase transfected AC-1 cells when compared to inhibition of cell viability observed in non-transfected MCF-7. Estradiol was able to partially rescue the effect of 1μM and 10μM ZA on cell viability following treatment for 72 hours, as shown by a shift to the right in the estradiol dose response curve. In conclusion, these results indicate that the combination of ZA and letrozole results in an additive inhibition of cell viability. Furthermore, ZA alone can inhibit aromatase activity through inhibition of serine phosphorylation events important for aromatase enzymatic activity and contributes to inhibition of cell viability. PMID:22659283

  1. Ursolic acid inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of HT-29 colon cancer cells by inhibiting the EGFR/MAPK pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Jian-zhen; Xuan, Yan-yan; Zheng, Shu; Dong, Qi; Zhang, Su-zhan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of ursolic acid on the proliferation and apoptosis of human HT-29 colon cancer cells. Methods: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and flow cytometry assays were performed to evaluate the effects of ursolic acid on the growth and apoptosis of HT-29 cells. Western blot analysis was applied to investigate the inhibitory effects of ursolic acid on the phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), and the activity of B cell leukemia-2 (Bcl-2), B cell leukemia-xL (Bcl-xL), caspase-3, and caspase-9. Results: Ursolic acid inhibited the growth of HT-29 cells in dose- and time-dependent manners. The median inhibition concentration (IC50) values for 24, 48, and 72 h treatment were 26, 20, and 18 μmol/L, respectively. The apoptotic rates of 10, 20, and 40 μmol/L ursolic acid treatments for 24 h were 5.74%, 14.49%, and 33.05%, and for 48 h were 9%, 21.39%, and 40.49%, respectively. Ursolic acid suppressed the phosphorylation of EGFR, ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, and JNK, which is well correlated with its growth inhibitory effect. 10, 20, and 40 μmol/L ursolic acid significantly inhibited the proliferation of EGF-stimulated HT-29 cells (P<0.05). Cell proliferation was most significantly inhibited when treated with 10 and 20 μmol/L ursolic acid combined with 200 nmol/L AG 1478 or 10 μmol/L U0126 (P<0.01). Besides, it also down-regulated the expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and activated caspase-3 and caspase-9. Conclusion: Ursolic acid induces apoptosis in HT-29 cells by suppressing the EGFR/MAPK pathway, suggesting that it may be a potent agent for the treatment of colorectal cancer. PMID:19735099

  2. Jasmonic Acid Enhances Al-Induced Root Growth Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhong-Bao; He, Chunmei; Ma, Yanqi; Herde, Marco; Ding, Zhaojun

    2017-02-01

    Phytohormones such as ethylene and auxin are involved in the regulation of the aluminum (Al)-induced root growth inhibition. Although jasmonate (JA) has been reported to play a crucial role in the regulation of root growth and development in response to environmental stresses through interplay with ethylene and auxin, its role in the regulation of root growth response to Al stress is not yet known. In an attempt to elucidate the role of JA, we found that exogenous application of JA enhanced the Al-induced root growth inhibition. Furthermore, phenotype analysis with mutants defective in either JA biosynthesis or signaling suggests that JA is involved in the regulation of Al-induced root growth inhibition. The expression of the JA receptor CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1) and the key JA signaling regulator MYC2 was up-regulated in response to Al stress in the root tips. This process together with COI1-mediated Al-induced root growth inhibition under Al stress was controlled by ethylene but not auxin. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that many responsive genes under Al stress were regulated by JA signaling. The differential responsive of microtubule organization-related genes between the wild-type and coi1-2 mutant is consistent with the changed depolymerization of cortical microtubules in coi1 under Al stress. In addition, ALMT-mediated malate exudation and thus Al exclusion from roots in response to Al stress was also regulated by COI1-mediated JA signaling. Together, this study suggests that root growth inhibition is regulated by COI1-mediated JA signaling independent from auxin signaling and provides novel insights into the phytohormone-mediated root growth inhibition in response to Al stress. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Growth inhibition of Cronobacter spp. strains in reconstituted powdered infant formula acidified with organic acids supported by natural stomach acidity.

    PubMed

    Zhu, S; Schnell, S; Fischer, M

    2013-09-01

    Cronobacter is associated with outbreaks of rare, but life-threatening cases of meningitis, necrotizing enterocolitis, and sepsis in newborns. This study was conducted to determine the effect of organic acids on growth of Cronobacter in laboratory medium and reconstituted powdered infant formula (PIF) as well as the bacteriostatic effect of slightly acidified infant formula when combined with neonatal gastric acidity. Inhibitory effect of seven organic acids on four acid sensitive Cronobacter strains was determined in laboratory medium with broth dilution method at pH 5.0, 5.5 and 6.0. Acetic, butyric and propionic acids were most inhibitive against Cronobacter in the laboratory medium. The killing effect of these three acids was partially buffered in reconstituted PIF. Under neonatal gastric acid condition of pH 5.0, the slightly acidified formula which did not exert inhibition effect solely reduced significantly the Cronobacter populations. A synergistic effect of formula moderately acidified with organic acid combined with the physiological infant gastric acid was visible in preventing the rapid growth of Cronobacter in neonatal stomach. The study contributed to a better understanding of the inhibitory effect of organic acids on Cronobacter growth in different matrixes and provided new ideas in terms of controlling bacteria colonization and translocation by acidified formula. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Salicylic acid inhibits enzymatic browning of fresh-cut Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) by competitively inhibiting polyphenol oxidase.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dan; Li, Lin; Wu, Yanwen; Fan, Junfeng; Ouyang, Jie

    2015-03-15

    The inhibitory effect and associated mechanisms of salicylic acid (SA) on the browning of fresh-cut Chinese chestnut were investigated. Shelled and sliced chestnuts were immersed in different concentrations of an SA solution, and the browning of the chestnut surface and interior were inhibited. The activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) extracted from chestnuts were measured in the presence and absence of SA. SA at concentrations higher than 0.3g/L delayed chestnut browning by significantly inhibiting the PPO activity (P<0.01), and the POD activity was not significantly affected (P>0.05). The binding and inhibition modes of SA with PPO and POD, determined by AUTODOCK 4.2 and Lineweaver-Burk plots, respectively, established SA as a competitive inhibitor of PPO. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation by 2,2'-bipyridyl, lipoic, kojic and picolinic acids.

    PubMed

    Çevik, Kübra; Ulusoy, Seyhan

    2015-08-01

    The inhibitory effects of iron chelators, and FeCl3 chelation on biofilm formation and swarming motility were investigated against an opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The inhibitory activity of 2,2'-bipyridyl, lipoic acid, kojic acid and picolinic acid on biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 and three clinical isolates (P. aeruginosa PAK01, P. aeruginosa PAK02 and P. aeruginosa PAK03) were investigated, based on crystal violet assay, and swarming motility test. The kojic, lipoic and picolinic acid inhibited biofilm formation by 5-33% in all tested P. aeruginosa isolates. When chelated iron was added, biofilm inhibition rates were determined to be 39-57%. Among the tested chelators against P. aeruginosa, lipoic acid (84%) and kojic acid (68%) presented the highest inhibition of swarming motility. This is the first study to report the inhibitory effect of lipoic acid on biofilm formation and swarming motility of P. aeruginosa. It is considered that lipoic and picolinic acids can serve as alternatives for the treatment of the P. aeruginosa infections by inhibiting biofilm formation.

  6. Inhibition kinetics and molecular simulation of p-substituted cinnamic acid derivatives on tyrosinase.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yi; Hu, Yong-Hua; Yu, Feng; Zheng, Jing; Chen, Lin-Shan; Chen, Qing-Xi; Wang, Qin

    2017-02-01

    This study was to investigate the inhibition effects of para-substituted cinnamic acid derivatives (4-chlorocinnamic acid, 4-ethoxycinnamic acid and 4-nitrocinnamic acid) on tyrosinase catalyzing the substrates, with the purpose of elucidating the inhibition mechanism of the tested derivatives on tyrosinase by the UV-vis spectrum, fluorescence spectroscopy, copper interacting and molecular docking, respectively. The native-PAGE results showed that 4-chlorocinnamic acid (4-CCA), 4-ethoxycinnamic acid (4-ECA) and 4-nitrocinnamic acid (4-NCA) had inhibitory effects on tyrosinase. Spectrophotometric analysis used to determine the inhibition capabilities of these compounds on tyrosinase catalyzing L-tyrosine (L-Tyr) and L-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) as well. The IC 50 values and inhibition constants were further determined. Moreover, quenching mechanisms of tested compounds to tyrosinase belonged to static type and a red shift on fluorescence emission peak occurred when 4-NCA added. Copper interacting and molecular docking demonstrated that 4-CCA could not bind directly to the copper, but it could interact with residues in the active center of tyrosinase. Meanwhile, 4-ECA and 4-NCA could chelate a copper ion of tyrosinase. Anti-tyrosinase activities of para-substituted cinnamic acid derivatives would lay scientific foundation for their utilization in designing of novel tyrosinase inhibitors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. DICHLOROACETIC ACID (DCA) INHIBITS PROLIFERATION AND APOPTOSIS IN NORMAL HEPATOCYTES OF MALE F344 RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dichloroacetic acid (DCA} inhibits proliferation and apoptosis in nonnal hepatocytes of
    male F344 rats.

    Large segments of the population are chronically exposed to dichloroacetic acid (DCA}: DCA is a by product of the chlorine disinfection of drinking water, a metab...

  8. 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid Inhibits the Outer Membrane NADH Dehydrogenase of Plant Mitochondria 1

    PubMed Central

    Mannella, Carmen A.; Bonner, Walter D.

    1978-01-01

    The NADH dehydrogenase of potato (Solanum tuberosum) and mung bean (Phaseolus aureus) outer mitochondrial membranes is specifically inhibited by both 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acids but not by the natural auxin indole-3-acetic acid. PMID:16660539

  9. Specific Inhibition of the Cyanide-insensitive Respiratory Pathway in Plant Mitochondria by Hydroxamic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Schonbaum, Gregory R.; Bonner, Walter D.; Storey, Bayard T.; Bahr, James T.

    1971-01-01

    Hydroxamic acids, R-CONHOH, are inhibitors specific to the respiratory pathway through the alternate, cyanide-insensitive terminal oxidase of plant mitochondria. The nature of the R group in these compounds affects the concentration at which the hydroxamic acids are effective, but it appears that all hydroxamic acids inhibit if high enough concentrations are used. The benzhydroxamic acids are effective at relatively low concentrations; of these, the most effective are m-chlorobenzhydroxamic acid and m-iodobenzhydroxamic acid. The concentrations required for half-maximal inhibition of the alternate oxidase pathway in mung bean (Phaseolus aureus) mitochondria are 0.03 mm for m-chlorobenzhydroxamic acid and 0.02 mm for m-iodobenzhydroxamic acid. With skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus) mitochondria, the required concentrations are 0.16 for m-chlorobenzhydroxamic acid and 0.05 for m-iodobenzhydroxamic acid. At concentrations which inhibit completely the alternate oxidase pathway, these two compounds have no discernible effect on either the respiratory pathway through cytochrome oxidase, or on the energy coupling reactions of these mitochondria. These inhibitors make it possible to isolate the two respiratory pathways and study their mode of action separately. These inhibitors also enhance an electron paramagnetic resonance signal near g = 2 in anaerobic, submitochondrial particles from skunk cabbage, which appears to be specific to the alternate oxidase and thus provides a means for its assay. PMID:5543780

  10. [Lactic acid inhibits the formation of semen-derived amyloid fibrils].

    PubMed

    Li, Jin-Qing; Song, Ya-Li; Xun, Tian-Rong; Tan, Sui-Yi; Liu, Shu-Wen

    2017-07-20

    To investigate the inhibitory effect of lactic acid on semen-derived amyloid (SEVI) fibril formation. PAP248-286 (2 mg/mL) was incubated with 4.0, 2.0, 1.0, 0.5, 0.25, and 0.125 mg/mL of lactic acid. After incubation for different times, aliquots were drawn from each sample for Thioflavin T (ThT) and Congo red staining to monitor semen-derived amyloid fibril formation. The β sheet structure formation of PAP248-286 was measured by circular dichroism spectrum, and the morphology of amyloid fibrils incubated with or without lactic acid was observed with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The enhancing effect of amyloid fibril incubated with lactic acid at different time points was determined using virus infection assay. PAP248-286 (2 mg/mL) was incubated with dilutions of vaginal secretion from healthy women, and amyloid fibril formation was detected with ThT and Congo red staining. Lactic acid inhibited SEVI fibril formation in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. Lactic acid at 0.5 mg/mL completely inhibited 2 mg/mL SEVI fibril formation within 48 h. After incubation for 48 h, lactic acid at 1 mg/mL inhibited the formation of β-sheet structure of SEVI (2 mg/mL) and completely inhibited 2 mg/mL PAP248-286 aggregation as observed with TEM. In the presence of lactic acid, PAP248-286 lost the ability to enhance virus infection. Vaginal secretion inhibited SEVI fibril formation in a dose-dependent manner, and virtually no SEVI fibril occurred after incubation of 2 mg/mL PAP248-286 with 67% vaginal secretion. Lactic acid inhibits SEVI fibril formation in vitro.

  11. Growth inhibition of Erwinia amylovora and related Erwinia species by neutralized short‑chain fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Konecki, Katrin; Gernold, Marina; Wensing, Annette; Geider, Klaus

    2013-11-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are used to preserve food and could be a tool for control of fire blight caused by Erwinia amylovora on apple, pear and related rosaceous plants. Neutralized acids were added to buffered growth media at 0.5–75 mM and tested at pHs ranging from 6.8 to 5.5. Particularly at low pH, SCFAs with a chain length exceeding that of acetic acid such as propionic acid were effective growth inhibitors of E. amylovora possibly due to uptake of free acid and its intracellular accumulation. We also observed high inhibition with monochloroacetic acid. An E. billingiae strain was as sensitive to the acids as E. amylovora or E. tasmaniensis. Fire blight symptoms on pear slices were reduced when the slices were pretreated with neutralized propionic acid. Propionic acid is well water soluble and could be applied in orchards as a control agent for fire blight.

  12. Citric acid inhibits development of cataracts, proteinuria and ketosis in streptozotocin (type1) diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Nagai, Ryoji; Nagai, Mime; Shimasaki, Satoko; Baynes, John W.; Fujiwara, Yukio

    2010-01-01

    Although many fruits such as lemon and orange contain citric acid, little is known about beneficial effects of citric acid on health. Here we measured the effect of citric acid on the pathogenesis of diabetic complications in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Although oral administration of citric acid to diabetic rats did not affect blood glucose concentration, it delayed the development of cataracts, inhibited accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) such as Nε-(carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL) and Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) in lens proteins, and protected against albuminuria and ketosis . We also show that incubation of protein with acetol, a metabolite formed from acetone by acetone monooxygenase, generate CEL, suggesting that inhibition of ketosis by citric acid may lead to the decrease in CEL in lens proteins. These results demonstrate that the oral administration of citric acid ameliorates ketosis and protects against the development of diabetic complications in an animal model of type 1 diabetes. PMID:20117096

  13. Ursodeoxycholic Acid but Not Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid Inhibits Proliferation and Differentiation of Human Subcutaneous Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Mališová, Lucia; Kováčová, Zuzana; Koc, Michal; Kračmerová, Jana; Štich, Vladimír; Rossmeislová, Lenka

    2013-01-01

    Stress of endoplasmic reticulum (ERS) is one of the molecular triggers of adipocyte dysfunction and chronic low inflammation accompanying obesity. ERS can be alleviated by chemical chaperones from the family of bile acids (BAs). Thus, two BAs currently used to treat cholestasis, ursodeoxycholic and tauroursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA and TUDCA), could potentially lessen adverse metabolic effects of obesity. Nevertheless, BAs effects on human adipose cells are mostly unknown. They could regulate gene expression through pathways different from their chaperone function, namely through activation of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and TGR5, G-coupled receptor. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze effects of UDCA and TUDCA on human preadipocytes and differentiated adipocytes derived from paired samples of two distinct subcutaneous adipose tissue depots, abdominal and gluteal. While TUDCA did not alter proliferation of cells from either depot, UDCA exerted strong anti-proliferative effect. In differentiated adipocytes, acute exposition to neither TUDCA nor UDCA was able to reduce effect of ERS stressor tunicamycin. However, exposure of cells to UDCA during whole differentiation process decreased expression of ERS markers. At the same time however, UDCA profoundly inhibited adipogenic conversion of cells. UDCA abolished expression of PPARγ and lipogenic enzymes already in the early phases of adipogenesis. This anti-adipogenic effect of UDCA was not dependent on FXR or TGR5 activation, but could be related to ability of UDCA to sustain the activation of ERK1/2 previously linked with PPARγ inactivation. Finally, neither BAs did lower expression of chemokines inducible by TLR4 pathway, when UDCA enhanced their expression in gluteal adipocytes. Therefore while TUDCA has neutral effect on human preadipocytes and adipocytes, the therapeutic use of UDCA different from treating cholestatic diseases should be considered with caution because UDCA alters functions of human adipose cells

  14. Inhibition of experimental bone resorption and osteoclast formation and survival by 2-aminoethanesulphonic acid.

    PubMed

    Koide, M; Okahashi, N; Tanaka, R; Kazuno, K; Shibasaki, K; Yamazaki, Y; Kaneko, K; Ueda, N; Ohguchi, M; Ishihara, Y; Noguchi, T; Nishihara, T

    1999-09-01

    It is known that bone resorption is mediated by osteoclasts, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and inflammatory mediators such as interleukin-1 (IL-1) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) induce osteoclast differentiation from haemopoietic cells, 2-aminoethanesulphonic acid, which is known as taurine, is an important nutrient and is added to most synthetic human infant milk formulas. In this study, it was found that 2-aminoethanesulphonic acid inhibits the stimulation of bone resorption mediated by LPS of the periodontopathic microorganism Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Y4 in organ cultures of newborn mouse calvaria. The effect of 2-aminoethanesulphonic acid on the development and survival of osteoclast-like multinucleated cells produced in a mouse bone-marrow culture system was also examined. 2-aminoethanesulphonic acid (100 microg/ml) suppressed the formation of these osteoclast-like cells in the presence of LPS of A. actinomycetemcomitans Y4, IL-1alpha or PGE2 in mouse marrow cultures. On the other hand, 2-aminoethanesulphonic acid did not inhibit 1alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-mediated osteoclast differentiation. Although IL-1alpha elongated the survival of the osteoclast-like cells, 2-aminoethanesulphonic acid blocked the supportive effect of IL-1alpha on osteoclast survival. 2-aminoethanesulphonic acid showed no effect on the growth of mouse osteoblasts. Finally, it was found that 2-aminoethanesulphonic acid inhibited alveolar bone resorption in experimental periodontitis in hamsters. These results suggest that 2-aminoethanesulphonic acid is an effective agent in preventing inflammatory bone resorption in periodontal diseases.

  15. Sugar fatty acid esters inhibit biofilm formation by food-borne pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Soichi; Akiyoshi, Yuko; O’Toole, George A.; Ogihara, Hirokazu; Morinaga, Yasushi

    2010-01-01

    Effects of food additives on biofilm formation by food-borne pathogenic bacteria were investigated. Thirty-three potential food additives and 3 related compounds were added to the culture medium at concentrations from 0.001 to 0.1% (w/w), followed by inoculation and cultivation of five biofilm-forming bacterial strains for the evaluation of biofilm formation. Among the tested food additives, 21 showed inhibitory effects of biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, and in particular, sugar fatty acid esters showed significant anti-biofilm activity. Sugar fatty acid esters with long chain fatty acid residues (C14-16) exerted their inhibitory effect at the concentration of 0.001%(w/w), but bacterial growth was not affected at this low concentration. Activities of the sugar fatty acid esters positively correlated with the increase of the chain length of the fatty acid residues. Sugar fatty acid esters inhibited the initial attachment of the Staphylococcus aureus cells to the abiotic surface. Sugar fatty acid esters with long chain fatty acid residues (C14-16) also inhibited biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans and Listeria monocytogenes at 0.01%(w/w), while the inhibition of biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa required the addition of a far higher concentration (0.1%(w/w)) of the sugar fatty acid esters. PMID:20089325

  16. Auxin-Induced Ethylene Triggers Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis and Growth Inhibition1

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Hauke; Grossmann, Klaus

    2000-01-01

    The growth-inhibiting effects of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) at high concentration and the synthetic auxins 7-chloro-3-methyl-8-quinolinecarboxylic acid (quinmerac), 2-methoxy-3,6-dichlorobenzoic acid (dicamba), 4-amino-3,6,6-trichloropicolinic acid (picloram), and naphthalene acetic acid, were investigated in cleavers (Galium aparine). When plants were root treated with 0.5 mm IAA, shoot epinasty and inhibition of root and shoot growth developed during 24 h. Concomitantly, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase activity, and ACC and ethylene production were transiently stimulated in the shoot tissue within 2 h, followed by increases in immunoreactive (+)-abscisic acid (ABA) and its precursor xanthoxal (xanthoxin) after 5 h. After 24 h of treatment, levels of xanthoxal and ABA were elevated up to 2- and 24-fold, relative to control, respectively. In plants treated with IAA, 7-chloro-3-methyl-8-quinolinecarboxylic acid, naphthalene acetic acid, 2-methoxy-3,6-dichlorobenzoic acid, and 4-amino-3,6,6-trichloropicolinic acid, levels of ethylene, ACC, and ABA increased in close correlation with inhibition of shoot growth. Aminoethoxyvinyl-glycine and cobalt ions, which inhibit ethylene synthesis, decreased ABA accumulation and growth inhibition, whereas the ethylene-releasing ethephon promoted ABA levels and growth inhibition. In accordance, tomato mutants defective in ethylene perception (never ripe) did not produce the xanthoxal and ABA increases and growth inhibition induced by auxins in wild-type plants. This suggests that auxin-stimulated ethylene triggers ABA accumulation and the consequent growth inhibition. Reduced catabolism most probably did not contribute to ABA increase, as indicated by immunoanalyses of ABA degradation and conjugation products in shoot tissue and by pulse experiments with [3H]-ABA in cell suspensions of G. aparine. In contrast, studies using inhibitors of ABA biosynthesis (fluridone, naproxen, and tungstate), ABA

  17. Auxin-induced ethylene triggers abscisic acid biosynthesis and growth inhibition.

    PubMed

    Hansen, H; Grossmann, K

    2000-11-01

    The growth-inhibiting effects of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) at high concentration and the synthetic auxins 7-chloro-3-methyl-8-quinolinecarboxylic acid (quinmerac), 2-methoxy-3,6-dichlorobenzoic acid (dicamba), 4-amino-3,6, 6-trichloropicolinic acid (picloram), and naphthalene acetic acid, were investigated in cleavers (Galium aparine). When plants were root treated with 0.5 mM IAA, shoot epinasty and inhibition of root and shoot growth developed during 24 h. Concomitantly, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase activity, and ACC and ethylene production were transiently stimulated in the shoot tissue within 2 h, followed by increases in immunoreactive (+)-abscisic acid (ABA) and its precursor xanthoxal (xanthoxin) after 5 h. After 24 h of treatment, levels of xanthoxal and ABA were elevated up to 2- and 24-fold, relative to control, respectively. In plants treated with IAA, 7-chloro-3-methyl-8-quinolinecarboxylic acid, naphthalene acetic acid, 2-methoxy-3,6-dichlorobenzoic acid, and 4-amino-3,6,6-trichloropicolinic acid, levels of ethylene, ACC, and ABA increased in close correlation with inhibition of shoot growth. Aminoethoxyvinyl-glycine and cobalt ions, which inhibit ethylene synthesis, decreased ABA accumulation and growth inhibition, whereas the ethylene-releasing ethephon promoted ABA levels and growth inhibition. In accordance, tomato mutants defective in ethylene perception (never ripe) did not produce the xanthoxal and ABA increases and growth inhibition induced by auxins in wild-type plants. This suggests that auxin-stimulated ethylene triggers ABA accumulation and the consequent growth inhibition. Reduced catabolism most probably did not contribute to ABA increase, as indicated by immunoanalyses of ABA degradation and conjugation products in shoot tissue and by pulse experiments with [(3)H]-ABA in cell suspensions of G. aparine. In contrast, studies using inhibitors of ABA biosynthesis (fluridone, naproxen, and tungstate), ABA

  18. Mechanism of cinnamic acid-induced trypsin inhibition: A multi-technique approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongmei; Zhou, Qiuhua; Cao, Jian; Wang, Yanqing

    2013-12-01

    In order to investigate the association of the protease trypsin with cinnamic acid, the interaction was characterized by using fluorescence, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, molecular modeling and an enzymatic inhibition assay. The binding process may be outlined as follows: cinnamic acid can interact with trypsin with one binding site to form cinnamic acid-trypsin complex, resulting in inhibition of trypsin activity; the spectroscopic data show that the interaction is a spontaneous process with the estimated enthalpy and entropy changes being -8.95 kJ mol-1 and 50.70 J mol-1 K-1, respectively. Noncovalent interactions make the main contribution to stabilize the trypsin-cinnamic acid complex; cinnamic acid can enter into the primary substrate-binding pocket and alter the environment around Trp and Tyr residues.

  19. Mechanism of cinnamic acid-induced trypsin inhibition: a multi-technique approach.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongmei; Zhou, Qiuhua; Cao, Jian; Wang, Yanqing

    2013-12-01

    In order to investigate the association of the protease trypsin with cinnamic acid, the interaction was characterized by using fluorescence, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, molecular modeling and an enzymatic inhibition assay. The binding process may be outlined as follows: cinnamic acid can interact with trypsin with one binding site to form cinnamic acid-trypsin complex, resulting in inhibition of trypsin activity; the spectroscopic data show that the interaction is a spontaneous process with the estimated enthalpy and entropy changes being -8.95 kJ mol(-1) and 50.70 J mol(-1) K(-1), respectively. Noncovalent interactions make the main contribution to stabilize the trypsin-cinnamic acid complex; cinnamic acid can enter into the primary substrate-binding pocket and alter the environment around Trp and Tyr residues. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Fatty acid synthase inhibition results in a magnetic resonance-detectable drop in phosphocholine

    PubMed Central

    Ross, James; Najjar, Amer M.; Sankaranarayanapillai, Madhuri; Tong, William P.; Kaluarachchi, Kumaralal; Ronen, Sabrina M.

    2008-01-01

    Expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN), the key enzyme in de novo synthesis of long-chain fatty acids (FA), is normally low but increases in cancer. Consequently, FASN is a novel target for cancer therapy. However, because FASN inhibitors can lead to tumor stasis rather than shrinkage, non-invasive methods for assessing FASN inhibition are needed. To this end, we combined 1H, 31P and 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) (i) to monitor the metabolic consequences of FASN inhibition and (ii) to identify MRS-detectable metabolic biomarkers of response. Treatment of PC-3 cells with the FASN inhibitor Orlistat for up to 48 h resulted in inhibition of FASN activity by 70%, correlating with 74% inhibition of FA synthesis. Furthermore, we have determined that FASN inhibition results not only in lower phosphatidylcholine levels, but also in a 59% drop in the phospholipid precursor phosphocholine (PCho). This drop resulted from inhibition in PCho synthesis as a result of a reduction in the cellular activity of its synthetic enzyme choline kinase. The drop in PCho levels following FASN inhibition was confirmed in SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells treated with Orlistat and in MCF-7 breast cancer cells treated with Orlistat as well as cerulenin. Combining data from all treated cells, the drop in PCho significantly correlated with the drop in de novo synthesized FA levels, identifying PCho as a potential non-invasive MRS-detectable biomarker of FASN inhibition in vivo. PMID:18723500

  1. The bisphosphonate zoledronic acid effectively targets lung cancer cells by inhibition of protein prenylation

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Fan; Li, Pengcheng; Gong, Jianhua

    Aberrant activation of oncoproteins such as members of the Ras family is common in human lung cancers. The proper function of Ras largely depends on a post-translational modification termed prenylation. Bisphosphonates have been shown to inhibit prenylation in cancer cells. In this study, we show that zoledronic acid, a third generation bisphosphonate, is effective in targeting lung cancer cells. This is achieved by the induction of apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation, through suppressing the activation of downstream Ras and EGFR signalling by zoledronic acid. The combination of zoledronic acid and paclitaxel or cisplatin (commonly used chemotherapeutic drugs for lung cancer)more » augmented the activity of either drug alone in in vitro lung cancer cellular system and in vivo lung xenograft mouse model. Importantly, zoledronic acid inhibits protein prenylation as shown by the increased levels of unprenylated Ras and Rap1A. In addition, the effects of zoledronic acid were reversed in the presence of geranylgeraniol and farnesol, further confirming that mechanism of zoledroinc acid's action in lung cancer cells is through prenylation inhibition. Since zoledronic acid is already available for clinic use, these results suggest that it may be an effective addition to the armamentarium of drugs for the treatment of lung cancer. - Highlights: • Zoledronic acid (ZA) is effectively against lung cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. • ZA acts on lung cancer cells through inhibition of protein prenylation. • ZA suppresses global downstream phosphorylation of Ras signalling. • ZA enhances the effects of chemotherapeutic drugs in lung cancer cells.« less

  2. Docosahexaenoic acid antagonizes the boosting effect of palmitic acid on LPS inflammatory signaling by inhibiting gene transcription and ceramide synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Junfei; Lu, Zhongyang; Li, Yanchun; Cowart, L. Ashley; Lopes-Virella, Maria F.

    2018-01-01

    It is well known that saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and unsaturated fatty acid, in particular omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), have different effects on inflammatory signaling: SFAs are pro-inflammatory but n-3 PUFAs have strong anti-inflammatory properties. We have reported that palmitic acid (PA), a saturated fatty acid, robustly amplifies lipopolysaccharide (LPS) signaling to upregulate proinflammatory gene expression in macrophages. We also reported that the increased production of ceramide (CER) via sphingomyelin (SM) hydrolysis and CER de novo synthesis plays a key role in the synergistic effect of LPS and PA on proinflammatory gene expression. However, it remains unclear if n-3 PUFAs are capable of antagonizing the synergistic effect of LPS and PA on gene expression and CER production. In this study, we employed the above macrophage culture system and lipidomical analysis to assess the effect of n-3 PUFAs on proinflammatory gene expression and CER production stimulated by LPS and PA. Results showed that DHA strongly inhibited the synergistic effect of LPS and PA on proinflammatory gene expression by targeting nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB)-dependent gene transcription. Results also showed that DHA inhibited the cooperative effect of LPS and PA on CER production by targeting CER de novo synthesis, but not SM hydrolysis. Furthermore, results showed that myriocin, a specific inhibitor of serine palmitoyltransferase, strongly inhibited both LPS-PA-stimulated CER synthesis and proinflammatory gene expression, indicating that CER synthesis is associated with proinflammatory gene expression and that inhibition of CER synthesis contributes to DHA-inhibited proinflammatory gene expression. Taken together, this study demonstrates that DHA antagonizes the boosting effect of PA on LPS signaling on proinflammatory gene expression by targeting both NFκB-dependent transcription and CER de novo synthesis in macrophages. PMID:29474492

  3. Docosahexaenoic acid antagonizes the boosting effect of palmitic acid on LPS inflammatory signaling by inhibiting gene transcription and ceramide synthesis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Junfei; Lu, Zhongyang; Li, Yanchun; Cowart, L Ashley; Lopes-Virella, Maria F; Huang, Yan

    2018-01-01

    It is well known that saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and unsaturated fatty acid, in particular omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), have different effects on inflammatory signaling: SFAs are pro-inflammatory but n-3 PUFAs have strong anti-inflammatory properties. We have reported that palmitic acid (PA), a saturated fatty acid, robustly amplifies lipopolysaccharide (LPS) signaling to upregulate proinflammatory gene expression in macrophages. We also reported that the increased production of ceramide (CER) via sphingomyelin (SM) hydrolysis and CER de novo synthesis plays a key role in the synergistic effect of LPS and PA on proinflammatory gene expression. However, it remains unclear if n-3 PUFAs are capable of antagonizing the synergistic effect of LPS and PA on gene expression and CER production. In this study, we employed the above macrophage culture system and lipidomical analysis to assess the effect of n-3 PUFAs on proinflammatory gene expression and CER production stimulated by LPS and PA. Results showed that DHA strongly inhibited the synergistic effect of LPS and PA on proinflammatory gene expression by targeting nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB)-dependent gene transcription. Results also showed that DHA inhibited the cooperative effect of LPS and PA on CER production by targeting CER de novo synthesis, but not SM hydrolysis. Furthermore, results showed that myriocin, a specific inhibitor of serine palmitoyltransferase, strongly inhibited both LPS-PA-stimulated CER synthesis and proinflammatory gene expression, indicating that CER synthesis is associated with proinflammatory gene expression and that inhibition of CER synthesis contributes to DHA-inhibited proinflammatory gene expression. Taken together, this study demonstrates that DHA antagonizes the boosting effect of PA on LPS signaling on proinflammatory gene expression by targeting both NFκB-dependent transcription and CER de novo synthesis in macrophages.

  4. Accumulation of Polyhydroxyalkanoic Acid Containing Large Amounts of Unsaturated Monomers in Pseudomonas fluorescens BM07 Utilizing Saccharides and Its Inhibition by 2-Bromooctanoic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ho-Joo; Choi, Mun Hwan; Kim, Tae-Un; Yoon, Sung Chul

    2001-01-01

    A psychrotrophic bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens BM07, which is able to accumulate polyhydroxyalkanoic acid (PHA) containing large amounts of 3-hydroxy-cis-5-dodecenoate unit up to 35 mol% in the cell from unrelated substrates such as fructose, succinate, etc., was isolated from an activated sludge in a municipal wastewater treatment plant. When it was grown on heptanoic acid (C7) to hexadecanoic acid (C16) as the sole carbon source, the monomer compositional characteristics of the synthesized PHA were similar to those observed in other fluorescent pseudomonads belonging to rRNA homology group I. However, growth on stearic acid (C18) led to no PHA accumulation, but instead free stearic acid was stored in the cell. The existence of the linkage between fatty acid de novo synthesis and PHA synthesis was confirmed by using inhibitors such as acrylic acid and two other compounds, 2-bromooctanoic acid and 4-pentenoic acid, which are known to inhibit β-oxidation enzymes in animal cells. Acrylic acid completely inhibited PHA synthesis at a concentration of 4 mM in 40 mM octanoate-grown cells, but no inhibition of PHA synthesis occurred in 70 mM fructose-grown cells in the presence of 1 to 5 mM acrylic acid. 2-Bromooctanoic acid and 4-pentenoic acid were found to much inhibit PHA synthesis much more strongly in fructose-grown cells than in octanoate-grown cells over concentrations ranging from 1 to 5 mM. However, 2-bromooctanoic acid and 4-pentenoic acid did not inhibit cell growth at all in the fructose media. Especially, with the cells grown on fructose, 2-bromooctanoic acid exhibited a steep rise in the percent PHA synthesis inhibition over a small range of concentrations below 100 μM, a finding indicative of a very specific inhibition, whereas 4-pentenoic acid showed a broad, featureless concentration dependence, suggesting a rather nonspecific inhibition. The apparent inhibition constant Ki (the concentration for 50% inhibition of PHA synthesis) for 2

  5. Xenograft Studies of Fatty Acid Synthesis Inhibition as Novel Therapy for Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-08-01

    stimulating substances produced in the brain. The reduction in NPY is blocked by inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase by TOFA , indicating that malonyl-CoA...mediated 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid ( TOFA ) was not cytotoxic to breast cancer the cytotoxic effects of cerulenin and C75, then any other FA syn...intracellular malonyl-CoA to several fold above control levels, whereas test this idea, we compared the effects on cancer cells of inhibition of TOFA reduced

  6. Tannic acid inhibits Staphylococcus aureus surface colonization in an IsaA-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Payne, David E; Martin, Nicholas R; Parzych, Katherine R; Rickard, Alex H; Underwood, Adam; Boles, Blaise R

    2013-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a human commensal and pathogen that is capable of forming biofilms on a variety of host tissues and implanted medical devices. Biofilm-associated infections resist antimicrobial chemotherapy and attack from the host immune system, making these infections particularly difficult to treat. In order to gain insight into environmental conditions that influence S. aureus biofilm development, we screened a library of small molecules for the ability to inhibit S. aureus biofilm formation. This led to the finding that the polyphenolic compound tannic acid inhibits S. aureus biofilm formation in multiple biofilm models without inhibiting bacterial growth. We present evidence that tannic acid inhibits S. aureus biofilm formation via a mechanism dependent upon the putative transglycosylase IsaA. Tannic acid did not inhibit biofilm formation of an isaA mutant. Overexpression of wild-type IsaA inhibited biofilm formation, whereas overexpression of a catalytically dead IsaA had no effect. Tannin-containing drinks like tea have been found to reduce methicillin-resistant S. aureus nasal colonization. We found that black tea inhibited S. aureus biofilm development and that an isaA mutant resisted this inhibition. Antibiofilm activity was eliminated from tea when milk was added to precipitate the tannic acid. Finally, we developed a rodent model for S. aureus throat colonization and found that tea consumption reduced S. aureus throat colonization via an isaA-dependent mechanism. These findings provide insight into a molecular mechanism by which commonly consumed polyphenolic compounds, such as tannins, influence S. aureus surface colonization.

  7. Tannic Acid Inhibits Staphylococcus aureus Surface Colonization in an IsaA-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Payne, David E.; Martin, Nicholas R.; Parzych, Katherine R.; Rickard, Alex H.; Underwood, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a human commensal and pathogen that is capable of forming biofilms on a variety of host tissues and implanted medical devices. Biofilm-associated infections resist antimicrobial chemotherapy and attack from the host immune system, making these infections particularly difficult to treat. In order to gain insight into environmental conditions that influence S. aureus biofilm development, we screened a library of small molecules for the ability to inhibit S. aureus biofilm formation. This led to the finding that the polyphenolic compound tannic acid inhibits S. aureus biofilm formation in multiple biofilm models without inhibiting bacterial growth. We present evidence that tannic acid inhibits S. aureus biofilm formation via a mechanism dependent upon the putative transglycosylase IsaA. Tannic acid did not inhibit biofilm formation of an isaA mutant. Overexpression of wild-type IsaA inhibited biofilm formation, whereas overexpression of a catalytically dead IsaA had no effect. Tannin-containing drinks like tea have been found to reduce methicillin-resistant S. aureus nasal colonization. We found that black tea inhibited S. aureus biofilm development and that an isaA mutant resisted this inhibition. Antibiofilm activity was eliminated from tea when milk was added to precipitate the tannic acid. Finally, we developed a rodent model for S. aureus throat colonization and found that tea consumption reduced S. aureus throat colonization via an isaA-dependent mechanism. These findings provide insight into a molecular mechanism by which commonly consumed polyphenolic compounds, such as tannins, influence S. aureus surface colonization. PMID:23208606

  8. In vitro inhibition of OATP-mediated uptake of phalloidin using bile acid derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Herraez, Elisa; Macias, Rocio I.R.; Vazquez-Tato, Jose

    2009-08-15

    Hepatocyte uptake of phalloidin is carried out mainly by OATP1B1. We have used this compound as a prototypic substrate and assayed the ability to inhibit OATP-mediated phalloidin transport of four bile acid derivatives (BALU-1, BALU-2, BALU-3 and BALU-4) that showed positive results in preliminary screening. Using Xenopus laevis oocytes for heterologous expression of transporters, BALUs were found to inhibit taurocholic acid (TCA) transport by OATP1B1 (but not OATP1B3) as well as by rat Oatp1a1, Oatp1a4 and Oatp1b2. The study of their ability to inhibit sodium-dependent bile acid transporters revealed that the four BALUs induced an inhibition of rat Asbt-mediated TCAmore » transport, which was similar to TCA-induced self-inhibition. Regarding human NTCP and rat Ntcp, BALU-1 differs from the other three BALUS in its lack of effect on TCA transport by these proteins. Using HPLC-MS/MS and CHO cells stably expressing OATP1B1 the ability of BALU-1 to inhibit the uptake of phalloidin itself by this transporter was confirmed. Kinetic analysis using X. laevis oocytes revealed that BALU-1-induced inhibition of OATP1B1 was mainly due to a competitive mechanism (Ki = 8 {mu}M). In conclusion, BALU-1 may be useful as a pharmacological tool to inhibit the uptake of compounds mainly taken up by OATP1B1 presumably without impairing bile acid uptake by the major carrier accounting for this process, i.e., NTCP.« less

  9. Salicylic acid signaling inhibits apoplastic reactive oxygen species signaling.

    PubMed

    Xu, Enjun; Brosché, Mikael

    2014-06-04

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are used by plants as signaling molecules during stress and development. Given the amount of possible challenges a plant face from their environment, plants need to activate and prioritize between potentially conflicting defense signaling pathways. Until recently, most studies on signal interactions have focused on phytohormone interaction, such as the antagonistic relationship between salicylic acid (SA)-jasmonic acid and cytokinin-auxin. In this study, we report an antagonistic interaction between SA signaling and apoplastic ROS signaling. Treatment with ozone (O3) leads to a ROS burst in the apoplast and induces extensive changes in gene expression and elevation of defense hormones. However, Arabidopsis thaliana dnd1 (defense no death1) exhibited an attenuated response to O3. In addition, the dnd1 mutant displayed constitutive expression of defense genes and spontaneous cell death. To determine the exact process which blocks the apoplastic ROS signaling, double and triple mutants involved in various signaling pathway were generated in dnd1 background. Simultaneous elimination of SA-dependent and SA-independent signaling components from dnd1 restored its responsiveness to O3. Conversely, pre-treatment of plants with SA or using mutants that constitutively activate SA signaling led to an attenuation of changes in gene expression elicited by O3. Based upon these findings, we conclude that plants are able to prioritize the response between ROS and SA via an antagonistic action of SA and SA signaling on apoplastic ROS signaling.

  10. Salicylic acid signaling inhibits apoplastic reactive oxygen species signaling

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are used by plants as signaling molecules during stress and development. Given the amount of possible challenges a plant face from their environment, plants need to activate and prioritize between potentially conflicting defense signaling pathways. Until recently, most studies on signal interactions have focused on phytohormone interaction, such as the antagonistic relationship between salicylic acid (SA)-jasmonic acid and cytokinin-auxin. Results In this study, we report an antagonistic interaction between SA signaling and apoplastic ROS signaling. Treatment with ozone (O3) leads to a ROS burst in the apoplast and induces extensive changes in gene expression and elevation of defense hormones. However, Arabidopsis thaliana dnd1 (defense no death1) exhibited an attenuated response to O3. In addition, the dnd1 mutant displayed constitutive expression of defense genes and spontaneous cell death. To determine the exact process which blocks the apoplastic ROS signaling, double and triple mutants involved in various signaling pathway were generated in dnd1 background. Simultaneous elimination of SA-dependent and SA-independent signaling components from dnd1 restored its responsiveness to O3. Conversely, pre-treatment of plants with SA or using mutants that constitutively activate SA signaling led to an attenuation of changes in gene expression elicited by O3. Conclusions Based upon these findings, we conclude that plants are able to prioritize the response between ROS and SA via an antagonistic action of SA and SA signaling on apoplastic ROS signaling. PMID:24898702

  11. Synthesis, characterization and corrosion inhibition properties of benzamide-2-chloro-4-nitrobenzoic acid and anthranilic acid-2-chloro-4-nitrobenzoic acid for mild steel corrosion in acidic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Archana; Verma, Chandrabhan; Singh, B.; Ebenso, Eno E.

    2018-03-01

    The present study deals with the synthesis of two new compounds namely, benzamide - 2-chloro-4-nitrobenzoic acid (BENCNBA) and anthranilic acid-2-chloro-4-nitrobenzoic acid (AACNBA) using solid phase reactions. The phase diagram studies revealed that formation of the investigated compounds occurs in 1:1 molar ratio. The synthesized compounds were characterized using several spectral techniques such as FT-IR, 1H and 13C NMR, UV-Vis, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD). Single crystal XRD (SCXRD) study showed that both BENCNBA and AACNBA compounds crystallize in triclinic crystal system with P-1 space group. Further, the presence of intermolecular hydrogen bonding between the constituent components was also supported by single crystal X-ray diffraction (SCXRD) method. Heat of mixing, entropy of fusion, roughness parameter, interfacial energy and excess thermodynamic functions have also been computed using the enthalpy of fusion values derived from differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) study. The inhibition effect of BENCNBA and AACNBA on the mild steel corrosion in hydrochloric acid solution was tested using electrochemical methods. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) study revealed that both BENCNBA and AACNBA behaved as interface corrosion inhibitors and showed maximum inhibition efficiencies of 95.71% and 96.42%, respectively at 400 ppm (1.23 × 10-3 M) concentration. Potentiodynamic polarization (PDP) measurements suggested that BENCNBA and AACNBA acted as mixed type corrosion inhibitors. EIS and PDP results showed that BENCNBA and AACNBA act as efficient corrosion inhibitors for mild steel and their inhibition efficiencies enhances on increasing their concentrations.

  12. Differential inhibition of hepatic and duodenal sulfation of (-)-salbutamol and minoxidil by mefenamic acid.

    PubMed

    Vietri, M; Pietrabissa, A; Spisni, R; Mosca, F; Pacifici, G M

    2000-09-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine whether mefenamic acid and salicylic acid inhibit the sulfation of (-)-salbutamol and minoxidil in the human liver and duodenum, and if so, to ascertain whether the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) estimates are different in the two tissues. Sulfotransferase activities were measured for 10 mM (-)-salbutamol and 5 mM minoxidil, and the concentration of 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulphate-[35S] was 0.4 microM. The IC50 estimates for (-)-salbutamol and minoxidil sulfation of mefenamic acid were 72 +/- 5.4 nM and 1.5 +/- 0.6 microM (liver), respectively, and 161 + 23 microM and 420 +/- 18 microM (duodenum), respectively. The figures for the liver were significantly lower (P < 0.0001) than those for the duodenum. The IC50 estimates for (-)-salbutamol sulfation of salicylic acid were 93 +/- 11 microM (liver) and 705 +/- 19 microM (duodenum, P < 0.0001). Salicylic acid was a poor inhibitor of minoxidil sulfation. The IC50 estimates for (-)-salbutamol sulfation of mefenamic acid and salicylic acid are lower than their unbound plasma concentrations after standard dosing, suggesting that mefenamic acid and salicylic acid should inhibit the hepatic sulfation of (-)-salbutamol in vivo.

  13. Antihypertensive effect of caffeic acid and its analogs through dual renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibition.

    PubMed

    Bhullar, Khushwant S; Lassalle-Claux, Grégoire; Touaibia, Mohamed; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2014-05-05

    Hypertension is a crucial risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and contributes to one third of global mortality. In addition to conventional antihypertensive drugs such as captopril, naturally occurring phytochemicals and their analogs are used for reducing the risk and occurrence of hypertension. Herein, we demonstrate the possible use of caffeic acid and its derivatives in the treatment of hypertension through multi-target modulation of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Caffeic acid along with its nineteen novel derivatives, chlorogenic acid, quercetin and captopril were all investigated for the inhibition of renin and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activities and production of aldosterone. Compound 22 with CH2CH(Ph)2 moiety exhibited the strongest renin inhibition (IC50=229µM) among all compounds tested (P≤0.05). Caffeic acid was the weakest renin inhibitor (IC50=5704µM) among all the compounds assayed. Similar to renin inhibition, compound 22 (IC50=9.1µM) also exhibited about 47 times stronger ACE inhibition compared to the parent compound. Analysis of aldosterone revealed that compound 8 with n-Pr moiety was the strongest modulator of aldosterone production among all the derivatives (P≤0.05). Toxicity analysis using human fibroblasts (WI-38 cells) confirmed the non-toxic manifestations of caffeic acid and its derivatives in comparison to clinically used drug captopril. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Inhibition effects of perfluoroalkyl acids on progesterone production in mLTC-1.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Cui, Ruina; Wang, Jianshe; Dai, Jiayin

    2017-06-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a class of fluorine substituted carboxylic acid, sulfonic acid and alcohol, structurally similar to their corresponding parent compounds. Previous study demonstrated the potential endocrine disruption and reproductive toxicity of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid and perfluorooctanoic acid, two dominant PFASs in animals and humans. We explored the relationship between eleven perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) with different carbon chain length and their ability to inhibit progesterone production in mouse Leydig tumor cells (mLTC-1). We found an obvious dose-response relationship between progesterone inhibition rate and PFAA exposure concentration in mLTC-1. The relative inhibition rate of progesterone by PFAAs was linearly related to the carbon chain length and molar refractivity of PFAAs. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) decreased after PFAA exposure at the half-maximal inhibitory effect concentration (IC 50 ) of progesterone production in mLTC-1, while the reactive oxygen species (ROS) content increased significantly. These results imply that the inhibition effect of PFAAs on progesterone production might be due, in part, to ROS damage and the decrease in MMP in mLTC-1. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Fatty acid synthase inhibition triggers apoptosis during S phase in human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Weibo; Simpson, P Jeanette; McFadden, Jill M; Townsend, Craig A; Medghalchi, Susan M; Vadlamudi, Aravinda; Pinn, Michael L; Ronnett, Gabriele V; Kuhajda, Francis P

    2003-11-01

    C75, an inhibitor of fatty acid synthase (FAS), induces apoptosis in cultured human cancer cells. Its proposed mechanism of action linked high levels of malonyl-CoA after FAS inhibition to potential downstream effects including inhibition of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) with resultant inhibition of fatty acid oxidation. Recent data has shown that C75 directly stimulates CPT-1 increasing fatty acid oxidation in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells despite inhibitory concentrations of malonyl-CoA. In light of these findings, we have studied fatty acid metabolism in MCF7 human breast cancer cells to elucidate the mechanism of action of C75. We now report that: (a) in the setting of increased fatty acid oxidation, C75 inhibits fatty acid synthesis; (b) C273, a reduced form of C75, is unable to inhibit fatty acid synthesis and is nontoxic to MCF7 cells; (c) C75 and 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid (TOFA), an inhibitor of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, both cause a significant reduction of fatty acid incorporation into phosphatidylcholine, the major membrane phospholipid, within 2 h; (d) pulse chase studies with [(14)C]acetate labeling of membrane lipids show that both C75 and TOFA accelerate the decay of (14)C-labeled lipid from membranes within 2 h; (e) C75 also promotes a 2-3-fold increase in oxidation of membrane lipids within 2 h; and (f) because interference with phospholipid synthesis during S phase is known to trigger apoptosis in cycling cells, we performed double-labeled terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated nick end labeling and BrdUrd analysis with both TOFA and C75. C75 triggered apoptosis during S phase, whereas TOFA did not. Moreover, application of TOFA 2 h before C75 blocked the C75 induced apoptosis, whereas etomoxir did not. Taken together these data indicate that FAS inhibition and its downstream inhibition of phospholipid production is a necessary part of the mechanism of action of C75. CPT-1 stimulation does not likely play a role in the

  16. External concentration of organic acid anions and pH: key independent variables for studying how organic acids inhibit growth of bacteria in mildly acidic foods.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, C E; Broadbent, J R

    2009-01-01

    Although the mechanisms by which organic acids inhibit growth of bacteria in mildly acidic foods are not fully understood, it is clear that intracellular accumulation of anions is a primary contributor to inhibition of bacterial growth. We hypothesize that intracellular accumulation of anions is driven by 2 factors, external anion concentration and external acidity. This hypothesis follows from basic chemistry principles that heretofore have not been fully applied to studies in the field, and it has led us to develop a novel approach for predicting internal anion concentration by controlling the external concentration of anions and pH. This approach overcomes critical flaws in contemporary experimental design that invariably target concentration of either protonated acid or total acid in the growth media thereby leaving anion concentration to vary depending on the pK(a) of the acids involved. Failure to control external concentration of anions has undoubtedly confounded results, and it has likely led to misleading conclusions regarding the antimicrobial action of organic acids. In summary, we advocate an approach for directing internal anion levels by controlling external concentration of anions and pH because it presents an additional opportunity to study the mechanisms by which organic acids inhibit bacterial growth. Knowledge gained from such studies would have important application in the control of important foodborne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, and may also facilitate efforts to promote the survival in foods or beverages of desirable probiotic bacteria.

  17. Oleic acid and linoleic acid from Tenebrio molitor larvae inhibit BACE1 activity in vitro: molecular docking studies.

    PubMed

    Youn, Kumju; Yun, Eun-Young; Lee, Jinhyuk; Kim, Ji-Young; Hwang, Jae-Sam; Jeong, Woo-Sik; Jun, Mira

    2014-02-01

    In our ongoing research to find therapeutic compounds for Alzheimer's disease (AD) from natural resources, the inhibitory activity of the BACE1 enzyme by Tenebrio molitor larvae and its major compounds were evaluated. The T. molitor larvae extract and its fractions exhibited strong BACE1 suppression. The major components of hexane fraction possessing both high yield and strong BACE1 inhibition were determined by thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography, and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. A remarkable composition of unsaturated long chain fatty acids, including oleic acid and linoleic acid, were identified. Oleic acid, in particular, noncompetitively attenuated BACE1 activity with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC₅₀) value of 61.31 μM and Ki value of 34.3 μM. Furthermore, the fatty acids were stably interacted with BACE1 at different allosteric sites of the enzyme bound with the OH of CYS319 and the NH₃ of TYR320 for oleic acid and with the C=O group of GLN304 for linoleic acid. Here, we first revealed novel pharmacophore features of oleic acids and linoleic acid to BACE1 by in silico docking studies. The present findings would clearly suggest potential guidelines for designing novel BACE1 selective inhibitors.

  18. Inhibition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupperman, Joel J.

    1978-01-01

    Explores the use of the concept of inhibition in moral philosophy. Argues that there are strong practical reasons for basing moral teaching on simple moral rules and for inculcating inhibitions about breaking these rules. (Author)

  19. Autoxidated linolenic acid inhibits aflatoxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus via oxylipin species.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shijuan; Liang, Yating; Zhang, Jindan; Chen, Zhuang; Liu, Chun-Ming

    2015-08-01

    Aflatoxins produced by Aspergillus species are among the most toxic and carcinogenic compounds in nature. Although it has been known for a long time that seeds with high oil content are more susceptible to aflatoxin contamination, the role of fatty acids in aflatoxin biosynthesis remains controversial. Here we demonstrate in A. flavus that both the saturated stearic acid (C18:0) and the polyunsaturated linolenic acid (C18:3) promoted aflatoxin production, while C18:3, but not C18:0, inhibited aflatoxin biosynthesis after exposure to air for several hours. Further experiments showed that autoxidated C18:3 promoted mycelial growth, sporulation, and kojic acid production, but inhibited the expression of genes in the AF biosynthetic gene cluster. Mass spectrometry analyses of autoxidated C18:3 fractions that were able to inhibit aflatoxin biosynthesis led to the identification of multiple oxylipin species. These results may help to clarify the role of fatty acids in aflatoxin biosynthesis, and may explain why controversial results have been obtained for fatty acids in the past. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mitigation of Humic Acid Inhibition in Anaerobic Digestion of Cellulose by Addition of Various Salts.

    PubMed

    Azman, Samet; Khadem, Ahmad F; Zeeman, Grietje; van Lier, Jules B; Plugge, Caroline M

    2015-03-25

    Humic compounds are inhibitory to the anaerobic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass. In this study, the impact of salt addition to mitigate the inhibitory effects of humic compounds was investigated. The experiment was conducted using batch tests to monitor the anaerobic hydrolysis of cellulose in the presence of humic acid. Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron salts were tested separately for their efficiency to mitigate humic acid inhibition. All experiments were done under mesophilic conditions (30 °C) and at pH 7. Methane production was monitored online, using the Automatic Methane Potential Test System. Methane production, soluble chemical oxygen demand and volatile fatty acid content of the samples were measured to calculate the hydrolysis efficiencies. Addition of magnesium, calcium and iron salts clearly mitigated the inhibitory effects of humic acid and hydrolysis efficiencies reached up to 75%, 65% and 72%, respectively, which were similar to control experiments. Conversely, potassium and sodium salts addition did not mitigate the inhibition and hydrolysis efficiencies were found to be less than 40%. Mitigation of humic acid inhibition via salt addition was also validated by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy analyses, which showed the binding capacity of different cations to humic acid.

  1. Inhibition of free radical-induced erythrocyte hemolysis by 2-O-substituted ascorbic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Takebayashi, Jun; Kaji, Hiroaki; Ichiyama, Kenji; Makino, Kazutaka; Gohda, Eiichi; Yamamoto, Itaru; Tai, Akihiro

    2007-10-15

    Inhibitory effects of 2-O-substituted ascorbic acid derivatives, ascorbic acid 2-glucoside (AA-2G), ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (AA-2P), and ascorbic acid 2-sulfate (AA-2S), on 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced oxidative hemolysis of sheep erythrocytes were studied and were compared with those of ascorbic acid (AA) and other antioxidants. The order of the inhibition efficiency was AA-2S> or =Trolox=uric acid> or =AA-2P> or =AA-2G=AA>glutathione. Although the reactivity of the AA derivatives against AAPH-derived peroxyl radical (ROO(*)) was much lower than that of AA, the derivatives exerted equal or more potent protective effects on AAPH-induced hemolysis and membrane protein oxidation. In addition, the AA derivatives were found to react per se with ROO(*), not via AA as an intermediate. These findings suggest that secondary reactions between the AA derivative radical and ROO(*) play a part in hemolysis inhibition. Delayed addition of the AA derivatives after AAPH-induced oxidation of erythrocytes had already proceeded showed weaker inhibition of hemolysis compared to that of AA. These results suggest that the AA derivatives per se act as biologically effective antioxidants under moderate oxidative stress and that AA-2G and AA-2P may be able to act under severe oxidative stress after enzymatic conversion to AA in vivo.

  2. Mitigation of Humic Acid Inhibition in Anaerobic Digestion of Cellulose by Addition of Various Salts

    PubMed Central

    Azman, Samet; Khadem, Ahmad F.; Zeeman, Grietje; van Lier, Jules B.; Plugge, Caroline M.

    2015-01-01

    Humic compounds are inhibitory to the anaerobic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass. In this study, the impact of salt addition to mitigate the inhibitory effects of humic compounds was investigated. The experiment was conducted using batch tests to monitor the anaerobic hydrolysis of cellulose in the presence of humic acid. Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron salts were tested separately for their efficiency to mitigate humic acid inhibition. All experiments were done under mesophilic conditions (30 °C) and at pH 7. Methane production was monitored online, using the Automatic Methane Potential Test System. Methane production, soluble chemical oxygen demand and volatile fatty acid content of the samples were measured to calculate the hydrolysis efficiencies. Addition of magnesium, calcium and iron salts clearly mitigated the inhibitory effects of humic acid and hydrolysis efficiencies reached up to 75%, 65% and 72%, respectively, which were similar to control experiments. Conversely, potassium and sodium salts addition did not mitigate the inhibition and hydrolysis efficiencies were found to be less than 40%. Mitigation of humic acid inhibition via salt addition was also validated by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy analyses, which showed the binding capacity of different cations to humic acid. PMID:28955013

  3. Calcite crystal growth inhibition by humic substances with emphasis on hydrophobic acids from the Florida Everglades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoch, A.R.; Reddy, M.M.; Aiken, G.R.

    2000-01-01

    The crystallization of calcium carbonate minerals plays an integral role in the water chemistry of terrestrial ecosystems. Humic substances, which are ubiquitous in natural waters, have been shown to reduce or inhibit calcite crystal growth in experiments. The purpose of this study is to quantify and understand the kinetic effects of hydrophobic organic acids isolated from the Florida Everglades and a fulvic acid from Lake Fryxell, Antarctica, on the crystal growth of calcite (CaCO3). Highly reproducible calcite growth experiments were performed in a sealed reactor at constant pH, temperature, supersaturation (?? = 4.5), P(CO2) (10-3.5atm), and ionic strength (0.1 M) with various concentrations of organic acids. Higher plant-derived aquatic hydrophobic acids from the Everglades were more effective growth inhibitors than microbially derived fulvic acid from Lake Fryxell. Organic acid aromaticity correlated strongly with growth inhibition. Molecular weight and heteroatom content correlated well with growth inhibition, whereas carboxyl content and aliphatic nature did not. Copyright (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  4. Remodeling of ACL Allografts is Inhibited by Peracetic Acid Sterilization

    PubMed Central

    Gonnermann, Johannes; Kamp, Julia; Przybilla, Dorothea; Pruss, Axel

    2008-01-01

    Sterilization of allografts for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction has become an important prerequisite to prevent disease transmission. However, current sterilization techniques impair the biological or mechanical properties of such treated grafts. Peracetic acid (PAA) has been successfully used to sterilize bone allografts without these disadvantages and does not impair the mechanical properties of soft tissue grafts in vitro. We asked whether PAA sterilization would influence recellularization, restoration of crimp length and pattern, and revascularization of ACL grafts during early healing. We used an in vivo sheep model for open ACL reconstruction. We also correlated the histologic findings with the restoration of anteroposterior stability and structural properties during load-to-failure testing. PAA slowed remodeling activity at 6 and 12 weeks compared to nonsterilized allografts and autografts. The mechanical properties of PAA grafts were also reduced compared to these control groups at both time points. We conclude PAA sterilization currently should not be used to sterilize soft tissue grafts typically used in ACL reconstruction. PMID:18491201

  5. Boric Acid Inhibition of Trichophyton rubrum Growth and Conidia Formation.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Martin

    2017-12-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is a common human dermatophyte that is the causative agent of 80-93% of fungal infections of the skin and nails. While dermatophyte infections in healthy people are easily treatable with over-the-counter medications, such infections pose a higher risk for patients with compromised immune function and impaired regenerative potential. The efficacy of boric acid (BA) for the treatment of vaginal yeast infections prompted an investigation of the effect of BA on growth and morphology of T. rubrum. This is of particular interest since BA facilitates wound healing, raising the possibility that treating athlete's foot with BA, either alone or in combination with other antifungal drugs, would combine the benefits of antimicrobial activity and tissue regeneration to accelerate healing of infected skin. The data presented here show that BA represses T. rubrum growth at a concentration reported to be beneficial for host tissue regeneration. Oxygen exposure increases BA toxicity, and mycelia growing under BA stress avoid colonizing the surface of the growth surface, which leads to a suppression of aerial mycelium growth and surface conidia formation. BA penetrates into solid agar matrices, but the relative lack of oxygen below the substrate surface limits the effectiveness of BA in suppressing growth of embedded T. rubrum cells.

  6. Histone Deacetylase Inhibition and Dietary Short-Chain Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Licciardi, Paul V.; Ververis, Katherine; Karagiannis, Tom C.

    2011-01-01

    Changes in diet can also have dramatic effects on the composition of gut microbiota. Commensal bacteria of the gastrointestinal tract are critical regulators of health and disease by protecting against pathogen encounter whilst also maintaining immune tolerance to certain allergens. Moreover, consumption of fibre and vegetables typical of a non-Western diet generates substantial quantities of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) which have potent anti-inflammatory properties. Dietary interventions such as probiotic supplementation have been investigated for their pleiotropic effects on microbiota composition and immune function. Probiotics may restore intestinal dysbiosis and improve clinical disease through elevated SCFA levels in the intestine. Although the precise mechanisms by which such dietary factors mediate these effects, SCFA metabolites such as butyrate also function as histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), that can act on the epigenome through chromatin remodeling changes. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of HDAC enzymes and to discuss the biological effects of HDACi. Further, we discuss the important relationship between diet and the balance between health and disease and how novel dietary interventions such as probiotics could be alternative approach for the prevention and/or treatment of chronic inflammatory disease through modulation of the intestinal microbiome. PMID:23724235

  7. Histone deacetylase inhibition and dietary short-chain Fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Licciardi, Paul V; Ververis, Katherine; Karagiannis, Tom C

    2011-01-01

    Changes in diet can also have dramatic effects on the composition of gut microbiota. Commensal bacteria of the gastrointestinal tract are critical regulators of health and disease by protecting against pathogen encounter whilst also maintaining immune tolerance to certain allergens. Moreover, consumption of fibre and vegetables typical of a non-Western diet generates substantial quantities of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) which have potent anti-inflammatory properties. Dietary interventions such as probiotic supplementation have been investigated for their pleiotropic effects on microbiota composition and immune function. Probiotics may restore intestinal dysbiosis and improve clinical disease through elevated SCFA levels in the intestine. Although the precise mechanisms by which such dietary factors mediate these effects, SCFA metabolites such as butyrate also function as histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), that can act on the epigenome through chromatin remodeling changes. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of HDAC enzymes and to discuss the biological effects of HDACi. Further, we discuss the important relationship between diet and the balance between health and disease and how novel dietary interventions such as probiotics could be alternative approach for the prevention and/or treatment of chronic inflammatory disease through modulation of the intestinal microbiome.

