Science.gov

Sample records for ability level tracks

  1. The Tracking and Ability Grouping Debate. Volume 2, Number 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveless, Tom

    Tracking and ability grouping are common practices that are often harshly criticized. Both practices group students of similar achievement levels for instruction, but they differ in how this task is accomplished. Elementary schools typically use ability grouping in reading instruction, with instruction targeted to the reading level of each group.…

  2. Population trends influence species ability to track climate change.

    PubMed

    Ralston, Joel; DeLuca, William V; Feldman, Richard E; King, David I

    2017-04-01

    Shifts of distributions have been attributed to species tracking their fundamental climate niches through space. However, several studies have now demonstrated that niche tracking is imperfect, that species' climate niches may vary with population trends, and that geographic distributions may lag behind rapid climate change. These reports of imperfect niche tracking imply shifts in species' realized climate niches. We argue that quantifying climate niche shifts and analyzing them for a suite of species reveal general patterns of niche shifts and the factors affecting species' ability to track climate change. We analyzed changes in realized climate niche between 1984 and 2012 for 46 species of North American birds in relation to population trends in an effort to determine whether species differ in the ability to track climate change and whether differences in niche tracking are related to population trends. We found that increasingly abundant species tended to show greater levels of niche expansion (climate space occupied in 2012 but not in 1980) compared to declining species. Declining species had significantly greater niche unfilling (climate space occupied in 1980 but not in 2012) compared to increasing species due to an inability to colonize new sites beyond their range peripheries after climate had changed at sites of occurrence. Increasing species, conversely, were better able to colonize new sites and therefore showed very little niche unfilling. Our results indicate that species with increasing trends are better able to geographically track climate change compared to declining species, which exhibited lags relative to changes in climate. These findings have important implications for understanding past changes in distribution, as well as modeling dynamic species distributions in the face of climate change.

  3. Maintaining Inequality: A Background Packet on Tracking and Ability Grouping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coalition of Education Activists, Rosendale, NY.

    This document includes a selection of materials from the National Coalition of Education Activists (NCEA) on tracking and ability grouping designed to be a tool for teachers who wish to organize their school or district against tracking. The packet contains a cover letter, a response/feedback form, and reproductions of the following articles: (1)…

  4. Tracking water levels in axisymmetric flows

    SciTech Connect

    Aktas, B.; Baratta, A.J.; Mahaffy, J.H.

    1996-12-31

    An interface tracking scheme can radically improve the first-order computational methods for two-phase flow when a problem consists of an interface between liquid phase and steam. On the other hand, the authors studies have shown that failure to implement level tracking fully consistently has degraded the quality of TRAC-BF1 results. In these studies, they have presented an improved version of one-dimensional level tracking with relatively simple and physically sensible corrections. A fully consistent level tracking scheme is also necessary for best results in multidimensional two-phase flows.

  5. The Effect of Tracking Students by Ability into Different Schools: A Natural Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guyon, Nina; Maurin, Eric; McNally, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    The tracking of pupils by ability into elite and nonelite schools represents a controversial policy in many countries. There is no consensus on how large the elite track should be and little agreement on the effects of any further increase in its size. This paper presents a natural experiment where the increase in the size of the elite track was…

  6. Visuomotor Tracking Abilities of Speakers with Apraxia of Speech or Conduction Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robin, Donald A.; Jacks, Adam; Hageman, Carlin; Clark, Heather M.; Woodworth, George

    2008-01-01

    This investigation examined the visuomotor tracking abilities of persons with apraxia of speech (AOS) or conduction aphasia (CA). In addition, tracking performance was correlated with perceptual judgments of speech accuracy. Five individuals with AOS and four with CA served as participants, as well as an equal number of healthy controls matched by…

  7. Test Reliability by Ability Level of Examinees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kathy; Sax, Gilbert

    Achievement test reliability as a function of ability was determined for multiple sections of a large university French class (n=193). A 5-option multiple-choice examination was constructed, least attractive distractors were eliminated based on the instructor's judgment, and the resulting three forms of the examination (i.e. 3-, 4-, or 5-choice…

  8. Measuring Developmental Levels of Understanding of Ability and Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Arden T.; Nicholls, John G.

    Discussed are research methods used to measure developmental changes in children's reasoning about ability. While adults generally differentiate ability, effort, luck, and task difficulty as causes for success and failure, children progressively think that effort or outcome is ability (level 1), that effort is the cause of performance outcomes…

  9. Online Learners’ Reading Ability Detection Based on Eye-Tracking Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Zehui; Zhang, Lei; Mei, Hu; Fong, Patrick S. W.

    2016-01-01

    The detection of university online learners’ reading ability is generally problematic and time-consuming. Thus the eye-tracking sensors have been employed in this study, to record temporal and spatial human eye movements. Learners’ pupils, blinks, fixation, saccade, and regression are recognized as primary indicators for detecting reading abilities. A computational model is established according to the empirical eye-tracking data, and applying the multi-feature regularization machine learning mechanism based on a Low-rank Constraint. The model presents good generalization ability with an error of only 4.9% when randomly running 100 times. It has obvious advantages in saving time and improving precision, with only 20 min of testing required for prediction of an individual learner’s reading ability. PMID:27626418

  10. A mixture-level tracking method

    SciTech Connect

    Aktas, B.; Mahaffy, J.H.; Baratta, A.J.

    1995-12-31

    Interfacial closure models in most two-fluid codes for reactor safety are tied to flow regime map through the mean void fraction in a computational cell. Therefore neither heat nor momentum exchange at the phase interface can be properly represented when a void fraction front exists. Accurate modeling of fronts requires the knowledge of front position and void fractions above and below the front. An efficient and simple tracking method was implemented in TRAC-BWR. We have tested this method.

  11. File level provenance tracking in CMS

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, C.D.; Kowalkowski, J.; Paterno, M.; Sexton-Kennedy, L.; Tanenbaum, W.; Riley, D.S.; /Cornell U., LEPP

    2009-05-01

    The CMS off-line framework stores provenance information within CMS's standard ROOT event data files. The provenance information is used to track how each data product was constructed, including what other data products were read to do the construction. We will present how the framework gathers the provenance information, the efforts necessary to minimize the space used to store the provenance in the file and the tools that will be available to use the provenance.

  12. The tracking of high level waste shipments-TRANSCOM system

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.E.; Joy, D.S.; Pope, R.B.

    1995-12-31

    The TRANSCOM (transportation tracking and communication) system is the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) real-time system for tracking shipments of spent fuel, high-level wastes, and other high-visibility shipments of radioactive material. The TRANSCOM system has been operational since 1988. The system was used during FY1993 to track almost 100 shipments within the US.DOE complex, and it is accessed weekly by 10 to 20 users.

  13. The Ability of A-Level Students to Name Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bebbington, Anne

    2005-01-01

    The ability of A level students to recognise and name common wild flowers was shown to be very poor. Trainee teachers performed little better and nearly a third of the practising A-level biology teachers tested were able to name only three or fewer wild flowers. Although opportunities exist at primary level for children to learn about the…

  14. Habitat stability affects dispersal and the ability to track climate change.

    PubMed

    Hof, Christian; Brändle, Martin; Dehling, D Matthias; Munguía, Mariana; Brandl, Roland; Araújo, Miguel B; Rahbek, Carsten

    2012-08-23

    Habitat persistence should influence dispersal ability, selecting for stronger dispersal in habitats of lower temporal stability. As standing (lentic) freshwater habitats are on average less persistent over time than running (lotic) habitats, lentic species should show higher dispersal abilities than lotic species. Assuming that climate is an important determinant of species distributions, we hypothesize that lentic species should have distributions that are closer to equilibrium with current climate, and should more rapidly track climatic changes. We tested these hypotheses using datasets from 1988 and 2006 containing all European dragon- and damselfly species. Bioclimatic envelope models showed that lentic species were closer to climatic equilibrium than lotic species. Furthermore, the models over-predicted lotic species ranges more strongly than lentic species ranges, indicating that lentic species track climatic changes more rapidly than lotic species. These results are consistent with the proposed hypothesis that habitat persistence affects the evolution of dispersal.

  15. L1Track: A fast Level 1 track trigger for the ATLAS high luminosity upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerri, Alessandro

    2016-07-01

    With the planned high-luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC), the ATLAS detector will see its collision rate increase by approximately a factor of 5 with respect to the current LHC operation. The earliest hardware-based ATLAS trigger stage ("Level 1") will have to provide a higher rejection factor in a more difficult environment: a new improved Level 1 trigger architecture is under study, which includes the possibility of extracting with low latency and high accuracy tracking information in time for the decision taking process. In this context, the feasibility of potential approaches aimed at providing low-latency high-quality tracking at Level 1 is discussed.

  16. Correlation analysis between ionospheric scintillation levels and receiver tracking performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreeja, V.; Aquino, M.; Elmas, Z. G.; Forte, B.

    2012-06-01

    Rapid fluctuations in the amplitude and phase of a transionospheric radio signal caused by small scale plasma density irregularities in the ionosphere are known as scintillation. Scintillation can seriously impair a GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) receiver tracking performance, thus affecting the required levels of availability, accuracy and integrity, and consequently the reliability of modern day GNSS based applications. This paper presents an analysis of correlation between scintillation levels and tracking performance of a GNSS receiver for GPS L1C/A, L2C and GLONASS L1, L2 signals. The analyses make use of data recorded over Presidente Prudente (22.1°S, 51.4°W, dip latitude ˜12.3°S) in Brazil, a location close to the Equatorial Ionisation Anomaly (EIA) crest in Latin America. The study presents for the first time this type of correlation analysis for GPS L2C and GLONASS L1, L2 signals. The scintillation levels are defined by the amplitude scintillation index, S4 and the receiver tracking performance is evaluated by the phase tracking jitter. Both S4 and the phase tracking jitter are estimated from the post correlation In-Phase (I) and Quadra-Phase (Q) components logged by the receiver at a high rate. Results reveal that the dependence of the phase tracking jitter on the scintillation levels can be represented by a quadratic fit for the signals. The results presented in this paper are of importance to GNSS users, especially in view of the forthcoming high phase of solar cycle 24 (predicted for 2013).

  17. Eye-Tracking as a Tool to Evaluate Functional Ability in Everyday Tasks in Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Kasneci, Enkelejda; Black, Alex A; Wood, Joanne M

    2017-01-01

    To date, few studies have investigated the eye movement patterns of individuals with glaucoma while they undertake everyday tasks in real-world settings. While some of these studies have reported possible compensatory gaze patterns in those with glaucoma who demonstrated good task performance despite their visual field loss, little is known about the complex interaction between field loss and visual scanning strategies and the impact on task performance and, consequently, on quality of life. We review existing approaches that have quantified the effect of glaucomatous visual field defects on the ability to undertake everyday activities through the use of eye movement analysis. Furthermore, we discuss current developments in eye-tracking technology and the potential for combining eye-tracking with virtual reality and advanced analytical approaches. Recent technological developments suggest that systems based on eye-tracking have the potential to assist individuals with glaucomatous loss to maintain or even improve their performance on everyday tasks and hence enhance their long-term quality of life. We discuss novel approaches for studying the visual search behavior of individuals with glaucoma that have the potential to assist individuals with glaucoma, through the use of personalized programs that take into consideration the individual characteristics of their remaining visual field and visual search behavior.

  18. Eye-Tracking as a Tool to Evaluate Functional Ability in Everyday Tasks in Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Black, Alex A.

    2017-01-01

    To date, few studies have investigated the eye movement patterns of individuals with glaucoma while they undertake everyday tasks in real-world settings. While some of these studies have reported possible compensatory gaze patterns in those with glaucoma who demonstrated good task performance despite their visual field loss, little is known about the complex interaction between field loss and visual scanning strategies and the impact on task performance and, consequently, on quality of life. We review existing approaches that have quantified the effect of glaucomatous visual field defects on the ability to undertake everyday activities through the use of eye movement analysis. Furthermore, we discuss current developments in eye-tracking technology and the potential for combining eye-tracking with virtual reality and advanced analytical approaches. Recent technological developments suggest that systems based on eye-tracking have the potential to assist individuals with glaucomatous loss to maintain or even improve their performance on everyday tasks and hence enhance their long-term quality of life. We discuss novel approaches for studying the visual search behavior of individuals with glaucoma that have the potential to assist individuals with glaucoma, through the use of personalized programs that take into consideration the individual characteristics of their remaining visual field and visual search behavior. PMID:28293433

  19. Dispersal will limit ability of mammals to track climate change in the Western Hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Schloss, Carrie A; Nuñez, Tristan A; Lawler, Joshua J

    2012-05-29

    As they have in response to past climatic changes, many species will shift their distributions in response to modern climate change. However, due to the unprecedented rapidity of projected climatic changes, some species may not be able to move their ranges fast enough to track shifts in suitable climates and associated habitats. Here, we investigate the ability of 493 mammals to keep pace with projected climatic changes in the Western Hemisphere. We modeled the velocities at which species will likely need to move to keep pace with projected changes in suitable climates. We compared these velocities with the velocities at which species are able to move as a function of dispersal distances and dispersal frequencies. Across the Western Hemisphere, on average, 9.2% of mammals at a given location will likely be unable to keep pace with climate change. In some places, up to 39% of mammals may be unable to track shifts in suitable climates. Eighty-seven percent of mammalian species are expected to experience reductions in range size and 20% of these range reductions will likely be due to limited dispersal abilities as opposed to reductions in the area of suitable climate. Because climate change will likely outpace the response capacity of many mammals, mammalian vulnerability to climate change may be more extensive than previously anticipated.

  20. Di-J/Ψ Studies, Level 3 Tracking and the D0 Run IIb Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Vint, Philip John

    2010-02-01

    The D0 detector underwent an upgrade to its silicon vertex detector and triggering systems during the transition from Run IIa to Run IIb to maximize its ability to fully exploit Run II at the Fermilab Tevatron. This thesis describes improvements made to the tracking and vertexing algorithms used by the high level trigger in both Run IIa and Run IIb, as well as a search for resonant di-J/Ψ states using both Run IIa and Run IIb data. Improvements made to the tracking and vertexing algorithms during Run IIa included the optimization of the existing tracking software to reduce overall processing time and the certification and testing of a new software release. Upgrades made to the high level trigger for Run IIb included the development of a new tracking algorithm and the inclusion of the new Layer 0 silicon detector into the existing software. The integration of Layer 0 into the high level trigger has led to an improvement in the overall impact parameter resolution for tracks of ~50%. The development of a new parameterization method for finding the error associated to the impact parameter of tracks returned by the high level tracking algorithm, in association with the inclusion of Layer 0, has led to improvements in vertex resolution of ~4.5 μm. A previous search in the di-J/Ψ channel revealed a unpredicted resonance at ~13.7 GeV/c2. A confirmation analysis is presented using 2.8 fb-1 of data and two different approaches to cuts. No significant excess is seen in the di-J/Ψ mass spectrum.

  1. Tracking multidecadal trends in sea level using coral microatolls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majewski, Jedrzej; Pham, Dat; Meltzner, Aron; Switzer, Adam; Horton, Benjamin; Heng, Shu Yun; Warrick, David

    2015-04-01

    Tracking multidecadal trends in sea level using coral microatolls Jędrzej M. Majewski 1, Dat T. Pham1, Aron J. Meltzner 1, Adam D. Switzer 1, Benjamin P. Horton2, Shu Yun Heng1, David Warrick3, 1 Earth Observatory of Singapore, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 2 Department of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA 3 Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA Coral microatolls can be used to study relative sea-level change at multidecadal timescales associated with vertical land movements, climate induced sea-level rise and other oceanographic phenomena such as the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) or Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) with the assumption that the highest level of survival (HLS) of coral microatolls track sea level over the course of their lifetimes. In this study we compare microatoll records covering from as early as 1883 through 2013, from two sites in Indonesia, with long records (>20 years) from proximal tide gauges, satellite altimetry, and other sea-level reconstructions. We compared the HLS time series derived from open-ocean and moated (or ponded) microatolls on tectonically stable Belitung Island and a potentially tectonically active setting in Mapur Island, with sea-level reconstructions for 1950-2011. The sea-level reconstructions are based on ground and satellite measurements, combining a tide model with the Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean (ECCO) model. Our results confirm that open-ocean microatolls do track low water levels at multi decadal time scales and can be used as a proxy for relative sea level (RSL) over time. However, microatolls that are even partially moated are unsuitable and do not track RSL; rather, their growth patterns likely reflect changes in the elevation of the sill of the local pond, as reported by earlier authors. Our ongoing efforts will include an attempt to recognize similarities in moated

  2. Using the level set method to track ice sheet boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsey, D. S.; Dupont, T. K.

    2009-12-01

    Simulating ice-sheet volume changes requires tracking the interface of ice and its surrounding media, e.g. water, air, and sediment or rock. This can be challenging when using a fixed, or Eulerian, grid and allowing the interface to move via kinematic boundary conditions. For example, the interface may fall between grid points at a given point in time, making the application of boundary conditions less than straightforward. The level set method of Osher and Sethian (1988) offers an alternative approach, wherein a continuous level set function evolves within the domain via the combined kinematics of ice and its encompassing materials. The methods true strength lies in tracking the interface of two materials through time. Pralong and Funk (2004) applied this method to the movement of a glacier’s ice/air interface, offering a glimpse of the potential of this method for glaciology. Here we perform a simple preliminary test of the method for a two-dimensional (flow-line) model of an ice shelf, comparing the results to analytic approximations of the movement of both the ice/air interface and the ice front. Future experiments will incorporate grounded ice and include basal and lateral-shear stresses. The ultimate goal of this work is provide a practical approach for two and three-dimensional ice-sheet models to naturally track their moving boundaries.

  3. The CMS Level-1 Trigger Barrel Track Finder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ero, J.; Evangelou, I.; Flouris, G.; Foudas, C.; Guiducci, L.; Loukas, N.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paradas, E.; Sotiropoulos, S.; Sphicas, P.; Triossi, A.; Wulz, C.

    2016-03-01

    The design and performance of the upgraded CMS Level-1 Trigger Barrel Muon Track Finder (BMTF) is presented. Monte Carlo simulation data as well as cosmic ray data from a CMS muon detector slice test have been used to study in detail the performance of the new track finder. The design architecture is based on twelve MP7 cards each of which uses a Xilinx Virtex-7 FPGA and can receive and transmit data at 10 Gbps from 72 input and 72 output fibers. According to the CMS Trigger Upgrade TDR the BMTF receives trigger primitive data which are computed using both RPC and DT data and transmits data from a number of muon candidates to the upgraded Global Muon Trigger. Results from detailed studies of comparisons between the BMTF algorithm results and the results of a C++ emulator are also presented. The new BMTF will be commissioned for data taking in 2016.

  4. Postural ability reflects the athletic skill level of surfers.

    PubMed

    Paillard, Thierry; Margnes, Eric; Portet, Mathieu; Breucq, Arnaud

    2011-08-01

    This work analyses surfers' postural control and their use of visual information in static (stable) and dynamic (unstable) postures according to their level of competition. Two groups of healthy surfers were investigated: a group of local level surfers (LOC) (n = 8) and a group of national/international level surfers (NIN) (n = 9). Posture was assessed by measuring the centre of foot pressure with a force platform for 50 s with stable support and for 25 s with unstable support (sagittal or frontal plane). The tests were completed with the eyes open (the subjects looked at a fixed level target at a distance of 2 m) and closed (they kept their gaze in a straight-ahead direction). Results showed that the contribution of vision in postural maintenance, with unstable support was less important in the NIN surfers than in the LOC surfers and that the NIN surfers had better postural control than the LOC surfers. Firstly, the results suggest that expert surfers could shift the sensorimotor dominance from vision to proprioception for postural maintenance. Secondly, there is a relationship between the postural ability and the competition level of surfers. These observations are likely to induce new prospects of training for surfers.

  5. Adolescent Self-Concept, Ability Grouping, and Social Comparison: Reexamining Academic Track Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Barbara M.

    Covariance structural analyses (LISREL) were used to examine latent mean differences in general self-concept (SC), academic SC, English SC, and mathematics SC between low-track and high-track high school students. The study report is preceded by a theoretical model of adolescent self-concept and discussions of academic track as a social referent…

  6. Year-Round Tracking of Small Trans-Saharan Migrants Using Light-Level Geolocators

    PubMed Central

    Bächler, Erich; Hahn, Steffen; Schaub, Michael; Arlettaz, Raphaël; Jenni, Lukas; Fox, James W.; Afanasyev, Vsevolod; Liechti, Felix

    2010-01-01

    Since 1899 ringing (or banding) remained the most important source of information about migration routes, stopover sites and wintering grounds for birds that are too small to carry satellite-based tracking systems. Despite the large quantity of migrating birds ringed in their breeding areas in Europe, the number of ring recoveries from sub-Saharan Africa is very low and therefore the whereabouts of most small bird species outside the breeding season remain a mystery. With new miniaturized light-level geolocators it is now possible to look beyond the limits of ring recovery data. Here we show for the first time year round tracks of a near passerine trans-Saharan migrant, the European Hoopoe (Upupa epops epops). Three birds wintered in the Sahel zone of Western Africa where they remained stationary for most of the time. One bird chose a south-easterly route following the Italian peninsula. Birds from the same breeding population used different migration routes and wintering sites, suggesting a low level of migratory connectivity between breeding and wintering areas. Our tracking of a near passerine bird, the European Hoopoe, with light-level geolocators opens a new chapter in the research of Palaearctic-African bird migration as this new tool revolutionizes our ability to discover migration routes, stopover sites and wintering grounds of small birds. PMID:20221266

  7. Year-round tracking of small trans-Saharan migrants using light-level geolocators.

    PubMed

    Bächler, Erich; Hahn, Steffen; Schaub, Michael; Arlettaz, Raphaël; Jenni, Lukas; Fox, James W; Afanasyev, Vsevolod; Liechti, Felix

    2010-03-05

    Since 1899 ringing (or banding) remained the most important source of information about migration routes, stopover sites and wintering grounds for birds that are too small to carry satellite-based tracking systems. Despite the large quantity of migrating birds ringed in their breeding areas in Europe, the number of ring recoveries from sub-Saharan Africa is very low and therefore the whereabouts of most small bird species outside the breeding season remain a mystery. With new miniaturized light-level geolocators it is now possible to look beyond the limits of ring recovery data. Here we show for the first time year round tracks of a near passerine trans-Saharan migrant, the European Hoopoe (Upupa epops epops). Three birds wintered in the Sahel zone of Western Africa where they remained stationary for most of the time. One bird chose a south-easterly route following the Italian peninsula. Birds from the same breeding population used different migration routes and wintering sites, suggesting a low level of migratory connectivity between breeding and wintering areas. Our tracking of a near passerine bird, the European Hoopoe, with light-level geolocators opens a new chapter in the research of Palaearctic-African bird migration as this new tool revolutionizes our ability to discover migration routes, stopover sites and wintering grounds of small birds.

  8. Interface Surface Area Tracking for the Conservative Level Set Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firehammer, Stephanie; Desjardins, Olivier

    2015-11-01

    One key question in liquid-gas flows is how to model the interface between phases in a way that is mass, momentum, and energy conserving. The accurate conservative level set (ACLS) method of Desjardins et al. provides a tool for tracking a liquid-gas interface with minimal mass conservation issues; however, it does not explicitly compute the interface surface area and thus nothing can be said a priori about the balance between kinetic energy and surface energy. This work examines an equation for the transport of interface surface area density, which can be written in terms of the gradient of the volume fraction. Furthermore this presentation will outline a numerical method for jointly transporting a conservative level set and surface area density. Finally, we will explore oppportunities for energy conservation via the accurate exchange of energy between the flow field and the interface through surface tension, with test cases to show the results of our extended ACLS method. Funding from the National Science Foundation is gratefully acknowledged.

  9. Interactions between levels of attention ability and levels of bilingualism in children's executive functioning.

    PubMed

    Sorge, Geoff B; Toplak, Maggie E; Bialystok, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    Attention difficulty is associated with poor performance on executive functioning (EF) tasks, yet EF is enhanced in bilingual children. However, no research to date has investigated the possible interaction between bilingualism and attention ability in children to determine the consequences for EF when both are present. We assessed a sample of typically developing children who were 8 to 11 years old for their ability in attention control and level of bilingualism on the basis of questionnaires completed by parents and teachers. Children performed three tasks requiring aspects of EF: stop signal task (inhibition), flanker task (interference control), and frogs matrices task (spatial working memory). Results from hierarchical regressions confirmed that both attention ability and bilingualism contributed to performance on the EF tasks. Where interaction effects were significant, they showed that attention ability was a stronger predictor for an inhibition task, namely stop signal, and bilingualism a stronger predictor for an interference task, namely flanker. Furthermore, these results allow us to discuss the relation between EF and attention ability.

  10. SU-D-18A-04: Quantifying the Ability of Tumor Tracking to Spare Normal Tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, A; Buzurovic, I; Hurwitz, M; Williams, C; Lewis, J; Mishra, P; Seco, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Tumor tracking allows for smaller tissue volumes to be treated, potentially reducing normal tissue damage. However, tumor tracking is a more complex treatment and has little benefit in some scenarios. Here we quantify the benefit of tumor tracking for a range of patients by estimating the dose of radiation to organs at risk and the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) for both standard and tracking treatment plans. This comparison is performed using both patient 4DCT data and extended Cardiac-Torso (XCAT) digital phantoms. Methods: We use 4DCT data for 10 patients. Additionally, we generate digital phantoms with motion derived from measured patient long tumor trajectories to compare standard and tracking treatment plans. The standard treatment is based on the average intensity projection (AIP) of 4DCT images taken over a breath cycle. The tracking treatment is based on doses calculated on images representing the anatomy at each time point. It is assumed that there are no errors in tracking the target. The NTCP values are calculated based on RTOG guidelines. Results: The mean reduction in the mean dose delivered was 5.5% to the lungs (from 7.3 Gy to 6.9 Gy) and 4.0% to the heart (from 12.5 Gy to 12.0 Gy). The mean reduction in the max dose delivered was 13% to the spinal cord (from 27.6 Gy to 24.0 Gy), 2.5% to the carina (from 31.7 Gy to 30.9 Gy), and 15% to the esophagus (from 69.6 Gy to 58.9 Gy). The mean reduction in the probability of 2nd degree radiation pneumonitis (RP) was 8.7% (3.1% to 2.8%) and the mean reduction in the effective volume was 6.8% (10.8% to 10.2%). Conclusions: Tumor tracking has the potential to reduce irradiation of organs at risk, and consequentially reduce the normal tissue complication probability. The benefits vary based on the clinical scenario. This study is supported by Varian Medical Systems, Inc.

  11. Pacing Profiles in Competitive Track Races: Regulation of Exercise Intensity Is Related to Cognitive Ability.

    PubMed

    Van Biesen, Debbie; Hettinga, Florentina J; McCulloch, Katina; Vanlandewijck, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Pacing has been defined as the goal-directed regulation of exercise intensity over an exercise bout, in which athletes need to decide how and when to invest their energy. The purpose of this study was to explore if the regulation of exercise intensity during competitive track races is different between runners with and without intellectual impairment, which is characterized by significant limitations in intellectual functioning (IQ ≤ 75) and adaptive behavioral deficits, diagnosed before the age of 18. The samples included elite runners with intellectual impairment (N = 36) and a comparison group of world class runners without impairment (N = 39), of which 47 were 400 m runners (all male) and 28 were 1500 m-runners (15 male and 13 female). Pacing was analyzed by means of 100 m split times (for 400 m races) and 200 m split times (for 1500 m races). Based on the split times, the average velocity was calculated for four segments of the races. Velocity fluctuations were defined as the differences in velocity between consecutive race segments. A mixed model ANOVA revealed significant differences in pacing profiles between runners with and without intellectual impairment (p < 0.05). Maximal velocity of elite 400 m runners with intellectual impairment in the first race segment (7.9 ± 0.3 m/s) was well below the top-velocity reached by world level 400 m runners without intellectual impairment (8.9 ± 0.2 m/s), and their overall pace was slower (F = 120.7, p < 0.05). In addition, both groups followed a different pacing profile and inter-individual differences in pacing profiles were larger, with differences most pronounced for 1500 m races. Whereas, male 1500 m-runners without intellectual impairment reached a high velocity in the first 100 m (7.2 ± 0.1 m/s), slowly decelerated in the second race segment (-0.6 ± 0.1 m/s), and finished with an end sprint (+0.9 ± 0.1 m/s); the 1500 m runners with intellectual impairment started slower (6.1 ± 0.3 m/s), accelerated in

  12. Pacing Profiles in Competitive Track Races: Regulation of Exercise Intensity Is Related to Cognitive Ability

    PubMed Central

    Van Biesen, Debbie; Hettinga, Florentina J.; McCulloch, Katina; Vanlandewijck, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Pacing has been defined as the goal-directed regulation of exercise intensity over an exercise bout, in which athletes need to decide how and when to invest their energy. The purpose of this study was to explore if the regulation of exercise intensity during competitive track races is different between runners with and without intellectual impairment, which is characterized by significant limitations in intellectual functioning (IQ ≤ 75) and adaptive behavioral deficits, diagnosed before the age of 18. The samples included elite runners with intellectual impairment (N = 36) and a comparison group of world class runners without impairment (N = 39), of which 47 were 400 m runners (all male) and 28 were 1500 m-runners (15 male and 13 female). Pacing was analyzed by means of 100 m split times (for 400 m races) and 200 m split times (for 1500 m races). Based on the split times, the average velocity was calculated for four segments of the races. Velocity fluctuations were defined as the differences in velocity between consecutive race segments. A mixed model ANOVA revealed significant differences in pacing profiles between runners with and without intellectual impairment (p < 0.05). Maximal velocity of elite 400 m runners with intellectual impairment in the first race segment (7.9 ± 0.3 m/s) was well below the top-velocity reached by world level 400 m runners without intellectual impairment (8.9 ± 0.2 m/s), and their overall pace was slower (F = 120.7, p < 0.05). In addition, both groups followed a different pacing profile and inter-individual differences in pacing profiles were larger, with differences most pronounced for 1500 m races. Whereas, male 1500 m-runners without intellectual impairment reached a high velocity in the first 100 m (7.2 ± 0.1 m/s), slowly decelerated in the second race segment (−0.6 ± 0.1 m/s), and finished with an end sprint (+0.9 ± 0.1 m/s); the 1500 m runners with intellectual impairment started slower (6.1 ± 0.3 m/s), accelerated in

  13. [Tracking study to improve basic academic ability in chemistry for freshmen].

    PubMed

    Sato, Atsuko; Morone, Mieko; Azuma, Yutaka

    2010-08-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the basic academic ability of freshmen with regard to chemistry and implement suitable educational guidance measures. At Tohoku Pharmaceutical University, basic academic ability examinations are conducted in chemistry for freshmen immediately after entrance into the college. From 2003 to 2009, the examination was conducted using the same questions, and the secular changes in the mean percentage of correct response were statistically analyzed. An experience survey was also conducted on 2007 and 2009 freshmen regarding chemical experiments at senior high school. Analysis of the basic academic ability examinations revealed a significant decrease in the mean percentage of correct responses after 2007. With regard to the answers for each question, there was a significant decrease in the percentage of correct answers for approximately 80% of questions. In particular, a marked decrease was observed for calculation questions involving percentages. A significant decrease was also observed in the number of students who had experiences with chemical experiments in high school. However, notable results have been achieved through the implementation of practice incorporating calculation problems in order to improve calculation ability. Learning of chemistry and a lack of experimental experience in high school may be contributory factors in the decrease in chemistry academic ability. In consideration of the professional ability demanded of pharmacists, the decrease in calculation ability should be regarded as a serious issue and suitable measures for improving calculation ability are urgently required.

  14. A Comparison of High School Student Interests across Three Grade and Ability Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Newell T.

    1980-01-01

    Students (Grades 9-11) in two Florida metropolitan high schools rated their interest in 28 topics, such as travel, popular music, religion, the opposite sex, war, and politics. Interests were analyzed by sex, grade, and ability track in English (Honors, Average, Basic). Findings, especially those on romantic interests, are discussed. (SJL)

  15. Change of direction ability test differentiates higher level and lower level soccer referees

    PubMed Central

    Los, Arcos A; Grande, I; Casajús, JA

    2016-01-01

    This report examines the agility and level of acceleration capacity of Spanish soccer referees and investigates the possible differences between field referees of different categories. The speed test consisted of 3 maximum acceleration stretches of 15 metres. The change of direction ability (CODA) test used in this study was a modification of the Modified Agility Test (MAT). The study included a sample of 41 Spanish soccer field referees from the Navarre Committee of Soccer Referees divided into two groups: i) the higher level group (G1, n = 20): 2ndA, 2ndB and 3rd division referees from the Spanish National Soccer League (28.43 ± 1.39 years); and ii) the lower level group (G2, n = 21): Navarre Provincial League soccer referees (29.54 ± 1.87 years). Significant differences were found with respect to the CODA between G1 (5.72 ± 0.13 s) and G2 (6.06 ± 0.30 s), while no differences were encountered between groups in acceleration ability. No significant correlations were obtained in G1 between agility and the capacity to accelerate. Significant correlations were found between sprint and agility times in the G2 and in the total group. The results of this study showed that agility can be used as a discriminating factor for differentiating between national and regional field referees; however, no observable differences were found over the 5 and 15 m sprint tests. PMID:27274111

  16. Model tracking system for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities: License application interrogatories and responses

    SciTech Connect

    Benbennick, M.E.; Broton, M.S.; Fuoto, J.S.; Novgrod, R.L.

    1994-08-01

    This report describes a model tracking system for a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility license application. In particular, the model tracks interrogatories (questions, requests for information, comments) and responses. A set of requirements and desired features for the model tracking system was developed, including required structure and computer screens. Nine tracking systems were then reviewed against the model system requirements and only two were found to meet all requirements. Using Kepner-Tregoe decision analysis, a model tracking system was selected.

  17. Relations between Prenatal Testosterone Levels and Cognitive Abilities at 4 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finegan, Jo-Anne K.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Compared children's cognitive abilities at four years and their prenatal amniotic fluid testosterone levels. For girls, prenatal testosterone levels were related in a curvilinear manner to language comprehension and classification abilities, and inversely related to counting and knowledge of number facts. For boys, no relationships were found. (BC)

  18. Assessing Academic and Creative Abilities in Mathematics at Four Levels of Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livne, Nava L.; Livne, Oren E.; Milgram, Roberta M.

    1999-01-01

    Develops a mapping sentence to construct test items measuring academic and creative abilities in mathematics at four levels. Describes the three stages of the process of developing the mapping sentence and presents examples of test items representing each ability/level combination. Contains 63 references. (Author/ASK)

  19. To Track or Not to Track?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesson, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Background: This paper was written for a graduate level action research course at Muskingum University, located in New Concord, OH. Purpose: The purpose of this research was to determine which method of instruction best serves ALL high school students. Is it more advantageous to track ("ability group") students or not to track students…

  20. Educational level signals unobserved abilities of people with high functioning autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Yokotani, Kenji

    2010-08-01

    The effect of educational level on employment of people with high functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASD) was examined. If education augments natural abilities to accomplish tasks in people with HFASD, then those with more education would have comparative advantages in both obtaining and retaining jobs. In contrast, if education did not augment natural abilities and only signaled unobservable abilities, one would expect an advantage only in obtaining a job, but not in retention. 22 people with HFASD replied to questionnaires regarding their history of education and employment. Those with job experience had higher educational levels than those with no job experience, but educational level was not significantly different between groups with and without more than one year of job experience. Educational level seems to be associated with abilities, but probably the unobserved abilities underlie both educational attainment and employment history.

  1. Measuring Stress and Ability to Recover from Stress with Salivary Alpha-Amylase Levels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    Ability to Recover from Stress with Salivary α- Amylase Levels Authors Brandon L. Mulrine Michael F. Sheehan Lolita M. Burrell Michael...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Measuring Stress and Ability to Recover from Stress with Salivary Alpha Amylase Levels 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...stress-related conditions. The findings suggest that measuring salivary α- amylase levels may help to determine a Soldier’s resilience or risk of

  2. Measuring Student Ability, Classifying Schools, and Detecting Item Bias at School Level, Based on Student-Level Dichotomous Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennink, Margot; Croon, Marcel A.; Keuning, Jos; Vermunt, Jeroen K.

    2014-01-01

    In educational measurement, responses of students on items are used not only to measure the ability of students, but also to evaluate and compare the performance of schools. Analysis should ideally account for the multilevel structure of the data, and school-level processes not related to ability, such as working climate and administration…

  3. Characteristics and Levels of Sophistication: An Analysis of Chemistry Students' Ability to Think with Mental Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chia-Yu; Barrow, Lloyd H.

    2011-08-01

    This study employed a case-study approach to reveal how an ability to think with mental models contributes to differences in students' understanding of molecular geometry and polarity. We were interested in characterizing features and levels of sophistication regarding first-year university chemistry learners' mental modeling behaviors while the learners were solving problems associated with spatial information. To serve this purpose, we conducted case studies on nine students who were sampled from high-scoring, moderate-scoring, and low-scoring students. Our findings point to five characteristics of mental modeling ability that distinguish students in the high-, moderate-, and low-ability groups from one another. Although the levels of mental modeling abilities have been described in categories (high, moderate, and low), they can be thought of as a continuum with the low-ability group reflecting students who have very limited ability to generate and use mental models whereas students in the high-ability group not only construct and use mental models as a thinking tool, but also analyze the problems to be solved, evaluate their mental models, and oversee entire mental modeling processes. Cross-case comparisons for students with different levels of mental modeling ability indicate that experiences of generating and manipulating a mental model based on imposed propositions are crucial for a learner's efforts to incorporate content knowledge with visual-spatial thinking skills. This paper summarizes potential factors that undermine learners' comprehension of molecular geometry and polarity and that influence mastery of this mental modeling ability.

  4. Hierarchical Levels of Abilities That Constitute Fraction Understanding at Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolaou, Aristoklis A.; Pitta-Pantazi, Demetra

    2016-01-01

    This article examines whether the 7 abilities found in a previous study carried out by the authors to constitute fraction understanding of sixth grade elementary school students determine hierarchical levels of fraction understanding. The 7 abilities were as follows: (a) fraction recognition, (b) definitions and mathematical explanations for…

  5. Changes in Muscle Architecture, Explosive Ability, and Track and Field Throwing Performance Throughout a Competitive Season and Following a Taper.

    PubMed

    Bazyler, Caleb D; Mizuguchi, Satoshi; Harrison, Alex P; Sato, Kimitake; Kavanaugh, Ashley A; DeWeese, Brad H; Stone, Michael H

    2016-08-26

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an overreach and taper on measures of muscle architecture, jumping, and throwing performance in Division I collegiate throwers preparing for conference championships. Six collegiate track and field throwers (3 hammer, 2 discus, 1 javelin) trained for 12 weeks using a block-periodization model culminating with a one week overreach followed by a 3 week taper (ORT). Session rating of perceived exertion training load (RPETL) and strength training volume-load times bar displacement (VLd) were recorded weekly. Athletes were tested pre- and post-ORT on measures of vastus lateralis architecture, unloaded and loaded squat and countermovement jump performance, underhand and overhead throwing performance, and competition throwing performance. There was a statistical reduction in weight training VLd/session (d=1.21, p<0.05) and RPETL/session (d=0.9, p<0.05) between the in-season and ORT training phases. Five of six athletes improved overhead throw and competition throwing performance following the ORT (d=0.50, p<0.05). Vastus lateralis muscle thickness statistically increased following the in-season training phase (d=0.28, p<0.05), but did not change following the ORT. Unloaded countermovement jump peak force and relative peak power improved significantly following the ORT (d=0.59, p<0.05, d=0.31, p<0.05, respectively). These findings demonstrate that an overreaching week followed by a 3-week taper is an effective means of improving explosive ability and throwing performance in collegiate track and field throwers despite the absence of detectable changes in muscle architecture.

  6. Tracking Developmental Students into Their First College Level Mathematics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waycaster, Pansy

    2011-01-01

    A recent SACS review at the author's institution prompted an assessment of the school's developmental mathematics program. The author needed to examine the effectiveness of the developmental mathematics courses in preparing students for their first college level mathematics course. Rather than just examine success rates in developmental…

  7. Interactions between Levels of Attention Ability and Levels of Bilingualism in Children's Executive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorge, Geoff B.; Toplak, Maggie E.; Bialystok, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    Attention difficulty is associated with poor performance on executive functioning (EF) tasks, yet EF is enhanced in bilingual children. However, no research to date has investigated the possible interaction between bilingualism and attention ability in children to determine the consequences for EF when both are present. We assessed a sample of…

  8. A Comparable Market Study of RFID for Manual Item-Level Accountability Inventory and Tracking Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    reluctance to adopt RFID as an automated identify data and capture ( AIDC ) capability in item-level visibility for applicable business processes. The...microwave frequencies (LF, HF, UHF, and MW respectively) these components are applicable to all RFID technologies; access control, AIDC , track...only use AIDC information in-house, for instance a clinic tracking patient records with staff of 40 doctors. WORM tags have information

  9. A Review of Reverse Logistics and Depot Level Repairable Tracking in the United States Navy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    Repairable Tracking in the United States Navy By: Edward L. Stevenson, Cane A. Toussaint, and Mark A. Edwards June 2005 Advisors...Report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE: A Review of Reverse Logistics and Depot Level Repairable Tracking in the United States Navy 6. AUTHOR(S) Edward L...Stevenson, Cane A. Toussaint, and Mark A. Edwards 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School

  10. Using higher-level inquiry to improve spatial ability in an introductory geology course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Lacey A.

    Visuo-spatial skills, the ability to visually take in information and create a mental image are crucial for success in fields involving science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) as well as fine arts. Unfortunately, due to a lack of curriculum focused on developing spatial skills, students enrolled in introductory college-level science courses tend to have difficulty with spatially-related activities. One of the best ways to engage students in science activities is through a learning and teaching strategy called inquiry. There are lower levels of inquiry wherein learning and problem-solving are guided by instructions and higher levels of inquiry wherein students have a greater degree of autonomy in learning and creating their own problem-solving strategy. A study involving 112 participants was conducted during the fall semester in 2014 at Bowling Green State University (BGSU) in an 1040 Introductory Geology Lab to determine if a new, high-level, inquiry-based lab would increase participants' spatial skills more than the traditional, low-level inquiry lab. The study also evaluated whether a higher level of inquiry differentially affected low versus high spatial ability participants. Participants were evaluated using a spatial ability assessment, and pre- and post-tests. The results of this study show that for 3-D to 2-D visualization, the higher-level inquiry lab increased participants' spatial ability more than the lower-level inquiry lab. For spatial rotational skills, all participants' spatial ability scores improved, regardless of the level of inquiry to which they were exposed. Low and high spatial ability participants were not differentially affected. This study demonstrates that a lab designed with a higher level of inquiry can increase students' spatial ability more than a lab with a low level of inquiry. A lab with a higher level of inquiry helped all participants, regardless of their initial spatial ability level. These findings show that curriculum

  11. Heritage Background, Motivation, and Reading Ability of Upper-Level Postsecondary Students of Chinese, Japanese, and Korean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kondo-Brown, Kimi

    2009-01-01

    In upper-level university foreign language (FL) courses, FL and heritage language (HL) students are often merged into the same classroom in a single-track system. This study investigates whether HL background is a critical factor that may prevent instructors from teaching reading effectively in single-track upper-level university courses. This…

  12. The Effects of Control for Ability Level on EFL Reading of Graded Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wan-a-rom, Udorn

    2012-01-01

    The study was aimed to examine how EFL learners of English reacted to graded readers in terms of reading strategy use, comprehension, speed, and attitude as well as motivation when control for ability level was determined. Eighty Thai high school students placed into their own reading level of graded readers by the scores gained from the graded…

  13. Students' Critical Thinking Ability: Description Based on Academic Level and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zetriuslita, Hj.; Ariawan, Rezi; Nufus, Hayatun

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to describe students' critical thinking ability based on the level academic and gender. The populations of this study were 132 students participating in five classes of Calculus course. The research data obtained through technical tests and interview techniques. This study found that the high level of capability, both male…

  14. Teacher Quality at the High-School Level: The Importance of Accounting for Tracks. Working Paper 17722. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, C. Kirabo

    2013-01-01

    Unlike in elementary school, high-school teacher effects may be confounded with both selection to tracks and unobserved track-level treatments. I document sizable confounding track effects, and show that traditional tests for the existence of teacher effects are likely biased. After accounting for these biases, high-school algebra and English…

  15. The Effects of Answer Copying on the Ability Level Estimates of Cheater Examinees in Answer Copying Pairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zopluoglu, Cengiz; Davenport, Ernest C., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of answer copying on the ability level estimates of cheater examinees in answer copying pairs. The study generated answer copying pairs for each of 1440 conditions, source ability (12) x cheater ability (12) x amount of copying (10). The average difference between the ability level estimates…

  16. The BaBar Level 1 Drift-Chamber Trigger Upgrade With 3D Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Chai, X.D.; /Iowa U.

    2005-11-29

    At BABAR, the Level 1 Drift Chamber trigger is being upgraded to reduce increasing background rates while the PEP-II luminosity keeps improving. This upgrade uses the drift time information and stereo wires in the drift chamber to perform a 3D track reconstruction that effectively rejects background events spread out along the beam line.

  17. A Tracking Analysis of Compact Students within Level 1 of Their Higher Education Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakely, Katrina; Saunders, Danny

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a tracking analysis of level 1 undergraduates who entered the University of Glamorgan through the Compact schools initiative. The Compact initiative aims to widen access to higher education by encouraging young people from disadvantaged backgrounds to attend a range of preparatory activities and by offering lower entry…

  18. Leveled and Exclusionary Tracking: English Learners' Access to Academic Content in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umansky, Ilana M.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the characteristics and determinants of English learners' (ELs') access to academic content in middle school (Grades 6-8). Following 10 years of data from a large urban school district in California, I identify two predominant characteristics of EL access to content: leveled tracking in which ELs are overrepresented in lower…

  19. Improving the Ability of Qualitative Assessments to Discriminate Student Achievement Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Jeffrey Chi Hoe; Toh, Anita Ann Lee

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the use of blind marking to increase the ability of criterion-referenced marking to discriminate students' varied levels of knowledge and skill mastery in a business communication skills course. Design/methodology/approach: The business communication course in this study involved more than 10 teachers and…

  20. A Critical Analysis of Conventional Descriptions of Levels Employed in the Assessment of Basic Learning Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Ian; McElwee, John; Ming, Siri

    2010-01-01

    The Assessment of Basic Learning Abilities (ABLA) is a tabletop-based protocol employing manipulables that is used to gauge whether individuals with severe developmental disabilities can learn to perform a series of discrimination tasks of varying levels of difficulty. Empirical research suggests that the ABLA is useful in terms of predicting…

  1. Leveling of Critical Thinking Abilities of Students of Mathematics Education in Mathematical Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasiman

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to determine the leveling of critical thinking abilities of students of mathematics education in mathematical problem solving. It includes qualitative-explorative study that was conducted at University of PGRI Semarang. The generated data in the form of information obtained problem solving question and interview guides. The…

  2. Effects of Spatial Ability Levels and Presentation Platform on Performance of a Pictured Rotation Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manrique, Fernando; And Others

    This study investigated the effects of two levels of spatial ability--high spatial, low spatial--and two different presentation platforms--virtual reality, computer monitor--on performance of a pictured rotation task over two consecutive trials. Performance was measured by response time and accuracy. The 24 male and 8 female subjects (college…

  3. Effects of Segmented Animated Graphics among Students of Different Spatial Ability Levels: A Cognitive Load Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Soon Fook

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of segmented animated graphics utilized to facilitate learning of electrolysis of aqueous solution. A total of 171 Secondary Four chemistry students with two different spatial ability levels were randomly assigned to one of the experimental conditions: (a) text with multiple static graphics (MSG), (b) text with…

  4. Characteristics and Levels of Sophistication: An Analysis of Chemistry Students' Ability to Think with Mental Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chia-Yu; Barrow, Lloyd H.

    2011-01-01

    This study employed a case-study approach to reveal how an ability to think with mental models contributes to differences in students' understanding of molecular geometry and polarity. We were interested in characterizing features and levels of sophistication regarding first-year university chemistry learners' mental modeling behaviors while the…

  5. A Comparison of the Functional Reading Levels of Selected Third Grade Students of Varying Reading Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Elaine Joy

    The purpose of this study was to compare the results obtained from a cloze test with the results obtained from an informal reading inventory in establishing the functional reading levels of selected third grade students of varying reading abilities. The subjects consisted of 100 third grade students. The following tests are given: the…

  6. Morphological Awareness and Vocabulary Development among Kindergarteners with Different Ability Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Gloria; Walton, Patrick; Roberts, William

    2014-01-01

    Our goal was to investigate the growth of vocabulary and morphological awareness over time in the context of an intervention for kindergartners with different ability levels in these skills. Participants in this exploratory study were 108 children from schools serving socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods. Results indicated that children…

  7. Effects of Grouping Forms, Student Gender and Ability Level on the Pleasure Experienced in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lentillon-Kaestner, Vanessa; Patelli, Gianpaolo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the main and interaction effects of grouping forms, student gender and ability level on the pleasure experienced in physical education (PE). The participants included 178 secondary school students (M = 13.17, SD = 0.81), with 72 students enrolled in a basketball unit and 106 students enrolled in an…

  8. QUANTITATIVE CELL MOTILITY FOR IN VITRO WOUND HEALING USING LEVEL SET-BASED ACTIVE CONTOUR TRACKING.

    PubMed

    Bunyak, Filiz; Palaniappan, Kannappan; Nath, Sumit K; Baskin, Tobias I; Dong, Gang

    2006-04-06

    Quantifying the behavior of cells individually, and in clusters as part of a population, under a range of experimental conditions, is a challenging computational task with many biological applications. We propose a versatile algorithm for segmentation and tracking of multiple motile epithelial cells during wound healing using time-lapse video. The segmentation part of the proposed method relies on a level set-based active contour algorithm that robustly handles a large number of cells. The tracking part relies on a detection-based multiple-object tracking method with delayed decision enabled by multi-hypothesis testing. The combined method is robust to complex cell behavior including division and apoptosis, and to imaging artifacts such as illumination changes.

  9. The Effect of Grouping by Formal Reasoning Ability, Formal Reasoning Ability Levels, Group Size, and Gender on Achievement in Laboratory Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moody, Judith D.; Gifford, Vernon D.

    This study investigated the grouping effect on student achievement in a chemistry laboratory when homogeneous and heterogeneous formal reasoning ability, high and low levels of formal reasoning ability, group sizes of two and four, and homogeneous and heterogeneous gender were used for grouping factors. The sample consisted of all eight intact…

  10. Track-Level-Compensation Look-Up Table Improves Antenna Pointing Precision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gawronski, W.; Baher, F.; Gama, E.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the improvement of the beam-waveguide antenna pointing accuracy due to the implementation of the track-level-compensation look-up table. It presents the development of the table, from the measurements of the inclinometer tilts to the processing of the measurement data and the determination of the threeaxis alidade rotations. The table consists of three axis rotations of the alidade as a function of the azimuth position. The article also presents the equations to determine the elevation and cross-elevation errors of the antenna as a function of the alidade rotations and the antenna azimuth and elevation positions. The table performance was verified using radio beam pointing data. The pointing error decreased from 4.5 mdeg to 1.4 mdeg in elevation and from 14.5 mdeg to 3.1 mdeg in cross-elevation. I. Introduction The Deep Space Station 25 (DSS 25) antenna shown in Fig. 1 is one of NASA s Deep Space Network beam-waveguide (BWG) antennas. At 34 GHz (Ka-band) operation, it is necessary to be able to track with a pointing accuracy of 2-mdeg root-mean-square (rms). Repeatable pointing errors of several millidegrees of magnitude have been observed during the BWG antenna calibration measurements. The systematic errors of order 4 and lower are eliminated using the antenna pointing model. However, repeatable pointing errors of higher order are out of reach of the model. The most prominent high-order systematic errors are the ones caused by the uneven azimuth track. The track is shown in Fig. 2. Manufacturing and installation tolerances, as well as gaps between the segments of the track, are the sources of the pointing errors that reach over 14-mdeg peak-to-peak magnitude, as reported in [1,2]. This article presents a continuation of the investigations and measurements of the pointing errors caused by the azimuth-track-level unevenness that were presented in [1] and [2], and it presents the implementation results. Track-level-compensation (TLC) look

  11. Relationship between static postural control and the level of functional abilities in children with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Pavão, Sílvia L.; Nunes, Gabriela S.; Santos, Adriana N.; Rocha, Nelci A. C. F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Postural control deficits can impair functional performance in children with cerebral palsy (CP) in daily living activities. Objective: To verify the relationship between standing static postural control and the functional ability level in children with CP. Method: The postural control of 10 children with CP (gross motor function levels I and II) was evaluated during static standing on a force platform for 30 seconds. The analyzed variables were the anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) displacement of the center of pressure (CoP) and the area and velocity of the CoP oscillation. The functional abilities were evaluated using the mean Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) scores, which evaluated self-care, mobility and social function in the domains of functional abilities and caregiver assistance. Results: Spearman's correlation test found a relationship between postural control and functional abilities. The results showed a strong negative correlation between the variables of ML displacement of CoP, the area and velocity of the CoP oscillation and the PEDI scores in the self-care and caregiver assistance domains. Additionally, a moderate negative correlation was found between the area of the CoP oscillation and the mobility scores in the caregiver assistance domain. We used a significance level of 5% (p <0.05). Conclusions: We observed that children with cerebral palsy with high CoP oscillation values had lower caregiver assistance scores for activities of daily living (ADL) and consequently higher levels of caregiver dependence. These results demonstrate the repercussions of impairments to the body structure and function in terms of the activity levels of children with CP such that postural control impairments in these children lead to higher requirements for caregiver assistance. PMID:25054383

  12. [Discussion on abilities for a leader of station of schistosomiasis prevention and control at primary level].

    PubMed

    Tao, Bo; Zhang, Zhi-Jie

    2012-08-01

    Based on the actual situation of schistosomiasis prevention and control at the primary level and from the point of a leader of the local station of schistosomiasis prevention and control, we put forward the practical problems existed in the process of schistosomiasis-related work and the corresponding solutions. What responsibilities and abilities that a leader of the station of schistosomiasis prevention and control should have are discussed and some suggestions are also given for serving the work of schistosomiasis prevention and control.

  13. Noise levels and hearing ability of female workers in a textile factory in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, A L; Nguyen, T C; Van, T L; Hoang, M H; Nguyen, S; Jonai, H; Villanueva, M B; Matsuda, S; Sotoyama, M; Sudo, A

    1998-01-01

    Noise and hearing ability profiles were determined in a textile factory in Vietnam. Noise mapping done in the weaving section showed that the noise levels exceeded the Vietnamese standard of 90 dBA by as much as 9 dBA in some areas. Audiometric tests performed on 69 female workers from the weaving section revealed that workers with more than 10 years of noise exposure had the worst hearing threshold levels at 1,000 and 4,000 Hz. Similar findings were observed for workers greater than 35 years old. The 4,000 Hz notch, suggestive of exposure to intense noise, was noted in the audiograms of 26 subjects.

