Science.gov

Sample records for ability level tracks

  1. Higher Level Thinking Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Barbara, Ed.

    This report describes two systems designed to improve teaching competencies and to develop higher level thinking abilities, and presents the evaluation design, statistical results, and a brief history of the major events which occurred during development. The McCollum-Davis Model is designed to develop understanding of and skill in relating a…

  2. The Tracking and Ability Grouping Debate. Volume 2, Number 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveless, Tom

    Tracking and ability grouping are common practices that are often harshly criticized. Both practices group students of similar achievement levels for instruction, but they differ in how this task is accomplished. Elementary schools typically use ability grouping in reading instruction, with instruction targeted to the reading level of each group.…

  3. Tracking, Ability Grouping and the Gifted. PAGE Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiedler-Brand, Ellen; Lange, Richard E.; Winebrenner, Susan

    This brief bulletin addresses seven "myths" of tracking or ability grouping with gifted students in response to what is seen as a current movement against both ability grouping and tracking, which are characterized by the "anti-tracking" movement as inflexible and unaccommodating of a varied schedule. The following myths are countered: (1)…

  4. Maintaining Inequality: A Background Packet on Tracking and Ability Grouping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coalition of Education Activists, Rosendale, NY.

    This document includes a selection of materials from the National Coalition of Education Activists (NCEA) on tracking and ability grouping designed to be a tool for teachers who wish to organize their school or district against tracking. The packet contains a cover letter, a response/feedback form, and reproductions of the following articles: (1)…

  5. Review of the Literature on Tracking and Ability Grouping. Second Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindle, Jane Clark

    This review of the research literature on ability grouping and tracking draws on professional and scholarly research journals and electronic databases. Five assumptions have been used to support the recurring practices of tracking and ability grouping, but none of these assumptions has withstood close examination in 70 years of research. They are:…

  6. Visuomotor Tracking Abilities of Speakers with Apraxia of Speech or Conduction Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robin, Donald A.; Jacks, Adam; Hageman, Carlin; Clark, Heather M.; Woodworth, George

    2008-01-01

    This investigation examined the visuomotor tracking abilities of persons with apraxia of speech (AOS) or conduction aphasia (CA). In addition, tracking performance was correlated with perceptual judgments of speech accuracy. Five individuals with AOS and four with CA served as participants, as well as an equal number of healthy controls matched by…

  7. Online Learners’ Reading Ability Detection Based on Eye-Tracking Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Zehui; Zhang, Lei; Mei, Hu; Fong, Patrick S. W.

    2016-01-01

    The detection of university online learners’ reading ability is generally problematic and time-consuming. Thus the eye-tracking sensors have been employed in this study, to record temporal and spatial human eye movements. Learners’ pupils, blinks, fixation, saccade, and regression are recognized as primary indicators for detecting reading abilities. A computational model is established according to the empirical eye-tracking data, and applying the multi-feature regularization machine learning mechanism based on a Low-rank Constraint. The model presents good generalization ability with an error of only 4.9% when randomly running 100 times. It has obvious advantages in saving time and improving precision, with only 20 min of testing required for prediction of an individual learner’s reading ability. PMID:27626418

  8. Online Learners' Reading Ability Detection Based on Eye-Tracking Sensors.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Zehui; Zhang, Lei; Mei, Hu; Fong, Patrick S W

    2016-01-01

    The detection of university online learners' reading ability is generally problematic and time-consuming. Thus the eye-tracking sensors have been employed in this study, to record temporal and spatial human eye movements. Learners' pupils, blinks, fixation, saccade, and regression are recognized as primary indicators for detecting reading abilities. A computational model is established according to the empirical eye-tracking data, and applying the multi-feature regularization machine learning mechanism based on a Low-rank Constraint. The model presents good generalization ability with an error of only 4.9% when randomly running 100 times. It has obvious advantages in saving time and improving precision, with only 20 min of testing required for prediction of an individual learner's reading ability. PMID:27626418

  9. The Emergence of the Ability to Track a Character's Mental Perspective in Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Daniela K.; Shultis, Rebecca M.

    2007-01-01

    In comprehending stories, adults create mental models from which they follow the actions of the characters from the characters' different mental vantage points. Using a novel methodology, this study is the first to examine when children attain the narrative ability to track the mental perspective of characters. That is, when do children follow…

  10. The Ability of A-Level Students to Name Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bebbington, Anne

    2005-01-01

    The ability of A level students to recognise and name common wild flowers was shown to be very poor. Trainee teachers performed little better and nearly a third of the practising A-level biology teachers tested were able to name only three or fewer wild flowers. Although opportunities exist at primary level for children to learn about the…

  11. The Principal Perspective: A Case Study on the Perceptions of Middle School Principals toward Ability Grouping and Tracking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrington, Brenda Watts

    2013-01-01

    The "Principal Perspective: A Case Study on the Perspectives of Middle School Principals" toward Ability Grouping and Tracking investigated the views and beliefs middle and high school principals hold about curricular tracking and ability grouping, and the impact such organizational structures may have on student learning. Tracking…

  12. Level-1 pixel based tracking trigger algorithm for LHC upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, C.-S.; Savoy-Navarro, A.

    2015-10-01

    The Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the tracking system of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) . It precisely determines the interaction point (primary vertex) of the events and the possible secondary vertexes due to heavy flavours (b and c quarks); it is part of the overall tracking system that allows reconstructing the tracks of the charged particles in the events and combined with the magnetic field to measure their momentum. The pixel detector allows measuring the tracks in the region closest to the interaction point. The Level-1 (real-time) pixel based tracking trigger is a novel trigger system that is currently being studied for the LHC upgrade. An important goal is developing real-time track reconstruction algorithms able to cope with very high rates and high flux of data in a very harsh environment. The pixel detector has an especially crucial role in precisely identifying the primary vertex of the rare physics events from the large pile-up (PU) of events. The goal of adding the pixel information already at the real-time level of the selection is to help reducing the total level-1 trigger rate while keeping an high selection capability. This is quite an innovative and challenging objective for the experiments upgrade for the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) . The special case here addressed is the CMS experiment. This document describes exercises focusing on the development of a fast pixel track reconstruction where the pixel track matches with a Level-1 electron object using a ROOT-based simulation framework.

  13. L1Track: A fast Level 1 track trigger for the ATLAS high luminosity upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerri, Alessandro

    2016-07-01

    With the planned high-luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC), the ATLAS detector will see its collision rate increase by approximately a factor of 5 with respect to the current LHC operation. The earliest hardware-based ATLAS trigger stage ("Level 1") will have to provide a higher rejection factor in a more difficult environment: a new improved Level 1 trigger architecture is under study, which includes the possibility of extracting with low latency and high accuracy tracking information in time for the decision taking process. In this context, the feasibility of potential approaches aimed at providing low-latency high-quality tracking at Level 1 is discussed.

  14. Detecting the ability of viral, bacterial and eukaryotic replication proteins to track along DNA.

    PubMed

    Tinker, R L; Kassavetis, G A; Geiduschek, E P

    1994-11-15

    The phage T4 gene 45 protein (gp45), Escherichia coli beta and the eukaryotic proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) function in replication as processivity factors of their corresponding DNA polymerases. The T4 gp45 also functions as the transcriptional activator that connects expression of viral late genes to DNA replication. DNA tracking is an essential component of the replication and transcription regulatory functions of T4 gp45. The ability of gp45, beta and PCNA to track along DNA has been analyzed by photocrosslinking. Each of these proteins must be loaded onto DNA by a species-specific assembly factor. For gp45 and beta, the density of traffic along DNA is determined by a dynamic balance between continuous protein loading and unloading, and is also dependent on interaction with the conjugate single-stranded DNA binding protein.

  15. Within-hemifield competition in early visual areas limits the ability to track multiple objects with attention.

    PubMed

    Störmer, Viola S; Alvarez, George A; Cavanagh, Patrick

    2014-08-27

    It is much easier to divide attention across the left and right visual hemifields than within the same visual hemifield. Here we investigate whether this benefit of dividing attention across separate visual fields is evident at early cortical processing stages. We measured the steady-state visual evoked potential, an oscillatory response of the visual cortex elicited by flickering stimuli, of moving targets and distractors while human observers performed a tracking task. The amplitude of responses at the target frequencies was larger than that of the distractor frequencies when participants tracked two targets in separate hemifields, indicating that attention can modulate early visual processing when it is divided across hemifields. However, these attentional modulations disappeared when both targets were tracked within the same hemifield. These effects were not due to differences in task performance, because accuracy was matched across the tracking conditions by adjusting target speed (with control conditions ruling out effects due to speed alone). To investigate later processing stages, we examined the P3 component over central-parietal scalp sites that was elicited by the test probe at the end of the trial. The P3 amplitude was larger for probes on targets than on distractors, regardless of whether attention was divided across or within a hemifield, indicating that these higher-level processes were not constrained by visual hemifield. These results suggest that modulating early processing stages enables more efficient target tracking, and that within-hemifield competition limits the ability to modulate multiple target representations within the hemifield maps of the early visual cortex.

  16. Dispersal will limit ability of mammals to track climate change in the Western Hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Schloss, Carrie A; Nuñez, Tristan A; Lawler, Joshua J

    2012-05-29

    As they have in response to past climatic changes, many species will shift their distributions in response to modern climate change. However, due to the unprecedented rapidity of projected climatic changes, some species may not be able to move their ranges fast enough to track shifts in suitable climates and associated habitats. Here, we investigate the ability of 493 mammals to keep pace with projected climatic changes in the Western Hemisphere. We modeled the velocities at which species will likely need to move to keep pace with projected changes in suitable climates. We compared these velocities with the velocities at which species are able to move as a function of dispersal distances and dispersal frequencies. Across the Western Hemisphere, on average, 9.2% of mammals at a given location will likely be unable to keep pace with climate change. In some places, up to 39% of mammals may be unable to track shifts in suitable climates. Eighty-seven percent of mammalian species are expected to experience reductions in range size and 20% of these range reductions will likely be due to limited dispersal abilities as opposed to reductions in the area of suitable climate. Because climate change will likely outpace the response capacity of many mammals, mammalian vulnerability to climate change may be more extensive than previously anticipated.

  17. Correlation analysis between ionospheric scintillation levels and receiver tracking performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreeja, V.; Aquino, M.; Elmas, Z. G.; Forte, B.

    2012-06-01

    Rapid fluctuations in the amplitude and phase of a transionospheric radio signal caused by small scale plasma density irregularities in the ionosphere are known as scintillation. Scintillation can seriously impair a GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) receiver tracking performance, thus affecting the required levels of availability, accuracy and integrity, and consequently the reliability of modern day GNSS based applications. This paper presents an analysis of correlation between scintillation levels and tracking performance of a GNSS receiver for GPS L1C/A, L2C and GLONASS L1, L2 signals. The analyses make use of data recorded over Presidente Prudente (22.1°S, 51.4°W, dip latitude ˜12.3°S) in Brazil, a location close to the Equatorial Ionisation Anomaly (EIA) crest in Latin America. The study presents for the first time this type of correlation analysis for GPS L2C and GLONASS L1, L2 signals. The scintillation levels are defined by the amplitude scintillation index, S4 and the receiver tracking performance is evaluated by the phase tracking jitter. Both S4 and the phase tracking jitter are estimated from the post correlation In-Phase (I) and Quadra-Phase (Q) components logged by the receiver at a high rate. Results reveal that the dependence of the phase tracking jitter on the scintillation levels can be represented by a quadratic fit for the signals. The results presented in this paper are of importance to GNSS users, especially in view of the forthcoming high phase of solar cycle 24 (predicted for 2013).

  18. Di-J/Ψ Studies, Level 3 Tracking and the D0 Run IIb Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Vint, Philip John

    2010-02-01

    The D0 detector underwent an upgrade to its silicon vertex detector and triggering systems during the transition from Run IIa to Run IIb to maximize its ability to fully exploit Run II at the Fermilab Tevatron. This thesis describes improvements made to the tracking and vertexing algorithms used by the high level trigger in both Run IIa and Run IIb, as well as a search for resonant di-J/Ψ states using both Run IIa and Run IIb data. Improvements made to the tracking and vertexing algorithms during Run IIa included the optimization of the existing tracking software to reduce overall processing time and the certification and testing of a new software release. Upgrades made to the high level trigger for Run IIb included the development of a new tracking algorithm and the inclusion of the new Layer 0 silicon detector into the existing software. The integration of Layer 0 into the high level trigger has led to an improvement in the overall impact parameter resolution for tracks of ~50%. The development of a new parameterization method for finding the error associated to the impact parameter of tracks returned by the high level tracking algorithm, in association with the inclusion of Layer 0, has led to improvements in vertex resolution of ~4.5 μm. A previous search in the di-J/Ψ channel revealed a unpredicted resonance at ~13.7 GeV/c2. A confirmation analysis is presented using 2.8 fb-1 of data and two different approaches to cuts. No significant excess is seen in the di-J/Ψ mass spectrum.

  19. Tracking and Mixed-Ability Grouping in Secondary School Mathematics Classrooms: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venkatakrishnan, Hamsa; Wiliam, Dylan

    2003-01-01

    Reports findings of retrospective study of tracked grouping (a fast track for top 25-30% of a cohort and a mixed track for the others) in a mathematics department in a greater London (England) coeducational comprehensive school. Outlines reasons for introducing tracking and explores its effects through teacher interviews and student data. (BT)

  20. Postural ability reflects the athletic skill level of surfers.

    PubMed

    Paillard, Thierry; Margnes, Eric; Portet, Mathieu; Breucq, Arnaud

    2011-08-01

    This work analyses surfers' postural control and their use of visual information in static (stable) and dynamic (unstable) postures according to their level of competition. Two groups of healthy surfers were investigated: a group of local level surfers (LOC) (n = 8) and a group of national/international level surfers (NIN) (n = 9). Posture was assessed by measuring the centre of foot pressure with a force platform for 50 s with stable support and for 25 s with unstable support (sagittal or frontal plane). The tests were completed with the eyes open (the subjects looked at a fixed level target at a distance of 2 m) and closed (they kept their gaze in a straight-ahead direction). Results showed that the contribution of vision in postural maintenance, with unstable support was less important in the NIN surfers than in the LOC surfers and that the NIN surfers had better postural control than the LOC surfers. Firstly, the results suggest that expert surfers could shift the sensorimotor dominance from vision to proprioception for postural maintenance. Secondly, there is a relationship between the postural ability and the competition level of surfers. These observations are likely to induce new prospects of training for surfers.

  1. Tracking multidecadal trends in sea level using coral microatolls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majewski, Jedrzej; Pham, Dat; Meltzner, Aron; Switzer, Adam; Horton, Benjamin; Heng, Shu Yun; Warrick, David

    2015-04-01

    Tracking multidecadal trends in sea level using coral microatolls Jędrzej M. Majewski 1, Dat T. Pham1, Aron J. Meltzner 1, Adam D. Switzer 1, Benjamin P. Horton2, Shu Yun Heng1, David Warrick3, 1 Earth Observatory of Singapore, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 2 Department of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA 3 Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA Coral microatolls can be used to study relative sea-level change at multidecadal timescales associated with vertical land movements, climate induced sea-level rise and other oceanographic phenomena such as the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) or Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) with the assumption that the highest level of survival (HLS) of coral microatolls track sea level over the course of their lifetimes. In this study we compare microatoll records covering from as early as 1883 through 2013, from two sites in Indonesia, with long records (>20 years) from proximal tide gauges, satellite altimetry, and other sea-level reconstructions. We compared the HLS time series derived from open-ocean and moated (or ponded) microatolls on tectonically stable Belitung Island and a potentially tectonically active setting in Mapur Island, with sea-level reconstructions for 1950-2011. The sea-level reconstructions are based on ground and satellite measurements, combining a tide model with the Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean (ECCO) model. Our results confirm that open-ocean microatolls do track low water levels at multi decadal time scales and can be used as a proxy for relative sea level (RSL) over time. However, microatolls that are even partially moated are unsuitable and do not track RSL; rather, their growth patterns likely reflect changes in the elevation of the sill of the local pond, as reported by earlier authors. Our ongoing efforts will include an attempt to recognize similarities in moated

  2. The CMS Level-1 Trigger Barrel Track Finder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ero, J.; Evangelou, I.; Flouris, G.; Foudas, C.; Guiducci, L.; Loukas, N.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paradas, E.; Sotiropoulos, S.; Sphicas, P.; Triossi, A.; Wulz, C.

    2016-03-01

    The design and performance of the upgraded CMS Level-1 Trigger Barrel Muon Track Finder (BMTF) is presented. Monte Carlo simulation data as well as cosmic ray data from a CMS muon detector slice test have been used to study in detail the performance of the new track finder. The design architecture is based on twelve MP7 cards each of which uses a Xilinx Virtex-7 FPGA and can receive and transmit data at 10 Gbps from 72 input and 72 output fibers. According to the CMS Trigger Upgrade TDR the BMTF receives trigger primitive data which are computed using both RPC and DT data and transmits data from a number of muon candidates to the upgraded Global Muon Trigger. Results from detailed studies of comparisons between the BMTF algorithm results and the results of a C++ emulator are also presented. The new BMTF will be commissioned for data taking in 2016.

  3. Teachers Perceptions of Ability Grouping Practices in Middle Level Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spear, Robert C.

    1994-01-01

    Data from 31 middle school teachers were categorized through the use of qualitative research to determine what teachers perceive to be the advantages and disadvantages of ability grouping as well as alternative grouping practices. Found that most teachers were knowledgeable about ability grouping through experience or professional development;…

  4. Improvements to Level Set, Immersed Boundary methods for Interface Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogl, Chris; Leveque, Randy

    2014-11-01

    It is not uncommon to find oneself solving a moving boundary problem under flow in the context of some application. Of particular interest is when the moving boundary exerts a curvature-dependent force on the liquid. Such a force arises when observing a boundary that is resistant to bending or has surface tension. Numerically speaking, stable numerical computation of the curvature can be difficult as it is often described in terms of high-order derivatives of either marker particle positions or of a level set function. To address this issue, the level set method is modified to track not only the position of the boundary, but the curvature as well. The definition of the signed-distance function that is used to modify the level set method is also used to develop an interpolation-free, closest-point method. These improvements are used to simulate a bending-resistant, inextensible boundary under shear flow to highlight area and volume conservation, as well as stable curvature calculation. Funded by a NSF MSPRF grant.

  5. Interface Surface Area Tracking for the Conservative Level Set Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firehammer, Stephanie; Desjardins, Olivier

    2015-11-01

    One key question in liquid-gas flows is how to model the interface between phases in a way that is mass, momentum, and energy conserving. The accurate conservative level set (ACLS) method of Desjardins et al. provides a tool for tracking a liquid-gas interface with minimal mass conservation issues; however, it does not explicitly compute the interface surface area and thus nothing can be said a priori about the balance between kinetic energy and surface energy. This work examines an equation for the transport of interface surface area density, which can be written in terms of the gradient of the volume fraction. Furthermore this presentation will outline a numerical method for jointly transporting a conservative level set and surface area density. Finally, we will explore oppportunities for energy conservation via the accurate exchange of energy between the flow field and the interface through surface tension, with test cases to show the results of our extended ACLS method. Funding from the National Science Foundation is gratefully acknowledged.

  6. SU-D-18A-04: Quantifying the Ability of Tumor Tracking to Spare Normal Tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, A; Buzurovic, I; Hurwitz, M; Williams, C; Lewis, J; Mishra, P; Seco, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Tumor tracking allows for smaller tissue volumes to be treated, potentially reducing normal tissue damage. However, tumor tracking is a more complex treatment and has little benefit in some scenarios. Here we quantify the benefit of tumor tracking for a range of patients by estimating the dose of radiation to organs at risk and the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) for both standard and tracking treatment plans. This comparison is performed using both patient 4DCT data and extended Cardiac-Torso (XCAT) digital phantoms. Methods: We use 4DCT data for 10 patients. Additionally, we generate digital phantoms with motion derived from measured patient long tumor trajectories to compare standard and tracking treatment plans. The standard treatment is based on the average intensity projection (AIP) of 4DCT images taken over a breath cycle. The tracking treatment is based on doses calculated on images representing the anatomy at each time point. It is assumed that there are no errors in tracking the target. The NTCP values are calculated based on RTOG guidelines. Results: The mean reduction in the mean dose delivered was 5.5% to the lungs (from 7.3 Gy to 6.9 Gy) and 4.0% to the heart (from 12.5 Gy to 12.0 Gy). The mean reduction in the max dose delivered was 13% to the spinal cord (from 27.6 Gy to 24.0 Gy), 2.5% to the carina (from 31.7 Gy to 30.9 Gy), and 15% to the esophagus (from 69.6 Gy to 58.9 Gy). The mean reduction in the probability of 2nd degree radiation pneumonitis (RP) was 8.7% (3.1% to 2.8%) and the mean reduction in the effective volume was 6.8% (10.8% to 10.2%). Conclusions: Tumor tracking has the potential to reduce irradiation of organs at risk, and consequentially reduce the normal tissue complication probability. The benefits vary based on the clinical scenario. This study is supported by Varian Medical Systems, Inc.

  7. Level I--Level II Abilities as They Affect Performance of Three Races in the College Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longstreth, Langdon E.

    1978-01-01

    The hypothesis that multiple-choice exams load higher on Level II ability than on Level I ability was confirmed by correlating multiple choice tests with the Cognitive Abilities Test Nonverbal Battery, the forward digit span test, and essay measures. Differences in scores among Asian, black, white, and Mexican American students are discussed in…

  8. Change of direction ability test differentiates higher level and lower level soccer referees

    PubMed Central

    Los, Arcos A; Grande, I; Casajús, JA

    2016-01-01

    This report examines the agility and level of acceleration capacity of Spanish soccer referees and investigates the possible differences between field referees of different categories. The speed test consisted of 3 maximum acceleration stretches of 15 metres. The change of direction ability (CODA) test used in this study was a modification of the Modified Agility Test (MAT). The study included a sample of 41 Spanish soccer field referees from the Navarre Committee of Soccer Referees divided into two groups: i) the higher level group (G1, n = 20): 2ndA, 2ndB and 3rd division referees from the Spanish National Soccer League (28.43 ± 1.39 years); and ii) the lower level group (G2, n = 21): Navarre Provincial League soccer referees (29.54 ± 1.87 years). Significant differences were found with respect to the CODA between G1 (5.72 ± 0.13 s) and G2 (6.06 ± 0.30 s), while no differences were encountered between groups in acceleration ability. No significant correlations were obtained in G1 between agility and the capacity to accelerate. Significant correlations were found between sprint and agility times in the G2 and in the total group. The results of this study showed that agility can be used as a discriminating factor for differentiating between national and regional field referees; however, no observable differences were found over the 5 and 15 m sprint tests. PMID:27274111

  9. Model tracking system for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities: License application interrogatories and responses

    SciTech Connect

    Benbennick, M.E.; Broton, M.S.; Fuoto, J.S.; Novgrod, R.L.

    1994-08-01

    This report describes a model tracking system for a low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facility license application. In particular, the model tracks interrogatories (questions, requests for information, comments) and responses. A set of requirements and desired features for the model tracking system was developed, including required structure and computer screens. Nine tracking systems were then reviewed against the model system requirements and only two were found to meet all requirements. Using Kepner-Tregoe decision analysis, a model tracking system was selected.

  10. Projected Changes in CMIP5 Low Level North Atlantic Storm Tracks: Relative Roles of Local and Remote SST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciasto, L.; Li, C.; Wettstein, J. J.; Kvamsto, N. G.

    2015-12-01

    Over the 21st century, the CMIP5 multi-model ensemble mean North Atlantic storm track changes are projected to undergo an overall poleward intensification and eastward extension. However, considerable spread exists with regard to how individual CMIP5 models represent the magnitude and structure of these storm track changes. In this study, we examine the extent to which ocean forcing affects the ability of CMIP5 models to simulate the behavior of the North Atlantic storm tracks under future climate change scenarios. Emphasis is placed on investigating projected changes within the NorESM/CESM family of models. Despite similarities between the atmospheric models, the projected lower tropospheric storm track changes are markedly different between the coupled CMIP5 output from CCSM4, CESM1-CAM5, NorESM1-M. A suite of AGCM experiments are used to evaluate the sensitivity of the North Atlantic storm tracks to different CMIP5 realizations of projected changes in: 1) SSTs across the North Atlantic and 2) SSTs across the globe. Unlike the upper tropospheric storm track changes, which are strongly influenced by remote SST changes, the lower tropospheric North Atlantic storm tracks are linked to changes in local SST and attendant surface baroclinicity. However, the atmospheric responses in the AGCM simulations are dependent on the choice of the atmospheric model: CAM5 simulations exhibit a higher sensitivity to the underlying SST conditions than CAM4. Analysis will focus on the physical mechanisms through which SST drive the low-level storm track changes. We will also examine the influence of direct radiative forcing associated with increasing greenhouse gas concentrations on our AGCM simulations.

  11. A 30degree 'barrel shot' taken at track level showing operator's ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A 30-degree 'barrel shot' taken at track level showing operator's house in center of swing span and the track with timber ties. The ties are transverse (90-degree) to the track with each end resting on the bottom chord of the steel swing span truss, thus providing their support with live loads being transferred to the swing span truss bridge. - Bridgeport Swing Span Bridge, Spanning Tennessee River, Bridgeport, Jackson County, AL

  12. Relations between Prenatal Testosterone Levels and Cognitive Abilities at 4 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finegan, Jo-Anne K.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Compared children's cognitive abilities at four years and their prenatal amniotic fluid testosterone levels. For girls, prenatal testosterone levels were related in a curvilinear manner to language comprehension and classification abilities, and inversely related to counting and knowledge of number facts. For boys, no relationships were found. (BC)

  13. To Track or Not to Track?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesson, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Background: This paper was written for a graduate level action research course at Muskingum University, located in New Concord, OH. Purpose: The purpose of this research was to determine which method of instruction best serves ALL high school students. Is it more advantageous to track ("ability group") students or not to track students in high…

  14. Measuring Student Ability, Classifying Schools, and Detecting Item Bias at School Level, Based on Student-Level Dichotomous Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennink, Margot; Croon, Marcel A.; Keuning, Jos; Vermunt, Jeroen K.

    2014-01-01

    In educational measurement, responses of students on items are used not only to measure the ability of students, but also to evaluate and compare the performance of schools. Analysis should ideally account for the multilevel structure of the data, and school-level processes not related to ability, such as working climate and administration…

  15. Learning A Superpixel-Driven Speed Function for Level Set Tracking.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xue; Li, Xi; Hu, Weiming

    2016-07-01

    A key problem in level set tracking is to construct a discriminative speed function for effective contour evolution. In this paper, we propose a level set tracking method based on a discriminative speed function, which produces a superpixel-driven force for effective level set evolution. Based on kernel density estimation and metric learning, the speed function is capable of effectively encoding the discriminative information on object appearance within a feasible metric space. Furthermore, we introduce adaptive object shape modeling into the level set evolution process, which leads to the tracking robustness in complex scenarios. To ensure the efficiency of adaptive object shape modeling, we develop a simple but efficient weighted non-negative matrix factorization method that can online learn an object shape dictionary. Experimental results on a number of challenging video sequences demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed tracking method. PMID:26292353

  16. Hierarchical Levels of Abilities That Constitute Fraction Understanding at Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolaou, Aristoklis A.; Pitta-Pantazi, Demetra

    2016-01-01

    This article examines whether the 7 abilities found in a previous study carried out by the authors to constitute fraction understanding of sixth grade elementary school students determine hierarchical levels of fraction understanding. The 7 abilities were as follows: (a) fraction recognition, (b) definitions and mathematical explanations for…

  17. Using higher-level inquiry to improve spatial ability in an introductory geology course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Lacey A.

    Visuo-spatial skills, the ability to visually take in information and create a mental image are crucial for success in fields involving science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) as well as fine arts. Unfortunately, due to a lack of curriculum focused on developing spatial skills, students enrolled in introductory college-level science courses tend to have difficulty with spatially-related activities. One of the best ways to engage students in science activities is through a learning and teaching strategy called inquiry. There are lower levels of inquiry wherein learning and problem-solving are guided by instructions and higher levels of inquiry wherein students have a greater degree of autonomy in learning and creating their own problem-solving strategy. A study involving 112 participants was conducted during the fall semester in 2014 at Bowling Green State University (BGSU) in an 1040 Introductory Geology Lab to determine if a new, high-level, inquiry-based lab would increase participants' spatial skills more than the traditional, low-level inquiry lab. The study also evaluated whether a higher level of inquiry differentially affected low versus high spatial ability participants. Participants were evaluated using a spatial ability assessment, and pre- and post-tests. The results of this study show that for 3-D to 2-D visualization, the higher-level inquiry lab increased participants' spatial ability more than the lower-level inquiry lab. For spatial rotational skills, all participants' spatial ability scores improved, regardless of the level of inquiry to which they were exposed. Low and high spatial ability participants were not differentially affected. This study demonstrates that a lab designed with a higher level of inquiry can increase students' spatial ability more than a lab with a low level of inquiry. A lab with a higher level of inquiry helped all participants, regardless of their initial spatial ability level. These findings show that curriculum

  18. Tracking electric field exposure levels through radio frequency dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, P.D.; Moore, M.R.; Rochelle, R.W.; Thomas, R.S.; Hess, R.A.; Hoffheins, B.S.

    1991-01-01

    The radio-frequency (rf) dosimeter developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is a portable, pocket-sized cumulative-dose recording device designed to detect and record the strengths and durations of electric fields present in the work areas of naval vessels. The device measures an integrated dose and records the electric fields that exceed the permissible levels set by the American National Standards Institute. Features of the rf dosimeter include a frequency range of 30 MHz to 10 GHz and a three-dimensional sensor. Data obtained with the rf dosimeter will be used to determine the ambient field-strength profile for shipboard personnel over an extended time. Readings are acquired and averaged over a 6-min period corresponding to the rise time of the core body temperature. These values are stored for up to 6 months, after which the data are transferred to a computer via the dosimeter's serial port. The rf dosimeter should increase knowledge of the levels of electric fields to which individuals are exposed. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Pupil dilation dynamics track attention to high-level information.

    PubMed

    Kang, Olivia E; Huffer, Katherine E; Wheatley, Thalia P

    2014-01-01

    It has long been thought that the eyes index the inner workings of the mind. Consistent with this intuition, empirical research has demonstrated that pupils dilate as a consequence of attentional effort. Recently, Smallwood et al. (2011) demonstrated that pupil dilations not only provide an index of overall attentional effort, but are time-locked to stimulus changes during attention (but not during mind-wandering). This finding suggests that pupil dilations afford a dynamic readout of conscious information processing. However, because stimulus onsets in their study involved shifts in luminance as well as information, they could not determine whether this coupling of stimulus and pupillary dynamics reflected attention to low-level (luminance) or high-level (information) changes. Here, we replicated the methodology and findings of Smallwood et al. (2011) while controlling for luminance changes. When presented with isoluminant digit sequences, participants' pupillary dilations were synchronized with stimulus onsets when attending, but not when mind-wandering. This replicates Smallwood et al. (2011) and clarifies their finding by demonstrating that stimulus-pupil coupling reflects online cognitive processing beyond sensory gain.

  20. Students' Critical Thinking Ability: Description Based on Academic Level and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zetriuslita, Hj.; Ariawan, Rezi; Nufus, Hayatun

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to describe students' critical thinking ability based on the level academic and gender. The populations of this study were 132 students participating in five classes of Calculus course. The research data obtained through technical tests and interview techniques. This study found that the high level of capability, both male…

  1. The Effects of Control for Ability Level on EFL Reading of Graded Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wan-a-rom, Udorn

    2012-01-01

    The study was aimed to examine how EFL learners of English reacted to graded readers in terms of reading strategy use, comprehension, speed, and attitude as well as motivation when control for ability level was determined. Eighty Thai high school students placed into their own reading level of graded readers by the scores gained from the graded…

  2. Text Comprehension in Down Syndrome: The Role of Lower and Higher Level Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levorato, M. Chiara; Roch, Maja; Beltrame, Rossella

    2009-01-01

    The contribution of lower level linguistic abilities (study 1) and a higher level capacity, namely the use of context, (study 2), on text comprehension was studied. Participants were 16 individuals with Down syndrome aged between aged between 8 years 11 months and 16 years 10 months, and 16 children with typical development, aged between 5 years…

  3. Non-Rigid Object Contour Tracking via a Novel Supervised Level Set Model.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xin; Yao, Hongxun; Zhang, Shengping; Li, Dong

    2015-11-01

    We present a novel approach to non-rigid objects contour tracking in this paper based on a supervised level set model (SLSM). In contrast to most existing trackers that use bounding box to specify the tracked target, the proposed method extracts the accurate contours of the target as tracking output, which achieves better description of the non-rigid objects while reduces background pollution to the target model. Moreover, conventional level set models only emphasize the regional intensity consistency and consider no priors. Differently, the curve evolution of the proposed SLSM is object-oriented and supervised by the specific knowledge of the targets we want to track. Therefore, the SLSM can ensure a more accurate convergence to the exact targets in tracking applications. In particular, we firstly construct the appearance model for the target in an online boosting manner due to its strong discriminative power between the object and the background. Then, the learnt target model is incorporated to model the probabilities of the level set contour by a Bayesian manner, leading the curve converge to the candidate region with maximum likelihood of being the target. Finally, the accurate target region qualifies the samples fed to the boosting procedure as well as the target model prepared for the next time step. We firstly describe the proposed mechanism of two-phase SLSM for single target tracking, then give its generalized multi-phase version for dealing with multi-target tracking cases. Positive decrease rate is used to adjust the learning pace over time, enabling tracking to continue under partial and total occlusion. Experimental results on a number of challenging sequences validate the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:26099142

  4. Non-Rigid Object Contour Tracking via a Novel Supervised Level Set Model.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xin; Yao, Hongxun; Zhang, Shengping; Li, Dong

    2015-11-01

    We present a novel approach to non-rigid objects contour tracking in this paper based on a supervised level set model (SLSM). In contrast to most existing trackers that use bounding box to specify the tracked target, the proposed method extracts the accurate contours of the target as tracking output, which achieves better description of the non-rigid objects while reduces background pollution to the target model. Moreover, conventional level set models only emphasize the regional intensity consistency and consider no priors. Differently, the curve evolution of the proposed SLSM is object-oriented and supervised by the specific knowledge of the targets we want to track. Therefore, the SLSM can ensure a more accurate convergence to the exact targets in tracking applications. In particular, we firstly construct the appearance model for the target in an online boosting manner due to its strong discriminative power between the object and the background. Then, the learnt target model is incorporated to model the probabilities of the level set contour by a Bayesian manner, leading the curve converge to the candidate region with maximum likelihood of being the target. Finally, the accurate target region qualifies the samples fed to the boosting procedure as well as the target model prepared for the next time step. We firstly describe the proposed mechanism of two-phase SLSM for single target tracking, then give its generalized multi-phase version for dealing with multi-target tracking cases. Positive decrease rate is used to adjust the learning pace over time, enabling tracking to continue under partial and total occlusion. Experimental results on a number of challenging sequences validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  5. The Effects of Answer Copying on the Ability Level Estimates of Cheater Examinees in Answer Copying Pairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zopluoglu, Cengiz; Davenport, Ernest C., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of answer copying on the ability level estimates of cheater examinees in answer copying pairs. The study generated answer copying pairs for each of 1440 conditions, source ability (12) x cheater ability (12) x amount of copying (10). The average difference between the ability level estimates…

  6. Teacher Quality at the High-School Level: The Importance of Accounting for Tracks. Working Paper 17722. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, C. Kirabo

    2013-01-01

    Unlike in elementary school, high-school teacher effects may be confounded with both selection to tracks and unobserved track-level treatments. I document sizable confounding track effects, and show that traditional tests for the existence of teacher effects are likely biased. After accounting for these biases, high-school algebra and English…

  7. Characteristics and Levels of Sophistication: An Analysis of Chemistry Students' Ability to Think with Mental Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chia-Yu; Barrow, Lloyd H.

    2011-01-01

    This study employed a case-study approach to reveal how an ability to think with mental models contributes to differences in students' understanding of molecular geometry and polarity. We were interested in characterizing features and levels of sophistication regarding first-year university chemistry learners' mental modeling behaviors while the…

  8. Effects of Segmented Animated Graphics among Students of Different Spatial Ability Levels: A Cognitive Load Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Soon Fook

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of segmented animated graphics utilized to facilitate learning of electrolysis of aqueous solution. A total of 171 Secondary Four chemistry students with two different spatial ability levels were randomly assigned to one of the experimental conditions: (a) text with multiple static graphics (MSG), (b) text with…

  9. Improving the Ability of Qualitative Assessments to Discriminate Student Achievement Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Jeffrey Chi Hoe; Toh, Anita Ann Lee

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the use of blind marking to increase the ability of criterion-referenced marking to discriminate students' varied levels of knowledge and skill mastery in a business communication skills course. Design/methodology/approach: The business communication course in this study involved more than 10 teachers and…

  10. A Critical Analysis of Conventional Descriptions of Levels Employed in the Assessment of Basic Learning Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Ian; McElwee, John; Ming, Siri

    2010-01-01

    The Assessment of Basic Learning Abilities (ABLA) is a tabletop-based protocol employing manipulables that is used to gauge whether individuals with severe developmental disabilities can learn to perform a series of discrimination tasks of varying levels of difficulty. Empirical research suggests that the ABLA is useful in terms of predicting…

  11. Leveling of Critical Thinking Abilities of Students of Mathematics Education in Mathematical Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasiman

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to determine the leveling of critical thinking abilities of students of mathematics education in mathematical problem solving. It includes qualitative-explorative study that was conducted at University of PGRI Semarang. The generated data in the form of information obtained problem solving question and interview guides. The…

  12. The Influence of Ability Level and Materials on Classificatory and Imaginative Behavior in Free Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phinney, Jean

    A dissertation proposal involved a study to observe spontaneous behavior of children in interaction with materials in order to gain understanding of the factors that influence classificatory and imaginative behavior in free play. Children at two levels of ability in terms of classification skills were observed in interaction with materials at two…

  13. A Tracking Analysis of Compact Students within Level 1 of Their Higher Education Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakely, Katrina; Saunders, Danny

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a tracking analysis of level 1 undergraduates who entered the University of Glamorgan through the Compact schools initiative. The Compact initiative aims to widen access to higher education by encouraging young people from disadvantaged backgrounds to attend a range of preparatory activities and by offering lower entry…

  14. The Effect of Grouping by Formal Reasoning Ability, Formal Reasoning Ability Levels, Group Size, and Gender on Achievement in Laboratory Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moody, Judith D.; Gifford, Vernon D.

    This study investigated the grouping effect on student achievement in a chemistry laboratory when homogeneous and heterogeneous formal reasoning ability, high and low levels of formal reasoning ability, group sizes of two and four, and homogeneous and heterogeneous gender were used for grouping factors. The sample consisted of all eight intact…

  15. Network-centric MFA tracking architecture based on soft-level data association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novoselov, Roman; Gadaleta, Sabino; Poore, Aubrey

    2005-09-01

    This work presents a new network centric architecture for multiple frame assignment (MFA) tracking. The architecture improves on earlier network tracking schemes by allowing trackers to broadcast decisions about their local soft-level associations, via the Soft Associated Measurement Reports (SAMRs). The SAMR may be followed by an "Oops" message, if the soft association was incorrect and must be revoked. We show, however, that such revocations are very rare in most scenarios. This paper discusses the implementation of the new algorithm and presents simulation results. Considerable improvements in the consistency of the air picture are demonstrated, owing to the the reduced latency in transmission of measurement-to-track associations. The earlier network architectures, namely, the Centralized MFA, the Replicated Centralized MFA, and the Network MFA on Local and All Data, are also discussed in this work, as they form the foundation for the "Oops" algorithm.

  16. Relationship between static postural control and the level of functional abilities in children with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Pavão, Sílvia L.; Nunes, Gabriela S.; Santos, Adriana N.; Rocha, Nelci A. C. F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Postural control deficits can impair functional performance in children with cerebral palsy (CP) in daily living activities. Objective: To verify the relationship between standing static postural control and the functional ability level in children with CP. Method: The postural control of 10 children with CP (gross motor function levels I and II) was evaluated during static standing on a force platform for 30 seconds. The analyzed variables were the anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) displacement of the center of pressure (CoP) and the area and velocity of the CoP oscillation. The functional abilities were evaluated using the mean Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) scores, which evaluated self-care, mobility and social function in the domains of functional abilities and caregiver assistance. Results: Spearman's correlation test found a relationship between postural control and functional abilities. The results showed a strong negative correlation between the variables of ML displacement of CoP, the area and velocity of the CoP oscillation and the PEDI scores in the self-care and caregiver assistance domains. Additionally, a moderate negative correlation was found between the area of the CoP oscillation and the mobility scores in the caregiver assistance domain. We used a significance level of 5% (p <0.05). Conclusions: We observed that children with cerebral palsy with high CoP oscillation values had lower caregiver assistance scores for activities of daily living (ADL) and consequently higher levels of caregiver dependence. These results demonstrate the repercussions of impairments to the body structure and function in terms of the activity levels of children with CP such that postural control impairments in these children lead to higher requirements for caregiver assistance. PMID:25054383

  17. The relationship between form and function level receptive prosodic abilities in autism.

    PubMed

    Järvinen-Pasley, Anna; Peppé, Susan; King-Smith, Gavin; Heaton, Pamela

    2008-08-01

    Prosody can be conceived as having form (auditory-perceptual characteristics) and function (pragmatic/linguistic meaning). No known studies have examined the relationship between form- and function-level prosodic skills in relation to the effects of stimulus length and/or complexity upon such abilities in autism. Research in this area is both insubstantial and inconclusive. Children with autism and controls completed the receptive tasks of the Profiling Elements of Prosodic Systems in Children (PEPS-C) test, which examines both form- and function-level skills, and a sentence-level task assessing the understanding of intonation. While children with autism were unimpaired in both form and function tasks at the single-word level, they showed significantly poorer performance in the corresponding sentence-level tasks than controls. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:18172749

  18. Estimating the level of functional ability of children identified as likely to have an intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Murray, Aja; McKenzie, Karen; Booth, Tom; Murray, George

    2013-11-01

    Screening tools can provide an indication of whether a child may have an intellectual disability (ID). Item response theory (IRT) analyses can be used to assess whether the statistical properties of the tools are such that their utility extends beyond their use as a screen for ID. We used non-parametric IRT scaling analyses to investigate whether the Child and Adolescent Intellectual Disability Screening Questionnaire (CAIDS-Q) possessed the statistical properties that would suggest its use could be extended to estimate levels of functional ability and to estimate which (if any) features associated with intellectual impairment are consistently indicative of lower or higher levels of functional ability. The validity of the two proposed applications was assessed by evaluating whether the CAIDS-Q conformed to the properties of the Monotone Homogeneity Model (MHM), characterised by uni-dimensionality, local independence and latent monotonicity and the Double Monotone Model (DMM), characterised by the assumptions of the MHM and, in addition, of non-intersecting item response functions. We analysed these models using CAIDS-Q data from 319 people referred to child clinical services. Of these, 148 had a diagnosis of ID. The CAIDS-Q was found to conform to the properties of the MHM but not the DMM. In practice, this means that the CAIDS-Q total scores can be used to quickly estimate the level of a person's functional ability. However, items of the CAIDS-Q did not show invariant item ordering, precluding the use of individual items in isolation as accurate indices of a person's level of functional ability. PMID:24036121

  19. Track-Level-Compensation Look-Up Table Improves Antenna Pointing Precision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gawronski, W.; Baher, F.; Gama, E.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the improvement of the beam-waveguide antenna pointing accuracy due to the implementation of the track-level-compensation look-up table. It presents the development of the table, from the measurements of the inclinometer tilts to the processing of the measurement data and the determination of the threeaxis alidade rotations. The table consists of three axis rotations of the alidade as a function of the azimuth position. The article also presents the equations to determine the elevation and cross-elevation errors of the antenna as a function of the alidade rotations and the antenna azimuth and elevation positions. The table performance was verified using radio beam pointing data. The pointing error decreased from 4.5 mdeg to 1.4 mdeg in elevation and from 14.5 mdeg to 3.1 mdeg in cross-elevation. I. Introduction The Deep Space Station 25 (DSS 25) antenna shown in Fig. 1 is one of NASA s Deep Space Network beam-waveguide (BWG) antennas. At 34 GHz (Ka-band) operation, it is necessary to be able to track with a pointing accuracy of 2-mdeg root-mean-square (rms). Repeatable pointing errors of several millidegrees of magnitude have been observed during the BWG antenna calibration measurements. The systematic errors of order 4 and lower are eliminated using the antenna pointing model. However, repeatable pointing errors of higher order are out of reach of the model. The most prominent high-order systematic errors are the ones caused by the uneven azimuth track. The track is shown in Fig. 2. Manufacturing and installation tolerances, as well as gaps between the segments of the track, are the sources of the pointing errors that reach over 14-mdeg peak-to-peak magnitude, as reported in [1,2]. This article presents a continuation of the investigations and measurements of the pointing errors caused by the azimuth-track-level unevenness that were presented in [1] and [2], and it presents the implementation results. Track-level-compensation (TLC) look

  20. Dispersal ability and habitat requirements determine landscape-level genetic patterns in desert aquatic insects.

    PubMed

    Phillipsen, Ivan C; Kirk, Emily H; Bogan, Michael T; Mims, Meryl C; Olden, Julian D; Lytle, David A

    2015-01-01

    Species occupying the same geographic range can exhibit remarkably different population structures across the landscape, ranging from highly diversified to panmictic. Given limitations on collecting population-level data for large numbers of species, ecologists seek to identify proximate organismal traits-such as dispersal ability, habitat preference and life history-that are strong predictors of realized population structure. We examined how dispersal ability and habitat structure affect the regional balance of gene flow and genetic drift within three aquatic insects that represent the range of dispersal abilities and habitat requirements observed in desert stream insect communities. For each species, we tested for linear relationships between genetic distances and geographic distances using Euclidean and landscape-based metrics of resistance. We found that the moderate-disperser Mesocapnia arizonensis (Plecoptera: Capniidae) has a strong isolation-by-distance pattern, suggesting migration-drift equilibrium. By contrast, population structure in the flightless Abedus herberti (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae) is influenced by genetic drift, while gene flow is the dominant force in the strong-flying Boreonectes aequinoctialis (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae). The best-fitting landscape model for M. arizonensis was based on Euclidean distance. Analyses also identified a strong spatial scale-dependence, where landscape genetic methods only performed well for species that were intermediate in dispersal ability. Our results highlight the fact that when either gene flow or genetic drift dominates in shaping population structure, no detectable relationship between genetic and geographic distances is expected at certain spatial scales. This study provides insight into how gene flow and drift interact at the regional scale for these insects as well as the organisms that share similar habitats and dispersal abilities.

  1. Uric formaldehyde levels are negatively correlated with cognitive abilities in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jing; Su, Tao; Zhou, Ting; He, Yingge; Lu, Jing; Li, Juan; He, Rongqiao

    2014-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that the abnormal accumulation of endogenous formaldehyde could be a critical factor in age-related cognitive decline. The aim of this study was to estimate the correlation between uric formaldehyde and general cognitive abilities in a community-based elderly population, and to measure the extent and direction in which the correlation varied with demographic characteristics. Using a double-blind design, formaldehyde in human urine was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (n = 604), and general cognitive abilities were measured using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Demographic characteristics, in terms of age, gender, residential region, and education were taken into consideration. We found that uric formaldehyde levels were inversely correlated with the MoCA score, and the concentration varied with demographic features: higher odds of a high formaldehyde level occurred among the less educated and those living in old urban or rural areas. In cytological experiments, the level of cellular formaldehyde released into the medium increased as SH-SY5Y and BV2 cells were incubated for three days. Formaldehyde in excess impaired the processes of N2a cells and neurites of primary cultured rat hippocampal cells. However, removal of formaldehyde markedly rescued and regenerated the processes of N2a cells. These results demonstrated a negative correlation between the endogenous formaldehyde and general cognitive abilities. High formaldehyde levels could be a risk factor for cognitive impairment in older adults, and could be developed as a non-invasive marker for detection and monitoring of age-related cognitive impairment.

  2. Text comprehension in Down syndrome: the role of lower and higher level abilities.

    PubMed

    Levorato, Maria Chiara; Roch, Maja; Beltrame, Rossella

    2009-04-01

    The contribution of lower level linguistic abilities (study 1) and a higher level capacity, namely the use of context, (study 2), on text comprehension was studied. Participants were 16 individuals with Down syndrome aged between aged between 8 years 11 months and 16 years 10 months, and 16 children with typical development, aged between 5 years 11 months and 7 years 3 months, matched for the level of text comprehension. In study 1 the two groups were compared for receptive vocabulary and sentence comprehension: both of them were shown to play a role in text comprehension in Down syndrome. Since participants with Down syndrome had very low scores in sentence comprehension, study 2 tested the hypothesis that when sentences were presented within a brief context, individuals with Down syndrome would perform better. This hypothesis was confirmed and it was shown that contextual facilitation was closely related to text comprehension skills.

  3. Ocean Tracks: College Edition - Promoting Data Literacy in Science Education at the Undergraduate Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochevar, R. E.; Krumhansl, R.; Louie, J.; Aluwihare, L.; Bardar, E. W.; Hirsch, L.; Hoyle, C.; Krumhansl, K.; Madura, J.; Mueller-Northcott, J.; Peach, C. L.; Trujillo, A.; Winney, B.; Zetterlind, V.

    2015-12-01

    Ocean Tracks is a Web-based interactive learning experience which allows users to explore the migrations of marine apex predators, and the way their behaviors relate to the physical and chemical environment surrounding them. Ocean Tracks provides access to data from the Tagging of Pelagic Predators (TOPP) program, NOAA's Global Drifter Program, and Earth-orbiting satellites via the Ocean Tracks interactive map interface; customized data analysis tools; multimedia supports; along with laboratory modules customized for undergraduate student use. It is part of a broader portfolio of projects comprising the Oceans of Data Institute, dedicated to transforming education to prepare citizens for a data-intensive world. Although originally developed for use in high school science classrooms, the Ocean Tracks interface and associated curriculum has generated interest among instructors at the undergraduate level, who wanted to engage their students in hands-on work with real scientific datasets. In 2014, EDC and the Scripps Institution of Oceanography received funding from NSF's IUSE program for Ocean Tracks: College Edition, to investigate how a learning model that includes a data interface, set of analysis tools, and curricula can be used to motivate students to learn and do science with real data; bringing opportunities to engage broad student populations, including both in-classroom and remote, on-line participants, in scientific practice. Phase 1, completed in the summer of 2015, was a needs assessment, consisting of a survey and interviews with students in oceanography classes at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography and Palomar Community College; a document review of course syllabi and primary textbooks used in current college marine science courses across the country; and interviews and a national survey of marine science faculty. We will present the results of this work, and will discuss new curriculum materials that are being classroom tested in the fall of 2015.

  4. Tracking of smokestack and cooling tower plumes using wind measurements at different levels

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.L.; Patrinos, A.A.N.

    1980-08-01

    Relationships between cooling tower and smokestack plumes at the Bowen Electric Generating Plant in northwestern Georgia and wind direction measurements at levels from the surface at 850 mb (approx. 1.5 km) are examined. The wind measurements play an important role in estimating plume directions which in turn are utilized to establish control and target (upwind and downwind) areas for a study of plant-induced precipitation modification. Fifty-two plume observations were made during a three week period in December 1979. Results indicate that a windset (4.5 km from the plant) mounted at a level approximating that of the cooling tower plume is a better predictor of plume direction than surface windsets (1.0 km from the plant) or 850 mb level winds. However, an apparent topographical influence on the wind direction measurements at the plume-level windset site somewhat limits its plume tracking capability, at least for ambient winds from the SW quadrant.

  5. Pursuit tracking and higher levels of skill development in the human pilot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    A model of the human pilot is offered for pursuit tracking tasks; the model encompasses an existing model for compensatory tracking. The central hypothesis in the development of this model states that those primary structural elements in the compensatory model responsible for the pilot's equalization capabilities remain intact in the pursuit model. In this latter case, effective low-frequency inversion of the controlled-element dynamics occurs by feeding-forward derived input rate through the equalization dynamics, with low-frequency phase droop minimized. The sharp reduction in low-frequency phase lag beyond that associated with the disappearance of phase droop is seen to accompany relatively low-gain feedback of vehicle output. The results of some recent motion cue research are discussed and interpreted in terms of the compensatory-pursuit display dichotomy. Tracking with input preview is discussed in a qualitative way. In terms of the model, preview is shown to demand no fundamental changes in structure or equalization and to allow the pilot to eliminate the effective time delays that accrue in the inversion of the controlled-element dynamics. Precognitive behavior is discussed, and a model that encompasses all the levels of skill development outlined in the successive organizations of perception theory is finally proposed.

  6. Track Level Compensation Look-up Table Improves Antenna Pointing Precision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gawronski, Wodek; Baher, Farrokh; Gama, Eric

    2006-01-01

    The pointing accuracy of the NASA Deep Space Network antennas is significantly impacted by the unevenness of the antenna azimuth track. The track unevenness causes repeatable antenna rotations, and repeatable pointing errors. The paper presents the improvement of the pointing accuracy of the antennas by implementing the track-level-compensation look-up table. The table consists of three axis rotations of the alidade as a function of the azimuth position. The paper presents the development of the table, based on the measurements of the inclinometer tilts, processing the measurement data, and determination of the three-axis alidade rotations from the tilt data. It also presents the determination of the elevation and cross-elevation errors of the antenna as a function of the alidade rotations. The pointing accuracy of the antenna with and without a table was measured using various radio beam pointing techniques. The pointing error decreased when the table was used, from 1.5 mdeg to 1.2 mdeg in elevation, and from 20.4 mdeg to 2.2 mdeg in cross-elevation.

  7. Morphological awareness and vocabulary development among kindergartners with different ability levels.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Gloria; Walton, Patrick; Roberts, William

    2014-01-01

    Our goal was to investigate the growth of vocabulary and morphological awareness over time in the context of an intervention for kindergartners with different ability levels in these skills. Participants in this exploratory study were 108 children from schools serving socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods. Results indicated that children significantly improved their morphological awareness skills and vocabulary over a period of 4 months ( eta(p)(2) = .61 for morphological awareness and eta(p)(2) = .53 for vocabulary), with the greatest gains made by children who were initially low on these measures. Morphological awareness and vocabulary skills were reciprocally related; each made a unique contribution to growth in the other. The results suggest that it may be beneficial to combine instruction in vocabulary and morphological awareness and that kindergarten teachers can successfully do so with guidance.

  8. Implementation of FPGA-based level-1 tracking at CMS for the HL-LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaves, J.

    2014-10-01

    A new approach for track reconstruction is presented to be used in the all-hardware first level of the CMS trigger. The application of the approach is intended for the upgraded all-silicon tracker, which is to be installed for the High Luminosity era of the LHC (HL-LHC). The upgraded LHC machine is expected to deliver a luminosity on the order of 5 × 1034 cm-2s-1. This expected luminosity means there would be about 125 pileup events in each bunch crossing at a frequency of 40 MHz. To keep the CMS trigger rate at a manageable level under these conditions, it is necessary to make quick decisions on the events that will be processed. The timing estimates for the algorithm are expected to be below 5 μs, well within the requirements of the L1 trigger at CMS for track identification. The algorithm is integer-based, allowing it to be implemented on an FPGA. Currently we are working on a demonstrator hardware implementation using a Xilinx Virtex 6 FPGA. Results from simulations in C++ and Verilog are presented to show the algorithm performance in terms of data throughput and parameter resolution.