  8. All-trans retinoic acid inhibits craniopharyngioma cell growth: study on an explant cell model.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; You, Chao; Zhou, Liangxue; Sima, Xiutian; Liu, Zhiyong; Liu, Hao; Xu, Jianguo

    2013-05-01

    The ratio between FABP5 and CRABPII determines cellular response to physiological level of retinoic acid; tumor cells undergo proliferation with high level of FABP5 and apoptosis with high level of CRABPII. We intended to study FABP5 and CRABPII expression in craniopharyngiomas, to establish craniopharyngioma cell model using explants method, and to study the effect of pharmacological dose of retinoic acid on craniopharyngioma cells. Expression of FABP5 and CRABPII in craniopharyngioma tissue from 20 patients was studied using immunohistochemistry. Primary craniopharyngioma cell cultures were established using tissue explants method. Craniopharyngioma cells were treated using various concentrations of all-trans retinoic acid, and cell growth curve, apoptosis, expression of FABP5, CRABPII and NF-κB were assayed in different groups. FABP5/CRABPII ratio was significantly higher in adamatinomatous group than that in papillary group. Cell cultures were established in 19 cases (95 %). Pharmacological level retinoic acid inhibited cell growth and induced cellular apoptosis in dose dependent manner, and apoptosis rate cells treated with 30 μM retinoic acid for 24 h was 43 %. Also, retinoic acid increased CRABPII, and decreased FABP5 and NF-κB expression in craniopharyngioma cells. High FABP5/CRABPII ratio is observed in adamatinomatous craniopharyngioma. Retinoic acid at pharmacological level induced craniopharyngioma cell apoptosis via increasing FABP5/CRABPII ratio and inhibiting NF-κB signaling pathway. Our study demonstrated that all-trans retinoic acid might be a candidate for craniopharyngioma adjuvant chemotherapy in future.

  9. Usnic Acid, a Natural Antimicrobial Agent Able To Inhibit Bacterial Biofilm Formation on Polymer Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Francolini, I.; Norris, P.; Piozzi, A.; Donelli, G.; Stoodley, P.

    2004-01-01

    In modern medicine, artificial devices are used for repair or replacement of damaged parts of the body, delivery of drugs, and monitoring the status of critically ill patients. However, artificial surfaces are often susceptible to colonization by bacteria and fungi. Once microorganisms have adhered to the surface, they can form biofilms, resulting in highly resistant local or systemic infections. At this time, the evidence suggests that (+)-usnic acid, a secondary lichen metabolite, possesses antimicrobial activity against a number of planktonic gram-positive bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Enterococcus faecium. Since lichens are surface-attached communities that produce antibiotics, including usnic acid, to protect themselves from colonization by other bacteria, we hypothesized that the mode of action of usnic acid may be utilized in the control of medical biofilms. We loaded (+)-usnic acid into modified polyurethane and quantitatively assessed the capacity of (+)-usnic acid to control biofilm formation by either S. aureus or Pseudomonas aeruginosa under laminar flow conditions by using image analysis. (+)-Usnic acid-loaded polymers did not inhibit the initial attachment of S. aureus cells, but killing the attached cells resulted in the inhibition of biofilm. Interestingly, although P. aeruginosa biofilms did form on the surface of (+)-usnic acid-loaded polymer, the morphology of the biofilm was altered, possibly indicating that (+)-usnic acid interfered with signaling pathways. PMID:15504865

  10. The Molecular Basis for Dual Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH)/Cyclooxygenase (COX) Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Palermo, Giulia; Favia, Angelo D; Convertino, Marino; De Vivo, Marco

    2016-06-20

    The design of multitarget-directed ligands is a promising strategy for discovering innovative drugs. Here, we report a mechanistic study that clarifies key aspects of the dual inhibition of the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and the cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes by a new multitarget-directed ligand named ARN2508 (2-[3-fluoro-4-[3-(hexylcarbamoyloxy)phenyl]phenyl]propanoic acid). This potent dual inhibitor combines, in a single scaffold, the pharmacophoric elements often needed to block FAAH and COX, that is, a carbamate moiety and the 2-arylpropionic acid functionality, respectively. Molecular modeling and molecular dynamics simulations suggest that ARN2508 uses a noncovalent mechanism of inhibition to block COXs, while inhibiting FAAH via the acetylation of the catalytic Ser241, in line with previous experimental evidence for covalent FAAH inhibition. This study proposes the molecular basis for the dual FAAH/COX inhibition by this novel hybrid scaffold, stimulating further experimental studies and offering new insights for the rational design of novel anti-inflammatory agents that simultaneously act on FAAH and COX. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  11. Inhibition of Isolated Mycobacterium tuberculosis Fatty Acid Synthase I by Pyrazinamide Analogs▿

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Silvana C.; Zimhony, Oren; Chung, Woo Jin; Sayahi, Halimah; Jacobs, William R.; Welch, John T.

    2007-01-01

    An analog of pyrazinamide (PZA), 5-chloropyrazinamide (5-Cl-PZA), has previously been shown to inhibit mycobacterial fatty acid synthase I (FASI). FASI has been purified from a recombinant strain of M. smegmatis (M. smegmatis Δfas1 attB::M. tuberculosis fas1). Following purification, FASI activity and inhibition were assessed spectrophotometrically by monitoring NADPH oxidation. The observed inhibition was both concentration and structure dependent, being affected by both substitution at the 5 position of the pyrazine nucleus and the nature of the ester or N-alkyl group. Under the conditions studied, both 5-Cl-PZA and PZA exhibited concentration and substrate dependence consistent with competitive inhibition of FASI with Kis of 55 to 59 μM and 2,567 to 2,627 μM, respectively. The results were validated utilizing a radiolabeled fatty acid synthesis assay. This assay showed that FASI was inhibited by PZA and pyrazinoic acid as well as by a series of PZA analogs. PMID:17485499

  12. Picrotoxin antagonism of γ aminobutyric acid inhibitory responses and synaptic inhibition in the rat substantia nigra

    PubMed Central

    Crossman, A. R.; Walker, R. J.; Woodruff, G. N.

    1973-01-01

    Neurones in the substantia nigra of the rat, anaesthetized with urethane, are inhibited both by electrical stimulation of the ipsilateral caudate nucleus and by iontophoretically applied γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Iontophoretically applied picrotoxin reversibly blocks both of these inhibitory responses. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that GABA is the transmitter released by the inhibitory striato-nigral pathway. PMID:4362811

  13. Inhibition of class IIa histone deacetylase activity by gallic acid, sulforaphane, TMP269, and panobinostat.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sin Young; Kee, Hae Jin; Jin, Li; Ryu, Yuhee; Sun, Simei; Kim, Gwi Ran; Jeong, Myung Ho

    2018-05-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are gaining increasing attention as potential therapeutics for cardiovascular diseases as well as cancer. We recently reported that the class II HDAC inhibitor, MC1568, and the phytochemical, gallic acid, lowered high blood pressure in mouse models of hypertension. We hypothesized that class II HDACs may be involved in the regulation of hypertension. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the effects of well-known HDAC inhibitors (TMP269, panobinostat, and MC1568), phytochemicals (gallic acid, sulforaphane, and piceatannol), and anti-hypertensive drugs (losartan, carvedilol, and furosemide) on activities of class IIa HDACs (HDAC4, 5, 7, and 9). The selective class IIa HDAC inhibitor, TMP269, and the pan-HDAC inhibitor, panobinostat, but not MC1568, clearly inhibited class IIa HDAC activities. Among the three phytochemicals, gallic acid showed remarkable inhibition, whereas sulforaphane presented mild inhibition of class IIa HDACs. Piceatannol inhibited only HDAC7 activity. As expected, the anti-hypertensive drugs losartan, carvedilol, and furosemide did not affect the activity of any class IIa HDAC. In addition, we evaluated the inhibitory effect of several compounds on the activity of class l HDACs (HDAC1, 2, 3, and 8) and class IIb HDAC (HDAC6). MC1568 did not affect the activities of HDAC1, HDAC2, and HDAC3, but it reduced the activity of HDAC8 at concentrations of 1 and 10 μM. Gallic acid weakly inhibited HDAC1 and HDAC6 activities, but strongly inhibited HDAC8 activity with effectiveness comparable to that of trichostatin A. Inhibition of HDAC2 activity by sulforaphane was stronger than that by piceatnnaol. These results indicated that gallic acid is a powerful dietary inhibitor of HDAC8 and class IIa/b HDAC activities. Sulforaphane may also be used as a dietary inhibitor of HDAC2 and class IIa HDAC. Our findings suggest that the class II HDAC inhibitor, MC1568, does not inhibit class IIa HDAC, but inhibits

  14. Differential Gene Expression for Investigation of Escherichia coli Biofilm Inhibition by Plant Extract Ursolic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Dacheng; Zuo, Rongjun; González Barrios, Andrés F.; Bedzyk, Laura A.; Eldridge, Gary R.; Pasmore, Mark E.; Wood, Thomas K.

    2005-01-01

    After 13,000 samples of compounds purified from plants were screened, a new biofilm inhibitor, ursolic acid, has been discovered and identified. Using both 96-well microtiter plates and a continuous flow chamber with COMSTAT analysis, 10 μg of ursolic acid/ml inhibited Escherichia coli biofilm formation 6- to 20-fold when added upon inoculation and when added to a 24-h biofilm; however, ursolic acid was not toxic to E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio harveyi, and hepatocytes. Similarly, 10 μg of ursolic acid/ml inhibited biofilm formation by >87% for P. aeruginosa in both complex and minimal medium and by 57% for V. harveyi in minimal medium. To investigate the mechanism of this nontoxic inhibition on a global genetic basis, DNA microarrays were used to study the gene expression profiles of E. coli K-12 grown with or without ursolic acid. Ursolic acid at 10 and 30 μg/ml induced significantly (P < 0.05) 32 and 61 genes, respectively, and 19 genes were consistently induced. The consistently induced genes have functions for chemotaxis and mobility (cheA, tap, tar, and motAB), heat shock response (hslSTV and mopAB), and unknown functions (such as b1566 and yrfHI). There were 31 and 17 genes repressed by 10 and 30 μg of ursolic acid/ml, respectively, and 12 genes were consistently repressed that have functions in cysteine synthesis (cysK) and sulfur metabolism (cysD), as well as unknown functions (such as hdeAB and yhaDFG). Ursolic acid inhibited biofilms without interfering with quorum sensing, as shown with the V. harveyi AI-1 and AI-2 reporter systems. As predicted by the differential gene expression, deleting motAB counteracts ursolic acid inhibition (the paralyzed cells no longer become too motile). Based on the differential gene expression, it was also discovered that sulfur metabolism (through cysB) affects biofilm formation (in the absence of ursolic acid). PMID:16000817

  15. Inhibition of ileal bile acid transporter: An emerging therapeutic strategy for chronic idiopathic constipation.

    PubMed

    Mosińska, Paula; Fichna, Jakub; Storr, Martin

    2015-06-28

    Chronic idiopathic constipation is a common disorder of the gastrointestinal tract that encompasses a wide profile of symptoms. Current treatment options for chronic idiopathic constipation are of limited value; therefore, a novel strategy is necessary with an increased effectiveness and safety. Recently, the inhibition of the ileal bile acid transporter has become a promising target for constipation-associated diseases. Enhanced delivery of bile acids into the colon achieves an accelerated colonic transit, increased stool frequency, and relief of constipation-related symptoms. This article provides insight into the mechanism of action of ileal bile acid transporter inhibitors and discusses their potential clinical use for pharmacotherapy of constipation in chronic idiopathic constipation.

  16. Zoledronic acid inhibits pulmonary metastasis dissemination in a preclinical model of Ewing’s sarcoma via inhibition of cell migration

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ewing’s sarcoma (ES) is the second most frequent primitive malignant bone tumor in adolescents with a very poor prognosis for high risk patients, mainly when lung metastases are detected (overall survival <15% at 5 years). Zoledronic acid (ZA) is a potent inhibitor of bone resorption which induces osteoclast apoptosis. Our previous studies showed a strong therapeutic potential of ZA as it inhibits ES cell growth in vitro and ES primary tumor growth in vivo in a mouse model developed in bone site. However, no data are available on lung metastasis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of ZA on ES cell invasion and metastatic properties. Methods Invasion assays were performed in vitro in Boyden’s chambers covered with Matrigel. Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP) activity was analyzed by zymography in ES cell culture supernatant. In vivo, a relevant model of spontaneous lung metastases which disseminate from primary ES tumor was induced by the orthotopic injection of 106 human ES cells in the tibia medullar cavity of nude mice. The effect of ZA (50 μg/kg, 3x/week) was studied over a 4-week period. Lung metastases were observed macroscopically at autopsy and analysed by histology. Results ZA induced a strong inhibition of ES cell invasion, probably due to down regulation of MMP-2 and −9 activities as analyzed by zymography. In vivo, ZA inhibits the dissemination of spontaneous lung metastases from a primary ES tumor but had no effect on the growth of established lung metastases. Conclusion These results suggest that ZA could be used early in the treatment of ES to inhibit bone tumor growth but also to prevent the early metastatic events to the lungs. PMID:24612486

  17. Inhibition effects of chlorogenic acid on benign prostatic hyperplasia in mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ya; Chen, Huaguo; Zhou, Xin; Wu, Xingdong; Hu, Enming; Jiang, Zhengmeng

    2017-08-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effects and explore mechanisms of chlorogenic acid against testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in mice. Benign prostatic hyperplasia model was induced in experimental groups by daily subcutaneous injections of testosterone propionate (7.5mg/kg/d) consecutively for 14 d. A total of 60 mice were randomly divided into six groups: (Group 1) normal control group, (Group 2) benign prostatic hyperplasia model control group, (Group 3) benign prostatic hyperplasia mice treated with finasteride at a dose of 1mg/kg, (Group 4) benign prostatic hyperplasia mice treated with chlorogenic acid at dose levels of 0.8mg/kg (low dose group), (Group 5) benign prostatic hyperplasia mice treated with chlorogenic acid at dose levels of 1.6mg/kg (medium dose group) and (Group 6) benign prostatic hyperplasia mice treated with chlorogenic acid at dose levels of 3.2mg/kg (high dose group). Animals were sacrificed on the scheduled termination, pick out the eyeball to get blood, then prostates were weighed and prostatic index were determined. Then the serum acid phosphatase (ACP), prostatic acid phosphatase (PACP) and typeⅡ5-alpha-reductase (SRD5A2) levels were measured and observed morphological changes of the prostate. Comparing with benign prostatic hyperplasia model group, the high and medium dose of chlorogenic acid could significantly reduce prostate index and levels of acid phosphatase, prostatic acid phosphatase and typeⅡ5-alpha-reductase (P<0.05 or P<0.01). These findings were supported by histopathological observations of prostate tissues. Histopathological examination also indicated that chlorogenic acid treatment at the high and medium doses inhibited testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia. The results indicated that chlorogenic acid exhibited restraining effect on benign prostatic hyperplasia model animals, and its mechanism might be related to inhibit typeⅡ5-alpha reductase activity. Copyright © 2017

  18. Ascorbic acid and reactive oxygen species are involved in the inhibition of seed germination by abscisic acid in rice seeds

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Nenghui; Zhu, Guohui; Liu, Yinggao; Liu, Rui; Shi, Lu; Jia, Liguo; Zhang, Jianhua

    2012-01-01

    The antagonism between abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA) plays a key role in controlling seed germination, but the mechanism of antagonism during this process is not known. The possible links among ABA, reactive oxygen species (ROS), ascorbic acid (ASC), and GA during rice seed germination were investigated. Unlike in non-seed tissues where ROS production is increased by ABA, ABA reduced ROS production in imbibed rice seeds, especially in the embryo region. Such reduced ROS also led to an inhibition of ASC production. GA accumulation was also suppressed by a reduced ROS and ASC level, which was indicated by the inhibited expression of GA biosynthesis genes, amylase genes, and enzyme activity. Application of exogenous ASC can partially rescue seed germination from ABA treatment. Production of ASC, which acts as a substrate in GA biosynthesis, was significantly inhibited by lycorine which thus suppressed the accumulation of GA. Consequently, expression of GA biosynthesis genes was suppressed by the low levels of ROS and ASC in ABA-treated seeds. It can be concluded that ABA regulates seed germination in multiple dimensions. ROS and ASC are involved in its inhibition of GA biosynthesis. PMID:22200664

  19. Different inhibition mechanisms of gentisic acid and cyaniding-3-O-glucoside on polyphenoloxidase.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lei; Xiong, Zhiqiang; Liu, Wei; Zou, Liqiang

    2017-11-01

    Gentisic acid and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside are important bioactive polyphenols which are widely distributed in many fruits and cereals. In this work, kinetic study, spectral analysis and computational simulation were used to compare the inhibitory effects and inhibition mechanisms of gentisic acid and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside on mushroom polyphenoloxidase (PPO). The inhibitory effect of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside on PPO was much stronger than that of gentisic acid. Gentisic acid inhibited PPO in a reversible mixed-type manner while cyanidin-3-O-glucoside was an irreversible inhibitor. Gentisic acid and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside made the thermal inactivation of PPO easier, and induced apparent conformational changes of PPO. Compared with gentisic acid, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside had stronger effects on the thermal inactivation and conformation of PPO. Molecular docking results revealed gentisic acid bound to the active site of PPO by hydrogen bonding, π-π stacking and van der Waals forces. However, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside might irreversibly interact with the Met or Cys in PPO by covalent bonds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Carnosic acid and fisetin combination therapy enhances inhibition of lung cancer through apoptosis induction.

    PubMed

    Shi, Bin; Wang, Li-Fang; Meng, Wen-Shu; Chen, Liang; Meng, Zi-Li

    2017-06-01

    Carnosic acid is a phenolic diterpene with anti-inflammation, anticancer, anti-bacterial, anti-diabetic, as well as neuroprotective properties, which is generated by many species from Lamiaceae family. Fisetin (3,3',4',7-tetrahydroxyflavone), a naturally flavonoid is abundantly produced in different vegetables and fruits. Fisetin has been reported to have various positive biological effects, including anti-proliferative, anticancer, anti-oxidative and neuroprotective effects. Lung cancer is reported as the most common neoplasm in human world-wide. In the present study, the possible benefits of carnosic acid combined with fisetin on lung cancer in vitro and in vivo was explored. Carnosic acid and fisetin combination led to apoptosis in lung cancer cells. Caspase-3 signaling pathway was promoted in carnosic acid and fisetin co-treatment, which was accompanied by anti-apoptotic proteins of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl decreasing and pro-apoptotic signals of Bax and Bad increasing. The death receptor (DR) of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) was enhanced in carnosic acid and fisetin combined treatment. Furthermore, the mouse xenograft model in vivo suggested that carnosic acid and fisetin combined treatment inhibited lung cancer growth in comparison to the carnosic acid or fisetin monotherapy. This study supplies a novel therapy to induce apoptosis to inhibit lung cancer through caspase-3 activation.

  1. Comparison of inhibition effects of some benzoic acid derivatives on sheep heart carbonic anhydrase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiliç, Deryanur; Yildiz, Melike; Şentürk, Murat; Erdoǧan, Orhan; Küfrevioǧlu, Ömer Irfan

    2016-04-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is a family of metalloenzymes that requires Zn as a cofactor and catalyze the quick conversion of CO2 to HCO3- and H+. Inhibitors of the carbonic anhydrases (CAs) have medical usage of significant diseases such as glaucoma, epilepsy, gastroduodenal ulcers, acid-base disequilibria and neurological disorders. In the present study, inhibition of CA with some benzoic derivatives (1-6) were investigated. Sheep heart CA (shCA) enzyme was isolated by means of designed affinity chromatography gel (cellulose-benzyl-sulfanylamide) 42.45-fold in a yield of 44 % with 564.65 EU/mg. Purified shCA enzyme was used in vitro studies. In the studies, IC50 values were calculated for 3-aminobenzoic acid (1), 4-aminobenzoic acid (2), 2-hydroxybenzoic acid (3), 2-benzoylbenzoic acid (4), 2,3-dimethoxybenzoic acid (5), and 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid (6), showing the inhibition effects on the purified enzyme. Such molecules can be used as pioneer for discovery of novel effective CA inhibitors for medicinal chemistry applications.

  2. Neuraminidase inhibition of Dietary chlorogenic acids and derivatives - potential antivirals from dietary sources.

    PubMed

    Gamaleldin Elsadig Karar, Mohamed; Matei, Marius-Febi; Jaiswal, Rakesh; Illenberger, Susanne; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2016-04-01

    Plants rich in chlorogenic acids (CGAs), caffeic acids and their derivatives have been found to exert antiviral effects against influenza virus neuroaminidase. In this study several dietary naturally occurring chlorogenic acids, phenolic acids and derivatives were screened for their inhibitory activity against neuroaminidases (NAs) from C. perfringens, H5N1 and recombinant H5N1 (N-His)-Tag using a fluorometric assay. There was no significant difference in inhibition between the different NA enzymes. The enzyme inhibition results indicated that chlorogenic acids and selected derivatives, exhibited high activities against NAs. It seems that the catechol group from caffeic acid was important for the activity. Dietary CGA therefore show promise as potential antiviral agents. However, caffeoyl quinic acids show low bioavailibility and are intensly metabolized by the gut micro flora, only low nM concentrations are observed in plasma and urine, therefore a systemic antiviral effect of these compounds is unlikely. Nevertheless, gut floral metabolites with a catechol moiety or structurally related dietary phenolics with a catechol moiety might serve as interesting compounds for future investigations.

  3. Fatty acid oxidation promotes reprogramming by enhancing oxidative phosphorylation and inhibiting protein kinase C.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhaoyu; Liu, Fei; Shi, Peiliang; Song, Anying; Huang, Zan; Zou, Dayuan; Chen, Qin; Li, Jianxin; Gao, Xiang

    2018-02-26

    Changes in metabolic pathway preferences are key events in the reprogramming process of somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). The optimization of metabolic conditions can enhance reprogramming; however, the detailed underlying mechanisms are largely unclear. By comparing the gene expression profiles of somatic cells, intermediate-phase cells, and iPSCs, we found that carnitine palmitoyltransferase (Cpt)1b, a rate-limiting enzyme in fatty acid oxidation, was significantly upregulated in the early stage of the reprogramming process. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts isolated from transgenic mice carrying doxycycline (Dox)-inducible Yamanaka factor constructs were used for reprogramming. Various fatty acid oxidation-related metabolites were added during the reprogramming process. Colony counting and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) were used to calculate reprogramming efficiency. Fatty acid oxidation-related metabolites were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Seahorse was used to measure the level of oxidative phosphorylation. We found that overexpression of cpt1b enhanced reprogramming efficiency. Furthermore, palmitoylcarnitine or acetyl-CoA, the primary and final products of Cpt1-mediated fatty acid oxidation, also promoted reprogramming. In the early reprogramming process, fatty acid oxidation upregulated oxidative phosphorylation and downregulated protein kinase C activity. Inhibition of protein kinase C also promoted reprogramming. We demonstrated that fatty acid oxidation promotes reprogramming by enhancing oxidative phosphorylation and inhibiting protein kinase C activity in the early stage of the reprogramming process. This study reveals that fatty acid oxidation is crucial for the reprogramming efficiency.

  4. Time dependent inhibition of xanthine oxidase in irradiated solutions of folic acid, aminopterin and methotrexate

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, K.; Pilot, T.F.; Meany, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    The xanthine oxidase catalyzed oxidation of hypoxanthine was followed by monitoring the formation of uric acid at 290 nm. Inhibition of xanthine oxidase occurs in aqueous solutions of folic acid methotrexate and aminopterin. These compounds are known to dissociate upon exposure to ultraviolet light resulting in the formation of their respective 6-formylpteridine derivatives. The relative rates of dissociation were monitored spectrophotometrically by determining the absorbance of their 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine derivatives at 500 nm. When aqueous solutions of folic acid, aminopterin and methotrexate were exposed to uv light, a direct correlation was observed between the concentrations of the 6-formylpteridine derivatives existing inmore » solution and the ability of these solutions to inhibit xanthine oxidase. The relative potency of the respective photolysis products were estimated.« less

  5. Catalytic and inhibiting effect of amino acids on the porphyrin metallation reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamardashvili, Galina M.; Zhdanova, Daria Yu.; Mamardashvili, Nugzar Zh.; Koifman, Oskar I.; Dehaen, Wim

    In the present work, using the interaction of tetra-(4-sulfophenyl)porphyrin with copper(II) chloride as an example, it has been shown how different amino acid additives (glycine, valine, leucine and tryptophan) catalyze or inhibit the formation of Cu-porphyrin as a function of the chemical environment (borate buffer (pH7.4), DMSO) and the concentration of the additive. It has been demonstrated that the type of amino acid affects the complexation reaction rate. Possible mechanisms of metalloporphyrin formation and the ways of their acceleration are discussed. Ways in which different amino acid additives catalyze or inhibit the interaction of tetra-(4-sulfophenyl)porphyrin with copper(II) chloride are examined.

  6. Synaptic inhibition and γ-aminobutyric acid in the mammalian central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    OBATA, Kunihiko

    2013-01-01

    Signal transmission through synapses connecting two neurons is mediated by release of neurotransmitter from the presynaptic axon terminals and activation of its receptor at the postsynaptic neurons. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), non-protein amino acid formed by decarboxylation of glutamic acid, is a principal neurotransmitter at inhibitory synapses of vertebrate and invertebrate nervous system. On one hand glutamic acid serves as a principal excitatory neurotransmitter. This article reviews GABA researches on; (1) synaptic inhibition by membrane hyperpolarization, (2) exclusive localization in inhibitory neurons, (3) release from inhibitory neurons, (4) excitatory action at developmental stage, (5) phenotype of GABA-deficient mouse produced by gene-targeting, (6) developmental adjustment of neural network and (7) neurological/psychiatric disorder. In the end, GABA functions in simple nervous system and plants, and non-amino acid neurotransmitters were supplemented. PMID:23574805

  7. Tannic Acid Inhibits Hepatitis C Virus Entry into Huh7.5 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hagedorn, Curt H.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a cause of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide. Although antiviral therapy has dramatically improved recently, a number of patients remain untreated and some do not clear infection with treatment. Viral entry is an essential step in initiating and maintaining chronic HCV infections. One dramatic example of this is the nearly 100% infection of newly transplanted livers in patients with chronic hepatitis C. HCV entry inhibitors could play a critical role in preventing HCV infection of newly transplanted livers. Tannic acid, a polymer of gallic acid and glucose molecules, is a plant-derived polyphenol that defends some plants from insects and microbial infections. It has been shown to have a variety of biological effects, including antiviral activity, and is used as a flavoring agent in foods and beverages. In this study, we demonstrate that tannic acid is a potent inhibitor of HCV entry into Huh7.5 cells at low concentrations (IC50 5.8 μM). It also blocks cell-to-cell spread in infectious HCV cell cultures, but does not inhibit HCV replication following infection. Moreover, experimental results indicate that tannic acid inhibits an early step of viral entry, such as the docking of HCV at the cell surface. Gallic acid, tannic acid’s structural component, did not show any anti-HCV activity including inhibition of HCV entry or replication at concentrations up to 25 μM. It is possible the tannin structure is related on the effect on HCV inhibition. Tannic acid, which is widely distributed in plants and foods, has HCV antiviral activity in cell culture at low micromolar concentrations, may provide a relative inexpensive adjuvant to direct-acting HCV antivirals and warrants future investigation. PMID:26186636

  8. Activation of Exogenous Fatty Acids to Acyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Cannot Bypass FabI Inhibition in Neisseria*

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jiangwei; Bruhn, David F.; Frank, Matthew W.; Lee, Richard E.; Rock, Charles O.

    2016-01-01

    Neisseria is a Gram-negative pathogen with phospholipids composed of straight chain saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, the ability to incorporate exogenous fatty acids, and lipopolysaccharides that are not essential. The FabI inhibitor, AFN-1252, was deployed as a chemical biology tool to determine whether Neisseria can bypass the inhibition of fatty acid synthesis by incorporating exogenous fatty acids. Neisseria encodes a functional FabI that was potently inhibited by AFN-1252. AFN-1252 caused a dose-dependent inhibition of fatty acid synthesis in growing Neisseria, a delayed inhibition of growth phenotype, and minimal inhibition of DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis, showing that its mode of action is through inhibiting fatty acid synthesis. Isotopic fatty acid labeling experiments showed that Neisseria encodes the ability to incorporate exogenous fatty acids into its phospholipids by an acyl-acyl carrier protein-dependent pathway. However, AFN-1252 remained an effective antibacterial when Neisseria were supplemented with exogenous fatty acids. These results demonstrate that extracellular fatty acids are activated by an acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase (AasN) and validate type II fatty acid synthesis (FabI) as a therapeutic target against Neisseria. PMID:26567338

  9. Hydroxy-oleic acid, but not oleic acid, inhibits pharmacologic vascular responsiveness in isolated aortic tissue

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oleic acid (OA) and other fatty acids can become abundant in the systemic circulation after air pollution exposure as endogenously released lipolysis byproducts or by entering the body as a component of air pollution. Vascular damage has been observed with OA infusion, but it is ...

  10. Hydroxy-oleic acid, but not oleic acid, inhibits vascular responsiveness in isolated aortic tissue

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oleic acid (OA) and other fatty acids can become abundant in circulation after air pollution exposure as endogenously released lipolysis byproducts or by entering the body as a component of air pollution. Vascular damage has been observed with OA infusion, but it is not yet estab...

  11. Use of jasmonic acid and salicylic acid to inhibit growth of sugarbeet storage rot pathogens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) are endogenous plant hormones that induce native plant defense responses and provide protection against a wide range of diseases. Previously, JA, applied after harvest, was shown to protect sugarbeet roots against the storage pathogens, Botrytis cinerea, P...

  12. Propylisopropylacetic acid (PIA), a constitutional isomer of valproic acid, uncompetitively inhibits arachidonic acid acylation by rat acyl-CoA synthetase 4: a potential drug for bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Modi, Hiren R.; Basselin, Mireille; Taha, Ameer Y.; Li, Lei O.; Coleman, Rosalind A.; Bialer, Meir; Rapoport, Stanley I.

    2013-01-01

    Background Mood stabilizers used for treating bipolar disorder (BD) selectively downregulate arachidonic acid (AA) turnover (deacylation-reacylation) in brain phospholipids, when given chronically to rats. In vitro studies suggest that one of these, valproic acid (VPA), which is teratogenic, reduces AA turnover by inhibiting the brain acyl-CoA synthetase (Acsl)-4 mediated acylation of AA to AA-CoA. We tested whether non-teratogenic VPA analogues might also inhibit Acsl-4 catalyzed acylation, and thus have potential anti-BD action. Methods Rat Acsl4-flag protein was expressed in E. coli, and the ability of three VPA analogues, propylisopropylacetic acid (PIA), propylisopropylacetamide (PID) and N-methyl-2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropanecarboxamide (MTMCD), and of sodium butyrate, to inhibit conversion of AA to AA-CoA by Acsl4 was quantified using Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Results Acsl4-mediated conversion of AA to AA-CoA in vitro was inhibited uncompetitively by PIA, with a Ki of 11.4 mM compared to a published Ki of 25 mM for VPA, while PID, MTMCD and sodium butyrate had no inhibitory effect. Conclusions PIA's ability to inhibit conversion of AA to AA-CoA by Acsl4 in vitro suggests that, like VPA, PIA may reduce AA turnover in brain phospholipids in unanesthetized rats, and if so, may be effective as a non-teratogenic mood stabilizer in BD patients. PMID:23354024

  13. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Inhibition Increases Reduction Potential in Neuronal Cells under Hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Brose, Stephen A; Golovko, Svetlana A; Golovko, Mikhail Y

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we have reported a novel neuronal specific pathway for adaptation to hypoxia through increased fatty acid (FA) biosynthesis followed by esterification into lipids. However, the biological role of this pathway under hypoxia remains to be elucidated. In the presented study, we have tested our hypothesis that activation of FA synthesis maintains reduction potential and reduces lactoacidosis in neuronal cells under hypoxia. To address this hypothesis, we measured the effect of FA synthesis inhibition on [Formula: see text]/NAD + and [Formula: see text]/NADP + ratios, and lactic acid levels in neuronal SH-SY5Y cells exposed to normoxic and hypoxic conditions. FA synthesis inhibitors, TOFA (inhibits Acetyl-CoA carboxylase) and cerulenin (inhibits FA synthase), increased [Formula: see text]/NAD + and [Formula: see text]/NADP + ratios under hypoxia. Further, FA synthesis inhibition increased lactic acid under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions, and caused cytotoxicity under hypoxia but not normoxia. These results indicate that FA may serve as hydrogen acceptors under hypoxia, thus supporting oxidation reactions including anaerobic glycolysis. These findings may help to identify a radically different approach to attenuate hypoxia related pathophysiology in the nervous system including stroke.

  14. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Inhibition Increases Reduction Potential in Neuronal Cells under Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Brose, Stephen A.; Golovko, Svetlana A.; Golovko, Mikhail Y.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we have reported a novel neuronal specific pathway for adaptation to hypoxia through increased fatty acid (FA) biosynthesis followed by esterification into lipids. However, the biological role of this pathway under hypoxia remains to be elucidated. In the presented study, we have tested our hypothesis that activation of FA synthesis maintains reduction potential and reduces lactoacidosis in neuronal cells under hypoxia. To address this hypothesis, we measured the effect of FA synthesis inhibition on NADH2+/NAD+ and NADPH2+/NADP+ ratios, and lactic acid levels in neuronal SH-SY5Y cells exposed to normoxic and hypoxic conditions. FA synthesis inhibitors, TOFA (inhibits Acetyl-CoA carboxylase) and cerulenin (inhibits FA synthase), increased NADH2+/NAD+ and NADPH2+/NADP+ ratios under hypoxia. Further, FA synthesis inhibition increased lactic acid under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions, and caused cytotoxicity under hypoxia but not normoxia. These results indicate that FA may serve as hydrogen acceptors under hypoxia, thus supporting oxidation reactions including anaerobic glycolysis. These findings may help to identify a radically different approach to attenuate hypoxia related pathophysiology in the nervous system including stroke. PMID:27965531

  15. Drug-nutrient interactions: inhibition of amino acid intestinal absorption by fluoxetine.

    PubMed

    Urdaneta, E; Idoate, I; Larralde, J

    1998-05-01

    Fluoxetine is one of the most widely used antidepressants and nowadays it is also being used to manage obesity problems. In our laboratory we demonstrated that the drug inhibited sugar absorption (Monteiro et al. 1993). The aim of the present work was to determine the effect of fluoxetine on intestinal leucine absorption. Using a procedure of successive absorptions in vivo the drug diminished amino acid absorption by 30% (P < 0.001). Experiments in vitro in isolated jejunum also revealed a reduction in leucine uptake of 37% (P < 0.001). In both cases fluoxetine only affected mediated transport without altering diffusion. In a preparation enriched in basolateral membrane, fluoxetine inhibited the Na+,K(+)-ATPase (EC 3.6.1.37) activity (55%; P < 0.001) in a non-competitive manner with an inhibition constant (Ki) value of 0.92 mM. Leucine uptake by brush-border membrane vesicles was diminished by the drug (a reduction of 48% was observed at 30s, P < 0.001); only the apical Na(+)-dependent transport system of the amino acid was modified and the inhibition was non-competitive. Leucine uptake in the presence of lysine indicated that transporter B was involved. These results suggest that fluoxetine reduces leucine absorption by its action on the basolateral and apical membrane of the enterocyte; the nutritional status of the patients under drug treatment may be affected as neutral amino acid absorption is decreased.

  16. Amelioration of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis by chlorogenic acid through endoplasmic reticulum stress inhibition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Chun; Dong, Jing; Nie, Jing; Zhu, Ji-Xiang; Wang, Hui; Chen, Qiong; Chen, Jun-Yi; Xia, Jia-Mei; Shuai, Wei

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the inhibitory effects of chlorogenic acid on pulmonary fibrosis and the internal mechanisms in vivo and in vitro. 30 male BALB/C mice were randomized into 5 groups: control group, pulmonary fibrosis model group, low, middle and high dose of chlorogenic acid groups. Mice in pulmonary fibrosis model group were administered 5.0 mg/kg bleomycin with intracheal instillation and mice in 3 chlorogenic acid groups were treated with chlorogenic acid every day for 28 days after bleomycin administration. Lung tissue histology was observed using HE staining. Primary pulmonary fibroblasts were isolated and cultured. The expressions of fibrosis related factors (α-SMA and collagen I), as well as ER stress markers (CHOP and GRP78) were determined by both real-time PCR assay and Western blotting, while the expressions of other ER stress signaling pathway factors PERK, IRE-1, ATF-6 and protein levels of caspase-12, caspase-9, caspase-3, PARP were determined by Western blotting. RLE-6TN cell line induced by TGF-β1 was also used to verify the amelioration effects in vitro study. In both in vivo and in vitro studies, TUNEL staining was used to evaluate cell apoptosis. Expressions of collagen I, α-SMA, GRP78, and CHOP were significantly inhibited by chlorogenic acid in dose-dependent manner. Similarly, decreasing levels of cleaved caspase-12, caspase-9, caspase-3 and increasing level of uncleaved PARP were observed in chlorogenic acid groups compared with those in the fibrosis group both in vivo and in vitro. Chlorogenic acid could also significantly down-regulate the level of phosphorylation of PERK and cleaved ATF-6 in vivo study. Moreover, MTT assay demonstrated chlorogenic acid could enhance proliferation of RLE-6TN cells induced by TGFβ1 in vitro. And the apoptosis assays indicated that chlorogenic acid could significantly inhibit cell apoptosis both in vivo and in vitro studies. Chlorogenic acid could inhibit the pulmonary fibrosis through endoplasmic

  17. Ursolic acid inhibits the invasive phenotype of SNU-484 human gastric cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    KIM, EUN-SOOK; MOON, AREE

    2015-01-01

    Metastasis is a major cause of cancer-related mortality in patients with gastric cancer. Ursolic acid, a pentacyclic triterpenoid compound derived from medicinal herbs, has been demonstrated to exert anticancer effects in various cancer cell systems. However, to the best of our knowledge, the inhibitory effect of ursolic acid on the invasive phenotype of gastric cancer cells has yet to be reported. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of ursolic acid on the invasiveness of SNU-484 human gastric cancer cells. Ursolic acid efficiently induced apoptosis, possibly via the downregulation of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), the upregulation of Bcl-2-associated X protein and the proteolytic activation of caspase-3. Furthermore, the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase was increased by the administration of ursolic acid. In addition, ursolic acid significantly suppressed the invasive phenotype of the SNU-484 cells and significantly decreased the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, indicating that MMP-2 may be responsible for the anti-invasive activity of ursolic acid. Taken together, the results of the present study demonstrate that ursolic acid induces apoptosis and inhibits the invasive phenotype of gastric cancer cells; therefore, ursolic acid may have a potential application as a chemopreventive agent to prevent the metastasis of gastric cancer or to alleviate the process of metastasis. PMID:25621065

  18. Branched-chain amino acids complex inhibits melanogenesis in B16F0 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Cha, Jae-Young; Yang, Hyun-Ju; Moon, Hyung-In; Cho, Young-Su

    2012-04-01

    Present study was investigated the effect of each or complex of three branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs; isoleucine, leucine, and valine) on melanin production in B16F0 melanoma cells treated with various concentrations (1-16 mM) for 72 h. Among the 20 amino acids, lysine and glycine showed the highest activities of DPPH radical scavenging and mushroom tyrosinase inhibition, respectively. Each and combination of BCAAs reduced melanogenesis in a concentration-dependent manner without any morphological changes and cell viability in melanoma cells. Present study was also investigated the inhibitory effects of each or complex of BCAAs at each 10 mM concentration on the 100 μM IBMX-mediated stimulation of melanogenesis in melanoma cells for 72 h and found that IBMX treatment was stimulated to enhance melanin synthesis and that the complex of BCAAs was the most effectively inhibited in the melanin amounts of cellular and extracellular and the whitening the cell pellet. When the inhibitory effect of BCAAs on tyrosinase was examined by intracellular tyrosinase assay, both isoleucine and valine exhibit slightly inhibition, but leucine and combination of BCAAs did not inhibit the cell-derived tyrosinase activity. Present study demonstrated that complex of BCAAs inhibited melanin production without changes intercellular tyrosinase activity. Thus, the complex of BCAAs may be used in development of safe potentially depigmenting agents.

  19. Cinnamic acid amides from Tribulus terrestris displaying uncompetitive α-glucosidase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Song, Yeong Hun; Kim, Dae Wook; Curtis-Long, Marcus J; Park, Chanin; Son, Minky; Kim, Jeong Yoon; Yuk, Heung Joo; Lee, Keun Woo; Park, Ki Hun

    2016-05-23

    The α-glucosidase inhibitory potential of Tribulus terrestris extracts has been reported but as yet the active ingredients are unknown. This study attempted to isolate the responsible metabolites and elucidate their inhibition mechanism of α-glucosidase. By fractionating T. terristris extracts, three cinnamic acid amide derivatives (1-3) were ascertained to be active components against α-glucosidase. The lead structure, N-trans-coumaroyltyramine 1, showed significant inhibition of α-glucosidase (IC50 = 0.42 μM). Moreover, all active compounds displayed uncompetitive inhibition mechanisms that have rarely been reported for α-glucosidase inhibitors. This kinetic behavior was fully demonstrated by showing a decrease of both Km and Vmax, and Kik/Kiv ratio ranging between 1.029 and 1.053. We progressed to study how chemical modifications to the lead structure 1 may impact inhibition. An α, β-unsaturation carbonyl group and hydroxyl group in A-ring of cinnamic acid amide emerged to be critical functionalities for α-glucosidase inhibition. The molecular modeling study revealed that the inhibitory activities are tightly related to π-π interaction as well as hydrogen bond interaction between enzyme and inhibitors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Short-chain fatty acid receptors inhibit invasive phenotypes in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Thirunavukkarasan, Madhumathi; Wang, Chao; Rao, Angad; Hind, Tatsuma; Teo, Yuan Ru; Siddiquee, Abrar Al-Mahmood; Goghari, Mohamed Ally Ibrahim; Kumar, Alan Prem

    2017-01-01

    Short chain fatty acids (2 to 6 carbons in length) are ubiquitous lipids that are present in human plasma at micromolar concentrations. In addition to serving as metabolic precursors for lipid and carbohydrate synthesis, they also act as cognate ligands for two known G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), FFAR2 and FFAR3. While there is evidence that these receptors may inhibit the progression of colorectal cancer, their roles in breast cancer cells are largely unknown. We evaluated the effects of enforced overexpression of these receptors in two phenotypically distinct breast cancer cell lines: MCF7 and MDA-MD-231. Our results demonstrate that both receptors inhibit cell invasiveness, but through different signaling processes. In invasive, mesenchymal-like MDA-MB-231 cells, FFAR2 inhibits the Hippo-Yap pathway and increases expression of adhesion protein E-cadherin, while FFAR3 inhibits MAPK signaling. Both receptors have the net effect of reducing actin polymerization and invasion of cells through a Matrigel matrix. These effects were absent in the less invasive, epithelial-like MCF7 cells. Correspondingly, there is reduced expression of both receptors in invasive breast carcinoma and in aggressive triple-negative breast tumors, relative to normal breast tissue. Cumulatively, our data suggest that the activation of cognate receptors by short chain fatty acids drives breast cancer cells toward a non-invasive phenotype and therefore may inhibit metastasis. PMID:29049318

  1. [Shikimic acid inhibits the degranulation and histamine release in RBL-2H3 cells].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xianyong; Zheng, Qianqian; Liu, Wei; Yu, Lingling; Wang, Jinling; Li, Shigang

    2017-05-01

    Objective To study the effects of shikimic acid on the proliferation of rat RBL-2H3 cells and the degranulation of the cells induced by C48/80 and its mechanism. Methods MTT assay was performed to measure the proliferation of RBL-2H3 cells treated with 3, 10, 30 μg/mL shikimic acid. Toluidine blue staining was used to observe the degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells. The release of β-hexosaminidase from RBL-2H3 cells treated with 0, 12.5, 25, 50, 80, 100 μg/mL C48/80 was determined by substrate assay. ELISA was used to detect the histamine content in the supernatant of each treated group. Results Shikimic acid at 3, 10, 300 μg/mL had no obvious inhibitory effect on the proliferation of RBL-2H3 cells. There was a dose-effect relationship between the degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells and C48/80 concentration. Shikimic acid inhibited the degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells compared with the positive control group, the β-hexosaminidase release rate and histamine release were significantly reduced in RBL-2H3 cells treated with shikimic acid and C48/80. Conclusion Shikimic acid can inhibit the degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells and reduce histamine release.

  2. On the inhibition of muscle membrane chloride conductance by aromatic carboxylic acids

    PubMed Central

    Palade, PT; Barchi, RL

    1977-01-01

    25 aromatic carboxylic acids which are analogs of benzoic acid were tested in the rat diaphragm preparation for effects on chloride conductance (G(Cl)). Of the 25, 19 were shown to reduce membrane G(Cl) with little effect on other membrane parameters, although their apparent K(i) varied widely. This inhibition was reversible if exposure times were not prolonged. The most effective analog studied was anthracene-9-COOH (9-AC; K(i) = 1.1 x 10(-5) M). Active analogs produced concentration-dependent inhibition of a type consistent with interaction at a single site or group of sites having similar binding affinities, although a correlation could also be shown between lipophilicity and K(i). Structure-activity analysis indicated that hydrophobic ring substitution usually increased inhibitory activity while para polar substitutions reduced effectiveness. These compounds do not appear to inhibit G(Cl) by altering membrane surface charge and the inhibition produced is not voltage dependent. Qualitative characteristics of the I-V relationship for Cl(-) current are not altered. Conductance to all anions is not uniformly altered by these acids as would be expected from steric occlusion of a common channel. Concentrations of 9-AC reducing G(Cl) by more than 90 percent resulted in slight augmentation of G(I). The complete conductance sequence obtained at high levels of 9-AC was the reverse of that obtained under control conditions. Permeability sequences underwent progressive changes with increasing 9-AC concentration and ultimately inverted at high levels of the analog. Aromatic carboxylic acids appear to inhibit G(Cl) by binding to a specific intramembrane site and altering the selectivity sequence of the membrane anion channel. PMID:894246

  3. Naturally occurring benzoic acid derivatives retard cancer cell growth by inhibiting histone deacetylases (HDAC)

    PubMed Central

    Anantharaju, Preethi G.; Reddy, Bandi Deepa; Padukudru, Mahesh A.; Kumari Chitturi, CH. M.; Vimalambike, Manjunath G.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Histone deacetylases (HDACs), which modulate the expression of genes, are potential therapeutic targets in several cancers. Targeted inhibition of HDAC prevents the expression of oncogenes thereby help in the treatment of cancers. Hence, several pharmaceutical companies developed inhibitors of HDAC and tested them in preclinical models and in clinical trials. SAHA (suberanilohydroxamic acid) is one such HDAC inhibitor developed for treating breast and colorectal carcinomas. However, due to poor efficacy in clinical trials the utility of SAHA for treating cancers was discouraged. Similarly another HDAC inhibitor Trichostatin-A (TSA) also showed promising results in clinical trials but exhibited severe adverse effects, which dampened the interest of using this molecule for cancer treatment. Therefore, search for developing a potent HDAC inhibitor with minimal side effects still continues. Hence, in this study we have screened benzoic acid and benzoic acid derivatives with hydroxylic (-OH) groups and methoxy (-OCH3) groups for their efficacy to bind to the TSA binding site of HDAC using molecular docking studies. Molecules that showed much stronger affinity (than TSA) to HDAC were tested for inhibiting HDAC expressing cultured cancer cells. DHBA but not Dimethoxy Benzoic Acid (DMBA) inhibited HDAC activity, leading to cancer cell growth inhibition through the induction of ROS and cellular apoptosis mediated by Caspase-3. In addition, DHBA arrested cells in G2/M phase of the cell cycle and elevated the levels of sub-G0-G1 cell population. In summary, results of this study report that DHBA could be a strong HDAC inhibitor and inhibit cancer cell growth more effectively. PMID:28506198

  4. Ebselen inhibits hepatitis C virus NS3 helicase binding to nucleic acid and prevents viral replication.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sourav; Weiner, Warren S; Schroeder, Chad E; Simpson, Denise S; Hanson, Alicia M; Sweeney, Noreena L; Marvin, Rachel K; Ndjomou, Jean; Kolli, Rajesh; Isailovic, Dragan; Schoenen, Frank J; Frick, David N

    2014-10-17

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) is both a protease, which cleaves viral and host proteins, and a helicase that separates nucleic acid strands, using ATP hydrolysis to fuel the reaction. Many antiviral drugs, and compounds in clinical trials, target the NS3 protease, but few helicase inhibitors that function as antivirals have been reported. This study focuses on the analysis of the mechanism by which ebselen (2-phenyl-1,2-benzisoselenazol-3-one), a compound previously shown to be a HCV antiviral agent, inhibits the NS3 helicase. Ebselen inhibited the abilities of NS3 to unwind nucleic acids, to bind nucleic acids, and to hydrolyze ATP, and about 1 μM ebselen was sufficient to inhibit each of these activities by 50%. However, ebselen had no effect on the activity of the NS3 protease, even at 100 times higher ebselen concentrations. At concentrations below 10 μM, the ability of ebselen to inhibit HCV helicase was reversible, but prolonged incubation of HCV helicase with higher ebselen concentrations led to irreversible inhibition and the formation of covalent adducts between ebselen and all 14 cysteines present in HCV helicase. Ebselen analogues with sulfur replacing the selenium were just as potent HCV helicase inhibitors as ebselen, but the length of the linker between the phenyl and benzisoselenazol rings was critical. Modifications of the phenyl ring also affected compound potency over 30-fold, and ebselen was a far more potent helicase inhibitor than other, structurally unrelated, thiol-modifying agents. Ebselen analogues were also more effective antiviral agents, and they were less toxic to hepatocytes than ebselen. Although the above structure-activity relationship studies suggest that ebselen targets a specific site on NS3, we were unable to confirm binding to either the NS3 ATP binding site or nucleic acid binding cleft by examining the effects of ebselen on NS3 proteins lacking key cysteines.

  5. The weak acid preservative sorbic acid inhibits conidial germination and mycelial growth of Aspergillus niger through intracellular acidification.

    PubMed

    Plumridge, Andrew; Hesse, Stephan J A; Watson, Adrian J; Lowe, Kenneth C; Stratford, Malcolm; Archer, David B

    2004-06-01

    The growth of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger, a common food spoilage organism, is inhibited by the weak acid preservative sorbic acid (trans-trans-2,4-hexadienoic acid). Conidia inoculated at 10(5)/ml of medium showed a sorbic acid MIC of 4.5 mM at pH 4.0, whereas the MIC for the amount of mycelia at 24 h developed from the same spore inoculum was threefold lower. The MIC for conidia and, to a lesser extent, mycelia was shown to be dependent on the inoculum size. A. niger is capable of degrading sorbic acid, and this ability has consequences for food preservation strategies. The mechanism of action of sorbic acid was investigated using (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. We show that a rapid decline in cytosolic pH (pH(cyt)) by more than 1 pH unit and a depression of vacuolar pH (pH(vac)) in A. niger occurs in the presence of sorbic acid. The pH gradient over the vacuole completely collapsed as a result of the decline in pH(cyt). NMR spectra also revealed that sorbic acid (3.0 mM at pH 4.0) caused intracellular ATP pools and levels of sugar-phosphomonoesters and -phosphodiesters of A. niger mycelia to decrease dramatically, and they did not recover. The disruption of pH homeostasis by sorbic acid at concentrations below the MIC could account for the delay in spore germination and retardation of the onset of subsequent mycelial growth.

  6. Evaluation of tranexamic acid and ε-aminocaproic acid concentrations required to inhibit fibrinolysis in plasma of dogs and humans.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Daniel J; Blackstock, Kelly J; Epstein, Kira; Brainard, Benjamin M

    2014-08-01

    To determine minimum plasma concentrations of the antifibrinolytic agents tranexamic acid (TEA) and ε-aminocaproic acid (EACA) needed to completely inhibit fibrinolysis in canine and human plasma after induction of hyperfibrinolysis. Pooled citrated plasma from 7 dogs and commercial pooled citrated human plasma. Concentrations of EACA from 0 μg/mL to 500 μg/mL and of TEA from 0 μg/mL to 160 μg/mL were added to pooled citrated canine and human plasma. Hyperfibrinolysis was induced with 1,000 units of tissue plasminogen activator/mL, and kaolin-activated thromboelastography was performed in duplicate. The minimum concentrations required to completely inhibit fibrinolysis 30 minutes after maximum amplitude of the thromboelastography tracing occurred were determined. Minimum plasma concentrations necessary for complete inhibition of fibrinolysis by EACA and TEA in pooled canine plasma were estimated as 511.7 μg/mL (95% confidence interval [CI], 433.2 to 590.3 μg/mL) and 144.7 μg/mL (95% CI, 125.2 to 164.2 μg/mL), respectively. Concentrations of EACA and TEA necessary for complete inhibition of fibrinolysis in pooled human plasma were estimated as 122.0 μg/mL (95% CI, 106.2 to 137.8 μg/mL) and 14.7 μg/mL (95% CI, 13.7 to 15.6 μg/mL), respectively. Results supported the concept that dogs are hyperfibrinolytic, compared with humans. Higher doses of EACA and TEA may be required to fully inhibit fibrinolysis in dogs.

  7. Monomethylarsonous acid (MMA+3) Inhibits IL-7 Signaling in Mouse Pre-B Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ezeh, Peace C.; Xu, Huan; Lauer, Fredine T.; Liu, Ke Jian; Hudson, Laurie G.; Burchiel, Scott W.

    2016-01-01

    Our previously published data show that As+3 in vivo and in vitro, at very low concentrations, inhibits lymphoid, but not myeloid stem cell development in mouse bone marrow. We also showed that the As+3 metabolite, monomethylarsonous acid (MMA+3), was responsible for the observed pre-B cell toxicity caused by As+3. Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is the primary growth factor responsible for pre-lymphoid development in mouse and human bone marrow, and Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 5 (STAT5) is a transcriptional factor in the IL-7 signaling pathway. We found that MMA+3 inhibited STAT5 phosphorylation at a concentration as low as 50 nM in mouse bone marrow pre-B cells. Inhibition of STAT5 phosphorylation by As+3 occurred only at a concentration of 500 nM. In the IL-7 dependent mouse pre-B 2E8 cell line, we also found selective inhibition of STAT5 phosphorylation by MMA+3, and this inhibition was dependent on effects on JAK3 phosphorylation. IL-7 receptor expression on 2E8 cell surface was also suppressed by 50 nM MMA+3 at 18 h. As further evidence for the inhibition of STAT5, we found that the induction of several genes required in B cell development, cyclin D1, E2A, EBF1, and PAX5, were selectively inhibited by MMA+3. Since 2E8 cells lack the enzymes responsible for the conversion of As+3 to MMA+3 in vitro, the results of these studies suggest that As+3 induced inhibition of pre-B cell formation in vivo is likely dependent on the formation of MMA+3 which in turn inhibits IL-7 signaling at several steps in mouse pre-B cells. PMID:26518055

  8. Gallic Acid Attenuates Postoperative Intra-Abdominal Adhesion by Inhibiting Inflammatory Reaction in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Guangbing; Wu, Yunhua; Gao, Qi; Shen, Cong; Chen, Zilu; Wang, Kang; Yu, Junhui

    2018-01-01

    Background Intra-abdominal adhesion is one of the most common complications after abdominal surgery. The efficacy of current treatments for intra-abdominal adhesion is unsatisfactory. In this study, we investigated the effect of gallic acid on the prevention and treatment of intra-abdominal adhesions after abdominal surgery using an intra-abdominal adhesion rat model. Material/Methods The experimental rats were randomly divided into the sham operation group, the control group, the chitosan group, and 3 gallic acid groups of different concentrations. All rats except those in the sham operation group received cecal abrasion to induce adhesion. From the first postoperative day, the rats in the gallic acid groups were administered different concentrations of gallic acid in a 2-ml gavage daily. All rats were sacrificed on postoperative day 7, and the degree of intra-abdominal adhesion was evaluated by the naked eye. The amount of collagen deposited between the injured peritoneal tissues was assessed by Sirius red staining. Serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) were measured by ELISA. Western blot was used to detect the level of NF-κB phosphorylation in the injured peritoneal or adhesion tissues of the rats. Results Compared with the control group, the scores of intra-abdominal adhesions in the rats treated with larger doses of gallic acid were significantly decreased, and the degree of inflammation and fibrosis was also significantly decreased. Gallic acid significantly reduced IL-6, TNF-α, and TGF-β1 serum levels. NF-κB phosphorylation in the higher gallic acid groups was significantly reduced. Conclusions Gallic acid inhibits the formation of postoperative intra-abdominal adhesions in rats by inhibiting the inflammatory reaction and fibrogenesis. Gallic acid is a promising drug for preventing intra-abdominal adhesions. PMID:29429982

  9. Cinnamic acid and its derivatives inhibit fructose-mediated protein glycation.

    PubMed

    Adisakwattana, Sirichai; Sompong, Weerachat; Meeprom, Aramsri; Ngamukote, Sathaporn; Yibchok-Anun, Sirintorn

    2012-01-01

    Cinnamic acid and its derivatives have shown a variety of pharmacologic properties. However, little is known about the antiglycation properties of cinnamic acid and its derivatives. The present study sought to characterize the protein glycation inhibitory activity of cinnamic acid and its derivatives in a bovine serum albumin (BSA)/fructose system. The results demonstrated that cinnamic acid and its derivatives significantly inhibited the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) by approximately 11.96-63.36% at a concentration of 1 mM. The strongest inhibitory activity against the formation of AGEs was shown by cinnamic acid. Furthermore, cinnamic acid and its derivatives reduced the level of fructosamine, the formation of N(ɛ)-(carboxymethyl) lysine (CML), and the level of amyloid cross β-structure. Cinnamic acid and its derivatives also prevented oxidative protein damages, including effects on protein carbonyl formation and thiol oxidation of BSA. Our findings may lead to the possibility of using cinnamic acid and its derivatives for preventing AGE-mediated diabetic complications.

  10. Cinnamic Acid and Its Derivatives Inhibit Fructose-Mediated Protein Glycation

    PubMed Central

    Adisakwattana, Sirichai; Sompong, Weerachat; Meeprom, Aramsri; Ngamukote, Sathaporn; Yibchok-anun, Sirintorn

    2012-01-01

    Cinnamic acid and its derivatives have shown a variety of pharmacologic properties. However, little is known about the antiglycation properties of cinnamic acid and its derivatives. The present study sought to characterize the protein glycation inhibitory activity of cinnamic acid and its derivatives in a bovine serum albumin (BSA)/fructose system. The results demonstrated that cinnamic acid and its derivatives significantly inhibited the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) by approximately 11.96–63.36% at a concentration of 1 mM. The strongest inhibitory activity against the formation of AGEs was shown by cinnamic acid. Furthermore, cinnamic acid and its derivatives reduced the level of fructosamine, the formation of Nɛ-(carboxymethyl) lysine (CML), and the level of amyloid cross β-structure. Cinnamic acid and its derivatives also prevented oxidative protein damages, including effects on protein carbonyl formation and thiol oxidation of BSA. Our findings may lead to the possibility of using cinnamic acid and its derivatives for preventing AGE-mediated diabetic complications. PMID:22408423

  11. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibition potentiates amino acid- and bile acid-induced bicarbonate secretion in rat duodenum

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Takuya; Wang, Joon-Ho; Higashiyama, Masaaki; Rudenkyy, Sergiy; Higuchi, Kazuhide; Guth, Paul H.; Engel, Eli; Kaunitz, Jonathan D.

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal endocrine cells release gut hormones, including glucagon-like peptides (GLPs), in response to luminal nutrients. Luminal l-glutamate (l-Glu) and 5′-inosine monophosphate (IMP) synergistically increases duodenal HCO3− secretion via GLP-2 release. Since L cells express the bile acid receptor TGR5 and dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP) IV rapidly degrades GLPs, we hypothesized that luminal amino acids or bile acids stimulate duodenal HCO3− secretion via GLP-2 release, which is enhanced by DPPIV inhibition. We measured HCO3− secretion with pH and CO2 electrodes using a perfused rat duodenal loop under isoflurane anesthesia. l-Glu (10 mM) and IMP (0.1 mM) were luminally coperfused with or without luminal perfusion (0.1 mM) or intravenous (iv) injection (3 μmol/kg) of the DPPIV inhibitor NVP728. The loop was also perfused with a selective TGR5 agonist betulinic acid (BTA, 10 μM) or the non-bile acid type TGR5 agonist 3-(2-chlorophenyl)-N-(4-chlorophenyl)-N,5-dimethylisoxazole-4-carboxamide (CCDC; 10 μM). DPPIV activity visualized by use of the fluorogenic substrate was present on the duodenal brush border and submucosal layer, both abolished by the incubation with NVP728 (0.1 mM). An iv injection of NVP728 enhanced l-Glu/IMP-induced HCO3− secretion, whereas luminal perfusion of NVP728 had no effect. BTA or CCDC had little effect on HCO3− secretion, whereas NVP728 iv markedly enhanced BTA- or CCDC-induced HCO3− secretion, the effects inhibited by a GLP-2 receptor antagonist. Coperfusion of the TGR5 agonist enhanced l-Glu/IMP-induced HCO3− secretion with the enhanced GLP-2 release, suggesting that TGR5 activation amplifies nutrient sensing signals. DPPIV inhibition potentiated luminal l-Glu/IMP-induced and TGR5 agonist-induced HCO3− secretion via a GLP-2 pathway, suggesting that the modulation of the local concentration of the endogenous secretagogue GLP-2 by luminal compounds and DPPIV inhibition helps regulate protective duodenal HCO3− secretion

  12. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibition potentiates amino acid- and bile acid-induced bicarbonate secretion in rat duodenum.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Takuya; Wang, Joon-Ho; Higashiyama, Masaaki; Rudenkyy, Sergiy; Higuchi, Kazuhide; Guth, Paul H; Engel, Eli; Kaunitz, Jonathan D; Akiba, Yasutada

    2012-10-01

    Intestinal endocrine cells release gut hormones, including glucagon-like peptides (GLPs), in response to luminal nutrients. Luminal L-glutamate (L-Glu) and 5'-inosine monophosphate (IMP) synergistically increases duodenal HCO3- secretion via GLP-2 release. Since L cells express the bile acid receptor TGR5 and dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP) IV rapidly degrades GLPs, we hypothesized that luminal amino acids or bile acids stimulate duodenal HCO3- secretion via GLP-2 release, which is enhanced by DPPIV inhibition. We measured HCO3- secretion with pH and CO2 electrodes using a perfused rat duodenal loop under isoflurane anesthesia. L-Glu (10 mM) and IMP (0.1 mM) were luminally coperfused with or without luminal perfusion (0.1 mM) or intravenous (iv) injection (3 μmol/kg) of the DPPIV inhibitor NVP728. The loop was also perfused with a selective TGR5 agonist betulinic acid (BTA, 10 μM) or the non-bile acid type TGR5 agonist 3-(2-chlorophenyl)-N-(4-chlorophenyl)-N,5-dimethylisoxazole-4-carboxamide (CCDC; 10 μM). DPPIV activity visualized by use of the fluorogenic substrate was present on the duodenal brush border and submucosal layer, both abolished by the incubation with NVP728 (0.1 mM). An iv injection of NVP728 enhanced L-Glu/IMP-induced HCO3- secretion, whereas luminal perfusion of NVP728 had no effect. BTA or CCDC had little effect on HCO3- secretion, whereas NVP728 iv markedly enhanced BTA- or CCDC-induced HCO3- secretion, the effects inhibited by a GLP-2 receptor antagonist. Coperfusion of the TGR5 agonist enhanced L-Glu/IMP-induced HCO3- secretion with the enhanced GLP-2 release, suggesting that TGR5 activation amplifies nutrient sensing signals. DPPIV inhibition potentiated luminal L-Glu/IMP-induced and TGR5 agonist-induced HCO3- secretion via a GLP-2 pathway, suggesting that the modulation of the local concentration of the endogenous secretagogue GLP-2 by luminal compounds and DPPIV inhibition helps regulate protective duodenal HCO3- secretion.