  14. Ocean Tracks: College Edition - Promoting Data Literacy in Science Education at the Undergraduate Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochevar, R. E.; Krumhansl, R.; Louie, J.; Aluwihare, L.; Bardar, E. W.; Hirsch, L.; Hoyle, C.; Krumhansl, K.; Madura, J.; Mueller-Northcott, J.; Peach, C. L.; Trujillo, A.; Winney, B.; Zetterlind, V.

    2015-12-01

    Ocean Tracks is a Web-based interactive learning experience which allows users to explore the migrations of marine apex predators, and the way their behaviors relate to the physical and chemical environment surrounding them. Ocean Tracks provides access to data from the Tagging of Pelagic Predators (TOPP) program, NOAA's Global Drifter Program, and Earth-orbiting satellites via the Ocean Tracks interactive map interface; customized data analysis tools; multimedia supports; along with laboratory modules customized for undergraduate student use. It is part of a broader portfolio of projects comprising the Oceans of Data Institute, dedicated to transforming education to prepare citizens for a data-intensive world. Although originally developed for use in high school science classrooms, the Ocean Tracks interface and associated curriculum has generated interest among instructors at the undergraduate level, who wanted to engage their students in hands-on work with real scientific datasets. In 2014, EDC and the Scripps Institution of Oceanography received funding from NSF's IUSE program for Ocean Tracks: College Edition, to investigate how a learning model that includes a data interface, set of analysis tools, and curricula can be used to motivate students to learn and do science with real data; bringing opportunities to engage broad student populations, including both in-classroom and remote, on-line participants, in scientific practice. Phase 1, completed in the summer of 2015, was a needs assessment, consisting of a survey and interviews with students in oceanography classes at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography and Palomar Community College; a document review of course syllabi and primary textbooks used in current college marine science courses across the country; and interviews and a national survey of marine science faculty. We will present the results of this work, and will discuss new curriculum materials that are being classroom tested in the fall of 2015.

  15. Dispersal ability and habitat requirements determine landscape-level genetic patterns in desert aquatic insects.

    PubMed

    Phillipsen, Ivan C; Kirk, Emily H; Bogan, Michael T; Mims, Meryl C; Olden, Julian D; Lytle, David A

    2015-01-01

    Species occupying the same geographic range can exhibit remarkably different population structures across the landscape, ranging from highly diversified to panmictic. Given limitations on collecting population-level data for large numbers of species, ecologists seek to identify proximate organismal traits-such as dispersal ability, habitat preference and life history-that are strong predictors of realized population structure. We examined how dispersal ability and habitat structure affect the regional balance of gene flow and genetic drift within three aquatic insects that represent the range of dispersal abilities and habitat requirements observed in desert stream insect communities. For each species, we tested for linear relationships between genetic distances and geographic distances using Euclidean and landscape-based metrics of resistance. We found that the moderate-disperser Mesocapnia arizonensis (Plecoptera: Capniidae) has a strong isolation-by-distance pattern, suggesting migration-drift equilibrium. By contrast, population structure in the flightless Abedus herberti (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae) is influenced by genetic drift, while gene flow is the dominant force in the strong-flying Boreonectes aequinoctialis (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae). The best-fitting landscape model for M. arizonensis was based on Euclidean distance. Analyses also identified a strong spatial scale-dependence, where landscape genetic methods only performed well for species that were intermediate in dispersal ability. Our results highlight the fact that when either gene flow or genetic drift dominates in shaping population structure, no detectable relationship between genetic and geographic distances is expected at certain spatial scales. This study provides insight into how gene flow and drift interact at the regional scale for these insects as well as the organisms that share similar habitats and dispersal abilities.

  16. FPGA-Based Approach to Level-1 Track Finding at CMS for the HL-LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinnari, Louise

    2016-11-01

    The high luminosity upgrade of the LHC is expected to deliver luminosities of 7.5 × 1034 cm-2s-1, with an average of 140-200 overlapping proton-proton collisions in each bunch crossing at a frequency of 40 MHz. To maintain manageable trigger rates under these conditions track reconstruction will be incorporated in the all-hardware first level of the CMS trigger. A track-finding algorithm based on seed tracklets has been developed and implemented on commercially available FPGAs for this purpose. An overview of the algorithm is presented, results are shown of its expected performance from simulations, and an implementation of the algorithm in a Xilinx Virtex-7 FPGA for a hardware demonstrator system is discussed.

  17. Track Level Compensation Look-up Table Improves Antenna Pointing Precision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gawronski, Wodek; Baher, Farrokh; Gama, Eric

    2006-01-01

    The pointing accuracy of the NASA Deep Space Network antennas is significantly impacted by the unevenness of the antenna azimuth track. The track unevenness causes repeatable antenna rotations, and repeatable pointing errors. The paper presents the improvement of the pointing accuracy of the antennas by implementing the track-level-compensation look-up table. The table consists of three axis rotations of the alidade as a function of the azimuth position. The paper presents the development of the table, based on the measurements of the inclinometer tilts, processing the measurement data, and determination of the three-axis alidade rotations from the tilt data. It also presents the determination of the elevation and cross-elevation errors of the antenna as a function of the alidade rotations. The pointing accuracy of the antenna with and without a table was measured using various radio beam pointing techniques. The pointing error decreased when the table was used, from 1.5 mdeg to 1.2 mdeg in elevation, and from 20.4 mdeg to 2.2 mdeg in cross-elevation.

  18. Pursuit tracking and higher levels of skill development in the human pilot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    A model of the human pilot is offered for pursuit tracking tasks; the model encompasses an existing model for compensatory tracking. The central hypothesis in the development of this model states that those primary structural elements in the compensatory model responsible for the pilot's equalization capabilities remain intact in the pursuit model. In this latter case, effective low-frequency inversion of the controlled-element dynamics occurs by feeding-forward derived input rate through the equalization dynamics, with low-frequency phase droop minimized. The sharp reduction in low-frequency phase lag beyond that associated with the disappearance of phase droop is seen to accompany relatively low-gain feedback of vehicle output. The results of some recent motion cue research are discussed and interpreted in terms of the compensatory-pursuit display dichotomy. Tracking with input preview is discussed in a qualitative way. In terms of the model, preview is shown to demand no fundamental changes in structure or equalization and to allow the pilot to eliminate the effective time delays that accrue in the inversion of the controlled-element dynamics. Precognitive behavior is discussed, and a model that encompasses all the levels of skill development outlined in the successive organizations of perception theory is finally proposed.

  19. GPU-Based Tracking Algorithms for the ATLAS High-Level Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emeliyanov, D.; Howard, J.

    2012-12-01

    Results on the performance and viability of data-parallel algorithms on Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) in the ATLAS Level 2 trigger system are presented. We describe the existing trigger data preparation and track reconstruction algorithms, motivation for their optimization, GPU-parallelized versions of these algorithms, and a “client-server” solution for hybrid CPU/GPU event processing used for integration of the GPU-oriented algorithms into existing ATLAS trigger software. The resulting speed-up of event processing times obtained with high-luminosity simulated data is presented and discussed.

  20. Estimating the ability of plants to plastically track temperature-mediated shifts in the spring phenological optimum.

    PubMed

    Tansey, Christine J; Hadfield, Jarrod D; Phillimore, Albert B

    2017-02-10

    One consequence of rising spring temperatures is that the optimum timing of key life-history events may advance. Where this is the case, a population's fate may depend on the degree to which it is able to track a change in the optimum timing either via plasticity or via adaptation. Estimating the effect that temperature change will have on optimum timing using standard approaches is logistically challenging, with the result that very few estimates of this important parameter exist. Here we adopt an alternative statistical method that substitutes space for time to estimate the temperature sensitivity of the optimum timing of 22 plant species based on >200 000 spatiotemporal phenological observations from across the United Kingdom. We find that first leafing and flowering dates are sensitive to forcing (spring) temperatures, with optimum timing advancing by an average of 3 days °C(-1) and plastic responses to forcing between -3 and -8 days °C(-1) . Chilling (autumn/winter) temperatures and photoperiod tend to be important cues for species with early and late phenology, respectively. For most species, we find that plasticity is adaptive, and for seven species, plasticity is sufficient to track geographic variation in the optimum phenology. For four species, we find that plasticity is significantly steeper than the optimum slope that we estimate between forcing temperature and phenology, and we examine possible explanations for this countergradient pattern, including local adaptation.

  1. Repeated Dribbling Ability in Young Soccer Players: Reproducibility and Variation by the Competitive Level

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, João P.; Tavares, Óscar; Valente-dos-Santos, João; Severino, Vítor; Ahmed, Alexis; Rebelo-Gonçalves, Ricardo; Pereira, João R.; Vaz, Vasco; Póvoas, Susana; Seabra, André; Cumming, Sean P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The intermittent nature of match performance in youth soccer supports relevance of ability to repeatedly produce high-intensity actions with short recovery periods. This study was aimed to examine the reproducibility of a repeated dribbling ability protocol and, additionally, to estimate the contribution of concurrent tests to explain inter-individual variability in repeated dribbling output. The total sample comprised 98 players who were assessed as two independent samples: 31 players were assessed twice to examine reliability of the protocol; and 67 juveniles aged 16.1 ± 0.6 years were compared by the competitive level (local, n = 34; national, n = 33) to examine construct validity. All single measurements appeared to be reasonably reliable: total (ICC = 0.924; 95%CI: 0.841 to 0.963); ideal (ICC = 0.913; 95%CI: 0.820 to 0.958); worst (ICC = 0.813; 95%CI: 0.611 to 0.910). In addition, the percentage of the coefficient of variation was below the critical value of 5% for total (%CV = 3.84; TEM = 2.51 s); ideal (%CV = 3.90, TEM = 2.48 s). Comparisons between local and national players suggested magnitude effects as follows: moderate (d-value ranged from 0.63 to 0.89) for all repeated sprint ability scores; large for total (d = 1.87), ideal (d = 1.72), worst (d = 1.28) and moderate for composite scores: the fatigue index (d = 0.69) and the decrement score (d = 0.67). In summary, the dribbling protocol presented reasonable reproducibility properties and output extracted from the protocol seemed to be independent from biological maturation. PMID:28149420

  2. Tracking progress towards the Millennium Development Goals: reaching consensus on child mortality levels and trends.

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    The increased attention to tracking progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), including Goal 4 of reducing child mortality, has drawn attention to a number of interrelated technical, operational and political challenges and to the underlying weaknesses of country health information systems upon which reliable monitoring depends. Assessments of child mortality published in 2005, for almost all low-income countries, are based on an extrapolation of the trends observed during the 1990s, rather than on the empirical data for more recent years. The validity of the extrapolation depends on the quality and quantity of the data used, and many countries lack suitable data. In the long run, it is hoped that vital registration or sample registration systems will be established to monitor vital events in a sustainable way. However, in the short run, tracking child mortality in high-mortality countries will continue to rely on household surveys and extrapolations of historical trends. This will require more collaborative efforts both to collect data through initiatives to strengthen health information systems at the country level, and to harmonize the estimation process. The latter objective requires the continued activity of a coordinating group of international agencies and academics that aims to produce transparent estimates -- through the consistent application of an agreed-upon methodology --for monitoring at the international level. PMID:16583082

  3. Morphological awareness and vocabulary development among kindergartners with different ability levels.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Gloria; Walton, Patrick; Roberts, William

    2014-01-01

    Our goal was to investigate the growth of vocabulary and morphological awareness over time in the context of an intervention for kindergartners with different ability levels in these skills. Participants in this exploratory study were 108 children from schools serving socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods. Results indicated that children significantly improved their morphological awareness skills and vocabulary over a period of 4 months ( eta(p)(2) = .61 for morphological awareness and eta(p)(2) = .53 for vocabulary), with the greatest gains made by children who were initially low on these measures. Morphological awareness and vocabulary skills were reciprocally related; each made a unique contribution to growth in the other. The results suggest that it may be beneficial to combine instruction in vocabulary and morphological awareness and that kindergarten teachers can successfully do so with guidance.

  4. Reciprocal Relationships between Teacher Ratings of Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors in Adolescents with Different Levels of Cognitive Abilities.

    PubMed

    Morin, Alexandre J S; Arens, A Katrin; Maïano, Christophe; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Tracey, Danielle; Parker, Philip D; Craven, Rhonda G

    2017-04-01

    Are internalizing and externalizing behavior problems interrelated via mutually reinforcing relationships (with each behavior leading to increases over time in levels of the other behavior) or mutually suppressing relationships (with each behavior leading to decreases over time in levels of the other behavior)? Past research on the directionality of these relationships has led to ambiguous results, particularly in adolescence. Furthermore, the extent to which prior results will generalize to adolescents with low levels of cognitive abilities remains unknown. This second limit is particularly important, given that these adolescents are known to present higher levels of externalizing and internalizing behaviors than their peers with average-to-high levels of cognitive abilities, and that the mechanisms involved in the reciprocal relationships between these two types of behaviors may differ across both populations. This study examines the directionality of the longitudinal relationships between externalizing and internalizing behavior problems as rated by teachers across three measurement waves (corresponding to Grades 8-10) in matched samples of 138 adolescents (34.78 % girls) with low levels of cognitive abilities and 556 adolescents (44.88 % girls) with average-to-high levels of cognitive abilities. The results showed that the measurement structure was fully equivalent across time periods and groups of adolescents, revealing high levels of developmental stability in both types of problems, and moderately high levels of cross-sectional associations. Levels of both internalizing and externalizing behaviors were higher among adolescents with low levels of cognitive abilities relative to those with average-to-high levels of cognitive abilities. Finally, the predictive analyses revealed negative reciprocal longitudinal relationships (i.e., mutually suppressing relationships) between externalizing and internalizing problems, a result that was replicated within

  5. Numerical abilities of school-age children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD): A behavioral and eye-tracking study.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Alice; Piazza, Manuela; Jobert, Antoinette; Dehaene-Lambertz, Ghislaine; Huron, Caroline

    2016-08-31

    Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is a disorder of motor coordination which interferes with academic achievement. Difficulties in mathematics have been reported. Performance in the number line task is very sensitive to atypical development of numerical cognition. We used a position-to-number task in which twenty 7-to-10years old children with DCD and 20 age-matched typically developing (TD) children had to estimate the number that corresponded to a hatch mark placed on a 0-100 number line. Eye movements were recorded. Children with DCD were less accurate and slower to respond than their peers. However, they were able to map numbers onto space linearly and used anchoring strategies as control. We suggest that the shift to a linear trend reflects the ability of DCD children to use efficient strategies to solve the task despite a possibly more imprecise underlying numerical acuity.

  6. TRACKING Trounces Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This article presents an adaptation of an article from School Board News, January 6, 2004 edition. The article describes the effort of de-tracking students of varying ability levels, made by officials of South Side High School, in Rockville Centre, New York, and Noble High School, in North Berwick, Maine. Officials from both schools say that the…

  7. Definition of Local Diagnostic Reference Levels in a Radiology Department Using a Dose Tracking Software.

    PubMed

    Ghetti, C; Ortenzia, O; Palleri, F; Sireus, M

    2016-09-10

    Dose optimization in radiological examinations is a mandatory issue: in this study local Diagnostic Reference Levels (lDRLs) for Clinical Mammography (MG), Computed Tomography (CT) and Interventional Cardiac Procedures (ICP) performed in our Radiology Department were established. Using a dose tracking software, we have collected Average Glandular Dose (AGD) for two clinical mammographic units; CTDIvol, Size-Specific Dose Estimate (SSDE), Dose Length Product (DLP) and total DLP (DLPtot) for five CT scanners; Fluoro Time, Fluoro Dose Area Product (DAP) and total DAP (DAPtot) for two angiographic systems. Data have been compared with Italian Regulation and with the recent literature. The 75th percentiles of the different dosimetric indices have been calculated. Automated methods of radiation dose data collection allow a fast and detailed analysis of a great amount of data and an easy determination of lDRLs for different radiological procedures.

  8. ENABLE -- A systolic 2nd level trigger processor for track finding and e/[pi] discrimination for ATLAS/LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Klefenz, F.; Noffz, K.H.; Zoz, R. . Lehrstuhl fuer Informatik V); Maenner, R. . Interdisziplinaeres Zentrum fuer Wissenschaftliches Rechnen)

    1994-08-01

    The Enable Machine is a systolic 2nd level trigger processor for the transition radiation detector (TRD) of ATLAS/LHC. It is developed within the EAST/RD-11 collaboration at CERN. The task of the processor is to find electron tracks and to reject pion tracks according to the EAST benchmark algorithm in less than 10[mu]s. Track are identified by template matching in a ([psi],z) region of interest (RoI) selected by a 1st level trigger. In the ([psi],z) plane tracks of constant curvature are straight lines. The relevant lines form mask templates. Track identification is done by histogramming the coincidences of the templates and the RoI data for each possible track. The Enable Machine is an array processor that handles tracks of the same slope in parallel, and tracks of different slope in a pipeline. It is composed of two units, the Enable histogrammer unit and the Enable z/[psi]-board. The interface daughter board is equipped with a HIPPI-interface developed at JINR/-Dubna, and Xilinx 'corner turning' data converter chips. Enable uses programmable gate arrays (XILINX) for histogramming and synchronous SRAMs for pattern storage. With a clock rate of 40 MHz the trigger decision time is 6.5 [mu]s and the latency 7.0 [mu]s. The Enable machine is scalable in the RoI size as well as in the number of tracks processed. It can be adapted to different recognition tasks and detector setups. The prototype of the Enable Machine has been tested in a beam time of the RD6 collaboration at CERN in October 1993.

  9. Assessment of the relationship between physical working conditions and different levels of work ability.

    PubMed

    Attarchi, Mirsaeed; Ghaffari, Mostafa; Abdi, Alireza; Mirzamohammadi, Elham; Seyedmehdi, Seyed Mohammad; Rahimpour, Farzaneh; Fazlalizadeh, Maryam; Mohammadi, Saber

    2014-04-20

    Early leaving of workplace by work forces is one of the fundamental problems worldwide. Maintenance and enhancement of employees work ability are important for raising productivity. This study investigated the relationship between work ability index and physical working conditions and was carried out in 2013 on 641 workers at a manufacturing plant in Tehran. Work ability was assessed by the questionnaire of work ability index and the participants were classified into four work ability groups of poor, moderate, good, and excellent. Physical working conditions were evaluated by the MUSIC-Norrtalje questionnaire and the participants were classified into two groups with proper and poor physical working conditions. The mean score of work ability questionnaire was 42.40; and 2.5% (16 persons), 9.2% (59 persons), 38.2% (245 persons), and 50.1% (321 persons) of the participants were in poor, moderate, good, and excellent work ability groups, respectively. The mean score of physical working conditions questionnaire was 20.06. The results of logistic regression analysis showed that even after adjusting the confounding variables, a significant correlation existed between work ability and physical working conditions (p < 0.05). According to the results of this study, there may be a correlation between physical working conditions such as awkward postures, repetitive movements, load lifting, exposure to whole body vibration and so on with work ability. Therefore it seems that enhancement of the quality of physical working conditions may increase work ability.

  10. Motion-based object tracking method for safety at level crossing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmane, Houssam; Khoudour, Louahdi; Ruichek, Yassine

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a tracking method to detect and track independently moving targets, attempting to traverse the railway, in monocular camera sequences. This method is capable of tracking the maximum number of pixels belonging to an object. The method starts by detecting and separating moving objects due to background subtraction and an energy vector-based clustering. Next, the method performs the step of tracking locally. Tracking starts by generating initial optical flow of all object pixels by propagating the optical flow of Harris corner points (calculated by Lucas-Kanade technique) using normal distribution. An iterative procedure, including Kalman filtering with adaptive parameters, color intensity difference-based optimization, and validation constraints, is then implemented to reach precise and robust optical flow estimation for the majority of the pixels of the tracked objects. Different experimental results are presented, evaluated, and discussed to show the effectiveness of the method of tracking objects that may move in complex and overlapping trajectories.

  11. Ability of university-level education to prevent age-related decline in emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Rosario; Navarro Bravo, Beatriz; Latorre, José Miguel; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have suggested that educational history, as a proxy measure of active cognitive reserve, protects against age-related cognitive decline and risk of dementia. Whether educational history also protects against age-related decline in emotional intelligence (EI) is unclear. The present study examined ability EI in 310 healthy adults ranging in age from 18 to 76 years using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). We found that older people had lower scores than younger people for total EI and for the EI branches of perceiving, facilitating, and understanding emotions, whereas age was not associated with the EI branch of managing emotions. We also found that educational history protects against this age-related EI decline by mediating the relationship between age and EI. In particular, the EI scores of older adults with a university education were higher than those of older adults with primary or secondary education, and similar to those of younger adults of any education level. These findings suggest that the cognitive reserve hypothesis, which states that individual differences in cognitive processes as a function of lifetime intellectual activities explain differential susceptibility to functional impairment in the presence of age-related changes and brain pathology, applies also to EI, and that education can help preserve cognitive-emotional structures during aging.

  12. Real-time two-level foreground detection and person-silhouette extraction enhanced by body-parts tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deeb, Rada; Desserée, Elodie; Bouakaz, Saida

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we discuss foreground detection and human body silhouette extraction and tracking in monocular video systems designed for human motion analysis applications. Vision algorithms face many challenges when it comes to analyze human activities in non-controlled environments. For instance, issues like illumination changes, shadows, camouflage and occlusions make the detection and the tracking of a moving person a hard task to accomplish. Hence, advanced solutions are required to analyze the content of video sequences. We propose a real-time, two-level foreground detection, enhanced by body parts tracking, designed to efficiently extract person silhouette and body parts for monocular video-based human motion analysis systems. We aim to find solutions for different non-controlled environment challenges, which make the detection and the tracking of a moving person a hard task to accomplish. On the first level, we propose an enhanced Mixture of Gaussians, built on both chrominanceluminance and chrominance-only spaces, which handles global illumination changes. On the second level, we improve segmentation results, in interesting areas, by using statistical foreground models updated by a high-level tracking of body parts. Each body part is represented with a set of template characterized by a feature vector built in an initialization phase. Then, high level tracking is done by finding blob-template correspondences via distance minimization in feature space. Correspondences are then used to update foreground models, and a graph cut algorithm, which minimizes a Markov random field energy function containing these models, is used to refine segmentation. We were able to extract a refined silhouette in the presence of light changes, noise and camouflage. Moreover, the tracking approach allowed us to infer information about the presence and the location of body parts even in the case of partial occlusion.

  13. Marker ReDistancing/Level Set Method for High-Fidelity Implicit Interface Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Nourgaliev; Samet Kadioglu; Vincent Mousseau; Dana Knoll

    2010-02-01

    A hybrid of the Front-Tracking (FT) and the Level-Set (LS) methods is introduced, combining advantages and removing drawbacks of both methods. The kinematics of the interface is treated in a Lagrangian (FT) manner, by tracking markers placed at the interface. The markers are not connected – instead, the interface topology is resolved in an Eulerian (LS) framework, by wrapping a signed distance function around Lagrangian markers each time the markers move. For accuracy and efficiency, we have developed a high-order “anchoring” algorithm and an implicit PDE-based re-distancing. We have demonstrated that the method is 3rd-order accurate in space, near the markers, and therefore 1st-order convergent in curvature; in contrast to traditional PDE-based re-initialization algorithms, which tend to slightly relocate the zero Level Set and can be shown to be non-convergent in curvature. The implicit pseudo-time discretization of the re-distancing equation is implemented within the Jacobian-Free Newton Krylov (JFNK) framework combined with ILU(k) preconditioning. We have demonstrated that the steady-state solutions in pseudo-time can be achieved very efficiently, with iterations (CFL ), in contrast to the explicit re-distancing which requires 100s of iterations with CFL . The most cost-effective algorithm is found to be a hybrid of explicit and implicit discretizations, in which we apply first 10-15 iterations with explicit discretization (to bring the initial guess to the ball of convergence for the Newton’s method) and then finishing with 2-3 implicit steps, bringing the re-distancing equation to a complete steady-state. The eigenscopy of the JFNK-ILU(k) demonstrates the efficiency of the ILU(k) preconditioner, which effectively cluster eigenvalues of the otherwise extremely ill-conditioned Jacobian matrices, thereby enabling the Krylov (GMRES) method to converge with iterations, with only a few levels of ILU fill-ins. Importantly, due to the Level Set localization

  14. Levels of Stress as Reported by Parents and Its Relationship to Their Child's Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodbury, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if any relationship exists between "Parenting Stress Index" factors and child's cognitive abilities (Cattell-Horn-Carroll Theory of general intelligence). The participant population consisted of 16 mothers and 16 children. The cognitive abilities were measured by using one of the following measures: (1)…

  15. Differentiation of Cognitive Abilities as a Function of Neuroticism Level: A Measurement Equivalence/Invariance Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonaccio, Silvia; Reeve, Charlie L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the differentiation of cognitive abilities as a function of neuroticism. Specifically, we examine Eysenck and White's [Eysenck, H. J., and White, P. O. (1964). Personality and the measurement of intelligence. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 24, 197-201.] hypothesis that cognitive abilities are less differentiated…

  16. Motor Imagery Ability in Children with Congenital Hemiplegia: Effect of Lesion Side and Functional Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jacqueline; Reid, Susan M.; Reddihough, Dinah S.; Anderson, Vicki

    2011-01-01

    In addition to motor execution problems, children with hemiplegia have motor planning deficits, which may stem from poor motor imagery ability. This study aimed to provide a greater understanding of motor imagery ability in children with hemiplegia using the hand rotation task. Three groups of children, aged 8-12 years, participated: right…

  17. Derailing Tracking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Reviews recent research on student achievement, self-concept, and curriculum and instruction showing the ineffectiveness of tracking and ability grouping. Certain court rulings show that tracking violates the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. Innovative alternatives include cooperative learning, mastery learning, peer tutoring,…

  18. Nano-level position resolution for particle tracking in digital in-line holographic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lei, H; Hu, X; Zhu, P; Chang, X; Zeng, Y; Hu, C; Li, H; Hu, X

    2015-10-01

    Three-dimensional particle tracking in biological systems is a quickly growing field, many techniques have been developed providing tracking characters. Digital in-line holographic microscopy is a valuable technique for particle tracking. However, the speckle noise, out-of-focus signals and twin image influenced the particle tracking. Here an adaptive noise reduction method based on bidimensional ensemble empirical mode decomposition is introduced into digital in-line holographic microscopy. It can eliminate the speckle noise and background of the hologram adaptively. Combined with the three-dimensional deconvolution approach in the reconstruction, the particle feature would be identified effectively. Tracking the fixed beads on the cover-glass with piezoelectric stage through multiple holographic images demonstrate the tracking resolution, which approaches 2 nm in axial direction and 1 nm in transverse direction. This would facilitate the development and use in the biological area such as living cells and single-molecule approaches.

  19. Automated tracking of lava lake level using thermal images at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai’i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patrick, Matthew R.; Swanson, Don; Orr, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Tracking the level of the lava lake in Halema‘uma‘u Crater, at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai’i, is an essential part of monitoring the ongoing eruption and forecasting potentially hazardous changes in activity. We describe a simple automated image processing routine that analyzes continuously-acquired thermal images of the lava lake and measures lava level. The method uses three image segmentation approaches, based on edge detection, short-term change analysis, and composite temperature thresholding, to identify and track the lake margin in the images. These relative measurements from the images are periodically calibrated with laser rangefinder measurements to produce real-time estimates of lake elevation. Continuous, automated tracking of the lava level has been an important tool used by the U.S. Geological Survey’s Hawaiian Volcano Observatory since 2012 in real-time operational monitoring of the volcano and its hazard potential.

  20. The Level of Ability to Adopt and Apply Organizational Democracy to Primary Schools According to Perceptions of Teachers and Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seker, Gunes; Topsakal, Cem

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the level of ability to adopt and apply organizational democracy by teachers and administrators in primary schools are examined. The primary schools in Van have been classified in terms of sub, mid and upper socio-economic levels and 486 teachers and 71 administrators who work at the public primary schools which are randomly chosen…

  1. Use of a Card Sort Task to Assess Students' Ability to Coordinate Three Levels of Representation in Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irby, Stefan M.; Phu, Andy L.; Borda, Emily J.; Haskell, Todd R.; Steed, Nicole; Meyer, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    There is much agreement among chemical education researchers that expertise in chemistry depends in part on the ability to coordinate understanding of phenomena on three levels: macroscopic (observable), sub-microscopic (atoms, molecules, and ions) and symbolic (chemical equations, graphs, etc.). We hypothesize this "level-coordination…

  2. A massively parallel track-finding system for the LEVEL 2 trigger in the CLAS detector at CEBAF

    SciTech Connect

    Doughty, D.C. Jr.; Collins, P.; Lemon, S. ); Bonneau, P. )

    1994-02-01

    The track segment finding subsystem of the LEVEL 2 trigger in the CLAS detector has been designed and prototyped. Track segments will be found in the 35,076 wires of the drift chambers using a massively parallel array of 768 Xilinx XC-4005 FPGA's. These FPGA's are located on daughter cards attached to the front-end boards distributed around the detector. Each chip is responsible for finding tracks passing through a 4 x 6 slice of an axial superlayer, and reports two segment found bits, one for each pair of cells. The algorithm used finds segments even when one or two layers or cells along the track is missing (this number is programmable), while being highly resistant to false segments arising from noise hits. Adjacent chips share data to find tracks crossing cell and board boundaries. For maximum speed, fully combinatorial logic is used inside each chip, with the result that all segments in the detector are found within 150 ns. Segment collection boards gather track segments from each axial superlayer and pass them via a high speed link to the segment linking subsystem in an additional 400 ns for typical events. The Xilinx chips are ram-based and therefore reprogrammable, allowing for future upgrades and algorithm enhancements.

  3. The Classification Ability with Naked Eyes According to the Understanding Level about Rocks of Pre-service Science Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seong, Cho Kyu; Ho, Chung Duk; Pyo, Hong Deok; Kyeong Jin, Park

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the classification ability with naked eyes according to the understanding level about rocks of pre-service science teachers. We developed a questionnaire concerning misconception about minerals and rocks. The participant were 132 pre-service science teachers. Data were analyzed using Rasch model. Participants were divided into a master group and a novice group according to their understanding level. Seventeen rocks samples (6 igneous, 5 sedimentary, and 6 metamorphic rocks) were presented to pre-service science teachers to examine their classification ability, and they classified the rocks according to the criteria we provided. The study revealed three major findings. First, the pre-service science teachers mainly classified rocks according to textures, color, and grain size. Second, while they relatively easily classified igneous rocks, participants were confused when distinguishing sedimentary and metamorphic rocks from one another by using the same classification criteria. On the other hand, the understanding level of rocks has shown a statistically significant correlation with the classification ability in terms of the formation mechanism of rocks, whereas there was no statically significant relationship found with determination of correct name of rocks. However, this study found that there was a statistically significant relationship between the classification ability with regard the formation mechanism of rocks and the determination of correct name of rocks Keywords : Pre-service science teacher, Understanding level, Rock classification ability, Formation mechanism, Criterion of classification

  4. High-Order Discontinuous Galerkin Level Set Method for Interface Tracking and Re-Distancing on Unstructured Meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Patrick; Nourgaliev, Robert; Schofield, Sam

    2015-11-01

    A new sharp high-order interface tracking method for multi-material flow problems on unstructured meshes is presented. The method combines the marker-tracking algorithm with a discontinuous Galerkin (DG) level set method to implicitly track interfaces. DG projection is used to provide a mapping from the Lagrangian marker field to the Eulerian level set field. For the level set re-distancing, we developed a novel marching method that takes advantage of the unique features of the DG representation of the level set. The method efficiently marches outward from the zero level set with values in the new cells being computed solely from cell neighbors. Results are presented for a number of different interface geometries including ones with sharp corners and multiple hierarchical level sets. The method can robustly handle the level set discontinuities without explicit utilization of solution limiters. Results show that the expected high order (3rd and higher) of convergence for the DG representation of the level set is obtained for smooth solutions on unstructured meshes. High-order re-distancing on irregular meshes is a must for applications were the interfacial curvature is important for underlying physics, such as surface tension, wetting and detonation shock dynamics. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Information management release number LLNL-ABS-675636.

  5. Disparities in activity levels and learning ability between Djungarian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) and Roborovskii hamster (Phodopus roborovskii).

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Hiromi; Nagasawa, Mao; Yamaguchi, Takeshi; Minaminaka, Kimie; Goda, Ryosei; Chowdhury, Vishwajit S; Yasuo, Shinobu; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2017-03-01

    The Djungarian hamster and the Roborovskii hamster belong to the same genus of Phodopus. However, the Djungarian hamster is tame and shows sedative behavior, while Roborovskii hamster is not tame and shows high levels of locomotor activity. Hyperactivity occurs in animals with tameless behavior. Tameness or tamelessness behavior is very important because tameness helps for breeding and controlling as well as it enables a strong human-animal bond. In the present study, we examined the relationships between activity levels and cognitive function in Djungarian and Roborovskii hamsters. Three types of behavioral tests were performed to analyze their activity levels, memory and leaning ability. The levels of L- and D-amino acids and monoamines in the brain were then determined. Roborovskii hamsters showed significantly higher locomotor activity than Djungarian hamsters. Memory ability was not significantly different between the two hamsters, but Roborovskii hamsters showed lower learning ability. Brain levels of D-serine which is related to enhancement in memory and learning ability, were significantly higher in Djungarian hamsters, but the reverse was true for brain dopamine and serotonin levels. These results suggest that these differences in brain metabolism may be related to the behavioral differences between the two hamsters.

  6. Design and Development of an Emerging Issues Tracking System for State-Level Educational Policy- and Decisionmakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, Joyce S.; Rood, Magdalena M.

    This paper discusses the design, development, and results of a one-year pilot implementation of an emerging issues tracking system by the Southwest Educational Development Laboratory (SEDL) for state-level educational policymakers and decision makers known as SEDL-SCAN. SEDL-SCAN offers policy-makers lead time on crises by flagging emerging…

  7. Very high spatial resolution optical and radar imagery in tracking water level fluctuations of a small inland reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, R. N.; Tormos, T.; Danis, P.-A.

    2015-06-01

    Tracking water level fluctuations in small lakes and reservoirs is important in order to better understand and manage these ecosystems. A geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA) method using very high spatial and temporal resolution optical (Pléiades) and radar (COSMO-SkyMed and TerraSAR-X) remote sensing imagery is presented here which (1) tracks water level fluctuations via variations in water surface area and (2) avoids common difficulties found in using single-band radar images for water-land image classification. Results are robust, with over 98% of image surface area correctly classified into land or water, R2 = 0.963 and RMSE = 0.42 m for a total water level fluctuation range of 5.94 m. Multispectral optical imagery is found to be more straightforward in producing results than single-band radar imagery, but the latter crucially increase temporal resolution to the point where fluctuations can be satisfactorily tracked in time. Moreover, an analysis suggests that high and medium spatial resolution imagery is sufficient, in at least some cases, in tracking the water level fluctuations of small inland reservoirs. Finally, limitations of the methodology presented here are briefly discussed along with potential solutions to overcome them.

  8. General tracking control of arbitrary N-level quantum systems using piecewise time-independent potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delben, G. J.; da Luz, M. G. E.

    2016-05-01

    Here we propose a tracking quantum control protocol for arbitrary N-level systems. The goal is to make the expected value of an observable O to follow a predetermined trajectory S( t). For so, we drive the quantum state |\\varPsi (t) rangle evolution through an external potential V which depends on M_V tunable parameters (e.g., the amplitude and phase (thus M_V = 2) of a laser field in the dipolar condition). At instants t_n, these parameters can be rapidly switched to specific values and then kept constant during time intervals Δ t. The method determines which sets of parameters values can result in < \\varPsi (t) | O |\\varPsi (t) rangle = S(t). It is numerically robust (no intrinsic divergences) and relatively fast since we need to solve only nonlinear algebraic (instead of a system of coupled nonlinear differential) equations to obtain the parameters at the successive Δ t's. For a given S( t), the required minimum M_V = M_min 'degrees of freedom' of V attaining the control is a good figure of merit of the problem difficulty. For instance, the control cannot be unconditionally realizable if M_{min } > 2 and V is due to a laser field (the usual context in real applications). As it is discussed and exemplified, in these cases a possible procedure is to relax the control in certain problematic (but short) time intervals. Finally, when existing the approach can systematically access distinct possible solutions, thereby allowing a relatively simple way to search for the best implementation conditions. Illustrations for 3-, 4-, and 5-level systems and some comparisons with calculations in the literature are presented.

  9. Levels on the Playing Field: The Social Construction of Physical "Ability" in the Physical Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, John; Penney, Dawn

    2008-01-01

    Background: This paper develops an analysis of how "educability" and "physical ability" are socially configured through the practices of physical education (PE) in schools. We pursue this interest as part of a broader project, shared by many in the wider community of social science researchers in PE, to better understand how…

  10. Female Autism Phenotypes Investigated at Different Levels of Language and Developmental Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Yamini J.; O'Rourke, Julia A.; Yatchmink, Yvette; Viscidi, Emma W.; Jones, Richard N.; Morrow, Eric M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the differences in clinical symptoms between females and males with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) across three verbal ability groups (nonverbal, phrase and fluent speech), based on which Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule module was administered to 5723 individuals in four research datasets. In the Simons Simplex…

  11. Levels of Community Ambulation Ability in Patients with Stroke Who Live in a Rural Area

    PubMed Central

    Amatachaya, Sugalya; Chuadthong, Janya; Thaweewannaku, Thiwabhorn; Srisim, Kitiyawadee; Phonthee, Sirisuda

    2016-01-01

    Background Community ambulation is essential for patients with stroke. Apart from treatments, an assessment with a quantitative target criterion is also important for patients to clearly demonstrate their functional alteration and determine how close they are to their goal, as well as for therapists to assess the effectiveness of the treatments. The existing quantitative target criteria for community ambulation were all derived from participants in a developed country and ability was assessed using a single-task test. To explore cutoff scores of the single-task and dual-task 10-meter walk test (10MWT) in ambulatory patients with stroke from rural areas of a developing country. Methods Ninety-five participants with chronic stroke were interviewed concerning their community ambulation ability, and assessed for their walking ability using the single- and dual-task 10MWT. Results A walking speed of at least 0.47 m/s assessed using the single-task 10MWT, and at least 0.30 m/s assessed using the dual-task 10MWT, could determine the community ambulation ability of the participants. Conclusion Distinct contexts and anthropometric characteristics required different target criteria for community walking. Thus, when establishing a target value for community ambulation, it needs to be specific to the demographics and geographical locations of the patients. PMID:27540326

  12. Metalinguistic Knowledge and Language Ability in University-Level L2 Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roehr, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Existing research indicates that instructed learners' L2 proficiency and their metalinguistic knowledge are moderately correlated. However, the operationalization of the construct of metalinguistic knowledge has varied somewhat across studies. Metalinguistic knowledge has typically been operationalized as learners' ability to correct, describe,…

  13. Validity Studies Using the Comprehensive Ability Battery (CAB): IV. Predicting Achievement at the University Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakstian, A. Ralph; Woolsey, Lorette K.

    1985-01-01

    The paper presented evidence of the criterion related validity of several Comprehensive Ability Battery (CAB) tests relative to criterion variables representing first year college achievement. Information regarding the criterion related validity of nontraditional tests of the CAB reflecting divergent production hypothesized to be associated with…

  14. Mathematics Teachers' Covariational Reasoning Levels and Predictions about Students' Covariational Reasoning Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeytun, Aysel Sen; Cetinkaya, Bulent; Erbas, Ayhan Kursat

    2010-01-01

    Various studies suggest that covariational reasoning plays an important role on understanding the fundamental ideas of calculus and modeling dynamic functional events. The purpose of this study was to investigate a group of mathematics teachers' covariational reasoning abilities and predictions about their students. Data were collected through…

  15. Investigation of cognitive abilities related to reading and spelling in Korean: readers with high, average, and low skill levels.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun-Rin; Uno, Akira

    2012-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the characteristics of cognitive abilities as predictors of Korean reading and spelling ability, and the characteristics of the cognition of reading difficulty in Korean. In 103 Korean third-grade children, we tested ability to read and spell, nonverbal intelligence, vocabulary size, phonological cognitive processing, visual cognitive processing, and naming speed. Our results indicated that receptive vocabulary, phoneme awareness, and naming speed served as factors for predicting reading test score; receptive vocabulary served as a factor for predicting spelling test score. We found that low reading-level groups had significantly slower performance on the naming speed task and lower scores on the receptive vocabulary test, as compared with the other groups (average and high reading-level groups). The present results have implications concerning useful tasks for screening for Korean poor readers.

  16. Cardiac autonomic control in high level Brazilian power and endurance track-and-field athletes.

    PubMed

    Abad, C C C; do Nascimento, A M; Gil, S; Kobal, R; Loturco, I; Nakamura, F Y; Mostarda, C T; Irigoyen, M C

    2014-08-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) has an important role in physical performance. However, the cardiac ANS activity in high-level track and field athletes has been poorly explored. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that endurance and power athletes would present a markedly different cardiac autonomic control at rest. We analyzed the cardiac ANS by means of time and frequency domains heart rate variability (HRV) analyses and by symbolic analysis. Endurance athletes showed higher pulse interval than power athletes (1,265±126 vs. 1,031±98 ms respectively; p<0.05). No differences were found in time and frequency domains between the groups. However, the LF%, HF% and LF/HF ratio presented high effect sizes (1.46, 1.46 and 1.30, respectively). The symbolic analysis revealed that endurance athletes had higher 2V parasympathetic modulation (36±6.5) than power athletes (24±9.3; p<0.05). A reduced 0V sympathetic modulation was observed in endurance athletes (21±9.9) compared to power athletes (33±11; p<0.05 and ES=1.30). Our results suggest greater parasympathetic modulation and less sympathetic modulation in endurance athletes compared to power athletes. Additionally, the type of HRV analysis needs to be chosen with well-defined criteria and caution because their use in assessing cardiac autonomic modulation can interfere with the interpretation of results. In practical terms, symbolic analysis appears to better discriminate between cardiac autonomic activities of athletes with different training backgrounds than frequency domain analysis.

  17. Engaging Students in Environmental Research Projects: Perceptions of Fluency with Innovative Technologies and Levels of Scientific Inquiry Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebenezer, Jazlin; Kaya, Osman Nafiz; Ebenezer, Devairakkam Luke

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-method study was to investigate the changes in high school students' perceptions of fluency with innovative technologies (IT) and the levels of students' scientific inquiry abilities as a result of engaging students in long-term scientific research projects focusing on community-based environmental issues. Over a span of…

  18. The Relationship between Word and Stress Pattern Recognition Ability and Hearing Level in Hearing-Impaired Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Pamela; Kelly-Ballweber, Denise

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between word and stress pattern recognition ability and hearing level was explored by administering the Children's Auditory Test to hearing-impaired young adults (N=27). For word recognition, subjects with average hearing loss between 85 and 100 decibels demonstrated a wide range of performance not predictable from their…

  19. The Classification of the Probability Unit Ability Levels of the Eleventh Grade Turkish Students by Cluster Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozyurt, Ozcan

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the probability unit ability levels of the eleventh grade Turkish students were classified through cluster analysis. The study was carried out in a high school located in Trabzon, Turkey during the fall semester of the 2011-2012 academic years. A total of 84 eleventh grade students participated. Students were taught about…

  20. Understanding epigenetic regulation: Tracking protein levels across multiple generations of cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowat, A. C.; Weitz, D. A.

    2009-11-01

    Cells and organisms are remarkably robust: they alter the variety and levels of expressed genes and proteins in response to environmental stimuli, including temperature, chemicals, and the stiffness of their surroundings. Ultimately changes in gene and protein expression can result in a distinct phenotypic state, which in some cases is maintained over multiple generations; the ability to pass on a particular phenotypic state to progeny cells is critical for differentiation. Moreover, epigenetic regulation of phenotype is also thought to provide an evolutionary advantage for a population of cells adapting to a fluctuating environment on faster timescales than the occurrence of genetic mutations. However, simple methods to study patterns of gene and protein expression on multi-generational timescales are sparse. Here we describe a technique to study lineages of single cells over multiple generations using a microfluidic device; this reveals patterns of expression where protein levels are correlated across multiple generations. Such quantitative information of protein expression in the context of pedigree remains hidden when studying the population as an ensemble.

  1. Two-level multivariable control system of dissolved oxygen tracking and aeration system for activated sludge processes.

    PubMed

    Piotrowski, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The problem of tracking dissolved oxygen is one of the most complex and fundamental issues related to biological processes. The dissolved oxygen level in aerobic tanks has a significant influence on the behavior and activity of microorganisms. Aerated tanks are supplied with air from an aeration system (blowers, pipes, throttling valves, and diffusers). It is a complex, dynamic system governed by nonlinear hybrid dynamics. Control of the aeration system is also difficult in terms of control of the dissolved oxygen. In this article, a two-level multivariable control system for tracking dissolved oxygen and controlling an aeration system is designed. A nonlinear model predictive control algorithm was applied to design controllers for each level. This overall hierarchical control system was validated by simulation based on real data records provided by a water resource recovery facility located in Kartuzy, Northern Poland. The effect of control system parameters and disturbances was also investigated.

  2. A Study of Tracking and Ability Grouping in Mathematics and Science Courses in Virginia's Secondary Schools. House Document No. 58. Report of the Department of Education to the Governor and the General Assembly of Virginia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Education, Richmond.

    This study was conducted to determine the status of tracking and ability grouping for mathematics and science courses in the public secondary schools of Virginia as required by the General Assembly of Virginia. Guided by Virginia's standards for accrediting public schools that deal with instructional programs, the study team sought to determine if…

  3. Thoron activity level and radon measurement by a nuclear track detector.

    PubMed

    Planinić, J; Faj, Z; Vuković, B

    1993-03-01

    Radon activity concentrations in the air were measured with LR-115 nuclear track detectors at three locations in Osijek. The respective equilibrium factors and the effective dose equivalents were determined. Indoor concentrations were from 9.8 to 58.2 Bq m-3 and relative errors of the track etching method were near 19 per cent. The indoor alpha potential energy of the radon and thoron progenies was measured with an ISD detector. Independent measurements, performed with a Radhome semiconductor detector, showed that the indoor thoron concentration was nearly 20 per cent of the radon one.

  4. An on-line learning tracking of non-rigid target combining multiple-instance boosting and level set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mingming; Cai, Jingju

    2013-10-01

    Visual tracking algorithms based on online boosting generally use a rectangular bounding box to represent the position of the target, while actually the shape of the target is always irregular. This will cause the classifier to learn the features of the non-target parts in the rectangle region, thereby the performance of the classifier is reduced, and drift would happen. To avoid the limitations of the bounding-box, we propose a novel tracking-by-detection algorithm involving the level set segmentation, which ensures the classifier only learn the features of the real target area in the tracking box. Because the shape of the target only changes a little between two adjacent frames and the current level set algorithm can avoid the re-initialization of the signed distance function, it only takes a few iterations to converge to the position of the target contour in the next frame. We also make some improvement on the level set energy function so that the zero level set would have less possible to converge to the false contour. In addition, we use gradient boost to improve the original multi-instance learning (MIL) algorithm like the WMILtracker, which greatly speed up the tracker. Our algorithm outperforms the original MILtracker both on speed and precision. Compared with the WMILtracker, our algorithm runs at a almost same speed, but we can avoid the drift caused by background learning, so the precision is better.

  5. Widening the Tenure Track: A University Offers Some Instructors an Unusual Level of Job Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogg, Piper

    2003-01-01

    Describes a program at Western Michigan University that offers full-time, nontenure-track employees the opportunity to earn tenure, providing new tenure rights to instructors who teach in certain professional fields. Describes opposition to the program and reactions of those affected. (SLD)

  6. Comparison and Comparability: Fitness Tracking between Youths with Different Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Wenhao; Nichols, Randall A.; Zillifro, Traci D.

    2013-01-01

    This study compared a three-year tracking of health-related physical fitness between two comparable samples of six graders that enrolled either in a PE4life middle school ("n"?=?154) or another school with a traditional PE program ("n?"=?93) in the United States. For the cohort, the FITNESSGRAM[TM] (Cooper Institute for…

  7. The Bias Function of the Maximum Likelihood Estimate of Ability for the Dichotomous Response Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samejima, Fumiko

    1993-01-01

    F. Samejima's approximation for the bias function for the maximum likelihood estimate of the latent trait in the general case where item responses are discrete is explored. Observations are made about the behavior of this bias function for the dichotomous response level in general. Empirical examples are given. (SLD)

  8. Plasma metabolite levels predict bird growth rates: A field test of model predictive ability.

    PubMed

    Albano, Noelia; Masero, José A; Villegas, Auxiliadora; Abad-Gómez, José María; Sánchez-Guzmán, Juan M

    2011-09-01

    Bird growth rates are usually derived from nonlinear relationships between age and some morphological structure, but this procedure may be limited by several factors. To date, nothing is known about the capacity of plasma metabolite profiling to predict chick growth rates. Based on laboratory-trials, we here develop predictive logistic models of body mass, and tarsus and wing length growth rates in Gull-billed Tern Gelochelidon nilotica chicks from measurements of plasma metabolite levels at different developmental stages. The predictive model obtained during the fastest growth period (at the age of 12 days) explained 65-68% of the chicks' growth rates, with fasting triglyceride level explaining most of the variation in growth rate. At the end of pre-fledging period, β-hydroxybutyrate level was also a good predictor of growth rates. Finally, we carried out a field test to check the predictive capacity of the models in two colonies of wild Gull-billed Tern, comparing field-measured and model-predicted growth rates between groups. Both, measured and predicted growth rates, matched statistically. Plasma metabolite levels can thus be applied in comparative studies of chick growth rates when semi-precocial birds can be captured only once.

  9. Brain Activity Associated with Logical Inferences in Geometry: Focusing on Students with Different Levels of Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waisman, Ilana; Leikin, Mark; Leikin, Roza

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical processing associated with solving short geometry problems requiring logical inference was examined among students who differ in their levels of general giftedness (G) and excellence in mathematics (EM) using ERP research methodology. Sixty-seven male adolescents formed four major research groups designed according to various…

  10. Trajectory variance and autocorrelations within single-sperm tracks as population-level descriptors of sperm track complexity, predictability, and energy-generating ability.

    PubMed

    Abaigar, Teresa; Barbero, Javier; Holt, William V

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to develop an alternative theoretical approach to the analysis of sperm motility and to develop motility parameters that would complement those more commonly used in current computer-assisted semen analysis procedures. We have defined a set of parameters and have tested them using boar spermatozoa undergoing bicarbonate-induced motility activation. The new parameters were calculated for a series of (x,y) coordinates of sperm head positions recorded at each move along the trajectory. The parameters were: mean velocity (MV), immobility ratio, fractal dimension (FD), the variance of the steplengths (VAR), and 2 autocorrelation function coefficients of the step-length time series for lags 1 and 2 (C(1) and C(2)). MV measures the average speed along the trajectory, and VAR is a measure of displacement variability that can be related to the specific mean (per step) kinetic energy of the spermatozoon. All of the parameters except MV and FD were affected by the sampling frequency (25 vs 50 Hz); inappropriately high sampling frequency in relation to magnification resulted in step-lengths between successive frames that were below the resolution threshold of the imaging system. The autocorrelation functions were especially informative; discrimination between sperm subpopulations was obvious within simple histogram formats, and complex statistical analyses were not needed for their identification.

  11. Does peer learning or higher levels of e-learning improve learning abilities? A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Worm, Bjarne Skjødt; Jensen, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims The fast development of e-learning and social forums demands us to update our understanding of e-learning and peer learning. We aimed to investigate if higher, pre-defined levels of e-learning or social interaction in web forums improved students' learning ability. Methods One hundred and twenty Danish medical students were randomized to six groups all with 20 students (eCases level 1, eCases level 2, eCases level 2+, eTextbook level 1, eTextbook level 2, and eTextbook level 2+). All students participated in a pre-test, Group 1 participated in an interactive case-based e-learning program, while Group 2 was presented with textbook material electronically. The 2+ groups were able to discuss the material between themselves in a web forum. The subject was head injury and associated treatment and observation guidelines in the emergency room. Following the e-learning, all students completed a post-test. Pre- and post-tests both consisted of 25 questions randomly chosen from a pool of 50 different questions. Results All students concluded the study with comparable pre-test results. Students at Level 2 (in both groups) improved statistically significant compared to students at level 1 (p>0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between level 2 and level 2+. However, level 2+ was associated with statistically significant greater student's satisfaction than the rest of the students (p>0.05). Conclusions This study applies a new way of comparing different types of e-learning using a pre-defined level division and the possibility of peer learning. Our findings show that higher levels of e-learning does in fact provide better results when compared with the same type of e-learning at lower levels. While social interaction in web forums increase student satisfaction, learning ability does not seem to change. Both findings are relevant when designing new e-learning materials.

  12. Does peer learning or higher levels of e-learning improve learning abilities? A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Worm, Bjarne Skjødt; Jensen, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims The fast development of e-learning and social forums demands us to update our understanding of e-learning and peer learning. We aimed to investigate if higher, pre-defined levels of e-learning or social interaction in web forums improved students’ learning ability. Methods One hundred and twenty Danish medical students were randomized to six groups all with 20 students (eCases level 1, eCases level 2, eCases level 2+, eTextbook level 1, eTextbook level 2, and eTextbook level 2+). All students participated in a pre-test, Group 1 participated in an interactive case-based e-learning program, while Group 2 was presented with textbook material electronically. The 2+ groups were able to discuss the material between themselves in a web forum. The subject was head injury and associated treatment and observation guidelines in the emergency room. Following the e-learning, all students completed a post-test. Pre- and post-tests both consisted of 25 questions randomly chosen from a pool of 50 different questions. Results All students concluded the study with comparable pre-test results. Students at Level 2 (in both groups) improved statistically significant compared to students at level 1 (p>0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between level 2 and level 2+. However, level 2+ was associated with statistically significant greater student's satisfaction than the rest of the students (p>0.05). Conclusions This study applies a new way of comparing different types of e-learning using a pre-defined level division and the possibility of peer learning. Our findings show that higher levels of e-learning does in fact provide better results when compared with the same type of e-learning at lower levels. While social interaction in web forums increase student satisfaction, learning ability does not seem to change. Both findings are relevant when designing new e-learning materials. PMID:24229729

  13. Young children's ability to differentiate appearance-reality and level 2 perspectives in the tactile modality.

    PubMed

    Flavell, J H; Green, F L; Flavell, E R

    1989-02-01

    A key acquisition in the child's developing knowledge of the mind is the subjective-objective distinction, which includes a clear understanding that things may appear to be other than the way they really are (appearance-reality distinction) and may present different appearances to self and others (Level 2 perspective-taking). Previous studies using tasks involving visual appearances have found that most children do not show such understanding until 4 or 5 years of age. However, a conceptual analysis of tactile as compared to visual and other perceptual experiences suggested the hypothesis that this understanding might appear earlier if the appearances the child must identify are tactile rather than visual. This hypothesis was supported by the results of 3 studies. In Studies 1 and 2, 3-year-old subjects could correctly indicate, for example, that an ice cube they were feeling with a heavily gloved finger did not feel cold to that finger (tactile appearance for the self), did feel cold to the experimenter's ungloved or thinly gloved finger (tactile appearance for another person), and was a cold ice cube, really and truly (reality). In contrast, and consistent with previous research findings, they were much poorer at distinguishing between real and visually apparent object identity, number, and color. Similarly, in Study 3 they tended to perform better on tactile appearance-reality tasks involving the properties of number, wetness, and intactness than on visual appearance-reality tasks that involved these same properties.