  9. Tracking progress towards the Millennium Development Goals: reaching consensus on child mortality levels and trends.

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    The increased attention to tracking progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), including Goal 4 of reducing child mortality, has drawn attention to a number of interrelated technical, operational and political challenges and to the underlying weaknesses of country health information systems upon which reliable monitoring depends. Assessments of child mortality published in 2005, for almost all low-income countries, are based on an extrapolation of the trends observed during the 1990s, rather than on the empirical data for more recent years. The validity of the extrapolation depends on the quality and quantity of the data used, and many countries lack suitable data. In the long run, it is hoped that vital registration or sample registration systems will be established to monitor vital events in a sustainable way. However, in the short run, tracking child mortality in high-mortality countries will continue to rely on household surveys and extrapolations of historical trends. This will require more collaborative efforts both to collect data through initiatives to strengthen health information systems at the country level, and to harmonize the estimation process. The latter objective requires the continued activity of a coordinating group of international agencies and academics that aims to produce transparent estimates -- through the consistent application of an agreed-upon methodology --for monitoring at the international level. PMID:16583082

  10. Endogenous hormone levels affect the regeneration ability of callus derived from different organs in barley.

    PubMed

    Hisano, Hiroshi; Matsuura, Takakazu; Mori, Izumi C; Yamane, Miki; Sato, Kazuhiro

    2016-02-01

    Hordeum vulgare (barley) is an important agricultural crop worldwide. A simple and efficient transformation system is needed to analyze the functions of barley genes and generate lines with improved agronomic traits. Currently, Golden Promise and Igri are the most amenable barley cultivars for stable transformation. Here we evaluated the regeneration ratios and endogenous hormone levels of calli derived from various malting barley cultivars, including Golden Promise, Haruna Nijo, and Morex. We harvested samples not only from immature embryos, but also from different explants of juvenile plants, cotyledons, coleoptiles, and roots. The callus properties differed among genotypes and explant types. Calli derived from the immature embryos of Golden Promise, which showed the highest ratio of regeneration of green shoots, had the highest contents of indoleacetic acid, trans-zeatin, and cis-zeatin. By contrast, calli derived from the cotyledons of Morex and the immature embryos of Haruna Nijo had elevated levels of salicylic acid and abscisic acid, respectively. We thus propose that the former phytohormones are positively associated with the regeneration ability of callus but the later phytohormones are negatively associated. PMID:26735586

  11. Assessment of the relationship between physical working conditions and different levels of work ability.

    PubMed

    Attarchi, Mirsaeed; Ghaffari, Mostafa; Abdi, Alireza; Mirzamohammadi, Elham; Seyedmehdi, Seyed Mohammad; Rahimpour, Farzaneh; Fazlalizadeh, Maryam; Mohammadi, Saber

    2014-04-20

    Early leaving of workplace by work forces is one of the fundamental problems worldwide. Maintenance and enhancement of employees work ability are important for raising productivity. This study investigated the relationship between work ability index and physical working conditions and was carried out in 2013 on 641 workers at a manufacturing plant in Tehran. Work ability was assessed by the questionnaire of work ability index and the participants were classified into four work ability groups of poor, moderate, good, and excellent. Physical working conditions were evaluated by the MUSIC-Norrtalje questionnaire and the participants were classified into two groups with proper and poor physical working conditions. The mean score of work ability questionnaire was 42.40; and 2.5% (16 persons), 9.2% (59 persons), 38.2% (245 persons), and 50.1% (321 persons) of the participants were in poor, moderate, good, and excellent work ability groups, respectively. The mean score of physical working conditions questionnaire was 20.06. The results of logistic regression analysis showed that even after adjusting the confounding variables, a significant correlation existed between work ability and physical working conditions (p < 0.05). According to the results of this study, there may be a correlation between physical working conditions such as awkward postures, repetitive movements, load lifting, exposure to whole body vibration and so on with work ability. Therefore it seems that enhancement of the quality of physical working conditions may increase work ability.

  12. Assessment of the relationship between physical working conditions and different levels of work ability.

    PubMed

    Attarchi, Mirsaeed; Ghaffari, Mostafa; Abdi, Alireza; Mirzamohammadi, Elham; Seyedmehdi, Seyed Mohammad; Rahimpour, Farzaneh; Fazlalizadeh, Maryam; Mohammadi, Saber

    2014-07-01

    Early leaving of workplace by work forces is one of the fundamental problems worldwide. Maintenance and enhancement of employees work ability are important for raising productivity. This study investigated the relationship between work ability index and physical working conditions and was carried out in 2013 on 641 workers at a manufacturing plant in Tehran. Work ability was assessed by the questionnaire of work ability index and the participants were classified into four work ability groups of poor, moderate, good, and excellent. Physical working conditions were evaluated by the MUSIC-Norrtalje questionnaire and the participants were classified into two groups with proper and poor physical working conditions. The mean score of work ability questionnaire was 42.40; and 2.5% (16 persons), 9.2% (59 persons), 38.2% (245 persons), and 50.1% (321 persons) of the participants were in poor, moderate, good, and excellent work ability groups, respectively. The mean score of physical working conditions questionnaire was 20.06. The results of logistic regression analysis showed that even after adjusting the confounding variables, a significant correlation existed between work ability and physical working conditions (p < 0.05). According to the results of this study, there may be a correlation between physical working conditions such as awkward postures, repetitive movements, load lifting, exposure to whole body vibration and so on with work ability. Therefore it seems that enhancement of the quality of physical working conditions may increase work ability. PMID:24999133

  13. Tracking the performance, energetics and biomechanics of international versus national level swimmers during a competitive season.

    PubMed

    Costa, Mário J; Bragada, José A; Mejias, Jean E; Louro, Hugo; Marinho, Daniel A; Silva, António J; Barbosa, Tiago M

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to track and compare the changes of performance, energetic and biomechanical profiles of international (Int) and national (Nat) level swimmers during a season. Ten Portuguese male swimmers (four Int and six Nat level subjects) were evaluated on three different time periods (TP(1), TP(2), TP(3)) of the 2009-2010 season. Swimming performance was assessed based on official time's lists of the 200-m freestyle event. An incremental set of 7 × 200 m swims was applied to assess the energetic and biomechanical data. Measurements were made of: (1) velocity at the 4 mmol of lactate levels (V4), stroke index at V4 (SI@V4) and propelling efficiency at V4 (η (p)@V4), as energetic estimators; (2) stroke length at V4 (SL@V4) and stroke frequency at V4 (SF@V4), as biomechanical variables. The results demonstrated no significant variations in all variables throughout the season. The inter-group comparison pointed out higher values for Int swimmers, with statistical differences for the 200 m performance in all time periods. Near values of the statistical significance were demonstrated for the SI@V4 in TP(1) and TP(3). The tracking based on K values was high only for the SI@V4. It is concluded that a high stability can be observed for elite swimmers performance, energetic and biomechanical profiles throughout a single season. Int swimmers are able to maintain a higher energetic and biomechanical capacity than Nat ones at all times. The SI@V4 may be used as an indicator of performance variation. PMID:21674245

  14. Ability of university-level education to prevent age-related decline in emotional intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Cabello, Rosario; Navarro Bravo, Beatriz; Latorre, José Miguel; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have suggested that educational history, as a proxy measure of active cognitive reserve, protects against age-related cognitive decline and risk of dementia. Whether educational history also protects against age-related decline in emotional intelligence (EI) is unclear. The present study examined ability EI in 310 healthy adults ranging in age from 18 to 76 years using the Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). We found that older people had lower scores than younger people for total EI and for the EI branches of perceiving, facilitating, and understanding emotions, whereas age was not associated with the EI branch of managing emotions. We also found that educational history protects against this age-related EI decline by mediating the relationship between age and EI. In particular, the EI scores of older adults with a university education were higher than those of older adults with primary or secondary education, and similar to those of younger adults of any education level. These findings suggest that the cognitive reserve hypothesis, which states that individual differences in cognitive processes as a function of lifetime intellectual activities explain differential susceptibility to functional impairment in the presence of age-related changes and brain pathology, applies also to EI, and that education can help preserve cognitive-emotional structures during aging. PMID:24653697

  15. A study of perceptual analysis in a high-level autistic subject with exceptional graphic abilities.

    PubMed

    Mottron, L; Belleville, S

    1993-11-01

    We report here the case study of a patient (E.C.) with an Asperger syndrome, or autism with quasinormal intelligence, who shows an outstanding ability for three-dimensional drawing of inanimate objects (savant syndrome). An assessment of the subsystems proposed in recent models of object recognition evidenced intact perceptual analysis and identification. The initial (or primal sketch), viewer-centered (or 2-1/2-D), or object-centered (3-D) representations and the recognition and name levels were functional. In contrast, E.C.'s pattern of performance in three different types of tasks converge to suggest an anomaly in the hierarchical organization of the local and global parts of a figure: a local interference effect in incongruent hierarchical visual stimuli, a deficit in relating local parts to global form information in impossible figures, and an absence of feature-grouping in graphic recall. The results are discussed in relation to normal visual perception and to current accounts of the savant syndrome in autism.

  16. TRACKING Trounces Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This article presents an adaptation of an article from School Board News, January 6, 2004 edition. The article describes the effort of de-tracking students of varying ability levels, made by officials of South Side High School, in Rockville Centre, New York, and Noble High School, in North Berwick, Maine. Officials from both schools say that the…

  17. Levels of Stress as Reported by Parents and Its Relationship to Their Child's Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodbury, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if any relationship exists between "Parenting Stress Index" factors and child's cognitive abilities (Cattell-Horn-Carroll Theory of general intelligence). The participant population consisted of 16 mothers and 16 children. The cognitive abilities were measured by using one of the following measures: (1)…

  18. Students' Gender and Ability Levels Impact on the Acquisition of Two French Verb Tenses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikolova, Ofelia R.

    2011-01-01

    The usage of "passe compose" and "imparfait" is one of the most challenging topics in French grammar for anglophone learners. Based on the aspect hypothesis formulated by Andersen and Shirai (1994), this study explored the patterns of errors made by higher-ability as opposed to average-ability students and male vs. female students with different…

  19. Learner Control over Full and Lean Computer-based Instruction under Differing Ability Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnackenberg, Heidi L.; Sullivan, Howard J.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the effects of type of instructional control (learner control versus program control) and program mode (full versus lean) on the achievement, option use, time in the program, and attitudes of higher-ability and lower-ability university students using a computer-delivered instructional program. Discusses implications for instructional…

  20. Differentiation of Cognitive Abilities as a Function of Neuroticism Level: A Measurement Equivalence/Invariance Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonaccio, Silvia; Reeve, Charlie L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the differentiation of cognitive abilities as a function of neuroticism. Specifically, we examine Eysenck and White's [Eysenck, H. J., and White, P. O. (1964). Personality and the measurement of intelligence. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 24, 197-201.] hypothesis that cognitive abilities are less differentiated…

  1. Marker ReDistancing/Level Set Method for High-Fidelity Implicit Interface Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Nourgaliev; Samet Kadioglu; Vincent Mousseau; Dana Knoll

    2010-02-01

    A hybrid of the Front-Tracking (FT) and the Level-Set (LS) methods is introduced, combining advantages and removing drawbacks of both methods. The kinematics of the interface is treated in a Lagrangian (FT) manner, by tracking markers placed at the interface. The markers are not connected – instead, the interface topology is resolved in an Eulerian (LS) framework, by wrapping a signed distance function around Lagrangian markers each time the markers move. For accuracy and efficiency, we have developed a high-order “anchoring” algorithm and an implicit PDE-based re-distancing. We have demonstrated that the method is 3rd-order accurate in space, near the markers, and therefore 1st-order convergent in curvature; in contrast to traditional PDE-based re-initialization algorithms, which tend to slightly relocate the zero Level Set and can be shown to be non-convergent in curvature. The implicit pseudo-time discretization of the re-distancing equation is implemented within the Jacobian-Free Newton Krylov (JFNK) framework combined with ILU(k) preconditioning. We have demonstrated that the steady-state solutions in pseudo-time can be achieved very efficiently, with iterations (CFL ), in contrast to the explicit re-distancing which requires 100s of iterations with CFL . The most cost-effective algorithm is found to be a hybrid of explicit and implicit discretizations, in which we apply first 10-15 iterations with explicit discretization (to bring the initial guess to the ball of convergence for the Newton’s method) and then finishing with 2-3 implicit steps, bringing the re-distancing equation to a complete steady-state. The eigenscopy of the JFNK-ILU(k) demonstrates the efficiency of the ILU(k) preconditioner, which effectively cluster eigenvalues of the otherwise extremely ill-conditioned Jacobian matrices, thereby enabling the Krylov (GMRES) method to converge with iterations, with only a few levels of ILU fill-ins. Importantly, due to the Level Set localization

  2. Derailing Tracking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Reviews recent research on student achievement, self-concept, and curriculum and instruction showing the ineffectiveness of tracking and ability grouping. Certain court rulings show that tracking violates the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. Innovative alternatives include cooperative learning, mastery learning, peer tutoring,…

  3. Nano-level position resolution for particle tracking in digital in-line holographic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lei, H; Hu, X; Zhu, P; Chang, X; Zeng, Y; Hu, C; Li, H; Hu, X

    2015-10-01

    Three-dimensional particle tracking in biological systems is a quickly growing field, many techniques have been developed providing tracking characters. Digital in-line holographic microscopy is a valuable technique for particle tracking. However, the speckle noise, out-of-focus signals and twin image influenced the particle tracking. Here an adaptive noise reduction method based on bidimensional ensemble empirical mode decomposition is introduced into digital in-line holographic microscopy. It can eliminate the speckle noise and background of the hologram adaptively. Combined with the three-dimensional deconvolution approach in the reconstruction, the particle feature would be identified effectively. Tracking the fixed beads on the cover-glass with piezoelectric stage through multiple holographic images demonstrate the tracking resolution, which approaches 2 nm in axial direction and 1 nm in transverse direction. This would facilitate the development and use in the biological area such as living cells and single-molecule approaches.

  4. Use of a Card Sort Task to Assess Students' Ability to Coordinate Three Levels of Representation in Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irby, Stefan M.; Phu, Andy L.; Borda, Emily J.; Haskell, Todd R.; Steed, Nicole; Meyer, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    There is much agreement among chemical education researchers that expertise in chemistry depends in part on the ability to coordinate understanding of phenomena on three levels: macroscopic (observable), sub-microscopic (atoms, molecules, and ions) and symbolic (chemical equations, graphs, etc.). We hypothesize this "level-coordination…

  5. Automated tracking of lava lake level using thermal images at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai’i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patrick, Matthew R.; Swanson, Don; Orr, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Tracking the level of the lava lake in Halema‘uma‘u Crater, at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai’i, is an essential part of monitoring the ongoing eruption and forecasting potentially hazardous changes in activity. We describe a simple automated image processing routine that analyzes continuously-acquired thermal images of the lava lake and measures lava level. The method uses three image segmentation approaches, based on edge detection, short-term change analysis, and composite temperature thresholding, to identify and track the lake margin in the images. These relative measurements from the images are periodically calibrated with laser rangefinder measurements to produce real-time estimates of lake elevation. Continuous, automated tracking of the lava level has been an important tool used by the U.S. Geological Survey’s Hawaiian Volcano Observatory since 2012 in real-time operational monitoring of the volcano and its hazard potential.

  6. Variational level-set segmentation and tracking of left ventricle using field prior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afshin, Mariam; Ben Ayed, Ismail; Islam, Ali; Ross, Ian; Peters, Terry; Li, Shuo

    2011-03-01

    This study investigates a novel method of tracking Left Ventricle (LV) curve in Magnetic Resonance (MR) sequences. The method focuses on energy minimization by level-set curve boundary evolution. The level-set framework allows introducing knowledge of the field prior on the solution. The segmentation in each particular time relies not only on the current image but also the segmented image from previous phase. Field prior is defined based on the experimental fact that the mean logarithm of intensity inside endo and epi-cardium is approximately constant during a cardiac cycle. The solution is obtained by evolving two curves following the Euler-Lagrange minimization of a functional containing a field constraint. The functional measures the consistency of the field prior over a cardiac sequence. Our preliminary results show that the obtained segmentations are very well correlated with those manually obtained by experts. Furthermore, we observed that the proposed field prior speeds up curve evolution significantly and reduces the computation load.

  7. A massively parallel track-finding system for the LEVEL 2 trigger in the CLAS detector at CEBAF

    SciTech Connect

    Doughty, D.C. Jr.; Collins, P.; Lemon, S. ); Bonneau, P. )

    1994-02-01

    The track segment finding subsystem of the LEVEL 2 trigger in the CLAS detector has been designed and prototyped. Track segments will be found in the 35,076 wires of the drift chambers using a massively parallel array of 768 Xilinx XC-4005 FPGA's. These FPGA's are located on daughter cards attached to the front-end boards distributed around the detector. Each chip is responsible for finding tracks passing through a 4 x 6 slice of an axial superlayer, and reports two segment found bits, one for each pair of cells. The algorithm used finds segments even when one or two layers or cells along the track is missing (this number is programmable), while being highly resistant to false segments arising from noise hits. Adjacent chips share data to find tracks crossing cell and board boundaries. For maximum speed, fully combinatorial logic is used inside each chip, with the result that all segments in the detector are found within 150 ns. Segment collection boards gather track segments from each axial superlayer and pass them via a high speed link to the segment linking subsystem in an additional 400 ns for typical events. The Xilinx chips are ram-based and therefore reprogrammable, allowing for future upgrades and algorithm enhancements.

  8. The Classification Ability with Naked Eyes According to the Understanding Level about Rocks of Pre-service Science Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seong, Cho Kyu; Ho, Chung Duk; Pyo, Hong Deok; Kyeong Jin, Park

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the classification ability with naked eyes according to the understanding level about rocks of pre-service science teachers. We developed a questionnaire concerning misconception about minerals and rocks. The participant were 132 pre-service science teachers. Data were analyzed using Rasch model. Participants were divided into a master group and a novice group according to their understanding level. Seventeen rocks samples (6 igneous, 5 sedimentary, and 6 metamorphic rocks) were presented to pre-service science teachers to examine their classification ability, and they classified the rocks according to the criteria we provided. The study revealed three major findings. First, the pre-service science teachers mainly classified rocks according to textures, color, and grain size. Second, while they relatively easily classified igneous rocks, participants were confused when distinguishing sedimentary and metamorphic rocks from one another by using the same classification criteria. On the other hand, the understanding level of rocks has shown a statistically significant correlation with the classification ability in terms of the formation mechanism of rocks, whereas there was no statically significant relationship found with determination of correct name of rocks. However, this study found that there was a statistically significant relationship between the classification ability with regard the formation mechanism of rocks and the determination of correct name of rocks Keywords : Pre-service science teacher, Understanding level, Rock classification ability, Formation mechanism, Criterion of classification

  9. Developing Strategic and Reasoning Abilities with Computer Games at Primary School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottino, R. M.; Ferlino, L.; Ott, M.; Tavella, M.

    2007-01-01

    The paper reports a small-scale, long-term pilot project designed to foster strategic and reasoning abilities in young primary school pupils by engaging them in a number of computer games, mainly those usually called mind games (brainteasers, puzzlers, etc.). In this paper, the objectives, work methodology, experimental setting, and tools used in…

  10. Female Autism Phenotypes Investigated at Different Levels of Language and Developmental Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Yamini J.; O'Rourke, Julia A.; Yatchmink, Yvette; Viscidi, Emma W.; Jones, Richard N.; Morrow, Eric M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the differences in clinical symptoms between females and males with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) across three verbal ability groups (nonverbal, phrase and fluent speech), based on which Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule module was administered to 5723 individuals in four research datasets. In the Simons Simplex…

  11. Children's Ability to Write Stories as a Function of Variation in Task, Age, and Developmental Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barenbaum, Edna; And Others

    1987-01-01

    A comparison of the story-writing abilities of learning-disabled (N=47), low-achieving (N=15), and normal-achieving (N=19) third-, fifth-, and seventh-graders revealed age- and learning capacity-related differences in the categories of story, primitive story, action sequence, descriptive, and expressive skills. (Author/CB)

  12. Learner Control over Full and Lean Computer-Based Instruction under Differing Ability Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnackenberg, Heidi L.

    Undergraduate education majors in a teacher preparation program completed a computer-assisted instructional program for a study designed to examine the effects of type of instructional control and program mode on the achievement, option use, time spent on program, and attitudes of higher and lower ability students. Students were assigned to high…

  13. Blood Phosphorus and Magnesium Levels in 130 Elite Track and Field Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Malliaropoulos, Nikolaos; Tsitas, Kostas; Porfiriadou, Anthoula; Papalada, Agapi; R.Ames, Paul; Del Buono, Angelo; Lippi, Giuseppe; Maffulli, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study tested the clinical utility and relevance of serum phosphorus and magnesium as markers possibly useful to monitor training in athletes. Methods Phosphorus and magnesium serum concentrations of 130 elite track and field athletes (65 males and 65 females, age range 20-30 years) from the National Athletics Sports Medicine Center database in Thessaloniki, Greece were measured. Results Abnormal results were found in 61 (47%) athletes (32 men and 29 women). In male athletes, serum phosphate was higher than normal in 18% and decreased in 1.5%, whereas serum magnesium concentration was higher in 26%, and lower in 3%. Regarding female athletes, higher serum phosphate and magnesium levels were detected in 26% and 17% respectively, whereas decreased serum magnesium was found in 3%. The most common alterations were higher serum phosphate (29/61, 47%) and magnesium concentrations (28/61, 46%). Abnormalities of serum phosphorus and magnesium concentrations were detected in almost half of the athletes. Hyperphosphataemia and hypermagnesaemia were the most common abnormalities. Conclusion The reference intervals used for general population cannot be used for athletes. Given the lack of pathological manifestations, the physiopathological significance of these findings is uncertain. Further studies on the interpretation of reported ion concentrations in athletes should take in account the type of sport practiced and also the possible variations during the training and competition season. PMID:23785576

  14. High-Order Discontinuous Galerkin Level Set Method for Interface Tracking and Re-Distancing on Unstructured Meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Patrick; Nourgaliev, Robert; Schofield, Sam

    2015-11-01

    A new sharp high-order interface tracking method for multi-material flow problems on unstructured meshes is presented. The method combines the marker-tracking algorithm with a discontinuous Galerkin (DG) level set method to implicitly track interfaces. DG projection is used to provide a mapping from the Lagrangian marker field to the Eulerian level set field. For the level set re-distancing, we developed a novel marching method that takes advantage of the unique features of the DG representation of the level set. The method efficiently marches outward from the zero level set with values in the new cells being computed solely from cell neighbors. Results are presented for a number of different interface geometries including ones with sharp corners and multiple hierarchical level sets. The method can robustly handle the level set discontinuities without explicit utilization of solution limiters. Results show that the expected high order (3rd and higher) of convergence for the DG representation of the level set is obtained for smooth solutions on unstructured meshes. High-order re-distancing on irregular meshes is a must for applications were the interfacial curvature is important for underlying physics, such as surface tension, wetting and detonation shock dynamics. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Information management release number LLNL-ABS-675636.

  15. General tracking control of arbitrary N-level quantum systems using piecewise time-independent potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delben, G. J.; da Luz, M. G. E.

    2016-05-01

    Here we propose a tracking quantum control protocol for arbitrary N-level systems. The goal is to make the expected value of an observable O to follow a predetermined trajectory S( t). For so, we drive the quantum state |\\varPsi (t) rangle evolution through an external potential V which depends on M_V tunable parameters (e.g., the amplitude and phase (thus M_V = 2) of a laser field in the dipolar condition). At instants t_n, these parameters can be rapidly switched to specific values and then kept constant during time intervals Δ t. The method determines which sets of parameters values can result in < \\varPsi (t) | O |\\varPsi (t) rangle = S(t). It is numerically robust (no intrinsic divergences) and relatively fast since we need to solve only nonlinear algebraic (instead of a system of coupled nonlinear differential) equations to obtain the parameters at the successive Δ t's. For a given S( t), the required minimum M_V = M_min 'degrees of freedom' of V attaining the control is a good figure of merit of the problem difficulty. For instance, the control cannot be unconditionally realizable if M_{min } > 2 and V is due to a laser field (the usual context in real applications). As it is discussed and exemplified, in these cases a possible procedure is to relax the control in certain problematic (but short) time intervals. Finally, when existing the approach can systematically access distinct possible solutions, thereby allowing a relatively simple way to search for the best implementation conditions. Illustrations for 3-, 4-, and 5-level systems and some comparisons with calculations in the literature are presented.

  16. DETERMINATION OF POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHER SOIL LEVELS AT A FIRE FIGHTER TRAINING STATION AND ALONG RAILROAD TRACKS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analysis of the PBDE content of soils from remote rural areas along railroad tracks and from a fire fighter training site demonstrated contamination of the soil, particularly at the latter site where BDE-47, -99, -100, -153, and -154, were found at considerable levels. The remote sites, along old r...

  17. Very high spatial resolution optical and radar imagery in tracking water level fluctuations of a small inland reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, R. N.; Tormos, T.; Danis, P.-A.

    2015-06-01

    Tracking water level fluctuations in small lakes and reservoirs is important in order to better understand and manage these ecosystems. A geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA) method using very high spatial and temporal resolution optical (Pléiades) and radar (COSMO-SkyMed and TerraSAR-X) remote sensing imagery is presented here which (1) tracks water level fluctuations via variations in water surface area and (2) avoids common difficulties found in using single-band radar images for water-land image classification. Results are robust, with over 98% of image surface area correctly classified into land or water, R2 = 0.963 and RMSE = 0.42 m for a total water level fluctuation range of 5.94 m. Multispectral optical imagery is found to be more straightforward in producing results than single-band radar imagery, but the latter crucially increase temporal resolution to the point where fluctuations can be satisfactorily tracked in time. Moreover, an analysis suggests that high and medium spatial resolution imagery is sufficient, in at least some cases, in tracking the water level fluctuations of small inland reservoirs. Finally, limitations of the methodology presented here are briefly discussed along with potential solutions to overcome them.

  18. Investigation of cognitive abilities related to reading and spelling in Korean: readers with high, average, and low skill levels.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun-Rin; Uno, Akira

    2012-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the characteristics of cognitive abilities as predictors of Korean reading and spelling ability, and the characteristics of the cognition of reading difficulty in Korean. In 103 Korean third-grade children, we tested ability to read and spell, nonverbal intelligence, vocabulary size, phonological cognitive processing, visual cognitive processing, and naming speed. Our results indicated that receptive vocabulary, phoneme awareness, and naming speed served as factors for predicting reading test score; receptive vocabulary served as a factor for predicting spelling test score. We found that low reading-level groups had significantly slower performance on the naming speed task and lower scores on the receptive vocabulary test, as compared with the other groups (average and high reading-level groups). The present results have implications concerning useful tasks for screening for Korean poor readers.

  19. Developing the Talents and Abilities of Linguistically Gifted Bilingual Students: Guidelines for Developing Curriculum at the High School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angelelli, Claudia; Enright, Kerry; Valdes, Guadalupe

    2002-01-01

    This monograph contains general suggestions for implementing a curriculum in interpretation and translation at the high school level for bilingual youngsters who are experienced interpreters for their families. It includes a brief introductory discussion of the importance of nurturing the abilities of linguistically talented students and presents…

  20. Engaging Students in Environmental Research Projects: Perceptions of Fluency with Innovative Technologies and Levels of Scientific Inquiry Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebenezer, Jazlin; Kaya, Osman Nafiz; Ebenezer, Devairakkam Luke

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-method study was to investigate the changes in high school students' perceptions of fluency with innovative technologies (IT) and the levels of students' scientific inquiry abilities as a result of engaging students in long-term scientific research projects focusing on community-based environmental issues. Over a span of…

  1. Relationships among Students' Grade Level, Gender, Location and School Type and Abilities To Comprehend Four Integrated Science Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soyibo, Kola; McKenzie-Briscoe, B. O.

    This study examines the extent to which some students comprehend four integrated science textbooks and the relationships among their grade level, gender, school location and type, and ability to comprehend the texts. Jamaican high school students (N=160) were the subjects of the study which involved data sources such as cloze, comprehension,…

  2. Supporting Low Ability Learners in a Tertiary Level Compulsory English Programme Using CEFR Based Online Language Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Gavin; McKeurtan, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the processes, methods and results of using language software based on the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR) in a tertiary level institute in Japan in order to facilitate the learning of low ability learners of English. None of the learners were English majors, all were between the ages of 18 and 20,…

  3. A Comparison of the Reading Abilities of a Junior College Population and the Readability Levels of their Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagstrom, Jon M.

    The differences between the reading abilities of 359 community-college students in selected classes and the readability difficulty of the texts used in those classes were examined. The Diagnostic Reading Test, Form A was administered to the subjects, and results showed that 35.9 percent of the population read at or above grade level 13; 33.5…

  4. The Relationship between Word and Stress Pattern Recognition Ability and Hearing Level in Hearing-Impaired Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Pamela; Kelly-Ballweber, Denise

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between word and stress pattern recognition ability and hearing level was explored by administering the Children's Auditory Test to hearing-impaired young adults (N=27). For word recognition, subjects with average hearing loss between 85 and 100 decibels demonstrated a wide range of performance not predictable from their…

  5. Cardiac autonomic control in high level Brazilian power and endurance track-and-field athletes.

    PubMed

    Abad, C C C; do Nascimento, A M; Gil, S; Kobal, R; Loturco, I; Nakamura, F Y; Mostarda, C T; Irigoyen, M C

    2014-08-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) has an important role in physical performance. However, the cardiac ANS activity in high-level track and field athletes has been poorly explored. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that endurance and power athletes would present a markedly different cardiac autonomic control at rest. We analyzed the cardiac ANS by means of time and frequency domains heart rate variability (HRV) analyses and by symbolic analysis. Endurance athletes showed higher pulse interval than power athletes (1,265±126 vs. 1,031±98 ms respectively; p<0.05). No differences were found in time and frequency domains between the groups. However, the LF%, HF% and LF/HF ratio presented high effect sizes (1.46, 1.46 and 1.30, respectively). The symbolic analysis revealed that endurance athletes had higher 2V parasympathetic modulation (36±6.5) than power athletes (24±9.3; p<0.05). A reduced 0V sympathetic modulation was observed in endurance athletes (21±9.9) compared to power athletes (33±11; p<0.05 and ES=1.30). Our results suggest greater parasympathetic modulation and less sympathetic modulation in endurance athletes compared to power athletes. Additionally, the type of HRV analysis needs to be chosen with well-defined criteria and caution because their use in assessing cardiac autonomic modulation can interfere with the interpretation of results. In practical terms, symbolic analysis appears to better discriminate between cardiac autonomic activities of athletes with different training backgrounds than frequency domain analysis.

  6. Multiple target tracking and classification improvement using data fusion at node level using acoustic signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damarla, T. R.; Whipps, Gene

    2005-05-01

    Target tracking and classification using passive acoustic signals is difficult at best as the signals are contaminated by wind noise, multi-path effects, road conditions, and are generally not deterministic. In addition, microphone characteristics, such as sensitivity, vary with the weather conditions. The problem is further compounded if there are multiple targets, especially if some are measured with higher signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) than the others and they share spectral information. At the U. S. Army Research Laboratory we have conducted several field experiments with a convoy of two, three, four and five vehicles traveling on different road surfaces, namely gravel, asphalt, and dirt roads. The largest convoy is comprised of two tracked vehicles and three wheeled vehicles. Two of the wheeled vehicles are heavy trucks and one is a light vehicle. We used a super-resolution direction-of-arrival estimator, specifically the minimum variance distortionless response, to compute the bearings of the targets. In order to classify the targets, we modeled the acoustic signals emanated from the targets as a set of coupled harmonics, which are related to the engine-firing rate, and subsequently used a multivariate Gaussian classifier. Independent of the classifier, we find tracking of wheeled vehicles to be intermittent as the signals from vehicles with high SNR dominate the much quieter wheeled vehicles. We used several fusion techniques to combine tracking and classification results to improve final tracking and classification estimates. We will present the improvements (or losses) made in tracking and classification of all targets. Although improvements in the estimates for tracked vehicles are not noteworthy, significant improvements are seen in the case of wheeled vehicles. We will present the fusion algorithm used.

  7. The effects of weight levels and gloves on the ability to discriminate weight difference.

    PubMed

    Shih, Y C; Wang, M J

    1996-05-01

    In this study, six different types of gloves commonly used in industry (surgical, cotton, nylon, leather, rubber, and whizard knife hand gloves) were evaluated at four different weight levels (8.2, 3, 1.5 and 0.25 kg). Six males and six females voluntarily took part in this study. The dependent variable was the difference limen (or difference threshold) (abbreviated as DL(%)) of the discriminating weight difference (DWD). A nested-factorial design with the subject nested under gender was employed. The results indicate that the weight level had a negatively significant effect on the DL(%). The mean difference thresholds were 3.49, 5.39, 6.08, and 9.45 for the weight levels at 8.2, 3, 1.5, and 0.25 kg, respectively. The individual difference becomes obvious when the weight level is relatively light (0.25 kg). However, the effects of gender, glove, gender x weight, and weight x glove were found to be insignificant, and there was no significant correlation between the DL(%) and glove characteristics (thickness and weight). Subsequently, four additional weight levels (0.01, 0.5, 1 and 15 kg) were considered, and a psychophysical equation was derived: DL(%) = 34.33 x W(0.238) (R2 = 0.98), where W represents the weight level. These results support the power function. A minimum weight difference with 90% confidence of correct detection was suggested. PMID:8635446

  8. Screening for impact of popular herbs improving mental abilities on the transcriptional level of brain transporters.

    PubMed

    Mrozikiewicz, Przemyslaw M; Bogacz, Anna; Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Joanna; Kujawski, Radoslaw; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L; Ozarowski, Marcin; Czerny, Boguslaw; Mrozikiewicz-Rakowska, Beata; Grzeskowiak, Edmund

    2014-06-01

    There are a number of compounds that can modify the activity of ABC (ATP-binding cassette) and SLC (solute carrier) transporters in the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of natural and synthetic substances on the expression level of genes encoding transporters present in the BBB (mdr1a, mdr1b, mrp1, mrp2, oatp1a4, oatp1a5 and oatp1c1). Our results showed that verapamil caused the greatest reduction in the mRNA level while other synthetic (piracetam, phenobarbital) and natural (codeine, cyclosporine A, quercetin) substances showed a selective inhibitory effect. Further, the extract from the roots of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer exhibited a decrease of transcription against selected transporters whereas the extract from Ginkgo biloba L. leaves resulted in an increase of the expression level of tested genes, except for mrp2. Extract from the aerial parts of Hypericum perforatum L. was the only one to cause an increased mRNA level for mdr1 and oatp1c1. These findings suggest that herbs can play an important role in overcoming the BBB and multidrug resistance to pharmacotherapy of brain cancer and mental disorders, based on the activity of selected drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters located in the BBB. PMID:24914722

  9. An on-line learning tracking of non-rigid target combining multiple-instance boosting and level set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mingming; Cai, Jingju

    2013-10-01

    Visual tracking algorithms based on online boosting generally use a rectangular bounding box to represent the position of the target, while actually the shape of the target is always irregular. This will cause the classifier to learn the features of the non-target parts in the rectangle region, thereby the performance of the classifier is reduced, and drift would happen. To avoid the limitations of the bounding-box, we propose a novel tracking-by-detection algorithm involving the level set segmentation, which ensures the classifier only learn the features of the real target area in the tracking box. Because the shape of the target only changes a little between two adjacent frames and the current level set algorithm can avoid the re-initialization of the signed distance function, it only takes a few iterations to converge to the position of the target contour in the next frame. We also make some improvement on the level set energy function so that the zero level set would have less possible to converge to the false contour. In addition, we use gradient boost to improve the original multi-instance learning (MIL) algorithm like the WMILtracker, which greatly speed up the tracker. Our algorithm outperforms the original MILtracker both on speed and precision. Compared with the WMILtracker, our algorithm runs at a almost same speed, but we can avoid the drift caused by background learning, so the precision is better.

  10. Evaluation of Chosen Cytokine Levels among Patients with Herpes Zoster as Ability to Provide Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Zajkowska, Agata; Garkowski, Adam; Świerzbińska, Renata; Kułakowska, Alina; Król, Monika Emilia; Ptaszyńska-Sarosiek, Iwona; Nowicka-Ciełuszecka, Anna; Pancewicz, Sławomir; Czupryna, Piotr; Moniuszko, Anna; Zajkowska, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Aim and Background Herpes zoster is a viral disease caused by the reactivation of varicella–zoster virus (VZV) which remained latent in the cranial nerve or dorsal root ganglia. Cell-mediated immunity is known to decline with age as part of immunosenescence and can lead to the reactivation of VZV. Whereas herpes zoster is usually mild in healthy young persons, older patients are at increased risk for complications. In the present study we investigated the serum cytokine profile (IL-17, IL-23, IL-21, IL-4, IL-12), representing cellular and humoral immunity and assessed the level of VZV IgG antibodies in patients with herpes zoster. Methods We investigated the serum concentrations of IL-17, IL-23, IL-21, IL-4, IL-12 and the level of VZV IgG antibodies in 23 patients with herpes zoster who did not develop superinfection. The control group was represented by 21 individuals in similar age with no inflammatory and infectious diseases. Cytokine and antibodies levels were measured by ELISA method. Statistical analysis was performed using the ROC curve (receiver operating characteristic), t-test, Welch’s t-test, and nonparametric tests with STATISTICA 10 software. Results In patients with herpes zoster, the serum level of IL-17, IL-23, IL-21, IL-4 and IL-12 as well as VZV IgG antibodies titer were statistically significantly increased compared to control group. Conclusion Our results confirm the broad activation of the immune system involving humoral and cell-mediated immunity. PMID:26934574

  11. Comparison and Comparability: Fitness Tracking between Youths with Different Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Wenhao; Nichols, Randall A.; Zillifro, Traci D.

    2013-01-01

    This study compared a three-year tracking of health-related physical fitness between two comparable samples of six graders that enrolled either in a PE4life middle school ("n"?=?154) or another school with a traditional PE program ("n?"=?93) in the United States. For the cohort, the FITNESSGRAM[TM] (Cooper Institute for…

  12. Widening the Tenure Track: A University Offers Some Instructors an Unusual Level of Job Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogg, Piper

    2003-01-01

    Describes a program at Western Michigan University that offers full-time, nontenure-track employees the opportunity to earn tenure, providing new tenure rights to instructors who teach in certain professional fields. Describes opposition to the program and reactions of those affected. (SLD)

  13. The relationship of the Allen Cognitive Level Test to cognitive abilities and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    David, S K; Riley, W T

    1990-06-01

    The cognitive factors measured by the Allen Cognitive Level Test (ACL) (Allen, 1982) as well as the test's relationship to level of psychopathology were examined through a retrospective study of 71 patients from a general hospital psychiatry unit. Pearson correlations, computed for the ACL score with the Shipley Institute of Living Scale (Shipley, 1940), a general measure of intellectual functioning, were significant. A strong correlation was found between the ACL and the Symbol-Digit Modalities Test (Smith, 1982), a measure of motor speed and concentration often used as a neurological screening instrument. This suggests the potential usefulness of the ACL to screen for cognitive dysfunctions associated with organicity. Contrary to hypothesis, there was no significant correlation between the ACL and measures of psychopathology such as the Beck Depression Inventory (Beck, Ward, Mendelson, Mock, & Erbaugh, 1961) and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (Hathaway & McKinley, 1940). The relationship of the ACL to other recognized measures of cognitive functioning increases its usefulness as a valid measure of day-to-day limitations in the functioning of psychiatric patients. Effective communication of the implications of these cognitive levels to a multidisciplinary treatment team is enhanced by knowledge of the relationship of the ACL to measures of cognitive functioning and psychopathology used by other disciplines.

  14. Trajectory variance and autocorrelations within single-sperm tracks as population-level descriptors of sperm track complexity, predictability, and energy-generating ability.

    PubMed

    Abaigar, Teresa; Barbero, Javier; Holt, William V

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to develop an alternative theoretical approach to the analysis of sperm motility and to develop motility parameters that would complement those more commonly used in current computer-assisted semen analysis procedures. We have defined a set of parameters and have tested them using boar spermatozoa undergoing bicarbonate-induced motility activation. The new parameters were calculated for a series of (x,y) coordinates of sperm head positions recorded at each move along the trajectory. The parameters were: mean velocity (MV), immobility ratio, fractal dimension (FD), the variance of the steplengths (VAR), and 2 autocorrelation function coefficients of the step-length time series for lags 1 and 2 (C(1) and C(2)). MV measures the average speed along the trajectory, and VAR is a measure of displacement variability that can be related to the specific mean (per step) kinetic energy of the spermatozoon. All of the parameters except MV and FD were affected by the sampling frequency (25 vs 50 Hz); inappropriately high sampling frequency in relation to magnification resulted in step-lengths between successive frames that were below the resolution threshold of the imaging system. The autocorrelation functions were especially informative; discrimination between sperm subpopulations was obvious within simple histogram formats, and complex statistical analyses were not needed for their identification. PMID:21474791

  15. The ability of low level laser therapy to prevent muscle tissue damage induced by snake venom.

    PubMed

    Doin-Silva, Rosany; Baranauskas, Vitor; Rodrigues-Simioni, Lea; da Cruz-Höfling, Maria Alice

    2009-01-01

    Antivenom therapy has been ineffective in neutralizing the severe local fast developing tissue damage following snakebite envenoming. Herein, some effects of in situ helium neon (HeNe) laser irradiation on rat nerve-muscle preparation injected with Bothrops jararacussu venom are described. The tibialis anterior muscle was injected with venom diluted in 0.9% saline solution (60 microg/0.02 mL) or saline solution alone. Sixty minutes after venom injection, laser (HeNe) treatment was administered at three incident energy densities: dose 1, a single exposure of 3.5 J cm(-2); dose 2, three exposures of 3.5 J cm(-2); dose 3, a single exposure of 10.5 J cm(-2). Muscle function was assessed through twitch tension recordings whereas muscle damage was evaluated through histopathologic analysis, morphometry of area of tissue affected and creatine kinase (CK) serum levels, and compared to unirradiated muscles. Laser application at the dose of 3.5 J cm(-2) reduced the area of injury by 64% (15.9 +/- 1.5%vs 44.2 +/- 5.7%), decreased the neuromuscular blockade (NMB) by 62% (11.5 +/- 2.5%vs 30.4 +/- 5.2%) and reduced CK levels by 58% (from 455 +/- 4.5% to 190.3 +/- 23.4%) when compared with unirradiated controls. Dose 2 showed a poorer benefit than dose 1, and dose 3 was ineffective in preventing the venom effects. Measurements of the absorbance of unirradiated and irradiated venom solution showed no difference in absorption spectra. In addition, no difference in the intensity of partial NMB in nerve-muscle preparation was shown by unirradiated and irradiated venom. The results indicate that the laser light did not alter venom toxicity. We conclude that HeNe laser irradiation at a dosage of 3.5 J cm(-2) effectively reduces myonecrosis and the neuromuscular transmission blocking effect caused by B. jararacussu snake venom. Thus, low level laser therapy may be a promising tool to minimize the severity of some of the local effects of snake envenoming. PMID:18643907

  16. Does peer learning or higher levels of e-learning improve learning abilities? A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Worm, Bjarne Skjødt; Jensen, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims The fast development of e-learning and social forums demands us to update our understanding of e-learning and peer learning. We aimed to investigate if higher, pre-defined levels of e-learning or social interaction in web forums improved students’ learning ability. Methods One hundred and twenty Danish medical students were randomized to six groups all with 20 students (eCases level 1, eCases level 2, eCases level 2+, eTextbook level 1, eTextbook level 2, and eTextbook level 2+). All students participated in a pre-test, Group 1 participated in an interactive case-based e-learning program, while Group 2 was presented with textbook material electronically. The 2+ groups were able to discuss the material between themselves in a web forum. The subject was head injury and associated treatment and observation guidelines in the emergency room. Following the e-learning, all students completed a post-test. Pre- and post-tests both consisted of 25 questions randomly chosen from a pool of 50 different questions. Results All students concluded the study with comparable pre-test results. Students at Level 2 (in both groups) improved statistically significant compared to students at level 1 (p>0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between level 2 and level 2+. However, level 2+ was associated with statistically significant greater student's satisfaction than the rest of the students (p>0.05). Conclusions This study applies a new way of comparing different types of e-learning using a pre-defined level division and the possibility of peer learning. Our findings show that higher levels of e-learning does in fact provide better results when compared with the same type of e-learning at lower levels. While social interaction in web forums increase student satisfaction, learning ability does not seem to change. Both findings are relevant when designing new e-learning materials. PMID:24229729

  17. Physiological and Neuromuscular Response to a Simulated Sprint-Distance Triathlon: Effect of Age Differences and Ability Level.

    PubMed

    García-Pinillos, Felipe; Cámara-Pérez, José C; González-Fernández, Francisco T; Párraga-Montilla, Juan A; Muñoz-Jiménez, Marcos; Latorre-Román, Pedro Á

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to describe the acute impact of a simulated sprint-distance triathlon at physiological and neuromuscular levels and to determine whether age and athletic performance influenced the response in triathletes. Nineteen triathletes performed a sprint-distance triathlon under simulated conditions. Cardiovascular response was monitored during the race. Rate of perceived exertion along with muscular performance parameters (countermovement jump [CMJ], squat jump [SJ], and handgrip strength test [HS]) were tested at pre- and posttest and during every transition, while a 20-m sprint test (S20m) was performed before and after the race. Blood lactate was recorded postrace. A repeated measures analysis of variance showed that the neuromuscular response-in terms of CMJ, SJ, and HS-was unchanged (p ≥ 0.05), while S20m performance was impaired at posttest (p < 0.001). A linear regression analysis showed that ΔCMJ predicted the overall race time (R = 0.226; p = 0.046). In addition, 2 cluster analyses (k-means) were performed by grouping according to athletic performance and age. Between-group comparison showed no significant differences in the impact of the race at either the physiological or the neuromuscular level. The results showed that muscular performance parameters were not impaired throughout the race despite high levels of fatigue reported. However, despite maintaining initial levels of muscle force after the race, the fatigue-induced changes in S20m were significant, which could reinforce the need to train sprint ability in endurance athletes. Finally, despite the differences in ability level or in age, the acute physiological and neuromuscular responses to a simulated sprint-distance triathlon were similar.

  18. What Third-Grade Students of Differing Ability Levels Learn about Nature of Science after a Year of Instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akerson, Valarie; Nargund-Joshi, Vanashri; Weiland, Ingrid; Pongsanon, Khemmawadee; Avsar, Banu

    2014-01-01

    This study explored third-grade elementary students' conceptions of nature of science (NOS) over the course of an entire school year as they participated in explicit-reflective science instruction. The Views of NOS-D (VNOS-D) was administered pre instruction, during mid-school year, and at the end of the school year to track growth in understanding over time. The Young Children's Views of Science was used to describe how students conversed about NOS among themselves. All science lessons were videotaped, student work collected, and a researcher log was maintained. Data were analyzed by a team of researchers who sorted the students into low-, medium-, and high-achieving levels of NOS understandings based on VNOS-D scores and classwork. Three representative students were selected as case studies to provide an in-depth picture of how instruction worked differentially and how understandings changed for the three levels of students. Three different learning trajectories were developed from the data describing the differences among understandings for the low-, medium-, and high-achieving students. The low-achieving student could discuss NOS ideas, the medium-achieving student discussed and wrote about NOS ideas, the high-achieving student discussed, wrote, and raised questions about NOS ideas.

  19. Effects of supplemental zinc source and level on antioxidant ability and fat metabolism-related enzymes of broilers1

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Z. H.; Lu, L.; Wang, R. L.; Lei, H. L.; Li, S. F.; Zhang, L. Y.; Luo, X. G.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary supplemental Zinc (Zn) source and level on antioxidant ability and fat metabolism-related enzymes of broilers. Dietary treatments included the Zn-unsupplemented corn-soybean meal basal diet (control) and basal diets supplemented with 60, 120, or 180 mg Zn/kg as Zn sulfate, Zn amino acid chelate with a weak chelation strength of 6.5 quotient of formation (Qf) (11.93% Zn) (Zn-AA W), Zn proteinate with a moderate chelation strength of 30.7 Qf (13.27% Zn) (Zn-Pro M), or Zn proteinate with an extremely strong chelation strength of 944.0 Qf (18.61% Zn) (Zn-Pro S). The results showed that dietary supplemental Zn increased (P < 0.01) Zn contents in the liver, breast, and thigh muscles of broilers, and up-regulated mRNA expressions of copper and Zn containing superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) and metallothioneins (MT) in the liver (P < 0.01) and thigh muscle (P < 0.05), and also enhanced (P < 0.05) CuZnSOD activities in the breast and thigh muscles, which exerted antioxidant ability and a decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the liver (P < 0.01) and breast and thigh muscles (P < 0.05) of broilers. Furthermore, supplemental Zn increased activities of malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in the abdominal fat (P < 0.05), and fatty acid synthetase (FAS) and LPL in the liver (P < 0.01), which were accompanied with up-regulation (P < 0.01) of the mRNA expressions levels of these enzymes in the abdominal fat and liver of broilers. Dietary Zn source, and an interaction between Zn source and level, had no effects on any measurements. It is concluded that dietary Zn supplementation improved Zn status and resulted in promoting antioxidant ability and activities and gene expressions of fat metabolism-related enzymes of broilers regardless of Zn source and level, and the addition of 60 mg Zn/kg to the corn-soybean meal basal diet (a total dietary Zn of approximately 90 mg

  20. Effects of supplemental zinc source and level on antioxidant ability and fat metabolism-related enzymes of broilers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z H; Lu, L; Wang, R L; Lei, H L; Li, S F; Zhang, L Y; Luo, X G

    2015-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary supplemental Zinc (Zn) source and level on antioxidant ability and fat metabolism-related enzymes of broilers. Dietary treatments included the Zn-unsupplemented corn-soybean meal basal diet (control) and basal diets supplemented with 60, 120, or 180 mg Zn/kg as Zn sulfate, Zn amino acid chelate with a weak chelation strength of 6.5 quotient of formation (Qf) (11.93% Zn) (Zn-AA W), Zn proteinate with a moderate chelation strength of 30.7 Qf (13.27% Zn) (Zn-Pro M), or Zn proteinate with an extremely strong chelation strength of 944.0 Qf (18.61% Zn) (Zn-Pro S). The results showed that dietary supplemental Zn increased (P < 0.01) Zn contents in the liver, breast, and thigh muscles of broilers, and up-regulated mRNA expressions of copper and Zn containing superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) and metallothioneins (MT) in the liver (P < 0.01) and thigh muscle (P < 0.05), and also enhanced (P < 0.05) CuZnSOD activities in the breast and thigh muscles, which exerted antioxidant ability and a decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the liver (P < 0.01) and breast and thigh muscles (P < 0.05) of broilers. Furthermore, supplemental Zn increased activities of malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in the abdominal fat (P < 0.05), and fatty acid synthetase (FAS) and LPL in the liver (P < 0.01), which were accompanied with up-regulation (P < 0.01) of the mRNA expressions levels of these enzymes in the abdominal fat and liver of broilers. Dietary Zn source, and an interaction between Zn source and level, had no effects on any measurements. It is concluded that dietary Zn supplementation improved Zn status and resulted in promoting antioxidant ability and activities and gene expressions of fat metabolism-related enzymes of broilers regardless of Zn source and level, and the addition of 60 mg Zn/kg to the corn-soybean meal basal diet (a total dietary Zn of approximately 90 mg/kg) was appropriate

  1. Effects of supplemental zinc source and level on antioxidant ability and fat metabolism-related enzymes of broilers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z H; Lu, L; Wang, R L; Lei, H L; Li, S F; Zhang, L Y; Luo, X G

    2015-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary supplemental Zinc (Zn) source and level on antioxidant ability and fat metabolism-related enzymes of broilers. Dietary treatments included the Zn-unsupplemented corn-soybean meal basal diet (control) and basal diets supplemented with 60, 120, or 180 mg Zn/kg as Zn sulfate, Zn amino acid chelate with a weak chelation strength of 6.5 quotient of formation (Qf) (11.93% Zn) (Zn-AA W), Zn proteinate with a moderate chelation strength of 30.7 Qf (13.27% Zn) (Zn-Pro M), or Zn proteinate with an extremely strong chelation strength of 944.0 Qf (18.61% Zn) (Zn-Pro S). The results showed that dietary supplemental Zn increased (P < 0.01) Zn contents in the liver, breast, and thigh muscles of broilers, and up-regulated mRNA expressions of copper and Zn containing superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) and metallothioneins (MT) in the liver (P < 0.01) and thigh muscle (P < 0.05), and also enhanced (P < 0.05) CuZnSOD activities in the breast and thigh muscles, which exerted antioxidant ability and a decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the liver (P < 0.01) and breast and thigh muscles (P < 0.05) of broilers. Furthermore, supplemental Zn increased activities of malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in the abdominal fat (P < 0.05), and fatty acid synthetase (FAS) and LPL in the liver (P < 0.01), which were accompanied with up-regulation (P < 0.01) of the mRNA expressions levels of these enzymes in the abdominal fat and liver of broilers. Dietary Zn source, and an interaction between Zn source and level, had no effects on any measurements. It is concluded that dietary Zn supplementation improved Zn status and resulted in promoting antioxidant ability and activities and gene expressions of fat metabolism-related enzymes of broilers regardless of Zn source and level, and the addition of 60 mg Zn/kg to the corn-soybean meal basal diet (a total dietary Zn of approximately 90 mg/kg) was appropriate

  2. Speech perception in preschoolers at family risk for dyslexia: relations with low-level auditory processing and phonological ability.

    PubMed

    Boets, Bart; Ghesquière, Pol; van Wieringen, Astrid; Wouters, Jan

    2007-04-01

    We tested categorical perception and speech-in-noise perception in a group of five-year-old preschool children genetically at risk for dyslexia, compared to a group of well-matched control children and a group of adults. Both groups of children differed significantly from the adults on all speech measures. Comparing both child groups, the risk group presented a slight but significant deficit in speech-in-noise perception, particularly in the most difficult listening condition. For categorical perception a marginally significant deficit was observed on the discrimination task but not on the identification task. Speech parameters were significantly related to phonological awareness and low-level auditory measures. Results are discussed within the framework of a causal model where low-level auditory problems are hypothesized to result in subtle speech perception problems that might interfere with the development of phonology and reading and spelling ability. PMID:16887179

  3. Measurement of fallout {sup 239}Pu levels in urine samples by fission track analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Moorthy, A.R.; Doty, R.M.

    1996-11-01

    A Fission Track Analysis (FTA) method for assessing 239Pu in urine samples was first developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in 1988; it then had a detection limit of 100 aCi (3.7 {micro}Bq). Since that time, several steps were introduced that increased chemical recovery and lowered the detection limit to less than 1O aCi per sample. These improvements include a process of micro-column separation of plutonium in the final stages. The improved FTA method was applied to 22 urine samples from male staff at BNL. The results showed that 239Pu from fallout excreted in urine was 33 +/- 11 aCi (1.2 {micro}Bq) per day.