  13. Biochemical Characterization of Ferulic Acid and Caffeic Acid Which Effectively Inhibit Melanin Synthesis via Different Mechanisms in B16 Melanoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Hiroko; Kawakami, Fumitaka; Lwin, Thet-Thet; Imai, Motoki; Shamsa, Fazel

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we examined the inhibitory effects of ferulic acid and caffeic acid on melanin production using a murine B16 melanoma cell line. The mechanisms by which the two acids inhibit melanin production were investigated by evaluating their effects on the activity of tyrosinase, which is involved is the first step of melanin biosynthesis. Ferulic acid showed no toxicity against the melanoma cells at any dose, whereas caffeic acid exerted cellular toxicity at concentrations higher than 0.35 mM. Both ferulic and caffeic acids effectively inhibited melanin production in the B16 melanoma cells. Ferulic acid reduced tyrosinase activity by directly binding to the enzyme, whereas no binding was observed between caffeic acid and tyrosinase. Both ferulic acid and caffeic acid inhibited casein kinase 2 (CK2)-induced phosphorylation of tyrosinase in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. Ferulic acid was found to be a more effective inhibitor of melanin production than caffeic acid; this difference in the inhibitory efficacy between the two substances could be attributable to the difference in their tyrosine-binding activity. Our analysis revealed that both substances also inhibited the CK2-mediated phosphorylation of tyrosinase.

  14. Inhibition of Fatty Acid Synthesis Induces Apoptosis of Human Pancreatic Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Koji; Suzuki, Kenta; Sawamoto, Junpei; Tokizawa, Yuma; Iwase, Yumiko; Yumita, Nagahiko; Ikeda, Toshihiko

    2016-09-01

    Cancer cells tend to have a high requirement for lipids, including fatty acids, cholesterol and triglyceride, because of their rapid proliferative rate compared to normal cells. In this study, we investigated the effects of inhibition of lipid synthesis on the proliferation and viability of human pancreatic cancer cells. Of the inhibitors of lipid synthesis that were tested, 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid (TOFA), which is an inhibitor of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and the fatty acid synthase (FAS) inhibitors cerulenin and irgasan, significantly suppressed the proliferation of MiaPaCa-2 and AsPC-1 cells. Treatment of MiaPaCa-2 cells with these inhibitors significantly increased the number of apoptotic cells. In addition, TOFA increased caspase-3 activity and induced cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase in MiaPaCa-2 cells. Moreover, addition of palmitate to MiaPaCa-2 cells treated with TOFA rescued cells from apoptotic cell death. These results suggest that TOFA induces apoptosis via depletion of fatty acids and that, among the various aspects of lipid metabolism, inhibition of fatty acid synthesis may be a notable target for the treatment of human pancreatic cancer cells. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  15. Chlorogenic Acid-Enriched Extract of Ilex kudingcha C.J. Tseng Inhibits Angiogenesis in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Tao; Piao, Linghua; Kim, Hyun Jung; Liu, Xiande; Jiang, Shengnan; Liu, Guomin

    2017-12-01

    Kudingcha is a particularly bitter tasting tea that has been widely used in China to eliminate fever and itching eyes, and to clear blood toxins. Kudingcha is considered of value for its potential anticancer effects that are attributed to the presence of characteristic bioactive ingredients. The chlorogenic acid (CGA) derivatives 3-0-caffeoylquinic acid, 5-0-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-0-dicaffeoylquinic acid, and 4,5-0-dicaffeoylquinic acid were separated from Ilex kudingcha C.J. Tseng extract by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-photodiode array detector (PDA) and HPLC-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). In Tg(flk1:EGFP) zebrafish embryos at 52 hours postfertilization (hpf), angiogenesis was significantly inhibited by kudingcha extract (KDCE) at concentrations of 400 and 500 μg/mL and CGA also showed significant inhibition in embryos treated with 80, 100, and 130 μg/mL. Endothelial cell apoptosis showed a dose-dependent increase in response to KDCE and CGA. CGA derivatives from KDCE could have potential as anticancer agents against tumor angiogenesis.

  16. Effect of inhibition on tyrosinase and melanogenesis of Agastache rugosa Kuntze by lactic acid bacteria fermentation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam Young; Kwon, Hee Souk; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2017-09-01

    This work presents the first report that A. rugosa could have tyrosinase and melanogenesis inhibition and that its activities also be improved by fermentation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus paracasei. It was found that the tyrosinase and melanogenesis inhibition was correlated with antioxidant activity of acacetin, the major biologically active substances in A. rugosa. we pursued an improvement in tyrosinase and melanogenesis inhibition of A. rugosa extract by fermentation process. A. rugosa was extracted by lactic acid fermentation process; we measured antioxidant activities and tyrosinase and melanogenesis inhibition of A. rugosa extracts. In particular, reducing power of the extract from fermentation process (FE) was measured as 0.562 (O.D.), whereas reducing power of the extracts from 70% ethanol extraction (EE) was lower than the FE as 0.496 (O.D.). Polyphenols and flavonoids in the FE were higher than the EE: 69.3 mg/g vs. 60.5 mg/g, and 187 mg/g vs. 138 mg/g. The FE was estimated as 51.04% tyrosinase inhibition and 41.88% for the EE. Similarly, melanin inhibition in melanocyte B16F10 was observed as 66.60% vs. 42.23% for the FE and EE. The increase in tyrosinase and melanogenesis inhibition activity was confirmed by high elution of acacetin through fermentation process such as 289.97 mg/100 g vs. 198.04 mg/100 g in the FE and EE. These results indicate that tyrosinase and melanogenesis inhibition activities of the extracts should be associated with antioxidant activity because acacetin is known to have strong antioxidant activity, which can also positively affect whitening activities. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes in Fresh Cheese Using Chitosan-Grafted Lactic Acid Packaging.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Laura N; López, Monserrat; Montes-Díaz, Elizabeth; Espadín, Andres; Tecante, Alberto; Gimeno, Miquel; Shirai, Keiko

    2016-04-08

    A chitosan from biologically obtained chitin was successfully grafted with d,l-lactic acid (LA) in aqueous media using p-toluenesulfonic acid as catalyst to obtain a non-toxic, biodegradable packaging material that was characterized using scanning electron microscopy, water vapor permeability, and relative humidity (RH) losses. Additionally, the grafting in chitosan with LA produced films with improved mechanical properties. This material successfully extended the shelf life of fresh cheese and inhibited the growth of Listeria monocytogenes during 14 days at 4 °C and 22% RH, whereby inoculated samples with chitosan-g-LA packaging presented full bacterial inhibition. The results were compared to control samples and commercial low-density polyethylene packaging.

  18. Inhibition of mycotoxin-producing Aspergillus nomius vsc 23 by lactic acid bacteria and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, R; Arena, M.E.; Silva, J.; González, S.N.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of different fermenting microorganisms on growth of a mycotoxin- producing Aspergillus nomius was assayed. Two lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, all of which are widely used in fermentation and preservation of food, were assayed on their fungus inhibitory properties. Assays were carried out by simultaneous inoculation of one of the possible inhibiting microorganisms and the fungus or subsequent inoculation of one of the microorganisms followed by the fungus. All three microorganisms assayed showed growth inhibition of the mycotoxin-producing Aspergillus strain. L. rhamnosus O236, isolated from sheep milk and selected for its technological properties, showed highest fungal inhibition of the microorganisms assayed. The use of antifungal LAB with excellent technological properties rather than chemical preservatives would enable the food industry to produce organic food without addition of chemical substances. PMID:24031582

  19. Inhibition of mycotoxin-producing Aspergillus nomius vsc 23 by lactic acid bacteria and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, R; Arena, M E; Silva, J; González, S N

    2010-10-01

    The effect of different fermenting microorganisms on growth of a mycotoxin- producing Aspergillus nomius was assayed. Two lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, all of which are widely used in fermentation and preservation of food, were assayed on their fungus inhibitory properties. Assays were carried out by simultaneous inoculation of one of the possible inhibiting microorganisms and the fungus or subsequent inoculation of one of the microorganisms followed by the fungus. All three microorganisms assayed showed growth inhibition of the mycotoxin-producing Aspergillus strain. L. rhamnosus O236, isolated from sheep milk and selected for its technological properties, showed highest fungal inhibition of the microorganisms assayed. The use of antifungal LAB with excellent technological properties rather than chemical preservatives would enable the food industry to produce organic food without addition of chemical substances.

  20. Boric acid reversibly inhibits the second step of pre-mRNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Shomron, Noam; Ast, Gil

    2003-09-25

    Several approaches have been used to identify the factors involved in mRNA splicing. None of them, however, comprises a straightforward reversible method for inhibiting the second step of splicing using an external reagent other than a chelator. This investigation demonstrates that the addition of boric acid to an in vitro pre-mRNA splicing reaction causes a dose-dependent reversible inhibition effect on the second step of splicing. The mechanism of action does not involve chelation of several metal ions; hindrance of 3' splice-site; or binding to hSlu7. This study presents a novel method for specific reversible inhibition of the second step of pre-mRNA splicing.

  1. Trans unsaturated fatty acids inhibit lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase and alter its positional specificity.

    PubMed

    Subbaiah, P V; Subramanian, V S; Liu, M

    1998-07-01

    Although dietary trans unsaturated fatty acids (TUFA) are known to decrease plasma HDL, the underlying mechanisms for this effect are unclear. We tested the hypothesis that the decreased HDL is due to an inhibition of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), the enzyme essential for the formation of HDL, by determining the activity of purified LCAT in the presence of synthetic phosphatidylcholine (PC) substrates containing TUFA. Both human and rat LCATs exhibited significantly lower activity (-37% to -50%) with PCs containing 18:1t or 18:2t, when compared with the PCs containing corresponding cis isomers. TUFA-containing PCs also inhibited the enzyme activity competitively, when added to egg PC substrate. The inhibition of LCAT activity was not due to changes in the fluidity of the substrate particle. However, the inhibition depended on the position occupied by TUFA in the PC, as well as on the paired fatty acid. Thus, for human LCAT, 18:1t was more inhibitory when present at sn-2 position of PC, than at sn-1, when paired with 16:0. In contrast, when paired with 20:4, 18:1t was more inhibitory at sn-1 position of PC. Both human and rat LCATs, which are normally specific for the sn-2 acyl group of PC, exhibited an alteration in their positional specificity when 16:0-18:1t PC or 16:1t-20:4 PC was used as substrate, deriving 26-86% of the total acyl groups for cholesterol esterification from the sn-1 position. These results show that the trans fatty acids decrease high density lipoprotein through their inhibition of lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity, and also alter LCAT's positional specificity, inducing the formation of more saturated cholesteryl esters, which are more atherogenic.

  2. Application of α-aminoisobutyric acid and β-aminoisobutyric acid inhibits pericarp browning of harvested longan fruit.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Zhi, Wei; Qu, Hongxia; Lin, Hetong; Jiang, Yueming

    2015-12-01

    Pericarp browning is a critical problem resulting in reduced commercial value and shelf life of longan fruit. Two non-protein amino acids, α-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) and β-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIB) at 100 and 1 mM were applied to longan fruit prior to storage for up to 8 days at 25 °C respectively. Contents of the major five phenolics (gallic acid, catechin, corilagin, epicatechin and gallocatechin gallate) were assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Physiological properties related to pericarp browning of longan fruit were investigated during storage. Respiration rate, membrane permeability, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) were down-regulated by AIB or BAIB treatments, with significantly lower pericarp browning index and higher proportion of edible fruit than the control. Moreover, exogenous application of AIB and BAIB maintained higher contents of catechin, corilagin, epicatechin and gallocatechin gallate, but lower content of gallic acid compared to the control in the pericarp of longan fruit during storage, which was associated with the oxidation of browning substrate. Pericarp browning was inhibited and storage life of longan fruit was extended effectively by AIB and BAIB treatments with AIB treatment being more significant than BAIB. The findings may provide a new strategy for controlling pericarp browning of harvested longan fruit.

  3. NMDA inhibits oxotremorine-induced acid secretion via the NO-dependent cyclic GMP system in rat stomach.

    PubMed

    Tsai, L H; Lee, Y J

    2001-12-31

    The mechanism of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) inhibits oxotremorine-induced acid secretion was examined in rat stomach, in relation to the cyclic GMP system. NMDA (10(-7) M) did not affect the spontaneous acid secretion from the everted preparations of isolated rat stomach, but inhibited the acid secretion stimulated by oxotremorine, and this effect of NMDA was antagonized by 2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (AP-5), (+/-)3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP) or N(G)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA). NMDA also elevated the cyclic GMP content of mucosal slices from rat stomach, and this effect of NMDA was antagonized by L-NNA. These results indicate that NMDA receptors are present in the rat stomach and regulate the gastric acid secretion. The mechanism underlying the effect of NMDA inhibits oxotremorine-induced acid secretion may be mediated by the NO-dependent cyclic GMP system.

  4. A Small Molecule Inhibits Virion Attachment to Heparan Sulfate- or Sialic Acid-Containing Glycans

    PubMed Central

    Colpitts, Che C.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Primary attachment to cellular glycans is a critical entry step for most human viruses. Some viruses, such as herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), bind to heparan sulfate, whereas others, such as influenza A virus (IAV), bind to sialic acid. Receptor mimetics that interfere with these interactions are active against viruses that bind to either heparan sulfate or to sialic acid. However, no molecule that inhibits the attachment of viruses in both groups has yet been identified. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a green tea catechin, is active against many unrelated viruses, including several that bind to heparan sulfate or to sialic acid. We sought to identify the basis for the broad-spectrum activity of EGCG. Here, we show that EGCG inhibits the infectivity of a diverse group of enveloped and nonenveloped human viruses. EGCG acts directly on the virions, without affecting the fluidity or integrity of the virion envelopes. Instead, EGCG interacts with virion surface proteins to inhibit the attachment of HSV-1, HCV, IAV, vaccinia virus, adenovirus, reovirus, and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) virions. We further show that EGCG competes with heparan sulfate for binding of HSV-1 and HCV virions and with sialic acid for binding of IAV virions. Therefore, EGCG inhibits unrelated viruses by a common mechanism. Most importantly, we have identified EGCG as the first broad-spectrum attachment inhibitor. Our results open the possibility for the development of small molecule broad-spectrum antivirals targeting virion attachment. IMPORTANCE This study shows that it is possible to develop a small molecule antiviral or microbicide active against the two largest groups of human viruses: those that bind to glycosaminoglycans and those that bind to sialoglycans. This group includes the vast majority of human viruses, including herpes simplex viruses, cytomegalovirus, influenza virus, poxvirus, hepatitis C virus, HIV, and many others. PMID

  5. Inhibition of fatty acid synthesis decreases very low density lipoprotein secretion in the hamster.

    PubMed

    Arbeeny, C M; Meyers, D S; Bergquist, K E; Gregg, R E

    1992-06-01

    The hamster was developed as a model to study very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) metabolism, since, as is the case in humans, the hamster liver was found to synthesize apoB-100 and not apoB-48. The effect of inhibiting fatty acid synthesis on the hepatic secretion of VLDL triglyceride (TG) and apolipoprotein (apo) B-100 in this model was then investigated. In an in vivo study, hamsters were fed a chow diet containing 0.15% TOFA (5-tetradecyloxy-2-furancarboxylic acid), an inhibitor of acetyl-CoA carboxylase. After 6 days of treatment, plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels were decreased by 30.2% and 11.6%, respectively. When the secretion of VLDL-TG by the liver was measured in vivo after injection of Triton WR 1339, TOFA treatment was found to decrease VLDL-TG secretion by 40%. In subsequent in vitro studies utilizing cultured primary hamster hepatocytes, incubation with 20 microM TOFA for 4 h resulted in 98% and 76% inhibition in fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis, respectively; VLDL-TG secretion was decreased by 90%. When hepatocytes were pulsed with [3H]leucine, incubation with TOFA resulted in a 50% decrease in the incorporation of radiolabel into secreted VLDL apoB-100. The results of this study indicate that inhibition of intracellular triglyceride synthesis decreases the secretion of VLDL-TG and apoB-100, and does not result in the secretion of a dense, triglyceride-depleted lipoprotein.

  6. Inhibition of proteases activity in intestine needs a sustainable acidic environment rather than a transient.

    PubMed

    Xing, Chang; Xing, Jin-Feng; Ge, Zhi-Qiang

    2017-10-01

    α-Chymotrypsin (α-CT) and trypsin are important components of the enzymatic barrier. They could degrade the therapeutic proteins and peptides, inhibit their activity consequently, and thereby reduce their oral bioavailability. Acidic agents, as one type of indirect protease inhibitors, have shown proof of concept in clinical trials. We report here the inactivated proteases due to acid influence can be reactivated immediately by environmental pH recovery regardless of how long the inactivation last. To keep the inactivation time of proteases for 4-5 h, we designed and prepared a sustained-release tablet containing citric acid (CA) which can effectively reduce the pH below 5.0 and maintain it for 5 h in the dissolution-reaction medium. The activity of α-CT and trypsin was quantified by analyzing the residual amount of their respective substrates BTEE and TAME. More than 80% of the substrates were survived in 5.0 h of incubation, whereas the common tablet inhibited the proteases activity for only two hours in the same experimental medium. It indicates that the sustained-release tablet loaded with CA can efficiently inhibit the α-CT and trypsin activity longer than the common tablet. The results will be beneficial for designing and formulating the peroral administration of peptide and protein drugs.

  7. Inhibition of enzymatic browning of chlorogenic acid by sulfur-containing compounds.

    PubMed

    Kuijpers, Tomas F M; Narváez-Cuenca, Carlos-Eduardo; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Verloop, Annewieke J W; van Berkel, Willem J H; Gruppen, Harry

    2012-04-04

    The antibrowning activity of sodium hydrogen sulfite (NaHSO(3)) was compared to that of other sulfur-containing compounds. Inhibition of enzymatic browning was investigated using a model browning system consisting of mushroom tyrosinase and chlorogenic acid (5-CQA). Development of brown color (spectral analysis), oxygen consumption, and reaction product formation (RP-UHPLC-PDA-MS) were monitored in time. It was found that the compounds showing antibrowning activity either prevented browning by forming colorless addition products with o-quinones of 5-CQA (NaHSO(3), cysteine, and glutathione) or inhibiting the enzymatic activity of tyrosinase (NaHSO(3) and dithiothreitol). NaHSO(3) was different from the other sulfur-containing compounds investigated, because it showed a dual inhibitory effect on browning. Initial browning was prevented by trapping the o-quinones formed in colorless addition products (sulfochlorogenic acid), while at the same time, tyrosinase activity was inhibited in a time-dependent way, as shown by pre-incubation experiments of tyrosinase with NaHSO(3). Furthermore, it was demonstrated that sulfochlorogenic and cysteinylchlorogenic acids were not inhibitors of mushroom tyrosinase.

  8. Correlating enzymatic browning inhibition and antioxidant ability of Maillard reaction products derived from different amino acids.

    PubMed

    Xu, Haining; Zhang, Xiaoming; Karangwa, Eric; Xia, Shuqin

    2017-09-01

    Up to now, only limited research on enzymatic browning inhibition capacity (BIC) of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) has been reported and there are still no overall and systematic researches on MRPs derived from different amino acids. In the present study, BIC and antioxidant capacity, including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and Fe 2+ reducing power activity, of the MRPs derived from 12 different amino acids and three reducing sugars were investigated. The MRPs of cysteine (Cys), cystine, arginine (Arg) and histidine (His) showed higher BIC compared to other amino acids. Lysine (Lys)-MRPs showed the highest absorbance value at 420 nm (A 420 ) but very limited BIC, whereas Cys-MRPs, showed the highest BIC and the lowest A 420 . The A 420 can roughly reflect the trend of BIC of MRPs from different amino acids, except Cys and Lys. MRPs from tyrosine (Tyr) showed the most potent antioxidant capacity but very limited BIC, whereas Cys-MRPs showed both higher antioxidant capacity and BIC compared to other amino acids. Partial least squares regression analysis showed positive and significant correlation between BIC and Fe 2+ reducing power of MRPs from 12 amino acids with glucose or fructose, except Lys, Cys and Tyr. The suitable pH for generating efficient browning inhibition compounds varies depending on different amino acids: acidic pH was favorable for Cys, whereas neutral and alkaline pH were suitable for His and Arg, respectively. Increasing both heating temperature and time over a certain range could improve the BIC of MRPs of Cys, His and Arg, whereas any further increase deteriorates their browning inhibition efficiencies. The types of amino acid, initial pH, temperature and time of the Maillard reaction were found to greatly influence the BIC and antioxidant capacity of the resulting MRPs. There is no clear relationship between BIC and the antioxidant capacity of MRPs when reactant type and processing parameters of the Maillard

  9. Docosahexaenoic acid synthesis from alpha-linolenic acid is inhibited by diets high in polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Gibson, R A; Neumann, M A; Lien, E L; Boyd, K A; Tu, W C

    2013-01-01

    The conversion of the plant-derived omega-3 (n-3) α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3) to the long-chain eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) can be increased by ALA sufficient diets compared to ALA deficient diets. Diets containing ALA above an optimal level result in no further increase in DHA levels in animals and humans. The present study evaluates means of maximizing plasma DHA accumulation by systematically varying both linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) and ALA dietary level. Weanling rats were fed one of 54 diets for three weeks. The diets varied in the percentage of energy (en%) of LA (0.07-17.1 en%) and ALA (0.02-12.1 en%) by manipulating both the fat content and the balance of vegetable oils. The peak of plasma phospholipid DHA (>8% total fatty acids) was attained as a result of feeding a narrow dietary range of 1-3 en% ALA and 1-2 en% LA but was suppressed to basal levels (∼2% total fatty acids) at dietary intakes of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) above 3 en%. We conclude it is possible to enhance the DHA status of rats fed diets containing ALA as the only source of n-3 fatty acids but only when the level of dietary PUFA is low (<3 en%). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Propionic acid and butyric acid inhibit lipolysis and de novo lipogenesis and increase insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in primary rat adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Heimann, Emilia; Nyman, Margareta; Degerman, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Fermentation of dietary fibers by colonic microbiota generates short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), e.g., propionic acid and butyric acid, which have been described to have “anti-obesity properties” by ameliorating fasting glycaemia, body weight and insulin tolerance in animal models. In the present study, we therefore investigate if propionic acid and butyric acid have effects on lipolysis, de novo lipogenesis and glucose uptake in primary rat adipocytes. We show that both propionic acid and butyric acid inhibit isoproterenol- and adenosine deaminase-stimulated lipolysis as well as isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis in the presence of a phosphodiesterase (PDE3) inhibitor. In addition, we show that propionic acid and butyric acid inhibit basal and insulin-stimulated de novo lipogenesis, which is associated with increased phosphorylation and thus inhibition of acetyl CoA carboxylase, a rate-limiting enzyme in fatty acid synthesis. Furthermore, we show that propionic acid and butyric acid increase insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. To conclude, our study shows that SCFAs have effects on fat storage and mobilization as well as glucose uptake in rat primary adipocytes. Thus, the SCFAs might contribute to healthier adipocytes and subsequently also to improved energy metabolism with for example less circulating free fatty acids, which is beneficial in the context of obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:26167409

  11. Propionic acid and butyric acid inhibit lipolysis and de novo lipogenesis and increase insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in primary rat adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Heimann, Emilia; Nyman, Margareta; Degerman, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Fermentation of dietary fibers by colonic microbiota generates short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), e.g., propionic acid and butyric acid, which have been described to have "anti-obesity properties" by ameliorating fasting glycaemia, body weight and insulin tolerance in animal models. In the present study, we therefore investigate if propionic acid and butyric acid have effects on lipolysis, de novo lipogenesis and glucose uptake in primary rat adipocytes. We show that both propionic acid and butyric acid inhibit isoproterenol- and adenosine deaminase-stimulated lipolysis as well as isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis in the presence of a phosphodiesterase (PDE3) inhibitor. In addition, we show that propionic acid and butyric acid inhibit basal and insulin-stimulated de novo lipogenesis, which is associated with increased phosphorylation and thus inhibition of acetyl CoA carboxylase, a rate-limiting enzyme in fatty acid synthesis. Furthermore, we show that propionic acid and butyric acid increase insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. To conclude, our study shows that SCFAs have effects on fat storage and mobilization as well as glucose uptake in rat primary adipocytes. Thus, the SCFAs might contribute to healthier adipocytes and subsequently also to improved energy metabolism with for example less circulating free fatty acids, which is beneficial in the context of obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  12. Inhibition of Herpes Simplex Virus Strains Isolated from Herpetic Keratitis by Polyinosinic Acid-Polycytidylic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Smetana, Ofira; Eylan, Emanuel; Weinberg, Miriam

    1977-01-01

    Fifty strains of herpes simplex virus, isolated from patients with herpetic keratitis, were examined in vitro for susceptibility to polyinosinic acid-polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)] in the presence of a constant concentration of diethylaminoethyl-dextran. The minimal inhibitory concentration of poly(I:C) for 44 of these strains ranged from 0.0001 to 0.1 μg/ml; for the remaining six strains, the minimal inhibitory concentration stood at 1 to 2 μg/ml. Fifteen isolates from primary infections were more susceptible to poly(I:C) than 35 isolates from recurrent infections. Isolates acquired at different points of a given clinical episode showed similar susceptibilities to poly(I:C). In two patients, isolates from consecutive recurrences of infection exhibited reduced susceptibilities. The implications of the above observations for the therapeutic use of poly(I:C) are discussed. PMID:195515

  13. Analysis of nucleic acid chaperoning by the prion protein and its inhibition by oligonucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Guichard, Cécile; Ivanyi-Nagy, Roland; Sharma, Kamal Kant; Gabus, Caroline; Marc, Daniel; Mély, Yves; Darlix, Jean-Luc

    2011-01-01

    Prion diseases are unique neurodegenerative illnesses associated with the conversion of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) into the aggregated misfolded scrapie isoform, named PrPSc. Recent studies on the physiological role of PrPC revealed that this protein has probably multiple functions, notably in cell–cell adhesion and signal transduction, and in assisting nucleic acid folding. In fact, in vitro findings indicated that the human PrP (huPrP) possesses nucleic acid binding and annealing activities, similarly to nucleic acid chaperone proteins that play essential roles in cellular DNA and RNA metabolism. Here, we show that a peptide, representing the N-terminal domain of huPrP, facilitates nucleic acid annealing by two parallel pathways nucleated through the stem termini. We also show that PrP of human or ovine origin facilitates DNA strand exchange, ribozyme-directed cleavage of an RNA template and RNA trans-splicing in a manner similar to the nucleocapsid protein of HIV-1. In an attempt to characterize inhibitors of PrP-chaperoning in vitro we discovered that the thioaptamer 5′-GACACAAGCCGA-3′ was extensively inhibiting the PrP chaperoning activities. At the same time a recently characterized methylated oligoribonucleotide inhibiting the chaperoning activity of the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein was poorly impairing the PrP chaperoning activities. PMID:21737432

  14. Analysis of nucleic acid chaperoning by the prion protein and its inhibition by oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Guichard, Cécile; Ivanyi-Nagy, Roland; Sharma, Kamal Kant; Gabus, Caroline; Marc, Daniel; Mély, Yves; Darlix, Jean-Luc

    2011-10-01

    Prion diseases are unique neurodegenerative illnesses associated with the conversion of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) into the aggregated misfolded scrapie isoform, named PrP(Sc). Recent studies on the physiological role of PrP(C) revealed that this protein has probably multiple functions, notably in cell-cell adhesion and signal transduction, and in assisting nucleic acid folding. In fact, in vitro findings indicated that the human PrP (huPrP) possesses nucleic acid binding and annealing activities, similarly to nucleic acid chaperone proteins that play essential roles in cellular DNA and RNA metabolism. Here, we show that a peptide, representing the N-terminal domain of huPrP, facilitates nucleic acid annealing by two parallel pathways nucleated through the stem termini. We also show that PrP of human or ovine origin facilitates DNA strand exchange, ribozyme-directed cleavage of an RNA template and RNA trans-splicing in a manner similar to the nucleocapsid protein of HIV-1. In an attempt to characterize inhibitors of PrP-chaperoning in vitro we discovered that the thioaptamer 5'-GACACAAGCCGA-3' was extensively inhibiting the PrP chaperoning activities. At the same time a recently characterized methylated oligoribonucleotide inhibiting the chaperoning activity of the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein was poorly impairing the PrP chaperoning activities.

  15. Ferulic acid inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis via blockage of PI3K/Akt pathway in osteosarcoma cell.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Gong, Xia; Jiang, Rong; Li, Hongzhong; Du, Weimin; Kuang, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Ferulic acid, a ubiquitous phenolic acid abundant in corn, wheat and flax, has potent anti-tumor effect in various cancer cell lines. However, the anti-tumor effect of ferulic acid on osteosarcoma remains unclear. Therefore, we conduct current study to examine the effect of ferulic acid on osteosarcoma cells and explore the underlying mechanisms. In present study, ferulic acid inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in both 143B and MG63 osteosarcoma cells dose-dependently, indicated by MTT assay and Annexin V-FITC apoptosis detection. Additionally, ferulic acid induced G0/G1 phase arrest and down-regulated the expression of cell cycle-related protein, CDK 2, CDK 4, CDK 6, confirmed by flow cytometry assay and western blotting. Moreover, ferulic acid upregulated Bax, downregulated Bcl-2, and subsequently enhanced caspase-3 activity. More importantly, ferulic acid dose-dependently inhibited PI3K/Akt activation. Using adenoviruses expressing active Akt, the anti-proliferation and pro-apoptosis of ferulic acid were reverted. Our results demonstrated that ferulic acid might inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis via inhibiting PI3K/Akt pathway in osteosarcoma cells. Ferulic acid is a novel therapeutic agent for osteosarcoma.

  16. Ferulic acid inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis via blockage of PI3K/Akt pathway in osteosarcoma cell

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ting; Gong, Xia; Jiang, Rong; Li, Hongzhong; Du, Weimin; Kuang, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Ferulic acid, a ubiquitous phenolic acid abundant in corn, wheat and flax, has potent anti-tumor effect in various cancer cell lines. However, the anti-tumor effect of ferulic acid on osteosarcoma remains unclear. Therefore, we conduct current study to examine the effect of ferulic acid on osteosarcoma cells and explore the underlying mechanisms. In present study, ferulic acid inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in both 143B and MG63 osteosarcoma cells dose-dependently, indicated by MTT assay and Annexin V-FITC apoptosis detection. Additionally, ferulic acid induced G0/G1 phase arrest and down-regulated the expression of cell cycle-related protein, CDK 2, CDK 4, CDK 6, confirmed by flow cytometry assay and western blotting. Moreover, ferulic acid upregulated Bax, downregulated Bcl-2, and subsequently enhanced caspase-3 activity. More importantly, ferulic acid dose-dependently inhibited PI3K/Akt activation. Using adenoviruses expressing active Akt, the anti-proliferation and pro-apoptosis of ferulic acid were reverted. Our results demonstrated that ferulic acid might inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis via inhibiting PI3K/Akt pathway in osteosarcoma cells. Ferulic acid is a novel therapeutic agent for osteosarcoma. PMID:27158383

  17. Ursolic Acid Inhibits Na+/K+-ATPase Activity and Prevents TNF-α-Induced Gene Expression by Blocking Amino Acid Transport and Cellular Protein Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Yokomichi, Tomonobu; Morimoto, Kyoko; Oshima, Nana; Yamada, Yuriko; Fu, Liwei; Taketani, Shigeru; Ando, Masayoshi; Kataoka, Takao

    2011-01-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, induce the expression of a wide variety of genes, including intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Ursolic acid (3β-hydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid) was identified to inhibit the cell-surface ICAM-1 expression induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines in human lung carcinoma A549 cells. Ursolic acid was found to inhibit the TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 protein expression almost completely, whereas the TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 mRNA expression and NF-κB signaling pathway were decreased only partially by ursolic acid. In line with these findings, ursolic acid prevented cellular protein synthesis as well as amino acid uptake, but did not obviously affect nucleoside uptake and the subsequent DNA/RNA syntheses. This inhibitory profile of ursolic acid was similar to that of the Na+/K+-ATPase inhibitor, ouabain, but not the translation inhibitor, cycloheximide. Consistent with this notion, ursolic acid was found to inhibit the catalytic activity of Na+/K+-ATPase. Thus, our present study reveals a novel molecular mechanism in which ursolic acid inhibits Na+/K+-ATPase activity and prevents the TNF-α-induced gene expression by blocking amino acid transport and cellular protein synthesis. PMID:24970122

  18. The induction of apoptosis in pre-malignant keratinocytes by omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is inhibited by albumin.

    PubMed

    Nikolakopoulou, Zacharoula; Shaikh, Mushfiq Hassan; Dehlawi, Hebah; Michael-Titus, Adina Teodora; Parkinson, Eric Kenneth

    2013-04-12

    The long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been reported to exert anti-cancer effects. At this study we tested the effect of the omega-3 PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), on pre-malignant keratinocytes growth in the well-characterised human pre-malignant epidermal cell line, HaCaT and attempted to identify a PUFA serum antagonist. Both EPA and DHA inhibited HaCaT growth and induced apoptosis. At the 10% (v/v) foetal bovine serum (FBS) medium, limited growth inhibition (3-20% for 50μM DHA and EPA respectively) and negligible apoptosis were observed with PUFA use. However, at 3% (v/v) FBS medium, 30-50μM of PUFA caused impressive levels of growth inhibition (82-83% for 50μM DHA and EPA respectively) and increase of apoptosis (8-19% increase in 72h). None of the numerous serum growth factors present in FBS or the antioxidant n-tert-butyl-α-phenylnitrone could inhibit the PUFA-induced cytotoxicity. In contrast, bovine and human albumin (0.1-0.3%, w/v) significantly antagonized the growth inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effects of PUFA. In conclusion, we have shown for the first time that omega-3 PUFA inhibit the growth and induce apoptosis of pre-malignant keratinocytes and identified albumin as a major antagonistic factor in serum that could limit their effectiveness at pharmacologically-achievable doses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evidence That Speciation of Oxovanadium Complexes Does Not Solely Account for Inhibition of Leishmania Acid Phosphatases

    PubMed Central

    Dorsey, Benjamin M.; McLauchlan, Craig C.; Jones, Marjorie A.

    2018-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is an endemic disease affecting a diverse spectra of populations, with 1.6 million new cases reported each year. Current treatment options are costly and have harsh side effects. New therapeutic options that have been previously identified, but still underappreciated as potential pharmaceutical targets, are Leishmania secreted acid phosphatases (SAP). These acid phosphatases, which are reported to play a role in the survival of the parasite in the sand fly vector, and in homing to the host macrophage, are inhibited by orthovanadate and decavanadate. Here, we use L. tarentolae to further evaluate these inhibitors. Using enzyme assays, and UV-visible spectroscopy, we investigate which oxovanadium starting material (orthovanadate or decavanadate) is a better inhibitor of L. tarentolae secreted acid phosphatase activity in vitro at the same total moles of vanadium. Considering speciation and total vanadium concentration, decavanadate is a consistently better inhibitor of SAP in our conditions, especially at low substrate:inhibitor ratios. PMID:29707535

  20. Evidence that Speciation of Oxovanadium Complexes does not Solely Account for Inhibition of Leishmania Acid Phosphatases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorsey, Benjamin M.; McLauchlan, Craig C.; Jones, Marjorie A.

    2018-04-01

    Leishmaniasis is an endemic disease affecting a diverse spectra of populations, with 1.6 million new cases reported each year. Current treatment options are costly and have harsh side effects. New therapeutic options that have been previously identified, but still underappreciated as potential pharmaceutical targets, are Leishmania secreted acid phosphatases (SAP). These acid phosphatases, which are reported to play a role in the survival of the parasite in the sand fly vector, and in homing to the host macrophage, are inhibited by orthovanadate and decavanadate. Here, we use L. tarentolae to further evaluate these inhibitors. Using enzyme assays, and UV-visible spectroscopy, we investigate which oxovanadium starting material (orthovanadate or decavanadate) is a better inhibitor of L. tarentolae secreted acid phosphatase activity in vitro at the same total moles of vanadium. Considering speciation and total vanadium concentration, decavanadate is a consistently better inhibitor of SAP in our conditions, especially at low substrate:inhibitor ratios.

  1. Caffeic and chlorogenic acids inhibit key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes (in vitro): a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Agunloye, Odunayo M; Adefegha, Stephen A; Akinyemi, Ayodele J; Ademiluyi, Adedayo O

    2015-03-01

    Chlorogenic acid is a major phenolic compound that forms a substantial part of plant foods and is an ester of caffeic acid and quinic acid. However, the effect of the structures of both chlorogenic and caffeic acids on their antioxidant and antidiabetic potentials have not been fully understood. Thus, this study sought to investigate and compare the interaction of caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid with α-amylase and α-glucosidase (key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes) activities in vitro. The inhibitory effect of the phenolic acids on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities was evaluated. Thereafter, their antioxidant activities as typified by their 1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging ability and ferric reducing antioxidant properties were determined. The results revealed that both phenolic acids inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities in a dose-dependent manner (2-8 μg/mL). However, caffeic acid had a significantly (p<0.05) higher inhibitory effect on α-amylase [IC50 (concentration of sample causing 50% enzyme inhibition)=3.68 μg/mL] and α-glucosidase (IC50=4.98 μg/mL) activities than chlorogenic acid (α-amylase IC50=9.10 μg/mL and α-glucosidase IC50=9.24 μg/mL). Furthermore, both phenolic acids exhibited high antioxidant properties, with caffeic acid showing higher effects. The esterification of caffeic acid with quinic acid, producing chlorogenic acid, reduces their ability to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities. Thus, the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities by the phenolic acids could be part of the possible mechanism by which the phenolic acids exert their antidiabetic effects.

  2. Structural basis of the inhibition of class C acid phosphatases by adenosine 5;#8242;-phosphorothioate

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Harkewal; Reilly, Thomas J.; Tanner, John J.

    2012-01-20

    The inhibition of phosphatases by adenosine 5'-phosphorothioate (AMPS) was first reported in the late 1960s; however, the structural basis for the inhibition has remained unknown. Here, it is shown that AMPS is a submicromolar inhibitor of class C acid phosphatases, a group of bacterial outer membrane enzymes belonging to the haloacid dehalogenase structural superfamily. Furthermore, the 1.35-{angstrom} resolution crystal structure of the inhibited recombinant Haemophilus influenzae class C acid phosphatase was determined; this is the first structure of a phosphatase complexed with AMPS. The conformation of AMPS is identical to that of the substrate 5'-AMP, except that steric factors forcemore » a rotation of the thiophosphoryl out of the normal phosphoryl-binding pocket. This conformation is catalytically nonproductive, because the P atom is not positioned optimally for nucleophilic attack by Asp64, and the O atom of the scissile O-P bond is too far from the Asp (Asp66) that protonates the leaving group. The structure of 5'-AMP complexed with the Asp64 {yields} Asn mutant enzyme was also determined at 1.35-{angstrom} resolution. This mutation induces the substrate to adopt the same nonproductive binding mode that is observed in the AMPS complex. In this case, electrostatic considerations, rather than steric factors, underlie the movement of the phosphoryl. The structures not only provide an explanation for the inhibition by AMPS, but also highlight the precise steric and electrostatic requirements of phosphoryl recognition by class C acid phosphatases. Moreover, the structure of the Asp64 {yields} Asn mutant illustrates how a seemingly innocuous mutation can cause an unexpected structural change.« less

  3. Ursodeoxycholic acid inhibits hepatic cystogenesis in experimental models of polycystic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Munoz-Garrido, Patricia; Marin, José J G; Perugorria, María J; Urribarri, Aura D; Erice, Oihane; Sáez, Elena; Úriz, Miriam; Sarvide, Sarai; Portu, Ainhoa; Concepcion, Axel R; Romero, Marta R; Monte, María J; Santos-Laso, Álvaro; Hijona, Elizabeth; Jimenez-Agüero, Raúl; Marzioni, Marco; Beuers, Ulrich; Masyuk, Tatyana V; LaRusso, Nicholas F; Prieto, Jesús; Bujanda, Luis; Drenth, Joost P H; Banales, Jesús M

    2015-10-01

    Polycystic liver diseases (PLDs) are genetic disorders characterized by progressive biliary cystogenesis. Current therapies show short-term and/or modest beneficial effects. Cystic cholangiocytes hyperproliferate as a consequence of diminished intracellular calcium levels ([Ca(2+)]i). Here, the therapeutic value of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) was investigated. Effect of UDCA was examined in vitro and in polycystic (PCK) rats. Hepatic cystogenesis and fibrosis, and the bile acid (BA) content were evaluated from the liver, bile, serum, and kidneys by HPLC-MS/MS. Chronic treatment of PCK rats with UDCA inhibits hepatic cystogenesis and fibrosis, and improves their motor behaviour. As compared to wild-type animals, PCK rats show increased BA concentration ([BA]) in liver, similar hepatic Cyp7a1 mRNA levels, and diminished [BA] in bile. Likewise, [BA] is increased in cystic fluid of PLD patients compared to their matched serum levels. In PCK rats, UDCA decreases the intrahepatic accumulation of cytotoxic BA, normalizes their diminished [BA] in bile, increases the BA secretion in bile and diminishes the increased [BA] in kidneys. In vitro, UDCA inhibits the hyperproliferation of polycystic human cholangiocytes via a PI3K/AKT/MEK/ERK1/2-dependent mechanism without affecting apoptosis. Finally, the presence of glycodeoxycholic acid promotes the proliferation of polycystic human cholangiocytes, which is inhibited by both UDCA and tauro-UDCA. UDCA was able to halt the liver disease of a rat model of PLD through inhibiting cystic cholangiocyte hyperproliferation and decreasing the levels of cytotoxic BA species in the liver, which suggests the use of UDCA as a potential therapeutic tool for PLD patients. Copyright © 2015 European Association for the Study of the Liver. All rights reserved.

  4. Autophagy inhibition enhances anticancer efficacy of artepillin C, a cinnamic acid derivative in Brazilian green propolis.

    PubMed

    Endo, Satoshi; Hoshi, Manami; Matsunaga, Toshiyuki; Inoue, Takahiro; Ichihara, Kenji; Ikari, Akira

    2018-02-26

    Propolis, a resinous substance produced by honeybees, possesses various biological actions including anticancer activity towards tumor cells. Recently, the ethanol extract of Brazilian green propolis has been shown to induce autophagy, which is known to be induced in treatment of cancer cells with anticancer drugs, leading to cancer cell survival and decreased sensitivity to anticancer agents. In this study, we aimed to identify autophagy-inducing components of the propolis and elucidated the reciprocal relationship between anticancer cytotoxicity and protective autophagy in prostate cancer CWR22Rv1 cells. Among eight cinnamic acid derivatives [chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, 3,4-caffeoylquinic acid, artepillin C (ArtC), baccharin, drupanin and caffeic acid phenethyl ester] in propolis, only ArtC showed high autophagy-inducing activity accompanying LC3-II upregulation. ArtC was also induced apoptosis as revealed by DNA fragmentation and increases in cleaved caspase-3 and poly ADP-ribose polymerase. The apoptosis induced by ArtC was exacerbated by cotreatment with autophagy inhibitors (chloroquine, wortmannin and U0126). The cotreatment further induced necroptosis accompanying increased expression of receptor-interacting serine/threonine protein kinases 1 and 3. These data indicate that cytotoxicity of ArtC to the prostate cancer cells is dampened by induced autophagy, but is markedly augmented by inhibition of autophagy. Therefore, the combination of ArtC and autophagy inhibitors may be a novel complementary-alternative treatment for prostate cancer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Folic acid inhibits homocysteine-induced cell apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Cui, Shanshan; Li, Wen; Wang, Pengyan; Lv, Xin; Gao, Yuxia; Huang, Guowei

    2017-12-18

    Homocysteine may be responsible for vascular endothelial cell injury, which occurs early in the pathology of cardiovascular disease. Homocysteine metabolism requires enzymatic interaction with vitamins such as folic acid, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6. We hypothesized that folic acid alleviated homocysteine-induced vascular injury by regulating the metabolic pathway of apoptosis. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were incubated for 48 h with folic acid at the concentrations of 0-1000 nmol/L, in combination with either 1000 μmol/L homocysteine or vehicle for the first 24 h. We then assessed cell viability and apoptosis by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay and flow cytometry, respectively. To further investigate how folic acid influenced cell apoptosis, we also analyzed the activities of caspase-3/7 and the mRNA and protein expressions of BCL2, BAX, TP53, CASP3, and CASP8 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. We showed that folic acid increased cell viability and decreased apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner, and that this effect was mediated by decreased caspase-3/7 activity, upregulated BCL2/BAX ratio, and downregulated TP53, CASP3, and CASP8 expressions. Thus, we conclude that folic acid inhibits cell apoptosis and ameliorates homocysteine toxicity by regulating the expression of apoptosis-related genes in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

  6. Capric Acid Secreted by S. boulardii Inhibits C. albicans Filamentous Growth, Adhesion and Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Murzyn, Anna; Krasowska, Anna; Stefanowicz, Piotr; Dziadkowiec, Dorota; Łukaszewicz, Marcin

    2010-01-01

    Candidiasis are life-threatening systemic fungal diseases, especially of gastro intestinal track, skin and mucous membranes lining various body cavities like the nostrils, the mouth, the lips, the eyelids, the ears or the genital area. Due to increasing resistance of candidiasis to existing drugs, it is very important to look for new strategies helping the treatment of such fungal diseases. One promising strategy is the use of the probiotic microorganisms, which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit. Such a probiotic microorganism is yeast Saccharomyces boulardii, a close relative of baker yeast. Saccharomyces boulardii cells and their extract affect the virulence factors of the important human fungal pathogen C. albicans, its hyphae formation, adhesion and biofilm development. Extract prepared from S. boulardii culture filtrate was fractionated and GC-MS analysis showed that the active fraction contained, apart from 2-phenylethanol, caproic, caprylic and capric acid whose presence was confirmed by ESI-MS analysis. Biological activity was tested on C. albicans using extract and pure identified compounds. Our study demonstrated that this probiotic yeast secretes into the medium active compounds reducing candidal virulence factors. The chief compound inhibiting filamentous C. albicans growth comparably to S. boulardii extract was capric acid, which is thus responsible for inhibition of hyphae formation. It also reduced candidal adhesion and biofilm formation, though three times less than the extract, which thus contains other factors suppressing C. albicans adherence. The expression profile of selected genes associated with C. albicans virulence by real-time PCR showed a reduced expression of HWP1, INO1 and CSH1 genes in C. albicans cells treated with capric acid and S. boulardii extract. Hence capric acid secreted by S. boulardii is responsible for inhibition of C. albicans filamentation and partially also adhesion and biofilm formation. PMID

  7. Ursolic Acid Inhibits Superoxide Production in Activated Neutrophils and Attenuates Trauma-Hemorrhage Shock-Induced Organ Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Tsong-Long; Shen, Hsin-I; Liu, Fu-Chao; Tsai, Hsin-I; Wu, Yang-Chang; Chang, Fang-Rong; Yu, Huang-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Neutrophil activation is associated with the development of organ injury after trauma–hemorrhagic shock. In the present study, ursolic acid inhibited the superoxide anion generation and elastase release in human neutrophils. Administration of ursolic acid attenuated trauma–hemorrhagic shock-induced hepatic and lung injuries in rats. In addition, administration of ursolic acid attenuated the hepatic malondialdehyde levels and reduced the plasma aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels after trauma–hemorrhagic shock. In conclusion, ursolic acid, a bioactive natural compound, inhibits superoxide anion generation and elastase release in human neutrophils and ameliorates trauma–hemorrhagic shock-induced organ injury in rats. PMID:25360589

  8. Carnosic acid inhibits the proliferation and migration capacity of human colorectal cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    BARNI, M.V.; CARLINI, M.J.; CAFFERATA, E.G.; PURICELLI, L.; MORENO, S.

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common malignant neoplasm worldwide. The objective of this study was to examine whether carnosic acid (CA), the main antioxidant compound of Rosmarinus officinalis L., would inhibit the cell viability of three CRC cell lines: Caco-2, HT29 and LoVo in a dose-dependent manner, with IC50 values in the range of 24–96 μM. CA induced cell death by apoptosis in Caco-2 line after 24 h of treatment and inhibited cell adhesion and migration, possibly by reducing the activity of secreted proteases such as urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and metalloproteinases (MMPs). These effects may be associated through a mechanism involving the inhibition of the COX-2 pathway, because we have determined that CA downregulates the expression of COX-2 in Caco-2 cells at both the mRNA and protein levels. Therefore, CA modulates different targets involved in the development of CRC. These findings indicate that carnosic acid may have anticancer activity and may be useful as a novel chemotherapeutic agent. PMID:22246562

  9. Inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus by crude and fractionated extract from lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wong, C-B; Khoo, B-Y; Sasidharan, S; Piyawattanametha, W; Kim, S H; Khemthongcharoen, N; Ang, M-Y; Chuah, L-O; Liong, M-T

    2015-03-01

    Increasing levels of antibiotic resistance by Staphylococcus aureus have posed a need to search for non-antibiotic alternatives. This study aimed to assess the inhibitory effects of crude and fractionated cell-free supernatants (CFS) of locally isolated lactic acid bacteria (LAB) against a clinical strain of S. aureus. A total of 42 LAB strains were isolated and identified from fresh vegetables, fresh fruits and fermented products prior to evaluation of inhibitory activities. CFS of LAB strains exhibiting a stronger inhibitive effect against S. aureus were fractionated into crude protein, polysaccharide and lipid fractions. Crude protein fractions showed greater inhibition against S. aureus compared to polysaccharide and lipid fractions, with a more prevalent effect from Lactobacillus plantarum 8513 and L. plantarum BT8513. Crude protein, polysaccharide and lipid fractions were also characterised with glycine, mannose and oleic acid being detected as the major component of each fraction, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy revealed roughed and wrinkled membrane morphology of S. aureus upon treatment with crude protein fractions of LAB, suggesting an inhibitory effect via the destruction of cellular membrane. This research illustrated the potential application of fractionated extracts from LAB to inhibit S. aureus for use in the food and health industry.

  10. Do pH and flavonoids influence hypochlorous acid-induced catalase inhibition and heme modification?

    PubMed

    Krych-Madej, Justyna; Gebicka, Lidia

    2015-09-01

    Hypochlorous acid (HOCl), highly reactive oxidizing and chlorinating species, is formed in the immune response to invading pathogens by the reaction of hydrogen peroxide with chloride catalyzed by the enzyme myeloperoxidase. Catalase, an important antioxidant enzyme, catalyzing decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to water and molecular oxygen, hampers in vitro HOCl formation, but is also one of the main targets for HOCl. In this work we have investigated HOCl-induced catalase inhibition at different pH, and the influence of flavonoids (catechin, epigallocatechin gallate and quercetin) on this process. It has been shown that HOCl-induced catalase inhibition is independent on pH in the range 6.0-7.4. Preincubation of catalase with epigallocatechin gallate and quercetin before HOCl treatment enhances the degree of catalase inhibition, whereas catechin does not affect this process. Our rapid kinetic measurements of absorption changes around the heme group have revealed that heme modification by HOCl is mainly due to secondary, intramolecular processes. The presence of flavonoids, which reduce active catalase intermediate, Compound I to inactive Compound II have not influenced the kinetics of HOCl-induced heme modification. Possible mechanisms of the reaction of hypochlorous acid with catalase are proposed and the biological consequences are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Monomethylarsonous acid (MMA+3) Inhibits IL-7 Signaling in Mouse Pre-B Cells.

    PubMed

    Ezeh, Peace C; Xu, Huan; Lauer, Fredine T; Liu, Ke Jian; Hudson, Laurie G; Burchiel, Scott W

    2016-02-01

    Our previously published data show that As(+3) in vivo and in vitro, at very low concentrations, inhibits lymphoid, but not myeloid stem cell development in mouse bone marrow. We also showed that the As(+3) metabolite, monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(+3)), was responsible for the observed pre-B cell toxicity caused by As(+3). Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is the primary growth factor responsible for pre-lymphoid development in mouse and human bone marrow, and Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 5 (STAT5) is a transcriptional factor in the IL-7 signaling pathway. We found that MMA(+3) inhibited STAT5 phosphorylation at a concentration as low as 50 nM in mouse bone marrow pre-B cells. Inhibition of STAT5 phosphorylation by As(+3) occurred only at a concentration of 500 nM. In the IL-7 dependent mouse pre-B 2E8 cell line, we also found selective inhibition of STAT5 phosphorylation by MMA(+3), and this inhibition was dependent on effects on JAK3 phosphorylation. IL-7 receptor expression on 2E8 cell surface was also suppressed by 50 nM MMA(+3) at 18 h. As further evidence for the inhibition of STAT5, we found that the induction of several genes required in B cell development, cyclin D1, E2A, EBF1, and PAX5, were selectively inhibited by MMA(+3). Since 2E8 cells lack the enzymes responsible for the conversion of As(+3) to MMA(+3) in vitro, the results of these studies suggest that As(+3) induced inhibition of pre-B cell formation in vivo is likely dependent on the formation of MMA(+3) which in turn inhibits IL-7 signaling at several steps in mouse pre-B cells. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Gambogic acid inhibits multiple myeloma mediated osteoclastogenesis through suppression of chemokine receptor CXCR4 signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Manoj K; Kale, Vijay P; Song, Chunhua; Sung, Shen-shu; Sharma, Arun K; Talamo, Giampaolo; Dovat, Sinisa; Amin, Shantu G

    2014-10-01

    Bone disease, characterized by the presence of lytic lesions and osteoporosis is the hallmark of multiple myeloma (MM). Stromal cell-derived factor 1α (SDF-1α) and its receptor, CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), has been implicated as a regulator of bone resorption, suggesting that agents that can suppress SDF1α/CXCR4 signaling might inhibit osteoclastogenesis, a process closely linked to bone resorption. We, therefore, investigated whether gambogic acid (GA), a xanthone, could inhibit CXCR4 signaling and suppress osteoclastogenesis induced by MM cells. Through docking studies we predicted that GA directly interacts with CXCR4. This xanthone down-regulates the expression of CXCR4 on MM cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The down-regulation of CXCR4 was not due to proteolytic degradation, but rather GA suppresses CXCR4 mRNA expression by inhibiting nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) DNA binding. This was further confirmed by quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, as GA inhibits p65 binding at the CXCR4 promoter. GA suppressed SDF-1α-induced chemotaxis of MM cells and downstream signaling of CXCR4 by inhibiting phosphorylation of Akt, p38, and Erk1/2 in MM cells. GA abrogated the RANKL-induced differentiation of macrophages to osteoclasts in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In addition, we found that MM cells induced differentiation of macrophages to osteoclasts, and that GA suppressed this process. Importantly, suppression of osteoclastogenesis by GA was mediated through IL-6 inhibition. Overall, our results show that GA is a novel inhibitor of CXCR4 expression and has a strong potential to suppress osteoclastogenesis mediated by MM cells. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Inhibition of Acid Sensing Ion Channel Currents by Lidocaine in Cultured Mouse Cortical Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jun; Chu, Xiangping; Maysami, Samaneh; Li, Minghua; Si, Hongfang; Cottrell, James E.; Simon, Roger P.; Xiong, Zhigang

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Lidocaine is a local anesthetic that has multiple pharmacological effects including antiarrhythmia, antinociception, and neuroprotection. Acid sensing ion channels (ASICs) are proton-gated cation channels that belong to the epithelial sodium channel/degenerin superfamily. Activation of ASICs by protons results in sodium and calcium influx. ASICs have been implicated in various physiological processes including learning/memory, nociception, and in acidosis-mediated neuron injury. In this study, we examined the effect of lidocaine on ASICs in cultured mouse cortical neurons. METHODS ASIC currents were activated and recorded using a whole-cell patch-clamp technique in cultured mouse cortical neurons. The effects of lidocaine at different concentrations were examined. To determine whether the inhibition of lidocaine on ASIC currents is subunit specific, we examined the effect of lidocaine on homomeric ASIC1a and ASIC2a currents expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. RESULTS Lidocaine significantly inhibits the ASIC currents in mouse cortical neurons. The inhibition was reversible and dose dependent. A detectable effect was noticed at a concentration of 0.3 mM lidocaine. At 30 mM, ASIC current was inhibited by approximately 90%. Analysis of the complete dose-response relationship yielded a half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 11.79 ± 1.74 mM and a Hill coefficient of 2.7 ± 0.5 (n = 10). The effect is rapid and does not depend on pH. In Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing different ASIC subunits, lidocaine inhibits the ASIC1a current without affecting the ASIC2a current. CONCLUSION ASIC currents are significantly inhibited by lidocaine. Our finding reveals a new pharmacological effect of lidocaine in neurons. PMID:21385979

  14. Comparison of sodium acid sulfate to citric acid to inhibit browning of fresh-cut potatoes.

    PubMed

    Calder, Beth L; Kash, Emily A; Davis-Dentici, Katherine; Bushway, Alfred A

    2011-04-01

    Sodium acid sulfate (SAS) dip treatments were evaluated against a distilled water control and citric acid (CA) to compare its effectiveness in reducing enzymatic browning of raw, French-fry cut potatoes. Two separate studies were conducted with dip concentrations ranging from 0%, 1%, and 3% in experiment 1 to 0%, 2%, and 2.5% in experiment 2 to determine optimal dip concentrations. Russet Burbank potatoes were peeled, sliced, and dipped for 1 min and stored at 3 °C. Color, texture, fry surface pH, and microbiological analyses were conducted on days 0, 7, and 14. The 3% SAS- and CA-treated samples had significantly (p<0.0001) lower pH levels on fry surfaces than all other treatments. Both acidulants had significantly (p≤0.05) lower aerobic plate counts compared to controls in both studies by day 7. However, SAS appeared to be the most effective at the 3% level in maintaining a light fry color up to day 14 and had the highest L-values than all other treatments. The 3% SAS-treated fry slices appeared to have the least change in textural properties over storage time, having a significantly (p=0.0002) higher force value (kg force [kgf]) than the other treatments during experiment 1, without any signs of case-hardening that appeared in the control and CA-treated samples. SAS was just as comparable to CA in reducing surface fry pH and also lowering microbial counts over storage time. According to the results, SAS may be another viable acidulant to be utilized in the fresh-cut fruit and vegetable industry.

  15. Aminomethylphosphonic acid inhibits growth and metastasis of human prostate cancer in an orthotopic xenograft mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Parajuli, Keshab Raj; Zhang, Qiuyang; Liu, Sen; You, Zongbing

    2016-01-01

    Aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) has been shown to inhibit prostate cancer cell growth in vitro. The purpose of the present study was to determine if AMPA could inhibit growth and metastasis of prostate cancer in vivo. Human prostate cancer PC-3-LacZ-luciferase cells were implanted into the ventral lateral lobes of the prostate in 39 athymic Nu/Nu nude male mice. Seven days later, mice were randomized into the control group (n = 14, treated intraperitoneally with phosphate buffered saline), low dose group (n = 10, treated intraperitoneally with AMPA at 400 mg/kg body weight/day), and high dose group (n = 15, treated intraperitoneally with AMPA at 800 mg/kg body weight/day). Tumor growth and metastasis were examined every 4-7 days by bioluminescence imaging of live mice. We found that AMPA treatment significantly inhibited growth and metastasis of orthotopic xenograft prostate tumors and prolonged the survival time of the mice. AMPA treatment decreased expression of BIRC2 and activated caspase 3, leading to increased apoptosis in the prostate tumors. AMPA treatment decreased expression of cyclin D1. AMPA treatment also reduced angiogenesis in the prostate tumors. Taken together, these results demonstrate that AMPA can inhibit prostate cancer growth and metastasis, suggesting that AMPA may be developed into a therapeutic agent for the treatment of prostate cancer. PMID:26840261

  16. [Inhibition of oxidation of unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters by essential oils].

    PubMed

    Misharina, T A; Alinkina, E S; Vorobjeva, A K; Terenina, M B; Krikunova, N I

    2016-01-01

    The essential oils from 16 various spice plants were studied as natural antioxidants for the inhibition of autooxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids methyl esters isolated from linseed oil. The content of methyl oleate, methyl linoleate, and methyl linolenoate after 1, 2, and 4 months of autooxidation were used as criteria to estimate the antioxidant efficiencies of essential oils. In 4 months, 92% of the methyl linolenoate and 79% of the methyl linoleate were oxidized in a control sample of a model system. It was found that the most effective antioxidants were essential oils from clove bud, cinnamon leaves, and oregano. They inhibited autooxidation of methyl linolenoate by 76–85%. The antioxidant properties of these essential oils were due to phenols— eugenol, carvacrol, and thymol. Essential oil from coriander did not contain phenols, but it inhibited methyl linolenoate oxidation by 38%. Essential oils from thyme, savory, mace, lemon, and tea tree inhibited methyl linolenoate oxidation by 17–24%. The other essential oils had no antioxidant properties.

  17. Aminomethylphosphonic acid inhibits growth and metastasis of human prostate cancer in an orthotopic xenograft mouse model.

    PubMed

    Parajuli, Keshab Raj; Zhang, Qiuyang; Liu, Sen; You, Zongbing

    2016-03-01

    Aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) has been shown to inhibit prostate cancer cell growth in vitro. The purpose of the present study was to determine if AMPA could inhibit growth and metastasis of prostate cancer in vivo. Human prostate cancer PC-3-LacZ-luciferase cells were implanted into the ventral lateral lobes of the prostate in 39 athymic Nu/Nu nude male mice. Seven days later, mice were randomized into the control group (n = 14, treated intraperitoneally with phosphate buffered saline), low dose group (n = 10, treated intraperitoneally with AMPA at 400 mg/kg body weight/day), and high dose group (n = 15, treated intraperitoneally with AMPA at 800 mg/kg body weight/day). Tumor growth and metastasis were examined every 4-7 days by bioluminescence imaging of live mice. We found that AMPA treatment significantly inhibited growth and metastasis of orthotopic xenograft prostate tumors and prolonged the survival time of the mice. AMPA treatment decreased expression of BIRC2 and activated caspase 3, leading to increased apoptosis in the prostate tumors. AMPA treatment decreased expression of cyclin D1. AMPA treatment also reduced angiogenesis in the prostate tumors. Taken together, these results demonstrate that AMPA can inhibit prostate cancer growth and metastasis, suggesting that AMPA may be developed into a therapeutic agent for the treatment of prostate cancer.

  18. Omega-3 fatty acids prevent inflammation and metabolic disorder through inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome activation.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yiqing; Jiang, Wei; Spinetti, Thibaud; Tardivel, Aubry; Castillo, Rosa; Bourquin, Carole; Guarda, Greta; Tian, Zhigang; Tschopp, Jurg; Zhou, Rongbin

    2013-06-27

    Omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3 FAs) have potential anti-inflammatory activity in a variety of inflammatory human diseases, but the mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we show that stimulation of macrophages with ω-3 FAs, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and other family members, abolished NLRP3 inflammasome activation and inhibited subsequent caspase-1 activation and IL-1β secretion. In addition, G protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) and GPR40 and their downstream scaffold protein β-arrestin-2 were shown to be involved in inflammasome inhibition induced by ω-3 FAs. Importantly, ω-3 FAs also prevented NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent inflammation and metabolic disorder in a high-fat-diet-induced type 2 diabetes model. Our results reveal a mechanism through which ω-3 FAs repress inflammation and prevent inflammation-driven diseases and suggest the potential clinical use of ω-3 FAs in gout, autoinflammatory syndromes, or other NLRP3 inflammasome-driven inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Triterpenic Acids Present in Hawthorn Lower Plasma Cholesterol by Inhibiting Intestinal ACAT Activity in Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yuguang; Vermeer, Mario A.; Trautwein, Elke A.