  14. Sex and Ability Differences in Neural Strategy for Piaget's Water Level Test.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sina; Li, Yingli; Kong, Ming

    2017-04-01

    To explore brain activation differences between the sexes and between high and low performers on spatial perception performance, 43 college students (20 males and 23 females) performed the Piaget's Water Level Test (WLT) while their electroencephalogram signals were recorded. A 2 (Sex) × 2 (Group: high performing vs. low performing) × 2 (Hemisphere: left vs. right) × 3 (Region: frontal, parietal, and temporal) mixed analysis of variance on beta power data showed that females more significantly activated the left hemisphere when performing the WLT, suggesting their application of an analytic strategy. In contrast, males showed a bilateral activation pattern, suggesting their use of an analytic- or holistic-combined strategy. Moreover, superior performance on the WLT was associated with enhanced temporal lobe functioning, suggesting that a superior analytic skill is key to successful performance on the WLT. There is likely modulating impact of both cognitive style and specific task properties on spatial perception strategy preferences.

  15. On the ability of global sea level reconstructions to determine trends and variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calafat, F. M.; Chambers, D. P.; Tsimplis, M. N.

    2014-03-01

    We investigate how well methods based on empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) can reconstruct global mean sea level (GMSL). We first explore the analytical solution of the method and then perform a series of numerical experiments using modeled data. In addition, we present a new GMSL reconstruction for the period 1900-2011 computed both with and without a spatially uniform EOF (EOF0). The method without the EOF0 uses global information, which leads to a better reconstruction of the variability, though with some underestimation. The trend, however, is not captured, which motivates the use of the EOF0. When the EOF0 is used the method reduces to the generalized weighted mean with regularization of altimetry records at tide-gauge locations, and thus it uses no global information. This results in a poor reconstruction of the variability. Although the trend is better captured (biases smaller than ±25%) with the EOF0, using the covariance matrix of deseasonalized monthly time series as the basis for determining the contribution of each tide gauge to the trend is dubious because it assumes that the interannual variability and the trend are driven by the same mechanisms. A significant fraction of the interannual to decadal variability (˜4 mm peak-to-peak and ˜2 mm standard error) in the new GMSL reconstruction without the EOF0 is consistent with land hydrology changes associated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). When the EOF0 is used, we find no correlation with either the ENSO or land hydrology changes, and decadal fluctuations are ˜5 times greater.

  16. Examining the Effects of General Level Course Elimination and Tracking on Student Growth and Achievement in a Suburban High School Mathematics Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Brian E.

    2014-01-01

    Despite a decade of reform driven by the NCLB legislation, there continues to be a significant gap in mathematics achievement between race/ethnicity and socioeconomic groupings of students. This study examines the practice of tracking and an effort to improve mathematics achievement by eliminating the general level mathematics track. The suburban…

  17. Hardware Demonstrator of a Level-1 Track Finding Algorithm with FPGAs for the Phase II CMS Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieri, D.; CMS Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    At the HL-LHC, proton bunches collide every 25 ns, producing an average of 140 pp interactions per bunch crossing. To operate in such an environment, the CMS experiment will need a Level-1 (L1) hardware trigger, able to identify interesting events within a latency of 12.5 μs. This novel L1 trigger will make use of data coming from the silicon tracker to constrain the trigger rate. Goal of this new track trigger will be to build L1 tracks from the tracker information. The architecture that will be implemented in future to process tracker data is still under discussion. One possibility is to adopt a system entirely based on FPGA electronic. The proposed track finding algorithm is based on the Hough transform method. The algorithm has been tested using simulated pp collision data and it is currently being demonstrated in hardware, using the “MP7”, which is a μTCA board with a powerful FPGA capable of handling data rates approaching 1 Tb/s. Two different implementations of the Hough transform technique are currently under investigation: one utilizes a systolic array to represent the Hough space, while the other exploits a pipelined approach.

  18. Physiological and Neuromuscular Response to a Simulated Sprint-Distance Triathlon: Effect of Age Differences and Ability Level.

    PubMed

    García-Pinillos, Felipe; Cámara-Pérez, José C; González-Fernández, Francisco T; Párraga-Montilla, Juan A; Muñoz-Jiménez, Marcos; Latorre-Román, Pedro Á

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to describe the acute impact of a simulated sprint-distance triathlon at physiological and neuromuscular levels and to determine whether age and athletic performance influenced the response in triathletes. Nineteen triathletes performed a sprint-distance triathlon under simulated conditions. Cardiovascular response was monitored during the race. Rate of perceived exertion along with muscular performance parameters (countermovement jump [CMJ], squat jump [SJ], and handgrip strength test [HS]) were tested at pre- and posttest and during every transition, while a 20-m sprint test (S20m) was performed before and after the race. Blood lactate was recorded postrace. A repeated measures analysis of variance showed that the neuromuscular response-in terms of CMJ, SJ, and HS-was unchanged (p ≥ 0.05), while S20m performance was impaired at posttest (p < 0.001). A linear regression analysis showed that ΔCMJ predicted the overall race time (R = 0.226; p = 0.046). In addition, 2 cluster analyses (k-means) were performed by grouping according to athletic performance and age. Between-group comparison showed no significant differences in the impact of the race at either the physiological or the neuromuscular level. The results showed that muscular performance parameters were not impaired throughout the race despite high levels of fatigue reported. However, despite maintaining initial levels of muscle force after the race, the fatigue-induced changes in S20m were significant, which could reinforce the need to train sprint ability in endurance athletes. Finally, despite the differences in ability level or in age, the acute physiological and neuromuscular responses to a simulated sprint-distance triathlon were similar.

  19. Do Cost Functions for Tracking Error Generalize across Tasks with Different Noise Levels?

    PubMed Central

    Sensinger, Jonathon; Aleman-Zapata, Adrian; Englehart, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Control of human-machine interfaces are well modeled by computational control models, which take into account the behavioral decisions people make in estimating task dynamics and state for a given control law. This control law is optimized according to a cost function, which for the sake of mathematical tractability is typically represented as a series of quadratic terms. Recent studies have found that people actually use cost functions for reaching tasks that are slightly different than a quadratic function, but it is unclear which of several cost functions best explain human behavior and if these cost functions generalize across tasks of similar nature but different scale. In this study, we used an inverse-decision-theory technique to reconstruct the cost function from empirical data collected on 24 able-bodied subjects controlling a myoelectric interface. Compared with previous studies, this experimental paradigm involved a different control source (myoelectric control, which has inherently large multiplicative noise), a different control interface (control signal was mapped to cursor velocity), and a different task (the tracking position dynamically moved on the screen throughout each trial). Several cost functions, including a linear-quadratic; an inverted Gaussian, and a power function, accurately described the behavior of subjects throughout this experiment better than a quadratic cost function or other explored candidate cost functions (p<0.05). Importantly, despite the differences in the experimental paradigm and a substantially larger scale of error, we found only one candidate cost function whose parameter was consistent with the previous studies: a power function (cost ∝ errorα) with a parameter value of α = 1.69 (1.53–1.78 interquartile range). This result suggests that a power-function is a representative function of user’s error cost over a range of noise amplitudes for pointing and tracking tasks. PMID:26313560

  20. Effects of supplemental zinc source and level on antioxidant ability and fat metabolism-related enzymes of broilers1

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Z. H.; Lu, L.; Wang, R. L.; Lei, H. L.; Li, S. F.; Zhang, L. Y.; Luo, X. G.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary supplemental Zinc (Zn) source and level on antioxidant ability and fat metabolism-related enzymes of broilers. Dietary treatments included the Zn-unsupplemented corn-soybean meal basal diet (control) and basal diets supplemented with 60, 120, or 180 mg Zn/kg as Zn sulfate, Zn amino acid chelate with a weak chelation strength of 6.5 quotient of formation (Qf) (11.93% Zn) (Zn-AA W), Zn proteinate with a moderate chelation strength of 30.7 Qf (13.27% Zn) (Zn-Pro M), or Zn proteinate with an extremely strong chelation strength of 944.0 Qf (18.61% Zn) (Zn-Pro S). The results showed that dietary supplemental Zn increased (P < 0.01) Zn contents in the liver, breast, and thigh muscles of broilers, and up-regulated mRNA expressions of copper and Zn containing superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) and metallothioneins (MT) in the liver (P < 0.01) and thigh muscle (P < 0.05), and also enhanced (P < 0.05) CuZnSOD activities in the breast and thigh muscles, which exerted antioxidant ability and a decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the liver (P < 0.01) and breast and thigh muscles (P < 0.05) of broilers. Furthermore, supplemental Zn increased activities of malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in the abdominal fat (P < 0.05), and fatty acid synthetase (FAS) and LPL in the liver (P < 0.01), which were accompanied with up-regulation (P < 0.01) of the mRNA expressions levels of these enzymes in the abdominal fat and liver of broilers. Dietary Zn source, and an interaction between Zn source and level, had no effects on any measurements. It is concluded that dietary Zn supplementation improved Zn status and resulted in promoting antioxidant ability and activities and gene expressions of fat metabolism-related enzymes of broilers regardless of Zn source and level, and the addition of 60 mg Zn/kg to the corn-soybean meal basal diet (a total dietary Zn of approximately 90 mg

  1. Effects of supplemental zinc source and level on antioxidant ability and fat metabolism-related enzymes of broilers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z H; Lu, L; Wang, R L; Lei, H L; Li, S F; Zhang, L Y; Luo, X G

    2015-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary supplemental Zinc (Zn) source and level on antioxidant ability and fat metabolism-related enzymes of broilers. Dietary treatments included the Zn-unsupplemented corn-soybean meal basal diet (control) and basal diets supplemented with 60, 120, or 180 mg Zn/kg as Zn sulfate, Zn amino acid chelate with a weak chelation strength of 6.5 quotient of formation (Qf) (11.93% Zn) (Zn-AA W), Zn proteinate with a moderate chelation strength of 30.7 Qf (13.27% Zn) (Zn-Pro M), or Zn proteinate with an extremely strong chelation strength of 944.0 Qf (18.61% Zn) (Zn-Pro S). The results showed that dietary supplemental Zn increased (P < 0.01) Zn contents in the liver, breast, and thigh muscles of broilers, and up-regulated mRNA expressions of copper and Zn containing superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) and metallothioneins (MT) in the liver (P < 0.01) and thigh muscle (P < 0.05), and also enhanced (P < 0.05) CuZnSOD activities in the breast and thigh muscles, which exerted antioxidant ability and a decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the liver (P < 0.01) and breast and thigh muscles (P < 0.05) of broilers. Furthermore, supplemental Zn increased activities of malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in the abdominal fat (P < 0.05), and fatty acid synthetase (FAS) and LPL in the liver (P < 0.01), which were accompanied with up-regulation (P < 0.01) of the mRNA expressions levels of these enzymes in the abdominal fat and liver of broilers. Dietary Zn source, and an interaction between Zn source and level, had no effects on any measurements. It is concluded that dietary Zn supplementation improved Zn status and resulted in promoting antioxidant ability and activities and gene expressions of fat metabolism-related enzymes of broilers regardless of Zn source and level, and the addition of 60 mg Zn/kg to the corn-soybean meal basal diet (a total dietary Zn of approximately 90 mg/kg) was appropriate

  2. Investigating the atomic level influencing factors of glass forming ability in NiAl and CuZr metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Sedighi, Sina; Kirk, Donald Walter; Singh, Chandra Veer Thorpe, Steven John

    2015-09-21

    Bulk metallic glasses are a relatively new class of amorphous metal alloy which possess unique mechanical and magnetic properties. The specific concentrations and combinations of alloy elements needed to prevent crystallization during melt quenching remains poorly understood. A correlation between atomic properties that can explain some of the previously identified glass forming ability (GFA) anomalies of the NiAl and CuZr systems has been identified, with these findings likely extensible to other transition metal–transition metal and transition metal–metalloid (TM–M) alloy classes as a whole. In this work, molecular dynamics simulation methods are utilized to study thermodynamic, kinetic, and structural properties of equiatomic CuZr and NiAl metallic glasses in an attempt to further understand the underlying connections between glass forming ability, nature of atomic level bonding, short and medium range ordering, and the evolution of structure and relaxation properties in the disordered phase. The anomalous breakdown of the fragility parameter as a useful GFA indicator in TM–M alloy systems is addressed through an in-depth investigation of bulk stiffness properties and the evolution of (pseudo)Gruneisen parameters over the quench domain, with the efficacy of other common glass forming ability indicators similarly being analyzed through direct computation in respective CuZr and NiAl systems. Comparison of fractional liquid-crystal density differences in the two systems revealed 2-3 times higher values for the NiAl system, providing further support for its efficacy as a general purpose GFA indicator.

  3. Investigating the atomic level influencing factors of glass forming ability in NiAl and CuZr metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Sedighi, Sina; Kirk, Donald Walter; Singh, Chandra Veer; Thorpe, Steven John

    2015-09-21

    Bulk metallic glasses are a relatively new class of amorphous metal alloy which possess unique mechanical and magnetic properties. The specific concentrations and combinations of alloy elements needed to prevent crystallization during melt quenching remains poorly understood. A correlation between atomic properties that can explain some of the previously identified glass forming ability (GFA) anomalies of the NiAl and CuZr systems has been identified, with these findings likely extensible to other transition metal-transition metal and transition metal-metalloid (TM-M) alloy classes as a whole. In this work, molecular dynamics simulation methods are utilized to study thermodynamic, kinetic, and structural properties of equiatomic CuZr and NiAl metallic glasses in an attempt to further understand the underlying connections between glass forming ability, nature of atomic level bonding, short and medium range ordering, and the evolution of structure and relaxation properties in the disordered phase. The anomalous breakdown of the fragility parameter as a useful GFA indicator in TM-M alloy systems is addressed through an in-depth investigation of bulk stiffness properties and the evolution of (pseudo)Gruneisen parameters over the quench domain, with the efficacy of other common glass forming ability indicators similarly being analyzed through direct computation in respective CuZr and NiAl systems. Comparison of fractional liquid-crystal density differences in the two systems revealed 2-3 times higher values for the NiAl system, providing further support for its efficacy as a general purpose GFA indicator.

  4. Tracking blood lead and zinc protoporphyrin levels in Andean adults working in a lead contaminated environment.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Fernando; Counter, S Allen; Buchanan, Leo H; Parra, Angelica Maria Coronel; Collaguaso, Maria Angela; Jacobs, Anthony B

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate current blood lead (PbB) and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels in adults presently living in environmentally Pb-contaminated Andean communities, and to compare the findings with the PbB and ZPP levels of Pb-exposed adult cohorts from the same study area tested between 1996 and 2007. Blood samples from 39 adults were measured for PbB and ZPP concentrations. The current mean PbB level (22.7 μg/dl) was significantly lower than the mean (37.9 μg/dl) of the initial 1996 cohort. PbB levels for the 1997, 1998, 2003, and 2006 cohorts were also significantly lower than the levels for the 1996 group. Elevated ZPP/heme ratios of 103.3, 128.4, and 134.2 μmol/mol were not significantly different for the 2006, 2007, and 2012 groups, indicating chronic Pb exposure. While ZPP levels of Andean Ecuadorian Pb-glazing workers have remained elevated, PbB levels declined. Lead exposure of the workers needs to be continually monitored.

  5. Repeated Acceleration Ability (RAA): A New Concept with Reference to Top-Level Field and Assistant Soccer Referees

    PubMed Central

    Barberó-Álvarez, José Carlos; Boullosa, Daniel; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo; Andrín, Germán; Weston, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To perform an exploratory characterization of repeated sprint sequences (RSS) and repeated acceleration sequences (RAS) in top level soccer referees. Methods 7 field and 7 assistant referees were monitored during 2007 America's Soccer Cup with GPS technology. Sprints of >18 km·h-1 and accelerations of >1.5 m·s-2 were considered as high intensity activities. RSS and RAS were defined as a minimum of 3 consecutive bouts interspersed with a maximum of 45 s. Results Field and assistant referees performed substantially more accelerations than sprints. Neither field nor assistant referees recorded any RSS. In contrast, total distance performing RAS amounted to ∼37% and ∼20% of the total distance covered by accelerations during the entire match for field and assistant referees, respectively. Only field referees exhibited fatigue-related reductions in RAS characteristics between halves. Conclusion The results of the present study would appear to support the appropriateness of a repeated acceleration ability (RAA) concept, instead of the repeated sprint ability (RSA) concept, in soccer referees. Further studies should assess RAS in referees and athletes of different team sports for designing better training exercises and physiological testing. PMID:24868433

  6. Performance of Tracking, b-tagging and Jet/MET reconstruction at the CMS High Level Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosi, Mia

    2015-12-01

    The trigger systems of the LHC detectors play a crucial role in determining the physics capabilities of experiments. In 2015, the center-of-mass energy of proton-proton collisions will reach 13 TeV up to an unprecedented luminosity of 1 × 1034 cm-2s-1. A reduction of several orders of magnitude of the event rate is needed to reach values compatible with detector readout, offline storage and analysis capabilities. The CMS experiment has been designed with a two-level trigger system: the Level-1 Trigger (L1T), implemented on custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a trade-off between the complexity of the algorithms, the sustainable output rate, and the selection efficiency. With the computing power available during the 2012 data taking the maximum reconstruction time at HLT was about 200 ms per event, at the nominal L1T rate of 100 kHz. Tracking algorithms are widely used in the HLT in the object reconstruction through particle-flow techniques as well as in the identification of b-jets and lepton isolation. Reconstructed tracks are also used to distinguish the primary vertex, which identifies the hard interaction process, from the pileup ones. This task is particularly important in the LHC environment given the large number of interactions per bunch crossing: on average 25 in 2012, and expected to be around 40 in Run II with a large contribution from out-of-time particles. In order to cope with tougher conditions the tracking and vertexing techniques used in 2012 have been largely improved in terms of timing and efficiency in order to keep the physics reach at the level of Run I conditions. We will present the performance of these newly developed algorithms, discussing their impact on the b-tagging performances as well as on the jet and missing transverse energy reconstruction.

  7. An eye-tracking method to reveal the link between gazing patterns and pragmatic abilities in high functioning autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Grynszpan, Ouriel; Nadel, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    The present study illustrates the potential advantages of an eye-tracking method for exploring the association between visual scanning of faces and inferences of mental states. Participants watched short videos involving social interactions and had to explain what they had seen. The number of cognition verbs (e.g., think, believe, know) in their answers were counted. Given the possible use of peripheral vision that could confound eye-tracking measures, we added a condition using a gaze-contingent viewing window: the entire visual display is blurred, expect for an area that moves with the participant’s gaze. Eleven typical adults and eleven high functioning adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) were recruited. The condition employing the viewing window yielded strong correlations between the average duration of fixations, the ratio of cognition verbs and standard measures of social disabilities. PMID:25642182

  8. An eye-tracking method to reveal the link between gazing patterns and pragmatic abilities in high functioning autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Grynszpan, Ouriel; Nadel, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    The present study illustrates the potential advantages of an eye-tracking method for exploring the association between visual scanning of faces and inferences of mental states. Participants watched short videos involving social interactions and had to explain what they had seen. The number of cognition verbs (e.g., think, believe, know) in their answers were counted. Given the possible use of peripheral vision that could confound eye-tracking measures, we added a condition using a gaze-contingent viewing window: the entire visual display is blurred, expect for an area that moves with the participant's gaze. Eleven typical adults and eleven high functioning adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) were recruited. The condition employing the viewing window yielded strong correlations between the average duration of fixations, the ratio of cognition verbs and standard measures of social disabilities.

  9. ESR dating pleistocene barnacles from BC and Maine: a new method for tracking sea level change.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, Bonnie A B; Gong, J J J; Skinner, Anne R; Blais-Stevens, Andrée; Nelson, Robert E; Blickstein, Joel I B

    2010-02-01

    Barnacles have never been successfully dated by electron spin resonance (ESR). Living mainly in the intertidal zone, barnacles die when sea level changes cause their permanent exposure. Thus, dating the barnacles dates past sea level changes. From this, we can measure apparent sea level changes that occur due to ocean volume changes, crustal isostasy, and tectonics. ESR can date aragonitic mollusc shells ranging in age from 5 ka to at least 500 ka. By modifying the standard ESR method for molluscs to chemically dissolve 20 microm from off the shells, six barnacle samples from Norridgewock, Maine, and Khyex River, British Columbia, were tested for suitability for ESR dating. Due to Mn2+ interference peaks, the four Maine barnacle samples were not datable by ESR. Two barnacles from BC, which lacked Mn2+ interference, yielded a mean ESR age of 15.1 +/- 1.0 ka. These ages agree well with 14C dates on the barnacles themselves and wood in the overlying glaciomarine sediment. Although stability tests to calculate the mean dating signal lifetime and more ESR calibration tests against other barnacles of known age are needed to ensure the method's accuracy, ESR can indeed date Balanus, and thus, sea level changes.

  10. "We don't need no education": Video game preferences, video game motivations, and aggressiveness among adolescent boys of different educational ability levels.

    PubMed

    Nije Bijvank, Marije; Konijn, Elly A; Bushman, Brad J

    2012-02-01

    This research focuses on low educational ability as a risk factor for aggression and violent game play. We propose that boys of lower educational ability are more attracted to violent video games than other boys are, and that they are also higher in trait aggressiveness and sensation seeking. Participants were Dutch boys in public schools (N = 830, age-range 11-17). In the Netherlands, standardized tests are used to place students into lower, medium, and higher educational ability groups. Results showed that boys in the lower educational ability group preferred to play violent, stand-alone games, identified more with video game characters, and perceived video games to be more realistic than other boys did. Lower levels of education were also related to higher levels of aggressiveness and sensation seeking. Higher educational ability boys preferred social, multiplayer games. Within a risk and resilience model, boys with lower educational ability are at greater risk for aggression.

  11. Lack of Effects of High Level Carboxyhemoglobin on Compensatory Tracking and EEG Protocol 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-01

    compose a signal. Power spectra specify the energy level in each frequency. Coherence spectra specify the strength of relationship between waves at...electrical signals generated by the brain; the so-called brain wave . FF Forcina function, a signal or voltage which drives the oscilloscope spot away...from the target. Hz Hertz, a measure of frequency of an oscillatini wave in cycles per second. p Probability of an event or outcome of a test of

  12. Can community structure track sea-level rise? Stress and competitive controls in tidal wetlands.

    PubMed

    Schile, Lisa M; Callaway, John C; Suding, Katharine N; Kelly, N Maggi

    2017-02-01

    Climate change impacts, such as accelerated sea-level rise, will affect stress gradients, yet impacts on competition/stress tolerance trade-offs and shifts in distributions are unclear. Ecosystems with strong stress gradients, such as estuaries, allow for space-for-time substitutions of stress factors and can give insight into future climate-related shifts in both resource and nonresource stresses. We tested the stress gradient hypothesis and examined the effect of increased inundation stress and biotic interactions on growth and survival of two congeneric wetland sedges, Schoenoplectus acutus and Schoenoplectus americanus. We simulated sea-level rise across existing marsh elevations and those not currently found to reflect potential future sea-level rise conditions in two tidal wetlands differing in salinity. Plants were grown individually and together at five tidal elevations, the lowest simulating an 80-cm increase in sea level, and harvested to assess differences in biomass after one growing season. Inundation time, salinity, sulfides, and redox potential were measured concurrently. As predicted, increasing inundation reduced biomass of the species commonly found at higher marsh elevations, with little effect on the species found along channel margins. The presence of neighbors reduced total biomass of both species, particularly at the highest elevation; facilitation did not occur at any elevation. Contrary to predictions, we documented the competitive superiority of the stress tolerator under increased inundation, which was not predicted by the stress gradient hypothesis. Multifactor manipulation experiments addressing plant response to accelerated climate change are integral to creating a more realistic, valuable, and needed assessment of potential ecosystem response. Our results point to the important and unpredicted synergies between physical stressors, which are predicted to increase in intensity with climate change, and competitive forces on biomass as

  13. Musical ability.

    PubMed

    Sloboda, J

    1993-01-01

    Musical ability is the ability to 'make sense' of music, and develops in most people over the first decade of life through normal enculturation. Whether this ability is developed to a high level usually depends on the decision to start learning a musical instrument, which forces high levels of focused cognitive engagement (practice) with musical materials. Performance ability has both technical and expressive aspects. These aspects are not always developed equally well. Factors contributing to the development of a well-balanced musical performer include (a) lengthy periods of engagement with music through practice and exploration, (b) high levels of material and emotional support from parents and other adults, (c) relationships with early teachers characterized by warmth and mutual liking, and (d) early experiences with music that promote, rather than inhibit, intense sensuous/affective experiences. It is argued that much formal education inhibits the development of musical ability through over-emphasis on assessment, creating performance anxiety, coupled with class and sex stereotyping of approved musical activities. Early free exploration of a medium is a necessity for the development of high levels of musicality.

  14. Extracellular dopamine levels in striatal subregions track shifts in motivation and response cost during instrumental conditioning.

    PubMed

    Ostlund, Sean B; Wassum, Kate M; Murphy, Niall P; Balleine, Bernard W; Maidment, Nigel T

    2011-01-05

    Tonic dopamine (DA) signaling is widely regarded as playing a central role in effort-based decision making and in the motivational control of instrumental performance. The current study used microdialysis to monitor changes in extracellular DA levels across subregions of the nucleus accumbens and dorsal striatum of rats as they lever pressed for food reward on a probabilistic schedule of reinforcement, a procedure that ensured they would experience variation in the amount of effort needed to earn rewards across tests. Each rat was given three tests. Rats were hungry for the first and last test, but were sated on food before the middle test, allowing us to assess the effects of a downshift in motivational state on task performance and conditioning-induced DA efflux. During hungry tests, DA levels rose in both the shell and core of the accumbens and, to a lesser degree, in both the medial and lateral divisions of the dorsal striatum. Interestingly, changes in DA efflux across hungry tests in the accumbens core were negatively correlated with changes in the effort required to obtain rewards. We also found that--across regions--the DA response to instrumental conditioning was attenuated when rats were sated before testing. Furthermore, the effect of satiety on DA efflux in the accumbens shell was positively correlated with its effect on task performance. Together, the results indicate that tonic DA contributes to the control of instrumental performance by conveying information about the costs and benefits of responding to different striatal subregions.

  15. Tracking and quantifying polymer therapeutic distribution on a cellular level using 3D dSTORM

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Jonathan M.; Zhang, Rui; Gudheti, Manasa; Yang, Jiyuan; Kopeček, Jindřich

    2016-01-01

    We used a single-molecule localization technique called direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM) to quantify both colocalization and spatial distribution on a cellular level for two conceptually different N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer conjugates. Microscopy images were acquired of entire cells with resolutions as high as 25 nm revealing the nanoscale distribution of the fluorescently labeled therapeutic components. Drug-free macromolecular therapeutics consisting of two self-assembling nanoconjugates showed slight increase in nanoclusters on the cell surface with time. Additionally, dSTORM provided high resolution images of the nanoscale organization of the self-assembling conjugates at the interface between two cells. A conjugate designed for treating ovarian cancer showed that the model drug (Cy3) and polymer bound to Cy5 were colocalized at an early time point before the model drug was enzymatically cleaved from the polymer. Using spatial descriptive statistics it was found that the drug was randomly distributed after 24 h while the polymer bound dye remained in clusters. Four different fluorescent dyes were used and two different therapeutic systems were tested to demonstrate the versatility and possible general applicability of dSTORM for use in studying drug delivery systems. PMID:26855050

  16. Indications for the tracking of elevated nitrogen levels through the fungal route in a soil food web.

    PubMed

    Hogervorst, R F; Dijkhuis, M A J; van der Schaar, M A; Berg, M P; Verhoef, H A

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of elevated N in dead organic matter on the growth of fungi and to establish the consequences for the development of microbivores. Therefore, three fungal species were cultured on Scots pine litter differing in N content. The growth of the soil fungal species Trichoderma koningii, Penicillium glabrum and Cladosporium cladosporioides was directly influenced by the N content (ranging from 1.25 to 2.19% N) of the substrate. For all three fungal species maximum growth was highest at intermediate N content (1.55%) of the substrate. The fungivorous collembolan Orchesella cincta reached highest asymptotic body mass when fed with C. cladosporioides, grown on litter medium with intermediate N content (1.55%). The growth of O. cincta was lower when fed with C. cladosporioides from litter medium with the highest N content (2.19%). Similar results were obtained in mesocosm experiments in which pine litter with three levels of N (1.11, 1.78, 2.03% N) was used as substrate for the fungi. On litter with the highest N content (2.03%) hyphal length and asymptotic body mass of O. cincta were reduced. The results show that the N content of the substrate determines the growth of both fungi and fungivores, and suggest that elevated levels of N in soil track through the fungal part of the soil food web.

  17. Centimeter-level precise orbit determination for the HY-2A satellite using DORIS and SLR tracking data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Qiaoli; Guo, Jinyun; Sun, Yu; Zhao, Chunmei; Chen, Chuanfa

    2017-01-01

    The HY-2A satellite is the first ocean dynamic environment monitoring satellite of China. Centimeter-level radial accuracy is a fundamental requirement for its scientific research and applications. To achieve this goal, we designed the strategies of precise orbit determination (POD) in detail. To achieve the relative optimal orbit for HY-2A, we carried out POD using DORIS-only, SLR-only, and DORIS + SLR tracking data, respectively. POD tests demonstrated that the consistency level of DORIS-only and SLR-only orbits with respect to the CNES orbits were about 1.81 cm and 3.34 cm in radial direction in the dynamic sense, respectively. We designed 6 cases of different weight combinations for DORIS and SLR data, and found that the optimal relative weight group was 0.2 mm/s for DORIS and 15.0 cm for SLR, and RMS of orbit differences with respect to the CNES orbits in radial direction and three-dimensional (3D) were 1.37 cm and 5.87 cm, respectively. These tests indicated that the relative radial and 3D accuracies computed using DORIS + SLR data with the optimal relative weight set were obviously higher than those computed using DORIS-only and SLR-only data, and satisfied the requirement of designed precision. The POD for HY-2A will provide the invaluable experience for the following HY-2B, HY-2C, and HY-2D satellites.

  18. Identification of stair climbing ability levels in community-dwelling older adults based on the geometric mean of stair ascent and descent speed: The GeMSS classifier.

    PubMed

    Mayagoitia, Ruth E; Harding, John; Kitchen, Sheila

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to develop a quantitative approach to identify three stair-climbing ability levels of older adults: no, somewhat and considerable difficulty. Timed-up-and-go test, six-minute-walk test, and Berg balance scale were used for statistical comparison to a new stair climbing ability classifier based on the geometric mean of stair speeds (GeMSS) in ascent and descent on a flight of eight stairs with a 28° pitch in the housing unit where the participants, 28 (16 women) urban older adults (62-94 years), lived. Ordinal logistic regression revealed the thresholds between the three ability levels for each functional test were more stringent than thresholds found in the literature to classify walking ability levels. Though a small study, the intermediate classifier shows promise of early identification of difficulties with stairs, in order to make timely preventative interventions. Further studies are necessary to obtain scaling factors for stairs with other pitches.

  19. Discriminatory ability of fractal and grey level co-occurrence matrix methods in structural analysis of hippocampus layers.

    PubMed

    Pantic, Igor; Dacic, Sanja; Brkic, Predrag; Lavrnja, Irena; Jovanovic, Tomislav; Pantic, Senka; Pekovic, Sanja

    2015-04-07

    Fractal and grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) analysis represent two mathematical computer-assisted algorithms that are today thought to be able to accurately detect and quantify changes in tissue architecture during various physiological and pathological processes. However, despite their numerous applications in histology and pathology, their sensitivity, specificity and validity regarding evaluation of brain tissue remain unclear. In this article we present the results indicating that certain parameters of fractal and GLCM analysis have high discriminatory ability in distinguishing two morphologically similar regions of rat hippocampus: stratum lacunosum-moleculare and stratum radiatum. Fractal and GLCM algorithms were performed on a total of 240 thionine-stained hippocampus micrographs of 12 male Wistar albino rats. 120 digital micrographs represented stratum lacunosum-moleculare, and another 120 stratum radiatum. For each image, 7 parameters were calculated: fractal dimension, lacunarity, GLCM angular second moment, GLCM contrast, inverse difference moment, GLCM correlation, and GLCM variance. GLCM variance (VAR) resulted in the largest area under the Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.96, demonstrating an outstanding discriminatory power in analysis of stratum lacunosum-moleculare (average VAR equaled 478.1 ± 179.8) and stratum radiatum (average VAR of 145.9 ± 59.2, p < 0.0001). For the criterion VAR ≤ 227.5, sensitivity and specificity were 90% and 86.7%, respectively. GLCM correlation as a parameter also produced large area under the ROC curve of 0.95. Our results are in accordance with the findings of our previous study regarding brain white mass fractal and textural analysis. GLCM algorithm as an image analysis method has potentially high applicability in structural analysis of brain tissue cytoarcitecture.

  20. A global historical Radiosondes and Tracked Balloons Archive on standard pressure levels back to the 1920s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramella Pralungo, L.; Haimberger, L.; Stickler, A.; Brönnimann, S.

    2013-12-01

    Long observed time series of climate state quantities are needed to extend our understanding of global weather, climate variability and monitoring not only at the Earths surface but also the free atmosphere, since climate anomalies and climate change have a three-dimensional spatial structure. Radiosonde data before 1958 and tracked balloon (PILOT) data are rarely available at standard times on standard pressure levels, which complicates their use for climate studies. This paper describes an upper air dataset on standard pressure levels at 00:00 GMT and 12:00 GMT for parameters temperature and wind. The input data sources of this dataset are the Comprehensive Historical Upper Air Network (CHUAN version 1.7), the Integrated Global Radiosonde Archive (IGRA) and upper air observations from the reanalysis datasets ERA-40 and ERA-Interim. As such it contains many data that have been digitized and collected in the EU FP7 project ERA-CLIM. Those data, which partly exist at asynoptic times and on altitude levels instead of pressure levels, have been brought to synoptic times and standard pressure levels using state of the art interpolation techniques, employing geopotential information National Oceanic and Atmosphere Administration (NOAA) 20th Century Reanalysis (NOAA 20CR) to aid the interpolation. The standardized time series have been merged if necessary, taking care that the data are traceable back to their original sources. Only time series longer than 300 days have been saved in the merged archive, since the main purpose of this dataset is to aid climatological studies. If possible WMO numbers have been given to the station records. For some records which have never been identified by a WMO number, a local ID above 100 000 has been attached. This paper describes the merging procedure, data count and data quality and how traceability of the data is ensured. It does not describe a homogenization procedure for both temperature and wind data. Homogeneity adjustments for

  1. Using Eye Tracking to Observe Differential Effects of Repeated Readings for Second-grade Students as a Function of Achievement Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zawoyski, Andrea M.; Ardoin, Scott P.; Binder, Katherine S.

    2015-01-01

    Repeated readings (RR) is an evidence-based instructional technique in which students read the same text multiple times. Currently, little is known about how effects of RR may differ based on students' achievement levels. Eye tracking provides a means for closely examining instructional effects because it permits measurement of subtle changes that…

  2. Repression of the pyr operon in Lactobacillus plantarum prevents its ability to grow at low carbon dioxide levels.

    PubMed

    Nicoloff, Hervé; Elagöz, Aram; Arsène-Ploetze, Florence; Kammerer, Benoît; Martinussen, Jan; Bringel, Françoise

    2005-03-01

    Carbamoyl phosphate is a precursor for both arginine and pyrimidine biosynthesis. In Lactobacillus plantarum, carbamoyl phosphate is synthesized from glutamine, ATP, and carbon dioxide by two sets of identified genes encoding carbamoyl phosphate synthase (CPS). The expression of the carAB operon (encoding CPS-A) responds to arginine availability, whereas pyrAaAb (encoding CPS-P) is part of the pyrR1BCAaAbDFE operon coding for the de novo pyrimidine pathway repressed by exogenous uracil. The pyr operon is regulated by transcription attenuation mediated by a trans-acting repressor that binds to the pyr mRNA attenuation site in response to intracellular UMP/phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate pools. Intracellular pyrimidine triphosphate nucleoside pools were lower in mutant FB335 (carAB deletion) harboring only CPS-P than in the wild-type strain harboring both CPS-A and CPS-P. Thus, CPS-P activity is the limiting step in pyrimidine synthesis. FB335 is unable to grow in the presence of uracil due to a lack of sufficient carbamoyl phosphate required for arginine biosynthesis. Forty independent spontaneous FB335-derived mutants that have lost regulation of the pyr operon were readily obtained by their ability to grow in the presence of uracil and absence of arginine; 26 harbored mutations in the pyrR1-pyrB loci. One was a prototroph with a deletion of both pyrR1 and the transcription attenuation site that resulted in large amounts of excreted pyrimidine nucleotides and increased intracellular UTP and CTP pools compared to wild-type levels. Low pyrimidine-independent expression of the pyr operon was obtained by antiterminator site-directed mutagenesis. The resulting AE1023 strain had reduced UTP and CTP pools and had the phenotype of a high-CO2-requiring auxotroph, since it was able to synthesize sufficient arginine and pyrimidines only in CO2-enriched air. Therefore, growth inhibition without CO2 enrichment may be due to low carbamoyl phosphate pools from lack of CPS activity.

  3. VEx/VIRTIS and TNG/NICS cloud tracked winds at Venus' lower cloud level using nightside observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, Pedro; Peralta, Javier; Luz, David; Gonçalves, Rúben

    2016-04-01

    We present results based on observations carried out with the Near Infrared Camera and Spectrograph (NICS) of the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG), in La Palma, on July 2012. We observed for periods of 2.5 hours starting just before dawn, for three consecutive nights. We acquired a set of images of the night side of Venus with the continuum K filter at 2.28 microns, which allows to monitor motions at the lower cloud level of the atmosphere of Venus, close to 48 km altitude. Our objective has been to measure the horizontal wind field in order to characterize the latitudinal zonal wind profile, to study variability, to help constrain the effect of large scale planetary waves in the maintenance of superrotation, and to map the cloud distribution. We will present first results of cloud tracked winds from ground-based TNG observations and winds retrieved from coordinated space-based VEx/VIRTIS observations. The cloud deck extends in altitude from 45 to 70 km, and can be divided into three main regions, centered at 48, 54 and 60 km. The lowest of these is the lower cloud, where fundamental dynamical exchanges that help maintain superrotation are thought to occur. The lower venusian atmosphere is a strong source of thermal radiation, with the gaseaous CO2 component allowing radiation to escape in windows at 1.74 and 2.28 μm. At these wavelengths radiation originates below 35 km, and unit opacity is reached at the lower cloud level, close to 48 km. Therefore, in these windows it is possible to observe the horizontal cloud structure, with thicker clouds seen silhouetted against the bright thermal background from the low atmosphere. Our objective is to provide direct absolute wind measurements and a map of cloud distribution at the lower cloud level in the Venus troposphere, in order to complement Venus Express (VEX) and other ground-based observations of the cloud layer wind regime. By continuous monitoring of the horizontal cloud structure at 2.28 μm (NICS Kcont filter

  4. Work disabilities and unmet needs for health care and rehabilitation among jobseekers: a community-level investigation using multidimensional work ability assessments

    PubMed Central

    Kerätär, Raija; Taanila, Anja; Jokelainen, Jari; Soukainen, Jouko; Ala-Mursula, Leena

    2016-01-01

    Objective Comprehensive understanding of the prevalence and quality of work disabilities and unmet needs for health care and rehabilitation to support return to work (RTW) among jobseekers. Design Community-level, cross-sectional analysis with multidimensional clinical work ability assessments. Setting Paltamo, Finland. Participants Unemployed citizens either participating in the Full-Employment Project or long-term unemployed (n = 230, 81%). Main outcome measures Based on data from theme interviews, patient records, supervisors’ observations of work performance and clinical examinations, a physician concluded the individual’s work ability, categorised into four groups: good work ability, good work ability expected after RTW support, able to transitional work only or unable to work. These groups were cross tabulated with primary diagnoses, types of plans to support RTW, as well as categories of social functioning and motivation, for which sensitivity and specificity scores in detecting work disability were calculated. Results Only about half of the jobseekers had good work ability, 27% were found unable to work in the open labour market and 15% even eligible for a disability pension. For 20%, care or rehabilitation was seen necessary to enable RTW. Poor supervisor- and self-rated performance at work or poor social functioning appeared as sensitive measures in detecting work disability. Conclusions Work disabilities and unmet needs for health care and rehabilitation are highly prevalent among jobseekers, as depicted using a multidimensional work ability assessment procedure inspired by the International Classification of Functioning (ICF). Further development of work ability assessment practices is clearly needed. KEY POINTSAlthough the association of unemployment with poor health is well known, evidence on the work ability of the unemployed remains scarce.Work disabilities are common among the unemployed.Multidimensional work ability assessment among the

  5. Gender and Spatial Ability and the Use of Specific Labels and Diagrammatic Arrows in a Micro-Level Chemistry Animation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falvo, David A.; Suits, Jerry P.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of using both specific labels and diagrammatic arrows in the animation of salt dissolution. Four different versions of the animation served as treatments that were developed based upon principles of educational technology and cognitive psychology. The researchers studied the effects of spatial ability (high or…

  6. The Market Phenomenon in Taiwanese Junior High Level Education: Behind the Battles between Streaming and Mixed-Ability Grouping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Ling-Ying

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author explores the market phenomenon revealed in the practice of a mixed-ability grouping policy in Taiwan, and traces the influence of the wider educational contexts on the formation of the market phenomenon. Although there have been no major policies introduced with the intention of creating a market mechanism in Taiwanese…

  7. The level of leisure time physical activity is associated with work ability-a cross sectional and prospective study of health care workers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background With increasing age, physical capacity decreases, while the need and time for recovery increases. At the same time, the demands of work usually do not change with age. In the near future, an aging and physically changing workforce risks reduced work ability. Therefore, the impact of different factors, such as physical activity, on work ability is of interest. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association between physical activity and work ability using both cross sectional and prospective analyses. Methods This study was based on an extensive questionnaire survey. The number of participants included in the analysis at baseline in 2004 was 2.783, of whom 2.597 were also included in the follow-up in 2006. The primary outcome measure was the Work Ability Index (WAI), and the level of physical activity was measured using a single-item question. In the cross-sectional analysis we calculated the level of physical activity and the prevalence of poor or moderate work ability as reported by the participants. In the prospective analysis we calculated different levels of physical activity and the prevalence of positive changes in WAI-category from baseline to follow-up. In both the cross sectional and the prospective analyses the prevalence ratio was calculated using Generalized Linear Models. Results The cross-sectional analysis showed that with an increased level of physical activity, the reporting of poor or moderate work ability decreased. In the prospective analysis, participants reporting a higher level of physical activity were more likely to have made an improvement in WAI from 2004 to 2006. Conclusions The level of physical activity seems to be related to work ability. Assessment of physical activity may also be useful as a predictive tool, potentially making it possible to prevent poor work ability and improve future work ability. For employers, the main implications of this study are the importance of promoting and facilitating the

  8. Penicillin-Binding Protein Transpeptidase Signatures for Tracking and Predicting β-Lactam Resistance Levels in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Metcalf, Benjamin J.; Chochua, Sopio; Li, Zhongya; Gertz, Robert E.; Walker, Hollis; Hawkins, Paulina A.; Tran, Theresa; Whitney, Cynthia G.; McGee, Lesley; Beall, Bernard W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT β-Lactam antibiotics are the drugs of choice to treat pneumococcal infections. The spread of β-lactam-resistant pneumococci is a major concern in choosing an effective therapy for patients. Systematically tracking β-lactam resistance could benefit disease surveillance. Here we developed a classification system in which a pneumococcal isolate is assigned to a “PBP type” based on sequence signatures in the transpeptidase domains (TPDs) of the three critical penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), PBP1a, PBP2b, and PBP2x. We identified 307 unique PBP types from 2,528 invasive pneumococcal isolates, which had known MICs to six β-lactams based on broth microdilution. We found that increased β-lactam MICs strongly correlated with PBP types containing divergent TPD sequences. The PBP type explained 94 to 99% of variation in MICs both before and after accounting for genomic backgrounds defined by multilocus sequence typing, indicating that genomic backgrounds made little independent contribution to β-lactam MICs at the population level. We further developed and evaluated predictive models of MICs based on PBP type. Compared to microdilution MICs, MICs predicted by PBP type showed essential agreement (MICs agree within 1 dilution) of >98%, category agreement (interpretive results agree) of >94%, a major discrepancy (sensitive isolate predicted as resistant) rate of <3%, and a very major discrepancy (resistant isolate predicted as sensitive) rate of <2% for all six β-lactams. Thus, the PBP transpeptidase signatures are robust indicators of MICs to different β-lactam antibiotics in clinical pneumococcal isolates and serve as an accurate alternative to phenotypic susceptibility testing. PMID:27302760

  9. Moving from technical to critical reflection in journalling: an investigation of students' ability to incorporate three levels of reflective writing.

    PubMed

    Usher, K; Tollefson, J; Francis, D

    2001-01-01

    This paper outlines a research project aimed at changing the levels of reflection of preregistration nursing students in a tertiary institution. Whilst reflection is widely espoused now in nursing, few studies have been found that identify whether the level of reflective writing can be identified or developed by students. Anecdotal and research evidence (Powell 1989; van Manen 1977) however indicates that most student reflective writing occurs at the technical level. A descriptive exploratory study using both qualitative and quantitative techniques was undertaken to apply van Manen's (1977) levels in a structured way in an attempt to facilitate the student's understanding and use of the levels in their reflective writing. The findings of the study indicate that student self evaluation and identification of the levels in their own writing can lead to change in the levels of critical reflective writing achieved by undergraduate students.

  10. An Evaluation of a Teaching Intervention to Promote Students' Ability to Use Multiple Levels of Representation when Describing and Explaining Chemical Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandrasegaran, A. L.; Treagust, David F.; Mocerino, Mauro

    2008-01-01

    Students are generally known to memorise and regurgitate chemical equations without sufficient understanding of the changes that occur at the particulate level. In addition, they often fail to recognise the significance of the symbols and formulas that are used to represent chemical reactions. This article describes an evaluation of the ability of…

  11. An Effect of Levels of Learning Ability and Types of Feedback in Electronic Portfolio on Learning Achievement of Students in Electronic Media Production for Education Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koraneekij, Prakob

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study an effect of levels of learning ability and types of feedback in an electronic portfolio on learning achievement of students in electronic media production for education subject. The samples were 113 students registered in Electronic Media Production for Education Subject divided into 6 groups : 3 control…

  12. Assessing Four Levels of Creative Mathematical Ability in Israeli Adolescents Utilizing Out-of-School Activities: A Circular Three-Stage Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livne, Nava L.; Milgram, Roberta M.

    2000-01-01

    A questionnaire of out-of-school activities was developed to assess mathematical creative ability at four levels using a three-stage circular technique. Israeli high school students (n=139) reported whether they had performed the activities. Resulting data provided evidence of the construct validity of a 12-item scale for assessing creative…

  13. The Effects of Computer-Assisted Instruction Based on Top-Level Structure Method in English Reading and Writing Abilities of Thai EFL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jinajai, Nattapong; Rattanavich, Saowalak

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to study the development of ninth grade students' reading and writing abilities and interests in learning English taught through computer-assisted instruction (CAI) based on the top-level structure (TLS) method. An experimental group time series design was used, and the data was analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance…

  14. An Analysis of the Changes in Ability and Knowledge of Students Taking A-Level Physics and Mathematics over a 35 Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barham, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    New undergraduate students arriving to study physics at the University of Bristol from 1975 onwards have all taken the same test of their knowledge and understanding of physics and mathematics. Many of the questions test knowledge of material that has been in the A-level syllabus for maths or physics throughout this period. The ability of incoming…

  15. Pharmacological manipulation of cyclic GMP levels in brain restores learning ability in animal models of hepatic encephalopathy: therapeutic implications

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigo, Regina; Monfort, Pilar; Cauli, Omar; Erceg, Slaven; Felipo, Vicente

    2006-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a complex neuropsychiatric syndrome present in patients with liver disease that includes impaired intellectual function. To develop therapeutic treatments to restore cognitive function, it is important to understand the molecular mechanisms that impair cognitive function in HE. This review summarizes data showing that: (a) cognitive function and learning are impaired in patients with liver disease and in animal models of chronic liver failure or hyperammonemia; (b) the glutamate–NO–cGMP pathway modulates some forms of learning; and (c) the function of this pathway is impaired in brain in vivo in rats with chronic hyperammonemia or liver failure and from patients who died from HE. Learning ability of hyperammonemic rats was restored by increasing cGMP by: (1) continuous intracerebral administration of zaprinast, an inhibitor of the cGMP-degrading phosphodiesterase; (2) chronic oral administration of sildenafil, an inhibitor of the phosphodiesterase that crosses the blood–brain barrier; and (3) continuous intracerebral administration of cGMP. The data summarized indicate that impairment of learning ability in rats with chronic liver failure or hyperammonemia is due to impairment of the glutamate–NO–cGMP pathway. Moreover, increasing extracellular cGMP by pharmacological means may be a new therapeutic approach to improve cognitive function in patients with HE. PMID:19412446

  16. A study of two measures of spatial ability as predictors of success in different levels of general chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Carolyn S.; Larussa, Mary A.; Bodner, George M.

    Preliminary data (Bodner and McMillen, 1986) suggested a correlation between spatial ability and performance in a general chemistry course for science and engineering majors. This correlation was seen not only on highly spatial tasks such as predicting the structures of ionic solids (r = 0.29), but also on tasks such as multiple-choice stoichiometry questions (r = 0.32) that might not be expected to involve spatial skills. To further investigate the relationship between spatial ability and performance in introductory chemistry courses, two spatial tests were given to 1648 students in a course for science and engineering majors (Carter, 1984) and 850 students in a course for students from nursing and agriculture (La-Russa, 1985) at Purdue. Scores on the spatial tests consistently contributed a small but significant amount to success on measures of performance in chemistry. Correlations were largest, however, for subscores that grouped questions that tested problem solving skills rather than rote memory or the application of simple algorithms, and correlations were also large for verbally complex questions thaty required the students to disembed and restructure relevant information.

  17. Conceptions of Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jagacinski, Carolyn M.; Nicholls, John G.

    Two different conceptions of ability are proposed. The first conception of ability is more differentiated and generally employed by adults and older children. Here ability level is defined with reference to the performance of others assuming that optimum effort was employed. High ability means higher than others. The second conception of ability…

  18. Associations of educational attainment and cognitive level of job with old age verbal ability and processing speed: The mediating role of chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Ihle, Andreas; Oris, Michel; Fagot, Delphine; Chicherio, Christian; van der Linden, Bernadette W A; Sauter, Julia; Kliegel, Matthias

    2017-04-03

    We investigated whether the relation of educational attainment and cognitive level of job to performance in verbal ability and processing speed in old age was mediated via the number of chronic diseases. A total of 2,812 older adults participated. Psychometric tests on verbal ability and processing speed were administered. Individuals were interviewed regarding their education, midlife occupation, and chronic diseases in old age. Higher educational attainment and higher cognitive level of job were correlated with better performance in verbal ability and processing speed (.15 ≤ r ≤ .33, ps < .001). 1.4 to 7.3% of these relations was mediated via the number of chronic diseases (β = .01, ps < .026). In conclusion, individuals with higher educational attainment and higher cognitive level of job may possibly suffer from fewer chronic diseases later in life. Possibly, this may finally be related to better performance in verbal ability and processing speed in those individuals in old age.

  19. Pathway Evidence of How Musical Perception Predicts Word-Level Reading Ability in Children with Reading Difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; Brandão de Ávila, Clara Regina; Ploubidis, George B.; de Jesus Mari, Jair

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether specific domains of musical perception (temporal and melodic domains) predict the word-level reading skills of eight- to ten-year-old children (n = 235) with reading difficulties, normal quotient of intelligence, and no previous exposure to music education classes. Method A general-specific solution of the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA), which underlies a musical perception construct and is constituted by three latent factors (the general, temporal, and the melodic domain), was regressed on word-level reading skills (rate of correct isolated words/non-words read per minute). Results General and melodic latent domains predicted word-level reading skills. PMID:24358358

  20. The ability of the auditory system to cope with temporal subsampling depends on the hierarchical level of processing.

    PubMed

    Zoefel, Benedikt; Reddy Pasham, Naveen; Brüers, Sasskia; VanRullen, Rufin

    2015-09-09

    Evidence for rhythmic or 'discrete' sensory processing is abundant for the visual system, but sparse and inconsistent for the auditory system. Fundamental differences in the nature of visual and auditory inputs might account for this discrepancy: whereas the visual system mainly relies on spatial information, time might be the most important factor for the auditory system. In contrast to vision, temporal subsampling (i.e. taking 'snapshots') of the auditory input stream might thus prove detrimental for the brain as essential information would be lost. Rather than embracing the view of a continuous auditory processing, we recently proposed that discrete 'perceptual cycles' might exist in the auditory system, but on a hierarchically higher level of processing, involving temporally more stable features. This proposal leads to the prediction that the auditory system would be more robust to temporal subsampling when applied on a 'high-level' decomposition of auditory signals. To test this prediction, we constructed speech stimuli that were subsampled at different frequencies, either at the input level (following a wavelet transform) or at the level of auditory features (on the basis of LPC vocoding), and presented them to human listeners. Auditory recognition was significantly more robust to subsampling in the latter case, that is on a relatively high level of auditory processing. Although our results do not directly demonstrate perceptual cycles in the auditory domain, they (a) show that their existence is possible without disrupting temporal information to a critical extent and (b) confirm our proposal that, if they do exist, they should operate on a higher level of auditory processing.

  1. [The level of physical abilities of pupils practising sport in pupils sport club and their attitude to health].

    PubMed

    Królicki, Jerzy

    2006-01-01

    For centuries health has been a value and today is still making an influence on better functioning societies. Health is a subject of research in many scientific disciplines, and has a great influence on theory of physical education taking into consideration researches which are targeting at holding and increasing health, which has become today a thing that is not "given" once in a life-time. Those problems are a subject of health pedagogy researches. Health education is an activity aiming at creating pro-health attitudes. It is generally acknowledged that sport activity of children and teenagers improves their health condition, as well as better understanding and acceptance of fair play idea. The test of pro-health attitude as well as fair play attitude that occurs among young players practising handball in UKS (Pupils Sport Clubs) confirms research presumptions. It is worrying though that there are bad habits and attitudes to health and worse achievements in trials of physical ability among older pupils practising sport for a long time. The good thing is that pupils of a first class of secondary school (gymnasium) training for a long time have better attitude to fair play.

  2. Relating the ability of mallards to ingest high levels of sediment to potential contaminant exposure in waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, Gary H.; Beyer, W. Nelson; Hoffman, David J.; Audet, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    When waterfowl feed from the bottom of bodies of water, they sometimes ingest sediments along with their food, and this sediment can be a major source of contaminants. Learning how much sediment waterfowl can consume in their diet and still maintain their health would be helpful in assessing potential threats from contaminants in sediment. In a controlled laboratory study the maximum tolerated percentage of sediment in the diet of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) was measured. When fed a well-balanced commercial avian diet, 50, 60, or 70% sediment in the diet on a dry-weight basis did not cause weight loss over a two-week period. Ducks fed this same commercial diet, but containing 80 or 90% sediment, lost 8.6 and 15.6% of their body weight, respectively, in the first week on those diets. After factoring in the ability of the mallards to sieve out some of the sediment from their diet before swallowing it, we concluded that the mallards could maintain their health even when approximately half of what they swallowed, on a dry-weight basis, was sediment.