  4. Do Cost Functions for Tracking Error Generalize across Tasks with Different Noise Levels?

    PubMed Central

    Sensinger, Jonathon; Aleman-Zapata, Adrian; Englehart, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Control of human-machine interfaces are well modeled by computational control models, which take into account the behavioral decisions people make in estimating task dynamics and state for a given control law. This control law is optimized according to a cost function, which for the sake of mathematical tractability is typically represented as a series of quadratic terms. Recent studies have found that people actually use cost functions for reaching tasks that are slightly different than a quadratic function, but it is unclear which of several cost functions best explain human behavior and if these cost functions generalize across tasks of similar nature but different scale. In this study, we used an inverse-decision-theory technique to reconstruct the cost function from empirical data collected on 24 able-bodied subjects controlling a myoelectric interface. Compared with previous studies, this experimental paradigm involved a different control source (myoelectric control, which has inherently large multiplicative noise), a different control interface (control signal was mapped to cursor velocity), and a different task (the tracking position dynamically moved on the screen throughout each trial). Several cost functions, including a linear-quadratic; an inverted Gaussian, and a power function, accurately described the behavior of subjects throughout this experiment better than a quadratic cost function or other explored candidate cost functions (p<0.05). Importantly, despite the differences in the experimental paradigm and a substantially larger scale of error, we found only one candidate cost function whose parameter was consistent with the previous studies: a power function (cost ∝ errorα) with a parameter value of α = 1.69 (1.53–1.78 interquartile range). This result suggests that a power-function is a representative function of user’s error cost over a range of noise amplitudes for pointing and tracking tasks. PMID:26313560

  5. Investigating the atomic level influencing factors of glass forming ability in NiAl and CuZr metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Sedighi, Sina; Kirk, Donald Walter; Singh, Chandra Veer Thorpe, Steven John

    2015-09-21

    Bulk metallic glasses are a relatively new class of amorphous metal alloy which possess unique mechanical and magnetic properties. The specific concentrations and combinations of alloy elements needed to prevent crystallization during melt quenching remains poorly understood. A correlation between atomic properties that can explain some of the previously identified glass forming ability (GFA) anomalies of the NiAl and CuZr systems has been identified, with these findings likely extensible to other transition metal–transition metal and transition metal–metalloid (TM–M) alloy classes as a whole. In this work, molecular dynamics simulation methods are utilized to study thermodynamic, kinetic, and structural properties of equiatomic CuZr and NiAl metallic glasses in an attempt to further understand the underlying connections between glass forming ability, nature of atomic level bonding, short and medium range ordering, and the evolution of structure and relaxation properties in the disordered phase. The anomalous breakdown of the fragility parameter as a useful GFA indicator in TM–M alloy systems is addressed through an in-depth investigation of bulk stiffness properties and the evolution of (pseudo)Gruneisen parameters over the quench domain, with the efficacy of other common glass forming ability indicators similarly being analyzed through direct computation in respective CuZr and NiAl systems. Comparison of fractional liquid-crystal density differences in the two systems revealed 2-3 times higher values for the NiAl system, providing further support for its efficacy as a general purpose GFA indicator.

  6. Investigating the atomic level influencing factors of glass forming ability in NiAl and CuZr metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedighi, Sina; Kirk, Donald Walter; Singh, Chandra Veer; Thorpe, Steven John

    2015-09-01

    Bulk metallic glasses are a relatively new class of amorphous metal alloy which possess unique mechanical and magnetic properties. The specific concentrations and combinations of alloy elements needed to prevent crystallization during melt quenching remains poorly understood. A correlation between atomic properties that can explain some of the previously identified glass forming ability (GFA) anomalies of the NiAl and CuZr systems has been identified, with these findings likely extensible to other transition metal-transition metal and transition metal-metalloid (TM-M) alloy classes as a whole. In this work, molecular dynamics simulation methods are utilized to study thermodynamic, kinetic, and structural properties of equiatomic CuZr and NiAl metallic glasses in an attempt to further understand the underlying connections between glass forming ability, nature of atomic level bonding, short and medium range ordering, and the evolution of structure and relaxation properties in the disordered phase. The anomalous breakdown of the fragility parameter as a useful GFA indicator in TM-M alloy systems is addressed through an in-depth investigation of bulk stiffness properties and the evolution of (pseudo)Gruneisen parameters over the quench domain, with the efficacy of other common glass forming ability indicators similarly being analyzed through direct computation in respective CuZr and NiAl systems. Comparison of fractional liquid-crystal density differences in the two systems revealed 2-3 times higher values for the NiAl system, providing further support for its efficacy as a general purpose GFA indicator.

  7. Investigating the atomic level influencing factors of glass forming ability in NiAl and CuZr metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Sedighi, Sina; Kirk, Donald Walter; Singh, Chandra Veer; Thorpe, Steven John

    2015-09-21

    Bulk metallic glasses are a relatively new class of amorphous metal alloy which possess unique mechanical and magnetic properties. The specific concentrations and combinations of alloy elements needed to prevent crystallization during melt quenching remains poorly understood. A correlation between atomic properties that can explain some of the previously identified glass forming ability (GFA) anomalies of the NiAl and CuZr systems has been identified, with these findings likely extensible to other transition metal-transition metal and transition metal-metalloid (TM-M) alloy classes as a whole. In this work, molecular dynamics simulation methods are utilized to study thermodynamic, kinetic, and structural properties of equiatomic CuZr and NiAl metallic glasses in an attempt to further understand the underlying connections between glass forming ability, nature of atomic level bonding, short and medium range ordering, and the evolution of structure and relaxation properties in the disordered phase. The anomalous breakdown of the fragility parameter as a useful GFA indicator in TM-M alloy systems is addressed through an in-depth investigation of bulk stiffness properties and the evolution of (pseudo)Gruneisen parameters over the quench domain, with the efficacy of other common glass forming ability indicators similarly being analyzed through direct computation in respective CuZr and NiAl systems. Comparison of fractional liquid-crystal density differences in the two systems revealed 2-3 times higher values for the NiAl system, providing further support for its efficacy as a general purpose GFA indicator.

  8. An eye-tracking method to reveal the link between gazing patterns and pragmatic abilities in high functioning autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Grynszpan, Ouriel; Nadel, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    The present study illustrates the potential advantages of an eye-tracking method for exploring the association between visual scanning of faces and inferences of mental states. Participants watched short videos involving social interactions and had to explain what they had seen. The number of cognition verbs (e.g., think, believe, know) in their answers were counted. Given the possible use of peripheral vision that could confound eye-tracking measures, we added a condition using a gaze-contingent viewing window: the entire visual display is blurred, expect for an area that moves with the participant’s gaze. Eleven typical adults and eleven high functioning adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) were recruited. The condition employing the viewing window yielded strong correlations between the average duration of fixations, the ratio of cognition verbs and standard measures of social disabilities. PMID:25642182

  9. An eye-tracking method to reveal the link between gazing patterns and pragmatic abilities in high functioning autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Grynszpan, Ouriel; Nadel, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    The present study illustrates the potential advantages of an eye-tracking method for exploring the association between visual scanning of faces and inferences of mental states. Participants watched short videos involving social interactions and had to explain what they had seen. The number of cognition verbs (e.g., think, believe, know) in their answers were counted. Given the possible use of peripheral vision that could confound eye-tracking measures, we added a condition using a gaze-contingent viewing window: the entire visual display is blurred, expect for an area that moves with the participant's gaze. Eleven typical adults and eleven high functioning adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) were recruited. The condition employing the viewing window yielded strong correlations between the average duration of fixations, the ratio of cognition verbs and standard measures of social disabilities.

  10. An eye-tracking method to reveal the link between gazing patterns and pragmatic abilities in high functioning autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Grynszpan, Ouriel; Nadel, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    The present study illustrates the potential advantages of an eye-tracking method for exploring the association between visual scanning of faces and inferences of mental states. Participants watched short videos involving social interactions and had to explain what they had seen. The number of cognition verbs (e.g., think, believe, know) in their answers were counted. Given the possible use of peripheral vision that could confound eye-tracking measures, we added a condition using a gaze-contingent viewing window: the entire visual display is blurred, expect for an area that moves with the participant's gaze. Eleven typical adults and eleven high functioning adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) were recruited. The condition employing the viewing window yielded strong correlations between the average duration of fixations, the ratio of cognition verbs and standard measures of social disabilities. PMID:25642182

  11. Teacher Perceptions of Heterogeneous Ability Grouping in Secondary Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Rourke, Nicole Cox

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to provide the best academic opportunities for all students, many high schools create heterogeneous classes by removing existing academic tracks or by offering only 1 level of course. Research has indicated that separating students by ability often exacerbates existing academic inequity; however, mixed ability classes can also create…

  12. Tracking Blood Lead and Zinc Protoporphyrin Levels in Andean Adults Working in a Lead Contaminated Environment

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Fernando; Counter, S. Allen; Buchanan, Leo H.; Parra, Angelica Maria Coronel; Collaguaso, Maria Angela; Jacobs, Anthony B.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate current blood lead (PbB) and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels in adults presently living in environmentally Pb-contaminated Andean communities, and to compare the findings with the PbB and ZPP levels of Pb-exposed adult cohorts from the same study area tested between 1996 and 2007. Blood samples from 39 adults were measured for PbB and ZPP concentrations. The current mean PbB level (22.7 μg/dl) was significantly lower than the mean (37.9 μg/dl) of the initial 1996 cohort. PbB levels for the 1997, 1998, 2003, and 2006 cohorts were also significantly lower than the levels for the 1996 group. Elevated ZPP/heme ratios of 103.3, 128.4 and 134.2 μmol/mol were not significantly different for the 2006, 2007 and 2012 groups, indicating chronic Pb exposure. While ZPP levels of Andean Ecuadorian Pb-glazing workers have remained elevated, PbB levels declined. Pb exposure of the workers need to be continually monitored. PMID:24274152

  13. Performance of Tracking, b-tagging and Jet/MET reconstruction at the CMS High Level Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosi, Mia

    2015-12-01

    The trigger systems of the LHC detectors play a crucial role in determining the physics capabilities of experiments. In 2015, the center-of-mass energy of proton-proton collisions will reach 13 TeV up to an unprecedented luminosity of 1 × 1034 cm-2s-1. A reduction of several orders of magnitude of the event rate is needed to reach values compatible with detector readout, offline storage and analysis capabilities. The CMS experiment has been designed with a two-level trigger system: the Level-1 Trigger (L1T), implemented on custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a trade-off between the complexity of the algorithms, the sustainable output rate, and the selection efficiency. With the computing power available during the 2012 data taking the maximum reconstruction time at HLT was about 200 ms per event, at the nominal L1T rate of 100 kHz. Tracking algorithms are widely used in the HLT in the object reconstruction through particle-flow techniques as well as in the identification of b-jets and lepton isolation. Reconstructed tracks are also used to distinguish the primary vertex, which identifies the hard interaction process, from the pileup ones. This task is particularly important in the LHC environment given the large number of interactions per bunch crossing: on average 25 in 2012, and expected to be around 40 in Run II with a large contribution from out-of-time particles. In order to cope with tougher conditions the tracking and vertexing techniques used in 2012 have been largely improved in terms of timing and efficiency in order to keep the physics reach at the level of Run I conditions. We will present the performance of these newly developed algorithms, discussing their impact on the b-tagging performances as well as on the jet and missing transverse energy reconstruction.

  14. High-fidelity interface tracking in compressible flows: Unlimited anchored adaptive level set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nourgaliev, R. R.; Theofanous, T. G.

    2007-06-01

    The interface-capturing-fidelity issue of the level set method is addressed wholly within the Eulerian framework. Our aim is for a practical and efficient way to realize the expected benefits of grid resolution and high order schemes. Based on a combination of structured adaptive mesh refinement (SAMR), rather than quad/octrees, and on high-order spatial discretization, rather than the use of Lagrangian particles, our method is tailored to compressible flows, while it provides a potentially useful alternative to the particle level set (PLS) for incompressible flows. Interesting salient features of our method include (a) avoidance of limiting (in treating the Hamiltonian of the level set equation), (b) anchoring the level set in a manner that ensures no drift and no spurious oscillations of the zero level during PDE-reinitialization, and (c) a non-linear tagging procedure for defining the neighborhood of the interface subject to mesh refinement. Numerous computational results on a set of benchmark problems (strongly deforming, stretching and tearing interfaces) demonstrate that with this approach, implemented up to 11th order accuracy, the level set method becomes essentially free of mass conservation errors and also free of parasitic interfacial oscillations, while it is still highly efficient, and convenient for 3D parallel implementation. In addition, demonstration of performance in fully-coupled simulations is presented for multimode Rayleigh-Taylor instability (low-Mach number regime) and shock-induced, bubble-collapse (highly compressible regime).

  15. Analysis of seasonal expression levels of wheat fructan exohydrolase (FEH) genes regulating fructan metabolism involved in wintering ability.

    PubMed

    Meguro-Maoka, Ayano; Yoshida, Midori

    2016-02-01

    In northern regions, winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) accumulates fructan during cold-acclimation in autumn and freeze-acclimation in early winter. The content of fructan in wheat crown tissues is associated with both freezing tolerance and snow mold resistance, and expression levels of fructan synthesis genes in leaf and crown tissue are correlated with both changes and varietal differences in fructan accumulation levels of wheat during cold- and freeze-acclimation. Fructan hydrolysis activity has also been thought be involved in wintering ability of wheat. Since several kinds of gene homologs encoding fructan exohydrolase (FEH: EC. 3.2.1.153, 154) with different substrate specificities have recently been cloned from wheat, changes in transcript levels of wheat FEH genes in field-grown wheat cultivars from autumn to spring were analyzed to investigate regulation of seasonal changes in fructan content. The seasonal expression patterns of five genes encoding 1-FEH, 6-FEH (and Wfh-sm3), 6&1-FEH and 6-KEH (kestose exohydrolase) varied. Among the five genes, only seasonal changes in the expression of wfh-sm3, which codes an enzyme that is able to hydrolyze almost all components of fructan that has accumulated in hardened wheat tissues, were correlated with those changes in fructan contents. Moreover, the transcript levels of wfh-sm3 were low in snow mold-resistant cultivars that accumulate high levels of fructan. The transcript levels of 6-FEH increased with decrease in ambient temperatures and the levels decreased under snow. The analysis indicated that cooperative expression of 6-FEH and 1-FEH genes might be related to the seasonal changes and varietal difference in mono- and disaccharide contents. This study showed that the coordinated expression of FEH genes in wheat was related to the regulation of water-soluble carbohydrate accumulation from autumn to early winter and fructan consumption under snow cover as well as energy supply and that wheat FEHs also play

  16. "We don't need no education": Video game preferences, video game motivations, and aggressiveness among adolescent boys of different educational ability levels.

    PubMed

    Nije Bijvank, Marije; Konijn, Elly A; Bushman, Brad J

    2012-02-01

    This research focuses on low educational ability as a risk factor for aggression and violent game play. We propose that boys of lower educational ability are more attracted to violent video games than other boys are, and that they are also higher in trait aggressiveness and sensation seeking. Participants were Dutch boys in public schools (N = 830, age-range 11-17). In the Netherlands, standardized tests are used to place students into lower, medium, and higher educational ability groups. Results showed that boys in the lower educational ability group preferred to play violent, stand-alone games, identified more with video game characters, and perceived video games to be more realistic than other boys did. Lower levels of education were also related to higher levels of aggressiveness and sensation seeking. Higher educational ability boys preferred social, multiplayer games. Within a risk and resilience model, boys with lower educational ability are at greater risk for aggression.

  17. "We don't need no education": Video game preferences, video game motivations, and aggressiveness among adolescent boys of different educational ability levels.

    PubMed

    Nije Bijvank, Marije; Konijn, Elly A; Bushman, Brad J

    2012-02-01

    This research focuses on low educational ability as a risk factor for aggression and violent game play. We propose that boys of lower educational ability are more attracted to violent video games than other boys are, and that they are also higher in trait aggressiveness and sensation seeking. Participants were Dutch boys in public schools (N = 830, age-range 11-17). In the Netherlands, standardized tests are used to place students into lower, medium, and higher educational ability groups. Results showed that boys in the lower educational ability group preferred to play violent, stand-alone games, identified more with video game characters, and perceived video games to be more realistic than other boys did. Lower levels of education were also related to higher levels of aggressiveness and sensation seeking. Higher educational ability boys preferred social, multiplayer games. Within a risk and resilience model, boys with lower educational ability are at greater risk for aggression. PMID:21529925

  18. Investigation of Cognitive Abilities Related to Reading and Spelling in Korean: Readers with High, Average, and Low Skill Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hyun-Rin; Uno, Akira

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the characteristics of cognitive abilities as predictors of Korean reading and spelling ability, and the characteristics of the cognition of reading difficulty in Korean. In 103 Korean third-grade children, we tested ability to read and spell, nonverbal intelligence, vocabulary size, phonological cognitive…

  19. Oxytocin, but not vasopressin, impairs social cognitive ability among individuals with higher levels of social anxiety: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Tabak, Benjamin A; Meyer, Meghan L; Dutcher, Janine M; Castle, Elizabeth; Irwin, Michael R; Lieberman, Matthew D; Eisenberger, Naomi I

    2016-08-01

    Individuals with social anxiety are characterized by a high degree of social sensitivity, which can coincide with impairments in social cognitive functioning (e.g. theory of mind). Oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) have been shown to improve social cognition, and OT has been theorized as a potential therapeutic agent for individuals with social anxiety disorder. However, no study has investigated whether these neuropeptides improve social cognitive ability among socially anxious individuals. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, between-subjects design we investigated whether social anxiety moderated the effects of OT or AVP (vs placebo) on social working memory (i.e. working memory that involves manipulating social information) and non-social working memory. OT vs placebo impaired social working memory accuracy in participants with higher levels of social anxiety. No differences were found for non-social working memory or for AVP vs placebo. Results suggest that OT administration in individuals with higher levels of social anxiety may impair social cognitive functioning. Randomized-controlled trial registration: NCT01680718.

  20. Oxytocin, but not vasopressin, impairs social cognitive ability among individuals with higher levels of social anxiety: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Tabak, Benjamin A; Meyer, Meghan L; Dutcher, Janine M; Castle, Elizabeth; Irwin, Michael R; Lieberman, Matthew D; Eisenberger, Naomi I

    2016-08-01

    Individuals with social anxiety are characterized by a high degree of social sensitivity, which can coincide with impairments in social cognitive functioning (e.g. theory of mind). Oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) have been shown to improve social cognition, and OT has been theorized as a potential therapeutic agent for individuals with social anxiety disorder. However, no study has investigated whether these neuropeptides improve social cognitive ability among socially anxious individuals. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, between-subjects design we investigated whether social anxiety moderated the effects of OT or AVP (vs placebo) on social working memory (i.e. working memory that involves manipulating social information) and non-social working memory. OT vs placebo impaired social working memory accuracy in participants with higher levels of social anxiety. No differences were found for non-social working memory or for AVP vs placebo. Results suggest that OT administration in individuals with higher levels of social anxiety may impair social cognitive functioning. Randomized-controlled trial registration: NCT01680718. PMID:27053769

  1. ESR dating pleistocene barnacles from BC and Maine: a new method for tracking sea level change.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, Bonnie A B; Gong, J J J; Skinner, Anne R; Blais-Stevens, Andrée; Nelson, Robert E; Blickstein, Joel I B

    2010-02-01

    Barnacles have never been successfully dated by electron spin resonance (ESR). Living mainly in the intertidal zone, barnacles die when sea level changes cause their permanent exposure. Thus, dating the barnacles dates past sea level changes. From this, we can measure apparent sea level changes that occur due to ocean volume changes, crustal isostasy, and tectonics. ESR can date aragonitic mollusc shells ranging in age from 5 ka to at least 500 ka. By modifying the standard ESR method for molluscs to chemically dissolve 20 microm from off the shells, six barnacle samples from Norridgewock, Maine, and Khyex River, British Columbia, were tested for suitability for ESR dating. Due to Mn2+ interference peaks, the four Maine barnacle samples were not datable by ESR. Two barnacles from BC, which lacked Mn2+ interference, yielded a mean ESR age of 15.1 +/- 1.0 ka. These ages agree well with 14C dates on the barnacles themselves and wood in the overlying glaciomarine sediment. Although stability tests to calculate the mean dating signal lifetime and more ESR calibration tests against other barnacles of known age are needed to ensure the method's accuracy, ESR can indeed date Balanus, and thus, sea level changes.

  2. Sled tracking system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downey, George A., Jr.; Fountain, Hubert W.; Riding, Thomas J.; Eggleston, James; Hopkins, Michael; Adams, Billy

    1991-08-01

    The Sled Tracking System (STS) represents the successful merger of several technologies, including IR and visual sensors, real-time image processing, and real-time data processing and control. STS was developed to solve the dynamics of tracking seat ejection and vehicle tests at the Air Force's High Speed Test Track Facility at Holloman AFB, New Mexico. The system has the ability to track vehicles at transverse speeds exceeding Mach 1, while ignoring momentary loss of track due to background clutter. STS can discriminate among up to four seats sequentially ejected from a single vehicle and track only the event of interest. The system also maintains the track point of interest in the primary sensor's field-of-view while tracking an offset aim point and transitions from a transverse trajectory to a vertical trajectory while maintaining track through seat-mannequin separation and chute deployment. This paper discusses the hardware and software architectures implemented to solve these problems.

  3. A Comparison of the Basic Language Concepts and Psycholinguistic Abilities of Second Grade Boys Who Demonstrate Average and Below Average Levels of Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sears, Charles Richards

    Thirty second-grade boys--15 reading at grade level, 15 reading below grade level--were tested to determine whether children showing average and below average levels of reading achievement differed from each other in their mastery of basic language concepts and psycholinguistic abilities. They all met the criteria of (1) non-bilingual Caucasian…

  4. Wildlife ecotoxicology of pesticides: can we track effects to the population level and beyond?

    PubMed

    Köhler, Heinz-R; Triebskorn, Rita

    2013-08-16

    During the past 50 years, the human population has more than doubled and global agricultural production has similarly risen. However, the productive arable area has increased by just 10%; thus the increased use of pesticides has been a consequence of the demands of human population growth, and its impact has reached global significance. Although we often know a pesticide's mode of action in the target species, we still largely do not understand the full impact of unintended side effects on wildlife, particularly at higher levels of biological organization: populations, communities, and ecosystems. In these times of regional and global species declines, we are challenged with the task of causally linking knowledge about the molecular actions of pesticides to their possible interference with biological processes, in order to develop reliable predictions about the consequences of pesticide use, and misuse, in a rapidly changing world.

  5. Feasibility of determining Pu-239 environmental and occupational levels in urinary excretion by fission track analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Krahenbuhl, M.P.; Seiger-Webster, C.M.; Henderson, C.L.; Smith, R.B.

    1997-03-01

    The results of bioassay programs for detecting human exposure to plutonium are currently playing a role that they were never intended or prepared to fulfill. With little resistance or support from the scientific community, the regulatory community established exposure limits for plutonium burdens based largely on imprecise inference of causes and effects; thus, to an extent, incomplete data and analysis formed the basis for most existing bioassay programs. At the time these early programs were developed, they were used only to determine the occupational exposure to radiation workers and populations unintentionally exposed to occupational levels during open air testing. The results from these programs are now used in litigation to determine cause, negligence and responsibility for health problems associated with the populations surrounding facilities that store, handle and process nuclear materials. As this role is beyond the scope of most bioassay programs` designs, concern for the use of existing bioassay programs in this manner is rising. It is imperative that defendable, scientifically-based, more sensitive techniques be researched and developed to measure the presence of Plutonium (Pu), which in turn can be used to establish and predict the health effects of a minimal Pu exposure. Currently, estimates to predict systemic deposition using urinalysis data are several times greater than the exposure levels measured by autopsy. The scientific research conducted in this study can serve to narrow this discrepancy and provide the regulatory community with a more reliable basis for establishing regulatory exposure limits and accurately predicting systemic deposition. Furthermore, this research and the continued development of more sophisticated detection techniques can serve to dispel general public concern over the possibility of radiation exposure from ongoing site remediation and closure efforts.

  6. Identification of stair climbing ability levels in community-dwelling older adults based on the geometric mean of stair ascent and descent speed: The GeMSS classifier.

    PubMed

    Mayagoitia, Ruth E; Harding, John; Kitchen, Sheila

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to develop a quantitative approach to identify three stair-climbing ability levels of older adults: no, somewhat and considerable difficulty. Timed-up-and-go test, six-minute-walk test, and Berg balance scale were used for statistical comparison to a new stair climbing ability classifier based on the geometric mean of stair speeds (GeMSS) in ascent and descent on a flight of eight stairs with a 28° pitch in the housing unit where the participants, 28 (16 women) urban older adults (62-94 years), lived. Ordinal logistic regression revealed the thresholds between the three ability levels for each functional test were more stringent than thresholds found in the literature to classify walking ability levels. Though a small study, the intermediate classifier shows promise of early identification of difficulties with stairs, in order to make timely preventative interventions. Further studies are necessary to obtain scaling factors for stairs with other pitches.

  7. Identification of stair climbing ability levels in community-dwelling older adults based on the geometric mean of stair ascent and descent speed: The GeMSS classifier.

    PubMed

    Mayagoitia, Ruth E; Harding, John; Kitchen, Sheila

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to develop a quantitative approach to identify three stair-climbing ability levels of older adults: no, somewhat and considerable difficulty. Timed-up-and-go test, six-minute-walk test, and Berg balance scale were used for statistical comparison to a new stair climbing ability classifier based on the geometric mean of stair speeds (GeMSS) in ascent and descent on a flight of eight stairs with a 28° pitch in the housing unit where the participants, 28 (16 women) urban older adults (62-94 years), lived. Ordinal logistic regression revealed the thresholds between the three ability levels for each functional test were more stringent than thresholds found in the literature to classify walking ability levels. Though a small study, the intermediate classifier shows promise of early identification of difficulties with stairs, in order to make timely preventative interventions. Further studies are necessary to obtain scaling factors for stairs with other pitches. PMID:27633200

  8. Visual selection and maintenance of the cell lines with high plant regeneration ability and low ploidy level in Dianthus acicularis by monitoring with flow cytometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Shiba, Tomonori; Mii, Masahiro

    2005-12-01

    Efficient plant regeneration system from cell suspension cultures was established in D. acicularis (2n=90) by monitoring ploidy level and visual selection of the cultures. The ploidy level of the cell cultures closely related to the shoot regeneration ability. The cell lines comprising original ploidy levels (2C+4C cells corresponding to DNA contents of G1 and G2 cells of diploid plant, respectively) showed high regeneration ability, whereas those containing the cells with 8C or higher DNA C-values showed low or no regeneration ability. The highly regenerable cell lines thus selected consisted of compact cell clumps with yellowish color and relatively moderate growth, suggesting that it is possible to select visually the highly regenerable cell lines with the original ploidy level. All the regenerated plantlets from the highly regenerable cell cultures exhibited normal phenotypes and no variations in ploidy level were observed by flow cytometry (FCM) analysis.

  9. Discriminatory ability of fractal and grey level co-occurrence matrix methods in structural analysis of hippocampus layers.

    PubMed

    Pantic, Igor; Dacic, Sanja; Brkic, Predrag; Lavrnja, Irena; Jovanovic, Tomislav; Pantic, Senka; Pekovic, Sanja

    2015-04-01

    Fractal and grey level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) analysis represent two mathematical computer-assisted algorithms that are today thought to be able to accurately detect and quantify changes in tissue architecture during various physiological and pathological processes. However, despite their numerous applications in histology and pathology, their sensitivity, specificity and validity regarding evaluation of brain tissue remain unclear. In this article we present the results indicating that certain parameters of fractal and GLCM analysis have high discriminatory ability in distinguishing two morphologically similar regions of rat hippocampus: stratum lacunosum-moleculare and stratum radiatum. Fractal and GLCM algorithms were performed on a total of 240 thionine-stained hippocampus micrographs of 12 male Wistar albino rats. 120 digital micrographs represented stratum lacunosum-moleculare, and another 120 stratum radiatum. For each image, 7 parameters were calculated: fractal dimension, lacunarity, GLCM angular second moment, GLCM contrast, inverse difference moment, GLCM correlation, and GLCM variance. GLCM variance (VAR) resulted in the largest area under the Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.96, demonstrating an outstanding discriminatory power in analysis of stratum lacunosum-moleculare (average VAR equaled 478.1 ± 179.8) and stratum radiatum (average VAR of 145.9 ± 59.2, p < 0.0001). For the criterion VAR ≤ 227.5, sensitivity and specificity were 90% and 86.7%, respectively. GLCM correlation as a parameter also produced large area under the ROC curve of 0.95. Our results are in accordance with the findings of our previous study regarding brain white mass fractal and textural analysis. GLCM algorithm as an image analysis method has potentially high applicability in structural analysis of brain tissue cytoarcitecture.

  10. Automatic shape-based level set segmentation for needle tracking in 3-D TRUS-guided prostate brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ping; Cheeseborough, John C; Chao, K S Clifford

    2012-09-01

    Prostate brachytherapy is an effective treatment for early prostate cancer. The success depends critically on the correct needle implant positions. We have devised an automatic shape-based level set segmentation tool for needle tracking in 3-D transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) images, which uses the shape information and level set technique to localize the needle position and estimate the endpoint of needle in real-time. The 3-D TRUS images used in the evaluation of our tools were obtained using a 2-D TRUS transducer from Ultrasonix (Richmond, BC, Canada) and a computer-controlled stepper motor system from Thorlabs (Newton, NJ, USA). The accuracy and feedback mechanism had been validated using prostate phantoms and compared with 3-D positions of these needles derived from experts' readings. The experts' segmentation of needles from 3-D computed tomography images was the ground truth in this study. The difference between automatic and expert segmentations are within 0.1 mm for 17 of 19 implanted needles. The mean errors of automatic segmentations by comparing with the ground truth are within 0.25 mm. Our automated method allows real-time TRUS-based needle placement difference within one pixel compared with manual expert segmentation.

  11. The Level of Creative Abilities Dimensions According to Torrance Formal Test (B) and Their Relationship with Some Variables (Sex, Age, GPA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awamleh, Habis; Al Farah, Yacoub; El-Zraigat, Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the level of dimensions for creative abilities (originality, flexibility, originality, elaboration) among students in Al Rai Jordanian schools according to Torrance Formal test, and to investigate the differences in these levels attributable to the study variables (gender, age, grade point average "GPA"). The…

  12. A study of indoor radon levels in rural dwellings of Ezine (Canakkale, Turkey) using solid-state nuclear track detectors.

    PubMed

    Orgün, Y; Altinsoy, N; Sahin, S Y; Ataksor, B; Celebi, N

    2008-01-01

    Indoor radon activity level and radon effective dose (ED) rate have been carried out in the rural dwellings of Ezine (Canakkale) during the summer season using Radosys-2000, a complete set suitable to radon concentration measurements with CR-39 plastic alpha track detectors. The range of radon concentration varied between 9 and 300 Bq m(-3), with an average of 67.9 (39.9 SD) Bq m(-3). Assuming an indoor occupancy factor of 0.8 and 0.4 for the equilibrium factor of radon indoors, it has been found that the 222Rn ED rate in the dwellings studied ranges from 0.4 to 5.2 mSv y(-1), with an average value of 1.7 (1.0) mSv y(-1). There is a possibility that low radon concentrations exist indoors during the summer season in the study area because of relatively high ventilation rates in the dwellings. A winter survey will be needed for future estimation of the annual ED.

  13. A global historical Radiosondes and Tracked Balloons Archive on standard pressure levels back to the 1920s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramella Pralungo, L.; Haimberger, L.; Stickler, A.; Brönnimann, S.

    2013-12-01

    Long observed time series of climate state quantities are needed to extend our understanding of global weather, climate variability and monitoring not only at the Earths surface but also the free atmosphere, since climate anomalies and climate change have a three-dimensional spatial structure. Radiosonde data before 1958 and tracked balloon (PILOT) data are rarely available at standard times on standard pressure levels, which complicates their use for climate studies. This paper describes an upper air dataset on standard pressure levels at 00:00 GMT and 12:00 GMT for parameters temperature and wind. The input data sources of this dataset are the Comprehensive Historical Upper Air Network (CHUAN version 1.7), the Integrated Global Radiosonde Archive (IGRA) and upper air observations from the reanalysis datasets ERA-40 and ERA-Interim. As such it contains many data that have been digitized and collected in the EU FP7 project ERA-CLIM. Those data, which partly exist at asynoptic times and on altitude levels instead of pressure levels, have been brought to synoptic times and standard pressure levels using state of the art interpolation techniques, employing geopotential information National Oceanic and Atmosphere Administration (NOAA) 20th Century Reanalysis (NOAA 20CR) to aid the interpolation. The standardized time series have been merged if necessary, taking care that the data are traceable back to their original sources. Only time series longer than 300 days have been saved in the merged archive, since the main purpose of this dataset is to aid climatological studies. If possible WMO numbers have been given to the station records. For some records which have never been identified by a WMO number, a local ID above 100 000 has been attached. This paper describes the merging procedure, data count and data quality and how traceability of the data is ensured. It does not describe a homogenization procedure for both temperature and wind data. Homogeneity adjustments for

  14. The Impact of Reading Competence and Grade Level on the Ability to Take and Utilize a Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabe, Mark

    A total of 168 fourth and sixth grade students participated in a study to examine two aspects of children's ability to apply structure while reading. The first part of the study investigated the amount of detail that must be provided in order for students to apply successfully a desired perspective (schema). Students were identified as either good…

  15. Gender and Spatial Ability and the Use of Specific Labels and Diagrammatic Arrows in a Micro-Level Chemistry Animation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falvo, David A.; Suits, Jerry P.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of using both specific labels and diagrammatic arrows in the animation of salt dissolution. Four different versions of the animation served as treatments that were developed based upon principles of educational technology and cognitive psychology. The researchers studied the effects of spatial ability (high or…

  16. The Market Phenomenon in Taiwanese Junior High Level Education: Behind the Battles between Streaming and Mixed-Ability Grouping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Ling-Ying

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author explores the market phenomenon revealed in the practice of a mixed-ability grouping policy in Taiwan, and traces the influence of the wider educational contexts on the formation of the market phenomenon. Although there have been no major policies introduced with the intention of creating a market mechanism in Taiwanese…

  17. Using Eye Tracking to Observe Differential Effects of Repeated Readings for Second-grade Students as a Function of Achievement Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zawoyski, Andrea M.; Ardoin, Scott P.; Binder, Katherine S.

    2015-01-01

    Repeated readings (RR) is an evidence-based instructional technique in which students read the same text multiple times. Currently, little is known about how effects of RR may differ based on students' achievement levels. Eye tracking provides a means for closely examining instructional effects because it permits measurement of subtle changes that…

  18. Can Tracking Improve Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duflo, Esther; Dupas, Pascaline; Kremer, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Tracking students into different classrooms according to their prior academic performance is controversial among both scholars and policymakers. If teachers find it easier to teach a homogeneous group of students, tracking could enhance school effectiveness and raise test scores of both low- and high-ability students. If students benefit from…

  19. VEx/VIRTIS and TNG/NICS cloud tracked winds at Venus' lower cloud level using nightside observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, Pedro; Peralta, Javier; Luz, David; Gonçalves, Rúben

    2016-04-01

    We present results based on observations carried out with the Near Infrared Camera and Spectrograph (NICS) of the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG), in La Palma, on July 2012. We observed for periods of 2.5 hours starting just before dawn, for three consecutive nights. We acquired a set of images of the night side of Venus with the continuum K filter at 2.28 microns, which allows to monitor motions at the lower cloud level of the atmosphere of Venus, close to 48 km altitude. Our objective has been to measure the horizontal wind field in order to characterize the latitudinal zonal wind profile, to study variability, to help constrain the effect of large scale planetary waves in the maintenance of superrotation, and to map the cloud distribution. We will present first results of cloud tracked winds from ground-based TNG observations and winds retrieved from coordinated space-based VEx/VIRTIS observations. The cloud deck extends in altitude from 45 to 70 km, and can be divided into three main regions, centered at 48, 54 and 60 km. The lowest of these is the lower cloud, where fundamental dynamical exchanges that help maintain superrotation are thought to occur. The lower venusian atmosphere is a strong source of thermal radiation, with the gaseaous CO2 component allowing radiation to escape in windows at 1.74 and 2.28 μm. At these wavelengths radiation originates below 35 km, and unit opacity is reached at the lower cloud level, close to 48 km. Therefore, in these windows it is possible to observe the horizontal cloud structure, with thicker clouds seen silhouetted against the bright thermal background from the low atmosphere. Our objective is to provide direct absolute wind measurements and a map of cloud distribution at the lower cloud level in the Venus troposphere, in order to complement Venus Express (VEX) and other ground-based observations of the cloud layer wind regime. By continuous monitoring of the horizontal cloud structure at 2.28 μm (NICS Kcont filter

  20. Assimilating best track minimum sea level pressure data together with doppler radar data using an ensemble Kalman filter for Hurricane Ike (2008) at a cloud-resolving resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Ming; Dong, Jili

    2013-06-01

    Extending an earlier study, the best track minimum sea level pressure (MSLP) data are assimilated for landfalling Hurricane Ike (2008) using an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF), in addition to data from two coastal ground-based Doppler radars, at a 4-km grid spacing. Treated as a sea level pressure observation, the MSLP assimilation by the EnKF enhances the hurricane warm core structure and results in a stronger and deeper analyzed vortex than that in the GFS (Global Forecast System) analysis; it also improves the subsequent 18-h hurricane intensity and track forecasts. With a 2-h total assimilation window length, the assimilation of MSLP data interpolated to 10-min intervals results in more balanced analyses with smaller subsequent forecast error growth and better intensity and track forecasts than when the data are assimilated every 60 minutes. Radar data are always assimilated at 10-min intervals. For both intensity and track forecasts, assimilating MSLP only outperforms assimilating radar reflectivity ( Z) only. For intensity forecast, assimilating MSLP at 10-min intervals outperforms radar radial wind ( V r) data (assimilated at 10-min intervals), but assimilating MSLP at 60-min intervals fails to beat V r data. For track forecast, MSLP assimilation has a slightly (noticeably) larger positive impact than V r( Z) data. When V r or Z is combined with MSLP, both intensity and track forecasts are improved more than the assimilation of individual observation type. When the total assimilation window length is reduced to 1 h or less, the assimilation of MSLP alone even at 10-min intervals produces poorer 18-h intensity forecasts than assimilating V r only, indicating that many assimilation cycles are needed to establish balanced analyses when MSLP data alone are assimilated; this is due to the very limited pieces of information that MSLP data provide.

  1. Penicillin-Binding Protein Transpeptidase Signatures for Tracking and Predicting β-Lactam Resistance Levels in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Metcalf, Benjamin J.; Chochua, Sopio; Li, Zhongya; Gertz, Robert E.; Walker, Hollis; Hawkins, Paulina A.; Tran, Theresa; Whitney, Cynthia G.; McGee, Lesley; Beall, Bernard W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT β-Lactam antibiotics are the drugs of choice to treat pneumococcal infections. The spread of β-lactam-resistant pneumococci is a major concern in choosing an effective therapy for patients. Systematically tracking β-lactam resistance could benefit disease surveillance. Here we developed a classification system in which a pneumococcal isolate is assigned to a “PBP type” based on sequence signatures in the transpeptidase domains (TPDs) of the three critical penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), PBP1a, PBP2b, and PBP2x. We identified 307 unique PBP types from 2,528 invasive pneumococcal isolates, which had known MICs to six β-lactams based on broth microdilution. We found that increased β-lactam MICs strongly correlated with PBP types containing divergent TPD sequences. The PBP type explained 94 to 99% of variation in MICs both before and after accounting for genomic backgrounds defined by multilocus sequence typing, indicating that genomic backgrounds made little independent contribution to β-lactam MICs at the population level. We further developed and evaluated predictive models of MICs based on PBP type. Compared to microdilution MICs, MICs predicted by PBP type showed essential agreement (MICs agree within 1 dilution) of >98%, category agreement (interpretive results agree) of >94%, a major discrepancy (sensitive isolate predicted as resistant) rate of <3%, and a very major discrepancy (resistant isolate predicted as sensitive) rate of <2% for all six β-lactams. Thus, the PBP transpeptidase signatures are robust indicators of MICs to different β-lactam antibiotics in clinical pneumococcal isolates and serve as an accurate alternative to phenotypic susceptibility testing. PMID:27302760

  2. An Analysis of the Changes in Ability and Knowledge of Students Taking A-Level Physics and Mathematics over a 35 Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barham, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    New undergraduate students arriving to study physics at the University of Bristol from 1975 onwards have all taken the same test of their knowledge and understanding of physics and mathematics. Many of the questions test knowledge of material that has been in the A-level syllabus for maths or physics throughout this period. The ability of incoming…

  3. The Effects of Computer-Assisted Instruction Based on Top-Level Structure Method in English Reading and Writing Abilities of Thai EFL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jinajai, Nattapong; Rattanavich, Saowalak

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to study the development of ninth grade students' reading and writing abilities and interests in learning English taught through computer-assisted instruction (CAI) based on the top-level structure (TLS) method. An experimental group time series design was used, and the data was analyzed by multivariate analysis of variance…

  4. An Effect of Levels of Learning Ability and Types of Feedback in Electronic Portfolio on Learning Achievement of Students in Electronic Media Production for Education Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koraneekij, Prakob

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study an effect of levels of learning ability and types of feedback in an electronic portfolio on learning achievement of students in electronic media production for education subject. The samples were 113 students registered in Electronic Media Production for Education Subject divided into 6 groups : 3 control…

  5. An Evaluation of a Teaching Intervention to Promote Students' Ability to Use Multiple Levels of Representation when Describing and Explaining Chemical Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandrasegaran, A. L.; Treagust, David F.; Mocerino, Mauro

    2008-01-01

    Students are generally known to memorise and regurgitate chemical equations without sufficient understanding of the changes that occur at the particulate level. In addition, they often fail to recognise the significance of the symbols and formulas that are used to represent chemical reactions. This article describes an evaluation of the ability of…

  6. School Achievement and Personality. Description of School Achievement in Terms of Ability, Trait, Situational and Background Variables. II: Operations at the Variable Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niskanen, Erkki A.

    This monograph contains the second section, operations at the variable level, of a report of studies done in Helsinki, Finland, describing school achievement in terms of ability, trait, situational, and background variables. The report (1) investigates the structure of school achievement, (2) describes school achievement in terms of selected…

  7. Detection of occlusal carious lesions: an in vitro comparison of clinicians' diagnostic abilities at varying levels of experience.

    PubMed

    Swenson, Eric; Hennessy, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    There are many different methods available for detecting occlusal caries. This in vitro study, performed on 94 extracted human teeth, examines differences in diagnostic abilities (using visual and tactile methods) and examines restorative choices among 21 dental clinicians, based on amount of clinical experience. Test subjects examined the extracted teeth and utilized a mirror explorer, bitewing radiographs, and magnification to diagnose suspected occlusal caries. The teeth were sectioned and diagnosed macroscopically to obtain a sensitivity and specificity value for each clinician. Based on the results, there is no strong correlation between a dentist's amount of experience and a more accurate diagnosis or more conservative treatment options.

  8. Pathway Evidence of How Musical Perception Predicts Word-Level Reading Ability in Children with Reading Difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; Brandão de Ávila, Clara Regina; Ploubidis, George B.; de Jesus Mari, Jair

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether specific domains of musical perception (temporal and melodic domains) predict the word-level reading skills of eight- to ten-year-old children (n = 235) with reading difficulties, normal quotient of intelligence, and no previous exposure to music education classes. Method A general-specific solution of the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA), which underlies a musical perception construct and is constituted by three latent factors (the general, temporal, and the melodic domain), was regressed on word-level reading skills (rate of correct isolated words/non-words read per minute). Results General and melodic latent domains predicted word-level reading skills. PMID:24358358

  9. Unreliable Tracking Ability of the Third-Generation FloTrac/Vigileo™ System for Changes in Stroke Volume after Fluid Administration in Patients with High Systemic Vascular Resistance during Laparoscopic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Wook-Jong; Choi, Jeong-Hyun; Han, Yun A.; Kim, Seon-Ok; Choi, Woo-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Background The FloTrac/Vigileo™ system does not thoroughly reflect variable arterial tones, due to a lack of external calibration. The ability of this system to measure stroke volume and track its changes after fluid administration has not been fully evaluated in patients with the high systemic vascular resistance that can develop during laparoscopic surgery. Methods In 42 patients undergoing laparoscopic prostatectomy, the stroke volume derived by the third-generation FloTrac/Vigileo™ system (SV-Vigileo), the stroke volume measured using transesophageal echocardiography (SV-TEE) as a reference method, and total systemic vascular resistance were evaluated before and after 500 ml fluid administration during pneumoperitoneum combined with the Trendelenburg position. Results Total systemic vascular resistance was 2159.4 ± 523.5 dyn·s/cm5 before fluid administration. The SV-Vigileo was significantly higher than the SV-TEE both before (68.8 ± 15.9 vs. 57.0 ± 11.0 ml, P < 0.001) and after (73.0 ± 14.8 vs. 64.9 ± 12.2 ml, P = 0.003) fluid administration. During pneumoperitoneum combined with the Trendelenburg position, Bland-Altman analysis for repeated measures showed a 53.8% of percentage error between the SV-Vigileo and the SV-TEE. Four-quadrant plot (69.2% of a concordance rate) and polar plot analysis (20.6° of a mean polar angle, 16.4° of the SD of a polar angle, and ±51.5° of a radial sector containing 95% of the data points) did not indicate a good trending ability of the FloTrac/Vigileo™ system. Conclusions The third-generation FloTrac/Vigileo™ system may not be useful in patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery, based on unreliable performance in measuring the stroke volume and in tracking changes in the stroke volume after fluid administration during pneumoperitoneum combined with the Trendelenburg position. PMID:26529592

  10. Relating the ability of mallards to ingest high levels of sediment to potential contaminant exposure in waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, Gary H.; Beyer, W. Nelson; Hoffman, David J.; Audet, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    When waterfowl feed from the bottom of bodies of water, they sometimes ingest sediments along with their food, and this sediment can be a major source of contaminants. Learning how much sediment waterfowl can consume in their diet and still maintain their health would be helpful in assessing potential threats from contaminants in sediment. In a controlled laboratory study the maximum tolerated percentage of sediment in the diet of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) was measured. When fed a well-balanced commercial avian diet, 50, 60, or 70% sediment in the diet on a dry-weight basis did not cause weight loss over a two-week period. Ducks fed this same commercial diet, but containing 80 or 90% sediment, lost 8.6 and 15.6% of their body weight, respectively, in the first week on those diets. After factoring in the ability of the mallards to sieve out some of the sediment from their diet before swallowing it, we concluded that the mallards could maintain their health even when approximately half of what they swallowed, on a dry-weight basis, was sediment.

  11. The Effects of Reading Instruction on Comprehension and Motivation of Ninth-Grade Students with Varying Ability Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Reading levels of high school students are a rising concern among secondary educators. Although some recent research has shown certain reading practices to be effective, the results have not been conclusive. Further study was needed to not only determine the most effective reading practices to use with struggling high school students, but also…

  12. The Use of Twitter to Track Levels of Disease Activity and Public Concern in the U.S. during the Influenza A H1N1 Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Signorini, Alessio; Segre, Alberto Maria; Polgreen, Philip M.

    2011-01-01

    Twitter is a free social networking and micro-blogging service that enables its millions of users to send and read each other's “tweets,” or short, 140-character messages. The service has more than 190 million registered users and processes about 55 million tweets per day. Useful information about news and geopolitical events lies embedded in the Twitter stream, which embodies, in the aggregate, Twitter users' perspectives and reactions to current events. By virtue of sheer volume, content embedded in the Twitter stream may be useful for tracking or even forecasting behavior if it can be extracted in an efficient manner. In this study, we examine the use of information embedded in the Twitter stream to (1) track rapidly-evolving public sentiment with respect to H1N1 or swine flu, and (2) track and measure actual disease activity. We also show that Twitter can be used as a measure of public interest or concern about health-related events. Our results show that estimates of influenza-like illness derived from Twitter chatter accurately track reported disease levels. PMID:21573238

  13. [Diagnostic Ability of Natriuretic Peptides for Heart Failure According to eGFR Level: Comparison between Brain Natriuretic Peptide and Amino-Terminal Probrain Natriuretic Peptide].

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Kimika; Ando, Yukichi; Matsunaga, Sachiko; Nishiura, Akihiko

    2016-03-01

    Although the influence of reduced kidney function on natriuretic peptides (B-type natriuretic peptide [BNP] and amino terminal probrain natriuretic peptide [NT]) is clear, effect of kidney function on the difference of diagnostic ability for heart failure by these peptides is not obvious. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between natriuretic peptide concentrations and echocardiographic findings according to eGFR level of the patients. In addition, we compared diagnostic ability of BNP with that of NT according to eGFR level. The eGFR levels were classified by based on CKD stage (≥ 60, 45-59, 30-44, 15-29, < 15 and on maintenance HD). Patients who underwent the measurements of BNP, NT and serum creatinine concentrations, as well as echocardiography between March and October in 2011 were enrolled (n = 1,297). The left ventricular mass index was greater in patients with eGFR < 60 than in those with eGFR ≥ 60, but EF (%) was not different among eGFR level (except eGFR30-44). The percentage of patients with heart failure in those with eGFR < 60 (16.0%) was more than eGFR ≥ 60 (5.8%). Median BNP and NT concentrations were elevated in association with decreasing eGFR level. Using receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) analysis, the area under the ROC curve for BNP and NT that stratified subjects with or without heart failure was not different among eGFR level. In conclusion, BNP and NT levels are elevated depend on decreasing eGFR level, BNP and NT are comparable in the accuracy for diagnosing heart failure at every eGFR level. The cut-off value of BNP and NT should be established according to the eGFR level. PMID:27363216

  14. The influence of a multisensory intervention for preterm infants provided by parents, on developmental abilities and on parental stress levels.

    PubMed

    Gabis, Lidia V; Hacham-Pilosof, Keren; Yosef, Omer Bar; Rabinovitz, Gila; Leshem, Gili; Shilon-Hadass, Aya; Biran, Yael; Reichman, Brian; Kuint, Jacob; Bart, Orit

    2015-06-01

    Evaluation of a multisensory intervention based on the developmental approach provided by parents, during neonatal intensive care unit hospitalization of their preterm infants. After guidance of parents and implementation of intervention program, children were followed up to 2 to 3 years using scales for evaluation of parental stress levels and child's development. Our 2 to 3 years' follow-up study included 41 infants (20 controls and 21 who received parental-guided intervention) as part of a group of 95 preterm infants who participated in a short-term study. The intervention group showed significantly higher scores in receptive language and fine-motor domains of the Bayley Scale of Infant and Toddler Development-3rd Edition. Boys showed superior improvements in language skills. No differences were found in the cognitive and adaptive domains. There were no differences in parental stress levels. A multisensory intervention program for preterm infants provided by trained and supervised parents may improve language and motor outcomes at 2 to 3 years. PMID:25246304

  15. Level of Immersion in Virtual Environments Impacts the Ability to Assess and Teach Social Skills in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bugnariu, Nicoleta L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Virtual environments (VEs) may be useful for delivering social skills interventions to individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Immersive VEs provide opportunities for individuals with ASD to learn and practice skills in a controlled replicable setting. However, not all VEs are delivered using the same technology, and the level of immersion differs across settings. We group studies into low-, moderate-, and high-immersion categories by examining five aspects of immersion. In doing so, we draw conclusions regarding the influence of this technical manipulation on the efficacy of VEs as a tool for assessing and teaching social skills. We also highlight ways in which future studies can advance our understanding of how manipulating aspects of immersion may impact intervention success. PMID:26919157

  16. Level of Immersion in Virtual Environments Impacts the Ability to Assess and Teach Social Skills in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Miller, Haylie L; Bugnariu, Nicoleta L

    2016-04-01

    Virtual environments (VEs) may be useful for delivering social skills interventions to individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Immersive VEs provide opportunities for individuals with ASD to learn and practice skills in a controlled replicable setting. However, not all VEs are delivered using the same technology, and the level of immersion differs across settings. We group studies into low-, moderate-, and high-immersion categories by examining five aspects of immersion. In doing so, we draw conclusions regarding the influence of this technical manipulation on the efficacy of VEs as a tool for assessing and teaching social skills. We also highlight ways in which future studies can advance our understanding of how manipulating aspects of immersion may impact intervention success.

  17. Adaptive re-tracking algorithm for retrieval of water level variations and wave heights from satellite altimetry data for middle-sized inland water bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Lebedev, Sergey; Soustova, Irina; Rybushkina, Galina; Papko, Vladislav; Baidakov, Georgy; Panyutin, Andrey

    One of the recent applications of satellite altimetry originally designed for measurements of the sea level [1] is associated with remote investigation of the water level of inland waters: lakes, rivers, reservoirs [2-7]. The altimetry data re-tracking algorithms developed for open ocean conditions (e.g. Ocean-1,2) [1] often cannot be used in these cases, since the radar return is significantly contaminated by reflection from the land. The problem of minimization of errors in the water level retrieval for inland waters from altimetry measurements can be resolved by re-tracking satellite altimetry data. Recently, special re-tracking algorithms have been actively developed for re-processing altimetry data in the coastal zone when reflection from land strongly affects echo shapes: threshold re-tracking, The other methods of re-tracking (threshold re-tracking, beta-re-tracking, improved threshold re-tracking) were developed in [9-11]. The latest development in this field is PISTACH product [12], in which retracking bases on the classification of typical forms of telemetric waveforms in the coastal zones and inland water bodies. In this paper a novel method of regional adaptive re-tracking based on constructing a theoretical model describing the formation of telemetric waveforms by reflection from the piecewise constant model surface corresponding to the geography of the region is considered. It was proposed in [13, 14], where the algorithm for assessing water level in inland water bodies and in the coastal zone of the ocean with an error of about 10-15 cm was constructed. The algorithm includes four consecutive steps: - constructing a local piecewise model of a reflecting surface in the neighbourhood of the reservoir; - solving a direct problem by calculating the reflected waveforms within the framework of the model; - imposing restrictions and validity criteria for the algorithm based on waveform modelling; - solving the inverse problem by retrieving a tracking point

  18. At what level of heat load are age-related impairments in the ability to dissipate heat evident in females?

    PubMed

    Stapleton, Jill M; Poirier, Martin P; Flouris, Andreas D; Boulay, Pierre; Sigal, Ronald J; Malcolm, Janine; Kenny, Glen P

    2015-01-01

    Studies have reported that older females have impaired heat loss responses during work in the heat compared to young females. However, it remains unclear at what level of heat stress these differences occur. Therefore, we examined whole-body heat loss [evaporative (HE) and dry heat loss, via direct calorimetry] and changes in body heat storage (∆Hb, via direct and indirect calorimetry) in 10 young (23±4 years) and 10 older (58±5 years) females matched for body surface area and aerobic fitness (VO2peak) during three 30-min exercise bouts performed at incremental rates of metabolic heat production of 250 (Ex1), 325 (Ex2) and 400 (Ex3) W in the heat (40°C, 15% relative humidity). Exercise bouts were separated by 15 min of recovery. Since dry heat gain was similar between young and older females during exercise (p=0.52) and recovery (p=0.42), differences in whole-body heat loss were solely due to HE. Our results show that older females had a significantly lower HE at the end of Ex2 (young: 383±34 W; older: 343±39 W, p=0.04) and Ex3 (young: 437±36 W; older: 389±29 W, p=0.008), however no difference was measured at the end of Ex1 (p=0.24). Also, the magnitude of difference in the maximal level of HE achieved between the young and older females became greater with increasing heat loads (Ex1=10.2%, Ex2=11.6% and Ex3=12.4%). Furthermore, a significantly greater ∆Hb was measured for all heat loads for the older females (Ex1: 178±44 kJ; Ex2: 151±38 kJ; Ex3: 216±25 kJ, p=0.002) relative to the younger females (Ex1: 127±35 kJ; Ex2: 96±45 kJ; Ex3: 146±46 kJ). In contrast, no differences in HE or ∆Hb were observed during recovery (p>0.05). We show that older habitually active females have an impaired capacity to dissipate heat compared to young females during exercise-induced heat loads of ≥325 W when performed in the heat.

  19. Discriminative ability of the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (level 1) in prospective young soccer players.

    PubMed

    Markovic, Goran; Mikulic, Pavle

    2011-10-01

    We evaluated the sensitivity of the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test-level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) when discriminating among players in varying playing positions and different age categories in youth soccer. One-hundred and six prospective young soccer players, grouped on the basis of chronological age (under-13, under-14, under-15, under-16, under-17, under-18, and under-19) and playing position (center-backs, fullbacks, center midfielders, wide midfielders, and forwards), participated in the study. The players were administered a single Yo-Yo IR1 test at the beginning of the spring season. Analysis of variance revealed significant (F = 25.3; p < 0.001) group differences in Yo-Yo IR1 test performance scores among the observed age categories, and a systematic age-related increase in the Yo-Yo IR1 test performance was evident. Subsequent post hoc comparisons identified a number of significant differences among the selected age categories in Yo-Yo IR1 test performance. Analysis of covariance identified significant differences among playing positions (F = 3.1; p < 0.019) in the Yo-Yo IR1 test performance after controlling for age (F = 135.1; p < 0.001). Subsequent pairwise comparisons of the adjusted Yo-Yo IR1 test performance identified that center-backs had achieved significantly lower (all p < 0.01) performance scores than center midfielders, wide midfielders, and forwards, but not fullbacks. These results could be of practical value to coaches and scientists for further development of talent selection and profiling procedures in soccer, particularly because (a) the endurance performance represents a very important fitness component in selection and profiling of young soccer players and (b) the Yo-Yo IR1 test proved to be valid, reliable, and easily available measurement tool of a player's soccer-specific endurance capacity.