    2011-01-01

    Hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida) is an edible fruit used in traditional Chinese medicine to lower plasma lipids. This study explored lipid-lowering compounds and underlying mechanisms of action of hawthorn. Hawthorn powder extracts inhibited acylCoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) activity in Caco-2 cells. The inhibitory activity was positively associated with triterpenic acid (i.e., oleanolic acid (OA) and ursolic acid (UA)) contents in the extracts. Cholesterol lowering effects of hawthorn and its potential additive effect in combination with plant sterol esters (PSE) were further studied in hamsters. Animals were fed a semi-synthetic diet containing 0.08% (w/w) cholesterol (control) or the same diet supplemented with (i) 0.37% hawthorn dichloromethane extract, (ii) 0.24% PSE, (iii) hawthorn dichloromethane extract (0.37%) plus PSE (0.24%) or (iv) OA/UA mixture (0.01%) for 4 weeks. Compared to the control diet, hawthorn, PSE, hawthorn plus PSE and OA/UA significantly lowered plasma non-HDL (VLDL + LDL) cholesterol concentrations by 8%, 9%, 21% and 6% and decreased hepatic cholesterol ester content by 9%, 23%, 46% and 22%, respectively. The cholesterol lowering effects of these ingredients were conversely associated with their capacities in increasing fecal neutral sterol excretion. In conclusion, OA and UA are responsible for the cholesterol lowering effect of hawthorn by inhibiting intestinal ACAT activity. In addition, hawthorn and particularly its bioactive compounds (OA and UA) enhanced the cholesterol lowering effect of plant sterols. PMID:19228775

  20. Triterpenic Acids Present in Hawthorn Lower Plasma Cholesterol by Inhibiting Intestinal ACAT Activity in Hamsters.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuguang; Vermeer, Mario A; Trautwein, Elke A

    2011-01-01

    Hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida) is an edible fruit used in traditional Chinese medicine to lower plasma lipids. This study explored lipid-lowering compounds and underlying mechanisms of action of hawthorn. Hawthorn powder extracts inhibited acylCoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) activity in Caco-2 cells. The inhibitory activity was positively associated with triterpenic acid (i.e., oleanolic acid (OA) and ursolic acid (UA)) contents in the extracts. Cholesterol lowering effects of hawthorn and its potential additive effect in combination with plant sterol esters (PSE) were further studied in hamsters. Animals were fed a semi-synthetic diet containing 0.08% (w/w) cholesterol (control) or the same diet supplemented with (i) 0.37% hawthorn dichloromethane extract, (ii) 0.24% PSE, (iii) hawthorn dichloromethane extract (0.37%) plus PSE (0.24%) or (iv) OA/UA mixture (0.01%) for 4 weeks. Compared to the control diet, hawthorn, PSE, hawthorn plus PSE and OA/UA significantly lowered plasma non-HDL (VLDL + LDL) cholesterol concentrations by 8%, 9%, 21% and 6% and decreased hepatic cholesterol ester content by 9%, 23%, 46% and 22%, respectively. The cholesterol lowering effects of these ingredients were conversely associated with their capacities in increasing fecal neutral sterol excretion. In conclusion, OA and UA are responsible for the cholesterol lowering effect of hawthorn by inhibiting intestinal ACAT activity. In addition, hawthorn and particularly its bioactive compounds (OA and UA) enhanced the cholesterol lowering effect of plant sterols.

  1. Inhibition of nocturnal acidity is important but not essential for duodenal ulcer healing.

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi Porro, G; Parente, F; Sangaletti, O

    1990-01-01

    We have determined the relative importance of day and night time gastric acid inhibition for duodenal ulcer healing by comparing the anti-ulcer efficacy of a single morning with that of a single bedtime dose of ranitidine. One hundred and thirty patients with active duodenal ulcer were randomly assigned to a double-blind therapy with ranitidine 300 mg at 8 am or the same dose at 10 pm for up to eight weeks. The antisecretory effects of these regimens were also assessed by 24 h intragastric pH monitoring in 18 of these patients. At four weeks ulcers had healed in 41/61 (67%) of patients taking the morning dose and in 47/63 (75%) of those receiving the nocturnal dose (95% CI for the difference -0.09 +0.25; p ns). At eight weeks, the corresponding healing rates were 82% and 85.5%, respectively (95% CI for the difference -0.11 +0.17; p ns). Both treatments were significantly superior to placebo in raising 24 h intragastric pH, although the effects of the morning dose were of shorter duration than those of the nocturnal dose. These findings suggest that suppression of nocturnal acidity is important but not essential to promote healing of duodenal ulcers; a prolonged period of acid inhibition during the day (as obtained with a single large morning dose of H2-blockers) may be equally effective. PMID:2186980

  2. Food Polyphenol Apigenin Inhibits the Cytochrome P450 Monoxygenase Branch of the Arachidonic Acid Cascade.

    PubMed

    Steuck, Maryvonne; Hellhake, Stefan; Schebb, Nils Helge

    2016-11-30

    The product of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450) ω-hydroxylation of arachidonic acid (AA), 20- hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE), is a potent vasoconstrictor. Utilizing microsomes as well as individual CYP4 isoforms we demonstrate here that flavonoids can block 20-HETE formation. Apigenin inhibits CYP4F2 with an IC 50 value of 4.6 μM and 20-HETE formation in human liver and kidney microsomes at 2.4-9.8 μM. Interestingly, the structurally similar naringenin shows no relevant effect on the formation of 20-HETE. Based on these in vitro data, it is impossible to evaluate if a relevant blockade of 20-HETE formation can result in humans from intake of polyphenols with the diet. However, the potency of apigenin is comparable to those of P450 inhibitors such as ketoconazole. Moreover, an IC 50 value in the micromolar range is also described for the inhibition of CYP-mediated drug metabolism leading to food-drug interactions. The modulation of the arachidonic acid cascade by food polyphenols therefore warrants further investigation.

  3. Effect of furosemide on ion transport in the turtle bladder: evidence for direct inhibition of active acid-base transport.

    PubMed

    Ehrenspeck, G; Voner, C

    1985-07-25

    The diuretic furosemide inhibits acid-base transport in the short-circuited turtle bladder. It inhibits luminal acidification when present in either mucosal or serosal bathing fluids, but decreases alkalinization only from the serosal side of the tissue. The inhibition of both acid-base transport processes is independent of ambient Cl-; and the disulfonic stilbene, SITS, an inhibitor of Cl--HCO3- exchange, fails to prevent the furosemide-elicited inhibition of alkalinization. These results preclude an absolute requirement of a furosemide-sensitive Cl--HCO3- exchange by these transport processes. The drug also interferes with the CO2-induced stimulation of acidification and alkalinization. The inhibition of the residual acidification in acetazolamide-treated, acidotic bladders, however, suggests an action at sites other than cytosolic carbonic anhydrase. Although active Na+ and Cl- reabsorption and tissue oxygen uptake are also decreased by furosemide, the rate of oxygen consumption uncoupled by 2,4-dinitrophenol is not diminished, indicating a primary inhibition of the various ion transport processes, not of metabolism. It is proposed that inhibition of transepithelial acid-base transport by furosemide in the turtle bladder includes inhibition of the acid-base pumps.

  4. INHIBITION OF FATTY ACID DESATURASES IN Drosophila melanogaster LARVAE BLOCKS FEEDING AND DEVELOPMENTAL PROGRESSION.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiwen; da Cruz, Tina Correia; Pulfemuller, Alicia; Grégoire, Stéphane; Ferveur, Jean-François; Moussian, Bernard

    2016-05-01

    Fatty acid desaturases are metabolic setscrews. To study their systemic impact on growth in Drosophila melanogaster, we inhibited fatty acid desaturases using the inhibitor CAY10566. As expected, the amount of desaturated lipids is reduced in larvae fed with CAY10566. These animals cease feeding soon after hatching, and their growth is strongly attenuated. A starvation program is not launched, but the expression of distinct metabolic genes is activated, possibly to mobilize storage material. Without attaining the normal size, inhibitor-fed larvae molt to the next stage indicating that the steroid hormone ecdysone triggers molting correctly. Nevertheless, after molting, expression of ecdysone-dependent regulators is not induced. While control larvae molt a second time, these larvae fail to do so and die after few days of straying. These effects are similar to those observed in experiments using larvae deficient for the fatty acid desaturase1 gene. Based on these data, we propose that the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids adjusts a sensor system that directs feeding behavior. We also hypothesize that loss of fatty acid desaturase activity leads to a block of the genetic program of development progression indirectly by switching on a metabolic compensation program. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Boric Acid Inhibits Germination and Colonization of Saprolegnia Spores In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Shimaa E.; Thoen, Even; Evensen, Øystein; Skaar, Ida

    2014-01-01

    Saprolegnia infections cause severe economic losses among freshwater fish and their eggs. The banning of malachite green increased the demand for finding effective alternative treatments to control the disease. In the present study, we investigated the ability of boric acid to control saprolegniosis in salmon eggs and yolk sac fry. Under in vitro conditions, boric acid was able to decrease Saprolegnia spore activity and mycelial growth in all tested concentrations above 0.2 g/L, while complete inhibition of germination and growth was observed at a concentration of 0.8 g/L. In in vivo experiments using Atlantic salmon eyed eggs, saprolegniosis was controlled by boric acid at concentrations ranging from 0.2–1.4 g/L during continuous exposure, and at 1.0–4.0 g/L during intermittent exposure. The same effect was observed on salmon yolk sac fry exposed continuously to 0.5 g/L boric acid during the natural outbreak of saprolegniosis. During the experiments no negative impact with regard to hatchability and viability was observed in either eggs or fry, which indicate safety of use at all tested concentrations. The high hatchability and survival rates recorded following the in vivo testing suggest that boric acid is a candidate for prophylaxis and control of saprolegniosis. PMID:24699283

  6. Boric acid inhibits germination and colonization of Saprolegnia spores in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ali, Shimaa E; Thoen, Even; Evensen, Øystein; Skaar, Ida

    2014-01-01

    Saprolegnia infections cause severe economic losses among freshwater fish and their eggs. The banning of malachite green increased the demand for finding effective alternative treatments to control the disease. In the present study, we investigated the ability of boric acid to control saprolegniosis in salmon eggs and yolk sac fry. Under in vitro conditions, boric acid was able to decrease Saprolegnia spore activity and mycelial growth in all tested concentrations above 0.2 g/L, while complete inhibition of germination and growth was observed at a concentration of 0.8 g/L. In in vivo experiments using Atlantic salmon eyed eggs, saprolegniosis was controlled by boric acid at concentrations ranging from 0.2-1.4 g/L during continuous exposure, and at 1.0-4.0 g/L during intermittent exposure. The same effect was observed on salmon yolk sac fry exposed continuously to 0.5 g/L boric acid during the natural outbreak of saprolegniosis. During the experiments no negative impact with regard to hatchability and viability was observed in either eggs or fry, which indicate safety of use at all tested concentrations. The high hatchability and survival rates recorded following the in vivo testing suggest that boric acid is a candidate for prophylaxis and control of saprolegniosis.

  7. α-lipoic acid inhibits high glucose-induced apoptosis in HIT-T15 cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Wang, Weiping; Liu, Yinan; Guo, Ting; Chen, Ping; Ma, Kangtao; Zhou, Chunyan

    2012-06-01

    High blood glucose plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetes. α-lipoic acid (LA) has been used to prevent and treat diabetes, and is thought to act by increasing insulin sensitivity in many tissues. However, whether LA also has a cytoprotective effect on pancreatic islet beta cells remains unclear. In this study, we assessed whether LA could inhibit apoptosis in beta cells exposed to high glucose concentrations. HIT-T15 pancreatic beta cells were treated with 30 mmol/L glucose in the presence or absence of 0.5 mmol/L LA for 8 days. LA significantly reduced the numbers of apoptotic HIT-T15 cells and inhibited the cell overgrowth normally induced by high glucose treatment. Additionally, LA inhibited insulin expression and secretion in HIT-T15 cells induced by high glucose. Further study demonstrated that LA upregulated Pdx1 and Bcl2 gene expression, reduced Bax gene expression, and promoted phosphorylation of Akt in HIT-T15 cells treated with high glucose. Intriguingly, knockdown of Pdx1 expression partially offset the anti-apoptotic effect of LA. However, inhibition of Akt by PI3K/AKT antagonist LY294002 only slightly reversed the anti-apoptosis effect of LA and mildly decreased the gene expression level of Pdx1 (P > 0.05). Moreover, LA only slightly attenuated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and augmented mitochondrial membrane potential. Therefore, our data suggest that α-lipoic acid can effectively attenuate high glucose-induced HIT-T15 cell apoptosis probably by increasing Pdx1 expression. These findings provide a new interpretation on the role of LA in the treatment of diabetes. © 2012 The Authors Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2012 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  8. Ursodeoxycholic acid inhibits TNFα-induced IL-8 release from monocytes.

    PubMed

    O'Dwyer, Aoife M; Lajczak, Natalia K; Keyes, Jennifer A; Ward, Joseph B; Greene, Catherine M; Keely, Stephen J

    2016-08-01

    Monocytes are critical to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) as they infiltrate the mucosa and release cytokines that drive the inflammatory response. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), a naturally occurring bile acid with anti-inflammatory actions, has been proposed as a potential new therapy for IBD. However, its effects on monocyte function are not yet known. Primary monocytes from healthy volunteers or cultured U937 monocytes were treated with either the proinflammatory cytokine, TNFα (5 ng/ml) or the bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 1 μg/ml) for 24 h, in the absence or presence of UDCA (25-100 μM). IL-8 release into the supernatant was measured by ELISA. mRNA levels were quantified by qPCR and changes in cell signaling proteins were determined by Western blotting. Toxicity was assessed by measuring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. UDCA treatment significantly attenuated TNFα-, but not LPS-driven, release of IL-8 from both primary and cultured monocytes. UDCA inhibition of TNFα-driven responses was associated with reduced IL-8 mRNA expression. Both TNFα and LPS stimulated NFκB activation in monocytes, while IL-8 release in response to both cytokines was attenuated by an NFκB inhibitor, BMS-345541. Interestingly, UDCA inhibited TNFα-, but not LPS-stimulated, NFκB activation. Finally, TNFα, but not LPS, induced phosphorylation of TNF receptor associated factor (TRAF2), while UDCA cotreatment attenuated this response. We conclude that UDCA specifically inhibits TNFα-induced IL-8 release from monocytes by inhibiting TRAF2 activation. Since such actions would serve to dampen mucosal immune responses in vivo, our data support the therapeutic potential of UDCA for IBD. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Cinnamic acid derivatives inhibit hepatitis C virus replication via the induction of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Amano, Ryota; Yamashita, Atsuya; Kasai, Hirotake; Hori, Tomoka; Miyasato, Sayoko; Saito, Setsu; Yokoe, Hiromasa; Takahashi, Kazunori; Tanaka, Tomohisa; Otoguro, Teruhime; Maekawa, Shinya; Enomoto, Nobuyuki; Tsubuki, Masayoshi; Moriishi, Kohji

    2017-09-01

    Several cinnamic acid derivatives have been reported to exhibit antiviral activity. In this study, we prepared 17 synthetic cinnamic acid derivatives and screened them to identify an effective antiviral compound against hepatitis C virus (HCV). Compound 6, one of two hit compounds, suppressed the viral replications of genotypes 1b, 2a, 3a, and 4a with EC 50 values of 1.5-8.1 μM and SI values of 16.2-94.2. The effect of compound 6 on the phosphorylation of Tyr 705 in signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) was investigated because a cinnamic acid derivative AG490 was reported to suppress HCV replication and the activity of Janus kinase (JAK) 2. Compound 6 potently suppressed HCV replication, but it did not inhibit the JAK1/2-dependent phosphorylation of STAT3 Tyr 705  at the same concentration. Furthermore, a pan-JAK inhibitor tofacitinib potently impaired phosphorylation of STAT3 Tyr 705 , but it did not inhibit HCV replication in the replicon cells and HCV-infected cells at the same concentration, supporting the notion that the phosphorylated state of STAT3 Tyr 705 is not necessarily correlated with HCV replication. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was induced by treatment with compound 6, whereas N-acetyl-cysteine restored HCV replication and impaired ROS production in the replicon cells treated with compound 6. These data suggest that compound 6 inhibits HCV replication via the induction of oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition improves cardiac fatty acid metabolism in patients with congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, S; Takeishi, Y; Minamihaba, O; Arimoto, T; Hirono, O; Takahashi, H; Miyamoto, T; Nitobe, J; Nozaki, N; Tachibana, H; Watanabe, T; Fukui, A; Kubota, I

    2003-08-01

    This study aimed to examine whether angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition improved cardiac fatty acid metabolism in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Myocardial 123I-beta-methyl-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (123I-BMIPP) imaging was performed in 25 patients with CHF and in 10 control subjects. Myocardial 123I-BMIPP images were obtained 30 min and 4 h after tracer injection. The heart-to-mediastinum (H/M) ratio of 123I-BMIPP uptake and the washout rate of 123I-BMIPP from the myocardium were calculated. Patients were given enalapril for 6 months, and 123I-BMIPP imaging was repeated. H/M ratios on early and delayed images were lower in CHF patients than in normal controls (P<0.01). The washout rate of 123I-BMIPP from the myocardium was faster in CHF patients than in controls (P<0.01). As the severity of the New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class increased, the H/M ratio decreased and the washout rate increased. The washout rate of 123I-BMIPP was inversely correlated with left ventricular fractional shortening (R=-0.62, P<0.01). ACE inhibition with enalapril increased the H/M ratio on delayed images (P<0.05) and reduced the washout rate of 123I-BMIPP (P<0.05) in CHF patients. These data suggest that: (1) angiotensin II-mediated intracellular signalling activation may be a possible mechanism for the decreased myocardial uptake and enhanced washout of 123I-BMIPP in heart failure patients; and (2) the improvement in fatty acid metabolism by ACE inhibition may represent a new mechanism for the beneficial effect of this therapy in heart failure.

  11. Salicylic acid metabolites and derivatives inhibit CDK activity: Novel insights into aspirin's chemopreventive effects against colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dachineni, Rakesh; Kumar, D. Ramesh; Callegari, Eduardo; Kesharwani, Siddharth S.; Sankaranarayanan, Ranjini; Seefeldt, Teresa; Tummala, Hemachand; Bhat, G. Jayarama

    2017-01-01

    Aspirin's potential as a drug continues to be evaluated for the prevention of colorectal cancer (CRC). Although multiple targets for aspirin and its metabolite, salicylic acid, have been identified, no unifying mechanism has been proposed to clearly explain its chemopreventive effects. Our goal here was to investigate the ability of salicylic acid metabolites, known to be generated through cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes, and its derivatives as cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors to gain new insights into aspirin's chemopreventive actions. Using in vitro kinase assays, for the first time, we demonstrate that salicylic acid metabolites, 2,3-dihydroxy-benzoic acid (2,3-DHBA) and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,5-DHBA), as well as derivatives 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,4-DHBA), 2,6-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,6-DHBA), inhibited CDK1 enzyme activity. 2,3-DHBA and 2,6-DHBA did not inhibit CDK2 and 4; however, both inhibited CDK-6 activity. Interestingly, another derivative, 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzoic acid (2,4,6-THBA) was highly effective in inhibiting CDK1, 2, 4 and 6 activity. Molecular docking studies showed that these compounds potentially interact with CDK1. Immunoblotting experiments showed that aspirin acetylated CDK1, and pre-incubation with salicylic acid and its derivatives prevented aspirin-mediated CDK1 acetylation, which supported the data obtained from molecular docking studies. We suggest that intracellularly generated salicylic acid metabolites through CYP450 enzymes within the colonic epithelial cells, or the salicylic acid metabolites generated by gut microflora may significantly contribute to the preferential chemopreventive effect of aspirin against CRC through inhibition of CDKs. This novel hypothesis and mechanism of action in aspirin's chemopreventive effects opens a new area for future research. In addition, structural modification to salicylic acid derivatives may prove useful in the development of novel CDK inhibitors in cancer prevention and

  12. Strategies for improving production performance of probiotic Pediococcus acidilactici viable cell by overcoming lactic acid inhibition.

    PubMed

    Othman, Majdiah; Ariff, Arbakariya B; Wasoh, Helmi; Kapri, Mohd Rizal; Halim, Murni

    2017-11-27

    Lactic acid bacteria are industrially important microorganisms recognized for fermentative ability mostly in their probiotic benefits as well as lactic acid production for various applications. Fermentation conditions such as concentration of initial glucose in the culture, concentration of lactic acid accumulated in the culture, types of pH control strategy, types of aeration mode and different agitation speed had influenced the cultivation performance of batch fermentation of Pediococcus acidilactici. The maximum viable cell concentration obtained in constant fed-batch fermentation at a feeding rate of 0.015 L/h was 6.1 times higher with 1.6 times reduction in lactic acid accumulation compared to batch fermentation. Anion exchange resin, IRA 67 was found to have the highest selectivity towards lactic acid compared to other components studied. Fed-batch fermentation of P. acidilactici coupled with lactic acid removal system using IRA 67 resin showed 55.5 and 9.1 times of improvement in maximum viable cell concentration compared to fermentation without resin for batch and fed-batch mode respectively. The improvement of the P. acidilactici growth in the constant fed-batch fermentation indicated the use of minimal and simple process control equipment is an effective approach for reducing by-product inhibition. Further improvement in the cultivation performance of P. acidilactici in fed-bath fermentation with in situ addition of anion-exchange resin significantly helped to enhance the growth of P. acidilactici by reducing the inhibitory effect of lactic acid and thus increasing probiotic production.

  13. Influence of poly(aminoquinone) on corrosion inhibition of iron in acid media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeyaprabha, C.; Sathiyanarayanan, S.; Phani, K. L. N.; Venkatachari, G.

    2005-11-01

    The inhibitor performance of chemically synthesized water soluble poly(aminoquinone) (PAQ) on iron corrosion in 0.5 M sulphuric acid was studied in relation to inhibitor concentration using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements. On comparing the inhibition performance of PAQ with that of the monomer o-phenylenediamine (OPD), the OPD gave an efficiency of 80% for 1000 ppm while it was 90% for 100 ppm of PAQ. PAQ was found to be a mixed inhibitor. Besides, PAQ was able to improve the passivation tendency of iron in 0.5 M H 2SO 4 markedly.

  14. Alpha-lipoic acid protects cardiomyocytes against hypoxia/reoxygenation injury by inhibiting autophagy

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Xueming; Chen, Aihua, E-mail: aihuachen2012@sina.com; Yang, Pingzhen

    Highlights: •We observed the cell viability and death subjected to H/R in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. •We observed the degree of autophagy subjected to H/R in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. •LA inhibited the degree of autophagy in parallel to the enhanced cell survival. •LA inhibited the autophagy in parallel to the decreased total cell death. •We concluded that LA protected cardiomyocytes against H/R by inhibiting autophagy. -- Abstract: Hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) is an important in vitro model for exploring the molecular mechanisms and functions of autophagy during myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Alpha-lipoic acid (LA) plays an important role in the etiology of cardiovascular disease. Autophagy ismore » widely implicated in myocardial I/R injury. We assessed the degree of autophagy by pretreatment with LA exposed to H/R in H9c2 cell based on the expression levels of Beclin-1, LC3II/LC3I, and green fluorescent protein-labeled LC3 fusion proteins. Autophagic vacuoles were confirmed in H9c2 cells exposed to H/R using transmission electron microscopy. Our findings indicated that pretreatment with LA inhibited the degree of autophagy in parallel to the enhanced cell survival and decreased total cell death in H9c2 cells exposed to H/R. We conclude that LA protects cardiomyocytes against H/R injury by inhibiting autophagy.« less

  15. Gallic Acid Inhibited Matrix Invasion and AP-1/ETS-1-Mediated MMP-1 Transcription in Human Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    S. Pang, Jong-Hwei; Yen, Jia-Hau; Wu, Hsiao-Ting; Huang, Sheng-Teng

    2017-01-01

    Gallic acid is a trihydroxybenzoic acid found in natural herbal plants. Gallic acid has been reported to inhibit the migration and invasive capability of various cancers. Little is known about the underlying mechanisms of invasion responsible for cancer metastasis via gallic acid. The present study was intended to investigate the anti-invasive effect of gallic acid on human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells (NPC-BM1) and its related mechanism. Gallic acid inhibited the invasion of NPC-BM1 cells dose- and time-dependently without significant cytotoxic effect. Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarray analysis revealed matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) as the most down-regulated gene in NPC-BM1 cells by gallic acid. The cytosolic and secreted MMP-1 levels were both found to be inhibited by gallic acid as demonstrated by western blot analysis and ELISA respectively. The mRNA expression and transcription of MMP-1 gene was also down-regulated as determined by RT/real-time PCR and promoter activity assay. The expression of two major transcription binding factors in the MMP-1 promoter, AP-1 and ETS-1, were demonstrated to be reduced by gallic acid in NPC-BM1 cells. The effect of gallic acid was associated with the inhibition of p38 MAPK signaling pathway. In addition, gallic acid enhanced the gene expression of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) which further suppressed the MMP-1 activity. These findings may be useful to develop a novel chemotherapeutic agent to inhibit the metastasis of nasopharyngeal cancer. PMID:28672814

  16. Gallic Acid Inhibited Matrix Invasion and AP-1/ETS-1-Mediated MMP-1 Transcription in Human Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Pang, Jong-Hwei S; Yen, Jia-Hau; Wu, Hsiao-Ting; Huang, Sheng-Teng

    2017-06-24

    Gallic acid is a trihydroxybenzoic acid found in natural herbal plants. Gallic acid has been reported to inhibit the migration and invasive capability of various cancers. Little is known about the underlying mechanisms of invasion responsible for cancer metastasis via gallic acid. The present study was intended to investigate the anti-invasive effect of gallic acid on human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells (NPC-BM1) and its related mechanism. Gallic acid inhibited the invasion of NPC-BM1 cells dose- and time-dependently without significant cytotoxic effect. Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarray analysis revealed matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) as the most down-regulated gene in NPC-BM1 cells by gallic acid. The cytosolic and secreted MMP-1 levels were both found to be inhibited by gallic acid as demonstrated by western blot analysis and ELISA respectively. The mRNA expression and transcription of MMP-1 gene was also down-regulated as determined by RT/real-time PCR and promoter activity assay. The expression of two major transcription binding factors in the MMP-1 promoter, AP-1 and ETS-1, were demonstrated to be reduced by gallic acid in NPC-BM1 cells. The effect of gallic acid was associated with the inhibition of p38 MAPK signaling pathway. In addition, gallic acid enhanced the gene expression of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) which further suppressed the MMP-1 activity. These findings may be useful to develop a novel chemotherapeutic agent to inhibit the metastasis of nasopharyngeal cancer.

  17. Effects of exogenous fatty acids and inhibition of de novo fatty acid synthesis on disaturated phosphatidylcholine production by fetal lung cells and adult type II cells.

    PubMed

    Maniscalco, W M; Finkelstein, J N; Parkhurst, A B

    1989-05-01

    De novo fatty acid synthesis may be an important source of saturated fatty acids for fetal lung disaturated phosphatidylcholine (DSPC) production. To investigate the roles of de novo fatty acid synthesis and exogenous fatty acids, we incubated dispersed fetal lung cells and freshly isolated adult type II cells with exogenous palmitate and oleate and measured DSPC synthesis. Unlike adult type II cells, fetal lung cells did not increase DSPC synthesis when exogenous palmitate was available; adult type II cells increased DSPC synthesis by 70% in the presence of palmitate. Exogenous oleate decreased DSPC synthesis by 48% in fetal cells but not in adult type II cells. Incubation of fetal lung cells with TOFA [2-furancarboxylate, 5-(tetradecyloxy)-sodium], a metabolic inhibitor of fatty acid synthesis, decreased fatty acid synthesis by 65%. There was a simultaneous 56% inhibition of DSPC production, but no effect on protein, DNA, or glyceride-glycerol production, measured by precursor incorporation. The inhibition of DSPC synthesis associated with TOFA was partially prevented by exogenous palmitate but not oleate. Fetal cells prepared from explants that had been cultured in dexamethasone also had TOFA-associated inhibition of DSPC synthesis that was similar to non-dexamethasone-exposed cells. These studies suggest that under baseline conditions of low fatty acid availability, such as in the fetus, de novo fatty acid synthesis in fetal cells, but not in adult type II cells, provides sufficient saturated fatty acids to support maximal DSPC production. Inhibition of de novo fatty acid synthesis resulting in decreased DSPC production in fetal lung cells in conditions of low fatty acid availability suggests that fatty acid synthesis may be central to maintain DSPC synthesis in the fetus.

  18. Inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation by 2,2’-bipyridyl, lipoic, kojic and picolinic acids

    PubMed Central

    Çevik, Kübra; Ulusoy, Seyhan

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): The inhibitory effects of iron chelators, and FeCl3 chelation on biofilm formation and swarming motility were investigated against an opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Materials and Methods: The inhibitory activity of 2,2’-bipyridyl, lipoic acid, kojic acid and picolinic acid on biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 and three clinical isolates (P. aeruginosa PAK01, P. aeruginosa PAK02 and P. aeruginosa PAK03) were investigated, based on crystal violet assay, and swarming motility test. Results: The kojic, lipoic and picolinic acid inhibited biofilm formation by 5-33% in all tested P. aeruginosa isolates. When chelated iron was added, biofilm inhibition rates were determined to be 39-57%. Among the tested chelators against P. aeruginosa, lipoic acid (84%) and kojic acid (68%) presented the highest inhibition of swarming motility. This is the first study to report the inhibitory effect of lipoic acid on biofilm formation and swarming motility of P. aeruginosa. Conclusion: It is considered that lipoic and picolinic acids can serve as alternatives for the treatment of the P. aeruginosa infections by inhibiting biofilm formation. PMID:26557964

  19. Inhibitory activity and mechanism of inhibition of the N-[[(4-benzoylamino)phenyl]sulfonyl]amino acid aldose reductase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    DeRuiter, J; Mayfield, C A

    1990-11-15

    A series of substituted N-[[(4-benzoylamino)phenyl]sulfonyl]amino acids (BAPS-amino acids) were synthesized by established methods, and the stereochemistry of the products was confirmed by HPLC analysis after chiral derivatization. When tested against aldose reductase (alditol:NADP+ oxidoreductase; EC 1.1.1.21; ALR2) isolated from rat lens, all of the BAPS-amino acids were determined to be significantly more inhibitory than the corresponding N-(phenylsulfonyl)amino acids. Structure-inhibition and enzyme kinetic analyses suggest that the BAPS-amino acids inhibit ALR2 by a mechanism similar to the N-(phenylsulfonyl)amino acids. However, multiple inhibition analyses indicate that the increased inhibitory activity of the BAPS-amino acids is a result of interaction with multiple sites present on ALR2. Enzyme specificity studies with several of the BAPS-amino acids demonstrated that these compounds do not produce significant inhibition of other nucleotide-requiring enzymes including aldehyde reductase (alcohol: NADP+ oxidoreductase; EC 1.1.1.2; ALR1).

  20. Effect of pH alkaline salts of fatty acids on the inhibition of bacteria associated with poultry processing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The agar diffusion assay was used to examine the effect of pH on the ability of alkaline salts of three fatty acids (FA) to inhibit growth of bacteria associated with poultry processing. FA solutions were prepared by dissolving 0.5 M concentrations of caprylic, capric, or lauric acid in separate ali...

  1. Antibacterial activity of lichen secondary metabolite usnic acid is primarily caused by inhibition of RNA and DNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Maciąg-Dorszyńska, Monika; Węgrzyn, Grzegorz; Guzow-Krzemińska, Beata

    2014-04-01

    Usnic acid, a compound produced by various lichen species, has been demonstrated previously to inhibit growth of different bacteria and fungi; however, mechanism of its antimicrobial activity remained unknown. In this report, we demonstrate that usnic acid causes rapid and strong inhibition of RNA and DNA synthesis in Gram-positive bacteria, represented by Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, while it does not inhibit production of macromolecules (DNA, RNA, and proteins) in Escherichia coli, which is resistant to even high doses of this compound. However, we also observed slight inhibition of RNA synthesis in a Gram-negative bacterium, Vibrio harveyi. Inhibition of protein synthesis in B. subtilis and S. aureus was delayed, which suggest indirect action (possibly through impairment of transcription) of usnic acid on translation. Interestingly, DNA synthesis was halted rapidly in B. subtilis and S. aureus, suggesting interference of usnic acid with elongation of DNA replication. We propose that inhibition of RNA synthesis may be a general mechanism of antibacterial action of usnic acid, with additional direct mechanisms, such as impairment of DNA replication in B. subtilis and S. aureus. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of human D-amino acid oxidase inhibition by anti-psychotic drugs in vitro.

    PubMed

    Shishikura, Miho; Hakariya, Hitomi; Iwasa, Sumiko; Yoshio, Takashi; Ichiba, Hideaki; Yorita, Kazuko; Fukui, Kiyoshi; Fukushima, Takeshi

    2014-06-01

    It is of importance to determine whether antipsychotic drugs currently prescribed for schizophrenia exert D-amino acid oxidase (DAO)-inhibitory effects. We first investigated whether human (h)DAO can metabolize D-kynurenine (D-KYN) to produce the fluorescent compound kynurenic acid (KYNA) by using high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry, and fluorescence spectrometry. After confirmation of KYNA production from D-KYN by hDAO, 8 first- and second-generation antipsychotic drugs, and 6 drugs often prescribed concomitantly, were assayed for hDAO-inhibitory effects by using in vitro fluorometric methods with D-KYN as the substrate. DAO inhibitors 3-methylpyrazole-5-carboxylic acid and 4H-thieno[3,2-b]pyrrole-5-carboxylic acid inhibited KYNA production in a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, the second-generation antipsychotics blonanserin and risperidone were found to possess relatively strong hDAO-inhibitory effects in vitro (5.29 ± 0.47 μM and 4.70 ± 0.17 μM, respectively). With regard to blonanserin and risperidone, DAO-inhibitory effects should be taken into consideration in the context of their in vivo pharmacotherapeutic efficacy.

  3. Inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor by ferulic acid and 4-vinylguaiacol in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sudhagar, S; Sathya, S; Anuradha, R; Gokulapriya, G; Geetharani, Y; Lakshmi, B S

    2018-02-01

    To examine the potential of ferulic acid and 4-vinylguaiacol for inhibiting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in human breast cancer cells in vitro. Ferulic acid and 4-vinylguaiacol limit the EGF (epidermal growth factor)-induced breast cancer proliferation and new DNA synthesis. Western blot analysis revealed both ferulic acid and 4-vinylguaiacol exhibit sustained inhibition of EGFR activation through down-regulation of Tyr 1068 autophosphorylation. Molecular docking analysis shows ferulic acid forming hydrogen bond interaction with Lys 745 and Met 793 whereas, 4-vinylguaiacol forms two hydrogen bonds with Phe 856 and exhibits stronger hydrophobic interactions with multiple amino acid residues at the EGFR kinase domain. Ferulic acid and 4-vinylguaiacol could serve as a potential structure for the development of new small molecule therapeutics against EGFR.

  4. Chebulagic acid Chebulinic acid and Gallic acid, the active principles of Triphala, inhibit TNFα induced pro-angiogenic and pro-inflammatory activities in retinal capillary endothelial cells by inhibiting p38, ERK and NFkB phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Shanmuganathan, Sivasankar; Angayarkanni, Narayanasamy

    2018-04-17

    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) a pleiotropic cytokine induces pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic changes in conditions such as diabetic retinopathy (DR) and neovascular age related macular degeneration (NV-AMD). Hence, inhibition of TNFα mediated changes can benefit the management of DR and NV-AMD. Triphala, an ayurvedic herbal preparation is known to have immunomodulatry functions. In this study we evaluated the alcoholic extract of triphala (AlE) and its compounds Chebulagic acid (CA), Chebulinic acid (CI) and Gallic acid (GA) for their anti-TNFα activity. TNFα induced pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic changes in the retinal-choroid microvascular endothelial cells (RF/6A). Treatment with CA/CI/GA and the whole Triphala extract showed characteristic inhibition of MMP-9, cell proliferation/migration and tube formation as well the expression of IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1 without affecting cell viability. This was mediated by inhibition of p38, ERK and NFκB phosphorylation. Ex vivo angiogenesis assay using chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model also showed that TNFα-induced angiogenesis and it was inhibited by AlE and its active principles. Further, in silico studies revealed that CA, CI and GA are capable of binding the TNFα-receptor-1 to mediate anti-TNFα activity. This study explains the immunomodulatory function of Triphala, evaluated in the context of retinal and choroid vasculopathies in vitro and ex vivo; which showed that CA, CI and GA can be a potential pharmacological agents in the management of DR and NV-AMD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Phosphatidic acid binding inhibits RGS1 activity to affect specific signaling pathways in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Roy Choudhury, Swarup; Pandey, Sona

    2017-05-01

    Modulation of the active versus inactive forms of the Gα protein is critical for the signaling processes mediated by the heterotrimeric G-protein complex. We have recently established that in Arabidopsis, the regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS1) protein and a lipid-hydrolyzing enzyme, phospholipase Dα1 (PLDα1), both act as GTPase-activity accelerating proteins (GAPs) for the Gα protein to attenuate its activity. RGS1 and PLDα1 interact with each other, and RGS1 inhibits the activity of PLDα1 during regulation of a subset of responses. In this study, we present evidence that this regulation is bidirectional. Phosphatidic acid (PA), a second messenger typically derived from the lipid-hydrolyzing activity of PLDα1, is a molecular target of RGS1. PA binds and inhibits the GAP activity of RGS1. A conserved lysine residue in RGS1 (Lys 259 ) is directly involved in RGS1-PA binding. Introduction of this RGS1 protein variant in the rgs1 mutant background makes plants hypersensitive to a subset of abscisic acid-mediated responses. Our data point to the existence of negative feedback loops between these two regulatory proteins that precisely modulate the level of active Gα, consequently generating a highly controlled signal-response output. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) inhibits replication and viral morphogenesis of dengue virus.

    PubMed

    Soto-Acosta, Rubén; Bautista-Carbajal, Patricia; Syed, Gulam H; Siddiqui, Aleem; Del Angel, Rosa M

    2014-09-01

    Dengue is the most common mosquito borne viral disease in humans. The infection with any of the 4 dengue virus serotypes (DENV) can either be asymptomatic or manifest in two clinical forms, the mild dengue fever or the more severe dengue hemorrhagic fever that may progress into dengue shock syndrome. A DENV replicative cycle relies on host lipid metabolism; specifically, DENV infection modulates cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis, generating a lipid-enriched cellular environment necessary for viral replication. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the anti-DENV effect of the Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), a hypolipidemic agent with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. A dose-dependent inhibition in viral yield and NS1 secretion was observed in supernatants of infected cells treated for 24 and 48 h with different concentrations of NDGA. To evaluate the effect of NDGA in DENV replication, a DENV4 replicon transfected Vero cells were treated with different concentrations of NDGA. NDGA treatment significantly reduced DENV replication, reiterating the importance of lipids in viral replication. NDGA treatment also led to reduction in number of lipid droplets (LDs), the neutral lipid storage organelles involved in DENV morphogenesis that are known to increase in number during DENV infection. Furthermore, NDGA treatment resulted in dissociation of the C protein from LDs. Overall our results suggest that NDGA inhibits DENV infection by targeting genome replication and viral assembly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Lactic acid bacteria: inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Fuglsang, Anders; Rattray, Fergal P; Nilsson, Dan; Nyborg, Niels C B

    2003-01-01

    A total of 26 strains of wild-type lactic acid bacteria, mainly belonging to Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus helveticus, were assayed in vitro for their ability to produce a milk fermentate with inhibitory activity towards angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). It was clear that the test strains in this study, in general, produce inhibitory substances in varying amounts. Using a spectrophotometric assay based on amino group derivatization with ortho-phthaldialdehyde as a measure of relative peptide content, it was shown that there is a significant correlation between peptide formation and ACE inhibition, indicating that peptide measurement constitutes a convenient selection method. The effect of active fermentates on in vivo ACE activity was demonstrated in normotensive rats. The pressor effect of angiotensin I (0.3 microg/kg) upon intravenous injection was significantly lower when rats were pre-fed with milks fermented using two strains of Lactobacillus helveticus. An increased response to bradykinin (10 microg/kg, intravenously injected) was observed using one of these fermented milks. It is concluded that Lactobacillus helveticus produces substances which in vivo can give rise to an inhibition of ACE. The inhibition in vivo was low compared to what can be achieved with classical ACE inhibitors. The clinical relevance of this finding is discussed. This work is the first in which an effect of fermented milk on ACE in vivo has been demonstrated, measured as decreased ability to convert angiotensin I to angiotensin II.

  8. Advanced glycation endproducts form during ovalbumin digestion in the presence of fructose: Inhibition by chlorogenic acid.

    PubMed

    Bains, Yasmin; Gugliucci, Alejandro; Caccavello, Russell

    2017-07-01

    One mechanism by which fructose could exert deleterious effects is through intestinal formation and absorption of pro-inflammatory advanced glycation endproducts via the Maillard reaction. We employed simulated stomach and duodenum digestion of ovalbumin (OVA) to test the hypothesis that advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) are formed by fructose during simulated digestion of a ubiquitous food protein under model physiological conditions. OVA was subjected to simulated gastric and intestinal digestion using standard models, in presence of fructose or glucose (0-100mM). Peptide fractions were analyzed by fluorescence spectroscopy and intensity at Excitation: λ370nm, Emission: λ 440nm. AGE adducts formed between fructose and OVA, evidenced by the peptide fractions (<5kDa) at times (30min) and concentration ranges (10mM) plausibly found in the intestines, whereas no reaction occurs with glucose. The reaction was inhibited by chlorogenic acid at concentrations compatible with those found in the gut. The reaction was also inhibited by aminoguanidine, a specific antiglycation agent. Our study showed fructose-AGE formation on a ubiquitous dietary protein under model physiological conditions. Our study also suggests ways to decrease the damage: enteral fructose-AGE formation may be partially inhibited by co-intake of beverages, fruits and vegetables with concentrations of phenolics high enough to serve as anti-glycation agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Syringic Acid Extracted from Herba dendrobii Prevents Diabetic Cataract Pathogenesis by Inhibiting Aldose Reductase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaoyong; Chen, Dan; Yi, Yanchun; Qi, Hui; Gao, Xinxin; Fang, Hua; Gu, Qiong; Wang, Ling; Gu, Lianquan

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Effects of Syringic acid (SA) extracted from dendrobii on diabetic cataract (DC) pathogenesis were explored. Methods. Both in vitro and in vivo DC lens models were established using D-gal, and proliferation of HLEC exposed to SA was determined by MMT assay. After 60-day treatment with SA, rat lens transparency was observed by anatomical microscopy using a slit lamp. SA protein targets were extracted and isolated using 2-DE and MALDI TOF/TOF. AR gene expression was investigated using qRT-PCR. Interaction sites and binding characteristics were determined by molecule-docking techniques and dynamic models. Results. Targeting AR, SA provided protection from D-gal-induced damage by consistently maintaining lens transparency and delaying lens turbidity development. Inhibition of AR gene expression by SA was confirmed by qRT-PCR. IC50 of SA for inhibition of AR activity was 213.17 μg/mL. AR-SA binding sites were Trp111, His110, Tyr48, Trp20, Trp79, Leu300, and Phe122. The main binding modes involved hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding. The stoichiometric ratio of non-covalent bonding between SA and AR was 1.0 to 13.3. Conclusion. SA acts to prevent DC in rat lenses by inhibiting AR activity and gene expression, which has potential to be developed into a novel drug for therapeutic management of DC. PMID:23365598

  10. Inhibition of Collagenase by Mycosporine-like Amino Acids from Marine Sources

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Anja; Gostner, Johanna; Fuchs, Julian E.; Chaita, Eliza; Aligiannis, Nektarios; Skaltsounis, Leandros; Ganzera, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) play an important role in extracellular matrix remodeling. Excessive activity of these enzymes can be induced by UV light and leads to skin damage, a process known as photoaging. In this study we investigated the collagenase inhibition potential of mycosporine-like amino acids (MAA), compounds that have been isolated from marine organisms and are known photoprotectants against UV-A and UV-B. For this purpose the commonly used collagenase assay was optimized and for the first time validated in terms of relationships between enzyme-substrate concentrations, temperature, incubation time and enzyme stability. Three compounds were isolated from the marine red algae Porphyra sp. and Palmaria palmata, and evaluated for their inhibitory properties against Chlostridium histolyticum collagenase (Chc). A dose-dependent, but very moderate inhibition was observed for all substances and IC50 values of 104.0 μM for shinorine, 105.9 μM for porphyra and 158.9 μM for palythine were determined. Additionally, computer-aided docking models suggested that the MAA binding to the active site of the enzyme is a competitive inhibition. PMID:26039265

  11. RNA-Seq-based transcriptome analysis of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus biofilm inhibition by ursolic acid and resveratrol

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Nan; Tan, Xiaojuan; Jiao, Yinming; Liu, Lin; Zhao, Wangsheng; Yang, Shuang; Jia, Aiqun

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are particularly problematic since they become resistant to most available antibiotics. Hence, novel potential antagonists to inhibit biofilm formation are urgent. Here the influences of two natural products, ursolic acid and resveratrol, on biofilm of the clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolate were investigated using RNA-seq, and the differentially expressed genes were analyzed using Cuffdiff. The results showed that ursolic acid inhibition of biofilm formation may reduce amino acids metabolism and adhesins expression and resveratrol may disturb quorum sensing (QS) and the synthesis of surface proteins and capsular polysaccharides. In addition, the transcriptome analysis of resveratrol and the combination of resveratrol with vancomycin inhibition of established biofilm revealed that resveratrol would disturb the expression of genes related to QS, surface and secreted proteins, and capsular polysaccharides. These findings suggest that ursolic acid and resveratrol could be useful to be adjunct therapies for the treatment of MRSA biofilm-involved infections. PMID:24970710

  12. Carboxylic acid isosteres improve the activity of ring-fused 2-pyridones that inhibit pilus biogenesis in E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Åberg, Veronica; Das, Pralay; Chorell, Erik; Hedenström, Mattias; Pinkner, Jerome S.; Hultgren, Scott J.; Almqvist, Fredrik

    2009-01-01

    Ring-fused 2-pyridones, termed pilicides, are small synthetic compounds that inhibit pilus assembly in uropathogenic E. coli. Their biological activity is clearly dependent upon a carboxylic acid functionality. Here we present the synthesis and biological evaluation of carboxylic acid isosteres, including e.g. tetrazoles, acyl sulfonamides and hydroxamic acids, of two lead 2-pyridones. Two independent biological evaluations show that acyl sulfonamides and tetrazoles significantly improve pilicide activity against uropathogenic E. coli. PMID:18499455

  13. Local subcutaneous injection of chlorogenic acid inhibits the nociceptive trigeminal spinal nucleus caudalis neurons in rats.

    PubMed

    Kakita, Kaede; Tsubouchi, Hirona; Adachi, Mayu; Takehana, Shiori; Shimazu, Yoshihito; Takeda, Mamoru

    2017-11-29

    Acute administration of chlorogenic acid (CGA) in vitro was recently shown to modulate potassium channel conductance and acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) in the primary sensory neurons; however, in vivo peripheral effects of CGA on the nociceptive mechanical stimulation of trigeminal neuronal activity remains to be determined. The present study investigated whether local administration of CGA in vivo attenuates mechanical stimulation-induced excitability of trigeminal spinal nucleus caudalis neuronal (SpVc) activity in rats. Extracellular single-unit recordings were made of SpVc wide-dynamic range (WDR) neuronal activity elicited by non-noxious and noxious orofacial mechanical stimulation in pentobarbital anesthetized rats. The mean number of SpVc WDR neuronal firings responding to both non-noxious and noxious mechanical stimuli were significantly and dose-dependently inhibited by local subcutaneous administration of CGA (0.1-10mM), with the maximal inhibition of discharge frequency revealed within 10min and reversed after approximately 30min. The mean frequency of SpVc neuronal discharge inhibition by CGA was comparable to that by a local anesthetic, the sodium channel blocker, 1% lidocaine. These results suggest that local CGA injection into the peripheral receptive field suppresses the excitability of SpVc neurons, possibly via the activation of voltage-gated potassium channels and modulation of ASICs in the nociceptive nerve terminal of trigeminal ganglion neurons. Therefore, local injection of CGA could contribute to local anesthetic agents for the treatment of trigeminal nociceptive pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Uric acid inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase IV in vitro is dependent on the intracellular formation of triuret.

    PubMed

    Mohandas, Rajesh; Sautina, Laura; Beem, Elaine; Schuler, Anna; Chan, Wai-Yan; Domsic, John; McKenna, Robert; Johnson, Richard J; Segal, Mark S

    2014-08-01

    Uric acid affects endothelial and adipose cell function and has been linked to diseases such as hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. Interestingly uric acid has been shown to increase endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) mobilization, a potential mechanism to repair endothelial injury. Since EPC mobilization is dependent on activity of the enzyme CD26/dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)IV, we examined the effect uric acid will have on CD26/DPPIV activity. Uric acid inhibited the CD26/DPPIV associated with human umbilical vein endothelial cells but not human recombinant (hr) CD26/DPPIV. However, triuret, a product of uric acid and peroxynitrite, could inhibit cell associated and hrCD26/DPPIV. Increasing or decreasing intracellular peroxynitrite levels enhanced or decreased the ability of uric acid to inhibit cell associated CD26/DPPIV, respectively. Finally, protein modeling demonstrates how triuret can act as a small molecule inhibitor of CD26/DPPIV activity. This is the first time that uric acid or a uric acid reaction product has been shown to affect enzymatic activity and suggests a novel avenue of research in the role of uric acid in the development of clinically important diseases. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. α-Lipoic acid inhibits human lung cancer cell proliferation through Grb2-mediated EGFR downregulation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lan; Wen, Ya; Lv, Guoqing; Lin, Yuntao; Tang, Junlong; Lu, Jingxiao; Zhang, Manqiao; Liu, Wen; Sun, Xiaojuan

    2017-12-09

    Alpha lipoic acid (α -LA) is a naturally occurring antioxidant and metabolic enzyme co-factor. Recently, α -LA has been reported to inhibit the growth of various cancer cells, but the precise signaling pathways that mediate the effects of α -LA on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) development remain unclear. The CCK-8 assay was used to assess cell proliferation in NSCLC cell lines after α -LA treatment. The expression of growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2), cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-2, CDK4, CDK6, Cyclin D3, Cyclin E1, Ras, c-Raf, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), ERK1/2 and activated EGFR and ERK1/2 was evaluated by western blotting. Grb2 levels were restored in α-LA-treated cells by transfection of a plasmid carrying Grb2 and were reduced in NSCLC cells via specific siRNA-mediated knockdown. α -LA dramatically decreased NSCLC cell proliferation by downregulating Grb2; in contrast, Grb2 overexpression significantly prevented α-LA-induced decrease in cell growth in vitro. Western blot analysis indicated that α-LA decreased the levels of phospho-EGFR, CDK2/4/6, Cyclins D3 and E1, which are associated with the inhibition of G1/S-phase transition. Additional experiments indicated that Grb2 inhibition partially abolished EGF-induced phospho-EGFR and phospho-ERK1/2 activity. In addition, α-LA exerted greater inhibitory effects than gefitinib on NSCLC cells by preventing EGF-induced EGFR activation. For the first time, these findings provide the first evidence that α-LA inhibits cell proliferation through Grb2 by suppressing EGFR phosphorylation and that MAPK/ERK is involved in this pathway. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Inhibitive Effects of Quercetin on Myeloperoxidase-Dependent Hypochlorous Acid Formation and Vascular Endothelial Injury.

    PubMed

    Lu, Naihao; Sui, Yinhua; Tian, Rong; Peng, Yi-Yuan

    2018-05-16

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) from activated neutrophils plays important roles in multiple human inflammatory diseases by catalyzing the formation of powerful oxidant hypochlorous acid (HOCl). As a major flavonoid in the human diet, quercetin has been suggested to act as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we showed that quercetin inhibited MPO-mediated HOCl formation (75.0 ± 6.2% for 10 μM quercetin versus 100 ± 5.2% for control group, P < 0.01) and cytotoxicity to endothelial cells in vitro, while this flavonoid was nontoxic to endothelial cell cultures ( P > 0.05, all cases). Moreover, quercetin inhibited HOCl generation by stimulated neutrophils (a rich source of MPO) and protected endothelial cells from neutrophils-induced injury. Furthermore, quercetin could inhibit HOCl-induced endothelial dysfunction such as loss of cell viability, and decrease of nitric oxide formation in endothelial cells ( P < 0.05, all cases). Consistent with these in vitro data, quercetin attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced endothelial dysfunction and increase of MPO activity in mouse aortas, while this flavonoid could protect against HOCl-mediated endothelial dysfunction in isolated aortas ( P < 0.05). Therefore, it was proposed that quercetin attenuated endothelial injury in inflammatory vasculature via inhibition of vascular-bound MPO-mediated HOCl formation or scavenging of HOCl. These data indicate that quercetin is a nontoxic inhibitor of MPO activity and MPO/neutrophils-induced cytotoxicity in endothelial cells and may be useful for targeting MPO-dependent vascular disease and inflammation.

  17. Effect of iron on inhibition of acid demineralisation of bovine dental enamel in vitro.

    PubMed

    Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; de Moraes Italiani, Flávia; Kato, Melissa Thiemi; Martinhon, Cleide Cristina Rodrigues; Magalhães, Ana Carolina

    2006-10-01

    Iron ions (Fe(2+)) have been shown to be cariostatic in many studies particularly by their ability to reduce bacterial metabolism. Nevertheless, the role of iron ions on dissolution of enamel is unexplored. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the protective effect of increasing concentrations (0-120mmol/L) of Fe(2+) on the dissolution of enamel. Enamel powder was subjected to acetic acid made with increasing concentrations with respect to FeSO(4)x7H(2)O. In order to determine the amount of enamel dissolved, the phosphate released in the medium was analysed spectrophotometrically using the Fiske-Subarrow method. Data were tested using Kruskall-Wall and Dunn's tests (p<0.05). The degree of protection was found to approach maximum at about 15mmol/L Fe(2+). Higher concentrations of Fe(2+) did not have an extra effect on inhibition of dissolution of enamel powder. In the next step, the protective effect of 15mmol/L Fe(2+) against mineral dissolution of the bovine enamel was evaluated using a simple abiotic model system. Enamel blocks were exposed to a sequence of seven plastic vials, each containing 1mL of 10mmol/L acetic acid. The acid in vial 4 was made 15mmol/L with respect to FeSO(4)x7H(2)O. The mineral dissolved during each challenge was thus determined by phosphate released as described above. Data were tested using two-way ANOVA (p<0.05). Lower demineralisation (around 45%) was found in vial 4 (with Fe) that continued stable until vial 7. Thus, our data suggest that Fe(2+) can be effective on inhibition of dissolution of enamel and that this effect may be durable.

  18. Ursolic Acid Inhibits Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes through LKB1/AMPK Pathway

    PubMed Central

    He, Yonghan; Li, Ying; Zhao, Tiantian; Wang, Yanwen; Sun, Changhao

    2013-01-01

    Background Ursolic acid (UA) is a triterpenoid compound with multiple biological functions. This compound has recently been reported to possess an anti-obesity effect; however, the mechanisms are less understood. Objective As adipogenesis plays a critical role in obesity, the present study was conducted to investigate the effect of UA on adipogenesis and mechanisms of action in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Methods and Results The 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were induced to differentiate in the presence or absence of UA for 6 days. The cells were determined for proliferation, differentiation, fat accumulation as well as the protein expressions of molecular targets that regulate or are involved in fatty acid synthesis and oxidation. The results demonstrated that ursolic acid at concentrations ranging from 2.5 µM to 10 µM dose-dependently attenuated adipogenesis, accompanied by reduced protein expression of CCAAT element binding protein β (C/EBPβ), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), CCAAT element binding protein α (C/EBPα) and sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c), respectively. Ursolic acid increased the phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and protein expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), but decreased protein expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4). Ursolic acid increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and protein expression of (silent mating type information regulation 2, homolog) 1 (Sirt1). Further studies demonstrated that the anti-adipogenic effect of UA was reversed by the AMPK siRNA, but not by the Sirt1 inhibitor nicotinamide. Liver kinase B1 (LKB1), the upstream kinase of AMPK, was upregulated by UA. When LKB1 was silenced with siRNA or the inhibitor radicicol, the effect of UA on AMPK activation was diminished. Conclusions Ursolic acid inhibited 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis through the LKB1/AMPK pathway

  19. Omega 3 but not omega 6 fatty acids inhibit AP-1 activity and cell transformation in JB6 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, G; Bibus, D M; Bode, A M; Ma, W Y; Holman, R T; Dong, Z

    2001-06-19

    Epidemiological and animal-based investigations have indicated that the development of skin cancer is in part associated with poor dietary practices. Lipid content and subsequently the derived fatty acid composition of the diet are believed to play a major role in the development of tumorigenesis. Omega 3 (omega3) fatty acids, including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), can effectively reduce the risk of skin cancer whereas omega 6 (omega6) fatty acids such as arachidonic acid (AA) reportedly promote risk. To investigate the effects of fatty acids on tumorigenesis, we performed experiments to examine the effects of the omega3 fatty acids EPA and DHA and of the omega6 fatty acid AA on phorbol 12-tetradecanoate 13-acetate (TPA)-induced or epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced transcription activator protein 1 (AP-1) transactivation and on the subsequent cellular transformation in a mouse epidermal JB6 cell model. DHA treatment resulted in marked inhibition of TPA- and EGF-induced cell transformation by inhibiting AP-1 transactivation. EPA treatment also inhibited TPA-induced AP-1 transactivation and cell transformation but had no effect on EGF-induced transformation. AA treatment had no effect on either TPA- or EGF-induced AP-1 transactivation or transformation, but did abrogate the inhibitory effects of DHA on TPA- or EGF-induced AP-1 transactivation and cell transformation in a dose-dependent manner. The results of this study demonstrate that the inhibitory effects of omega3 fatty acids on tumorigenesis are more significant for DHA than for EPA and are related to an inhibition of AP-1. Similarly, because AA abrogates the beneficial effects of DHA, the dietary ratio of omega6 to omega3 fatty acids may be a significant factor in mediating tumor development.

  20. Calcite growth-rate inhibition by fulvic acids isolated from Big Soda Lake, Nevada, USA, The Suwannee River, Georgia, USA and by polycarboxylic acids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, Michael M.; Leenheer, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    Calcite crystallization rates are characterized using a constant solution composition at 25°C, pH=8.5, and calcite supersaturation (Ω) of 4.5 in the absence and presence of fulvic acids isolated from Big Soda Lake, Nevada (BSLFA), and a fulvic acid from the Suwannee River, Georgia (SRFA). Rates are also measured in the presence and absence of low-molar mass, aliphatic-alicyclic polycarboxylic acids (PCA). BSLFA inhibits calcite crystal-growth rates with increasing BSLFA concentration, suggesting that BSLFA adsorbs at growth sites on the calcite crystal surface. Calcite growth morphology in the presence of BSLFA differed from growth in its absence, supporting an adsorption mechanism of calcite-growth inhibition by BSLFA. Calcite growth-rate inhibition by BSLFA is consistent with a model indicating that polycarboxylic acid molecules present in BSLFA adsorb at growth sites on the calcite crystal surface. In contrast to published results for an unfractionated SRFA, there is dramatic calcite growth inhibition (at a concentration of 1 mg/L) by a SRFA fraction eluted by pH 5 solution from XAD-8 resin, indicating that calcite growth-rate inhibition is related to specific SRFA component fractions. A cyclic PCA, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6-cyclohexane hexacarboxylic acid (CHXHCA) is a strong calcite growth-rate inhibitor at concentrations less than 0.1 mg/L. Two other cyclic PCAs, 1, 1 cyclopentanedicarboxylic acid (CPDCA) and 1, 1 cyclobutanedicarboxylic acid (CBDCA) with the carboxylic acid groups attached to the same ring carbon atom, have no effect on calcite growth rates up to concentrations of 10 mg/L. Organic matter ad-sorbed from the air onto the seed crystals has no effect on the measured calcite crystal-growth rates.

  1. Boron Stress Activates the General Amino Acid Control Mechanism and Inhibits Protein Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Uluisik, Irem; Kaya, Alaattin; Fomenko, Dmitri E.; Karakaya, Huseyin C.; Carlson, Bradley A.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Koc, Ahmet

    2011-01-01

    Boron is an essential micronutrient for plants, and it is beneficial for animals. However, at high concentrations boron is toxic to cells although the mechanism of this toxicity is not known. Atr1 has recently been identified as a boron efflux pump whose expression is upregulated in response to boron treatment. Here, we found that the expression of ATR1 is associated with expression of genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis. These mechanisms are strictly controlled by the transcription factor Gcn4 in response to boron treatment. Further analyses have shown that boron impaired protein synthesis by promoting phosphorylation of eIF2α in a Gcn2 kinase dependent manner. The uncharged tRNA binding domain (HisRS) of Gcn2 is necessary for the phosphorylation of eIF2α in the presence of boron. We postulate that boron exerts its toxic effect through activation of the general amino acid control system and inhibition of protein synthesis. Since the general amino acid control pathway is conserved among eukaryotes, this mechanism of boron toxicity may be of general importance. PMID:22114689

  2. Leucine deprivation inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of human breast cancer cells via fatty acid synthase

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Fei; Wang, Chunxia; Yin, Hongkun; Yu, Junjie; Chen, Shanghai; Fang, Jing; Guo, Feifan

    2016-01-01

    Substantial studies on fatty acid synthase (FASN) have focused on its role in regulating lipid metabolism and researchers have a great interest in treating cancer with dietary manipulation of amino acids. In the current study, we found that leucine deprivation caused the FASN-dependent anticancer effect. Here we showed that leucine deprivation inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cells. In an in vivo tumor xenograft model, the leucine-free diet suppressed the growth of human breast cancer tumors and triggered widespread apoptosis of the cancer cells. Further study indicated that leucine deprivation decreased expression of lipogenic gene FASN in vitro and in vivo. Over-expression of FASN or supplementation of palmitic acid (the product of FASN action) blocked the effects of leucine deprivation on cell proliferation and apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, leucine deprivation suppressed the FASN expression via regulating general control non-derepressible (GCN)2 and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1C (SREBP1C). Taken together, our study represents proof of principle that anticancer effects can be obtained with strategies to deprive tumors of leucine via suppressing FASN expression, which provides important insights in prevention of breast cancer via metabolic intervention. PMID:27579768

  3. Substituted Caffeic and Ferulic Acid Phenethyl Esters: Synthesis, Leukotrienes Biosynthesis Inhibition, and Cytotoxic Activity.

    PubMed

    Morin, Pier; St-Coeur, Patrick-Denis; Doiron, Jérémie A; Cormier, Marc; Poitras, Julie J; Surette, Marc E; Touaibia, Mohamed

    2017-07-06

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive brain tumor that correlates with short patient survival and for which therapeutic options are limited. Polyphenolic compounds, including caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE, 1a ), have been investigated for their anticancer properties in several types of cancer. To further explore these properties in brain cancer cells, a series of caffeic and ferulic acid esters bearing additional oxygens moieties (OH or OCH₃) were designed and synthesized. (CAPE, 1a ), but not ferulic acid phenethyl ester (FAPE, 1b ), displayed substantial cytotoxicity against two glioma cell lines. Some but not all selected compounds derived from both (CAPE, 1a ) and (FAPE, 1b ) also displayed cytotoxicity. All CAPE-derived compounds were able to significantly inhibit 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), however FAPE-derived compounds were largely ineffective 5-LO inhibitors. Molecular docking revealed new hydrogen bonds and π-π interactions between the enzyme and some of the investigated compounds. Overall, this work highlights the relevance of exploring polyphenolic compounds in cancer models and provides additional leads in the development of novel therapeutic strategies in gliomas.