  3. Assessing cognitive ability in research: use of MMSE with minority populations and elderly adults with low education levels.

    PubMed

    Wood, Robin Y; Giuliano, Karen K; Bignell, Candace U; Pritham, Whitney W

    2006-04-01

    The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), originally designed to screen for dementia, is an instrument currently used extensively to assess cognitive status in clinical and community settings. This descriptive study compares standard MMSE scores to MMSE scores adjusted for age and education in a sample of 414 elderly Black and White women living independently in communities. After scores were adjusted, 14 participants (all Black) were moved from categories of mild cognitive impairment to unimpaired cognitive ability. However, even after scores were adjusted for age and education, White elderly adults still had higher mean scores than Black elderly adults (p = .003), suggesting that racial differences may have an effect on MMSE performance independent of age and education. Further research is needed to better understand the interaction of race and culture on MMSE outcomes. Implications are offered for appropriate use of the MMSE considering factors of age, education, and racial differences to guide evidence-based practice by gerontological nurses engaged in work with elderly populations.

  4. The Effects of Reading Instruction on Comprehension and Motivation of Ninth-Grade Students with Varying Ability Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Reading levels of high school students are a rising concern among secondary educators. Although some recent research has shown certain reading practices to be effective, the results have not been conclusive. Further study was needed to not only determine the most effective reading practices to use with struggling high school students, but also…

  5. Adaptive re-tracking algorithm for retrieval of water level variations and wave heights from satellite altimetry data for middle-sized inland water bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Lebedev, Sergey; Soustova, Irina; Rybushkina, Galina; Papko, Vladislav; Baidakov, Georgy; Panyutin, Andrey

    One of the recent applications of satellite altimetry originally designed for measurements of the sea level [1] is associated with remote investigation of the water level of inland waters: lakes, rivers, reservoirs [2-7]. The altimetry data re-tracking algorithms developed for open ocean conditions (e.g. Ocean-1,2) [1] often cannot be used in these cases, since the radar return is significantly contaminated by reflection from the land. The problem of minimization of errors in the water level retrieval for inland waters from altimetry measurements can be resolved by re-tracking satellite altimetry data. Recently, special re-tracking algorithms have been actively developed for re-processing altimetry data in the coastal zone when reflection from land strongly affects echo shapes: threshold re-tracking, The other methods of re-tracking (threshold re-tracking, beta-re-tracking, improved threshold re-tracking) were developed in [9-11]. The latest development in this field is PISTACH product [12], in which retracking bases on the classification of typical forms of telemetric waveforms in the coastal zones and inland water bodies. In this paper a novel method of regional adaptive re-tracking based on constructing a theoretical model describing the formation of telemetric waveforms by reflection from the piecewise constant model surface corresponding to the geography of the region is considered. It was proposed in [13, 14], where the algorithm for assessing water level in inland water bodies and in the coastal zone of the ocean with an error of about 10-15 cm was constructed. The algorithm includes four consecutive steps: - constructing a local piecewise model of a reflecting surface in the neighbourhood of the reservoir; - solving a direct problem by calculating the reflected waveforms within the framework of the model; - imposing restrictions and validity criteria for the algorithm based on waveform modelling; - solving the inverse problem by retrieving a tracking point

  6. Comparison and age-level differences among various step tests for evaluating balance ability in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sohee; Demura, Shinichi

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the difficulty among various step tests (place step, forward single step, forward double step, forward right single step and stairs step) in evaluating the dynamic balance in the elderly and their age level differences. Thirty-two healthy elderly people (age 71.4+/-6.4 years) and twenty young people performed step tests for 10 s to the pace of a metronome (120 bpm). Evaluation parameters were the time difference between the metronome sound and the time when each foot hit the ground as well as the stride time. The forward single step test had significantly larger values for both of the above parameters than the other tests. A significant age level difference was found in the forward single step test for the time difference and in the forward single step and stairs step tests for the stride time, being longer in the elderly. It was concluded that the forward single step test has larger age-level differences and is more difficult to carry out than the other step tests.

  7. Binocular eye tracking with the Tracking Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, S B; Sheehy, C K; Roorda, A

    2016-01-01

    The development of high magnification retinal imaging has brought with it the ability to track eye motion with a precision of less than an arc minute. Previously these systems have provided only monocular records. Here we describe a modification to the Tracking Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope (Sheehy et al., 2012) that splits the optical path in a way that slows the left and right retinas to be scanned almost simultaneously by a single system. A mirror placed at a retinal conjugate point redirects half of each horizontal scan line to the fellow eye. The collected video is a split image with left and right retinas appearing side by side in each frame. Analysis of the retinal motion in the recorded video provides an eye movement trace with very high temporal and spatial resolution. Results are presented from scans of subjects with normal ocular motility that fixated steadily on a green laser dot. The retinas were scanned at 4° eccentricity with a 2° square field. Eye position was extracted offline from recorded videos with an FFT based image analysis program written in Matlab. The noise level of the tracking was estimated to range from 0.25 to 0.5arcmin SD for three subjects. In the binocular recordings, the left eye/right eye difference was 1-2arcmin SD for vertical motion and 10-15arcmin SD for horizontal motion, in agreement with published values from other tracking techniques.

  8. The influence of a multisensory intervention for preterm infants provided by parents, on developmental abilities and on parental stress levels.

    PubMed

    Gabis, Lidia V; Hacham-Pilosof, Keren; Yosef, Omer Bar; Rabinovitz, Gila; Leshem, Gili; Shilon-Hadass, Aya; Biran, Yael; Reichman, Brian; Kuint, Jacob; Bart, Orit

    2015-06-01

    Evaluation of a multisensory intervention based on the developmental approach provided by parents, during neonatal intensive care unit hospitalization of their preterm infants. After guidance of parents and implementation of intervention program, children were followed up to 2 to 3 years using scales for evaluation of parental stress levels and child's development. Our 2 to 3 years' follow-up study included 41 infants (20 controls and 21 who received parental-guided intervention) as part of a group of 95 preterm infants who participated in a short-term study. The intervention group showed significantly higher scores in receptive language and fine-motor domains of the Bayley Scale of Infant and Toddler Development-3rd Edition. Boys showed superior improvements in language skills. No differences were found in the cognitive and adaptive domains. There were no differences in parental stress levels. A multisensory intervention program for preterm infants provided by trained and supervised parents may improve language and motor outcomes at 2 to 3 years.

  9. Level of Immersion in Virtual Environments Impacts the Ability to Assess and Teach Social Skills in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bugnariu, Nicoleta L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Virtual environments (VEs) may be useful for delivering social skills interventions to individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Immersive VEs provide opportunities for individuals with ASD to learn and practice skills in a controlled replicable setting. However, not all VEs are delivered using the same technology, and the level of immersion differs across settings. We group studies into low-, moderate-, and high-immersion categories by examining five aspects of immersion. In doing so, we draw conclusions regarding the influence of this technical manipulation on the efficacy of VEs as a tool for assessing and teaching social skills. We also highlight ways in which future studies can advance our understanding of how manipulating aspects of immersion may impact intervention success. PMID:26919157

  10. At What Level of Heat Load Are Age-Related Impairments in the Ability to Dissipate Heat Evident in Females?

    PubMed Central

    Stapleton, Jill M.; Poirier, Martin P.; Flouris, Andreas D.; Boulay, Pierre; Sigal, Ronald J.; Malcolm, Janine; Kenny, Glen P.

    2015-01-01

    Studies have reported that older females have impaired heat loss responses during work in the heat compared to young females. However, it remains unclear at what level of heat stress these differences occur. Therefore, we examined whole-body heat loss [evaporative (HE) and dry heat loss, via direct calorimetry] and changes in body heat storage (∆Hb, via direct and indirect calorimetry) in 10 young (23±4 years) and 10 older (58±5 years) females matched for body surface area and aerobic fitness (VO2peak) during three 30-min exercise bouts performed at incremental rates of metabolic heat production of 250 (Ex1), 325 (Ex2) and 400 (Ex3) W in the heat (40°C, 15% relative humidity). Exercise bouts were separated by 15 min of recovery. Since dry heat gain was similar between young and older females during exercise (p=0.52) and recovery (p=0.42), differences in whole-body heat loss were solely due to HE. Our results show that older females had a significantly lower HE at the end of Ex2 (young: 383±34 W; older: 343±39 W, p=0.04) and Ex3 (young: 437±36 W; older: 389±29 W, p=0.008), however no difference was measured at the end of Ex1 (p=0.24). Also, the magnitude of difference in the maximal level of HE achieved between the young and older females became greater with increasing heat loads (Ex1=10.2%, Ex2=11.6% and Ex3=12.4%). Furthermore, a significantly greater ∆Hb was measured for all heat loads for the older females (Ex1: 178±44 kJ; Ex2: 151±38 kJ; Ex3: 216±25 kJ, p=0.002) relative to the younger females (Ex1: 127±35 kJ; Ex2: 96±45 kJ; Ex3: 146±46 kJ). In contrast, no differences in HE or ∆Hb were observed during recovery (p>0.05). We show that older habitually active females have an impaired capacity to dissipate heat compared to young females during exercise-induced heat loads of ≥325 W when performed in the heat. PMID:25790024

  11. Discriminative ability of the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (level 1) in prospective young soccer players.

    PubMed

    Markovic, Goran; Mikulic, Pavle

    2011-10-01

    We evaluated the sensitivity of the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test-level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) when discriminating among players in varying playing positions and different age categories in youth soccer. One-hundred and six prospective young soccer players, grouped on the basis of chronological age (under-13, under-14, under-15, under-16, under-17, under-18, and under-19) and playing position (center-backs, fullbacks, center midfielders, wide midfielders, and forwards), participated in the study. The players were administered a single Yo-Yo IR1 test at the beginning of the spring season. Analysis of variance revealed significant (F = 25.3; p < 0.001) group differences in Yo-Yo IR1 test performance scores among the observed age categories, and a systematic age-related increase in the Yo-Yo IR1 test performance was evident. Subsequent post hoc comparisons identified a number of significant differences among the selected age categories in Yo-Yo IR1 test performance. Analysis of covariance identified significant differences among playing positions (F = 3.1; p < 0.019) in the Yo-Yo IR1 test performance after controlling for age (F = 135.1; p < 0.001). Subsequent pairwise comparisons of the adjusted Yo-Yo IR1 test performance identified that center-backs had achieved significantly lower (all p < 0.01) performance scores than center midfielders, wide midfielders, and forwards, but not fullbacks. These results could be of practical value to coaches and scientists for further development of talent selection and profiling procedures in soccer, particularly because (a) the endurance performance represents a very important fitness component in selection and profiling of young soccer players and (b) the Yo-Yo IR1 test proved to be valid, reliable, and easily available measurement tool of a player's soccer-specific endurance capacity.

  12. Maximum power point tracking for photovoltaic applications by using two-level DC/DC boost converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moamaei, Parvin

    Recently, photovoltaic (PV) generation is becoming increasingly popular in industrial applications. As a renewable and alternative source of energy they feature superior characteristics such as being clean and silent along with less maintenance problems compared to other sources of the energy. In PV generation, employing a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) method is essential to obtain the maximum available solar energy. Among several proposed MPPT techniques, the Perturbation and Observation (P&O;) and Model Predictive Control (MPC) methods are adopted in this work. The components of the MPPT control system which are P&O; and MPC algorithms, PV module and high gain DC-DC boost converter are simulated in MATLAB Simulink. They are evaluated theoretically under rapidly and slowly changing of solar irradiation and temperature and their performance is shown by the simulation results, finally a comprehensive comparison is presented.

  13. TRACK--A new method for the evaluation of low-level extinction coefficient in optical films.

    PubMed

    Vernhes, R; Martinu, L

    2015-11-02

    We develop a rigorous methodology named TRACK based on the collection of multi-angle spectrophotometric transmission and reflection data in order to assess the extinction coefficient of quasi-transparent optical films. The accuracy of extinction coefficient values obtained by this method is not affected by sample non-idealities (thickness non-uniformity, refractive index inhomogeneities, anisotropy, interfaces, etc.) and therefore a simple two-layer (substrate/film) optical model can be used. The method requires the acquisition of transmission and reflection data at two angles of incidence: 10° and 65° in p polarization. Data acquired at 10° provide information about the film thickness and the refractive index, while data collected at 65° are used for absorption evaluation and extinction coefficient computation. We test this method on three types of samples: (i) a CR-39 plastic substrate coated with a thick protective coating; (ii) the same substrate coated with a thin TiO(2) film; (iii) and a thick Si(3)N(4) film deposited on Gorilla glass that presents thickness non-uniformity and refractive index gradient non-idealities. We also compare absorption and extinction coefficient values obtained at 410 and 550 nm by both TRACK and Laser Induced Deflection techniques in the case of a 1 micron thick TiO(2) coating. Both methods display consistent extinction coefficient values in the 10(-4) and 10(-5) ranges at 410 and 550 nm, respectively, which proves the validity of the methodology and provides an estimate of its accuracy limit.

  14. OCULUS Sea Track Fusion Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagiotou, Stylianos C.; Rizogiannis, Constantinos; Katsoulis, Stavros; Lampropoulos, Vassilis; Kanellopoulos, Sotirios; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

    2015-06-01

    Oculus Sea is a complete solution regarding maritime surveillance and communications at Local as well as Central Command and Control level. It includes a robust and independent track fusion service whose main functions include: 1) Interaction with the User to suggest the fusion of two or more tracks, confirm Track ID and Vessel Metadata creation for the fused track, and suggest de-association of two tracks 2) Fusion of same vessel tracks arriving simultaneously from multiple radar sensors featuring track Association, track Fusion of associated tracks to produce a more accurate track, and Multiple tracking filters and fusion algorithms 3) Unique Track ID Generator for each fused track 4) Track Dissemination Service. Oculus Sea Track Fusion Service adopts a system architecture where each sensor is associated with a Kalman estimator/tracker that obtains an estimate of the state vector and its respective error covariance matrix. Finally, at the fusion center, association and track state estimation fusion are carried out. The expected benefits of this system include multi-sensor information fusion, enhanced spatial resolution, and improved target detection.

  15. Tracking dynamic team activity

    SciTech Connect

    Tambe, M.

    1996-12-31

    AI researchers are striving to build complex multi-agent worlds with intended applications ranging from the RoboCup robotic soccer tournaments, to interactive virtual theatre, to large-scale real-world battlefield simulations. Agent tracking - monitoring other agent`s actions and inferring their higher-level goals and intentions - is a central requirement in such worlds. While previous work has mostly focused on tracking individual agents, this paper goes beyond by focusing on agent teams. Team tracking poses the challenge of tracking a team`s joint goals and plans. Dynamic, real-time environments add to the challenge, as ambiguities have to be resolved in real-time. The central hypothesis underlying the present work is that an explicit team-oriented perspective enables effective team tracking. This hypothesis is instantiated using the model tracing technology employed in tracking individual agents. Thus, to track team activities, team models are put to service. Team models are a concrete application of the joint intentions framework and enable an agent to track team activities, regardless of the agent`s being a collaborative participant or a non-participant in the team. To facilitate real-time ambiguity resolution with team models: (i) aspects of tracking are cast as constraint satisfaction problems to exploit constraint propagation techniques; and (ii) a cost minimality criterion is applied to constrain tracking search. Empirical results from two separate tasks in real-world, dynamic environments one collaborative and one competitive - are provided.

  16. Content, format, gender and grade level differences in elementary students' ability to read science materials as measured by the cloze procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Richard L.; Yore, Larry D.

    Present instructional trends in science indicate a need to reexamine a traditional concern in science education: the readability of science textbooks. An area of reading research not well documented is the effect of color, visuals, and page layout on readability of science materials. Using the cloze readability method, the present study explored the relationships between page format, grade level, sex, content, and elementary school students ability to read science material. Significant relationships were found between cloze scores and both grade level and content, and there was a significant interaction effect between grade and sex in favor of older males. No significant relationships could be attributed to page format and sex. In the area of science content, biological materials were most difficult in terms of readability followed by earth science and physical science. Grade level data indicated that grade five materials were more difficult for that level than either grade four or grade six materials were for students at each respective level. In eight of nine cases, the science text materials would be classified at or near the frustration level of readability. The implications for textbook writers and publishers are that science reading materials need to be produced with greater attention to readability and known design principles regarding visual supplements. The implication for teachers is that students need direct instruction in using visual materials to increase their learning from text material. Present visual materials appear to neither help nor hinder the student to gain information from text material.

  17. Ship Tracks

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    article title:  Ship Tracks in a Stratiform Cloud Layer     ... stratocumulus. These striking linear patterns are known as "ship tracks", and are produced when fine particles (also called aerosols) from ... be used with the red filter placed over your left eye. Ship tracks are important examples of aerosol-cloud interactions. They are ...

  18. No Additional Benefit of Repeat-Sprint Training in Hypoxia than in Normoxia on Sea-Level Repeat-Sprint Ability

    PubMed Central

    Goods, Paul S.R.; Dawson, Brian; Landers, Grant J.; Gore, Christopher J.; Peeling, Peter

    2015-01-01

    To assess the impact of ‘top-up’ normoxic or hypoxic repeat-sprint training on sea-level repeat-sprint ability, thirty team sport athletes were randomly split into three groups, which were matched in running repeat-sprint ability (RSA), cycling RSA and 20 m shuttle run performance. Two groups then performed 15 maximal cycling repeat-sprint training sessions over 5 weeks, in either normoxia (NORM) or hypoxia (HYP), while a third group acted as a control (CON). In the post-training cycling RSA test, both NORM (13.6%; p = 0.0001, and 8.6%; p = 0.001) and HYP (10.3%; p = 0.007, and 4.7%; p = 0.046) significantly improved overall mean and peak power output, respectively, whereas CON did not change (1.4%; p = 0.528, and -1.1%; p = 0.571, respectively); with only NORM demonstrating a moderate effect for improved mean and peak power output compared to CON. Running RSA demonstrated no significant between group differences; however, the mean sprint times improved significantly from pre- to post-training for CON (1.1%), NORM (1.8%), and HYP (2.3%). Finally, there were no group differences in 20 m shuttle run performance. In conclusion, ‘top-up’ training improved performance in a task-specific activity (i.e. cycling); however, there was no additional benefit of conducting this ‘top-up’ training in hypoxia, since cycle RSA improved similarly in both HYP and NORM conditions. Regardless, the ‘top-up’ training had no significant impact on running RSA, therefore the use of cycle repeat-sprint training should be discouraged for team sport athletes due to limitations in specificity. Key points ‘Top-up’ repeat-sprint training performed on a cycle ergometer enhances cycle repeat-sprint ability compared to team sport training only in football players. The addition of moderate hypoxia to repeat-sprint training provides no additional performance benefits to sea-level repeat-sprint ability or endurance performance than normoxic repeat-sprint training.

  19. No Additional Benefit of Repeat-Sprint Training in Hypoxia than in Normoxia on Sea-Level Repeat-Sprint Ability.

    PubMed

    Goods, Paul S R; Dawson, Brian; Landers, Grant J; Gore, Christopher J; Peeling, Peter

    2015-09-01

    To assess the impact of 'top-up' normoxic or hypoxic repeat-sprint training on sea-level repeat-sprint ability, thirty team sport athletes were randomly split into three groups, which were matched in running repeat-sprint ability (RSA), cycling RSA and 20 m shuttle run performance. Two groups then performed 15 maximal cycling repeat-sprint training sessions over 5 weeks, in either normoxia (NORM) or hypoxia (HYP), while a third group acted as a control (CON). In the post-training cycling RSA test, both NORM (13.6%; p = 0.0001, and 8.6%; p = 0.001) and HYP (10.3%; p = 0.007, and 4.7%; p = 0.046) significantly improved overall mean and peak power output, respectively, whereas CON did not change (1.4%; p = 0.528, and -1.1%; p = 0.571, respectively); with only NORM demonstrating a moderate effect for improved mean and peak power output compared to CON. Running RSA demonstrated no significant between group differences; however, the mean sprint times improved significantly from pre- to post-training for CON (1.1%), NORM (1.8%), and HYP (2.3%). Finally, there were no group differences in 20 m shuttle run performance. In conclusion, 'top-up' training improved performance in a task-specific activity (i.e. cycling); however, there was no additional benefit of conducting this 'top-up' training in hypoxia, since cycle RSA improved similarly in both HYP and NORM conditions. Regardless, the 'top-up' training had no significant impact on running RSA, therefore the use of cycle repeat-sprint training should be discouraged for team sport athletes due to limitations in specificity. Key points'Top-up' repeat-sprint training performed on a cycle ergometer enhances cycle repeat-sprint ability compared to team sport training only in football players.The addition of moderate hypoxia to repeat-sprint training provides no additional performance benefits to sea-level repeat-sprint ability or endurance performance than normoxic repeat-sprint training.'Top-up' cycling repeat-sprint training

  20. GEOS-3 Doppler difference tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenbaum, B.

    1977-01-01

    The Doppler difference method as applied to track the GEOS 3 spacecraft is discussed. In this method a pair of 2 GHz ground tracking stations simultaneously track a spacecraft beacon to generate an observable signal in which bias and instability of the carrier frequency cancel. The baselines are formed by the tracking sites at Bermuda, Rosman, and Merritt Island. Measurements were made to evaluate the effectiveness of the Doppler differencing procedure in tracking a beacon target with the high dynamic rate of the GEOS 3 orbit. Results indicate the precision of the differenced data to be at a level comparable to the conventional precise two way Doppler tracking.

  1. Improved code-tracking loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laflame, D. T.

    1980-01-01

    Delay-locked loop tracks pseudonoise codes without introducing dc timing errors, because it is not sensitive to gain imbalance between signal processing arms. "Early" and "late" reference codes pass in combined form through both arms, and each arm acts on both codes. Circuit accomodates 1 dB weaker input signals with tracking ability equal to that of tau-dither loops.

  2. Visual attention for social information and salivary oxytocin levels in preschool children with autism spectrum disorders: an eye-tracking study

    PubMed Central

    Fujisawa, Takashi X.; Tanaka, Shiho; Saito, Daisuke N.; Kosaka, Hirotaka; Tomoda, Akemi

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to ascertain the relationship between visual attention for social information and oxytocin (OT) levels in Japanese preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We hypothesized that poor visual attention for social information and low OT levels are crucially important risk factors associated with ASD. We measured the pattern of gaze fixation for social information using an eye-tracking system, and salivary OT levels by the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). There was a positive association between salivary OT levels and fixation duration for an indicated object area in a finger-pointing movie in typically developing (TD) children. However, no association was found between these variables in children with ASD. Moreover, age decreased an individual's attention to people moving and pointed-at objects, but increased attention for mouth-in-the-face recognition, geometric patterns, and biological motions. Thus, OT levels likely vary during visual attention for social information between TD children and those with ASD. Further, aging in preschool children has considerable effect on visual attention for social information. PMID:25278829

  3. Stress Levels in Tenure-Track and Recently Tenured Faculty Members in Selected Institutions of Higher Education in Northeast Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Amanda R.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to compare the stress, strain, and coping levels between pretenured faculty and recently tenured faculty in institutions of higher education in Northeast Tennessee. Aging faculty population combined with talented people leaving the area is common in rural parts of the United States. There is a need to…

  4. Ability of lupine seeds to germinate and to tolerate desiccation as related to changes in free radical level and antioxidants in freshly harvested seeds.

    PubMed

    Garnczarska, Małgorzata; Bednarski, Waldemar; Jancelewicz, Mariusz

    2009-01-01

    Seeds of yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus L. cv. Juno) were collected throughout their development on the mother plant to determine whether the ability to germinate and to tolerate desiccation is related to the level of free radicals and the changes in the redox state of ascorbate and glutathione as well as the activities of antioxidative enzymes. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)-based analyses showed that development of lupine seed was accompanied by generation of free radicals with g(1) and g(2) values of 2.0049+/-0.0004 and 2.0029+/-0.0003, respectively. Free radical level increased significantly 25 DAF and decreased thereafter. The amount of hydrogen peroxide was high in fresh immature seeds and decreased during maturation drying. Ascorbate accumulated in lupine embryos during early seed filling stage whereas glutathione content increased during late seed filling phase. During maturation drying the redox state of both ascorbate and glutathione pools shifted towards the oxidized forms. While superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11) activities remained high at the early seed filling stage the activities of both dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, EC 1.8.5.1) and glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2) and that of catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) increased before seeds reached physiological maturity and decreased thereafter. The changes of isoform patterns of antioxidative enzymes were observed during seed maturation. Immature lupine seeds tested immediately after harvest acquired the ability to germinate when less than half-filled and reached high tolerance to desiccation just after physiological maturity. The physiological implications of the changes in antioxidative machinery for the acquisition of desiccation tolerance and seeds germinability are discussed.

  5. Missile tracking and range safety: Tracking Interferometer Pathfinder System (TIPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowgiallo, David J.; Rauen, Stephen; Peters, Wendy M.; Polisensky, Emil J.

    2013-05-01

    The tracking of missiles at close range proximity has been an ongoing challenge for many launch environments. The ability to provide accurate missile trajectory information is imperative for range safety and early termination of flight. In an effort to provide a potential solution to tracking issues that have plagued many traditional techniques, the Tracking Interferometer Pathfinder System (TIPS) was developed at the Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. The paper herein describes the design, field test, and results of an interferometer deployed for missile tracking.

  6. Stem cell tracking using iron oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Bull, Elizabeth; Madani, Seyed Yazdan; Sheth, Roosey; Seifalian, Amelia; Green, Mark; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2014-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are an exciting advancement in the field of nanotechnology. They expand the possibilities of noninvasive analysis and have many useful properties, making them potential candidates for numerous novel applications. Notably, they have been shown that they can be tracked by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and are capable of conjugation with various cell types, including stem cells. In-depth research has been undertaken to establish these benefits, so that a deeper level of understanding of stem cell migratory pathways and differentiation, tumor migration, and improved drug delivery can be achieved. Stem cells have the ability to treat and cure many debilitating diseases with limited side effects, but a main problem that arises is in the noninvasive tracking and analysis of these stem cells. Recently, researchers have acknowledged the use of SPIONs for this purpose and have set out to establish suitable protocols for coating and attachment, so as to bring MRI tracking of SPION-labeled stem cells into common practice. This review paper explains the manner in which SPIONs are produced, conjugated, and tracked using MRI, as well as a discussion on their limitations. A concise summary of recently researched magnetic particle coatings is provided, and the effects of SPIONs on stem cells are evaluated, while animal and human studies investigating the role of SPIONs in stem cell tracking will be explored.

  7. Online Tracking

    MedlinePlus

    ... used to track you on all kinds of internet-connected devices that have browsers, such as smart phones, tablets, laptop and desktop computers. How does tracking in mobile apps occur? When you access mobile applications, companies don’t have access to ...

  8. Beyond Tracking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Percy; And Others

    1992-01-01

    On the surface, educational tracking may seem like a useful tool for allowing students to work at their own pace, and to avoid discouraging competition, but abuses of the tracking idea have arisen through biased placement practices that have denied equal access to education for minority students. The articles in this issue explore a number of…

  9. Tracking the association between metro-railway construction works and PM levels in an urban Mediterranean environment.

    PubMed

    Paschalidou, A K; Kassomenos, P A; Kelessis, A

    2016-10-15

    Metro-railways are considered to be a sustainable means of public transportation, as they contribute substantially to the reduction of air pollutant emissions through the decrease in the number of cars and heavy vehicles circulating in the road network. However, the works related to their construction may pose an extra burden in air quality status and consequently in public health. In the present study, we studied the possible effects of the metro-railway construction works in Thessaloniki, Greece, on public health through 2 well-established air quality indices, namely the PI and DAQI. The analysis suggested that there were excess high levels of PM10 measured in the close vicinity of the construction-sites during the period studied (2008-2014). These concentrations are likely to have originated from local construction sources rather than transport or continental secondary dust sources and might have an adverse health impact, as according to the PI index, the majority of days in the construction sites were grouped as "low pollution" or "moderate pollution", while a small percentage of days (1.84%) were suggested to be unhealthy for the most vulnerable groups of the population. Similarly, the DAQI index revealed that the vast majority of days were grouped as "poor" air quality, while 5.50% of the days reflected the most oppressive conditions for public health, as they were characterized as "very poor" air quality. Given the need of reaching a compromise between future transportation sustainability and public health during the construction works, the feasibility of appropriate measures in the area should be examined.

  10. Systematic Tracking of Malaysian Primary School Students' ESL Reading Comprehension Performance to Facilitate Instructional Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eng, Lin Siew; Mohamed, Abdul Rashid; Ismail, Shaik Abdul Malik Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to systematically track and benchmark upper primary school students' ESL reading comprehension ability and subsequently generate data at the micro and macro levels according to individual achievement, school location, gender and ethnicity at the school, district, state and national levels. The main intention of this…

  11. Relevance of Bacteroidales and F-specific RNA bacteriophages for efficient fecal contamination tracking at the level of a catchment in France.

    PubMed

    Mauffret, Aourell; Caprais, Marie-Paule; Gourmelon, Michèle

    2012-08-01

    The relevance of three host-associated Bacteroidales markers (HF183, Rum2Bac, and Pig2Bac) and four F-specific RNA bacteriophage genogroups (FRNAPH I to IV) as microbial source tracking markers was assessed at the level of a catchment (Daoulas, France). They were monitored together with fecal indicators (Escherichia coli and enterococci) and chemophysical parameters (rainfall, temperature, salinity, pH, and turbidity) by monthly sampling over 2 years (n = 240 water samples) and one specific sampling following an accidental pig manure spillage (n = 5 samples). During the 2-year regular monitoring, levels of E. coli, enterococci, total F-specific RNA bacteriophages, and the general Bacteroidales marker AllBac were strongly correlated with one another and with Rum2Bac (r = 0.37 to 0.50, P < 0.0001). Their correlations with HF183 and FRNAPH I and II were lower (r = 0.21 to 0.29, P < 0.001 to P < 0.0001), and HF183 and enterococci were associated rather than correlated (Fisher's exact test, P < 0.01). Rum2Bac and HF183 enabled 73% of water samples that had ≥ 2.7 log(10) most probably number (MPN) of E. coli/100 ml to be classified. FRNAPH I and II enabled 33% of samples at this contamination level to be classified. FRNAPH I and II complemented the water sample classification obtained with the two Bacteroidales markers by an additional 8%. Pig2Bac and FRNAPH III and IV were observed in a small number of samples (n = 0 to 4 of 245). The present study validates Rum2Bac and HF183 as relevant tools to trace fecal contamination originating from ruminant or human waste, respectively, at the level of a whole catchment.

  12. Effect of exercise level on the ability of thallium-201 tomographic imaging in detecting coronary artery disease: Analysis of 461 patients

    SciTech Connect

    Iskandrian, A.S.; Heo, J.; Kong, B.; Lyons, E. )

    1989-11-15

    This study examined the effect of the level of exercise on the ability of thallium-201 imaging with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to detect coronary artery disease. Patients in group 1 (n = 164) achieved adequate exercise end points, defined as positive exercise electrocardiograms or greater than or equal to 85% of maximal predicted heart rate. Patients in group 2 (n = 108) had submaximal exercise. The SPECT thallium-201 images showed perfusion defects in 74%, 88%, and 98%, respectively, of patients with one, two and three vessel coronary artery disease in group 1, compared with 52%, 84% and 79%, respectively, of such patients in group 2 (p less than 0.05). Perfusion defects showed partial or complete redistribution consistent with ischemia in 56%, 80% and 88%, respectively, of patients with one, two and three vessel coronary artery disease in group 1 compared with 35%, 58% and 56%, respectively, of such patients in group 2 (p = 0.08, less than 0.03 and less than 0.001, respectively). Of 58 patients with normal coronary angiograms or less than 50% diameter stenosis, 36 (62%) had normal SPECT images. In a separate group of 131 patients with less than 5% pretest probability of coronary artery disease, the specificity was 93%. The sensitivity of exercise SPECT imaging in group 1 was higher than that of ST segment depression (p less than 0.001). Thus, the level of exercise affects the results of SPECT thallium imaging in the localization and evaluation of the extent of coronary artery disease and the detection of ischemia.

  13. Improved Tracking Of Square-Wave Subcarrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurd, William J.; Aguirre, Sergio

    1988-01-01

    Variance of phase error reduced. Report discusses application of "windowing" concept to improve ability of telemetry receiver to track phase of square-wave phase-modulation subcarrier signal. Concept based on setting phase-tracking signal at zero outside narrow time "windows", reducing noise energy in processed signal. Result is increase in signal-to-noise ratio in tracking loop with consequent increase in accuracy of tracking and reduction in number of errors in telemetric data.

  14. Rover tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Tracks made by the Sojourner rover are visible in this image, taken by one of the cameras aboard Sojourner on Sol 3. The tracks represent the rover maneuvering towards the rock dubbed 'Barnacle Bill.' The rover, having exited the lander via the rear ramp, first traveled towards the right portion of the image, and then moved forward towards the left where Barnacle Bill sits. The fact that the rover was making defined tracks indicates that the soil is made up of particles on a micron scale.

    Mars Pathfinder was developed and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  15. "We Don't Need No Education": Video Game Preferences, Video Game Motivations, and Aggressiveness among Adolescent Boys of Different Educational Ability Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bijvank, Marije Nije; Konijn, Elly A.; Bushman, Brad J.

    2012-01-01

    This research focuses on low educational ability as a risk factor for aggression and violent game play. We propose that boys of lower educational ability are more attracted to violent video games than other boys are, and that they are also higher in trait aggressiveness and sensation seeking. Participants were Dutch boys in public schools (N =…

  16. Effects of Baseline Levels of Flexibility and Vertical Jump Ability on Performance Following Different Volumes of Static Stretching and Potentiating Exercises in Elite Gymnasts

    PubMed Central

    Donti, Olyvia; Tsolakis, Charilaos; Bogdanis, Gregory C.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of baseline flexibility and vertical jump ability on straight leg raise range of motion (ROM) and counter-movement jump performance (CMJ) following different volumes of stretching and potentiating exercises. ROM and CMJ were measured after two different warm-up protocols involving static stretching and potentiating exercises. Three groups of elite athletes (10 male, 14 female artistic gymnasts and 10 female rhythmic gymnasts) varying greatly in ROM and CMJ, performed two warm-up routines. One warm-up included short (15 s) static stretching followed by 5 tuck jumps, while the other included long static stretching (30 s) followed by 3x5 tuck jumps. ROM and CMJ were measured before, during and for 12 min after the two warm-up routines. Three-way ANOVA showed large differences between the three groups in baseline ROM and CMJ performance. A type of warm-up x time interaction was found for both ROM (p = 0.031) and CMJ (p = 0.016). However, all athletes, irrespective of group, responded in a similar fashion to the different warm-up protocols for both ROM and CMJ, as indicated from the lack of significant interactions for group (condition x group, time x group or condition x time x group). In the short warm-up protocol, ROM was not affected by stretching, while in the long warm-up protocol ROM increased by 5.9% ± 0.7% (p = 0.001) after stretching. Similarly, CMJ remained unchanged after the short warm-up protocol, but increased by 4.6 ± 0.9% (p = 0.012) 4 min after the long warm- up protocol, despite the increased ROM. It is concluded that the initial levels of flexibility and CMJ performance do not alter the responses of elite gymnasts to warm-up protocols differing in stretching and potentiating exercise volumes. Furthermore, 3 sets of 5 tuck jumps result in a relatively large increase in CMJ performance despite an increase in flexibility in these highly-trained athletes. Key Points The initial levels of flexibility and vertical jump

  17. Effects of baseline levels of flexibility and vertical jump ability on performance following different volumes of static stretching and potentiating exercises in elite gymnasts.

    PubMed

    Donti, Olyvia; Tsolakis, Charilaos; Bogdanis, Gregory C

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of baseline flexibility and vertical jump ability on straight leg raise range of motion (ROM) and counter-movement jump performance (CMJ) following different volumes of stretching and potentiating exercises. ROM and CMJ were measured after two different warm-up protocols involving static stretching and potentiating exercises. Three groups of elite athletes (10 male, 14 female artistic gymnasts and 10 female rhythmic gymnasts) varying greatly in ROM and CMJ, performed two warm-up routines. One warm-up included short (15 s) static stretching followed by 5 tuck jumps, while the other included long static stretching (30 s) followed by 3x5 tuck jumps. ROM and CMJ were measured before, during and for 12 min after the two warm-up routines. Three-way ANOVA showed large differences between the three groups in baseline ROM and CMJ performance. A type of warm-up x time interaction was found for both ROM (p = 0.031) and CMJ (p = 0.016). However, all athletes, irrespective of group, responded in a similar fashion to the different warm-up protocols for both ROM and CMJ, as indicated from the lack of significant interactions for group (condition x group, time x group or condition x time x group). In the short warm-up protocol, ROM was not affected by stretching, while in the long warm-up protocol ROM increased by 5.9% ± 0.7% (p = 0.001) after stretching. Similarly, CMJ remained unchanged after the short warm-up protocol, but increased by 4.6 ± 0.9% (p = 0.012) 4 min after the long warm- up protocol, despite the increased ROM. It is concluded that the initial levels of flexibility and CMJ performance do not alter the responses of elite gymnasts to warm-up protocols differing in stretching and potentiating exercise volumes. Furthermore, 3 sets of 5 tuck jumps result in a relatively large increase in CMJ performance despite an increase in flexibility in these highly-trained athletes. Key PointsThe initial levels of flexibility and vertical jump

  18. Conservatism and Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stankov, Lazar

    2009-01-01

    Conservatism and cognitive ability are negatively correlated. The evidence is based on 1254 community college students and 1600 foreign students seeking entry to United States' universities. At the individual level of analysis, conservatism scores correlate negatively with SAT, Vocabulary, and Analogy test scores. At the national level of…

  19. Levels of line graph question interpretation with intermediate elementary students of varying scientific and mathematical knowledge and ability: A think aloud study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Stacy Kathryn

    This study examined how intermediate elementary students' mathematics and science background knowledge affected their interpretation of line graphs and how their interpretations were affected by graph question levels. A purposive sample of 14 6th-grade students engaged in think aloud interviews (Ericsson & Simon, 1993) while completing an excerpted Test of Graphing in Science (TOGS) (McKenzie & Padilla, 1986). Hand gestures were video recorded. Student performance on the TOGS was assessed using an assessment rubric created from previously cited factors affecting students' graphing ability. Factors were categorized using Bertin's (1983) three graph question levels. The assessment rubric was validated by Padilla and a veteran mathematics and science teacher. Observational notes were also collected. Data were analyzed using Roth and Bowen's semiotic process of reading graphs (2001). Key findings from this analysis included differences in the use of heuristics, self-generated questions, science knowledge, and self-motivation. Students with higher prior achievement used a greater number and variety of heuristics and more often chose appropriate heuristics. They also monitored their understanding of the question and the adequacy of their strategy and answer by asking themselves questions. Most used their science knowledge spontaneously to check their understanding of the question and the adequacy of their answers. Students with lower and moderate prior achievement favored one heuristic even when it was not useful for answering the question and rarely asked their own questions. In some cases, if students with lower prior achievement had thought about their answers in the context of their science knowledge, they would have been able to recognize their errors. One student with lower prior achievement motivated herself when she thought the questions were too difficult. In addition, students answered the TOGS in one of three ways: as if they were mathematics word problems

  20. Use of fission track analysis technique for the determination of MicroBequerel level of 239Pu in urine samples from radiation workers handling MOX fuel.

    PubMed

    Yadav, J R; Rao, D D; Kumar, Ranjeet; Aggarwal, S K

    2011-07-01

    Fission track analysis (FTA) technique for the determination of (239)Pu excreted through urine has been standardized using blank samples, tracer and (239)Pu spikes. Double stage anion exchange separation protocol has been applied and an average radiochemical recovery of (239)Pu of 18% was obtained. An average track registration efficiency of 11 tracks per μBq of (239)Pu, irradiated to 0.35×10(17) neutron fluence was established. Reagent blank urine samples from 11 controlled subjects were analyzed by FTA and an average of 149±14 tracks was obtained. Minimum detectable activity of 34μBqL(-1) of urine sample was obtained and will be useful for monitoring chronic exposure cases handling MOX fuel.

  1. MATERIAL TRACKING USING LANMAS

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, F.

    2010-06-07

    LANMAS is a transaction-based nuclear material accountability software product developed to replace outdated and legacy accountability systems throughout the DOE. The core underlying purpose of LANMAS is to track nuclear materials inventory and report transactions (movement, mixing, splitting, decay, etc.) to the Nuclear Materials Management and Safeguards System (NMMSS). While LANMAS performs those functions well, there are many additional functions provided by the software product. As a material is received onto a site or created at a site, its entire lifecycle can be tracked in LANMAS complete to its termination of safeguards. There are separate functions to track material movements between and within material balance areas (MBAs). The level of detail for movements within a MBA is configurable by each site and can be as high as a site designation or as detailed as building/room/rack/row/position. Functionality exists to track the processing of materials, either as individual items or by modeling a bulk process as an individual item to track inputs and outputs from the process. In cases where sites have specialized needs, the system is designed to be flexible so that site specific functionality can be integrated into the product. This paper will demonstrate how the software can be used to input material into an account and track it to its termination of safeguards.

  2. High-dynamic GPS tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinedi, S.; Statman, J. I.

    1988-01-01

    The results of comparing four different frequency estimation schemes in the presence of high dynamics and low carrier-to-noise ratios are given. The comparison is based on measured data from a hardware demonstration. The tested algorithms include a digital phase-locked loop, a cross-product automatic frequency tracking loop, and extended Kalman filter, and finally, a fast Fourier transformation-aided cross-product frequency tracking loop. The tracking algorithms are compared on their frequency error performance and their ability to maintain lock during severe maneuvers at various carrier-to-noise ratios. The measured results are shown to agree with simulation results carried out and reported previously.

  3. Robust superpixel tracking.

    PubMed

    Fan Yang; Huchuan Lu; Ming-Hsuan Yang

    2014-04-01

    While numerous algorithms have been proposed for object tracking with demonstrated success, it remains a challenging problem for a tracker to handle large appearance change due to factors such as scale, motion, shape deformation, and occlusion. One of the main reasons is the lack of effective image representation schemes to account for appearance variation. Most of the trackers use high-level appearance structure or low-level cues for representing and matching target objects. In this paper, we propose a tracking method from the perspective of midlevel vision with structural information captured in superpixels. We present a discriminative appearance model based on superpixels, thereby facilitating a tracker to distinguish the target and the background with midlevel cues. The tracking task is then formulated by computing a target-background confidence map, and obtaining the best candidate by maximum a posterior estimate. Experimental results demonstrate that our tracker is able to handle heavy occlusion and recover from drifts. In conjunction with online update, the proposed algorithm is shown to perform favorably against existing methods for object tracking. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm facilitates foreground and background segmentation during tracking.

  4. Measuring creative imagery abilities

    PubMed Central

    Jankowska, Dorota M.; Karwowski, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Over the decades, creativity and imagination research developed in parallel, but they surprisingly rarely intersected. This paper introduces a new theoretical model of creative visual imagination, which bridges creativity and imagination research, as well as presents a new psychometric instrument, called the Test of Creative Imagery Abilities (TCIA), developed to measure creative imagery abilities understood in accordance with this model. Creative imagination is understood as constituted by three interrelated components: vividness (the ability to create images characterized by a high level of complexity and detail), originality (the ability to produce unique imagery), and transformativeness (the ability to control imagery). TCIA enables valid and reliable measurement of these three groups of abilities, yielding the general score of imagery abilities and at the same time making profile analysis possible. We present the results of nine studies on a total sample of more than 1700 participants, showing the factor structure of TCIA using confirmatory factor analysis, as well as provide data confirming this instrument's validity and reliability. The availability of TCIA for interested researchers may result in new insights and possibilities of integrating the fields of creativity and imagination science. PMID:26539140

  5. CONTRACT ADMINISTRATIVE TRACKING SYSTEM (CATS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Contract Administrative Tracking System (CATS) was developed in response to an ORD NHEERL, Mid-Continent Ecology Division (MED)-recognized need for an automated tracking and retrieval system for Cost Reimbursable Level of Effort (CR/LOE) Contracts. CATS is an Oracle-based app...

  6. Simple front tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Glimm, J.; Grove, J.W.; Li, X.; Zhao, N.

    1999-04-01

    A new and simplified front tracking algorithm has been developed as an aspect of the extension of this algorithm to three dimensions. Here the authors emphasize two main results: (1) a simplified description of the microtopology of the interface, based on interface crossings with cell block edges, and (2) an improved algorithm for the interaction of a tracked contact discontinuity with an untracked shock wave. For the latter question, they focus on the post interaction jump at the contact, which is a purely 1D issue. Comparisons to other methods, including the level set method, are included.

  7. Identifying second language speech tasks and ability levels for successful nurse oral interaction with patients in a linguistic minority setting: an instrument development project.

    PubMed

    Isaacs, Talia; Laurier, Michel D; Turner, Carolyn E; Segalowitz, Norman

    2011-09-01

    One of the most demanding situations for members of linguistic minorities is a conversation between a health professional and a patient, a situation that frequently arises for linguistic minority groups in North America, Europe, and elsewhere. The present study reports on the construction of an oral interaction scale for nurses serving linguistic minorities in their second language (L2). A mixed methods approach was used to identify and validate a set of speech activities relating to nurse interactions with patients and to derive the L2 ability required to carry out those tasks. The research included an extensive literature review, the development of an initial list of speech tasks, and validation of this list with a nurse focus group. The retained speech tasks were then developed into a questionnaire and administered to 133 Quebec nurses who assessed each speech task for difficulty in an L2 context. Results were submitted to Rasch analysis and calibrated with reference to the Canadian Language Benchmarks, and the constructs underlying the speech tasks were identified through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Results showed that speech tasks dealing with emotional aspects of caregiving and conveying health-specific information were reported as being the most demanding in terms of L2 ability, and the most strongly associated with L2 ability required for nurse-patient interactions. Implications are discussed with respect to the development and use of assessment instruments to facilitate L2 workplace training for health care professionals.

  8. Asset tracking systems.

    PubMed

    2006-11-01

    Asset tracking systems are used in healthcare to find objects--medical devices and other hospital equipment--and to record the physical location of those objects over time. Interest in asset tracking is growing daily, but the technology is still evolving, and so far very few systems have been implemented in hospitals. This situation is likely to change over the next few years, at which point many hospitals will be faced with choosing a system. We evaluated four asset tracking systems from four suppliers: Agility Healthcare Solutions, Ekahau, Radianse, and Versus Technology. We judged the systems' performance for two "levels" of asset tracking. The first level is basic locating--simply determining where in the facility an item can be found. This may be done because the equipment needs routine inspection and preventive maintenance or because it is required for recall purposes; or the equipment may be needed, often urgently, for clinical use. The second level, which is much more involved, is inventory optimization and workflow improvement. This entails analyzing asset utilization based on historical location data to improve the use, distribution, and processing of equipment. None of the evaluated products is ideal for all uses--each has strengths and weaknesses. In many cases, hospitals will have to select a product based on their specific needs. For example, they may need to choose between a supplier whose system is easy to install and a supplier whose tags have a long battery operating life.

  9. COCOA: tracking in aerial imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Saad; Shah, Mubarak

    2006-05-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are becoming a core intelligence asset for reconnaissance, surveillance and target tracking in urban and battlefield settings. In order to achieve the goal of automated tracking of objects in UAV videos we have developed a system called COCOA. It processes the video stream through number of stages. At first stage platform motion compensation is performed. Moving object detection is performed to detect the regions of interest from which object contours are extracted by performing a level set based segmentation. Finally blob based tracking is performed for each detected object. Global tracks are generated which are used for higher level processing. COCOA is customizable to different sensor resolutions and is capable of tracking targets as small as 100 pixels. It works seamlessly for both visible and thermal imaging modes. The system is implemented in Matlab and works in a batch mode.

  10. Differential Effects on the ITPA [Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities] Profile of the Experimental Version of Level #1 of the Peabody Language Development Kits with Disadvantaged First-Grade Children. IMRID Papers and Reports, Volume 4, No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Lloyd M.; Mueller, Max W.

    The differential effects of the experimental revision of Level 1 of the Peabody Language Development Kits (PLDK) on the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA) profiles of disadvantaged first-grade children were studied. Contrasted with 203 control subjects were 529 experimental subjects who received a daily 30-minute oral language…

  11. Differential Effects on the ITPA [Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities] Profile of the Final Version of the Peabody Language Development Kits (Levels #1 and #2) with Young Disadvantaged Negro Children. IMRID Papers and Reports, Volume 5, No. 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausman, Ralph M.; Apffel, James A.

    The differential effects of the final revision of Levels 1 and 2 of the Peabody Language Development Kits (PLDK) on the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA) profiles of young disadvantaged black children were studied. Contrasted with 90 control subjects were 90 experimental subjects who received a daily 30-minute oral language…

  12. Program Tracks Cost Of Travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauldin, Lemuel E., III

    1993-01-01

    Travel Forecaster is menu-driven, easy-to-use computer program that plans, forecasts cost, and tracks actual vs. planned cost of business-related travel of division or branch of organization and compiles information into data base to aid travel planner. Ability of program to handle multiple trip entries makes it valuable time-saving device.

  13. Selective School Systems and Academic Self-Concept: How Explicit and Implicit School-Level Tracking Relate to the Big-Fish--Little-Pond Effect across Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salchegger, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    A large body of research has demonstrated a big-fish--little-pond effect (BFLPE) by showing that equally able students have lower academic self-concepts in high-ability schools than in low-ability schools. Although the BFLPE generalizes across many countries, it varies significantly between countries. The reasons for this variation are still…

  14. Detection and frequency tracking of chirping signals

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, G.R.; Stearns, S.D.

    1990-08-01

    This paper discusses several methods to detect the presence of and track the frequency of a chirping signal in broadband noise. The dynamic behavior of each of the methods is described and tracking error bounds are investigated in terms of the chirp rate. Frequency tracking and behavior in the presence of varying levels of noise are illustrated in examples. 11 refs., 29 figs.

  15. Teleoperation of Robonaut Using Finger Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Champoux, Rachel G.; Luo, Victor

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of new finger tracking systems, the idea of a more expressive and intuitive user interface is being explored and implemented. One practical application for this new kind of interface is that of teleoperating a robot. For humanoid robots, a finger tracking interface is required due to the level of complexity in a human-like hand, where a joystick isn't accurate. Moreover, for some tasks, using one's own hands allows the user to communicate their intentions more effectively than other input. The purpose of this project was to develop a natural user interface for someone to teleoperate a robot that is elsewhere. Specifically, this was designed to control Robonaut on the international space station to do tasks too dangerous and/or too trivial for human astronauts. This interface was developed by integrating and modifying 3Gear's software, which includes a library of gestures and the ability to track hands. The end result is an interface in which the user can manipulate objects in real time in the user interface. then, the information is relayed to a simulator, the stand in for Robonaut, at a slight delay.

  16. Ability of surface and subsurface death assemblages to track km-scale spatial and decade-scale temporal variability in living communities: Tests using the urban southern California continental shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidwell, Susan M.; Tomasovych, Adam

    2016-04-01

    Actualistic analysis of death assemblages has always focused on quantifying, and achieving a mechanistic understanding of, the reliability of deep-time records, and is now additionally motivated to assess natural conditions before human impacts. The southern California continental shelf permits us to evaluate the ability of time-averaged death assemblages to detect known variability in urban nutrients, which increased from the early 20th Century up until the 1972 Clean Water Act. Biomonitoring since then documents strong declines in populations of pollution- and hypoxia-tolerant species, especially the chemosymbiontic lucinid bivalve Parvilucina tenuisculpta. This shelf is taphonomically challenging -- median shell ages are 50-100 y, only 1% of shells survive, the mixed-zone is ~25 cm thick, and siliciclastic accumulation is slow, in contrast to sediment-trapping estuaries and lagoons. Nonetheless, both surficial death and buried core assemblages capture first-order urban trends, albeit with significant damping of the large, spatially localized mid-20th Century pulse in Parvilucina abundance. Paleoecologists will thus detect but under-estimate the original magnitude of even strong past excursions in community composition, an important bounding condition for both recent- and deep-time analysis.

  17. Leveling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1966-01-01

    Geodetic leveling by the U.S. Geological Survey provides a framework of accurate elevations for topographic mapping. Elevations are referred to the Sea Level Datum of 1929. Lines of leveling may be run either with automatic or with precise spirit levels, by either the center-wire or the three-wire method. For future use, the surveys are monumented with bench marks, using standard metal tablets or other marking devices. The elevations are adjusted by least squares or other suitable method and are published in lists of control.

  18. Mycorrhizal fungi collected from the rhizospheres around different olive cultivars vary in their ability to improve growth and polyphenol levels in leeks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycorrhizal fungus spores and propagules were collected from the soils in the vicinity of roots of five different olive cultivars. These mycorrhizal fungal communities were amplified in trap cultures and then their effect on the growth and polyphenol levels of leek plants was determined. All mycorr...

  19. Adaptive Tracking Control for Robots With an Interneural Computing Scheme.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Feng-Sheng; Hsu, Sheng-Yi; Shih, Mau-Hsiang

    2017-01-24

    Adaptive tracking control of mobile robots requires the ability to follow a trajectory generated by a moving target. The conventional analysis of adaptive tracking uses energy minimization to study the convergence and robustness of the tracking error when the mobile robot follows a desired trajectory. However, in the case that the moving target generates trajectories with uncertainties, a common Lyapunov-like function for energy minimization may be extremely difficult to determine. Here, to solve the adaptive tracking problem with uncertainties, we wish to implement an interneural computing scheme in the design of a mobile robot for behavior-based navigation. The behavior-based navigation adopts an adaptive plan of behavior patterns learning from the uncertainties of the environment. The characteristic feature of the interneural computing scheme is the use of neural path pruning with rewards and punishment interacting with the environment. On this basis, the mobile robot can be exploited to change its coupling weights in paths of neural connections systematically, which can then inhibit or enhance the effect of flow elimination in the dynamics of the evolutionary neural network. Such dynamical flow translation ultimately leads to robust sensory-to-motor transformations adapting to the uncertainties of the environment. A simulation result shows that the mobile robot with the interneural computing scheme can perform fault-tolerant behavior of tracking by maintaining suitable behavior patterns at high frequency levels.

  20. Possibilities of sterilization by track membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudoyarov, M. F.; Vishnevskii, B. I.; Manicheva, O. A.; Myakotina, E. N.; Mukhin, S. A.; Patrova, M. Ya.; Vedmetskii, Yu. V.

    2011-09-01

    The possibility of using track membranes for the dimensional separation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MBT) species from liquid media has been studied. A set of track membranes with various pore diameters was prepared at the accelerator complex of the Ioffe Physical Technical Institute (St. Petersburg) and all samples were tested for their ability to separate MBT species of 13 strains from solutions. The results showed high ability of the track membranes with pore diameters from 180 to 300 nm to sterilize liquid media and confirmed the hypothesis concerning relatively high rigidity of these bacteria.