  20. The plateau zokors' learning and memory ability is related to the high expression levels of foxP2 in the brain.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ben-Yuan; Wei, Lian; Sun, Sheng-Zhen; Wang, Duo-Wei; Wei, Deng-Bang

    2014-04-25

    Plateau zokor (Myospalax baileyi) is a subterranean mammal. Plateau zokor has high learning and memory ability, and can determine the location of blocking obstacles in their tunnels. Forkhead box p2 (FOXP2) is a transcription factor implicated in the neural control of orofacial coordination and sensory-motor integration, particularly with respect to learning, memory and vocalization. To explore the association of foxP2 with the high learning and memory ability of plateau zokor, the cDNA of foxP2 of plateau zokor was sequenced; by using plateau pika as control, the expression levels of foxP2 mRNA and FOXP2 protein in brain of plateau zokor were determined by real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively; and the location of FOXP2 protein in the brain of plateau zokor was determined by immunohistochemistry. The result showed that the cDNA sequence of plateau zokor foxP2 was similar to that of other mammals and the amino acid sequences showed a relatively high degree of conservation, with the exception of two particular amino acid substitutions [a Gln (Q)-to-His (H) change at position 231 and a Ser (S)-to-Ile (I) change at position 235]. Higher expression levels of foxP2 mRNA (3-fold higher) and FOXP2 protein (>2-fold higher) were detected in plateau zokor brain relative to plateau pika brain. In plateau zokor brain, FOXP2 protein was highly expressed in the cerebral cortex, thalamus and the striatum (a basal ganglia brain region). The results suggest that the high learning and memory ability of plateau zokor is related to the high expression levels of foxP2 in the brain.

  1. Content, format, gender and grade level differences in elementary students' ability to read science materials as measured by the cloze procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Richard L.; Yore, Larry D.

    Present instructional trends in science indicate a need to reexamine a traditional concern in science education: the readability of science textbooks. An area of reading research not well documented is the effect of color, visuals, and page layout on readability of science materials. Using the cloze readability method, the present study explored the relationships between page format, grade level, sex, content, and elementary school students ability to read science material. Significant relationships were found between cloze scores and both grade level and content, and there was a significant interaction effect between grade and sex in favor of older males. No significant relationships could be attributed to page format and sex. In the area of science content, biological materials were most difficult in terms of readability followed by earth science and physical science. Grade level data indicated that grade five materials were more difficult for that level than either grade four or grade six materials were for students at each respective level. In eight of nine cases, the science text materials would be classified at or near the frustration level of readability. The implications for textbook writers and publishers are that science reading materials need to be produced with greater attention to readability and known design principles regarding visual supplements. The implication for teachers is that students need direct instruction in using visual materials to increase their learning from text material. Present visual materials appear to neither help nor hinder the student to gain information from text material.

  2. TRACK--A new method for the evaluation of low-level extinction coefficient in optical films.

    PubMed

    Vernhes, R; Martinu, L

    2015-11-01

    We develop a rigorous methodology named TRACK based on the collection of multi-angle spectrophotometric transmission and reflection data in order to assess the extinction coefficient of quasi-transparent optical films. The accuracy of extinction coefficient values obtained by this method is not affected by sample non-idealities (thickness non-uniformity, refractive index inhomogeneities, anisotropy, interfaces, etc.) and therefore a simple two-layer (substrate/film) optical model can be used. The method requires the acquisition of transmission and reflection data at two angles of incidence: 10° and 65° in p polarization. Data acquired at 10° provide information about the film thickness and the refractive index, while data collected at 65° are used for absorption evaluation and extinction coefficient computation. We test this method on three types of samples: (i) a CR-39 plastic substrate coated with a thick protective coating; (ii) the same substrate coated with a thin TiO(2) film; (iii) and a thick Si(3)N(4) film deposited on Gorilla glass that presents thickness non-uniformity and refractive index gradient non-idealities. We also compare absorption and extinction coefficient values obtained at 410 and 550 nm by both TRACK and Laser Induced Deflection techniques in the case of a 1 micron thick TiO(2) coating. Both methods display consistent extinction coefficient values in the 10(-4) and 10(-5) ranges at 410 and 550 nm, respectively, which proves the validity of the methodology and provides an estimate of its accuracy limit. PMID:26561121

  3. Tracking dynamic team activity

    SciTech Connect

    Tambe, M.

    1996-12-31

    AI researchers are striving to build complex multi-agent worlds with intended applications ranging from the RoboCup robotic soccer tournaments, to interactive virtual theatre, to large-scale real-world battlefield simulations. Agent tracking - monitoring other agent`s actions and inferring their higher-level goals and intentions - is a central requirement in such worlds. While previous work has mostly focused on tracking individual agents, this paper goes beyond by focusing on agent teams. Team tracking poses the challenge of tracking a team`s joint goals and plans. Dynamic, real-time environments add to the challenge, as ambiguities have to be resolved in real-time. The central hypothesis underlying the present work is that an explicit team-oriented perspective enables effective team tracking. This hypothesis is instantiated using the model tracing technology employed in tracking individual agents. Thus, to track team activities, team models are put to service. Team models are a concrete application of the joint intentions framework and enable an agent to track team activities, regardless of the agent`s being a collaborative participant or a non-participant in the team. To facilitate real-time ambiguity resolution with team models: (i) aspects of tracking are cast as constraint satisfaction problems to exploit constraint propagation techniques; and (ii) a cost minimality criterion is applied to constrain tracking search. Empirical results from two separate tasks in real-world, dynamic environments one collaborative and one competitive - are provided.

  4. OCULUS Sea Track Fusion Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagiotou, Stylianos C.; Rizogiannis, Constantinos; Katsoulis, Stavros; Lampropoulos, Vassilis; Kanellopoulos, Sotirios; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

    2015-06-01

    Oculus Sea is a complete solution regarding maritime surveillance and communications at Local as well as Central Command and Control level. It includes a robust and independent track fusion service whose main functions include: 1) Interaction with the User to suggest the fusion of two or more tracks, confirm Track ID and Vessel Metadata creation for the fused track, and suggest de-association of two tracks 2) Fusion of same vessel tracks arriving simultaneously from multiple radar sensors featuring track Association, track Fusion of associated tracks to produce a more accurate track, and Multiple tracking filters and fusion algorithms 3) Unique Track ID Generator for each fused track 4) Track Dissemination Service. Oculus Sea Track Fusion Service adopts a system architecture where each sensor is associated with a Kalman estimator/tracker that obtains an estimate of the state vector and its respective error covariance matrix. Finally, at the fusion center, association and track state estimation fusion are carried out. The expected benefits of this system include multi-sensor information fusion, enhanced spatial resolution, and improved target detection.

  5. An analysis of the changes in ability and knowledge of students taking A-level physics and mathematics over a 35 year period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barham, Peter J.

    2012-03-01

    New undergraduate students arriving to study physics at the University of Bristol from 1975 onwards have all taken the same test of their knowledge and understanding of physics and mathematics. Many of the questions test knowledge of material that has been in the A-level syllabus for maths or physics throughout this period. The ability of incoming students to answer these questions declined significantly in the 1990s with average scores falling from around 75% up to 1990 to below 50% after 2000 against a background of increasing A-level grades of the entrants to the programme. It is suggested that changes in teaching and examination methods have caused students to be less able to carry out multi-stage calculations and that the introduction of modular examinations may have encouraged a culture where students tend to forget material learnt in previous modules.

  6. Evaluation of the running-based anaerobic sprint test as a measure of repeated sprint ability in collegiate-level soccer players.

    PubMed

    Keir, Daniel A; Thériault, Francis; Serresse, Olivier

    2013-06-01

    Repeated sprint ability (RSA) refers to an individual's ability to perform maximal sprints of short duration in succession with little recovery between sprints. The running-based anaerobic sprint test (RAST) has been adapted from the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) protocol as a tool to assess RSA and anaerobic power. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between performance variables and physiological responses obtained during the RAST and the WAnT using 8 collegiate-level soccer players. Participants performed a single trial of both the WAnT and the RAST. Breath-by-breath gas exchange was monitored throughout each trial, and blood lactate (BL) measures were recorded postexercise. The oxygen uptake (VO2) profile suggested that the RAST required greater contributions from aerobic metabolism although there was no difference in VO2peak (p < 0.05). Peak BL values were also similar between the RAST and the WAnT (p < 0.05). Neither peak physiological values nor performance variables (peak and mean power) were significantly correlated between protocols. The weak association in physiological responses indicates that different combinations of metabolic contributions exist between protocols, suggesting that individual performances on each test are not related in collegiate soccer players. Further studies on these relationships with players of other competitive levels and team sport athletes are warranted.

  7. "My Skin Color Stops Me from Leading": Tracking, Identity, and Student Dynamics in a Racially Mixed School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modica, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    The practice of separating students according to ability level, also known as academic tracking, allows racially mixed schools to maintain segregated classrooms. This article examines the effects of academic tracking on the racial identity and educational opportunities of students at a mixed-race suburban charter school. Through five months of…

  8. No Additional Benefit of Repeat-Sprint Training in Hypoxia than in Normoxia on Sea-Level Repeat-Sprint Ability

    PubMed Central

    Goods, Paul S.R.; Dawson, Brian; Landers, Grant J.; Gore, Christopher J.; Peeling, Peter

    2015-01-01

    To assess the impact of ‘top-up’ normoxic or hypoxic repeat-sprint training on sea-level repeat-sprint ability, thirty team sport athletes were randomly split into three groups, which were matched in running repeat-sprint ability (RSA), cycling RSA and 20 m shuttle run performance. Two groups then performed 15 maximal cycling repeat-sprint training sessions over 5 weeks, in either normoxia (NORM) or hypoxia (HYP), while a third group acted as a control (CON). In the post-training cycling RSA test, both NORM (13.6%; p = 0.0001, and 8.6%; p = 0.001) and HYP (10.3%; p = 0.007, and 4.7%; p = 0.046) significantly improved overall mean and peak power output, respectively, whereas CON did not change (1.4%; p = 0.528, and -1.1%; p = 0.571, respectively); with only NORM demonstrating a moderate effect for improved mean and peak power output compared to CON. Running RSA demonstrated no significant between group differences; however, the mean sprint times improved significantly from pre- to post-training for CON (1.1%), NORM (1.8%), and HYP (2.3%). Finally, there were no group differences in 20 m shuttle run performance. In conclusion, ‘top-up’ training improved performance in a task-specific activity (i.e. cycling); however, there was no additional benefit of conducting this ‘top-up’ training in hypoxia, since cycle RSA improved similarly in both HYP and NORM conditions. Regardless, the ‘top-up’ training had no significant impact on running RSA, therefore the use of cycle repeat-sprint training should be discouraged for team sport athletes due to limitations in specificity. Key points ‘Top-up’ repeat-sprint training performed on a cycle ergometer enhances cycle repeat-sprint ability compared to team sport training only in football players. The addition of moderate hypoxia to repeat-sprint training provides no additional performance benefits to sea-level repeat-sprint ability or endurance performance than normoxic repeat-sprint training.

  9. No Additional Benefit of Repeat-Sprint Training in Hypoxia than in Normoxia on Sea-Level Repeat-Sprint Ability.

    PubMed

    Goods, Paul S R; Dawson, Brian; Landers, Grant J; Gore, Christopher J; Peeling, Peter

    2015-09-01

    To assess the impact of 'top-up' normoxic or hypoxic repeat-sprint training on sea-level repeat-sprint ability, thirty team sport athletes were randomly split into three groups, which were matched in running repeat-sprint ability (RSA), cycling RSA and 20 m shuttle run performance. Two groups then performed 15 maximal cycling repeat-sprint training sessions over 5 weeks, in either normoxia (NORM) or hypoxia (HYP), while a third group acted as a control (CON). In the post-training cycling RSA test, both NORM (13.6%; p = 0.0001, and 8.6%; p = 0.001) and HYP (10.3%; p = 0.007, and 4.7%; p = 0.046) significantly improved overall mean and peak power output, respectively, whereas CON did not change (1.4%; p = 0.528, and -1.1%; p = 0.571, respectively); with only NORM demonstrating a moderate effect for improved mean and peak power output compared to CON. Running RSA demonstrated no significant between group differences; however, the mean sprint times improved significantly from pre- to post-training for CON (1.1%), NORM (1.8%), and HYP (2.3%). Finally, there were no group differences in 20 m shuttle run performance. In conclusion, 'top-up' training improved performance in a task-specific activity (i.e. cycling); however, there was no additional benefit of conducting this 'top-up' training in hypoxia, since cycle RSA improved similarly in both HYP and NORM conditions. Regardless, the 'top-up' training had no significant impact on running RSA, therefore the use of cycle repeat-sprint training should be discouraged for team sport athletes due to limitations in specificity. Key points'Top-up' repeat-sprint training performed on a cycle ergometer enhances cycle repeat-sprint ability compared to team sport training only in football players.The addition of moderate hypoxia to repeat-sprint training provides no additional performance benefits to sea-level repeat-sprint ability or endurance performance than normoxic repeat-sprint training.'Top-up' cycling repeat-sprint training

  10. Hierarchical state-space estimation of leatherback turtle navigation ability.

    PubMed

    Mills Flemming, Joanna; Jonsen, Ian D; Myers, Ransom A; Field, Christopher A

    2010-01-01

    Remotely sensed tracking technology has revealed remarkable migration patterns that were previously unknown; however, models to optimally use such data have developed more slowly. Here, we present a hierarchical Bayes state-space framework that allows us to combine tracking data from a collection of animals and make inferences at both individual and broader levels. We formulate models that allow the navigation ability of animals to be estimated and demonstrate how information can be combined over many animals to allow improved estimation. We also show how formal hypothesis testing regarding navigation ability can easily be accomplished in this framework. Using Argos satellite tracking data from 14 leatherback turtles, 7 males and 7 females, during their southward migration from Nova Scotia, Canada, we find that the circle of confusion (the radius around an animal's location within which it is unable to determine its location precisely) is approximately 96 km. This estimate suggests that the turtles' navigation does not need to be highly accurate, especially if they are able to use more reliable cues as they near their destination. Moreover, for the 14 turtles examined, there is little evidence to suggest that male and female navigation abilities differ. Because of the minimal assumptions made about the movement process, our approach can be used to estimate and compare navigation ability for many migratory species that are able to carry electronic tracking devices. PMID:21203382

  11. Hierarchical state-space estimation of leatherback turtle navigation ability.

    PubMed

    Mills Flemming, Joanna; Jonsen, Ian D; Myers, Ransom A; Field, Christopher A

    2010-12-28

    Remotely sensed tracking technology has revealed remarkable migration patterns that were previously unknown; however, models to optimally use such data have developed more slowly. Here, we present a hierarchical Bayes state-space framework that allows us to combine tracking data from a collection of animals and make inferences at both individual and broader levels. We formulate models that allow the navigation ability of animals to be estimated and demonstrate how information can be combined over many animals to allow improved estimation. We also show how formal hypothesis testing regarding navigation ability can easily be accomplished in this framework. Using Argos satellite tracking data from 14 leatherback turtles, 7 males and 7 females, during their southward migration from Nova Scotia, Canada, we find that the circle of confusion (the radius around an animal's location within which it is unable to determine its location precisely) is approximately 96 km. This estimate suggests that the turtles' navigation does not need to be highly accurate, especially if they are able to use more reliable cues as they near their destination. Moreover, for the 14 turtles examined, there is little evidence to suggest that male and female navigation abilities differ. Because of the minimal assumptions made about the movement process, our approach can be used to estimate and compare navigation ability for many migratory species that are able to carry electronic tracking devices.

  12. GEOS-3 Doppler difference tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenbaum, B.

    1977-01-01

    The Doppler difference method as applied to track the GEOS 3 spacecraft is discussed. In this method a pair of 2 GHz ground tracking stations simultaneously track a spacecraft beacon to generate an observable signal in which bias and instability of the carrier frequency cancel. The baselines are formed by the tracking sites at Bermuda, Rosman, and Merritt Island. Measurements were made to evaluate the effectiveness of the Doppler differencing procedure in tracking a beacon target with the high dynamic rate of the GEOS 3 orbit. Results indicate the precision of the differenced data to be at a level comparable to the conventional precise two way Doppler tracking.

  13. Ability of lupine seeds to germinate and to tolerate desiccation as related to changes in free radical level and antioxidants in freshly harvested seeds.

    PubMed

    Garnczarska, Małgorzata; Bednarski, Waldemar; Jancelewicz, Mariusz

    2009-01-01

    Seeds of yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus L. cv. Juno) were collected throughout their development on the mother plant to determine whether the ability to germinate and to tolerate desiccation is related to the level of free radicals and the changes in the redox state of ascorbate and glutathione as well as the activities of antioxidative enzymes. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)-based analyses showed that development of lupine seed was accompanied by generation of free radicals with g(1) and g(2) values of 2.0049+/-0.0004 and 2.0029+/-0.0003, respectively. Free radical level increased significantly 25 DAF and decreased thereafter. The amount of hydrogen peroxide was high in fresh immature seeds and decreased during maturation drying. Ascorbate accumulated in lupine embryos during early seed filling stage whereas glutathione content increased during late seed filling phase. During maturation drying the redox state of both ascorbate and glutathione pools shifted towards the oxidized forms. While superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11) activities remained high at the early seed filling stage the activities of both dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR, EC 1.8.5.1) and glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2) and that of catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) increased before seeds reached physiological maturity and decreased thereafter. The changes of isoform patterns of antioxidative enzymes were observed during seed maturation. Immature lupine seeds tested immediately after harvest acquired the ability to germinate when less than half-filled and reached high tolerance to desiccation just after physiological maturity. The physiological implications of the changes in antioxidative machinery for the acquisition of desiccation tolerance and seeds germinability are discussed.

  14. Visual attention for social information and salivary oxytocin levels in preschool children with autism spectrum disorders: an eye-tracking study.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Takashi X; Tanaka, Shiho; Saito, Daisuke N; Kosaka, Hirotaka; Tomoda, Akemi

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to ascertain the relationship between visual attention for social information and oxytocin (OT) levels in Japanese preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We hypothesized that poor visual attention for social information and low OT levels are crucially important risk factors associated with ASD. We measured the pattern of gaze fixation for social information using an eye-tracking system, and salivary OT levels by the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). There was a positive association between salivary OT levels and fixation duration for an indicated object area in a finger-pointing movie in typically developing (TD) children. However, no association was found between these variables in children with ASD. Moreover, age decreased an individual's attention to people moving and pointed-at objects, but increased attention for mouth-in-the-face recognition, geometric patterns, and biological motions. Thus, OT levels likely vary during visual attention for social information between TD children and those with ASD. Further, aging in preschool children has considerable effect on visual attention for social information.

  15. Mixed Ability Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skov, Poul

    1986-01-01

    As a basis for taking a position on the future school structure in grades 8-10 in Denmark, an extensive study was carried out on mixed ability teaching (teaching in heterogeneous classes) on these grade levels. Results showed that mixed ability teaching gave at least as good results as teaching in differentiated classes. (Author/LMO)

  16. Stress Levels in Tenure-Track and Recently Tenured Faculty Members in Selected Institutions of Higher Education in Northeast Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Amanda R.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to compare the stress, strain, and coping levels between pretenured faculty and recently tenured faculty in institutions of higher education in Northeast Tennessee. Aging faculty population combined with talented people leaving the area is common in rural parts of the United States. There is a need to…

  17. Hearing ability by telephone of patients with cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Ito, J; Nakatake, M; Fujita, S

    1999-12-01

    We investigated the telephone communication ability of patients with cochlear implants who could understand conversations in natural voice without difficulty. The hearing ability of those patients with telephone adapters, which usually are used to reduce noise level in the telephone and to record into a tape recorder, was also investigated. Vowel-confusion, consonant-confusion, and speech-tracking test results of patients listening to voices by telephone and by telephone adapter were compared with those of patients listening to natural, nontelephone voices. The average score of the speech-tracking test with natural voice was 111.5 phrases per 5 minutes. This score dropped to 62.4 by telephone. However, with a telephone adapter, the score of the speech-tracking test was 109.3 phrases per 5 minutes. This was almost the same score as that of the natural voice. So, generally speaking, the telephone communication ability of cochlear implant patients was not good enough. However, hearing ability with a telephone adapter came close to hearing ability during natural speech.

  18. Natural Single-Nucleotide Variations in the HIV-1 Genomic SA1prox Region Can Alter Viral Replication Ability by Regulating Vif Expression Levels

    PubMed Central

    Nomaguchi, Masako; Doi, Naoya; Sakai, Yosuke; Ode, Hirotaka; Iwatani, Yasumasa; Matsumoto, Yui; Miyazaki, Yasuyuki; Masuda, Takao

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We previously found that natural single-nucleotide variations located within a proximal region of splicing acceptor 1 (SA1prox) in the HIV-1 genome could alter the viral replication potential and mRNA expression pattern, especially the vif mRNA level. Here, we studied the virological and molecular basis of nucleotide sequence variations in SA1prox for alterations of viral replication ability. Consistent with our previous findings, variant clones indeed expressed Vif at different levels and grew distinctively in cells with various APOBEC3G expression levels. Similar effects were observed for natural variations found in HIV-2 SA1prox, suggesting the importance of the SA1prox sequence. To define nucleotides critical for the regulation of HIV-1 Vif expression, effects of natural SA1prox variations newly found in the HIV Sequence Compendium database on vif mRNA/Vif protein levels were examined. Seven out of nine variations were found to produce Vif at lower, higher, or more excessive levels than wild-type NL4-3. Combination experiments of variations giving distinct Vif levels suggested that the variations mutually affected vif transcript production. While low and high producers of Vif grew in an APOBEC3G-dependent manner, excessive expressers always showed an impeded growth phenotype due to defects in single-cycle infectivity and/or virion production levels. The phenotype of excessive expressers was not due primarily to inadequate expression of Tat or Rev, although SA1prox variations altered the overall HIV-1 mRNA expression pattern. Collectively, our results demonstrate that HIV SA1prox regulates Vif expression levels and suggest a relationship between SA1prox and viral adaptation/evolution given that variations occurred naturally. IMPORTANCE While human cells possess restriction factors to inhibit HIV-1 replication, HIV-1 encodes antagonists to overcome these barriers. Conflicts between host restriction factors and viral counterparts are critical driving

  19. Stem cell tracking using iron oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Bull, Elizabeth; Madani, Seyed Yazdan; Sheth, Roosey; Seifalian, Amelia; Green, Mark; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2014-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are an exciting advancement in the field of nanotechnology. They expand the possibilities of noninvasive analysis and have many useful properties, making them potential candidates for numerous novel applications. Notably, they have been shown that they can be tracked by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and are capable of conjugation with various cell types, including stem cells. In-depth research has been undertaken to establish these benefits, so that a deeper level of understanding of stem cell migratory pathways and differentiation, tumor migration, and improved drug delivery can be achieved. Stem cells have the ability to treat and cure many debilitating diseases with limited side effects, but a main problem that arises is in the noninvasive tracking and analysis of these stem cells. Recently, researchers have acknowledged the use of SPIONs for this purpose and have set out to establish suitable protocols for coating and attachment, so as to bring MRI tracking of SPION-labeled stem cells into common practice. This review paper explains the manner in which SPIONs are produced, conjugated, and tracked using MRI, as well as a discussion on their limitations. A concise summary of recently researched magnetic particle coatings is provided, and the effects of SPIONs on stem cells are evaluated, while animal and human studies investigating the role of SPIONs in stem cell tracking will be explored.

  20. A two-photon fluorescent sensor revealing drug-induced liver injury via tracking γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) level in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peisheng; Jiang, Xiao-Fang; Nie, Xuezheng; Huang, Yong; Zeng, Fang; Xia, Xitao; Wu, Shuizhu

    2016-02-01

    Currently drug-induced liver injury (DILI) has become a major and challenging public health issue in terms of medicine development and clinical therapy. The level of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) has long been regarded as a preclinical/clinical biomarker for prediction of DILI. Herein, we report a two-photon fluorescent sensor for tracking GGT level changes resulted from DILI in vivo. The sensor was prepared by linking a glutamic acid to a dicyanomethylene-4H-pyran (DCM) derivative; and the presence of GGT cleaves γ-glutamyl amide group from the sensor and thereby restores the fluorescence emission (at 635 nm) of DCM moiety under femtosecond pulses at 800 nm. This two-photon sensor exhibits superior sensing performance such as red emission, high photostability and low detection limit (∼0.057 U/L). On a two-photon microscope, the sensor shows a bright red fluorescence in GGT-overexpressing A2780 cells; and it can fluorescently respond to the GGT generated in the liver of zebrafishes as a result of clinical drug (phenytoin) treatment. These findings demonstrate that a commonly-used clinical drug phenytoin can cause remarkable elevation in GGT level in liver, and this sensor may be useful as a marker to detect clinical drug-induced organ damages.

  1. Beyond Tracking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Percy; And Others

    1992-01-01

    On the surface, educational tracking may seem like a useful tool for allowing students to work at their own pace, and to avoid discouraging competition, but abuses of the tracking idea have arisen through biased placement practices that have denied equal access to education for minority students. The articles in this issue explore a number of…

  2. Polarization characterization of a monopulse tracking feed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodnar, D. G.

    1984-12-01

    It is pointed out that polarimetric radar has created an increased interest in polarization characteristics and characterization of radar antennas. Cross-polarization from the antenna can corrupt the measurement of target characteristics, and it can degrade the accuracy of a tracking radar. Polarization characterization of antennas is also important for frequency-reuse satellite applications. Current techniques for measuring cross-polarized patterns are either limited with respect to their ability to measure low level patterns or are very time consuming to perform. The present investigation is concerned with an alternate technique which permits rapid measurement of low level (-50 to -70 dB), cross-polarized patterns. A description is provided of the demonstration of the technique, taking into account the measurement of four-horn multimode monopulse tracking feed.

  3. High-throughput gene expression analysis at the level of single proteins using a microfluidic turbidostat and automated cell tracking

    PubMed Central

    Ullman, G.; Wallden, M.; Marklund, E. G.; Mahmutovic, A.; Razinkov, Ivan; Elf, J.

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a method combining microfluidics, time-lapsed single-molecule microscopy and automated image analysis allowing for the observation of an excess of 3000 complete cell cycles of exponentially growing Escherichia coli cells per experiment. The method makes it possible to analyse the rate of gene expression at the level of single proteins over the bacterial cell cycle. We also demonstrate that it is possible to count the number of non-specifically DNA binding LacI–Venus molecules using short excitation light pulses. The transcription factors are localized on the nucleoids in the cell and appear to be uniformly distributed on chromosomal DNA. An increase in the expression of LacI is observed at the beginning of the cell cycle, possibly because some gene copies are de-repressed as a result of partitioning inequalities at cell division. Finally, a size–growth rate uncertainty relation is observed where cells living in rich media vary more in the length at birth than in generation time, and the opposite is true for cells living in poorer media. PMID:23267179

  4. High level production of β-galactosidase exhibiting excellent milk-lactose degradation ability from Aspergillus oryzae by codon and fermentation optimization.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qianqian; Liu, Fei; Hou, Zhongwen; Yuan, Chao; Zhu, Xiqiang

    2014-03-01

    A β-galactosidase gene from Aspergillus oryzae was engineered utilizing codon usage optimization to be constitutively and highly expressed in the Pichia pastoris SMD1168H strain in a high-cell-density fermentation. After fermentation for 96 h in a 50-L fermentor using glucose and glycerol as combined carbon sources, the recombinant enzyme in the culture supernatant had an activity of 4,239.07 U mL(-1) with o-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside as the substrate, and produced a total of extracellular protein content of 7.267 g L(-1) in which the target protein (6.24 g L(-1)) occupied approximately 86 %. The recombinant β-galactosidase exhibited an excellent lactose hydrolysis ability. With 1,000 U of the enzyme in 100 mL milk, 92.44 % lactose was degraded within 24 h at 60 °C, and the enzyme could also accomplish the hydrolysis at low temperatures of 37, 25, and 10 °C. Thus, this engineered strain had significantly higher fermentation level of A. oryzae lactase than that before optimization and the β-galactosidase may have a good application potential in whey and milk industries.

  5. Effect of exercise level on the ability of thallium-201 tomographic imaging in detecting coronary artery disease: Analysis of 461 patients

    SciTech Connect

    Iskandrian, A.S.; Heo, J.; Kong, B.; Lyons, E. )

    1989-11-15

    This study examined the effect of the level of exercise on the ability of thallium-201 imaging with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to detect coronary artery disease. Patients in group 1 (n = 164) achieved adequate exercise end points, defined as positive exercise electrocardiograms or greater than or equal to 85% of maximal predicted heart rate. Patients in group 2 (n = 108) had submaximal exercise. The SPECT thallium-201 images showed perfusion defects in 74%, 88%, and 98%, respectively, of patients with one, two and three vessel coronary artery disease in group 1, compared with 52%, 84% and 79%, respectively, of such patients in group 2 (p less than 0.05). Perfusion defects showed partial or complete redistribution consistent with ischemia in 56%, 80% and 88%, respectively, of patients with one, two and three vessel coronary artery disease in group 1 compared with 35%, 58% and 56%, respectively, of such patients in group 2 (p = 0.08, less than 0.03 and less than 0.001, respectively). Of 58 patients with normal coronary angiograms or less than 50% diameter stenosis, 36 (62%) had normal SPECT images. In a separate group of 131 patients with less than 5% pretest probability of coronary artery disease, the specificity was 93%. The sensitivity of exercise SPECT imaging in group 1 was higher than that of ST segment depression (p less than 0.001). Thus, the level of exercise affects the results of SPECT thallium imaging in the localization and evaluation of the extent of coronary artery disease and the detection of ischemia.

  6. Tracking the association between metro-railway construction works and PM levels in an urban Mediterranean environment.

    PubMed

    Paschalidou, A K; Kassomenos, P A; Kelessis, A

    2016-10-15

    Metro-railways are considered to be a sustainable means of public transportation, as they contribute substantially to the reduction of air pollutant emissions through the decrease in the number of cars and heavy vehicles circulating in the road network. However, the works related to their construction may pose an extra burden in air quality status and consequently in public health. In the present study, we studied the possible effects of the metro-railway construction works in Thessaloniki, Greece, on public health through 2 well-established air quality indices, namely the PI and DAQI. The analysis suggested that there were excess high levels of PM10 measured in the close vicinity of the construction-sites during the period studied (2008-2014). These concentrations are likely to have originated from local construction sources rather than transport or continental secondary dust sources and might have an adverse health impact, as according to the PI index, the majority of days in the construction sites were grouped as "low pollution" or "moderate pollution", while a small percentage of days (1.84%) were suggested to be unhealthy for the most vulnerable groups of the population. Similarly, the DAQI index revealed that the vast majority of days were grouped as "poor" air quality, while 5.50% of the days reflected the most oppressive conditions for public health, as they were characterized as "very poor" air quality. Given the need of reaching a compromise between future transportation sustainability and public health during the construction works, the feasibility of appropriate measures in the area should be examined. PMID:26589138

  7. Tracking the association between metro-railway construction works and PM levels in an urban Mediterranean environment.

    PubMed

    Paschalidou, A K; Kassomenos, P A; Kelessis, A

    2016-10-15

    Metro-railways are considered to be a sustainable means of public transportation, as they contribute substantially to the reduction of air pollutant emissions through the decrease in the number of cars and heavy vehicles circulating in the road network. However, the works related to their construction may pose an extra burden in air quality status and consequently in public health. In the present study, we studied the possible effects of the metro-railway construction works in Thessaloniki, Greece, on public health through 2 well-established air quality indices, namely the PI and DAQI. The analysis suggested that there were excess high levels of PM10 measured in the close vicinity of the construction-sites during the period studied (2008-2014). These concentrations are likely to have originated from local construction sources rather than transport or continental secondary dust sources and might have an adverse health impact, as according to the PI index, the majority of days in the construction sites were grouped as "low pollution" or "moderate pollution", while a small percentage of days (1.84%) were suggested to be unhealthy for the most vulnerable groups of the population. Similarly, the DAQI index revealed that the vast majority of days were grouped as "poor" air quality, while 5.50% of the days reflected the most oppressive conditions for public health, as they were characterized as "very poor" air quality. Given the need of reaching a compromise between future transportation sustainability and public health during the construction works, the feasibility of appropriate measures in the area should be examined.

  8. Tracking water level changes of the Amazon Basin with space-borne remote sensing and integration with large scale hydrodynamic modelling: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Amanda C.; Schumann, Guy J.-P.; Bamber, Jonathan L.; Bates, Paul D.

    2011-01-01

    With the improvement of remote sensing systems, in particular active sensors, our ability to make regular observations of the Amazon Basin has greatly increased. Water levels and other related features such as discharge, floodplain-river connectivity, and flood extent are now being monitored using space-borne sensors, thereby complimenting in situ gauging networks. This review concludes that the main advances remote sensing has had on our knowledge of hydrology includes the ability observe the seasonal cycles of the Amazon River across the entire basin, including the movement of the flood wave downstream. Flood extent can now be mapped, including the direction of floodplain flow, thanks to the extensive coverage provided by various active remote sensing systems. Our knowledge of the relationship between water levels in the main channel and the floodplain has been reassessed. It is now known that floodplain levels are related to the distance of the location from the main channel. The addition of new and future satellites, such as ICESat-1 and -2, GRACE and SWOT, will guarantee the continuation of research in this field and the continued advancement of knowledge and understanding of the Amazon Basin.

  9. Systematic Tracking of Malaysian Primary School Students' ESL Reading Comprehension Performance to Facilitate Instructional Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eng, Lin Siew; Mohamed, Abdul Rashid; Ismail, Shaik Abdul Malik Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to systematically track and benchmark upper primary school students' ESL reading comprehension ability and subsequently generate data at the micro and macro levels according to individual achievement, school location, gender and ethnicity at the school, district, state and national levels. The main intention of this…

  10. "We Don't Need No Education": Video Game Preferences, Video Game Motivations, and Aggressiveness among Adolescent Boys of Different Educational Ability Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bijvank, Marije Nije; Konijn, Elly A.; Bushman, Brad J.

    2012-01-01

    This research focuses on low educational ability as a risk factor for aggression and violent game play. We propose that boys of lower educational ability are more attracted to violent video games than other boys are, and that they are also higher in trait aggressiveness and sensation seeking. Participants were Dutch boys in public schools (N =…

  11. Rover tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Tracks made by the Sojourner rover are visible in this image, taken by one of the cameras aboard Sojourner on Sol 3. The tracks represent the rover maneuvering towards the rock dubbed 'Barnacle Bill.' The rover, having exited the lander via the rear ramp, first traveled towards the right portion of the image, and then moved forward towards the left where Barnacle Bill sits. The fact that the rover was making defined tracks indicates that the soil is made up of particles on a micron scale.

    Mars Pathfinder was developed and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  12. Effects of Baseline Levels of Flexibility and Vertical Jump Ability on Performance Following Different Volumes of Static Stretching and Potentiating Exercises in Elite Gymnasts

    PubMed Central

    Donti, Olyvia; Tsolakis, Charilaos; Bogdanis, Gregory C.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of baseline flexibility and vertical jump ability on straight leg raise range of motion (ROM) and counter-movement jump performance (CMJ) following different volumes of stretching and potentiating exercises. ROM and CMJ were measured after two different warm-up protocols involving static stretching and potentiating exercises. Three groups of elite athletes (10 male, 14 female artistic gymnasts and 10 female rhythmic gymnasts) varying greatly in ROM and CMJ, performed two warm-up routines. One warm-up included short (15 s) static stretching followed by 5 tuck jumps, while the other included long static stretching (30 s) followed by 3x5 tuck jumps. ROM and CMJ were measured before, during and for 12 min after the two warm-up routines. Three-way ANOVA showed large differences between the three groups in baseline ROM and CMJ performance. A type of warm-up x time interaction was found for both ROM (p = 0.031) and CMJ (p = 0.016). However, all athletes, irrespective of group, responded in a similar fashion to the different warm-up protocols for both ROM and CMJ, as indicated from the lack of significant interactions for group (condition x group, time x group or condition x time x group). In the short warm-up protocol, ROM was not affected by stretching, while in the long warm-up protocol ROM increased by 5.9% ± 0.7% (p = 0.001) after stretching. Similarly, CMJ remained unchanged after the short warm-up protocol, but increased by 4.6 ± 0.9% (p = 0.012) 4 min after the long warm- up protocol, despite the increased ROM. It is concluded that the initial levels of flexibility and CMJ performance do not alter the responses of elite gymnasts to warm-up protocols differing in stretching and potentiating exercise volumes. Furthermore, 3 sets of 5 tuck jumps result in a relatively large increase in CMJ performance despite an increase in flexibility in these highly-trained athletes. Key Points The initial levels of flexibility and vertical jump

  13. Performance of HIV-1 Drug Resistance Testing at Low-Level Viremia and Its Ability to Predict Future Virologic Outcomes and Viral Evolution in Treatment-Naive Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Serna, A.; Min, J. E.; Woods, C.; Chan, D.; Lima, V. D.; Montaner, J. S. G.; Harrigan, P. R.; Swenson, L. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Low-level viremia (LLV; human immunodeficiency virus [HIV-1] RNA 50–999 copies/mL) occurs frequently in patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), but there are few or no data available demonstrating that HIV-1 drug resistance testing at a plasma viral load (pVL) <1000 copies/mL provides potentially clinically useful information. Here, we assess the ability to perform resistance testing by genotyping at LLV and whether it is predictive of future virologic outcomes in patients beginning ART. Methods. Resistance testing by genotyping at LLV was attempted on 4915 plasma samples from 2492 patients. A subset of previously ART-naive patients was analyzed who achieved undetectable pVL and subsequently rebounded with LLV (n = 212). A genotypic sensitivity score (GSS) was calculated based on therapy and resistance testing results by genotyping, and stratified according to number of active drugs. Results. Eighty-eight percent of LLV resistance assays produced useable sequences, with higher success at higher pVL. Overall, 16 of 212 (8%) patients had pretherapy resistance. Thirty-eight of 196 (19%) patients without pretherapy resistance evolved resistance to 1 or more drug classes, primarily the nucleoside reverse transcriptase (14%) and/or nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase (9%) inhibitors. Patients with resistance at LLV (GSS <3) had a 2.1-fold higher risk of virologic failure (95% confidence interval, 1.2- to 3.7-fold) than those without resistance (P = .007). Progressively lower GSS scores at LLV were associated with a higher increase in pVL over time (P < .001). Acquisition of additional resistance mutations to a new class of antiretroviral drugs during LLV was not found in a subset of patients. Conclusions. Routine HIV-1 genotyping of LLV samples can be performed with a reasonably high success rate, and the results appear predictive of future virologic outcomes. PMID:24429436

  14. Differences in force gradation between tug-of-war athletes and non-athletes during rhythmic force tracking at high exertion levels.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yen-Ting; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Chen, Yi-Ching

    2016-10-31

    There is little knowledge regarding the force production capacities of tug-of-war athletes, who undergo years of high-load strength training on handgrip muscles. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the force-grading strategies of tug-of-war athletes by examining force fluctuation properties at high exertion levels. Sixteen tug-of-war athletes and sixteen sedentary non-athletes performed sinusoidal handgrip grip at 50%-100% of maximal effort at 0.5 Hz under visual guidance. Force outputs of the designate task were recorded with a strain gauge. Force fluctuations were separated from the rhythmic output of the target rate in the handgrip force. In addition to a comparable normalized tracking error, the tug-of-war athletes exhibited a greater mean force level and a higher ratio of mean force level to body mass than the non-athletes. The athletes also had lower approximate entropy (ApEn) and a lower mean frequency of force fluctuations than the non-athletes, despite a similar relative size of force fluctuations for the two groups. The scaling of the fundamental element (force pulses) of force fluctuations was also group-dependent, with a greater pulse gain (duration-amplitude regression slope) than the non-athletes. The tug-of-war athletes exhibited superior force-generating capacity and more economic force-grading as compared with the non-athletes, without additional costs to task accuracy and force steadiness, during a highly-demanding rhythmic force task.

  15. Cloud tracked winds at the lower cloud level using Venus' night side observations at 2.28 μm with TNG/NICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, P.; Luz, D.; Oliveira, J.; Peralta, J.

    2015-10-01

    We present results based on observations carried out with the Near Infrared Camera and Spectrograph(NICS) of the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG), in La Palma, on July 2012. We observed for periods of 2.5 hours starting just before dawn, for three consecutive nights. We acquired a set of images of the night side of Venus with the continuum K filter at 2.28 microns, which allows to monitor motions at the lower cloud level of the atmosphere of Venus, close to 48 km altitude. Our objective has been to measure the horizontal wind field in order to characterize the latitudinal zonal wind profile, to study variability, to help constrain the effect of large scale planetary waves in the maintenance of superrotation, and to map the cloud distribution. These observations were part of the network of ground-based observations of Venus coordinated with ESA's Venus Express orbiter for the 2012 Venus transit campaign. Ground-based observa- tions are complementary to orbiter measurements, allowing simultaneous determination of the winds. We will present first results of cloud tracked winds from ground-based TNG observations and winds retrieved from coordinated space-based VEx/VIRTIS observations.

  16. Robust track fitting in the Belle II inner tracking detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadler, Moritz; Frühwirth, Rudolf

    2012-12-01

    Track fitting in the new inner tracker of the Belle II experiment uses the GENFIT package. In the latter both a standard Kalman filter and a robust extension, the deterministic annealing filter (DAF), are implemented. This contribution presents the results of a simulation experiment which examines the performance of the DAF in the inner tracker, in terms of outlier detection ability and of the impact of different kinds of background on the quality of the fitted tracks.

  17. On the Wrong Track: How Tracking Is Associated with Dropping out of High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werblow, Jacob; Urick, Angela; Duesbery, Luke

    2013-01-01

    Academic tracking has been shown to limit the quality of student instructional opportunities, decrease students' perceptions of their abilities, and negatively influence student achievement. These factors associated with academic tracking also may influence students in lower tracks to learn less and ultimately to drop out of high school. Few…

  18. Measuring creative imagery abilities

    PubMed Central

    Jankowska, Dorota M.; Karwowski, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Over the decades, creativity and imagination research developed in parallel, but they surprisingly rarely intersected. This paper introduces a new theoretical model of creative visual imagination, which bridges creativity and imagination research, as well as presents a new psychometric instrument, called the Test of Creative Imagery Abilities (TCIA), developed to measure creative imagery abilities understood in accordance with this model. Creative imagination is understood as constituted by three interrelated components: vividness (the ability to create images characterized by a high level of complexity and detail), originality (the ability to produce unique imagery), and transformativeness (the ability to control imagery). TCIA enables valid and reliable measurement of these three groups of abilities, yielding the general score of imagery abilities and at the same time making profile analysis possible. We present the results of nine studies on a total sample of more than 1700 participants, showing the factor structure of TCIA using confirmatory factor analysis, as well as provide data confirming this instrument's validity and reliability. The availability of TCIA for interested researchers may result in new insights and possibilities of integrating the fields of creativity and imagination science. PMID:26539140

  19. MATERIAL TRACKING USING LANMAS

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, F.

    2010-06-07

    LANMAS is a transaction-based nuclear material accountability software product developed to replace outdated and legacy accountability systems throughout the DOE. The core underlying purpose of LANMAS is to track nuclear materials inventory and report transactions (movement, mixing, splitting, decay, etc.) to the Nuclear Materials Management and Safeguards System (NMMSS). While LANMAS performs those functions well, there are many additional functions provided by the software product. As a material is received onto a site or created at a site, its entire lifecycle can be tracked in LANMAS complete to its termination of safeguards. There are separate functions to track material movements between and within material balance areas (MBAs). The level of detail for movements within a MBA is configurable by each site and can be as high as a site designation or as detailed as building/room/rack/row/position. Functionality exists to track the processing of materials, either as individual items or by modeling a bulk process as an individual item to track inputs and outputs from the process. In cases where sites have specialized needs, the system is designed to be flexible so that site specific functionality can be integrated into the product. This paper will demonstrate how the software can be used to input material into an account and track it to its termination of safeguards.

  20. High-dynamic GPS tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinedi, S.; Statman, J. I.

    1988-01-01

    The results of comparing four different frequency estimation schemes in the presence of high dynamics and low carrier-to-noise ratios are given. The comparison is based on measured data from a hardware demonstration. The tested algorithms include a digital phase-locked loop, a cross-product automatic frequency tracking loop, and extended Kalman filter, and finally, a fast Fourier transformation-aided cross-product frequency tracking loop. The tracking algorithms are compared on their frequency error performance and their ability to maintain lock during severe maneuvers at various carrier-to-noise ratios. The measured results are shown to agree with simulation results carried out and reported previously.

  1. CONTRACT ADMINISTRATIVE TRACKING SYSTEM (CATS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Contract Administrative Tracking System (CATS) was developed in response to an ORD NHEERL, Mid-Continent Ecology Division (MED)-recognized need for an automated tracking and retrieval system for Cost Reimbursable Level of Effort (CR/LOE) Contracts. CATS is an Oracle-based app...

  2. Identifying second language speech tasks and ability levels for successful nurse oral interaction with patients in a linguistic minority setting: an instrument development project.

    PubMed

    Isaacs, Talia; Laurier, Michel D; Turner, Carolyn E; Segalowitz, Norman

    2011-09-01

    One of the most demanding situations for members of linguistic minorities is a conversation between a health professional and a patient, a situation that frequently arises for linguistic minority groups in North America, Europe, and elsewhere. The present study reports on the construction of an oral interaction scale for nurses serving linguistic minorities in their second language (L2). A mixed methods approach was used to identify and validate a set of speech activities relating to nurse interactions with patients and to derive the L2 ability required to carry out those tasks. The research included an extensive literature review, the development of an initial list of speech tasks, and validation of this list with a nurse focus group. The retained speech tasks were then developed into a questionnaire and administered to 133 Quebec nurses who assessed each speech task for difficulty in an L2 context. Results were submitted to Rasch analysis and calibrated with reference to the Canadian Language Benchmarks, and the constructs underlying the speech tasks were identified through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Results showed that speech tasks dealing with emotional aspects of caregiving and conveying health-specific information were reported as being the most demanding in terms of L2 ability, and the most strongly associated with L2 ability required for nurse-patient interactions. Implications are discussed with respect to the development and use of assessment instruments to facilitate L2 workplace training for health care professionals.

  3. Developing a Faculty Learning Community for Non-Tenure Track Professors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Non-tenure track faculty vary greatly in terms of their ranks, teaching abilities, workloads, and motivational levels and have unique professional development needs. In response, universities are differentiating professional development for these professors. This case study examined an emerging research university's efforts to provide a faculty…

  4. Simple front tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Glimm, J.; Grove, J.W.; Li, X.; Zhao, N.

    1999-04-01

    A new and simplified front tracking algorithm has been developed as an aspect of the extension of this algorithm to three dimensions. Here the authors emphasize two main results: (1) a simplified description of the microtopology of the interface, based on interface crossings with cell block edges, and (2) an improved algorithm for the interaction of a tracked contact discontinuity with an untracked shock wave. For the latter question, they focus on the post interaction jump at the contact, which is a purely 1D issue. Comparisons to other methods, including the level set method, are included.

  5. COCOA: tracking in aerial imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Saad; Shah, Mubarak

    2006-05-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are becoming a core intelligence asset for reconnaissance, surveillance and target tracking in urban and battlefield settings. In order to achieve the goal of automated tracking of objects in UAV videos we have developed a system called COCOA. It processes the video stream through number of stages. At first stage platform motion compensation is performed. Moving object detection is performed to detect the regions of interest from which object contours are extracted by performing a level set based segmentation. Finally blob based tracking is performed for each detected object. Global tracks are generated which are used for higher level processing. COCOA is customizable to different sensor resolutions and is capable of tracking targets as small as 100 pixels. It works seamlessly for both visible and thermal imaging modes. The system is implemented in Matlab and works in a batch mode.

  6. MRS of brain metabolite levels demonstrates the ability of scavenging of excess brain glutamate to protect against nerve agent induced seizures.

    PubMed

    Ruban, Angela; Biton, Inbal E; Markovich, Arik; Mirelman, David

    2015-02-02

    This study describes the use of in vivo magnetic resonance spectrocopy (MRS) to monitor brain glutamate and lactate levels in a paraoxon (PO) intoxication model. Our results show that the administration of recombinant glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (rGOT) in combination with oxaloacetate (OxAc) significantly reduces the brain-accumulated levels of glutamate. Previously we have shown that the treatment causes a rapid decrease of blood glutamate levels and creates a gradient between the brain and blood glutamate levels which leads to the efflux of excess brain glutamate into the blood stream thereby reducing its potential to cause neurological damage. The fact that this treatment significantly decreased the brain glutamate and lactate levels following PO intoxication suggests that it could become a new effective neuroprotective agent.

  7. Optical correlator tracking nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, Don A.; Kirsch, James C.; Johnson, John L.

    1987-01-01

    A limitation observed in the tracking ability of optical correlators is reported. It is shown by calculations that an inherent nonlinearity exists in many optical correlator configurations, with the problem manifesting itself in a mismatch of the input scene with the position of the correlation signal. Results indicate that some care must be given to the selection of components and their configuration in constructing an optical correlator which exhibits true translational invariance. An input test scene is shown along with the correlation spot and cross hairs from a contrast detector; the offset is apparent.

  8. Program Tracks Cost Of Travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauldin, Lemuel E., III

    1993-01-01

    Travel Forecaster is menu-driven, easy-to-use computer program that plans, forecasts cost, and tracks actual vs. planned cost of business-related travel of division or branch of organization and compiles information into data base to aid travel planner. Ability of program to handle multiple trip entries makes it valuable time-saving device.

  9. Investigating the Status of Biological Stimuli as Objects of Attention in Multiple Object Tracking

    PubMed Central

    de-Wit, Lee H.; Lefevre, Carmen E.; Kentridge, Robert W.; Rees, Geraint; Saygin, Ayse P.

    2011-01-01

    Background Humans are able to track multiple simultaneously moving objects. A number of factors have been identified that can influence the ease with which objects can be attended and tracked. Here, we explored the possibility that object tracking abilities may be specialized for tracking biological targets such as people. Methodology/Principal Findings We used the Multiple Object Tracking (MOT) paradigm to explore whether the high-level biological status of the targets affects the efficiency of attentional selection and tracking. In Experiment 1, we assessed the tracking of point-light biological motion figures. As controls, we used either the same stimuli or point-light letters, presented in upright, inverted or scrambled configurations. While scrambling significantly affected performance for both letters and point-light figures, there was an effect of inversion restricted to biological motion, inverted figures being harder to track. In Experiment 2, we found that tracking performance was equivalent for natural point-light walkers and ‘moon-walkers’, whose implied direction was incongruent with their actual direction of motion. In Experiment 3, we found higher tracking accuracy for inverted faces compared with upright faces. Thus, there was a double dissociation between inversion effects for biological motion and faces, with no inversion effect for our non-biological stimuli (letters, houses). Conclusions/Significance MOT is sensitive to some, but not all naturalistic aspects of biological stimuli. There does not appear to be a highly specialized role for tracking people. However, MOT appears constrained by principles of object segmentation and grouping, where effectively grouped, coherent objects, but not necessarily biological objects, are tracked most successfully. PMID:21483844

  10. Selective School Systems and Academic Self-Concept: How Explicit and Implicit School-Level Tracking Relate to the Big-Fish--Little-Pond Effect across Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salchegger, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    A large body of research has demonstrated a big-fish--little-pond effect (BFLPE) by showing that equally able students have lower academic self-concepts in high-ability schools than in low-ability schools. Although the BFLPE generalizes across many countries, it varies significantly between countries. The reasons for this variation are still…

  11. Ability of surface and subsurface death assemblages to track km-scale spatial and decade-scale temporal variability in living communities: Tests using the urban southern California continental shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidwell, Susan M.; Tomasovych, Adam

    2016-04-01

    Actualistic analysis of death assemblages has always focused on quantifying, and achieving a mechanistic understanding of, the reliability of deep-time records, and is now additionally motivated to assess natural conditions before human impacts. The southern California continental shelf permits us to evaluate the ability of time-averaged death assemblages to detect known variability in urban nutrients, which increased from the early 20th Century up until the 1972 Clean Water Act. Biomonitoring since then documents strong declines in populations of pollution- and hypoxia-tolerant species, especially the chemosymbiontic lucinid bivalve Parvilucina tenuisculpta. This shelf is taphonomically challenging -- median shell ages are 50-100 y, only 1% of shells survive, the mixed-zone is ~25 cm thick, and siliciclastic accumulation is slow, in contrast to sediment-trapping estuaries and lagoons. Nonetheless, both surficial death and buried core assemblages capture first-order urban trends, albeit with significant damping of the large, spatially localized mid-20th Century pulse in Parvilucina abundance. Paleoecologists will thus detect but under-estimate the original magnitude of even strong past excursions in community composition, an important bounding condition for both recent- and deep-time analysis.

  12. The coordinate systems used in visual tracking

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Piers D. L.; Pinto, Yair; Horowitz, Todd S.

    2010-01-01

    Tracking moving objects is a fundamental attentional operation. Here we ask which coordinate system is used to track objects: retinal (retinotopic), scene-centered (allocentric), or both? Observers tracked three of six disks that were confined to move within an imaginary square. By moving either the imaginary square (and thus the disks contained within), the fixation cross, or both, we could dramatically increase the disks' speeds in one coordinate system while leaving them unchanged in the other, so as to impair tracking in only one coordinate system at a time. Hindering tracking in either coordinate system reduced tracking ability by an equal amount, suggesting that observers are compelled to use both coordinate systems and cannot choose to track only in the unimpaired coordinate system. PMID:20887744

  13. Detection and frequency tracking of chirping signals

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, G.R.; Stearns, S.D.

    1990-08-01

    This paper discusses several methods to detect the presence of and track the frequency of a chirping signal in broadband noise. The dynamic behavior of each of the methods is described and tracking error bounds are investigated in terms of the chirp rate. Frequency tracking and behavior in the presence of varying levels of noise are illustrated in examples. 11 refs., 29 figs.

  14. Comparing spatial abilities of collegiate athletes in different sports.

    PubMed

    Lord, T R; Garrison, J

    1998-06-01

    Researchers indicated that androgen enhances spatial ability in women but inhibits it in men. Since studies also indicate that athletes have higher than normal levels of androgen, whether spatial perception scores differed for men and women in different sports was examined. Spatial tests (visualization and orientation) were given to 150 men and 150 women collegiate athletes in different varsity sports. Analysis showed the women scored significantly higher than the men. In basketball, a sport common to both sexes, women did significantly better but this was not found in the other mixed-sex sports (baseball, swimming, and track).

  15. Teleoperation of Robonaut Using Finger Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Champoux, Rachel G.; Luo, Victor

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of new finger tracking systems, the idea of a more expressive and intuitive user interface is being explored and implemented. One practical application for this new kind of interface is that of teleoperating a robot. For humanoid robots, a finger tracking interface is required due to the level of complexity in a human-like hand, where a joystick isn't accurate. Moreover, for some tasks, using one's own hands allows the user to communicate their intentions more effectively than other input. The purpose of this project was to develop a natural user interface for someone to teleoperate a robot that is elsewhere. Specifically, this was designed to control Robonaut on the international space station to do tasks too dangerous and/or too trivial for human astronauts. This interface was developed by integrating and modifying 3Gear's software, which includes a library of gestures and the ability to track hands. The end result is an interface in which the user can manipulate objects in real time in the user interface. then, the information is relayed to a simulator, the stand in for Robonaut, at a slight delay.