  4. Organic acids and ethanol inhibit the oxidation of methane by mire methanotrophs.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, Adam S; Drake, Harold L; Kolb, Steffen

    2011-07-01

    Aerobic methane (CH(4) ) oxidation reduces the emission of CH(4) from mires and is regulated by various environmental factors. Organic acids and alcohols are intermediates of the anaerobic degradation of organic matter or are released by plant roots. Methanotrophs isolated from mires utilize these compounds preferentially to CH(4) . Thus, the effect of organic acids and ethanol on CH(4) oxidation by methanotrophs of a mire was evaluated. Slurries of mire soil oxidized supplemental CH(4) down to subatmospheric concentrations. The dominant pmoA and mmoX genotypes were affiliated with sequences from Methylocystis species capable of utilization of acetate and atmospheric CH(4) . Soil slurries supplemented with acetate, propionate or ethanol had reduced CH(4) oxidation rates compared with unsupplemented or glucose-supplemented controls. Expression of Methylocystis-affiliated pmoA decreased when CH(4) consumption decreased in response to acetate and was enhanced after acetate was consumed, at which time the consumption of CH(4) reached control levels. The inhibition of methanotroph activity might have been due to either toxicity of organic compounds or their preferred utilization. CH(4) oxidation was reduced at 5 and 0.5 mM of supplemental organic compounds. Acetate concentrations may exceed 3 mM in the investigated mire. Thus, the oxidation of CH(4) might decrease in microzones where organic acids occur. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Inhibition of hyaluronic acid formation sensitizes chronic myelogenous leukemia to treatment with doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Uchakina, Olga N; Ban, Hao; Hostetler, Bryan J; McKallip, Robert J

    2016-11-01

    In the current study we examined the ability of 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU), which can inhibit hyaluronic acid synthesis, to sensitize K562 chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) cells to doxorubicin therapy. Exposure of K562 cells to doxorubicin led to increased hyaluronic acid synthase (HAS) gene expression and increased levels of cell surface hyaluronic acid. Furthermore, exposure of K562 cells to exogenous HA caused resistance to doxorubicin-induced cell death. The combination of low dose 4-MU and doxorubicin led to increased apoptosis when compared to higher doses of any agent alone. Additionally, treatment with 4-MU led to a significant reduction in doxorubicin-induced increase in HA cell surface expression. Mechanistically, 4-MU treatment led to an increase in p38 activation and PARP cleavage. The role of p38 in 4-MU/doxorubicin-treated K562 cells was confirmed when p38 inhibitors led to protection from 4-MU/doxorubicin-induced apoptosis. Together, results from this study suggest that treatment with 4-MU increases the sensitivity of CML to chemotherapeutics by decreasing their HA-mediated resistance to apoptosis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Phyllostachys edulis Compounds Inhibit Palmitic Acid-Induced Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein 1 (MCP-1) Production

    PubMed Central

    Higa, Jason K.; Liang, Zhibin; Williams, Philip G.; Panee, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Background Phyllostachys edulis Carriere (Poaceae) is a bamboo species that is part of the traditional Chinese medicine pharmacopoeia. Compounds and extracts from this species have shown potential applications towards several diseases. One of many complications found in obesity and diabetes is the link between elevated circulatory free fatty acids (FFAs) and chronic inflammation. This study aims to present a possible application of P. edulis extract in relieving inflammation caused by FFAs. Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1/CCL2) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine implicated in chronic inflammation. Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and activator protein 1 (AP-1) are transcription factors activated in response to inflammatory stimuli, and upregulate pro-inflammatory cytokines such as MCP-1. This study examines the effect of P. edulis extract on cellular production of MCP-1 and on the NF-κB and AP-1 pathways in response to treatment with palmitic acid (PA), a FFA. Methodology/Principal Findings MCP-1 protein was measured by cytometric bead assay. NF-κB and AP-1 nuclear localization was detected by colorimetric DNA-binding ELISA. Relative MCP-1 mRNA was measured by real-time quantitative PCR. Murine cells were treated with PA to induce inflammation. PA increased expression of MCP-1 mRNA and protein, and increased nuclear localization of NF-κB and AP-1. Adding bamboo extract (BEX) inhibited the effects of PA, reduced MCP-1 production, and inhibited nuclear translocation of NF-κB and AP-1 subunits. Compounds isolated from BEX inhibited MCP-1 secretion with different potencies. Conclusions/Significance PA induced MCP-1 production in murine adipose, muscle, and liver cells. BEX ameliorated PA-induced production of MCP-1 by inhibiting nuclear translocation of NF-κB and AP-1. Two O-methylated flavones were isolated from BEX with functional effects on MCP-1 production. These results may represent a possible therapeutic

  7. Effect of molecular structure of aniline-formaldehyde copolymers on corrosion inhibition of mild steel in hydrochloric acid solution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Nie, Mengyan; Wang, Xiutong; Zhu, Yukun; Shi, Fuhua; Yu, Jianqiang; Hou, Baorong

    2015-05-30

    Aniline-formaldehyde copolymers with different molecular structures have been prepared and investigated for the purpose of corrosion control of mild steel in hydrochloric acid. The copolymers were synthesized by a condensation polymerization process with different ratios of aniline to formaldehyde in acidic precursor solutions. The corrosion inhibition efficiency of as-synthesized copolymers for Q235 mild steel was investigated in 1.0 mol L(-1) hydrochloric acid solution by weight loss measurement, potentiodynamic polarization, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, respectively. All the results demonstrate that as-prepared aniline-formaldehyde copolymers are efficient mixed-type corrosion inhibitors for mild steels in hydrochloric acid. The corrosion inhibition mechanism is discussed in terms of the role of molecular structure on adsorption of the copolymers onto the steel surface in acid solution. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Caffeic acid, a phenolic phytochemical in coffee, directly inhibits Fyn kinase activity and UVB-induced COX-2 expression

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Nam Joo; Lee, Ki Won; Shin, Bong Jik; Jung, Sung Keun; Hwang, Mun Kyung; Bode, Ann M.; Heo, Yong-Seok; Dong, Zigang

    2009-01-01

    Caffeic acid (3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid) is a well-known phenolic phytochemical present in many foods, including coffee. Recent studies suggested that caffeic acid exerts anticarcinogenic effects, but little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms and specific target proteins. In this study, we found that Fyn, one of the members of the non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase family, was required for ultraviolet (UV) B-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, and caffeic acid suppressed UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis by directly inhibiting Fyn kinase activity. Caffeic acid more effectively suppressed UVB-induced COX-2 expression and subsequent prostaglandin E2 production in JB6 P+ mouse skin epidermal (JB6 P+) cells compared with chlorogenic acid (5-O-caffeoylquinic acid), an ester of caffeic acid with quinic acid. Data also revealed that caffeic acid more effectively induced the downregulation of COX-2 expression at the transcriptional level mediated through the inhibition of activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor-κB transcription activity compared with chlorogenic acid. Fyn kinase activity was suppressed more effectively by caffeic acid than by chlorogenic acid, and downstream mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) were subsequently blocked. Pharmacological Fyn kinase inhibitor (3-(4-chlorophenyl)1-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidin-4-amine and leflunomide) data also revealed that Fyn is involved in UVB-induced COX-2 expression mediated through the phosphorylation of MAPKs in JB6 P+ cells. Pull-down assays revealed that caffeic acid directly bound with Fyn and non-competitively with adenosine triphosphate. In vivo data from mouse skin also supported the idea that caffeic acid suppressed UVB-induced COX-2 expression by blocking Fyn kinase activity. These results suggested that this compound could act as a potent chemopreventive agent against skin cancer. PMID:19073879

  9. [Inhibiting properties of stable nitroxyl radicals in reactions of linoleic acid and linoleyl alcohol oxidation catalyzed by 5-lipoxygenase].

    PubMed

    Kharchenko, O V; Kharitonenko, A I; Vovk, A I; Kukhar', V P; Babiĭ, L V; Khil'chevskiĭ, A N; Mel'nik, A K

    2005-01-01

    The inhibiting effects of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) and its 4-substituted derivatives in reactions of linoleyl acid or linoleyl alcohol oxidation catalyzed by potato tuber 5-lipoxygenase were investigated. Inhibiting properties of stable nitroxyl radicals in presence of lubrol and SDS were reduced at the transition from TEMPO to 4-hydroxy-TEMPO or 4-amino-TEMPO and increased at use of adamantane-1-carboxylic or 3-methyladamantane-1-carboxylic acid 1-oxyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-4-yl esters. Enzyme activity at saturating concentrations of inhibitor was not suppressed completely, and decreased up to the certain level determined by the substrate nature. The dependence of partial inhibition efficiency on rotational correlation time of stable nitroxides in model micellar systems were analysed. It was supposed that 5-lipoxygenase inhibition includes the interaction of hydrophobic nitroxide with radical intermediate formed in enzymatic process.

  10. Thermokinetic profile of NDM-1 and its inhibition by small carboxylic acids

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qian; He, Yuan; Lu, Rui; Wang, Wen-Ming; Yang, Ke-Wu; Fan, Hai Ming; Jin, Yi; Blackburn, G. Michael

    2018-01-01

    The New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM-1) is an important clinical target for antimicrobial research, but there are insufficient clinically useful inhibitors and the details of NDM-1 enzyme catalysis remain unclear. The aim of this work is to provide a thermodynamic profile of NDM-1 catalysed hydrolysis of β-lactams using an isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) approach and to apply this new method to the identification of new low-molecular-weight dicarboxylic acid inhibitors. The results reveal that hydrolysis of penicillin G and imipenem by NDM-1 share the same thermodynamic features with a significant intrinsic enthalpy change and the release of one proton into solution, while NDM-1 hydrolysis of cefazolin exhibits a different mechanism with a smaller enthalpy change and the release of two protons. The inhibitory constants of four carboxylic acids are found to be in the micromolar range. The compounds pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid and thiazolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid show the best inhibitory potency and are confirmed to inhibit NDM-1 using a clinical strain of Escherichia coli. The pyridine compound is further shown to restore the susceptibility of this E. coli strain to imipenem, at an inhibitor concentration of 400 μM, while the thiazoline compound also shows a synergistic effect with imipenem. These results provide valuable information to enrich current understanding on the catalytic mechanism of NDM-1 and to aid the future optimisation of β-lactamase inhibitors based on these scaffolds to tackle the problem of antibiotic resistance. PMID:29507059

  11. Inhibiting effects of some oxadiazole derivatives on the corrosion of mild steel in perchloric acid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebrini, Mounim; Bentiss, Fouad; Vezin, Hervé; Lagrenée, Michel

    2005-11-01

    The efficiency of 3,5-bis( n-pyridyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole ( n-POX, n = 1, 2, 3), as corrosion inhibitors for mild steel in 1 M perchloric acid (HClO 4) have been determined by weight loss measurements and electrochemical studies. The results show that these inhibitors revealed a good corrosion inhibition even at very low concentrations. Comparison of results among those obtained by the studied oxadiazoles shows that 3-POX was the best inhibitor. Polarisation curves indicate that n-pyridyl substituted-1,3,4-oxadiazoles are mixed type inhibitors in 1 M HClO 4. The adsorption of these inhibitors follows a Langmuir isotherm model. The electronic properties of n-POX, obtained using the AM1 semi-empirical quantum chemical approach, were correlated with their experimental efficiencies using the linear resistance model (LR).

  12. Studies on the Inhibition of Mild Steel Corrosion by Rauvolfia serpentina in Acid Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bothi Raja, P.; Sethuraman, M. G.

    2010-07-01

    Alkaloid extract of Rauvolfia serpentina was tested as corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 1 M HCl and H2SO4 using weight loss method at three different temperatures, viz., 303, 313, and 323 K, potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies. It is evident from the results of this study that R. serpentina effectively inhibits the corrosion in both the acids through adsorption process following Tempkin adsorption isotherm. The protection efficiency increased with increase in inhibitor concentration and temperature. Free energy of adsorption calculated from the temperature studies also revealed the chemisorption. The mixed mode of action exhibited by the inhibitor was confirmed by the polarization studies while SEM analysis substantiated the formation of protective layer over the mild steel surface.

  13. Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase causes apoptosis in retinoic acid differentiated hl-60 leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jin; Liu, Qiang; Zeng, Yi-Xin

    2004-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) signaling may inhibit apoptosis in neoplastic cells. The PI-3K inhibitor wortmannin renders cells apoptosis-prone. Inducers of differentiation may also cause apoptosis. To detect the effect of wortmannin on the survival of differentiated human acute promyeloid leukemia cells, HL-60 cells were induced to differentiation with treatment of all trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) followed by treatment with wortmannin. Results showed that apoptosis occurred in cells that underwent differentiation, but not in undifferentiated HL-60 cells. The pro-apoptotic molecule, Bad, played a role in this apoptotic mechanism. Thus, the survival of differentiated HL-60 cells induced by ATRA depends on the ability of the PI3-K pathway to transduce survival signals; the PI3-K inhibitor, wortmannin, can induce apoptosis of differentiated HL-60 cells. These results may indicate a novel method for treating cancer with differentiation induction and signal pathway regulation.

  14. Inhibition of platelet function by low-dose plain and micro-encapsulated acetylsalicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Waldemar, G; Petersen, P; Boysen, G; Knudsen, J B

    1988-04-15

    The effect of two acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) formulations, plain (Magnyl) and micro-encapsulated (Globentyl), on platelet aggregation, thromboxane formation, and bleeding time was studied in 12 healthy volunteers in a randomized double-blind cross-over study. All subjects were treated with Magnyl and Globentyl (75 mg daily) in periods of 2 weeks, separated by a wash-out period of 2 weeks. Both drugs significantly depressed platelet aggregation and thromboxane formation and prolonged bleeding time without difference in mode of action of the drugs. It is concluded that significant inhibition of platelet activity may be achieved by low-dose ASA treatment with micro-encapsulated as well as with plain formulations.

  15. Inhibition of norsolorinic acid accumulation to Aspergillus parasiticus by marine actinomycetes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Peisheng; Shi, Cuijuan; Shen, Jihong; Wang, Kai; Gao, Xiujun; Li, Ping

    2014-11-01

    Thirty-six strains of marine actinomycetes were isolated from a sample of marine sediment collected from the Yellow Sea and evaluated in terms of their inhibitory activity on the growth of Aspergillus parasiticus and the production of norsolorinic acid using dual culture plate assay and agar diffusion methods. Among them, three strains showed strong antifungal activity and were subsequently identified as Streptomyces sp. by 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. The supernatant from the fermentation of the MA01 strain was extracted sequentially with chloroform and ethyl acetate, and the activities of the extracts were determined by tip culture assay. The assay results show that both extracts inhibited mycelium growth and toxin production, and the inhibitory activities of the extracts increased as their concentrations increased. The results of this study suggest that marine actinomycetes are biologically important for the control of mycotoxins, and that these bacteria could be used as novel biopesticides against mycotoxins.

  16. Inhibition of Autophagy Rescues Palmitic Acid-induced Necroptosis of Endothelial Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Muhammad Jadoon; Rizwan Alam, Muhammad; Waldeck-Weiermair, Markus; Karsten, Felix; Groschner, Lukas; Riederer, Monika; Hallström, Seth; Rockenfeller, Patrick; Konya, Viktoria; Heinemann, Akos; Madeo, Frank; Graier, Wolfgang F.; Malli, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Accumulation of palmitic acid (PA) in cells from nonadipose tissues is known to induce lipotoxicity resulting in cellular dysfunction and death. The exact molecular pathways of PA-induced cell death are still mysterious. Here, we show that PA triggers autophagy, which did not counteract but in contrast promoted endothelial cell death. The PA-induced cell death was predominantly necrotic as indicated by annexin V and propidium iodide (PI) staining, absence of caspase activity, low levels of DNA hypoploidy, and an early ATP depletion. In addition PA induced a strong elevation of mRNA levels of ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase (CYLD), a known mediator of necroptosis. Moreover, siRNA-mediated knockdown of CYLD significantly antagonized PA-induced necrosis of endothelial cells. In contrast, inhibition and knockdown of receptor interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) had no effect on PA-induced necrosis, indicating the induction of a CYLD-dependent but RIPK1-independent cell death pathway. PA was recognized as a strong and early inducer of autophagy. The inhibition of autophagy by both pharmacological inhibitors and genetic knockdown of the autophagy-specific genes, vacuolar protein sorting 34 (VPS34), and autophagy-related protein 7 (ATG7), could rescue the PA-induced death of endothelial cells. Moreover, the initiation of autophagy and cell death by PA was reduced in endothelial cells loaded with the Ca2+ chelator 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid-(acetoxymethyl) ester (BAPTA-AM), indicating that Ca2+ triggers the fatal signaling of PA. In summary, we introduce an unexpected mechanism of lipotoxicity in endothelial cells and provide several novel strategies to counteract the lipotoxic signaling of PA. PMID:22556413

  17. High fat-diet and saturated fatty acid palmitate inhibits IGF-1 function in chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Nazli, S A; Loeser, R F; Chubinskaya, S; Willey, J S; Yammani, R R

    2017-09-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) promotes matrix synthesis and cell survival in cartilage. Chondrocytes from aged and osteoarthritic cartilage have a reduced response to IGF-1. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of free fatty acids (FFA) present in a high-fat diet on IGF-1 function in cartilage and the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. C57BL/6 male mice were maintained on either a high-fat (60% kcal from fat) or a low-fat (10% kcal from fat) diet for 4 months. Mice were then sacrificed; femoral head cartilage caps were collected and treated with IGF-1 to measure proteoglycan (PG) synthesis. Cultured human chondrocytes were treated with 500 μM FFA palmitate or oleate, followed by stimulation with (100 ng/ml) IGF-1 overnight to measure CHOP (a protein marker for ER stress) and PG synthesis. Human chondrocytes were pre-treated with palmitate or 1 mM 4-phenyl butyric acid (PBA) or 1 μM C-Jun N terminal Kinase (JNK) inhibitor, and IGF-1 function (PG synthesis and signaling) was measured. Cartilage explants from mice on the high fat-diet showed reduced IGF-1 mediated PG synthesis compared to a low-fat group. Treatment of human chondrocytes with palmitate induced expression of CHOP, activated JNK and inhibited IGF-1 function. PBA, a small molecule chemical chaperone that alleviates ER stress rescued IGF-1 function and a JNK inhibitor rescued IGF-1 signaling. Palmitate-induced ER stress inhibited IGF-1 function in chondrocytes/cartilage via activating the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase JNK. This is the first study to demonstrate that ER stress is metabolic factor that regulates IGF-1 function in chondrocytes. Copyright © 2017 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. γ-Aminobutyric Acid Type A Receptor Potentiation Inhibits Learning in a Computational Network Model.

    PubMed

    Storer, Kingsley P; Reeke, George N

    2018-04-17

    Propofol produces memory impairment at concentrations well below those abolishing consciousness. Episodic memory, mediated by the hippocampus, is most sensitive. Two potentially overlapping scenarios may explain how γ-aminobutyric acid receptor type A (GABAA) potentiation by propofol disrupts episodic memory-the first mediated by shifting the balance from excitation to inhibition while the second involves disruption of rhythmic oscillations. We use a hippocampal network model to explore these scenarios. The basis for these experiments is the proposal that the brain represents memories as groups of anatomically dispersed strongly connected neurons. A neuronal network with connections modified by synaptic plasticity was exposed to patterned stimuli, after which spiking output demonstrated evidence of stimulus-related neuronal group development analogous to memory formation. The effect of GABAA potentiation on this memory model was studied in 100 unique networks. GABAA potentiation consistent with moderate propofol effects reduced neuronal group size formed in response to a patterned stimulus by around 70%. Concurrently, accuracy of a Bayesian classifier in identifying learned patterns in the network output was reduced. Greater potentiation led to near total failure of group formation. Theta rhythm variations had no effect on group size or classifier accuracy. Memory formation is widely thought to depend on changes in neuronal connection strengths during learning that enable neuronal groups to respond with greater facility to familiar stimuli. This experiment suggests the ability to form such groups is sensitive to alteration in the balance between excitation and inhibition such as that resulting from administration of a γ-aminobutyric acid-mediated anesthetic agent.

  19. Amino acid conjugated antimicrobial drugs: Synthesis, lipophilicity- activity relationship, antibacterial and urease inhibition activity.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Atta; Iftikhar, Fatima; Arfan, Muhammad; Batool Kazmi, Syeda Tayyaba; Anjum, Muhammad Naveed; Haq, Ihsan-Ul; Ayaz, Muhammad; Farooq, Sadia; Rashid, Umer

    2018-02-10

    Present work describes the in vitro antibacterial evaluation of some new amino acid conjugated antimicrobial drugs. Structural modification was attempted on the three existing antimicrobial pharmaceuticals namely trimethoprim, metronidazole, isoniazid. Twenty one compounds from seven series of conjugates of these drugs were synthesized by coupling with some selected Boc-protected amino acids. The effect of structural features and lipophilicity on the antibacterial activity was investigated. The synthesized compounds were evaluated against five standard American type culture collection (ATCC) i.e. Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi strains of bacteria. Our results identified a close relationship between the lipophilicity and the activity. Triazine skeleton proved beneficial for the increase in hydrophobicity and potency. Compounds with greater hydrophobicity have shown excellent activities against Gram-negative strains of bacteria than Gram-positive. 4-amino unsubstituted trimethoprim-triazine derivative 7b have shown superior activity with MIC = 3.4 μM (2 μg/mL) for S. aureus and 1.1 μM (0.66 μg/mL) for E. coli. The synthesized compounds were also evaluated for their urease inhibition study. Microbial urease from Bacillus pasteurii was chosen for this study. Triazine derivative 7a showed excellent inhibition with IC 50  = 6.23 ± 0.09 μM. Docking studies on the crystal structure of B. pasteurii urease (PDB ID 4UBP) were carried out. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Lactic acid bacteria inhibit TH2 cytokine production by mononuclear cells from allergic patients.

    PubMed

    Pochard, Pierre; Gosset, Philippe; Grangette, Corinne; Andre, Claude; Tonnel, André-Bernard; Pestel, Joël; Mercenier, Annick

    2002-10-01

    Among factors potentially involved in the increased prevalence of allergic diseases, modification of the intestinal bacteria flora or lack of bacterial stimulation during childhood has been proposed. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) present in fermented foods or belonging to the natural intestinal microflora were shown to exert beneficial effects on human health. Recent reports have indicated their capacity to reduce allergic symptoms. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of LAB on the production of type 2 cytokines, which characterize allergic diseases. PBMCs from patients allergic to house dust mite versus those from healthy donors were stimulated for 48 hours with the related Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus allergen or with a staphylococcal superantigen. The effect of LAB preincubation was assessed by measuring the type 2 cytokine production by means of specific ELISA. The tested gram-positive LAB were shown to inhibit the secretion of T(H)2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-5). This effect was dose dependent and was observed irrespective of the LAB strain used. No significant inhibition was induced by the control, gram-negative Escherichia coli TG1. Interestingly, LAB reduced the T(H)2 cytokine production from allergic PBMCs specifically restimulated with the related allergen. The inhibition mechanism was shown to be dependent on antigen-presenting cells (ie, monocytes) and on the involvement of IL-12 and IFN-gamma. The tested LAB strains were demonstrated to exhibit an anti-T(H)2 activity, and thus different strains of this family might be useful in the prevention of allergic diseases.

  1. Valproic acid inhibits epithelial‑mesenchymal transition in renal cell carcinoma by decreasing SMAD4 expression.

    PubMed

    Mao, Shaowei; Lu, Guoliang; Lan, Xiaopeng; Yuan, Chuanwei; Jiang, Wei; Chen, Yougen; Jin, Xunbo; Xia, Qinghua

    2017-11-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common malignancy in urogenital neoplasms worldwide. According to previous studies, valproic acid (VPA), an anticonvulsant drug, can suppress tumor metastasis and decrease the expression level of Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 4 (SMAD4) and therefore may inhibit epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is responsible for cancer metastasis. However, the association between VPA, EMT and SMAD4 in RCC metastasis remains obscure. In the present study, it was demonstrated that in the RCC cell lines 786‑O and Caki‑1 treated with VPA, the neural (N)‑cadherin, vimentin and SMAD4 protein and mRNA levels were decreased, accompanied with an increase in expression of epithelial (E)‑cadherin. Silencing SMAD4 expression decreased the expression of EMT markers, including N‑cadherin and simultaneously upregulated E‑cadherin in RCC cell lines. SMAD4 overexpression counteracted the VPA‑mediated EMT‑inhibitory effect (P<0.05). The present study demonstrates that VPA inhibited EMT in RCC cells via altering SMAD4 expression. In addition, immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that transforming growth factor‑β (TGF‑β) and low expression of SMAD4 was associated with a lower Fuhrman grade and low expression of transcription intermediary factor 1‑γ was associated with a higher tumor Fuhrman grade (P<0.05), Therefore, based on the regulatory effect of SMAD4 on EMT‑associated transcription factors, SMAD4 which can form a SMAD3/SMAD4 complex induced by TGF‑β, could be a potential anticancer drug target inhibiting tumor invasion and metastasis in RCC.

  2. Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation on composite resins containing ursolic acid

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soohyeon; Song, Minju; Roh, Byoung-Duck; Park, Sung-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the inhibitory effect of ursolic acid (UA)-containing composites on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) biofilm. Materials and Methods Composite resins with five different concentrations (0.04, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 wt%) of UA (U6753, Sigma Aldrich) were prepared, and their flexural strengths were measured according to ISO 4049. To evaluate the effect of carbohydrate source on biofilm formation, either glucose or sucrose was used as a nutrient source, and to investigate the effect of saliva treatment, the specimen were treated with either unstimulated whole saliva or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). For biofilm assay, composite disks were transferred to S. mutans suspension and incubated for 24 hr. Afterwards, the specimens were rinsed with PBS and sonicated. The colony forming units (CFU) of the disrupted biofilm cultures were enumerated. For growth inhibition test, the composites were placed on a polystyrene well cluster, and S. mutans suspension was inoculated. The optical density at 600 nm (OD600) was recorded by Infinite F200 pro apparatus (TECAN). One-way ANOVA and two-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni correction were used for the data analyses. Results The flexural strength values did not show significant difference at any concentration (p > 0.01). In biofilm assay, the CFU score decreased as the concentration of UA increased. The influence of saliva pretreatment was conflicting. The sucrose groups exhibited higher CFU score than glucose group (p < 0.05). In bacterial growth inhibition test, all experimental groups containing UA resulted in complete inhibition. Conclusions Within the limitations of the experiments, UA included in the composite showed inhibitory effect on S. mutans biofilm formation and growth. PMID:23741708

  3. A Quantitative Description of Suicide Inhibition of Dichloroacetic Acid in Rats and Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Keys, Deborah A.; Schultz, Irv R.; Mahle, Deirdre A.

    Dichloroacetic acid (DCA), a minor metabolite of trichloroethylene (TCE) and water disinfection byproduct, remains an important risk assessment issue because of its carcinogenic potency. DCA has been shown to inhibit its own metabolism by irreversibly inactivating glutathione transferase zeta (GSTzeta). To better predict internal dosimetry of DCA, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of DCA was developed. Suicide inhibition was described dynamically by varying the rate of maximal GSTzeta mediated metabolism of DCA (Vmax) over time. Resynthesis (zero-order) and degradation (first-order) of metabolic activity were described. Published iv pharmacokinetic studies in native rats were used to estimate an initial Vmaxmore » value, with Km set to an in vitro determined value. Degradation and resynthesis rates were set to estimated values from a published immunoreactive GSTzeta protein time course. The first-order inhibition rate, kd, was estimated to this same time course. A secondary, linear non-GSTzeta-mediated metabolic pathway is proposed to fit DCA time courses following treatment with DCA in drinking water. The PBPK model predictions were validated by comparing predicted DCA concentrations to measured concentrations in published studies of rats pretreated with DCA following iv exposure to 0.05 to 20 mg/kg DCA. The same model structure was parameterized to simulate DCA time courses following iv exposure in native and pretreated mice. Blood and liver concentrations during and postexposure to DCA in drinking water were predicted. Comparisons of PBPK model predicted to measured values were favorable, lending support for the further development of this model for application to DCA or TCE human health risk assessment.« less

  4. Ellagic acid promotes A{beta}42 fibrillization and inhibits A{beta}42-induced neurotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Ying; Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Haidian District, Beijing 100084; Yang, Shi-gao

    Smaller, soluble oligomers of {beta}-amyloid (A{beta}) play a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Selective inhibition of A{beta} oligomer formation provides an optimum target for AD therapy. Some polyphenols have potent anti-amyloidogenic activities and protect against A{beta} neurotoxicity. Here, we tested the effects of ellagic acid (EA), a polyphenolic compound, on A{beta}42 aggregation and neurotoxicity in vitro. EA promoted A{beta} fibril formation and significant oligomer loss, contrary to previous results that polyphenols inhibited A{beta} aggregation. The results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Western blot displayed more fibrils in A{beta}42 samples co-incubated with EA in earlier phasesmore » of aggregation. Consistent with the hypothesis that plaque formation may represent a protective mechanism in which the body sequesters toxic A{beta} aggregates to render them harmless, our MTT results showed that EA could significantly reduce A{beta}42-induced neurotoxicity toward SH-SY5Y cells. Taken together, our results suggest that EA, an active ingredient in many fruits and nuts, may have therapeutic potential in AD.« less

  5. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Inhibit T Cell Signal Transduction by Modification of Detergent-insoluble Membrane Domains

    PubMed Central

    Stulnig, Thomas M.; Berger, Markus; Sigmund, Thomas; Raederstorff, Daniel; Stockinger, Hannes; Waldhäusl, Werner

    1998-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) exert immunosuppressive effects, but the molecular alterations leading to T cell inhibition are not yet elucidated. Signal transduction seems to involve detergent-resistant membrane domains (DRMs) acting as functional rafts within the plasma membrane bilayer with Src family protein tyrosine kinases being attached to their cytoplasmic leaflet. Since DRMs include predominantly saturated fatty acyl moieties, we investigated whether PUFAs could affect T cell signaling by remodeling of DRMs. Jurkat T cells cultured in PUFA-supplemented medium showed a markedly diminished calcium response when stimulated via the transmembrane CD3 complex or glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI)- anchored CD59. Immunofluorescence studies indicated that CD59 but not Src family protein tyrosine kinase Lck remained in a punctate pattern after PUFA enrichment. Analysis of DRMs revealed a marked displacement of Src family kinases (Lck, Fyn) from DRMs derived from PUFA-enriched T cells compared with controls, and the presence of Lck in DRMs strictly correlated with calcium signaling. In contrast, GPI-anchored proteins (CD59, CD48) and ganglioside GM1, both residing in the outer membrane leaflet, remained in the DRM fraction. In conclusion, PUFA enrichment selectively modifies the cytoplasmic layer of DRMs and this alteration could underlie the inhibition of T cell signal transduction by PUFAs. PMID:9813086

  6. Zoledronic acid inhibits vasculogenic mimicry in murine osteosarcoma cell line in vitro.

    PubMed

    Fu, Dehao; He, Xianfeng; Yang, Shuhua; Xu, Weihua; Lin, Tao; Feng, Xiaobo

    2011-06-30

    To study the effects of zoledronic acid (ZA) on the vasculogenic mimicry of osteosarcoma cells in vitro. A Three-dimensional culture of LM8 osteosarcoma cells on a type I collagen matrix was used to investigate whether osteosarcoma cells can develop vasculogenic mimicry, and to determine the effects of ZA on this process. In addition, the cellular ultrastructural changes were observed using scanning electron microscopy and laser confocal microscopy. The effects of ZA on the translocation of RhoA protein from the cytosol to the membrane in LM8 cells were measured via immunoblotting. ZA inhibited the development of vasculogenic mimicry by the LM8 osteosarcoma cells, decreased microvilli formation on the cell surface, and disrupted the F-actin cytoskeleton. ZA prevented translocation of RhoA protein from the cytosol to the membrane in LM8 cells. ZA can impair RhoA membrane localization in LM8 cells, causing obvious changes in the ultrastructure of osteosarcoma cells and induce cell apoptosis, which may be one of the underlying mechanisms by which the agent inhibits the development of vasculogenic mimicry by the LM8 cells.

  7. Mycophenolic acid potently inhibits rotavirus infection with a high barrier to resistance development.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yuebang; Wang, Yijin; Dang, Wen; Xu, Lei; Su, Junhong; Zhou, Xinying; Wang, Wenshi; Felczak, Krzysztof; van der Laan, Luc J W; Pankiewicz, Krzysztof W; van der Eijk, Annemiek A; Bijvelds, Marcel; Sprengers, Dave; de Jonge, Hugo; Koopmans, Marion P G; Metselaar, Herold J; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P; Pan, Qiuwei

    2016-09-01

    Rotavirus infection has emerged as an important cause of complications in organ transplantation recipients. Immunosuppressants used to prevent alloreactivity can also interfere with virus infection, but the direct effects of the specific type of immunosuppressants on rotavirus infection are still unclear. Here we profiled the effects of different immunosuppressants on rotavirus using a 2D culture model of Caco2 human intestinal cell line and a 3D model of human primary intestinal organoids inoculated with laboratory and patient-derived rotavirus strains. We found that the responsiveness of rotavirus to Cyclosporine A treatment was moderate and strictly regulated in an opposite direction by its cellular targets cyclophilin A and B. Treatment with mycophenolic acid (MPA) resulted in a 99% inhibition of viral RNA production at the clinically relevant concentration (10 μg/ml) in Caco2 cells. This effect was further confirmed in organoids. Importantly, continuous treatment with MPA for 30 passages did not attenuate its antiviral potency, indicating a high barrier to drug resistance development. Mechanistically, the antiviral effects of MPA act via inhibiting the IMPDH enzyme and resulting in guanosine nucleotide depletion. Thus for transplantation patients at risk for rotavirus infection, the choice of MPA as an immunosuppressive agent appears rational. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Bovicin HC5 inhibits wasteful amino acid degradation by mixed ruminal bacteria in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lima, Janaína R; Ribon, Andréa de O Barros; Russell, James B; Mantovani, Hilário C

    2009-03-01

    Streptococcus bovis HC5 produces a broad spectrum lantibiotic (bovicin HC5) that inhibits pure cultures of hyper ammonia-producing bacteria (HAB). Experiments were preformed to see if: (1) S. bovis HC5 cells could inhibit the deamination of amino acids by mixed ruminal bacteria taken directly from a cow, (2) semi-purified bovicin was as effective as S. bovis HC5 cells, and 3) semi-purified and the feed additive monensin were affecting the same types of ammonia-producing ruminal bacteria. Because purified and semi-purified bovicin HC5 was as effective as S. bovis HC5 cells, it appeared that bovicin HC5 was penetrating the cell membranes of HAB before it could be degraded by peptidases and proteinases. Mixed ruminal bacteria that were successively transferred and enriched nine times with trypticase did not become significantly more resistant to either bovicin HC5 (50 AU mL(-1)) or monensin (5 microM), and amplified rDNA restriction analysis indicated that bovicin HC5 and monensin appeared to be selecting against the same types of bacteria.

  9. Inhibition of P-Glycoprotein Mediated Efflux in Caco-2 Cells by Phytic Acid.

    PubMed

    Li, Lujia; Fu, Qingxue; Xia, Mengxin; Xin, Lei; Shen, Hongyi; Li, Guowen; Ji, Guang; Meng, Qianchao; Xie, Yan

    2018-01-31

    Phytic acid (IP6) is a natural phosphorylated inositol, which is abundantly present in most cereal grains and seeds. This study investigated the effects of IP6 regulation on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and its potential mechanisms using in situ and in vitro models. The effective permeability of the typical P-gp substrate rhodamine 123 (R123) in colon was significantly increased from (1.69 ± 0.22) × 10 -5 cm/s in the control group to (3.39 ± 0.417) × 10 -5 cm/s (p < 0.01) in the 3.5 mM IP6 group. Additionally, IP6 can concentration-dependently decrease the R123 efflux ratio in both Caco-2 and MDCK II-MDR1 cell monolayers and increase intracellular R123 accumulation in Caco-2 cells. Furthermore, IP6 noncompetitively inhibited P-gp by impacting R123 efflux kinetics. The noncompetitive inhibition of P-gp by IP6 was likely due to decreases in P-gp ATPase activity and P-gp molecular conformational changes induced by IP6. In summary, IP6 is a promising P-gp inhibitor candidate.

  10. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid sensitizes neuroblastoma to paclitaxel by inhibiting thioredoxin-related protein 14-mediated autophagy.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Zijun; Yang, Kaibin; Ye, Litong; You, Zhiyao; Chen, Rirong; Liu, Ying; He, Youjian

    2017-07-01

    Paclitaxel is not as effective for neuroblastoma as most of the front-line chemotherapeutics due to drug resistance. This study explored the regulatory mechanism of paclitaxel-associated autophagy and potential solutions to paclitaxel resistance in neuroblastoma. The formation of autophagic vesicles was detected by scanning transmission electron microscopy and flow cytometry. The autophagy-associated proteins were assessed by western blot. Autophagy was induced and the autophagy-associated proteins LC3-I, LC3-II, Beclin 1, and thioredoxin-related protein 14 (TRP14), were found to be upregulated in neuroblastoma cells that were exposed to paclitaxel. The inhibition of Beclin 1 or TRP14 by siRNA increased the sensitivity of the tumor cells to paclitaxel. In addition, Beclin 1-mediated autophagy was regulated by TRP14. Furthermore, the TRP14 inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) downregulated paclitaxel-induced autophagy and enhanced the anticancer effects of paclitaxel in normal control cancer cells but not in cells with upregulated Beclin 1 and TRP14 expression. Our findings showed that paclitaxel-induced autophagy in neuroblastoma cells was regulated by TRP14 and that SAHA could sensitize neuroblastoma cells to paclitaxel by specifically inhibiting TRP14. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  11. Lysophosphatidic Acid Inhibits Apoptosis Induced by Cisplatin in Cervical Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Yanxia; Yang, Ya; Wang, Ji; Li, Yi; Ma, Hongbing; Cai, Hui; Liu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Shufeng; Li, Zongfang; Zhang, Xiaozhi; Wang, Jiansheng; Liu, Rui; Yan, Yanli; Xue, Chaofan; Shi, Xiaowei; Tan, Li; Ren, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death in women worldwide. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) level has been found significantly increased in the serum of patients with ovarian, cervical, and colon cancers. LPA level in cervical cancer patients is significantly higher than in healthy controls. LPA receptors were found highly expressed in cervical cancer cells, suggesting LPA may play a role in the development of cervical cancer. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of LPA on the apoptosis induced by cisplatin (DDP) in cervical cancer cell line and the underlying changes in signaling pathways. Our study found that cisplatin induced apoptosis of Hela cell through inhibiting expression of Bcl-2, upregulating the expression of Bax, Fas-L, and the enzyme activity of caspase-3 (p < 0.05); LPA significantly provided protection against the apoptosis induced by cisplatin by inhibiting the above alterations in apoptotic factor caused by cisplatin (p < 0.05). Moreover, PI3K/AKT pathway was found to be important for the LPA antiapoptosis effect, and administration of PI3K/AKT partially reversed the LPA-mediated protection against cisplatin-induced apoptosis (p < 0.05). These findings have shed new lights on the LPA bioactivity in cervical cancer cells and pointed to a possible sensitization scheme through combined administration of PI3K inhibitor and cisplatin for better treatment of cervical cancer patients, especially those with elevated LPA levels. PMID:26366416

  12. Nicotinic acid inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome activation via SIRT1 in vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanxiang; Yang, Guangde; Yang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Weirong; Zhang, Jiye; He, Yanhao; Zhang, Wei; Jing, Ting; Lin, Rong

    2016-11-01

    Emerging evidences indicated that NLRP3 inflammasome initiates inflammatory response involved in cardiovascular disease. Nicotinic acid (NA) has been known to possess potential anti-inflammatory property. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of NA on the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome and the underlying mechanisms. It was found that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) triggered the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). NA inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation and subsequent caspase-1 cleavage as well as interleukin (IL)-1β secretion. Moreover, NA administration up-regulated SIRT1 expression in HUVECs stimulated with LPS plus ATP. Importantly, knockdown of SIRT1 reversed the inhibitory effect of NA on the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. Further study revealed that NA also decreased the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HUVECs. In addition, NA inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation partly through suppression of ROS. Taken together, these findings indicate that NA is able to regulate the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in HUVECs, which may be partly mediated by SIRT1 and ROS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Substitution-inert trinuclear platinum complexes efficiently condense/aggregate nucleic acids and inhibit enzymatic activity.

    PubMed

    Malina, Jaroslav; Farrell, Nicholas P; Brabec, Viktor

    2014-11-17

    The trinuclear platinum complexes (TriplatinNC-A [{Pt(NH3 )3 }2 -μ-{trans-Pt(NH3 )2 (NH2 (CH2 )6 NH2 )2 }](6+) , and TriplatinNC [{trans-Pt(NH3 )2 (NH2 (CH2 )6 NH3 (+) )}2 -μ-{trans-Pt(NH3 )2 (NH2 (CH2 )6 NH2 )2 }](8+) ) are biologically active agents that bind to DNA through noncovalent (hydrogen bonding, electrostatic) interactions. Herein, we show that TriplatinNC condenses DNA with a much higher potency than conventional DNA condensing agents. Both complexes induce aggregation of small transfer RNA molecules, and TriplatinNC in particular completely inhibits DNA transcription at lower concentrations than naturally occurring spermine. Topoisomerase I-mediated relaxation of supercoiled DNA was inhibited by TriplatinNC-A and TriplatinNC at concentrations which were 60 times and 250 times lower than that of spermine. The mechanisms for the biological activity of TriplatinNC-A and TriplatinNC may be associated with their ability to condense/aggregate nucleic acids with consequent inhibitory effects on crucial enzymatic activities. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Fatty acid synthase inhibition activates AMP-activated protein kinase in SKOV3 human ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Weibo; Han, Wan Fang; Landree, Leslie E; Thupari, Jagan N; Pinn, Michael L; Bililign, Tsion; Kim, Eun Kyoung; Vadlamudi, Aravinda; Medghalchi, Susan M; El Meskini, Rajaa; Ronnett, Gabriele V; Townsend, Craig A; Kuhajda, Francis P

    2007-04-01

    Fatty acid synthase (FAS), the enzyme responsible for the de novo synthesis of fatty acids, is highly expressed in ovarian cancers and most common human carcinomas. Inhibition of FAS and activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) have been shown to be cytotoxic to human cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. In this report, we explore the cytotoxic mechanism of action of FAS inhibition and show that C93, a synthetic FAS inhibitor, increases the AMP/ATP ratio, activating AMPK in SKOV3 human ovarian cancer cells, which leads to cytotoxicity. As a physiologic consequence of AMPK activation, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), the rate-limiting enzyme of fatty acid synthesis, was phosphorylated and inhibited whereas glucose oxidation was increased. Despite these attempts to conserve energy, the AMP/ATP ratio increased with worsening cellular redox status. Pretreatment of SKOV3 cells with compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, substantially rescued the cells from C93 cytotoxicity, indicating its dependence on AMPK activation. 5-(Tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid, an ACC inhibitor, did not activate AMPK despite inhibiting fatty acid synthesis pathway activity and was not significantly cytotoxic to SKOV3 cells. This indicates that substrate accumulation from FAS inhibition triggering AMPK activation, not end-product depletion of fatty acids, is likely responsible for AMPK activation. C93 also exhibited significant antitumor activity and apoptosis against SKOV3 xenografts in athymic mice without significant weight loss or cytotoxicity to proliferating cellular compartments such as bone marrow, gastrointestinal tract, or skin. Thus, pharmacologic FAS inhibition selectively activates AMPK in ovarian cancer cells, inducing cytotoxicity while sparing most normal human tissues from the pleiotropic effects of AMPK activation.

  15. Protection by naringin and some other flavonoids of hepatocytic autophagy and endocytosis against inhibition by okadaic acid.

    PubMed

    Gordon, P B; Holen, I; Seglen, P O

    1995-03-17

    In isolated rat hepatocytes, the protein phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid exerts a strong inhibitory effect on autophagy, which can be partially overcome by certain protein kinase inhibitors like the isoflavone genistein. To see if other, more specific okadaic acid antagonists could be found among the flavonoids, 55 different flavonoids were tested for their effect on okadaic acid-inhibited autophagy, measured as the sequestration of electroinjected [3H]raffinose. Naringin (naringenin 7-hesperidoside) and several other flavanone and flavone glycosides (prunin, neoeriocitrin, neohesperidin, apiin, rhoifolin, kaempferol 3-rutinoside) offered virtually complete protection against the autophagy-inhibitory effect of okadaic acid. Unlike genistein, these compounds had little or no autophagy-inhibitory effect of their own. Their innocuousness appeared to be related to glycosylation, because the corresponding aglycones (naringenin, eriodictyol, hesperetin, apigenin, kaempferol) were all inhibitory, in particular apigenin (80% inhibition at 100 microM). Naringin, the most potent okadaic acid-antagonistic flavonoid, gave half-maximal protection at 5 microM and maximal effect at 100 microM. Naringin also prevented the okadaic acid-induced inhibition of endogenous, autophagic lysosomal protein degradation and of receptor-mediated asialoglycoprotein uptake and degradation. Naringin and other okadaic acid-antagonistic flavonoids may be useful tools in the study of intracellular protein phosphorylation and could have potential therapeutic value as protectants against pathological hyperphosphorylations, environmental toxins, or side effects of chemotherapeutic drugs.

  16. Caffeic acid, a coffee-related organic acid, inhibits infection by severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Motohiko; Shirasago, Yoshitaka; Ando, Shuji; Shimojima, Masayuki; Saijo, Masayuki; Fukasawa, Masayoshi

    2018-04-05

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) virus (SFTSV) causes tick-borne hemorrhagic fever in East Asia. The disease is characterized by high morbidity and mortality. Here, we evaluated the effects of caffeic acid (CA), a coffee-related organic acid with antiviral effects, against SFTSV infection. CA dose-dependently inhibited SFTSV infection in permissive human hepatoma Huh7.5.1-8 cells when SFTSV was added into the culture medium with CA. However, quinic acid (QA), another coffee-related organic acid, did not inhibit SFTSV infection. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) of CA against SFTSV was 0.048 mM, whereas its 50% cytotoxic concentration was 7.6 mM. The selectivity index (SI) was 158. Pre-incubation of SFTSV with CA for 4 h resulted in a greater inhibition of SFTSV infection (IC 50  = 0.019 mM; SI = 400). The pre-incubation substantially decreased viral attachment to the cells. CA treatment of the SFTSV-infected cells also inhibited the infection, albeit less effectively. CA activity after cell infection with SFTSV was more pronounced at a low multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 0.01 per cell (IC 50  = 0.18 mM) than at a high MOI of 1 per cell (IC 50  > 1 mM). Thus, CA inhibited virus spread by acting directly on the virus rather than on the infected cells. In conclusion, CA acted on SFTSV and inhibited viral infection and spread, mainly by inhibiting the binding of SFTSV to the cells. We therefore demonstrated CA to be a potential anti-SFTSV drug for preventing and treating SFTS. Copyright © 2018 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Inhibition of monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III))-induced cell malignant transformation through restoring dysregulated histone acetylation.

    PubMed

    Ge, Yichen; Gong, Zhihong; Olson, James R; Xu, Peilin; Buck, Michael J; Ren, Xuefeng

    2013-10-04

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) and its high toxic metabolite, monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)), are able to induce malignant transformation of human cells. Chronic exposure to these chemicals is associated with an increased risk of developing multiple cancers in human. However, the mechanisms contributing to iAs/MMA(III)-induced cell malignant transformation and carcinogenesis are not fully elucidated. We recently showed that iAs/MMA(III) exposure to human cells led to a decreased level of histone acetylation globally, which was associated with an increased sensitivity to arsenic cytotoxicity. In the current study, it demonstrated that prolonged exposure to low-level MMA(III) in human urothelial cells significantly increased the expression and activity of histone deacetylases (HDACs) with an associated reduction of histone acetylation levels both globally and lysine specifically. Administration of the HDAC inhibitor, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), at 4 weeks after the initial MMA(III) treatment inhibited the MMA(III)-mediated up-regulation of the expression and activities of HDACs, leading to increase histone acetylation and prevention of MMA(III)-induced malignant transformation. These new findings suggest that histone acetylation dysregulation may be a key mechanism in MMA(III)-induced malignant transformation and carcinogenesis, and that HDAC inhibitors could be targeted to prevent or treat iAs-related cancers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ketoconazole inhibits the in vitro and in vivo metabolism of all-trans-retinoic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Van Wauwe, J.P.; Coene, M.C.; Goossens, J.

    1988-05-01

    Ketoconazole, an antifungal agent and inhibitor of certain mammalian cytochrome P-450-dependent enzymes, was studied for its effects on the in vitro and in vivo metabolism of all-trans-retinoic acid (RA). In vitro, ketoconazole (Ki = 0.75 microM) inhibited, in an apparently competitive manner, the cytochrome P-450-mediated metabolism to 4-hydroxy- and 4-keto-retinoic acids by hamster liver microsomes. In vivo, ketoconazole suppressed the formation of polar RA metabolites by normal rats dosed intrajugularly with 200 ng of (/sup 3/H)RA. After p.o. treatment with ketoconazole (2.5-40 mg/kg) given 1 hr before the (/sup 3/H)RA injection, the radioactivity extracted from the liver consisted of 25more » to 50% polar metabolites (control 66 +/- 1%) and 50 to 75% undegraded RA (control 34 +/- 1%) as evidenced by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Time course experiments showed that ketoconazole's inhibitory effects lasted for 3 hr. Our data indicate the quantitative importance of the cytochrome P-450 enzymatic pathway in the biotransformation of RA. They also suggest that ketoconazole is capable of prolonging the biological half-life of RA and of improving the tissue levels of this compound.« less

  19. Hydrocortisone selectively inhibits IgE-dependent arachidonic acid release from rat peritoneal mast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Heiman, A.S.; Crews, F.T.

    Purified rat mst cells were used to study the effects of antiinflammatory steroids on the release of (1-14C)-arachidonic acid ((1-14C)AA) and metabolites. Mast cell were incubated overnight with glucocorticoids, (1-14C)AA incorporated into cellular phospholipids and the release of (1-14C)AA, and metabolites determined using a variety of secretagogues. Release of (1-14C)AA and metabolites by concanavalin A, the antigen ovalbumin and anti-immunoglobulin E antibody was markedly reduced by glucocorticoid treatment. Neither the total incorporation of (1-14C)AA nor the distribution into phospholipids was altered by hydrocortisone pretreatment. Glucocorticoid pretreatment did not alter (1-14C)AA release stimulated by somatostatin, compound 48/80, or the calcium ionophore,more » A23187. These data indicate that antiinflammatory steroids selectively inhibit immunoglobulin dependent release of arachidonic acid from rat mast cells. These findings question the role of lipomodulin and macrocortin as general phospholipase inhibitors and suggest that they may be restricted to immunoglobulin stimuli.« less

  20. Meclofenamic acid selectively inhibits FTO demethylation of m6A over ALKBH5

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yue; Yan, Jingli; Li, Qi; Li, Jiafei; Gong, Shouzhe; Zhou, Hu; Gan, Jianhua; Jiang, Hualiang; Jia, Gui-Fang; Luo, Cheng; Yang, Cai-Guang

    2015-01-01

    Two human demethylases, the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) enzyme and ALKBH5, oxidatively demethylate abundant N6-methyladenosine (m6A) residues in mRNA. Achieving a method for selective inhibition of FTO over ALKBH5 remains a challenge, however. Here, we have identified meclofenamic acid (MA) as a highly selective inhibitor of FTO. MA is a non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory drug that mechanistic studies indicate competes with FTO binding for the m6A-containing nucleic acid. The structure of FTO/MA has revealed much about the inhibitory function of FTO. Our newfound understanding, revealed herein, of the part of the nucleotide recognition lid (NRL) in FTO, for example, has helped elucidate the principles behind the selectivity of FTO over ALKBH5. Treatment of HeLa cells with the ethyl ester form of MA (MA2) has led to elevated levels of m6A modification in mRNA. Our collective results highlight the development of functional probes of the FTO enzyme that will (i) enable future biological studies and (ii) pave the way for the rational design of potent and specific inhibitors of FTO for use in medicine. PMID:25452335

  1. Inhibition effect of Arabic gum and cellulose acetate coatings on aluminium in acid/base media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alva, S.; Sundari, R.; Rahmatullah, A.; Wahyudi, H.

    2018-03-01

    Nowadays aluminium is broadly used for battery purpose due to its conductivity, non toxic and economic reasons. Arabic gum and cellulose acetate are used as potential inhibitors to hinder corrosion effect on aluminium plate immersed in a solution of hydrochloric acid or sodium hydroxide. This investigation has studied the corrosion rate in terms of different concentrations of acid or base media. The average inhibition efficiency in the interested concentration range of both HCl and NaOH (0.1 M – 3.0 M) for 1 × 1 cm2 aluminium (Al) plate coated by 20% Arabic gum (AG) and 5% cellulose acetate (CA) with each thickness of 0.5 mm is found to be higher than 90%. The electrochemical behavior of corrosion effect is examined by cyclic voltammetric performance with respect to HCl or NaOH media. This investigation is useful especially for the study of Arabic gum and cellulose acetate utilized as polymer inhibitor in strong corrosive media.

  2. Vinpocetine Ameliorates Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis by Inhibiting NF-κB Activation in Mice.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Bárbara B; Fattori, Victor; Guazelli, Carla F S; Zaninelli, Tiago H; Carvalho, Thacyana T; Ferraz, Camila R; Bussmann, Allan J C; Ruiz-Miyazawa, Kenji W; Baracat, Marcela M; Casagrande, Rúbia; Verri, Waldiceu A

    2018-04-10

    The idiopathic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) comprise two types of chronic intestinal disorders: Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Recruited neutrophils and macrophages contribute to intestinal tissue damage via production of ROS and NF-κB-dependent pro-inflammatory cytokines. The introduction of anti-TNF-α therapies in the treatment of IBD patients was a seminal advance. This therapy is often limited by a loss of efficacy due to the development of adaptive immune response, underscoring the need for novel therapies targeting similar pathways. Vinpocetine is a nootropic drug and in addition to its antioxidant effect, it is known to have anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties, partly by inhibition of NF-κB and downstream cytokines. Therefore, the present study evaluated the effect of the vinpocetine in a model of acid acetic-induced colitis in mice. Treatment with vinpocetine reduced edema, MPO activity, microscopic score and macroscopic damage, and visceral mechanical hyperalgesia. Vinpocetine prevented the reduction of colonic levels of GSH, ABTS radical scavenging ability, and normalized levels of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Moreover, vinpocetine reduced NF-κB activation and thereby NF-κB-dependent pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-33 in the colon. Thus, we demonstrate for the first time that vinpocetine has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and analgesic effects in a model of acid acetic-induced colitis in mice and deserves further screening to address its suitability as an approach for the treatment of IBD.

  3. Synergistic inhibition of cancer cell proliferation with a combination of δ-tocotrienol and ferulic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Eitsuka, Takahiro, E-mail: eitsuka@nupals.ac.jp; Tatewaki, Naoto; Nishida, Hiroshi

    2014-10-24

    Highlights: • δ-Tocotrienol (δ-T3) and ferulic acid (FA) synergistically inhibit cancer cell growth. • The combination of δ-T3 and FA induces G1 arrest by up-regulating p21. • The synergy is attributed to an increase in the cellular concentration of δ-T3 by FA. - Abstract: Rice bran consists of many functional compounds and thus much attention has been focused on the health benefits of its components. Here, we investigated the synergistic inhibitory effects of its components, particularly δ-tocotrienol (δ-T3) and ferulic acid (FA), against the proliferation of an array of cancer cells, including DU-145 (prostate cancer), MCF-7 (breast cancer), and PANC-1more » (pancreatic cancer) cells. The combination of δ-T3 and FA markedly reduced cell proliferation relative to δ-T3 alone, and FA had no effect when used alone. Although δ-T3 induced G1 arrest by up-regulating p21 in PANC-1 cells, more cells accumulated in G1 phase with the combination of δ-T3 and FA. This synergistic effect was attributed to an increase in the cellular concentration of δ-T3 by FA. Our results suggest that the combination of δ-T3 and FA may present a new strategy for cancer prevention and therapy.« less

  4. Mechanisms for the activation of Toll-like receptor 2/4 by saturated fatty acids and inhibition by docosahexaenoic acid.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Daniel H; Kim, Jeong-A; Lee, Joo Young

    2016-08-15

    Saturated fatty acids can activate Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 but polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) inhibit the activation. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and lipopetides, ligands for TLR4 and TLR2, respectively, are acylated by saturated fatty acids. Removal of these fatty acids results in loss of their ligand activity suggesting that the saturated fatty acyl moieties are required for the receptor activation. X-ray crystallographic studies revealed that these saturated fatty acyl groups of the ligands directly occupy hydrophobic lipid binding domains of the receptors (or co-receptor) and induce the dimerization which is prerequisite for the receptor activation. Saturated fatty acids also induce the dimerization and translocation of TLR4 and TLR2 into lipid rafts in plasma membrane and this process is inhibited by DHA. Whether saturated fatty acids induce the dimerization of the receptors by interacting with these lipid binding domains is not known. Many experimental results suggest that saturated fatty acids promote the formation of lipid rafts and recruitment of TLRs into lipid rafts leading to ligand independent dimerization of the receptors. Such a mode of ligand independent receptor activation defies the conventional concept of ligand induced receptor activation; however, this may enable diverse non-microbial molecules with endogenous and dietary origins to modulate TLR-mediated immune responses. Emerging experimental evidence reveals that TLRs play a key role in bridging diet-induced endocrine and metabolic changes to immune responses. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Inhibition of TRPV1 channels by a naturally occurring omega-9 fatty acid reduces pain and itch

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Lázaro, Sara L.; Llorente, Itzel; Sierra-Ramírez, Félix; López-Romero, Ana E.; Ortíz-Rentería, Miguel; Serrano-Flores, Barbara; Simon, Sidney A.; Islas, León D.; Rosenbaum, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) ion channel is mainly found in primary nociceptive afferents whose activity has been linked to pathophysiological conditions including pain, itch and inflammation. Consequently, it is important to identify naturally occurring antagonists of this channel. Here we show that a naturally occurring monounsaturated fatty acid, oleic acid, inhibits TRPV1 activity, and also pain and itch responses in mice by interacting with the vanilloid (capsaicin)-binding pocket and promoting the stabilization of a closed state conformation. Moreover, we report an itch-inducing molecule, cyclic phosphatidic acid, that activates TRPV1 and whose pruritic activity, as well as that of histamine, occurs through the activation of this ion channel. These findings provide insights into the molecular basis of oleic acid inhibition of TRPV1 and also into a way of reducing the pathophysiological effects resulting from its activation. PMID:27721373

  6. Soluble epoxide hydrolase contamination of specific catalase preparations inhibits epoxyeicosatrienoic acid vasodilation of rat renal arterioles

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Lauren; Harder, Adam; Isbell, Marilyn; Imig, John D.; Gutterman, David D.; Falck, J. R.; Campbell, William B.

    2011-01-01

    Cytochrome P-450 metabolites of arachidonic acid, the epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), are important signaling molecules in the kidney. In renal arteries, EETs cause vasodilation whereas H2O2 causes vasoconstriction. To determine the physiological contribution of H2O2, catalase is used to inactivate H2O2. However, the consequence of catalase action on EET vascular activity has not been determined. In rat renal afferent arterioles, 14,15-EET caused concentration-related dilations that were inhibited by Sigma bovine liver (SBL) catalase (1,000 U/ml) but not Calbiochem bovine liver (CBL) catalase (1,000 U/ml). SBL catalase inhibition was reversed by the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitor tAUCB (1 μM). In 14,15-EET incubations, SBL catalase caused a concentration-related increase in a polar metabolite. Using mass spectrometry, the metabolite was identified as 14,15-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (14,15-DHET), the inactive sEH metabolite. 14,15-EET hydrolysis was not altered by the catalase inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (3-ATZ; 10–50 mM), but was abolished by the sEH inhibitor BIRD-0826 (1–10 μM). SBL catalase EET hydrolysis showed a regioisomer preference with greatest hydrolysis of 14,15-EET followed by 11,12-, 8,9- and 5,6-EET (Vmax = 0.54 ± 0.07, 0.23 ± 0.06, 0.18 ± 0.01 and 0.08 ± 0.02 ng DHET·U catalase−1·min−1, respectively). Of five different catalase preparations assayed, EET hydrolysis was observed with two Sigma liver catalases. These preparations had low specific catalase activity and positive sEH expression. Mass spectrometric analysis of the SBL catalase identified peptide fragments matching bovine sEH. Collectively, these data indicate that catalase does not affect EET-mediated dilation of renal arterioles. However, some commercial catalase preparations are contaminated with sEH, and these contaminated preparations diminish the biological activity of H2O2 and EETs. PMID:21753077

  7. Protease Inhibition by Oleic Acid Transfer From Chronic Wound Dressings to Albumin

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, J. V.; Howley, Phyllis; Davis, Rachel M.

    High elastase and cathepsin G activities have been observed in chronic wounds. These levels can inhibit healing through degradation of growth factors, cytokines, and extracellular matrix proteins. Oleic acid (18:1) is a non-toxic elastase inhibitor with some potential for redressing the imbalance of elastase activity found in chronic wounds. Cotton wound dressing material was characterized as a transfer carrier for affinity uptake of 18:1 by albumin under conditions mimicking chronic wounds. 18:1-treated cotton was examined for its ability to bind and release the fatty acid in the presence of albumin. The mechanism of 18:1 uptake from cotton and binding bymore » albumin was examined with both intact dressings and cotton fiber-designed chromatography. Raman spectra of the albumin-18:1 complexes under liquid-liquid equilibrium conditions revealed fully saturated albumin-18:1 complexes with a 1:1 weight ratio of albumin:18:1. Cotton chromatography under liquid-solid equilibrium conditions revealed oleic acid transfer from cotton to albumin at 27 mole equivalents of 18:1 per mole albumin. Cotton was contrasted with hydrogel, and hydrocolloid wound dressing for its comparative ability to lower elastase activity. Each dressing material evaluated was found to release 18:1 in the presence of albumin with significant inhibition of elastase activity. The 18:1-formulated wound dressings lowered elastase activity in a dose dependent manner in the order cotton gauze > hydrogel > hydrocolloid. In contrast the cationic serine protease Cathepsin G was inihibited by 18:1 within a narrow range of 18:1-cotton formulations. Four per cent Albumin solutions were most effective in binding cotton bound-18:1. However, 2% albumin was sufficient to transfer quantities of 18:1 necessary to achieve a significant elastase-lowering effect. Formulations with 128 mg 18:1/g cotton gauze had equivalent elastase lowering with 1 - 4% albumin. 18:1 bound to cotton wound dressings may have promise in

  8. Lipopolysaccharide inhibits or accelerates biomedical titanium corrosion depending on environmental acidity

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Fei; Addison, Owen; Baker, Stephen J; Davenport, Alison J

    2015-01-01

    Titanium and its alloys are routinely used as biomedical implants and are usually considered to be corrosion resistant under physiological conditions. However, during inflammation, chemical modifications of the peri-implant environment including acidification occur. In addition certain biomolecules including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a component of Gram-negative bacterial cell walls and driver of inflammation have been shown to interact strongly with Ti and modify its corrosion resistance. Gram-negative microbes are abundant in biofilms which form on dental implants. The objective was to investigate the influence of LPS on the corrosion properties of relevant biomedical Ti substrates as a function of environmental acidity. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to quantify Ti dissolution following immersion testing in physiological saline for three common biomedical grades of Ti (ASTM Grade 2, Grade 4 and Grade 5). Complementary electrochemical tests including anodic and cathodic polarisation experiments and potentiostatic measurements were also conducted. All three Ti alloys were observed to behave similarly and ion release was sensitive to pH of the immersion solution. However, LPS significantly inhibited Ti release under the most acidic conditions (pH 2), which may develop in localized corrosion sites, but promoted dissolution at pH 4–7, which would be more commonly encountered physiologically. The observed pattern of sensitivity to environmental acidity of the effect of LPS on Ti corrosion has not previously been reported. LPS is found extensively on the surfaces of skin and mucosal penetrating Ti implants and the findings are therefore relevant when considering the chemical stability of Ti implant surfaces in vivo. PMID:25634122

  9. IgE binding to peanut allergens is inhibited by combined D-aspartic and D-glutamic acids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    D-amino acids (D-aas) are reported to bind to IgE antibodies from people with allergy and asthma. The objectives of this study were to determine if D-aas bind or inhibit IgE binding to peanut allergens, and if they are more effective than L-amino acids (L-aas) in this respect. Several D-aa cocktails...