  1. Random grid fern for visual tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Fei; Liu, Kai; Zhang, Jin; Li, YunSong

    2014-05-01

    Visual tracking is one of the significant research directions in computer vision. Although standard random ferns tracking method obtains a good performance for the random spatial arrangement of binary tests, the effect of the locality of image on ferns description ability are ignored and prevent them to describe the object more accurately and robustly. This paper proposes a novel spatial arrangement of binary tests to divide the bounding box into grids in order to keep more details of the image for visual tracking. Experimental results show that this method can improve tracking accuracy effectively.

  2. Full and sub-waveform retracking to assess the ability of pulse limited altimeter in monitoring water level variations of inland water body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roohi, Shirzad; Sneeuw, Nico; Tseng, Kuo-Hsin; Shum, CK

    2014-05-01

    Pulse-limited-satellite altimetry was originally designed for oceanographic observations but has been extended to monitor inland water bodies. So far, studying water level variations of inland water bodies, e.g. lakes, has been a challenge for this type of altimetry in terms of data quality. The returned altimetry waveforms could be seriously contaminated by topography and environmental error sources. Retracking is an efficacious method against this contamination to improve the accuracy of range measurement and consequently robust water level determination. In addition, the choice of an optimal retracking algorithm appropriate for the specific regional water bodies is very important in this respect. In this study we processed 18 Hz Envisat RA2 altimetry data, i.e. Sensor Geophysical Data records (SGDR), with respective different retrackers and 1 Hz Geophysical Data Records (GDRs) of this mission by on-board retrackers. First, for a given waveform the whole waveform, called full-waveform, was processed to estimate retracked water level variation using OCOG, Threshold and β-parameter retrackers. In the next step we assumed that the reflecting surface inside the radar foot print is a complex surface with different responses. Therefore a given waveform considered as a combination of a number of small waveforms, called sub-waveform. Each sub-waveform was processed by all of the mentioned retrackers to determine water level variations. Finally the result of different retracked heights were compared with on-board retrackers, and with available in-situ gauge data. The largest salt lake in the middle east, Urmia lake, has been selected as a testing area in this study. This lake is drying up due to climate change and human activities, e.g. irrigation and dam construction. Our retracking analysis shows that the sub-waveform retracking outperforms the full-waveform retracking. The minimum RMS, i.e. 18 cm, was obtained by sub-waveform, retracked with Threshold 50% algorithm

  3. Prescription n-3 fatty acids, but not eicosapentaenoic acid alone, improve reference memory-related learning ability by increasing brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in SHR.Cg-Lepr(cp)/NDmcr rats, a metabolic syndrome model.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Michio; Inoue, Takayuki; Katakura, Masanori; Tanabe, Yoko; Hossain, Shahdat; Tsuchikura, Satoru; Shido, Osamu

    2013-10-01

    Metabolic syndrome is implicated in the decline of cognitive ability. We investigated whether the prescription n-3 fatty acid administration improves cognitive learning ability in SHR.Cg-Lepr(cp)/NDmcr (SHR-cp) rats, a metabolic syndrome model, in comparison with administration of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5, n-3) alone. Administration of TAK-085 [highly purified and concentrated n-3 fatty acid formulation containing EPA ethyl ester and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6, n-3) ethyl ester] at 300 mg/kg body weight per day for 13 weeks reduced the number of reference memory-related errors in SHR-cp rats, but EPA alone had no effect, suggesting that long-term TAK-085 administration improves cognitive learning ability in a rat model of metabolic syndrome. However, the working memory-related errors were not affected in either of the rat groups. TAK-085 and EPA administration increased plasma EPA and DHA levels of SHR-cp rats, associating with an increase in EPA and DHA in the cerebral cortex. The TAK-085 administration decreased the lipid peroxide levels and reactive oxygen species in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of SHR-cp rats, suggesting that TAK-085 increases antioxidative defenses. Its administration also increased the brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in the cortical and hippocampal tissues of TAK-085-administered rats. The present study suggests that long-term TAK-085 administration is a possible therapeutic strategy for protecting against metabolic syndrome-induced learning decline.

  4. ESC Track Fusion Demonstration Tool for Distributed Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, C.; Degraaf, E.; Perry, R.; Diaz, R.

    A key requirement of future net-centric Space Situational Awareness systems development and operations will be decentralized operations, including multi-level distributed data fusion. Raytheon has developed a demonstration for ESC 850 ELSG/NS that fuses sensor-supplied tracks in a dense resident space object (RSO) environment. The demonstration use the state vector and covariance input data from single pass orbit solutions and applies track-to-track correlation algorithms to fuse the individual tracks into composite orbits. Platform independent Java technology and an agent-based software design using asynchronous inter-process communications was used in the demonstration tool development. The tool has been tested against a simulated scenario corresponding to the future 100,000+ object catalog environment. Ten days of simulated data from Fylingdales, Shemya, Eglin, and a future Space Fence sensor were generated for a co-orbiting family of 122 sun-synchronous objects between 700 and 800 km altitude from the NASA simulated small debris for 2015. The selected set exceeds the average object densities for the 100,000+ RSO environment, and provides a scenario similar to an evolved breakup where the debris has had time to disperse. The demo produced very good results using fast and simple astrodynamic models. A total of 16678 input tracks were fused, with less than 1.6% being misassociated. Pure tracks were generated for 65% of the 122 truth objects, and 97% of the objects had a misassociation rate <5%. This was achieved in a hands-off process on a single Windows XP laptop running about 240 times faster than real-time. This successful demonstration shows the ability to perform autonomous multi-track data fusion using an approach that is scalable and will support operation in a distributed heterogeneous computing environment, as well as providing a tool that can be used to assess current breakups such as the Chinese ASAT event.

  5. Sun Tracking Systems: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chia-Yen; Chou, Po-Cheng; Chiang, Che-Ming; Lin, Chiu-Feng

    2009-01-01

    The output power produced by high-concentration solar thermal and photovoltaic systems is directly related to the amount of solar energy acquired by the system, and it is therefore necessary to track the sun's position with a high degree of accuracy. Many systems have been proposed to facilitate this task over the past 20 years. Accordingly, this paper commences by providing a high level overview of the sun tracking system field and then describes some of the more significant proposals for closed-loop and open-loop types of sun tracking systems. PMID:22412341

  6. Sun tracking systems: a review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chia-Yen; Chou, Po-Cheng; Chiang, Che-Ming; Lin, Chiu-Feng

    2009-01-01

    The output power produced by high-concentration solar thermal and photovoltaic systems is directly related to the amount of solar energy acquired by the system, and it is therefore necessary to track the sun's position with a high degree of accuracy. Many systems have been proposed to facilitate this task over the past 20 years. Accordingly, this paper commences by providing a high level overview of the sun tracking system field and then describes some of the more significant proposals for closed-loop and open-loop types of sun tracking systems.

  7. On the Right Track.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bieber, Ed

    1983-01-01

    Suggests thinking of "tracks" as clues and using them as the focus of outdoor activities in the urban environment. Provides 24 examples of possible track activities, including: seeds on the ground (track of a nearby tree), litter (track of a litterbug), and peeling paint (track of weathering forces). (JN)

  8. Track Construction Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banke, Ron; Di Gennaro, Guy; Ediger, Rick; Garner, Lanny; Hersom, Steve; Miller, Jack; Nemeth, Ron; Petrucelli, Jim; Sierks, Donna; Smith, Don; Swank, Kevin; West, Kevin

    This book establishes guidelines for the construction and maintenance of tracks by providing information for building new tracks or upgrading existing tracks. Subjects covered include running track planning and construction, physical layout, available surfaces, and maintenance. General track requirements and construction specifications are…

  9. Getting ready for invasions: can background level of risk predict the ability of naïve prey to survive novel predators?

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Maud C. O.; Crane, Adam L.; Brown, Grant E.; Chivers, Douglas P.

    2015-01-01

    Factors predicting the outcome of predator invasions on native prey communities are critical to our understanding of invasion ecology. Here, we tested whether background level of risk affected the survival of prey to novel predators, both native and invasive, predicting that high-risk environments would better prepare prey for invasions. We used naïve woodfrog as our prey and exposed them to a high or low risk regime either as embryos (prenatal exposure) or as larvae (recent exposure). Tadpoles were then tested for their survival in the presence of 4 novel predators: two dytiscid beetles, crayfish and trout. Survival was affected by both risk level and predator type. High risk was beneficial to prey exposed to the dytiscids larvae (ambush predators), but detrimental to prey exposed to crayfish or trout (pursuit predators). No effect of ontogeny of risk was found. We further documented that high-risk tadpoles were overall more active than their low-risk counterparts, explaining the patterns found with survival. Our results provide insights into the relationship between risk and resilience to predator invasions. PMID:25655436

  10. Strategies of Adaptive Ability Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, David J.

    A number of strategies are described for adapting ability test items to individual differences in ability levels of testees. Each strategy consists of a different set of rules for selecting the sequence of test items to be administered to a given testee. Advantages and disadvantages of each strategy are discussed, and research issues unique to the…

  11. Improving situation awareness using a hub architecture for friendly force tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karkkainen, Anssi P.

    2010-04-01

    Situation Awareness (SA) is the perception of environmental elements within a volume of time and space, the comprehension of their meaning, and the projection of their future status. In a military environment the most critical elements to be tracked are followed elements are either friendly or hostile forces. Poor knowledge of locations of friendly forces easily leads into the situation in which the troops could be under firing by own troops or in which decisions in a command and control system are based on incorrect tracking. Thus the Friendly Force Tracking (FFT) is a vital part of building situation awareness. FFT is basically quite simple in theory; collected tracks are shared through the networks to all troops. In real world, the situation is not so clear. Poor communication capabilities, lack of continuous connectivity n and large number of user on different level provide high requirements for FFT systems. In this paper a simple architecture for Friendly Force Tracking is presented. The architecture is based on NFFI (NATO Friendly Force Information) hubs which have two key features; an ability to forward tracking information and an ability to convert information into the desired format. The hub based approach provides a lightweight and scalable solution, which is able to use several types of communication media (GSM, tactical radios, TETRA etc.). The system is also simple to configure and maintain. One main benefit of the proposed architecture is that it is independent on a message format. It communicates using NFFI messages, but national formats are also allowed.

  12. Short time dynamics determine glass forming ability in a glass transition two-level model: A stochastic approach using Kramers' escape formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toledo-Marín, J. Quetzalcóatl; Naumis, Gerardo G.

    2017-03-01

    The relationship between short and long time relaxation dynamics is obtained for a simple solvable two-level energy landscape model of a glass. This is done through means of the Kramers' transition theory, which arises in a very natural manner to calculate transition rates between wells. Then the corresponding stochastic master equation is analytically solved to find the population of metastable states. A relation between the cooling rate, the characteristic relaxation time, and the population of metastable states is found from the solution of such equation. From this, a relationship between the relaxation times and the frequency of oscillation at the metastable states, i.e., the short time dynamics, is obtained. Since the model is able to capture either a glass transition or a crystallization depending on the cooling rate, this gives a conceptual framework in which to discuss some aspects of rigidity theory, for example.

  13. Tri-track: free software for large-scale particle tracking.

    PubMed

    Vallotton, Pascal; Olivier, Sandra

    2013-04-01

    The ability to correctly track objects in time-lapse sequences is important in many applications of microscopy. Individual object motions typically display a level of dynamic regularity reflecting the existence of an underlying physics or biology. Best results are obtained when this local information is exploited. Additionally, if the particle number is known to be approximately constant, a large number of tracking scenarios may be rejected on the basis that they are not compatible with a known maximum particle velocity. This represents information of a global nature, which should ideally be exploited too. Some time ago, we devised an efficient algorithm that exploited both types of information. The tracking task was reduced to a max-flow min-cost problem instance through a novel graph structure that comprised vertices representing objects from three consecutive image frames. The algorithm is explained here for the first time. A user-friendly implementation is provided, and the specific relaxation mechanism responsible for the method's effectiveness is uncovered. The software is particularly competitive for complex dynamics such as dense antiparallel flows, or in situations where object displacements are considerable. As an application, we characterize a remarkable vortex structure formed by bacteria engaged in interstitial motility.

  14. Consecutive pedestrian tracking in large scale space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Jinpeng; Xu, Yi

    2016-09-01

    Pedestrian tracking is an important and meaningful part of the computer vision topic. Given the position of pedestrian in the first frame, our goal is to automatically determine the accurate position of the target pedestrian in every frame that follows. Current tracking methods show good performance in short-term tracking. However, there are still some open problems in real scenes, e.g. pedestrian re-identification under multi-camera surveillance and pedestrian tracking under occlusions. In our paper, we proposed an efficient method for consecutive tracking, which can deal with the challenging view changes and occlusions. Proposed tracker consists of short-time tracking mechanism and consecutive tracking mechanism. The consecutive tracking mechanism will be activated while the target pedestrian is under occlusion or changes dramatically in appearance. In consecutive tracking mechanism, proposed algorithm will detect the target pedestrian using a coarse but fast feature as first level classifier and a fine feature as the last level classifier. After regaining the accurate position of target pedestrian, the appearance model of the target pedestrian will be updated as historical information and the short-time tracking mechanism will be activated again to continue tracking the target pedestrian. Experimental results show that the proposed method can handle hard cases and achieve higher success rate than the current existing methods.

  15. Neural tracking of attended versus ignored speech is differentially affected by hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Eline Borch; Wöstmann, Malte; Obleser, Jonas; Lunner, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Hearing loss manifests as a reduced ability to understand speech, particularly in multitalker situations. In these situations, younger normal-hearing listeners' brains are known to track attended speech through phase-locking of neural activity to the slow-varying envelope of the speech. This study investigates how hearing loss, compensated by hearing aids, affects the neural tracking of the speech-onset envelope in elderly participants with varying degree of hearing loss (n = 27, 62-86 yr; hearing thresholds 11-73 dB hearing level). In an active listening task, a to-be-attended audiobook (signal) was presented either in quiet or against a competing to-be-ignored audiobook (noise) presented at three individualized signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). The neural tracking of the to-be-attended and to-be-ignored speech was quantified through the cross-correlation of the electroencephalogram (EEG) and the temporal envelope of speech. We primarily investigated the effects of hearing loss and SNR on the neural envelope tracking. First, we found that elderly hearing-impaired listeners' neural responses reliably track the envelope of to-be-attended speech more than to-be-ignored speech. Second, hearing loss relates to the neural tracking of to-be-ignored speech, resulting in a weaker differential neural tracking of to-be-attended vs. to-be-ignored speech in listeners with worse hearing. Third, neural tracking of to-be-attended speech increased with decreasing background noise. Critically, the beneficial effect of reduced noise on neural speech tracking decreased with stronger hearing loss. In sum, our results show that a common sensorineural processing deficit, i.e., hearing loss, interacts with central attention mechanisms and reduces the differential tracking of attended and ignored speech.

  16. AgrAbility Project

    MedlinePlus

    ... It’s About Hope AgrAbility on Twitter AgrAbility on Facebook AgrAbility on You Tube AgrAbility… It’s About Hope ... summary report available... AgrAbility Harvest Get a copy Facebook Posts National AgrAbility Project 12 hours ago Good ...

  17. Noise reduction in urban LRT networks by combining track based solutions.

    PubMed

    Vogiatzis, Konstantinos; Vanhonacker, Patrick

    2016-10-15

    The overall objective of the Quiet-Track project is to provide step-changing track based noise mitigation and maintenance schemes for railway rolling noise in LRT (Light Rail Transit) networks. WP 4 in particular focuses on the combination of existing track based solutions to yield a global performance of at least 6dB(A). The validation was carried out using a track section in the network of Athens Metro Line 1 with an existing outside concrete slab track (RHEDA track) where high airborne rolling noise was observed. The procedure for the selection of mitigation measures is based on numerical simulations, combining WRNOISE and IMMI software tools for noise prediction with experimental determination of the required track and vehicle parameters (e.g., rail and wheel roughness). The availability of a detailed rolling noise calculation procedure allows for detailed designing of measures and of ranking individual measures. It achieves this by including the modelling of the wheel/rail source intensity and of the noise propagation with the ability to evaluate the effect of modifications at source level (e.g., grinding, rail dampers, wheel dampers, change in resiliency of wheels and/or rail fixation) and of modifications in the propagation path (absorption at the track base, noise barriers, screening). A relevant combination of existing solutions was selected in the function of the simulation results. Three distinct existing solutions were designed in detail aiming at a high rolling noise attenuation and not affecting the normal operation of the metro system: Action 1: implementation of sound absorbing precast elements (panel type) on the track bed, Action 2: implementation of an absorbing noise barrier with a height of 1.10-1.20m above rail level, and Action 3: installation of rail dampers. The selected solutions were implemented on site and the global performance was measured step by step for comparison with simulations.

  18. An investigation of gender and grade-level differences in middle school students' attitudes about science, in science process skills ability, and in parental expectations of their children's science performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Terri Renee'

    The primary purpose of the study was to examine different variables (i.e. science process skill ability, science attitudes, and parents' levels of expectation for their children in science, which may impinge on science education differently for males and females in grades five, seven, and nine. The research question addressed by the study was: What are the differences between science process skill ability, science attitudes, and parents' levels of expectation in science on the academic success of fifth, seventh, and ninth graders in science and do effects differ according to gender and grade level? The subjects included fifth, seven, and ninth grade students ( n = 543) and their parents (n = 474) from six rural, public elementary schools and two rural, public middle schools in Southern Mississippi. A two-way (grade x gender) multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to determine the differences in science process skill abilities of females and males in grade five, seven, and nine. An additional separate two-way multivariate analysis of variance (grade x gender) was also used to determine the differences in science attitudes of males and females in grade five, seven, and nine. A separate analysis of variance (PPSEX [parent's gender]) with the effects being parents' gender was used to determine differences in parents' levels of expectation for their childrens' performance in science. An additional separate analysis of variance (SSEX [student's gender]) with the effects being the gender of the student was also used to determine differences in parents' levels of expectation for their childrens' performance in science. Results of the analyses indicated significant main effects for grade level (p < .001) and gender (p < .001) on the TIPS II. There was no significant grade by gender interaction on the TIPS II. Results for the TOSRA also indicated a significant main effect for grade (p < .001) and the interaction of grade by sex ( p < .001). On variable ATT 5

  19. Virtual, on-line, frog dissection vs. conventional laboratory dissection: A comparison of student achievement and teacher perceptions among honors, general ability, and foundations-level high school biology classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopec, Ronald H.

    2002-09-01

    Dissecting animal specimens has long been a tradition in biology classes. Objections by students, based on religious or ethical grounds, have been raised regarding the dissections of animals in classroom laboratories. A number of states now have legal proceedings or statewide policies requiring that alternatives to the actual dissection of laboratory animal specimens be permitted in their school districts. Alternatives to actual dissections have been developed in recent years. For a variety of reasons, performing an actual or conventional animal dissection may not be a desirable option. The purpose of this study was to investigate how a virtual On-line frog dissection compares with an actual laboratory dissection. What were the perceptions of the teacher's using it? How does student achievement compare among three the different ability levels on a pre and posttest regarding basic frog anatomy? Is a virtual On-line dissection a suitable alternative for students who, for whatever reason, do not participate in the actual laboratory experience? The subjects consisted of 218 biology students among three different ability levels, in a Northeastern suburban high school. Approximately half of the student groups participated in a virtual On-line dissection, the other half in an actual laboratory dissection. A pretest of basic frog anatomy was administered to the students two days before and the posttest one day after their dissection experience. Data were analyzed using matched pairs t-Tests, Analysis of Variance, Tukey HSD, and Squared Curvilinear Coefficients. Survey questionnaires were administered to the teachers after the dissection experiences were completed. There were no significant differences found in achievement between the virtual and conventional dissection groups. There were significant differences found in achievement score means among the three ability levels. There was no significant interaction between gender and achievement. Perceptions of the teacher

  20. SOFIA tracking image simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Charles R.; Gross, Michael A. K.

    2016-09-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) tracking camera simulator is a component of the Telescope Assembly Simulator (TASim). TASim is a software simulation of the telescope optics, mounting, and control software. Currently in its fifth major version, TASim is relied upon for telescope operator training, mission planning and rehearsal, and mission control and science instrument software development and testing. TASim has recently been extended for hardware-in-the-loop operation in support of telescope and camera hardware development and control and tracking software improvements. All three SOFIA optical tracking cameras are simulated, including the Focal Plane Imager (FPI), which has recently been upgraded to the status of a science instrument that can be used on its own or in parallel with one of the seven infrared science instruments. The simulation includes tracking camera image simulation of starfields based on the UCAC4 catalog at real-time rates of 4-20 frames per second. For its role in training and planning, it is important for the tracker image simulation to provide images with a realistic appearance and response to changes in operating parameters. For its role in tracker software improvements, it is vital to have realistic signal and noise levels and precise star positions. The design of the software simulation for precise subpixel starfield rendering (including radial distortion), realistic point-spread function as a function of focus, tilt, and collimation, and streaking due to telescope motion will be described. The calibration of the simulation for light sensitivity, dark and bias signal, and noise will also be presented

  1. Analysis of 3-dimentional track parameters from 2-dimensional images of etched tracks in solid polymeric track detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Sabyasachi; Tripathy, S. P.; Sarkar, P. K.

    2012-10-01

    An algorithm and a computer program (autoTRAK) are developed for rapid and precise estimation of track parameters in solid polymeric track detectors (SPTD). In this work, an effort is made to determine the 3-dimensional (3D) parameters such as depth (or length) and angle of the tracks, which are usually difficult to estimate from 2D images. The basic parameters such as diameter, major axis, minor axis, area, track density, etc. are also determined by the program precisely. The program is capable of selecting genuine tracks with precise tracing of track contours, segregating overlapped tracks and rejecting track-like unwanted objects. The algorithm is based on grey level analysis of the 2D images of etched nuclear tracks and is successfully tested for the analysis of alpha tracks in CR-39 detectors. The track depth values obtained by autoTRAK are found to match with those of other predictive codes. The details of the autoTRAK program and comparison of its output with those obtained using manual and automatic mode of other available image analyzing softwares, viz. ImageJ and AxioVision, are presented in the paper.

  2. Solar tracking system

    DOEpatents

    Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2016-07-12

    Solar tracking systems, as well as methods of using such solar tracking systems, are disclosed. More particularly, embodiments of the solar tracking systems include lateral supports horizontally positioned between uprights to support photovoltaic modules. The lateral supports may be raised and lowered along the uprights or translated to cause the photovoltaic modules to track the moving sun.

  3. Tracking and Inequality: New Directions for Research and Practice. WCER Working Paper No. 2009-6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamoran, Adam

    2009-01-01

    The practice of tracking and ability grouping--the division of students into separate tracks, classes, and groups for instruction based on their purported interests and abilities--has long been debated. Evidence from decades of research indicates that tracking magnifies inequality between high and low achievers without raising achievement overall,…

  4. Fluoroscopic tracking of multiple implanted fiducial markers using multiple object tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiaoli; Sharp, Greg C.; Jiang, Steve B.

    2007-07-01

    other hand, our proposed system can track markers well and can also successfully detect tracking failures. Failure rate was calculated on a per-frame-per-marker basis for the proposed tracking system. When the system considered breathing pattern information, it had a 0% failure rate 75% of the time and 0.4% failure rate 25% of the time. However, when the system did not consider breathing patterns, it had a much higher failure rate, in the range of 1.2%-12%. Both examples of the proposed system yielded low e95 (the maximum marker tracking error at 95% confidence level)—less than 1.5 mm.

  5. TrackEye tracking algorithm characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valley, Michael T.; Shields, Robert W.; Reed, Jack M.

    2004-10-01

    TrackEye is a film digitization and target tracking system that offers the potential for quantitatively measuring the dynamic state variables (e.g., absolute and relative position, orientation, linear and angular velocity/acceleration, spin rate, trajectory, angle of attack, etc.) for moving objects using captured single or dual view image sequences. At the heart of the system is a set of tracking algorithms that automatically find and quantify the location of user selected image details such as natural test article features or passive fiducials that have been applied to cooperative test articles. This image position data is converted into real world coordinates and rates with user specified information such as the image scale and frame rate. Though tracking methods such as correlation algorithms are typically robust by nature, the accuracy and suitability of each TrackEye tracking algorithm is in general unknown even under good imaging conditions. The challenges of optimal algorithm selection and algorithm performance/measurement uncertainty are even more significant for long range tracking of high-speed targets where temporally varying atmospheric effects degrade the imagery. This paper will present the preliminary results from a controlled test sequence used to characterize the performance of the TrackEye tracking algorithm suite.

  6. TrackEye tracking algorithm characterization.

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Jack W.; Shields, Rob W; Valley, Michael T.

    2004-08-01

    TrackEye is a film digitization and target tracking system that offers the potential for quantitatively measuring the dynamic state variables (e.g., absolute and relative position, orientation, linear and angular velocity/acceleration, spin rate, trajectory, angle of attack, etc.) for moving objects using captured single or dual view image sequences. At the heart of the system is a set of tracking algorithms that automatically find and quantify the location of user selected image details such as natural test article features or passive fiducials that have been applied to cooperative test articles. This image position data is converted into real world coordinates and rates with user specified information such as the image scale and frame rate. Though tracking methods such as correlation algorithms are typically robust by nature, the accuracy and suitability of each TrackEye tracking algorithm is in general unknown even under good imaging conditions. The challenges of optimal algorithm selection and algorithm performance/measurement uncertainty are even more significant for long range tracking of high-speed targets where temporally varying atmospheric effects degrade the imagery. This paper will present the preliminary results from a controlled test sequence used to characterize the performance of the TrackEye tracking algorithm suite.

  7. Analysis of adeno-associated virus (AAV) wild-type and mutant Rep proteins for their abilities to negatively regulate AAV p5 and p19 mRNA levels.

    PubMed Central

    Kyöstiö, S R; Owens, R A; Weitzman, M D; Antoni, B A; Chejanovsky, N; Carter, B J

    1994-01-01

    The rep gene of adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV) encodes four overlapping Rep proteins that are involved in gene regulation and replication of the virus. We studied here the regulation of mRNA transcribed from the AAV p5 and p19 promoters, using transient expression in human 293 cells followed by Northern (RNA) blot analysis of the mRNA. The p5 transcript encodes the larger Rep proteins, Rep78 and Rep68, while the p19 transcript encodes the smaller proteins, Rep52 and Rep40. A plasmid (pNTC3) containing the entire AAV genome with an amber mutation in the rep gene accumulated higher levels of p5 and p19 mRNA than a plasmid containing the wild-type AAV genome. Addition of increasing amounts of the wild-type rep gene in trans from a heterologous promoter inhibited p5 and p19 mRNA accumulation from pNTC3, indicating that the levels of both transcripts were decreased by the Rep proteins. Cotransfections with plasmids producing individual wild-type Rep proteins in trans showed that p5 and p19 mRNA accumulation was inhibited 5- to 10-fold by Rep78 and Rep68 and 2- to 3-fold by Rep52 and Rep40. Analysis of carboxyl-terminal truncation mutants of Rep78 showed that the ability of Rep78 to decrease p5 and p19 mRNA levels was lost when 159 or more amino acids were deleted. Rep78 and Rep68 mutants deleted for the methionine at residue 225 showed decreased abilities to down-regulate both p5 and p19 transcript levels, while mutants containing a substitution of glycine for the methionine resembled the wild-type Rep78. A Rep78 protein with a mutation in the putative nucleoside triphosphate binding site inhibited expression from p5 but not from p19, suggesting that the regulation of p5 transcript levels by Rep78 and Rep68 differs from that of p19. A deletion analysis of AAV cis sequences revealed that an intact terminal repeat was not required for negative regulation of p5 and p19 transcript levels and that the regulation of p19 mRNA levels by Rep78 did not require the presence

  8. Long-term visual tracking based on correlation filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Quanlu; Lao, Songyang; Bai, Liang

    2017-03-01

    In order to accomplish the long term visual tracking task in complex scenes, solve problems of scale variation, appearance variation and tracking failure, a long term tracking algorithm is given based on the framework of collaborative correlation tracking. Firstly, we integrate several powerful features to boost the represent ability based on the kernel correlation filter, and extend the filter by embedding a scale factor into the kernelized matrix to handle the scale variation. Then, we use the Peak-Sidelobe Ratio to decide whether the object is tracked successfully, and a CUR filter for re-detection the object in case of tracking failure is learnt with random sampling. Corresponding experiment is performed on 17 challenging benchmark video sequences. Compared with the 8 existing state-of-the-art algorithms based on discriminative learning method, the results show that the proposed algorithm improves the tracking performance on several indexes, and is robust to complex scenes for long term visual tracking.

  9. Search and tracking system architecture using 1-D scanning sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Sanghoon; Choi, Byungin; Joung, Shichang; Kim, Jaein

    2010-04-01

    In the maritime environment, It is necessary for ship's self protection to search ad track approaching targets. We developed high performance search and tracking system with Infrared sensors. Our system can obtain high performance with several FPGAs and COTS processing boards. Dual band IR sensor (MWIR and LWIR) also gives two types of target detection and tracing abilities. Our system designed to automatically detect and track both air and surface targets such as sea skimming missiles, small ships, and aircrafts at a long range. In this paper, we describe technologies in our search and tracking system architecture. We describe software architecture for signal processing and target detection and tracking algorithms as well.

  10. Calculating track thrust with track functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Hsi-Ming; Procura, Massimiliano; Thaler, Jesse; Waalewijn, Wouter J.

    2013-08-01

    In e+e- event shapes studies at LEP, two different measurements were sometimes performed: a “calorimetric” measurement using both charged and neutral particles and a “track-based” measurement using just charged particles. Whereas calorimetric measurements are infrared and collinear safe, and therefore calculable in perturbative QCD, track-based measurements necessarily depend on nonperturbative hadronization effects. On the other hand, track-based measurements typically have smaller experimental uncertainties. In this paper, we present the first calculation of the event shape “track thrust” and compare to measurements performed at ALEPH and DELPHI. This calculation is made possible through the recently developed formalism of track functions, which are nonperturbative objects describing how energetic partons fragment into charged hadrons. By incorporating track functions into soft-collinear effective theory, we calculate the distribution for track thrust with next-to-leading logarithmic resummation. Due to a partial cancellation between nonperturbative parameters, the distributions for calorimeter thrust and track thrust are remarkably similar, a feature also seen in LEP data.

  11. Advanced tracking systems design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potash, R.; Floyd, L.; Jacobsen, A.; Cunningham, K.; Kapoor, A.; Kwadrat, C.; Radel, J.; Mccarthy, J.

    1989-01-01

    The results of an assessment of several types of high-accuracy tracking systems proposed to track the spacecraft in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Advanced Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (ATDRSS) are summarized. Tracking systems based on the use of interferometry and ranging are investigated. For each system, the top-level system design and operations concept are provided. A comparative system assessment is presented in terms of orbit determination performance, ATDRSS impacts, life-cycle cost, and technological risk.

  12. Three-dimensional tracking of cardiac catheters using an inverse geometry x-ray fluoroscopy system

    SciTech Connect

    Speidel, Michael A.; Tomkowiak, Michael T.; Raval, Amish N.; Van Lysel, Michael S.

    2010-12-15

    Purpose: Scanning beam digital x-ray (SBDX) is an inverse geometry fluoroscopic system with high dose efficiency and the ability to perform continuous real-time tomosynthesis at multiple planes. This study describes a tomosynthesis-based method for 3D tracking of high-contrast objects and present the first experimental investigation of cardiac catheter tracking using a prototype SBDX system. Methods: The 3D tracking algorithm utilizes the stack of regularly spaced tomosynthetic planes that are generated by SBDX after each frame period (15 frames/s). Gradient-filtered versions of the image planes are generated, the filtered images are segmented into object regions, and then a 3D coordinate is calculated for each object region. Two phantom studies of tracking performance were conducted. In the first study, an ablation catheter in a chest phantom was imaged as it was pulled along a 3D trajectory defined by a catheter sheath (10, 25, and 50 mm/s pullback speeds). SBDX tip tracking coordinates were compared to the 3D trajectory of the sheath as determined from a CT scan of the phantom after the registration of the SBDX and CT coordinate systems. In the second study, frame-to-frame tracking precision was measured for six different catheter configurations as a function of image noise level (662-7625 photons/mm{sup 2} mean detected x-ray fluence at isocenter). Results: During catheter pullbacks, the 3D distance between the tracked catheter tip and the sheath centerline was 1.0{+-}0.8 mm (mean {+-}one standard deviation). The electrode to centerline distances were comparable to the diameter of the catheter tip (2.3 mm), the confining sheath (4 mm outside diameter), and the estimated SBDX-to-CT registration error ({+-}0.7 mm). The tip position was localized for all 332 image frames analyzed and 83% of tracked positions were inside the 3D sheath volume derived from CT. The pullback speeds derived from the catheter trajectories were within 5% of the programed pullback speeds

  13. Geo Issue Tracking System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khakpour, Mohammad; Paulik, Christoph; Hahn, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    Communication about remote sensing data quality between data providers and users as well as between the users is often difficult. The users have a hard time figuring out if a product has known problems over their region of interest and data providers have to spend a lot of effort to make this information available, if it exists. Scientific publications are one tool for communicating with the users base but they are static and mostly one way. As a data provider it is also often difficult to make feedback, received from users, available to the complete user base. The Geo Issue Tracking System (GeoITS) is an Open Source Web Application which has been developed to mitigate these problems. GeoITS combines a mapping interface (Google Maps) with a simple wiki platform. It allows users to give region specific feedback on a remote sensing product by drawing a polygon on the map and describing the problems they had using the remote sensing product in this area. These geolocated wiki entries are then viewable by other users as well as the data providers which can modify and extend the entries. In this way the conversations between the users and the data provider are no longer hidden in e.g. emails but open for all users of the dataset. This new kind of communication platform can enable better cooperation between users and data providers. It will also provide data providers with the ability to track problems their dataset might have in certain areas and resolve them with new product releases. The source code is available via http://github.com/TUW-GEO/geoits_dev A running instance can be tried at https://geoits.herokuapp.com/

  14. The effects of the level of inquiry of situated secondary science laboratory activities on students' understanding of concepts and the nature of science, ability to use process skills and attitudes toward problem solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dana, Lisa Ann

    Although there has been over thirty years of studies on the effects of inquiry-based science instruction on students' understanding of concepts and the nature of science, ability to use process skills, and attitudes toward problem solving and subsequent meta-analyses of these studies, little is conclusive because of the inability of researchers to adequately describe the various levels of inquiry-based science instruction being utilized. In many of these past studies inquiry-based science instruction was vaguely defined. Past descriptions of inquiry have mainly focused on the teacher vs. student responsibility in the parts of a laboratory activity (Herron 1971, Pella, 1961, and Schwab, 1962) and although others have since focused on other various aspects (Luft, 1999; Priestley, Priestley, Sutman, Schumuckler, Hilosky, & White 1998), none have been complete in scope to describe the classroom interactions between teacher and student, before, during and after manipulation of laboratory materials and to clearly define the various levels of inquiry-based science instruction occurring in a classroom. Utilizing some of these previous theoretical frameworks, this study created the Situated Laboratory Activity Instrument (SLAI) that clearly defines various levels of inquiry based upon specific categories of teacher-student behaviors. The term, situated laboratory activities, more clearly represents the time before, during and after the actual manipulation of material. Validity and reliability were established for the SLAI. The instrument was derived from both historical and current instruments for looking at inquiry. The data for the creation and revision of this instrument were collected through initial reliability measures and observing the situated laboratory activities in four secondary physics classrooms during the study. The SLAI was utilized in a preliminary study in a public high school of the effects of various levels of inquiry teaching on students' understanding

  15. Multiple frame cluster tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadaleta, Sabino; Klusman, Mike; Poore, Aubrey; Slocumb, Benjamin J.

    2002-08-01

    Tracking large number of closely spaced objects is a challenging problem for any tracking system. In missile defense systems, countermeasures in the form of debris, chaff, spent fuel, and balloons can overwhelm tracking systems that track only individual objects. Thus, tracking these groups or clusters of objects followed by transitions to individual object tracking (if and when individual objects separate from the groups) is a necessary capability for a robust and real-time tracking system. The objectives of this paper are to describe the group tracking problem in the context of multiple frame target tracking and to formulate a general assignment problem for the multiple frame cluster/group tracking problem. The proposed approach forms multiple clustering hypotheses on each frame of data and base individual frame clustering decisions on the information from multiple frames of data in much the same way that MFA or MHT work for individual object tracking. The formulation of the assignment problem for resolved object tracking and candidate clustering methods for use in multiple frame cluster tracking are briefly reviewed. Then, three different formulations are presented for the combination of multiple clustering hypotheses on each frame of data and the multiple frame assignments of clusters between frames.

  16. Indictment of Ability Grouping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckman, Bruce

    1972-01-01

    The use of ability grouping restricts students to interact with others who have been identified as similar in ability and carries with it the stigma of failure and the operation of the self-fulfilling prophecy. (Author)

  17. Tracking the Evolution of Polymer Interface Films during the Process of Thermal Annealing at the Domain and Single Molecular Levels using Scanning Tunneling Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xiao-Ling; Chen, Hua-Jie; Huang, Jian-Yao; Liu, Zhi-Fei; Li, Jin-Kuo; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Zhang, Wei-Feng; Yu, Gui

    2016-09-20

    Structural evolution of polymer (NTZ12) interface films during the process of annealing is revealed at the domain and single molecular levels using the statistical data measured from scanning tunneling microscopy images and through theoretical calculations. First, common features of the interface films are examined. Then, mean values of surface-occupied ratio, size and density of the domain are used to reveal the intrinsic derivation of the respective stages. Formation of new domains is triggered at 70 °C, but domain ripening is not activated. At 110 °C, the speed of formation of new domains is almost balanced by the consumption due to the ripening process. However, formation of new domains is reduced heavily at 150 °C but restarted at 190 °C. At the single molecular level, the ratio of the average length of linear to curved backbones is increased during annealing, whereas the ratios of the total length and the total number of linear to curved skeletons reaches a peak value at 150 °C. The two major conformations of curved backbones for all samples are 120° and 180° bending, but the ripening at 150 °C reduces 180° folding dramatically. Molecular dynamic simulations disclose the fast relaxing process of curved skeletons at high temperature.

  18. Renewable Energy Tracking Systems

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Renewable energy generation ownership can be accounted through tracking systems. Tracking systems are highly automated, contain specific information about each MWh, and are accessible over the internet to market participants.

  19. Researches on Track Reconstruction for DAMPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, T. S.; Lei, S. J.; Zang, J. J.; Chang, J.; Wu, J.

    2016-05-01

    The Dark Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) is aimed to study the existence and distribution of dark matter via observation of high energy particles in space with unprecedented large energy bandwidth, high energy resolution, and high space resolution. The track reconstruction is to restore the positions and angles of the incident particles using the multiple observations of different channels at different positions, and its accuracy determines the angular resolution of the detector. The track reconstruction is mainly based on the observations of two sub-detectors, namely, the Silicon Tracker (STK) detector and the BGO (Bi_4Ge_3O12) calorimeter. In accordance with the design and structure of the two sub-detectors and using the data collected during the beam tests and ground tests, we provide a detailed introduction of the track reconstruction of DAMPE data, including three basic steps, the selection of track hits, the fitting of track hits, and the judgement of the best track among (most probably) many of them. Since a high energy particle most probably leaves more than one hit in each level of the STK and BGO, we first provide a method to constrain the STK clusters for the track reconstruction using the rough result of the BGO reconstruction. We apply two different algorithms, the Kalman filter and the least square linear fitting, to fit the track hits. The consistency of the results obtained independently via the two algorithms confirms the validity of our track reconstruction results, and we discuss the advantages/disadvantages of each method. Several criteria combining the BGO and STK detection are discussed for picking out the most possible track among all the tracks found in the track reconstruction. Using the track reconstruction methods mentioned in this article and the beam test data, we confirm that the angular resolution of DAMPE satisfies the requirement in design.

  20. Balance ability and athletic performance.

    PubMed

    Hrysomallis, Con

    2011-03-01

    The relationship between balance ability and sport injury risk has been established in many cases, but the relationship between balance ability and athletic performance is less clear. This review compares the balance ability of athletes from different sports, determines if there is a difference in balance ability of athletes at different levels of competition within the same sport, determines the relationship of balance ability with performance measures and examines the influence of balance training on sport performance or motor skills. Based on the available data from cross-sectional studies, gymnasts tended to have the best balance ability, followed by soccer players, swimmers, active control subjects and then basketball players. Surprisingly, no studies were found that compared the balance ability of rifle shooters with other athletes. There were some sports, such as rifle shooting, soccer and golf, where elite athletes were found to have superior balance ability compared with their less proficient counterparts, but this was not found to be the case for alpine skiing, surfing and judo. Balance ability was shown to be significantly related to rifle shooting accuracy, archery shooting accuracy, ice hockey maximum skating speed and simulated luge start speed, but not for baseball pitching accuracy or snowboarding ranking points. Prospective studies have shown that the addition of a balance training component to the activities of recreationally active subjects or physical education students has resulted in improvements in vertical jump, agility, shuttle run and downhill slalom skiing. A proposed mechanism for the enhancement in motor skills from balance training is an increase in the rate of force development. There are limited data on the influence of balance training on motor skills of elite athletes. When the effectiveness of balance training was compared with resistance training, it was found that resistance training produced superior performance results for

  1. Solar tracking apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hammons, B.E.

    The invention relates to a solar tracking device which tracks the position of the sun using paired, partially-shaded photocells. Auxilliary photocells are used for initial acquisition of the sun and for the suppression of false tracking when the sun is obscured by clouds.

  2. Solar tracking apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hammons, Burrell E.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to a solar tracking device which tracks the position of the sun using paired, partially-shaded photocells. Auxiliary photocells are used for initial acquisition of the sun and for the suppression of false tracking when the sun is obscured by clouds.

  3. Evaluation of pyrolysis and arc tracking on candidate wire insulation designs for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stueber, Thomas J.; Hrovat, Kenneth

    1994-01-01

    The ability of wire insulation materials and constructions to resist arc tracking was determined and the damage caused by initial arcing and restrike events was assessed. Results of arc tracking tests on various insulation constructions are presented in view-graph format. Arc tracking tests conducted on Champlain, Filotex, and Teledyne Thermatics indicate the Filotex is least likely to arc track. Arc tracking occurs more readily in air than it does in vacuum.

  4. Track finding efficiency in

    SciTech Connect

    Allmendinger, T.; Bhuyan, B.; Brown, D. N.; Choi, H.; Christ, S.; Covarelli, R.; Davier, M.; Denig, A. G.; Fritsch, M.; Hafner, A.; Kowalewski, R.; Long, O.; Lutz, A. M.; Martinelli, M.; Muller, D. R.; Nugent, I. M.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Purohit, M. V.; Prencipe, E.; Roney, J. M.; Simi, G.; Solodov, E. P.; Telnov, A. V.; Varnes, E.; Waldi, R.; Wang, W. F.; White, R. M.

    2012-12-10

    We describe several studies to measure the charged track reconstruction efficiency and asymmetry of the BaBar detector. The first two studies measure the tracking efficiency of a charged particle using τ and initial state radiation decays. The third uses the τ decays to study the asymmetry in tracking, the fourth measures the tracking efficiency for low momentum tracks, and the last measures the reconstruction efficiency of K$0\\atop{S}$ particles. The first section also examines the stability of the measurements vs. BaBar running periods.

  5. Object tracking with stereo vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Eric

    1994-01-01

    A real-time active stereo vision system incorporating gaze control and task directed vision is described. Emphasis is placed on object tracking and object size and shape determination. Techniques include motion-centroid tracking, depth tracking, and contour tracking.

  6. The "mommy tenure track".

    PubMed

    Draznin, Julia

    2004-04-01

    For years women have been fighting for equity in the academic work place, but this acceptance comes at a price. Balancing work and family obligations have proven to be an awkward task where maximal satisfaction and gratification in both are not easily attained. Junior-level faculty have the arduous charge of being most productive and prolific exactly during their child-raising years. If our society wants to produce and maintain women professionals, then academic institutions have to be more generous and tolerant in the short-term for a long-term gain. The author proposes a "mommy tenure track" in which primary caregivers of infants are allowed to temporarily postpone their tenure clock. She also cites innovative initiatives being carried out at one institution to help women, including young mothers, with their academic careers and promotions.

  7. Passive acoustic tracking of singing humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) on a northwest Atlantic feeding ground.

    PubMed

    Stanistreet, Joy E; Risch, Denise; Van Parijs, Sofie M

    2013-01-01

    Passive acoustic tracking provides an unobtrusive method of studying the movement of sound-producing animals in the marine environment where traditional tracking methods may be costly or infeasible. We used passive acoustic tracking to characterize the fine-scale movements of singing humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) on a northwest Atlantic feeding ground. Male humpback whales produce complex songs, a phenomenon that is well documented in tropical regions during the winter breeding season, but also occurs at higher latitudes during other times of year. Acoustic recordings were made throughout 2009 using an array of autonomous recording units deployed in the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary. Song was recorded during spring and fall, and individual singing whales were localized and tracked throughout the array using a correlation sum estimation method on the time-synchronized recordings. Tracks were constructed for forty-three song sessions, revealing a high level of variation in movement patterns in both the spring and fall seasons, ranging from slow meandering to faster directional movement. Tracks were 30 min to 8 h in duration, and singers traveled distances ranging from 0.9 to 20.1 km. Mean swimming speed was 2.06 km/h (SD 0.95). Patterns and rates of movement indicated that most singers were actively swimming. In one case, two singers were tracked simultaneously, revealing a potential acoustic interaction. Our results provide a first description of the movements of singers on a northwest Atlantic feeding ground, and demonstrate the utility of passive acoustic tracking for studying the fine-scale movements of cetaceans within the behavioral context of their calls. These methods have further applications for conservation and management purposes, particularly by enhancing our ability to estimate cetacean densities using passive acoustic monitoring.

  8. TrackMate: An open and extensible platform for single-particle tracking.

    PubMed

    Tinevez, Jean-Yves; Perry, Nick; Schindelin, Johannes; Hoopes, Genevieve M; Reynolds, Gregory D; Laplantine, Emmanuel; Bednarek, Sebastian Y; Shorte, Spencer L; Eliceiri, Kevin W

    2017-02-15

    We present TrackMate, an open source Fiji plugin for the automated, semi-automated, and manual tracking of single-particles. It offers a versatile and modular solution that works out of the box for end users, through a simple and intuitive user interface. It is also easily scriptable and adaptable, operating equally well on 1D over time, 2D over time, 3D over time, or other single and multi-channel image variants. TrackMate provides several visualization and analysis tools that aid in assessing the relevance of results. The utility of TrackMate is further enhanced through its ability to be readily customized to meet specific tracking problems. TrackMate is an extensible platform where developers can easily write their own detection, particle linking, visualization or analysis algorithms within the TrackMate environment. This evolving framework provides researchers with the opportunity to quickly develop and optimize new algorithms based on existing TrackMate modules without the need of having to write de novo user interfaces, including visualization, analysis and exporting tools. The current capabilities of TrackMate are presented in the context of three different biological problems. First, we perform Caenorhabditis-elegans lineage analysis to assess how light-induced damage during imaging impairs its early development. Our TrackMate-based lineage analysis indicates the lack of a cell-specific light-sensitive mechanism. Second, we investigate the recruitment of NEMO (NF-κB essential modulator) clusters in fibroblasts after stimulation by the cytokine IL-1 and show that photodamage can generate artifacts in the shape of TrackMate characterized movements that confuse motility analysis. Finally, we validate the use of TrackMate for quantitative lifetime analysis of clathrin-mediated endocytosis in plant cells.

  9. Tracking: Educational Differentiation or Defective Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansalone, George

    2010-01-01

    For almost a century, schools have assigned students to various groups or classes based on their perceived academic ability. Referred to as Tracking, in the United States, and Streaming, in England, this organizational differentiation very often results in unequal access to knowledge and the differential treatment of students. Proponents of…

  10. Numerical ability predicts mortgage default.

    PubMed

    Gerardi, Kristopher; Goette, Lorenz; Meier, Stephan

    2013-07-09

    Unprecedented levels of US subprime mortgage defaults precipitated a severe global financial crisis in late 2008, plunging much of the industrialized world into a deep recession. However, the fundamental reasons for why US mortgages defaulted at such spectacular rates remain largely unknown. This paper presents empirical evidence showing that the ability to perform basic mathematical calculations is negatively associated with the propensity to default on one's mortgage. We measure several aspects of financial literacy and cognitive ability in a survey of subprime mortgage borrowers who took out loans in 2006 and 2007, and match them to objective, detailed administrative data on mortgage characteristics and payment histories. The relationship between numerical ability and mortgage default is robust to controlling for a broad set of sociodemographic variables, and is not driven by other aspects of cognitive ability. We find no support for the hypothesis that numerical ability impacts mortgage outcomes through the choice of the mortgage contract. Rather, our results suggest that individuals with limited numerical ability default on their mortgage due to behavior unrelated to the initial choice of their mortgage.

  11. Resource Tracking and Workflow System - part of the CORE system

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-02

    Resource management and workflow capability applied to engineering design situational awareness, providing the ability to make assignments and track progress through the construction and maintenance life cycle of an engineered structure.

  12. KiSS‑1‑mediated suppression of the invasive ability of human pancreatic carcinoma cells is not dependent on the level of KiSS‑1 receptor GPR54.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Hui; Qiao, Chong; Wang, Ruo-Chen; Zhou, Wen-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The onset of local invasion and lymphatic metastasis in pancreatic cancer limits survival following surgical intervention and additional therapies. Reduced expression of KiSS‑1 in pancreatic cancer is associated with cancer metastasis. Previous studies have indicated that kisspeptin, the KiSS‑1 peptide, is able to bind to its receptor‑GPR54 (hOT7T175) and suppress the migration of PANC‑1 pancreatic cancer cells. Whether the metastatic suppression of KiSS‑1 is dependent on the levels of GPR54 in pancreatic cancer cell lines remains unclear. Human BxPC‑3 pancreatic carcinoma cells are highly differentiated without exhibiting metastasis, however PANC‑1 pancreatic carcinoma cells are poorly differentiated and exhibit local and lymph node metastasis. Compared with primary cultured trophoblasts, BxPc‑3 and PANC‑1 cells were observed to express low levels of KiSS‑1 mRNA and protein, measured using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. However, greater mRNA and protein expression levels of GPR54 were observed in PANC‑1 cells compared with BxPc‑3 cells. An MTT assay was used to investigate the effect of KiSS‑1 on BxPc‑3 and PANC‑1 cell proliferation. There were no significant differences in proliferation following transfection with KiSS‑1 in BxPc‑3 and PANC‑1 cells compared with the controls (P>0.05). A Transwell assay with chambers coated with Matrigel was used to evaluate the in vitro invasive ability of BxPc‑3 and PANC‑1 cells, with the invasion index of BxPc‑3 and PANC‑1 cells significantly reduced following 48 h of KiSS‑1 overexpression (P<0.05). The mRNA and protein expression levels of KiSS‑1 were significantly increased in BxPc‑3 and PANC‑1 cells 48 h subsequent to transfection with KiSS‑1 (P<0.05), while GPR54 expression was not altered (P>0.05). KiSS‑1 is a metastasis suppressor gene of pancreatic cancer, and this suppression is not dependent on the

  13. KiSS-1-mediated suppression of the invasive ability of human pancreatic carcinoma cells is not dependent on the level of KiSS-1 receptor GPR54

    PubMed Central

    WANG, CHUN-HUI; QIAO, CHONG; WANG, RUO-CHEN; ZHOU, WEN-PING

    2016-01-01

    The onset of local invasion and lymphatic metastasis in pancreatic cancer limits survival following surgical intervention and additional therapies. Reduced expression of KiSS-1 in pancreatic cancer is associated with cancer metastasis. Previous studies have indicated that kisspeptin, the KiSS-1 peptide, is able to bind to its receptor-GPR54 (hOT7T175) and suppress the migration of PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells. Whether the metastatic suppression of KiSS-1 is dependent on the levels of GPR54 in pancreatic cancer cell lines remains unclear. Human BxPC-3 pancreatic carcinoma cells are highly differentiated without exhibiting metastasis, however PANC-1 pancreatic carcinoma cells are poorly differentiated and exhibit local and lymph node metastasis. Compared with primary cultured trophoblasts, BxPc-3 and PANC-1 cells were observed to express low levels of KiSS-1 mRNA and protein, measured using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. However, greater mRNA and protein expression levels of GPR54 were observed in PANC-1 cells compared with BxPc-3 cells. An MTT assay was used to investigate the effect of KiSS-1 on BxPc-3 and PANC-1 cell proliferation. There were no significant differences in proliferation following transfection with KiSS-1 in BxPc-3 and PANC-1 cells compared with the controls (P>0.05). A Transwell assay with chambers coated with Matrigel was used to evaluate the in vitro invasive ability of BxPc-3 and PANC-1 cells, with the invasion index of BxPc-3 and PANC-1 cells significantly reduced following 48 h of KiSS-1 overexpression (P<0.05). The mRNA and protein expression levels of KiSS-1 were significantly increased in BxPc-3 and PANC-1 cells 48 h subsequent to transfection with KiSS-1 (P<0.05), while GPR54 expression was not altered (P>0.05). KiSS-1 is a metastasis suppressor gene of pancreatic cancer, and this suppression is not dependent on the expression levels of GPR54. Therefore, KiSS-1 is

  14. Comparison of Two Kinds of Endurance Training Programs on the Effects of the Ability to Recover in Amateur Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Rogan, Slavko

    2015-01-01

    Background: High intensity intermittent aerobic exercise is an elementary endurance training exercise to build soccer endurance. Many studies exist with professional soccer players. But limited research has been conducted with amateur soccer players. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare and assess the effects of the shuttle-run method and the Hoff-track method on the ability to recover in amateur soccer players within three weeks. Patients and Methods: Two amateur soccer teams were randomly assigned to shuttle-run group (n = 24; SRG) (SRG: shuttle-run group) or Hoff-track group (n = 18; HTG) (HTG: hoff-track group). They performed 2 times/week over three weeks their program. SRG performed a 20 m high speed shuttle-run until exhaustion and HTG covered at their highest speed level an obstacle track. Before and after training the yo-yo intermittent recovery test level 2 (YYIRTL2) was conducted. Results: Significant differences were observed within (P < 0.05) and between the groups (P = 0.06; ES = 0.50) in distance covering during YYIRTL2. Conclusions: Both training methods seem to improve the ability to recover in amateur soccer players within a short time period during the competition season. PMID:26448831

  15. Tracking Cancer Genetic Evolution using OncoTrack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talukder, Asoke K.; Agarwal, Mahima; Buetow, Kenneth H.; Denèfle, Patrice P.

    2016-07-01

    It is difficult for existing methods to quantify, and track the constant evolution of cancers due to high heterogeneity of mutations. However, structural variations associated with nucleotide number changes show repeatable patterns in localized regions of the genome. Here we introduce SPKMG, which generalizes nucleotide number based properties of genes, in statistical terms, at the genome-wide scale. It is measured from the normalized amount of aligned NGS reads in exonic regions of a gene. SPKMG values are calculated within OncoTrack. SPKMG values being continuous numeric variables provide a statistical metric to track DNA level changes. We show that SPKMG measures of cancer DNA show a normative pattern at the genome-wide scale. The analysis leads to the discovery of core cancer genes and also provides novel dynamic insights into the stage of cancer, including cancer development, progression, and metastasis. This technique will allow exome data to also be used for quantitative LOH/CNV analysis for tracking tumour progression and evolution with a higher efficiency.