  16. Mycorrhizal fungi collected from the rhizospheres around different olive cultivars vary in their ability to improve growth and polyphenol levels in leeks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycorrhizal fungus spores and propagules were collected from the soils in the vicinity of roots of five different olive cultivars. These mycorrhizal fungal communities were amplified in trap cultures and then their effect on the growth and polyphenol levels of leek plants was determined. All mycorr...

  17. Total and Proteinase K-Resistant α-Synuclein Levels in Erythrocytes, Determined by their Ability to Bind Phospholipids, Associate with Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Abd-Elhadi, Suaad; Honig, Asaf; Simhi-Haham, Dganit; Schechter, Meir; Linetsky, Eduard; Ben-Hur, Tamir; Sharon, Ronit

    2015-06-11

    A marker for diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD), which reflects on the occurrence of peripheral pathogenic mechanisms, would potentially improve therapy. The significance of α-Synuclein (α-Syn) expression in red blood cells (RBC) is currently unclear. Here we investigated whether RBC's-expressed α-Syn may associate with PD. To this aim, we determined the levels of total and proteinase K-resistant α-Syn in samples of packed red blood cells (PRBCs). Twenty-one individuals with PD at various disease stages and 15 healthy controls, with similar demographic features, were recruited to this study. α-Syn levels were determined by their biochemical property to bind phospholipids, using a phospholipid-ELISA assay. A significantly lower ratio of total-to-proteinase K-resistant α-Syn levels was detected in PD patients than in the healthy control group. However, there was considerable overlap between the two groups. Suggesting a need for additional markers to be tested in combination with α-Syn levels. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first evidence for an association between RBCs-expressed α-Syn and pathogenic mechanisms involved in PD.

  18. Content, Format, Gender and Grade Level Differences in Elementary Students' Ability to Read Science Materials as Measured by the Cloze Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Richard L.; Yore, Larry D.

    1985-01-01

    Examines readability of elementary science textbooks regarding visual supplements (color, visuals, and page layout). Significant relationships were found between cloze scores and both grade level and content. Also found significant interaction between grade and sex in favor of older males. Eight of nine texts were at or near readability…

  19. Mathematical Under-Preparedness: The Influence of the Pre-Tertiary Mathematics Experience on Students' Ability to Make a Successful Transition to Tertiary Level Mathematics Courses in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hourigan, M.; O'Donoghue, J.

    2007-01-01

    Internationally, the consequences of the "Mathematics problem" are a source of concern for the education sector and governments alike. Growing consensus exists that the inability of students to successfully make the transition to tertiary level mathematics education lies in the substantial mismatch between the nature of entrants' pre-tertiary…

  20. Boulder Track

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-408, 1 July 2003

    If a boulder rolls down a slope on an uninhabited planet, does it make a sound? While we do not know the sound made by a boulder rolling down a slope in the martian region of Gordii Dorsum, we do know that it made an impression. This full-resolution Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a series of depressions made on a dust-mantled slope as a boulder rolled down it, sometime in the recent past. The boulder track is located just right of center in this picture. The boulder sits at the end of the track. This picture was acquired in May 2003; it is located near 11.2oN, 147.8oW. North is toward the lower left, sunlight illuminates the scene from the right. The picture covers an area only 810 meters (about 886 yards) across.

  1. Full and sub-waveform retracking to assess the ability of pulse limited altimeter in monitoring water level variations of inland water body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roohi, Shirzad; Sneeuw, Nico; Tseng, Kuo-Hsin; Shum, CK

    2014-05-01

    Pulse-limited-satellite altimetry was originally designed for oceanographic observations but has been extended to monitor inland water bodies. So far, studying water level variations of inland water bodies, e.g. lakes, has been a challenge for this type of altimetry in terms of data quality. The returned altimetry waveforms could be seriously contaminated by topography and environmental error sources. Retracking is an efficacious method against this contamination to improve the accuracy of range measurement and consequently robust water level determination. In addition, the choice of an optimal retracking algorithm appropriate for the specific regional water bodies is very important in this respect. In this study we processed 18 Hz Envisat RA2 altimetry data, i.e. Sensor Geophysical Data records (SGDR), with respective different retrackers and 1 Hz Geophysical Data Records (GDRs) of this mission by on-board retrackers. First, for a given waveform the whole waveform, called full-waveform, was processed to estimate retracked water level variation using OCOG, Threshold and β-parameter retrackers. In the next step we assumed that the reflecting surface inside the radar foot print is a complex surface with different responses. Therefore a given waveform considered as a combination of a number of small waveforms, called sub-waveform. Each sub-waveform was processed by all of the mentioned retrackers to determine water level variations. Finally the result of different retracked heights were compared with on-board retrackers, and with available in-situ gauge data. The largest salt lake in the middle east, Urmia lake, has been selected as a testing area in this study. This lake is drying up due to climate change and human activities, e.g. irrigation and dam construction. Our retracking analysis shows that the sub-waveform retracking outperforms the full-waveform retracking. The minimum RMS, i.e. 18 cm, was obtained by sub-waveform, retracked with Threshold 50% algorithm

  2. AgrAbility Project

    MedlinePlus

    ... It’s About Hope AgrAbility on Twitter AgrAbility on Facebook AgrAbility on You Tube AgrAbility… It’s About Hope ... anniversary throughout 2016... AgrAbility Harvest Get a copy Facebook Posts National AgrAbility Project 5 days ago AgrAbility's ...

  3. Possibilities of sterilization by track membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudoyarov, M. F.; Vishnevskii, B. I.; Manicheva, O. A.; Myakotina, E. N.; Mukhin, S. A.; Patrova, M. Ya.; Vedmetskii, Yu. V.

    2011-09-01

    The possibility of using track membranes for the dimensional separation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MBT) species from liquid media has been studied. A set of track membranes with various pore diameters was prepared at the accelerator complex of the Ioffe Physical Technical Institute (St. Petersburg) and all samples were tested for their ability to separate MBT species of 13 strains from solutions. The results showed high ability of the track membranes with pore diameters from 180 to 300 nm to sterilize liquid media and confirmed the hypothesis concerning relatively high rigidity of these bacteria.

  4. Random grid fern for visual tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Fei; Liu, Kai; Zhang, Jin; Li, YunSong

    2014-05-01

    Visual tracking is one of the significant research directions in computer vision. Although standard random ferns tracking method obtains a good performance for the random spatial arrangement of binary tests, the effect of the locality of image on ferns description ability are ignored and prevent them to describe the object more accurately and robustly. This paper proposes a novel spatial arrangement of binary tests to divide the bounding box into grids in order to keep more details of the image for visual tracking. Experimental results show that this method can improve tracking accuracy effectively.

  5. Getting ready for invasions: can background level of risk predict the ability of naïve prey to survive novel predators?

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Maud C O; Crane, Adam L; Brown, Grant E; Chivers, Douglas P

    2015-02-06

    Factors predicting the outcome of predator invasions on native prey communities are critical to our understanding of invasion ecology. Here, we tested whether background level of risk affected the survival of prey to novel predators, both native and invasive, predicting that high-risk environments would better prepare prey for invasions. We used naïve woodfrog as our prey and exposed them to a high or low risk regime either as embryos (prenatal exposure) or as larvae (recent exposure). Tadpoles were then tested for their survival in the presence of 4 novel predators: two dytiscid beetles, crayfish and trout. Survival was affected by both risk level and predator type. High risk was beneficial to prey exposed to the dytiscids larvae (ambush predators), but detrimental to prey exposed to crayfish or trout (pursuit predators). No effect of ontogeny of risk was found. We further documented that high-risk tadpoles were overall more active than their low-risk counterparts, explaining the patterns found with survival. Our results provide insights into the relationship between risk and resilience to predator invasions.

  6. Getting ready for invasions: can background level of risk predict the ability of naïve prey to survive novel predators?

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Maud C. O.; Crane, Adam L.; Brown, Grant E.; Chivers, Douglas P.

    2015-01-01

    Factors predicting the outcome of predator invasions on native prey communities are critical to our understanding of invasion ecology. Here, we tested whether background level of risk affected the survival of prey to novel predators, both native and invasive, predicting that high-risk environments would better prepare prey for invasions. We used naïve woodfrog as our prey and exposed them to a high or low risk regime either as embryos (prenatal exposure) or as larvae (recent exposure). Tadpoles were then tested for their survival in the presence of 4 novel predators: two dytiscid beetles, crayfish and trout. Survival was affected by both risk level and predator type. High risk was beneficial to prey exposed to the dytiscids larvae (ambush predators), but detrimental to prey exposed to crayfish or trout (pursuit predators). No effect of ontogeny of risk was found. We further documented that high-risk tadpoles were overall more active than their low-risk counterparts, explaining the patterns found with survival. Our results provide insights into the relationship between risk and resilience to predator invasions. PMID:25655436

  7. Improvement by sodium dl-α-tocopheryl-6-O-phosphate treatment of moisture-retaining ability in stratum corneum through increased ceramide levels.

    PubMed

    Kato, Eiko; Takahashi, Noriko

    2012-06-15

    Sodium dl-α-tocopheryl-6-O-phosphate (1), a water-soluble derivative of vitamin E (dl-α-tocopherol, 2), exhibits protective effects against various type of skin damage. As reported herein, we found that topical application of 1 improves hygroscopicity and water holding capacity in the stratum corneum of hairless mice in vivo by increasing the ceramide content. In normal human epidermal keratinocytes, treatment with 1 increases ceramide levels and enhances gene expression of serine palmitoyltransferase, which catalyzes the first step of ceramide synthesis in vitro. In addition, 1 increases gene expressions of differentiation markers (transglutaminase 1, cytokeratin 10, involucrin and loricrin), and intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations. These results suggest that 1 could be an excellent agent for improving skin moisture-retention by enhancing ceramide synthesis through the induction of differentiation.

  8. A sportomics strategy to analyze the ability of arginine to modulate both ammonia and lymphocyte levels in blood after high-intensity exercise

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Exercise is an excellent tool to study the interactions between metabolic stress and the immune system. Specifically, high-intensity exercises both produce transient hyperammonemia and influence the distribution of white blood cells. Carbohydrates and glutamine and arginine supplementation were previously shown to effectively modulate ammonia levels during exercise. In this study, we used a short-duration, high-intensity exercise together with a low carbohydrate diet to induce a hyperammonemia state and better understand how arginine influences both ammonemia and the distribution of leukocytes in the blood. Methods Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu practitioners (men, n = 39) volunteered for this study. The subjects followed a low-carbohydrate diet for four days before the trials and received either arginine supplementation (100 mg·kg-1 of body mass·day-1) or a placebo. The intergroup statistical significance was calculated by a one-way analysis of variance, followed by Student’s t-test. The data correlations were calculated using Pearson’s test. Results In the control group, ammonemia increased during matches at almost twice the rate of the arginine group (25 mmol·L-1·min-1 and 13 μmol·L-1·min-1, respectively). Exercise induced an increase in leukocytes of approximately 75%. An even greater difference was observed in the lymphocyte count, which increased 2.2-fold in the control group; this increase was partially prevented by arginine supplementation. The shape of the ammonemia curve suggests that arginine helps prevent increases in ammonia levels. Conclusions These data indicate that increases in lymphocytes and ammonia are simultaneously reduced by arginine supplementation. We propose that increased serum lymphocytes could be related to changes in ammonemia and ammonia metabolism. PMID:22734448

  9. Ion track reconstruction in 3D using alumina-based fluorescent nuclear track detectors.

    PubMed

    Niklas, M; Bartz, J A; Akselrod, M S; Abollahi, A; Jäkel, O; Greilich, S

    2013-09-21

    Fluorescent nuclear track detectors (FNTDs) based on Al2O3: C, Mg single crystal combined with confocal microscopy provide 3D information on ion tracks with a resolution only limited by light diffraction. FNTDs are also ideal substrates to be coated with cells to engineer cell-fluorescent ion track hybrid detectors (Cell-Fit-HD). This radiobiological tool enables a novel platform linking cell responses to physical dose deposition on a sub-cellular level in proton and heavy ion therapies. To achieve spatial correlation between single ion hits in the cell coating and its biological response the ion traversals have to be reconstructed in 3D using the depth information gained by the FNTD read-out. FNTDs were coated with a confluent human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial (A549) cell layer. Carbon ion irradiation of the hybrid detector was performed perpendicular and angular to the detector surface. In situ imaging of the fluorescently labeled cell layer and the FNTD was performed in a sequential read-out. Making use of the trajectory information provided by the FNTD the accuracy of 3D track reconstruction of single particles traversing the hybrid detector was studied. The accuracy is strongly influenced by the irradiation angle and therefore by complexity of the FNTD signal. Perpendicular irradiation results in highest accuracy with error of smaller than 0.10°. The ability of FNTD technology to provide accurate 3D ion track reconstruction makes it a powerful tool for radiobiological investigations in clinical ion beams, either being used as a substrate to be coated with living tissue or being implanted in vivo. PMID:23965401

  10. Ion track reconstruction in 3D using alumina-based fluorescent nuclear track detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niklas, M.; Bartz, J. A.; Akselrod, M. S.; Abollahi, A.; Jäkel, O.; Greilich, S.

    2013-09-01

    Fluorescent nuclear track detectors (FNTDs) based on Al2O3: C, Mg single crystal combined with confocal microscopy provide 3D information on ion tracks with a resolution only limited by light diffraction. FNTDs are also ideal substrates to be coated with cells to engineer cell-fluorescent ion track hybrid detectors (Cell-Fit-HD). This radiobiological tool enables a novel platform linking cell responses to physical dose deposition on a sub-cellular level in proton and heavy ion therapies. To achieve spatial correlation between single ion hits in the cell coating and its biological response the ion traversals have to be reconstructed in 3D using the depth information gained by the FNTD read-out. FNTDs were coated with a confluent human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial (A549) cell layer. Carbon ion irradiation of the hybrid detector was performed perpendicular and angular to the detector surface. In situ imaging of the fluorescently labeled cell layer and the FNTD was performed in a sequential read-out. Making use of the trajectory information provided by the FNTD the accuracy of 3D track reconstruction of single particles traversing the hybrid detector was studied. The accuracy is strongly influenced by the irradiation angle and therefore by complexity of the FNTD signal. Perpendicular irradiation results in highest accuracy with error of smaller than 0.10°. The ability of FNTD technology to provide accurate 3D ion track reconstruction makes it a powerful tool for radiobiological investigations in clinical ion beams, either being used as a substrate to be coated with living tissue or being implanted in vivo.

  11. Sun Tracking Systems: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chia-Yen; Chou, Po-Cheng; Chiang, Che-Ming; Lin, Chiu-Feng

    2009-01-01

    The output power produced by high-concentration solar thermal and photovoltaic systems is directly related to the amount of solar energy acquired by the system, and it is therefore necessary to track the sun's position with a high degree of accuracy. Many systems have been proposed to facilitate this task over the past 20 years. Accordingly, this paper commences by providing a high level overview of the sun tracking system field and then describes some of the more significant proposals for closed-loop and open-loop types of sun tracking systems. PMID:22412341

  12. On the Right Track.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bieber, Ed

    1983-01-01

    Suggests thinking of "tracks" as clues and using them as the focus of outdoor activities in the urban environment. Provides 24 examples of possible track activities, including: seeds on the ground (track of a nearby tree), litter (track of a litterbug), and peeling paint (track of weathering forces). (JN)

  13. Track Construction Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banke, Ron; Di Gennaro, Guy; Ediger, Rick; Garner, Lanny; Hersom, Steve; Miller, Jack; Nemeth, Ron; Petrucelli, Jim; Sierks, Donna; Smith, Don; Swank, Kevin; West, Kevin

    This book establishes guidelines for the construction and maintenance of tracks by providing information for building new tracks or upgrading existing tracks. Subjects covered include running track planning and construction, physical layout, available surfaces, and maintenance. General track requirements and construction specifications are…

  14. Improving situation awareness using a hub architecture for friendly force tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karkkainen, Anssi P.

    2010-04-01

    Situation Awareness (SA) is the perception of environmental elements within a volume of time and space, the comprehension of their meaning, and the projection of their future status. In a military environment the most critical elements to be tracked are followed elements are either friendly or hostile forces. Poor knowledge of locations of friendly forces easily leads into the situation in which the troops could be under firing by own troops or in which decisions in a command and control system are based on incorrect tracking. Thus the Friendly Force Tracking (FFT) is a vital part of building situation awareness. FFT is basically quite simple in theory; collected tracks are shared through the networks to all troops. In real world, the situation is not so clear. Poor communication capabilities, lack of continuous connectivity n and large number of user on different level provide high requirements for FFT systems. In this paper a simple architecture for Friendly Force Tracking is presented. The architecture is based on NFFI (NATO Friendly Force Information) hubs which have two key features; an ability to forward tracking information and an ability to convert information into the desired format. The hub based approach provides a lightweight and scalable solution, which is able to use several types of communication media (GSM, tactical radios, TETRA etc.). The system is also simple to configure and maintain. One main benefit of the proposed architecture is that it is independent on a message format. It communicates using NFFI messages, but national formats are also allowed.

  15. An investigation of gender and grade-level differences in middle school students' attitudes about science, in science process skills ability, and in parental expectations of their children's science performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Terri Renee'

    The primary purpose of the study was to examine different variables (i.e. science process skill ability, science attitudes, and parents' levels of expectation for their children in science, which may impinge on science education differently for males and females in grades five, seven, and nine. The research question addressed by the study was: What are the differences between science process skill ability, science attitudes, and parents' levels of expectation in science on the academic success of fifth, seventh, and ninth graders in science and do effects differ according to gender and grade level? The subjects included fifth, seven, and ninth grade students ( n = 543) and their parents (n = 474) from six rural, public elementary schools and two rural, public middle schools in Southern Mississippi. A two-way (grade x gender) multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to determine the differences in science process skill abilities of females and males in grade five, seven, and nine. An additional separate two-way multivariate analysis of variance (grade x gender) was also used to determine the differences in science attitudes of males and females in grade five, seven, and nine. A separate analysis of variance (PPSEX [parent's gender]) with the effects being parents' gender was used to determine differences in parents' levels of expectation for their childrens' performance in science. An additional separate analysis of variance (SSEX [student's gender]) with the effects being the gender of the student was also used to determine differences in parents' levels of expectation for their childrens' performance in science. Results of the analyses indicated significant main effects for grade level (p < .001) and gender (p < .001) on the TIPS II. There was no significant grade by gender interaction on the TIPS II. Results for the TOSRA also indicated a significant main effect for grade (p < .001) and the interaction of grade by sex ( p < .001). On variable ATT 5

  16. Tri-track: free software for large-scale particle tracking.

    PubMed

    Vallotton, Pascal; Olivier, Sandra

    2013-04-01

    The ability to correctly track objects in time-lapse sequences is important in many applications of microscopy. Individual object motions typically display a level of dynamic regularity reflecting the existence of an underlying physics or biology. Best results are obtained when this local information is exploited. Additionally, if the particle number is known to be approximately constant, a large number of tracking scenarios may be rejected on the basis that they are not compatible with a known maximum particle velocity. This represents information of a global nature, which should ideally be exploited too. Some time ago, we devised an efficient algorithm that exploited both types of information. The tracking task was reduced to a max-flow min-cost problem instance through a novel graph structure that comprised vertices representing objects from three consecutive image frames. The algorithm is explained here for the first time. A user-friendly implementation is provided, and the specific relaxation mechanism responsible for the method's effectiveness is uncovered. The software is particularly competitive for complex dynamics such as dense antiparallel flows, or in situations where object displacements are considerable. As an application, we characterize a remarkable vortex structure formed by bacteria engaged in interstitial motility.

  17. Virtual, on-line, frog dissection vs. conventional laboratory dissection: A comparison of student achievement and teacher perceptions among honors, general ability, and foundations-level high school biology classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopec, Ronald H.

    2002-09-01

    Dissecting animal specimens has long been a tradition in biology classes. Objections by students, based on religious or ethical grounds, have been raised regarding the dissections of animals in classroom laboratories. A number of states now have legal proceedings or statewide policies requiring that alternatives to the actual dissection of laboratory animal specimens be permitted in their school districts. Alternatives to actual dissections have been developed in recent years. For a variety of reasons, performing an actual or conventional animal dissection may not be a desirable option. The purpose of this study was to investigate how a virtual On-line frog dissection compares with an actual laboratory dissection. What were the perceptions of the teacher's using it? How does student achievement compare among three the different ability levels on a pre and posttest regarding basic frog anatomy? Is a virtual On-line dissection a suitable alternative for students who, for whatever reason, do not participate in the actual laboratory experience? The subjects consisted of 218 biology students among three different ability levels, in a Northeastern suburban high school. Approximately half of the student groups participated in a virtual On-line dissection, the other half in an actual laboratory dissection. A pretest of basic frog anatomy was administered to the students two days before and the posttest one day after their dissection experience. Data were analyzed using matched pairs t-Tests, Analysis of Variance, Tukey HSD, and Squared Curvilinear Coefficients. Survey questionnaires were administered to the teachers after the dissection experiences were completed. There were no significant differences found in achievement between the virtual and conventional dissection groups. There were significant differences found in achievement score means among the three ability levels. There was no significant interaction between gender and achievement. Perceptions of the teacher

  18. Noise reduction in urban LRT networks by combining track based solutions.

    PubMed

    Vogiatzis, Konstantinos; Vanhonacker, Patrick

    2016-10-15

    The overall objective of the Quiet-Track project is to provide step-changing track based noise mitigation and maintenance schemes for railway rolling noise in LRT (Light Rail Transit) networks. WP 4 in particular focuses on the combination of existing track based solutions to yield a global performance of at least 6dB(A). The validation was carried out using a track section in the network of Athens Metro Line 1 with an existing outside concrete slab track (RHEDA track) where high airborne rolling noise was observed. The procedure for the selection of mitigation measures is based on numerical simulations, combining WRNOISE and IMMI software tools for noise prediction with experimental determination of the required track and vehicle parameters (e.g., rail and wheel roughness). The availability of a detailed rolling noise calculation procedure allows for detailed designing of measures and of ranking individual measures. It achieves this by including the modelling of the wheel/rail source intensity and of the noise propagation with the ability to evaluate the effect of modifications at source level (e.g., grinding, rail dampers, wheel dampers, change in resiliency of wheels and/or rail fixation) and of modifications in the propagation path (absorption at the track base, noise barriers, screening). A relevant combination of existing solutions was selected in the function of the simulation results. Three distinct existing solutions were designed in detail aiming at a high rolling noise attenuation and not affecting the normal operation of the metro system: Action 1: implementation of sound absorbing precast elements (panel type) on the track bed, Action 2: implementation of an absorbing noise barrier with a height of 1.10-1.20m above rail level, and Action 3: installation of rail dampers. The selected solutions were implemented on site and the global performance was measured step by step for comparison with simulations.

  19. Noise reduction in urban LRT networks by combining track based solutions.

    PubMed

    Vogiatzis, Konstantinos; Vanhonacker, Patrick

    2016-10-15

    The overall objective of the Quiet-Track project is to provide step-changing track based noise mitigation and maintenance schemes for railway rolling noise in LRT (Light Rail Transit) networks. WP 4 in particular focuses on the combination of existing track based solutions to yield a global performance of at least 6dB(A). The validation was carried out using a track section in the network of Athens Metro Line 1 with an existing outside concrete slab track (RHEDA track) where high airborne rolling noise was observed. The procedure for the selection of mitigation measures is based on numerical simulations, combining WRNOISE and IMMI software tools for noise prediction with experimental determination of the required track and vehicle parameters (e.g., rail and wheel roughness). The availability of a detailed rolling noise calculation procedure allows for detailed designing of measures and of ranking individual measures. It achieves this by including the modelling of the wheel/rail source intensity and of the noise propagation with the ability to evaluate the effect of modifications at source level (e.g., grinding, rail dampers, wheel dampers, change in resiliency of wheels and/or rail fixation) and of modifications in the propagation path (absorption at the track base, noise barriers, screening). A relevant combination of existing solutions was selected in the function of the simulation results. Three distinct existing solutions were designed in detail aiming at a high rolling noise attenuation and not affecting the normal operation of the metro system: Action 1: implementation of sound absorbing precast elements (panel type) on the track bed, Action 2: implementation of an absorbing noise barrier with a height of 1.10-1.20m above rail level, and Action 3: installation of rail dampers. The selected solutions were implemented on site and the global performance was measured step by step for comparison with simulations. PMID:26028336

  20. Identification of storm surge vulnerable areas in the Philippines through the simulation of Typhoon Haiyan-induced storm surge levels over historical storm tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapidez, J. P.; Tablazon, J.; Dasallas, L.; Gonzalo, L. A.; Cabacaba, K. M.; Ramos, M. M. A.; Suarez, J. K.; Santiago, J.; Lagmay, A. M. F.; Malano, V.

    2015-02-01

    Super Typhoon Haiyan entered the Philippine Area of Responsibility (PAR) 7 November 2013, causing tremendous damage to infrastructure and loss of lives mainly due to the storm surge and strong winds. Storm surges up to a height of 7 m were reported in the hardest hit areas. The threat imposed by this kind of natural calamity compelled researchers of the Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards (Project NOAH), the flagship disaster mitigation program of the Department of Science and Technology (DOST), Government of the Philippines, to undertake a study to determine the vulnerability of all Philippine coastal communities to storm surges of the same magnitude as those generated by Haiyan. This study calculates the maximum probable storm surge height for every coastal locality by running simulations of Haiyan-type conditions but with tracks of tropical cyclones that entered PAR from 1948-2013. One product of this study is a list of the 30 most vulnerable coastal areas that can be used as basis for choosing priority sites for further studies to implement appropriate site-specific solutions for flood risk management. Another product is the storm tide inundation maps that the local government units can use to develop a risk-sensitive land use plan for identifying appropriate areas to build residential buildings, evacuation sites, and other critical facilities and lifelines. The maps can also be used to develop a disaster response plan and evacuation scheme.

  1. Identification of storm surge vulnerable areas in the Philippines through the simulation of Typhoon Haiyan-induced storm surge levels over historical storm tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapidez, J. P.; Tablazon, J.; Dasallas, L.; Gonzalo, L. A.; Cabacaba, K. M.; Ramos, M. M. A.; Suarez, J. K.; Santiago, J.; Lagmay, A. M. F.; Malano, V.

    2015-07-01

    Super Typhoon Haiyan entered the Philippine Area of Responsibility (PAR) on 7 November 2013, causing tremendous damage to infrastructure and loss of lives mainly due to the storm surge and strong winds. Storm surges up to a height of 7 m were reported in the hardest hit areas. The threat imposed by this kind of natural calamity compelled researchers of the Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards (Project NOAH) which is the flagship disaster mitigation program of the Department of Science and Technology (DOST) of the Philippine government to undertake a study to determine the vulnerability of all Philippine coastal communities to storm surges of the same magnitude as those generated by Haiyan. This study calculates the maximum probable storm surge height for every coastal locality by running simulations of Haiyan-type conditions but with tracks of tropical cyclones that entered PAR from 1948-2013. One product of this study is a list of the 30 most vulnerable coastal areas that can be used as a basis for choosing priority sites for further studies to implement appropriate site-specific solutions for flood risk management. Another product is the storm tide inundation maps that the local government units can use to develop a risk-sensitive land use plan for identifying appropriate areas to build residential buildings, evacuation sites, and other critical facilities and lifelines. The maps can also be used to develop a disaster response plan and evacuation scheme.

  2. Balance ability in 7- and 10-year-old children: associations with prenatal lead and cadmium exposure and with blood lead levels in childhood in a prospective birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Caroline M; Humphriss, Rachel; Hall, Amanda; Golding, Jean; Emond, Alan M

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Most studies reporting evidence of adverse effects of lead and cadmium on the ability to balance have been conducted in high-exposure groups or have included adults. The effects of prenatal exposure have not been well studied, nor have the effects in children been directly studied. The aim of the study was to identify the associations of lead (in utero and in childhood) and cadmium (in utero) exposure with the ability to balance in children aged 7 and 10 years. Design Prospective birth cohort study. Participants Maternal blood lead (n=4285) and cadmium (n=4286) levels were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in women enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) during pregnancy. Child lead levels were measured in a subsample of 582 of ALSPAC children at age 30 months. Main outcome measures Children completed a heel-to-toe walking test at 7 years. At 10 years, the children underwent clinical tests of static and dynamic balance. Statistical analysis using SPSS V.19 included logistic regression modelling, comparing categories of ≥5 vs <5 µg/dL for lead, and ≥1 vs <1 µg/L for cadmium. Results Balance at age 7 years was not associated with elevated in utero lead or cadmium exposure (adjusted OR for balance dysfunction: Pb 1.01 (95% CI 0.95 to 1.01), n=1732; Cd 0.95 (0.77 to 1.20), n=1734), or with elevated child blood lead level at age 30 months (adjusted OR 0.98 (0.92 to 1.05), n=354). Similarly, neither measures of static nor dynamic balance at age 10 years were associated with in utero lead or cadmium exposure, or child lead level. Conclusions These findings do not provide any evidence of an association of prenatal exposure to lead or cadmium, or lead levels in childhood, on balance ability in children. Confirmation in other cohorts is needed. PMID:26719320

  3. Solar tracking system

    DOEpatents

    Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2016-07-12

    Solar tracking systems, as well as methods of using such solar tracking systems, are disclosed. More particularly, embodiments of the solar tracking systems include lateral supports horizontally positioned between uprights to support photovoltaic modules. The lateral supports may be raised and lowered along the uprights or translated to cause the photovoltaic modules to track the moving sun.

  4. Emission characteristics of VOCs from athletic tracks.

    PubMed

    Chang, F H; Lin, T C; Huang, C I; Chao, H R; Chang, T Y; Lu, C S

    1999-12-23

    Dynamic and flow-through flux chambers are convenient tools for field measurements of gas or VOC emission flux from solid surfaces in the field. This study was undertaken to collect on site and quantify the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from athletic running tracks. Three typical types of tracks, one synthetic rubber and two tracks (types I and II) consisting mainly of polyurethane, were studied. They were all installed with adhesives and backings, both of which contributed significant amount of VOCs. VOCs released from the track surface were collected with a flux chamber and subsequently analyzed by a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). Also, for each track and at each selected time the emission flux and mass emission were measured on site under outdoor conditions over a period of 40 min. GC/MS analyses show that the VOCs emitted include 2-methyl furan, butanal, methyl ethyl ketone, benzene, heptane, methyl isobutyl ketone, toluene+octane, hexanal, nonane+ethylbenzene, xylenes+styrene, propyl benzene, decane, 1,3,5-trimethyl benzene, 1,2,4-trimethyl benzene, 1,2, 3-trimethyl benzene and undecane. Of these, hexanal was the common and principal compound for all three types of tracks. 2-Methyl furan and methyl isobutyl ketone were the characteristic compounds for the synthetic rubber and the type II of polyurethane tracks, respectively. In the field studies, no unique compounds were found in the type I of polyurethane tracks. For each of these three types of tracks the total-VOCs emission flux was correlated to the track age and track surface temperature. The results of multiple regression analysis showed good correlation. The type II polyurethane track had the highest decay rate, while the synthetic rubber track had the lowest decay rate. Two years after the track installation, the VOC concentrations measured at 1.5 m above the track, the breathing height of school children, were not significantly higher than the background levels.

  5. Tracking and Inequality: New Directions for Research and Practice. WCER Working Paper No. 2009-6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamoran, Adam

    2009-01-01

    The practice of tracking and ability grouping--the division of students into separate tracks, classes, and groups for instruction based on their purported interests and abilities--has long been debated. Evidence from decades of research indicates that tracking magnifies inequality between high and low achievers without raising achievement overall,…

  6. Analysis of adeno-associated virus (AAV) wild-type and mutant Rep proteins for their abilities to negatively regulate AAV p5 and p19 mRNA levels.

    PubMed Central

    Kyöstiö, S R; Owens, R A; Weitzman, M D; Antoni, B A; Chejanovsky, N; Carter, B J

    1994-01-01

    The rep gene of adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV) encodes four overlapping Rep proteins that are involved in gene regulation and replication of the virus. We studied here the regulation of mRNA transcribed from the AAV p5 and p19 promoters, using transient expression in human 293 cells followed by Northern (RNA) blot analysis of the mRNA. The p5 transcript encodes the larger Rep proteins, Rep78 and Rep68, while the p19 transcript encodes the smaller proteins, Rep52 and Rep40. A plasmid (pNTC3) containing the entire AAV genome with an amber mutation in the rep gene accumulated higher levels of p5 and p19 mRNA than a plasmid containing the wild-type AAV genome. Addition of increasing amounts of the wild-type rep gene in trans from a heterologous promoter inhibited p5 and p19 mRNA accumulation from pNTC3, indicating that the levels of both transcripts were decreased by the Rep proteins. Cotransfections with plasmids producing individual wild-type Rep proteins in trans showed that p5 and p19 mRNA accumulation was inhibited 5- to 10-fold by Rep78 and Rep68 and 2- to 3-fold by Rep52 and Rep40. Analysis of carboxyl-terminal truncation mutants of Rep78 showed that the ability of Rep78 to decrease p5 and p19 mRNA levels was lost when 159 or more amino acids were deleted. Rep78 and Rep68 mutants deleted for the methionine at residue 225 showed decreased abilities to down-regulate both p5 and p19 transcript levels, while mutants containing a substitution of glycine for the methionine resembled the wild-type Rep78. A Rep78 protein with a mutation in the putative nucleoside triphosphate binding site inhibited expression from p5 but not from p19, suggesting that the regulation of p5 transcript levels by Rep78 and Rep68 differs from that of p19. A deletion analysis of AAV cis sequences revealed that an intact terminal repeat was not required for negative regulation of p5 and p19 transcript levels and that the regulation of p19 mRNA levels by Rep78 did not require the presence

  7. TrackEye tracking algorithm characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valley, Michael T.; Shields, Robert W.; Reed, Jack M.

    2004-10-01

    TrackEye is a film digitization and target tracking system that offers the potential for quantitatively measuring the dynamic state variables (e.g., absolute and relative position, orientation, linear and angular velocity/acceleration, spin rate, trajectory, angle of attack, etc.) for moving objects using captured single or dual view image sequences. At the heart of the system is a set of tracking algorithms that automatically find and quantify the location of user selected image details such as natural test article features or passive fiducials that have been applied to cooperative test articles. This image position data is converted into real world coordinates and rates with user specified information such as the image scale and frame rate. Though tracking methods such as correlation algorithms are typically robust by nature, the accuracy and suitability of each TrackEye tracking algorithm is in general unknown even under good imaging conditions. The challenges of optimal algorithm selection and algorithm performance/measurement uncertainty are even more significant for long range tracking of high-speed targets where temporally varying atmospheric effects degrade the imagery. This paper will present the preliminary results from a controlled test sequence used to characterize the performance of the TrackEye tracking algorithm suite.

  8. Ability Explorer: A Review and Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Anne

    The Ability Explorer (AE) is a newly developed self-report inventory of abilities that is appropriate for group or individual administration. There are machine-scorable and hand-scorable versions of the test, and there are two levels. Level 1 is for students from junior high to high school, and Level 2 is for high school students and adults.…

  9. Can we track holes?

    PubMed Central

    Horowitz, Todd S.; Kuzmova, Yoana

    2011-01-01

    The evidence is mixed as to whether the visual system treats objects and holes differently. We used a multiple object tracking task to test the hypothesis that figural objects are easier to track than holes. Observers tracked four of eight items (holes or objects). We used an adaptive algorithm to estimate the speed allowing 75% tracking accuracy. In Experiments 1–5, the distinction between holes and figures was accomplished by pictorial cues, while red-cyan anaglyphs were used to provide the illusion of depth in Experiment 6. We variously used Gaussian pixel noise, photographic scenes, or synthetic textures as backgrounds. Tracking was more difficult when a complex background was visible, as opposed to a blank background. Tracking was easier when disks carried fixed, unique markings. When these factors were controlled for, tracking holes was no more difficult than tracking figures, suggesting that they are equivalent stimuli for tracking purposes. PMID:21334361

  10. The effects of the level of inquiry of situated secondary science laboratory activities on students' understanding of concepts and the nature of science, ability to use process skills and attitudes toward problem solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dana, Lisa Ann

    Although there has been over thirty years of studies on the effects of inquiry-based science instruction on students' understanding of concepts and the nature of science, ability to use process skills, and attitudes toward problem solving and subsequent meta-analyses of these studies, little is conclusive because of the inability of researchers to adequately describe the various levels of inquiry-based science instruction being utilized. In many of these past studies inquiry-based science instruction was vaguely defined. Past descriptions of inquiry have mainly focused on the teacher vs. student responsibility in the parts of a laboratory activity (Herron 1971, Pella, 1961, and Schwab, 1962) and although others have since focused on other various aspects (Luft, 1999; Priestley, Priestley, Sutman, Schumuckler, Hilosky, & White 1998), none have been complete in scope to describe the classroom interactions between teacher and student, before, during and after manipulation of laboratory materials and to clearly define the various levels of inquiry-based science instruction occurring in a classroom. Utilizing some of these previous theoretical frameworks, this study created the Situated Laboratory Activity Instrument (SLAI) that clearly defines various levels of inquiry based upon specific categories of teacher-student behaviors. The term, situated laboratory activities, more clearly represents the time before, during and after the actual manipulation of material. Validity and reliability were established for the SLAI. The instrument was derived from both historical and current instruments for looking at inquiry. The data for the creation and revision of this instrument were collected through initial reliability measures and observing the situated laboratory activities in four secondary physics classrooms during the study. The SLAI was utilized in a preliminary study in a public high school of the effects of various levels of inquiry teaching on students' understanding

  11. Balance ability and athletic performance.

    PubMed

    Hrysomallis, Con

    2011-03-01

    The relationship between balance ability and sport injury risk has been established in many cases, but the relationship between balance ability and athletic performance is less clear. This review compares the balance ability of athletes from different sports, determines if there is a difference in balance ability of athletes at different levels of competition within the same sport, determines the relationship of balance ability with performance measures and examines the influence of balance training on sport performance or motor skills. Based on the available data from cross-sectional studies, gymnasts tended to have the best balance ability, followed by soccer players, swimmers, active control subjects and then basketball players. Surprisingly, no studies were found that compared the balance ability of rifle shooters with other athletes. There were some sports, such as rifle shooting, soccer and golf, where elite athletes were found to have superior balance ability compared with their less proficient counterparts, but this was not found to be the case for alpine skiing, surfing and judo. Balance ability was shown to be significantly related to rifle shooting accuracy, archery shooting accuracy, ice hockey maximum skating speed and simulated luge start speed, but not for baseball pitching accuracy or snowboarding ranking points. Prospective studies have shown that the addition of a balance training component to the activities of recreationally active subjects or physical education students has resulted in improvements in vertical jump, agility, shuttle run and downhill slalom skiing. A proposed mechanism for the enhancement in motor skills from balance training is an increase in the rate of force development. There are limited data on the influence of balance training on motor skills of elite athletes. When the effectiveness of balance training was compared with resistance training, it was found that resistance training produced superior performance results for

  12. Geo Issue Tracking System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khakpour, Mohammad; Paulik, Christoph; Hahn, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    Communication about remote sensing data quality between data providers and users as well as between the users is often difficult. The users have a hard time figuring out if a product has known problems over their region of interest and data providers have to spend a lot of effort to make this information available, if it exists. Scientific publications are one tool for communicating with the users base but they are static and mostly one way. As a data provider it is also often difficult to make feedback, received from users, available to the complete user base. The Geo Issue Tracking System (GeoITS) is an Open Source Web Application which has been developed to mitigate these problems. GeoITS combines a mapping interface (Google Maps) with a simple wiki platform. It allows users to give region specific feedback on a remote sensing product by drawing a polygon on the map and describing the problems they had using the remote sensing product in this area. These geolocated wiki entries are then viewable by other users as well as the data providers which can modify and extend the entries. In this way the conversations between the users and the data provider are no longer hidden in e.g. emails but open for all users of the dataset. This new kind of communication platform can enable better cooperation between users and data providers. It will also provide data providers with the ability to track problems their dataset might have in certain areas and resolve them with new product releases. The source code is available via http://github.com/TUW-GEO/geoits_dev A running instance can be tried at https://geoits.herokuapp.com/

  13. Advanced tracking systems design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potash, R.; Floyd, L.; Jacobsen, A.; Cunningham, K.; Kapoor, A.; Kwadrat, C.; Radel, J.; Mccarthy, J.

    1989-01-01

    The results of an assessment of several types of high-accuracy tracking systems proposed to track the spacecraft in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Advanced Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (ATDRSS) are summarized. Tracking systems based on the use of interferometry and ranging are investigated. For each system, the top-level system design and operations concept are provided. A comparative system assessment is presented in terms of orbit determination performance, ATDRSS impacts, life-cycle cost, and technological risk.

  14. Three-dimensional tracking of cardiac catheters using an inverse geometry x-ray fluoroscopy system

    SciTech Connect

    Speidel, Michael A.; Tomkowiak, Michael T.; Raval, Amish N.; Van Lysel, Michael S.

    2010-12-15

    Purpose: Scanning beam digital x-ray (SBDX) is an inverse geometry fluoroscopic system with high dose efficiency and the ability to perform continuous real-time tomosynthesis at multiple planes. This study describes a tomosynthesis-based method for 3D tracking of high-contrast objects and present the first experimental investigation of cardiac catheter tracking using a prototype SBDX system. Methods: The 3D tracking algorithm utilizes the stack of regularly spaced tomosynthetic planes that are generated by SBDX after each frame period (15 frames/s). Gradient-filtered versions of the image planes are generated, the filtered images are segmented into object regions, and then a 3D coordinate is calculated for each object region. Two phantom studies of tracking performance were conducted. In the first study, an ablation catheter in a chest phantom was imaged as it was pulled along a 3D trajectory defined by a catheter sheath (10, 25, and 50 mm/s pullback speeds). SBDX tip tracking coordinates were compared to the 3D trajectory of the sheath as determined from a CT scan of the phantom after the registration of the SBDX and CT coordinate systems. In the second study, frame-to-frame tracking precision was measured for six different catheter configurations as a function of image noise level (662-7625 photons/mm{sup 2} mean detected x-ray fluence at isocenter). Results: During catheter pullbacks, the 3D distance between the tracked catheter tip and the sheath centerline was 1.0{+-}0.8 mm (mean {+-}one standard deviation). The electrode to centerline distances were comparable to the diameter of the catheter tip (2.3 mm), the confining sheath (4 mm outside diameter), and the estimated SBDX-to-CT registration error ({+-}0.7 mm). The tip position was localized for all 332 image frames analyzed and 83% of tracked positions were inside the 3D sheath volume derived from CT. The pullback speeds derived from the catheter trajectories were within 5% of the programed pullback speeds

  15. Track Segment Finding with the CDFII Online Track Processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neu, Christopher

    2000-04-01

    With increased accelerator luminosity and detector upgrades, Run II at the Tevatron offers not only unprecedented physics opportunities, but also exciting new technical challenges. At CDF, the new Central Outer Tracker (COT) coupled with the decreased bunch spacing requires the design of a new track processor to identify tracks in the central detector. This critical component of the triggering system must be efficient, fast and accurate. The eXtremely Fast Tracker (XFT) meets these criteria. The XFT is divided into two major subsystems, the segment finder and the segment linker. We report on the XFT's role in the Level 1 triggering system at CDF and the Finder subsytem. The Finder identifies track segments within a 12-wire layer of the COT. The device is highly parallel and makes use of field programmable gate arrays. The design, testing and commissioning of the Finder are detailed.

  16. Researches on Track Reconstruction for DAMPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, T. S.; Lei, S. J.; Zang, J. J.; Chang, J.; Wu, J.

    2016-05-01

    The Dark Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) is aimed to study the existence and distribution of dark matter via observation of high energy particles in space with unprecedented large energy bandwidth, high energy resolution, and high space resolution. The track reconstruction is to restore the positions and angles of the incident particles using the multiple observations of different channels at different positions, and its accuracy determines the angular resolution of the detector. The track reconstruction is mainly based on the observations of two sub-detectors, namely, the Silicon Tracker (STK) detector and the BGO (Bi_4Ge_3O12) calorimeter. In accordance with the design and structure of the two sub-detectors and using the data collected during the beam tests and ground tests, we provide a detailed introduction of the track reconstruction of DAMPE data, including three basic steps, the selection of track hits, the fitting of track hits, and the judgement of the best track among (most probably) many of them. Since a high energy particle most probably leaves more than one hit in each level of the STK and BGO, we first provide a method to constrain the STK clusters for the track reconstruction using the rough result of the BGO reconstruction. We apply two different algorithms, the Kalman filter and the least square linear fitting, to fit the track hits. The consistency of the results obtained independently via the two algorithms confirms the validity of our track reconstruction results, and we discuss the advantages/disadvantages of each method. Several criteria combining the BGO and STK detection are discussed for picking out the most possible track among all the tracks found in the track reconstruction. Using the track reconstruction methods mentioned in this article and the beam test data, we confirm that the angular resolution of DAMPE satisfies the requirement in design.

  17. Integrated Management Tracking System

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, Terrance

    2000-03-30

    The Integrated Management Tracking System (IMTS) is a "Web Enabled" Client/Server Business application that provides for the Identification and Resolution of commitments, situations, events and problems. The IMTS engine is written with Microsoft Active Server Pages (ASP) for IIS4. The system provides for reporting, entering, editing, closing and administration over a Intranet, Extranet or Internet. This Application facilitates: Electronic assignment, acceptance and tracking to completion. Email notifications of assigned action. Establishment of Due Dates. Electronic search and retrieval based on keywords in combination with user specified database parameters (Document Type, Date Ranges, etc.). Coded for Trending and Reporting. User selected reports. Various levels of access for reports and administration. The "Server" side of this application consists of a Microsoft Access database running on a NT Server with Internet Information Server (IIS). As the "Client" side of the application runs on any Web browser, this solution is a cost effective, user friendly application that lends itself to organizations not physically colocated in one location providing information immediately available to everyone at once.

  18. Integrated Management Tracking System

    2000-03-30

    The Integrated Management Tracking System (IMTS) is a "Web Enabled" Client/Server Business application that provides for the Identification and Resolution of commitments, situations, events and problems. The IMTS engine is written with Microsoft Active Server Pages (ASP) for IIS4. The system provides for reporting, entering, editing, closing and administration over a Intranet, Extranet or Internet. This Application facilitates: Electronic assignment, acceptance and tracking to completion. Email notifications of assigned action. Establishment of Due Dates. Electronicmore » search and retrieval based on keywords in combination with user specified database parameters (Document Type, Date Ranges, etc.). Coded for Trending and Reporting. User selected reports. Various levels of access for reports and administration. The "Server" side of this application consists of a Microsoft Access database running on a NT Server with Internet Information Server (IIS). As the "Client" side of the application runs on any Web browser, this solution is a cost effective, user friendly application that lends itself to organizations not physically colocated in one location providing information immediately available to everyone at once.« less

  19. Voice tracking and spoken word recognition in the presence of other voices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litong-Palima, Marisciel; Violanda, Renante; Saloma, Caesar

    2004-12-01

    We study the human hearing process by modeling the hair cell as a thresholded Hopf bifurcator and compare our calculations with experimental results involving human subjects in two different multi-source listening tasks of voice tracking and spoken-word recognition. In the model, we observed noise suppression by destructive interference between noise sources which weakens the effective noise strength acting on the hair cell. Different success rate characteristics were observed for the two tasks. Hair cell performance at low threshold levels agree well with results from voice-tracking experiments while those of word-recognition experiments are consistent with a linear model of the hearing process. The ability of humans to track a target voice is robust against cross-talk interference unlike word-recognition performance which deteriorates quickly with the number of uncorrelated noise sources in the environment which is a response behavior that is associated with linear systems.

  20. Numerical ability predicts mortgage default.

    PubMed

    Gerardi, Kristopher; Goette, Lorenz; Meier, Stephan

    2013-07-01

    Unprecedented levels of US subprime mortgage defaults precipitated a severe global financial crisis in late 2008, plunging much of the industrialized world into a deep recession. However, the fundamental reasons for why US mortgages defaulted at such spectacular rates remain largely unknown. This paper presents empirical evidence showing that the ability to perform basic mathematical calculations is negatively associated with the propensity to default on one's mortgage. We measure several aspects of financial literacy and cognitive ability in a survey of subprime mortgage borrowers who took out loans in 2006 and 2007, and match them to objective, detailed administrative data on mortgage characteristics and payment histories. The relationship between numerical ability and mortgage default is robust to controlling for a broad set of sociodemographic variables, and is not driven by other aspects of cognitive ability. We find no support for the hypothesis that numerical ability impacts mortgage outcomes through the choice of the mortgage contract. Rather, our results suggest that individuals with limited numerical ability default on their mortgage due to behavior unrelated to the initial choice of their mortgage.

  1. Numerical ability predicts mortgage default.

    PubMed

    Gerardi, Kristopher; Goette, Lorenz; Meier, Stephan

    2013-07-01

    Unprecedented levels of US subprime mortgage defaults precipitated a severe global financial crisis in late 2008, plunging much of the industrialized world into a deep recession. However, the fundamental reasons for why US mortgages defaulted at such spectacular rates remain largely unknown. This paper presents empirical evidence showing that the ability to perform basic mathematical calculations is negatively associated with the propensity to default on one's mortgage. We measure several aspects of financial literacy and cognitive ability in a survey of subprime mortgage borrowers who took out loans in 2006 and 2007, and match them to objective, detailed administrative data on mortgage characteristics and payment histories. The relationship between numerical ability and mortgage default is robust to controlling for a broad set of sociodemographic variables, and is not driven by other aspects of cognitive ability. We find no support for the hypothesis that numerical ability impacts mortgage outcomes through the choice of the mortgage contract. Rather, our results suggest that individuals with limited numerical ability default on their mortgage due to behavior unrelated to the initial choice of their mortgage. PMID:23798401

  2. Numerical ability predicts mortgage default

    PubMed Central

    Gerardi, Kristopher; Goette, Lorenz; Meier, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Unprecedented levels of US subprime mortgage defaults precipitated a severe global financial crisis in late 2008, plunging much of the industrialized world into a deep recession. However, the fundamental reasons for why US mortgages defaulted at such spectacular rates remain largely unknown. This paper presents empirical evidence showing that the ability to perform basic mathematical calculations is negatively associated with the propensity to default on one’s mortgage. We measure several aspects of financial literacy and cognitive ability in a survey of subprime mortgage borrowers who took out loans in 2006 and 2007, and match them to objective, detailed administrative data on mortgage characteristics and payment histories. The relationship between numerical ability and mortgage default is robust to controlling for a broad set of sociodemographic variables, and is not driven by other aspects of cognitive ability. We find no support for the hypothesis that numerical ability impacts mortgage outcomes through the choice of the mortgage contract. Rather, our results suggest that individuals with limited numerical ability default on their mortgage due to behavior unrelated to the initial choice of their mortgage. PMID:23798401

  3. Photographing Track Meets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Erik

    2001-01-01

    Argues that the sport of track and field, because of the sport itself and its relatively easy access to photographers, is an obvious target for cameras. Discusses rules of the track that photographers must follow; picking a location; and equipment. Discusses shooting four specific track and field events and offers behind the scenes photos. (SR)

  4. Solar tracking apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hammons, Burrell E.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to a solar tracking device which tracks the position of the sun using paired, partially-shaded photocells. Auxiliary photocells are used for initial acquisition of the sun and for the suppression of false tracking when the sun is obscured by clouds.

  5. Solar tracking apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hammons, B.E.

    The invention relates to a solar tracking device which tracks the position of the sun using paired, partially-shaded photocells. Auxilliary photocells are used for initial acquisition of the sun and for the suppression of false tracking when the sun is obscured by clouds.

  6. Spatiotemporally Resolved Tracking of Bacterial Responses to ROS-Mediated Damage at the Single-Cell Level with Quantitative Functional Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Barroso, Álvaro; Grüner, Malte; Forbes, Taylor; Denz, Cornelia; Strassert, Cristian A

    2016-06-22

    Herein we report on the implementation of photofunctional microparticles in combination with optical tweezers for the investigation of bacterial responses to oxidative stress by means of quantitative functional microscopy. A combination of a strongly hydrophobic axially substituted Si(IV) phthalocyanine adsorbed onto silica microparticles was developed, and the structural and photophysical characterization was carried out. The microparticles are able to produce reactive oxygen species under the fluorescence microscope upon irradiation with red light, and the behavior of individual bacteria can be consequently investigated in situ and in real time at the single cell level. For this purpose, a methodology was introduced to monitor phototriggered changes with spatiotemporal resolution. The defined distance between the photoactive particles and individual bacteria can be fixed under the microscope before the photosensitization process is started, and the photoinduced damage can be monitored by tracing the time-dependent fluorescence turn-on of a suitable marker. The results showed a distance-dependent photoinduced death time, defined as the onset of the incorporation of propidium iodide. Our methodology constitutes a new tool for the in vitro design and evaluation of photosensitizers for the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases with the aid of functional optical microscopy, as it enables a quantitative response evaluation of living systems toward oxidative stress. More generally, it provides a way to understand the response of an ensemble of living entities to reactive oxygen species by analyzing the behavior of a set of individual organisms. PMID:27227509

  7. Finite resolution multitarget tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mušicki, Darko; Morelande, Mark R.

    2005-09-01

    Target tracking algorithms have to operate in an environment of uncertain measurement origin, due to the presence of randomly detected target measurements as well as clutter measurements from unwanted random scatterers. A majority of Bayesian multi-target tracking algorithms suffer from computational complexity which is exponential in the number of tracks and the number of shared measurements. The Linear Multi-target (LM) tracking procedure is a Bayesian multi-target tracking approximation with complexity which is linear in the number of tracks and the number of shared measurements. It also has a much simpler structure than the "optimal" Bayesian multi-target tracking, with apparently negligible decrease in performance. A vast majority of target tracking algorithms have been developed with the assumption of infinite sensor resolution, where a measurement can have only one source. This assumption is not valid for real sensors, such as radars. This paper presents a multi-target tracking algorithm which removes this restriction. The procedure utilizes a simple structure of LM tracking procedure to obtain a LM Finite Resolution (LMfr) tracking procedure which is much simpler than the previously published efforts. Instead of calculating the probability of measurement merging for each combination of potentially merging targets, we evaluate only one merging hypotheses for each measurement and each track. A simulation study is presented which compares LMfr-IPDA with LM-IPDA and IPDA target tracking in a cluttered environment utilizing a finite resolution sensor with five crossing targets. The study concentrates on the false track discrimination performance and the track retention capabilities.

  8. Object tracking with stereo vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Eric

    1994-01-01

    A real-time active stereo vision system incorporating gaze control and task directed vision is described. Emphasis is placed on object tracking and object size and shape determination. Techniques include motion-centroid tracking, depth tracking, and contour tracking.