  10. Carnosic acid inhibits the growth of ER-negative human breast cancer cells and synergizes with curcumin.

    PubMed

    Einbond, Linda Saxe; Wu, Hsan-Au; Kashiwazaki, Ryota; He, Kan; Roller, Marc; Su, Tao; Wang, Xiaomei; Goldsberry, Sarah

    2012-10-01

    Studies indicate that extracts and purified components, including carnosic acid, from the herb rosemary display significant growth inhibitory activity on a variety of cancers. This paper examines the ability of rosemary/carnosic acid to inhibit the growth of human breast cancer cells and to synergize with curcumin. To do this, we treated human breast cancer cells with rosemary/carnosic acid and assessed effects on cell proliferation, cell cycle distribution, gene expression patterns, activity of the purified Na/K ATPase and combinations with curcumin. Rosemary/carnosic acid potently inhibits proliferation of ER-negative human breast cancer cells and induces G1 cell cycle arrest. Further, carnosic acid is selective for MCF7 cells transfected for Her2, indicating that Her2 may function in its action. To reveal primary effects, we treated ER-negative breast cancer cells with carnosic acid for 6h. At a low dose, 5 μg/ml (15 μM), carnosic acid activated the expression of 3 genes, induced through the presence of antioxidant response elements, including genes involved in glutathione biosynthesis (CYP4F3, GCLC) and transport (SLC7A11). At a higher dose, 20 μg/ml, carnosic acid activated the expression of antioxidant (AKR1C2, TNXRD1, HMOX1) and apoptosis (GDF15, PHLDA1, DDIT3) genes and suppressed the expression of inhibitor of transcription (ID3) and cell cycle (CDKN2C) genes. Carnosic acid exhibits synergy with turmeric/curcumin. These compounds inhibited the activity of the purified Na-K-ATPase which may contribute to this synergy. Rosemary/carnosic acid, alone or combined with curcumin, may be useful to prevent and treat ER-negative breast cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Ilex paraguariensis and its main component chlorogenic acid inhibit fructose formation of advanced glycation endproducts with amino acids at conditions compatible with those in the digestive system.

    PubMed

    Bains, Yasmin; Gugliucci, Alejandro

    2017-03-01

    We have previously shown that Ilex paraguariensis extracts have potent antiglycation actions. Associations of excess free fructose consumption with inflammatory diseases have been proposed to be mediated through in situ enteral formation of fructose AGEs, which, after being absorbed may contribute to inflammatory diseases via engagement of RAGE. In this proof of principle investigation we show fluorescent AGE formation between amino acids (Arg, Lys, Gly at 10-50mM) and fructose (10-50mM) under time, temperature, pH and concentrations compatible with the digestive system lumen and its inhibition by Ilex paraguariensis extracts. Incubation of amino acids with fructose (but not glucose) leads to a time dependent formation of AGE fluorescence, already apparent after just 1h incubation, a time frame well compatible with the digestive process. Ilex paraguariensis (mate tea) inhibited AGE formation by 83% at 50μl/ml (p<0.001). Its main phenolics, caffeic acid and cholorogenic acid were as potent as aminoguanidine-a specific antiglycation agent: IC50 of 0.9mM (p<0.001). Our results suggest that AGE adducts form between fructose and amino acids at times and concentrations plausibly found in the intestines. The reaction is inhibited by mate tea and its individual phenolics (caffeic acid and chlorogenic acids). The study provides the first evidence for the proposed mechanism to explain epidemiological correlations between excess fructose consumption and inflammatory diseases. Enteral fructose-AGE formation would be inhibited by co-intake of Ilex paraguariensis, and potentially other beverages, fruits and vegetables that contain comparable concentrations of phenolics as in IP (mate tea). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Lauric acid and myristic acid from Allium sativum inhibit the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra: in silico analysis reveals possible binding to protein kinase B.

    PubMed

    Muniyan, Rajiniraja; Gurunathan, Jayaraman

    2016-12-01

    The bulb of Allium sativum Linn (Alliaceae) has numerous medicinal values. Though the petroleum ether extract of the bulb has shown to exhibit antimycobacterial activity, the phytochemical(s) responsible for this inhibitory activity is not known. To characterize the bioactive compounds in the petroleum ether extract of Allium sativum (garlic) that inhibit the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra. Bioactivity-guided fractionation was employed to isolate the bioactive compounds. Antimycobacterial activity was evaluated by well-diffusion method and microplate alamar blue assay (MABA). Infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were used to characterize the bioactive compounds. Autodock was used to obtain information on molecular recognition, and molecular dynamics simulation was performed using GROMACS. The bioactive compounds that inhibited the growth of M. tuberculosis H37Ra were found to be lauric acid (LA) and myristic acid (MA). The minimal inhibitory concentration of LA and MA was found to be 22.2 and 66.7 μg/mL, respectively. In silico analysis revealed that these fatty acids could bind at the cleft between the N-terminal and C-terminal lobes of the cytosolic domain of serine/threonine protein kinase B (PknB). The inhibition activity was dependent on the alkyl chain length of the fatty acid, and the amino acid residues involved in binding to fatty acid was found to be conserved across the Pkn family of proteins. The study indicates the possibility of using fatty acid derivatives, involving Pkn family of proteins, to inhibit the signal transduction processes in M. tuberculosis.

  13. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids selectively inhibit growth in neoplastic oral keratinocytes by differentially activating ERK1/2

    PubMed Central

    Parkinson, Eric Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    The long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs)—eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and its metabolite docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)—inhibit cancer formation in vivo, but their mechanism of action is unclear. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activation and inhibition have both been associated with the induction of tumour cell apoptosis by n-3 PUFAs. We show here that low doses of EPA, in particular, inhibited the growth of premalignant and malignant keratinocytes more than the growth of normal counterparts by a combination of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The growth inhibition of the oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) lines, but not normal keratinocytes, by both n-3 PUFAs was associated with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) autophosphorylation, a sustained phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and its downstream target p90RSK but not with phosphorylation of the PI3 kinase target Akt. Inhibition of EGFR with either the EGFR kinase inhibitor AG1478 or an EGFR-blocking antibody inhibited ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and the blocking antibody partially antagonized growth inhibition by EPA but not by DHA. DHA generated more reactive oxygen species and activated more c-jun N-terminal kinase than EPA, potentially explaining its increased toxicity to normal keratinocytes. Our results show that, in part, EPA specifically inhibits SCC growth and development by creating a sustained signalling imbalance to amplify the EGFR/ERK/p90RSK pathway in neoplastic keratinocytes to a supraoptimal level, supporting the chemopreventive potential of EPA, whose toxicity to normal cells might be reduced further by blocking its metabolism to DHA. Furthermore, ERK1/2 phosphorylation may have potential as a biomarker of n-3 PUFA function in vivo. PMID:23892603

  14. CaCO3 supplementation alleviates the inhibition of formic acid on acetone/butanol/ethanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    PubMed

    Qi, Gaoxiang; Xiong, Lian; Lin, Xiaoqing; Huang, Chao; Li, Hailong; Chen, Xuefang; Chen, Xinde

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the inhibiting effect of formic acid on acetone/butanol/ethanol (ABE) fermentation and explain the mechanism of the alleviation in the inhibiting effect under CaCO 3 supplementation condition. From the medium containing 50 g sugars l -1 and 0.5 g formic acid l -1 , only 0.75 g ABE l -1 was produced when pH was adjusted by KOH and fermentation ended prematurely before the transformation from acidogenesis to solventogenesis. In contrast, 11.4 g ABE l -1 was produced when pH was adjusted by 4 g CaCO 3 l -1 . The beneficial effect can be ascribed to the buffering capacity of CaCO 3 . Comparative analysis results showed that the undissociated formic acid concentration and acid production coupled with ATP and NADH was affected by the pH buffering capacity of CaCO 3 . Four millimole undissociated formic acid was the threshold at which the transformation to solventogenesis occurred. The inhibiting effect of formic acid on ABE fermentation can be alleviated by CaCO 3 supplementation due to its buffering capacity.

  15. IgE binding to peanut allergens is inhibited by combined D-aspartic and D-glutamic acids.

    PubMed

    Chung, Si-Yin; Reed, Shawndrika

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if D-amino acids (D-aas) bind and inhibit immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding to peanut allergens. D-aas such as D-Asp (aspartic acid), D-Glu (glutamic acid), combined D-[Asp/Glu] and others were each prepared in a cocktail of 9 other D-aas, along with L-amino acids (L-aas) and controls. Each sample was mixed with a pooled plasma from peanut-allergic donors, and tested by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and Western blots for IgE binding to peanut allergens. Results showed that D-[Asp/Glu] (4 mg/ml) inhibited IgE binding (75%) while D-Glu, D-Asp and other D-aas had no inhibitory effect. A higher inhibition was seen with D-[Asp/Glu] than with L-[Asp/Glu]. We concluded that IgE was specific for D-[Asp/Glu], not D-Asp or D-Glu, and that D-[Asp/Glu] was more reactive than was L-[Asp/Glu] in IgE inhibition. The finding indicates that D-[Asp/Glu] may have the potential for removing IgE or reducing IgE binding to peanut allergens in vitro. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. INHIBITION OF NEURAL CREST CELL MIGRATION BY THE WATER DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS DICHLORO-, DIBROMO-, AND BROMOCHLORO-ACETIC ACID.

    EPA Science Inventory

    INHIBITION OF NEURAL CREST CELL MIGRATION BY THE WATER DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS DICHLORO-, DIBROMO- AND BROMOCHLORO-ACETIC ACID. JE Andrews, H Nichols, J Schmid 1, and ES Hunter. Reproductive Toxicology Division, 1Research Support Division, NHEERL, USEPA, RTP, NC, USA.

    ...

  17. Mild concentration of ethanol in combination with ascorbic acid inhibits browning and maintains quality of fresh-cut lotus root

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aqueous solutions of ethanol and ascorbic acid alone and in combination were compared to a commonly used sanitizer, sodium hypochlorite, and a leading commercial antibrowning agent containing calcium ascorbate (CA)for their efficacy to inhibit microbial growth and browning on fresh-cut lotus root. F...

  18. LIMB DEFECTS INDUCED BY RETINOIC ACID SIGNALING ANTAGONISM AND SYNTHESIS INHIBITION ARE CONSISTENT WITH ETHANOL-INDUCED LIMB DEFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Limb defects induced by retinoic acid signaling antagonism and synthesis inhibition are consistent with ethanol-induced limb defects

    Johnson CS1, Sulik KK1,2, Hunter, ES III3
    1Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC....

  19. Apo-10'-lycopenoic acid inhibits cancer cell migration and angiogenesis and induces peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Scope: We have previously shown that apo-10'-lycopenoic acid (ALA), a derivative of lycopene through cleavage by carotene-9',10'-oxygenase, inhibits tumor progression and metastasis in both liver and lung cancer animal models. The underlying mechanism remains unknown. We hypothesized that ALA inhibi...

  20. Colonic migrating motor complexes are inhibited in acute tri-nitro benzene sulphonic acid colitis.

    PubMed

    Hofma, Ben R; Wardill, Hannah R; Mavrangelos, Chris; Campaniello, Melissa A; Dimasi, David; Bowen, Joanne M; Smid, Scott D; Bonder, Claudine S; Beckett, Elizabeth A; Hughes, Patrick A

    2018-01-01

    Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is characterized by overt inflammation of the intestine and is typically accompanied by symptoms of bloody diarrhea, abdominal pain and cramping. The Colonic Migrating Motor Complex (CMMC) directs the movement of colonic luminal contents over long distances. The tri-nitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS) model of colitis causes inflammatory damage to enteric nerves, however it remains to be determined whether these changes translate to functional outcomes in CMMC activity. We aimed to visualize innate immune cell infiltration into the colon using two-photon laser scanning intra-vital microscopy, and to determine whether CMMC activity is altered in the tri-nitro benzene sulphonic (TNBS) model of colitis. Epithelial barrier permeability was compared between TNBS treated and healthy control mice in-vitro and in-vivo. Innate immune activation was determined by ELISA, flow cytometry and by 2-photon intravital microscopy. The effects of TNBS treatment and IL-1β on CMMC function were determined using a specialized organ bath. TNBS colitis increased epithelial barrier permeability in-vitro and in-vivo. Colonic IL-1β concentrations, colonic and systemic CD11b+ cell infiltration, and the number of migrating CD11b+ cells on colonic blood vessels were all increased in TNBS treated mice relative to controls. CMMC frequency and amplitude were inhibited in the distal and mid colon of TNBS treated mice. CMMC activity was not altered by superfusion with IL-1β. TNBS colitis damages the epithelial barrier and increases innate immune cell activation in the colon and systemically. Innate cell migration into the colon is readily identifiable by two-photon intra-vital microscopy. CMMC are inhibited by inflammation, but this is not due to direct effects of IL-1β.

  1. Phosphatidic Acid Sequesters Sec18p from cis-SNARE Complexes to Inhibit Priming.

    PubMed

    Starr, Matthew L; Hurst, Logan R; Fratti, Rutilio A

    2016-10-01

    Yeast vacuole fusion requires the activation of cis-SNARE complexes through priming carried out by Sec18p/N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor and Sec17p/α-SNAP. The association of Sec18p with vacuolar cis-SNAREs is regulated in part by phosphatidic acid (PA) phosphatase production of diacylglycerol (DAG). Inhibition of PA phosphatase activity blocks the transfer of membrane-associated Sec18p to SNAREs. Thus, we hypothesized that Sec18p associates with PA-rich membrane microdomains before transferring to cis-SNARE complexes upon PA phosphatase activity. Here, we examined the direct binding of Sec18p to liposomes containing PA or DAG. We found that Sec18p preferentially bound to liposomes containing PA compared with those containing DAG by approximately fivefold. Additionally, using a specific PA-binding domain blocked Sec18p binding to PA-liposomes and displaced endogenous Sec18p from isolated vacuoles. Moreover, the direct addition of excess PA blocked the priming activity of isolated vacuoles in a manner similar to chemically inhibiting PA phosphatase activity. These data suggest that the conversion of PA to DAG facilitates the recruitment of Sec18p to cis-SNAREs. Purified vacuoles from yeast lacking the PA phosphatase Pah1p showed reduced Sec18p association with cis-SNAREs and complementation with plasmid-encoded PAH1 or recombinant Pah1p restored the interaction. Taken together, this demonstrates that regulating PA concentrations by Pah1p activity controls SNARE priming by Sec18p. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Inhibition of fatty acid biosynthesis prevents adipocyte lipotoxicity on human osteoblasts in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Elbaz, Alexandre; Wu, Xiying; Rivas, Daniel; Gimble, Jeffrey M; Duque, Gustavo

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Although increased bone marrow fat in age-related bone loss has been associated with lower trabecular mass, the underlying mechanism responsible remains unknown. We hypothesized that marrow adipocytes exert a lipotoxic effect on osteoblast function and survival through the reversible biosynthesis of fatty acids (FA) into the bone marrow microenvironment. We have used a two-chamber system to co-culture normal human osteoblasts (NHOst) with differentiating pre-adipocytes in the absence or presence of an inhibitor of FA synthase (cerulenin) and separated by an insert that allowed unidirectional trafficking of soluble factors only and prevented direct cell–cell contact. Supernatants were assayed for the presence of FA using mass spectophotometry. After 3 weeks in co-culture, NHOst showed significantly lower levels of differentiation and function based on lower mineralization and expression of alkaline phosphatase, osterix, osteocalcin and Runx2. In addition, NHOst survival was affected by the presence of adipocytes as determined by MTS-formazan and TUNEL assays as well as higher activation of caspases 3/7. These toxic effects were inhibited by addition of cerulenin. Furthermore, culture of NHOst with either adipocyte-conditioned media alone in the absence of adipocytes themselves or with the addition of the most predominant FA (stearate or palmitate) produced similar toxic results. Finally, Runx2 nuclear binding was affected by addition of either adipocyte conditioned media or FA into the osteogenic media. We conclude that the presence of FA within the marrow milieu can contribute to the age-related changes in bone mass and can be prevented by the inhibition of FA synthase. PMID:19382912

  3. Lysophosphatidic acid impairs glucose homeostasis and inhibits insulin secretion in high-fat diet obese mice.

    PubMed

    Rancoule, C; Attané, C; Grès, S; Fournel, A; Dusaulcy, R; Bertrand, C; Vinel, C; Tréguer, K; Prentki, M; Valet, P; Saulnier-Blache, J S

    2013-06-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a lipid mediator produced by adipocytes that acts via specific G-protein-coupled receptors; its synthesis is modulated in obesity. We previously reported that reducing adipocyte LPA production in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed obese mice is associated with improved glucose tolerance, suggesting a negative impact of LPA on glucose homeostasis. Here, our aim was to test this hypothesis. First, glucose tolerance and plasma insulin were assessed after acute (30 min) injection of LPA (50 mg/kg) or of the LPA1/LPA3 receptor antagonist Ki16425 (5 mg kg(-1) day(-1), i.p.) in non-obese mice fed a normal diet (ND) and in obese/prediabetic (defined as glucose-intolerant) HFD mice. Glucose and insulin tolerance, pancreas morphology, glycogen storage, glucose oxidation and glucose transport were then studied after chronic treatment (3 weeks) of HFD mice with Ki16425. In ND and HFD mice, LPA acutely impaired glucose tolerance by inhibiting glucose-induced insulin secretion. These effects were blocked by pre-injection of Ki16425 (5 mg/kg, i.p.). Inhibition of glucose-induced insulin secretion by LPA also occurred in isolated mouse islets. Plasma LPA was higher in HFD mice than in ND mice and Ki16425 transiently improved glucose tolerance. The beneficial effect of Ki16425 became permanent after chronic treatment and was associated with increased pancreatic islet mass and higher fasting insulinaemia. Chronic treatment with Ki16425 also improved insulin tolerance and increased liver glycogen storage and basal glucose use in skeletal muscle. Exogenous and endogenous LPA exerts a deleterious effect on glucose disposal through a reduction of plasma insulin; pharmacological blockade of LPA receptors improves glucose homeostasis in obese/prediabetic mice.

  4. Zoledronic acid inhibits macrophage/microglia-assisted breast cancer cell invasion

    PubMed Central

    Rietkötter, Eva; Menck, Kerstin; Bleckmann, Annalen; Farhat, Katja; Schaffrinski, Meike; Schulz, Matthias; Hanisch, Uwe-Karsten; Binder, Claudia; Pukrop, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    The bisphosphonate zoledronic acid (ZA) significantly reduces complications of bone metastasis by inhibiting resident macrophages, the osteoclasts. Recent clinical trials indicate additional anti-metastatic effects of ZA outside the bone. However, which step of metastasis is influenced and whether this is due to direct toxicity on cancer cells or inhibition of the tumor promoting microenvironment, is unknown. In particular, tumor-associated and resident macrophages support each step of organ metastasis and could be a crucial target of ZA. Thus, we comparatively investigate the ZA effects on: i) different types of macrophages, ii) on breast cancer cells but also iii) on macrophage-induced invasion. We demonstrate that ZA concentrations reflecting the plasma level affected viability of human macrophages, murine bone marrow-derived macrophages as well as their resident brain equivalents, the microglia, while it did not influence the tested cancer cells. However, the effects on the macrophages subsequently reduced the macrophage/microglia-induced invasiveness of the cancer cells. In line with this, manipulation of microglia by ZA in organotypic brain slice cocultures reduced the tissue invasion by carcinoma cells. The characterization of human macrophages after ZA treatment revealed a phenotype/response shift, in particular after external stimulation. In conclusion, we show that therapeutic concentrations of ZA affect all types of macrophages but not the cancer cells. Thus, anti-metastatic effects of ZA are predominantly caused by modulating the microenvironment. Most importantly, our findings demonstrate that ZA reduced microglia-assisted invasion of cancer cells to the brain tissue, indicating a potential therapeutic role in the prevention of cerebral metastasis. PMID:24036536

  5. Substitution-inert trinuclear platinum complexes efficiently condense/aggregate nucleic acids and inhibit enzymatic activity**

    PubMed Central

    Malina, Jaroslav; Farrell, Nicholas P.; Brabec, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    The trinuclear platinum complexes ([{Pt(NH3)3}2-μ-{trans-Pt(NH3)2(NH2(CH2)6NH2)2}]6+, TriplatinNC‐A; [{trans-Pt(NH3)2(NH2(CH2)6NH3+)}2-μ-{trans-Pt(NH3)2(NH2(CH2)6NH2)2}]8+, TriplatinNC) belong to a class of biologically active agents that bind to DNA via nonbonding noncovalent (hydrogen bonding, electrostatic) interactions. Charge delocalization (6+ to 8+) in these linear trinuclear platinum complexes results in a high cellular uptake and promising cytotoxic activity in several carcinoma cell lines. We show in the present work with the aid of the methods of biophysical chemistry that in particular TriplatinNC condenses DNA with unprecedented potency which is much higher than that of conventional DNA condensing agents. In addition, in contrast to other DNA condensing agents, both platinum complexes induce aggregation of small transfer RNA molecules. We also demonstrate for the first time that TriplatinNC-A and TriplatinNC in particular completely inhibit DNA transcriptional activity at markedly lower concentration than naturally occurring spermine. Notably, the topoisomerase I-mediated relaxation of supercoiled DNA was inhibited by TriplatinNC-A and TriplatinNC at ~60-fold and ~250-fold lower concentration than that of spermine, respectively. We suggest that the general mechanisms of biological activity of TriplatinNC-A and TriplatinNC may be associated with their unique ability to condense/aggregate nucleic acids with consequent inhibitory effect on crucial enzymatic activities. PMID:25256921

  6. Synthesis and corrosion inhibition application of NATN on mild steel surface in acidic media complemented with DFT studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Baghdadi, Shaimaa B.; Hashim, Fanar G.; Salam, Ahmed Q.; Abed, Talib K.; Gaaz, Tayser Sumer; Al-Amiery, Ahmed A.; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Reda, Khalid S.; Ahmed, Wahab K.

    2018-03-01

    The corrosion inhibition effectiveness of thiosemicarbazide compound, namely 3-nitro-5-(2-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazolyl)nitrobenzene (NATN), on mild steel in 1 M hydrochloric acid media has been investigated by weight loss technique. The results exhibit that the corrosion ratio of mild steel was reduced regarding to adding NATN. The corrosion inhibition rate for the NATN was 92.3% at the highest investigated NATN concentration. From the weight loss results it could be concluded that NATN with sulfur, nitrogen and oxygen atoms has clarified best corrosion inhibition achievement comparing to 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid. Regarding to theoretical studies, DFT was employee to figured geometrical structure and electronic characteristics on NATN. The investigation have been extensive to the HOMO and LUMO analysis to evaluate the energy gap, Ionization potential, Electron Affinity, Global Hardness, Chemical Potential, Electrophilicity, Electronegativity and Polarizability.

  7. Betulinic acid, a bioactive pentacyclic triterpenoid, inhibits skeletal-related events induced by breast cancer bone metastases and treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Se Young; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Ki Rim

    Many breast cancer patients experience bone metastases and suffer skeletal complications. The present study provides evidence on the protective and therapeutic potential of betulinic acid on cancer-associated bone diseases. Betulinic acid is a naturally occurring triterpenoid with the beneficial activity to limit the progression and severity of cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, atherosclerosis, and obesity. We first investigated its effect on breast cancer cells, osteoblastic cells, and osteoclasts in the vicious cycle of osteolytic bone metastasis. Betulinic acid reduced cell viability and the production of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), a major osteolytic factor, in MDA-MB-231 human metastatic breast cancer cells stimulatedmore » with or without tumor growth factor-β. Betulinic acid blocked an increase in the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin ratio by downregulating RANKL protein expression in PTHrP-treated human osteoblastic cells. In addition, betulinic acid inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in murine bone marrow macrophages and decreased the production of resorbed area in plates with a bone biomimetic synthetic surface by suppressing the secretion of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, and cathepsin K in RANKL-induced osteoclasts. Furthermore, oral administration of betulinic acid inhibited bone loss in mice intra-tibially inoculated with breast cancer cells and in ovariectomized mice causing estrogen deprivation, as supported by the restored bone morphometric parameters and serum bone turnover markers. Taken together, these findings suggest that betulinic acid may have the potential to prevent bone loss in patients with bone metastases and cancer treatment-induced estrogen deficiency. - Highlights: • Betulinic acid reduced PTHrP production in human metastatic breast cancer cells. • Betulinic acid blocked RANKL/OPG ratio in PTHrP-stimulated human osteoblastic cells.

  8. Analysis of Growth Inhibition and Metabolism of Hydroxycinnamic Acids by Brewing and Spoilage Strains of Brettanomyces Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Lentz, Michael; Harris, Chad

    2015-01-01

    Brettanomyces yeasts are well-known as spoilage organisms in both the wine and beer industries, but also contribute important desirable characters to certain beer styles. These properties are mediated in large part by Brettanomyces’ metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) present in beverage raw materials. Here we compare growth inhibition by, and metabolism of, HCAs among commercial brewing strains and spoilage strains of B. bruxellensis and B. anomalus. These properties vary widely among the different strains tested and between the HCAs analyzed. Brewing strains showed more efficient metabolism of ferulic acid over p-coumaric acid, a trait not shared among the spoilage strains. PMID:28231223

  9. Analysis of Growth Inhibition and Metabolism of Hydroxycinnamic Acids by Brewing and Spoilage Strains of Brettanomyces Yeast.

    PubMed

    Lentz, Michael; Harris, Chad

    2015-10-15

    Brettanomyces yeasts are well-known as spoilage organisms in both the wine and beer industries, but also contribute important desirable characters to certain beer styles. These properties are mediated in large part by Brettanomyces ' metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) present in beverage raw materials. Here we compare growth inhibition by, and metabolism of, HCAs among commercial brewing strains and spoilage strains of B. bruxellensis and B. anomalus . These properties vary widely among the different strains tested and between the HCAs analyzed. Brewing strains showed more efficient metabolism of ferulic acid over p -coumaric acid, a trait not shared among the spoilage strains.

  10. Aromatase inhibition by letrozole attenuates kainic acid-induced seizures but not neurotoxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Ramsha; Jain, Gaurav K; Siraj, Fouzia; Vohora, Divya

    2018-07-01

    Evidence shows neurosteroids play a key role in regulating epileptogenesis. Neurosteroids such as testosterone modulate seizure susceptibility through its transformation to metabolites which show proconvulsant and anticonvulsant effects, respectively. Reduction of testosterone by aromatase generates proconvulsant 17-β estradiol. Alternatively, testosterone is metabolized into 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT) by 5α-reductase, which is then reduced by 3α-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase enzyme (3α-HSOR) to form anticonvulsant metabolite 3α-androstanediol (3α-Diol), a potent GABA A receptor modulating neurosteroid. The present study evaluated whether inhibition of aromatase inhibitor letrozole protects against seizures and neuronal degeneration induced by kainic acid (KA) (10 mg/kg, i.p.) in Swiss albino mice. Letrozole (1 mg/kg, i.p.) administered one hour prior to KA significantly increased the onset time of seizures and reduced the% incidence of seizures. Pretreatment with finasteride, a selective inhibitor of 5α-reductase and indomethacin, a selective inhibitor of 3α-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase enzyme (3α-HSOR), reversed the protective effects of letrozole in KA-induced seizures in mice. Microscopic examination using cresyl violet staining revealed that letrozole did not modify KA-induced neurotoxicity in the CA1, CA3 and DG region of the hippocampus. Letrozole treatment resulted in the reduced levels of 17-β estradiol and elevated the levels of 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and 3α-Diol in the hippocampus. Finasteride and indomethacin attenuated letrozole-induced elevations of 5α-DHT and 3α-Diol. Our results indicate the potential anticonvulsant effects of letrozole against KA-induced seizures in mice that might be mediated by inhibiting aromatization of testosterone to 17β-estradiol, a proconvulsant hormone and by redirecting the synthesis to anticonvulsant metabolites, 5α-DHT and 3α-Diol. Acute aromatase inhibition, thus, might be used as an

  11. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes by propionic acid-based ingredients in cured deli-style Turkey.

    PubMed

    Glass, Kathleen A; McDonnell, Lindsey M; Von Tayson, Roxanne; Wanless, Brandon; Badvela, Mani

    2013-12-01

    Listeria monocytogenes growth can be controlled on ready-to-eat meats through the incorporation of antimicrobial ingredients into the formulation or by postlethality kill steps. However, alternate approaches are needed to provide options that reduce sodium content but maintain protection against pathogen growth in meats after slicing. The objective of this study was to determine the inhibition of L. monocytogenes by propionic acid-based ingredients in high-moisture, cured turkey stored at 4 or 7°C. Six formulations of sliced, cured (120 ppm of NaNO2 ), deli-style turkey were tested, including control without antimicrobials, 3.2% lactate-diacetate blend (LD), 0.4% of a liquid propionate-benzoate-containing ingredient, or 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5% of a liquid propionate-containing ingredient. Products were inoculated with 5 log CFU L. monocytogenes per 100-g package (3 log CFU/ml rinsate), vacuum-sealed, and stored at 4 or 7°C for up to 12 weeks; and populations were enumerated by plating on modified Oxford agar. As expected, the control without antimicrobials supported rapid growth, with >2 log average per ml rinsate increase within 4 weeks of storage at 4°C, whereas growth was observed at 6 weeks for the LD treatment. For both replicate trials, all treatments that contained liquid propionate or propionate-benzoate limited L. monocytogenes growth to an increase of <1 log through 9 weeks storage at 4°C. Sporadic growth (>1-log increase) was observed in individual samples for all propionate-containing treatments at weeks 10, 11, and 12. As expected, L. monocytogenes grew more rapidly when products were stored at 7°C, but trends in relative inhibition were similar to those observed at 4°C. These results verify that propionate-based ingredients inhibit growth of L. monocytogenes on sliced, high-moisture, cured turkey and can be considered as an alternative to reduce sodium-based salts while maintaining food safety.

  12. Inhibition of GABA-gated chloride channels by 12,14-dichlorodehydroabietic acid in mammalian brain.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, R A; Lees, G; Zheng, J; Verdon, B

    1999-03-01

    1. 12,14-dichlorodehydroabietic acid (12,14-Cl2DHA) reduced GABA-stimulated uptake of 36Cl- into mouse brain synaptoneurosomes suggesting inhibition of mammalian GABA(A) receptor function. 2. 12,14-Cl2DHA did not affect the binding of [3H]-muscimol to brain membranes but displaced specifically bound [3H]-EBOB. The inhibitory effect on [3H]-EBOB binding was not reversible. 12,14-Cl2DHA reduced the availability of [3H]-EBOB binding sites (Bmax) without changing the KD of the radioligand for remaining sites. 12,14-Cl2DHA did not affect the rate of association of [3H]-EBOB with its chloride channel receptor, but increased the initial rate of [3H]-EBOB dissociation. 3. 12,14-Cl2DHA enhanced the incidence of EPSCs when rapidly applied to cultured rat cortical neurones. Longer exposures produced block of IPSCs with marked increases in the frequency of EPSCs and min EPSCs. 12,14-Cl2DHA also irreversibly suppressed chloride currents evoked by pulses of exogenous GABA in these cells. 4. Ultimately, 12,14-Cl2DHA inhibited all synaptic traffic and action currents in current clamped cells indicating that, in contrast to picrotoxinin (which causes paroxysmal bursting), it is not fully selective for the GABA(A) receptor-chloride channel complex. 5. The depolarizing block seen with 12,14-Cl2DHA in amphotericin-perforated preparations implicates loss of Ca2+ buffering in the polarity change and this may account for inhibition of spontaneous action potentials. 6. Our investigation demonstrates that 12,14-Cl2DHA blocks GABA-dependent chloride entry in mammalian brain and operates as a non-competitive insurmountable GABA(A) antagonist. The mechanism likely involves either irreversible binding of 12,14-Cl2DHA to the trioxabicyclooctane recognition site or a site that is allosterically coupled to it. We cannot exclude, however, the possibility that 12,14-Cl2DHA causes localized proteolysis or more extensive conformational change within a critical subunit of the chloride channel.

  13. Inhibition of GABA-gated chloride channels by 12,14-dichlorodehydroabietic acid in mammalian brain

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Russell A; Lees, George; Zheng, Jian; Verdon, Bernard

    1999-01-01

    12,14-dichlorodehydroabietic acid (12,14-Cl2DHA) reduced GABA-stimulated uptake of 36Cl− into mouse brain synaptoneurosomes suggesting inhibition of mammalian GABAA receptor function. 12,14-Cl2DHA did not affect the binding of [3H]-muscimol to brain membranes but displaced specifically bound [3H]-EBOB. The inhibitory effect on [3H]-EBOB binding was not reversible. 12,14-Cl2DHA reduced the availability of [3H]-EBOB binding sites (Bmax) without changing the KD of the radioligand for remaining sites. 12,14-Cl2DHA did not affect the rate of association of [3H]-EBOB with its chloride channel receptor, but increased the initial rate of [3H]-EBOB dissociation. 12,14-Cl2DHA enhanced the incidence of EPSCs when rapidly applied to cultured rat cortical neurones. Longer exposures produced block of IPSCs with marked increases in the frequency of EPSCs and min EPSCs. 12,14-Cl2DHA also irreversibly suppressed chloride currents evoked by pulses of exogenous GABA in these cells. Ultimately, 12,14-Cl2DHA inhibited all synaptic traffic and action currents in current clamped cells indicating that, in contrast to picrotoxinin (which causes paroxysmal bursting), it is not fully selective for the GABAA receptor-chloride channel complex. The depolarizing block seen with 12,14-Cl2DHA in amphotericin-perforated preparations implicates loss of Ca2+ buffering in the polarity change and this may account for inhibition of spontaneous action potentials. Our investigation demonstrates that 12,14-Cl2DHA blocks GABA-dependent chloride entry in mammalian brain and operates as a non-competitive insurmountable GABAA antagonist. The mechanism likely involves either irreversible binding of 12,14-Cl2DHA to the trioxabicyclooctane recognition site or a site that is allosterically coupled to it. We cannot exclude, however, the possibility that 12,14-Cl2DHA causes localized proteolysis or more extensive conformational change within a critical subunit of the chloride channel. PMID:10204999

  14. Changes in composition and enamel demineralization inhibition activities of gallic acid at different pH values.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingyang; Huang, Xuelian; Huang, Shengbin; Deng, Meng; Xie, Xincheng; Liu, Mingdong; Liu, Hongling; Zhou, Xuedong; Li, Jiyao; Ten Cate, Jacob Martien

    2015-01-01

    Gallic acid (GA) has been shown to inhibit demineralization and enhance remineralization of enamel; however, GA solution is highly acidic. This study was to investigate the stability of GA solutions at various pH and to examine the resultant effects on enamel demineralization. The stability of GA in H2O or in phosphate buffer at pH 5.5, pH 7.0 and pH 10.0 was evaluated qualitatively by ultraviolet absorption spectra and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). Then, bovine enamel blocks were subjected to a pH-cycling regime of 12 cycles. Each cycle included 5 min applications with one of the following treatments: 1 g/L NaF (positive control), 4 g/L GA in H2O or buffered at pH 5.5, pH 7.0 and pH 10.0 and buffers without GA at the same pH (negative control), followed by a 60 min application with pH 5.0 acidic buffers and a 5 min application with neutral buffers. The acidic buffers were analysed for dissolved calcium. GA was stable in pure water and acidic condition, but was unstable in neutral and alkaline conditions, in which ultraviolet spectra changed and HPLC-DAD analysis revealed that most of the GA was degraded. All the GA groups significantly inhibited demineralization (p < 0.05) and there was no significant difference of the inhibition efficacy among different GA groups (p > 0.05). GA could inhibit enamel demineralization and the inhibition effect is not influenced by pH. GA could be a useful source as an anti-cariogenic agent for broad practical application.

  15. Inhibition of methane and natural gas hydrate formation by altering the structure of water with amino acids

    PubMed Central

    Sa, Jeong-Hoon; Kwak, Gye-Hoon; Han, Kunwoo; Ahn, Docheon; Cho, Seong Jun; Lee, Ju Dong; Lee, Kun-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Natural gas hydrates are solid hydrogen-bonded water crystals containing small molecular gases. The amount of natural gas stored as hydrates in permafrost and ocean sediments is twice that of all other fossil fuels combined. However, hydrate blockages also hinder oil/gas pipeline transportation, and, despite their huge potential as energy sources, our insufficient understanding of hydrates has limited their extraction. Here, we report how the presence of amino acids in water induces changes in its structure and thus interrupts the formation of methane and natural gas hydrates. The perturbation of the structure of water by amino acids and the resulting selective inhibition of hydrate cage formation were observed directly. A strong correlation was found between the inhibition efficiencies of amino acids and their physicochemical properties, which demonstrates the importance of their direct interactions with water and the resulting dissolution environment. The inhibition of methane and natural gas hydrate formation by amino acids has the potential to be highly beneficial in practical applications such as hydrate exploitation, oil/gas transportation, and flow assurance. Further, the interactions between amino acids and water are essential to the equilibria and dynamics of many physical, chemical, biological, and environmental processes. PMID:27526869

  16. Efficient inhibition of heavy metal release from mine tailings against acid rain exposure by triethylenetetramine intercalated montmorillonite (TETA-Mt).

    PubMed

    Gong, Beini; Wu, Pingxiao; Huang, Zhujian; Li, Yuanyuan; Yang, Shanshan; Dang, Zhi; Ruan, Bo; Kang, Chunxi

    2016-11-15

    The potential application of triethylenetetramine intercalated montmorillonite (TETA-Mt) in mine tailings treatment and AMD (acid mine drainage) remediation was investigated with batch experiments. The structural and morphological characteristics of TETA-Mt were analyzed with XRD, FTIR, DTG-TG and SEM. The inhibition efficiencies of TETA-Mt against heavy metal release from mine tailings when exposed to acid rain leaching was examined and compared with that of triethylenetetramine (TETA) and Mt. Results showed that the overall inhibition by TETA-Mt surpassed that by TETA or Mt for various heavy metal ions over an acid rain pH range of 3-5.6 and a temperature range of 25-40°C. When mine tailings were exposed to acid rain of pH 4.8 (the average rain pH of the mining site where the mine tailings were from), TETA-Mt achieved an inhibition efficiency of over 90% for Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+) and Mn(2+) release, and 70% for Pb(2+) at 25°C. It was shown that TETA-Mt has a strong buffering capacity. Moreover, TETA-Mt was able to adsorb heavy metal ions and the adsorption process was fast, suggesting that coordination was mainly responsible. These results showed the potential of TETA-Mt in AMD mitigation, especially in acid rain affected mining area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Inhibition of methane and natural gas hydrate formation by altering the structure of water with amino acids.

    PubMed

    Sa, Jeong-Hoon; Kwak, Gye-Hoon; Han, Kunwoo; Ahn, Docheon; Cho, Seong Jun; Lee, Ju Dong; Lee, Kun-Hong

    2016-08-16

    Natural gas hydrates are solid hydrogen-bonded water crystals containing small molecular gases. The amount of natural gas stored as hydrates in permafrost and ocean sediments is twice that of all other fossil fuels combined. However, hydrate blockages also hinder oil/gas pipeline transportation, and, despite their huge potential as energy sources, our insufficient understanding of hydrates has limited their extraction. Here, we report how the presence of amino acids in water induces changes in its structure and thus interrupts the formation of methane and natural gas hydrates. The perturbation of the structure of water by amino acids and the resulting selective inhibition of hydrate cage formation were observed directly. A strong correlation was found between the inhibition efficiencies of amino acids and their physicochemical properties, which demonstrates the importance of their direct interactions with water and the resulting dissolution environment. The inhibition of methane and natural gas hydrate formation by amino acids has the potential to be highly beneficial in practical applications such as hydrate exploitation, oil/gas transportation, and flow assurance. Further, the interactions between amino acids and water are essential to the equilibria and dynamics of many physical, chemical, biological, and environmental processes.

  18. Inhibition of methane and natural gas hydrate formation by altering the structure of water with amino acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sa, Jeong-Hoon; Kwak, Gye-Hoon; Han, Kunwoo; Ahn, Docheon; Cho, Seong Jun; Lee, Ju Dong; Lee, Kun-Hong

    2016-08-01

    Natural gas hydrates are solid hydrogen-bonded water crystals containing small molecular gases. The amount of natural gas stored as hydrates in permafrost and ocean sediments is twice that of all other fossil fuels combined. However, hydrate blockages also hinder oil/gas pipeline transportation, and, despite their huge potential as energy sources, our insufficient understanding of hydrates has limited their extraction. Here, we report how the presence of amino acids in water induces changes in its structure and thus interrupts the formation of methane and natural gas hydrates. The perturbation of the structure of water by amino acids and the resulting selective inhibition of hydrate cage formation were observed directly. A strong correlation was found between the inhibition efficiencies of amino acids and their physicochemical properties, which demonstrates the importance of their direct interactions with water and the resulting dissolution environment. The inhibition of methane and natural gas hydrate formation by amino acids has the potential to be highly beneficial in practical applications such as hydrate exploitation, oil/gas transportation, and flow assurance. Further, the interactions between amino acids and water are essential to the equilibria and dynamics of many physical, chemical, biological, and environmental processes.

  19. Inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis dihydrodipicolinate synthase by alpha-ketopimelic acid and its other structural analogues

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Priyanka; Navratna, Vikas; Silla, Yumnam; Dewangan, Rikeshwer P.; Pramanik, Atreyi; Chaudhary, Sarika; Rayasam, GeethaVani; Kumar, Anuradha; Gopal, Balasubramanian; Ramachandran, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    The Mycobacterium tuberculosis dihydrodipicolinate synthase (Mtb-dapA) is an essential gene. Mtb-DapA catalyzes the aldol condensation between pyruvate and L-aspartate-beta-semialdehyde (ASA) to yield dihydrodipicolinate. In this work we tested the inhibitory effects of structural analogues of pyruvate on recombinant Mtb-DapA (Mtb-rDapA) using a coupled assay with recombinant dihydrodipicolinate reductase (Mtb-rDapB). Alpha-ketopimelic acid (α-KPA) showed maximum inhibition of 88% and IC50 of 21 μM in the presence of pyruvate (500 μM) and ASA (400 μM). Competition experiments with pyruvate and ASA revealed competition of α-KPA with pyruvate. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) data with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) showed that the relative abundance peak of final product, 2,3,4,5-tetrahydrodipicolinate, was decreased by 50%. Thermal shift assays showed 1 °C Tm shift of Mtb-rDapA upon binding α-KPA. The 2.4 Å crystal structure of Mtb-rDapA-α-KPA complex showed the interaction of critical residues at the active site with α-KPA. Molecular dynamics simulations over 500 ns of pyruvate docked to Mtb-DapA and of α-KPA-bound Mtb-rDapA revealed formation of hydrogen bonds with pyruvate throughout in contrast to α-KPA. Molecular descriptors analysis showed that ligands with polar surface area of 91.7 Å2 are likely inhibitors. In summary, α-hydroxypimelic acid and other analogues could be explored further as inhibitors of Mtb-DapA. PMID:27501775

  20. Novel synthetic kojic acid-methimazole derivatives inhibit mushroom tyrosinase and melanogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-Jen; Hung, Chih-Chuan; Chen, Yan-Ru; Lai, Shih-Ting; Chan, Chin-Feng

    2016-12-01

    In this study, two kojic acid-methimazole (2-mercapto-1-methylimidazole, MMI, 1) derivatives, 5-hydroxy-2-{[(1-methyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)thio]methyl}-4H-pyran-4-one (compound 4) and 5-methoxy-2-{[(1-methyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)thio]methyl}-4H-pyran-4-one (compound 5), were synthesized to examine their inhibitory kinetics on mushroom tyrosinase. Compound 4 exhibited a potent inhibitory effect on monophenolase activity in a dose-dependent manner, with an IC 50 value of 0.03 mM. On diphenolase activity, compound 4 exhibited a less inhibitory effect (IC 50  = 1.29 mM) but was stronger than kojic acid (IC 50  = 1.80 mM). Kinetic analysis indicated that compound 4 was both as a noncompetitive monophenolase and diphenolase inhibitor. By contrast, compound 5 exhibited no inhibitory effects on mushroom tyrosinase activity. The IC 50 value of compound 4 for the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity was 4.09 mM, being much higher than the IC 50 of compound 4 for inhibiting the tyrosinase activity. The results indicated that the antioxidant activity of compound 4 may be partly related to the potent inhibitory effect on mushroom tyrosinase. Compound 4 also exerted a potent inhibitory effect on intracellular melanin formation in B16/F10 murine melanoma cells, and caused no cytotoxicity. Furthermore, compound 4 induced no adverse effects on the Hen's egg test-chorioallantoic membrane (HET-CAM). Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Monohaloacetic acid drinking water disinfection by-products inhibit follicle growth and steroidogenesis in mouse ovarian antral follicles in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Clara H.; Gao, Liying; Dettro, Tyler; Wagner, Elizabeth D.; Ricke, William A.; Plewa, Michael J.; Flaws, Jodi A.

    2016-01-01

    Water disinfection greatly reduced the incidence of waterborne diseases, but the reaction between disinfectants and natural organic matter in water leads to the formation of drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs). DBPs have been shown to be toxic, but their effects on the ovary are not well defined. This study tested the hypothesis that monohalogenated DBPs (chloroacetic acid, CAA; bromoacetic acid, BAA; iodoacetic acid, IAA) inhibit antral follicle growth and steroidogenesis in mouse ovarian follicles. Antral follicles were isolated and cultured with either vehicle or DBPs (0.25–1.00 mM of CAA; 2–15 µM of BAA or IAA) for 48 and 96 h. Follicle growth was measured every 24 h and the media were analyzed for estradiol levels at 96 h. Exposure to DBPs significantly inhibited antral follicle growth and reduced estradiol levels compared to controls. These data demonstrate that DBP exposure caused ovarian toxicity in vitro. PMID:27151372

  2. Gallic acid inhibits vascular calcification through the blockade of BMP2-Smad1/5/8 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Kee, Hae Jin; Cho, Soo-Na; Kim, Gwi Ran; Choi, Sin Young; Ryu, Yuhee; Kim, In Kyeom; Hong, Young Joon; Park, Hyung Wook; Ahn, Youngkeun; Cho, Jeong Gwan; Park, Jong Chun; Jeong, Myung Ho

    2014-11-01

    Vascular calcification is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality in patients with cardiovascular diseases, chronic kidney diseases, and diabetes. Gallic acid, a natural compound found in gallnut and green tea, is known to be antifungal, antioxidant, and anticancer. Here we investigated the effect of gallic acid on vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification and the underlying mechanism. Gallic acid inhibited inorganic phosphate-induced osteoblast differentiation markers as well as calcification phenotypes (as determined by calcium deposition, Alizarin Red, and Von Kossa staining). Knockdown of BMP2 or Noggin blocked phosphate-induced calcification. Gallic acid suppressed phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 protein induced by inorganic phosphate. Taken together, we suggest that gallic acid acts as a novel therapeutic agent of vascular calcification by mediating BMP2-Smad1/5/8 signaling pathway. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. In vivo inhibition of gastric acid secretion by the aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis L. in rodents.

    PubMed

    Mesía-Vela, Sonia; Bielavsky, Monica; Torres, Luce Maria Brandão; Freire, Sonia Maria; Lima-Landman, Maria Teresa R; Souccar, Caden; Lapa, Antonio José

    2007-05-04

    The freeze-dried aqueous extract (AE) from the aerial parts of Scoparia dulcis was tested for its effects on experimental gastric hypersecretion and ulcer in rodents. Administration of AE to animals with 4h pylorus ligature potently reduced the gastric secretion with ED(50)s of 195 mg/kg (rats) and 306 mg/kg (mice). The AE also inhibited the histamine- or bethanechol-stimulated gastric secretion in pylorus-ligated mice with similar potency suggesting inhibition of the proton pump. Bio-guided purification of the AE yielded a flavonoid-rich fraction (BuF), with a specific activity 4-8 times higher than the AE in the pylorus ligature model. BuF also inhibited the hydrolysis of ATP by H(+),K(+)-ATPase with an IC(50) of 500 microg/ml, indicating that the inhibition of gastric acid secretion of Scoparia dulcis is related to the inhibition of the proton pump. Furthermore, the AE inhibited the establishment of acute gastric lesions induced in rats by indomethacin (ED(50)=313 mg/kg, p.o.) and ethanol (ED(50)=490 mg/kg, p.o.). No influence of the AE on gastrointestinal transit allowed discarding a possible CNS or a cholinergic interaction in the inhibition of gastric secretion by the AE. Collectively, the present data pharmacologically validates the popular use of Scoparia dulcis in gastric disturbances.

  4. A 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid analog screened using a maize coleoptile system potentially inhibits indole-3-acetic acid influx in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Hiromi; Matano, Naoyuki; Nishimura, Takeshi; Koshiba, Tomokazu

    2014-01-01

    Studies using inhibitors of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) transport, not only for efflux but influx carriers, provide many aspects of auxin physiology in plants. 1-Naphtoxyacetic acid (1-NOA), an analog of the synthetic auxin 1-N-naphtalene acetic acid (NAA), inhibits the IAA influx carrier AUX1. However, 1-NOA also shows auxin activity because of its structural similarity to NAA. In this study, we have identified another candidate inhibitor of the IAA influx carrier. The compound, “7-B3; ethyl 2-[(2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl)thio]acetate,” is a 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) analog. At high concentrations (> 300 µM), 7-B3 slightly reduced IAA transport and tropic curvature of maize coleoptiles, whereas lower concentrations had almost no effect. We have analyzed the effects of 7-B3 on Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. 7-B3 rescued the 2,4-D-inhibited root elongation, but not the NAA-inhibited root elongation. The effect of 7-B3 was weaker than that of 1-NOA. Both 1-NOA and 7-B3 inhibited DR5::GUS expression induced by IAA and 2,4-D, but not that induced by NAA. At high concentrations, 1-NOA exhibited auxin activity, but 7-B3 did not. Furthermore, 7-B3 inhibited apical hook formation in etiolated seedlings more effectively than 1-NOA did. These results indicate that 7-B3 is a potential inhibitor of IAA influx that has almost no effect on IAA efflux or auxin signaling. PMID:24800738

  5. Comparison of effect of an increased dosage of vonoprazan versus vonoprazan plus lafutidine on gastric acid inhibition and serum gastrin.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takahiro; Kagami, Takuma; Uotani, Takahiro; Yamade, Mihoko; Hamaya, Yasushi; Iwaizumi, Moriya; Osawa, Satoshi; Sugimoto, Ken; Miyajima, Hiroaki; Furuta, Takahisa

    2018-01-01

    Vonoprazan, a novel potassium-competitive acid blocker, elicits potent acid inhibition and hypergastrinemia at a dose of 20 mg. Its recommended maintenance dose for gastro-esophageal reflux disease is 10 mg, which is sometimes insufficient for preventing nocturnal acid breakthrough (NAB). Concomitant use of a histamine 2 receptor antagonist (H 2 RA) is effective for NAB. However, further acid inhibition by addition of H2RA has concern of hypergastrinemia again. Lafutidine (H2RA) is known to stimulate somatostatin release. The aim of this study is to compare the levels of acid inhibition and serum gastrin attained by addition of lafutidine to vonoprazan 10 mg with levels after a dose increase of vonoprazan from 10 to 20 mg. Thirteen healthy volunteers underwent 24-h intragastric pH monitoring and serum gastrin measurements on day 7 of three different regimens: vonoprazan 10 mg, vonoprazan 10 mg plus lafutidine 10 mg, and vonoprazan 20 mg. Median pH 4 holding time ratios (range) by vonoprazan 10 mg, vonoprazan 10 mg plus lafutidine 10 mg, and vonoprazan 20 mg were 82% (47-88%), 88% (76-93%), and 99% (95-100%) while those at nighttime from 10 p.m. to 8 a.m. were 94% (29-100%), 100% (95-100%), and 100%, respectively. The incidences of NAB with vonoprazan 10 mg, vonoprazan plus lafutidine, and vonoprazan 20 mg were 38, 8, and 0%, respectively. Respective serum gastrin levels were 420 (173-508), 323 (196-521), and 504 (400-812) pg/ml. Addition of lafutidine 10 mg to vonoprazan 10 mg achieved sufficient acid inhibition, especially at nighttime, without further increase of serum gastrin levels.

  6. Glycyrrhizin and glycyrrhetinic acid inhibits alpha-naphthyl isothiocyanate-induced liver injury and bile acid cycle disruption.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haina; Fang, Zhong-Ze; Meng, Ran; Cao, Yun-Feng; Tanaka, Naoki; Krausz, Kristopher W; Gonzalez, Frank J

    2017-07-01

    Alpha-naphthyl isothiocyanate (ANIT) is a common hepatotoxicant experimentally used to reproduce the pathologies of drug-induced liver injury in humans, but the mechanism of its toxicity remains unclear. To determine the metabolic alterations following ANIT exposure, metabolomic analyses was performed by use of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) of liver, serum, bile, ileum, and cecum of vehicle- and ANIT-treated mice revealed significant alterations of individual bile acids, including increased tauroursodeoxycholic acid, taurohydrodeoxycholic acid, taurochenodeoxycholic acid, and taurodeoxycholic acid, and decreased ω-, β- and tauro-α/β- murideoxycholic acid, cholic acid, and taurocholic acid in the ANIT-treated groups. In accordance with these changes, ANIT treatment altered the expression of mRNAs encoded by genes responsible for the metabolism and transport of bile acids and cholesterol. Pre-treatment of glycyrrhizin (GL) and glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) prevented ANIT-induced liver damage and reversed the alteration of bile acid metabolites and Cyp7a1, Npc1l1, Mttp, and Acat2 mRNAs encoding bile acid transport and metabolism proteins. These results suggested that GL/GA could prevent drug-induced liver injury and ensuing disruption of bile acid metabolism in humans. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Inhibition of strigolactone receptors by N-phenylanthranilic acid derivatives: Structural and functional insights.

    PubMed

    Hamiaux, Cyril; Drummond, Revel S M; Luo, Zhiwei; Lee, Hui Wen; Sharma, Prachi; Janssen, Bart J; Perry, Nigel B; Denny, William A; Snowden, Kimberley C

    2018-04-27

    The strigolactone (SL) family of plant hormones regulates a broad range of physiological processes affecting plant growth and development and also plays essential roles in controlling interactions with parasitic weeds and symbiotic fungi. Recent progress elucidating details of SL biosynthesis, signaling, and transport offers many opportunities for discovering new plant-growth regulators via chemical interference. Here, using high-throughput screening and downstream biochemical assays, we identified N -phenylanthranilic acid derivatives as potent inhibitors of the SL receptors from petunia (DAD2), rice (OsD14), and Arabidopsis (AtD14). Crystal structures of DAD2 and OsD14 in complex with inhibitors further provided detailed insights into the inhibition mechanism, and in silico modeling of 19 other plant strigolactone receptors suggested that these compounds are active across a large range of plant species. Altogether, these results provide chemical tools for investigating SL signaling and further define a framework for structure-based approaches to design and validate optimized inhibitors of SL receptors for specific plant targets. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Docosahexaenoic acid inhibits monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension via attenuating endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rui; Zhong, Wei; Shao, Chen; Liu, Peijing; Wang, Cuiping; Wang, Zhongqun; Jiang, Meiping; Lu, Yi; Yan, Jinchuan

    2018-02-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inflammation contribute to pulmonary hypertension (PH) pathogenesis. Previously, we confirmed that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) could improve hypoxia-induced PH. However, little is known about the link between DHA and monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PH. Our aims were, therefore, to evaluate the effects and molecular mechanisms of DHA on MCT-induced PH in rats. Rat PH was induced by MCT. Rats were treated with DHA daily in the prevention group (following MCT injection) and the reversal group (after MCT injection for 2 wk) by gavage. After 4 wk, mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP), right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy index, and morphological and immunohistochemical analyses were evaluated. Rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) were used to investigate the effects of DHA on cell proliferation stimulated by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB. DHA decreased mPAP and attenuated pulmonary vascular remodeling and RV hypertrophy, which were associated with suppressed ER stress. DHA blocked the mitogenic effect of PDGF-BB on PASMCs and arrested the cell cycle via inhibiting nuclear factor of activated T cells-1 (NFATc1) expression and activation and regulating cell cycle-related proteins. Moreover, DHA ameliorated inflammation in lung and suppressed macrophage and T lymphocyte accumulation in lung and adventitia of resistance pulmonary arteries. These findings suggest that DHA could protect against MCT-induced PH by reducing ER stress, suppressing cell proliferation and inflammation.

  9. Inhibition of retinoic acid catabolism by minocycline: evidence for a novel mode of action?

    PubMed

    Regen, Francesca; Hildebrand, Martin; Le Bret, Nathalie; Herzog, Irmelin; Heuser, Isabella; Hellmann-Regen, Julian

    2015-06-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) represents an essential and highly potent endogenous retinoid with pronounced anti-inflammatory properties and potent anti-acne activity, and has recently been suggested to share a common anti-inflammatory mode of action with tetracycline antibiotics. We hypothesized that tetracyclines may directly interfere with RA homeostasis via inhibition of its local cytochrome P450 (CYP450)-mediated degradation, an essential component of tightly regulated skin RA homeostasis. To test this hypothesis, we performed controlled in vitro RA metabolism assays using rat skin microsomes and measured RA levels in a RA-synthesizing human keratinocyte cell line, both in the presence and in the absence of minocycline, a tetracycline popular in acne treatment. Interestingly, minocycline potently blocked RA degradation in rat skin microsomes, and strikingly enhanced RA levels in RA-synthesizing cell cultures, in a dose-dependent manner. These findings indicate a potential role for CYP-450-mediated RA metabolism in minocycline's pleiotropic mode of action and anti-acne efficacy and could account for the overlap between minocycline and RA-induced effects at the level of their molecular mode of action, but also clinically at the level of the rare side effect of pseudotumor cerebri, which is observed for both, RA and minocycline treatment. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Short communication: Lactic acid bacteria from the honeybee inhibit the in vitro growth of mastitis pathogens.

    PubMed

    Piccart, K; Vásquez, A; Piepers, S; De Vliegher, S; Olofsson, T C

    2016-04-01

    Despite the increasing knowledge of prevention and control strategies, bovine mastitis remains one of the most challenging diseases in the dairy industry. This study investigated the antimicrobial activity of 13 species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), previously isolated from the honey crop of the honeybee, on several mastitis pathogens. The viable LAB were first reintroduced into a sterilized heather honey matrix. More than 20 different bovine mastitis isolates were tested against the mixture of the 13 LAB species in the honey medium using a dual-culture overlay assay. The mastitis isolates were identified through bacteriological culturing, followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Additionally, the mastitis isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing through disk diffusion. Growth of all tested mastitis pathogens, including the ones displaying antimicrobial resistance to one or more antimicrobial compounds, were inhibited to some extent by the honey and LAB combination. The antibacterial effect of these LAB opens up new perspectives on alternative treatment and prevention of bovine mastitis. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The therapeutic effect of chlorogenic acid against Staphylococcus aureus infection through sortase A inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lin; Bi, Chongwei; Cai, Hongjun; Liu, Bingrun; Zhong, Xiaobo; Deng, Xuming; Wang, Tiedong; Xiang, Hua; Niu, Xiaodi; Wang, Dacheng

    2015-01-01

    The emergence and wide spread of multi-drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) requires the development of new therapeutic agents with alternative modes of action. Anti-virulence strategies are hoped to meet that need. Sortase A (SrtA) has attracted great interest as a potential drug target to treat infections caused by S. aureus, as many of the surface proteins displayed by SrtA function as virulence factors by mediating bacterial adhesion to specific organ tissues, invasion of host cells, and evasion of the host-immune responses. It has been suggested that inhibitors of SrtA might be promising candidates for the treatment and/or prevention of S. aureus infections. In this study, we report that chlorogenic acid (CHA), a natural compound that lacks significant anti-S. aureus activity, inhibit the activity of SrtA in vitro (IC50 = 33.86 ± 5.55 μg/ml) and the binding of S. aureus to fibrinogen (Fg). Using molecular dynamics simulations and mutagenesis assays, we further demonstrate that CHA binds to the binding sites of C184 and G192 in the SrtA. In vivo studies demonstrated that CHA prevent mice from S. aureus-induced renal abscess, resulting in a significant survival advantage. These findings indicate that CHA is a promising therapeutic compound against SrtA during S. aureus infections. PMID:26528244

  12. Growth inhibition of Aeromonas salmonicida and Yersinia ruckeri by disinfectants containing peracetic acid.

    PubMed

    Meinelt, Thomas; Phan, Thy-My; Behrens, Sascha; Wienke, Andreas; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Liu, Dibo; Straus, David L

    2015-04-08

    Peracetic acid (PAA) is a therapeutic agent used for disinfection in aquaculture, but it must be investigated thoroughly in order to mitigate diseases without harming the fish. Successful disinfectants (like PAA) should not leave dangerous residues in the environment in order to successfully contribute to sustainable aquaculture. The aim of our study was to compare the effectiveness of 6 commercial PAA products with different molecular PAA:H2O2 ratios to reduce bacterial growth of Aeromonas salmonicida and Yersinia ruckeri and to determine effective concentrations and exposure times. All products reduced colony-forming units (CFUs) of A. salmonicida and Y. ruckeri. Products with higher molecular PAA:H2O2 ratios inhibited growth better than products with lower molecular PAA:H2O2 ratios at the same PAA concentration; this indicates that H2O2 is not the driving force in the reduction of A. salmonicida and Y. ruckeri growth by PAA in vitro. The practical application of the products with high molecular PAA:H2O2 ratios should be prioritized if these pathogens are diagnosed.

  13. Lipoteichoic acid synthesis inhibition in combination with antibiotics abrogates growth of multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Paganelli, Fernanda L; van de Kamer, Tim; Brouwer, Ellen C; Leavis, Helen L; Woodford, Neil; Bonten, Marc J M; Willems, Rob J L; Hendrickx, Antoni P A

    2017-03-01

    Enterococcus faecium is a multidrug-resistant (MDR) nosocomial pathogen causing significant morbidity in debilitated patients. New antimicrobials are needed to treat antibiotic-resistant E. faecium infections in hospitalised patients. E. faecium incorporates lipoteichoic acid (LTA) (1,3-polyglycerol-phosphate linked to glycolipid) in its cell wall. The small-molecule inhibitor 1771 [2-oxo-2-(5-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-ylamino)ethyl 2-naphtho[2,1-b]furan-1-ylacetate] specifically blocks the activity of Staphylococcus aureus LtaS synthase, which polymerises 1,3-glycerolphosphate into LTA polymers. Here we characterised the effects of the small-molecule inhibitor 1771 on the growth of E. faecium isolates, alone (28 strains) or in combination with the antibiotics vancomycin, daptomycin, ampicillin, gentamicin or linezolid (15 strains), and on biofilm formation (16 strains). Inhibition of LTA synthesis at the surface of the cell by compound 1771 in combination with current antibiotic therapy abrogates enterococcal growth in vitro but does not affect mature E. faecium biofilms. Targeting LTA synthesis may provide new possibilities to treat MDR E. faecium infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  14. Inhibition of Receptor Interacting Protein Kinases Attenuates Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy Induced by Palmitic Acid.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mingyue; Lu, Lihui; Lei, Song; Chai, Hua; Wu, Siyuan; Tang, Xiaoju; Bao, Qinxue; Chen, Li; Wu, Wenchao; Liu, Xiaojing

    2016-01-01

    Palmitic acid (PA) is known to cause cardiomyocyte dysfunction. Cardiac hypertrophy is one of the important pathological features of PA-induced lipotoxicity, but the mechanism by which PA induces cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is still unclear. Therefore, our study was to test whether necroptosis, a receptor interacting protein kinase 1 and 3 (RIPK1 and RIPK3-) dependent programmed necrosis, was involved in the PA-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. We used the PA-treated primary neonatal rat cardiac myocytes (NCMs) or H9c2 cells to study lipotoxicity. Our results demonstrated that cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was induced by PA treatment, determined by upregulation of hypertrophic marker genes and cell surface area enlargement. Upon PA treatment, the expression of RIPK1 and RIPK3 was increased. Pretreatment with the RIPK1 inhibitor necrostatin-1 (Nec-1), the PA-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, was attenuated. Knockdown of RIPK1 or RIPK3 by siRNA suppressed the PA-induced myocardial hypertrophy. Moreover, a crosstalk between necroptosis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was observed in PA-treated cardiomyocytes. Inhibition of RIPK1 with Nec-1, phosphorylation level of AKT (Ser473), and mTOR (Ser2481) was significantly reduced in PA-treated cardiomyocytes. In conclusion, RIPKs-dependent necroptosis might be crucial in PA-induced myocardial hypertrophy. Activation of mTOR may mediate the effect of necroptosis in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by PA.