  16. Tracking Cancer Genetic Evolution using OncoTrack

    PubMed Central

    Talukder, Asoke K.; Agarwal, Mahima; Buetow, Kenneth H.; Denèfle, Patrice P.

    2016-01-01

    It is difficult for existing methods to quantify, and track the constant evolution of cancers due to high heterogeneity of mutations. However, structural variations associated with nucleotide number changes show repeatable patterns in localized regions of the genome. Here we introduce SPKMG, which generalizes nucleotide number based properties of genes, in statistical terms, at the genome-wide scale. It is measured from the normalized amount of aligned NGS reads in exonic regions of a gene. SPKMG values are calculated within OncoTrack. SPKMG values being continuous numeric variables provide a statistical metric to track DNA level changes. We show that SPKMG measures of cancer DNA show a normative pattern at the genome-wide scale. The analysis leads to the discovery of core cancer genes and also provides novel dynamic insights into the stage of cancer, including cancer development, progression, and metastasis. This technique will allow exome data to also be used for quantitative LOH/CNV analysis for tracking tumour progression and evolution with a higher efficiency. PMID:27412732

  17. Fairness and Ability Grouping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strike, Kenneth A.

    1983-01-01

    A recent controversy regarding ability grouping is that it is often perceived as a means whereby racial or class bias can be subtly transformed into mechanisms of discrimination which exhibit the appearance of fairness and objectivity. This article addresses the question of fairness in ability grouping. (CJB)

  18. Dynamic kirigami structures for integrated solar tracking.

    PubMed

    Lamoureux, Aaron; Lee, Kyusang; Shlian, Matthew; Forrest, Stephen R; Shtein, Max

    2015-09-08

    Optical tracking is often combined with conventional flat panel solar cells to maximize electrical power generation over the course of a day. However, conventional trackers are complex and often require costly and cumbersome structural components to support system weight. Here we use kirigami (the art of paper cutting) to realize novel solar cells where tracking is integral to the structure at the substrate level. Specifically, an elegant cut pattern is made in thin-film gallium arsenide solar cells, which are then stretched to produce an array of tilted surface elements which can be controlled to within ±1°. We analyze the combined optical and mechanical properties of the tracking system, and demonstrate a mechanically robust system with optical tracking efficiencies matching conventional trackers. This design suggests a pathway towards enabling new applications for solar tracking, as well as inspiring a broader range of optoelectronic and mechanical devices.

  19. Dynamic kirigami structures for integrated solar tracking

    PubMed Central

    Lamoureux, Aaron; Lee, Kyusang; Shlian, Matthew; Forrest, Stephen R.; Shtein, Max

    2015-01-01

    Optical tracking is often combined with conventional flat panel solar cells to maximize electrical power generation over the course of a day. However, conventional trackers are complex and often require costly and cumbersome structural components to support system weight. Here we use kirigami (the art of paper cutting) to realize novel solar cells where tracking is integral to the structure at the substrate level. Specifically, an elegant cut pattern is made in thin-film gallium arsenide solar cells, which are then stretched to produce an array of tilted surface elements which can be controlled to within ±1°. We analyze the combined optical and mechanical properties of the tracking system, and demonstrate a mechanically robust system with optical tracking efficiencies matching conventional trackers. This design suggests a pathway towards enabling new applications for solar tracking, as well as inspiring a broader range of optoelectronic and mechanical devices. PMID:26348820

  20. Dynamic kirigami structures for integrated solar tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamoureux, Aaron; Lee, Kyusang; Shlian, Matthew; Forrest, Stephen R.; Shtein, Max

    2015-09-01

    Optical tracking is often combined with conventional flat panel solar cells to maximize electrical power generation over the course of a day. However, conventional trackers are complex and often require costly and cumbersome structural components to support system weight. Here we use kirigami (the art of paper cutting) to realize novel solar cells where tracking is integral to the structure at the substrate level. Specifically, an elegant cut pattern is made in thin-film gallium arsenide solar cells, which are then stretched to produce an array of tilted surface elements which can be controlled to within +/-1°. We analyze the combined optical and mechanical properties of the tracking system, and demonstrate a mechanically robust system with optical tracking efficiencies matching conventional trackers. This design suggests a pathway towards enabling new applications for solar tracking, as well as inspiring a broader range of optoelectronic and mechanical devices.

  1. Tracking Small Artists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, James C.; Klette, Reinhard; Chen, Chia-Yen

    Tracks of small animals are important in environmental surveillance, where pattern recognition algorithms allow species identification of the individuals creating tracks. These individuals can also be seen as artists, presented in their natural environments with a canvas upon which they can make prints. We present tracks of small mammals and reptiles which have been collected for identification purposes, and re-interpret them from an esthetic point of view. We re-classify these tracks not by their geometric qualities as pattern recognition algorithms would, but through interpreting the 'artist', their brush strokes and intensity. We describe the algorithms used to enhance and present the work of the 'artists'.

  2. Optimization of the LHCb track reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storaci, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    The LHCb track reconstruction uses sophisticated pattern recognition algorithms to reconstruct trajectories of charged particles. Their main feature is the use of a Hough- transform like approach to connect track segments from different sub-detectors, allowing for having no tracking stations in the magnet of LHCb. While yielding a high efficiency, the track reconstruction is a major contributor to the overall timing budget of the software trigger of LHCb, and will continue to be so in the light of the higher track multiplicity expected from Run II of the LHC. In view of this fact, key parts of the pattern recognition have been revised and redesigned. In this document the main features which were studied are presented. A staged approach strategy for the track reconstruction in the software trigger was investigated: it allows unifying complementary sets of tracks coming from the different stages of the high level trigger, resulting in a more flexible trigger strategy and a better overlap between online and offline reconstructed tracks. Furthermore the use of parallelism was investigated, using SIMD instructions for time-critical parts of the software.

  3. Patrol car and agent tracking/suspect tagging and tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, Steven C.

    1997-01-01

    Emerging technologies in the field of law enforcement are providing today's law enforcement personnel with the advantage of an innovative and faster means of providing safety and service to the public. The use of open such technology, the Automatic Vehicle Locator (AVL) tracking device, is fast becoming a commonplace and cost-effective solution for agencies to efficiently command and control their 'officer' assets. Through the use of AVL's global positioning satellite-based system, the response time of law enforcement is greatly enhanced by permitting a dispatcher to visually identify and assign the officer closest to the location of an accident or incident. The system is effective in reducing delays due to highway blockages, improving the level of protection to the motoring public, and promoting the flow of traffic on busy freeways. Likewise, an officer or agent in distress can be assured that a dispatcher will be constantly aware of his or her location in the field. In the 1990's the demands on law enforcement agencies have grown tremendously. this is due primarily to population increases, limited funding or resources, and increases in drug, property and violent crimes. Frequently, the automobile is used for escape after the commission of these crimes. This often results in high speed pursuits involving law enforcement agencies. In California, by statute, the California Highway Patrol is the central repository for data regarding all pursuits involving state and local law enforcement agencies. Statistics show that more than 10 percent of pursuits result in injuries to the violator and/or innocent bystanders. Most pursuits last less than 10 minutes, and the AVL system provides a tremendous advantage to law enforcement's ability to immediately deploy and direct units into pursuits for rapid closure of the incident. AVL systems not only reduce the risk of personal injury by minimizing public exposure to the unsafe incident, but also enhance officer safety during the

  4. The D/Ø Silicon Track Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbrück, Georg

    2003-09-01

    We describe a trigger preprocessor to be used by the D Ø experiment for selecting events with tracks from the decay of long-lived particles. This Level 2 impact parameter trigger utilizes information from the Silicon Microstrip Tracker to reconstruct tracks with improved spatial and momentum resolutions compared to those obtained by the Level 1 tracking trigger. It is constructed of VME boards with much of the logic existing in programmable processors. A common motherboard provides the I/O infrastructure and three different daughter boards perform the tasks of identifying the roads from the tracking trigger data, finding the clusters in the roads in the silicon detector, and fitting tracks to the clusters. This approach provides flexibility for the design, testing and maintenance phases of the project. The track parameters are provided to the trigger framework in 25 μs. The effective impact parameter resolution for high-momentum tracks is 35 μm, dominated by the size of the Tevatron beam.

  5. Ground moving target processing for tracking selected targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, Howard; Majumder, Uttam; Owirka, Gregory; Finn, Lucas

    2016-05-01

    BAE Systems has developed a baseline real-time selected vehicle (SV) radar tracking capability that successfully tracked multiple civilian vehicles in real-world traffic conditions within challenging semi-urban clutter. This real-time tracking capability was demonstrated in laboratory setting. Recent enhancements to the baseline capability include multiple detection modes, improvements to the system-level design, and a wide-area tracking mode. The multiple detection modes support two tracking regimes; wide-area and localized selected vehicle tracking. These two tracking regimes have distinct challenges that may be suited to different trackers. Incorporation of a wide-area tracking mode provides both situational awareness and the potential for enhancing SV track initiation. Improvements to the system-level design simplify the integration of multiple detection modes and more realistic SV track initiation capabilities. Improvements are designed to contribute to a comprehensive tracking capability that exploits a continuous stare paradigm. In this paper, focus will be on the challenges, design considerations, and integration of selected vehicle tracking.

  6. Tracking performance under time sharing conditions with a digit processing task: A feedback control theory analysis. [attention sharing effect on operator performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopher, D.; Wickens, C. D.

    1975-01-01

    A one dimensional compensatory tracking task and a digit processing reaction time task were combined in a three phase experiment designed to investigate tracking performance in time sharing. Adaptive techniques, elaborate feedback devices, and on line standardization procedures were used to adjust task difficulty to the ability of each individual subject and manipulate time sharing demands. Feedback control analysis techniques were employed in the description of tracking performance. The experimental results show that when the dynamics of a system are constrained, in such a manner that man machine system stability is no longer a major concern of the operator, he tends to adopt a first order control describing function, even with tracking systems of higher order. Attention diversion to a concurrent task leads to an increase in remnant level, or nonlinear power. This decrease in linearity is reflected both in the output magnitude spectra of the subjects, and in the linear fit of the amplitude ratio functions.

  7. Photon track evolution.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, A D

    2005-01-01

    Given the time scale of biological, biochemical, biophysical and physical effects in a radiation exposure of living tissue, the first physical stage can be considered to be independent of time. All the physical interactions caused by the incident photons happen at the same starting time. From this point of view it would seem that the evolution of photon tracks is not a relevant topic for analysis; however, if the photon track is considered as a sequence of several interactions, there are several steps until the total degradation of the energy of the primary photon. We can characterise the photon track structure by the probability p(E,j), that is, the probability that a photon with energy E suffers j secondary interactions. The aim of this work is to analyse the photon track structure by considering j as a step of the photon track evolution towards the total degradation of the photon energy. Low energy photons (<150 keV) are considered, with water phantoms and half-extended geometry. The photon track evolution concept is presented and compared with the energy deposition along the track and also with the spatial distribution of the several steps in the photon track.

  8. 2 Tracks for Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Robin

    2012-01-01

    The academic work force has been transformed over the past several decades, less by design than out of expediency. In 1969, professors who were either tenured or tenure-track made up 78 percent of the faculty. Those working part time made up only 18.5 percent. By 2009, those proportions had almost flipped, with tenured and tenure-track making up…

  9. Track Starter's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dailey, Charles H.; Rankin, Kelly D.

    This guide was developed to serve both the novice and experienced starter in track and field events. Each year in the United States, runners encounter dozens of different starters' mannerisms as they travel to track meets in various towns and states. The goal of any competent and conscientious starter is to insure that all runners receive a fair…

  10. Large scale tracking algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Ross L.; Love, Joshua Alan; Melgaard, David Kennett; Karelitz, David B.; Pitts, Todd Alan; Zollweg, Joshua David; Anderson, Dylan Z.; Nandy, Prabal; Whitlow, Gary L.; Bender, Daniel A.; Byrne, Raymond Harry

    2015-01-01

    Low signal-to-noise data processing algorithms for improved detection, tracking, discrimination and situational threat assessment are a key research challenge. As sensor technologies progress, the number of pixels will increase signi cantly. This will result in increased resolution, which could improve object discrimination, but unfortunately, will also result in a significant increase in the number of potential targets to track. Many tracking techniques, like multi-hypothesis trackers, suffer from a combinatorial explosion as the number of potential targets increase. As the resolution increases, the phenomenology applied towards detection algorithms also changes. For low resolution sensors, "blob" tracking is the norm. For higher resolution data, additional information may be employed in the detection and classfication steps. The most challenging scenarios are those where the targets cannot be fully resolved, yet must be tracked and distinguished for neighboring closely spaced objects. Tracking vehicles in an urban environment is an example of such a challenging scenario. This report evaluates several potential tracking algorithms for large-scale tracking in an urban environment.

  11. UWB Tracking Software Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, Julia; Arndt, Dickey; Ngo, Phong; Phan, Chau; Dusl, John; Ni, Jianjun; Rafford, Melinda

    2006-01-01

    An Ultra-Wideband (UWB) two-cluster Angle of Arrival (AOA) tracking prototype system is currently being developed and tested at NASA Johnson Space Center for space exploration applications. This talk discusses the software development efforts for this UWB two-cluster AOA tracking system. The role the software plays in this system is to take waveform data from two UWB radio receivers as an input, feed this input into an AOA tracking algorithm, and generate the target position as an output. The architecture of the software (Input/Output Interface and Algorithm Core) will be introduced in this talk. The development of this software has three phases. In Phase I, the software is mostly Matlab driven and calls C++ socket functions to provide the communication links to the radios. This is beneficial in the early stage when it is necessary to frequently test changes in the algorithm. Phase II of the development is to have the software mostly C++ driven and call a Matlab function for the AOA tracking algorithm. This is beneficial in order to send the tracking results to other systems and also to improve the tracking update rate of the system. The third phase is part of future work and is to have the software completely C++ driven with a graphics user interface. This software design enables the fine resolution tracking of the UWB two-cluster AOA tracking system.

  12. Incentives from Curriculum Tracking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koerselman, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Curriculum tracking creates incentives in the years before its start, and we should therefore expect test scores to be higher during those years. I find robust evidence for incentive effects of tracking in the UK based on the UK comprehensive school reform. Results from the Swedish comprehensive school reform are inconclusive. Internationally, I…

  13. TRACKED VEHICLE Rev 75

    SciTech Connect

    Raby, Eric Y.

    2007-05-08

    Revision 75 of the Tracked Vehicle software is a soft real-time simulation of a differentially steered, tracked mobile robot, which, because of the track flippers, resembles the iRobot PackBot (http://www.irobot.com/). Open source libraries are used for the physics engine (http://www.ode.org/), the display and user interface (http://www.mathies.com/cpw/), and the program command line and configuration file parameters (http://www.boost.org/). The simulation can be controlled by a USB joystick or the keyboard. The configuration file contains demonstration model parameters of no particular vehicle. This simulation can be used as a starting point for those doing tracked vehicle simulations. This simulation software is essentially a research tool which can be modified and adapted for certain types of tracked vehicle research. An open source license allows an individual researchers to tailor the code to their specific research needs.

  14. An improved visual tracking method in scanning electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Ru, Changhai; Zhang, Yong; Huang, Haibo; Chen, Tao

    2012-06-01

    Since their invention, nanomanipulation systems in scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) have provided researchers with an increasing ability to interact with objects at the nanoscale. However, most nanomanipulators that are capable of generating nanometer displacement operate in an open-loop without suitable feedback mechanisms. In this article, a robust and effective tracking framework for visual servoing applications is presented inside an SEM to achieve more precise tracking manipulation and measurement. A subpixel template matching tracking algorithm based on contour models in the SEM has been developed to improve the tracking accuracy. A feed-forward controller is integrated into the control system to improve the response time. Experimental results demonstrate that a subpixel tracking accuracy is realized. Furthermore, the robustness against clutter can be achieved even in a challenging tracking environment.

  15. Navigation Strategies of Motor Proteins on Decorated Tracks

    PubMed Central

    Bertalan, Zsolt; Budrikis, Zoe; La Porta, Caterina A. M.; Zapperi, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Motor proteins display widely different stepping patterns as they move on microtubule tracks, from the deterministic linear or helical motion performed by the protein kinesin to the uncoordinated random steps made by dynein. How these different strategies produce an efficient navigation system needed to ensure correct cellular functioning is still unclear. Here, we show by numerical simulations that deterministic and random motor steps yield different outcomes when random obstacles decorate the microtubule tracks: kinesin moves faster on clean tracks but its motion is strongly hindered on decorated tracks, while dynein is slower on clean tracks but more efficient in avoiding obstacles. Further simulations indicate that dynein’s advantage on decorated tracks is due to its ability to step backwards. Our results explain how different navigation strategies are employed by the cell to optimize motor driven cargo transport. PMID:26323095

  16. OpenCV and TYZX : video surveillance for tracking.

    SciTech Connect

    He, Jim; Spencer, Andrew; Chu, Eric

    2008-08-01

    As part of the National Security Engineering Institute (NSEI) project, several sensors were developed in conjunction with an assessment algorithm. A camera system was developed in-house to track the locations of personnel within a secure room. In addition, a commercial, off-the-shelf (COTS) tracking system developed by TYZX was examined. TYZX is a Bay Area start-up that has developed its own tracking hardware and software which we use as COTS support for robust tracking. This report discusses the pros and cons of each camera system, how they work, a proposed data fusion method, and some visual results. Distributed, embedded image processing solutions show the most promise in their ability to track multiple targets in complex environments and in real-time. Future work on the camera system may include three-dimensional volumetric tracking by using multiple simple cameras, Kalman or particle filtering, automated camera calibration and registration, and gesture or path recognition.

  17. Tracking and Inferring Spatial Rotation by Children and Great Apes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okamoto-Barth; Sanae; Call, Josep

    2008-01-01

    Finding hidden objects in space is a fundamental ability that has received considerable research attention from both a developmental and a comparative perspective. Tracking the rotational displacements of containers and hidden objects is a particularly challenging task. This study investigated the ability of 3-, 5-, 7-, and 9-year-old children and…

  18. Discretization errors in particle tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmon, G.; Mamman, N.; Feingold, M.

    2007-03-01

    High precision video tracking of microscopic particles is limited by systematic and random errors. Systematic errors are partly due to the discretization process both in position and in intensity. We study the behavior of such errors in a simple tracking algorithm designed for the case of symmetric particles. This symmetry algorithm uses interpolation to estimate the value of the intensity at arbitrary points in the image plane. We show that the discretization error is composed of two parts: (1) the error due to the discretization of the intensity, bD and (2) that due to interpolation, bI. While bD behaves asymptotically like N-1 where N is the number of intensity gray levels, bI is small when using cubic spline interpolation.

  19. Human abilities: emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Mayer, John D; Roberts, Richard D; Barsade, Sigal G

    2008-01-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) involves the ability to carry out accurate reasoning about emotions and the ability to use emotions and emotional knowledge to enhance thought. We discuss the origins of the EI concept, define EI, and describe the scope of the field today. We review three approaches taken to date from both a theoretical and methodological perspective. We find that Specific-Ability and Integrative-Model approaches adequately conceptualize and measure EI. Pivotal in this review are those studies that address the relation between EI measures and meaningful criteria including social outcomes, performance, and psychological and physical well-being. The Discussion section is followed by a list of summary points and recommended issues for future research.

  20. Airborne target tracking algorithm against oppressive decoys in infrared imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiechang; Zhang, Tianxu

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents an approach for tracking airborne target against oppressive infrared decoys. Oppressive decoy lures infrared guided missile by its high infrared radiation. Traditional tracking algorithms have degraded stability even come to tracking failure when airborne target continuously throw out many decoys. The proposed approach first determines an adaptive tracking window. The center of the tracking window is set at a predicted target position which is computed based on uniform motion model. Different strategies are applied for determination of tracking window size according to target state. The image within tracking window is segmented and multi features of candidate targets are extracted. The most similar candidate target is associated to the tracking target by using a decision function, which calculates a weighted sum of normalized feature differences between two comparable targets. Integrated intensity ratio of association target and tracking target, and target centroid are examined to estimate target state in the presence of decoys. The tracking ability and robustness of proposed approach has been validated by processing available real-world and simulated infrared image sequences containing airborne targets and oppressive decoys.

  1. Cultural Studies, Pedagogy, and Response-Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossiter, Penelope

    2012-01-01

    A few years ago, in a tutorial in an advanced level undergraduate subject that she teaches--"Emotions, Culture and Community"--the author was a witness and participant in a pedagogical event that moved and provoked the class: It incited response-ability. This article is about that event, the meaning of response-ability, and the window…

  2. Object tracking based on bit-planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Na; Zhao, Xiangmo; Liu, Ying; Li, Daxiang; Wu, Shiqian; Zhao, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Visual object tracking is one of the most important components in computer vision. The main challenge for robust tracking is to handle illumination change, appearance modification, occlusion, motion blur, and pose variation. But in surveillance videos, factors such as low resolution, high levels of noise, and uneven illumination further increase the difficulty of tracking. To tackle this problem, an object tracking algorithm based on bit-planes is proposed. First, intensity and local binary pattern features represented by bit-planes are used to build two appearance models, respectively. Second, in the neighborhood of the estimated object location, a region that is most similar to the models is detected as the tracked object in the current frame. In the last step, the appearance models are updated with new tracking results in order to deal with environmental and object changes. Experimental results on several challenging video sequences demonstrate the superior performance of our tracker compared with six state-of-the-art tracking algorithms. Additionally, our tracker is more robust to low resolution, uneven illumination, and noisy video sequences.

  3. Fecal source tracking in water using a mitochondrial DNA microarray.

    PubMed

    Vuong, Nguyet-Minh; Villemur, Richard; Payment, Pierre; Brousseau, Roland; Topp, Edward; Masson, Luke

    2013-01-01

    A mitochondrial-based microarray (mitoArray) was developed for rapid identification of the presence of 28 animals and one family (cervidae) potentially implicated in fecal pollution in mixed activity watersheds. Oligonucleotide probes for genus or subfamily-level identification were targeted within the 12S rRNA - Val tRNA - 16S rRNA region in the mitochondrial genome. This region, called MI-50, was selected based on three criteria: 1) the ability to be amplified by universal primers 2) these universal primer sequences are present in most commercial and domestic animals of interest in source tracking, and 3) that sufficient sequence variation exists within this region to meet the minimal requirements for microarray probe discrimination. To quantify the overall level of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in samples, a quantitative-PCR (Q-PCR) universal primer pair was also developed. Probe validation was performed using DNA extracted from animal tissues and, for many cases, animal-specific fecal samples. To reduce the amplification of potentially interfering fish mtDNA sequences during the MI-50 enrichment step, a clamping PCR method was designed using a fish-specific peptide nucleic acid. DNA extracted from 19 water samples were subjected to both array and independent PCR analyses. Our results confirm that the mitochondrial microarray approach method could accurately detect the dominant animals present in water samples emphasizing the potential for this methodology in the parallel scanning of a large variety of animals normally monitored in fecal source tracking.

  4. Target tracking during venom ‘spitting’ by cobras

    PubMed Central

    Westhoff, Guido; Boetig, Melissa; Bleckmann, Horst; Young, Bruce A.

    2010-01-01

    Spitting cobras, which defend themselves by streaming venom towards the face and/or eyes of a predator, must be highly accurate because the venom they spit is only an effective deterrent if it lands on the predator's cornea. Several factors make this level of accuracy difficult to achieve; the target is moving, is frequently >1 m away from the snake and the venom stream is released in approximately 50 ms. In the present study we show that spitting cobras can accurately track the movements of a potentially threatening vertebrate, and by anticipating its subsequent (short-term) movements direct their venom to maximize the likelihood of striking the target's eye. Unlike other animals that project material, in spitting cobras the discharge orifice (the fang) is relatively fixed so directing the venom stream requires rapid movements of the entire head. The cobra's ability to track and anticipate the target's movement, and to perform rapid cephalic oscillations that coordinate with the target's movements suggest a level of neural processing that has not been attributed to snakes, or other reptiles, previously. PMID:20472765

  5. Tracking Emotional Valence: The Role of the Orbitofrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Goodkind, Madeleine S.; Sollberger, Marc; Gyurak, Anett; Rosen, Howard J.; Rankin, Katherine; Miller, Bruce; Levenson, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Successful navigation of the social world requires the ability to recognize and track emotions as they unfold and change dynamically. Neuroimaging and neurological studies of emotion recognition have primarily focused on the ability to identify the emotion shown in static photographs of facial expressions, showing correlations with the amygdala as well as temporal and frontal brain regions. In the current study we examined the neural correlates of continuously tracking dynamically-changing emotions. Fifty-nine patients with diverse neurodegenerative diseases used a rating dial to track continuously how positive or how negative the character in a film clip felt. Tracking accuracy was determined by comparing participants’ ratings with the ratings of 10 normal control participants. The relationship between tracking accuracy and regional brain tissue content was examined using voxel-based morphometry. Low tracking accuracy was primarily associated with gray matter loss in the right lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Our finding that the right OFC is critical to the ability to track dynamically-changing emotions is consistent with previous research showing right OFC involvement in both socioemotional understanding and modifying responding in changing situations. PMID:21425397

  6. Ability Is Ageless.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooten, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    Experience Works is a national organization that provides training and employment services to older adults. Its Prime Time Awards Program honors contributions of older workers in their 70s and beyond, demonstrating the continued ability and productivity of this population as well as the benefits they derive from productive work. (SK)

  7. Computerized Adaptive Ability Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, David J.

    The general objective of a research program on adaptive testing was to identify several sources of potential error in test scores, and to study adaptive testing as a means for reducing these errors. Errors can result from the mismatch of item difficulty to the individual's ability; the psychological effects of testing and the test environment; the…

  8. Priming Ability Emotional Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutte, Nicola S.; Malouff, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined whether priming self-schemas relating to successful emotional competency results in better emotional intelligence performance. In the first study participants were randomly assigned to a successful emotional competency self-schema prime condition or a control condition and then completed an ability measure of emotional…

  9. Promoting Logical Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Alan R.

    1973-01-01

    This article reports one search for factors or conditions shaping the child's growth in logical ability. The search indicated the existence of a relationship between the quantity of teacher talk that contains the language of logic and the change exhibited by students. Implications for classroom practice are discussed. (JA)

  10. The relationship between comprehension and metacomprehension ability.

    PubMed

    Maki, R H; Jonas, D; Kallod, M

    1994-03-01

    We investigated the relationship between the ability to comprehend text and the ability to predict future performance and to assess past performance on text. Subjects were poor at predicting performance, which may be why prediction accuracy did not relate to measures of comprehension ability. Measures of comprehension ability did relate to the accuracy with which subjects assessed their performance on tests. Better and faster comprehenders judged their relative levels of test performance over sections of text more accurately than did poorer and slower comprehenders.

  11. Ion track doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, D.; Chadderton, L. T.; Cruz, S. A.; Fahrner, W. R.; Hnatowicz, V.; Te Kaat, E. H.; Melnikov, A. A.; Varichenko, V. S.; Zaitsev, A. M.

    1994-10-01

    Longitudinal dopant distribution along ion tracks in soft (polymers [1?5]) and hard (diamond [6,7]) condensed carbonaceous matter have been studied by neutron depth profiling and cathodoluminesence. Both in-diffusion from the aqueous phase and energetic ion implantation were used in primary track doping. In-situ self-decoration of tracks and post-implantation with a secondary ion species were used in the specific case of ion implantation. Radial dopant distributions were also studied by means of a modified tomographic procedure. Decorative doping of ion bombarded solids is useful in probing track structure, and especially in pointing the way to potential development of nanometric-sized electronic devices.

  12. Energy Tracking Software Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan Davis; Nathan Bird; Rebecca Birx; Hal Knowles

    2011-04-04

    Acceleration has created an interactive energy tracking and visualization platform that supports decreasing electric, water, and gas usage. Homeowners have access to tools that allow them to gauge their use and track progress toward a smaller energy footprint. Real estate agents have access to consumption data, allowing for sharing a comparison with potential home buyers. Home builders have the opportunity to compare their neighborhood's energy efficiency with competitors. Home energy raters have a tool for gauging the progress of their clients after efficiency changes. And, social groups are able to help encourage members to reduce their energy bills and help their environment. EnergyIT.com is the business umbrella for all energy tracking solutions and is designed to provide information about our energy tracking software and promote sales. CompareAndConserve.com (Gainesville-Green.com) helps homeowners conserve energy through education and competition. ToolsForTenants.com helps renters factor energy usage into their housing decisions.

  13. Real-Time Tumor Tracking in the Lung Using an Electromagnetic Tracking System

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Amish P.; Kupelian, Patrick A.; Waghorn, Benjamin J.; Willoughby, Twyla R.; Rineer, Justin M.; Mañon, Rafael R.; Vollenweider, Mark A.; Meeks, Sanford L.

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: To describe the first use of the commercially available Calypso 4D Localization System in the lung. Methods and Materials: Under an institutional review board-approved protocol and an investigational device exemption from the US Food and Drug Administration, the Calypso system was used with nonclinical methods to acquire real-time 4-dimensional lung tumor tracks for 7 lung cancer patients. The aims of the study were to investigate (1) the potential for bronchoscopic implantation; (2) the stability of smooth-surface beacon transponders (transponders) after implantation; and (3) the ability to acquire tracking information within the lung. Electromagnetic tracking was not used for any clinical decision making and could only be performed before any radiation delivery in a research setting. All motion tracks for each patient were reviewed, and values of the average displacement, amplitude of motion, period, and associated correlation to a sinusoidal model (R{sup 2}) were tabulated for all 42 tracks. Results: For all 7 patients at least 1 transponder was successfully implanted. To assist in securing the transponder at the tumor site, it was necessary to implant a secondary fiducial for most transponders owing to the transponder's smooth surface. For 3 patients, insertion into the lung proved difficult, with only 1 transponder remaining fixed during implantation. One patient developed a pneumothorax after implantation of the secondary fiducial. Once implanted, 13 of 14 transponders remained stable within the lung and were successfully tracked with the tracking system. Conclusions: Our initial experience with electromagnetic guidance within the lung demonstrates that transponder implantation and tracking is achievable though not clinically available. This research investigation proved that lung tumor motion exhibits large variations from fraction to fraction within a single patient and that improvements to both transponder and tracking system are still necessary

  14. Vehicle Tracking and Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scorer, A. G.

    1998-09-01

    This paper covers the wide area and short range locational technologies that are available for vehicle tracking in particular and mobile user security in general. It also summarises the radio communications services that can deliver information to the user. It considers the use that can be made of these technologies, when combined with procedures for delivering a response, in the security field, notably in relation to personal security, high-value load protection and the after-theft tracking markets.

  15. Advanced Doppler tracking experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. W.

    1989-01-01

    The Doppler tracking method is currently the only technique available for broadband gravitational wave searches in the approx. 10(exp -4) to 10(exp -1) Hz low frequency band. A brief review is given of the Doppler method, a discussion of the main noise sources, and a review of experience with current spacecraft and the prospects for sensitivity improvements in an advanced Doppler tracking experiment.

  16. Tracking radar techniques for studying migratory birds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, T. C.; Williams, J. M.

    1972-01-01

    The use of NASA tracking radar at Wallops Island and the islands of Bermuda and Antigua to plot the paths of migatory birds in three dimensional space is discussed. Attempts were also made to obtain data on the direction, speed, and density of large numbers of migrating birds. Observational results show that the performance of tracking radars vary considerably with the density of bird migration. At light to moderate levels of migration it is possible to obtain tracks of a variety of types of targets, both large and small. During heavy periods of migration the sky is so filled with targets, that only the largest targets can be tracked for more than a few minutes.

  17. Block Matching for Object Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Gyaourova, A; Kamath, C; Cheung, S

    2003-10-13

    Models which describe road traffic patterns can be helpful in detection and/or prevention of uncommon and dangerous situations. Such models can be built by the use of motion detection algorithms applied to video data. Block matching is a standard technique for encoding motion in video compression algorithms. We explored the capabilities of the block matching algorithm when applied for object tracking. The goal of our experiments is two-fold: (1) to explore the abilities of the block matching algorithm on low resolution and low frame rate video and (2) to improve the motion detection performance by the use of different search techniques during the process of block matching. Our experiments showed that the block matching algorithm yields good object tracking results and can be used with high success on low resolution and low frame rate video data. We observed that different searching methods have small effect on the final results. In addition, we proposed a technique based on frame history, which successfully overcame false motion caused by small camera movements.

  18. MO-FG-BRD-01: Real-Time Imaging and Tracking Techniques for Intrafractional Motion Management: Introduction and KV Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Fahimian, B.

    2015-06-15

    Intrafraction target motion is a prominent complicating factor in the accurate targeting of radiation within the body. Methods compensating for target motion during treatment, such as gating and dynamic tumor tracking, depend on the delineation of target location as a function of time during delivery. A variety of techniques for target localization have been explored and are under active development; these include beam-level imaging of radio-opaque fiducials, fiducial-less tracking of anatomical landmarks, tracking of electromagnetic transponders, optical imaging of correlated surrogates, and volumetric imaging within treatment delivery. The Joint Imaging and Therapy Symposium will provide an overview of the techniques for real-time imaging and tracking, with special focus on emerging modes of implementation across different modalities. In particular, the symposium will explore developments in 1) Beam-level kilovoltage X-ray imaging techniques, 2) EPID-based megavoltage X-ray tracking, 3) Dynamic tracking using electromagnetic transponders, and 4) MRI-based soft-tissue tracking during radiation delivery. Learning Objectives: Understand the fundamentals of real-time imaging and tracking techniques Learn about emerging techniques in the field of real-time tracking Distinguish between the advantages and disadvantages of different tracking modalities Understand the role of real-time tracking techniques within the clinical delivery work-flow.

  19. MO-FG-BRD-02: Real-Time Imaging and Tracking Techniques for Intrafractional Motion Management: MV Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Berbeco, R.

    2015-06-15

    Intrafraction target motion is a prominent complicating factor in the accurate targeting of radiation within the body. Methods compensating for target motion during treatment, such as gating and dynamic tumor tracking, depend on the delineation of target location as a function of time during delivery. A variety of techniques for target localization have been explored and are under active development; these include beam-level imaging of radio-opaque fiducials, fiducial-less tracking of anatomical landmarks, tracking of electromagnetic transponders, optical imaging of correlated surrogates, and volumetric imaging within treatment delivery. The Joint Imaging and Therapy Symposium will provide an overview of the techniques for real-time imaging and tracking, with special focus on emerging modes of implementation across different modalities. In particular, the symposium will explore developments in 1) Beam-level kilovoltage X-ray imaging techniques, 2) EPID-based megavoltage X-ray tracking, 3) Dynamic tracking using electromagnetic transponders, and 4) MRI-based soft-tissue tracking during radiation delivery. Learning Objectives: Understand the fundamentals of real-time imaging and tracking techniques Learn about emerging techniques in the field of real-time tracking Distinguish between the advantages and disadvantages of different tracking modalities Understand the role of real-time tracking techniques within the clinical delivery work-flow.

  20. MO-FG-BRD-04: Real-Time Imaging and Tracking Techniques for Intrafractional Motion Management: MR Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Low, D.

    2015-06-15

    Intrafraction target motion is a prominent complicating factor in the accurate targeting of radiation within the body. Methods compensating for target motion during treatment, such as gating and dynamic tumor tracking, depend on the delineation of target location as a function of time during delivery. A variety of techniques for target localization have been explored and are under active development; these include beam-level imaging of radio-opaque fiducials, fiducial-less tracking of anatomical landmarks, tracking of electromagnetic transponders, optical imaging of correlated surrogates, and volumetric imaging within treatment delivery. The Joint Imaging and Therapy Symposium will provide an overview of the techniques for real-time imaging and tracking, with special focus on emerging modes of implementation across different modalities. In particular, the symposium will explore developments in 1) Beam-level kilovoltage X-ray imaging techniques, 2) EPID-based megavoltage X-ray tracking, 3) Dynamic tracking using electromagnetic transponders, and 4) MRI-based soft-tissue tracking during radiation delivery. Learning Objectives: Understand the fundamentals of real-time imaging and tracking techniques Learn about emerging techniques in the field of real-time tracking Distinguish between the advantages and disadvantages of different tracking modalities Understand the role of real-time tracking techniques within the clinical delivery work-flow.

  1. MO-FG-BRD-03: Real-Time Imaging and Tracking Techniques for Intrafractional Motion Management: EM Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Keall, P.

    2015-06-15

    Intrafraction target motion is a prominent complicating factor in the accurate targeting of radiation within the body. Methods compensating for target motion during treatment, such as gating and dynamic tumor tracking, depend on the delineation of target location as a function of time during delivery. A variety of techniques for target localization have been explored and are under active development; these include beam-level imaging of radio-opaque fiducials, fiducial-less tracking of anatomical landmarks, tracking of electromagnetic transponders, optical imaging of correlated surrogates, and volumetric imaging within treatment delivery. The Joint Imaging and Therapy Symposium will provide an overview of the techniques for real-time imaging and tracking, with special focus on emerging modes of implementation across different modalities. In particular, the symposium will explore developments in 1) Beam-level kilovoltage X-ray imaging techniques, 2) EPID-based megavoltage X-ray tracking, 3) Dynamic tracking using electromagnetic transponders, and 4) MRI-based soft-tissue tracking during radiation delivery. Learning Objectives: Understand the fundamentals of real-time imaging and tracking techniques Learn about emerging techniques in the field of real-time tracking Distinguish between the advantages and disadvantages of different tracking modalities Understand the role of real-time tracking techniques within the clinical delivery work-flow.

  2. Tracking stem cells using magnetic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Cromer Berman, Stacey M.; Walczak, Piotr; Bulte, Jeff W.M.

    2011-01-01

    Stem cell therapies offer great promise for many diseases, especially those without current effective treatments. It is believed that noninvasive imaging techniques, which offer the ability to track the status of cells after transplantation, will expedite progress in this field and help to achieve maximized therapeutic effect. Today’s biomedical imaging technology allows for real-time, noninvasive monitoring of grafted stem cells including their biodistribution, migration, survival, and differentiation, with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of nanoparticle-labeled cells being one of the most commonly used techniques. Among the advantages of MR cell tracking are its high spatial resolution, no exposure to ionizing radiation, and clinical applicability. In order to track cells by MRI, the cells need to be labeled with magnetic nanoparticles, for which many types exist. There are several cellular labeling techniques available, including simple incubation, use of transfection agents, magnetoelectroporation, and magnetosonoporation. In this overview article, we will review the use of different magnetic nanoparticles and discuss how these particles can be used to track the distribution of transplanted cells in different organ systems. Caveats and limitations inherent to the tracking of nanoparticle-labeled stem cells are also discussed. PMID:21472999

  3. Tracking medical devices to ensure patient safety.

    PubMed

    Beyea, Suzanne C

    2003-01-01

    Registered nurses in perioperative settings and managers of perioperative departments must work together to implement policies and procedures to ensure compliance with these very important federal regulations. If the information is not recorded in the proper manner and shared with the manufacturer, patients' safety is at risk. Without the ability to contact physicians and patients, manufacturers cannot alert individuals appropriately if problems arise with a certain device. Tracking devices in the correct manner ensures that patients can be notified expediently. Nurses and managers should examine their current practices to ensure that they are consistent with federal regulations. A regular assessment should be conducted to ensure that tracking forms are completed in an accurate, timely manner, that permission to release a patient's social security number is obtained, and that the hospital is compliant with the FDA's most up-to-date list of devices that must be tracked. All perioperative staff members must receive education about the tracking process in their particular institution and receive updates when the process or FDA regulations change. Maintain patient safety by ensuring that the medical device tracking process is followed accurately and meets federal regulations.

  4. PREDICT: Satellite tracking and orbital prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magliacane, John A.

    2011-12-01

    PREDICT is an open-source, multi-user satellite tracking and orbital prediction program written under the Linux operating system. PREDICT provides real-time satellite tracking and orbital prediction information to users and client applications through: the system console the command line a network socket the generation of audio speechData such as a spacecraft's sub-satellite point, azimuth and elevation headings, Doppler shift, path loss, slant range, orbital altitude, orbital velocity, footprint diameter, orbital phase (mean anomaly), squint angle, eclipse depth, the time and date of the next AOS (or LOS of the current pass), orbit number, and sunlight and visibility information are provided on a real-time basis. PREDICT can also track (or predict the position of) the Sun and Moon. PREDICT has the ability to control AZ/EL antenna rotators to maintain accurate orientation in the direction of communication satellites. As an aid in locating and tracking satellites through optical means, PREDICT can articulate tracking coordinates and visibility information as plain speech.

  5. ISS Asset Tracking Using SAW RFID Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schellhase, Amy; Powers, Annie

    2004-01-01

    A team at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) is undergoing final preparations to test Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology to track assets aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Currently, almost 10,000 U.S. items onboard the ISS are tracked within a database maintained by both the JSC ground teams and crew onboard the ISS. This barcode-based inventory management system has successfully tracked the location of 97% of the items onboard, but its accuracy is dependant on the crew to report hardware movements, taking valuable time away from science and other activities. With the addition of future modules, the volume of inventory to be tracked is expected to increase significantly. The first test of RFID technology on ISS, which will be conducted by the Expedition 16 crew later this year, will evaluate the ability of RFID technology to track consumable items. These consumables, which include office supplies and clothing, are regularly supplied to ISS and can be tagged on the ground. Automation will eliminate line-of-sight auditing requirements, directly saving crew time. This first step in automating an inventory tracking system will pave the way for future uses of RFID for inventory tracking in space. Not only are there immediate benefits for ISS applications, it is a crucial step to ensure efficient logistics support for future vehicles and exploration missions where resupplies are not readily available. Following a successful initial test, the team plans to execute additional tests for new technology, expanded operations concepts, and increased automation.

  6. Large margin classifier-based ensemble tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuru; Liu, Qiaoyuan; Yin, Minghao; Wang, ShengSheng

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, many studies consider visual tracking as a two-class classification problem. The key problem is to construct a classifier with sufficient accuracy in distinguishing the target from its background and sufficient generalize ability in handling new frames. However, the variable tracking conditions challenges the existing methods. The difficulty mainly comes from the confused boundary between the foreground and background. This paper handles this difficulty by generalizing the classifier's learning step. By introducing the distribution data of samples, the classifier learns more essential characteristics in discriminating the two classes. Specifically, the samples are represented in a multiscale visual model. For features with different scales, several large margin distribution machine (LDMs) with adaptive kernels are combined in a Baysian way as a strong classifier. Where, in order to improve the accuracy and generalization ability, not only the margin distance but also the sample distribution is optimized in the learning step. Comprehensive experiments are performed on several challenging video sequences, through parameter analysis and field comparison, the proposed LDM combined ensemble tracker is demonstrated to perform with sufficient accuracy and generalize ability in handling various typical tracking difficulties.

  7. Sensor-based animal tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, Andrew

    The advent of Global Positioning System (GPS) technologies has provided wildlife researchers with new insights into the movement and habitat utilization patterns of wildlife species by being able to provide vast quantities of detailed location data. However, current wildlife tracking techniques have numerous limitations, as GPS locations can be biased to an unknown extent because animals move through habitats that are often denied GPS signals. This can result in some habitat types being under sampled or not sampled at all. Additionally, researchers using GPS tracking systems cannot understand what behaviour an animal is exhibiting at each GPS position without either relying on extensive field data or statistical techniques that may infer behaviour. Overall these issues, and others, limit the knowledge that can be derived from the data currently being collected by GPS collars alone. To address these limitations, a dead reckoning solution (called the NavAid) has been developed to augment GPS tracking collars, which enables both the acquisition of continuous movement trajectories for animals under study, and the collection of digital images on a user-defined schedule along travel routes. Analysis of an animal's velocity allows one to identify different types of movement behaviours that can be associated with foraging, searching for food, and locomotion between patches. In addition, the ability to capture continuous paths allows researchers to identify habitat that is important to a species, and habitat that is not---something that is not possible when relying solely on GPS. This new system weighs approximately 220 g and can be deployed on most conventional collar systems for a wide range of species. This thesis presents the research and development of this new system over the past four years, along with preliminary findings from field work carried out on grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the foothills of the Canadian Rocky Mountains. Analysis of tracking data suggests

  8. A two-stage dynamic model for visual tracking.

    PubMed

    Kristan, Matej; Kovacic, Stanislav; Leonardis, Aleš; Pers, Janez

    2010-12-01

    We propose a new dynamic model which can be used within blob trackers to track the target's center of gravity. A strong point of the model is that it is designed to track a variety of motions which are usually encountered in applications such as pedestrian tracking, hand tracking, and sports. We call the dynamic model a two-stage dynamic model due to its particular structure, which is a composition of two models: a liberal model and a conservative model. The liberal model allows larger perturbations in the target's dynamics and is able to account for motions in between the random-walk dynamics and the nearly constant-velocity dynamics. On the other hand, the conservative model assumes smaller perturbations and is used to further constrain the liberal model to the target's current dynamics. We implement the two-stage dynamic model in a two-stage probabilistic tracker based on the particle filter and apply it to two separate examples of blob tracking: 1) tracking entire persons and 2) tracking of a person's hands. Experiments show that, in comparison to the widely used models, the proposed two-stage dynamic model allows tracking with smaller number of particles in the particle filter (e.g., 25 particles), while achieving smaller errors in the state estimation and a smaller failure rate. The results suggest that the improved performance comes from the model's ability to actively adapt to the target's motion during tracking.

  9. In Vivo Dendritic Cell Tracking Using Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging and Near-Infrared-Emissive Polymersomes

    PubMed Central

    Christian, Natalie A.; Benencia, Fabian; Milone, Michael C.; Li, Guizhi; Frail, Paul R.; Therien, Michael J.; Coukos, George; Hammer, Daniel A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Noninvasive in vivo cell-tracking techniques are necessary to advance the field of cellular-based therapeutics as well as to elucidate mechanisms governing in vivo cell biology. Fluorescence is commonly used for in vitro and postmortem biomedical studies but has been limited by autofluorescence at the whole-animal level. Procedures: In this report, we demonstrate the ability of in vivo fluorescent lifetime imaging to remove autofluorescence and thereby enable in vivo dendritic cell tracking in naïve mice. Specifically, we track mature dendritic cells (DCs) labeled internally with near-infrared-emissive polymersomes (NIR-DCs). Results: We establish the ability to detect labeled cells in vivo and image NIR-DC trafficking after both intravenous and subcutaneous delivery. In addition, we demonstrate the longitudinal capacity of this method by characterizing NIR-DC migration kinetics in the popliteal lymph node. Conclusions: This work provides a tool to evaluate dendritic-cell-based immunotherapy and generates novel opportunities for in vivo fluorescence imaging. PMID:19194761

  10. Kalman-based autoregressive moving average modeling and inference for formant and antiformant tracking.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Daryush D; Rudoy, Daniel; Wolfe, Patrick J

    2012-09-01

    Vocal tract resonance characteristics in acoustic speech signals are classically tracked using frame-by-frame point estimates of formant frequencies followed by candidate selection and smoothing using dynamic programming methods that minimize ad hoc cost functions. The goal of the current work is to provide both point estimates and associated uncertainties of center frequencies and bandwidths in a statistically principled state-space framework. Extended Kalman (K) algorithms take advantage of a linearized mapping to infer formant and antiformant parameters from frame-based estimates of autoregressive moving average (ARMA) cepstral coefficients. Error analysis of KARMA, wavesurfer, and praat is accomplished in the all-pole case using a manually marked formant database and synthesized speech waveforms. KARMA formant tracks exhibit lower overall root-mean-square error relative to the two benchmark algorithms with the ability to modify parameters in a controlled manner to trade off bias and variance. Antiformant tracking performance of KARMA is illustrated using synthesized and spoken nasal phonemes. The simultaneous tracking of uncertainty levels enables practitioners to recognize time-varying confidence in parameters of interest and adjust algorithmic settings accordingly.

  11. On the internal target model in a tracking task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caglayan, A. K.; Baron, S.

    1981-01-01

    An optimal control model for predicting operator's dynamic responses and errors in target tracking ability is summarized. The model, which predicts asymmetry in the tracking data, is dependent on target maneuvers and trajectories. Gunners perception, decision making, control, and estimate of target positions and velocity related to crossover intervals are discussed. The model provides estimates for means, standard deviations, and variances for variables investigated and for operator estimates of future target positions and velocities.

  12. Visual tracking method based on cuckoo search algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Ming-Liang; Yin, Li-Ju; Zou, Guo-Feng; Li, Hai-Tao; Liu, Wei

    2015-07-01

    Cuckoo search (CS) is a new meta-heuristic optimization algorithm that is based on the obligate brood parasitic behavior of some cuckoo species in combination with the Lévy flight behavior of some birds and fruit flies. It has been found to be efficient in solving global optimization problems. An application of CS is presented to solve the visual tracking problem. The relationship between optimization and visual tracking is comparatively studied and the parameters' sensitivity and adjustment of CS in the tracking system are experimentally studied. To demonstrate the tracking ability of a CS-based tracker, a comparative study of tracking accuracy and speed of the CS-based tracker with six "state-of-art" trackers, namely, particle filter, meanshift, PSO, ensemble tracker, fragments tracker, and compressive tracker are presented. Comparative results show that the CS-based tracker outperforms the other trackers.

  13. Distributed Tracking Fidelity-Metric Performance Analysis Using Confusion Matrices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    evaluation [3, 4], T2T developments [ 5 , 6], and simultaneous tracking and ID (STID) approaches [7, 8, 9, 10], we seek a method for distributed tracking...While there is an interest to process all the data in signal-level fusion, such as image fusion [ 31 ], the transmission of the data is limited by...combination. Section 2 describes the tracking metrics. Section 3 overviews the JBPDAF. Section 4 describes the CM DLF. Section 5 shows a performance

  14. Impact of Intervention on Learning Abilities of Institutional Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunshal, Saraswati C.; Gaonkar, V.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was under taken during 2003-2005 with the objectives to study the level of learning abilities and study the impact of intervention on learning abilities among children residing in juvenile institutions of Dharwad division in Karanataka. Level of scholastic ability and scholastic problems of children was assessed before…

  15. General English Ability, Specific Purpose English Ability, and Computer Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prapphal, Kanchana

    2003-01-01

    Aims to answer the following research questions: (1) Are general English ability and specific purpose English ability related to computer skills? and (2) Is general English ability transferable to specific purpose English ability? Subjects were third year science students enrolled in an English for academic purposes course. (Author/VWL)

  16. Track recording plastic compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarle, Gregory (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Improved nuclear track recording plastic compositions are provided which exhibit greatly decreased surface roughness when etched to produce visible tracks of energetic nuclear particles which have passed into and/or through said plastic. The improved compositions incorporate a small quantity of a phthalic acid ester into the major plastic component which is derived from the polymerization of monomeric di-ethylene glycol bis allyl carbonate. Di-substituted phthalic acid esters are preferred as the added component, with the further perference that the ester substituent has a chain length of 2 or more carbon atoms. The inclusion of the phthalic acid ester to an extent of from about 1-2% by weight of the plastic compositions is sufficient to drastically reduce the surface roughness ordinarily produced when the track recording plastic is contacted by etchants.

  17. Tracks to therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, R.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    1999-01-01

    Studies of the structure of particle tracks have led to models of track effects based on radial dose and radiobiological target theory that have been very successful in describing and predicting track effects in physical, chemical, and biological systems. For describing mammalian cellular inactivation two inactivation modes are required, called gamma-kill and ion-kill, the first due to synergistic effects of delta rays from adjacent ion paths thus resembling the effects from gamma rays, and the second to the effects of single ion transits through a cell nucleus. The ion-kill effect is more severe, where the fraction of cells experiencing ion kill is responsible for a decrease in the oxygen enhancement ratio, and an increase in relative biological effectiveness, but these are accompanied by loss of repair, hence to a reduction in the efficiency of fractionation in high LET therapy, as shown by our calculations for radiobiological effects in the "spread out Bragg Peak".

  18. Seam-Tracking for Friction Stir Welded Lap Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, Paul A.; Hendricks, Christopher E.; Cook, George E.; Wilkes, D. M.; Strauss, Alvin M.; Lammlein, David H.

    2010-11-01

    This article presents a method for automatic seam-tracking in friction stir welding (FSW) of lap joints. In this method, tracking is accomplished by weaving the FSW tool back-and-forth perpendicular to the direction of travel during welding and monitoring force and torque signals. Research demonstrates the ability of this method to automatically track weld seam positions. Additionally, tensile and S-bend test result comparisons demonstrate that weaving most likely does not reduce weld quality. Finally, benefits of this weave-based method to FSW of lap joints are discussed and methods for incorporating it into existing friction stir welding control algorithms (such as axial load control) are examined.

  19. Procedures for minimizing the effects of high solar activity on satellite tracking and ephemeris generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bredvik, Gordon D.

    1990-01-01

    We are currently experiencing a period of high solar radiation combined with wide short-term fluctuations in the radiation. The short-term fluctuations, especially when combined with highly energetic solar flares, can adversely affect the mission of U.S. Space Command's Space Surveillance Center (SSC) which catalogs and tracks the satellites in orbit around the Earth. Rapidly increasing levels of solar electromagnetic and/or particle radiation (solar wind) causes atmospheric warming, which, in turn, causes the upper-most portions of the atmosphere to expand outward, into the regime of low altitude satellites. The increased drag on satellites from this expansion can cause large, unmodeled, in-track displacements, thus undermining the SSC's ability to track and predict satellite position. On 13 March 1989, high solar radiation levels, combined with a high-energy solar flare, caused an exceptional amount of short-term atmospheric warming. The SSC temporarily lost track of over 1300 low altitude satellites--nearly half of the low altitude satellite population. Observational data on satellites that became lost during the days following the 13 March 'solar event' was analyzed and compared with the satellites' last element set prior to the event (referred to as a geomagnetic storm because of the large increase in magnetic flux in the upper atmosphere). The analysis led to a set of procedures for reducing the impact of future geomagnetic storms. These procedures adjust selected software limit parameters in the differential correction of element sets and in the observation association process and must be manually initiated at the onset of a geomagnetic storm. Sensor tasking procedures must be adjusted to ensure that a minimum of four observations per day are received for low altitude satellites. These procedures have been implemented and, thus far, appear to be successful in minimizing the effect of subsequent geomagnetic storms on satellite tracking and ephemeris

  20. Ability Grouping in Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kneer, Marian E.

    1982-01-01

    Psychomotor ability differences in students are a result of innate motor ability, fitness, neurologic development, psychology, experience, and students' interests and goals. Models and procedures for serving students with ability differences, in the areas of ability identification, curriculum development, and instruction, are described. (CJ)

  1. Constraints on Multiple Object Tracking in Williams Syndrome: How Atypical Development Can Inform Theories of Visual Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Katrina; Hoffman, James E.; O'Hearn, Kirsten; Landau, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The ability to track moving objects is a crucial skill for performance in everyday spatial tasks. The tracking mechanism depends on representation of moving items as coherent entities, which follow the spatiotemporal constraints of objects in the world. In the present experiment, participants tracked 1 to 4 targets in a display of 8 identical…

  2. Energy Tracking Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Harrer, Benedikt W.; Close, Hunter G.; Daane, Abigail R.; DeWater, Lezlie S.; Robertson, Amy D.; Seeley, Lane; Vokos, Stamatis

    2016-01-01

    Energy is a crosscutting concept in science and features prominently in national science education documents. In the "Next Generation Science Standards," the primary conceptual learning goal is for learners to conserve energy as they "track" the transfers and transformations of energy within, into, or out of the system of…

  3. Tracking in 4 dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartiglia, N.; Arcidiacono, R.; Baldassarri, B.; Boscardin, M.; Cenna, F.; Dellacasa, G.; Betta, G.-F. Dalla; Ferrero, M.; Fadeyev, V.; Galloway, Z.; Garbolino, S.; Grabas, H.; Monaco, V.; Obertino, M.; Pancheri, L.; Paternoster, G.; Rivetti, A.; Rolo, M.; Sacchi, R.; Sadrozinski, H.; Seiden, A.; Sola, V.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Ravera, F.; Zatserklyaniy, A.