  9. KiSS-1-mediated suppression of the invasive ability of human pancreatic carcinoma cells is not dependent on the level of KiSS-1 receptor GPR54

    PubMed Central

    WANG, CHUN-HUI; QIAO, CHONG; WANG, RUO-CHEN; ZHOU, WEN-PING

    2016-01-01

    The onset of local invasion and lymphatic metastasis in pancreatic cancer limits survival following surgical intervention and additional therapies. Reduced expression of KiSS-1 in pancreatic cancer is associated with cancer metastasis. Previous studies have indicated that kisspeptin, the KiSS-1 peptide, is able to bind to its receptor-GPR54 (hOT7T175) and suppress the migration of PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells. Whether the metastatic suppression of KiSS-1 is dependent on the levels of GPR54 in pancreatic cancer cell lines remains unclear. Human BxPC-3 pancreatic carcinoma cells are highly differentiated without exhibiting metastasis, however PANC-1 pancreatic carcinoma cells are poorly differentiated and exhibit local and lymph node metastasis. Compared with primary cultured trophoblasts, BxPc-3 and PANC-1 cells were observed to express low levels of KiSS-1 mRNA and protein, measured using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. However, greater mRNA and protein expression levels of GPR54 were observed in PANC-1 cells compared with BxPc-3 cells. An MTT assay was used to investigate the effect of KiSS-1 on BxPc-3 and PANC-1 cell proliferation. There were no significant differences in proliferation following transfection with KiSS-1 in BxPc-3 and PANC-1 cells compared with the controls (P>0.05). A Transwell assay with chambers coated with Matrigel was used to evaluate the in vitro invasive ability of BxPc-3 and PANC-1 cells, with the invasion index of BxPc-3 and PANC-1 cells significantly reduced following 48 h of KiSS-1 overexpression (P<0.05). The mRNA and protein expression levels of KiSS-1 were significantly increased in BxPc-3 and PANC-1 cells 48 h subsequent to transfection with KiSS-1 (P<0.05), while GPR54 expression was not altered (P>0.05). KiSS-1 is a metastasis suppressor gene of pancreatic cancer, and this suppression is not dependent on the expression levels of GPR54. Therefore, KiSS-1 is

  10. Scientific Ability and Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Kurt A.

    2007-01-01

    Following an introductory definition of "scientific ability and creativity", product-oriented, personality and social psychological approaches to studying scientific ability are examined with reference to competence and performance. Studies in the psychometric versus cognitive psychological paradigms are dealt with in more detail. These two…

  11. Fairness and Ability Grouping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strike, Kenneth A.

    1983-01-01

    A recent controversy regarding ability grouping is that it is often perceived as a means whereby racial or class bias can be subtly transformed into mechanisms of discrimination which exhibit the appearance of fairness and objectivity. This article addresses the question of fairness in ability grouping. (CJB)

  12. PAT1.1; Pinellas Action Tracking System; Tracks Audit Findings and Corrective Actions

    SciTech Connect

    Mellican, P.L.

    1993-04-09

    PAT was derived from a system that began at the Rocky Flats Plant and was further enhanced at the Mound Plant. Pinellas Plant obtained this system in 1990 to track Tiger Team Findings; it has been expanded to include new modules which encompass a wide range of related functions. Functionality includes tracking of findings and associated corrective actions from various sources such as line operations, self-assessments, oversight assessments, and external organizations. Other functionality includes Management Walk-About tracking, NEPA prioritization, Occurrence/incident Report corrective action tracking, and Management Action Item Tracking. The system utilizes state of the art relational database technology with pop-up windows for table lookups and entry of descriptive text. Standards such as assessment identification numbers, area designations, and finding category codes have been developed to provide enhanced query capabilities and the ability to group findings for trending purposes on a plant-wide basis.

  13. A Comparison of Student Spatial Abilities Across STEM Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loftis, Thad; Cid, Xiimena; Lopez, Ramon

    2011-10-01

    It has been shown that STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) students have higher spatial abilities than students in the liberal arts or humanities. In order to track the change in spatial abilities within a group, studies in physics have examined topics in kinematics, chemistry has examined topics on molecular diagrams, mathematics has examined topics related to geometry, and engineering has developed courses specifically targeting students' spatial abilities. It is understood that students in STEM fields improve their spatial abilities while taking STEM courses, but very few studies have done comparisons amongst the different STEM fields. I will be presenting data comparing different STEM students' spatial ability, assessed using the Mental Rotation Test.

  14. Resource Tracking and Workflow System - part of the CORE system

    2009-10-02

    Resource management and workflow capability applied to engineering design situational awareness, providing the ability to make assignments and track progress through the construction and maintenance life cycle of an engineered structure.

  15. Comparison of Two Kinds of Endurance Training Programs on the Effects of the Ability to Recover in Amateur Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Rogan, Slavko

    2015-01-01

    Background: High intensity intermittent aerobic exercise is an elementary endurance training exercise to build soccer endurance. Many studies exist with professional soccer players. But limited research has been conducted with amateur soccer players. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare and assess the effects of the shuttle-run method and the Hoff-track method on the ability to recover in amateur soccer players within three weeks. Patients and Methods: Two amateur soccer teams were randomly assigned to shuttle-run group (n = 24; SRG) (SRG: shuttle-run group) or Hoff-track group (n = 18; HTG) (HTG: hoff-track group). They performed 2 times/week over three weeks their program. SRG performed a 20 m high speed shuttle-run until exhaustion and HTG covered at their highest speed level an obstacle track. Before and after training the yo-yo intermittent recovery test level 2 (YYIRTL2) was conducted. Results: Significant differences were observed within (P < 0.05) and between the groups (P = 0.06; ES = 0.50) in distance covering during YYIRTL2. Conclusions: Both training methods seem to improve the ability to recover in amateur soccer players within a short time period during the competition season. PMID:26448831

  16. The application of measurement techniques to track flutter testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roglin, H. R.

    1975-01-01

    The application is discussed of measurement techniques to captive flight flutter tests at the Supersonic Naval Ordnance Research Track (SNORT), U. S. Naval Ordnance Test Station, China Lake, California. The high-speed track, by its ability to prove the validity of design and to accurately determine the actual margin of safety, offers a unique method of flutter testing for the aircraft design engineer.

  17. Predicting space telerobotic operator training performance from human spatial ability assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Andrew M.; Oman, Charles M.; Galvan, Raquel; Natapoff, Alan

    2013-11-01

    Our goal was to determine whether existing tests of spatial ability can predict an astronaut's qualification test performance after robotic training. Because training astronauts to be qualified robotics operators is so long and expensive, NASA is interested in tools that can predict robotics performance before training begins. Currently, the Astronaut Office does not have a validated tool to predict robotics ability as part of its astronaut selection or training process. Commonly used tests of human spatial ability may provide such a tool to predict robotics ability. We tested the spatial ability of 50 active astronauts who had completed at least one robotics training course, then used logistic regression models to analyze the correlation between spatial ability test scores and the astronauts' performance in their evaluation test at the end of the training course. The fit of the logistic function to our data is statistically significant for several spatial tests. However, the prediction performance of the logistic model depends on the criterion threshold assumed. To clarify the critical selection issues, we show how the probability of correct classification vs. misclassification varies as a function of the mental rotation test criterion level. Since the costs of misclassification are low, the logistic models of spatial ability and robotic performance are reliable enough only to be used to customize regular and remedial training. We suggest several changes in tracking performance throughout robotics training that could improve the range and reliability of predictive models.

  18. Tracking and Detracking: High Achievers in Massachusetts Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveless, Tom

    2009-01-01

    This study examines tracking--the practice of grouping students into separate classes or courses based on their prior academic achievement--at the middle-school level, and the percentage of high-achieving students in tracked and untracked schools. It focuses on Massachusetts, a leader in "reforming" tracking, and the changes that have…

  19. Tracking Cancer Genetic Evolution using OncoTrack

    PubMed Central

    Talukder, Asoke K.; Agarwal, Mahima; Buetow, Kenneth H.; Denèfle, Patrice P.

    2016-01-01

    It is difficult for existing methods to quantify, and track the constant evolution of cancers due to high heterogeneity of mutations. However, structural variations associated with nucleotide number changes show repeatable patterns in localized regions of the genome. Here we introduce SPKMG, which generalizes nucleotide number based properties of genes, in statistical terms, at the genome-wide scale. It is measured from the normalized amount of aligned NGS reads in exonic regions of a gene. SPKMG values are calculated within OncoTrack. SPKMG values being continuous numeric variables provide a statistical metric to track DNA level changes. We show that SPKMG measures of cancer DNA show a normative pattern at the genome-wide scale. The analysis leads to the discovery of core cancer genes and also provides novel dynamic insights into the stage of cancer, including cancer development, progression, and metastasis. This technique will allow exome data to also be used for quantitative LOH/CNV analysis for tracking tumour progression and evolution with a higher efficiency. PMID:27412732

  20. Dynamic kirigami structures for integrated solar tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamoureux, Aaron; Lee, Kyusang; Shlian, Matthew; Forrest, Stephen R.; Shtein, Max

    2015-09-01

    Optical tracking is often combined with conventional flat panel solar cells to maximize electrical power generation over the course of a day. However, conventional trackers are complex and often require costly and cumbersome structural components to support system weight. Here we use kirigami (the art of paper cutting) to realize novel solar cells where tracking is integral to the structure at the substrate level. Specifically, an elegant cut pattern is made in thin-film gallium arsenide solar cells, which are then stretched to produce an array of tilted surface elements which can be controlled to within +/-1°. We analyze the combined optical and mechanical properties of the tracking system, and demonstrate a mechanically robust system with optical tracking efficiencies matching conventional trackers. This design suggests a pathway towards enabling new applications for solar tracking, as well as inspiring a broader range of optoelectronic and mechanical devices.

  1. Dynamic kirigami structures for integrated solar tracking

    PubMed Central

    Lamoureux, Aaron; Lee, Kyusang; Shlian, Matthew; Forrest, Stephen R.; Shtein, Max

    2015-01-01

    Optical tracking is often combined with conventional flat panel solar cells to maximize electrical power generation over the course of a day. However, conventional trackers are complex and often require costly and cumbersome structural components to support system weight. Here we use kirigami (the art of paper cutting) to realize novel solar cells where tracking is integral to the structure at the substrate level. Specifically, an elegant cut pattern is made in thin-film gallium arsenide solar cells, which are then stretched to produce an array of tilted surface elements which can be controlled to within ±1°. We analyze the combined optical and mechanical properties of the tracking system, and demonstrate a mechanically robust system with optical tracking efficiencies matching conventional trackers. This design suggests a pathway towards enabling new applications for solar tracking, as well as inspiring a broader range of optoelectronic and mechanical devices. PMID:26348820

  2. Dynamic kirigami structures for integrated solar tracking.

    PubMed

    Lamoureux, Aaron; Lee, Kyusang; Shlian, Matthew; Forrest, Stephen R; Shtein, Max

    2015-01-01

    Optical tracking is often combined with conventional flat panel solar cells to maximize electrical power generation over the course of a day. However, conventional trackers are complex and often require costly and cumbersome structural components to support system weight. Here we use kirigami (the art of paper cutting) to realize novel solar cells where tracking is integral to the structure at the substrate level. Specifically, an elegant cut pattern is made in thin-film gallium arsenide solar cells, which are then stretched to produce an array of tilted surface elements which can be controlled to within ±1°. We analyze the combined optical and mechanical properties of the tracking system, and demonstrate a mechanically robust system with optical tracking efficiencies matching conventional trackers. This design suggests a pathway towards enabling new applications for solar tracking, as well as inspiring a broader range of optoelectronic and mechanical devices. PMID:26348820

  3. Dynamic kirigami structures for integrated solar tracking.

    PubMed

    Lamoureux, Aaron; Lee, Kyusang; Shlian, Matthew; Forrest, Stephen R; Shtein, Max

    2015-09-08

    Optical tracking is often combined with conventional flat panel solar cells to maximize electrical power generation over the course of a day. However, conventional trackers are complex and often require costly and cumbersome structural components to support system weight. Here we use kirigami (the art of paper cutting) to realize novel solar cells where tracking is integral to the structure at the substrate level. Specifically, an elegant cut pattern is made in thin-film gallium arsenide solar cells, which are then stretched to produce an array of tilted surface elements which can be controlled to within ±1°. We analyze the combined optical and mechanical properties of the tracking system, and demonstrate a mechanically robust system with optical tracking efficiencies matching conventional trackers. This design suggests a pathway towards enabling new applications for solar tracking, as well as inspiring a broader range of optoelectronic and mechanical devices.

  4. Patrol car and agent tracking/suspect tagging and tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, Steven C.

    1997-01-01

    Emerging technologies in the field of law enforcement are providing today's law enforcement personnel with the advantage of an innovative and faster means of providing safety and service to the public. The use of open such technology, the Automatic Vehicle Locator (AVL) tracking device, is fast becoming a commonplace and cost-effective solution for agencies to efficiently command and control their 'officer' assets. Through the use of AVL's global positioning satellite-based system, the response time of law enforcement is greatly enhanced by permitting a dispatcher to visually identify and assign the officer closest to the location of an accident or incident. The system is effective in reducing delays due to highway blockages, improving the level of protection to the motoring public, and promoting the flow of traffic on busy freeways. Likewise, an officer or agent in distress can be assured that a dispatcher will be constantly aware of his or her location in the field. In the 1990's the demands on law enforcement agencies have grown tremendously. this is due primarily to population increases, limited funding or resources, and increases in drug, property and violent crimes. Frequently, the automobile is used for escape after the commission of these crimes. This often results in high speed pursuits involving law enforcement agencies. In California, by statute, the California Highway Patrol is the central repository for data regarding all pursuits involving state and local law enforcement agencies. Statistics show that more than 10 percent of pursuits result in injuries to the violator and/or innocent bystanders. Most pursuits last less than 10 minutes, and the AVL system provides a tremendous advantage to law enforcement's ability to immediately deploy and direct units into pursuits for rapid closure of the incident. AVL systems not only reduce the risk of personal injury by minimizing public exposure to the unsafe incident, but also enhance officer safety during the

  5. Environmental exposure tracking sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havens, Teresa; Everhart, Joel; McFerran, Jace

    2009-03-01

    Cornerstone Research Group Inc. (CRG) has developed environmental exposure tracking (EET) sensors using shape memory polymer (SMP) to monitor the degradation of perishable items, such as munitions, medicines or foods, by measuring the cumulative exposure to temperature and moisture. SMPs are polymers whose qualities have been altered to give them dynamic shape "memory" properties. Under thermal or moisture stimuli, SMP exhibits a radical change from a rigid thermoset to a highly flexible, elastic state. The dynamic response of the SMP can be tailored to match the degradation profile of the perishable item. SMP-based EET sensors require no digital memory or internal power supply and provide the capability of inexpensive, long-term life cycle monitoring thermal and moisture exposure over time. In a Phase I and II SBIR effort with the Navy, CRG demonstrated the feasibility of SMP-based EET sensor with two material systems. These material systems required different activation stimuli, heat or water vapor pressure. CRG developed the ability to tailor these materials to customize the dynamic response to match various degradation profiles of munitions. CRG optimized and characterized the SMP formulations and sensor design configuration to develop a suite of data from which any degradation profile can be met. CRG's EET sensors are capable of monitoring temperatures from -30 °C to 260 °C. The prototypes monitor cumulative thermal exposure and provide real-time information in a visually readable or a remotely interrogated version. CRG is currently scaling up the manufacture of the sensors for munitions reliability applications with the Navy.

  6. Human abilities: emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Mayer, John D; Roberts, Richard D; Barsade, Sigal G

    2008-01-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) involves the ability to carry out accurate reasoning about emotions and the ability to use emotions and emotional knowledge to enhance thought. We discuss the origins of the EI concept, define EI, and describe the scope of the field today. We review three approaches taken to date from both a theoretical and methodological perspective. We find that Specific-Ability and Integrative-Model approaches adequately conceptualize and measure EI. Pivotal in this review are those studies that address the relation between EI measures and meaningful criteria including social outcomes, performance, and psychological and physical well-being. The Discussion section is followed by a list of summary points and recommended issues for future research. PMID:17937602

  7. The D/Ø Silicon Track Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbrück, Georg

    2003-09-01

    We describe a trigger preprocessor to be used by the D Ø experiment for selecting events with tracks from the decay of long-lived particles. This Level 2 impact parameter trigger utilizes information from the Silicon Microstrip Tracker to reconstruct tracks with improved spatial and momentum resolutions compared to those obtained by the Level 1 tracking trigger. It is constructed of VME boards with much of the logic existing in programmable processors. A common motherboard provides the I/O infrastructure and three different daughter boards perform the tasks of identifying the roads from the tracking trigger data, finding the clusters in the roads in the silicon detector, and fitting tracks to the clusters. This approach provides flexibility for the design, testing and maintenance phases of the project. The track parameters are provided to the trigger framework in 25 μs. The effective impact parameter resolution for high-momentum tracks is 35 μm, dominated by the size of the Tevatron beam.

  8. UWB Tracking Software Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, Julia; Arndt, Dickey; Ngo, Phong; Phan, Chau; Dusl, John; Ni, Jianjun; Rafford, Melinda

    2006-01-01

    An Ultra-Wideband (UWB) two-cluster Angle of Arrival (AOA) tracking prototype system is currently being developed and tested at NASA Johnson Space Center for space exploration applications. This talk discusses the software development efforts for this UWB two-cluster AOA tracking system. The role the software plays in this system is to take waveform data from two UWB radio receivers as an input, feed this input into an AOA tracking algorithm, and generate the target position as an output. The architecture of the software (Input/Output Interface and Algorithm Core) will be introduced in this talk. The development of this software has three phases. In Phase I, the software is mostly Matlab driven and calls C++ socket functions to provide the communication links to the radios. This is beneficial in the early stage when it is necessary to frequently test changes in the algorithm. Phase II of the development is to have the software mostly C++ driven and call a Matlab function for the AOA tracking algorithm. This is beneficial in order to send the tracking results to other systems and also to improve the tracking update rate of the system. The third phase is part of future work and is to have the software completely C++ driven with a graphics user interface. This software design enables the fine resolution tracking of the UWB two-cluster AOA tracking system.

  9. Large scale tracking algorithms.

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Ross L.; Love, Joshua Alan; Melgaard, David Kennett; Karelitz, David B.; Pitts, Todd Alan; Zollweg, Joshua David; Anderson, Dylan Z.; Nandy, Prabal; Whitlow, Gary L.; Bender, Daniel A.; Byrne, Raymond Harry

    2015-01-01

    Low signal-to-noise data processing algorithms for improved detection, tracking, discrimination and situational threat assessment are a key research challenge. As sensor technologies progress, the number of pixels will increase signi cantly. This will result in increased resolution, which could improve object discrimination, but unfortunately, will also result in a significant increase in the number of potential targets to track. Many tracking techniques, like multi-hypothesis trackers, suffer from a combinatorial explosion as the number of potential targets increase. As the resolution increases, the phenomenology applied towards detection algorithms also changes. For low resolution sensors, "blob" tracking is the norm. For higher resolution data, additional information may be employed in the detection and classfication steps. The most challenging scenarios are those where the targets cannot be fully resolved, yet must be tracked and distinguished for neighboring closely spaced objects. Tracking vehicles in an urban environment is an example of such a challenging scenario. This report evaluates several potential tracking algorithms for large-scale tracking in an urban environment.

  10. Explaining cloud chamber tracks

    SciTech Connect

    Broyles, A.A.

    1992-06-16

    The operation of many detection devices is usually explained in terms of the ionization tracks produced by particles despite the fact that the corresponding incident wave functions extended over the entire sensitive regions of the detectors. The mechanisms by which the wave function appears to collapse to a track is analyzed here.

  11. 2 Tracks for Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Robin

    2012-01-01

    The academic work force has been transformed over the past several decades, less by design than out of expediency. In 1969, professors who were either tenured or tenure-track made up 78 percent of the faculty. Those working part time made up only 18.5 percent. By 2009, those proportions had almost flipped, with tenured and tenure-track making up…

  12. On the Wrong Track?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gursky, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Discusses problems with student tracking. Although supporters consider tracking the best way for teachers to handle classroom diversity, many minorities say that it condemns their children to an inferior education. Studies show that heterogeneous classes benefit all students if the teachers adopt flexible instructional methods to handle the…

  13. Tracking performance under time sharing conditions with a digit processing task: A feedback control theory analysis. [attention sharing effect on operator performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopher, D.; Wickens, C. D.

    1975-01-01

    A one dimensional compensatory tracking task and a digit processing reaction time task were combined in a three phase experiment designed to investigate tracking performance in time sharing. Adaptive techniques, elaborate feedback devices, and on line standardization procedures were used to adjust task difficulty to the ability of each individual subject and manipulate time sharing demands. Feedback control analysis techniques were employed in the description of tracking performance. The experimental results show that when the dynamics of a system are constrained, in such a manner that man machine system stability is no longer a major concern of the operator, he tends to adopt a first order control describing function, even with tracking systems of higher order. Attention diversion to a concurrent task leads to an increase in remnant level, or nonlinear power. This decrease in linearity is reflected both in the output magnitude spectra of the subjects, and in the linear fit of the amplitude ratio functions.

  14. A global radiosonde and tracked balloon archive on 16 pressure levels (GRASP) back to 1905 - Part 1: Merging and interpolation to 00:00 and 12:00 GMT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramella Pralungo, L.; Haimberger, L.; Stickler, A.

    2014-05-01

    Many observed time series of the global radiosonde or PILOT networks exist as fragments distributed over different archives. Identifying and merging these fragments can enhance their value for studies on the three-dimensional spatial structure of climate change. The Comprehensive Historical Upper-Air Network (CHUAN version 1.7), which was substantially extended in 2013, and the Integrated Global Radiosonde Archive (IGRA) are the most important collections of upper-air measurements taken before 1958. CHUAN (tracked) balloon data start in 1900, with higher numbers from the late 1920s onward, whereas IGRA data start in 1937. However, a substantial fraction of those measurements have not been taken at synoptic times (preferably 00:00 or 12:00 GMT) and on altitude levels instead of standard pressure levels. To make them comparable with more recent data, the records have been brought to synoptic times and standard pressure levels using state-of-the-art interpolation techniques, employing geopotential information from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) 20th Century Reanalysis (NOAA 20CR). From 1958 onward the European Re-Analysis archives (ERA-40 and ERA-Interim) available at the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) are the main data sources. These are easier to use, but pilot data still have to be interpolated to standard pressure levels. Fractions of the same records distributed over different archives have been merged, if necessary, taking care that the data remain traceable back to their original sources. If possible, station IDs assigned by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) have been allocated to the station records. For some records which have never been identified by a WMO ID, a local ID above 100 000 has been assigned. The merged data set contains 37 wind records longer than 70 years and 139 temperature records longer than 60 years. It can be seen as a useful basis for further data processing steps, most

  15. TRACKED VEHICLE Rev 75

    SciTech Connect

    Raby, Eric Y.

    2007-05-08

    Revision 75 of the Tracked Vehicle software is a soft real-time simulation of a differentially steered, tracked mobile robot, which, because of the track flippers, resembles the iRobot PackBot (http://www.irobot.com/). Open source libraries are used for the physics engine (http://www.ode.org/), the display and user interface (http://www.mathies.com/cpw/), and the program command line and configuration file parameters (http://www.boost.org/). The simulation can be controlled by a USB joystick or the keyboard. The configuration file contains demonstration model parameters of no particular vehicle. This simulation can be used as a starting point for those doing tracked vehicle simulations. This simulation software is essentially a research tool which can be modified and adapted for certain types of tracked vehicle research. An open source license allows an individual researchers to tailor the code to their specific research needs.

  16. TRACKED VEHICLE Rev 75

    2007-05-08

    Revision 75 of the Tracked Vehicle software is a soft real-time simulation of a differentially steered, tracked mobile robot, which, because of the track flippers, resembles the iRobot PackBot (http://www.irobot.com/). Open source libraries are used for the physics engine (http://www.ode.org/), the display and user interface (http://www.mathies.com/cpw/), and the program command line and configuration file parameters (http://www.boost.org/). The simulation can be controlled by a USB joystick or the keyboard. The configuration file contains demonstration model parametersmore » of no particular vehicle. This simulation can be used as a starting point for those doing tracked vehicle simulations. This simulation software is essentially a research tool which can be modified and adapted for certain types of tracked vehicle research. An open source license allows an individual researchers to tailor the code to their specific research needs.« less

  17. Sparse Hashing Tracking.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lihe; Lu, Huchuan; Du, Dandan; Liu, Luning

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel tracking framework based on a sparse and discriminative hashing method. Different from the previous work, we treat object tracking as an approximate nearest neighbor searching process in a binary space. Using the hash functions, the target templates and the candidates can be projected into the Hamming space, facilitating the distance calculation and tracking efficiency. First, we integrate both the inter-class and intra-class information to train multiple hash functions for better classification, while most classifiers in previous tracking methods usually neglect the inter-class correlation, which may cause the inaccuracy. Then, we introduce sparsity into the hash coefficient vectors for dynamic feature selection, which is crucial to select the discriminative and stable features to adapt to visual variations during the tracking process. Extensive experiments on various challenging sequences show that the proposed algorithm performs favorably against the state-of-the-art methods.

  18. Cultural Studies, Pedagogy, and Response-Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossiter, Penelope

    2012-01-01

    A few years ago, in a tutorial in an advanced level undergraduate subject that she teaches--"Emotions, Culture and Community"--the author was a witness and participant in a pedagogical event that moved and provoked the class: It incited response-ability. This article is about that event, the meaning of response-ability, and the window that it…

  19. Developing the Ability for Making Evaluative Judgements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, John

    2010-01-01

    It is suggested that a more specific emphasis should be placed in undergraduate education on the explicit development of the ability to make evaluative judgements. This higher level cognitive ability is highlighted as the foundation for much sound and successful personal and professional development throughout education, and in lifelong…

  20. Japanese College Students' English Reading Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitao, Kenji

    A series of six studies of the reading ability of Japanese high school and college students investigated the ability of students to process various literary forms and the types of questions students have difficulty with at different levels of reading proficiency. Over 25,000 students completed various versions of an English reading comprehension…

  1. Does Classmate Ability Influence Students' Social Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Empirically, the link between classmate ability and individual-level student achievement has been established. And yet, within the scope of this body of literature, there is a dearth of studies examining if a relationship also persists between classmate ability and non-achievement outcomes--that is, social skills. This article fills this research…

  2. Priming Ability Emotional Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutte, Nicola S.; Malouff, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined whether priming self-schemas relating to successful emotional competency results in better emotional intelligence performance. In the first study participants were randomly assigned to a successful emotional competency self-schema prime condition or a control condition and then completed an ability measure of emotional…

  3. A Specific Calculating Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Mike; O'Connor, Neil; Hermelin, Beate

    1998-01-01

    Studied the calculating ability used by a low IQ savant to identify prime numbers in two experiments comparing him to control subjects, one involving reaction time and the other involving inspection time. Concludes that this individual uses a complex computational algorithm to identify primes and discusses the apparent contradiction of his low IQ.…

  4. OpenCV and TYZX : video surveillance for tracking.

    SciTech Connect

    He, Jim; Spencer, Andrew; Chu, Eric

    2008-08-01

    As part of the National Security Engineering Institute (NSEI) project, several sensors were developed in conjunction with an assessment algorithm. A camera system was developed in-house to track the locations of personnel within a secure room. In addition, a commercial, off-the-shelf (COTS) tracking system developed by TYZX was examined. TYZX is a Bay Area start-up that has developed its own tracking hardware and software which we use as COTS support for robust tracking. This report discusses the pros and cons of each camera system, how they work, a proposed data fusion method, and some visual results. Distributed, embedded image processing solutions show the most promise in their ability to track multiple targets in complex environments and in real-time. Future work on the camera system may include three-dimensional volumetric tracking by using multiple simple cameras, Kalman or particle filtering, automated camera calibration and registration, and gesture or path recognition.

  5. Tracking Behavioral Progress within a Children's Mental Health System: The Vermont Community Adjustment Tracking System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruns, Eric J.; Burchard, John D.; Froelich, Peter; Yoe, James T.; Tighe, Theodore

    1998-01-01

    Describes the Vermont Community Adjustment Tracking System (VT-CATS), which utilizes four behavioral instruments to allow intensive, ongoing, and interpretable behavioral assessment of a service system's most challenging children and adolescents. Also explains the adjustment indicator checklists and the ability of VT-CATS to address agencies'…

  6. Tracking and Inferring Spatial Rotation by Children and Great Apes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okamoto-Barth; Sanae; Call, Josep

    2008-01-01

    Finding hidden objects in space is a fundamental ability that has received considerable research attention from both a developmental and a comparative perspective. Tracking the rotational displacements of containers and hidden objects is a particularly challenging task. This study investigated the ability of 3-, 5-, 7-, and 9-year-old children and…

  7. Emergency medicine resident crisis resource management ability: a simulation-based longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Samuel; Horeczko, Timothy; Carlisle, Matthew; Barton, Joseph D.; Ng, Vivienne; Al-Somali, Sameerah; Bair, Aaron E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Simulation has been identified as a means of assessing resident physicians’ mastery of technical skills, but there is a lack of evidence for its utility in longitudinal assessments of residents’ non-technical clinical abilities. We evaluated the growth of crisis resource management (CRM) skills in the simulation setting using a validated tool, the Ottawa Crisis Resource Management Global Rating Scale (Ottawa GRS). We hypothesized that the Ottawa GRS would reflect progressive growth of CRM ability throughout residency. Methods Forty-five emergency medicine residents were tracked with annual simulation assessments between 2006 and 2011. We used mixed-methods repeated-measures regression analyses to evaluate elements of the Ottawa GRS by level of training to predict performance growth throughout a 3-year residency. Results Ottawa GRS scores increased over time, and the domains of leadership, problem solving, and resource utilization, in particular, were predictive of overall performance. There was a significant gain in all Ottawa GRS components between postgraduate years 1 and 2, but no significant difference in GRS performance between years 2 and 3. Conclusions In summary, CRM skills are progressive abilities, and simulation is a useful modality for tracking their development. Modification of this tool may be needed to assess advanced learners’ gains in performance. PMID:25499769

  8. Scale adaptive compressive tracking.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Pengpeng; Cui, Shaohui; Gao, Min; Fang, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the compressive tracking (CT) method (Zhang et al. in Proceedings of European conference on computer vision, pp 864-877, 2012) has attracted much attention due to its high efficiency, but it cannot well deal with the scale changing objects due to its constant tracking box. To address this issue, in this paper we propose a scale adaptive CT approach, which adaptively adjusts the scale of tracking box with the size variation of the objects. Our method significantly improves CT in three aspects: Firstly, the scale of tracking box is adaptively adjusted according to the size of the objects. Secondly, in the CT method, all the compressive features are supposed independent and equal contribution to the classifier. Actually, different compressive features have different confidence coefficients. In our proposed method, the confidence coefficients of features are computed and used to achieve different contribution to the classifier. Finally, in the CT method, the learning parameter λ is constant, which will result in large tracking drift on the occasion of object occlusion or large scale appearance variation. In our proposed method, a variable learning parameter λ is adopted, which can be adjusted according to the object appearance variation rate. Extensive experiments on the CVPR2013 tracking benchmark demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed method compared to state-of-the-art tracking algorithms. PMID:27386298

  9. Optimal Appearance Model for Visual Tracking.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuru; Jiang, Longkui; Liu, Qiaoyuan; Yin, Minghao

    2016-01-01

    Many studies argue that integrating multiple cues in an adaptive way increases tracking performance. However, what is the definition of adaptiveness and how to realize it remains an open issue. On the premise that the model with optimal discriminative ability is also optimal for tracking the target, this work realizes adaptiveness and robustness through the optimization of multi-cue integration models. Specifically, based on prior knowledge and current observation, a set of discrete samples are generated to approximate the foreground and background distribution. With the goal of optimizing the classification margin, an objective function is defined, and the appearance model is optimized by introducing optimization algorithms. The proposed optimized appearance model framework is embedded into a particle filter for a field test, and it is demonstrated to be robust against various kinds of complex tracking conditions. This model is general and can be easily extended to other parameterized multi-cue models. PMID:26789639

  10. Optimal Appearance Model for Visual Tracking.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuru; Jiang, Longkui; Liu, Qiaoyuan; Yin, Minghao

    2016-01-01

    Many studies argue that integrating multiple cues in an adaptive way increases tracking performance. However, what is the definition of adaptiveness and how to realize it remains an open issue. On the premise that the model with optimal discriminative ability is also optimal for tracking the target, this work realizes adaptiveness and robustness through the optimization of multi-cue integration models. Specifically, based on prior knowledge and current observation, a set of discrete samples are generated to approximate the foreground and background distribution. With the goal of optimizing the classification margin, an objective function is defined, and the appearance model is optimized by introducing optimization algorithms. The proposed optimized appearance model framework is embedded into a particle filter for a field test, and it is demonstrated to be robust against various kinds of complex tracking conditions. This model is general and can be easily extended to other parameterized multi-cue models.

  11. Target tracking during venom ‘spitting’ by cobras

    PubMed Central

    Westhoff, Guido; Boetig, Melissa; Bleckmann, Horst; Young, Bruce A.

    2010-01-01

    Spitting cobras, which defend themselves by streaming venom towards the face and/or eyes of a predator, must be highly accurate because the venom they spit is only an effective deterrent if it lands on the predator's cornea. Several factors make this level of accuracy difficult to achieve; the target is moving, is frequently >1 m away from the snake and the venom stream is released in approximately 50 ms. In the present study we show that spitting cobras can accurately track the movements of a potentially threatening vertebrate, and by anticipating its subsequent (short-term) movements direct their venom to maximize the likelihood of striking the target's eye. Unlike other animals that project material, in spitting cobras the discharge orifice (the fang) is relatively fixed so directing the venom stream requires rapid movements of the entire head. The cobra's ability to track and anticipate the target's movement, and to perform rapid cephalic oscillations that coordinate with the target's movements suggest a level of neural processing that has not been attributed to snakes, or other reptiles, previously. PMID:20472765

  12. Fecal source tracking in water using a mitochondrial DNA microarray.

    PubMed

    Vuong, Nguyet-Minh; Villemur, Richard; Payment, Pierre; Brousseau, Roland; Topp, Edward; Masson, Luke

    2013-01-01

    A mitochondrial-based microarray (mitoArray) was developed for rapid identification of the presence of 28 animals and one family (cervidae) potentially implicated in fecal pollution in mixed activity watersheds. Oligonucleotide probes for genus or subfamily-level identification were targeted within the 12S rRNA - Val tRNA - 16S rRNA region in the mitochondrial genome. This region, called MI-50, was selected based on three criteria: 1) the ability to be amplified by universal primers 2) these universal primer sequences are present in most commercial and domestic animals of interest in source tracking, and 3) that sufficient sequence variation exists within this region to meet the minimal requirements for microarray probe discrimination. To quantify the overall level of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in samples, a quantitative-PCR (Q-PCR) universal primer pair was also developed. Probe validation was performed using DNA extracted from animal tissues and, for many cases, animal-specific fecal samples. To reduce the amplification of potentially interfering fish mtDNA sequences during the MI-50 enrichment step, a clamping PCR method was designed using a fish-specific peptide nucleic acid. DNA extracted from 19 water samples were subjected to both array and independent PCR analyses. Our results confirm that the mitochondrial microarray approach method could accurately detect the dominant animals present in water samples emphasizing the potential for this methodology in the parallel scanning of a large variety of animals normally monitored in fecal source tracking.

  13. Object tracking based on bit-planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Na; Zhao, Xiangmo; Liu, Ying; Li, Daxiang; Wu, Shiqian; Zhao, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Visual object tracking is one of the most important components in computer vision. The main challenge for robust tracking is to handle illumination change, appearance modification, occlusion, motion blur, and pose variation. But in surveillance videos, factors such as low resolution, high levels of noise, and uneven illumination further increase the difficulty of tracking. To tackle this problem, an object tracking algorithm based on bit-planes is proposed. First, intensity and local binary pattern features represented by bit-planes are used to build two appearance models, respectively. Second, in the neighborhood of the estimated object location, a region that is most similar to the models is detected as the tracked object in the current frame. In the last step, the appearance models are updated with new tracking results in order to deal with environmental and object changes. Experimental results on several challenging video sequences demonstrate the superior performance of our tracker compared with six state-of-the-art tracking algorithms. Additionally, our tracker is more robust to low resolution, uneven illumination, and noisy video sequences.

  14. Tracking Emotional Valence: The Role of the Orbitofrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Goodkind, Madeleine S.; Sollberger, Marc; Gyurak, Anett; Rosen, Howard J.; Rankin, Katherine; Miller, Bruce; Levenson, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Successful navigation of the social world requires the ability to recognize and track emotions as they unfold and change dynamically. Neuroimaging and neurological studies of emotion recognition have primarily focused on the ability to identify the emotion shown in static photographs of facial expressions, showing correlations with the amygdala as well as temporal and frontal brain regions. In the current study we examined the neural correlates of continuously tracking dynamically-changing emotions. Fifty-nine patients with diverse neurodegenerative diseases used a rating dial to track continuously how positive or how negative the character in a film clip felt. Tracking accuracy was determined by comparing participants’ ratings with the ratings of 10 normal control participants. The relationship between tracking accuracy and regional brain tissue content was examined using voxel-based morphometry. Low tracking accuracy was primarily associated with gray matter loss in the right lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Our finding that the right OFC is critical to the ability to track dynamically-changing emotions is consistent with previous research showing right OFC involvement in both socioemotional understanding and modifying responding in changing situations. PMID:21425397

  15. Hybrid retinal tracking and coagulation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Cameron H. G.; Oberg, Erik D.; Barrett, Steven F.

    1998-06-01

    Laser photocoagulation is used extensively by ophthalmologists to treat retinal disorders such as diabetic retinopathy and retinal breaks and tears. Currently, the procedure is performed manually and suffers from several drawbacks: it often requires many clinical visits, it is very tedious for both patient and physician, the laser pointing accuracy and safety margin are limited by a combination of the physician's manual dexterity and the patient's ability to hold their eye still, and there is a wide variability in retinal tissue absorption parameters. A computer-assisted hybrid system is under development that will rapidly and safely place multiple therapeutic lesions at desired locations on the retina in a matter of seconds. In the past, one of the main obstacles to such a system has been the ability to track the retina and compensate for any movement with sufficient speed during photocoagulation. Two different tracking modalities (digital image-based tracking and analog confocal tracking) were designed and tested in vivo on pigmented rabbits. These two systems are being seamlessly combined into a hybrid system which provides real-time, motion stabilized lesion placement for typical irradiation times (100 ms). This paper will detail the operation of the hybrid system and efforts toward controlling the depth of coagulation on the retinal surface.

  16. Energy Tracking Software Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan Davis; Nathan Bird; Rebecca Birx; Hal Knowles

    2011-04-04

    Acceleration has created an interactive energy tracking and visualization platform that supports decreasing electric, water, and gas usage. Homeowners have access to tools that allow them to gauge their use and track progress toward a smaller energy footprint. Real estate agents have access to consumption data, allowing for sharing a comparison with potential home buyers. Home builders have the opportunity to compare their neighborhood's energy efficiency with competitors. Home energy raters have a tool for gauging the progress of their clients after efficiency changes. And, social groups are able to help encourage members to reduce their energy bills and help their environment. EnergyIT.com is the business umbrella for all energy tracking solutions and is designed to provide information about our energy tracking software and promote sales. CompareAndConserve.com (Gainesville-Green.com) helps homeowners conserve energy through education and competition. ToolsForTenants.com helps renters factor energy usage into their housing decisions.

  17. Naming Giftedness: Whiteness and Ability Discourse in US Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    This paper offers a conceptual analysis of ability discourse using the theoretical lens of critical whiteness studies and the methodological framework of critical discourse analysis. From its origins in the Progressive Era to contemporary debates on tracking, the concept of giftedness has been formed through racial projects throughout US history.…

  18. Advanced Doppler tracking experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. W.

    1989-01-01

    The Doppler tracking method is currently the only technique available for broadband gravitational wave searches in the approx. 10(exp -4) to 10(exp -1) Hz low frequency band. A brief review is given of the Doppler method, a discussion of the main noise sources, and a review of experience with current spacecraft and the prospects for sensitivity improvements in an advanced Doppler tracking experiment.

  19. Support vector tracking.

    PubMed

    Avidan, Shai

    2004-08-01

    Support Vector Tracking (SVT) integrates the Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier into an optic-flow-based tracker. Instead of minimizing an intensity difference function between successive frames, SVT maximizes the SVM classification score. To account for large motions between successive frames, we build pyramids from the support vectors and use a coarse-to-fine approach in the classification stage. We show results of using SVT for vehicle tracking in image sequences.

  20. Block Matching for Object Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Gyaourova, A; Kamath, C; Cheung, S

    2003-10-13

    Models which describe road traffic patterns can be helpful in detection and/or prevention of uncommon and dangerous situations. Such models can be built by the use of motion detection algorithms applied to video data. Block matching is a standard technique for encoding motion in video compression algorithms. We explored the capabilities of the block matching algorithm when applied for object tracking. The goal of our experiments is two-fold: (1) to explore the abilities of the block matching algorithm on low resolution and low frame rate video and (2) to improve the motion detection performance by the use of different search techniques during the process of block matching. Our experiments showed that the block matching algorithm yields good object tracking results and can be used with high success on low resolution and low frame rate video data. We observed that different searching methods have small effect on the final results. In addition, we proposed a technique based on frame history, which successfully overcame false motion caused by small camera movements.

  1. Real-Time Tumor Tracking in the Lung Using an Electromagnetic Tracking System

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Amish P.; Kupelian, Patrick A.; Waghorn, Benjamin J.; Willoughby, Twyla R.; Rineer, Justin M.; Mañon, Rafael R.; Vollenweider, Mark A.; Meeks, Sanford L.

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: To describe the first use of the commercially available Calypso 4D Localization System in the lung. Methods and Materials: Under an institutional review board-approved protocol and an investigational device exemption from the US Food and Drug Administration, the Calypso system was used with nonclinical methods to acquire real-time 4-dimensional lung tumor tracks for 7 lung cancer patients. The aims of the study were to investigate (1) the potential for bronchoscopic implantation; (2) the stability of smooth-surface beacon transponders (transponders) after implantation; and (3) the ability to acquire tracking information within the lung. Electromagnetic tracking was not used for any clinical decision making and could only be performed before any radiation delivery in a research setting. All motion tracks for each patient were reviewed, and values of the average displacement, amplitude of motion, period, and associated correlation to a sinusoidal model (R{sup 2}) were tabulated for all 42 tracks. Results: For all 7 patients at least 1 transponder was successfully implanted. To assist in securing the transponder at the tumor site, it was necessary to implant a secondary fiducial for most transponders owing to the transponder's smooth surface. For 3 patients, insertion into the lung proved difficult, with only 1 transponder remaining fixed during implantation. One patient developed a pneumothorax after implantation of the secondary fiducial. Once implanted, 13 of 14 transponders remained stable within the lung and were successfully tracked with the tracking system. Conclusions: Our initial experience with electromagnetic guidance within the lung demonstrates that transponder implantation and tracking is achievable though not clinically available. This research investigation proved that lung tumor motion exhibits large variations from fraction to fraction within a single patient and that improvements to both transponder and tracking system are still necessary

  2. Tracking radar techniques for studying migratory birds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, T. C.; Williams, J. M.

    1972-01-01

    The use of NASA tracking radar at Wallops Island and the islands of Bermuda and Antigua to plot the paths of migatory birds in three dimensional space is discussed. Attempts were also made to obtain data on the direction, speed, and density of large numbers of migrating birds. Observational results show that the performance of tracking radars vary considerably with the density of bird migration. At light to moderate levels of migration it is possible to obtain tracks of a variety of types of targets, both large and small. During heavy periods of migration the sky is so filled with targets, that only the largest targets can be tracked for more than a few minutes.

  3. Object Tracking Benchmark.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi; Lim, Jongwoo; Yang, Ming-Hsuan

    2015-09-01

    Object tracking has been one of the most important and active research areas in the field of computer vision. A large number of tracking algorithms have been proposed in recent years with demonstrated success. However, the set of sequences used for evaluation is often not sufficient or is sometimes biased for certain types of algorithms. Many datasets do not have common ground-truth object positions or extents, and this makes comparisons among the reported quantitative results difficult. In addition, the initial conditions or parameters of the evaluated tracking algorithms are not the same, and thus, the quantitative results reported in literature are incomparable or sometimes contradictory. To address these issues, we carry out an extensive evaluation of the state-of-the-art online object-tracking algorithms with various evaluation criteria to understand how these methods perform within the same framework. In this work, we first construct a large dataset with ground-truth object positions and extents for tracking and introduce the sequence attributes for the performance analysis. Second, we integrate most of the publicly available trackers into one code library with uniform input and output formats to facilitate large-scale performance evaluation. Third, we extensively evaluate the performance of 31 algorithms on 100 sequences with different initialization settings. By analyzing the quantitative results, we identify effective approaches for robust tracking and provide potential future research directions in this field.

  4. Tracking stem cells using magnetic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Cromer Berman, Stacey M.; Walczak, Piotr; Bulte, Jeff W.M.

    2011-01-01

    Stem cell therapies offer great promise for many diseases, especially those without current effective treatments. It is believed that noninvasive imaging techniques, which offer the ability to track the status of cells after transplantation, will expedite progress in this field and help to achieve maximized therapeutic effect. Today’s biomedical imaging technology allows for real-time, noninvasive monitoring of grafted stem cells including their biodistribution, migration, survival, and differentiation, with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of nanoparticle-labeled cells being one of the most commonly used techniques. Among the advantages of MR cell tracking are its high spatial resolution, no exposure to ionizing radiation, and clinical applicability. In order to track cells by MRI, the cells need to be labeled with magnetic nanoparticles, for which many types exist. There are several cellular labeling techniques available, including simple incubation, use of transfection agents, magnetoelectroporation, and magnetosonoporation. In this overview article, we will review the use of different magnetic nanoparticles and discuss how these particles can be used to track the distribution of transplanted cells in different organ systems. Caveats and limitations inherent to the tracking of nanoparticle-labeled stem cells are also discussed. PMID:21472999

  5. ISS Asset Tracking Using SAW RFID Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schellhase, Amy; Powers, Annie

    2004-01-01

    A team at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) is undergoing final preparations to test Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology to track assets aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Currently, almost 10,000 U.S. items onboard the ISS are tracked within a database maintained by both the JSC ground teams and crew onboard the ISS. This barcode-based inventory management system has successfully tracked the location of 97% of the items onboard, but its accuracy is dependant on the crew to report hardware movements, taking valuable time away from science and other activities. With the addition of future modules, the volume of inventory to be tracked is expected to increase significantly. The first test of RFID technology on ISS, which will be conducted by the Expedition 16 crew later this year, will evaluate the ability of RFID technology to track consumable items. These consumables, which include office supplies and clothing, are regularly supplied to ISS and can be tagged on the ground. Automation will eliminate line-of-sight auditing requirements, directly saving crew time. This first step in automating an inventory tracking system will pave the way for future uses of RFID for inventory tracking in space. Not only are there immediate benefits for ISS applications, it is a crucial step to ensure efficient logistics support for future vehicles and exploration missions where resupplies are not readily available. Following a successful initial test, the team plans to execute additional tests for new technology, expanded operations concepts, and increased automation.

  6. General English Ability, Specific Purpose English Ability, and Computer Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prapphal, Kanchana

    2003-01-01

    Aims to answer the following research questions: (1) Are general English ability and specific purpose English ability related to computer skills? and (2) Is general English ability transferable to specific purpose English ability? Subjects were third year science students enrolled in an English for academic purposes course. (Author/VWL)

  7. Sensor-based animal tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, Andrew

    The advent of Global Positioning System (GPS) technologies has provided wildlife researchers with new insights into the movement and habitat utilization patterns of wildlife species by being able to provide vast quantities of detailed location data. However, current wildlife tracking techniques have numerous limitations, as GPS locations can be biased to an unknown extent because animals move through habitats that are often denied GPS signals. This can result in some habitat types being under sampled or not sampled at all. Additionally, researchers using GPS tracking systems cannot understand what behaviour an animal is exhibiting at each GPS position without either relying on extensive field data or statistical techniques that may infer behaviour. Overall these issues, and others, limit the knowledge that can be derived from the data currently being collected by GPS collars alone. To address these limitations, a dead reckoning solution (called the NavAid) has been developed to augment GPS tracking collars, which enables both the acquisition of continuous movement trajectories for animals under study, and the collection of digital images on a user-defined schedule along travel routes. Analysis of an animal's velocity allows one to identify different types of movement behaviours that can be associated with foraging, searching for food, and locomotion between patches. In addition, the ability to capture continuous paths allows researchers to identify habitat that is important to a species, and habitat that is not---something that is not possible when relying solely on GPS. This new system weighs approximately 220 g and can be deployed on most conventional collar systems for a wide range of species. This thesis presents the research and development of this new system over the past four years, along with preliminary findings from field work carried out on grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the foothills of the Canadian Rocky Mountains. Analysis of tracking data suggests

  8. Kalman-based autoregressive moving average modeling and inference for formant and antiformant tracking.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Daryush D; Rudoy, Daniel; Wolfe, Patrick J

    2012-09-01

    Vocal tract resonance characteristics in acoustic speech signals are classically tracked using frame-by-frame point estimates of formant frequencies followed by candidate selection and smoothing using dynamic programming methods that minimize ad hoc cost functions. The goal of the current work is to provide both point estimates and associated uncertainties of center frequencies and bandwidths in a statistically principled state-space framework. Extended Kalman (K) algorithms take advantage of a linearized mapping to infer formant and antiformant parameters from frame-based estimates of autoregressive moving average (ARMA) cepstral coefficients. Error analysis of KARMA, wavesurfer, and praat is accomplished in the all-pole case using a manually marked formant database and synthesized speech waveforms. KARMA formant tracks exhibit lower overall root-mean-square error relative to the two benchmark algorithms with the ability to modify parameters in a controlled manner to trade off bias and variance. Antiformant tracking performance of KARMA is illustrated using synthesized and spoken nasal phonemes. The simultaneous tracking of uncertainty levels enables practitioners to recognize time-varying confidence in parameters of interest and adjust algorithmic settings accordingly. PMID:22978900

  9. Magnetic Low-Friction Track

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paetkau, Mark; Bahniwal, Manpreet; Gamblen, James

    2008-05-01

    The standard low-friction tracks used to test Newton's laws are the air track and the low-friction cart track. Both are commercially available and provide low-friction environments to test various physics concepts. At a recent science fair, one of the authors (JG) presented a magnetically levitated cart and track. A literature search found no previous testing of magnetically levitated carts. This paper compares a magnetically levitated cart against the two standard low-friction tracks.

  10. Visual tracking method based on cuckoo search algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Ming-Liang; Yin, Li-Ju; Zou, Guo-Feng; Li, Hai-Tao; Liu, Wei

    2015-07-01

    Cuckoo search (CS) is a new meta-heuristic optimization algorithm that is based on the obligate brood parasitic behavior of some cuckoo species in combination with the Lévy flight behavior of some birds and fruit flies. It has been found to be efficient in solving global optimization problems. An application of CS is presented to solve the visual tracking problem. The relationship between optimization and visual tracking is comparatively studied and the parameters' sensitivity and adjustment of CS in the tracking system are experimentally studied. To demonstrate the tracking ability of a CS-based tracker, a comparative study of tracking accuracy and speed of the CS-based tracker with six "state-of-art" trackers, namely, particle filter, meanshift, PSO, ensemble tracker, fragments tracker, and compressive tracker are presented. Comparative results show that the CS-based tracker outperforms the other trackers.

  11. Motion-based prediction explains the role of tracking in motion extrapolation.

    PubMed

    Khoei, Mina A; Masson, Guillaume S; Perrinet, Laurent U

    2013-11-01

    During normal viewing, the continuous stream of visual input is regularly interrupted, for instance by blinks of the eye. Despite these frequents blanks (that is the transient absence of a raw sensory source), the visual system is most often able to maintain a continuous representation of motion. For instance, it maintains the movement of the eye such as to stabilize the image of an object. This ability suggests the existence of a generic neural mechanism of motion extrapolation to deal with fragmented inputs. In this paper, we have modeled how the visual system may extrapolate the trajectory of an object during a blank using motion-based prediction. This implies that using a prior on the coherency of motion, the system may integrate previous motion information even in the absence of a stimulus. In order to compare with experimental results, we simulated tracking velocity responses. We found that the response of the motion integration process to a blanked trajectory pauses at the onset of the blank, but that it quickly recovers the information on the trajectory after reappearance. This is compatible with behavioral and neural observations on motion extrapolation. To understand these mechanisms, we have recorded the response of the model to a noisy stimulus. Crucially, we found that motion-based prediction acted at the global level as a gain control mechanism and that we could switch from a smooth regime to a binary tracking behavior where the dot is tracked or lost. Our results imply that a local prior implementing motion-based prediction is sufficient to explain a large range of neural and behavioral results at a more global level. We show that the tracking behavior deteriorates for sensory noise levels higher than a certain value, where motion coherency and predictability fail to hold longer. In particular, we found that motion-based prediction leads to the emergence of a tracking behavior only when enough information from the trajectory has been accumulated

  12. Dynamic Signal Tracking in a Simple V1 Spiking Model.

    PubMed

    Lajoie, Guillaume; Young, Lai-Sang

    2016-09-01

    This work is part of an effort to understand the neural basis for our visual system's ability, or failure, to accurately track moving visual signals. We consider here a ring model of spiking neurons, intended as a simplified computational model of a single hypercolumn of the primary visual cortex of primates. Signals that consist of edges with time-varying orientations localized in space are considered. Our model is calibrated to produce spontaneous and driven firing rates roughly consistent with experiments, and our two main findings, for which we offer dynamical explanation on the level of neuronal interactions, are the following. First, we have documented consistent transient overshoots in signal perception following signal switches due to emergent interactions of the E- and I-populations. Second, for continuously moving signals, we have found that accuracy is considerably lower at reversals of orientation than when continuing in the same direction (as when the signal is a rotating bar). To measure performance, we use two metrics, called fidelity and reliability, to compare signals reconstructed by the system to the ones presented and assess trial-to-trial variability. We propose that the same population mechanisms responsible for orientation selectivity also impose constraints on dynamic signal tracking that manifest in perception failures consistent with psychophysical observations. PMID:27391687

  13. Track recording plastic compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarle, Gregory (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Improved nuclear track recording plastic compositions are provided which exhibit greatly decreased surface roughness when etched to produce visible tracks of energetic nuclear particles which have passed into and/or through said plastic. The improved compositions incorporate a small quantity of a phthalic acid ester into the major plastic component which is derived from the polymerization of monomeric di-ethylene glycol bis allyl carbonate. Di-substituted phthalic acid esters are preferred as the added component, with the further perference that the ester substituent has a chain length of 2 or more carbon atoms. The inclusion of the phthalic acid ester to an extent of from about 1-2% by weight of the plastic compositions is sufficient to drastically reduce the surface roughness ordinarily produced when the track recording plastic is contacted by etchants.

  14. Controlled Document Tracking Software

    1992-08-24

    MANTRACK is an automated, controlled document tracking system which does the following and reduces staff time required to perform these tasks: generates transmittal letters/receipts for every controlled copy issued (merged from a current distribution list), tracks the return of transmittal receipts, facilitates the check-in of the large number of transmittal receipts returned (using a barcode reader), generates a reminder list which prompts the cyclic review and evaluation of existing documents, generates overdue reminders for themore » return of past-due transmittal receipts, tracks the number of Procedure Change Directives (PCD) currently in effect for each procedure, generates and maintains current distribution lists for each document, generates a current table of contents when updates to the document (usually a procedure manual) are made.« less

  15. Tracks to therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, R.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    1999-01-01

    Studies of the structure of particle tracks have led to models of track effects based on radial dose and radiobiological target theory that have been very successful in describing and predicting track effects in physical, chemical, and biological systems. For describing mammalian cellular inactivation two inactivation modes are required, called gamma-kill and ion-kill, the first due to synergistic effects of delta rays from adjacent ion paths thus resembling the effects from gamma rays, and the second to the effects of single ion transits through a cell nucleus. The ion-kill effect is more severe, where the fraction of cells experiencing ion kill is responsible for a decrease in the oxygen enhancement ratio, and an increase in relative biological effectiveness, but these are accompanied by loss of repair, hence to a reduction in the efficiency of fractionation in high LET therapy, as shown by our calculations for radiobiological effects in the "spread out Bragg Peak".

  16. Controlled Document Tracking Software

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, Roswitha T.