  15. Corosolic acid ameliorates acute inflammation through inhibition of IRAK-1 phosphorylation in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung-Jae; Cha, Ji-Young; Kang, Hye Suk; Lee, Jae-Ho; Lee, Ji Yoon; Park, Jae-Hyung; Bae, Jae-Hoon; Song, Dae-Kyu; Im, Seung-Soon

    2016-01-01

    Corosolic acid (CA), a triterpenoid compound isolated from Lagerstroemia speciosa L. (Banaba) leaves, exerts anti-inflammatory effects by regulating phosphorylation of interleukin receptor- associated kinase (IRAK)-2 via the NF-κB cascade. However, the protective effect of CA against endotoxic shock has not been reported. LPS (200 ng/mL, 30 min) induced phosphorylation of IRAK-1 and treatment with CA (10 μM) significantly attenuated this effect. In addition, CA also reduced protein levels of NLRP3 and ASC which are the main components of the inflammasome in BMDMs. LPS-induced inflammasome assembly through activation of IRAK-1 was down-regulated by CA challenge. Treatment with Bay11-7082, an inhibitor of IκB-α, had no effect on CA-mediated inhibition of IRAK-1 activation, indicating that CA-mediated attenuation of IRAK-1 phosphorylation was independent of NF-κB signaling. These results demonstrate that CA ameliorates acute inflammation in mouse BMDMs and CA may be useful as a pharmacological agent to prevent acute inflammation. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(5): 276-281] PMID:26615974

  16. Flavonoids inhibit iNOS production via mitogen activated proteins in lipoteichoic acid stimulated cardiomyoblasts.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Venegas, Gloria; Ventura-Arroyo, Jairo Agustín; Arreguín-Cano, Juan Antonio; Ostoa-Pérez, María Fernanda

    2014-08-01

    Infective endocarditis is caused by oral commensal bacteria which are important etiologic agents in this disease and can induce release of nitric oxide (NO), promoting an inflammatory response in the endocardium. In this study, we investigated the properties of kaempherol, epigallocatechin, apigenin, and naringin in embryonic mouse heart cells (H9c2) treated with lipoteichoic acid (LTA) obtained from Streptococcus sanguinis. NO production was measured with the Griess method. Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In addition, western blot assays and immunofluorescence staining were used to assess translocation of nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-κB), degradation of IκB, and activity of the mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinases extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK 1/2), p38, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). And the effects of these flavonoids on cell viability were also assessed. Our results showed that flavonoids blocked activation of ERK, JNK, and p38 in cardiomyocytes treated with LTA. Moreover, the flavonoids showed no cytotoxic effects and blocked NF-κB translocation and IκB degradation and inhibited LTA-induced NF-κB promoter activity, iNOS expression and NO production. In conclusion these effects are consistent with some of the observed anti-inflammatory properties of other flavonoids. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Lipophilicity-related inhibition of blood platelet aggregation by nipecotic acid anilides.

    PubMed

    De Marco, Agostino; De Candia, Modesto; Carotti, Andrea; Cellamare, Saverio; De Candia, Erica; Altomare, Cosimo

    2004-06-01

    Using N-[4-(hexyloxy)phenyl]piperidine-3-carboxamide (17c) as a structural lead, a number of isomers, derivatives, and ring-opened analogs were synthesized and tested for their ability to block the in vitro aggregation of human platelets induced by adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP). For the most active compounds, inhibition of the platelet aggregation triggered by arachidonic acid (AA) and ADP-induced intraplatelet calcium mobilization was also demonstrated. Based on quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs), we proved the impact of hydrophobicity on antiplatelet activity by a nonlinear (parabolic or bilinear) relationship between pIC(50) and lipophilicity, as assessed by RP-HPLC capacity factors and ClogP (i.e. calculated 1-octanol-water partition coefficients). This study highlighted the following additional SARs: quasi-isolipophilic isomers of 17c (isonipecotanilides and pipecolinanilides) and ring-opened analogs (e.g. anilide of beta-alanine) exhibited lower antiplatelet activity; methylation of the piperidine nitrogen of 17c has no effect, whereas alkylation with an n-propyl group decreases the activity by a factor of approximately 2, most likely due to a conformation-dependent decrease in lipophilicity.

  18. Inhibition of Receptor Interacting Protein Kinases Attenuates Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy Induced by Palmitic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Mingyue; Lu, Lihui; Lei, Song; Chai, Hua; Wu, Siyuan; Tang, Xiaoju; Bao, Qinxue; Chen, Li; Wu, Wenchao; Liu, Xiaojing

    2016-01-01

    Palmitic acid (PA) is known to cause cardiomyocyte dysfunction. Cardiac hypertrophy is one of the important pathological features of PA-induced lipotoxicity, but the mechanism by which PA induces cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is still unclear. Therefore, our study was to test whether necroptosis, a receptor interacting protein kinase 1 and 3 (RIPK1 and RIPK3-) dependent programmed necrosis, was involved in the PA-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. We used the PA-treated primary neonatal rat cardiac myocytes (NCMs) or H9c2 cells to study lipotoxicity. Our results demonstrated that cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was induced by PA treatment, determined by upregulation of hypertrophic marker genes and cell surface area enlargement. Upon PA treatment, the expression of RIPK1 and RIPK3 was increased. Pretreatment with the RIPK1 inhibitor necrostatin-1 (Nec-1), the PA-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, was attenuated. Knockdown of RIPK1 or RIPK3 by siRNA suppressed the PA-induced myocardial hypertrophy. Moreover, a crosstalk between necroptosis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was observed in PA-treated cardiomyocytes. Inhibition of RIPK1 with Nec-1, phosphorylation level of AKT (Ser473), and mTOR (Ser2481) was significantly reduced in PA-treated cardiomyocytes. In conclusion, RIPKs-dependent necroptosis might be crucial in PA-induced myocardial hypertrophy. Activation of mTOR may mediate the effect of necroptosis in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by PA. PMID:27057269

  19. Regulating the Efficacy of Inhibition Through Trafficking of γ-Aminobutyric Acid Type A Receptors.

    PubMed

    Vien, Thuy N; Moss, Stephen J; Davies, Paul A

    2016-11-01

    Trafficking of anesthetic-sensitive receptors within the plasma membrane, or from one cellular component to another, occurs continuously. Changes in receptor trafficking have implications in altering anesthetic sensitivity. γ-Aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAARs) are anion-permeable ion channels and are the major class of receptor in the adult mammalian central nervous system that mediates inhibition. GABAergic signaling allows for precise synchronized firing of action potentials within brain circuits that is critical for cognition, behavior, and consciousness. This precision depends upon tightly controlled trafficking of GABAARs into the membrane. General anesthetics bind to and allosterically enhance GABAARs by prolonging the open state of the receptor and thereby altering neuronal and brain circuit activity. Subunit composition and GABAAR localization strongly influence anesthetic end points; therefore, changes in GABAAR trafficking could have significant consequences to anesthetic sensitivity. GABAARs are not static membrane structures but are in a constant state of flux between extrasynaptic and synaptic locations and are continually endocytosed and recycled from and to the membrane. Neuronal activity, posttranslational modifications, and some naturally occurring and synthetic compounds can influence the expression and trafficking of GABAARs. In this article, we review GABAARs, their trafficking, and how phosphorylation of GABAAR subunits can influence the surface expression and function of the receptor. Ultimately, alterations of GABAAR trafficking could modify anesthetic end points, both unintentionally through pathologic processes but potentially as a therapeutic target to adjust anesthetic-sensitive GABAARs.

  20. Alpha lipoic acid selectively inhibits proliferation and adhesion to fibronectin of v-H-ras-transformed 3Y1 cells.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Masao; Iwase, Masahiro; Kawano, Kazuo; Sakakibara, Yoichi; Suiko, Masahito; Nishiyama, Kazuo

    2012-05-01

    Here, we focused on the effects of racemic α-lipoic acid on proliferation and adhesion properties of 3Y1 rat fibroblasts and the v-H-ras-transformed derivative, HR-3Y1-2 cells. Racemic α-lipoic acid inhibited proliferation of HR-3Y1-2 but not 3Y1 cells at 0.3 and 1.0 mM. R-(+)-α-lipoic acid also inhibited proliferation of HR-3Y1-2 cells equivalent to that of racemic α-lipoic acid. In addition, racemic α-lipoic acid decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species levels in HR-3Y1 cells but not 3Y1 cells. Next, we evaluated the effects of racemic α-lipoic acid on cell adhesion to fibronectin. The results indicated that racemic α-lipoic acid decreased adhesive ability of HR-3Y1-2 cells to fibronectin-coated plates. As blocking antibody experiment revealed that β1-integrin plays a key role in cell adhesion in this experimental system, the effects of racemic α-lipoic acid on the expression of β1-integrin were examined. The results indicated that racemic α-lipoic acid selectively downregulated the expression of cell surface β1-integrin expression in HR-3Y1-2 cells. Intriguingly, exogenous hydrogen peroxide upregulated cell surface β1-integrin expression in 3Y1 cells. Taken together, these data suggest that reduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species levels by α-lipoic acid could be an effective means of ameliorating abnormal growth and adhesive properties in v-H-ras transformed cells.

  1. Contrasting effects of exercise and NOS inhibition on tissue-specific fatty acid and glucose uptake in mice.

    PubMed

    Rottman, Jeffrey N; Bracy, Deanna; Malabanan, Carlo; Yue, Zou; Clanton, Jeff; Wasserman, David H

    2002-07-01

    Isotopic techniques were used to test the hypothesis that exercise and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition have distinct effects on tissue-specific fatty acid and glucose uptakes in a conscious, chronically catheterized mouse model. Uptakes were measured using the radioactive tracers (125)I-labeled beta-methyl-p-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) and deoxy-[2-(3)H]glucose (DG) during treadmill exercise with and without inhibition of NOS. [(125)I]BMIPP uptake at rest differed substantially among tissues with the highest levels in heart. With exercise, [(125)I]BMIPP uptake increased in both heart and skeletal muscles. In sedentary mice, NOS inhibition induced by nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) feeding increased heart and soleus [(125)I]BMIPP uptake. In contrast, exercise, but not L-NAME feeding, resulted in increased heart and skeletal muscle [2-(3)H]DG uptake. Significant interactions were not observed in the effects of combined exercise and L-NAME feeding on [(125)I]BMIPP and [2-(3)H]DG uptakes. In the conscious mouse, exercise and NOS inhibition produce distinct patterns of tissue-specific fatty acid and glucose uptake; NOS is not required for important components of exercise-associated metabolic signaling, or other mechanisms compensate for the absence of this regulatory mechanism.

  2. Enhanced oral bioavailability of metoprolol with gallic acid and ellagic acid in male Wistar rats: involvement of CYP2D6 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Athukuri, Bhargavi Latha; Neerati, Prasad

    2016-12-01

    Cytochrome P450-2D6 (CYP2D6), a member of the CYP450 mixed function oxidase system, is an important CYP isoform with regard to herbal-drug interactions and is responsible for the metabolism of nearly 25% of drugs. Until now, studies on the effects of various phytochemicals on CYP2D6 activity in vivo have been very rare. Gallic acid and ellagic acid are natural polyphenols which are widely distributed in fruits and medicinal plants. In the present study, the effects of gallic acid and ellagic acid pretreatment on intestinal transport and oral bioavailability of metoprolol were investigated. The intestinal transport of metoprolol was assessed by conducting an in situ single pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) study. The bioavailability study was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetic parameters of orally administered metoprolol in rats. After pretreatment with gallic acid and ellagic acid, no significant change in effective permeability of metoprolol was observed at the ileum part of rat intestine. A significant improvement in the peak plasma concentration (Cmax) and area under the serum concentration-time profile (AUC) and decrease in clearance were observed in rats pretreated with gallic acid and ellagic acid. Gallic acid and ellagic acid significantly enhanced the oral bioavailability of metoprolol by inhibiting CYP2D6-mediated metabolism in the rat liver. Hence, adverse herbal-drug interactions may result with concomitant ingestion of gallic acid and ellagic acid supplements and drugs that are CYP2D6 substrates. The clinical assessment of these interactions should be further investigated in human volunteers.

  3. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester downregulates phospholipase D1 via direct binding and inhibition of NFκB transactivation

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Mi Hee; Kang, Dong Woo; Jung, Yunjin

    2013-12-06

    Highlights: •We found CAFÉ, a natural product that suppresses expression and activity of PLD1. •CAPE decreased PLD1 expression by inhibiting NFκB transactivation. •CAPE rapidly inhibited PLD activity via its binding to a Cys837 of PLD1. •PLD1 downregulation by CAPE inhibited invasion and proliferation of glioma cells. -- Abstract: Upregulation of phospholipase D (PLD) is functionally linked with oncogenic signals and tumorigenesis. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is an active compound of propolis extract that exhibits anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and antineoplastic properties. In this study, we demonstrated that CAPE suppressed the expression of PLD1 at the transcriptional level via inhibition ofmore » binding of NFκB to PLD1 promoter. Moreover, CAPE, but not its analogs, bound to a Cys837 residue of PLD1 and inhibited enzymatic activity of PLD. CAPE also decreased activation of matrix metalloproteinases-2 induced by phosphatidic acid, a product of PLD activity. Ultimately, CAPE-induced downregulation of PLD1 suppressed invasion and proliferation of glioma cells. Taken together, the results of this study indicate that CAPE might contribute to anti-neoplastic effect by targeting PLD1.« less

  4. Electrochemical investigation on the corrosion inhibition of mild steel by Quinazoline Schiff base compounds in hydrochloric acid solution.

    PubMed

    Khan, Ghulamullah; Basirun, Wan Jeffrey; Kazi, Salim Newaz; Ahmed, Pervaiz; Magaji, Ladan; Ahmed, Syed Muzamil; Khan, Ghulam Mustafa; Rehman, Muhammad Abdur; Badry, Ahmad Badarudin Bin Mohamad

    2017-09-15

    The inhibitory effect of two Schiff bases 3-(5-methoxy-2-hydroxybenzylideneamino)-2-(-5-methoxy-2-hydroxyphenyl)-2,3-dihydroquinazoline-4(1H)-one (MMDQ), and 3-(5-nitro-2-hydroxybenzylideneamino)-2(5-nitro-2-hydroxyphenyl)-2,3-dihydroquinazoline-4(1H)-one (NNDQ) on the corrosion of mild steel in 1M hydrochloric acid were studied using mass loss, potentiodynamic polarization technique and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements at ambient temperature. The investigation results indicate that the Schiff Bases compounds with an average efficiency of 92% at 1.0mM of additive concentration have fairly effective inhibiting properties for mild steel in hydrochloric acid, and acts as mixed type inhibitor character. The inhibition efficiencies measured by all measurements show that the inhibition efficiencies increase with increase in inhibitor concentration. This reveals that the inhibitive mechanism of inhibitors were primarily due to adsorption on mild steel surface, and follow Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The temperature effect on the inhibition process in 1MHCl with the addition of investigated Schiff bases was studied at a temperature range of 30-60°C, and the activation parameters (Ea, ΔH and ΔS) were calculated to elaborate the corrosion mechanism. The differences in efficiency for two investigated inhibitors are associated with their chemical structures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Fatty acid ethyl ester synthase inhibition ameliorates ethanol-induced Ca2+-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction and acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Booth, David M; Cane, Matthew C; Chvanov, Michael; Javed, Muhammad A; Elliott, Victoria L; Armstrong, Jane A; Dingsdale, Hayley; Cash, Nicole; Li, Yan; Greenhalf, William; Mukherjee, Rajarshi; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S; Jaffar, Mohammed; Petersen, Ole H; Tepikin, Alexei V; Sutton, Robert; Criddle, David N

    2014-01-01

    Objective Non-oxidative metabolism of ethanol (NOME) produces fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) via carboxylester lipase (CEL) and other enzyme action implicated in mitochondrial injury and acute pancreatitis (AP). This study investigated the relative importance of oxidative and non-oxidative pathways in mitochondrial dysfunction, pancreatic damage and development of alcoholic AP, and whether deleterious effects of NOME are preventable. Design Intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]C), NAD(P)H, mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of apoptotic and necrotic cell death pathways were examined in isolated pancreatic acinar cells in response to ethanol and/or palmitoleic acid (POA) in the presence or absence of 4-methylpyrazole (4-MP) to inhibit oxidative metabolism. A novel in vivo model of alcoholic AP induced by intraperitoneal administration of ethanol and POA was developed to assess the effects of manipulating alcohol metabolism. Results Inhibition of OME with 4-MP converted predominantly transient [Ca2+]C rises induced by low ethanol/POA combination to sustained elevations, with concurrent mitochondrial depolarisation, fall of NAD(P)H and cellular necrosis in vitro. All effects were prevented by 3-benzyl-6-chloro-2-pyrone (3-BCP), a CEL inhibitor. 3-BCP also significantly inhibited rises of pancreatic FAEE in vivo and ameliorated acute pancreatic damage and inflammation induced by administration of ethanol and POA to mice. Conclusions A combination of low ethanol and fatty acid that did not exert deleterious effects per se became toxic when oxidative metabolism was inhibited. The in vitro and in vivo damage was markedly inhibited by blockade of CEL, indicating the potential for development of specific therapy for treatment of alcoholic AP via inhibition of FAEE generation. PMID:24162590

  6. Ferulic Acid Suppresses Glutamate Release Through Inhibition of Voltage-Dependent Calcium Entry in Rat Cerebrocortical Nerve Terminals

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Tzu Yu; Lu, Cheng Wei; Huang, Shu-Kuei

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This study investigated the effects and possible mechanism of ferulic acid, a naturally occurring phenolic compound, on endogenous glutamate release in the nerve terminals of the cerebral cortex in rats. Results show that ferulic acid inhibited the release of glutamate evoked by the K+ channel blocker 4-aminopyridine (4-AP). The effect of ferulic acid on the evoked glutamate release was prevented by chelating the extracellular Ca2+ ions, but was insensitive to the glutamate transporter inhibitor DL-threo-beta-benzyl-oxyaspartate. Ferulic acid suppressed the depolarization-induced increase in a cytosolic-free Ca2+ concentration, but did not alter 4-AP–mediated depolarization. Furthermore, the effect of ferulic acid on evoked glutamate release was abolished by blocking the Cav2.2 (N-type) and Cav2.1 (P/Q-type) channels, but not by blocking ryanodine receptors or mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+ exchange. These results show that ferulic acid inhibits glutamate release from cortical synaptosomes in rats through the suppression of presynaptic voltage-dependent Ca2+ entry. PMID:23342970

  7. Synthesis and characterization of a novel eco-friendly corrosion inhibition for mild steel in 1 M hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Al-Amiery, Ahmed A; Binti Kassim, Fatin A; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H; Mohamad, Abu Bakar

    2016-01-22

    The acid corrosion inhibition process of mild steel in 1 M HCl by azelaic acid dihydrazide has been investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiodynamic polarization, open circuit potential (OCP) and electrochemical frequency modulation (EFM). Azelaic acid dihydrazide was synthesized, and its chemical structure was elucidated and confirmed using spectroscopic techniques (infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopy). Potentiodynamic polarization studies indicate that azelaic acid dihydrazide is a mixed-type inhibitor. The inhibition efficiency increases with increased inhibitor concentration and reaches its maximum of 93% at 5 × 10(-3) M. The adsorption of the inhibitor on a mild steel surface obeys Langmuir's adsorption isotherm. The effect of te perature on corrosion behavior in the presence of 5 × 10(-3) M inhibitor was studied in the temperature range of 30-60 °C. The results indicated that inhibition efficiencies were enhanced with an increase in concentration of inhibitor and decreased with a rise in temperature. To inspect the surface morphology of inhibitor film on the mild steel surface, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used before and after immersion in 1.0 M HCl.

  8. Mechanism, Kinetics and Microbiology of Inhibition Caused by Long-Chain Fatty Acids in Anaerobic Digestion of Algal Biomass

    DOE PAGES

    Ma, Jingwei; Zhao, Quan-Bao; Laurens, Lieve L.; ...

    2015-09-15

    Oleaginous microalgae contain a high level of lipids, which can be extracted and converted to biofuel. The lipid-extracted residue can then be further utilized through anaerobic digestion to produce biogas. However, long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) have been identified as the main inhibitory factor on microbial activity of anaerobic consortium. In this study, the mechanism of LCFA inhibition on anaerobic digestion of whole and lipid-extracted algal biomass was investigated with a range of calcium concentrations against various inoculum to substrate ratios as a means to alleviate the LCFA inhibition.

  9. Mechanism, Kinetics and Microbiology of Inhibition Caused by Long-Chain Fatty Acids in Anaerobic Digestion of Algal Biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Jingwei; Zhao, Quan-Bao; Laurens, Lieve L.

    Oleaginous microalgae contain a high level of lipids, which can be extracted and converted to biofuel. The lipid-extracted residue can then be further utilized through anaerobic digestion to produce biogas. However, long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) have been identified as the main inhibitory factor on microbial activity of anaerobic consortium. In this study, the mechanism of LCFA inhibition on anaerobic digestion of whole and lipid-extracted algal biomass was investigated with a range of calcium concentrations against various inoculum to substrate ratios as a means to alleviate the LCFA inhibition.

  10. Inhibition of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid-stimulated elongation of pea stem segments by a xyloglucan oligosaccharide

    SciTech Connect

    York, W.S.; Darvill, A.G.; Albersheim, P.

    1984-06-01

    Xyloglucan, isolated from the soluble extracellular polysaccharides of suspension-cultured sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) cells, was digested with an endo-..beta..-1,4-glucanase purified from the culture fluid of Trichoderma viride. A nonasaccharide-rich Bio-Gel P-2 fraction of this digest inhibited 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic-acid-stimulated elongation of etiolated pea stem segments. The inhibitory activity of this oligosaccharide fraction exhibited a well-define concentraction optimum between 10/sup -2/ and 10/sup -1/ micrograms per milliliter. Another fraction of the same xyloglucan digest, rich in a structurally related heptasaccharide, did not, at similar concentrations, significantly inhibit the elongation. 11 references, 3 figures.

  11. Nitric oxide secretion in human conjunctival fibroblasts is inhibited by alpha linolenic acid.

    PubMed

    Erdinest, Nir; Shohat, Noam; Moallem, Eli; Yahalom, Claudia; Mechoulam, Hadas; Anteby, Irene; Ovadia, Haim; Solomon, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    It is known that both human conjunctival fibroblasts (HCF) and corneal epithelial (HCE) cells contribute to the inflammatory process in the ocular surface by releasing inflammatory cytokines. In addition, nitric oxide (NO) has an important role in inflammatory responses in the ocular surface. In the present study, we aimed to characterize the capacity of these cells to release nitric oxide in response to cytokines and Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and show that Alpha-linoleic acid (ALA) inhibits these responses. HCF, HCE cells, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and co-culture of HCF and PBMC were treated with different combinations of inflammatory inducers, including interleukin)IL- (6, tumor necrosis factors (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)- γ and IL-1β and LPS. Nitrite levels were measured in cell supernatants with and without ALA by the Griess reaction test at 24, 48 and 72 h respectively. Expression of nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS-2) was evaluated by real-time PCR. All cytokine combinations had an inducible effect on nitrite secretion in HCF, PBMC and co-cultured PBMC and HCF, but not in HCE cells. Treatment with a combination of IL-6, LPS, TNF-α, IFN- γ and IL-1β induced the highest nitrite secretion (2.91 fold, P < 0.01) as compared to cells incubated in medium alone. nitrite secretion was reduced by 38.9 % (P < 0.05) after treatment with ALA alone. Co-culturing PBMC with HCF with and without ALA treatment demonstrated similar results in nitrite level as,compared to PBMC alone. In addition, ALA significantly decreased NOS-2 expression in HCF by 48.9 % (P < 0. 001) after 72 h. The decrease in nitrite release and inhibition of NOS-2 expression indicate that ALA may have an anti-inflammatory effect both on HCF and on peripheral immune cells. This indicates that ALA may serve as a potent anti-inflammatory agent in ocular surface inflammation.

  12. Oleanolic acid acetate inhibits atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis in a murine model

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jin Kyeong; Oh, Hyun-Mee; Lee, Soyoung

    2013-05-15

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) are common allergic and inflammatory skin diseases caused by a combination of eczema, scratching, pruritus, and cutaneous sensitization with allergens. This paper examines whether oleanolic acid acetate (OAA) modulates AD and ACD symptoms by using an existing AD model based on the repeated local exposure of mite extract (Dermatophagoides farinae extract, DFE) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene to the ears of BALB/c mice. In addition, the paper uses a 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-sensitized local lymph node assay (LLNA) for the ACD model. The oral administration of OAA over a four-week period attenuated AD symptoms in terms of decreasedmore » skin lesions, epidermal thickness, the infiltration of immune cells (CD4{sup +} cells, eosinophils, and mast cells), and serum IgE, IgG2a, and histamine levels. The gene expression of Th1, Th2, Th17, and Th22 cytokines was reduced by OAA in the lymph node and ear tissue, and the LLNA verified that OAA suppressed ACD. The oral administration of OAA over a three-day period attenuated ACD symptoms in terms of ear thickness, lymphocyte proliferation, and serum IgG2a levels. The gene expression of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokines was reduced by OAA in the thymus and ear tissue. Finally, to define the underlying mechanism, this paper uses a TNF-α/IFN-γ-activated human keratinocyte (HaCaT) model. OAA inhibited the expression of cytokines and chemokines through the downregulation of NF-κB and MAPKs in HaCaT cells. Taken together, the results indicate that OAA inhibited AD and ACD symptoms, suggesting that OAA may be effective in treating allergic skin disorders. - Highlights: • OAA reduced both acute and chronic AD symptoms. • OAA had a controlling effect on the immune reaction for ACD. • The effect of OAA on allergic skin disorders was comparable to the cyclosporine A. • OAA might be a candidate for the treatment of allergic skin disorders.« less

  13. Qishenyiqi Dropping Pill attenuates myocardial fibrosis in rats by inhibiting RAAS-mediated arachidonic acid inflammation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Lu, Linghui; Wang, Yong; Wu, Yan; Han, Jing; Wang, Wei; Li, Chun; Tu, Pengfei

    2015-12-24

    In China, Qishenyiqi Dropping Pill (QSDP), a Chinese medicine formula containing Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bunge, Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, Panax notoginseng (Burkill) F.H.Chen and Dalbergia odorifera T.C.Chen, has been used frequently in traditional folk medicine for treatment of coronary heart diseases (CHD) and heart failure (HF). Previous study has shown that QSDP has definite therapeutic effects on promoting the heart function on CHD patients. The present study was designed to study the anti-fibrosis effects of QSDP on HF rats and to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. HF rat model was induced by left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery ligation. Two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography was adopted to evaluate heart functions. Immunohistochemical (IHC) method and Western-blot were used to detect expression of critical proteins in renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) or arachidonic acid (AA) metabolic pathway. Heart functions were seriously injured in the model group. Expressions of fibrotic markers, such as collagen Ⅰ, collagen Ⅲ, matrix metallopeptidase 2 (MMP2) and MMP9 were elevated in the model group. RAAS pathway was activated. Interestingly, AA pathway was also up-regulated in the model group and it was down-regulated by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) drug Captopril. Expressions of the important signal-transuding proteins, including NF-κB, JAK1/STAT3 and Akt, all increased remarkably in the model group. Treatment with QSDP could attenuate myocardial fibrosis by inhibiting RAAS-activated pathway, as indicated by decreased angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1) and increased AT2 expression. Expressions of phospholipase A2 (PLA2), cyclooxygenase 1 (COX1) and COX2 were also down-regulated in the QSDP-treated group. In addition, "therapeutic" QSDP administration seemed to down-regulate expressions of NF-κB, JAK1/ STAT3 and Akt which may play important roles in myocardial fibrosis. QSDP can exert anti

  14. Echinocystic acid inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by regulating NF-κB and ERK signaling pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Jian-hui, E-mail: jianhui_yangxa@163.com; Li, Bing; Wu, Qiong

    Receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) is a key factor in the differentiation and activation of osteoclasts. Echinocystic acid (EA), a pentacyclic triterpene isolated from the fruits of Gleditsia sinensis Lam, was reported to prevent reduction of bone mass and strength and improve the cancellous bone structure and biochemical properties in ovariectomy rats. However, the molecular mechanism of EA on the osteoclast formation has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanism of EA on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. Our results showed that EA inhibited the formation of osteoclast, as well as the expressionmore » of osteoclastogenesis-related marker proteins in bone marrow macrophages (BMMs). At molecular levels, EA inhibited RANKL-induced NF-κB activation and ERK phosphorylation in BMMs. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that EA can suppress osteoclastogenesis in vitro. Moreover, we clarified that these inhibitory effects of EA occur through suppression of NF-κB and ERK activation. Therefore, EA may be a potential agent in the treatment of osteoclast-related diseases such as osteoporosis. - Highlights: • EA inhibited the formation of osteoclast in BMMs. • EA inhibits the expression of osteoclastogenesis-related marker proteins in BMMs. • EA inhibits RANKL-induced NF-κB activation in BMMs. • EA inhibits RANKL-induced ERK phosphorylation in BMMs.« less

  15. Palmitic acid acutely inhibits acetylcholine- but not GLP-1-stimulated insulin secretion in mouse pancreatic islets

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Wei; Vinogradov, Sergei A.; Wilson, David F.; Matschinsky, Franz M.

    2010-01-01

    Fatty acids, acetylcholine, and GLP-1 enhance insulin secretion in a glucose-dependent manner. However, the interplay between glucose, fatty acids, and the neuroendocrine regulators of insulin secretion is not well understood. Therefore, we studied the acute effects of PA (alone or in combination with glucose, acetylcholine, or GLP-1) on isolated cultured mouse islets. Two different sets of experiments were designed. In one, a fixed concentration of 0.5 mM of PA bound to 0.15 mM BSA was used; in the other, a PA ramp from 0 to 0.5 mM was applied at a fixed albumin concentration of 0.15 mM so that the molar PA/BSA ratio changed within the physiological range. At a fixed concentration of 0.5 mM, PA markedly inhibited acetylcholine-stimulated insulin release, the rise of intracellular Ca2+, and enhancement of cAMP production but did not influence the effects of GLP-1 on these parameters of islet cell function. 2-ADB, an IP3 receptor inhibitor, reduced the effect of acetylcholine on insulin secretion and reversed the effect of PA on acetylcholine-stimulated insulin release. Islet perfusion for 35–40 min with 0.5 mM PA significantly reduced the calcium storage capacity of ER measured by the thapsigargin-induced Ca2+ release. Oxygen consumption due to low but not high glucose was reduced by PA. When a PA ramp from 0 to 0.5 mM was applied in the presence of 8 mM glucose, PA at concentrations as low as 50 μM significantly augmented glucose-stimulated insulin release and markedly reduced acetylcholine's effects on hormone secretion. We thus demonstrate that PA acutely reduces the total oxygen consumption response to glucose, glucose-dependent acetylcholine stimulation of insulin release, Ca2+, and cAMP metabolism, whereas GLP-1's actions on these parameters remain unaffected or potentiated. We speculate that acute emptying of the ER calcium by PA results in decreased glucose stimulation of respiration and acetylcholine potentiation of insulin secretion. PMID:20606076

  16. Tormentic acid inhibits LPS-induced inflammatory response in human gingival fibroblasts via inhibition of TLR4-mediated NF-κB and MAPK signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Jian, Cong-Xiang; Li, Ming-Zhe; Zheng, Wei-Yin; He, Yong; Ren, Yu; Wu, Zhong-Min; Fan, Quan-Shui; Hu, Yong-He; Li, Chen-Jun

    2015-09-01

    Periodontal disease is one of the most prevalent oral diseases, which is associated with inflammation of the tooth-supporting tissues. Tormentic acid (TA), a triterpene isolated from Rosa rugosa, has been reported to exert anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of TA on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs). The levels of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6 and chemokines such as IL-8 were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), IκBα, p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) was determined by Western blotting. The results showed that Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS significantly upregulated the expression of IL-6 and IL-8. TA inhibited the LPS-induced production of IL-6 and IL-8 in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, TA inhibited LPS-induced TLR4 expression; NF-κB activation; IκBα degradation; and phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, and P38. TA inhibits the LPS-induced inflammatory response in HGFs by suppressing the TLR4-mediated NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ghrelin ameliorates acute lung injury induced by oleic acid via inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiuli; Liu, Zhijun; Yu, Ting; Yang, Haitao; Feng, Linlin

    2018-03-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is associated with excessive mortality and lacks appropriate therapy. Ghrelin is a novel peptide that protects the lung against ALI. This study aimed to investigate whether endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) mediates the protective effect of ghrelin on ALI. We used a rat oleic acid (OA)-induced ALI model. Pulmonary impairment was detected by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, lung mechanics, wet/dry weight ratio, and arterial blood gas analysis. Plasma and lung content of ghrelin was examined by ELISA, and mRNA expression was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Protein levels were detected by western blot. Rats with OA treatment showed significant pulmonary injury, edema, inflammatory cellular infiltration, cytokine release, hypoxia and CO 2 retention as compared with controls. Plasma and pulmonary content of ghrelin was reduced in rats with ALI, and mRNA expression was downregulated. Ghrelin (10nmol/kg) treatment ameliorated the above symptoms, but treatment with the ghrelin antagonists D-Lys 3 GHRP-6 (1μmol/kg) and JMV 2959 (6mg/kg) exacerbated the symptoms. ERS induced by OA was prevented by ghrelin and augmented by ghrelin antagonist treatment. The ERS inducer, tunicamycin (Tm) prevented the ameliorative effect of ghrelin on ALI. The decreased ratio of p-Akt and Akt induced by OA was improved by ghrelin treatment, and was further exacerbated by ghrelin antagonists. Ghrelin protects against ALI by inhibiting ERS. These results provide a new target for prevention and therapy of ALI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Inhibition of Hsp27 Radiosensitizes Head-and-Neck Cancer by Modulating Deoxyribonucleic Acid Repair

    SciTech Connect

    Guttmann, David M.; Hart, Lori; Du, Kevin

    Purpose: To present a novel method of tumor radiosensitization through Hsp27 knockdown using locked nucleic acid (LNA) and to investigate the role of Hsp27 in DNA double strand break (DSB) repair. Methods and Materials: Clonogenic survival assays, immunoblotting, the proximity ligation assay, and γH2AX foci analysis were conducted in SQ20B and FaDu human head-and-neck cancer cell lines treated with Hsp27 LNA and Hsp27 short hairpin RNA (shRNA). Additionally, nude mice with FaDu flank tumors were treated with fractionated radiation therapy after pretreatment with Hsp27 LNA and monitored for tumor growth. Results: Hsp27 LNA and Hsp27 shRNA radiosensitized head-and-neck cancer cellmore » lines in an Hsp27-dependent manner. Ataxia-Telangectasia Mutated-mediated DNA repair signaling was impaired in irradiated cells with Hsp27 knockdown. ATM kinase inhibition abrogated the radiosensitizing effect of Hsp27. Furthermore, Hsp27 LNA and shRNA both attenuated DNA repair kinetics after radiation, and Hsp27 was found to colocalize with ATM in both untreated and irradiated cells. Last, combined radiation and Hsp27 LNA treatment in tumor xenografts in nude mice suppressed tumor growth compared with either treatment alone. Conclusions: These results support a radiosensitizing property of Hsp27 LNA in vitro and in vivo, implicate Hsp27 in double strand break repair, and suggest that Hsp27 LNA might eventually serve as an effective clinical agent in the radiotherapy of head-and-neck cancer.« less

  19. Lipoic acid inhibits cell proliferation of tumor cells in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Feuerecker, Benedikt; Pirsig, Sabine; Seidl, Christof; Aichler, Michaela; Feuchtinger, Annette; Bruchelt, Gernot; Senekowitsch-Schmidtke, Reingard

    2012-01-01

    Cancer cells convert glucose preferentially to lactate even in the presence of oxygen (aerobic glycolysis–Warburg effect). New concepts in cancer treatment aim at inhibition of aerobic glycolysis. Pyruvate dehydrogenase converts pyruvate to acetylCoA thus preventing lactate formation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate compounds that could activate pyruvate dehydrogenase in cancer cells. We investigated the effects of (R)-(+)-α-lipoic acid (LPA) and dichloroacetate (DCA), possible activators of pyruvate dehydrogenase, on suppression of aerobic glycolysis and induction of cell death. The neuroblastoma cell lines Kelly, SK-N-SH, Neuro-2a and the breast cancer cell line SkBr3 were incubated with different concentrations (0.1–30 mM) of LPA and DCA. The effects of both compounds on cell viability/proliferation (WST-1 assay), [18F]-FDG uptake, lactate production and induction of apoptosis (flow cytometric detection of caspase-3) were evaluated. Furthermore, NMRI nu/nu mice that had been inoculated s.c. with SkBr3 cells were treated daily for four weeks with LPA (i.p, 18.5 mg/kg) starting at day 7 p.i.. Tumor development was measured with a sliding calliper and monitored via [18F]-FDG-PET. Residual tumors after therapy were examined histopathologically. These data suggests that LPA can reduce (1) cell viability/proliferation, (2) uptake of [18F]-FDG and (3) lactate production and increase apoptosis in all investigated cell lines. In contrast, DCA was almost ineffective. In the mouse xenograft model with s.c. SkBr3 cells, daily treatment with LPA retarded tumor progression. Therefore, LPA seems to be a promising compound for cancer treatment. PMID:22954700

  20. Ellagic Acid Derivatives from Rubus ulmifolius Inhibit Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Formation and Improve Response to Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Quave, Cassandra L.; Estévez-Carmona, Miriam; Compadre, Cesar M.; Hobby, Gerren; Hendrickson, Howard; Beenken, Karen E.; Smeltzer, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Biofilms contribute to the pathogenesis of many forms of Staphylococcus aureus infection. Treatment of these infections is complicated by intrinsic resistance to conventional antibiotics, thus creating an urgent need for strategies that can be used for the prevention and treatment of biofilm-associated infections. Methodology/Principal Findings This study demonstrates that a botanical natural product composition (220D-F2) rich in ellagic acid and its derivatives can limit S. aureus biofilm formation to a degree that can be correlated with increased antibiotic susceptibility. The source of this composition is Rubus ulmifolius Schott. (Rosaceae), a plant used in complementary and alternative medicine in southern Italy for the treatment of skin and soft tissue infections. All S. aureus clonal lineages tested exhibited a reduced capacity to form a biofilm at 220D-F2 concentrations ranging from 50–200 µg/mL, which were well below the concentrations required to limit bacterial growth (530–1040 µg/mL). This limitation was therapeutically relevant in that inclusion of 220D-F2 resulted in enhanced susceptibility to the functionally-distinct antibiotics daptomycin, clindamycin and oxacillin. Testing with kidney and liver cell lines also demonstrated a lack of host cell cytotoxicity at concentrations of 220D-F2 required to achieve these effects. Conclusions/Significance These results demonstrate that extract 220D-F2 from the root of Rubus ulmifolius can be used to inhibit S. aureus biofilm formation to a degree that can be correlated with increased antibiotic susceptibility without toxic effects on normal mammalian cells. Hence, 220D-F2 is a strong candidate for development as a botanical drug for use in the prevention and treatment of S. aureus biofilm-associated infections. PMID:22242149

  1. Solution Structure of the Squash Aspartic Acid Proteinase Inhibitor (SQAPI) and Mutational Analysis of Pepsin Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Headey, Stephen J.; MacAskill, Ursula K.; Wright, Michele A.; Claridge, Jolyon K.; Edwards, Patrick J. B.; Farley, Peter C.; Christeller, John T.; Laing, William A.; Pascal, Steven M.

    2010-01-01

    The squash aspartic acid proteinase inhibitor (SQAPI), a proteinaceous proteinase inhibitor from squash, is an effective inhibitor of a range of aspartic proteinases. Proteinaceous aspartic proteinase inhibitors are rare in nature. The only other example in plants probably evolved from a precursor serine proteinase inhibitor. Earlier work based on sequence homology modeling suggested SQAPI evolved from an ancestral cystatin. In this work, we determined the solution structure of SQAPI using NMR and show that SQAPI shares the same fold as a plant cystatin. The structure is characterized by a four-strand anti-parallel β-sheet gripping an α-helix in an analogous manner to fingers of a hand gripping a tennis racquet. Truncation and site-specific mutagenesis revealed that the unstructured N terminus and the loop connecting β-strands 1 and 2 are important for pepsin inhibition, but the loop connecting strands 3 and 4 is not. Using ambiguous restraints based on the mutagenesis results, SQAPI was then docked computationally to pepsin. The resulting model places the N-terminal strand of SQAPI in the S′ side of the substrate binding cleft, whereas the first SQAPI loop binds on the S side of the cleft. The backbone of SQAPI does not interact with the pepsin catalytic Asp32–Asp215 diad, thus avoiding cleavage. The data show that SQAPI does share homologous structural elements with cystatin and appears to retain a similar protease inhibitory mechanism despite its different target. This strongly supports our hypothesis that SQAPI evolved from an ancestral cystatin. PMID:20538608

  2. Docosahexaenoic acid ester of phloridzin inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in THP-1 differentiated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Sekhon-Loodu, Satvir; Ziaullah; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2015-03-01

    Phloridzin or phlorizin (PZ) is a predominant phenolic compound found in apple and also used in various natural health products. Phloridzin shows poor absorption and cellular uptake due to its hydrophilic nature. The aim was to investigate and compare the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) ester of PZ (PZ-DHA) and its parent compounds (phloridzin and DHA), phloretin (the aglycone of PZ) and cyclooxygenase inhibitory drugs (diclofenac and nimesulide) on production of pro-inflammatory biomarkers in inflammation-induced macrophages by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulation. Human THP-1 monocytes were seeded in 24-well plates (5×10(5)/well) and treated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, 0.1μg/mL) for 48h to induce macrophage differentiation. After 48h, the differentiated macrophages were washed with Hank's buffer and treated with various concentrations of test compounds for 4h, followed by the LPS-stimulation (18h). Pre-exposure of PZ-DHA ester was more effective in reducing tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein levels compared to DHA and nimesulide. However, diclofenac was the most effective in reducing prostaglandin (PGE2) level by depicting a dose-dependent response. However, PZ-DHA ester and DHA were the most effective in inhibiting the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) among other test compounds. Our results suggest that PZ-DHA ester might possess potential therapeutic activity to treat inflammation related disorders such as type 2 diabetes, asthma, atherosclerosis and inflammatory bowel disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Clofibric acid, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha ligand, inhibits growth of human ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Yoshihito; Xin, Bing; Shigeto, Tatsuhiko; Umemoto, Mika; Kasai-Sakamoto, Akiko; Futagami, Masayuki; Tsuchida, Shigeki; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Mizunuma, Hideki

    2007-04-01

    Recent reports have shown that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)alpha ligands reduce growth of some types of malignant tumors and prevent carcinogenesis. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of clofibric acid (CA), a ligand for PPARalpha on growth of ovarian malignancy, in in vivo and in vitro experiments using OVCAR-3 and DISS cells derived from human ovarian cancer and aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanism of its antitumor effect. CA treatment significantly suppressed the growth of OVCAR-3 tumors xenotransplanted s.c. and significantly prolonged the survival of mice with malignant ascites derived from DISS cells as compared with control. CA also dose-dependently inhibited cell proliferation of cultured cell lines. CA treatment increased the expression of carbonyl reductase (CR), which promotes the conversion of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) to PGF(2alpha), in implanted OVCAR-3 tumors as well as cultured cells. CA treatment decreased PGE(2) level as well as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) amount in both of OVCAR-3-tumor and DISS-derived ascites. Reduced microvessel density and induced apoptosis were found in solid OVCAR-3 tumors treated by CA. Transfection of CR expression vector into mouse ovarian cancer cells showed significant reduction of PGE(2) level as well as VEGF expression. These results indicate that CA produces potent antitumor effects against ovarian cancer in conjunction with a reduction of angiogenesis and induction of apoptosis. We conclude that CA could be an effective agent in ovarian cancer and should be tested alone and in combination with other anticancer drugs.

  4. Oleic Acid in the Ventral Tegmental Area Inhibits Feeding, Food Reward, and Dopamine Tone.

    PubMed

    Hryhorczuk, Cecile; Sheng, Zhenyu; Décarie-Spain, Léa; Giguère, Nicolas; Ducrot, Charles; Trudeau, Louis-Éric; Routh, Vanessa H; Alquier, Thierry; Fulton, Stephanie

    2018-02-01

    Long-chain fatty acids (FAs) act centrally to decrease food intake and hepatic glucose production and alter hypothalamic neuronal activity in a manner that depends on FA type and cellular transport proteins. However, it is not known whether FAs are sensed by ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons to control food-motivated behavior and DA neurotransmission. We investigated the impact of the monounsaturated FA oleate in the VTA on feeding, locomotion, food reward, and DA neuronal activity and DA neuron expression of FA-handling proteins and FA uptake. A single intra-VTA injection of oleate, but not of the saturated FA palmitate, decreased food intake and increased locomotor activity. Furthermore, intra-VTA oleate blunted the rewarding effects of high-fat/sugar food in an operant task and inhibited DA neuronal firing. Using sorted DA neuron preparations from TH-eGFP mice we found that DA neurons express FA transporter and binding proteins, and are capable of intracellular transport of long-chain FA. Finally, we demonstrate that a transporter blocker attenuates FA uptake into DA neurons and blocks the effects of intra-VTA oleate to decrease food-seeking and DA neuronal activity. Together, these results suggest that DA neurons detect FA and that oleate has actions in the VTA to suppress DA neuronal activity and food seeking following cellular incorporation. These findings highlight the capacity of DA neurons to act as metabolic sensors by responding not only to hormones but also to FA nutrient signals to modulate food-directed behavior.

  5. Inhibition of Hsp27 radiosensitizes head-and-neck cancer by modulating deoxyribonucleic acid repair.

    PubMed

    Guttmann, David M; Hart, Lori; Du, Kevin; Seletsky, Andrew; Koumenis, Constantinos

    2013-09-01

    To present a novel method of tumor radiosensitization through Hsp27 knockdown using locked nucleic acid (LNA) and to investigate the role of Hsp27 in DNA double strand break (DSB) repair. Clonogenic survival assays, immunoblotting, the proximity ligation assay, and γH2AX foci analysis were conducted in SQ20B and FaDu human head-and-neck cancer cell lines treated with Hsp27 LNA and Hsp27 short hairpin RNA (shRNA). Additionally, nude mice with FaDu flank tumors were treated with fractionated radiation therapy after pretreatment with Hsp27 LNA and monitored for tumor growth. Hsp27 LNA and Hsp27 shRNA radiosensitized head-and-neck cancer cell lines in an Hsp27-dependent manner. Ataxia-Telangectasia Mutated-mediated DNA repair signaling was impaired in irradiated cells with Hsp27 knockdown. ATM kinase inhibition abrogated the radiosensitizing effect of Hsp27. Furthermore, Hsp27 LNA and shRNA both attenuated DNA repair kinetics after radiation, and Hsp27 was found to colocalize with ATM in both untreated and irradiated cells. Last, combined radiation and Hsp27 LNA treatment in tumor xenografts in nude mice suppressed tumor growth compared with either treatment alone. These results support a radiosensitizing property of Hsp27 LNA in vitro and in vivo, implicate Hsp27 in double strand break repair, and suggest that Hsp27 LNA might eventually serve as an effective clinical agent in the radiotherapy of head-and-neck cancer. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. 13-cis Retinoic Acid Inhibits Development and Progression of Chronic Allograft Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Judith; Kiss, Eva; Arroyo, Ana B.V.; Bonrouhi, Mahnaz; Sun, Qiang; Li, Zhen; Gretz, Norbert; Schnitger, Anna; Zouboulis, Christos C.; Wiesel, Manfred; Wagner, Jürgen; Nelson, Peter J.; Gröne, Hermann-Josef

    2005-01-01

    Chronic allograft nephropathy is characterized by chronic inflammation and fibrosis. Because retinoids exhibit anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-fibrotic functions, the effects of low and high doses of 13-cis-retinoic acid (13cRA) were studied in a chronic Fisher344→Lewis transplantation model. In 13cRA animals, independent of dose (2 or 20 mg/kg body weight/day) and start (0 or 14 days after transplantation) of 13cRA administration, serum creatinine was significantly lower and chronic rejection damage was dramatically reduced, including subendothelial fibrosis of preglomerular vessels and chronic tubulointerstitial damage. The number of infiltrating mononuclear cells and their proliferative activity were significantly diminished. The mRNA expression of chemokines (MCP-1/CCL2, MIP-1α/CCL3, IP-10/CXCL10, RANTES/CCL5) and proteins associated with fibrosis (plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, transforming growth factor-β1, and collagens I and III) were strikingly lower in treated allografts. In vitro, activated peritoneal macrophages of 13cRA-treated rats showed a pronounced decrease in protein secretion of inflammatory cytokines (eg, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6). The suppression of the proinflammatory chemokine RANTES/CCL5 × 13cRA in fibroblasts could be mapped to a promoter module comprising IRF-1 and nuclear factor-κB binding elements, but direct binding of retinoid receptors to promoter elements could be excluded. In summary, 13cRA acted as a potent immunosuppressive and anti-fibrotic agent able to prevent and inhibit progression of chronic allograft nephropathy. PMID:15972972

  7. Acidic extracellular pH neutralizes the autophagy-inhibiting activity of chloroquine: implications for cancer therapies.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Paola; Strambi, Angela; Zipoli, Chiara; Hägg-Olofsson, Maria; Buoncervello, Maria; Linder, Stig; De Milito, Angelo

    2014-04-01

    Acidic pH is an important feature of tumor microenvironment and a major determinant of tumor progression. We reported that cancer cells upregulate autophagy as a survival mechanism to acidic stress. Inhibition of autophagy by administration of chloroquine (CQ) in combination anticancer therapies is currently evaluated in clinical trials. We observed in 3 different human cancer cell lines cultured at acidic pH that autophagic flux is not blocked by CQ. This was consistent with a complete resistance to CQ toxicity in cells cultured in acidic conditions. Conversely, the autophagy-inhibiting activity of Lys-01, a novel CQ derivative, was still detectable at low pH. The lack of CQ activity was likely dependent on a dramatically reduced cellular uptake at acidic pH. Using cell lines stably adapted to chronic acidosis we could confirm that CQ lack of activity was merely caused by acidic pH. Moreover, unlike CQ, Lys-01 was able to kill low pH-adapted cell lines, although higher concentrations were required as compared with cells cultured at normal pH conditions. Notably, buffering medium pH in low pH-adapted cell lines reverted CQ resistance. In vivo analysis of tumors treated with CQ showed that accumulation of strong LC3 signals was observed only in normoxic areas but not in hypoxic/acidic regions. Our observations suggest that targeting autophagy in the tumor environment by CQ may be limited to well-perfused regions but not achieved in acidic regions, predicting possible limitations in efficacy of CQ in antitumor therapies.

  8. Ascorbic acid supplementation enhances recovery from ethanol induced inhibition of Leydig cell steroidogenesis than abstention in male guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnakartha, Harikrishnan; Appu, Abhilash Puthuvelvippel; Indira, Madambath

    2014-01-15

    The impact of ascorbic acid supplementation against ethanol induced Leydig cell toxicity was studied in guinea pigs. Male guinea pigs were exposed to ethanol (4g/kgb.wt.) for 90 days. After 90 days, ethanol administration was completely stopped and animals in the ethanol group were divided into abstention group and ascorbic acid supplemented group (25mg/100gb.wt.) and those in control group were maintained as control and control+ascorbic acid group. Ethanol administration reduced the serum testosterone and LH (luteinising hormone) levels and elevated estradiol levels. Cholesterol levels in Leydig cell were increased whereas the mRNA and protein expressions of StAR (steroidogenic acute regulatory) protein, cytochrome P450scc (cytochrome p450side chain cleavage enzyme), 3β-HSD (3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase), 17β-HSD (17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) and LH receptor were drastically reduced. Administration of ascorbic acid resulted in alteration of all these parameters indicating enhanced recovery from ethanol induced inhibition of Leydig cell steroidogenesis. Although abstention could also reduce the inhibition of steroidogenesis, this was lesser in comparison with ascorbic acid supplemented group. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Sodium sulphite inhibition of potato and cherry polyphenolics in nucleic acid extraction for virus detection by RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Singh, R P; Nie, X; Singh, M; Coffin, R; Duplessis, P

    2002-01-01

    Phenolic compounds from plant tissues inhibit reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Multiple-step protocols using several additives to inhibit polyphenolic compounds during nucleic acid extraction are common, but time consuming and laborious. The current research highlights that the inclusion of 0.65 to 0.70% of sodium sulphite in the extraction buffer minimizes the pigmentation of nucleic acid extracts and improves the RT-PCR detection of Potato virus Y (PVY) and Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) in potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers and Prune dwarf virus (PDV) and Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) in leaves and bark in the sweet cherry (Prunus avium) tree. Substituting sodium sulphite in the nucleic acid extraction buffer eliminated the use of proteinase K during extraction. Reagents phosphate buffered saline (PBS)-Tween 20 and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) were also no longer required during RT or PCR phase. The resultant nucleic acid extracts were suitable for both duplex and multiplex RT-PCR. This simple and less expensive nucleic acid extraction protocol has proved very effective for potato cv. Russet Norkotah, which contains a high amount of polyphenolics. Comparing commercially available RNA extraction kits (Catrimox and RNeasy), the sodium sulphite based extraction protocol yielded two to three times higher amounts of RNA, while maintaining comparable virus detection by RT-PCR. The sodium sulphite based extraction protocol was equally effective in potato tubers, and in leaves and bark from the cherry tree.

  10. Effect of Inhibition of Deoxyribonucleic Acid and Protein Synthesis on the Direction of Cell Wall Growth in Streptococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, M. L.; Daneo-Moore, L.; Boothby, D.; Shockman, G. D.

    1974-01-01

    Selective inhibition of protein synthesis in Streptococcus faecalis (ATCC 9790) was accompanied by a rapid and severe inhibition of cell division and a reduction of enlargement of cellular surface area. Continued synthesis of cell wall polymers resulted in rapid thickening of the wall to an extent not seen in exponential-phase populations. Thus, the normal direction of wall growth was changed from a preferential feeding out of new wall surface to that of thickening existing cell surfaces. However, the overall manner in which the wall thickened, from nascent septa toward polar regions, was the same in both exponential-phase and inhibited populations. In contrast, selective inhibition of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis using mitomycin C was accompanied by an increase in cellular surface area and by division of about 80% of the cells in random populations. Little or no wall thickening was observed until the synthesis of macromolecules other than DNA was impaired and further cell division ceased. Concomitant inhibition of both DNA and protein synthesis inhibited cell division but permitted an increase in average cell volume. In such doubly inhibited cells, walls thickened less than in cells inhibited for protein synthesis only. On the basis of the results obtained, a model for cell surface enlargement and cell division is presented. The model proposes that: (i) each wall enlargement site is influenced by an individual chromosome replication cycle; (ii) during chromosome replication peripheral surface enlargement would be favored over thickening (or septation); (iii) a signal associated with chromosome termination would favor thickening (and septation) at the expense of surface enlargement; and (iv) a factor or signal related to protein synthesis would be required for one or more of the near terminal stages of cell division or cell separation, or both. Images PMID:4133352

  11. Light Inhibition of Shoot Regeneration Is Regulated by Endogenous Abscisic Acid Level in Calli Derived from Immature Barley Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Rikiishi, Kazuhide; Matsuura, Takakazu; Ikeda, Yoko; Maekawa, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    Shoot regeneration in calli derived from immature barley embryos is regulated by light conditions during the callus-induction period. Barley cultivars Kanto Nijo-5 (KN5) and K-3 (K3) showed lower efficiency of shoot regeneration in a 16-h photoperiod during callus-induction than those in continuous darkness, whereas shoot regeneration was enhanced in cultures under a 16-h photoperiod in Golden Promise (GP) and Lenins (LN). These cultivars were classified as photo-inhibition type (KN5 and K3) or photo-induction type (GP and LN) according to their response to light. Contents of endogenous plant hormones were determined in calli cultured under a 16-h photoperiod and continuous darkness. In photo-inhibition type, higher accumulation of abscisic acid (ABA) was detected in calli cultured under a 16-h photoperiod, whereas calli showed lower levels of endogenous ABA in continuous darkness. However, cultivars of photo-induction type showed lower levels of ABA in calli cultured under both light conditions, similarly to photo-inhibition type in continuous darkness. Exogenous ABA inhibited the callus growth and shoot regeneration independent of light conditions in all cultivars. In photo-inhibition type, lower levels of endogenous ABA induced by ABA biosynthesis inhibitor, fluridone, reduced the photo-inhibition of shoot regeneration. Expression of ABA biosynthesis gene, HvNCED1, in calli was regulated by the light conditions. Higher expression was observed in calli cultured under a 16-h photoperiod. These results indicate that ABA biosynthesis could be activated through the higher expression of HvNCED1 in a 16-h photoperiod and that the higher accumulations of ABA inhibit shoot regeneration in the photo-inhibition type cultivars. PMID:26670930

  12. Kinetics of Corrosion Inhibition of Aluminum in Acidic Media by Water-Soluble Natural Polymeric Pectates as Anionic Polyelectrolyte Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Refat M; Zaafarany, Ishaq A

    2013-06-17

    Corrosion inhibition of aluminum (Al) in hydrochloric acid by anionic polyeletrolyte pectates (PEC) as a water-soluble natural polymer polysaccharide has been studied using both gasometric and weight loss techniques. The results drawn from these two techniques are comparable and exhibit negligible differences. The inhibition efficiency was found to increase with increasing inhibitor concentration and decrease with increasing temperature. The inhibition action of PEC on Al metal surface was found to obey the Freundlich isotherm. Factors such as the concentration and geometrical structure of the inhibitor, concentration of the corrosive medium, and temperature affecting the corrosion rates were examined. The kinetic parameters were evaluated and a suitable corrosion mechanism consistent with the kinetic results is discussed in the paper.

  13. Kinetics of Corrosion Inhibition of Aluminum in Acidic Media by Water-Soluble Natural Polymeric Pectates as Anionic Polyelectrolyte Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Refat M.; Zaafarany, Ishaq A.

    2013-01-01

    Corrosion inhibition of aluminum (Al) in hydrochloric acid by anionic polyeletrolyte pectates (PEC) as a water-soluble natural polymer polysaccharide has been studied using both gasometric and weight loss techniques. The results drawn from these two techniques are comparable and exhibit negligible differences. The inhibition efficiency was found to increase with increasing inhibitor concentration and decrease with increasing temperature. The inhibition action of PEC on Al metal surface was found to obey the Freundlich isotherm. Factors such as the concentration and geometrical structure of the inhibitor, concentration of the corrosive medium, and temperature affecting the corrosion rates were examined. The kinetic parameters were evaluated and a suitable corrosion mechanism consistent with the kinetic results is discussed in the paper. PMID:28809282

  14. Amphypterygium adstringens anacardic acid mixture inhibits quorum sensing-controlled virulence factors of Chromobacterium violaceum and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Juárez, Israel; García-Contreras, Rodolfo; Velázquez-Guadarrama, Norma; Soto-Hernández, Marcos; Martínez-Vázquez, Mariano

    2013-10-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a process of bacterial cell-cell communication that controls a large number of systems affecting pathogenicity. Interrupting this communication system can provide nonvirulent pathogenic bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-quorum sensing (anti-QS) potential of an anacardic acids mixture isolated from Amphipterygium adstringens, a medicinal plant known as "cuachalalate", to prevent the onset of bacterial infections as an alternate to antibiotics. Initially we investigated the anti-QS activity of A. adstringens hexane extract (HE) by the inhibition of violacein production in Chromobacterium violaceum. From the active HE, an anacardic acid mixture (AAM) was obtained. The anti-quorum sensing activity of AAM was investigated by the rhamnolipid and pyocyanin production constraint as well as decrease of elastase activity, all being quorum sensing-controlled virulence factors expressed in the pathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa. HE induced a 91.6% of inhibition of the violecin production at 55 μg/mL concentration, whereas AAM showed 94% of inhibition at 166 μg/mL. In both cases, inhibition of violacein production did not affect the viability of the bacterium. AAM inhibited pyocyanin (86% at 200 μg/mL) and rhamnolipid (91% at 500 μg/mL) production in a dose/response form and decrease the elastase (75% at 500 μg/mL) activity in P. aeruginosa without affecting its development. Because an anacardic acids mixture isolated from A. adstringens demonstrated anti-QS, it could be further exploited for novel molecules to treat the emerging infections of antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens. Copyright © 2013 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Kinetic studies of the inhibition of a human liver 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid/dihydrodiol dehydrogenase isozyme by bile acids and anti-inflammatory drugs.

    PubMed

    Miyabe, Y; Amano, T; Deyashiki, Y; Hara, A; Tsukada, F

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the steady-state kinetics for a cytosolic 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid/dihydrodiol dehydrogenase isozyme of human liver and its inhibition by several bile acids and anti-inflammatory drugs such as indomethacin, flufemanic acid and naproxen. Initial velocity and product inhibition studies performed in the NADP(+)-linked (S)-1-indanol oxidation at pH 7.4 were consistent with a sequential ordered mechanism in which NADP+ binds first and leaves last. The bile acids and drugs, competitive inhibitors with respect to the alcohol substrate, exhibited uncompetitive inhibition with respect to the coenzyme, with Ki values less than 1 microM, whereas indomethacin exhibited noncompetitive inhibition (Ki < 24 microM). The kinetics of the inhibition by a mixture of the two inhibitors suggests that bile acids and drugs, except indomethacin, bind to overlapping sites at the active center of the enzyme-coenzyme binary complex.