    2017-02-01

    In this contribution we will review the progresses toward the construction of a tracking system able to measure the passage of charged particles with a combined precision of ∼10 ps and ∼10 μm, either using a single type of sensor, able to concurrently measure position and time, or a combination of position and time sensors.

  4. Tracking Speech Sound Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a procedure to aid in the clinical appraisal of child speech. The approach, based on the work by Dinnsen, Chin, Elbert, and Powell (1990; Some constraints on functionally disordered phonologies: Phonetic inventories and phonotactics. "Journal of Speech and Hearing Research", 33, 28-37), uses a railway idiom to track gains in…

  5. Tracking Politics with POWER

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreira, Silvio; Batista, David S.; Carvalho, Paula; Couto, Francisco M.; Silva, Mario J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: POWER is an ontology of political processes and entities. It is designed for tracking politicians, political organizations and elections, both in mainstream and social media. The aim of this paper is to propose a data model to describe political agents and their relations over time. Design/methodology/approach: The authors propose a data…

  6. Spiral track oven

    SciTech Connect

    Drobilisch, Sandor

    1998-12-20

    Final report on development of a continuously operating oven system in which the parts are progressing automatically on a spiral track for in-line service installation for the production of electronic and/or other components to be heat cured or dried.

  7. Tracking Weather Satellites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Helen E.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the use of weather satellites in providing an exciting, cohesive framework for students learning Earth and space science and in providing a hands-on approach to technology in the classroom. Discusses the history of weather satellites and classroom satellite tracking. (JRH)

  8. Registration and Tracking Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    Single No Partial Yes Appearance Tracking [66] Single No Partial Yes Layering [67] Multi No Full No Bramble [68] Multi Yes Full No EigenTracker [14...representations.” IEEE Trans. on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 24(1):75-89, 2002. [68] M. Isard and J. MacCormick. ” BraMBLe : A Bayesian Multiple-Blob

  9. Pseudonoise code tracking loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laflame, D. T. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A delay-locked loop is presented for tracking a pseudonoise (PN) reference code in an incoming communication signal. The loop is less sensitive to gain imbalances, which can otherwise introduce timing errors in the PN reference code formed by the loop.

  10. Dust Devil Tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 8 May 2002) The Science This image, centered near 50.0 S and 17.7 W displays dust devil tracks on the surface. Most of the lighter portions of the image likely have a thin veneer of dust settled on the surface. As a dust devil passes over the surface, it acts as a vacuum and picks up the dust, leaving the darker substrate exposed. In this image there is a general trend of many of the tracks running from east to west or west to east, indicating the general wind direction. There is often no general trend present in dust devil tracks seen in other images. The track patterns are quite ephemeral and can completely change or even disappear over the course of a few months. Dust devils are one of the mechanisms that Mars uses to constantly pump dust into the ubiquitously dusty atmosphere. This atmospheric dust is one of the main driving forces of the present Martian climate. The Story Vrrrrooooooooom. Think of a tornado, the cartoon Tasmanian devil, or any number of vacuum commercials that powerfully suck up swirls of dust and dirt. That's pretty much what it's like on the surface of Mars a lot of the time. Whirlpools of wind called

  11. Independent resources for attentional tracking in the left and right visual hemifields.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, George A; Cavanagh, Patrick

    2005-08-01

    The ability to divide attention enables people to keep track of up to four independently moving objects. We now show that this tracking capacity is independently constrained in the left and right visual fields as if separate tracking systems were engaged, one in each field. Specifically, twice as many targets can be successfully tracked when they are divided between the left and right hemifields as when they are all presented within the same hemifield. This finding places broad constraints on the anatomy and mechanisms of attentive tracking, ruling out a single attentional focus, even one that moves quickly from target to target.

  12. Predicting cognitive styles from spatial abilities.

    PubMed

    Nori, Raffaella; Giusberti, Fiorella

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies on spatial memory reveal that people represent spatial information in 3 different forms: landmark, route, and survey. The aim of this work was to assess spatial abilities in order to predict a person's cognitive style. In order to do this we used 9 different spatial tasks, which were linked with these 3 forms of spatial representations. We found that the 9 spatial tasks are able to distinguish different levels of spatial ability.

  13. Multiple Drosophila Tracking System with Heading Direction

    PubMed Central

    Sirigrivatanawong, Pudith; Arai, Shogo; Thoma, Vladimiros; Hashimoto, Koichi

    2017-01-01

    Machine vision systems have been widely used for image analysis, especially that which is beyond human ability. In biology, studies of behavior help scientists to understand the relationship between sensory stimuli and animal responses. This typically requires the analysis and quantification of animal locomotion. In our work, we focus on the analysis of the locomotion of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, a widely used model organism in biological research. Our system consists of two components: fly detection and tracking. Our system provides the ability to extract a group of flies as the objects of concern and furthermore determines the heading direction of each fly. As each fly moves, the system states are refined with a Kalman filter to obtain the optimal estimation. For the tracking step, combining information such as position and heading direction with assignment algorithms gives a successful tracking result. The use of heading direction increases the system efficiency when dealing with identity loss and flies swapping situations. The system can also operate with a variety of videos with different light intensities. PMID:28067800

  14. Tracking a Very Near Earth Asteroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruck, R.; Rashid, S.; Peppard, T.

    2013-09-01

    The potential effects of an asteroid passing within close proximity to the Earth were recently realized. During the February 16, 2013 event, Asteroid 2012 DA14 passed within an estimated 27,700 kilometers of the earth, well within the geosynchronous (GEO) orbital belt. This was the closest known approach of a planetoid of this size, in modern history. The GEO belt is a region that is filled with critical communications satellites which provide relays for essential government, business and private datum. On the day of the event, optical instruments at Detachment 3, 21OG, Maui GEODSS were able to open in marginal atmospheric conditions, locate and collect metric and raw video data on the asteroid as it passed a point of near heliocentric orbital propinquity to the Earth. Prior to the event, the Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) used propagated trajectory data from NASA's Near Earth Object Program Office at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to assess potential collisions with man-made objects in Earth orbit. However, the ability to actively track this asteroid through the populated satellite belt not only allowed surveillance for possible late orbital perturbations of the asteroid, but, afforded the ability to monitor possible strikes on all other orbiting bodies of anthropogenic origin either not in orbital catalogs or not recently updated in those catalogs. Although programmed only for tracking satellites in geocentric orbits, GEODSS was able to compensate and maintain track on DA14, collecting one hundred and fifty four metric observations during the event.

  15. Precise Head Tracking in Hearing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helle, A. M.; Pilinski, J.; Luhmann, T.

    2015-05-01

    The paper gives an overview about two research projects, both dealing with optical head tracking in hearing applications. As part of the project "Development of a real-time low-cost tracking system for medical and audiological problems (ELCoT)" a cost-effective single camera 3D tracking system has been developed which enables the detection of arm and head movements of human patients. Amongst others, the measuring system is designed for a new hearing test (based on the "Mainzer Kindertisch"), which analyzes the directional hearing capabilities of children in cooperation with the research project ERKI (Evaluation of acoustic sound source localization for children). As part of the research project framework "Hearing in everyday life (HALLO)" a stereo tracking system is being used for analyzing the head movement of human patients during complex acoustic events. Together with the consideration of biosignals like skin conductance the speech comprehension and listening effort of persons with reduced hearing ability, especially in situations with background noise, is evaluated. For both projects the system design, accuracy aspects and results of practical tests are discussed.

  16. TAGGING, TRACKING AND LOCATING WITHOUT GPS

    SciTech Connect

    Cordaro, J.; Coleman, T.; Shull, D.

    2012-07-08

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to lead a Law Enforcement Working Group that was formed to collaborate on common operational needs. All agencies represented on the working group ranked their need to tag, track, and locate a witting or unwitting target as their highest priority. Specifically, they were looking for technologies more robust than Global Positioning Satellite (GPS), could communicate back to the owner, and worked where normal cell phone communications did not work or were unreliable. SRNL brought together multiple technologies in a demonstration that was held in in various Alaska venues, including metropolitan, wilderness, and at-sea that met the working group's requirements. Using prototypical technologies from Boeing, On Ramp, and Fortress, SRNL was able to demonstrate the ability to track personnel and material in all scenarios including indoors, in heavily wooden areas, canyons, and in parking garages. In all cases GPS signals were too weak to measure. Bi-directional communication was achieved in areas that Wi-Fi, cell towers, or traditional radios would not perform. The results of the exercise will be presented. These technologies are considered ideal for tracking high value material such has nuclear material with a platform that allows seamless tracking anywhere in the world, indoors or outdoors.

  17. Digital demodulation with data subcarrier tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanger, D. K.

    1970-01-01

    Digital demodulator is based on early-late bit timing scheme coupled with Costas data tracking loop. System is successful in enhancement of weak signals from space where atmospheric and other interference media cause bit error rate to reach excessive level.

  18. Developing a Statewide Student Tracking Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pai, Wendell; Moschos, Marina; Detlev, Angela; Robinson, Ophelia; Lanneau, Sumi

    2008-01-01

    This chapter describes the development of a state-level student tracking system that enables the state and institutions to follow various cohort types of students across institutional boundaries. The system was developed by the Policy Research and Data Warehousing section of the State Council of Higher Education for Virginia (SCHEV). SCHEV is the…

  19. Talent Identification in Track and Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henson, Phillip; And Others

    Talent identification in most sports occurs through mass participation and the process of natural selection; track and field does not enjoy such widespread participation. This paper reports on a project undertaken for the following purposes: improve the means by which youth with the potential for high level performance can be identified; develop…

  20. Laying Track over the Sierra Nevada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    An astounding construction feat of Chinese Americans was the work done on the western section of the transcontinental railroad. The groundbreaking ceremony for the new line took place in Sacramento in 1863, but up until 1865, less than 50 miles of running track had been laid, and this was over relatively level land. The construction superintendent…

  1. Improvement on the stabilization of a precision tracking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuno, H.; Koshiba, T.

    A tracking system that operates from nonstationary platforms must be able to stabilize the tracking axis for precision tracking. Implementation of a free gyro pointing assembly which has a momentum wheel as an integral part of the inner gimbal assembly and that is oriented with its spin axis parallel to the line of sight, is the most widely used method for tactical missiles. The paper describes two methods to improve the stabilization of this tracking system by adjusting the gimbal balance during accelerated condition and adjusting gimbal friction torque at an optimium level appropriate to the applied torque. The results show a one-fifth improvement of the drift rate.

  2. GPS Metric Tracking Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    As Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) applications become more prevalent for land- and air-based vehicles, GPS applications for space vehicles will also increase. The Applied Technology Directorate of Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has developed a lightweight, low-cost GPS Metric Tracking Unit (GMTU), the first of two steps in developing a lightweight, low-cost Space-Based Tracking and Command Subsystem (STACS) designed to meet Range Safety's link margin and latency requirements for vehicle command and telemetry data. The goals of STACS are to improve Range Safety operations and expand tracking capabilities for space vehicles. STACS will track the vehicle, receive commands, and send telemetry data through the space-based asset, which will dramatically reduce dependence on ground-based assets. The other step was the Low-Cost Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) Transceiver (LCT2), developed by the Wallops Flight Facility (WFF), which allows the vehicle to communicate with a geosynchronous relay satellite. Although the GMTU and LCT2 were independently implemented and tested, the design collaboration of KSC and WFF engineers allowed GMTU and LCT2 to be integrated into one enclosure, leading to the final STACS. In operation, GMTU needs only a radio frequency (RF) input from a GPS antenna and outputs position and velocity data to the vehicle through a serial or pulse code modulation (PCM) interface. GMTU includes one commercial GPS receiver board and a custom board, the Command and Telemetry Processor (CTP) developed by KSC. The CTP design is based on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) with embedded processors to support GPS functions.

  3. Simultaneous Tracking of Multiple Points Using a Wiimote

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skeffington, Alex; Scully, Kyle

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the construction of an inexpensive motion tracking and data logging system, which can be used for a wide variety of teaching experiments ranging from entry-level physics courses to advanced courses. The system utilizes an affordable infrared camera found in a Nintendo Wiimote to track IR LEDs mounted to the objects to be…

  4. The Role of Academic Achievement Growth in School Track Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caro, Daniel H.; Lenkeit, Jenny; Lehmann, Rainer; Schwippert, Knut

    2009-01-01

    Students in Germany are tracked into different forms of secondary schooling based on teachers' recommendations. The literature shows that school tracking is largely affected by academic achievement levels, but neglects the influence of individual achievement growth. The authors used data from the Berlin study ELEMENT (N = 2242) to characterize…

  5. Keeping Track of Your Blood Sugar (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... an X-ray Keeping Track of Your Blood Sugar KidsHealth > For Kids > Keeping Track of Your Blood Sugar Print A A A What's in this article? ... del azúcar en la sangre Checking your blood sugar levels is a really important part of taking ...

  6. GNSS triple-frequency geometry-free and ionosphere-free track-to-track ambiguities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kan; Rothacher, Markus

    2015-06-01

    During the last few years, more and more GNSS satellites have become available sending signals on three or even more frequencies. Examples are the GPS Block IIF and the Galileo In-Orbit-Validation (IOV) satellites. Various investigations have been performed to make use of the increasing number of frequencies to find a compromise between eliminating different error sources and minimizing the noise level, including the investigations in the triple-frequency geometry-free (GF) and ionosphere-free (IF) linear combinations, which eliminate all the geometry-related errors and the first-order term of the ionospheric delays. In contrast to the double-difference GF and IF ambiguity resolution, the resolution of the so-called track-to-track GF and IF ambiguities between two tracks of a satellite observed by the same station only requires one receiver and one satellite. Most of the remaining errors like receiver and satellite delays (electronics, cables, etc.) are eliminated, if they are not changing rapidly in time, and the noise level is reduced theoretically by a factor of square root of two compared to double-differences. This paper presents first results concerning track-to-track ambiguity resolution using triple-frequency GF and IF linear combinations based on data from the Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) from April 29 to May 9, 2012 and from December 23 to December 29, 2012. This includes triple-frequency phase and code observations with different combinations of receiver tracking modes. The results show that it is possible to resolve the combined track-to-track ambiguities of the best two triple-frequency GF and IF linear combinations for the Galileo frequency triplet E1, E5b and E5a with more than 99.6% of the fractional ambiguities for the best linear combination being located within ± 0.03 cycles and more than 98.8% of the fractional ambiguities for the second best linear combination within ± 0.2 cycles, while the fractional parts of the ambiguities for the GPS

  7. Tracking planets and moons: mechanisms of object tracking revealed with a new paradigm.

    PubMed

    Tombu, Michael; Seiffert, Adriane E

    2011-04-01

    People can attend to and track multiple moving objects over time. Cognitive theories of this ability emphasize location information and differ on the importance of motion information. Results from several experiments have shown that increasing object speed impairs performance, although speed was confounded with other properties such as proximity of objects to one another. Here, we introduce a new paradigm to study multiple object tracking in which object speed and object proximity were manipulated independently. Like the motion of a planet and moon, each target-distractor pair rotated about both a common local point as well as the center of the screen. Tracking performance was strongly affected by object speed even when proximity was controlled. Additional results suggest that two different mechanisms are used in object tracking--one sensitive to speed and proximity and the other sensitive to the number of distractors. These observations support models of object tracking that include information about object motion and reject models that use location alone.

  8. Remote sensing of water tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trochim, E. D.; Prakash, A.; Kane, D. L.; Romanovsky, V. E.

    2016-03-01

    Water tracks are an intrinsic part of the surficial drainage network in the foothills of the Brooks Range, Alaska. They preferentially transport water off hillslopes and represent the interplay between hydrology, vegetation, geomorphology, and permafrost characteristics. This research on mapping the location of water tracks builds on previous work which demonstrated that different types of water tracks exist due to difference primarily driven by geomorphology. We used a combination method where spectral classifications, texture, and topography were fed into random forests to identify the water track classes. The most accurate distributions were obtained for the organic-rich and wide water track classes. The distinct linear shapes of the water tracks could also be visualized for many of the classes, especially in areas where the water tracks were particularly discrete. The biggest challenges to mapping the water tracks were due to class imbalances and high variability within and overlapping between classes. This research presents a significant step forward in understanding periglacial landscape dynamics.

  9. Space Telescope moving target tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strikwerda, T. E.; Strohbehn, K.; Fowler, K. R.; Skillman, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    This paper formulates a Space Telescope (ST) moving target tracking algorithm and evaluates a practical implementation. The algorithm is shown to be satisfactory for tracking such moving objects as the moons of Mars.

  10. Dual frequency along-track interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carande, R. E.; Goldstein, R. M.; Lou, Y.; Miller, T.; Wheeler, K.

    1991-01-01

    In recent months, the JPL Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) System has had a C-band Along-Track Interferometer installed. This, in addition to the L-band interferometer already operating in the system, makes it possible to simultaneously acquire two frequency interferometer data. Also, another upgrade involving the radar digital system allows each interferometer to be operated in such a way as to obtain two along-track interferometric baselines differing by a factor of 2 in length. An engineering checkout flight has demonstrated the ability to acquire and process both frequencies to high-resolution velocity maps of the ocean surface. The status of these interferometers and some initial data are presented.

  11. Intracellular polysilicon barcodes for cell tracking.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Rosas, Elisabet; Gómez, Rodrigo; Ibañez, Elena; Barrios, Leonardo; Duch, Marta; Esteve, Jaume; Nogués, Carme; Plaza, José Antonio

    2009-11-01

    During the past decade, diverse types of barcode have been designed in order to track living cells in vivo or in vitro, but none of them offer the possibility to follow an individual cell up to ten or more days. Using silicon microtechnologies a barcode sufficiently small to be introduced into a cell, yet visible and readily identifiable under an optical microscope, is designed. Cultured human macrophages are able to engulf the barcodes due to their phagocytic ability and their viability is not affected. The utility of the barcodes for cell tracking is demonstrated by following individual cells for up to ten days in culture and recording their locomotion. Interestingly, silicon microtechnology allows the mass production of reproducible codes at low cost with small features (bits) in the micrometer range that are additionally biocompatible.

  12. Perceptual style and tracking performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atchley, Paul

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between perceptual style and tracking of a target was examined. Four pilots were given the Embedded Figures Test to assess their degrees of field dependence or independence. Then they flew in a helicopter simulator and attempted to track an airborne target. A high negative correlation was found between perceptual style and tracking performance. Field-independent subjects were able to track the target for longer periods than field-dependent subjects.

  13. Feature tracking in high-resolution regional climate data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massey, Neil R.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a suite of algorithms are presented which facilitate the identification and tracking of storm-indicative features, such as mean sea-level pressure minima, in high resolution regional climate data. The methods employ a hierarchical triangular mesh, which is tailored to the regional climate data by only subdividing triangles, from an initial icosahedron, within the domain of the data. The regional data is then regridded to this triangular mesh at each level of the grid, producing a compact representation of the data at numerous resolutions. Storm indicative features are detected by first subtracting the background field, represented by a low resolution version of the data, which occurs at a lower level in the mesh. Anomalies from this background field are detected, as feature objects, at a mesh level which corresponds to the spatial scale of the feature being detected and then refined to the highest mesh level. These feature objects are expanded to an outer contour and overlapping objects are merged. The centre points of these objects are tracked across timesteps by applying an optimisation scheme which uses five hierarchical rules. Objects are added to tracks based on the highest rule in the scheme they pass and, if two objects pass the same rule, the cost of adding the object to the track. An object exchange scheme ensures that adding an object to a track is locally optimal. An additional track optimisation phase is performed which exchanges segments between tracks and merges tracks to obtain a globally optimal track set. To validate the suite of algorithms they are applied to the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset and compared to other storm-indicative feature tracking algorithms.

  14. Satellite (IRLS) tracking of elk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buechner, H. K.

    1972-01-01

    The practicability of tracking free roaming animals in natural environments by satellite systems is reported. Satellite systems combine continuous tracking with simultaneous monitoring of physiological and environmental parameters through a combination of radio tracking and biotelemetric ground systems that lead to a better understanding of animal behavior and migration patterns.

  15. Center searching and tracking of circular interference fringes for precision measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Qu, Shiliang; Qu, Jian; Luo, Zhiyong

    2012-02-01

    We report an algorithm for searching and tracking the center of the circular interference fringes. The algorithm was programmed by VB.NET for processing the interference images captured by CCD camera. Images were changed into binary gray-level format by the Otsu method. The circular scanning method was used to extract the outline of circular interference fringes, and then the coordinates of the perpendicular subtenses were used to remove noise pixels. Finally, the coordinate of the center was calculated by statistical method. The experimental results are in good agreement with the simulation images. The algorithm had subpixel accuracy and anti-noise ability. Thus, the algorithm can be used in accurate measurement for its automatic processing ability.

  16. Longwall shearer tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poulsen, P. D. (Inventor); Stein, R. J.; Pease, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    A tracking system for measuring and recording the movements of a longwall shearer vehicle includes an optical tracking assembly carried at one end of a desired vehicle path and a retroreflector assembly carried by the vehicle. Continuous horizontal and vertical light beams are alternately transmitted by means of a rotating Dove prism to the reflector assembly. A vertically reciprocating reflector interrupts the continuous light beams and converts these to discrete horizontal and vertical light beam images transmitted at spaced intervals along the path. A second rotating Dove prism rotates the vertical images to convert them to a second series of horizontal images while the first mentioned horizontal images are left unrotated and horizontal. The images are recorded on a film.

  17. On particle track detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.; Gruhn, T. A.; Andrus, C. H.

    1973-01-01

    Aqueous sodium hydroxide is widely used to develop charged particle tracks in polycarbonate film, particularly Lexan. The chemical nature of the etching process for this system has been determined. A method employing ultra-violet absorbance was developed for monitoring the concentration of the etch products in solution. Using this method it was possible to study the formation of the etching solution saturated in etch products. It was found that the system super-saturates to a significant extent before precipitation occurs. It was also learned that the system approaches its equilibrium state rather slowly. It is felt that both these phenomena may be due to the presence of surfactant in the solution. In light of these findings, suggestions are given regarding the preparation and maintenance of the saturated etch solution. Two additional research projects, involving automated techniques for particle track analysis and particle identification using AgCl crystals, are briefly summarized.

  18. Tracking change over time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2011-01-01

    Landsat satellites capture images of Earth from space-and have since 1972! These images provide a long-term record of natural and human-induced changes on the global landscape. Comparing images from multiple years reveals slow and subtle changes as well as rapid and devastating ones. Landsat images are available over the Internet at no charge. Using the free software MultiSpec, students can track changes to the landscape over time-just like remote sensing scientists do! The objective of the Tracking Change Over Time lesson plan is to get students excited about studying the changing Earth. Intended for students in grades 5-8, the lesson plan is flexible and may be used as a student self-guided tutorial or as a teacher-led class lesson. Enhance students' learning of geography, map reading, earth science, and problem solving by seeing landscape changes from space.

  19. Dinosaur Tracks and Traces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillette, David D.; Lockley, Martin G.

    1991-02-01

    The study of fossilized dinosaur remains, vertebrate paleontology is a well established discipline, but the discovery and rediscovery of numerous and varied dinosaur footprints and nest sites has spurred a renaissance in the associated field of ichnological research. Dinosaur Tracks and Traces is the first book ever to be devoted to this subject, and it represents the work of seventy noted dinosaur ichnologists. Contributors address the history of science and the relevance of dinosaur ichnology to the interpretation of dinosaur behaviour, paleoecology, paleoenvironments, and evolution. Several new preservation, conservation, and documentation techniques are also presented. The book is richly illustrated and is intended for students and professionals in the areas of paleontology, vertebrate zoology, geology, and paleoenvironmental analysis. The historical aspects of the book and the many site descriptions also make Dinosaur Tracks and Traces appealing to amateur fossil collectors and dinosaur enthusiasts.

  20. Motion Tracking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Integrated Sensors, Inc. (ISI), under NASA contract, developed a sensor system for controlling robot vehicles. This technology would enable a robot supply vehicle to automatically dock with Earth-orbiting satellites or the International Space Station. During the docking phase the ISI-developed sensor must sense the satellite's relative motion, then spin so the robot vehicle can adjust its motion to align with the satellite and slowly close until docking is completed. ISI used the sensing/tracking technology as the basis of its OPAD system, which simultaneously tracks an object's movement in six degrees of freedom. Applications include human limb motion analysis, assembly line position analysis and auto crash dummy motion analysis. The NASA technology is also the basis for Motion Analysis Workstation software, a package to simplify the video motion analysis process.

  1. Can Smartwatches Replace Smartphones for Posture Tracking?

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Bobak; Nemati, Ebrahim; VanderWall, Kristina; Flores-Rodriguez, Hector G.; Cai, Jun Yu Jacinta; Lucier, Jessica; Naeim, Arash; Sarrafzadeh, Majid

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a human posture tracking platform to identify the human postures of sitting, standing or lying down, based on a smartwatch. This work develops such a system as a proof-of-concept study to investigate a smartwatch’s ability to be used in future remote health monitoring systems and applications. This work validates the smartwatches’ ability to track the posture of users accurately in a laboratory setting while reducing the sampling rate to potentially improve battery life, the first steps in verifying that such a system would work in future clinical settings. The algorithm developed classifies the transitions between three posture states of sitting, standing and lying down, by identifying these transition movements, as well as other movements that might be mistaken for these transitions. The system is trained and developed on a Samsung Galaxy Gear smartwatch, and the algorithm was validated through a leave-one-subject-out cross-validation of 20 subjects. The system can identify the appropriate transitions at only 10 Hz with an F-score of 0.930, indicating its ability to effectively replace smart phones, if needed. PMID:26506354

  2. Can smartwatches replace smartphones for posture tracking?

    PubMed

    Mortazavi, Bobak; Nemati, Ebrahim; VanderWall, Kristina; Flores-Rodriguez, Hector G; Cai, Jun Yu Jacinta; Lucier, Jessica; Naeim, Arash; Sarrafzadeh, Majid

    2015-10-22

    This paper introduces a human posture tracking platform to identify the human postures of sitting, standing or lying down, based on a smartwatch. This work develops such a system as a proof-of-concept study to investigate a smartwatch's ability to be used in future remote health monitoring systems and applications. This work validates the smartwatches' ability to track the posture of users accurately in a laboratory setting while reducing the sampling rate to potentially improve battery life, the first steps in verifying that such a system would work in future clinical settings. The algorithm developed classifies the transitions between three posture states of sitting, standing and lying down, by identifying these transition movements, as well as other movements that might be mistaken for these transitions. The system is trained and developed on a Samsung Galaxy Gear smartwatch, and the algorithm was validated through a leave-one-subject-out cross-validation of 20 subjects. The system can identify the appropriate transitions at only 10 Hz with an F-score of 0.930, indicating its ability to effectively replace smart phones, if needed.

  3. Development of DNA-based Identification methods to track the ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The ability to track the identity and abundance of larval fish, which are ubiquitous during spawning season, may lead to a greater understanding of fish species distributions in Great Lakes nearshore areas including early-detection of invasive fish species before they become established. However, larval fish are notoriously hard to identify using traditional morphological techniques. While DNA-based identification methods could increase the ability of aquatic resource managers to determine larval fish composition, use of these methods in aquatic surveys is still uncommon and presents many challenges. In response to this need, we have been working with the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service to develop field and laboratory methods to facilitate the identification of larval fish using DNA-meta-barcoding. In 2012, we initiated a pilot-project to develop a workflow for conducting DNA-based identification, and compared the species composition at sites within the St. Louis River Estuary of Lake Superior using traditional identification versus DNA meta-barcoding. In 2013, we extended this research to conduct DNA-identification of fish larvae collected from multiple nearshore areas of the Great Lakes by the USFWS. The species composition of larval fish generally mirrored that of fish species known from the same areas, but was influenced by the timing and intensity of sampling. Results indicate that DNA-based identification needs only very low levels of biomass to detect pre

  4. Tracking Online Trails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Man; Edgar-Nevill, Denis; Wang, Yongquan; Xu, Rongsheng

    Traceability is a key to the investigation of the internet criminal and a cornerstone of internet research. It is impossible to prevent all internet misuse but may be possible to identify and trace the users, and then take appropriate action. This paper presents the value of traceability within the email/-newsposting utilities, the technologies being using to hide identities, the difficulties in locating the traceable data and the challenges in tracking online trails.

  5. Uncorrelated Track Avoidance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    continual series of uncorrelated tracks when gathering observations. The constants of the motion for simple two-body motion for a satellite orbiting the Earth ...of the Earth -Centered Rotating System, Ẑ-component of inertial angular momentum (Hk), and the time rate of change of the right ascension of the...3 2.1 Earth -Centered Coordinate Frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 III. Integrals of Satellite Motion

  6. PARTICLE BEAM TRACKING CIRCUIT

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, O.A.

    1959-05-01

    >A particle-beam tracking and correcting circuit is described. Beam induction electrodes are placed on either side of the beam, and potentials induced by the beam are compared in a voltage comparator or discriminator. This comparison produces an error signal which modifies the fm curve at the voltage applied to the drift tube, thereby returning the orbit to the preferred position. The arrangement serves also to synchronize accelerating frequency and magnetic field growth. (T.R.H.)

  7. Fast tracking hospital construction.

    PubMed

    Quirk, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    Hospital leaders should consider four factors in determining whether to fast track a hospital construction project: Expectations of project length, quality, and cost. Whether decisions can be made quickly as issues arise. Their own time commitment to the project, as well as that of architects, engineers, construction managers, and others. The extent to which they are willing to share with the design and construction teams how and why decisions are being made.

  8. Accuracy of emergency medical dispatchers' subjective ability to identify when higher dispatch levels are warranted over a Medical Priority Dispatch System automated protocol's recommended coding based on paramedic outcome data

    PubMed Central

    Clawson, Jeff; Olola, Christopher H O; Heward, Andy; Scott, Greg; Patterson, Brett

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To establish the accuracy of the emergency medical dispatcher's (EMD's) decisions to override the automated Medical Priority Dispatch System (MPDS) logic‐based response code recommendations based on at‐scene paramedic‐applied transport acuity determinations (blue‐in) and cardiac arrest (CA) findings. Methods A retrospective study of a 1 year dataset from the London Ambulance Service (LAS) National Health Service (NHS) Trust was undertaken. We compared all LAS “bluing in” frequency (BIQ) and cardiac arrest quotient (CAQ) outcomes of the incidents automatically recommended and accepted as CHARLIE‐level codes, to those receiving EMD DELTA‐overrides from the auto‐recommended CHARLIE‐level. We also compared the recommended DELTA‐level outcomes to those in the higher ECHO‐override cases. Results There was no significant association between outcome (CA/Blue‐in) and the determinant codes (DELTA‐override and CHARLIE‐level) for both CA (odds ratio (OR) 0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0 to 41.14; p = 1.000) and Blue‐in categories (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.34 to 2.33; p = 1.000). Similar patterns were observed between outcome and all DELTA‐level and ECHO‐override codes for both CA (OR 0, 95% CI 0 to 70.05; p = 1.000) and Blue‐in categories (OR 1.17, 95% CI 0 to 7.12; p = 0.597). Conclusion This study contradicts the belief that EMDs can accurately perceive when a patient or situation requires more resources than the MPDS's structured interrogation process logically indicates. This further strengthens the concept that automated, protocol‐based call taking is more accurate and consistent than the subjective, anecdotal or experience‐based determinations made by individual EMDs. PMID:17652678

  9. Energy Tracking Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Harrer, Benedikt W.; Close, Hunter G.; Daane, Abigail R.; DeWater, Lezlie S.; Robertson, Amy D.; Seeley, Lane; Vokos, Stamatis

    2016-02-01

    Energy is a crosscutting concept in science and features prominently in national science education documents. In the Next Generation Science Standards, the primary conceptual learning goal is for learners to conserve energy as they track the transfers and transformations of energy within, into, or out of the system of interest in complex physical processes. As part of tracking energy transfers among objects, learners should (i) distinguish energy from matter, including recognizing that energy flow does not uniformly align with the movement of matter, and should (ii) identify specific mechanisms by which energy is transferred among objects, such as mechanical work and thermal conduction. As part of tracking energy transformations within objects, learners should (iii) associate specific forms with specific models and indicators (e.g., kinetic energy with speed and/or coordinated motion of molecules, thermal energy with random molecular motion and/or temperature) and (iv) identify specific mechanisms by which energy is converted from one form to another, such as incandescence and metabolism. Eventually, we may hope for learners to be able to optimize systems to maximize some energy transfers and transformations and minimize others, subject to constraints based in both imputed mechanism (e.g., objects must have motion energy in order for gravitational energy to change) and the second law of thermodynamics (e.g., heating is irreversible). We hypothesize that a subsequent goal of energy learning—innovating to meet socially relevant needs—depends crucially on the extent to which these goals have been met.

  10. Respiration tracking in radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Schweikard, Achim; Shiomi, Hiroya; Adler, John

    2004-10-01

    Respiratory motion is difficult to compensate for with conventional radiotherapy systems. An accurate tracking method for following the motion of the tumor is of considerable clinical relevance. We investigate methods to compensate for respiratory motion using robotic radiosurgery. In this system the therapeutic beam is moved by a robotic arm, and follows the moving target through a combination of infrared tracking and synchronized x-ray imaging. Infrared emitters are used to record the motion of the patient's skin surface. The position of internal gold fiducials is computed repeatedly during treatment, via x-ray image processing. We correlate the motion between external and internal markers. From this correlation model we infer the placement of the internal target during time intervals where no x-ray images are taken. Fifteen patients with lung tumors have recently been treated with a fully integrated system implementing this new method. The clinical trials confirm our hypothesis that internal motion and external motion are indeed correlated. In a preliminar study we have extended our work to tracking without implanted fiducials, based on algorithms for computing deformation motions and digitally reconstructed radiographs.

  11. Fast Track Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Fast Track Study supports the efforts of a Special Study Group (SSG) made up of members of the Advanced Project Management Class number 23 (APM-23) that met at the Wallops Island Management Education Center from April 28 - May 8, 1996. Members of the Class expressed interest to Mr. Vem Weyers in having an input to the NASA Policy Document (NPD) 7120.4, that will replace NASA Management Institute (NMI) 7120.4, and the NASA Program/Project Management Guide. The APM-23 SSG was tasked with assisting in development of NASA policy on managing Fast Track Projects, defined as small projects under $150 million and completed within three years. 'Me approach of the APM-23 SSG was to gather data on successful projects working in a 'Better, Faster, Cheaper' environment, within and outside of NASA and develop the Fast Track Project section of the NASA Program/Project Management Guide. Fourteen interviews and four other data gathering efforts were conducted by the SSG, and 16 were conducted by Strategic Resources, Inc. (SRI), including five interviews at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and one at the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL). The interviews were compiled and analyzed for techniques and approaches commonly used to meet severe cost and schedule constraints.

  12. Fuzzy Logic Particle Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    A new all-electronic Particle Image Velocimetry technique that can efficiently map high speed gas flows has been developed in-house at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Particle Image Velocimetry is an optical technique for measuring the instantaneous two component velocity field across a planar region of a seeded flow field. A pulsed laser light sheet is used to illuminate the seed particles entrained in the flow field at two instances in time. One or more charged coupled device (CCD) cameras can be used to record the instantaneous positions of particles. Using the time between light sheet pulses and determining either the individual particle displacements or the average displacement of particles over a small subregion of the recorded image enables the calculation of the fluid velocity. Fuzzy logic minimizes the required operator intervention in identifying particles and computing velocity. Using two cameras that have the same view of the illumination plane yields two single exposure image frames. Two competing techniques that yield unambiguous velocity vector direction information have been widely used for reducing the single-exposure, multiple image frame data: (1) cross-correlation and (2) particle tracking. Correlation techniques yield averaged velocity estimates over subregions of the flow, whereas particle tracking techniques give individual particle velocity estimates. For the correlation technique, the correlation peak corresponding to the average displacement of particles across the subregion must be identified. Noise on the images and particle dropout result in misidentification of the true correlation peak. The subsequent velocity vector maps contain spurious vectors where the displacement peaks have been improperly identified. Typically these spurious vectors are replaced by a weighted average of the neighboring vectors, thereby decreasing the independence of the measurements. In this work, fuzzy logic techniques are used to determine the true

  13. Analysis of Covariance with Linear Regression Error Model on Antenna Control Unit Tracking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-20

    412TW-PA-15238 Analysis of Covariance with Linear Regression Error Model on Antenna Control Unit Tracking DANIEL T. LAIRD AIR...COVERED (From - To) 20 OCT 15 – 23 OCT 15 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Analysis of Covariance with Linear Regression Error Model on Antenna Control Tracking...analysis of variance (ANOVA) to decide for the null- or alternative-hypotheses of a telemetry antenna control unit’s (ACU) ability to track on C-band

  14. Animal Tracking ARGOS vs GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, P. W.; Costa, D.; Arnould, J.; Weise, M.; Kuhn, C.; Simmons, S. E.; Villegas, S.; Tremblay, Y.

    2006-12-01

    ARGOS satellite tracking technology has enabled a tremendous increase in our understanding of the movement patterns of a diverse array of marine vertebrates from Sharks to marine mammals. Our current understanding has moved from simple descriptions of large scale migratory patterns to much more sophisticated comparisons of animal movements and behavior relative to oceanic features. Further, animals are increasingly used to carry sensors that can acquire water column temperature and salinity profiles. However, a major limitation of this work is the spatial precision of ARGOS locations. ARGOS provides 7 location qualities that range from 3,2,1,0,A,B,Z and correspond to locations with a precision of 150m to tens of kilometers. Until recently, GPS technology could not be effectively used with marine mammals because they did not spend sufficient time at the surface to allow complete acquisition of satellite information. The recent development of Fastloc technology has allowed the development of GPS tags that can be deployed on marine mammals. Here we compare the location quality and frequency derived from standard ARGOS PTTs to Fastloc GPS locations acquired from 11 northern elephant seals, 5 California and 5 Galapagos sea lions and 1 Cape and 3 Australian fur seals. Our results indicate that GPS technology will greatly enhance our ability to understand the movement patterns of marine vertebrates and the in-situ oceanographic data they collect.

  15. Ability Grouping in New Zealand High Schools: Are Practices Evidence-Based?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornby, Garry; Witte, Chrystal

    2014-01-01

    There is an extensive international research literature on the effect of ability grouping (e.g., tracking, streaming, banding, setting) on children's academic and behavioral outcomes. However, it is questionable to what extent the findings of research on this topic have influenced the practice of ability grouping in New Zealand schools. Fifteen…

  16. A Theory-Based Framework for Assessing Domain-Specific Problem-Solving Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugrue, Brenda

    1995-01-01

    A more fragmented approach to assessment of global ability concepts than is generally advocated is suggested, based on the assumption that decomposing a complex ability into cognitive components and tracking performance across multiple measures will yield valid and instructionally useful information. Specifications are suggested for designing…

  17. Feature-aided tracking (FAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Paul F.; Coursey, Amanda L.

    2004-08-01

    Association of observations and tracks is a fundamental component of most solutions to the tracking problem. Association is frequently formulated as a multiple hypothesis test. Typically, the test statistic, called the track score, is the likelihood or likelihood ratio of the observations conditioned upon the association hypotheses. Assuming that the test is reasonably efficient, further reduction in the association error probability necessitates the introduction of additional information into the track score. This additional information is embodied in quantities called track features which are to be included in the track score. In practice, the necessary conditional probabilities of the track features are unknown. The class of non-parametric hypothesis tests is designed to provide such a test in the absence of any probabilistic information about the data. However, the test statistics used in non-parametric tests cannot be used directly in the track score. The one probabilistic quantity generally available with non-parametric tests is the Type I error probability, the probability of failing to accept a true hypothesis. If the non-parametric test is distribution free then the Type I error probability is independent of the distribution of the track features. This paper presents a distribution free, non-parametric test of the track features that can be used to test the association hypotheses and a quantity that can be included in the track score is derived from the Type I error probability of the test.

  18. Fluoroscopic tumor tracking for image-guided lung cancer radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tong; Cerviño, Laura I.; Tang, Xiaoli; Vasconcelos, Nuno; Jiang, Steve B.

    2009-02-01

    Accurate lung tumor tracking in real time is a keystone to image-guided radiotherapy of lung cancers. Existing lung tumor tracking approaches can be roughly grouped into three categories: (1) deriving tumor position from external surrogates; (2) tracking implanted fiducial markers fluoroscopically or electromagnetically; (3) fluoroscopically tracking lung tumor without implanted fiducial markers. The first approach suffers from insufficient accuracy, while the second may not be widely accepted due to the risk of pneumothorax. Previous studies in fluoroscopic markerless tracking are mainly based on template matching methods, which may fail when the tumor boundary is unclear in fluoroscopic images. In this paper we propose a novel markerless tumor tracking algorithm, which employs the correlation between the tumor position and surrogate anatomic features in the image. The positions of the surrogate features are not directly tracked; instead, we use principal component analysis of regions of interest containing them to obtain parametric representations of their motion patterns. Then, the tumor position can be predicted from the parametric representations of surrogates through regression. Four regression methods were tested in this study: linear and two-degree polynomial regression, artificial neural network (ANN) and support vector machine (SVM). The experimental results based on fluoroscopic sequences of ten lung cancer patients demonstrate a mean tracking error of 2.1 pixels and a maximum error at a 95% confidence level of 4.6 pixels (pixel size is about 0.5 mm) for the proposed tracking algorithm.

  19. Thermal tracking of sports players.

    PubMed

    Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B

    2014-07-29

    We present here a real-time tracking algorithm for thermal video from a sports game. Robust detection of people includes routines for handling occlusions and noise before tracking each detected person with a Kalman filter. This online tracking algorithm is compared with a state-of-the-art offline multi-target tracking algorithm. Experiments are performed on a manually annotated 2-minutes video sequence of a real soccer game. The Kalman filter shows a very promising result on this rather challenging sequence with a tracking accuracy above 70% and is superior compared with the offline tracking approach. Furthermore, the combined detection and tracking algorithm runs in real time at 33 fps, even with large image sizes of 1920 × 480 pixels.

  20. Thermal Tracking of Sports Players

    PubMed Central

    Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    We present here a real-time tracking algorithm for thermal video from a sports game. Robust detection of people includes routines for handling occlusions and noise before tracking each detected person with a Kalman filter. This online tracking algorithm is compared with a state-of-the-art offline multi-target tracking algorithm. Experiments are performed on a manually annotated 2-minutes video sequence of a real soccer game. The Kalman filter shows a very promising result on this rather challenging sequence with a tracking accuracy above 70% and is superior compared with the offline tracking approach. Furthermore, the combined detection and tracking algorithm runs in real time at 33 fps, even with large image sizes of 1920 × 480 pixels. PMID:25076219

  1. Tracking single molecules at work in living cells.

    PubMed

    Kusumi, Akihiro; Tsunoyama, Taka A; Hirosawa, Kohichiro M; Kasai, Rinshi S; Fujiwara, Takahiro K

    2014-07-01

    Methods for imaging and tracking single molecules conjugated with fluorescent probes, called single-molecule tracking (SMT), are now providing researchers with the unprecedented ability to directly observe molecular behaviors and interactions in living cells. Current SMT methods are achieving almost the ultimate spatial precision and time resolution for tracking single molecules, determined by the currently available dyes. In cells, various molecular interactions and reactions occur as stochastic and probabilistic processes. SMT provides an ideal way to directly track these processes by observing individual molecules at work in living cells, leading to totally new views of the biochemical and molecular processes used by cells whether in signal transduction, gene regulation or formation and disintegration of macromolecular complexes. Here we review SMT methods, summarize the recent results obtained by SMT, including related superresolution microscopy data, and describe the special concerns when SMT applications are shifted from the in vitro paradigms to living cells.

  2. Approaches, field considerations and problems associated with radio tracking carnivores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargeant, A.B.; Amlaner, C. J.; MacDonald, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    The adaptation of radio tracking to ecological studies was a major technological advance affecting field investigations of animal movements and behavior. Carnivores have been the recipients of much attention with this new technology and study approaches have varied from simple to complex. Equipment performance has much improved over the years, but users still face many difficulties. The beginning of all radio tracking studies should be a precise definition of objectives. Study objectives dictate type of gear required and field procedures. Field conditions affect equipment performance and investigator ability to gather data. Radio tracking carnivores is demanding and generally requires greater time than anticipated. Problems should be expected and planned for in study design. Radio tracking can be an asset in carnivore studies but caution is needed in its application.

  3. Tracking improves performance of biological collision avoidance models.

    PubMed

    Pant, Vivek; Higgins, Charles M

    2012-07-01

    Collision avoidance models derived from the study of insect brains do not perform universally well in practical collision scenarios, although the insects themselves may perform well in similar situations. In this article, we present a detailed simulation analysis of two well-known collision avoidance models and illustrate their limitations. In doing so, we present a novel continuous-time implementation of a neuronally based collision avoidance model. We then show that visual tracking can improve performance of these models by allowing an relative computation of the distance between the obstacle and the observer. We compare the results of simulations of the two models with and without tracking to show how tracking improves the ability of the model to detect an imminent collision. We present an implementation of one of these models processing imagery from a camera to show how it performs in real-world scenarios. These results suggest that insects may track looming objects with their gaze.

  4. Wireless tracking of cotton modules. Part I: Automatic message triggering

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability to map profit across a cotton field would enable producers to see where money is being made or lost on their farms and to implement precise field management practices to ensure the highest return possible on each portion of a field. To this end, a wireless module-tracking system was rec...

  5. Teachers' Attitudes towards Tracking: Testing the Socialization Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouralová, Magdalena; Paulus, Michal; Veselý, Arnošt

    2017-01-01

    The paper examines how teachers' attitudes towards tracking (separating pupils into groups with different curricula on the basis of their abilities and results) differ among various generations of teachers. Fundamental and quick changes in the educational system occurred in the Czech Republic after the Velvet Revolution in 1989 as a unified…

  6. Evaluation of the control ability of five essential oils against Aspergillus section Nigri growth and ochratoxin A accumulation in peanut meal extract agar conditioned at different water activities levels.

    PubMed

    Passone, María A; Girardi, Natalia S; Etcheverry, Miriam

    2012-10-15

    Essential oils (EOs) from boldo [Pëumus boldus Mol.], poleo [Lippia turbinata var. integrifolia (Griseb.)], clove [Syzygium aromaticum L.], anise [Pimpinella anisum] and thyme [Thymus vulgaris]) obtained by hydrodistillation were evaluated for their effectiveness against the growth of Aspergillus niger aggregate and A. carbonarius and accumulation of ochratoxin A (OTA). The evaluation was performed by compound dissolution at the doses of 0, 500, 1500 and 2500μL/L in peanut meal extract agar (PMEA) and exposure to volatiles of boldo, poleo (0, 1000, 2000 and 3000μL/L) and clove oils (0, 1000, 3000 and 5000μL/L), taking into account the levels of the water activity of the medium (a(W) 0.98, 0.95, 0.93). Statistical analyses on growth of Aspergillus strains indicated that the major effect was produced by oil concentrations followed by substrate a(W), and that reductions in antifungal efficiency of the oils tested were observed in vapor exposure assay. At all a(W) levels, complete fungal growth inhibition was achieved with boldo EO at doses of 1500 and 2000μL/L by contact and volatile assays, respectively. Contact exposure by poleo and clove EOs showed total fungal inhibition at the middle level tested of 1500μL/L, regardless of a(W), while their antifungal effects in headspace volatile assay were closely dependent on medium a(W). The fumigant activity of poleo (2000μL/L) and clove oils (3000μL/L) inhibited growth rate by 66.0% and 80.6% at a(W) 0.98 and 0.93, respectively. OTA accumulation was closely dependent on a(W) conditions. The antiochratoxigenic property of the volatile fractions of boldo, poleo and clove EOs (1000μL/L) was more significant at low a(W) levels, inhibition percentages were estimated at 14.7, 41.7 and 78.5% at a(W) 0.98, 0.95 and 0.93, respectively. Our results suggest that boldo, poleo and clove oils affect the OTA biosynthesis pathway of both Aspergillus species. This finding leaves open the possibility of their use by vapor exposure

  7. Multiple-Object Tracking Is Based on Scene, Not Retinal, Coordinates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Geniva; Austen, Erin L.; Booth, Kellogg S.; Fisher, Brian D.; Argue, Ritchie; Rempel, Mark I.; Enns, James T.

    2005-01-01

    This study tested whether multiple-object tracking-the ability to visually index objects on the basis of their spatiotemporal history-is scene based or image based. Initial experiments showed equivalent tracking accuracy for objects in 2-D and 3-D motion. Subsequent experiments manipulated the speeds of objects independent of the speed of the…

  8. Improved semi-supervised online boosting for object tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yicui; Qi, Lin; Tan, Shukun

    2016-10-01

    The advantage of an online semi-supervised boosting method which takes object tracking problem as a classification problem, is training a binary classifier from labeled and unlabeled examples. Appropriate object features are selected based on real time changes in the object. However, the online semi-supervised boosting method faces one key problem: The traditional self-training using the classification results to update the classifier itself, often leads to drifting or tracking failure, due to the accumulated error during each update of the tracker. To overcome the disadvantages of semi-supervised online boosting based on object tracking methods, the contribution of this paper is an improved online semi-supervised boosting method, in which the learning process is guided by positive (P) and negative (N) constraints, termed P-N constraints, which restrict the labeling of the unlabeled samples. First, we train the classification by an online semi-supervised boosting. Then, this classification is used to process the next frame. Finally, the classification is analyzed by the P-N constraints, which are used to verify if the labels of unlabeled data assigned by the classifier are in line with the assumptions made about positive and negative samples. The proposed algorithm can effectively improve the discriminative ability of the classifier and significantly alleviate the drifting problem in tracking applications. In the experiments, we demonstrate real-time tracking of our tracker on several challenging test sequences where our tracker outperforms other related on-line tracking methods and achieves promising tracking performance.

  9. A novel model for determining the amplitude-wavelength limits of track irregularities accompanied by a reliability assessment in railway vehicle-track dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lei; Zhai, Wanming

    2017-03-01

    The loads on a vehicle and the vibrations transmitted to track infrastructures due to the operation of rolling stocks are mainly determined by the irregularities of the track profile. Hence, it is rather important to ascertain the limits of track irregularities, including amplitudes and wavelengths, to guarantee the dynamic performance of running vehicles and guiding tracks. Furthermore, the operation and management levels as well as irregularity status for different railways are highly dissimilar. Therefore, it is a necessary to conduct a reliability assessment for a specific railway line. In the present work, a large amount of measured track irregularities are concentrated as a group form of the track irregularity power spectrum density. A track irregularity inversion model is presented to obtain realistic representations of track profile deformations with information regarding amplitudes, wavelengths and probabilities. Then, the methodologies for determining the limits of track irregularities and achieving a reliability assessment are presented by introducing the probability density evolution method and development of a Wavelet-Wigner-Hough method. Using the vehicle-track interaction model, numerical studies for confirming the limits of track irregularities and evaluating the reliability of the dynamic performance of the vehicle can be conducted to provide valuable suggestions. This paper offers new possibilities for studying the limit amplitudes, characteristic wavelengths of track irregularities as well as corresponding reliabilities when a railway vehicle runs under different track geometric conditions.

  10. An International Comparison of Achievement Inequality in Within- and Between-School Tracking Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chmielewski, Anna K.

    2014-01-01

    Secondary school tracking is organized in some countries on a course-by-course basis within schools and in other countries as explicit academic and vocational streaming, often in separate school buildings. This article is the first to compare these two forms of tracking, using student-level tracking data across the United States and 19 other…

  11. A Phase-tracking Snow Micro-structure Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaughter, A. E.; Zabaras, N.

    2012-12-01

    Utilizing a methodology derived from models for phase transitions in alloy solidification [1], a 3D finite element (FE) model for snow metamorphism was developed. Avalanches are known to occur due to the existence of a weak-layer of faceted crystals, which form due to temperature gradients within the snow through a process known as kinetic metamorphism [2]. In general, snow models are limited in their ability to model these microstructural changes, especially in three dimensions, and rely on effective properties. To enhance the tools available to avalanche researchers a finite element model was developed capable of tracking vapor deposition within the snow. This is accomplished using a fixed-domain, stabilized finite element solution for the energy, mass, momentum, and transport equations. Using a level-set parameter the domain is separated into either solid or fluid components and along the phase-change boundary a "mushy-zone" is establish [1, 3]. This zone is modeled as porous media that includes the effects of shrinkage and density changes [1]. The basis of the model is the open-source C++ libMesh FE library, as such the model includes adaptive mesh coarsening and refinement and relies on domain decomposition for optimum parallel performance. This work is the initial phase of an ongoing research project that aims to demonstrate the ability to model snow at the micro-structural level and move away from the common coarse, effective property modeling techniques. It will serve as the deterministic basis for a multi-scale, stochastic model of snow that will account for uncertainties such as poorly understood growth properties and measurement variability. Future applications may include the inclusion of liquid melt and include external forces, yielding a comprehensive thermo-mechanical model that could evolve and fracture. [1] D. Samanta, N. Zabaras (2005), Modelling convection in solidification processes using stabilized finite element techniques, J. Numer. Meth. Eng

  12. The Differential Effects of School Tracking on Psychometric Intelligence: Do Academic-Track Schools Make Students Smarter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Michael; Ludtke, Oliver; Trautwein, Ulrich; Koller, Olaf; Baumert, Jurgen

    2012-01-01

    Prior research has shown that quantity of schooling affects the development of intelligence in childhood and adolescence. However, it is still debated whether other aspects of schooling--such as ability tracking or, more generally, school quality--can also influence intelligence. In this study, the authors analyzed intelligence gains in academic-…

  13. An Informal Assessment of Psycholinguistic Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colarusso, Ronald P.; Dangel, Harry

    1978-01-01

    In a study to determine if a classroom teacher with understanding of the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities could predict subtest scores comparable to those obtained from administration of the test itself, seven masters-level special educators evaluated 28 learning disabled (LD) children (ages 6 through 11 years). (PHR)

  14. Assessing Postgraduate Students' Critical Thinking Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Javed, Muhammad; Nawaz, Muhammad Atif; Qurat-Ul-Ain, Ansa

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses to assess the critical thinking ability of postgraduate students. The target population was the male and female students at University level in Pakistan. A small sample of 45 male and 45 female students were selected randomly from The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan. Cornell Critical Thinking Test Series, The…

  15. Teacher Knowledge-Ability and Pupil Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Daniel; Celso, Nicholas

    The effectiveness of schools and the levels of investment in schooling have been in question since the 1966 Coleman report "Equality of Educational Opportunity." Based on a theory of "knowledge-ability," this study challenges the assumption that given "inputs" will yield equivalent effects or "outputs." In…

  16. Do High Ability Students Have Mathematics Anxiety?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, Kai Kow Joseph

    2004-01-01

    This exploratory study investigates the level of mathematics anxiety among 116 high ability Secondary Two students. These students were from the top 10% of the Secondary Two students in Singapore. Mathematics Anxiety was measured using the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Anxiety Scale (MAS) (Fennema & Sherman, 1978) which consisted of twelve items…

  17. Window Presentation Styles and User's Spatial Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastecki, Victoria L.; Berry, Louis H.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of spatial ability level and window presentation style of tiled and overlapped computer displays on the achievement of dental hygiene students. Participants were 43 first-term Dental Hygiene students enrolled full-time at a University School of Dental Medicine. Phase one of this project…

  18. Heterogeneity in Induction Level, Infection Ability, and Morphology of Shiga Toxin-Encoding Phages (Stx Phages) from Dairy and Human Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O26:H11 Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Bonanno, Ludivine; Petit, Marie-Agnès; Loukiadis, Estelle; Michel, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) bacteria are foodborne pathogens responsible for diarrhea and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). Shiga toxin, the main STEC virulence factor, is encoded by the stx gene located in the genome of a bacteriophage inserted into the bacterial chromosome. The O26:H11 serotype is considered to be the second-most-significant HUS-causing serotype worldwide after O157:H7. STEC O26:H11 bacteria and their stx-negative counterparts have been detected in dairy products. They may convert from the one form to the other by loss or acquisition of Stx phages, potentially confounding food microbiological diagnostic methods based on stx gene detection. Here we investigated the diversity and mobility of Stx phages from human and dairy STEC O26:H11 strains. Evaluation of their rate of in vitro induction, occurring either spontaneously or in the presence of mitomycin C, showed that the Stx2 phages were more inducible overall than Stx1 phages. However, no correlation was found between the Stx phage levels produced and the origin of the strains tested or the phage insertion sites. Morphological analysis by electron microscopy showed that Stx phages from STEC O26:H11 displayed various shapes that were unrelated to Stx1 or Stx2 types. Finally, the levels of sensitivity of stx-negative E. coli O26:H11 to six Stx phages differed among the 17 strains tested and our attempts to convert them into STEC were unsuccessful, indicating that their lysogenization was a rare event. PMID:26826235

  19. Heterogeneity in Induction Level, Infection Ability, and Morphology of Shiga Toxin-Encoding Phages (Stx Phages) from Dairy and Human Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O26:H11 Isolates.