    1992-08-24

    MANTRACK is an automated, controlled document tracking system which does the following and reduces staff time required to perform these tasks: generates transmittal letters/receipts for every controlled copy issued (merged from a current distribution list), tracks the return of transmittal receipts, facilitates the check-in of the large number of transmittal receipts returned (using a barcode reader), generates a reminder list which prompts the cyclic review and evaluation of existing documents, generates overdue reminders for the return of past-due transmittal receipts, tracks the number of Procedure Change Directives (PCD) currently in effect for each procedure, generates and maintains current distribution lists for each document, generates a current table of contents when updates to the document (usually a procedure manual) are made.

  17. Tracking of deformable objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aswani, Parimal; Wong, K. K.; Chong, Man N.

    2000-12-01

    Tracking of moving-objects in image sequences is needed for several video processing applications such as content-based coding, object oriented compression, object recognition and more recently for video object plane extraction in MPEG-4 coding. Tracking is a natural follow-up of motion-based segmentation. It is a fast and efficient method to achieve coherent motion segments along the temporal axis. Segmenting out moving objects for each and every frame in a video sequence is a computationally expensive approach. Thus, for better performance, semi-automatic segmentation is an acceptable compromise as automatic segmentation approaches rely heavily on prior assumptions. In semi-automatic segmentation approaches, motion-segmentation is performed only on the initial frame and the moving object is tracked in subsequent frames using tracking algorithms. In this paper, a new model for object tracking is proposed, where the image features -- edges, intensity pattern, object motion and initial keyed-in contour (by the user) form the prior and likelihood model of a Markov Random Field (MRF) model. Iterated Conditional Mode (ICM) is used for the minimization of the global energy for the MRF model. The motion segment for each frame is initialized using the segment information from the previous frame. For the initial frame, the motion segment is obtained by manually keying in the object contour. The motion-segments obtained using the proposed model are coherent and accurate. Experimental results on tracking using the proposed algorithm for different sequences -- Bream, Alexis and Claire are presented in this paper. The results obtained are accurate and can be used for a variety of applications including MPEG-4 Video Object Plane (VOP) extraction.

  18. Automatic crack propagation tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shephard, M. S.; Weidner, T. J.; Yehia, N. A. B.; Burd, G. S.

    1985-01-01

    A finite element based approach to fully automatic crack propagation tracking is presented. The procedure presented combines fully automatic mesh generation with linear fracture mechanics techniques in a geometrically based finite element code capable of automatically tracking cracks in two-dimensional domains. The automatic mesh generator employs the modified-quadtree technique. Crack propagation increment and direction are predicted using a modified maximum dilatational strain energy density criterion employing the numerical results obtained by meshes of quadratic displacement and singular crack tip finite elements. Example problems are included to demonstrate the procedure.

  19. Hazardous waste tracking issues

    SciTech Connect

    Marvin, R. )

    1993-08-01

    The concept of cradle-to-grave oversight of hazardous waste was established in 1976 under RCRA. Since then, the multicopy Uniform Hazardous Waste Manifest has been a key component in the federal tracking system. The manifests ensure that generators, transporters and TSDFs maintain documentation of hazardous waste shipments. To a large extent, the tracking system has served its intended purpose; nevertheless, certain shortcomings exist. Anyone involved in shipping hazardous waste should be aware of the system's weaknesses and take appropriate measures to compensate for them.

  20. CTS. Commitment Tracking System

    SciTech Connect

    Stucki, F.K.

    1992-06-01

    CTS is a micro based prototype of the data elements, screens, and information processing rules that apply to the Commitment and Non-compliance Tracking Program. The system is focused on the non-compliance or commitment. When some group is out of compliance they need a way of tracking that occurrence. The system must be able to CRUD (Create, Retrieve, Update, Delete) instances of the non-compliance Event. Additionally, the system must provide data integrity. This is done through a set up of tables and data validation.

  1. Spin tracking in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Luccio, A.U.; Katayama, T.; Wu, H.

    1997-07-01

    In the acceleration of polarized protons in RHIC many spin depolarizing resonances are encountered. Helical Siberian snakes will be used to overcome depolarizing effects. The behavior of polarization can be studied by numerical tracking in a model accelerator. That allows one to check the strength of the resonances, to study the effect of snakes, to find safe lattice tune regions, and finally to study the operation of special devices like spin flippers. In this paper the authors describe numerical spin tracking. Results show that, for the design corrected distorted orbit and the design beam emittance, the polarization of the beam will be preserved in the whole range of proton energies in RHIC.

  2. Procedures for minimizing the effects of high solar activity on satellite tracking and ephemeris generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bredvik, Gordon D.

    1990-01-01

    We are currently experiencing a period of high solar radiation combined with wide short-term fluctuations in the radiation. The short-term fluctuations, especially when combined with highly energetic solar flares, can adversely affect the mission of U.S. Space Command's Space Surveillance Center (SSC) which catalogs and tracks the satellites in orbit around the Earth. Rapidly increasing levels of solar electromagnetic and/or particle radiation (solar wind) causes atmospheric warming, which, in turn, causes the upper-most portions of the atmosphere to expand outward, into the regime of low altitude satellites. The increased drag on satellites from this expansion can cause large, unmodeled, in-track displacements, thus undermining the SSC's ability to track and predict satellite position. On 13 March 1989, high solar radiation levels, combined with a high-energy solar flare, caused an exceptional amount of short-term atmospheric warming. The SSC temporarily lost track of over 1300 low altitude satellites--nearly half of the low altitude satellite population. Observational data on satellites that became lost during the days following the 13 March 'solar event' was analyzed and compared with the satellites' last element set prior to the event (referred to as a geomagnetic storm because of the large increase in magnetic flux in the upper atmosphere). The analysis led to a set of procedures for reducing the impact of future geomagnetic storms. These procedures adjust selected software limit parameters in the differential correction of element sets and in the observation association process and must be manually initiated at the onset of a geomagnetic storm. Sensor tasking procedures must be adjusted to ensure that a minimum of four observations per day are received for low altitude satellites. These procedures have been implemented and, thus far, appear to be successful in minimizing the effect of subsequent geomagnetic storms on satellite tracking and ephemeris

  3. Constraints on Multiple Object Tracking in Williams Syndrome: How Atypical Development Can Inform Theories of Visual Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Katrina; Hoffman, James E.; O'Hearn, Kirsten; Landau, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The ability to track moving objects is a crucial skill for performance in everyday spatial tasks. The tracking mechanism depends on representation of moving items as coherent entities, which follow the spatiotemporal constraints of objects in the world. In the present experiment, participants tracked 1 to 4 targets in a display of 8 identical…

  4. General defocusing particle tracking.

    PubMed

    Barnkob, Rune; Kähler, Christian J; Rossi, Massimiliano

    2015-09-01

    A General Defocusing Particle Tracking (GDPT) method is proposed for tracking the three-dimensional motion of particles in Lab-on-a-chip systems based on a set of calibration images and the normalized cross-correlation function. In comparison with other single-camera defocusing particle-tracking techniques, GDPT possesses a series of key advantages: it is applicable to particle images of arbitrary shapes, it is intuitive and easy to use, it can be used without advanced knowledge of optics and velocimetry theory, it is robust against outliers and overlapping particle images, and it requires only equipment which is standard in microfluidic laboratories. We demonstrate the method by tracking the three-dimensional motion of 2 μm spherical particles in a microfluidic channel using three different optical arrangements. The position of the particles was measured with an estimated uncertainty of 0.1 μm in the in-plane direction and 2 μm in the depth direction for a measurement volume of 1510 × 1270 × 160 μm(3). A ready-to-use GUI implementation of the method can be acquired on . PMID:26201498

  5. Personal Tracking Charts

    MedlinePlus

    ... only on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday. Keep an eye out for allergic reactions. I should take Prezista with food. year keeping track of my periods month mark the Type of Flow in the boxes below L =exceptionally light N =normal h =exceptionally heavy S =spotting O =none ...

  6. Dust Devil Tracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 8 May 2002) The Science This image, centered near 50.0 S and 17.7 W displays dust devil tracks on the surface. Most of the lighter portions of the image likely have a thin veneer of dust settled on the surface. As a dust devil passes over the surface, it acts as a vacuum and picks up the dust, leaving the darker substrate exposed. In this image there is a general trend of many of the tracks running from east to west or west to east, indicating the general wind direction. There is often no general trend present in dust devil tracks seen in other images. The track patterns are quite ephemeral and can completely change or even disappear over the course of a few months. Dust devils are one of the mechanisms that Mars uses to constantly pump dust into the ubiquitously dusty atmosphere. This atmospheric dust is one of the main driving forces of the present Martian climate. The Story Vrrrrooooooooom. Think of a tornado, the cartoon Tasmanian devil, or any number of vacuum commercials that powerfully suck up swirls of dust and dirt. That's pretty much what it's like on the surface of Mars a lot of the time. Whirlpools of wind called

  7. Tracking Self into Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piersol, Laura

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to figure out what it means to educate "ecologically," I decided to track down some of the stories that I was living, telling and making as an educator. I ended up lost in the house of environmental education, stuck within the rooms of ecological science and political advocacy. Outside on the lawn sat the story of place based…

  8. Energy Tracking Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Harrer, Benedikt W.; Close, Hunter G.; Daane, Abigail R.; DeWater, Lezlie S.; Robertson, Amy D.; Seeley, Lane; Vokos, Stamatis

    2016-01-01

    Energy is a crosscutting concept in science and features prominently in national science education documents. In the "Next Generation Science Standards," the primary conceptual learning goal is for learners to conserve energy as they "track" the transfers and transformations of energy within, into, or out of the system of…

  9. Tracking Politics with POWER

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreira, Silvio; Batista, David S.; Carvalho, Paula; Couto, Francisco M.; Silva, Mario J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: POWER is an ontology of political processes and entities. It is designed for tracking politicians, political organizations and elections, both in mainstream and social media. The aim of this paper is to propose a data model to describe political agents and their relations over time. Design/methodology/approach: The authors propose a data…

  10. Tracking Speech Sound Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a procedure to aid in the clinical appraisal of child speech. The approach, based on the work by Dinnsen, Chin, Elbert, and Powell (1990; Some constraints on functionally disordered phonologies: Phonetic inventories and phonotactics. "Journal of Speech and Hearing Research", 33, 28-37), uses a railway idiom to track gains in…

  11. Tracking a Very Near Earth Asteroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruck, R.; Rashid, S.; Peppard, T.

    2013-09-01

    The potential effects of an asteroid passing within close proximity to the Earth were recently realized. During the February 16, 2013 event, Asteroid 2012 DA14 passed within an estimated 27,700 kilometers of the earth, well within the geosynchronous (GEO) orbital belt. This was the closest known approach of a planetoid of this size, in modern history. The GEO belt is a region that is filled with critical communications satellites which provide relays for essential government, business and private datum. On the day of the event, optical instruments at Detachment 3, 21OG, Maui GEODSS were able to open in marginal atmospheric conditions, locate and collect metric and raw video data on the asteroid as it passed a point of near heliocentric orbital propinquity to the Earth. Prior to the event, the Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) used propagated trajectory data from NASA's Near Earth Object Program Office at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to assess potential collisions with man-made objects in Earth orbit. However, the ability to actively track this asteroid through the populated satellite belt not only allowed surveillance for possible late orbital perturbations of the asteroid, but, afforded the ability to monitor possible strikes on all other orbiting bodies of anthropogenic origin either not in orbital catalogs or not recently updated in those catalogs. Although programmed only for tracking satellites in geocentric orbits, GEODSS was able to compensate and maintain track on DA14, collecting one hundred and fifty four metric observations during the event.

  12. TAGGING, TRACKING AND LOCATING WITHOUT GPS

    SciTech Connect

    Cordaro, J.; Coleman, T.; Shull, D.

    2012-07-08

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to lead a Law Enforcement Working Group that was formed to collaborate on common operational needs. All agencies represented on the working group ranked their need to tag, track, and locate a witting or unwitting target as their highest priority. Specifically, they were looking for technologies more robust than Global Positioning Satellite (GPS), could communicate back to the owner, and worked where normal cell phone communications did not work or were unreliable. SRNL brought together multiple technologies in a demonstration that was held in in various Alaska venues, including metropolitan, wilderness, and at-sea that met the working group's requirements. Using prototypical technologies from Boeing, On Ramp, and Fortress, SRNL was able to demonstrate the ability to track personnel and material in all scenarios including indoors, in heavily wooden areas, canyons, and in parking garages. In all cases GPS signals were too weak to measure. Bi-directional communication was achieved in areas that Wi-Fi, cell towers, or traditional radios would not perform. The results of the exercise will be presented. These technologies are considered ideal for tracking high value material such has nuclear material with a platform that allows seamless tracking anywhere in the world, indoors or outdoors.

  13. Precise Head Tracking in Hearing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helle, A. M.; Pilinski, J.; Luhmann, T.

    2015-05-01

    The paper gives an overview about two research projects, both dealing with optical head tracking in hearing applications. As part of the project "Development of a real-time low-cost tracking system for medical and audiological problems (ELCoT)" a cost-effective single camera 3D tracking system has been developed which enables the detection of arm and head movements of human patients. Amongst others, the measuring system is designed for a new hearing test (based on the "Mainzer Kindertisch"), which analyzes the directional hearing capabilities of children in cooperation with the research project ERKI (Evaluation of acoustic sound source localization for children). As part of the research project framework "Hearing in everyday life (HALLO)" a stereo tracking system is being used for analyzing the head movement of human patients during complex acoustic events. Together with the consideration of biosignals like skin conductance the speech comprehension and listening effort of persons with reduced hearing ability, especially in situations with background noise, is evaluated. For both projects the system design, accuracy aspects and results of practical tests are discussed.

  14. Laser Communication Terminals With Automatic Video Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mecherle, G. S.; Barry, J. D.

    1988-05-01

    Hughes Aircraft Electro-Optical and Data Systems Group designed and built two automatic tracking lasercom terminals during the 1983-84 IRAD program. These terminals were intended to serve as proof-of principle prototype hardware to demonstrate the capability of current technology to support aircraft and ship laser communications applications. The low probability of intercept (LPI) and jam-resistant (JR) properties of laser communication systems offer potential advantages over conventional RF communication technologies for some important missions such as aircraft refueling, SAC airborne command post computer data dump and ship-to-ship communications during EMCON conditions. The terminals were first described at MILCOM '84 [1]. Since that time they have been upgraded to include separate apertures for the transmit, receive, and tracking functions, as well as the ability to handle tRZ data at a 19.2 Kbps data rate. These terminals demonstrate that a CCD video camera, gyro-stabilized gimbal and servo electronics can perform precision tracking in support of aircraft laser communication. We believe Hughes testing has shown that video tracking is a legitimate alternative to a previously described quadrant detector approach [2,3].

  15. GPS Metric Tracking Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    As Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) applications become more prevalent for land- and air-based vehicles, GPS applications for space vehicles will also increase. The Applied Technology Directorate of Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has developed a lightweight, low-cost GPS Metric Tracking Unit (GMTU), the first of two steps in developing a lightweight, low-cost Space-Based Tracking and Command Subsystem (STACS) designed to meet Range Safety's link margin and latency requirements for vehicle command and telemetry data. The goals of STACS are to improve Range Safety operations and expand tracking capabilities for space vehicles. STACS will track the vehicle, receive commands, and send telemetry data through the space-based asset, which will dramatically reduce dependence on ground-based assets. The other step was the Low-Cost Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) Transceiver (LCT2), developed by the Wallops Flight Facility (WFF), which allows the vehicle to communicate with a geosynchronous relay satellite. Although the GMTU and LCT2 were independently implemented and tested, the design collaboration of KSC and WFF engineers allowed GMTU and LCT2 to be integrated into one enclosure, leading to the final STACS. In operation, GMTU needs only a radio frequency (RF) input from a GPS antenna and outputs position and velocity data to the vehicle through a serial or pulse code modulation (PCM) interface. GMTU includes one commercial GPS receiver board and a custom board, the Command and Telemetry Processor (CTP) developed by KSC. The CTP design is based on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) with embedded processors to support GPS functions.

  16. Laying Track over the Sierra Nevada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    An astounding construction feat of Chinese Americans was the work done on the western section of the transcontinental railroad. The groundbreaking ceremony for the new line took place in Sacramento in 1863, but up until 1865, less than 50 miles of running track had been laid, and this was over relatively level land. The construction superintendent…

  17. Digital demodulation with data subcarrier tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanger, D. K.

    1970-01-01

    Digital demodulator is based on early-late bit timing scheme coupled with Costas data tracking loop. System is successful in enhancement of weak signals from space where atmospheric and other interference media cause bit error rate to reach excessive level.

  18. The Role of Academic Achievement Growth in School Track Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caro, Daniel H.; Lenkeit, Jenny; Lehmann, Rainer; Schwippert, Knut

    2009-01-01

    Students in Germany are tracked into different forms of secondary schooling based on teachers' recommendations. The literature shows that school tracking is largely affected by academic achievement levels, but neglects the influence of individual achievement growth. The authors used data from the Berlin study ELEMENT (N = 2242) to characterize…

  19. Simultaneous Tracking of Multiple Points Using a Wiimote

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skeffington, Alex; Scully, Kyle

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the construction of an inexpensive motion tracking and data logging system, which can be used for a wide variety of teaching experiments ranging from entry-level physics courses to advanced courses. The system utilizes an affordable infrared camera found in a Nintendo Wiimote to track IR LEDs mounted to the objects to be…

  20. 40 CFR 610.64 - Track test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... drag of the test vehicle.) In such cases, testing will be performed on a dry, level, smooth-surfaced... be safely achieved. (1) Because aerodynamic drag is not a linear function of velocity, it will be... measured during track testing. (4) Fuel economy of a vehicle running on a track will be measured...

  1. Different Dimensions of Spatial Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eliot, John; Hauptman, Anna

    1981-01-01

    Indicates that spatial ability describes a variety of different behaviors and briefly reviews efforts to define intelligence factors and identify processes involved in solving tasks requiring spatial ability. (DS)

  2. Team effectiveness: beyond skills and cognitive ability.

    PubMed

    Neuman, G A; Wright, J

    1999-06-01

    On the basis of job analysis results, the validity of using measures of general cognitive ability, job-specific skills, and personality traits jointly at both the individual level and the group level to predict the performance of 79 four-person, human resource work teams was evaluated. Team member trait and job skill scores were aggregated with a conjunctive model of task performance. At the individual level of analysis, measures of personality (i.e., Agreeableness and Conscientiousness) predicted peer ratings of team member performance beyond measures of job-specific skills and general cognitive ability. Similarly, at the group level of analysis, both Agreeableness and Conscientiousness predicted supervisor ratings of work team performance, objective measures of work team accuracy, and work completed. At both the individual and group levels, the trait of Agreeableness predicted Interpersonal Skills. PMID:10380418

  3. Tracking planets and moons: mechanisms of object tracking revealed with a new paradigm.

    PubMed

    Tombu, Michael; Seiffert, Adriane E

    2011-04-01

    People can attend to and track multiple moving objects over time. Cognitive theories of this ability emphasize location information and differ on the importance of motion information. Results from several experiments have shown that increasing object speed impairs performance, although speed was confounded with other properties such as proximity of objects to one another. Here, we introduce a new paradigm to study multiple object tracking in which object speed and object proximity were manipulated independently. Like the motion of a planet and moon, each target-distractor pair rotated about both a common local point as well as the center of the screen. Tracking performance was strongly affected by object speed even when proximity was controlled. Additional results suggest that two different mechanisms are used in object tracking--one sensitive to speed and proximity and the other sensitive to the number of distractors. These observations support models of object tracking that include information about object motion and reject models that use location alone.

  4. Remote sensing of water tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trochim, E. D.; Prakash, A.; Kane, D. L.; Romanovsky, V. E.

    2016-03-01

    Water tracks are an intrinsic part of the surficial drainage network in the foothills of the Brooks Range, Alaska. They preferentially transport water off hillslopes and represent the interplay between hydrology, vegetation, geomorphology, and permafrost characteristics. This research on mapping the location of water tracks builds on previous work which demonstrated that different types of water tracks exist due to difference primarily driven by geomorphology. We used a combination method where spectral classifications, texture, and topography were fed into random forests to identify the water track classes. The most accurate distributions were obtained for the organic-rich and wide water track classes. The distinct linear shapes of the water tracks could also be visualized for many of the classes, especially in areas where the water tracks were particularly discrete. The biggest challenges to mapping the water tracks were due to class imbalances and high variability within and overlapping between classes. This research presents a significant step forward in understanding periglacial landscape dynamics.

  5. Novel Electron-Bubble Tracking Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Willis, William J.

    2008-08-08

    good temperature, and demand night vision and other demanding applications has led to intense R&D over the years, and small coolers that maintain the CCD at temperatures of more than 100K below ambient are integrated into the camera package. These systems are sold in quantity to amateur astronomers with the same silicon devices used in professional systems, provided long exposure times with less than one electron noise per pixel. In our particle readout, we are imaging a three-dimensional track drifting into the readout plane over time, and we need to read out one plane after another, and we need a high rate of pixel processing. For many years, the noise in the electronic amplifier matching the CCD to the external electronics led to noise levels of many electrons, much higher than in the CCD itself. A break-through was made by providing signal gain inside the CCD, connecting to the external line, by a Electron Multiplier CCD, using a number of electron avalanche stages, each with a small, stable gain. This device was brought out just before out application for the present Grant, provided the last link in the development chain, which allowed out optical readout concept to be implemented at reason fact. In fact, we profited from the falling cost by delaying our order for about a year, which, together with the university discount, allowed us to proceed within our budget. The camera we purchase from the firm ANDOR, which introduced the technique, comes with an extensive suite of software that allows the fast readout with different integration times, and makes a very convenient use in our application. We have been able to make images of the light signals coming from out GEM electron avalanche detectors under many conditions, with tracks of different particle types. We have reconfigured the system a number of times, using the results from the camera to learn how to change the TPC drift geometry and the GEM charge amplifier to improve performance, a process that is still

  6. Track Initiation for Electro-Optical Tracking of Space Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Z. W.; Wang, X.

    2016-03-01

    Aimed at the track initiation for the electro-optical tracking of space objects, and based on modified Hough transformation, a track initiation algorithm without prior information is proposed to realize the fully robotic identification and tracking of moving objects. The method is valid for the tracking of multi-target as well as with a non-continuous sequence. Simulation shows that the method is effective and applicable for operational usage, and is especially good for the search and discovery of new objects.

  7. Satellite (IRLS) tracking of elk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buechner, H. K.

    1972-01-01

    The practicability of tracking free roaming animals in natural environments by satellite systems is reported. Satellite systems combine continuous tracking with simultaneous monitoring of physiological and environmental parameters through a combination of radio tracking and biotelemetric ground systems that lead to a better understanding of animal behavior and migration patterns.

  8. The Mystery of Animal Tracking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Communicator, 1975

    1975-01-01

    A simple animal track guide is given to help students and teachers recognize some of the common animal tracks found in many parts of the country. The tracks are divided into 3 basic categories: 1) flatfoots, 2) toe-walkers, and 3) toe-nail walkers. (NQ)

  9. Feature tracking in high-resolution regional climate data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massey, Neil R.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a suite of algorithms are presented which facilitate the identification and tracking of storm-indicative features, such as mean sea-level pressure minima, in high resolution regional climate data. The methods employ a hierarchical triangular mesh, which is tailored to the regional climate data by only subdividing triangles, from an initial icosahedron, within the domain of the data. The regional data is then regridded to this triangular mesh at each level of the grid, producing a compact representation of the data at numerous resolutions. Storm indicative features are detected by first subtracting the background field, represented by a low resolution version of the data, which occurs at a lower level in the mesh. Anomalies from this background field are detected, as feature objects, at a mesh level which corresponds to the spatial scale of the feature being detected and then refined to the highest mesh level. These feature objects are expanded to an outer contour and overlapping objects are merged. The centre points of these objects are tracked across timesteps by applying an optimisation scheme which uses five hierarchical rules. Objects are added to tracks based on the highest rule in the scheme they pass and, if two objects pass the same rule, the cost of adding the object to the track. An object exchange scheme ensures that adding an object to a track is locally optimal. An additional track optimisation phase is performed which exchanges segments between tracks and merges tracks to obtain a globally optimal track set. To validate the suite of algorithms they are applied to the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset and compared to other storm-indicative feature tracking algorithms.

  10. On particle track detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.; Gruhn, T. A.; Andrus, C. H.

    1973-01-01

    Aqueous sodium hydroxide is widely used to develop charged particle tracks in polycarbonate film, particularly Lexan. The chemical nature of the etching process for this system has been determined. A method employing ultra-violet absorbance was developed for monitoring the concentration of the etch products in solution. Using this method it was possible to study the formation of the etching solution saturated in etch products. It was found that the system super-saturates to a significant extent before precipitation occurs. It was also learned that the system approaches its equilibrium state rather slowly. It is felt that both these phenomena may be due to the presence of surfactant in the solution. In light of these findings, suggestions are given regarding the preparation and maintenance of the saturated etch solution. Two additional research projects, involving automated techniques for particle track analysis and particle identification using AgCl crystals, are briefly summarized.

  11. Tracking change over time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2011-01-01

    Landsat satellites capture images of Earth from space-and have since 1972! These images provide a long-term record of natural and human-induced changes on the global landscape. Comparing images from multiple years reveals slow and subtle changes as well as rapid and devastating ones. Landsat images are available over the Internet at no charge. Using the free software MultiSpec, students can track changes to the landscape over time-just like remote sensing scientists do! The objective of the Tracking Change Over Time lesson plan is to get students excited about studying the changing Earth. Intended for students in grades 5-8, the lesson plan is flexible and may be used as a student self-guided tutorial or as a teacher-led class lesson. Enhance students' learning of geography, map reading, earth science, and problem solving by seeing landscape changes from space.

  12. Longwall shearer tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poulsen, P. D. (Inventor); Stein, R. J.; Pease, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    A tracking system for measuring and recording the movements of a longwall shearer vehicle includes an optical tracking assembly carried at one end of a desired vehicle path and a retroreflector assembly carried by the vehicle. Continuous horizontal and vertical light beams are alternately transmitted by means of a rotating Dove prism to the reflector assembly. A vertically reciprocating reflector interrupts the continuous light beams and converts these to discrete horizontal and vertical light beam images transmitted at spaced intervals along the path. A second rotating Dove prism rotates the vertical images to convert them to a second series of horizontal images while the first mentioned horizontal images are left unrotated and horizontal. The images are recorded on a film.

  13. Can Smartwatches Replace Smartphones for Posture Tracking?

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Bobak; Nemati, Ebrahim; VanderWall, Kristina; Flores-Rodriguez, Hector G.; Cai, Jun Yu Jacinta; Lucier, Jessica; Naeim, Arash; Sarrafzadeh, Majid

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a human posture tracking platform to identify the human postures of sitting, standing or lying down, based on a smartwatch. This work develops such a system as a proof-of-concept study to investigate a smartwatch’s ability to be used in future remote health monitoring systems and applications. This work validates the smartwatches’ ability to track the posture of users accurately in a laboratory setting while reducing the sampling rate to potentially improve battery life, the first steps in verifying that such a system would work in future clinical settings. The algorithm developed classifies the transitions between three posture states of sitting, standing and lying down, by identifying these transition movements, as well as other movements that might be mistaken for these transitions. The system is trained and developed on a Samsung Galaxy Gear smartwatch, and the algorithm was validated through a leave-one-subject-out cross-validation of 20 subjects. The system can identify the appropriate transitions at only 10 Hz with an F-score of 0.930, indicating its ability to effectively replace smart phones, if needed. PMID:26506354

  14. Eye tracking in early autism research

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Eye tracking has the potential to characterize autism at a unique intermediate level, with links ‘down’ to underlying neurocognitive networks, as well as ‘up’ to everyday function and dysfunction. Because it is non-invasive and does not require advanced motor responses or language, eye tracking is particularly important for the study of young children and infants. In this article, we review eye tracking studies of young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and children at risk for ASD. Reduced looking time at people and faces, as well as problems with disengagement of attention, appear to be among the earliest signs of ASD, emerging during the first year of life. In toddlers with ASD, altered looking patterns across facial parts such as the eyes and mouth have been found, together with limited orienting to biological motion. We provide a detailed discussion of these and other key findings and highlight methodological opportunities and challenges for eye tracking research of young children with ASD. We conclude that eye tracking can reveal important features of the complex picture of autism. PMID:24069955

  15. Fast track evaluation methodology.

    PubMed

    Duke, J R

    1991-06-01

    Evaluating hospital information systems has taken a variety of forms since the initial development and use of automation. The process itself has moved from a hardware-based orientation controlled by data processing professionals to systems solutions and a user-driven process overseen by management. At Harbor Hospital Center in Baltimore, a fast track methodology has been introduced to shorten system evaluation time to meet the rapid changes that constantly affect the healthcare industry.

  16. PARTICLE BEAM TRACKING CIRCUIT

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, O.A.

    1959-05-01

    >A particle-beam tracking and correcting circuit is described. Beam induction electrodes are placed on either side of the beam, and potentials induced by the beam are compared in a voltage comparator or discriminator. This comparison produces an error signal which modifies the fm curve at the voltage applied to the drift tube, thereby returning the orbit to the preferred position. The arrangement serves also to synchronize accelerating frequency and magnetic field growth. (T.R.H.)

  17. Ability Grouping in New Zealand High Schools: Are Practices Evidence-Based?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornby, Garry; Witte, Chrystal

    2014-01-01

    There is an extensive international research literature on the effect of ability grouping (e.g., tracking, streaming, banding, setting) on children's academic and behavioral outcomes. However, it is questionable to what extent the findings of research on this topic have influenced the practice of ability grouping in New Zealand schools.…

  18. Eye-Tracking Data

    PubMed Central

    Galesic, Mirta; Tourangeau, Roger; Couper, Mick P.; Conrad, Frederick G.

    2008-01-01

    Survey researchers since Cannell have worried that respondents may take various shortcuts to reduce the effort needed to complete a survey. The evidence for such shortcuts is often indirect. For instance, preferences for earlier versus later response options have been interpreted as evidence that respondents do not read beyond the first few options. This is really only a hypothesis, however, that is not supported by direct evidence regarding the allocation of respondent attention. In the current study, we used a new method to more directly observe what respondents do and do not look at by recording their eye movements while they answered questions in a Web survey. The eye-tracking data indicate that respondents do in fact spend more time looking at the first few options in a list of response options than those at the end of the list; this helps explain their tendency to select the options presented first regardless of their content. In addition, the eye-tracking data reveal that respondents are reluctant to invest effort in reading definitions of survey concepts that are only a mouse click away or paying attention to initially hidden response options. It is clear from the eye-tracking data that some respondents are more prone to these and other cognitive shortcuts than others, providing relatively direct evidence for what had been suspected based on more conventional measures. PMID:21253437

  19. Fast Track Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Fast Track Study supports the efforts of a Special Study Group (SSG) made up of members of the Advanced Project Management Class number 23 (APM-23) that met at the Wallops Island Management Education Center from April 28 - May 8, 1996. Members of the Class expressed interest to Mr. Vem Weyers in having an input to the NASA Policy Document (NPD) 7120.4, that will replace NASA Management Institute (NMI) 7120.4, and the NASA Program/Project Management Guide. The APM-23 SSG was tasked with assisting in development of NASA policy on managing Fast Track Projects, defined as small projects under $150 million and completed within three years. 'Me approach of the APM-23 SSG was to gather data on successful projects working in a 'Better, Faster, Cheaper' environment, within and outside of NASA and develop the Fast Track Project section of the NASA Program/Project Management Guide. Fourteen interviews and four other data gathering efforts were conducted by the SSG, and 16 were conducted by Strategic Resources, Inc. (SRI), including five interviews at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and one at the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL). The interviews were compiled and analyzed for techniques and approaches commonly used to meet severe cost and schedule constraints.

  20. Approximate Bayesian multibody tracking.

    PubMed

    Lanz, Oswald

    2006-09-01

    Visual tracking of multiple targets is a challenging problem, especially when efficiency is an issue. Occlusions, if not properly handled, are a major source of failure. Solutions supporting principled occlusion reasoning have been proposed but are yet unpractical for online applications. This paper presents a new solution which effectively manages the trade-off between reliable modeling and computational efficiency. The Hybrid Joint-Separable (HJS) filter is derived from a joint Bayesian formulation of the problem, and shown to be efficient while optimal in terms of compact belief representation. Computational efficiency is achieved by employing a Markov random field approximation to joint dynamics and an incremental algorithm for posterior update with an appearance likelihood that implements a physically-based model of the occlusion process. A particle filter implementation is proposed which achieves accurate tracking during partial occlusions, while in cases of complete occlusion, tracking hypotheses are bound to estimated occlusion volumes. Experiments show that the proposed algorithm is efficient, robust, and able to resolve long-term occlusions between targets with identical appearance. PMID:16929730

  1. Energy Tracking Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Harrer, Benedikt W.; Close, Hunter G.; Daane, Abigail R.; DeWater, Lezlie S.; Robertson, Amy D.; Seeley, Lane; Vokos, Stamatis

    2016-02-01

    Energy is a crosscutting concept in science and features prominently in national science education documents. In the Next Generation Science Standards, the primary conceptual learning goal is for learners to conserve energy as they track the transfers and transformations of energy within, into, or out of the system of interest in complex physical processes. As part of tracking energy transfers among objects, learners should (i) distinguish energy from matter, including recognizing that energy flow does not uniformly align with the movement of matter, and should (ii) identify specific mechanisms by which energy is transferred among objects, such as mechanical work and thermal conduction. As part of tracking energy transformations within objects, learners should (iii) associate specific forms with specific models and indicators (e.g., kinetic energy with speed and/or coordinated motion of molecules, thermal energy with random molecular motion and/or temperature) and (iv) identify specific mechanisms by which energy is converted from one form to another, such as incandescence and metabolism. Eventually, we may hope for learners to be able to optimize systems to maximize some energy transfers and transformations and minimize others, subject to constraints based in both imputed mechanism (e.g., objects must have motion energy in order for gravitational energy to change) and the second law of thermodynamics (e.g., heating is irreversible). We hypothesize that a subsequent goal of energy learning—innovating to meet socially relevant needs—depends crucially on the extent to which these goals have been met.

  2. Respiration tracking in radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Schweikard, Achim; Shiomi, Hiroya; Adler, John

    2004-10-01

    Respiratory motion is difficult to compensate for with conventional radiotherapy systems. An accurate tracking method for following the motion of the tumor is of considerable clinical relevance. We investigate methods to compensate for respiratory motion using robotic radiosurgery. In this system the therapeutic beam is moved by a robotic arm, and follows the moving target through a combination of infrared tracking and synchronized x-ray imaging. Infrared emitters are used to record the motion of the patient's skin surface. The position of internal gold fiducials is computed repeatedly during treatment, via x-ray image processing. We correlate the motion between external and internal markers. From this correlation model we infer the placement of the internal target during time intervals where no x-ray images are taken. Fifteen patients with lung tumors have recently been treated with a fully integrated system implementing this new method. The clinical trials confirm our hypothesis that internal motion and external motion are indeed correlated. In a preliminar study we have extended our work to tracking without implanted fiducials, based on algorithms for computing deformation motions and digitally reconstructed radiographs.

  3. Evaluation of the control ability of five essential oils against Aspergillus section Nigri growth and ochratoxin A accumulation in peanut meal extract agar conditioned at different water activities levels.

    PubMed

    Passone, María A; Girardi, Natalia S; Etcheverry, Miriam

    2012-10-15

    Essential oils (EOs) from boldo [Pëumus boldus Mol.], poleo [Lippia turbinata var. integrifolia (Griseb.)], clove [Syzygium aromaticum L.], anise [Pimpinella anisum] and thyme [Thymus vulgaris]) obtained by hydrodistillation were evaluated for their effectiveness against the growth of Aspergillus niger aggregate and A. carbonarius and accumulation of ochratoxin A (OTA). The evaluation was performed by compound dissolution at the doses of 0, 500, 1500 and 2500μL/L in peanut meal extract agar (PMEA) and exposure to volatiles of boldo, poleo (0, 1000, 2000 and 3000μL/L) and clove oils (0, 1000, 3000 and 5000μL/L), taking into account the levels of the water activity of the medium (a(W) 0.98, 0.95, 0.93). Statistical analyses on growth of Aspergillus strains indicated that the major effect was produced by oil concentrations followed by substrate a(W), and that reductions in antifungal efficiency of the oils tested were observed in vapor exposure assay. At all a(W) levels, complete fungal growth inhibition was achieved with boldo EO at doses of 1500 and 2000μL/L by contact and volatile assays, respectively. Contact exposure by poleo and clove EOs showed total fungal inhibition at the middle level tested of 1500μL/L, regardless of a(W), while their antifungal effects in headspace volatile assay were closely dependent on medium a(W). The fumigant activity of poleo (2000μL/L) and clove oils (3000μL/L) inhibited growth rate by 66.0% and 80.6% at a(W) 0.98 and 0.93, respectively. OTA accumulation was closely dependent on a(W) conditions. The antiochratoxigenic property of the volatile fractions of boldo, poleo and clove EOs (1000μL/L) was more significant at low a(W) levels, inhibition percentages were estimated at 14.7, 41.7 and 78.5% at a(W) 0.98, 0.95 and 0.93, respectively. Our results suggest that boldo, poleo and clove oils affect the OTA biosynthesis pathway of both Aspergillus species. This finding leaves open the possibility of their use by vapor exposure

  4. Assessing Postgraduate Students' Critical Thinking Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Javed, Muhammad; Nawaz, Muhammad Atif; Qurat-Ul-Ain, Ansa

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses to assess the critical thinking ability of postgraduate students. The target population was the male and female students at University level in Pakistan. A small sample of 45 male and 45 female students were selected randomly from The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan. Cornell Critical Thinking Test Series, The…

  5. Memory for Words and Reading Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Ruth

    This paper examines the relationship between strategies for recall of verbal material and the reading ability of 10-to-13-year-old children. Sixty-five fifth and sixth graders, whose reading levels were determined by the Gates-MacGinitie Comprehension Test (1964), were given an orally presented word-string repetition task. While performance on…

  6. Effects of Ability Grouping on Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulik, James A.; Kulik, Chen-Lin C.

    1987-01-01

    Examines the effect of within-class and between-class ability groupings on the academic achievement of gifted elementary and secondary level students. Results showed that gifted students gained more academically than they would have if they had been taught in heterogeneous classes. (PS)

  7. STUDENT ABILITIES, GROUPING PATTERNS, AND CLASSROOM INTERACTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DREWS, ELIZABETH M.

    A STUDY WAS MADE TO DETERMINE THE EFFECT OF HETEROGENEOUS AND HOMOGENEOUS GROUPING IN NINTH-GRADE ENGLISH CLASSES. ON THE BASES OF IQ AND READING LANGUAGE SKILLS, STUDENTS WERE GROUPED AT THREE ABILITY LEVELS AND PLACE IN HETEROGENEOUS, HOMOGENEOUS SUPERIOR, HOMOGENEOUS SLOW, AND HOMOGENEOUS AVERAGE CLASSES. TEACHER VARIABLES WERE REDUCED BY…

  8. Do High Ability Students Have Mathematics Anxiety?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, Kai Kow Joseph

    2004-01-01

    This exploratory study investigates the level of mathematics anxiety among 116 high ability Secondary Two students. These students were from the top 10% of the Secondary Two students in Singapore. Mathematics Anxiety was measured using the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Anxiety Scale (MAS) (Fennema & Sherman, 1978) which consisted of twelve items…

  9. Evaluating Business School Undergraduates' Situation Analytical Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Ghee-Soon

    2002-01-01

    An instrument to test students' ability to analyze business situations was administered to 120 undergraduates. Level of study, achievement in business curriculum, and stress resilience were associated with test performance. Gender, age, family income, and high school results were not related to performance. (Contains 44 references.) (SK)

  10. Fuzzy Logic Particle Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    A new all-electronic Particle Image Velocimetry technique that can efficiently map high speed gas flows has been developed in-house at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Particle Image Velocimetry is an optical technique for measuring the instantaneous two component velocity field across a planar region of a seeded flow field. A pulsed laser light sheet is used to illuminate the seed particles entrained in the flow field at two instances in time. One or more charged coupled device (CCD) cameras can be used to record the instantaneous positions of particles. Using the time between light sheet pulses and determining either the individual particle displacements or the average displacement of particles over a small subregion of the recorded image enables the calculation of the fluid velocity. Fuzzy logic minimizes the required operator intervention in identifying particles and computing velocity. Using two cameras that have the same view of the illumination plane yields two single exposure image frames. Two competing techniques that yield unambiguous velocity vector direction information have been widely used for reducing the single-exposure, multiple image frame data: (1) cross-correlation and (2) particle tracking. Correlation techniques yield averaged velocity estimates over subregions of the flow, whereas particle tracking techniques give individual particle velocity estimates. For the correlation technique, the correlation peak corresponding to the average displacement of particles across the subregion must be identified. Noise on the images and particle dropout result in misidentification of the true correlation peak. The subsequent velocity vector maps contain spurious vectors where the displacement peaks have been improperly identified. Typically these spurious vectors are replaced by a weighted average of the neighboring vectors, thereby decreasing the independence of the measurements. In this work, fuzzy logic techniques are used to determine the true

  11. Attentive Tracking of Sound Sources.

    PubMed

    Woods, Kevin J P; McDermott, Josh H

    2015-08-31

    Auditory scenes often contain concurrent sound sources, but listeners are typically interested in just one of these and must somehow select it for further processing. One challenge is that real-world sounds such as speech vary over time and as a consequence often cannot be separated or selected based on particular values of their features (e.g., high pitch). Here we show that human listeners can circumvent this challenge by tracking sounds with a movable focus of attention. We synthesized pairs of voices that changed in pitch and timbre over random, intertwined trajectories, lacking distinguishing features or linguistic information. Listeners were cued beforehand to attend to one of the voices. We measured their ability to extract this cued voice from the mixture by subsequently presenting the ending portion of one voice and asking whether it came from the cued voice. We found that listeners could perform this task but that performance was mediated by attention-listeners who performed best were also more sensitive to perturbations in the cued voice than in the uncued voice. Moreover, the task was impossible if the source trajectories did not maintain sufficient separation in feature space. The results suggest a locus of attention that can follow a sound's trajectory through a feature space, likely aiding selection and segregation amid similar distractors. PMID:26279234

  12. Animal Tracking ARGOS vs GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, P. W.; Costa, D.; Arnould, J.; Weise, M.; Kuhn, C.; Simmons, S. E.; Villegas, S.; Tremblay, Y.

    2006-12-01

    ARGOS satellite tracking technology has enabled a tremendous increase in our understanding of the movement patterns of a diverse array of marine vertebrates from Sharks to marine mammals. Our current understanding has moved from simple descriptions of large scale migratory patterns to much more sophisticated comparisons of animal movements and behavior relative to oceanic features. Further, animals are increasingly used to carry sensors that can acquire water column temperature and salinity profiles. However, a major limitation of this work is the spatial precision of ARGOS locations. ARGOS provides 7 location qualities that range from 3,2,1,0,A,B,Z and correspond to locations with a precision of 150m to tens of kilometers. Until recently, GPS technology could not be effectively used with marine mammals because they did not spend sufficient time at the surface to allow complete acquisition of satellite information. The recent development of Fastloc technology has allowed the development of GPS tags that can be deployed on marine mammals. Here we compare the location quality and frequency derived from standard ARGOS PTTs to Fastloc GPS locations acquired from 11 northern elephant seals, 5 California and 5 Galapagos sea lions and 1 Cape and 3 Australian fur seals. Our results indicate that GPS technology will greatly enhance our ability to understand the movement patterns of marine vertebrates and the in-situ oceanographic data they collect.

  13. Thermal Tracking of Sports Players

    PubMed Central

    Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    We present here a real-time tracking algorithm for thermal video from a sports game. Robust detection of people includes routines for handling occlusions and noise before tracking each detected person with a Kalman filter. This online tracking algorithm is compared with a state-of-the-art offline multi-target tracking algorithm. Experiments are performed on a manually annotated 2-minutes video sequence of a real soccer game. The Kalman filter shows a very promising result on this rather challenging sequence with a tracking accuracy above 70% and is superior compared with the offline tracking approach. Furthermore, the combined detection and tracking algorithm runs in real time at 33 fps, even with large image sizes of 1920 × 480 pixels. PMID:25076219

  14. Thermal tracking of sports players.

    PubMed

    Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B

    2014-01-01

    We present here a real-time tracking algorithm for thermal video from a sports game. Robust detection of people includes routines for handling occlusions and noise before tracking each detected person with a Kalman filter. This online tracking algorithm is compared with a state-of-the-art offline multi-target tracking algorithm. Experiments are performed on a manually annotated 2-minutes video sequence of a real soccer game. The Kalman filter shows a very promising result on this rather challenging sequence with a tracking accuracy above 70% and is superior compared with the offline tracking approach. Furthermore, the combined detection and tracking algorithm runs in real time at 33 fps, even with large image sizes of 1920 × 480 pixels. PMID:25076219

  15. Thermal tracking of sports players.

    PubMed

    Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B

    2014-07-29

    We present here a real-time tracking algorithm for thermal video from a sports game. Robust detection of people includes routines for handling occlusions and noise before tracking each detected person with a Kalman filter. This online tracking algorithm is compared with a state-of-the-art offline multi-target tracking algorithm. Experiments are performed on a manually annotated 2-minutes video sequence of a real soccer game. The Kalman filter shows a very promising result on this rather challenging sequence with a tracking accuracy above 70% and is superior compared with the offline tracking approach. Furthermore, the combined detection and tracking algorithm runs in real time at 33 fps, even with large image sizes of 1920 × 480 pixels.

  16. Heterogeneity in Induction Level, Infection Ability, and Morphology of Shiga Toxin-Encoding Phages (Stx Phages) from Dairy and Human Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O26:H11 Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Bonanno, Ludivine; Petit, Marie-Agnès; Loukiadis, Estelle; Michel, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) bacteria are foodborne pathogens responsible for diarrhea and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). Shiga toxin, the main STEC virulence factor, is encoded by the stx gene located in the genome of a bacteriophage inserted into the bacterial chromosome. The O26:H11 serotype is considered to be the second-most-significant HUS-causing serotype worldwide after O157:H7. STEC O26:H11 bacteria and their stx-negative counterparts have been detected in dairy products. They may convert from the one form to the other by loss or acquisition of Stx phages, potentially confounding food microbiological diagnostic methods based on stx gene detection. Here we investigated the diversity and mobility of Stx phages from human and dairy STEC O26:H11 strains. Evaluation of their rate of in vitro induction, occurring either spontaneously or in the presence of mitomycin C, showed that the Stx2 phages were more inducible overall than Stx1 phages. However, no correlation was found between the Stx phage levels produced and the origin of the strains tested or the phage insertion sites. Morphological analysis by electron microscopy showed that Stx phages from STEC O26:H11 displayed various shapes that were unrelated to Stx1 or Stx2 types. Finally, the levels of sensitivity of stx-negative E. coli O26:H11 to six Stx phages differed among the 17 strains tested and our attempts to convert them into STEC were unsuccessful, indicating that their lysogenization was a rare event. PMID:26826235

  17. Heterogeneity in Induction Level, Infection Ability, and Morphology of Shiga Toxin-Encoding Phages (Stx Phages) from Dairy and Human Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O26:H11 Isolates.

    PubMed

    Bonanno, Ludivine; Petit, Marie-Agnès; Loukiadis, Estelle; Michel, Valérie; Auvray, Frédéric

    2016-01-29

    Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) bacteria are foodborne pathogens responsible for diarrhea and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). Shiga toxin, the main STEC virulence factor, is encoded by the stx gene located in the genome of a bacteriophage inserted into the bacterial chromosome. The O26:H11 serotype is considered to be the second-most-significant HUS-causing serotype worldwide after O157:H7. STEC O26:H11 bacteria and their stx-negative counterparts have been detected in dairy products. They may convert from the one form to the other by loss or acquisition of Stx phages, potentially confounding food microbiological diagnostic methods based on stx gene detection. Here we investigated the diversity and mobility of Stx phages from human and dairy STEC O26:H11 strains. Evaluation of their rate of in vitro induction, occurring either spontaneously or in the presence of mitomycin C, showed that the Stx2 phages were more inducible overall than Stx1 phages. However, no correlation was found between the Stx phage levels produced and the origin of the strains tested or the phage insertion sites. Morphological analysis by electron microscopy showed that Stx phages from STEC O26:H11 displayed various shapes that were unrelated to Stx1 or Stx2 types. Finally, the levels of sensitivity of stx-negative E. coli O26:H11 to six Stx phages differed among the 17 strains tested and our attempts to convert them into STEC were unsuccessful, indicating that their lysogenization was a rare event.

  18. Approaches, field considerations and problems associated with radio tracking carnivores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargeant, A.B.; Amlaner, C. J.; MacDonald, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    The adaptation of radio tracking to ecological studies was a major technological advance affecting field investigations of animal movements and behavior. Carnivores have been the recipients of much attention with this new technology and study approaches have varied from simple to complex. Equipment performance has much improved over the years, but users still face many difficulties. The beginning of all radio tracking studies should be a precise definition of objectives. Study objectives dictate type of gear required and field procedures. Field conditions affect equipment performance and investigator ability to gather data. Radio tracking carnivores is demanding and generally requires greater time than anticipated. Problems should be expected and planned for in study design. Radio tracking can be an asset in carnivore studies but caution is needed in its application.

  19. Wireless tracking of cotton modules. Part I: Automatic message triggering

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability to map profit across a cotton field would enable producers to see where money is being made or lost on their farms and to implement precise field management practices to ensure the highest return possible on each portion of a field. To this end, a wireless module-tracking system was rec...

  20. Fluoroscopic tumor tracking for image-guided lung cancer radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tong; Cerviño, Laura I.; Tang, Xiaoli; Vasconcelos, Nuno; Jiang, Steve B.

    2009-02-01

    Accurate lung tumor tracking in real time is a keystone to image-guided radiotherapy of lung cancers. Existing lung tumor tracking approaches can be roughly grouped into three categories: (1) deriving tumor position from external surrogates; (2) tracking implanted fiducial markers fluoroscopically or electromagnetically; (3) fluoroscopically tracking lung tumor without implanted fiducial markers. The first approach suffers from insufficient accuracy, while the second may not be widely accepted due to the risk of pneumothorax. Previous studies in fluoroscopic markerless tracking are mainly based on template matching methods, which may fail when the tumor boundary is unclear in fluoroscopic images. In this paper we propose a novel markerless tumor tracking algorithm, which employs the correlation between the tumor position and surrogate anatomic features in the image. The positions of the surrogate features are not directly tracked; instead, we use principal component analysis of regions of interest containing them to obtain parametric representations of their motion patterns. Then, the tumor position can be predicted from the parametric representations of surrogates through regression. Four regression methods were tested in this study: linear and two-degree polynomial regression, artificial neural network (ANN) and support vector machine (SVM). The experimental results based on fluoroscopic sequences of ten lung cancer patients demonstrate a mean tracking error of 2.1 pixels and a maximum error at a 95% confidence level of 4.6 pixels (pixel size is about 0.5 mm) for the proposed tracking algorithm.

  1. Long-duration fused feature learning-aided tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivey, Richard; Horn, Joel; Merkert, Raimund

    2010-04-01

    Multiple-hypothesis tracking (MHT) algorithms solve the report-to-track association problem1-5 by accumulating kinematic evidence provided by one or more sensors over time to find likely correlations in the data. MHT technologies have long been applied to such problems as machine vision; automatic target tracking using radar moving target indicator (MTI) for ground, air, sea, and space vehicles; and video-based object tracking. However, relying on kinematic information alone to maintain reliable track in a multi-target scenario is problematic due to a plethora of issues such as sensor limitations, obscuration of the targets, or target/confuser proximity.6-7 We present our track fusion algorithm, the Long-term Hypothesis Tree (LTHT) that solves the tracklet-to-tracklet association problem by using signature information to repair errors in kinematic tracks. LTHT provides a framework for using arbitrary target signatures such as spectral or shape characteristics to correct errors made by an MHT tracker. The LTHT represents high-level interactions among complex tracks by condensing kinematic track trajectories into a compact representation that can be efficiently maintained over much longer temporal scales than typical MHT trees.

  2. Multiple-Object Tracking in Children: The "Catch the Spies" Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trick, L.M.; Jaspers-Fayer, F.; Sethi, N.

    2005-01-01

    Multiple-object tracking involves simultaneously tracking positions of a number of target-items as they move among distractors. The standard version of the task poses special challenges for children, demanding extended concentration and the ability to distinguish targets from identical-looking distractors, and may thus underestimate children's…

  3. Influences of Math Tracking on Seventh-Grade Students' Self-Beliefs and Social Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Donna; Beru, Yodit; Watley, Erin; Wubu, Selam; Simson, Emma; Kessinger, Robin; Rivera, Anahi; Schmidlein, Patrick; Wigfield, Allan

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined how math track placement and gender affected 7th-grade students' self-esteem, self-concepts, and social comparisons. Participants were 170 students who completed surveys that assessed their self-esteem, academic self-concepts of ability, and the kinds of social comparisons they make. Results showed that higher track students…

  4. Target tracking for heterogeneous smart sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevington, James E.; McDonnell, Timothy X.

    2001-08-01

    Distributed sensor networks will play a key role in the network centric warfighting environments of the future. We envision a ubiquitous sensing `fabric,' comprising sensors distributed over the terrain and carried on manned and unmanned, terrestrial and airborne vehicles. As a complex `system of systems,' this fabric will need to adapt and self-organize to perform a variety of higher-level tasks such as surveillance and target acquisition. The topology and availability of the sensors will be constantly changing, as will the needs of users as dictated by evolving missions and operational environments. In this work, focusing on the task of target tracking, we address approaches for locating and organizing sensing and processing resources and present algorithms for suitably fusing the observations obtained from a varied and changing set of sensors. Run-time discovery and access of new sensing resources are obtained through the use of Java Jini, treating sensing resources as `services' and viewing higher-level processes such as tracking as clients. Algorithms for fusing generic sensor observations for target tracking are based on the extended Kalman filter, while detection and track initiation are based on a new likelihood projection technique. We present results from an implementation of these concepts in a real- time sensor testbed and discuss lessons learned.

  5. A Phase-tracking Snow Micro-structure Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaughter, A. E.; Zabaras, N.

    2012-12-01

    Utilizing a methodology derived from models for phase transitions in alloy solidification [1], a 3D finite element (FE) model for snow metamorphism was developed. Avalanches are known to occur due to the existence of a weak-layer of faceted crystals, which form due to temperature gradients within the snow through a process known as kinetic metamorphism [2]. In general, snow models are limited in their ability to model these microstructural changes, especially in three dimensions, and rely on effective properties. To enhance the tools available to avalanche researchers a finite element model was developed capable of tracking vapor deposition within the snow. This is accomplished using a fixed-domain, stabilized finite element solution for the energy, mass, momentum, and transport equations. Using a level-set parameter the domain is separated into either solid or fluid components and along the phase-change boundary a "mushy-zone" is establish [1, 3]. This zone is modeled as porous media that includes the effects of shrinkage and density changes [1]. The basis of the model is the open-source C++ libMesh FE library, as such the model includes adaptive mesh coarsening and refinement and relies on domain decomposition for optimum parallel performance. This work is the initial phase of an ongoing research project that aims to demonstrate the ability to model snow at the micro-structural level and move away from the common coarse, effective property modeling techniques. It will serve as the deterministic basis for a multi-scale, stochastic model of snow that will account for uncertainties such as poorly understood growth properties and measurement variability. Future applications may include the inclusion of liquid melt and include external forces, yielding a comprehensive thermo-mechanical model that could evolve and fracture. [1] D. Samanta, N. Zabaras (2005), Modelling convection in solidification processes using stabilized finite element techniques, J. Numer. Meth. Eng

  6. 49 CFR 213.331 - Track surface.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Track surface. 213.331 Section 213.331... Track surface. (a) For a single deviation in track surface, each track owner shall maintain the surface of its track within the limits prescribed in the following table: Track surface (inches) Class...