  16. Inhibition of carboxylesterase activity of THP1 monocytes/macrophages and recombinant human carboxylesterase 1 by oxysterols and fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Crow, J. Allen; Herring, Katye L.; Xie, Shuqi; Borazjani, Abdolsamad; Potter, Philip M.; Ross, Matthew K.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Two major isoforms of human carboxylesterases (CEs) are found in metabolically active tissues, CES1 and CES2. These hydrolytic enzymes are involved in xenobiotic and endobiotic metabolism. CES1 is abundantly expressed in human liver and monocytes/macrophages, including the THP1 cell line; CES2 is expressed in liver but not in monocytes/macrophages. The cholesteryl ester hydrolysis activity in human macrophages has been attributed to CES1. Here, we report the direct inhibitory effects of several endogenous oxysterols and fatty acids on the CE activity of THP1 monocytes/macrophages and recombinant human CES1 and CES2. Using THP1 whole-cell lysates we found: (1) 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-HC) is a potent inhibitor of carboxylesterase activity (IC50=33 nM); (2) 24(S),25-epoxycholesterol had moderate inhibitory activity (IC50=8.1 μM); and (3) cholesterol, 7-ketocholesterol, 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol, 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol, and 25-hydroxycholesterol each had little inhibitory activity. 27-HC was a partially noncompetitive inhibitor of recombinant CES1 (Kiapp=10 nM) and impaired intracellular CES1 activity following treatment of intact THP1 cells. In contrast, recombinant CES2 activity was not inhibited by 27-HC, suggesting isoform-selective inhibition by 27-HC. Furthermore, unsaturated fatty acids were better inhibitors of CES1 activity than saturated fatty acids, while CES2 activity was unaffected by any fatty acid. Arachidonic acid (AA) was the most potent fatty acid inhibitor of recombinant CES1 and acted by a noncompetitive mechanism (Kiapp=1.7 μM); when not complexed to albumin, exogenous AA penetrated intact THP1 cells and inhibited CES1. Inhibition results are discussed in light of recent structural models for CES1 that describe ligand binding sites separate from the active site. In addition, oxysterol-mediated inhibition of CES1 activity was demonstrated by pretreatment of human liver homogenates or intact THP1 cells with exogenous 27-HC, which

  17. Targeting mitochondrial STAT3 with the novel phospho-valproic acid (MDC-1112) inhibits pancreatic cancer growth in mice.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Gerardo G; Huang, Liqun; Alston, Ninche; Ouyang, Nengtai; Vrankova, Kvetoslava; Mattheolabakis, George; Constantinides, Panayiotis P; Rigas, Basil

    2013-01-01

    New agents are needed to treat pancreatic cancer, one of the most lethal human malignancies. We synthesized phospho-valproic acid, a novel valproic acid derivative, (P-V; MDC-1112) and evaluated its efficacy in the control of pancreatic cancer. P-V inhibited the growth of human pancreatic cancer xenografts in mice by 60%-97%, and 100% when combined with cimetidine. The dominant molecular target of P-V was STAT3. P-V inhibited the phosphorylation of JAK2 and Src, and the Hsp90-STAT3 association, suppressing the activating phosphorylation of STAT3, which in turn reduced the expression of STAT3-dependent proteins Bcl-xL, Mcl-1 and survivin. P-V also reduced STAT3 levels in the mitochondria by preventing its translocation from the cytosol, and enhanced the mitochondrial levels of reactive oxygen species, which triggered apoptosis. Inhibition of mitochondrial STAT3 by P-V was required for its anticancer effect; mitochondrial STAT3 overexpression rescued animals from the tumor growth inhibition by P-V. Our results indicate that P-V is a promising candidate drug against pancreatic cancer and establish mitochondrial STAT3 as its key molecular target.

  18. Ursodeoxycholic Acid (UDCA) Exerts Anti-Atherogenic Effects by Inhibiting Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Stress Induced by Disturbed Flow.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jihwa; Kim, Kyoung Hwa; Lee, Seok Cheol; An, Shung Hyun; Kwon, Kihwan

    2015-10-01

    Disturbed blood flow with low-oscillatory shear stress (OSS) is a predominant atherogenic factor leading to dysfunctional endothelial cells (ECs). Recently, it was found that disturbed flow can directly induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in ECs, thereby playing a critical role in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), a naturally occurring bile acid, has long been used to treat chronic cholestatic liver disease and is known to alleviate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress at the cellular level. However, its role in atherosclerosis remains unexplored. In this study, we demonstrated the anti-atherogenic activity of UDCA via inhibition of disturbed flow-induced ER stress in atherosclerosis. UDCA effectively reduced ER stress, resulting in a reduction in expression of X-box binding protein-1 (XBP-1) and CEBP-homologous protein (CHOP) in ECs. UDCA also inhibits the disturbed flow-induced inflammatory responses such as increases in adhesion molecules, monocyte adhesion to ECs, and apoptosis of ECs. In a mouse model of disturbed flow-induced atherosclerosis, UDCA inhibits atheromatous plaque formation through the alleviation of ER stress and a decrease in adhesion molecules. Taken together, our results revealed that UDCA exerts anti-atherogenic activity in disturbed flow-induced atherosclerosis by inhibiting ER stress and the inflammatory response. This study suggests that UDCA may be a therapeutic agent for prevention or treatment of atherosclerosis.

  19. Negative supercoiling of DNA by gyrase is inhibited in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium during adaptation to acid stress.

    PubMed

    Colgan, Aoife M; Quinn, Heather J; Kary, Stefani C; Mitchenall, Lesley A; Maxwell, Anthony; Cameron, Andrew D S; Dorman, Charles J

    2018-03-01

    DNA in intracellular Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium relaxes during growth in the acidified (pH 4-5) macrophage vacuole and DNA relaxation correlates with the upregulation of Salmonella genes involved in adaptation to the macrophage environment. Bacterial ATP levels did not increase during adaptation to acid pH unless the bacterium was deficient in MgtC, a cytoplasmic-membrane-located inhibitor of proton-driven F 1 F 0 ATP synthase activity. Inhibiting ATP binding by DNA gyrase and topo IV with novobiocin enhanced the effect of low pH on DNA relaxation. Bacteria expressing novobiocin-resistant (Nov R ) derivatives of gyrase or topo IV also exhibited DNA relaxation at acid pH, although further relaxation with novobiocin was not seen in the strain with Nov R gyrase. Thus, inhibition of the negative supercoiling activity of gyrase was the primary cause of enhanced DNA relaxation in drug-treated bacteria. The Salmonella cytosol reaches pH 5-6 in response to an external pH of 4-5: the ATP-dependent DNA supercoiling activity of purified gyrase was progressively inhibited by lowering the pH in this range, as was the ATP-dependent DNA relaxation activity of topo IV. We propose that DNA relaxation in Salmonella within macrophage is due to acid-mediated impairment of the negative supercoiling activity of gyrase. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Heterodimeric BMP-2/7 Antagonizes the Inhibition of All-Trans Retinoic Acid and Promotes the Osteoblastogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Wenjuan; Gu, Zhiyuan; Zheng, Yuanna; Zhang, Xiao; Guo, Jing; Wu, Gang

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Hypervitaminosis A and alcoholism can result in a low mineral density and compromised regenerative capacity of bone, thus delaying implant osteointegration. The inhibitory effect of all-trans retinoic acid on osteoblastogenesis is considered to be one of the mechanisms. We hypothesized that heterodimeric bone morphogenetic protein-2/7 could antagonize all-trans retinoic acid and enhance osteoblastogenesis, with an aim to accelerate and enhance bone regeneration and implant osteointegration. Materials and Methods We applied 5 ng/ml or 50 ng/ml bone morphogenetic protein-2/7 to restore the osteoblastogenesis of pre-osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1 cell line) that was inhibited by 1 µM all-trans retinoic acid. We evaluated the efficacy by assessing cell numbers (proliferation), alkaline phosphatase activity (a marker for early differentiation), osteocalcin (a marker for late differentiation), calcium deposition (a marker for final mineralization) and the expression of osteoblastogenic genes (such as Runx2, Collagen Ia, alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin) at different time points. Results All-trans retinoic acid significantly inhibited the expression of all the tested osteoblastogenic genes and proteins except alkaline phosphatase activity. In the presence of ATRA, 50 ng/ml bone morphogenetic protein-2/7 not only completely restored but also significantly enhanced all the osteoblastogenic genes and proteins. On the 28th day, mineralization was completely inhibited by all-trans retinoic acid. In contrast, 50 ng/ml BMP-2/7 could antagonize ATRA and significantly enhance the mineralization about 2.5 folds in comparison with the control treatment (no ATRA, no BMP2/7). Conclusions Heterodimeric bone morphogenetic protein-2/7 bears a promising application potential to significantly promote bone regeneration and implant osteointegration for the patients with hypervitaminosis A and alcoholism. PMID:24205156

  1. Ursodeoxycholic acid inhibits overexpression of P-glycoprotein induced by doxorubicin in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Komori, Yuki; Arisawa, Sakiko; Takai, Miho; Yokoyama, Kunihiro; Honda, Minako; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Ishigami, Masatoshi; Katano, Yoshiaki; Goto, Hidemi; Ueyama, Jun; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Wakusawa, Shinya

    2014-02-05

    The hepatoprotective action of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) was previously suggested to be partially dependent on its antioxidative effect. Doxorubicin (DOX) and reactive oxygen species have also been implicated in the overexpression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), which is encoded by the MDR1 gene and causes antitumor multidrug resistance. In the present study, we assessed the effects of UDCA on the expression of MDR1 mRNA, P-gp, and intracellular reactive oxygen species levels in DOX-treated HepG2 cells and compared them to those of other bile acids. DOX-induced increases in reactive oxygen species levels and the expression of MDR1 mRNA were inhibited by N-acetylcysteine, an antioxidant, and the DOX-induced increase in reactive oxygen species levels and DOX-induced overexpression of MDR1 mRNA and P-gp were inhibited by UDCA. Cells treated with UDCA showed improved rhodamine 123 uptake, which was decreased in cells treated with DOX alone. Moreover, cells exposed to DOX for 24h combined with UDCA accumulated more DOX than that of cells treated with DOX alone. Thus, UDCA may have inhibited the overexpression of P-gp by suppressing DOX-induced reactive oxygen species production. Chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) also exhibited these effects, whereas deoxycholic acid and litocholic acid were ineffective. In conclusion, UDCA and CDCA had an inhibitory effect on the induction of P-gp expression and reactive oxygen species by DOX in HepG2 cells. The administration of UDCA may be beneficial due to its ability to prevent the overexpression of reactive oxygen species and acquisition of multidrug resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. 5-Hydroxyferulic acid methyl ester isolated from wasabi leaves inhibits 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Misawa, Naoki; Hosoya, Takahiro; Yoshida, Shuhei; Sugimoto, Osamu; Yamada-Kato, Tomoe; Kumazawa, Shigenori

    2018-02-26

    To investigate the compounds present in wasabi leaves (Wasabia japonica Matsumura) that inhibit the adipocyte differentiation, activity-guided fractionation was performed on these leaves. 5-Hydroxyferulic acid methyl ester (1: 5-HFA ester), one of the phenylpropanoids, was isolated from wasabi leaves as a compound that inhibits the adipocyte differentiation. Compound 1 suppressed the intracellular lipid accumulation of 3T3-L1 cells without significant cytotoxicity. Gene expression analysis revealed that 1 suppressed the mRNA expression of 2 master regulators of adipocyte differentiation, PPARγ and C/EBPα. Furthermore, 1 downregulated the expression of adipogenesis-related genes, GLUT4, LPL, SREBP-1c, ACC, and FAS. Protein expression analysis revealed that 1 suppressed PPARγ protein expression. Moreover, to investigate the relationship between the structure and activity of inhibiting the adipocyte differentiation, we synthesized 12 kinds of phenylpropanoid analog. Comparison of the activity among 1 and its analogs suggested that the compound containing the substructure that possess a common functional group at the ortho position such as a catechol group exhibits the activity of inhibiting the adipocyte differentiation. Taken together, our findings suggest that 1 from wasabi leaves inhibits adipocyte differentiation via the downregulation of PPARγ. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Enhanced Oral Bioavailability of Diltiazem by the Influence of Gallic Acid and Ellagic Acid in Male Wistar Rats: Involvement of CYP3A and P-gp Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Athukuri, Bhargavi Latha; Neerati, Prasad

    2017-09-01

    The oral bioavailability of diltiazem is very low due to rapid first pass metabolism in liver and intestine. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of gallic acid and ellagic acid on intestinal transport and oral bioavailability of diltiazem in rats. The intestinal transport and permeability of diltiazem was evaluated by in vitro non-everted sac method and in situ single pass intestinal perfusion study. The oral pharmacokinetics was evaluated by conducting oral bioavailability study. The intestinal transport and apparent permeability of diltiazem were significantly enhanced in duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of gallic and ellagic acid-treated groups. The effective permeability of diltiazem was significantly enhanced in ileum part of gallic and ellagic acid-treated groups. When compared with control group, the presence of these two phytochemicals significantly enhanced the area under plasma concentration-time curve and the peak plasma concentration of diltiazem (C max ). Gallic acid and ellagic acid significantly increased the bioavailability of diltiazem due to the inhibition of both CYP3A-mediated metabolism and P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux in the intestine and/or liver. Based on these results, the clinical experiments are warranted for the confirmation to reduce the dose of diltiazem when concomitantly administered with these phytochemicals. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Enterobacter sp. I-3, a bio-herbicide inhibits gibberellins biosynthetic pathway and regulates abscisic acid and amino acids synthesis to control plant growth.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Park, Jae-Man; Lee, In-Jung

    2016-12-01

    Very few bacterial species were identified as bio-herbicides for weed control. The present research was focused to elucidate the plant growth retardant properties of Enterobacter sp. I-3 during their interaction by determining the changes in endogenous photosynthetic pigments, plant hormones and amino acids. The two bacterial isolates I-4-5 and I-3 were used to select the superior bacterium for controlling weed seeds (Echinochloa crus-galli L. and Portulaca oleracea L.) germination. The post-inoculation of I-3 (Enterobacter sp. I-3) significantly inhibited the weeds seed germination than their controls. The mechanism of bacterium induced plant growth reduction was identified in lettuce treated with I-3 bacterium and compared their effects with known chemical herbicide, trinexapac-ethyl (TE). The treatment of I-3 and TE showed a significant inhibitory effect on shoot length, leaf number, leaf length, leaf width, shoot weight, root weight and chlorophyll content in lettuce seedlings. The endogenous gibberellins (GAs) and abscisic acid (ABA) analysis showed that Enterobacter sp. I-3 treated plants had lower levels of GAs (GA 12 , GA 19 , GA 20 and GA 8 ) and GAs/ABA ratio and then, the higher level of ABA when compared to their controls. Indeed, the individual amino acids ie., aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, threonine, alanine, serine, leucine, isoleucine and tyrosine were declined in TE and I-3 exposed plants. Our results suggest that the utilization of Enterobacter sp. I-3 inhibits the GAs pathway and amino acids synthesis in weeds to control their growth can be an alternative to chemical herbicides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Mechanism of Growth Inhibition of Human Cancer Cells by Conjugated Eicosapentaenoic Acid, an Inhibitor of DNA Polymerase and Topoisomerase

    PubMed Central

    Yonezawa, Yuko; Yoshida, Hiromi; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki

    2007-01-01

    DNA topoisomerases (topos) and DNA polymerases (pols) are involved in many aspects of DNA metabolism such as replication reactions. We found that long chain unsaturated fatty acids such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (i.e., eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) inhibited the activities of eukaryotic pols and topos in vitro, and the inhibitory effect of conjugated fatty acids converted from EPA and DHA (cEPA and cDHA) on pols and topos was stronger than that of normal EPA and DHA. cEPA and cDHA did not affect the activities of plant and prokaryotic pols or other DNA metabolic enzymes tested. cEPA was a stronger inhibitor than cDHA with IC50 values for mammalian pols and human topos of 11.0 – 31.8 and 0.5 – 2.5 μM, respectively. cEPA inhibited the proliferation of two human leukemia cell lines, NALM-6, which is a p53-wild type, and HL-60, which is a p53-null mutant, and the inhibitory effect was stronger than that of normal EPA. In both cell lines, cEPA arrested in the G1 phase, and increased cyclin E protein levels, indicating that it blocks the primary step of in vivo DNA replication by inhibiting the activity of replicative pols rather than topos. DNA replication-related proteins, such as RPA70, ATR and phosphorylated-Chk1/2, were increased by cEPA treatment in the cell lines, suggesting that cEPA led to DNA replication fork stress inhibiting the activities of pols and topos, and the ATR-dependent DNA damage response pathway could respond to the inhibitor of DNA replication. The compound induced cell apoptosis through both p53-dependent and p53-independent pathways in cell lines NALM-6 and HL-60, respectively. These results suggested the therapeutic potential of conjugated PUFA, such as cEPA, as a leading anti-cancer compound that inhibited pols and topos activities.

  6. Inhibition of Fusarium Growth and Mycotoxin Production in Culture Medium and in Maize Kernels by Natural Phenolic Acids.

    PubMed

    Ferruz, Elena; Loran, Susana; Herrera, Marta; Gimenez, Isabel; Bervis, Noemi; Barcena, Carmen; Carramiñana, Juan Jose; Juan, Teresa; Herrera, Antonio; Ariño, Agustin

    2016-10-01

    The possible role of natural phenolic compounds in inhibiting fungal growth and toxin production has been of recent interest as an alternative strategy to the use of chemical fungicides for the maintenance of food safety. Fusarium is a worldwide fungal genus mainly associated with cereal crops. The most important Fusarium mycotoxins are trichothecenes, zearalenone, and fumonisins. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of four natural phenolic acids (caffeic, ferulic, p-coumaric, and chlorogenic) for the control of mycelial growth and mycotoxin production by six toxigenic species of Fusarium . The addition of phenolic acids to corn meal agar had a marked inhibitory effect on the radial growth of all Fusarium species at levels of 2.5 to 10 mM in a dose-response pattern, causing total inhibition (100%) in all species except F. sporotrichioides and F. langsethiae . However, the effects of phenolic acids on mycotoxin production in maize kernels were less evident than the effects on growth. The fungal species differed in their responses to the phenolic acid treatments, and significant reductions in toxin concentrations were observed only for T-2 and HT-2 (90% reduction) and zearalenone (48 to 77% reduction). These results provide data that could be used for developing pre- and postharvest strategies for controlling Fusarium infection and subsequent toxin production in cereal grains.

  7. Gallic acid-based indanone derivative interacts synergistically with tetracycline by inhibiting efflux pump in multidrug resistant E. coli.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Gaurav Raj; Tiwari, Nimisha; Singh, Aastha; Kumar, Akhil; Roy, Sudeep; Negi, Arvind Singh; Pal, Anirban; Chanda, Debabrata; Sharma, Ashok; Darokar, Mahendra P

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to study the synergy potential of gallic acid-based derivatives in combination with conventional antibiotics using multidrug resistant cultures of Escherichia coli. Gallic acid-based derivatives significantly reduced the MIC of tetracycline against multidrug resistant clinical isolate of E. coli. The best representative, 3-(3',4,'5'-trimethoxyphenyl)-4,5,6-trimethoxyindanone-1, an indanone derivative of gallic acid, was observed to inhibit ethidium bromide efflux and ATPase which was also supported by in silico docking. This derivative extended the post-antibiotic effect and decreased the mutation prevention concentration of tetracycline. This derivative in combination with TET was able to reduce the concentration of TNFα up to 18-fold in Swiss albino mice. This derivative was nontoxic and well tolerated up to 300 mg/kg dose in subacute oral toxicity study in mice. This is the first report of gallic acid-based indanone derivative as drug resistance reversal agent acting through ATP-dependent efflux pump inhibition.

  8. Free acetic acid as the key factor for the inhibition of hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis in mesophilic mixed culture fermentation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Dai, Kun; Xia, Xiu-Yang; Wang, Hua-Jie; Chen, Yun; Lu, Yong-Ze; Zhang, Fang; Zeng, Raymond Jianxiong

    2018-05-18

    The inhibition of acetate under acidic pH is an ideal way to reduce methanogenesis in mesophilic mixed culture fermentation (MCF). However, the effects of acetate concentration and acidic pH on methanogenesis remain unclear. Besides, although hydrogenotrophic methanogens can be suitable targets in MCF, they are generally ignored. Therefore, we intentionally enriched hydrogenotrophic methanogens and found that free acetic acid (FAA, x) concentration and specific methanogenic activity (SMA, y) were correlated according to the equation: y = 0.86 × 0.31/(0.31 + x) (R 2  = 0.909). The SMA was decreased by 50% and 90% at the FAA concentrations of 0.31 and 2.36 g/L, respectively. The coenzyme M concentration and relative electron transport activity agreed well with the FAA concentration. Moreover, the methanogenic activity could not be recovered when the FAA concentration exceeded 0.81 g/L. These findings indicated that neither acetate nor acidic pH, but FAA was the key factor to inhibit methanogenesis in MCF. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 18{beta}-Glycyrrhetinic acid inhibits adipogenic differentiation and stimulates lipolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Myung-Hee; Jeong, Jae-Kyo; Lee, You-Jin

    2012-04-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 18{beta}-GA inhibits adipogenic differentiation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and stimulates lipolysis in differentiated adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anti-adipogenic effect of 18{beta}-GA is caused by down-regulation of PPAR{gamma} and inactivation of Akt signalling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lipolytic effect of 18{beta}-GA is mediated by up-regulation of HSL, ATGL and perilipin and activation of HSL. -- Abstract: 18{beta}-Glycyrrhetinic acid (18{beta}-GA) obtained from the herb liquorice has various pharmacological properties including anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial activities. However, potential biological anti-obesity activities are unclear. In this study, novel biological activities of 18{beta}-GA in the adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and in lipolysis of differentiated adipocytes were identified. Mouse 3T3-L1 cellsmore » were used as an in vitro model of adipogenesis and lipolysis, using a mixture of insulin/dexamethasone/3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) to induce differentiation. The amount of lipid droplet accumulation was determined by an AdipoRed assay. The expression of several adipogenic transcription factors and enzymes was investigated using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting. 18{beta}-GA dose-dependently (1-40 {mu}M) significantly decreased lipid accumulation in maturing preadipocytes. In 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, 10 {mu}M of 18{beta}-GA down-regulated the transcriptional levels of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma}, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein {alpha} and adiponectin, which are markers of adipogenic differentiation via Akt phosphorylation. Also, in differentiated adipocytes, 18{beta}-GA increased the level of glycerol release and up-regulated the mRNA of hormone-sensitive lipase, adipose TG lipase and perilipin, as well as the phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase at Serine 563. The results indicate that 18

  10. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA; vorinostat) causes bone loss by inhibiting immature osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E; McCleary-Wheeler, Angela L; Secreto, Frank J; Razidlo, David F; Zhang, Minzhi; Stensgard, Bridget A; Li, Xiaodong; Stein, Gary S; Lian, Jane B; Westendorf, Jennifer J

    2011-05-01

    Histone deacetylase (Hdac) inhibitors are used clinically to treat cancer and epilepsy. Although Hdac inhibition accelerates osteoblast maturation and suppresses osteoclast maturation in vitro, the effects of Hdac inhibitors on the skeleton are not understood. The purpose of this study was to determine how the pan-Hdac inhibitor, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA; a.k.a. vorinostat or Zolinza(TM)) affects bone mass and remodeling in vivo. Male C57BL/6J mice received daily SAHA (100mg/kg) or vehicle injections for 3 to 4weeks. SAHA decreased trabecular bone volume fraction and trabecular number in the distal femur. Cortical bone at the femoral midshaft was not affected. SAHA reduced serum levels of P1NP, a bone formation marker, and also suppressed tibial mRNA levels of type I collagen, osteocalcin and osteopontin, but did not alter Runx2 or osterix transcripts. SAHA decreased histological measures of osteoblast number but interestingly increased indices of osteoblast activity including mineral apposition rate and bone formation rate. Neither serum (TRAcP 5b) nor histological markers of bone resorption were affected by SAHA. P1NP levels returned to baseline in animals which were allowed to recover for 4weeks after 4weeks of daily SAHA injections, but bone density remained low. In vitro, SAHA suppressed osteogenic colony formation, decreased osteoblastic gene expression, induced cell cycle arrest, and caused DNA damage in bone marrow-derived adherent cells. Collectively, these data demonstrate that bone loss following treatment with SAHA is primarily due to a reduction in osteoblast number. Moreover, these decreases in osteoblast number can be attributed to the deleterious effects of SAHA on immature osteoblasts, even while mature osteoblasts are resistant to the harmful effects and demonstrate increased activity in vivo, indicating that the response of osteoblasts to SAHA is dependent upon their differentiation state. These studies suggest that clinical use of

  11. Inhibiting poly ADP-ribosylation increases fatty acid oxidation and protects against fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Gariani, Karim; Ryu, Dongryeol; Menzies, Keir J; Yi, Hyon-Seung; Stein, Sokrates; Zhang, Hongbo; Perino, Alessia; Lemos, Vera; Katsyuba, Elena; Jha, Pooja; Vijgen, Sandrine; Rubbia-Brandt, Laura; Kim, Yong Kyung; Kim, Jung Tae; Kim, Koon Soon; Shong, Minho; Schoonjans, Kristina; Auwerx, Johan

    2017-01-01

    To date, no pharmacological therapy has been approved for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the therapeutic potential of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors in mouse models of NAFLD. As poly ADP-ribosylation (PARylation) of proteins by PARPs consumes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ), we hypothesized that overactivation of PARPs drives NAD + depletion in NAFLD. Therefore, we assessed the effectiveness of PARP inhibition to replenish NAD + and activate NAD + -dependent sirtuins, hence improving hepatic fatty acid oxidation. To do this, we examined the preventive and therapeutic benefits of the PARP inhibitor (PARPi), olaparib, in different models of NAFLD. The induction of NAFLD in C57BL/6J mice using a high-fat high-sucrose (HFHS)-diet increased PARylation of proteins by PARPs. As such, increased PARylation was associated with reduced NAD + levels and mitochondrial function and content, which was concurrent with elevated hepatic lipid content. HFHS diet supplemented with PARPi reversed NAFLD through repletion of NAD + , increasing mitochondrial biogenesis and β-oxidation in liver. Furthermore, PARPi reduced reactive oxygen species, endoplasmic reticulum stress and fibrosis. The benefits of PARPi treatment were confirmed in mice fed with a methionine- and choline-deficient diet and in mice with lipopolysaccharide-induced hepatitis; PARP activation was attenuated and the development of hepatic injury was delayed in both models. Using Sirt1 hep-/- mice, the beneficial effects of a PARPi-supplemented HFHS diet were found to be Sirt1-dependent. Our study provides a novel and practical pharmacological approach for treating NAFLD, fueling optimism for potential clinical studies. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is now considered to be the most common liver disease in the Western world and has no approved pharmacological therapy. PARP inhibitors given as a treatment in two different mouse

  12. Effect of inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase on MPTP-induced dopaminergic neuronal damage.

    PubMed

    Viveros-Paredes, J M; Gonzalez-Castañeda, R E; Escalante-Castañeda, A; Tejeda-Martínez, A R; Castañeda-Achutiguí, F; Flores-Soto, M E

    2017-01-16

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterised by balance problems, muscle rigidity, and slow movement due to low dopamine levels and loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). The endocannabinoid system is known to modulate the nigrostriatal pathway through endogenous ligands such as anandamide (AEA), which is hydrolysed by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). The purpose of this study was to increase AEA levels using FAAH inhibitor URB597 to evaluate the modulatory effect of AEA on dopaminergic neuronal death induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). Our study included 4 experimental groups (n = 6 mice per group): a control group receiving no treatment, a group receiving URB597 (0.2mg/kg) every 3 days for 30 days, a group treated with MPTP (30mg/kg) for 5 days, and a group receiving URB597 and subsequently MPTP injections. Three days after the last dose, we conducted a series of behavioural tests (beam test, pole test, and stride length test) to compare motor coordination between groups. We subsequently analysed immunoreactivity of dopaminergic cells and microglia in the SNpc and striatum. Mice treated with URB597 plus MPTP were found to perform better on behavioural tests than mice receiving MPTP only. According to the immunohistochemistry study, mice receiving MPTP showed fewer dopaminergic cells and fibres in the SNpc and striatum. Animals treated with URB597 plus MPTP displayed increased tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity compared to those treated with MPTP only. Regarding microglial immunoreactivity, the group receiving MPTP showed higher Iba1 immunoreactivity in the striatum and SNpc than did the group treated with URB597 plus MPTP. Our results show that URB597 exerts a protective effect since it inhibits dopaminergic neuronal death, decreases microglial immunoreactivity, and improves MPTP-induced motor alterations. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado

  13. Thromboelastographic evidence of inhibition of fibrinolysis after ε-aminocaproic acid administration in a dog with suspected acute traumatic coagulopathy.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Seung H; Venn, Emilee; Sullivan, Lauren A; Olver, Christine S

    2016-09-01

    To describe the thromboelastographic changes in fibrinolysis with ε-aminocaproic acid treatment in a dog with suspected acute traumatic coagulopathy. A 9-year-old female spayed Airedale Terrier was presented with multiple injuries consistent with motor vehicle trauma. After surgical repair of a diaphragmatic hernia and minor laceration of the right cranial lung lobe, the dog continued to produce copious volumes of hemorrhagic fluid from the thoracic cavity despite multiple plasma transfusions, autotransfusions, and failure to locate a definitive source of bleeding during 2 separate surgeries. ε-Aminocaproic acid treatment was initiated and was associated with rapid clinical improvement and diminished fibrinolysis based on a modified plasma-based thromboelastogram. This report describes thromboelastographic evidence of inhibition of fibrinolysis after ε-aminocaproic acid administration in a dog with suspected acute traumatic coagulopathy. Thromboelastrography may be useful in monitoring therapy with antifibrinolytic drugs. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2016.

  14. Branched Chain Amino Acids Cause Liver Injury in Obese/Diabetic Mice by Promoting Adipocyte Lipolysis and Inhibiting Hepatic Autophagy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fuyang; Zhao, Shihao; Yan, Wenjun; Xia, Yunlong; Chen, Xiyao; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Jinglong; Gao, Chao; Peng, Cheng; Yan, Feng; Zhao, Huishou; Lian, Kun; Lee, Yan; Zhang, Ling; Lau, Wayne Bond; Ma, Xinliang; Tao, Ling

    2016-11-01

    The Western meat-rich diet is both high in protein and fat. Although the hazardous effect of a high fat diet (HFD) upon liver structure and function is well recognized, whether the co-presence of high protein intake contributes to, or protects against, HF-induced hepatic injury remains unclear. Increased intake of branched chain amino acids (BCAA, essential amino acids compromising 20% of total protein intake) reduces body weight. However, elevated circulating BCAA is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and injury. The mechanisms responsible for this quandary remain unknown; the role of BCAA in HF-induced liver injury is unclear. Utilizing HFD or HFD+BCAA models, we demonstrated BCAA supplementation attenuated HFD-induced weight gain, decreased fat mass, activated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), inhibited hepatic lipogenic enzymes, and reduced hepatic triglyceride content. However, BCAA caused significant hepatic damage in HFD mice, evidenced by exacerbated hepatic oxidative stress, increased hepatic apoptosis, and elevated circulation hepatic enzymes. Compared to solely HFD-fed animals, plasma levels of free fatty acids (FFA) in the HFD+BCAA group are significantly further increased, due largely to AMPKα2-mediated adipocyte lipolysis. Lipolysis inhibition normalized plasma FFA levels, and improved insulin sensitivity. Surprisingly, blocking lipolysis failed to abolish BCAA-induced liver injury. Mechanistically, hepatic mTOR activation by BCAA inhibited lipid-induced hepatic autophagy, increased hepatic apoptosis, blocked hepatic FFA/triglyceride conversion, and increased hepatocyte susceptibility to FFA-mediated lipotoxicity. These data demonstrated that BCAA reduces HFD-induced body weight, at the expense of abnormal lipolysis and hyperlipidemia, causing hepatic lipotoxicity. Furthermore, BCAA directly exacerbate hepatic lipotoxicity by reducing lipogenesis and inhibiting autophagy in the hepatocyte. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier

  15. Extracts of Morus nigra L. Leaves Standardized in Chlorogenic Acid, Rutin and Isoquercitrin: Tyrosinase Inhibition and Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Fontes, Pedro Ribeiro; Souza, Paula Monteiro; William Fagg, Christopher; Neves Silva Guerra, Eliete; de Medeiros Nóbrega, Yanna Karla; Silveira, Damaris; Fonseca-Bazzo, Yris; Simeoni, Luiz Alberto; Homem-de-Mello, Maurício; Oliveira Magalhães, Pérola

    2016-01-01

    Melanogenesis is a process responsible for melanin production, which is stored in melanocytes containing tyrosinase. Inhibition of this enzyme is a target in the cosmetics industry, since it controls undesirable skin conditions such as hyperpigmentation due to the overproduction of melanin. Species of the Morus genus are known for the beneficial uses offered in different parts of its plants, including tyrosinase inhibition. Thus, this project aimed to study the inhibitory activity of tyrosinase by extracts from Morus nigra leaves as well as the characterization of its chromatographic profile and cytotoxicity in order to become a new therapeutic option from a natural source. M. nigra leaves were collected, pulverized, equally divided into five batches and the standardized extract was obtained by passive maceration. There was no significant difference between batches for total solids content, yield and moisture content, which shows good reproducibility of the extraction process. Tyrosinase enzymatic activity was determined for each batch, providing the percentage of enzyme inhibition and IC50 values obtained by constructing dose-response curves and compared to kojic acid, a well-known tyrosinase inhibitor. High inhibition of tyrosinase activity was observed (above 90% at 15.625 μg/mL). The obtained IC50 values ranged from 5.00 μg/mL ± 0.23 to 8.49 μg/mL ± 0.59 and were compared to kojic acid (3.37 μg/mL ± 0.65). High Performance Liquid Chromatography analysis revealed the presence of chlorogenic acid, rutin and, its major compound, isoquercitrin. The chromatographic method employed was validated according to ICH guidelines and the extract was standardized using these polyphenols as markers. Cytotoxicity, assessed by MTT assay, was not observed on murine melanomas, human keratinocytes and mouse fibroblasts in tyrosinase IC50 values. This study demonstrated the potential of M. nigra leaf extract as a promising whitening agent of natural source against skin

  16. Chylomicron remnants and nonesterified fatty acids differ in their ability to inhibit genes involved in lipogenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Kohan, Alison B; Qing, Yang; Cyphert, Holly A; Tso, Patrick; Salati, Lisa M

    2011-02-01

    Primary hepatocytes treated with nonesterified PUFA have been used as a model for analyzing the inhibitory effects of dietary polyunsaturated fats on lipogenic gene expression. Although nonesterified fatty acids play an important signaling role in starvation, they do not completely recapitulate the mechanism of dietary fat presentation to the liver, which is delivered via chylomicron remnants. To test the effect of remnant TG on lipogenic enzyme expression, chylomicron remnants were generated from the lymph of rats intubated with either safflower oil or lard. The remnants were added to the medium of primary rat hepatocytes in culture and the accumulation of mRNA for genes involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism was measured. Both PUFA-enriched remnants and nonesterified PUFA inhibited the expression and maturation of sterol response element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) and the expression of lipogenic genes regulated by this transcription factor. These remnants also inhibited the expression of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), a gene regulated at post-transcriptional steps. In contrast, PUFA-enriched remnants did not inhibit the accumulation of mRNA for malic enzyme, glucokinase, and L-pyruvate kinase, whereas nonesterified fatty acids caused a decrease in these mRNA. These genes are regulated independently of SREBP-1c. SFA-enriched remnants did not inhibit lipogenic gene expression, which is consistent with a lack of inhibition of lipogenesis by dietary saturated fats. Thus, the inhibitory action of dietary polyunsaturated fats on lipogenesis involves a direct action of chylomicron remnants on the liver.

  17. Interleukin-1β Inhibits Insulin Signaling and Prevents Insulin-Stimulated System A Amino Acid Transport in Primary Human Trophoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Aye, Irving L. M. H.; Jansson, Thomas; Powell, Theresa L.

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) promotes insulin resistance in tissues such as liver and skeletal muscle; however the influence of IL-1β on placental insulin signaling is unknown. We recently reported increased IL-1β protein expression in placentas of obese mothers, which could contribute to insulin resistance. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that IL-1β inhibits insulin signaling and prevents insulin-stimulated amino acid transport in cultured primary human trophoblast (PHT) cells. Cultured trophoblasts isolated from term placentas were treated with physiological concentrations of IL-1β (10 pg/ml) for 24 hours. IL-1β increased the phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) at Ser307 (inhibitory) and decreased total IRS-1 protein abundance but did not affect insulin receptor β expression. Furthermore, IL-1β inhibited insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of IRS-1 (Tyr612, activation site) and Akt (Thr308) and prevented insulin-stimulated increase in PI3K/p85 and Grb2 protein expression. IL-1β alone stimulated cRaf (Ser338), MEK (Ser221) and Erk1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204) phosphorylation. The inflammatory pathways nuclear factor kappa B and c-Jun N-terminal kinase, which are involved in insulin resistance, were also activated by IL-1β treatment. Moreover, IL-1β inhibited insulin-stimulated System A, but not System L amino acid uptake, indicating functional impairment of insulin signaling. In conclusion, IL-1β inhibited the insulin signaling pathway by inhibiting IRS-1 signaling and prevented insulin-stimulated System A transport, thereby promoting insulin resistance in cultured PHT cells. These findings indicate that conditions which lead to increased systemic maternal or placental IL-1β levels may attenuate the effects of maternal insulin on placental function and consequently fetal growth. PMID:23891856

  18. Interleukin-1β inhibits insulin signaling and prevents insulin-stimulated system A amino acid transport in primary human trophoblasts.

    PubMed

    Aye, Irving L M H; Jansson, Thomas; Powell, Theresa L

    2013-12-05

    Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) promotes insulin resistance in tissues such as liver and skeletal muscle; however the influence of IL-1β on placental insulin signaling is unknown. We recently reported increased IL-1β protein expression in placentas of obese mothers, which could contribute to insulin resistance. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that IL-1β inhibits insulin signaling and prevents insulin-stimulated amino acid transport in cultured primary human trophoblast (PHT) cells. Cultured trophoblasts isolated from term placentas were treated with physiological concentrations of IL-1β (10pg/ml) for 24h. IL-1β increased the phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) at Ser307 (inhibitory) and decreased total IRS-1 protein abundance but did not affect insulin receptor β expression. Furthermore, IL-1β inhibited insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of IRS-1 (Tyr612, activation site) and Akt (Thr308) and prevented insulin-stimulated increase in PI3K/p85 and Grb2 protein expression. IL-1β alone stimulated cRaf (Ser338), MEK (Ser221) and Erk1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204) phosphorylation. The inflammatory pathways nuclear factor kappa B and c-Jun N-terminal kinase, which are involved in insulin resistance, were also activated by IL-1β treatment. Moreover, IL-1β inhibited insulin-stimulated System A, but not System L amino acid uptake, indicating functional impairment of insulin signaling. In conclusion, IL-1β inhibited the insulin signaling pathway by inhibiting IRS-1 signaling and prevented insulin-stimulated System A transport, thereby promoting insulin resistance in cultured PHT cells. These findings indicate that conditions which lead to increased systemic maternal or placental IL-1β levels may attenuate the effects of maternal insulin on placental function and consequently fetal growth. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. Ursolic acid isolated from guava leaves inhibits inflammatory mediators and reactive oxygen species in LPS-stimulated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Hye; Kim, Jin Nam; Han, Sung Nim; Kim, Hye-Kyeong

    2015-06-01

    Psidium guajava (guava) leaves have been frequently used for the treatment of rheumatism, fever, arthritis and other inflammatory conditions. The purpose of this study was to identify major anti-inflammatory compounds from guava leaf extract. The methanol extract and its hexane-, dichloromethane-, ethylacetate-, n-butanol- and water-soluble phases derived from guava leaves were evaluated to determine their inhibitory activity on nitric oxide (NO) production by RAW 264.7 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The methanol extract decreased NO production in a dose-dependent manner without cytotoxicity at a concentration range of 0-100 μg/mL. The n-butanol soluble phase was the most potent among the five soluble phases. Four compounds were isolated by reversed-phase HPLC from the n-butanol soluble phase and identified to be avicularin, guaijaverin, leucocyanidin and ursolic acid by their NMR spectra. Among these compounds, ursolic acid inhibited LPS-induced NO production in a dose-dependent manner without cytotoxity at a concentration range of 1-10 µM, but the other three compounds had no effect. Ursolic acid also inhibited LPS-induced prostaglandin E2 production. A western blot analysis showed that ursolic acid decreased the LPS-stimulated inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase protein levels. In addition, ursolic acid suppressed the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, as measured by flow cytometry. Taken together, these results identified ursolic acid as a major anti-inflammatory compound in guava leaves.

  20. Activation of the Constitutive Androstane Receptor Inhibits Gluconeogenesis without Affecting Lipogenesis or Fatty Acid Synthesis in Human Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Caitlin; Pan, Yongmei; Li, Linhao; Heyward, Scott; Moeller, Timothy; Swaan, Peter W.; Wang, Hongbing

    2014-01-01

    Objective Accumulating evidence suggests that activation of mouse constitutive androstane receptor (mCAR) alleviates type 2 diabetes and obesity by inhibiting hepatic gluconeogenesis, lipogenesis, and fatty acid synthesis. However, the role of human (h) CAR in energy metabolism is largely unknown. The present study aims to investigate the effects of selective hCAR activators on hepatic energy metabolism in human primary hepatocytes (HPH). Methods Ligand-based structure-activity models were used for virtual screening of the Specs database (www.specs.net) followed by biological validation in cell-based luciferase assays. The effects of two novel hCAR activators (UM104 and UM145) on hepatic energy metabolism were evaluated in HPH. Results Real-time PCR and Western blotting analyses reveal that activation of hCAR by UM104 and UM145 significantly repressed the expression of glucose-6-phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, two pivotal gluconeogenic enzymes, while exerting negligible effects on the expression of genes associated with lipogenesis and fatty acid synthesis. Functional experiments show that UM104 and UM145 markedly inhibit hepatic synthesis of glucose but not triglycerides in HPH. In contrast, activation of mCAR by 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene, a selective mCAR activator, repressed the expression of genes associated with gluconeogenesis, lipogenesis, and fatty acid synthesis in mouse primary hepatocytes, which were consistent with previous observations in mouse model in vivo. Conclusion Our findings uncover an important species difference between hCAR and mCAR in hepatic energy metabolism, where hCAR selectively inhibits gluconeogenesis without suppressing fatty acid synthesis. Implications Such species selectivity should be considered when exploring CAR as a potential therapeutic target for metabolic disorders. PMID:24878338

  1. Metabonomics Indicates Inhibition of Fatty Acid Synthesis, β-Oxidation, and Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle in Triclocarban-Induced Cardiac Metabolic Alterations in Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wenping; Zhang, Wenpeng; Ren, Juan; Li, Wentao; Zhou, Lili; Cui, Yuan; Chen, Huiming; Yu, Wenlian; Zhuang, Xiaomei; Zhang, Zhenqing; Shen, Guolin; Li, Haishan

    2018-02-14

    Triclocarban (TCC) has been identified as a new environmental pollutant that is potentially hazardous to human health; however, the effects of short-term TCC exposure on cardiac function are not known. The aim of this study was to use metabonomics and molecular biology techniques to systematically elucidate the molecular mechanisms of TCC-induced effects on cardiac function in mice. Our results show that TCC inhibited the uptake, synthesis, and oxidation of fatty acids, suppressed the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and increased aerobic glycolysis levels in heart tissue after short-term TCC exposure. TCC also inhibited the nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), confirming its inhibitory effects on fatty acid uptake and oxidation. Histopathology and other analyses further confirm that TCC altered mouse cardiac physiology and pathology, ultimately affecting normal cardiac metabolic function. We elucidate the molecular mechanisms of TCC-induced harmful effects on mouse cardiac metabolism and function from a new perspective, using metabonomics and bioinformatics analysis data.

  2. Transformation with Oncogenic Ras and the Simian Virus 40 T Antigens Induces Caspase-Dependent Sensitivity to Fatty Acid Biosynthetic Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shihao; Spencer, Cody M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Oncogenesis is frequently accompanied by the activation of specific metabolic pathways. One such pathway is fatty acid biosynthesis, whose induction is observed upon transformation of a wide variety of cell types. Here, we explored how defined oncogenic alleles, specifically the simian virus 40 (SV40) T antigens and oncogenic Ras12V, affect fatty acid metabolism. Our results indicate that SV40/Ras12V-mediated transformation of fibroblasts induces fatty acid biosynthesis in the absence of significant changes in the concentration of fatty acid biosynthetic enzymes. This oncogene-induced activation of fatty acid biosynthesis was found to be mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) dependent, as it was attenuated by rapamycin treatment. Furthermore, SV40/Ras12V-mediated transformation induced sensitivity to treatment with fatty acid biosynthetic inhibitors. Pharmaceutical inhibition of acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase (ACC), a key fatty acid biosynthetic enzyme, induced caspase-dependent cell death in oncogene-transduced cells. In contrast, isogenic nontransformed cells were resistant to fatty acid biosynthetic inhibition. This oncogene-induced sensitivity to fatty acid biosynthetic inhibition was independent of the cells' growth rates and could be attenuated by supplementing the medium with unsaturated fatty acids. Both the activation of fatty acid biosynthesis and the sensitivity to fatty acid biosynthetic inhibition could be conveyed to nontransformed breast epithelial cells through transduction with oncogenic Ras12V. Similar to what was observed in the transformed fibroblasts, the Ras12V-induced sensitivity to fatty acid biosynthetic inhibition was independent of the proliferative status and could be attenuated by supplementing the medium with unsaturated fatty acids. Combined, our results indicate that specific oncogenic alleles can directly confer sensitivity to inhibitors of fatty acid biosynthesis. IMPORTANCE Viral oncoproteins and cellular mutations

  3. Acetyl salicylic acid inhibits Th17 airway inflammation via blockade of IL-6 and IL-17 positive feedback

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Hyung-Geun; Kang, Chil Sung; Choi, Jun-Pyo; Choi, Dong Sic; Choi, Hyun Il; Choi, Yong Wook; Jeon, Seong Gyu; Yoo, Joo-Yeon; Jang, Myoung Ho; Gho, Yong Song; Kim, Yoon-Keun

    2013-01-01

    T-helper (Th)17 cell responses are important for the development of neutrophilic inflammatory disease. Recently, we found that acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) inhibited Th17 airway inflammation in an asthma mouse model induced by sensitization with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-containing allergens. To investigate the mechanism(s) of the inhibitory effect of ASA on the development of Th17 airway inflammation, a neutrophilic asthma mouse model was generated by intranasal sensitization with LPS plus ovalbumin (OVA) and then challenged with OVA alone. Immunologic parameters and airway inflammation were evaluated 6 and 48 h after the last OVA challenge. ASA inhibited the production of interleukin (IL)-17 from lung T cells as well as in vitro Th17 polarization induced by IL-6. Additionally, ASA, but not salicylic acid, suppressed Th17 airway inflammation, which was associated with decreased expression of acetyl-STAT3 (downstream signaling of IL-6) in the lung. Moreover, the production of IL-6 from inflammatory cells, induced by IL-17, was abolished by treatment with ASA, whereas that induced by LPS was not. Altogether, ASA, likely via its acetyl moiety, inhibits Th17 airway inflammation by blockade of IL-6 and IL-17 positive feedback. PMID:23306703

  4. Calcite growth-rate inhibition by fulvic acid and magnesium ion—Possible influence on biogenic calcite formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Michael M.

    2012-08-01

    Increases in ocean surface water dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations retard biocalcification by reducing calcite supersaturation (Ωc). Reduced calcification rates may influence growth-rate dependent magnesium ion (Mg) incorporation into biogenic calcite modifying the use of calcifying organisms as paleoclimate proxies. Fulvic acid (FA) at biocalcification sites may further reduce calcification rates. Calcite growth-rate inhibition by FA and Mg, two common constituents of seawater and soil water involved in the formation of biogenic calcite, was measured separately and in combination under identical, highly reproducible experimental conditions. Calcite growth rates (pH=8.5 and Ωc=4.5) are reduced by FA (0.5 mg/L) to 47% and by Mg (10-4 M) to 38%, compared to control experiments containing no added growth-rate inhibitor. Humic acid (HA) is twice as effective a calcite growth-rate inhibitor as FA. Calcite growth rate in the presence of both FA (0.5 mg/L) and Mg (10-4 M) is reduced to 5% of the control rate. Mg inhibits calcite growth rates by substitution for calcium ion at the growth site. In contrast, FA inhibits calcite growth rates by binding multiple carboxylate groups on the calcite surface. FA and Mg together have an increased affinity for the calcite growth sites reducing calcite growth rates.

  5. Calcite growth-rate inhibition by fulvic acid and magnesium ion—Possible influence on biogenic calcite formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, Michael M.

    2012-01-01

    Increases in ocean surface water dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations retard biocalcification by reducing calcite supersaturation (Ωc). Reduced calcification rates may influence growth-rate dependent magnesium ion (Mg) incorporation into biogenic calcite modifying the use of calcifying organisms as paleoclimate proxies. Fulvic acid (FA) at biocalcification sites may further reduce calcification rates. Calcite growth-rate inhibition by FA and Mg, two common constituents of seawater and soil water involved in the formation of biogenic calcite, was measured separately and in combination under identical, highly reproducible experimental conditions. Calcite growth rates (pH=8.5 and Ωc=4.5) are reduced by FA (0.5 mg/L) to 47% and by Mg (10−4 M) to 38%, compared to control experiments containing no added growth-rate inhibitor. Humic acid (HA) is twice as effective a calcite growth-rate inhibitor as FA. Calcite growth rate in the presence of both FA (0.5 mg/L) and Mg (10−4 M) is reduced to 5% of the control rate. Mg inhibits calcite growth rates by substitution for calcium ion at the growth site. In contrast, FA inhibits calcite growth rates by binding multiple carboxylate groups on the calcite surface. FA and Mg together have an increased affinity for the calcite growth sites reducing calcite growth rates.

  6. Inhibition of l-type amino acid transporter 1 activity as a new therapeutic target for cholangiocarcinoma treatment.

    PubMed

    Yothaisong, Supak; Dokduang, Hasaya; Anzai, Naohiko; Hayashi, Keitaro; Namwat, Nisana; Yongvanit, Puangrat; Sangkhamanon, Sakkarn; Jutabha, Promsuk; Endou, Hitoshi; Loilome, Watcharin

    2017-03-01

    Unlike normal cells, cancer cells undergo unlimited growth and multiplication, causing them to require massive amounts of amino acid to support their continuous metabolism. Among the amino acid transporters expressed on the plasma membrane, l-type amino acid transporter-1, a Na + -independent neutral amino acid transporter, is highly expressed in many types of human cancer including cholangiocarcinoma. Our previous study reported that l-type amino acid transporter-1 and its co-functional protein CD98 were highly expressed and implicated in cholangiocarcinoma progression and carcinogenesis. Therefore, this study determined the effect of JPH203, a selective inhibitor of l-type amino acid transporter-1 activity, on cholangiocarcinoma cell inhibition both in vitro and in vivo. JPH203 dramatically suppressed [ 14 C]l-leucine uptake as well as cell growth in cholangiocarcinoma cell lines along with altering the expression of l-type amino acid transporter-1 and CD98 in response to amino acid depletion. We also demonstrated that JPH203 induced both G2/M and G0/G1 cell cycle arrest, as well as reduced the S phase accompanied by altered expression of the proteins in cell cycle progression: cyclin D1, CDK4, and CDK6. There was also cell cycle arrest of the related proteins, P21 and P27, in KKU-055 and KKU-213 cholangiocarcinoma cells. Apoptosis induction, detected by an increase in trypan blue-stained cells along with a cleaved caspase-3/caspase-3 ratio, occurred in JPH203-treated cholangiocarcinoma cells at the highest concentration tested (100 µM). As expected, daily intravenous administration of JPH203 (12.5 and 25 mg/kg) significantly inhibited tumor growth in KKU-213 cholangiocarcinoma cell xenografts in the nude mice model in a dose-dependent manner with no statistically significant change in the animal's body weight and with no differences in the histology and appearance of the internal organs compared with the control group. Our study demonstrates that

  7. Enhanced lignin monomer production caused by cinnamic Acid and its hydroxylated derivatives inhibits soybean root growth.

    PubMed

    Lima, Rogério Barbosa; Salvador, Victor Hugo; dos Santos, Wanderley Dantas; Bubna, Gisele Adriana; Finger-Teixeira, Aline; Soares, Anderson Ricardo; Marchiosi, Rogério; Ferrarese, Maria de Lourdes Lucio; Ferrarese-Filho, Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    Cinnamic acid and its hydroxylated derivatives (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids) are known allelochemicals that affect the seed germination and root growth of many plant species. Recent studies have indicated that the reduction of root growth by these allelochemicals is associated with premature cell wall lignification. We hypothesized that an influx of these compounds into the phenylpropanoid pathway increases the lignin monomer content and reduces the root growth. To confirm this hypothesis, we evaluated the effects of cinnamic, p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids on soybean root growth, lignin and the composition of p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) monomers. To this end, three-day-old seedlings were cultivated in nutrient solution with or without allelochemical (or selective enzymatic inhibitors of the phenylpropanoid pathway) in a growth chamber for 24 h. In general, the results showed that 1) cinnamic, p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids reduced root growth and increased lignin content; 2) cinnamic and p-coumaric acids increased p-hydroxyphenyl (H) monomer content, whereas p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids increased guaiacyl (G) content, and sinapic acid increased sinapyl (S) content; 3) when applied in conjunction with piperonylic acid (PIP, an inhibitor of the cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, C4H), cinnamic acid reduced H, G and S contents; and 4) when applied in conjunction with 3,4-(methylenedioxy)cinnamic acid (MDCA, an inhibitor of the 4-coumarate:CoA ligase, 4CL), p-coumaric acid reduced H, G and S contents, whereas caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids reduced G and S contents. These results confirm our hypothesis that exogenously applied allelochemicals are channeled into the phenylpropanoid pathway causing excessive production of lignin and its main monomers. By consequence, an enhanced stiffening of the cell wall restricts soybean root growth.

  8. Enhanced Lignin Monomer Production Caused by Cinnamic Acid and Its Hydroxylated Derivatives Inhibits Soybean Root Growth

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Rogério Barbosa; Salvador, Victor Hugo; dos Santos, Wanderley Dantas; Bubna, Gisele Adriana; Finger-Teixeira, Aline; Soares, Anderson Ricardo; Marchiosi, Rogério; Ferrarese, Maria de Lourdes Lucio; Ferrarese-Filho, Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    Cinnamic acid and its hydroxylated derivatives (p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids) are known allelochemicals that affect the seed germination and root growth of many plant species. Recent studies have indicated that the reduction of root growth by these allelochemicals is associated with premature cell wall lignification. We hypothesized that an influx of these compounds into the phenylpropanoid pathway increases the lignin monomer content and reduces the root growth. To confirm this hypothesis, we evaluated the effects of cinnamic, p-coumaric, caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids on soybean root growth, lignin and the composition of p-hydroxyphenyl (H), guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) monomers. To this end, three-day-old seedlings were cultivated in nutrient solution with or without allelochemical (or selective enzymatic inhibitors of the phenylpropanoid pathway) in a growth chamber for 24 h. In general, the results showed that 1) cinnamic, p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids reduced root growth and increased lignin content; 2) cinnamic and p-coumaric acids increased p-hydroxyphenyl (H) monomer content, whereas p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids increased guaiacyl (G) content, and sinapic acid increased sinapyl (S) content; 3) when applied in conjunction with piperonylic acid (PIP, an inhibitor of the cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, C4H), cinnamic acid reduced H, G and S contents; and 4) when applied in conjunction with 3,4-(methylenedioxy)cinnamic acid (MDCA, an inhibitor of the 4-coumarate:CoA ligase, 4CL), p-coumaric acid reduced H, G and S contents, whereas caffeic, ferulic and sinapic acids reduced G and S contents. These results confirm our hypothesis that exogenously applied allelochemicals are channeled into the phenylpropanoid pathway causing excessive production of lignin and its main monomers. By consequence, an enhanced stiffening of the cell wall restricts soybean root growth. PMID:24312480

  9. Time-dependent inhibition of CYP3A4 by gallic acid in human liver microsomes and recombinant systems.

    PubMed

    Pu, Qiang-Hong; Shi, Liang; Yu, Chao

    2015-03-01

    1.Gallic acid is a main polyphenol in various fruits and plants. Inhibitory characteristics of gallic acid on CYP3A4 were still unclear. The objective of this work is hence to investigate inhibitory characteristics of gallic acid on CYP3A4 using testosterone as the probe substrate in human liver microsomes (HLMs) and recombinant CYP3A4 (rCYP3A4) systems. 2.Gallic acid caused concentration-dependent loss of CYP3A4 activity with IC50 values of 615.2 μM and 669.5 μM in HLM and rCYP3A4 systems, respectively. IC50-shift experiments showed that pre-incubation with gallic acid in the absence of NADPH contributed to 12- or 14-fold reduction of IC50 in HLM and rCYP3A4 systems, respectively, supporting a time-dependent inhibition. In HLM, time-dependent inactivation variables KI and Kinact were 485.8 μM and 0.05 min(-1), respectively. 3.Compared with the presence of NADPH, pre-incubation of gallic acid in the absence of NADPH markedly increased its inhibitory effects in HLM and rCYP3A4 systems. Those results indicate that CYP3A4 inactivation by gallic acid was independent on NADPH and was mainly mediated its oxidative products. 4.In conclusion, we showed that gallic acid weakly and time-dependently inactivated CYP3A4 via its oxidative products.

  10. SCD1 Inhibition Causes Cancer Cell Death by Depleting Mono-Unsaturated Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Paul; Liang, Beirong; Li, Lingyun; Fremgen, Trisha; Murphy, Erin; Quinn, Angela; Madden, Stephen L.; Biemann, Hans-Peter; Wang, Bing; Cohen, Aharon; Komarnitsky, Svetlana; Jancsics, Kate; Hirth, Brad; Cooper, Christopher G. F.; Lee, Edward; Wilson, Sean; Krumbholz, Roy; Schmid, Steven; Xiang, Yibin; Booker, Michael; Lillie, James; Carter, Kara

    2012-01-01

    Increased metabolism is a requirement for tumor cell proliferation. To understand the dependence of tumor cells on fatty acid metabolism, we evaluated various nodes of the fatty acid synthesis pathway. Using RNAi we have demonstrated that depletion of fatty-acid synthesis pathway enzymes SCD1, FASN, or ACC1 in HCT116 colon cancer cells results in cytotoxicity that is reversible by addition of exogenous fatty acids. This conditional phenotype is most pronounced when SCD1 is depleted. We used this fatty-acid rescue strategy to characterize several small-molecule inhibitors of fatty acid synthesis, including identification of TOFA as a potent SCD1 inhibitor, representing a previously undescribed activity for this compound. Reference FASN and ACC inhibitors show cytotoxicity that is less pronounced than that of TOFA, and fatty-acid rescue profiles consistent with their proposed enzyme targets. Two reference SCD1 inhibitors show low-nanomolar cytotoxicity that is offset by at least two orders of magnitude by exogenous oleate. One of these inhibitors slows growth of HCT116 xenograft tumors. Our data outline an effective strategy for interrogation of on-mechanism potency and pathway-node-specificity of fatty acid synthesis inhibitors, establish an unambiguous link between fatty acid synthesis and cancer cell survival, and point toward SCD1 as a key target in this pathway. PMID:22457791

  11. SCD1 inhibition causes cancer cell death by depleting mono-unsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Mason, Paul; Liang, Beirong; Li, Lingyun; Fremgen, Trisha; Murphy, Erin; Quinn, Angela; Madden, Stephen L; Biemann, Hans-Peter; Wang, Bing; Cohen, Aharon; Komarnitsky, Svetlana; Jancsics, Kate; Hirth, Brad; Cooper, Christopher G F; Lee, Edward; Wilson, Sean; Krumbholz, Roy; Schmid, Steven; Xiang, Yibin; Booker, Michael; Lillie, James; Carter, Kara

    2012-01-01

    Increased metabolism is a requirement for tumor cell proliferation. To understand the dependence of tumor cells on fatty acid metabolism, we evaluated various nodes of the fatty acid synthesis pathway. Using RNAi we have demonstrated that depletion of fatty-acid synthesis pathway enzymes SCD1, FASN, or ACC1 in HCT116 colon cancer cells results in cytotoxicity that is reversible by addition of exogenous fatty acids. This conditional phenotype is most pronounced when SCD1 is depleted. We used this fatty-acid rescue strategy to characterize several small-molecule inhibitors of fatty acid synthesis, including identification of TOFA as a potent SCD1 inhibitor, representing a previously undescribed activity for this compound. Reference FASN and ACC inhibitors show cytotoxicity that is less pronounced than that of TOFA, and fatty-acid rescue profiles consistent with their proposed enzyme targets. Two reference SCD1 inhibitors show low-nanomolar cytotoxicity that is offset by at least two orders of magnitude by exogenous oleate. One of these inhibitors slows growth of HCT116 xenograft tumors. Our data outline an effective strategy for interrogation of on-mechanism potency and pathway-node-specificity of fatty acid synthesis inhibitors, establish an unambiguous link between fatty acid synthesis and cancer cell survival, and point toward SCD1 as a key target in this pathway.

  12. Differential Sensitivities of Fast- and Slow-Cycling Cancer Cells to Inosine Monophosphate Dehydrogenase 2 Inhibition by Mycophenolic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kan; Cao, Wanlu; Li, Juan; Sprengers, Dave; Hernanda, Pratika Y; Kong, Xiangdong; van der Laan, Luc JW; Man, Kwan; Kwekkeboom, Jaap; Metselaar, Herold J; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P; Pan, Qiuwei

    2015-01-01

    As uncontrolled cell proliferation requires nucleotide biosynthesis, inhibiting enzymes that mediate nucleotide biosynthesis constitutes a rational approach to the management of oncological diseases. In practice, however, results of this strategy are mixed and thus elucidation of the mechanisms by which cancer cells evade the effect of nucleotide biosynthesis restriction is urgently needed. Here we explored the notion that intrinsic differences in cancer cell cycle velocity are important in the resistance toward inhibition of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) by mycophenolic acid (MPA). In short-term experiments, MPA treatment of fast-growing cancer cells effectively elicited G0/G1 arrest and provoked apoptosis, thus inhibiting cell proliferation and colony formation. Forced expression of a mutated IMPDH2, lacking a binding site for MPA but retaining enzymatic activity, resulted in complete resistance of cancer cells to MPA. In nude mice subcutaneously engrafted with HeLa cells, MPA moderately delayed tumor formation by inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis. Importantly, we developed a lentiviral vector–based Tet-on label-retaining system that enables to identify, isolate and functionally characterize slow-cycling or so-called label-retaining cells (LRCs) in vitro and in vivo. We surprisingly found the presence of LRCs in fast-growing tumors. LRCs were superior in colony formation, tumor initiation and resistance to MPA as compared with fast-cycling cells. Thus, the slow-cycling compartment of cancer seems predominantly responsible for resistance to MPA. PMID:26467706

  13. Humic acid inhibits HBV-induced autophagosome formation and induces apoptosis in HBV-transfected Hep G2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Pant, Kishor; Yadav, Ajay K.; Gupta, Parul; Rathore, Abhishek Singh; Nayak, Baibaswata; Venugopal, Senthil K.

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) utilizes several mechanisms to survive in the host cells and one of the main pathways being autophagosome formation. Humic acid (HA), one of the major components of Mineral pitch, is an Ayurvedic medicinal food, commonly used by the people of the Himalayan regions of Nepal and India for various body ailments. We hypothesized that HA could induce cell death and inhibit HBV-induced autophagy in hepatic cells. Incubation of Hep G2.2.1.5 cells (HepG2 cells stably expressing HBV) with HA (100 μM) inhibited both cell proliferation and autophagosome formation significantly, while apoptosis induction was enhanced. Western blot results showed that HA incubation resulted in decreased levels of beclin-1, SIRT-1 and c-myc, while caspase-3 and β-catenin expression were up-regulated. Western blot results showed that HA significantly inhibited the expression of HBx (3-fold with 50 μM and 5-fold with 100 μM) compared to control cells. When HA was incubated with HBx-transfected Hep G2 cells, HBx-induced autophagosome formation and beclin-1 levels were decreased. These data showed that HA induced apoptosis and inhibited HBV-induced autophagosome formation and proliferation in hepatoma cells. PMID:27708347

  14. An Additional Method for Analyzing the Reversible Inhibition of an 
Enzyme Using Acid Phosphatase as a Model.

    PubMed

    Baumhardt, Jordan M; Dorsey, Benjamin M; McLauchlan, Craig C; Jones, Marjorie A

    2015-08-01

    Using wheat germ acid phosphatase and sodium orthovanadate as a competitive inhibitor, a novel method for analyzing reversible inhibition was carried out. Our alternative approach involves plotting the initial velocity at which product is formed as a function of the ratio of substrate concentration to inhibitor concentration at a constant enzyme concentration and constant assay conditions. The concept of initial concentrations driving equilibrium leads to the chosen axes. Three apparent constants can be derived from this plot: K max , K min , and K inflect . K max and K min represent the substrate to inhibitor concentration ratio for complete inhibition and minimal inhibition, respectively. K inflect represents the substrate to inhibitor concentration ratio at which the enzyme-substrate complex is equal to the inhibitory complex. These constants can be interpolated from the graph or calculated using the first and second derivative of the plot. We conclude that a steeper slope and a shift of the line to the right (increased x-axis values) would indicate a better inhibitor. Since initial velocity is not a linear function of the substrate/inhibitor ratio, this means that inhibition changes more quickly with the change in the [S]/ [I] ratio.