    PubMed

    Bonanno, Ludivine; Petit, Marie-Agnès; Loukiadis, Estelle; Michel, Valérie; Auvray, Frédéric

    2016-01-29

    Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) bacteria are foodborne pathogens responsible for diarrhea and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). Shiga toxin, the main STEC virulence factor, is encoded by the stx gene located in the genome of a bacteriophage inserted into the bacterial chromosome. The O26:H11 serotype is considered to be the second-most-significant HUS-causing serotype worldwide after O157:H7. STEC O26:H11 bacteria and their stx-negative counterparts have been detected in dairy products. They may convert from the one form to the other by loss or acquisition of Stx phages, potentially confounding food microbiological diagnostic methods based on stx gene detection. Here we investigated the diversity and mobility of Stx phages from human and dairy STEC O26:H11 strains. Evaluation of their rate of in vitro induction, occurring either spontaneously or in the presence of mitomycin C, showed that the Stx2 phages were more inducible overall than Stx1 phages. However, no correlation was found between the Stx phage levels produced and the origin of the strains tested or the phage insertion sites. Morphological analysis by electron microscopy showed that Stx phages from STEC O26:H11 displayed various shapes that were unrelated to Stx1 or Stx2 types. Finally, the levels of sensitivity of stx-negative E. coli O26:H11 to six Stx phages differed among the 17 strains tested and our attempts to convert them into STEC were unsuccessful, indicating that their lysogenization was a rare event.

  20. Small Orbital Stereo Tracking Camera Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, Tom; MacLeod, Todd; Gagliano, Larry

    2016-01-01

    On-Orbit Small Debris Tracking and Characterization is a technical gap in the current National Space Situational Awareness necessary to safeguard orbital assets and crew. This poses a major risk of MOD damage to ISS and Exploration vehicles. In 2015 this technology was added to NASA's Office of Chief Technologist roadmap. For missions flying in or assembled in or staging from LEO, the physical threat to vehicle and crew is needed in order to properly design the proper level of MOD impact shielding and proper mission design restrictions. Need to verify debris flux and size population versus ground RADAR tracking. Use of ISS for In-Situ Orbital Debris Tracking development provides attitude, power, data and orbital access without a dedicated spacecraft or restricted operations on-board a host vehicle as a secondary payload. Sensor Applicable to in-situ measuring orbital debris in flux and population in other orbits or on other vehicles. Could enhance safety on and around ISS. Some technologies extensible to monitoring of extraterrestrial debris as well To help accomplish this, new technologies must be developed quickly. The Small Orbital Stereo Tracking Camera is one such up and coming technology. It consists of flying a pair of intensified megapixel telephoto cameras to evaluate Orbital Debris (OD) monitoring in proximity of International Space Station. It will demonstrate on-orbit optical tracking (in situ) of various sized objects versus ground RADAR tracking and small OD models. The cameras are based on Flight Proven Advanced Video Guidance Sensor pixel to spot algorithms (Orbital Express) and military targeting cameras. And by using twin cameras we can provide Stereo images for ranging & mission redundancy. When pointed into the orbital velocity vector (RAM), objects approaching or near the stereo camera set can be differentiated from the stars moving upward in background.

  1. Small Orbital Stereo Tracking Camera Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, Tom; Macleod, Todd; Gagliano, Larry

    2015-01-01

    On-Orbit Small Debris Tracking and Characterization is a technical gap in the current National Space Situational Awareness necessary to safeguard orbital assets and crew. This poses a major risk of MOD damage to ISS and Exploration vehicles. In 2015 this technology was added to NASA's Office of Chief Technologist roadmap. For missions flying in or assembled in or staging from LEO, the physical threat to vehicle and crew is needed in order to properly design the proper level of MOD impact shielding and proper mission design restrictions. Need to verify debris flux and size population versus ground RADAR tracking. Use of ISS for In-Situ Orbital Debris Tracking development provides attitude, power, data and orbital access without a dedicated spacecraft or restricted operations on-board a host vehicle as a secondary payload. Sensor Applicable to in-situ measuring orbital debris in flux and population in other orbits or on other vehicles. Could enhance safety on and around ISS. Some technologies extensible to monitoring of extraterrestrial debris as well to help accomplish this, new technologies must be developed quickly. The Small Orbital Stereo Tracking Camera is one such up and coming technology. It consists of flying a pair of intensified megapixel telephoto cameras to evaluate Orbital Debris (OD) monitoring in proximity of International Space Station. It will demonstrate on-orbit optical tracking (in situ) of various sized objects versus ground RADAR tracking and small OD models. The cameras are based on Flight Proven Advanced Video Guidance Sensor pixel to spot algorithms (Orbital Express) and military targeting cameras. And by using twin cameras we can provide Stereo images for ranging & mission redundancy. When pointed into the orbital velocity vector (RAM), objects approaching or near the stereo camera set can be differentiated from the stars moving upward in background.

  2. Small Orbital Stereo Tracking Camera Technology Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagliano, L.; Bryan, T.; MacLeod, T.

    On-Orbit Small Debris Tracking and Characterization is a technical gap in the current National Space Situational Awareness necessary to safeguard orbital assets and crew. This poses a major risk of MOD damage to ISS and Exploration vehicles. In 2015 this technology was added to NASAs Office of Chief Technologist roadmap. For missions flying in or assembled in or staging from LEO, the physical threat to vehicle and crew is needed in order to properly design the proper level of MOD impact shielding and proper mission design restrictions. Need to verify debris flux and size population versus ground RADAR tracking. Use of ISS for In-Situ Orbital Debris Tracking development provides attitude, power, data and orbital access without a dedicated spacecraft or restricted operations on-board a host vehicle as a secondary payload. Sensor Applicable to in-situ measuring orbital debris in flux and population in other orbits or on other vehicles. Could enhance safety on and around ISS. Some technologies extensible to monitoring of extraterrestrial debris as well To help accomplish this, new technologies must be developed quickly. The Small Orbital Stereo Tracking Camera is one such up and coming technology. It consists of flying a pair of intensified megapixel telephoto cameras to evaluate Orbital Debris (OD) monitoring in proximity of International Space Station. It will demonstrate on-orbit optical tracking (in situ) of various sized objects versus ground RADAR tracking and small OD models. The cameras are based on Flight Proven Advanced Video Guidance Sensor pixel to spot algorithms (Orbital Express) and military targeting cameras. And by using twin cameras we can provide Stereo images for ranging & mission redundancy. When pointed into the orbital velocity vector (RAM), objects approaching or near the stereo camera set can be differentiated from the stars moving upward in background.

  3. Multiple collaborative kernel tracking.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhimin; Yang, Ming; Wu, Ying

    2007-07-01

    Those motion parameters that cannot be recovered from image measurements are unobservable in the visual dynamic system. This paper studies this important issue of singularity in the context of kernel-based tracking and presents a novel approach that is based on a motion field representation which employs redundant but sparsely correlated local motion parameters instead of compact but uncorrelated global ones. This approach makes it easy to design fully observable kernel-based motion estimators. This paper shows that these high-dimensional motion fields can be estimated efficiently by the collaboration among a set of simpler local kernel-based motion estimators, which makes the new approach very practical.

  4. Satellite Tracking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Researchers at the Center for Aerospace Sciences of the University of North Dakota (UND), Grand Forks, used three NASA Computer programs (SANDTRACKS, ODG, NORAD) to develop a Satellite Tracking System for real time utilization of TIROS weather/environment satellite information. SANDTRACKS computes the satellite's position relative to the Earth. ODG allows plotting a view of Earth as seen by the satellite. NORAD computes sight direction, visibility times and maximum elevation angle during each orbit. With the system, UND's Earth System Science Institute will be able to routinely monitor agricultural and environmental conditions of the Northern Plains.

  5. Human detection and tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Pengxian; Wei, Yaxun

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents a method to segment moving human bodies. A self-adaptive background model is used to update the background image(so-called reference image). By calculating the Euclidean distance of corresponding points in the current and background image, we can check out the foreground objects. And the shadow can be detected and removed according to the characteristics of the shadow regions shown in HSV space. Finally, target tracking is implemented by calculating the relativity of color histogram between the moving areas in two succeeding images.

  6. Laser tracking for vertical control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, Peter; Torrence, Mark; Pavlis, Erricos; Kolenkiewicz, Ron; Smith, David

    1993-01-01

    The Global Laser Tracking Network has provided LAGEOS ranging data of high accuracy since the first MERIT campaign in late 1983 and we can now resolve centimeter-level three dimensional positions of participating observatories at monthly intervals. In this analysis, the station height estimates have been considered separately from the horizontal components, and can be determined by the strongest stations with a formal standard error of 2 mm using eight years of continuous observations. The rate of change in the vertical can be resolved to a few mm/year, which is at the expected level of several geophysical effects. In comparing the behavior of the stations to that predicted by recent models of post-glacial rebound, we find no correlation in this very small effect. Particular attention must be applied to data and survey quality control when measuring the vertical component, and the survey observations are critical components of the geodynamic results. Seasonal patterns are observed in the heights of most stations, and the possibility of secular motion at the level of several millimeters per year cannot be excluded. Any such motion must be considered in the interpretation of horizontal inter-site measurements, and can help to identify mechanisms which can cause variations which occur linearly with time, seasonally, or abruptly.

  7. 3D cloud detection and tracking system for solar forecast using multiple sky imagers

    DOE PAGES

    Peng, Zhenzhou; Yu, Dantong; Huang, Dong; ...

    2015-06-23

    We propose a system for forecasting short-term solar irradiance based on multiple total sky imagers (TSIs). The system utilizes a novel method of identifying and tracking clouds in three-dimensional space and an innovative pipeline for forecasting surface solar irradiance based on the image features of clouds. First, we develop a supervised classifier to detect clouds at the pixel level and output cloud mask. In the next step, we design intelligent algorithms to estimate the block-wise base height and motion of each cloud layer based on images from multiple TSIs. Thus, this information is then applied to stitch images together intomore » larger views, which are then used for solar forecasting. We examine the system’s ability to track clouds under various cloud conditions and investigate different irradiance forecast models at various sites. We confirm that this system can 1) robustly detect clouds and track layers, and 2) extract the significant global and local features for obtaining stable irradiance forecasts with short forecast horizons from the obtained images. Finally, we vet our forecasting system at the 32-megawatt Long Island Solar Farm (LISF). Compared with the persistent model, our system achieves at least a 26% improvement for all irradiance forecasts between one and fifteen minutes.« less

  8. Segmentation and tracking of adherens junctions in 3D for the analysis of epithelial tissue morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Cilla, Rodrigo; Mechery, Vinodh; Hernandez de Madrid, Beatriz; Del Signore, Steven; Dotu, Ivan; Hatini, Victor

    2015-04-01

    Epithelial morphogenesis generates the shape of tissues, organs and embryos and is fundamental for their proper function. It is a dynamic process that occurs at multiple spatial scales from macromolecular dynamics, to cell deformations, mitosis and apoptosis, to coordinated cell rearrangements that lead to global changes of tissue shape. Using time lapse imaging, it is possible to observe these events at a system level. However, to investigate morphogenetic events it is necessary to develop computational tools to extract quantitative information from the time lapse data. Toward this goal, we developed an image-based computational pipeline to preprocess, segment and track epithelial cells in 4D confocal microscopy data. The computational pipeline we developed, for the first time, detects the adherens junctions of epithelial cells in 3D, without the need to first detect cell nuclei. We accentuate and detect cell outlines in a series of steps, symbolically describe the cells and their connectivity, and employ this information to track the cells. We validated the performance of the pipeline for its ability to detect vertices and cell-cell contacts, track cells, and identify mitosis and apoptosis in surface epithelia of Drosophila imaginal discs. We demonstrate the utility of the pipeline to extract key quantitative features of cell behavior with which to elucidate the dynamics and biomechanical control of epithelial tissue morphogenesis. We have made our methods and data available as an open-source multiplatform software tool called TTT (http://github.com/morganrcu/TTT).

  9. Segmentation and Tracking of Adherens Junctions in 3D for the Analysis of Epithelial Tissue Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Cilla, Rodrigo; Mechery, Vinodh; Hernandez de Madrid, Beatriz; Del Signore, Steven; Dotu, Ivan; Hatini, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial morphogenesis generates the shape of tissues, organs and embryos and is fundamental for their proper function. It is a dynamic process that occurs at multiple spatial scales from macromolecular dynamics, to cell deformations, mitosis and apoptosis, to coordinated cell rearrangements that lead to global changes of tissue shape. Using time lapse imaging, it is possible to observe these events at a system level. However, to investigate morphogenetic events it is necessary to develop computational tools to extract quantitative information from the time lapse data. Toward this goal, we developed an image-based computational pipeline to preprocess, segment and track epithelial cells in 4D confocal microscopy data. The computational pipeline we developed, for the first time, detects the adherens junctions of epithelial cells in 3D, without the need to first detect cell nuclei. We accentuate and detect cell outlines in a series of steps, symbolically describe the cells and their connectivity, and employ this information to track the cells. We validated the performance of the pipeline for its ability to detect vertices and cell-cell contacts, track cells, and identify mitosis and apoptosis in surface epithelia of Drosophila imaginal discs. We demonstrate the utility of the pipeline to extract key quantitative features of cell behavior with which to elucidate the dynamics and biomechanical control of epithelial tissue morphogenesis. We have made our methods and data available as an open-source multiplatform software tool called TTT (http://github.com/morganrcu/TTT) PMID:25884654

  10. 3D cloud detection and tracking system for solar forecast using multiple sky imagers

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Zhenzhou; Yu, Dantong; Huang, Dong; Heiser, John; Yoo, Shinjae; Kalb, Paul

    2015-06-23

    We propose a system for forecasting short-term solar irradiance based on multiple total sky imagers (TSIs). The system utilizes a novel method of identifying and tracking clouds in three-dimensional space and an innovative pipeline for forecasting surface solar irradiance based on the image features of clouds. First, we develop a supervised classifier to detect clouds at the pixel level and output cloud mask. In the next step, we design intelligent algorithms to estimate the block-wise base height and motion of each cloud layer based on images from multiple TSIs. Thus, this information is then applied to stitch images together into larger views, which are then used for solar forecasting. We examine the system’s ability to track clouds under various cloud conditions and investigate different irradiance forecast models at various sites. We confirm that this system can 1) robustly detect clouds and track layers, and 2) extract the significant global and local features for obtaining stable irradiance forecasts with short forecast horizons from the obtained images. Finally, we vet our forecasting system at the 32-megawatt Long Island Solar Farm (LISF). Compared with the persistent model, our system achieves at least a 26% improvement for all irradiance forecasts between one and fifteen minutes.

  11. Optical Tracking Technology in Stereotactic Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Thomas H. . E-mail: thomas.wagner@orhs.org; Meeks, Sanford L.; Bova, Frank J.; Friedman, William A.; Willoughby, Twyla R.; Kupelian, Patrick A.; Tome, Wolfgang

    2007-07-01

    The last decade has seen the introduction of advanced technologies that have enabled much more precise application of therapeutic radiation. These relatively new technologies include multileaf collimators, 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy planning, and intensity modulated radiotherapy in radiotherapy. Therapeutic dose distributions have become more conformal to volumes of disease, sometimes utilizing sharp dose gradients to deliver high doses to target volumes while sparing nearby radiosensitive structures. Thus, accurate patient positioning has become even more important, so that the treatment delivered to the patient matches the virtual treatment plan in the computer treatment planning system. Optical and image-guided radiation therapy systems offer the potential to improve the precision of patient treatment by providing a more robust fiducial system than is typically used in conventional radiotherapy. The ability to accurately position internal targets relative to the linac isocenter and to provide real-time patient tracking theoretically enables significant reductions in the amount of normal tissue irradiated. This report reviews the concepts, technology, and clinical applications of optical tracking systems currently in use for stereotactic radiation therapy. Applications of radiotherapy optical tracking technology to respiratory gating and the monitoring of implanted fiducial markers are also discussed.

  12. Polyhedron tracking and gravity tractor asteroid deflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ummen, N.; Lappas, V.

    2014-11-01

    In the wake of the Chelyabinsk airburst, the defense against hazardous asteroids is becoming a topic of high interest. This work improves the gravity tractor asteroid deflection approach by tracking realistic small body shapes with tilted ion engines. An algorithm for polyhedron tracking was evaluated in a fictitious impact scenario. The simulations suggest a capability increase up to 38.2% with such improved tilting strategies. The long- and short-term effects within polyhedron tracking are illustrated. In particular, the orbital reorientation effect is influential when realistic asteroid shapes and rotations are accounted for. Also analyzed is the subject of altitude profiles, a way to tailor the gravity tractor performance, and to achieve a steering ability within the B-plane. A novel analytical solution for the classic gravity tractor is derived. It removes the simulation need for classic tractor designs to obtain comparable two body model Δv figures. This paper corroborates that the asteroid shape can be exploited for maximum performance. Even a single engine tilt adjustment at the beginning of deflection operations yields more deflection than a fixed preset tilt.

  13. Interactive Multiple Object Tracking (iMOT)

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Ian M.; Bülthoff, Heinrich H.; Horowitz, Todd S.; Rynning, Aksel; Lee, Seong-Whan

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a new task for exploring the relationship between action and attention. In this interactive multiple object tracking (iMOT) task, implemented as an iPad app, participants were presented with a display of multiple, visually identical disks which moved independently. The task was to prevent any collisions during a fixed duration. Participants could perturb object trajectories via the touchscreen. In Experiment 1, we used a staircase procedure to measure the ability to control moving objects. Object speed was set to 1°/s. On average participants could control 8.4 items without collision. Individual control strategies were quite variable, but did not predict overall performance. In Experiment 2, we compared iMOT with standard MOT performance using identical displays. Object speed was set to 2°/s. Participants could reliably control more objects (M = 6.6) than they could track (M = 4.0), but performance in the two tasks was positively correlated. In Experiment 3, we used a dual-task design. Compared to single-task baseline, iMOT performance decreased and MOT performance increased when the two tasks had to be completed together. Overall, these findings suggest: 1) There is a clear limit to the number of items that can be simultaneously controlled, for a given speed and display density; 2) participants can control more items than they can track; 3) task-relevant action appears not to disrupt MOT performance in the current experimental context. PMID:24498288

  14. Tracking of electrochemical impedance of batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piret, H.; Granjon, P.; Guillet, N.; Cattin, V.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents an evolutionary battery impedance estimation method, which can be easily embedded in vehicles or nomad devices. The proposed method not only allows an accurate frequency impedance estimation, but also a tracking of its temporal evolution contrary to classical electrochemical impedance spectroscopy methods. Taking into account constraints of cost and complexity, we propose to use the existing electronics of current control to perform a frequency evolutionary estimation of the electrochemical impedance. The developed method uses a simple wideband input signal, and relies on a recursive local average of Fourier transforms. The averaging is controlled by a single parameter, managing a trade-off between tracking and estimation performance. This normalized parameter allows to correctly adapt the behavior of the proposed estimator to the variations of the impedance. The advantage of the proposed method is twofold: the method is easy to embed into a simple electronic circuit, and the battery impedance estimator is evolutionary. The ability of the method to monitor the impedance over time is demonstrated on a simulator, and on a real Lithium ion battery, on which a repeatability study is carried out. The experiments reveal good tracking results, and estimation performance as accurate as the usual laboratory approaches.

  15. Automated call tracking systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hardesty, C.

    1993-03-01

    User Services groups are on the front line with user support. We are the first to hear about problems. The speed, accuracy, and intelligence with which we respond determines the user`s perception of our effectiveness and our commitment to quality and service. To keep pace with the complex changes at our sites, we must have tools to help build a knowledge base of solutions, a history base of our users, and a record of every problem encountered. Recently, I completed a survey of twenty sites similar to the National Energy Research Supercomputer Center (NERSC). This informal survey reveals that 27% of the sites use a paper system to log calls, 60% employ homegrown automated call tracking systems, and 13% use a vendor-supplied system. Fifty-four percent of those using homegrown systems are exploring the merits of switching to a vendor-supplied system. The purpose of this paper is to provide guidelines for evaluating a call tracking system. In addition, insights are provided to assist User Services groups in selecting a system that fits their needs.

  16. Cassini Archive Tracking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, Diane; Sayfi, Elias; Tinio, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    The Cassini Archive Tracking System (CATS) is a computer program that enables tracking of scientific data transfers from originators to the Planetary Data System (PDS) archives. Without CATS, there is no systematic means of locating products in the archive process or ensuring their completeness. By keeping a database of transfer communications and status, CATS enables the Cassini Project and the PDS to efficiently and accurately report on archive status. More importantly, problem areas are easily identified through customized reports that can be generated on the fly from any Web-enabled computer. A Web-browser interface and clearly defined authorization scheme provide safe distributed access to the system, where users can perform functions such as create customized reports, record a transfer, and respond to a transfer. CATS ensures that Cassini provides complete science archives to the PDS on schedule and that those archives are available to the science community by the PDS. The three-tier architecture is loosely coupled and designed for simple adaptation to multimission use. Written in the Java programming language, it is portable and can be run on any Java-enabled Web server.

  17. NORAD satellite tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Joseph J. F.

    1987-01-01

    NORAD routinely tracks about 6000 orbiting objects. During the last 30 days of orbital time, prior to reentry, special perturbations are used in the orbital update procedure. Besides routine orbit determination, NORAD does special tasks such as predicting satellite orbit conjunctions within 20 km, ephimerides of weather satellites, satellite decay predictions and other studies. Since their mission is operational, they do not store the data from their analyses. The ballistic coefficient is not known for most of the orbiting objects. If a ballistic coefficient were derived that was consistent with one density model, it might give erroneous results if used with a different density model. Given the ballistic coefficient, density values could, in principle, be obtained from their tracking data. The densities would represent an integrated mean over the orbital path near perigee. They would be model dependent and would not necessarily represent the real density. In summary, the primary need is for reliable forecasts of solar flux (F10.7) and geomagnetic activity (Ap) in the 1 to 4 week time scale. Forecasts over longer time spans would also be useful for special projects.

  18. Dust Devil Tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, Dennis; Fenton, Lori; Neakrase, Lynn; Zimmerman, Michael; Statella, Thiago; Whelley, Patrick; Rossi, Angelo Pio; Balme, Matthew

    2016-11-01

    Dust devils that leave dark- or light-toned tracks are common on Mars and they can also be found on the Earth's surface. Dust devil tracks (hereinafter DDTs) are ephemeral surface features with mostly sub-annual lifetimes. Regarding their size, DDT widths can range between ˜1 m and ˜1 km, depending on the diameter of dust devil that created the track, and DDT lengths range from a few tens of meters to several kilometers, limited by the duration and horizontal ground speed of dust devils. DDTs can be classified into three main types based on their morphology and albedo in contrast to their surroundings; all are found on both planets: (a) dark continuous DDTs, (b) dark cycloidal DDTs, and (c) bright DDTs. Dark continuous DDTs are the most common type on Mars. They are characterized by their relatively homogenous and continuous low albedo surface tracks. Based on terrestrial and martian in situ studies, these DDTs most likely form when surficial dust layers are removed to expose larger-grained substrate material (coarse sands of ≥500 μm in diameter). The exposure of larger-grained materials changes the photometric properties of the surface; hence leading to lower albedo tracks because grain size is photometrically inversely proportional to the surface reflectance. However, although not observed so far, compositional differences (i.e., color differences) might also lead to albedo contrasts when dust is removed to expose substrate materials with mineralogical differences. For dark continuous DDTs, albedo drop measurements are around 2.5 % in the wavelength range of 550-850 nm on Mars and around 0.5 % in the wavelength range from 300-1100 nm on Earth. The removal of an equivalent layer thickness around 1 μm is sufficient for the formation of visible dark continuous DDTs on Mars and Earth. The next type of DDTs, dark cycloidal DDTs, are characterized by their low albedo pattern of overlapping scallops. Terrestrial in situ studies imply that they are formed when sand

  19. Long-term object tracking combined offline with online learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Mengjie; Wei, Zhenzhong; Zhang, Guangjun

    2016-04-01

    We propose a simple yet effective method for long-term object tracking. Different from the traditional visual tracking method, which mainly depends on frame-to-frame correspondence, we combine high-level semantic information with low-level correspondences. Our framework is formulated in a confidence selection framework, which allows our system to recover from drift and partly deal with occlusion. To summarize, our algorithm can be roughly decomposed into an initialization stage and a tracking stage. In the initialization stage, an offline detector is trained to get the object appearance information at the category level, which is used for detecting the potential target and initializing the tracking stage. The tracking stage consists of three modules: the online tracking module, detection module, and decision module. A pretrained detector is used for maintaining drift of the online tracker, while the online tracker is used for filtering out false positive detections. A confidence selection mechanism is proposed to optimize the object location based on the online tracker and detection. If the target is lost, the pretrained detector is utilized to reinitialize the whole algorithm when the target is relocated. During experiments, we evaluate our method on several challenging video sequences, and it demonstrates huge improvement compared with detection and online tracking only.

  20. Specific Abilities May Increment Psychometric g for High Ability Populations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-14

    factoring of cognitive ability batteries yields primary group factors that are highly g-loaded ( Carroll , 1993). Using military data, Ree and Earles... Carroll , J. B. (1993). Human Cognitive Abilities. New York: Cambridge University Press. Detterman, D. K., Daniel, M. H. (1989). Correlations of

  1. REC Tracking Systems Design Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Meredith Wingate

    2004-02-03

    OAK-B135 The Design Guide is presented in three parts. Section II describes the need for REC tracking, the two principal tracking methods available, and, in simple terms, the operation of certificate-based systems. Section III presents the major issues in the design of certificate-based tracking systems and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of alternative solutions. Finally, Section IV offers design principles or recommendations for most of these issues.

  2. Synchronization tracking in pulse position modulation receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, Victor A.

    1987-01-01

    A clock pulse generator for decoding pulse position modulation in an optical communication receiver is synchronized by a delay tracking loop which multiplies impulses of a data pulse by the square wave clock pulses from the generator to produce positive impulses when the clock pulse is of one level, and negative impulses when the clock pulse is of another level. A delay tracking loop integrates the impulses and produces an error signal that adjusts the delay so the clock pulses will be synchronized with data pulses. A dead-time tau sub d is provided between data pulses of an interval tau sub p in the data pulse period tau. When synchronized, the average number of positive impulses integrated will equal the average number of negative impulses over the continuous stream of data pulses.

  3. The Differentiation of the Concepts of Difficulty and Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholls, John G.; Miller, Arden T.

    1983-01-01

    Deals with (1) developmental changes in children's concepts of difficulty and ability and (2) individual differences within different developmental levels. Three levels of understanding of ability and difficulty are proposed, and cross-sectional and longitudinal evidence of progressive development through the stages is presented. (Author/RH)

  4. Adaptive and accelerated tracking-learning-detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Pengyu; Li, Xin; Ding, Shaowen; Tian, Zunhua; Zhang, Xiaohu

    2013-08-01

    An improved online long-term visual tracking algorithm, named adaptive and accelerated TLD (AA-TLD) based on Tracking-Learning-Detection (TLD) which is a novel tracking framework has been introduced in this paper. The improvement focuses on two aspects, one is adaption, which makes the algorithm not dependent on the pre-defined scanning grids by online generating scale space, and the other is efficiency, which uses not only algorithm-level acceleration like scale prediction that employs auto-regression and moving average (ARMA) model to learn the object motion to lessen the detector's searching range and the fixed number of positive and negative samples that ensures a constant retrieving time, but also CPU and GPU parallel technology to achieve hardware acceleration. In addition, in order to obtain a better effect, some TLD's details are redesigned, which uses a weight including both normalized correlation coefficient and scale size to integrate results, and adjusts distance metric thresholds online. A contrastive experiment on success rate, center location error and execution time, is carried out to show a performance and efficiency upgrade over state-of-the-art TLD with partial TLD datasets and Shenzhou IX return capsule image sequences. The algorithm can be used in the field of video surveillance to meet the need of real-time video tracking.

  5. Seam tracking performance of a Coaxial Weld Vision System and pulsed welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangl, K. J.; Weeks, J. L.; Todd, D.

    1986-01-01

    This report describes a continuation of a series of tests on the Coaxial Weld Vision System at MSFC. The ability of the system to compensate for transients associated with pulsed current welding is analyzed. Using the standard image processing approach for root pass seam tracking, the system is also tested for the ability to track the toe of a previous weld bead, for tracking multiple pass weld joints. This Coaxial Weld Vision System was developed by the Ohio State University (OSU) Center for Welding Research and is a part of the Space Shuttle Main Engine Robotic Welding Development System at MSFC.

  6. THE STAR LEVEL-3 TRIGGER SYSTEM.

    SciTech Connect

    LANGE, J.S.; ADLER, C.; BERGER, J.; DEMELLO, M.; FLIERL, D.; ET AL

    1999-11-15

    The STAR level-3 trigger is a MYRINET interconnected ALPHA processor farm, performing online tracking of N{sub track} {ge} 8000 particles (N{sub point} {le} 45 per track) with a design input rate of R=100 Hz. A large scale prototype system was tested in 12/99 with laser and cosmic particle events.

  7. 4. EAST FRONT. Original viewing windows on upper level have ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. EAST FRONT. Original viewing windows on upper level have been filled in with concrete block. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. 7. BULLET GLASS OBSERVATION WINDOW AT GROUND LEVEL ON WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. BULLET GLASS OBSERVATION WINDOW AT GROUND LEVEL ON WEST REAR. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. 76 FR 6369 - Changes To Implement the Prioritized Examination Track (Track I) of the Enhanced Examination...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ... implementation of the Prioritized Examination Track (Track I), providing fast examination for applicants desiring... examiners or supervisory patent examiners, specialized examiner training for fast track...

  10. Implicit Learning as an Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Scott Barry; DeYoung, Caroline G.; Gray, Jeremy R.; Jimenez, Luis; Brown, Jamie; Mackintosh, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    The ability to automatically and implicitly detect complex and noisy regularities in the environment is a fundamental aspect of human cognition. Despite considerable interest in implicit processes, few researchers have conceptualized implicit learning as an ability with meaningful individual differences. Instead, various researchers (e.g., Reber,…

  11. The Measurement of Translation Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles W.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Variables that constitute translation ability are discussed, based on a two-year development and validation study of job-related tests of translation ability for the Federal Bureau of Investigation. The project involved the development of two parallel forms of the Spanish into English Verbatim Translation Exam (SEVTE). (five references) (LB)

  12. Human-like object tracking and gaze estimation with PKD android

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijayasinghe, Indika B.; Miller, Haylie L.; Das, Sumit K.; Bugnariu, Nicoleta L.; Popa, Dan O.

    2016-05-01

    As the use of robots increases for tasks that require human-robot interactions, it is vital that robots exhibit and understand human-like cues for effective communication. In this paper, we describe the implementation of object tracking capability on Philip K. Dick (PKD) android and a gaze tracking algorithm, both of which further robot capabilities with regard to human communication. PKD's ability to track objects with human-like head postures is achieved with visual feedback from a Kinect system and an eye camera. The goal of object tracking with human-like gestures is twofold: to facilitate better human-robot interactions and to enable PKD as a human gaze emulator for future studies. The gaze tracking system employs a mobile eye tracking system (ETG; SensoMotoric Instruments) and a motion capture system (Cortex; Motion Analysis Corp.) for tracking the head orientations. Objects to be tracked are displayed by a virtual reality system, the Computer Assisted Rehabilitation Environment (CAREN; MotekForce Link). The gaze tracking algorithm converts eye tracking data and head orientations to gaze information facilitating two objectives: to evaluate the performance of the object tracking system for PKD and to use the gaze information to predict the intentions of the user, enabling the robot to understand physical cues by humans.

  13. Track-and-Trench

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image shows the tracks and trench marks made by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity at Meridiani Planum, Mars. The rover can be seen to the lower left of the lander. The trench is visible to the upper left of the rover, which has traveled a total of 35.3 meters (116 feet) since leaving the lander on sol 7 (January 31, 2004). On sol 23 (February 16, 2004), the rover used one of its wheels to dig a trench measuring approximately 10 centimeters (4 inches) deep, 50 centimeters (20 inches) long, and 20 centimeters (8 inches) wide. This vertically projected image was created using a combination of images from the rover's navigation camera and hazard-avoidance cameras.

  14. Solar tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, P. R.; Scott, D. R. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A solar tracker for a solar collector is described in detail. The collector is angularly oriented by a motor wherein the outputs of two side-by-side photodetectors are discriminated as to three ranges: a first corresponding to a low light or darkness condition; a second corresponding to light intensity lying in an intermediate range; and a third corresponding to light above an intermediate range, direct sunlight. The first output drives the motor to a selected maximum easterly angular position; the second enables the motor to be driven westerly at the Earth rotational rate; and the third output, the separate outputs of the two photodetectors, differentially controls the direction of rotation of the motor to effect actual tracking of the Sun.

  15. Solar tracking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, P. R.; Scott, D. R.

    1981-04-01

    A solar tracker for a solar collector is described in detail. The collector is angularly oriented by a motor wherein the outputs of two side-by-side photodetectors are discriminated as to three ranges: a first corresponding to a low light or darkness condition; a second corresponding to light intensity lying in an intermediate range; and a third corresponding to light above an intermediate range, direct sunlight. The first output drives the motor to a selected maximum easterly angular position; the second enables the motor to be driven westerly at the Earth rotational rate; and the third output, the separate outputs of the two photodetectors, differentially controls the direction of rotation of the motor to effect actual tracking of the Sun.

  16. Faculty achievement tracking tool.

    PubMed

    Pettus, Sarah; Reifschneider, Ellen; Burruss, Nancy

    2009-03-01

    Faculty development and scholarship is an expectation of nurse educators. Accrediting institutions, such as the Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education, the National League for Nursing Accrediting Commission, and the Higher Learning Commission, all have criteria regarding faculty achievement. A faculty achievement tracking tool (FATT) was developed to facilitate documentation of accreditation criteria attainment. Based on criteria from accrediting organizations, the roles that are addressed include scholarship, service, and practice. Definitions and benchmarks for the faculty as an aggregate are included. Undergoing reviews from different accrediting organizations, the FATT has been used once for accreditation of the undergraduate program and once for accreditation of the graduate program. The FATT is easy to use and has become an excellent adjunct for the preparation for accreditation reports. In addition, the FATT may be used for yearly evaluations, advancement, and merit.

  17. Intrinsic Feature Motion Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Goddard, Jr., James S.

    2013-03-19

    Subject motion during 3D medical scanning can cause blurring and artifacts in the 3D images resulting in either rescans or poor diagnosis. Anesthesia or physical restraints may be used to eliminate motion but are undesirable and can affect results. This software measures the six degree of freedom 3D motion of the subject during the scan under a rigidity assumption using only the intrinsic features present on the subject area being monitored. This movement over time can then be used to correct the scan data removing the blur and artifacts. The software acquires images from external cameras or images stored on disk for processing. The images are from two or three calibrated cameras in a stereo arrangement. Algorithms extract and track the features over time and calculate position and orientation changes relative to an initial position. Output is the 3D position and orientation change measured at each image.

  18. Intelligent tracking techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willett, T. J.; Abruzzo, J.; Zagardo, V.; Shipley, J.; Kossa, L.

    1980-10-01

    This is the fifth quarterly report under a contract to investigate the design, test, and implementation of a set of algorithms to perform intelligent tracking and intelligent homing on FLIR and TV imagery. The system concept was described. The problem of target aspect determination in support of aimpoint selection was analyzed. Sequences of 875 line FLIR data were extracted from the data base and an example of aspect determination for a maneuvering target in the presence of obscurations was presented. An example was also presented for close in homing (less than 500 meters) and the emergence of interior features, target movement, and scale changes. Hardware implementation in terms of VLSI/VHSIC chips was analyzed.

  19. Multi-expert tracking algorithm based on improved compressive tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yachun; Zhang, Hong; Yuan, Ding

    2015-12-01

    Object tracking is a challenging task in computer vision. Most state-of-the-art methods maintain an object model and update the object model by using new examples obtained incoming frames in order to deal with the variation in the appearance. It will inevitably introduce the model drift problem into the object model updating frame-by-frame without any censorship mechanism. In this paper, we adopt a multi-expert tracking framework, which is able to correct the effect of bad updates after they happened such as the bad updates caused by the severe occlusion. Hence, the proposed framework exactly has the ability which a robust tracking method should process. The expert ensemble is constructed of a base tracker and its formal snapshot. The tracking result is produced by the current tracker that is selected by means of a simple loss function. We adopt an improved compressive tracker as the base tracker in our work and modify it to fit the multi-expert framework. The proposed multi-expert tracking algorithm significantly improves the robustness of the base tracker, especially in the scenes with frequent occlusions and illumination variations. Experiments on challenging video sequences with comparisons to several state-of-the-art trackers demonstrate the effectiveness of our method and our tracking algorithm can run at real-time.

  20. Radiology Film Tracking in a Distributed Clinical Network

    PubMed Central

    Marquette, David D.; Arrildt, William

    1985-01-01

    A system for tracking radiology films has been designed and is being installed at the Johns Hopkins Hospital. The installation of database and network capabilities in a large hospital environment provide the opportunity to extend to all nursing units and clinics access to the hospital's film tracking system. Ethernet communication technology allows communication to remote libraries. The integration of film tracking with scheduling and order entry systems in radiology make it possible to attain a high level of automated database interface and film jacket label production.

  1. Making Sense of Dinosaur Tracks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, Ann Haley; McDowell, Brian

    2012-01-01

    What do paleontologists, dinosaur tracks, and the nature of science have in common? They're combined here in an inquiry activity where students use methods of observation and inference to devise evidence-based explanations for the data they collect about dinosaur tracks, much like the methods used by paleontologists. Students then debate the…

  2. Retention Tracking Using Institutional Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lillibridge, Fred

    2008-01-01

    This chapter presents a sophisticated approach for tracking student cohorts from entry through departure within an institution. It describes how a researcher can create a student tracking model to perform longitudinal research on student cohorts. (Contains 3 tables and 2 figures.)

  3. Buyer's Guide for Track Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United States Tennis Court & Track Builders Association.

    This buyers guide provides information on needs assessment, buying options, and decision making tips when acquiring a new school athletic track. Among the topics covered are developing a budget, choosing a site selection, choosing a track surface, developing working specifications, and selecting a contractor. Also explored is the question of…

  4. SRNL Tagging and Tracking Video

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    SRNL generates a next generation satellite base tracking system. The tagging and tracking system can work in remote wilderness areas, inside buildings, underground and other areas not well served by traditional GPS. It’s a perfect response to customer needs and market demand.

  5. SRNL Tagging and Tracking Video

    SciTech Connect

    2016-05-18

    SRNL generates a next generation satellite base tracking system. The tagging and tracking system can work in remote wilderness areas, inside buildings, underground and other areas not well served by traditional GPS. It’s a perfect response to customer needs and market demand.

  6. NCAR Earth Observing Laboratory's Data Tracking System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cully, L. E.; Williams, S. F.

    2014-12-01

    The NCAR Earth Observing Laboratory (EOL) maintains an extensive collection of complex, multi-disciplinary datasets from national and international, current and historical projects accessible through field project web pages (https://www.eol.ucar.edu/all-field-projects-and-deployments). Data orders are processed through the EOL Metadata Database and Cyberinfrastructure (EMDAC) system. Behind the scenes is the institutionally created EOL Computing, Data, and Software/Data Management Group (CDS/DMG) Data Tracking System (DTS) tool. The DTS is used to track the complete life cycle (from ingest to long term stewardship) of the data, metadata, and provenance for hundreds of projects and thousands of data sets. The DTS is an EOL internal only tool which consists of three subsystems: Data Loading Notes (DLN), Processing Inventory Tool (IVEN), and Project Metrics (STATS). The DLN is used to track and maintain every dataset that comes to the CDS/DMG. The DLN captures general information such as title, physical locations, responsible parties, high level issues, and correspondence. When the CDS/DMG processes a data set, IVEN is used to track the processing status while collecting sufficient information to ensure reproducibility. This includes detailed "How To" documentation, processing software (with direct links to the EOL Subversion software repository), and descriptions of issues and resolutions. The STATS subsystem generates current project metrics such as archive size, data set order counts, "Top 10" most ordered data sets, and general information on who has ordered these data. The DTS was developed over many years to meet the specific needs of the CDS/DMG, and it has been successfully used to coordinate field project data management efforts for the past 15 years. This paper will describe the EOL CDS/DMG Data Tracking System including its basic functionality, the provenance maintained within the system, lessons learned, potential improvements, and future developments.

  7. 49 CFR 213.331 - Track surface.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Track surface. 213.331 Section 213.331... Track surface. (a) For a single deviation in track surface, each owner of the track to which this subpart applies shall maintain the surface of its track within the limits prescribed in the...

  8. Teacher's Guide for Tracks. Elementary Science Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, David; And Others

    This teacher's guide suggests activities that provide opportunities for students in grades 4-6 to study animal tracks. Methods are explained for using sets of 52 Track Cards which show life-size drawings of tracks made by 14 animals; sets of 10 large Mystery Track Cards with life-size drawings of the prints of large mammals; and a Track Picture…

  9. Constant magnification optical tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazer, R. E. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A constant magnification optical tracking system for continuously tracking of a moving object is described. In the tracking system, a traveling objective lens maintains a fixed relationship with an object to be optically tracked. The objective lens was chosen to provide a collimated light beam oriented in the direction of travel of the moving object. A reflective surface is attached to the traveling objective lens for reflecting an image of the moving object. The object to be tracked is a free-falling object which is located at the focal point of the objective lens for at least a portion of its free-fall path. A motor and control means is provided for mantaining the traveling objective lens in a fixed relationship relative to the free-falling object, thereby keeping the free-falling object at the focal point and centered on the axis of the traveling objective lens throughout its entire free-fall path.

  10. [Driving ability with multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Küst, J; Dettmers, C

    2014-07-01

    Driving is an important issue for young patients, especially for those whose walking capacity is impaired. Driving might support the patient's social and vocational participation. The question as to whether a patient with multiple sclerosis (MS) is restricted in the ability to drive a car depends on neurological and neuropsychological deficits, self-awareness, insight into deficits and ability to compensate for loss of function. Because of the enormous variability of symptoms in MS the question is highly individualized. A practical driving test under supervision of a driving instructor (possibly accompanied by a neuropsychologist) might be helpful in providing both patient and relatives adequate feedback on driving abilities.

  11. MRI-guided tumor tracking in lung cancer radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerviño, Laura I.; Du, Jiang; Jiang, Steve B.

    2011-07-01

    Precise tracking of lung tumor motion during treatment delivery still represents a challenge in radiation therapy. Prototypes of MRI-linac hybrid systems are being created which have the potential of ionization-free real-time imaging of the tumor. This study evaluates the performance of lung tumor tracking algorithms in cine-MRI sagittal images from five healthy volunteers. Visible vascular structures were used as targets. Volunteers performed several series of regular and irregular breathing. Two tracking algorithms were implemented and evaluated: a template matching (TM) algorithm in combination with surrogate tracking using the diaphragm (surrogate was used when the maximum correlation between the template and the image in the search window was less than specified), and an artificial neural network (ANN) model based on the principal components of a region of interest that encompasses the target motion. The mean tracking error ē and the error at 95% confidence level e95 were evaluated for each model. The ANN model led to ē = 1.5 mm and e95 = 4.2 mm, while TM led to ē = 0.6 mm and e95 = 1.0 mm. An extra series was considered separately to evaluate the benefit of using surrogate tracking in combination with TM when target out-of-plane motion occurs. For this series, the mean error was 7.2 mm using only TM and 1.7 mm when the surrogate was used in combination with TM. Results show that, as opposed to tracking with other imaging modalities, ANN does not perform well in MR-guided tracking. TM, however, leads to highly accurate tracking. Out-of-plane motion could be addressed by surrogate tracking using the diaphragm, which can be easily identified in the images.

  12. Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors--I: Track Characteristics and Formation Mechanisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lal, Nand

    1991-01-01

    Heavily ionizing charged particles produce radiation damage tracks in a wide variety of insulating materials. The experimental properties of these tracks and track recorders are described. The mechanisms by which the tracks are produced are discussed. (Author/KR)

  13. Improvements to Passive Acoustic Tracking Methods for Marine Mammal Monitoring

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-02

    11 “unknown” of interest is sound speed (hence temperature and salinity) while in this project it is source location. REFERENCES Cato, DH...track marine mammals. Methods were developed and tested that: 1) Invert for sound speed profiles, hydrophone position and hydrophone timing offset...in addition to animal position. 2) Use improve maximization schemes in model-based tracking. 3) Use received sound pressure levels in addition to

  14. Measuring and tracking eye movements of a behaving archer fish by real-time stereo vision.

    PubMed

    Ben-Simon, Avi; Ben-Shahar, Ohad; Segev, Ronen

    2009-11-15

    The archer fish (Toxotes chatareus) exhibits unique visual behavior in that it is able to aim at and shoot down with a squirt of water insects resting on the foliage above water level and then feed on them. This extreme behavior requires excellent visual acuity, learning, and tight synchronization between the visual system and body motion. This behavior also raises many important questions, such as the fish's ability to compensate for air-water refraction and the neural mechanisms underlying target acquisition. While many such questions remain open, significant insights towards solving them can be obtained by tracking the eye and body movements of freely behaving fish. Unfortunately, existing tracking methods suffer from either a high level of invasiveness or low resolution. Here, we present a video-based eye tracking method for accurately and remotely measuring the eye and body movements of a freely moving behaving fish. Based on a stereo vision system and a unique triangulation method that corrects for air-glass-water refraction, we are able to measure a full three-dimensional pose of the fish eye and body with high temporal and spatial resolution. Our method, being generic, can be applied to studying the behavior of marine animals in general. We demonstrate how data collected by our method may be used to show that the hunting behavior of the archer fish is composed of surfacing concomitant with rotating the body around the direction of the fish's fixed gaze towards the target, until the snout reaches in the correct shooting position at water level.

  15. FATRAS - the ATLAS Fast Track Simulation project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mechnich, Jörg; ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    The Monte Carlo simulation of the detector response is an integral component of any analysis performed with data from the LHC experiments. As these simulated data sets must be both large and precise, their production is a CPU-intensive task. ATLAS has developed full and fast detector simulation techniques to achieve this goal within the computing limits of the collaboration. At the current early stages of data-taking, it is necessary to reprocess the Monte Carlo event samples continuously, while integrating adaptations to the simulation modules in order to improve the agreement with data taken by means of the detector itself. FATRAS is a fast track simulation engine which produces a Monte Carlo simulation based on modules and the geometry of the standard ATLAS track reconstruction algorithm. It can be combined with a fast parametrized-response simulation of the calorimeters. This approach shows a high level of agreement with the full simulation, while achieving a relative timing gain of two orders of magnitude. FATRAS was designed to provide a fast feedback cycle for tuning the MC simulation with real data: this includes the material distribution inside the detector, the integration of misalignment and current conditions, as well as calibration at the hit level. We present the updated and calibrated version of FATRAS based on the first LHC data. Extensive comparisons of the fast track simulation with the full simulation and data at 900 GeV are shown.

  16. Quantifiable fitness tracking using wearable devices.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Anurag; Jilla, Vivek; Tiwari, Vijay N; Venkatesan, Shankar M; Narayanan, Rangavittal

    2015-08-01

    Monitoring health and fitness is emerging as an important benefit that smartphone users could expect from their mobile devices today. Rule of thumb calorie tracking and recommendation based on selective activity monitoring is widely available today, as both on-device and server based solutions. What is surprisingly not available to the users is a simple application geared towards quantitative fitness tracking. Such an application potentially can be a direct indicator of one's cardio-vascular performance and associated long term health risks. Since wearable devices with various inbuilt sensors like accelerometer, gyroscope, SPO2 and heart rate are increasingly becoming available, it is vital that the enormous data coming from these sensors be used to perform analytics to uncover hidden health and fitness associated facts. A continuous estimation of fitness level employing these wearable devices can potentially help users in setting personalized short and long-term exercise goals leading to positive impact on one's overall health. The present work describes a step in this direction. This work involves an unobtrusive method to track an individual's physical activity seamlessly, estimate calorie consumption during a day by mapping the activity to the calories spent and assess fitness level using heart rate data from wearable sensors. We employ a heart rate based parameter called Endurance to quantitatively estimate cardio-respiratory fitness of a person. This opens up avenues for personalization and adaptiveness by dynamically using individual's personal fitness data towards building robust modeling based on analytical principles.

  17. Nonstationary EO/IR Clutter Suppression and Dim Object Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tartakovsky, A.; Brown, A.; Brown, J.

    2010-09-01

    We develop and evaluate the performance of advanced algorithms which provide significantly improved capabilities for automated detection and tracking of ballistic and flying dim objects in the presence of highly structured intense clutter. Applications include ballistic missile early warning, midcourse tracking, trajectory prediction, and resident space object detection and tracking. The set of algorithms include, in particular, adaptive spatiotemporal clutter estimation-suppression and nonlinear filtering-based multiple-object track-before-detect. These algorithms are suitable for integration into geostationary, highly elliptical, or low earth orbit scanning or staring sensor suites, and are based on data-driven processing that adapts to real-world clutter backgrounds, including celestial, earth limb, or terrestrial clutter. In many scenarios of interest, e.g., for highly elliptic and, especially, low earth orbits, the resulting clutter is highly nonstationary, providing a significant challenge for clutter suppression to or below sensor noise levels, which is essential for dim object detection and tracking. We demonstrate the success of the developed algorithms using semi-synthetic and real data. In particular, our algorithms are shown to be capable of detecting and tracking point objects with signal-to-clutter levels down to 1/1000 and signal-to-noise levels down to 1/4.

  18. In vivo cell tracking with bioluminescence imaging.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Eun; Kalimuthu, Senthilkumar; Ahn, Byeong-Cheol

    2015-03-01

    Molecular imaging is a fast growing biomedical research that allows the visual representation, characterization and quantification of biological processes at the cellular and subcellular levels within intact living organisms. In vivo tracking of cells is an indispensable technology for development and optimization of cell therapy for replacement or renewal of damaged or diseased tissue using transplanted cells, often autologous cells. With outstanding advantages of bioluminescence imaging, the imaging approach is most commonly applied for in vivo monitoring of transplanted stem cells or immune cells in order to assess viability of administered cells with therapeutic efficacy in preclinical small animal models. In this review, a general overview of bioluminescence is provided and recent updates of in vivo cell tracking using the bioluminescence signal are discussed.

  19. Tracking Earthquake Cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, T. H.

    2011-12-01

    In assessing their risk to society, earthquakes are best characterized as cascades that can propagate from the natural environment into the socio-economic (built) environment. Strong earthquakes rarely occur as isolated events; they usually cluster in foreshock-mainshock-aftershock sequences, seismic swarms, and extended sequences of large earthquakes that propagate along major fault systems. These cascades are regulated by stress-mediated interactions among faults driven by tectonic loading. Within these cascades, each large event can itself cause a chain reaction in which the primary effects of faulting and ground shaking induce secondary effects, including tsunami, landslides, liquefaction, and set off destructive processes within the built environment, such as fires and radiation leakage from nuclear plants. Recent earthquakes have demonstrated how the socio-economic effects of large earthquakes can reverberate for many years. To reduce earthquake risk and improve the resiliency of communities to earthquake damage, society depends on five geotechnologies for tracking earthquake cascades: long-term probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA), short-term (operational) earthquake forecasting, earthquake early warning, tsunami warning, and the rapid production of post-event information for response and recovery (see figure). In this presentation, I describe how recent advances in earthquake system science are leading to improvements in this geotechnology pipeline. In particular, I will highlight the role of earthquake simulations in predicting strong ground motions and their secondary effects before and during earthquake cascades

  20. Fluorescent image tracking velocimeter

    DOEpatents

    Shaffer, Franklin D.

    1994-01-01

    A multiple-exposure fluorescent image tracking velocimeter (FITV) detects and measures the motion (trajectory, direction and velocity) of small particles close to light scattering surfaces. The small particles may follow the motion of a carrier medium such as a liquid, gas or multi-phase mixture, allowing the motion of the carrier medium to be observed, measured and recorded. The main components of the FITV include: (1) fluorescent particles; (2) a pulsed fluorescent excitation laser source; (3) an imaging camera; and (4) an image analyzer. FITV uses fluorescing particles excited by visible laser light to enhance particle image detectability near light scattering surfaces. The excitation laser light is filtered out before reaching the imaging camera allowing the fluoresced wavelengths emitted by the particles to be detected and recorded by the camera. FITV employs multiple exposures of a single camera image by pulsing the excitation laser light for producing a series of images of each particle along its trajectory. The time-lapsed image may be used to determine trajectory and velocity and the exposures may be coded to derive directional information.