  7. 49 CFR 213.331 - Track surface.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Track surface. 213.331 Section 213.331... Track surface. (a) For a single deviation in track surface, each track owner shall maintain the surface of its track within the limits prescribed in the following table: Track surface (inches) Class...

  8. 49 CFR 213.63 - Track surface.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Track surface. 213.63 Section 213.63..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Geometry § 213.63 Track surface. Each owner of the track to which this part applies shall maintain the surface of its track within the limits prescribed...

  9. The Differential Effects of School Tracking on Psychometric Intelligence: Do Academic-Track Schools Make Students Smarter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Michael; Ludtke, Oliver; Trautwein, Ulrich; Koller, Olaf; Baumert, Jurgen

    2012-01-01

    Prior research has shown that quantity of schooling affects the development of intelligence in childhood and adolescence. However, it is still debated whether other aspects of schooling--such as ability tracking or, more generally, school quality--can also influence intelligence. In this study, the authors analyzed intelligence gains in academic-…

  10. An International Comparison of Achievement Inequality in Within- and Between-School Tracking Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chmielewski, Anna K.

    2014-01-01

    Secondary school tracking is organized in some countries on a course-by-course basis within schools and in other countries as explicit academic and vocational streaming, often in separate school buildings. This article is the first to compare these two forms of tracking, using student-level tracking data across the United States and 19 other…

  11. Rover wheel & tracks - color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This view from the Sojourner rover's rear color camera shows wheel tracks in the orange-red martian soil. One of the rover's cleated wheels is visible at left.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  12. Small Orbital Stereo Tracking Camera Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, Tom; MacLeod, Todd; Gagliano, Larry

    2016-01-01

    On-Orbit Small Debris Tracking and Characterization is a technical gap in the current National Space Situational Awareness necessary to safeguard orbital assets and crew. This poses a major risk of MOD damage to ISS and Exploration vehicles. In 2015 this technology was added to NASA's Office of Chief Technologist roadmap. For missions flying in or assembled in or staging from LEO, the physical threat to vehicle and crew is needed in order to properly design the proper level of MOD impact shielding and proper mission design restrictions. Need to verify debris flux and size population versus ground RADAR tracking. Use of ISS for In-Situ Orbital Debris Tracking development provides attitude, power, data and orbital access without a dedicated spacecraft or restricted operations on-board a host vehicle as a secondary payload. Sensor Applicable to in-situ measuring orbital debris in flux and population in other orbits or on other vehicles. Could enhance safety on and around ISS. Some technologies extensible to monitoring of extraterrestrial debris as well To help accomplish this, new technologies must be developed quickly. The Small Orbital Stereo Tracking Camera is one such up and coming technology. It consists of flying a pair of intensified megapixel telephoto cameras to evaluate Orbital Debris (OD) monitoring in proximity of International Space Station. It will demonstrate on-orbit optical tracking (in situ) of various sized objects versus ground RADAR tracking and small OD models. The cameras are based on Flight Proven Advanced Video Guidance Sensor pixel to spot algorithms (Orbital Express) and military targeting cameras. And by using twin cameras we can provide Stereo images for ranging & mission redundancy. When pointed into the orbital velocity vector (RAM), objects approaching or near the stereo camera set can be differentiated from the stars moving upward in background.

  13. Small Orbital Stereo Tracking Camera Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, Tom; Macleod, Todd; Gagliano, Larry

    2015-01-01

    On-Orbit Small Debris Tracking and Characterization is a technical gap in the current National Space Situational Awareness necessary to safeguard orbital assets and crew. This poses a major risk of MOD damage to ISS and Exploration vehicles. In 2015 this technology was added to NASA's Office of Chief Technologist roadmap. For missions flying in or assembled in or staging from LEO, the physical threat to vehicle and crew is needed in order to properly design the proper level of MOD impact shielding and proper mission design restrictions. Need to verify debris flux and size population versus ground RADAR tracking. Use of ISS for In-Situ Orbital Debris Tracking development provides attitude, power, data and orbital access without a dedicated spacecraft or restricted operations on-board a host vehicle as a secondary payload. Sensor Applicable to in-situ measuring orbital debris in flux and population in other orbits or on other vehicles. Could enhance safety on and around ISS. Some technologies extensible to monitoring of extraterrestrial debris as well to help accomplish this, new technologies must be developed quickly. The Small Orbital Stereo Tracking Camera is one such up and coming technology. It consists of flying a pair of intensified megapixel telephoto cameras to evaluate Orbital Debris (OD) monitoring in proximity of International Space Station. It will demonstrate on-orbit optical tracking (in situ) of various sized objects versus ground RADAR tracking and small OD models. The cameras are based on Flight Proven Advanced Video Guidance Sensor pixel to spot algorithms (Orbital Express) and military targeting cameras. And by using twin cameras we can provide Stereo images for ranging & mission redundancy. When pointed into the orbital velocity vector (RAM), objects approaching or near the stereo camera set can be differentiated from the stars moving upward in background.

  14. Putting Off-Track Youths Back on Track to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Adria; Allen, Lili

    2011-01-01

    Back on Track, developed by Jobs for the Future, is a design for schools to not only re-engage off-track and out-of-school youths to graduate from high school, but also to put them on a clear, supported path to a college education. Two schools that have combined Back on Track with the early college model, in which students can earn both a high…

  15. Laser tracking for vertical control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, Peter; Torrence, Mark; Pavlis, Erricos; Kolenkiewicz, Ron; Smith, David

    1993-01-01

    The Global Laser Tracking Network has provided LAGEOS ranging data of high accuracy since the first MERIT campaign in late 1983 and we can now resolve centimeter-level three dimensional positions of participating observatories at monthly intervals. In this analysis, the station height estimates have been considered separately from the horizontal components, and can be determined by the strongest stations with a formal standard error of 2 mm using eight years of continuous observations. The rate of change in the vertical can be resolved to a few mm/year, which is at the expected level of several geophysical effects. In comparing the behavior of the stations to that predicted by recent models of post-glacial rebound, we find no correlation in this very small effect. Particular attention must be applied to data and survey quality control when measuring the vertical component, and the survey observations are critical components of the geodynamic results. Seasonal patterns are observed in the heights of most stations, and the possibility of secular motion at the level of several millimeters per year cannot be excluded. Any such motion must be considered in the interpretation of horizontal inter-site measurements, and can help to identify mechanisms which can cause variations which occur linearly with time, seasonally, or abruptly.

  16. The Measurement of Translation Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Charles W.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Variables that constitute translation ability are discussed, based on a two-year development and validation study of job-related tests of translation ability for the Federal Bureau of Investigation. The project involved the development of two parallel forms of the Spanish into English Verbatim Translation Exam (SEVTE). (five references) (LB)

  17. Assessment of English Speaking Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Yuji

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the detailed components of Japanese students' English speaking ability in terms of communicative competence by using an oral proficiency test based on Bachman's Communicative Language Ability model (included in an appendix). Eighty college students were tested on four tasks--speech making, visual material…

  18. Implicit Learning as an Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Scott Barry; DeYoung, Caroline G.; Gray, Jeremy R.; Jimenez, Luis; Brown, Jamie; Mackintosh, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    The ability to automatically and implicitly detect complex and noisy regularities in the environment is a fundamental aspect of human cognition. Despite considerable interest in implicit processes, few researchers have conceptualized implicit learning as an ability with meaningful individual differences. Instead, various researchers (e.g., Reber,…

  19. 3D cloud detection and tracking system for solar forecast using multiple sky imagers

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Zhenzhou; Yu, Dantong; Huang, Dong; Heiser, John; Yoo, Shinjae; Kalb, Paul

    2015-06-23

    We propose a system for forecasting short-term solar irradiance based on multiple total sky imagers (TSIs). The system utilizes a novel method of identifying and tracking clouds in three-dimensional space and an innovative pipeline for forecasting surface solar irradiance based on the image features of clouds. First, we develop a supervised classifier to detect clouds at the pixel level and output cloud mask. In the next step, we design intelligent algorithms to estimate the block-wise base height and motion of each cloud layer based on images from multiple TSIs. Thus, this information is then applied to stitch images together into larger views, which are then used for solar forecasting. We examine the system’s ability to track clouds under various cloud conditions and investigate different irradiance forecast models at various sites. We confirm that this system can 1) robustly detect clouds and track layers, and 2) extract the significant global and local features for obtaining stable irradiance forecasts with short forecast horizons from the obtained images. Finally, we vet our forecasting system at the 32-megawatt Long Island Solar Farm (LISF). Compared with the persistent model, our system achieves at least a 26% improvement for all irradiance forecasts between one and fifteen minutes.

  20. 3D cloud detection and tracking system for solar forecast using multiple sky imagers

    DOE PAGES

    Peng, Zhenzhou; Yu, Dantong; Huang, Dong; Heiser, John; Yoo, Shinjae; Kalb, Paul

    2015-06-23

    We propose a system for forecasting short-term solar irradiance based on multiple total sky imagers (TSIs). The system utilizes a novel method of identifying and tracking clouds in three-dimensional space and an innovative pipeline for forecasting surface solar irradiance based on the image features of clouds. First, we develop a supervised classifier to detect clouds at the pixel level and output cloud mask. In the next step, we design intelligent algorithms to estimate the block-wise base height and motion of each cloud layer based on images from multiple TSIs. Thus, this information is then applied to stitch images together intomore » larger views, which are then used for solar forecasting. We examine the system’s ability to track clouds under various cloud conditions and investigate different irradiance forecast models at various sites. We confirm that this system can 1) robustly detect clouds and track layers, and 2) extract the significant global and local features for obtaining stable irradiance forecasts with short forecast horizons from the obtained images. Finally, we vet our forecasting system at the 32-megawatt Long Island Solar Farm (LISF). Compared with the persistent model, our system achieves at least a 26% improvement for all irradiance forecasts between one and fifteen minutes.« less

  1. Polyhedron tracking and gravity tractor asteroid deflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ummen, N.; Lappas, V.

    2014-11-01

    In the wake of the Chelyabinsk airburst, the defense against hazardous asteroids is becoming a topic of high interest. This work improves the gravity tractor asteroid deflection approach by tracking realistic small body shapes with tilted ion engines. An algorithm for polyhedron tracking was evaluated in a fictitious impact scenario. The simulations suggest a capability increase up to 38.2% with such improved tilting strategies. The long- and short-term effects within polyhedron tracking are illustrated. In particular, the orbital reorientation effect is influential when realistic asteroid shapes and rotations are accounted for. Also analyzed is the subject of altitude profiles, a way to tailor the gravity tractor performance, and to achieve a steering ability within the B-plane. A novel analytical solution for the classic gravity tractor is derived. It removes the simulation need for classic tractor designs to obtain comparable two body model Δv figures. This paper corroborates that the asteroid shape can be exploited for maximum performance. Even a single engine tilt adjustment at the beginning of deflection operations yields more deflection than a fixed preset tilt.

  2. Interactive Multiple Object Tracking (iMOT)

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Ian M.; Bülthoff, Heinrich H.; Horowitz, Todd S.; Rynning, Aksel; Lee, Seong-Whan

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a new task for exploring the relationship between action and attention. In this interactive multiple object tracking (iMOT) task, implemented as an iPad app, participants were presented with a display of multiple, visually identical disks which moved independently. The task was to prevent any collisions during a fixed duration. Participants could perturb object trajectories via the touchscreen. In Experiment 1, we used a staircase procedure to measure the ability to control moving objects. Object speed was set to 1°/s. On average participants could control 8.4 items without collision. Individual control strategies were quite variable, but did not predict overall performance. In Experiment 2, we compared iMOT with standard MOT performance using identical displays. Object speed was set to 2°/s. Participants could reliably control more objects (M = 6.6) than they could track (M = 4.0), but performance in the two tasks was positively correlated. In Experiment 3, we used a dual-task design. Compared to single-task baseline, iMOT performance decreased and MOT performance increased when the two tasks had to be completed together. Overall, these findings suggest: 1) There is a clear limit to the number of items that can be simultaneously controlled, for a given speed and display density; 2) participants can control more items than they can track; 3) task-relevant action appears not to disrupt MOT performance in the current experimental context. PMID:24498288

  3. Tracking of electrochemical impedance of batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piret, H.; Granjon, P.; Guillet, N.; Cattin, V.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents an evolutionary battery impedance estimation method, which can be easily embedded in vehicles or nomad devices. The proposed method not only allows an accurate frequency impedance estimation, but also a tracking of its temporal evolution contrary to classical electrochemical impedance spectroscopy methods. Taking into account constraints of cost and complexity, we propose to use the existing electronics of current control to perform a frequency evolutionary estimation of the electrochemical impedance. The developed method uses a simple wideband input signal, and relies on a recursive local average of Fourier transforms. The averaging is controlled by a single parameter, managing a trade-off between tracking and estimation performance. This normalized parameter allows to correctly adapt the behavior of the proposed estimator to the variations of the impedance. The advantage of the proposed method is twofold: the method is easy to embed into a simple electronic circuit, and the battery impedance estimator is evolutionary. The ability of the method to monitor the impedance over time is demonstrated on a simulator, and on a real Lithium ion battery, on which a repeatability study is carried out. The experiments reveal good tracking results, and estimation performance as accurate as the usual laboratory approaches.

  4. [Work ability: a literature review].

    PubMed

    Martinez, Maria Carmen; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira; Fischer, Frida Marina

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this article is to present a literature review on work ability and functional ageing. An extensive search of publications from 1966 to 2006 was conducted using the databases MEDLINE, LILACS and SciELO. Several aspects of work ability are presented in this manuscript: the historical context when the theme emerged, the theoretical framework, the determinant factors and an explanatory model, the current methodology to evaluate and monitor the work ability, the importance of its promotion. Highlights of the current situation about the research, practice and future perspectives regarding the theme are also discussed. In the context of the workforce aging, the work ability became an important indicator because their consequences to the worker's health, well-being and employability, with impacts to the individuals, organizations and society. In spite of their relevance, there is a lack of attention to the issues about work ability and functional ageing.

  5. Cassini Archive Tracking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, Diane; Sayfi, Elias; Tinio, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    The Cassini Archive Tracking System (CATS) is a computer program that enables tracking of scientific data transfers from originators to the Planetary Data System (PDS) archives. Without CATS, there is no systematic means of locating products in the archive process or ensuring their completeness. By keeping a database of transfer communications and status, CATS enables the Cassini Project and the PDS to efficiently and accurately report on archive status. More importantly, problem areas are easily identified through customized reports that can be generated on the fly from any Web-enabled computer. A Web-browser interface and clearly defined authorization scheme provide safe distributed access to the system, where users can perform functions such as create customized reports, record a transfer, and respond to a transfer. CATS ensures that Cassini provides complete science archives to the PDS on schedule and that those archives are available to the science community by the PDS. The three-tier architecture is loosely coupled and designed for simple adaptation to multimission use. Written in the Java programming language, it is portable and can be run on any Java-enabled Web server.

  6. Automated call tracking systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hardesty, C.

    1993-03-01

    User Services groups are on the front line with user support. We are the first to hear about problems. The speed, accuracy, and intelligence with which we respond determines the user`s perception of our effectiveness and our commitment to quality and service. To keep pace with the complex changes at our sites, we must have tools to help build a knowledge base of solutions, a history base of our users, and a record of every problem encountered. Recently, I completed a survey of twenty sites similar to the National Energy Research Supercomputer Center (NERSC). This informal survey reveals that 27% of the sites use a paper system to log calls, 60% employ homegrown automated call tracking systems, and 13% use a vendor-supplied system. Fifty-four percent of those using homegrown systems are exploring the merits of switching to a vendor-supplied system. The purpose of this paper is to provide guidelines for evaluating a call tracking system. In addition, insights are provided to assist User Services groups in selecting a system that fits their needs.

  7. Fast track-finding processor based on RAM look-up table for the VENUS detector at KEK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohsugi, T.; Chiba, Y.; Hayashibara, I.; Taketani, A.; Yasuishi, S.; Arai, Y.; Sakamoto, H.; Uehara, S.

    1988-06-01

    We have developed a fast track-finding processor using signals from the central tracking chamber of the VENUS detector in the TRISTAN experiments. Particle tracks are recognized by a look-up table made with a high-speed static RAM. This method enables us to implement the track finder in the first level triggering. The track finder has been working excellently under heavy background due to synchrotron radiation. A processing time of 110 ns is attained.

  8. Long-term object tracking combined offline with online learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Mengjie; Wei, Zhenzhong; Zhang, Guangjun

    2016-04-01

    We propose a simple yet effective method for long-term object tracking. Different from the traditional visual tracking method, which mainly depends on frame-to-frame correspondence, we combine high-level semantic information with low-level correspondences. Our framework is formulated in a confidence selection framework, which allows our system to recover from drift and partly deal with occlusion. To summarize, our algorithm can be roughly decomposed into an initialization stage and a tracking stage. In the initialization stage, an offline detector is trained to get the object appearance information at the category level, which is used for detecting the potential target and initializing the tracking stage. The tracking stage consists of three modules: the online tracking module, detection module, and decision module. A pretrained detector is used for maintaining drift of the online tracker, while the online tracker is used for filtering out false positive detections. A confidence selection mechanism is proposed to optimize the object location based on the online tracker and detection. If the target is lost, the pretrained detector is utilized to reinitialize the whole algorithm when the target is relocated. During experiments, we evaluate our method on several challenging video sequences, and it demonstrates huge improvement compared with detection and online tracking only.

  9. Sandhopper orientation under natural conditions: comparing individual tracks.

    PubMed

    Gambineri, Simone; Scapini, Felicita

    2015-04-01

    The analysis of animal movements may help to understand orientation strategies. While there have been many studies on sandhoppers' orientation mechanisms through the analysis of their orientation angles, no attempts have been made to analyze individual tracks under (varying) natural conditions. The species Talitrus saltator (Montagu, 1808) has the ability to recover the optimal zone of the beach at or below the drift-line and burrow into moist sand when released in the upper beach during the day. On dry sand sandhoppers typically jump and leave tracks; we measured the tracks in relation to the starting point. For each track we calculated: the mean angle of direction, distance covered from the starting point, number of jumps, number of effective turnings, rectilinearity and efficiency (how well the track was directed to the goal). We proposed a classification of the tracks based on both rectilinearity and efficiency. Freshly collected adult individuals from the population of San Rossore beach (Pisa, Italy) were compared to laboratory-born ones so as to highlight eventual differences related to experience. Most of the wild individuals made tracks with high rectilinearity and efficiency. This good orientation suggests that these individuals had developed experience of their beach rapidly recovering the optimal zone. Laboratory-born individuals showed a higher scatter in orientation and winding tracks. The factors that influenced the individuals during their movements could also be inferred by the track course. In addition to the sun azimuth (sun compass), wind direction appeared to be a major factor influencing orientation. The individuals released with onshore winds were more efficiently oriented seawards than those released with winds from other directions. PMID:25555747

  10. REC Tracking Systems Design Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Meredith Wingate

    2004-02-03

    OAK-B135 The Design Guide is presented in three parts. Section II describes the need for REC tracking, the two principal tracking methods available, and, in simple terms, the operation of certificate-based systems. Section III presents the major issues in the design of certificate-based tracking systems and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of alternative solutions. Finally, Section IV offers design principles or recommendations for most of these issues.

  11. Airborne tracking resolution requirements for urban vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Aaron L.; Miller, Brian; Richardson, Phil; Ra, Chun

    2008-04-01

    This paper details the development, experimentation, collected data and the results of research designed to gain an understanding of the temporal and spatial image collection guidelines for tracking urban vehicles. More specifically, a quantitative understanding of the relationship between human observer performance and the spatial and temporal resolution is sought. Performance is measured as a function of the number of video frames per second, imager spatial resolution and the ability of the observer to accurately determine the destination of a moving vehicle target. The research is restricted to data and imagery collected from altitudes typical of modern low to mid altitude persistent surveillance platforms using a wide field of view. The ability of the human observer to perform an unaided track of the vehicle was determined by their completion of carefully designed perception experiments. In these experiments, the observers were presented with simulated imagery from Night Vision's EOSim urban terrain simulator. The details of the simulated targets and backgrounds, the design of the experiments and their associated results are included in this treatment.

  12. Solar Array Tracking Control

    1995-06-22

    SolarTrak used in conjunction with various versions of 68HC11-based SolarTrack hardware boards provides control system for one or two axis solar tracking arrays. Sun position is computed from stored position data and time from an on-board clock/calendar chip. Position feedback can be by one or two offset motor turn counter square wave signals per axis, or by a position potentiometer. A limit of 256 counts resolution is imposed by the on-board analog to digital (A/D)more » convertor. Control is provided for one or two motors. Numerous options are provided to customize the controller for specific applications. Some options are imposed at compile time, some are setable during operation. Software and hardware board designs are provided for Control Board and separate User Interface Board that accesses and displays variables from Control Board. Controller can be used with range of sensor options ranging from a single turn count sensor per motor to systems using dual turn-count sensors, limit sensors, and a zero reference sensor. Dual axis trackers oriented azimuth elevation, east west, north south, or polar declination can be controlled. Misalignments from these orientations can also be accommodated. The software performs a coordinate transformation using six parameters to compute sun position in misaligned coordinates of the tracker. Parameters account for tilt of tracker in two directions, rotation about each axis, and gear ration errors in each axis. The software can even measure and compute these prameters during an initial setup period if current from a sun position sensor or output from photovoltaic array is available as an anlog voltage to the control board''s A/D port. Wind or emergency stow to aj present position is available triggered by digital or analog signals. Night stow is also available. Tracking dead band is adjustable from narrow to wide. Numerous features of the hardware and software conserve energy for use with battery powered systems.« less

  13. No association between music ability and hand preference in children.

    PubMed

    Piro, Joseph; Ortiz, Camilo

    2010-01-01

    Hand preference was studied in 2 groups of children-children with musical ability and children without musical ability-to examine whether particular markers that may connect with handedness patterns, such as bias away from dextrality or mixed-handedness, stabilize during childhood and are associated with musical ability. Children were administered the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory to determine levels of right, left, and mixed handedness. Results demonstrated no differences in hand preference between both cohorts of children, suggesting the relative independence of musical ability and handedness. However, the inclusion of handedness as a motor marker for musical ability in children in conjunction with other preexisting neurocognitive factors cannot be entirely discounted.

  14. [Driving ability with multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Küst, J; Dettmers, C

    2014-07-01

    Driving is an important issue for young patients, especially for those whose walking capacity is impaired. Driving might support the patient's social and vocational participation. The question as to whether a patient with multiple sclerosis (MS) is restricted in the ability to drive a car depends on neurological and neuropsychological deficits, self-awareness, insight into deficits and ability to compensate for loss of function. Because of the enormous variability of symptoms in MS the question is highly individualized. A practical driving test under supervision of a driving instructor (possibly accompanied by a neuropsychologist) might be helpful in providing both patient and relatives adequate feedback on driving abilities. PMID:24906536

  15. Solar tracking system

    SciTech Connect

    White, P.R.; Scott, D.R.

    1981-04-01

    A solar tracker for a solar collector is described in detail. The collector is angularly oriented by a motor wherein the outputs of two side-by-side photodetectors are discriminated as to three ranges: a first corresponding to a low light or darkness condition a second corresponding to light intensity lying in an intermediate range and a third corresponding to light above an intermediate range, direct sunlight. The first output drives the motor to a selected maximum easterly angular position the second enables the motor to be driven westerly at the Earth rotational rate and the third output, the separate outputs of the two photodetectors, differentially controls the direction of rotation of the motor to effect actual tracking of the Sun. Official Gazette of the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office

  16. Intrinsic Feature Motion Tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Goddard, Jr., James S.

    2013-03-19

    Subject motion during 3D medical scanning can cause blurring and artifacts in the 3D images resulting in either rescans or poor diagnosis. Anesthesia or physical restraints may be used to eliminate motion but are undesirable and can affect results. This software measures the six degree of freedom 3D motion of the subject during the scan under a rigidity assumption using only the intrinsic features present on the subject area being monitored. This movement over time can then be used to correct the scan data removing the blur and artifacts. The software acquires images from external cameras or images stored on disk for processing. The images are from two or three calibrated cameras in a stereo arrangement. Algorithms extract and track the features over time and calculate position and orientation changes relative to an initial position. Output is the 3D position and orientation change measured at each image.

  17. Intrinsic Feature Motion Tracking

    2013-03-19

    Subject motion during 3D medical scanning can cause blurring and artifacts in the 3D images resulting in either rescans or poor diagnosis. Anesthesia or physical restraints may be used to eliminate motion but are undesirable and can affect results. This software measures the six degree of freedom 3D motion of the subject during the scan under a rigidity assumption using only the intrinsic features present on the subject area being monitored. This movement over timemore » can then be used to correct the scan data removing the blur and artifacts. The software acquires images from external cameras or images stored on disk for processing. The images are from two or three calibrated cameras in a stereo arrangement. Algorithms extract and track the features over time and calculate position and orientation changes relative to an initial position. Output is the 3D position and orientation change measured at each image.« less

  18. Microencapsulated cell tracking

    PubMed Central

    Arifin, Dian R.; Kedziorek, Dorota A.; Fu, Yingli; Chan, Kannie W. Y.; McMahon, Michael T.; Weiss, Clifford R.; Kraitchman, Dara L.; Bulte, Jeff W. M.

    2013-01-01

    Microencapsulation of therapeutic cells has been widely pursued to achieve cellular immunoprotection following transplantation. Initial clinical studies have shown the potential of microencapsulation using semi-permeable alginate layers, but much needs to be learned about the optimal delivery route, in vivo pattern of engraftment, and microcapsule stability over time. In parallel with noninvasive imaging techniques for ‘naked’ (i.e. unencapsulated) cell tracking, microcapsules have now been endowed with contrast agents that can be visualized by 1H MRI, 19F MRI, X-ray/computed tomography and ultrasound imaging. By placing the contrast agent formulation in the extracellular space of the hydrogel, large amounts of contrast agents can be incorporated with negligible toxicity. This has led to a new generation of imaging biomaterials that can render cells visible with multiple imaging modalities. PMID:23225358

  19. Human-like object tracking and gaze estimation with PKD android

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijayasinghe, Indika B.; Miller, Haylie L.; Das, Sumit K.; Bugnariu, Nicoleta L.; Popa, Dan O.

    2016-05-01

    As the use of robots increases for tasks that require human-robot interactions, it is vital that robots exhibit and understand human-like cues for effective communication. In this paper, we describe the implementation of object tracking capability on Philip K. Dick (PKD) android and a gaze tracking algorithm, both of which further robot capabilities with regard to human communication. PKD's ability to track objects with human-like head postures is achieved with visual feedback from a Kinect system and an eye camera. The goal of object tracking with human-like gestures is twofold: to facilitate better human-robot interactions and to enable PKD as a human gaze emulator for future studies. The gaze tracking system employs a mobile eye tracking system (ETG; SensoMotoric Instruments) and a motion capture system (Cortex; Motion Analysis Corp.) for tracking the head orientations. Objects to be tracked are displayed by a virtual reality system, the Computer Assisted Rehabilitation Environment (CAREN; MotekForce Link). The gaze tracking algorithm converts eye tracking data and head orientations to gaze information facilitating two objectives: to evaluate the performance of the object tracking system for PKD and to use the gaze information to predict the intentions of the user, enabling the robot to understand physical cues by humans.

  20. Scalable Track Initiation for Optical Space Surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumacher, P.; Wilkins, M. P.

    2012-09-01

    The advent of high-sensitivity, high-capacity optical sensors for space surveillance presents us with interesting and challenging tracking problems. Accounting for the origin of every detection made by such systems is generally agreed to belong to the "most difficult" category of tracking problems. Especially in the early phases of the tracking scenario, when a catalog of targets is being compiled, or when many new objects appear in space because of on-orbit explosion or collision, one faces a combinatorially large number of orbit (data association) hypotheses to evaluate. The number of hypotheses is reduced to a more feasible number if observations close together in time can, with high confidence, be associated by the sensor into extended tracks on single objects. Most current space surveillance techniques are predicated on the sensor systems' ability to form such tracks reliably. However, the required operational tempo of space surveillance, the very large number of objects in Earth orbit and the difficulties of detecting dim, fast-moving targets at long ranges means that individual sensor track reports are often inadequate for computing initial orbit hypotheses. In fact, this situation can occur with optical sensors even when the probability of detection is high. For example, the arc of orbit that has been observed may be too short or may have been sampled too sparsely to allow well-conditioned, usable orbit estimates from single tracks. In that case, one has no choice but to solve a data association problem involving an unknown number of targets and many widely spaced observations of uncertain origin. In the present paper, we are motivated by this more difficult aspect of the satellite cataloging problem. However, the results of this analysis may find use in a variety of less stressing tracking applications. The computational complexity of track initiation using only angle measurements is polynomial in time. However, the polynomial degree can be high, always at

  1. 3-D imaging of particle tracks in solid state nuclear track detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wertheim, D.; Gillmore, G.; Brown, L.; Petford, N.

    2010-05-01

    It has been suggested that 3 to 5% of total lung cancer deaths in the UK may be associated with elevated radon concentration. Radon gas levels can be assessed using CR-39 plastic detectors which are often assessed by 2-D image analysis of surface images. 3-D analysis has the potential to provide information relating to the angle at which alpha particles impinge on the detector. In this study we used a "LEXT" OLS3100 confocal laser scanning microscope (Olympus Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) to image tracks on five CR-39 detectors. We were able to identify several patterns of single and coalescing tracks from 3-D visualisation. Thus this method may provide a means of detailed 3-D analysis of Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors.

  2. THE STAR LEVEL-3 TRIGGER SYSTEM.

    SciTech Connect

    LANGE, J.S.; ADLER, C.; BERGER, J.; DEMELLO, M.; FLIERL, D.; ET AL

    1999-11-15

    The STAR level-3 trigger is a MYRINET interconnected ALPHA processor farm, performing online tracking of N{sub track} {ge} 8000 particles (N{sub point} {le} 45 per track) with a design input rate of R=100 Hz. A large scale prototype system was tested in 12/99 with laser and cosmic particle events.

  3. 7. BULLET GLASS OBSERVATION WINDOW AT GROUND LEVEL ON WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. BULLET GLASS OBSERVATION WINDOW AT GROUND LEVEL ON WEST REAR. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. 4. EAST FRONT. Original viewing windows on upper level have ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. EAST FRONT. Original viewing windows on upper level have been filled in with concrete block. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. Corrective Action Unit Deliverable/Task Status Tracking Tool

    2009-08-13

    The CDSTool is a project management tool designed specifically to manage environmental restoration projects. The tool allows users to capture all projects in their baseline, develop and assign approaches, assign documents and reviews to particular projects and approaches, track and measure progress and status of each document/phase/activity in the project, based on the approach. The CDSTtool provides the ability to assign responsible personnel to each activity, provide status to scheduling software, track WBS, capture issues,more » comments, and history of development or performance related to the activity, document or phase.« less

  6. Study about the 6-DOF parallel tracking platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Sen; Ren, Ge; Tan, Yi

    2015-02-01

    We designed one 6 degrees of freedom (DOF) parallel platform to track and observe in a certain range according to requirements of a telescope. First of all, considering about the application requirements of telescope, we determined the specific structure. After that we carried on theoretical analysis about kinematics and dynamics of the platform. Then, we build parameterized 3D model and optimized it with Adams software to ensure the platform to achieve best dynamic performance and minimum space size. Finally we did co-simulation making use of Adams and Simulink software (Matlab) to observe the platform's tracing ability. And we analyzed the factors affecting the tracking error.

  7. Multi-expert tracking algorithm based on improved compressive tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yachun; Zhang, Hong; Yuan, Ding

    2015-12-01

    Object tracking is a challenging task in computer vision. Most state-of-the-art methods maintain an object model and update the object model by using new examples obtained incoming frames in order to deal with the variation in the appearance. It will inevitably introduce the model drift problem into the object model updating frame-by-frame without any censorship mechanism. In this paper, we adopt a multi-expert tracking framework, which is able to correct the effect of bad updates after they happened such as the bad updates caused by the severe occlusion. Hence, the proposed framework exactly has the ability which a robust tracking method should process. The expert ensemble is constructed of a base tracker and its formal snapshot. The tracking result is produced by the current tracker that is selected by means of a simple loss function. We adopt an improved compressive tracker as the base tracker in our work and modify it to fit the multi-expert framework. The proposed multi-expert tracking algorithm significantly improves the robustness of the base tracker, especially in the scenes with frequent occlusions and illumination variations. Experiments on challenging video sequences with comparisons to several state-of-the-art trackers demonstrate the effectiveness of our method and our tracking algorithm can run at real-time.

  8. SRNL Tagging and Tracking Video

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    SRNL generates a next generation satellite base tracking system. The tagging and tracking system can work in remote wilderness areas, inside buildings, underground and other areas not well served by traditional GPS. It’s a perfect response to customer needs and market demand.

  9. Airborne ballistic camera tracking systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redish, W. L.

    1976-01-01

    An operational airborne ballistic camera tracking system was tested for operational and data reduction feasibility. The acquisition and data processing requirements of the system are discussed. Suggestions for future improvements are also noted. A description of the data reduction mathematics is outlined. Results from a successful reentry test mission are tabulated. The test mission indicated that airborne ballistic camera tracking systems are feasible.

  10. Making Sense of Dinosaur Tracks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, Ann Haley; McDowell, Brian

    2012-01-01

    What do paleontologists, dinosaur tracks, and the nature of science have in common? They're combined here in an inquiry activity where students use methods of observation and inference to devise evidence-based explanations for the data they collect about dinosaur tracks, much like the methods used by paleontologists. Students then debate the…

  11. Buyer's Guide for Track Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United States Tennis Court & Track Builders Association.

    This buyers guide provides information on needs assessment, buying options, and decision making tips when acquiring a new school athletic track. Among the topics covered are developing a budget, choosing a site selection, choosing a track surface, developing working specifications, and selecting a contractor. Also explored is the question of…

  12. Semi-automatic segmentation and tracking of CVH data.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yingge; Heng, Pheng Ann; Wong, Tien-Tsin

    2006-01-01

    Construction of speed function is crucial in applying level set method for medical image segmentation. We present a unified approach for segmenting and tracking of the high-resolution Chinese Visible Human (CVH) data. The underlying link of these two parts relies on the proposed variational framework for the speed function. Our proposed method can be applied to segmenting the first slice of the volume data, in the first step; It can also be adapted to track the boundaries of the homogeneous organs in the following serial images. In addition to promising segmentation results, the tracking procedure shows the advantage of less amount of user intervention.

  13. NCAR Earth Observing Laboratory's Data Tracking System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cully, L. E.; Williams, S. F.

    2014-12-01

    The NCAR Earth Observing Laboratory (EOL) maintains an extensive collection of complex, multi-disciplinary datasets from national and international, current and historical projects accessible through field project web pages (https://www.eol.ucar.edu/all-field-projects-and-deployments). Data orders are processed through the EOL Metadata Database and Cyberinfrastructure (EMDAC) system. Behind the scenes is the institutionally created EOL Computing, Data, and Software/Data Management Group (CDS/DMG) Data Tracking System (DTS) tool. The DTS is used to track the complete life cycle (from ingest to long term stewardship) of the data, metadata, and provenance for hundreds of projects and thousands of data sets. The DTS is an EOL internal only tool which consists of three subsystems: Data Loading Notes (DLN), Processing Inventory Tool (IVEN), and Project Metrics (STATS). The DLN is used to track and maintain every dataset that comes to the CDS/DMG. The DLN captures general information such as title, physical locations, responsible parties, high level issues, and correspondence. When the CDS/DMG processes a data set, IVEN is used to track the processing status while collecting sufficient information to ensure reproducibility. This includes detailed "How To" documentation, processing software (with direct links to the EOL Subversion software repository), and descriptions of issues and resolutions. The STATS subsystem generates current project metrics such as archive size, data set order counts, "Top 10" most ordered data sets, and general information on who has ordered these data. The DTS was developed over many years to meet the specific needs of the CDS/DMG, and it has been successfully used to coordinate field project data management efforts for the past 15 years. This paper will describe the EOL CDS/DMG Data Tracking System including its basic functionality, the provenance maintained within the system, lessons learned, potential improvements, and future developments.

  14. 49 CFR 213.331 - Track surface.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Track surface. 213.331 Section 213.331... Track surface. (a) For a single deviation in track surface, each owner of the track to which this subpart applies shall maintain the surface of its track within the limits prescribed in the...

  15. Measuring and tracking eye movements of a behaving archer fish by real-time stereo vision.

    PubMed

    Ben-Simon, Avi; Ben-Shahar, Ohad; Segev, Ronen

    2009-11-15

    The archer fish (Toxotes chatareus) exhibits unique visual behavior in that it is able to aim at and shoot down with a squirt of water insects resting on the foliage above water level and then feed on them. This extreme behavior requires excellent visual acuity, learning, and tight synchronization between the visual system and body motion. This behavior also raises many important questions, such as the fish's ability to compensate for air-water refraction and the neural mechanisms underlying target acquisition. While many such questions remain open, significant insights towards solving them can be obtained by tracking the eye and body movements of freely behaving fish. Unfortunately, existing tracking methods suffer from either a high level of invasiveness or low resolution. Here, we present a video-based eye tracking method for accurately and remotely measuring the eye and body movements of a freely moving behaving fish. Based on a stereo vision system and a unique triangulation method that corrects for air-glass-water refraction, we are able to measure a full three-dimensional pose of the fish eye and body with high temporal and spatial resolution. Our method, being generic, can be applied to studying the behavior of marine animals in general. We demonstrate how data collected by our method may be used to show that the hunting behavior of the archer fish is composed of surfacing concomitant with rotating the body around the direction of the fish's fixed gaze towards the target, until the snout reaches in the correct shooting position at water level.

  16. Measuring and tracking eye movements of a behaving archer fish by real-time stereo vision.

    PubMed

    Ben-Simon, Avi; Ben-Shahar, Ohad; Segev, Ronen

    2009-11-15

    The archer fish (Toxotes chatareus) exhibits unique visual behavior in that it is able to aim at and shoot down with a squirt of water insects resting on the foliage above water level and then feed on them. This extreme behavior requires excellent visual acuity, learning, and tight synchronization between the visual system and body motion. This behavior also raises many important questions, such as the fish's ability to compensate for air-water refraction and the neural mechanisms underlying target acquisition. While many such questions remain open, significant insights towards solving them can be obtained by tracking the eye and body movements of freely behaving fish. Unfortunately, existing tracking methods suffer from either a high level of invasiveness or low resolution. Here, we present a video-based eye tracking method for accurately and remotely measuring the eye and body movements of a freely moving behaving fish. Based on a stereo vision system and a unique triangulation method that corrects for air-glass-water refraction, we are able to measure a full three-dimensional pose of the fish eye and body with high temporal and spatial resolution. Our method, being generic, can be applied to studying the behavior of marine animals in general. We demonstrate how data collected by our method may be used to show that the hunting behavior of the archer fish is composed of surfacing concomitant with rotating the body around the direction of the fish's fixed gaze towards the target, until the snout reaches in the correct shooting position at water level. PMID:19698749

  17. Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors--I: Track Characteristics and Formation Mechanisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lal, Nand

    1991-01-01

    Heavily ionizing charged particles produce radiation damage tracks in a wide variety of insulating materials. The experimental properties of these tracks and track recorders are described. The mechanisms by which the tracks are produced are discussed. (Author/KR)

  18. Two Fifth Grade Measures of Cognitive Abilities. A Structure of Concept Attainment Abilities Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Pamela Elizabeth

    Two fifth grade measures of the ability to deal with symbolic relationships were developed for use in future factor analytic research concerning the nature of intelligence. Circle Reasoning was adopted from an adult level test by modifying the number of symbols and the nature of the principles on which the items were based. Item analysis results…

  19. Communications and tracking expert systems study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibfried, T. F.; Feagin, Terry; Overland, David

    1987-01-01

    The original objectives of the study consisted of five broad areas of investigation: criteria and issues for explanation of communication and tracking system anomaly detection, isolation, and recovery; data storage simplification issues for fault detection expert systems; data selection procedures for decision tree pruning and optimization to enhance the abstraction of pertinent information for clear explanation; criteria for establishing levels of explanation suited to needs; and analysis of expert system interaction and modularization. Progress was made in all areas, but to a lesser extent in the criteria for establishing levels of explanation suited to needs. Among the types of expert systems studied were those related to anomaly or fault detection, isolation, and recovery.

  20. Quantifiable fitness tracking using wearable devices.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Anurag; Jilla, Vivek; Tiwari, Vijay N; Venkatesan, Shankar M; Narayanan, Rangavittal

    2015-08-01

    Monitoring health and fitness is emerging as an important benefit that smartphone users could expect from their mobile devices today. Rule of thumb calorie tracking and recommendation based on selective activity monitoring is widely available today, as both on-device and server based solutions. What is surprisingly not available to the users is a simple application geared towards quantitative fitness tracking. Such an application potentially can be a direct indicator of one's cardio-vascular performance and associated long term health risks. Since wearable devices with various inbuilt sensors like accelerometer, gyroscope, SPO2 and heart rate are increasingly becoming available, it is vital that the enormous data coming from these sensors be used to perform analytics to uncover hidden health and fitness associated facts. A continuous estimation of fitness level employing these wearable devices can potentially help users in setting personalized short and long-term exercise goals leading to positive impact on one's overall health. The present work describes a step in this direction. This work involves an unobtrusive method to track an individual's physical activity seamlessly, estimate calorie consumption during a day by mapping the activity to the calories spent and assess fitness level using heart rate data from wearable sensors. We employ a heart rate based parameter called Endurance to quantitatively estimate cardio-respiratory fitness of a person. This opens up avenues for personalization and adaptiveness by dynamically using individual's personal fitness data towards building robust modeling based on analytical principles. PMID:26736588

  1. Quantifiable fitness tracking using wearable devices.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Anurag; Jilla, Vivek; Tiwari, Vijay N; Venkatesan, Shankar M; Narayanan, Rangavittal

    2015-08-01

    Monitoring health and fitness is emerging as an important benefit that smartphone users could expect from their mobile devices today. Rule of thumb calorie tracking and recommendation based on selective activity monitoring is widely available today, as both on-device and server based solutions. What is surprisingly not available to the users is a simple application geared towards quantitative fitness tracking. Such an application potentially can be a direct indicator of one's cardio-vascular performance and associated long term health risks. Since wearable devices with various inbuilt sensors like accelerometer, gyroscope, SPO2 and heart rate are increasingly becoming available, it is vital that the enormous data coming from these sensors be used to perform analytics to uncover hidden health and fitness associated facts. A continuous estimation of fitness level employing these wearable devices can potentially help users in setting personalized short and long-term exercise goals leading to positive impact on one's overall health. The present work describes a step in this direction. This work involves an unobtrusive method to track an individual's physical activity seamlessly, estimate calorie consumption during a day by mapping the activity to the calories spent and assess fitness level using heart rate data from wearable sensors. We employ a heart rate based parameter called Endurance to quantitatively estimate cardio-respiratory fitness of a person. This opens up avenues for personalization and adaptiveness by dynamically using individual's personal fitness data towards building robust modeling based on analytical principles.

  2. Mental ability and common sense in an artificial society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malarz, Krzysztof; Kułakowski, Krzysztof

    2014-07-01

    Having equally valid premises pro and contra, what does a rational human being prefer? The answer is: nothing. We designed a test of this kind and applied it to an artificial society, characterized by a given level of mental ability. A stream of messages from media is supplemented by ongoing interpersonal communication. The result is that high ability leads to wellbalanced opinions, while low ability produces extreme opinions.

  3. Cognitive Ability and Non-Ability Trait Determinants of Expertise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Phillip L.

    2003-01-01

    Traditional approaches to understanding individual differences determinants of domain-specific expertise have focused on individual trait components, such as ability or topic interest. In contrast, trait complex approaches consider whether combinations of cognitive, affective, and conative traits are particularly facilitative or impeding of the…

  4. Second Language Ability and Emotional Prosody Perception

    PubMed Central

    Bhatara, Anjali; Laukka, Petri; Boll-Avetisyan, Natalie; Granjon, Lionel; Anger Elfenbein, Hillary; Bänziger, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines the effect of language experience on vocal emotion perception in a second language. Native speakers of French with varying levels of self-reported English ability were asked to identify emotions from vocal expressions produced by American actors in a forced-choice task, and to rate their pleasantness, power, alertness and intensity on continuous scales. Stimuli included emotionally expressive English speech (emotional prosody) and non-linguistic vocalizations (affect bursts), and a baseline condition with Swiss-French pseudo-speech. Results revealed effects of English ability on the recognition of emotions in English speech but not in non-linguistic vocalizations. Specifically, higher English ability was associated with less accurate identification of positive emotions, but not with the interpretation of negative emotions. Moreover, higher English ability was associated with lower ratings of pleasantness and power, again only for emotional prosody. This suggests that second language skills may sometimes interfere with emotion recognition from speech prosody, particularly for positive emotions. PMID:27253326

  5. Fluorescent image tracking velocimeter

    DOEpatents

    Shaffer, Franklin D.

    1994-01-01

    A multiple-exposure fluorescent image tracking velocimeter (FITV) detects and measures the motion (trajectory, direction and velocity) of small particles close to light scattering surfaces. The small particles may follow the motion of a carrier medium such as a liquid, gas or multi-phase mixture, allowing the motion of the carrier medium to be observed, measured and recorded. The main components of the FITV include: (1) fluorescent particles; (2) a pulsed fluorescent excitation laser source; (3) an imaging camera; and (4) an image analyzer. FITV uses fluorescing particles excited by visible laser light to enhance particle image detectability near light scattering surfaces. The excitation laser light is filtered out before reaching the imaging camera allowing the fluoresced wavelengths emitted by the particles to be detected and recorded by the camera. FITV employs multiple exposures of a single camera image by pulsing the excitation laser light for producing a series of images of each particle along its trajectory. The time-lapsed image may be used to determine trajectory and velocity and the exposures may be coded to derive directional information.

  6. In vivo cell tracking with bioluminescence imaging.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Eun; Kalimuthu, Senthilkumar; Ahn, Byeong-Cheol

    2015-03-01

    Molecular imaging is a fast growing biomedical research that allows the visual representation, characterization and quantification of biological processes at the cellular and subcellular levels within intact living organisms. In vivo tracking of cells is an indispensable technology for development and optimization of cell therapy for replacement or renewal of damaged or diseased tissue using transplanted cells, often autologous cells. With outstanding advantages of bioluminescence imaging, the imaging approach is most commonly applied for in vivo monitoring of transplanted stem cells or immune cells in order to assess viability of administered cells with therapeutic efficacy in preclinical small animal models. In this review, a general overview of bioluminescence is provided and recent updates of in vivo cell tracking using the bioluminescence signal are discussed.

  7. Inhibitory Control Predicts Grammatical Ability.

    PubMed

    Ibbotson, Paul; Kearvell-White, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    We present evidence that individual variation in grammatical ability can be predicted by individual variation in inhibitory control. We tested 81 5-year-olds using two classic tests from linguistics and psychology (Past Tense and the Stroop). Inhibitory control was a better predicator of grammatical ability than either vocabulary or age. Our explanation is that giving the correct response in both tests requires using a common cognitive capacity to inhibit unwanted competition. The implications are that understanding the developmental trajectory of language acquisition can benefit from integrating the developmental trajectory of non-linguistic faculties, such as executive control.

  8. Inhibitory Control Predicts Grammatical Ability

    PubMed Central

    Ibbotson, Paul; Kearvell-White, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    We present evidence that individual variation in grammatical ability can be predicted by individual variation in inhibitory control. We tested 81 5-year-olds using two classic tests from linguistics and psychology (Past Tense and the Stroop). Inhibitory control was a better predicator of grammatical ability than either vocabulary or age. Our explanation is that giving the correct response in both tests requires using a common cognitive capacity to inhibit unwanted competition. The implications are that understanding the developmental trajectory of language acquisition can benefit from integrating the developmental trajectory of non-linguistic faculties, such as executive control. PMID:26659926

  9. Context-aware visual tracking.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming; Wu, Ying; Hua, Gang

    2009-07-01

    Enormous uncertainties in unconstrained environments lead to a fundamental dilemma that many tracking algorithms have to face in practice: Tracking has to be computationally efficient, but verifying whether or not the tracker is following the true target tends to be demanding, especially when the background is cluttered and/or when occlusion occurs. Due to the lack of a good solution to this problem, many existing methods tend to be either effective but computationally intensive by using sophisticated image observation models or efficient but vulnerable to false alarms. This greatly challenges long-duration robust tracking. This paper presents a novel solution to this dilemma by considering the context of the tracking scene. Specifically, we integrate into the tracking process a set of auxiliary objects that are automatically discovered in the video on the fly by data mining. Auxiliary objects have three properties, at least in a short time interval: 1) persistent co-occurrence with the target, 2) consistent motion correlation to the target, and 3) easy to track. Regarding these auxiliary objects as the context of the target, the collaborative tracking of these auxiliary objects leads to efficient computation as well as strong verification. Our extensive experiments have exhibited exciting performance in very challenging real-world testing cases.

  10. 49 CFR 213.359 - Track stiffness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... vehicle/track interaction safety limits and geometry requirements of this subpart. (b) Track shall have... shall return following maximum load to a configuration in compliance with the vehicle/track...

  11. USGS Tracks Acid Rain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, John D.; Nilles, Mark A.; Schroder, LeRoy J.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been actively studying acid rain for the past 15 years. When scientists learned that acid rain could harm fish, fear of damage to our natural environment from acid rain concerned the American public. Research by USGS scientists and other groups began to show that the processes resulting in acid rain are very complex. Scientists were puzzled by the fact that in some cases it was difficult to demonstrate that the pollution from automobiles and factories was causing streams or lakes to become more acidic. Further experiments showed how the natural ability of many soils to neutralize acids would reduce the effects of acid rain in some locations--at least as long as the neutralizing ability lasted (Young, 1991). The USGS has played a key role in establishing and maintaining the only nationwide network of acid rain monitoring stations. This program is called the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). Each week, at approximately 220 NADP/NTN sites across the country, rain and snow samples are collected for analysis. NADP/NTN site in Montana. The USGS supports about 72 of these sites. The information gained from monitoring the chemistry of our nation's rain and snow is important for testing the results of pollution control laws on acid rain.

  12. Generation of Simulated Tracking Data for LADEE Operational Readiness Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodburn, James; Policastri, Lisa; Owens, Brandon

    2015-01-01

    Operational Readiness Tests were an important part of the pre-launch preparation for the LADEE mission. The generation of simulated tracking data to stress the Flight Dynamics System and the Flight Dynamics Team was important for satisfying the testing goal of demonstrating that the software and the team were ready to fly the operational mission. The simulated tracking was generated in a manner to incorporate the effects of errors in the baseline dynamical model, errors in maneuver execution and phenomenology associated with various tracking system based components. The ability of the mission team to overcome these challenges in a realistic flight dynamics scenario indicated that the team and flight dynamics system were ready to fly the LADEE mission. Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment.

  13. The effect of relative update rates on tracking performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rea, Charles; Silbert, Mark

    2011-06-01

    In multi-sensor fusion applications, various sources of data are combined to create a coherent situational picture. The ability to track multiple targets using multiple sensors is an important problem. The data provided by these sensors can be of varying quality, such as data from RADAR and AIS. Does this varied quality of data negatively impact the tracking performance when compared to using the best data source alone? From an information-theoretic standpoint, the answer would be no. However, this paper investigates this issue and exposes a few caveats. In particular, this study addresses how the relative update rate of varying quality sensors affects tracking performance and answers the question 'Is more data always better?'

  14. A Mobile GPS Application: Mosque Tracking with Prayer Time Synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, Rathiah; Ikhmatiar, Mohammad Sibghotulloh; Surip, Miswan; Karmin, Masiri; Herawan, Tutut

    Global Positioning System (GPS) is a popular technology applied in many areas and embedded in many devices, facilitating end-users to navigate effectively to user's intended destination via the best calculated route. The ability of GPS to track precisely according to coordinates of specific locations can be utilized to assist a Muslim traveler visiting or passing an unfamiliar place to find the nearest mosque in order to perform his prayer. However, not many techniques have been proposed for Mosque tracking. This paper presents the development of GPS technology in tracking the nearest mosque using mobile application software embedded with the prayer time's synchronization system on a mobile application. The prototype GPS system developed has been successfully incorporated with a map and several mosque locations.

  15. Neural network tracking and extension of positive tracking periods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanan, Jay C.; Chao, Tien-Hsin; Moreels, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    Feature detectors have been considered for the role of supplying additional information to a neural network tracker. The feature detector focuses on areas of the image with significant information. Basically, if a picture says a thousand words, the feature detectors are looking for the key phrases (keypoints). These keypoints are rotationally invariant and may be matched across frames. Application of these advanced feature detectors to the neural network tracking system at JPL has promising potential. As part of an ongoing program, an advanced feature detector was tested for augmentation of a neural network based tracker. The advance feature detector extended tracking periods in test sequences including aircraft tracking, rover tracking, and simulated Martian landing. Future directions of research are also discussed.

  16. Multimodal emotion recognition using EEG and eye tracking data.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wei-Long; Dong, Bo-Nan; Lu, Bao-Liang

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new emotion recognition method which combines electroencephalograph (EEG) signals and pupillary response collected from eye tracker. We select 15 emotional film clips of 3 categories (positive, neutral and negative). The EEG signals and eye tracking data of five participants are recorded, simultaneously, while watching these videos. We extract emotion-relevant features from EEG signals and eye tracing data of 12 experiments and build a fusion model to improve the performance of emotion recognition. The best average accuracies based on EEG signals and eye tracking data are 71.77% and 58.90%, respectively. We also achieve average accuracies of 73.59% and 72.98% for feature level fusion strategy and decision level fusion strategy, respectively. These results show that both feature level fusion and decision level fusion combining EEG signals and eye tracking data can improve the performance of emotion recognition model. PMID:25571125

  17. Spatial Abilities of Medical Graduates and Choice of Residency Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langlois, Jean; Wells, George A.; Lecourtois, Marc; Bergeron, Germain; Yetisir, Elizabeth; Martin, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Spatial abilities have been related in previous studies to three-dimensional (3D) anatomy knowledge and the performance in technical skills. The objective of this study was to relate spatial abilities to residency programs with different levels of content of 3D anatomy knowledge and technical skills. The hypothesis was that the choice of residency…

  18. High resolution track etch autoradiography

    DOEpatents

    Solares, Guido; Zamenhof, Robert G.

    1994-01-01

    A detector assembly for use in obtaining alpha-track autoradiographs, the detector assembly including a substantially boron-free substrate; a detector layer deposited on the substantially boron-free substrate, the detector layer being capable of recording alpha particle tracks and exhibiting evidence of the alpha tracks in response to being exposed to an etchant, the detector layer being less than about 2 microns thick; and a protective layer deposited on the detector layer, the protective layer being resistant to the etchant and having a thickness of about 0.5 to 1 microns.

  19. High resolution track etch autoradiography

    DOEpatents

    Solares, G.; Zamenhof, R.G.

    1994-12-27

    A detector assembly is disclosed for use in obtaining alpha-track autoradiographs, the detector assembly including a substantially boron-free substrate; a detector layer deposited on the substantially boron-free substrate, the detector layer being capable of recording alpha particle tracks and exhibiting evidence of the alpha tracks in response to being exposed to an etchant, the detector layer being less than about 2 microns thick; and a protective layer deposited on the detector layer, the protective layer being resistant to the etchant and having a thickness of about 0.5 to 1 microns. 13 figures.

  20. Abrasion resistant track shoe grouser

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Keith D; Diekevers, Mark S; Afdahl, Curt D; Steiner, Kevin L; Barnes, Christopher A

    2013-04-23

    A track shoe for a track-type vehicle. The track shoe includes a base plate and a grouser projecting away from the base plate. A capping surface structure of substantially horseshoe shaped cross-section is disposed across a distal portion of the grouser. The capping surface structure covers portions of a distal edge surface and adjacent lateral surfaces. The capping surface structure is formed from an material characterized by enhanced wear resistance relative to portions of the grouser underlying the capping surface structure.